MIKE NET - HydroAsia

Modeling of Water Distribution Systems
with
MIKE NET
Edited by
Petr Ingeduld
MIKE NET
© 2003 DHI Water & Environment. All rights reserved.
About this book
This book is published by DHI Water & Environment.
The book is intended for modelers of water distribution systems, including professional
engineers and students. The book may not be copied mechanically or electronically or in
any other way in whole or in part without prior written approval of DHI Water &
Environment.
Trademarks
DHI Software and MIKE NET are trademarks of DHI Water & Environment.
ESRI, ArcView® and ArcObjects are registered trademarks of Environmental Systems
Research Institute, Inc.
All other brands, company names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective
holders.
DHI Water & Environment
Agern Allé 11
DK-2970 Hørsholm
Denmark
Tel: +45 4516 9333
software@dhi.dk
DHI Hydroinform a.s.
Na vrších 5
100 00 Praha 10, Strašnice
Czech Republic
Tel: +420 2 7173 4802
software@dhi.cz
North-American Software
Support Centre
301 S. State Street
Newtown, PA 18940
USA
Tel: +1 215 504 8497
software@dhigroup.com
Asia-Pacific Software
Support Centre
PO Box 4285
Bay Village, NSW 2261
Australia
Tel: +61 2 4334 6621
software@dhiaust.com
www.dhisoftware.com
2
T A B L E
O F
C O N T E N T S
Table of Contents
Preface
i
vii
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
About This Manual
Licensing
Disclaimer
In the Event of Problems
Product Upgrades
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-6
Inventory
How to Contact Technical Support
System Requirements
Licensing Information
Installing MIKE NET
Installing ODBC Database Drivers
Starting MIKE NET
Alternate Licensing Methods
Network Server Technical Information
Troubleshooting
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-7
2-7
Chapter 2
Getting Started
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
Chapter 3
Using the Program
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
When You Need Help
Getting Started
Windows Terminology
Desktop Workspace
Using Dialog Boxes
Program Menus
Shortcut Commands
Toolbars
Application Basics
Defining the Model
Input Data Requirements
Entering Data
Interactive Data Entry
Graphical Input
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-9
3-12
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-19
3-21
3-23
3-24
3-24
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MIKE NET
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
3.5.7
3.5.8
3.5.9
3.5.10
3.5.11
3.5.12
3.5.13
3.5.14
3.5.15
3.5.16
3.5.17
3.5.18
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
3.6.5
3.6.6
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.8
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.8.5
3.8.6
3.8.7
3.8.8
3.8.9
3.8.10
3.8.11
3.8.12
3.8.13
3.8.14
3.8.15
3.10
3.10.1
ii
Importing Graphical Data
Importing Data from an ODBC Data Source
Importing Other Input File Formats
Importing and Exporting Data
Data Import Log File
Importing KYPIPE Data
Importing CTBERNET 2.0 Data
Importing CYBERNET 3.0 or WaterCAD 3.0 Data
Importing H2ONET Data
Importing LICWATER Data
Importing WATNET Data
Importing LYNX Data
Importing EPANET 1.x Data
Importing EPANET 2.0 Data and Map Files
Importing ODBC Data
Importing DXF Files
Importing ESRI Shapefiles
Import Log File
Import Example Problem
Exporting Data to an ODBC Data Source
Exporting EPANET Data Files
Data Entry Checking
Managing Input Files
Creating a New MIKE NET Input File
Opening a Existing MIKE NET Input File
Saving a MIKE NET Input File
Closing a MIKE NET Input File
Backup Files
Filename Extensions
Demand Processing
Distributed Demands
Developing Pipe Demand Coefficients
Demand Editing and Demand Scenarios
Performing an Analysis
Performing a Model Check
Executing the Analysis
Displaying and Outputting Analysis Results
Viewing the EPANET Analysis Results
Browser Window
Analysis Results Table
Report Generator
Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots
Profile Graphical Plots
Time Series Plots
Copy to Other Programs
Animation
Contour Plots
Color Legend
Layer Control
Printing
Exporting Graphical Data
Pump Power
External Database Connections
MIKE NET InterBase Server
3-25
3-28
3-28
3-29
3-29
3-30
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-33
3-34
3-34
3-35
3-36
3-37
3-37
3-38
3-44
3-44
3-44
3-44
3-45
3-45
3-46
3-46
3-47
3-48
3-49
3-49
3-50
3-50
3-52
3-55
3-56
3-57
3-58
3-59
3-61
3-62
3-63
3-64
3-68
3-70
3-74
3-79
3-79
3-80
3-82
3-84
3-86
3-87
3-87
3-90
3-90
T A B L E
O F
C O N T E N T S
3.10.2
3.10.3
3.10.4
3.10.5
3.10.6
3.10.7
3.10.8
3.10.9
3.10.10
3.10.11
3.10.12
3.10.13
3.10.14
3.10.15
3.10.16
3.11
3.12
3.12.1
3.12.2
3.12.3
3.12.4
Server Database Connection
InterBase Server 6.0
InterBase SQL Support
InterBase Database Access
InterBase Login Levels
Connecting to External Database Sources
Importing and Exporting GIS Data
Connecting with External Applications
Connecting with Borland InterBase Network Server
Data Dictionary
SQL Queries
SQL Updates
MIKE NET Database Structure
ESRI GIS Shape File Structure
Programming Support
Program Configuration
MIKE NET Scenario Manager
The Need for a Scenario Manager
What is Scenario Manager
Scenarios and Alternatives
The Scenario Manager Window
3-91
3-91
3-93
3-93
3-83
3-94
3-97
3-99
3-104
3-104
3-106
3-109
3-110
3-118
3-119
3-120
3-120
3-120
3-121
3-121
3-125
Chapter 4
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9
4.1.10
4.1.11
4.1.12
4.2
4.2.1
5.3
4.3.1
5.3.2
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.5
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.5
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.5
Network Component Editors
Common Editor Features
Junction Editor
Pipe Editor
Pump Editor
Valve Editor
Reservoir Editor
Tank Editor
Curve Editor
Energy Editor
Emitter Editor
Pressure Zone Editor
Multiple Demand Editor
Network Demand
Distributed Demands
Extended Period Simulations
Simple Contol Editor
Rule Based Control Editor
Pattern Editor
Time Editor
Time Editor
Water Quality Simulations
Water Quality Analysis Selection
Water Quality Analysis Parameters
Initial Water Quality Editor
Point Contaminant Source Editor
Reaction Rate Editor
Source Tracing
Network Tracking
4-1
4-2
4-6
4-10
4-16
4-22
4-28
4-30
4-35
4-36
4-37
4-37
4-38
4-39
4-39
4-41
4-42
4-45
4-47
4-49
4-49
4-51
4-51
4-52
4-53
4-54
4-56
4-58
4-59
iii
MIKE NET
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.6
4.4.6.1
4.6.2
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.7.8
4.7.9
4.7.10
4.7.11
4.7.12
Forward and Backward Tracking
Checking Network Connectivity
Modules
Network Calibration and Optimization
User Defined Objects
Miscellaneous
Unit Bases
Synchronize Network References
Recompute Pipe Lengths
Coordinate Adjustment
Proposed to Existing
Locking the Project
Project Information
Prototypes
Engineering Tables
General SQL Command
External Database Support
Generate Node Elevations
4-59
4-60
4-61
4-61
4-68
4-75
4-75
4-76
4-77
4-77
4-77
4-78
4-78
4-79
4-80
4-81
4-83
4-85
Chapter 5
Example Problems
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.8
5.1.9
5.1.10
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
iv
Lesson 1
Defining a Pipe Network System
Defining the Project
Defining Junction Node Data
Defining Reservoir Data
Defining Pipe Data
Defining Pump Data
Opening a MIKE NET Data File
Saving Your Data
Performing the Analysis
Prepared Input and Output Files
Viewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 2
Pressure Reducing Valve Static Analysis
Defining a Pressure Reducing Valve
Defining a Junction Node Demand Change
Defining a Global Demand Change
Defining a Pipe Status Change
Prepared input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Comparing the Analysis Results
Lesson 3
Pressure Sustaining Valve Static Analysis
Defining a Pressure Sustaining Valve
Defining a Pump Change
Defining Pipe Diameter Change
Prepared Input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Comparing the Analysis Results
Lesson 4
Flow Control Valve Static Analysis
Defining a Flow Control Valve
Defining a Hydraulic Grade Line Change
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-7
5-8
5-10
5-13
5-13
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-21
5-22
5-24
5-25
5-26
5-27
5-28
5-28
5-31
5-32
5-33
5-33
5-34
5-35
5-35
5-37
5-38
5-39
T A B L E
O F
C O N T E N T S
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
5.8
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.9
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.9.3
5.9.4
5.9.5
5.10
5.10.1
5.10.2
5.10.3
5.10.4
5.10.5
5.10.6
5.11
5.11.1
5.11.2
5.11.3
5.11.4
Defining a Global Roughness Change
Prepared Input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 5
Extended Period Analysis
Defining an Extended Period Analysis
Defining and Applying a Demand Pattern
Defining Storage Tank Data
Defining Extended Period Control Rules
Performing an Extended Period Analysis
Prepared Input and Output Files
Viewing the Extended Period Analysis Results
Reviewing Extended Period Analysis Results
Lesson 6
Fire Flow Analysis
Specifying a Design Fire Flow Rate
Specifying a Design Fire Flow Pressure
Prepared Input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 7
Water Quality–Source Tracing Analysis
Defining a Source Tracing Analysis5-69
Defining the Source Node5-70
Prepared Input and Output Files5-70
Percentage of Source Node Water Results5-71
Forward and Backward Tracking of Flow5-73
Reviewing the Analysis Results5-74
Lesson 8
Water Quality - Water Age Analysis
Defining a Water Age Analysis
Prepared Input and Output Files
Water Age Results
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 9
Water Quality–Constituent Chlorine Analysis
Defining a Constituent Analysis
Defining Constituent Data
Prepared Input and Output Files
Constituent Chlorine Decay Results
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 10
Distributing Demands and Pressure Zones
Defining Pressure Zones
Distributing Demands
Importing a Background Image
Prepared Input and Output Files
Viewing the Analysis Results
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 11
Contour Plots, Animation Files, Reports
Generating Contour Plots
Defining a Color Legend
Generating Animation Files
Generating Output Reports
5-39
5-41
5-41
5-43
5-44
5-45
5-49
5-51
5-53
5-54
5-54
5-60
5-64
5-64
5-65
5-66
5-67
5-68
5-75
5-75
5-77
5-77
5-80
5-81
5-81
5-82
5-84
5-85
5-87
5-88
5-88
5-91
5-92
5-93
5-93
5-95
5-96
5-97
5-98
5-101
5-104
v
MIKE NET
5.11.5
5.12
5.12.1
5.12.2
5.12.3
5.13
5.13.1
5.13.2
5.13.3
5.13.4
5.14
5.14.1
5.14.2
5.14.3
5.15
5.15.1
5.15.2
5.15.3
Prepared Input and Output Files
Lesson 12
Importing KYPIPE, WaterCAD Data Files
Importing KYPIPE Data Files
Importing WaterCAD and CyberNET Data Files
Prepared Input and Output Files
Lesson 13
Exporting and Importing ArcView GIS Data
Exporting Water Distribution Data to ArcView
Updating the ArcView GIS Data
Importing ArcView GIS Data into MIKE NET
Prepared Input and Output Files
Lesson 14
Constructing a Pipe Network System from a DXF File
Importing a DXF File as a Background Image
Prepared Input and Output Files
Automatic Construction of a Pipe Network System
Lesson 15
Pump Efficiency and Pump Power
Pump Efficiency
Pump Power
Prepared Input and Output Files
5-106
5-107
5-107
5-112
5-116
5-118
5-119
5-122
5-126
5-130
5-132
5-132
5-134
5-134
5-136
5-136
5-139
5-140
Chapter 6
EPANET Program Methodology
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.3
6.4
6.4.1
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.5.6
6.5.7
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
6.6.5
vi
Overview
History
Analysis Methods
Applications of MIKE NET
Skeletonization
The Water Distribution Network
Pipes
Pumps
Valves
Minor Losses
Nodes
Time Patterns
Hydraulic Simulation Model
Water Age and Source Tracing
Water Quality Simulation Model
Advective Transport in Pipes
Mixing at Pipe Junctions
Mixing in Storage Facilities
Bulk Flow Reactions
Pipe Wall Reactions
Lagrangian TransportAlgorithm
Tank Mixing Models
Model Calibration
Accuracy Concerns
Reasons for Calibrating a Model
Calibration Model Data Requirements
Calibration Simulations
Model Adjustments
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-7
6-9
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-19
6-20
6-26
6-27
6-27
6-27
6-27
6-28
6-30
6-31
6-32
6-34
6-35
6-36
6-37
6-39
6-41
T A B L E
O F
C O N T E N T S
6.7
References
6-42
vii
MIKE NET
viii
Preface
Welcome to MIKE NET
Thank you for purchasing MIKE NET!
MIKE NET, as all other DHI Software products, has been designed by engineers for engineers!
MIKE NET gives you access to the powerful EPANET 2.0 numerical engine developed by US
EPA, wrapped in DHI’s flexible and easy-to-use graphical user interface and with comprehensive
import / export facilities for legacy models, CAD software and GIS packages.
The significant contribution of BOSS International, Inc. in the development of the MIKE NET user
interface is gratefully acknowledged.
We are convinced that MIKE NET will quickly become one of your favorite tools, and hope that
you will contribute with ideas and suggestions for future releases through frequent contacts to
DHI’s professional staff!
vii
MIKE NET
viii
C H A P T E R
Introduction
1
MIKE NET is the most advanced, powerful, and comprehensive water distribution
modeling package available. MIKE NET can analyze an entire water distribution
system, or selected portions, under steady state and extended period simulations, with
water quality analysis if needed. MIKE NET is a complete graphical modeling
environment and operates within Microsoft® Windows 95, 98, Windows NT and
Windows 2000. Both imperial and metric (SI) units are supported.
Figure 1.0.1 MIKE NET is a complete graphical modeling environment for performing
steady state and extended period simulations—including water quality analysis—for
water distribution systems
Model Development
Network models can be quickly developed using a variety of different means. For
example, network components can be read-in directly from a MapInfo®, ARC/INFO®,
or ArcView® GIS, or be interactively created using a mouse by simply pointing and
clicking. Graphical symbols are used to represent network elements, such as pipes,
junction nodes, pumps, control valves, tanks, and reservoirs. MIKE NET allows you,
at any time, to interactively add, insert, delete, or move any network component,
automatically updating the modeling database. For example, selecting and moving a
node automatically moves all connected pipes, valves, and pumps.
1-1
MIKE NET
The graphical representation of the model can be output at any drawing scale. Pipes
can be curvilinear and lengths automatically computed. Scanned TIFF or BMP aerial
images or maps, or DXF maps of streets, parcels, and buildings can be displayed as a
background image, allowing the user to quickly digitize a network model, confirm the
network layout, or simply enhance the outputted modeling results. And, the Network
Component Browser allows the user to point and click on any network junction node,
pipe, pump, valve, tank, or reservoir from the horizontal plan view to quickly
determine the defined input data and output modeling results.
Graphical Capabilities
MIKE NET’ graphical capabilities are unparalleled, providing multiple horizontal plan
plots, profile plots—either of which can be animated for extended period
simulations—and time series plots. All graphical plots can be printed at any userdefined scale.
For the horizontal plan plot, complete contouring of analysis results is available,
including node elevation, HGL, pressure, demand, and any water quality constituent.
This allows the engineer to quickly interpret the modeling results and identify any
trouble spots. And, directional flow arrows can be plotted alongside the pipes to show
the flow direction for any time step. In addition, MIKE NET provides automatic colorcoding of pipes and nodes based upon any input or output property, allowing the
network to be color-coded based upon pipe sizes, flowrates, velocities, headlosses,
nodal pressures, nodal demands, hydraulic grades, elevations, water age, percent
source contributions, water quality concentrations, and any other attribute. Numerical
ranges for colors can be specified. Furthermore, pipes can be plotted with variable
width and nodes with variable radius, allowing the user to quickly identify those areas
of the network experiencing the most flow, headloss, etc.
MIKE NET will automatically generate animations of extended period simulations for
both horizontal plan plots and profile plots, including the creation of Microsoft AVI
files. Multiple animations can be performed simultaneously, allowing the user to plot
several different profiles and watch all the results along that profile line, each in a
separate window. Animation of the profile plots show values that change with respect
to time for extended period simulations. In addition, profile plots can have two separate
vertical axes to allow plotting of variables from two separate unit families, such as flow
and pressure. Profile plots can be plotted along any user-selected route. Profile plots
can be generated as line graphs, bar graphs, or mixed—along with complete graph
customization. For example, profile plots can be plotted with an envelope to show the
minimum and maximum values reached during an extended period simulation.
Multiple time-series plots can be generated for the various network elements, such as
pipe flow, velocity, headloss, nodal demand, pressure, hydraulic grade, water age,
water quality constituent concentration, pump characteristic operating curve, tank
water level, total and net system demand, etc. In addition, observed field data can also
be directly linked to any plot, making it extremely easy to calibrate a model.
Report Generator
The MIKENET user can choose between three methods of generating reports.
Comprehensive input data and output analysis reports can be automatically generated
using the provided report templates. These report templates allow the user to easily
generate report tables with preselected parameters using the internal report generator.
Reports can also be generated in an HTML format for easy posting on webpages. In
addition to these two options, MIKE NET allows full customization of input and
output reporting by exporting the data into Microsoft Access database file, by use of
1-2
Introduction
the Microsoft Access ODBC driver, and/or use of a direct link to MIKENET from
Microsoft Access and Interbase ODBC driver. This allows the user unlimited
flexibility and functionality in developing specialized user-defined reports. These
reports can be fully customized to meet any combination of modeling criteria for any
network variable and for any time period.
Analysis Capabilities
MIKE NET has extensive modeling capabilities. The program supports any network
configuration and multiple demand categories. MIKE NET can very efficiently handle
large models and complex systems with multiple pressure zones for any hydraulic
condition. MIKE NET uses the industry-standard Environmental Protection Agency
EPANET water quality model, meeting and exceeding the EPA Clean Water Act
Standards. It uses the rigorous Hybrid Method, which is the most powerful and
computationally efficient method of network analysis. Pipe frictional loss
computations can be performed using either Hazen Williams, Darcy Weisbach, or
Manning equations. MIKE NET uses sophisticated rule-based control valves, pumps,
and tanks (based upon time, tank water levels, and nodal pressures) to simulate the
exact behavior of any water distribution system.
MIKE NET will track the flow and velocity of water in each pipe, the pressure and
grade at each node, the height of water in each tank, and the movement and fate of
water quality constituents (such as chlorine, chloramine, trihalomethane, total
dissolved solids, nitrates, hardness, fluoride, etc.) throughout the entire network during
a dynamic simulation. MIKE NET accurately models phenomena such as first-order
reactions within the bulk flow, pipe wall, and storage tanks. A global kinetic rate
coefficient can be assigned for the entire network, or user-specified values can be
assigned to selected components. Water age, time of travel, and constituent source
tracking can also be performed.
The analysis engine allows modeling of “what if” scenarios, allowing the engineer to
specify multiple modeling alternatives on the same pipe network. These alternatives
can include user-selected changes in network configurations, demand loading
conditions, and changes in physical system characteristics. MIKE NET’ analysis
engine can be run interactively, or in batch mode—automatically running several
different scenarios on the same network. Either method allows rapid and efficient
analysis of multiple modeling alternatives.
Data Management
MIKE NET includes the Borland InterBase® SQL Server database for storing and
manipulating network data. This provides unlimited flexibility for defining and
modifying the network data. For example, you can perform QBE (query by example)
and/or SQL (structured query language) queries to select those pipes having a specific
diameter, age, roughness, etc., and then make global changes to this selected data.
Database query results can be displayed graphically (by highlighting the selected
elements in the horizontal plan view), in tabular format, printed, or exported to a
standard spreadsheet or word processor. This same query facility can be used for
visualization of computational results, such as pipe flows, pressures, water quality
constituent concentrations, etc. In addition, the user can quickly assign global nodal
demands to the entire network system using the Distributed Demands capability.
MIKE NET’ InterBase SQL database can also be directly connected to an external GIS
database (such as MapInfo, ARCINFO, and ArcView) or an external relational
database (such as Oracle®), allowing MIKE NET to be part of the infrastructure
management and planning system. Such capabilities can greatly assist in the decision
1-3
MIKE NET
making processes for network asset inventory, rehabilitation requirements, and
financial planning. This allows the user to quickly retrieve information concerning the
water distribution system from the connected external database.
MIKE NET is 100% EPANET compatible. Existing Cybernet™, EPANET, H2ONET,
KyPIPE, WATER, LYNX, AQUIS/LICWATER, WATNET, and WaterCAD™
models can be quickly imported, updated, and analyzed. In addition, MIKE NET can
export a completed model to an EPANET compatible data file. And, input data and
output results can be transferred to AutoCAD® and Microstation® by a DXF file,
allowing the network plan and analysis results to be exported.
Built-in Model Checker
MIKE NET includes a built-in Model Checker. The program’s Model Checker will
check over the input data for any modeling errors. If it encounters an error, it will
explain what is wrong and how to correct it. The Model Checker can be thought of as
an expert modeler, pointing out any input data errors contained within the model.
1.1
About This Manual
MIKE NET developed by DHI Water & Environment, is a software package
simulating water distribution and supply water pipe systems, their hydraulic
behaviour, as well as water quality.
This manual contains detailed information about using MIKE NET and describes in
particular the new facilities introduced with this full Windows version of MIKE NET.
The manual is written as a reference to the features and functions found in the MIKE
NET system, furnished with information required for installing MIKE NET, data input
and editing and running the simulations.
The MIKE NET User Manual Tutorial, together with videos and examples, are sources
of essential information about conceptual and algorithmic implementation of the main
processes treated by MIKE NET, as well as descriptions of applied modelling
techniques.
To help you to learn using MIKE NET efficiently, the printed documentation and
online Help can be used to guide you through the facilities of the new MIKE NET.
1.2
Licensing
Although MIKE NET is copy-protected, you can still backup and restore
subdirectories, utilize disc cache software, and even optimize the hard disc. To move
the program to a different logical disc drive, you must first uninstall the software from
the old disc drive and then re-install it on the new disc drive.
MIKE NET is licensed on a single user basis. This software can be installed on only
one computer for use by one user at a time. If this software is to be installed on multiple
computers, each computer requires a separate license. However, the MIKE NET
licence can be installed on an individual network server, enabling the licence to be
accessed by any network connected computer.
1-4
Introduction
1.3
Disclaimer
MIKE NET is a complex program requiring engineering expertise to use the software
correctly. DHI Water & Environment assumes absolutely no responsibility for
incorrect use of this program. All results obtained should be carefully examined by an
experienced professional engineer to determine if they are reasonable and accurate.
Although DHI Water & Environment has endeavored to make this program error free,
the program is not and cannot be certified as infallible. Therefore, DHI Water &
Environment makes no warranty, either implicit or explicit, as to the correct
performance or accuracy of this software.
In no event shall DHI Water & Environment be liable to anyone for special, collateral,
incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of purchase or
use of this software. The sole and exclusive liability to DHI Water & Environment,
regardless of the form of the action, shall not exceed the purchase price of the software
described herein.
DHI Water & Environment reserves the right to revise and improve its documentation
and software as it deems necessary. This documentation describes the state of the
software at the time of its publication. It may not, however, accurately reflect the state
of future revisions to the software.
1.4
In the Event of Problems
If you have difficulties installing MIKE NET on your computer, carefully read the
section titled Installation Procedure in Chapter 2. Occasionally, disks are damaged
during shipping. If this is the case, contact DHI Water & Environment for an
immediate replacement.
If MIKE NET was correctly installed, but the program fails to run properly, carefully
read the section titled System Requirements in Chapter 2. Your computer may not have
enough memory or there may be some other hardware problem. If all else fails, contact
DHI Water & Environment for assistance.
MIKE NET is a state-of-the-art engineering program. Although this program has been
thoroughly tested, there always remains the possibility of program errors.
If you have any questions about the validity of results obtained from MIKE NET, first
check the EPANET input data file generated by MIKE NET to see if the model was
properly defined. If you continue to have questions about the program's results, please
contact DHI Water & Environment. It is helpful if you include a schematic drawing of
the model, along with the EPANET input data file containing the modeling data and
the program's analysis output results along with a brief description of the problem.
Our technical support engineers will analyze your problem as quickly as possible and
send you a detailed reply.
1-5
MIKE NET
Technical support can be reached at:
Email software@dhi.dk
Fax +45 45769555
www.dhisoftware.com
1.5
Product Upgrades
Because of the constant changes required to maintain this software as state-of-the-art,
we periodically issue new releases of the program and manual.
Minor update releases of the software are generally available for free, except for
shipping, handling, and material costs. Often these minor update releases are available
for instant download from our WWW site. Major upgrades are provided for a fee,
based upon when you last purchased or upgraded.
If you have any comments or suggestions regarding this documentation or software,
please contact us. Your comments are appreciated. They help us produce a better
package for everyone.
If you have purchased a MIKE NET licensed to a maximum number of pipes and want
to upgrade the licence to higher number of pipes or to water quality, please contact
DHI to request a new dhilicense.dat registration file.
MIKE NET is continually being improved and enhanced in an effort to make it easier
to use, faster, and more flexible.
1-6
C H A P T E R
Getting Started
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
Inventory
How to Contact Technical Support
System Requirements
Licensing Information
Installing MIKE NET
Installing ODBC Database Drivers
Starting MIKE NET
Alternate Licensing Methods
Network Server Technical Information
Troubleshooting
2
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-7
2-7
C H A P T E R
Getting Started
2
This chapter describes the system requirements, installation, and startup of MIKE
NET™ (EPANET Modeling System).
2.1
Inventory
Included with your distribution of MIKE NET should be the following items:
•
DHI Water & Environment Software Product CD-ROM containing the
MIKE NET executable files, resource files, and example data files.
•
Hardware lock (optional).
•
MIKE NET User Manual.
If you are missing any of the above items, please contact DHI Water & Environment.
2.2
How to Contact Technical Support
If you have difficulties installing MIKE NET on your computer, carefully read the
following section titled Installation Procedure on page 2-3. Occasionally, CD-ROMs
are damaged during shipping. If this is the case, contact DHI Water & Environment for
an immediate replacement.
If MIKE NET was correctly installed, but the program fails to run properly, carefully
read the section titled System Requirements on page 2-2. Your computer may not have
enough memory or there may be some other hardware problem. If all else fails, contact
DHI Water & Environment for assistance.
MIKE NET is a state-of-the-art engineering program. Although this program has been
thoroughly tested, there always remains the possibility of program errors.
If you have any questions about the validity of results obtained from MIKE NET, first
check the EPANET input data file generated by MIKE NET to see if the model was
properly defined. If you continue to have questions about the program's results, please
contact DHI Water & Environment. It is helpful if you include a schematic drawing of
the model, along with the EPANET input data file containing the modeling data and
the program's analysis output results along with a brief description of the problem.
Our technical support engineers will analyze your problem as quickly as possible and
send you a detailed reply.
2-1
MIKE NET
Technical support can be reached at:
Email software@dhi.dk
Fax +45 45769555
www.dhisoftware.com
2.3
System Requirements
MIKE NET requires the following system components to functionally operate:
•
MIKE NET is a 32-bit Microsoft Windows application and therefore must run
from inside Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT or Windows 2000. It
cannot be operated within Microsoft Windows 3.1, Windows 3.11, or as a
stand-alone DOS application.
•
A Pentium or larger micro-processor.
•
A minimum of 64 MB of extended memory, although 48 MB is
recommended.
•
Approximately 60 MB of hard disk free space must be available to install the
program. However, once the program is installed, additional hard disk space
will be required to operate the program.
•
A Super VGA (800 by 600) or higher resolution video display is required to
display some of the program's dialog boxes.
MIKE NET will print the analysis results and graphical output from within Microsoft
Windows to any attached or shared local area network printer.
2.4
Licensing Information
Although MIKE NET is copy-protected, you can still backup, move, or uninstall
MIKE NET from your computer's hard disk once it has been installed.
MIKE NET is licensed on a single user basis. This software can be installed on only
one computer for use by one user at a time. If this software is to be installed on multiple
computers, each computer requires a separate license. However, MIKE NET can be
installed on an individual network server, enabling the software to be accessed by any
network connected computer. For more information on installing and operating MIKE
NET on a local area network, see the section titled Network Server Technical
Information on page 2-8.
Once the program has been installed on your computer's hard disk, you can backup and
restore subdirectories, utilize disk cache software, and even reorganize or optimize the
hard disk. To move the program to a different logical disk drive, you must first
uninstall the software from the old disk drive and then re-install it on the new disk
drive.
2-2
Getting Started
2.5
Installing MIKE NET
Your MIKE NET package includes the DHI Water & Environment Software Product
CD-ROM. This CD-ROM contains all of DHI Water & Environment’s software
products, including MIKE NET and its example files.
This section discusses how to install MIKE NET onto your computer's hard disk.
MIKE NET requires Microsoft Windows in order to operate.
Installing the Program
To install MIKE NET, approximately 60 megabytes of hard disk free space must be
available. Note that the installation program will check your computer hard disk drive
for sufficient disk space before it attempts to install MIKE NET.
To install MIKE NET, please complete the following steps from within Microsoft
Windows:
1.
Insert the DHI Water & Environment Software Product CD-ROM into your
CD-ROM drive.
2.
Using Windows Explorer, run the installation program SETUP.EXE contained
on the CD-ROM. This will start the DHI Water & Environment Software
Product installation program. Once the installation program is running, select to
install MIKE NET and then follow the instructions presented by the installation
program.
3.
The installation program will prompt for the subdirectory where MIKE NET is
to be installed. The default location will be
C:\Program Files\DHI\MIKENET.
4.
The installation program will prompt you for the program group name for
installing MIKE NET within Windows. You can select the default name, select
an already existing group, or specify a different name in which to install the
MIKE NET program icons.
5.
If a hardware lock was not provided with the software, you will need to
manually register the software license, as is described in the section titled
Alternate Licensing Methods on page 2-6.
6.
Once the installation program has completed, MIKE NET is ready to be
operated.
Installation of Example Data Files
The installation program allows the user the option to install the example data files that
accompany the tutorial lessons described in Chapter 5. Make certain to request that the
installation program install these examples should you want to work through the
provided tutorial lessons.
2-3
MIKE NET
When installing the example data files, a separate subdirectory (e.g., C:\Program
Files\DHI\MIKENET\LESSONS) is automatically created by the installation
program. This allows you, at a later date, to delete the provided example data files from
your computer’s hard drive, should you desire to do so.
2.6
Installing ODBC Database Drivers
This section is only required reading if it is necessary to connect an external
application to the MIKE NET network database. Before an external database
connection can be performed on the MIKE NET network database, it is necessary to
install Borland’s InterBase 32-bit ODBC (Open DataBase Connectivity) drivers. This
enables other applications to access the MIKE NET database file EMS.GBD.
The InterBase 32-bit ODBC drivers support connections to an InterBase server via the
Open DataBase Connectivity Standard. The 32-bit ODBC drivers for InterBase
conform to the ODBC specification described in the ODBC Programmer’s Reference
(Version 2.0) and the related Version 2.1 and 2.5 Release Notes.
After installation of the ODBC drivers, it is necessary to reboot your computer and
then run the InterBase Server Manager from the installed InterBase program group.
Additional technical documentation is included with the ODBC drivers
The ODBC driver that allows the user to open any MIKE NET .GDB file directly from
an external application such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access, can be downloaded
from www.easysoft.com.
ODBC Connection to MIKE NET Database
The experienced MIKE NET user can use the ODBC driver connection to connect
directly to the MIKE NET (Interbase) .GDB database file from within the external
applications and work with the project data directly. The target file can be any project
.GDB file including the actual database file EMS.GDB in MIKENET\Bin directory.
Figure 2.6.0.1 shows the dialog box for connecting Interbaseto the MIKE NET
ems.gdb file.
2-4
Getting Started
Figure 2.6.0.1 Interbase DSN Setup Dialog Box
Defining the ODBC Data Source
Using the Windows Control Panel ODBC32 Data Source application, define the
InterBase Driver as the data source. Once this is done, the ODBC connection can be
tested.
2.7
Starting MIKE NET
Once the installation is complete, a new program group will be created in your
Windows desktop with the MIKE NET icon contained within it. Once you have
verified that installation is complete, you may start up MIKE NET by double clicking
on the MIKE NET icon.
See Chapter 3 titled Using the Program and Chapter 5 titled Example Problems for
additional information on operating MIKE NET.
Unable to Startup MIKE NET
See the section titled Troubleshooting on page 2-8 for help on how to get MIKE NET
up and running.
2-5
MIKE NET
2.8
Alternate Licensing Methods
If MIKE NET is run without a properly installed software license, a message telling
you that you are running an Evaluation Copy will be displayed. This message will
appear anytime the software is run on a computer that has not been properly licensed.
This section outlines alternative methods of installing the program licensing
authorization, in place of the default workstation hardware lock copy-protection
provided with the software.
Manual Registration Method
If you were not provided with a hardware lock with the software, you will need to
manually register the software license.
To register your computer to run MIKE NET, the Register command is used:
1.
Select REGISTER from the File Menu. The Register dialog box will appear.
2.
Near the top of the Register dialog box an edit field is displayed where the
registration password is entered. If this is the first time you are registering
MIKE NET, this field will be empty. If the computer you are running on is
already registered, the current password will be displayed in this field. In
addition, the licensed maximum number of pipes and water quality capability
status will be displayed.
3.
To register your computer to run MIKE NET, contact DHI Water &
Environment Technical Support and provide them with the security string listed
at the top of the dialog box. Please note that this security string is case sensitive.
Please identify which characters are upper case and lower case.
4.
Selecting «Details» will display a dialog box listing a NATO Phonetic Alphabet
description of the security string. This alphabet description can be useful when
calling in your security string.
5.
DHI Water & Environment Technical Support will provide you with a password
customized for your computer.
6.
Enter the password into the edit field provided.
7.
Select «Register» next to the edit field to register the password to your
computer. The dialog box will update the licensed maximum number of pipes
and water quality capability status. Then, select «Done».
If the password was entered correctly, the licensed maximum number of pipes and
water quality capability status will be updated. If the status did not update correctly,
double check that the password was correctly entered or that the security string was
properly read.
Network Hardware Lock Method
2-6
Getting Started
The network hardware-locked version enables MIKE NET to be installed on a network
file server, thus allowing multiple users to use the program from separate computers
on the network. All network hardware-locked versions of MIKE NET are shipped with
a network server hardware lock.
Under most operating systems, you must install a client workstation driver (a small,
memory-resident program) so that your computer can recognize the presence of the
network hardware lock on the network. The Client-Server Hardware Lock Driver is
available on the CD-ROM, and contains client workstation network drivers for
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT and Windows 2000.
In addition, the CD-ROM contains network server drivers for the following network
environments: DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, OS/2,
and Novell NetWare. The network server driver is responsible for keeping track of the
number of concurrent users of MIKE NET.
Also included on the CD-ROM is an utility section, which contains complete
instructions for installing the appropriate drivers for your particular network operating
system.
To use the network hardware lock method of program licensing authorization, have
your System Administrator complete the following steps:
1.
Plug the hardware lock into your network file server’s LPT1 printer port.
2.
Load the appropriate client workstation network hardware lock driver on the
client workstation, using the procedure specific to your operating system. Refer
to the utility section on the CD-ROM for details.
3.
Install the appropriate network server driver on the network file server, using
the procedure specific to your network operating system. Refer to the utility
section of the CD-ROM for details. Once installed, the network server driver
must be up and running before users on the network can use MIKE NET.
Note
Although the MIKE NET network hardware lock can be installed on any computer on
your network, we strongly suggest that it be installed on your network file server.
Troubleshooting Hint
If you are experiencing difficulties, you may wish to run the diagnostic program
available in the utility section of the CD-ROM. This program will check to see if the
printer port has been located correctly and whether the hardware lock is working
properly.
If after running the diagnostic program you continue to experience difficulties, please
feel free to contact our Technical Support staff.
2-7
MIKE NET
2.9
Network Server Technical Information
The Network Server Version of MIKE NET allows you to install the software on a
network file server, enabling anyone connected to the file server to access the software
without having the software actually installed on their individual computer.
The Network Server Version (by default) allows only one concurrent network user to
use the software at any time. Additional concurrent network user counts may be
purchased from DHI Water & Environment, allowing multiple users to access the
software simultaneously from the file server.
2.10 Troubleshooting
The following is a list of common errors which may be encountered upon installing
and running MIKE NET.
Not enough memory for Application.
MIKE NET requires a minimum of 32 megabytes of RAM to run effectively. You may
require additional memory above this minimum amount, depending upon the size of
network models you intend to create. In order to free up any additional spare memory,
there are a few things you can do:
1.
Exit any other programs currently running.
2.
From the Windows Control Panel select the virtual memory option and increase
the size of your virtual memory.
Some dialog boxes appear to take up the entire screen.
Check to make sure your monitor is running in Super VGA display mode. MIKE NET
requires a minimum display resolution of 800 by 600. Use the Windows Setup
program to change the display resolution. Additional information about changing your
display resolution is contained within your Microsoft Windows documentation.
MIKE NET starts up in evaluation mode.
If you were provided with a hardware lock, make certain that it is properly plugged into
the LPT1 printer port. If there is a printer attached to this port, make certain that it is
turned on and it functions properly.
If you were not provided with a hardware lock, check the licensing registration
information contained in the MIKE NET Registration dialog box. You may not have
properly authorized the licensing of your software, or if your software license was
temporary, it may have expired.
MIKE NET immediately quits upon starting up.
Make certain that you are operating within Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98,
Windows NT and Windows 2000, or newer operating system. MIKE NET is a 32-bit
application, and as such must operate within a 32-bit operating system. It cannot
operate within Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 3.11.
2-8
Getting Started
Unknown Database problems
The problem, which was detected on the computer, can be caused by duplicate
IDAPI32.CFG file. Please, follow these steps:
1. Search for IDAPI.CFG and IDAPI32.CFG file. There should be only ONE file with
this name.
2. If you find any other than ours (Program Files/Common Files/Borland), compress
and or remove the whole directory so the file cannot be found on your local computer.
3. Shutdown the InterBase Server (on the Windows Taskbar) and repeat the
installation.
4. Make sure that the InterBase Server is running after the installation. If not, start it
from MIKE NET program group.
5. Start MIKE NET
6. If everything works fine, restore IDAPI32 files, see Step 2.
Before you start, run "regedit" (Start | Run) and write down your existing BDE settings
for the selected keys, so that we can merge BDE if necessary.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE | Software | Borland | BLW32 - BLAPIPATH=
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE | Software | Borland | Database Engine CONFIGFILE01=
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE | Software | Borland | BLW32 - DLLPATH=
Also, make sure that BDE (Borland Database Setting) are correctly set-up in your BDE
Administrator. BDE Administrator can be accessed be selecting Start | Control Panel.
MIKE NET is using EMS alias to connect to Interbase SQL Client database. The
following setting has to be defined:
Alias type:INTRBASES
Server path:your current path to EMS.GDB file, such as
C:\MIKENET\BIN\EMS.GDB
How to detect that the MIKENET database connection is working
1. Make sure that the InterBase Server is running after the installation. If not, start it
from MIKE NET program group.
2. Run BDE Administrator (from the Control Panel) and try to explore
the EMS alias. Define the following:
login name: sysdba
password: masterkey
2-9
MIKE NET
2-10
C H A P T E R
Using the Program
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5.6
3.5.7
3.5.8
3.5.9
3.5.10
3.5.11
3.5.12
3.5.13
3.5.14
3.5.15
3.5.16
3.5.17
3.5.18
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
When You Need Help
Getting Started
Windows Terminology
Desktop Workspace
Using Dialog Boxes
Program Menus
Shortcut Commands
Toolbars
Application Basics
Defining the Model
Input Data Requirements
Entering Data
Interactive Data Entry
Graphical Input
Importing Graphical Data
Importing Data from an ODBC Data Source
Importing Other Input File Formats
Importing and Exporting Data
Data Import Log File
Importing KYPIPE Data
Importing CTBERNET 2.0 Data
Importing CYBERNET 3.0 or WaterCAD 3.0 Data
Importing H2ONET Data
Importing LICWATER Data
Importing WATNET Data
Importing LYNX Data
Importing EPANET 1.x Data
Importing EPANET 2.0 Data and Map Files
Importing ODBC Data
Importing DXF Files
Importing ESRI Shapefiles
Import Log File
Import Example Problem
Exporting Data to an ODBC Data Source
Exporting EPANET Data Files
Data Entry Checking
Managing Input Files
Creating a New MIKE NET Input File
Opening a Existing MIKE NET Input File
Saving a MIKE NET Input File
Closing a MIKE NET Input File
3
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-9
3-12
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-19
3-21
3-23
3-24
3-24
3-25
3-28
3-28
3-29
3-29
3-30
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-33
3-34
3-34
3-35
3-36
3-37
3-37
3-38
3-44
3-44
3-44
3-44
3-45
3-45
3-46
3-46
3-47
3-48
MIKE NET
3.6.5
3.6.6
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.8
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4
3.8.5
3.8.6
3.8.7
3.8.8
3.8.9
3.8.10
3.8.11
3.8.12
3.8.13
3.8.14
3.8.15
3.10
3.10.1
3.10.2
3.10.3
3.10.4
3.10.5
3.10.6
3.10.7
3.10.8
3.10.9
3.10.10
3.10.11
3.10.12
3.10.13
3.10.14
3.10.15
3.10.16
3.11
3.12
3.12.1
3.12.2
3.12.3
3.12.4
Backup Files
Filename Extensions
Demand Processing
Distributed Demands
Developing Pipe Demand Coefficients
Demand Editing and Demand Scenarios
Performing an Analysis
Performing a Model Check
Executing the Analysis
Displaying and Outputting Analysis Results
Viewing the EPANET Analysis Results
Browser Window
Analysis Results Table
Report Generator
Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots
Profile Graphical Plots
Time Series Plots
Copy to Other Programs
Animation
Contour Plots
Color Legend
Layer Control
Printing
Exporting Graphical Data
Pump Power
External Database Connections
MIKE NET InterBase Server
Server Database Connection
InterBase Server 6.0
InterBase SQL Support
InterBase Database Access
InterBase Login Levels
Connecting to External Database Sources
Importing and Exporting GIS Data
Connecting with External Applications
Connecting with Borland InterBase Network Server
Data Dictionary
SQL Queries
SQL Updates
MIKE NET Database Structure
ESRI GIS Shape File Structure
Programming Support
Program Configuration
MIKE NET Scenario Manager
The Need for a Scenario Manager
What is Scenario Manager
Scenarios and Alternatives
The Scenario Manager Window
3-49
3-49
3-50
3-50
3-52
3-55
3-56
3-57
3-58
3-59
3-61
3-62
3-63
3-64
3-68
3-70
3-74
3-79
3-79
3-80
3-82
3-84
3-86
3-87
3-87
3-90
3-90
3-91
3-91
3-93
3-93
3-83
3-94
3-97
3-99
3-104
3-104
3-106
3-109
3-110
3-118
3-119
3-120
3-120
3-120
3-121
3-121
3-125
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2.2.1
3.2.2.2
3.2.2.3
3.2.2.4
3.2.2.5
3.2.3.1
3.2.3.2
3.2.4.1
3.2.4.2
3.2.4.3
3.2.4.4
3.2.4.5
3.2.4.6
3.2.4.7
3.2.4.8
3.2.4.9
3.2.4.10
3.2.4.11
3.2.4.12
3.2.4.13
3.2.4.14
3.3.1.1
3.4.1.1
3.4.2.1
3.4.3.1
3.5.13.1
3.5.13.2
3.5.13.3
3.5.13.4
3.5.13.5
3.5.13.6
3.5.13.7
3.5.13.8
3.5.18.1
3.6.1.1
3.6.2.1
3.6.2.2
3.6.3.1
3.6.5.1
3.7.1.1
3.7.1.2
3.7.1.3
3.7.1.4
3.7.1.5
3.7.1.6
An example of a dialog box, showing that context sensitive help is always available 2
All of the dialog boxes displayed by BOSS EMS provide context sensitive help 2
The MIKE NET Help Menu 3
The MIKE NET desktop workspace 5
Horizontal Plan window in the MIKE NET desktop workspace 6
Multiple Horizontal Plan windows in the MIKE NET desktop workspace 7
The Aerial View dialog box allows you to quickly pan and zoom about the Horizontal Plan windows 8
The Browser dialog box 8
A typical dialog box 9
The Open dialog box 10
The MIKE NET main window 12
The File Menu 13
The Edit Menu 14
The View Menu 14
The Extended Menu 15
The Quality Menu 15
The Tracking Menu 15
The Tools Menu 16
The Plan Menu 16
The Draw Menu 17
The Window Menu 17
The Help Menu 17
The Pop-Up Cursor Menu 18
The Series Menu 18
The network components that make up a typical water distribution model 19
This interactive dialog box illustrates how data is entered to define a water distribution network model 24
MIKE NET allows the user to interactively develop a pipe network model by simply pointing and clicking
to graphically add the components to construct the water distribution network
...............................................................25
The Import dialog box provides support for importing DXF files and raster image files 26
User defined format - Junctions tab39
User defined format - Pipes tab40
User defined format - Pumps tab40
User defined format - Reservoirs tab41
User defined format - Tanks tab41
User defined format - Valves tab42
ESRI Shapefile coverages dialog box43
Example of a coverge layer file43
A sophisticated model checkeris provided to make certain that the pipe network has been correctly defined
45
The project options dialog box allows you to specify the type of network model to create when you start
to define a new water distribution network
model......................................................................................................................................46
The Open dialog box allows you to select an existing MIKE NET input file to load46
The Configuration dialog box allows you to select whether MIKE NET should autoload the last loaded
MIKE NET
input file when MIKE NET is started up47
The Save As dialog box is used to save the currently loaded MIKE NET input file under a different file
name48
The Configuration dialog box is used to specigy whether or not backup files are to be created49
Distributed demand function is used to distribute 230 cfs to the network nodes based on the pipe demand
coefficients51
Distributed demand function is used to distribute 100 cfs to the network nodes based on the node demand
coefficients52
Importing lots through external database support53
The demand coefficients (represented by cirlces) are assigned to the nearest pipe within the snapping radius54
Importing demand coefficients using the external support dialog box54
Polygons created to cover streets55
MIKE NET
3.8.1.1
3.8.1.2
3.8.2.1
3.9.1
3.9.1.1
3.9.2.1
3.9.3.1
3.9.3.2
3.9.4.1
3.9.4.2
3.9.4.3
3.9.4.4
3.9.4.5
3.9.5.1
3.9.5.2
3.9.6.1
3.9.6.2
3.9.6.3
3.9.7.1
3.9.7.2
3.9.7.3
3.9.7.4
3.9.7.5
3.9.9.1
3.9.10.1
3.9.11.1
3.9.11.2
3.9.11.3
3.9.12.1
3.9.15.1
3.10.3.1
3.10.3.2
3.10.7.1
3.10.7.2
3.10.7.3
3.10.7.4
3.10.9.1
3.10.10.1
3.10.11.2
3.10.11.3
3.10.12.1
3.10.13.1
The Check Model dialog box allows the user to select what aspects of the model mush be checked for errors57
The model checker generates a file that lists the reported errors and warnings58
The File Menu is used to select PERFORM ANALYSIS to analyze the water distribution network59
The Compare Alternatives dialog box allows you to compare project alternatives for the same network
project60
EPANET summary analysis results61
MIKE NET’s Browser window allows you to examnine the input attributes and analysis results for any
network component62
The Analysis Results Table window provides you with a quick summary of the EPANET analysis results
for the pipe network63
Clicking on <<Results>> from any of the editors will display the Analysis Results Table64
Example of the internal report65
Defining the ODBC data source name and selecting the data dictionary file65
Example of exported report in Microsoft Access66
Example of the predefined Junction report within the Microsoft Access EMS.MDB file67
Example of Web Page HTML report generated with MIKE NET67
MIKE NET Horizontal Plan window allows you to graphically plot the analysis results directly onto the
pipe network68
The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box allows you to customize the Horizontal Plan graphical plot70
Profile plots allow you to graphically plot the analysis results along any pipeline path71
The Display Profile Plot dialog box allows you to specify what results are to be plotted on the profile plot
73
The Plot Options dialog box allows you to customize the current profile plot74
The Time Series plot window allows you to graphically display the analysis results for any network element
for an extended period simultion75
The Display Time Series Plot dialog box allows you to specify what variables are to be plotted on the time
series plot75
Example of external time series and MIKE NET results plotted together76
The Time Series Plot Options dialog box allows you to customize the current time series plot78
Pipe Q-H Curve78
The Animate dialog box controls the animations of extended period simulations for both horizontal plan
plots
and profile plots, and allows ou to create Microsoft AVI files80
The Generate Contour Lines dialog box81
The Color Legend dialog box82
The Generate Legend dialog box83
The Legend Settings dialog box84
Layer Control dialog box84
Project Information dialog ox displays the total pump power used for the entire simuation for the selected
pumps88
IBConsole in Interbase 6.092
Properties for Nodes93
BDE administrator. The BDE Administrator lists the available database aliases95
BDE administrator alias screen. The database alias is defined in the BDE Administrator96
Creating a new ODBC Data Source97
ODBC setup. Define ODBC Data Source97
Dynamic link to MIKE NET database tables99
Example of Nodes table in Microsoft Access105
Example of Pipes table in Microsoft Access105
The MIKE NETnetwork imported from the Nodes and Pipes tables106
The Filter dialog allows you to define a SQL query statment to retrieve specific network components that
meet a specific
search criteria106
The Global dialog allows you to define a SQL update statment to retrieve specific network components
that meet a
search criteria and then perform a global change on a particular attribute of those selected components109
3.11.1
3.12.4.1
3.12.4.2
3.12.4.3
3.12.4.4
3.12.4.5
The Configuration dialog ox allows you to specify MIKE NET program configuration information120
Scenario Manager Dialog, Scenario Tab
Scenario Manager Dialog, Alternative Tab
Selecting scenarios for a batch run
Editing alternatives data
Topologocal alternatives (Base alternative, Alternative 1, Alternative 2)
MIKE NET
C H A P T E R
Using the Program
3
MIKE NET™ (EPANET Modeling System) is the most advanced, powerful, and
comprehensive water distribution modeling package available. MIKE NET can
analyze an entire water distribution system, or selected portions, under steady state and
extended period simulations, with water quality analysis if needed. MIKE NET is a
complete graphical modeling environment and operates within Microsoft®
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, and Windows 2000. Both imperial and
metric (SI) units are supported.
MIKE NET allows extreme flexibility when developing a water distribution model.
The user can develop a model from scratch using a variety of input methods including
importation of data files from a GIS database or pre-existing water distribution model,
schematically drawing the pipe network, or by direct data entry.
If a map of the water distribution system is available, MIKE NET can import this map
and display it as a background image—allowing the user to then interactively construct
and layout the pipe network system. Network components can be selected from a
component toolbar, and then graphically placed on the screen at the precise location of
each component.
Many times, existing water distribution systems do not have a detailed map that can be
used to graphically construct a network model. For these situations, MIKE NET allows
the user to develop a model by simply defining water distribution components (i.e.,
pipes, junction nodes, pumps, values, tanks, and reservoirs) in interactive, easy-to-use
dialog boxes. This allows the user to define a model when an accurate map is not
available for the pipe network model.
After the pipe network has been defined, a hydraulic analysis of the network can be
performed. Detailed reports can be generated from the analysis results and printed out.
In addition, if a graphical representation of the pipe network has been created, the
computed pipe flowrates and junction node pressures can be displayed and printed out.
This chapter should furnish you with a fundamental understanding of the basic
operation of MIKE NET. Chapter 4 provides detailed descriptions of the data input
dialog boxes used by this application. Chapter 5 provides several tutorials. Common
difficulties are identified, and solutions to these difficulties are presented. Chapter 6
presents the theory and methodology that was used in developing this program.
Finally, a comprehensive index is provided to aid you in finding information quickly.
3-1
MIKE NET
3.1
When You Need Help
Application-specific help for MIKE NET is available in a variety of ways.
Figure 3.1.1 An example of a dialog box, showing that context sensitive help is always
available
Each of the dialog boxes displayed by MIKE NET, such as the sample dialog box
shown in Figure 3.1.1, provide context sensitive help. Choosing «Help» will display
context sensitive help, such as shown in Figure 3.1.2, for the current dialog box.
Figure 3.1.2 All of the dialog boxes displayed by MIKE NET provide context sensitive
help
3-2
Using the Program
Selecting Help | Contents, as shown in Figure 3.1.3, allows you to lookup help on a
specific topic. The Microsoft Windows Help System includes a broad range of access
in the library of help topics, enabling the user to easily navigate from one help topic to
another.
Figure 3.1.3 The MIKE NET Help Menu
Status Line and Balloon Help
As you move your cursor over data entry fields, the status line will list contextsensitive help describing the current dialog box data entry. Pausing your cursor over a
dialog box command button will display a pop-up context-sensitive Balloon help,
providing some additional description about the command button.
3.2
Getting Started
Before using MIKE NET, make certain that it has been properly installed. The program
will not run properly if it has not been correctly installed. See the section titled
Installation Procedure in Chapter 2 for information on installing the program on your
computer.
Familiarity with Microsoft Windows can speed the learning of this application.
However, MIKE NET is extremely easy to learn and use. Tutorials are provided in
Chapter 5 which allow you to become acquainted with operating MIKE NET. In
addition to the tutorials included with the MIKE NET installation, video files showing
how to build a project, use of the editing tools within MIKE NET and use of the import/
export functions. These video files are located in the MIKE NET directory in the
VIDEO subdirectory.
If you are not familiar with Microsoft Windows, you may want to read the Microsoft
Windows Getting Started manual. The Getting Started manual provides a good
introduction to Windows.
3-3
MIKE NET
If you have not yet started the program, review the section titled Starting MIKE NET
in Chapter 2 which describes how to start the program.
3.2.1 Windows Terminology
The following terminology is used in this user manual to describe actions that are
performed with either the mouse or the keyboard.
Check
To turn on a check box (that is, to place a check mark in a check box by clicking
on it). See also Select.
Clear
To turn off (or uncheck) a check box (that is, to remove the check mark from a
check box by clicking on it).
Click on
To position the mouse pointer on a specific location, and press and release the
left mouse button.
Click and drag
To position the mouse pointer on a specific object on the screen, press and hold
down the left mouse button, drag the object to a new location, and then release
the mouse button.
Double click on
To click twice, rapidly, on a specific location.
Fill in
To enter data in a text box.
Highlight
To select text in a data entry field by positioning the mouse cursor at the
beginning of the block of text, then dragging the cursor across the text that you
want to select. Highlighted or selected text usually appears as white text in a
black box. See also Select.
Point to
To position the mouse pointer on a specific object.
Select
(1) To turn on a radio button option by clicking on it. See also Check. (2) To
highlight text in a field by positioning the mouse cursor at the beginning of the
block of text, then dragging the cursor across the text that you want to select.
See also Highlight. (3) To choose a menu or list box item by clicking on it.
Tab to
To press the «Tab» or «Shift-Tab» keys to move sequentially to the next menu,
field, option, or button and make it active.
3-4
Using the Program
3.2.2 Desktop Workspace
After MIKE NET is started, the MIKE NET desktop workspace will appear, as shown
in Figure 3.2.2.1. This desktop workspace displays the MIKE NET menu, and displays
any activated toolbars, the network browser window, and any other enabled windows.
Figure 3.2.2.1 The MIKE NET desktop workspace
The components of the MIKE NET desktop workspace are described below.
Title Bar
The title bar displays the program name and the currently loaded MIKE NET project.
Clicking and dragging with the mouse allows you to drag the application main window
around the screen. If more than one application is running, the title bar of the active
window (the one in which you are currently using) is displayed in a different color or
intensity than the other title bars.
Menu Bar
The menu bar lists the application’s available menus. Each menu presents a list of
commands (or actions) to perform some function. A detailed description of the menus
is presented in the section titled Program Menus on page 3-12.
To access the menu, position the mouse pointer on the menu item, and then press the
left mouse button. This will open the menu. You can also open a menu by holding
down the «Alt» key and then typing the underlined letter contained in the menu item.
For example, on the MIKE NET menu, the first menu item is File. Notice that the F in
File is underlined. If you want to open the File menu using the keyboard, you would
type «Alt-F».
3-5
MIKE NET
Toolbar
The toolbar displays buttons that perform frequently used tasks quickly, such as saving
the current MIKE NET project file. If you forget what a button accomplishes, point
your cursor at the toolbar button. After you pause over a button, a pop-up contextsensitive Balloon help will be displayed, providing an additional description about
what the command button performs.
Horizontal Plan Window
The Horizontal Plan window displays a layout plot of the pipe network system. The
individual junction nodes, pipes, valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs are displayed.
The Horizontal Plan window also allows the user to graphically layout the pipe
network system.
Figure 3.2.2.2 Horizontal Plan window in the MIKE NET desktop workspace
Multiple Horizontal Plan Windows
Multiple instances of the Horizontal Plan window can be displayed. This allows the
user to display different zoom levels, display options, and contouring and thematic
mapping of the analysis results. Automatic graphical updating and task switching is
performed when the user selects a different Horizontal Plan window as the active
window.
3-6
Using the Program
Figure 3.2.2.3 Multiple Horizontal Plan windows in the MIKE NET desktop workspace
Aerial View
The Aerial View window is both a navigation and a magnification tool that displays a
view of the pipe network in a separate window so that you can quickly locate and move
to that area. Using the Aerial View window, you can directly pan and zoom about the
Horizontal Plan window. For example, by dragging the view box in the Aerial View,
you change the view within the Horizontal Plan window without changing the current
view magnification. This allows you to review the network system close up, and yet
be able to move about quickly. Figure 3.2.2.4 displays the Aerial View in conjunction
with the Horizontal Plan window. To display the Aerial View, select View |
Aerial View.
3-7
MIKE NET
Figure 3.2.2.4 The Aerial View dialog box allows you to quickly pan and zoom about
the Horizontal Plan windows
Browser
The Browser window allows you to graphically select any network component, by
simply clicking on it with the mouse, and the program will then display that
component’s input attributes and analysis results. This allows you to quickly examine
the pipe network system at the component level (i.e., pipe, junction node, valve, pump,
tank, and reservoir), check what is defined for the model, and determine the computed
analysis results. For example, selecting a pipe from the Horizontal Plan window will
display in the Browser window the pipe’s ID, diameter, length, roughness coefficient,
velocity, headloss, and flowrate. To display the Browser window, select View |
Browser. The Browser will be displayed, as shown in Figure 3.2.2.5.
3-8
Using the Program
Figure 3.2.2.5 The Browser dialog box
Floating Toolbars
MIKE NET provides several task-specific toolbars to allow the user to be more
efficient. These toolbars can be docked underneath the menu bar, along any of the main
window borders, or be allowed to float inside or outside of the main window.
Minimize and Maximize Buttons
Clicking on the minimize button reduces the application to an icon. Clicking on the
maximize button enlarges the window to its maximum size. After you maximize a
window, the maximize button is replaced with the restore button. Clicking on the
restore button will return the window to its previous size.
3.2.3 Using Dialog Boxes
A dialog box is a pop-up screen that is presented to prompt you for more information.
This section explains the major components of a dialog box.
Some dialog boxes require that you make a selection or enter some information and
then select «OK» before the program can carry out a function. Other dialog boxes can
remain up for the duration of the application.
Figure 3.2.3.1 A typical dialog box
Referring to Figure 3.2.3.1, a dialog box is composed of components. These
components allow you to perform an action, select from a list of choices, enable a
function, or enter information. Dialog boxes can contain the following components:
•
Title Bar
•
List Boxes
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MIKE NET
•
Text Boxes
•
Check Boxes
•
Radio Buttons
•
Group Labels
•
Data Tables
•
Command Buttons
Title Bar
Each dialog box, like the dialog box shown in Figure 3.2.3.1, has a title bar across the
top that uniquely identifies it within the application. When a dialog box is discussed in
the manual, we refer to a particular dialog box by the title shown on the title bar.
List Boxes
A list box appears as a list of choices in a box on the dialog box. For example, the most
common list box lists all of your sub-directories for a given drive when you must select
a file, as shown by the Open dialog box in Figure 3.2.3.2.
Figure 3.2.3.2 The Open dialog box
There are also drop-down list boxes, which appear as rectangular boxes with a drop
down arrow on the right-hand side. When you click on the arrow, it drops down the list
of available options.
Note that you cannot enter text directly into a list box, but can only choose an option
displayed on the list.
Scroll Bars
Scroll bars are used to access items in a list box or data table that are outside the visible
area. For instance, a vertical scroll bar moves the choices in a list box up and down.
Text Boxes
3-10
Using the Program
Text boxes are outlined fields where you can enter data. When you click the mouse in
a text box, a flashing I-bar shaped cursor indicates what is called the insertion point.
The text you type is entered at this point. Also, existing text can be deleted using the
«Delete» and «Backspace» keys. If existing text is highlighted in a text box, the text
will disappear when you begin typing.
Check Boxes
Check boxes are small boxes on the screen that, when you click on them, change back
and forth between containing a check mark in them and being empty. A check box is
said to be selected when it contains a check mark in it, and it is said to be cleared when
it is empty.
Radio Buttons
Radio buttons are similar to check boxes in that you use the mouse to toggle them on
and off. However, when you click on them, they fill-in the circle rather than putting a
check mark in the box. Another difference between check boxes and radio buttons is
that radio buttons are mutually exclusive—that is, when you turn one option on, it
automatically turns off all other radio buttons in its group.
Group Labels
Group labels generally appear at the top left-hand corner of boxes, interrupting the box
lines. These boxes serve as boundaries for a group of related options. The label is the
text that applies to all of the options in the group.
Data Tables
MIKE NET uses scrolling data tables to display its input and output. These tables can
be easily resized by simply clicking and dragging the column separator lines.
Command Buttons
A command button is used to initiate some sort of action, such as carrying out or
canceling a command. The «OK» and «Cancel» buttons are common command
buttons.
3-11
MIKE NET
3.2.4 Program Menus
The MIKE NET program menus are available from the menu bar of the MIKE NET
main window, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.1. Selecting any one of these menu items will
display a sub-menu, allowing you to select a specific task to perform.
Figure 3.2.4.1 The MIKE NET main window
The following subsections describe in general terms the tasks supported by the menu
items displayed in Figure 3.2.4.1.
File Menu
The File Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.2, allows you to load and save MIKE NET
project files. The File Menu allows you to import existing Cybernet™, EPANET,
H2ONET, KyPIPE, LYNX, AQUIS/LICWATER, WATNET and WaterCAD™
models. This menu is used to perform the EPANET analysis. And, this menu is used
to export an EPANET compatible data file.
3-12
Using the Program
Figure 3.2.4.2 The File Menu
Edit Menu
The Edit Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.3, provides access to the network component
editors. These editors allow you define the junction nodes, pipes, valves, pumps,
reservoirs, tanks, and valves that make up the water distribution system.
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MIKE NET
Figure 3.2.4.3 The Edit Menu
View Menu
The View Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.4, provides access to the Horizontal Plan
window, profile plot window, and time series plot window.
Figure 3.2.4.4 The View Menu
3-14
Using the Program
Extended Menu
The Extended Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.5, provides access to the extended
period simulation editors.
Figure 3.2.4.5 The Extended Menu
Quality Menu
The Quality Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.6, provides access to the water quality
editors.
Figure 3.2.4.6 The Quality Menu
Tracking Menu
The Tracking Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.7, provides access to the particle
tracking capability of MIKE NET.
Figure 3.2.4.7 The Tracking Menu
3-15
MIKE NET
Tools Menu
The Tools Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.8, provides access to many of the powerful
tools provided with MIKE NET.
Figure 3.2.4.8 The Tools Menu
Plan Menu
The Plan Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.9, provides access to commands to
manipulate the Horizontal Plan window. Note that the Plan Menu is only available
when the Horizontal Plan window is present.
Figure 3.2.4.9 The Plan Menu
3-16
Using the Program
Draw Menu
The Draw Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.10, provides access to drawing tools
contained within MIKE NET. Note that the Draw Menu is only available when the
Horizontal Plan window is present.
Figure 3.2.4.10 The Draw Menu
Window Menu
The Window Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.11, provides methods to arranging the
displayed windows.
Figure 3.2.4.11 The Window Menu
Help Menu
The Help Menu, as shown in Figure 3.2.4.12, provides access to on-line program help.
Figure 3.2.4.12 The Help Menu
Pop-Up Menu
MIKE NET uses a pop-up cursor menu to provide quick access to many of the standard
MIKE NET menu commands. This pop-up menu is shown in Figure 3.2.4.13.
3-17
MIKE NET
Figure 3.2.4.13 The Pop-Up Cursor Menu
To display the pop-up cursor menu, press the right mouse button. From the displayed
pop-up cursor menu, simply select the menu command you wish to execute.
Series Menu
The Series Menu, shown in Figure 3.2.4.14, provides access to commands to
manipulate the Time Series Plot. The Series Menu is only available when a Time
Series Plot is also present.
Figure 3.2.4.14 The Series Menu
3.2.5 Shortcut Commands
For users already familiar with the Windows environment, there are a number of
shortcut commands that can speed up use of MIKE NET. The keystrokes for these
shortcut commands appear to the right of the menu items. Instead of opening the menu
and choosing a command, you can simply press the shortcut command key
combination. For example, to save the currently loaded network project file, press
«Ctrl-S».
3.2.6 Toolbars
MIKE NET provides numerous toolbars that contain buttons that give you quick
access to many commands and features. To see a description of a button, point to it
with the mouse. A pop-up balloon description will be displayed adjacent to the button
describing the command. To display or hide toolbars, select View | Toolbars. To make
an anchored toolbar a floating toolbar, or vice versa, double-click on a blank area on
the toolbar.
A docked toolbar is a toolbar that’s attached, or anchored, to one edge of the screen or
the application window. You can dock a toolbar below the menu bar or the left, right,
or bottom edge of the application window. When you drag a toolbar to the edge of the
screen or the application window, the toolbar outline snaps to the length of the edge.
If you drop the toolbar after its outline snaps, it docks to that edge of the screen.
3-18
Using the Program
Similarly, dragging a docked toolbar out away from the application window will cause
it to float. To resize a floating toolbar, grab and drag any of its sides. Note that you
cannot resize a docked toolbar.
Equivalent Menu Toolbar Commands
It may be required, due to some unforeseen difficulty, to access a toolbar command
when the toolbar is not visible. Note that all of the toolbar commands are available as
equivalent menu commands by selecting Tools | Toolbar Commands.
3.3
Application Basics
The following subsections discuss the application basics of MIKE NET. These
subsections describe the steps involved in defining a water distribution model and what
data is required for the model definition.
3.3.1 Defining the Model
It is generally more efficient to gather and organize the data required to define your
pipe network model before you begin input of data into MIKE NET.
MIKE NET views the water distribution network as a collection of links connected
together at their endpoints by nodes. Links and nodes are identified with ID numbers
and can be arranged in any fashion. Figure 3.3.1.1 shows an example water distribution
network and its related components.
Figure 3.3.1.1 The network components that make up a typical water distribution
model
For large networks, collecting the input data to define a pipe network model can
involve considerable effort. Also, entering this input data into the computer can, at
times, become tedious. This process can be prolonged by errors introduced while
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MIKE NET
entering the data. To reduce the possibility of error, the following procedure is
recommended for preparing and entering the input data and performing the network
analysis.
1.
Obtain a map, or create a schematic diagram of the pipe network to be modeled.
Number all pipes, junction nodes, and control components in the network.
These numbers will then be used as the numerical IDs by MIKE NET in its
analysis. These numerical IDs can be used in checking your work. In addition,
pipes, nodes, pumps, valves, storage tanks, and all other network components
can also be given text descriptions for reference purposes.
2.
Prepare the input data for each pipe and junction node. The data for these
components should be complete. For example, pipe data includes the pipe
length, diameter, roughness coefficient, and minor loss coefficient for each pipe
in the network. If the roughness coefficient is not available, the pipe material
and age can be used to interpolate a roughness coefficient value using the
roughness coefficient tables provided in MIKE NET. Junction node data
includes the water demand and node elevation for each node in the network.
3.
If there are control components in the network, prepare the input data for each
component. Control components include pumps, check valves, regulating
valves, sustaining valves, flow control valves, and storage tanks.
4.
Enter the input data which defines the network model using the MIKE NET data
input dialog boxes. The program will report an error if invalid data is entered.
This immediate checking of input data helps prevent errors from being
introduced into the pipe network model.
5.
After the input data has been entered, MIKE NET can perform a complete check
of the input data and a geometric verification of the network connectivity. In
addition, it can print a summary of the input data to allow the user to verify the
entered data. Many of the input data dialog boxes, such as the Junction Editor
and Pipe Editor dialog boxes, can be placed side by side to allow the user to
more easily verify model consistency.
6.
After the input data has been verified, the pipe network can then be analyzed.
Analysis results should be carefully examined to make certain that the input
data accurately defines the model and that the analysis results appear
reasonable. Of particular importance are the junction node pressures. These
values should lie within a reasonable range.
7.
Calibrate the network model to make certain that the analysis provides accurate
modeling results. For more information on how to calibrate your network
model, see the section titled Model Calibration in Chapter 6.
.
Constructing Complex Networks
3-20
Using the Program
When constructing a complex pipe network model, begin by first constructing a
simplified version of the network. For example, leave out the network control
components. Then, analyze the network and verify that the modeling results appear
reasonable. If they are, then add the control components to the network.
Roughness Coefficient Data
Model calibration should be performed to properly adjust the pipe roughness and
minor loss coefficients so that the defined computer model pipe network accurately
models the actual physical pipe network.
However, as a pipe network ages, pipe roughness change due to corrosion and
deposition. During a pipe network's design stage, it is important to know how age can
affect the pipe roughness coefficients. Roughness coefficient data from textbooks and
engineering handbooks may not accurately reflect the aged roughness coefficients.
Generally, accurate aged roughness coefficients can be obtained from the pipe
manufacturer. Otherwise, laboratory experiments or field measurements may need to
be performed to estimate these values.
3.3.2 Input Data Requirements
Defining a pipe network model requires a variety of complex and interrelated input
data. The input data required to define a pipe network model is categorized and
described in this section.
Project Data
General data describing the pipe network model, such as project and output
specification settings, is categorized as project data.
Project Specification Data
Included in the project specification data are general settings, such as friction
loss formulation, units used in the analysis, and the type of analysis to be
conducted (i.e., steady state, extended period, water quality, etc.). If the analysis
is an extended period simulation, this data also defines the total simulation time
and time step size.
Output Specification Data
Included in the output specification data are settings describing the output
format of the analysis results. In addition, various summary output tables can be
selected for output.
Network Data
Network data consists of all components that make up the network model, such as
pipes and junction nodes. This subsection lists all components that can be used in a
steady state analysis.
3-21
MIKE NET
Pipe Data
Pipe data includes the physical characteristics of each pipe, such as pipe length,
diameter, roughness coefficient, and minor loss due to fittings along the pipe. In
addition, check valves can be defined along a pipe to prevent flow reversal. The
pipe data provides the basic information for the hydraulic analysis, and should
be prepared carefully.
A text description can be defined for each pipe. Because pipes are associated
with the roads and streets that they lie under, a pipe is generally labeled by its
associated street name.
Junction Node Data
Junction node data describes the physical characteristics of each junction node,
such as external water demand and node elevation.
A text description can be defined for each junction node. Junction nodes are
often labeled with names corresponding to the buildings they are located near.
Reservoir Data
Reservoir data specifies the reservoir's water surface elevation. In addition, a
text description can be defined for each reservoir.
Storage Tank Data
Storage tank data includes the minimum, maximum, and initial water surface
elevations for each storage tank. MIKE NET distinguishes between cylindrical
and rectangular storage tanks. The geometry of a cylindrical tank can be fully
described by its diameter, while rectangular tanks are defined by a width and
length. A text description can be defined for each storage tank.
Emitters
Emitters are devices associated with junctions that model the flow through a
nozzle or orifice. In these situations the demand (i.e. the flow rate through the
emitter) varies in proportion to the pressure at the junction raised to some
power. The constant of proportionality is termed the "discharge coefficient".
For nozzles and sprinkler heads the exponent on pressure is 0.5 and the
manufacturer usually states the value of the discharge coefficient as the flow
rate in gpm through the device at a 1 psi pressure drop. Emitters are used to
model flow through sprinkler systems and irrigation networks. They can also be
used to simulate leakage in a pipe connected to the junction (if a discharge
coefficient and pressure exponent for the leaking crack or joint can be
estimated) and compute a fire flow at the junction (the flow available at some
minimum residual pressure).
Pump Data
Pump data is defined by selecting one of four pump types: constant power,
standard pump curve, custom pump curve with no extended flow range, or
custom pump curve with extended flow range. Each of these pump types require
specific data. If a pump is a constant power pump or a constant head pump, the
pump is described by the power or head setting of the pump. If a pump has a
pump curve associated with it, the pump is described by a pump characteristic
curve consisting of pump head and discharge values. A text description can be
defined for each pump.
3-22
Using the Program
Valve Data
Valve data includes the valve type, the HGL setting of the valve, and the
reference junction node. In MIKE NET, there are six valve types: pressure
reducing valves (PRV), pressure sustaining valves (PSV), pressure breaker
valves (PBV), flow control valves (FCV), throttle control valves (TCV) and
general purpose valves (GPV). The GPV allows the user to define the flowheadloss relationship through the valve. Most pipe networks use valves to
regulate flowrates and pressures. Valves greatly affect the analysis results.
Therefore, valves should be defined carefully. A text description can be defined
for each valve. A check valve is not defined with the valve data, but is defined
with the pipe data.
Extended Period Data
If an extended period analysis is to be performed, extended period (dynamic)
components such as pressure switches can be incorporated into the pipe network.
Control Data
Control data allows pipes, pumps, and valve settings to change at specific times
or when specific pressures or tank levels are reached in the network. A text
description can be defined for each control.
Water Quality Data
If a water quality analysis is to be performed, then specialized data is required.
Point Source Data
Point constituent source data includes the reservoir, storage tank, or junction
node where the constituent (e.g., chlorine) is introduced into the pipe network.
In addition, the substance's decay rate, current age, and the amount introduced
is specified. A text description can be defined for each point source.
The decay/growth rate is defined using water quality reaction equations. MIKE
NET can model either bulk flow reactions or reactions with the pipe wall. Bulk
flow reactions are reactions that occur in the main flow stream of a pipe or in a
storage tank, unaffected by any processes that might involve the pipe wall. Pipe
wall reactions are reactions that may involve the pipe material or occur close to
the pipe wall out of the main flow stream.
Fire Flow Data
MIKE NET can be used to perform a fire flow analysis for any junction node within
the network system. See the lesson titled Fire Flow Analysis in Chapter 5 for a
complete discussion on how to perform a fire flow analysis with MIKE NET.
3.4
Entering Data
MIKE NET is extremely flexible in how a water distribution model can be developed.
The user can develop a model from scratch using a variety of input methods, including
importation of data files from a GIS database or pre-existing water distribution models,
schematically drawing the pipe network, or by simple data entry.
3-23
MIKE NET
3.4.1 Interactive Data Entry
MIKE NET has been designed to make developing a water distribution model easy and
flexible by providing a variety of interactive input methods. For example, the user can
graphically trace out an existing water distribution pipe network on top of a scannedin aerial map. Or, the user can manually specify the pipe network system through the
program’s interactive network component editors. And any of these methods can be
used simultaneously with any other, allowing complete flexibility while defining the
network system. This translates into greater productivity for the user.
Most data used to describe a water distribution model is defined using interactive
dialog boxes, an example of which is shown in Figure 3.4.1.1. These dialog boxes
allow the user to quickly comprehend what data input requirements are needed to
define the model.
Figure 3.4.1.1 This interactive dialog box illustrates how data is entered to define a
water distribution network model
The MIKE NET data input requirements, the methods available to describe this data,
and the dialog boxes used to enter this data are discussed in detail in Chapter 4.
3.4.2 Graphical Input
As was discussed in the previous section, MIKE NET allows you to enter data
interactively into the pipe network using interactive dialog boxes. This allows you to
quickly define a model if a schematic layout of the pipe network is unavailable, or if
developing a schematic layout is too expensive or time-consuming to construct.
However, a powerful capability of MIKE NET is to allow the user to graphically
construct the pipe network model by simply pointing and clicking with a mouse. This
graphical construction of a pipe network system is shown in Figure 3.4.2.1.
3-24
Using the Program
Figure 3.4.2.1 MIKE NET allows the user to interactively develop a pipe network model
by simply pointing and clicking to graphically add the components to construct the water
distribution network
Using the tools in the Component toolbar, for example, the user can select the junction
node component tool (Add Junction icon) and then interactively locate and place
junction nodes on the Horizontal Plan window. A background aerial image can be
displayed in the Horizontal Plan window to aid in the placement of network
components. While the user is moving the cursor in the Horizontal Plan window, a
precise X,Y location is displayed on the status line at the bottom of the program.
To delete a network component, the select component tool can be used interactively to
select network elements. Then, pressing «Delete» will delete the selected elements.
Note that you can also multi-select and de-select network elements by holding down
«Ctrl» while interactively selecting elements. Or, using the Create Polygon Selection
tool from the Polygon Toolbar you can drag a box around a group of elements to select
them.
3.4.3 Importing Graphical Data
MIKE NET allows you to import graphical data, such as DXF files and raster images
(such as scanned-in quad maps or aerial photographs), and display them as a
background layer in the Horizontal Plan window. This enables you to import a
graphical background layer to facilitate laying out the pipe network. You can also
import a DXF file containing lines and polylines representing the pipe network and
MIKE NET will convert the lines and polylines to equivalent pipes.
To import a graphical data file, select File | Import. MIKE NET will then display the
Import dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.4.3.1. Select the file format to import and then
choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display a file selection dialog box. From this
dialog box select the file to import from the file listing and then choose «OK». MIKE
NET will then import the file.
3-25
MIKE NET
Figure 3.4.3.1 The Import dialog box provides support for importing DXF files and
raster image files
Alternatively, the Layer Control dialog box can be used to import a graphical data file
to be displayed as a background layer. Selecting View | Layer Control will display the
Layer Control dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.4.3.2.
Figure 3.4.3.2 The Layer Control dialog box can also be used for importing graphical
data, and allows you to control what layers are to be displayed in the Horizontal View
window
Registering a Raster Image
Before an raster image can be used for background image, the image must be
registered. Registering an image involves identifying three points on the image
corresponding to locations with known real world (XY) coordinates. Once these points
are identified, they are used by MIKE NET to stretch or map the image to the proper
3-26
Using the Program
location when it is drawn with other network components in the Horizontal Plan
window. If an image is not registered properly, any objects which are created using the
background image as a guide will have the wrong coordinates.
In order to define the registration coordinates for the image, a world file (commonly
referred to as a TFW file) must be created. A world file contains the real-world
transformation information used by the image. World files can be created with any
ASCII text editor. They can also be created using ARC/INFO’s REGISTER
command.
It’s easy to identify the world file which should accompany an image file: world files
use the same name as the image, with a “w” appended. For example, the world file for
the image file mytown.tif would be called mytown.tfw. For computers that must adhere
to the 8.3 naming convention, the first and third characters of the image file’s suffix
and a final “w” are used for the world file suffix. Therefore, if mytown.tif were in an
8.3 format workspace, the world file would be mytown.tfw.
The contents of the world file might look something like this:
20.17541308822119
0.00000000000000
0.00000000000000
-20.17541308822119
424178.11472601280548
4313415.90726399607956
When this file is present in the same directory as the image file, MIKE NET performs
the image-to-world transformation of the read-in image. The image-to-world
transformation is a six-parameter affine transformation in the form of:
x1 = Ax + By + C
y1 = Dx + Ey + F
where
x1
= calculated x-coordinate of the pixel on the map
y1
= calculated y-coordinate of the pixel on the map
x
= column number of a pixel in the image
y
= row number of a pixel in the image
A
= x-scale; dimension of a pixel in map units in x direction
B, D = rotation terms
C, F = translation terms; x, y map coordinates of the center of the upper-left pixel
E
= negative of y-scale; dimension of a pixel in map units in y direction
Note that the y-scale (E) is negative because the origins of an image and a geographic
coordinate system are different. The origin of an image is located in the upper-left
corner, whereas the origin of the map coordinate system is located in the lower-left
corner. Row values in the image increase from the origin downward, while
y-coordinate values in the map increase from the origin upward.
The transformation parameters in the world file are stored in this order:
A. 20.17541308822119
B. 0.00000000000000
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MIKE NET
C. 0.00000000000000
D. -20.17541308822119
E. 424178.11472601280548
F.
4313415.90726399607956
Hiding and Showing Graphical Data
Once graphical data has been imported and displayed as a background layer, it may be
necessary to hide (or show) this layer or other layers. To do so, select View |
Layer Control. This will display the Layer Control dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.4.3.2. This dialog box allows you to control what layers are to be displayed
in the Horizontal View window. Select the layer to hide (or show) and then choose
«Close». MIKE NET will the update then display.
3.4.4 Importing Data from an ODBC Data Source
It is also possible to import data from an ODBC data source using a user defined data
dictionary. Dbase DBF files, Microsoft Access MDB files, ASCII text files, ORACLE
database files and others can be easily imported and/or exported.
HOW TO IMPORT ODBC DATA FILES
To import an ODBC database into MIKE NET, it is necessary to do the following:
1.Create a Database Alias for the ODBC data, which will be used in order to import
data. See <How to define ODBC Alias>
2.Select File | Import - ODBC Data Source.
3.Define the database alias and select Connect.
4.Select the Data dictionary file and select OK. (See <What is the data dictionary file>)
The MIKE NET database tables are now imported from the selected ODBC data
source.
3.4.5 Importing Other Input File Formats
MIKE NET stores its input data in a SQL database. This provides extreme flexibility
for connecting the database to external GIS spatial databases or relational databases,
allowing MIKE NET to part of the infrastructure management and planning system.
Such capabilities can greatly assist in the decision making processes for network asset
inventory, rehabilitation requirements, and financial planning. This allows the user to
quickly retrieve information concerning the water distribution system from the
connected external database.
3-28
Using the Program
However, many times a user needs to use and modify a pre-existing input data file that
was originally developed for some other pipe network model, such as a University of
Kentucky (U of K) KYPIPE pipe network model. MIKE NET can import input files
developed in this format and many other pipe network input file formats. A list of
supported file formats is provided in the Import dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.4.5.1.
Figure 3.4.5.1 The Import dialog box provides support for many different pipe network
file formats
To import an input data file from another water distribution program, select File |
Import. MIKE NET will then display the Import dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.4.5.1. From this dialog box, first select the file format to import and then
choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display a file selection dialog box. From this
dialog box select the file to import from the file listing and then choose «OK». MIKE
NET will then import the file.
As the program imports the external file, it will report its status in a message window.
Data import errors and warnings will be displayed, allowing the user to later correct
the imported data.
3.5
Importing and Exporting Data
This section describes in detail how to import and export external data into and from
MIKE NET.
3.5.1 Data Import Log File
MIKE NET also creates a log file of the reported data import error and warning
messages. This log file can be viewed by selecting File | View Import LOG File.
By printing out the data import log file, the user will have a hard copy of the reported
import error and warning messages. The user can then refer to this printout when
correcting the MIKE NET model.
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MIKE NET
3.5.2 Importing KYPIPE Data
MIKE NET can import University of Kentucky input data files. However, the supplied
stand-alone file convertor KYP2EPA.EXE must be first used to convert the KYPIPE
input data file into an EPANET input data file. Then the converted EPANET file can
then be directly imported into MIKE NET as an EPANET formatted input data file.
Once this EPANET formatted file has been produced, follow the import instructions
described in the subsection titled Importing EPANET Data, on 3-35.
The KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA.EXE must be operated from the
MS-DOS command prompt. The syntax for the KYP2EPA program is as follows:
KYP2EPA kypfile epafile
where
kypfile is the name of an existing KYPIPE input data file
epafile is the name of the EPANET file to be produced
The KYPIPE input data file is assumed to adhere to the format specified in the
KYPIPE User’s Manual, written by Dr. Donald J. Wood, titled Computer Analysis of
Flow in Pipe Networks Including Extended Period Simulations, University of
Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1980 and 1986.
The KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA.EXE supports all of the KYPIPE
modeling features except that it ignores pipe parameter changes and external inflows
to tanks (cards 4a-C and 5-C). Each pipe in the KYPIPE input data file that contains a
pump or valve is converted into two links (pipes) in the EPANET file; a new pump or
valve link at the head end of the pipe (including a new end node) followed by the
original pipe. The program also assigns node numbers to all tanks and reservoirs in the
KYPIPE file. These modifications are summarized by comment lines placed at the top
of the EPANET file.
An EPANET verification file will be generated if the geometric verification option is
included in the KYPIPE file. The verification file has the same prefix as the EPANET
input file, but with a .VER file extension. Newly created nodes and nodes connected
to newly created links will not be included in this verification file.
Since the KYPIPE data file does not support X,Y map coordinates, an EPANET.INP
file made from a KYPIPE.DAT file will not have a pipe network layout in the
Horizontal Plan window—thereby displaying the imported KYPIPE network as a
single node (actually overlapping all the nodes at coordinate 0,0). Therefore, an
external X,Y coordinate (ASCII or KYPIPE.GEO) file can be imported into MIKE
NET to represent the network layout. To import an external X,Y coordinate KYPIPE
file:
Select File | Import to display the Import dialog box.
8.
Select the Update File option button and choose «OK». The Import Update Files
dialog box will then be displayed. In the Import Update Files dialog box, select
the Junctions option button and select «OK». An Update Files dialog box will
then be displayed. In the Update Files dialog box, select the file to be imported.
The X,Y coordinate file that is imported into MIKE NET must be modified to a special
format. An example of this format is as follows:
3-30
Using the Program
ID
1
10
10000000
X
493494.23
495555.23
496566.00
Y
39094.32
39010.11
39000.11
The coordinate file is a space delimited or tab-delimited ASCII text file with 3 aligned
columns. The first row in this text file specifies the left-most text position for the data
fields that follow. Therefore, the date must be contained within the character field
spacing that is defined by the first row. The units for the imported X,Y coordinates are
feet (English units) or meters (SI units). The units for the imported X,Y coordinates
must be the same as the units defined in the Project Options dialog box. To display the
Project Options dialog box, select Edit | Project Options.
The KYP2EPA conversion program was co-authored by Dr. Paul F. Boulos of the
Computer Aided Engineering Department of Montgomery Watson, Pasadena, CA. Its
development was partially supported by the American Water Works Association
Research Foundation under Project #815, Characterization and Modeling of Chlorine
Decay in Distribution Systems.
3.5.3 Importing CYBERNET 2.0 Data
MIKE NET can import Haestad Methods CYBERNET 2.0 models. However, the
AutoCAD file exporter CNET2EPA must be first used to convert the CYBERNET
input data contained in AutoCAD into an EPANET input data file and input MAP file.
Then these exported EPANET files can be directly imported into MIKE NET. Once
these EPANET files have been produced, follow the import instructions described in
the subsection titled Importing EPANET Data, on 3-35.
The CYBERNET conversion program CNET2EPA is a native AutoCAD Release 14
ARX (AutoCAD Runtime Extension) application that must be operated from within
AutoCAD Release 14. To export the CYBERNET data to an EPANET formatted file,
follow the following instructions:
1.
2.
Load AutoCAD Release 14.
Load the AutoCAD drawing file that contains the CYBERNET pipe network to
be exported.
3. From the AutoCAD command line, type "APPLOAD".
4. A "Load AutoLISP, ADS, and ARX Files" dialog box will appear.
5. Click on the «File» button.
6. Select the AutoCAD application file to operate.
Select CNET2EPA.ARX.
7. Click on the «Load» button to load the ARX application.
8. From the AutoCAD command prompt, type export_cybernet.
9. The CYBERNET convertor will operate on the drawing file, creating two files
in the same directory as the original drawing with the same name as the drawing
file except with the file extensions .INP and .MAP. These two files are the
EPANET input data file and the EPANET input MAP file.
Items not supported by the CYBERNET convertor include:
1.
2.
3.
Multi-point pump curves. The convertor will just use the standard 3 point pump
curves.
Demand patterns.
Variable Area Tanks.
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MIKE NET
3.5.4 Importing CYBERNET 3.0 or WaterCAD 3.0 Data
MIKE NET can import Haestad Methods Cybernet and WaterCAD Version 3.0 (and
newer) input data files. Because Cybernet and WaterCAD use a proprietary database
format, capturing the EPANET input data file and pipe network geometry coordinates
from these packages is a three-step process and requires the use of two utility
programs.
The first part in this process is to capture the EPANET data file that Haested Methods
uses when they run the analysis. This step will create an .INP file that contains the
EPANET network input data (minus the coordinates).Follow these steps to create an
.INP file from either Cybernet or WaterCAD data:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Run the FTRANS.EXE program that was supplied with MIKE NET.
From the FTRANS program, select the input directory containing the Cybernet
or WaterCAD files to be exported. Usually this is the directory where your
Cybernet or WaterCAD project files are located.
Select an output directory. This is the directory that the exported .INP file will
be written to. The output directory should be different from the input directory
in step 2.
Click on the «Start» button.
Run the Cybernet or WaterCAD program.
From Cybernet or WaterCAD, open the project file that you want to export data
from.
From Cybernet or WaterCAD, perform the analysis.
When the analysis is finished, the converted .INP file will be stored in the
previously selected output directory.
You can repeat steps 6 and 7 as many times as needed to export multiple input data
files from Cybernet or WaterCAD. An input file will be created in the output directory
each time the analysis by Cybernet or WaterCAD is performed.
The second step is to create a .MAP file that contains the network coordinate data.
Follow these steps to create the .MAP file:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
From WaterCAD or CyberNET, export the project as a shapefile.
Select Node and Pipe from the Export Wizard and select <Next>.
Specify the filename for exporting the Pipe shapefile.
Select <Next>.
Specify the filename for exporting the Node shapefile.
Select <Insert> and specify to export the following attributes: (X, Y)
Select <Next>.
Select Add External Database Connection and then select <Finished>.
Exit the Haested Methods program.
The third, and final, step of this process is to import EPANET data file and coordinate
shapefiles that were generated into MIKE NET. Note that the data file and the
coordinate shapefiles can be in different directories. Follow these steps to import the
shape and .INP files into MIKE NET
1.
2.
3.
3-32
Run the MIKE NET program.
From MIKE NET, select Import from the File menu.
From the Import Dialog Box, select CyberNET, WaterCAD 3.x Data File.
Using the Program
4.
The Import CyberNET, WaterCAD 3.x Data File dialog box will be displayed.
From this dialog box select the EPANET data file and coordinate dbase
shapefiles that were previously generated.
MIKE NET will these files and add the defined network elements to the current water
distribution network system.
3.5.5 Importing H2ONET Data
MIKE NET can import MW Soft H2ONET models. However, the H2ONET
application must be used to export out an EPANET input data file and input MAP file.
Then these exported EPANET files can be directly imported into MIKE NET. Once
these EPANET files have been produced, follow the import instructions described in
the subsection titled Importing EPANET Data, on 3-35.
To export the H2ONET pipe network data to an EPANET formatted file, follow the
following instructions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Load AutoCAD.
Load the AutoCAD drawing file that contains the H2ONET pipe network to be
exported.
Load MW Soft H2ONET AutoCAD application.
From the H2ONET Tools Menu, select EXPORT. From this submenu, select
EPANET INPUT. Then specify the filename to save the EPANET input data
as. This will save the EPANET input data file.
From the H2ONET Tools Menu, select EXPORT. From this submenu, select
EPANET MAP. Then specify the filename to save the EPANET input MAP
data as. This will save the EPANET input MAP file.
3.5.6 Importing LICWATER Data
MIKE NET can import LICWATER data files. In order to import LICWATER data
files, select File | Import and choose LICWATER data files. The following sections
are supported:
*NODE
Node Name = Description in MIKE NET
X,Y coordinates
Node elevations
Node demand and its pattern ID (also for multiple demands)
*PIPE
Pipe name = Description in MIKE NET
Diameter
Length
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MIKE NET
Roughness Coefficient
3.5.7 Importing WATNET Data
MIKE NET can import WatNet data files. To import WATNET data files select the
Import WATNET data file option and choose the <OK> button. The Import WATNET
Data File dialog box appear. From this dialog box, select the WATNET input data file
to imported and then choose <OK>.
3.5.8 Importing LYNX Data
MIKE NET can import LYNX input data files. From "Import LYNX Data Files"
dialog box select EPANET .INP Data File and EPANET .MAP file to import. Select
the database alias, which will be used in order to connect to Microsoft Access .MDB
file used by LYNX for the project to be imported. Define the additional pipe attributes
to import. Choose <OK> when ready.
(In order to export EPANET .INP and .MAP files from LYNX, open the project in
LYNX program and select "Run Hydraulic Analysis". From within the Run Analysis
dialog, specify the .INP and .MAP files to be exported and select not to run the
analysis. LYNX will then export .INP and .MAP files only.
MIKE NET will then import the EPANET data file and store it in the current network
database. Network node coordinates are automatically read from the EPANET
coordinate MAP file, if the MAP file name has been specified in the OPTIONS section
of the EPANET input data file.
MIKE NET will then connect to the external Microsoft Access .MDB database files
and it will read the additional data from there. The Pipe Bend Vertices are imported
automatically from "Segment" table. In order to import other pipe attributes, use "Pipe"
tab and define the matching attributes. The pipe bend vertices are read from
"oSegment" Microsoft Access table and it is assumed that the following attributes
exist:
Idsys, X, Y, Z, Vertex_no and that the table is sorted by Idsys, Vertex_no.
STEP 1 - DEFINE LYNX DATA SOURCES
1. Define the database alias for connecting to Microsoft Access database file and select
Connect.
2. Define the database table for importing Pipe Segments and define the attributes for
importing Segment Pipe ID, X,Y and Z coordinates.
Example:
Table Name: oSegment
Pipe ID: Idsys
X Coordinate: X
Y Coordinate: Y
3-34
Using the Program
Elevation: Z
3. Select EPANET input and map data files.
STEP 2 - DEFINE PIPE ATTRIBUTES (OPTIONAL)
It is possible to define additional pipe attributes to be imported from Microsoft Access
database file. Select the database table with pipe data (such as "cPipe") and define the
attributes to be imported. Match "cPipe" by Pipe ID, such as"Idsys" to MIKE NET
pipes.
3.5.9 Importing EPANET 1.x Data
MIKE NET can import EPANET input data files. In order to import an EPANET input
data file, select File | Import. This will display the Import dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.4.5.1. From this dialog box, first select EPANET as the file format type to
import, then select the EPANET input data file to import from the file selection
section, and then choose «OK». MIKE NET will then import the EPANET data file
and store it in the current network database.
Network node coordinates are automatically read from the EPANET input MAP file,
if the MAP file name has been specified in the OPTIONS section of the EPANET input
data file. Note that the MAP file is completely optional—MIKE NET can operate
without a graphical representation of the water distribution network.
Supported sections of the EPANET input data file include:
CONTROLS
DEMANDS
JUNCTIONS
OPTIONS
PATTERNS
PIPES
PUMPS
QUALITY
REACTIONS
REPORT
SOURCES
STATUS
TANKS
TIMES
VALVES
Unsupported sections of the EPANET input data file include:
ROUGHNESS
TITLE
Supported sections of the EPANET input map file include:
COORDINATES
Unsupported sections of the EPANET input map file include:
3-35
MIKE NET
LABELS
3.5.10 Importing EPANET 2.0 Data and Map Files
IMPORTING EPANET 2.0 DATA and MAP FILES
From this dialog box select EPANET Data File as the file format type to import. From
the open file dialog box, select the EPANET input data file to import and then choose
<OK>.
MIKE NET will then import the EPANET data file and store it in the current network
database. Network node coordinates are automatically read from the COORDINATES
section of the INP file Note that the COORDINATES section is completely optional.
MIKE NET can operate without a graphical representation of the water distribution
network.
Supported sections of the EPANET input data file include:
CONTROLS
CURVES
DEMANDS
EMITTERS
JUNCTIONS
OPTIONS
PATTERNS
PIPES
PUMPS
QUALITY
REACTIONS
REPORT
RESERVOIRS
RULES
SOURCES
STATUS
TANKS
TIMES
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Using the Program
VALVES
Unsupported sections of the EPANET input data file include:
ROUGHNESS
TITLE
VERTICES
Supported sections of the EPANET input map file include:
COORDINATES
Unsupported sections of the EPANET input map file include:
LABELS
3.5.11 Importing ODBC Data
It is possible to import an ODBC data source using an user defined data dictionary.
Dbase DBF files, Microsoft Access MDB files, ASCII text files, ORACLE database
files and others can be easily imported and/or exported.
HOW TO IMPORT ODBC DATA FILES
In order to import MIKE NET database from the selected ODBC data source, it is
necessary to do the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Create the Database Alias, which will be used in order to import data. See <How
to define ODBC Alias>
Select File | Import - ODBC Data Source.
Define the database alias and select Connect.
Select the Data dictionary file and select OK. (See <What is the data dictionary
file> )
The MIKE NET database tables are now imported from the selected ODBC data
3.5.12 Importing DXF Files
DXF files from AutoCAD and Microstation can be imported two different ways within
MIKE NET. The first method is to use the DXF file as a background image in the
Horizontal Plan window in order to further describe the pipe network system layout
and to show streets, buildings, and other graphical information. The second method is
to use the DXF file as a graphical layout of the pipe network system and have MIKE
NET create an equivalent pipe network. When a DXF file is used to define a pipe
network system, MIKE NET utilizes the point attributes (X, Y, and Z coordinates)
from the lines and polylines contained within the DXF file to create the pipe network
system.
It is now possible to geocode node and pipe attributes from any DXF file layer. This
enhances the existing option of geocoding from the selected DXF layer and allows you
to use any active DXF layer for geocoding into the same database attribute.
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MIKE NET
To import a DXF file to be used as a background image:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Display the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
Select File | Import to display the Import option selection dialog box.
In the Import option selection dialog box, select the DXF Background Image
File option and choose «OK».
The Import file selection dialog box will appear. Select the DXF file to be
imported into MIKE NET and choose «Open». The DXF file will be imported
and then displayed in the background of the Horizontal Plan window. A pipe
network system can now be constructed on top of the DXF file.
Alternatively, you can import a DXF file by selecting View | Layer Control.
The Layer Control dialog box will appear. Choose «Load» to display the Load
dialog box. Select the DXF file to be imported and choose «OK». The DXF file
will be imported and then displayed in the background of the Horizontal Plan
window.
To import a DXF file to construct an equivalent pipe network system:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Display the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
Select File | Import to display the Import option selection dialog box.
In the Import option selection dialog box, select the DXF Network Layout File
option and choose «OK».
The Import file selection dialog box will appear. Select the DXF file to be
imported into MIKE NET and choose «Open».
The Snapping Tolerance dialog box will appear. This dialog defines the
snapping radius in which to consider the end points of lines and polylines
belonging to the same junction node. It can also be used to remove erroneous
line segments, such as a circle symbol marking a junction node. The snapping
radius, by default, is 0.5 ft. (or 0.5 m). Usually this default snapping radius is
acceptable. Select «OK». The DXF file will then be imported and converted to
a pipe network system using X, Y, and Z point coordinates from the lines and
polylines contained within the DXF file.
3.5.13 Importing ESRI Shape Files
The import of ESRI ArcView shape file is flexible and easy to use. In order to import
ESRI ArcView shape files, select File | Import and select Import ESRI ArcView shape
files. Select ESRI ArcView data type
Importing a Complete Network
Import complete network allows user to define the import of shape files of an
unknown format and to define the data dictionary between ESRI shape files and
MIKE NET database.
The following data can be imported from shape files: junction nodes, reservoirs,
tanks, pipes, pumps and valves. There are several options of importing the data:
•Import lines and polylines
•Import points
•Geocode points to points
•Geocode points to lines
•Geocode attributes from coverage files - polygons
Junctions (point)
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Using the Program
Junction nodes can be generated automatically for each beginning and ending
pipe points, the duplicate nodes are removed.
Figure 3.5.13.1 User defined format - Junctions tab
Junction node attributes can be geocoded to the existing junction nodes.
Junction demand can be aggregated in order to support the import of water
demands from the customer information systems.
Remark: The function of aggregation can be very efficient in case we want to
use data from CIS as a point shape file with all places of measured demand. If
this shape is geocoded to an existing network model, all demands of points
found in the snapping tolerance are aggregated to the node's demand value.
Pipes(pline)
Pipes can be created from the lines and polylines. The pipe bends can be created
for the internal pipe vertices, the pipe length can be recalculated based on the
X,Y co-ordinates of the pipe nodes.
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MIKE NET
Figure 3.5.13.2 User defined format - Pipes tab
Pumps (point)
Pumps can be automatically geocoded to the nearest pipes. This is a unique
option allowing the user to convert points to lines. The nearest pipe can be
replaced by the pump and/or split into two pipes and the new pump is inserted
in the split part.
Figure 3.5.13.3 User defined format - Pumps tab
Reservoirs (point)
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Using the Program
Reservoirs can be geocoded to the existing junction nodes. The nearest junction
node is automatically converted to the reservoir if found within the snapping
tolerance or the new reservoir is created.
Figure 3.5.13.4 User defined format - Reservoirs tab
Tanks (point)
Tanks can be geocoded to the existing junction nodes. The nearest junction
nodes are automatically converted to the tank if found within the snapping
tolerance or the new tank is created.
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MIKE NET
Figure 3.5.13.5 User defined format - Tanks tab
Valves (point)
Valves can be automatically geocoded to the nearest pipes. This is a unique
option allowing the user to convert points to lines. The nearest pipe can be
replaced by the valves and/or split into two pipes and the new valve is inserted
in the split part.
Select geocoding type from this dialog. In case of importing valves and pumps,
define also whether you want to replace pipes shorter then input parameter.
Figure 3.5.13.6 User defined format - Valves tab
Select OK, then the point source shape file is scanned for a "point" entity and
its X, Y co-ordinates are used for geocoding.
Import Complete Network (MIKE NET format)
If the complete network (MIKE NET format) is imported, it is possible to
import the complete data for junction nodes, reservoirs, tanks, pipes, valves and
pumps. Node co-ordinates are read from a nodes SHP file. The network
topology, such as beginning and ending nodes is taken directly from links .DBF
file.
In this way everything, what is exported from MIKE NET as ESRI Shapefiles
can be imported. It is usually in cases when the user first works in MIKE NET,
then exports the model to Arcview, edits it there, and imports it back to MIKE
NET. In order to see the complete list of available attributes and their types,
export any MIKE NET project into ESRI Shapefiles and look at "nodes" and
"links" tables.
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Using the Program
ESRI Shape file Polygons
It is possible to geocode data for junction nodes (with the aggregation option)
from the ESRI ArcView polygons. The covering polygon may bear information
on the area demand (for example number of inhabitants). When this kind of
information is processed into a coverage shape file, which covers the area of a
model, we can use this shapefile:
Geocode nodes - to geocode node demands - its value is assigned to the node
attributes, can be aggregated.
Distributed demands - to distribute a total demand to each junction node of our
model. We can distribute it by any attribute we have available in our shapefile.
When we select Distribute, MIKE NET will automatically distribute the total
demand as a weighted proportion of each polygon attribute and then this amount
evenly divide onto the nodes covered by the coverage polygon.
Figure 3.5.13.7 ESRI Shapefile coverages dialog box
Figure 3.5.13.8 Example of a coverage layer file
MIKE NET stores its input data in a SQL database. This provides extreme
flexibility for connecting the database to external GIS spatial databases or
relational databases.
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MIKE NET
3.5.14 Import Log File
While MIKE NET imports a network model, the status of the import is written out to
an Import Log File. Any import errors are described as error messages in this ASCII
text file. The user can then review these error messages to see if any model changes
need to be performed.
To view the Import Log File, select File | View Import LOG File. MIKE NET will
then display the Import Log File.
3.5.15 Import Example Problem
For an example of importing an existing KYPIPE and WaterCAD input data file into
MIKE NET, see the example problem titled Lesson 12 Importing KYPIPE,
WaterCAD, Cybernet, and H2ONET Files in Chapter 5.
3.5.16 Exporting Data to an ODBC Data Source
It is possible to export the project data into any ODBC data source using a user defined
data dictionary. Dbase DBF files, Microsoft Access MDB files, ASCII text files,
ORACLE database files and other can be easily imported and/or exported.
HOW TO EXPORT ODBC DATA FILES
In order to export MIKE NET database into the selected ODBC data source, it is
necessary to do the following:
1.Create the Database Alias, which will be used in order to import data. See <How to
define ODBC Alias>
2.Select File | Export - ODBC Data Source.
3.Define the database alias and select Connect.
4.Select the Data dictionary file and select OK. (See <What is the data dictionary file>)
The MIKE NET database tables are now exported into the selected ODBC data source.
3.5.17 Exporting EPANET Data Files
Occasionally it is necessary to export an EPANET input data file. For example, when
submitting a water distribution network model study to a municipality for their records
or review, an EPANET input data file may be required along with the completed study.
MIKE NET can export a standard Environmental Protection Agency EPANET input
data file for this purpose.
To export an EPANET input file, select File | Export. MIKE NET will then display
the Export dialog box. Specify to export an EPANET Data File, then specify the
filename of the file to be exported, and then select «OK». MIKE NET will then export
the file.
3.5.18 Data Entry Checking
Data entry checking is automatically performed by the MIKE NET Model Checker.
Data checking is performed both during actual data input and just prior to performing
the analysis. Many common data entry errors are discovered immediately. Additional
error checking is performed during the program's analysis.
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Using the Program
A complete error check of the project can be performed prior to the program’s analysis
by selecting Tools | Check Model. The Check Model dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.5.18.1, will be displayed. Click on «OK» to perform a check of the network
model. If an error is detected, the model checker will describe the error in detail and
will allow you to return to the water distribution input data to correct the error.
Figure 3.5.18.1 A sophisticated model checker is provided to make certain that the
pipe network has been correctly defined
If an error is detected during data entry within a data input dialog box, MIKE NET will
describe the error in an error message dialog box, thereby allowing you to correct the
faulty data entry immediately. Note that for some data entries, the message displayed
is only a warning or suggestion. MIKE NET will allow you to use the value, as
opposed to errors—which must be corrected before choosing «OK» at the dialog box.
Note
MIKE NET will automatically query you to run the model checker prior to performing
the network analysis and after importing a new network data file.
3.6
Managing Input Files
Before you can work on an existing MIKE NET input file, you must open it—that is,
load it into memory. After you have finished with it you will need to save the file so
that you can return to it at a later time. This section discusses how to manage your
MIKE NET input files.
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MIKE NET
3.6.1 Creating a New MIKE NET Input File
To begin creating a new MIKE NET model, select File | New. MIKE NET will then
display the Project Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.6.1.1. From this dialog
box specify the type of the network model to create. After you have specified this
information, choose «OK».
Figure 3.6.1.1 The Project Options dialog box allows you to specify the type of network
model to create when you start to define a new water distribution network model
3.6.2 Opening an Existing MIKE NET Input File
To open an existing MIKE NET input file, select File | Open. MIKE NET will then
display the Open dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.6.2.1. From this dialog box select
the MIKE NET input file to load and then press «Open». After the file has been loaded,
its filename will appear in the title bar of the main window.
Figure 3.6.2.1 The Open dialog box allows you to select an existing MIKE NET input
file to load
Opening a Recently Closed MIKE NET Input File
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Using the Program
MIKE NET keeps a list of the last three MIKE NET input files you worked on; their
names appear at the bottom of the File Menu. To open a recently opened MIKE NET
input file, open the File Menu and click on the name of the MIKE NET input file you
want to open.
Autoload Last MIKE NET Input File
MIKE NET can be configured to load when it starts up the last loaded MIKE NET
input file. Select Tools | Configuration to display the Configuration dialog box, as
shown in Figure 3.6.2.2. From this dialog you can specify program configuration
information, such as whether MIKE NET should load the last loaded MIKE NET input
file. The “Autoload last file” opens the file from its original location, not from the last
cop of MIKE NET.GDB file as in previous versions. If MIKE NET cannot find such
a file, the default project is automatically restored from the EMPTY.GDB.
Figure 3.6.2.2 The Configuration dialog box allows you to specify whether MIKE NET
should autoload the last loaded MIKE NET input file when MIKE NET is started up
3.6.3 Saving an MIKE NET Input File
To save the currently loaded MIKE NET input file, select File | Save or File | Save As.
MIKE NET will then save the currently loaded input file.
Saving Another Copy
If you want to save the currently loaded MIKE NET input file under a different
filename, select File | Save As. MIKE NET will then display the Save As dialog box,
as shown in Figure 3.6.3.1. You can then specify a new filename for the data to be
saved to. MIKE NET will then use the new filename as the currently loaded input file.
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MIKE NET
Figure 3.6.3.1 The Save As dialog box is used to save the currently loaded MIKE NET
input file under a different filename
You can use the File | Save As command to create more than one version of the model
and to save copies on another disk for safekeeping. You can save each version under a
different name, or you can save them under the same name in different directories or
on different disks. However, before saving a copy to another disk, you should first
make certain to save the model to your hard disk.
Recovering Lost Work
If you lose data because of a power failure or other problem while working on your
model, you can always recover your work. When you open an MIKE NET input file,
MIKE NET creates a working copy of the database file with the same name as the
original MIKE NET input data file, but with a .TMP file extension. This working file
is stored in the same drive and directory as the original file. However, when you load
a different file or quit the program, this working file is deleted.
During editing of the network data, all editing is immediately saved to this working
file. If you lose data because of a power failure or other problem while working on your
model, you can always recover your work. To recover this work, type in the name of
the working file (same name as the original MIKE NET input data file, but with the
file extension .TMP) in the Open file dialog box. This file will contain all of your
previous work.
3.6.4 Closing an MIKE NET Input File
You can close the currently loaded project without quitting MIKE NET. If the model
has changes which haven't yet been saved, MIKE NET will ask you if you want to save
the changes before closing.
To close the currently loaded EPANET project file, select File | Close.
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Using the Program
3.6.5 Backup Files
MIKE NET, by default, always creates a backup file of your MIKE NET project file.
Backup selection is specified in the Configuration dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.6.5.1, using the MAKE BACKUP FILES check box entry. To display the
Configuration dialog box, select Tools | Configuration.
Figure 3.6.5.1 The Configuration dialog box is used to specify whether or not backup
files are to be created
The backup file will be stored in the same drive and directory that the original input
file was saved to. The backup file will have the same name as your original file, but
with the filename extension .BAK. For example, if the input data file was named
NETWORK.EMS, the backup file will be named NETWORK.BAK.
To open the backup file, type-in the name of the backup file in the Open dialog box.
This file will contain the next-to-last version of your original MIKE NET project file.
3.6.6 Filename Extensions
MIKE NET uses the following filename extensions in managing its files. The filename
for all of these files is the same, which matches the input data filename.
.GDB
.BAK
.INP
.RES
.SUM
.LOG
.CSM
.PRF
MIKE NET input data file
Previous version of a input data file (backup copy)
Hydraulic analysis input file
Hydraulic analysis results binary output file
Hydraulic analysis state and results ASCII output file
Import/export/DTF log files
Drawing layer file with user defined drawing elements
Profile plot path definition file
Other filename extensions used by MIKE NET are listed below.
.COF
.INI
.DLL
.EXE
.HLP
Coefficients file
Initial settings file
Dynamic link library file
Program executable file
Program help file
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MIKE NET
3.7
Demand Processing
MIKE NET provides the user with a wide range of tools suitable for network demand
processing including individual node demand definition, multiple demands, diurnal
demand curves, automatic demand distribution based on the node and pipe demand
coefficients, and reusing data from the customer information system.
3.7.1 Distributed Demands
For large network systems, assigning demand data can be very tedious job. Since many
times the total demand is known for a particular network pressure zone or for the entire
network system, MIKE NET provides the capability to distribute this total demand
among the applicable junction nodes.vering Lost Work
Pipe Demand Coefficients
MIKE NET computes the water demands for each node in the network system based
upon the total network demand using two methods: the Method of Pipe Lengths and
the Method of Two Coefficients. These methods are used to mimic the amount of
actual demand along a pipe, based upon the pipe length or pre-defined demand
coefficients.
The Distributed Demands dialog box, reached by selecting Edit/ Distributed Demands,
is used to automatically assign the demands at the appropriate junction nodes
Total Network Water Demand
This data entry is used to specify the total network demand for a particular
network pressure zone or the entire network system. The flow units are userspecified.
Pressure zone ID
This check box allows you to select whether the total network water demand
corresponds to the entire network or a single pressure zone. Checking this box
applies the specified water demand to a single specified pressure zone.
Unchecking this box applies the specified water demand to the entire water
distribution network. The pressure zone must be specified in the provided data
entry field. Selecting TABLE… displays the Pressure Zone selection dialog
box, where the appropriate pressure zone ID can be selected.
Method of pipe length
Method of two coefficients
This radio button group allows the user to select the method to be used.
Selecting the Method of Pipe Lengths, MIKE NET assigns demands to each
pipe according to the pipe length and the user-defined coefficient k1.
Selecting the Method of Two Coefficients, MIKE NET assigns demands to each
pipe according to the user-defined coefficients k1 and k2.
The Method of Pipe Lengths computes the total water demand assigned to the
current pipe as:
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Using the Program
q pi
Q – O  ⋅ l k
∑ i i 1i

= ------------------------------------------∑( k1i li )
The Method of Two Coefficients computes the total water demand assigned to
the current pipe as:
qpi
Q – O  ⋅ k k
∑ i 1i 2i

= ----------------------------------------------∑( k1i k2i )
qpi = total water demand applied to the pipe, split between two nodes
Q = total network water demand (defined in the Distribution Demand
dialog box)
Oi = sum of additional demands
li = pipe length
The computed demands, which are assigned once COMPUTE is selected, are
stored at each individual node. These demands are stored in the Junction Editor.
Selecting RESET causes all of the nodal demand entries to be set to zero.
Another solution is to keep demand and additional demand always separate and
add them together before saving the INP file for the analysis.
Figure 3.7.1.1 Distributed demand function is used in order to distribute 230 cfs to the
network nodes based on the pipe demand coefficientsvering Lost Work
Node Demand Coefficients
Node demand coefficient allows you for each node to define the share from the whole
network demand, which is taken by that node. The total network demand is then
distributed to the corresponding junction nodes by Demand Distribution function.
Example: the network has 3 nodes, where the demand coefficient is defined; these
values are 10, 10, and 30. For each node, the weighted coefficient is calculated and
based on it; the total network demand is distributed. The node, where the demand
coefficient is not defined will get no demand from the total network demand.
QT
-⋅ C
q i = ------------------i
C
∑ i
i = 0.n
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MIKE NET
where:
qi = node demand
Qt = total network demand
ci = demand coefficient
Figure 3.7.1.2 Distributed demand function is used to distribute 100 cfs to the network
nodes based on the node demand coefficientsvering Lost Work
Developing Pipe Demand Coefficients
There are many ways of developing pipe demand coefficients. Typically, pipe demand
coefficients correspond to the amount of invoiced water along the specified pipe,
which is the most accurate data source for the Two Coefficient Method. Alternatively,
the number of inhabitants can be supplied. If such data is unavailable, it is also possible
to classify pipes by the residential type (family houses, commercial, city centre) and to
use such classification in the Pipe Length Method.
In cases, when node demands are retrieved from the Customer Information Systems, it
is possible to calculate pipe demand coefficients in the form of aggregated demands
for streets or the counted lots
Counted Lots
The pipe demand coefficient is derived from the X,Y position of the counted lots. In
order to use X,Y position of a point-attributes for the geocoding process, it is necessary
to create a database file, such as Dbase .DBF, Microsoft Access .MDB where X,Y and
other attributes are stored, and to connect to this data source using Tools | External
Database Support. It is also possible to use different ways of geocoding such as Match
By ID, Match By Description if the pipe attributes contain such geocoding reference in
one of their attributes.
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Using the Program
Figure 3.7.1.3 Importing lots through external database support
Select the database Alias under Define Data Sources and connect to it, specify the table
name under Links tab and select Open. The list of available attributes is displayed.
Select Geocode Links from X,Y Points and assign the point X,Y coordinate. Select any
database attributes you want to geocode to the pipe attributes and check on Aggregate
where appropriate. MIKE NET will read in the external database records and search
the nearest pipe within the snapping tolerance radius. The pipe attribute(s) will be
updated from the external source.
Example
The pipe demand coefficient COEFF1 was updated (aggregated) from the X, Y
points (demand lots), which are also displayed in the horizontal plan window as
a reference shapefile. The highlighted pipes are pipes, which were geocoded
based on the snapping tolerance.
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MIKE NET
Figure 3.7.1.4 The demand coefficients (represented by circles) are assigned to the
nearest pipe within the snapping radius defined in the external database support dialog
box
Accumulated Street Demands-Databases
It is possible to calculate the pipe demand coefficients directly from ODBC data
source, such as DBF, MDB and other data files, based on the street names.
Figure 3.7.1.5 Importing demand coefficients using the external database support
dialog box.
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Using the Program
This allows you to distribute the aggregated pipe demand for each street to the pipes,
which description field contains the corresponding street name. The Distributed
Demands -Method of Pipe Lengths for the automated node demand assignment can
later on use these pipe demand coefficients.
Each pipe demand coefficient is calculated as follows
C1 i = Q s ⁄ L i
Where:
C1i is the pipe demand coefficient 1 (any units)
Qs is the aggregated demand factor for each pipe (any units)
Li is the pipe length (ft,m)
Accumulated Street Demands-Polygons
In some cases, it is possible to create polygons, covering streets and to assign the
aggregated demand to them. This solution assumes, that each street included in the
model has its corresponding covering polygon in ArcView, and the name of a street is
included in the model database together with its sum demand value from the billing
database. The function in MIKE NET (Tools | ESRI shape file coverage) automatically
distributed these values to nodes in the model for each particular street - area.
Figure 3.7.1.6 Polygons created to cover streetsvering Lost Work
Demand Editing and Demand Scenarios
In addition to the automated demand processing; node demands can be edited
individually within the Junction Editor and/or the Multiple Demand Editor. Each node
can have unlimited number of demands and each demand can be linked to its diurnal
curve. For more details, see Junction Editor and Multiple Demand Editor.
Global Editing
Running the SQL UPDATE Command can change node demands. This allows us to
select the part of the network and to increase the node demand by 20%, for example.
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MIKE NET
To do this, select the node in the horizontal plan window and select the Update
Selected Nodes from the Polygons Toolbar. Define the following SQL UPDATE
statement:
Update NODES set DEMAND=DEMAND * 1.2 where NODETYPE = 1
To increase node demands associated with the specific diurnal curve (Pattern), use the
following statement:
Update NODES set DEMAND=DEMAND * 1.2 where PATTERN like "%Pat1%"
Again, such statement can be applied to each junction node satisfying the SQL
condition (use Modify from the Junction Editor) or only to selected junction nodes (use
Update Selected Nodes from the Polygons Toolbar).
For more details, see the section titled SQL Updates in the Chapter 4.
Convenient way of handling different scenarios is to change the Total Network
Demand within the Distributed Demand dialog and to increase or decrease the node
demands by redistributing another total consumption.
3.8
Performing an Analysis
Once you have defined a EPANET input model, you are ready to perform an analysis.
The following tasks are required in performing an analysis.
First, you need to have the software check the model for errors. MIKE NET contains
a built-in model checker that can verify the data used to define an EPANET model.
Second, after the program has checked the model for errors, you can then execute the
EPANET network hydraulic analysis. The EPANET network analysis program will
read the input data and will then compute the flow rates, pressures, and water quality
for the defined pipe network.
The following subsections discuss these tasks in detail.
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Using the Program
3.8.1 Performing a Model Check
To perform a check of the defined network model for errors, select Tools |
Check Model. The Check Model dialog box will then be displayed, as shown in
Figure 3.8.1.1.
Figure 3.8.1.1 The Check Model dialog box allows the user to select what aspects of
the model must be checked for errors
As the program checks your model, it will report its status in the Check Model dialog
box. Modeling errors and warnings will be displayed, allowing you to later correct the
input data.
Errors and Warnings
If an error is reported, you need to correct the water distribution network model before
you will be allowed to perform the analysis. If a warning is reported, you can continue
on and perform the analysis. The program reports a warning when it has determined
that you may have difficulty in performing a water distribution network analysis with
the model you have defined. It is suggested that before you run the analysis, you
correct the model so that no warnings are reported by the program’s model checker.
Data Transfer Log File
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MIKE NET
MIKE NET also creates a log file of the reported error and warning messages from the
model checker. This log file can be viewed by selecting Tools | View Model Errors.
An example of a model checker log file is shown in Figure 3.8.1.2.
Figure 3.8.1.2 The model checker generates a file that lists the reported errors and
warnings
By printing out the model checker log file, the user will have a hard copy of the
reported warning and error messages. The user can then refer to this printout when
correcting the data input.
3.8.2 Executing the Analysis
Once the model checker has successfully checked the model for potential problems,
you are ready to perform an analysis of the water distribution network model. To
execute the analysis, select File | Perform Analysis, as shown in Figure 3.8.2.1.
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Figure 3.8.2.1 The File Menu is used to select PERFORM ANALYSIS to analyze the
water distribution network
After completing the analysis, the program will report the total number of warnings
generated during the analysis and whether the analysis ended with an error. You can
then view the analysis results. If the analysis ended with an error or if the warnings are
serious, you can then make the appropriate corrections to the input data.
Abort of Current Analysis
To abort an analysis run, press «Cancel». The software will then halt the current
analysis run, returning you back to the program’s main window.
3.9
Displaying and Outputting Analysis Results
Once the MIKE NET analysis has been run successfully, the analysis results can be
displayed. To load the computed analysis results, select File | Load Analysis Results.
MIKE NET will then load the computed analysis results.
The MIKE NET analysis results are written to an output file with the same filename
(but with a RES file extension) as the input data file. In addition to the standard
EPANET analysis results, MIKE NET can display the output results in a summary
table, generate custom output reports, and display many different graphical
representations of the analysis results. The following sections describe these
capabilities.
Comparing Alternative Solutions
MIKE NET will display only one analysis result file for a network. However, to
compare two analysis result files for a network (for example, to compare design
alternatives of the same network), MIKE NET can subtract the two analysis result files
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from each other. MIKE NET will then display the difference between these two
analysis results for both node and pipe values (such as node pressure, hydraulic
gradeline, water quality, demand, flow, velocity, and hydraulic headloss). The result
difference can be displayed in the same format as the standard analysis results.
To subtract two analysis result files, select File | Compare Alternatives. The program
will then display the Compare Alternatives dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.9.1.
Figure 3.9.1 The Compare Alternatives dialog box allows you to compare project
alternatives for the same network project
Note that it is only possible to subtract two analysis result files if the number of nodes,
pipes, and time-steps (if performing an extended period simulation) are the same. The
following comparisons can be performed.
Different Demands
Network demands can be different (such as comparing a work and weekend
day), or local nodal demands can increase (such as simulating fire flows or
higher demands from what was predicted from the original master plan).
Different Pipe Roughness
Model calibration requires many changes in pipe roughness coefficients. Pipe
aging can also be modeled (where the pipe roughness increases due to aging).
Different Pumping Scenarios
Different pump schedule scenarios can be compared. Network optimization
may be based on reducing pumping to save money used in powering pump
stations. By displaying the original and improved network results, it is easy to
show that the new network pumping schedule meets the same criterion (flow
and pressure specifications) with less pumping and/or pumping at more offpeak hours.
Effect of Pressure Reducing Valves
Decreasing the maximum pressure within the network has the positive effect of
decreasing water leakage at pipe, pump, and valve joints. Optimizing pressure
reducing valves (PRVs) settings can sometimes be a primary task of network
optimization. Displaying the pressure differences between the original and
optimized network provides a very good overview of potential water losses.
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Water Quality Parameters
Modeling different water quality scenarios (such as different chlorine supply
patterns from water treatment booster stations) allow the user to quickly
examine water quality for the network.
When subtracting the two analysis result files, a positive resulting value means that the
first analysis result file has a larger value than the second analysis result file.
3.9.1 Viewing the EPANET Analysis Results
When EPANET performs its analysis of the water distribution network, it generates
two ASCII output files containing the analysis results—a summary output file and a
complete output file. The summary output file contains a short description of the
analysis results. The complete output file contains the contents of the summary output
file in addition to output results for every component within the water distribution
network.
To view the EPANET summary analysis results, select View |
EPANET Summary Results. This will display the EPANET summary analysis
results in an ASCII file viewer, as shown in Figure 3.9.1.1.
Figure 3.9.1.1 EPANET summary analysis results
To view the EPANET complete analysis results, select View |
EPANET Complete Results. This will display the EPANET complete analysis
results in an ASCII file viewer.
Printing the EPANET Analysis Results
MIKE NET can also print out the EPANET analysis results. From within the ASCII
file viewer, select File | Print. This will display the standard Windows Print dialog
box, allowing you to specify the printer and other related settings.
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3.9.2 Browser Window
The Browser window allows you to graphically select any network component in the
Horizontal Plan window, by simply clicking on it with the mouse, and the program will
then display that component’s input attributes and analysis results. This allows you to
quickly examine the pipe network system at the component level (i.e., pipe, junction
node, valve, pump, tank, and reservoir), check what is defined for the model, and
determine the computed analysis results. For example, selecting a pipe from the
Horizontal Plan window will display in the Browser window the pipe’s ID, diameter,
length, roughness coefficient, minor loss coefficient, reaction rate coefficient, open/
close status, and flowrate. Editing of some model attributes can also be performed from
the Browser. When a node or link is highlighted, those fields which appear in red can
be edited directly from the Browser. Figure 3.9.2.1 displays the Browser window.
Figure 3.9.2.1 MIKE NET’ Browser window allows you to examine the input attributes
and analysis results for any network component
To display the Browser, select View | Browser. The Browser window will then be
displayed. Then, simply select a network component from the Horizontal Plan window
by clicking on it. (Note that before selecting a component, it is necessary to click on
the Select icon from the Components toolbar.) The selected component will then be
highlighted in the Horizontal Plan window and the component’s input attributes and
analysis results will then be displayed in the Browser window.
If you are reviewing the results from an extended period simulation, the current time
period analysis results will be displayed in the Browser window. Advancing through
the computed time steps will update the analysis results displayed in the Browser
window.
Horizontal Plan View
If a Horizontal Plan View is not available for a network distribution model (a model
without X, Y, Z coordinates to specify the network component locations), then
selecting a network component within a data editor (such as the Junction Editor) will
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then display in the Browser window that component’s input attributes and analysis
results. This allows the user to review results at the component level using any of the
available network component data editors.
3.9.3 Analysis Results Table
Included with MIKE NET is an Analysis Results Table window that provides a table
summary of the EPANET analysis results. This allows you to quickly examine
computed results. Figure 3.9.3.1 displays the Analysis Results Table window.
Figure 3.9.3.1 The Analysis Results Table window provides you with a quick summary
of the EPANET analysis results for the pipe network
The Analysis Results Table window summarizes the computed EPANET results in a
easy-to-read table format. In addition, this dialog allows you to specify a filter for
junction nodes, pipes, pumps, valves, tanks, and reservoirs to display only those
network components that meet a specific criteria. For example, the user may want to
display only those junction nodes that do not meet a minimum service pressure.
Displaying the Analysis Results Table
To display the Analysis Results Table window, select View | Analysis Results Table.
The Analysis Results Table window will then be displayed. Alternatively, the Analysis
Results Table window can be accessed through any of the network component editors,
such as the Junction Editor as shown in Figure 3.9.3.2, by selecting «Results» from the
editor dialog box.
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Figure 3.9.3.2 Clicking on «Results» from any of the editors will display the Analysis
Results Table.
Printing the Analysis Results Table
From the Analysis Results Table it is possible to print the contents of the displayed
analysis result by clicking on «Print». This will display the Print dialog in which the
setup of the printer is possible, along with output to a support device.
Exporting the Analysis Results Table
The contents of the Analysis Results Table can be written out to a tab-delimited ASCII
text file, allowing importing into a spreadsheet or database. Click on «ASCII·File».
MIKE NET will then prompt you for the name of the file to save the data as.
Similarly, contents of the Analysis Results Table can be copied to the Windows
Clipboard by selecting Edit | Copy to Clipboard. The copied data can be pasted into
other Windows applications such as a word processor or spreadsheet.
3.9.4 Report Generator
In addition to the many methods provided for displaying the computed analysis results,
MIKE NET allows yo to automatically generate comprehensive input data and output
analysis reports. The user can generate reports using MIKE NET’s internal report
generator, or use Microsoft Access to create custom defined reports
.
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Internal Reports
Most of the editors, such as Pipe Editor, Junction Editor, and others allow the user to
generate predefined reports using the Quick-Report Module. This report can be printer
ready, and the it is possible to change the attribute caption, which is displayed within
the report. In order to change the captions, edit EMS_RPT.INI file, which is located in
the MIKE NET program directory. These reports can also be generated for the
simulation results. This is done within the View | Analysis Results window for the
actual time level.
Figure 3.9.4.1 Example of the internal report
Microsoft Access Reports
MIKE NET allows the user to use Microsoft Access to create their own customdefined reports. In order to create the report in Microsoft Access, it is necessary to
export the project into the .MDB database file. This can be accomplished by
selecting File | Export and selecting Export ODBC Data. The EMS_RPT.TXT data
dictionary file is located in the MIKENET\Bin directory.
Figure 3.9.4.2 Defining the ODBC data source name and selecting the data dictionary
file.
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Define the alias name (ODBC data source name) and select the select Connect. If the
Status displays Connected, select the data dictionary file, which will be used for the
data transfer and select Export. The whole MIKE NET project is exported into the
specified Microsoft Access database file. The content of the existing tables in this
file is replaced by the contents of the MIKE NET tables. Other tables are not
changed by the export procedure. Any other objects, such as Queries, Reports,
Macros are neither deleted or changed.
In order to export the results from MIKE NET, select File | Load Results to
Database. This will store the actual time step results in into the database tables.
These tables are easily recognized by their name RES_JUN, RES_PIP and similar.
Figure 3.9.4.3 Example of exported report in Microsoft Access
There are several predefined files, used for generating the report file. EMS.MDB: this
is the Microsoft Access database containing several predefined queries and reports. In
order to use this file for reporting, add new ODBC data source name and select the
database. EMS_RPT.TXT: this is the predefined data dictionary file, which is used in
order to export the data from MIKE NET into the external EMS_RPT.MDB file using
ODBC drivers. In order to generate the report, it is necessary to define the ODBC alias,
which will be used by MIKE NET to transfer the project data into the EMS.MDB file.
See section 3.9.7 Connecting to External Database Sources for information on how to
define an ODBC alias.
The EMS.MDBfile is created using Microsoft Access 2000. In order to use Microsoft
Access 97 for the reporting, use the EMS97.MDB file instead and make sure that the
ODBC alias refers to it.
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Figure 3.9.4.4 Example of the predefined Junction report within the Microsoft Access
EMS.MDB file
Web Page HTML Reports
MIKE NET can generate Web Page HTML reports. Select File | Export and define the
file name. Project information, results statistic and other data will be written into an
.HTML file. Use Internet Explorer in order to display and print this information out. It
is also possible to open .HTML files in Microsoft Word, for example, edit the file and
to make it part of your own report.
Figure 3.9.4.5 Example of Web Page HTML report generated with MIKE NET
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3.9.5 Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots
The Horizontal Plan window allows you to graphically plot the analysis results directly
onto the pipe network schematic, as shown in Figure 3.9.5.1. To display the Horizontal
Plan window, select View | Horizontal Plan.
The user can change most of the display options. From the Plan menu, select
OPTIONS. This menu can be displayed also as a pop-up menu by simply pressing the
right mouse button while the cursor is located over the Horizontal Plan Window.
Figure 3.9.5.1 MIKE NET’ Horizontal Plan window allows you to graphically plot the
analysis results directly onto the pipe network
It is possible to define the directions of horizontal and vertical axis in Horizontal Plan.
In order to define the direction open the Options Dialog for a horizontal plan window
and select the first page AXIS. If you want to change the default axis direction select
the radio button Left
Right or Right
Left for both the horizontal and vertical
axis. This is useful if we want to flip the horizontal plan in vertical or horizontal
direction.
Once the horizontal plan changes have been specified in the Horizontal Plan Options
dialog box, selecting APPLY applies these changes to the displayed horizontal plan
window. Note that if multiple horizontal plan windows are displayed, the applied
changes apply only to the current one.
In the Horizontal Plan window, complete contouring of the analysis results is
available, including node elevation, HGL, pressure, demand, and any water quality
constituent. This allows you to quickly interpret the modeling results and identify any
trouble areas. And, directional flow arrows can be plotted on top of the pipes to show
the flow direction for any time-step. In addition, MIKE NET provides automatic colorcoding of pipes and nodes based upon any input or output property, allowing the
network to be color-coded based upon pipe sizes, flowrates, velocities, headlosses,
nodal pressures, nodal demands, hydraulic grades, elevations, water age, percent
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source contributions, water quality concentrations, and any other attribute. Numerical
ranges for colors can be specified. Furthermore, pipes can be plotted with variable
width and nodes with variable radius, allowing you to quickly identify those areas of
the network experiencing the most flow, headloss, water quality constituent
concentration, etc.
The link arrows corresponding to the link orientation, pipe slope and/or to the flow
direction can be drawn by the constant size or by the scaled arrow size. The scaling
factor can be assigned in the similar way to the scaled node and link labels. This feature
is useful if we want to display the flow direction when zooming the pipe network but
we do not want to see the link arrows when the plan zoom is extended.
The node and link labels can be displayed for all elements or only for selected
elements. It is possible in this way to display the labels just for filtered nodes and pipes,
for nodes and pipes along a specific profile or a flow path, for the individually selected
nodes etc. This is useful especially when we want to display very quickly results for
several elements on the plan. The values of pipe diameter and pipe length can be
displayed together with the prefix. The prefix for the pipe diameter is "DN" and the
prefix of the pipe length is "L".
It is possible to display the print scale on the horizontal plan view and to print it on a
printer. To hide or show the print scale, select Plan Scale from the Display page in the
Horizontal Plan Options Window
Color Legend Window
The Color Legend Window is opened from the View menu. The Color Legend defines
a color scenario to be used in displaying a selected variable in the Horizontal Plan,
based upon its value. Each Color Legend stores four scenarios. For each scenario it is
possible to generate automatically intervals for a selected attribute and shades for the
selected color. It is also possible to change each color manually by double-clicking on
a selected color. A created legend can be saved and loaded into another project (as PAL
file).
Open - loads an already defined legend (*.pal)
Save as - saves the color legend under a specific name with a .PAL file extension
Insert - inserts a new color range interval row into the current legend scenario
Append - appends a new color range interval row into the current legend scenario
Delete - deletes the current row in the color legend scenario
Generate Legend - opens Set intervals dialog box, where the selection of a variable,
number of intervals, a time step and color shade generation can be done. The Min and
Max values are automatically reported when COMPUTE is used. But this can be
defined also manually.
Generate Colors - overrides any changes made to the current legend scenario by using
the values from the previously loaded legend.
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Multiple Horizontal Plan Windows
Note that multiple instances of the Horizontal Plan window can be displayed. This
allows the user to display different zoom levels, display options, and contouring and
thematic mapping of the analysis results. Automatic graphical updating and task
switching is performed when the user selects a different Horizontal Plan window as the
active window.
Customizing the Horizontal Plan
Once the Horizontal Plan has been displayed, the user may want to change some of the
display options. MIKE NET allows extensive customization of the Horizontal Plan
graphical plot. Select Plan | Options (displayed on the menu bar only when a
Horizontal Plan View window is already displayed). (Alternatively, the Plan Menu can
be displayed as a pop-up menu by simply pressing the right mouse button while the
cursor is located over the Horizontal Plan window.) This will display the Horizontal
Plan Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.9.5.2.
Figure 3.9.5.2 The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box allows you to customize the
Horizontal Plan graphical plot
Once the horizontal plan changes have been specified in the Horizontal Plan Options
dialog box, selecting «Apply» applies these changes to the displayed Horizontal Plan
window. Note that if multiple horizontal plan windows are displayed, the applied
changes apply to all of the Horizontal Plan windows.
3.9.6 Profile Graphical Plots
Profile plots allow you to graphically plot the analysis results along any pipeline path.
To display a profile plot, a profile path must first be defined from the pipe network
horizontal plan. Once the profile path has been defined and the profile plot displayed,
the path can be saved for later re-use. Figure 3.9.6.1 displays an example profile plot.
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Figure 3.9.6.1 Profile plots allow you to graphically plot the analysis results along any
pipeline path
Profile plots can have two separate vertical axes to allow plotting of variables from two
separate unit families, such as flow and pressure. Profile plots can be plotted along any
user-specified route. Profile plots can be generated as line graphs, bar graphs, or
mixed—along with complete graph customization. For example, profile plots can be
plotted with an envelope to show the minimum and maximum values reached during
an extended period simulation.
The following sub-sections discuss how to define, save, open, clear, display, and
customize profile plots.
Defining a Profile Plot Path
To define a profile plot path, select View | Profile Plot | Define Path. (Alternatively,
the Define Path/Clear Path icon in the Profile toolbar template may be selected.) MIKE
NET will then allow you to graphically select from the Horizontal Plan window the
profile path to take. Simply click on the junction nodes that makeup the path that you
want the profile plot to display. When finished defining the profile plot path, press
«Enter».
While defining the profile plot path, pressing the «Backspace» key will delete the last
added profile plot path segment. To abort the define profile plot path command,
press «Esc». Alternatively, you can click on the Define Path/Clear Path icon in the
Profile toolbar.
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Saving the Current Profile Plot Path
Once a profile plot path has been defined, it is sometimes useful to save the path so that
it can be re-used at a later time. For example, the same profile plot path can be used to
display the same profile plot for a pipe network modeled under a variety of different
operating conditions. To save the currently defined profile plot path, select View |
Profile Plot | Save Path. MIKE NET will then display the standard Windows Save As
dialog box for you to specify the profile plot path filename. The default file extension
name for a profile plot path file is .PRF.
Opening a Saved Profile Plot Path
To open a previously defined profile plot path file, select View | Profile Plot |
Open Path. This will display the standard Windows Open dialog box, allowing you to
select the profile plot path file to open.
Clearing the Current Profile Plot Path
To clear (or remove) the currently defined profile plot path, select View | Profile Plot |
Clear Path. This will clear the currently defined profile plot path from the Horizontal
Plan window.
Displaying the Profile Plot
To display a Profile Plot window of the currently defined profile plot path, select
View | Profile Plot | Display Plot. The Display Profile Plot dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.9.6.2, allows you to specify what result variables are to be plotted on the
profile plot. The Display Profile Plot window can also be accessed by pressing «Enter»
after defining a profile plot path.
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Figure 3.9.6.2 The Display Profile Plot dialog box allows you to specify what results
are to be plotted on the profile plot.
Selecting «OK» from the Create Profile Plot dialog box will then display the
completed Profile Plot window using the variables specified. If necessary, you can
then customize the profile plot.
It is also possible to reverse the longitudinal profile plot path by selecting the Pop-UP
menu for the Profile Plot window and selecting Reverse Profile Path. This will draw
the profile in the opposite direction.
Customizing a Profile Plot
MIKE NET allows extensive customization of its profile plots. This customization is
initially performed in the Display Profile Plot dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.9.6.2.
However, additional customization can be performed, if desired. To further customize,
select Profile | Options (displayed on the menu bar only when a Profile Plot window
is already displayed). (Alternatively, the Profile Menu can be displayed as a pop-up
menu by simply pressing the right mouse button while the cursor is located over the
profile plot.) This will display the Plot Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.9.6.3
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Figure 3.9.6.3 The Plot Options dialog box allows you to customize the current profile
plot
Once the profile plot changes have been specified in the Plot Options dialog box,
selecting «Apply» or «OK» applies the changes to any displayed Profile Plot windows.
Multiple Profile Plots
Note that multiple instances of different profile plots can be displayed. This allows the
user to display different profile paths and/or different output variables to plot.
Automatic graphical updating and task switching is performed when the user selects a
different Profile Plot window as the active window.
3.9.7 Time Series Plots
Time series plots allow you to graphically display the analysis results for any network
element for an extended period simulation. Multiple time series plots can be generated
for the various network elements, such as pipe flow, velocity, headloss, nodal demand,
pressure, hydraulic grade, water age, water quality constituent concentration, pump
characteristic operating curve, tank water level, total and net system demand, etc.
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Figure 3.9.7.1 The Time Series Plot window allows you to graphically display the
analysis results for any network element for an extended period simulation
Figure 3.9.7.1 displays an example of the Time Series Plot window. To display a time
series plot for a particular network element, choose View | Time Series Plot to
activate the time series plot option. (A check mark will appear in front of this menu
item.) Alternatively, you can select the Select Time Series tool from the Browser
window. This allows you to select multiple elements to display different time series
plots for. Next, select the element from within the Horizontal Plan window for which
the time series plot is to be generated for. This causes the Display Time Series Plot
dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.9.7.2, to be displayed. The Display Time Series Plot
allows you to specify what variables are to be plotted on the time series plot..
Figure 3.9.7.2 The Display Time Series Plot dialog box allows you to specify what
variables are to be plotted on the time series plot
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It is possible to display time series graphs for several nodes and links in the same Graph
window. In order to do this, select the nodes and/or links in the horizontal plan and
click on the Time Series icon from the BROWSER window. This is practical feature
especially when we are comparing flow and pressure values from different parts of the
network.Time series plots can have two separate vertical axes to allow plotting of
variables from two separate unit families, such as flow and pressure. Selecting «OK»
from the Display Times Series Plot dialog box will then display the completed time
series plot window using the values specified. If necessary, you can then customize the
time series plot.
It is also possible to display external series data, such as time series, profile plots within
MIKE NET. This is particularly useful when comparing the calculated and observed
values.
Figure 3.9.7.3 Example of external time series and MIKE NET results plotted together
File format:
1.row/ number of header lines, minimum is 4
2.row/ version (1.0)
3.row/ series name
4.row/ number of series data rows
5.row/ another optional header lines are skipped based on the number of the header
lines (1.row)
...
x-value y-value
x-value y-value
x-value y-value
...
Example:
7
1.0
Graph
25
comment line
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comment line
comment line
0
3600
7200
10800
14400
18000
21600
37.8
38.0
37.9
37.9
37.8
37.7
37.5
Save and Load Selected Nodes in Time Series Graphs
It is possible to load and save the selected nodes and links in time series graphs. In
order to save the names of selected nodes and links for the active time series graph,
select File | Export Selected Nodes and Links from the Graphs window menu. Define
the file name in the standard Save File Dialog. In order to load the selected nodes and
links, select the View | Load Selected Nodes and Links menu item. When the nodes
and link are selected i.e. highlighted in the Horizontal Plan, select the View | Time
Series Plot main menu item
Customizing a Time Series Plot
MIKE NET allows extensive customization of its time series plots. This customization
is initially performed in the Create Time Series Plot dialog box, as shown in
Figure 3.9.7.2. However, additional customization can be performed, if desired, by
selecting Series | Options (displayed on the menu bar only when a Time Series Plot
window is already displayed). (Alternatively, the Series Menu can be displayed as a
pop-up menu by simply pressing the right mouse button while the cursor is located
over the time series plot dialog box.) This will display the Time Series Plot Options
dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.9.7.4.
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Figure 3.9.7.4 The Time Series Plot Options dialog box allows you to customize the
current time series plot
Once the time series plot changes have been specified in the Time Series Plot Options
dialog box, selecting «Apply» or «OK» applies these changes to any displayed Time
Series Plot windows.
Multiple Time Series Plots
Once View | Time Series Plot has been selected, you can click on multiple network
elements and multiple Time Series Plot windows will be displayed. To stop creating
Time Series Plot windows, select View | Time Series Plot again.
Pipe Q-H Curve
The pipe Q-H curve can be automatically generated for a selected pipe for the extended
period or water quality analysis. In order to display a pipe Q-H curve, open the
horizontal plan and select the /View/Pipe Q-H Curve menu item from the main
program menu. Then select the pipe from the horizontal plan, when the pipe is selected,
the pipe Q-H curve will be displayed. It is possible to customize the plot in the same
way as other plots, if we want to display only vertices it is necessary to set the line color
to the window background color. The flow values correspond to the selected pipe flow
and the head values correspond to the pipe beginning and ending node hydraulic grade
values. The graph is draw in the sequence that correspond to the sequence of the time
levels.
Figure 3.9.7.5 Pipe Q-H Curve
Animation
MIKE NET will automatically generate animations of extended period simulations for
both horizontal plan plots and profile plot plots, including the creation of Microsoft
AVI files. Animations show values that change with respect to time for extended time
period simulations. To display the Animate dialog box, select ANIMATE from the
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View menu. Note that in order to succeed, either horizontal plan or other plot must be
displayed. Also we recommend setting the options of the animated plot on color or
grade coding to get better results.
Producing a Microsoft AVI file of the animation allows you to play the animation at
any time without MIKE NET. For example, you could create an AVI animation file
of the horizontal plan window, and then playback this animation later at a client
presentation. To create an AVI file, you first must have opened the plot you want to
animate. Then select File/ Create AVI File and specify the way, filename and type of
compression.
Animation of multiple horizontal plans and longitudinal profile plots is synchronized
based on the same time level. It is possible to open several graphical windows, such as
horizontal plan window and longitudinal profile plot, and animate contents of the
selected windows in time by clicking on <Play> button in View Animation dialog
3.9.8 Copy to Other Programs
MIKE NET allows you to share both table data and graphical data with other Windows
applications by copying data to the Windows Clipboard.
Copying Table Data
If the current active window is the Analysis Results Table, you can copy the data from
this table by selecting Edit | Copy to Clipboard. This will copy the contents of the
Analysis Results Table data cells to the Windows Clipboard. The copied data will be
stored as tab-delimited text in the Clipboard. This data can then be pasted into another
Windows application, such as a word processor or spreadsheet.
Copying Graphic Data
If the current active window is either the Horizontal Plan View, Profile Plot, or Time
Series Plot, selecting Edit | Copy to Clipboard will copy the contents of the active
window to the Windows Clipboard. MIKE NET will pop up a small query dialog box
asking whether the image to be copied should be a raster (bitmap) or vector image.
Select the format to be copied as. (A vector image is better than a raster image in that
it allows the user to resize and edit the image.) The copied image can then be pasted
into another Windows application, such as a word processor or CAD drafting program.
Copying Clipboard Data into another Windows Application
To paste the copied clipboard data into another Windows application, simply start up
that application and paste the contents of the clipboard into the open application. The
paste command is typically located in the Edit Menu.
3.9.9 Animation
MIKE NET will automatically generate animations of extended period simulations for
both horizontal plan plots and profile plots. These animations can then be saved as
Microsoft AVI files. Animations show values that change with respect to time for
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extended period simulations. Multiple animations can be performed simultaneously,
allowing you to create several different profile plots and watch the animated plot
results along each profile, each in a separate window.
The Animate dialog box is shown in Figure 3.9.9.1. To display the Animate dialog
box, select View | Animate. The Animate dialog box will then be displayed.
Figure 3.9.9.1 The Animate dialog box controls the animations of extended period
simulations for both horizontal plan plots and profile plots, and allows you to create
Microsoft AVI files
Producing a Microsoft AVI file of the animation allows you to play the animation at
any time without MIKE NET. For example, you could create an AVI animation file of
the Horizontal Plan window for a network simulation, and then playback this
animation later at a client presentation.
Note
In order for the Animate dialog box to be displayed, either a Horizontal Plan window
or Profile Plot must be displayed and an extended period analysis performed. This is
required because animations can only be performed for extended period simulations
using either the Horizontal Plan window or Profile Plot. If neither a Horizontal Plan
window nor a Profile Plot is displayed, then the View | Animate menu selection will
be grayed out.
3.9.10 Contour Plots
Contour plots can be generated for any input and output node variable (e.g., pressure,
headloss, elevation, demand, hydraulic grade line, water quality, flow, etc.) for steady
state and extended period analyses. Such contour lines can be automatically animated
for extended period analysis results. To display the GENERATE CONTOUR LINES
dialog box, select Generate Contour Lines from the View menu.
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When completed, the contours will be displayed in an active Horizontal Plan window.
To color the contours, open the LAYER CONTROL window, and select the layer with
the contour lines Use Options to define the color palette
If desired, contour plots generated in MIKE NET can be saved and then later imported
into a different MIKE NET project. Contour plots can be exported as DXF, MapInfo
MID-MIF, and ESRI ArcView shape files, allowing programs that support these
formats to import the MIKE NET generated contour plots.
To generate a contour plot, the MIKE NET hardware lock must be installed. If the
hardware lock is not installed, the Generate Contour Lines option in the View menu
will be disabled.
The Generate Contour Lines dialog box is shown in Figure 3.9.10.1. This dialog
controls how the contour plot is generated. To display the Generate Contour Lines
dialog box, select View | Generate Contour Lines.
Figure 3.9.10.1 The Generate Contour Lines dialog box
The parameters in the Generate Contour Lines dialog box are:
Select Contour Variable
Select the node variable which will be used to generate the contour lines. Note
that Grade, Pressure, and Quality are available only when the analysis results
are loaded into MIKE NET.
Contour Settings
It is possible to generate the contour lines for the minimum and maximum
values of the selected contour variable. This feature is only when extended
period analysis has been performed.
Exporting Contour Plots
A contour plot can be exported to a DXF, MapInfo MID-MIF, and ESRI Shape files.
To export the MIKE NET contour plot:
1.
Display the Layer Control dialog box by selecting View | Layer Control.
2.
In the Layer Control dialog box, highlight the contour layer that is to be
exported. The contour layer is displayed in the Layer Control dialog box as a
file pathname to the contour line file, such as:
C:\PROGRAM FILES\DHI\MIKE NET\LESSON1\CONTOUR.DMT
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3.
Note that more than one contour layer may be listed in the Layer Control dialog
box. Select «Export» and choose which format the contour plot is to be exported
to (i.e., DXF, MID-MIF, or ESRI Shape files).
3.9.11 Color Legend
The Color Legend defines a color scenario to be used in displaying a selected input or
output variable (e.g., elevation pressure, head loss, water age, etc.) in the Horizontal
Plan window, based upon its value. To display the Color Legend dialog box, as shown
in Figure 3.9.11.1, select View | Color Legend.
Figure 3.9.11.1 The Color Legend dialog box
Each color legend stores four different color legend scenarios. Each color legend
scenario can be associated with a different variable and then used for displaying the
value of that variable throughout the project. Color legends can also be saved and
loaded into another project. Also, it is possible to have more than one color legend
defined in a project.
The Color Legend dialog box has three menus, as described below
File Menu
Open
This is used to load in a color legend that has already been defined. Selecting
Open displays the Open dialog box. In this dialog box an existing color legend
file is selected to be used.
Save As
This is used to save the color legend to a specific name. A color legend file is
saved with a .PAL file extension.
Interval Menu
Insert
This is used to insert a new color range interval row into the current color legend
scenario. The new row will be inserted before the current row and will be
defined with the same values as the current row.
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Append
This is used to append a new color range interval row into the current color
legend scenario. The new row will be inserted after the current row and will be
defined with the same values as the current row.
Delete
This is used to delete the current row in the color legend scenario.
Define Menu
Generate Legend
This is used to generate a new color legend scenario. Selecting this menu
selection will display the Generate Legend dialog box, as displayed in
Figure 3.9.11.2. The Generate Legend dialog box is used to define the variable
the color legend scenario will be assigned to, the color shading, the number of
color shading intervals, and the time step for which the color legend scenario is
assigned to (if the project is an extended period analysis). The Min and Max
values are automatically reported for the selected variable in the Node
Quantities or Link Quantities frame when «Compute» is selected. The Min and
Max values can also be manually defined.
Figure 3.9.11.2 The Generate Legend dialog box
Generate Colors
This is used to override any changes made to the current color legend scenario
by using the values from the previously loaded color legend scenario.
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Legend Settings
This is used to define the default settings for each of the color legend scenarios.
Selecting this menu selection will display the Legend Settings dialog box, as
shown in Figure 3.9.11.3. These settings will be used if a color legend scenario
has not been defined.
Figure 3.9.11.3 The Legend Settings dialog box
Change Window Size
This is used to resize the Color Legend dialog box back to the default size.
3.9.12 Layer Control
The Layer Control dialog box is shown in Figure 3.9.12.1. This dialog controls the
display of different graphical layer data in the Horizontal Plan window. To display the
Layer Control dialog box, select View | Layer Control.
Figure 3.9.12.1 Layer Control dialog box
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Contained in the Layer Control dialog box is a list of graphical layers that are displayed
in the Horizontal Plan window. The check box in front of every layer controls whether
the layer is being displayed in the Horizontal Plan window. A check symbol in the
check box indicates that the layer is currently being displayed.
Standard Graphical Layers
The following layers are standard and always available within the Layer Control dialog
box:
Nodes Layer
The Nodes Layer is used to display junction nodes, reservoirs, and tanks. The
Nodes Layer can be exported as a graphical DXF file.
Links Layer
The Links Layer is used to display pipes, valves, and pumps. The Links Layer
can be exported as a graphical DXF file.
Draw Layer
The Draw Layer is used to display additional graphical items that are drawn in
the Horizontal Plan window using the drawing tools available on the Draw
Menu or Draw toolbar. The Draw Layer can be imported and exported as a CSM
file so that it can be used in other pipe network projects.
Nodes and Links Labels Layer
The Nodes and Links Labels Layer is used to display the labels defined for the
nodes (i.e., junction nodes, reservoirs, and tanks) and links (i.e., pipes, valves,
and pumps). These labels are defined in their respective network element editor
(e.g., Junction Node Editor). The labels font type, size, and color are defined in
the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box. (To display the Horizontal Plan
Options dialog box, select Plan | Options.) The Nodes and Links Labels Layer
can be imported and exported for use in other pipe network projects. The node
data is stored in a NOL file, whereas the link data is stored in a LIL file.
Optional Graphical Layers
The Layer Control dialog box can optionally display other graphical data. The
following additional layers can be imported into the Layer Control dialog box and then
displayed.
Contour Layer
The Contour Layer is used to display contour lines for a particular attribute (e.g.,
pressure, headloss, elevation, water quality, flow, etc.). Contour line files are
imported from a DMT file. Note that more than one contour file can be
imported, allowing the user to quickly change contour plots to show the effect
of different changes to the model. Contour plots can be exported to DXF,
MapInfo MID-MIF, and ESRI Shape files by highlighting the contour layer in
the Layer Control, selecting «Export», and choosing the format the contour line
is to be exported to. For more information on contour plots, see the section titled
Contour Plots on page 3-80.
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Background Image Layer
The Background Image Layer is used to display a background raster image
(e.g., BMP or TIF file) that is registered to real-world coordinates using a true
world file (i.e., TFW file). Displaying a background image allows the user to
quickly construct the pipe network model graphically using the pipe network
element tools (e.g., Add Junction Node tool). Note that more than one
background image file can be imported, so that multiple raster images can
mosaic the area in which the pipe network model exists.
DXF Layer
The DXF Layer is used to display a background CAD drawing such as from
AutoCAD or MicroStation. Displaying a DXF file allows the user to quickly
construct the pipe network model graphically using the pipe network element
tools. Note that more than one DXF file can be imported, so that multiple CAD
drawings can mosaic the area in which the pipe network model exists.
Layer Control Commands
From the Layer Control dialog box, selecting «Import» displays an Import dialog box
in which new layer data can be imported from. From the displayed Import dialog box,
select the layer type to be imported.
Selecting «Delete» deletes the currently selected optional layer (i.e., contour,
background image, or DXF) in the Layer Control dialog box. Note that the standard,
default layers (i.e., nodes, links, draw, and labels) cannot be deleted. Selecting
«Delete·All» deletes all of the optional layers displayed in the Layer Control dialog
box.
Selecting «Options» allows you to define a color legend for displaying of the currently
selected contour layer. If the currently selected layer is not a contour layer, «Option»
will be grayed out.
Selecting «Export» exports the currently selected layer.
3.9.13 Printing
All of the displayed table data and graphical results can be printed from MIKE NET to
any local or network printer.
Printing Table Data
If the current active window is the Analysis Results Table or any one of the network
component editors, selecting «Report» from the dialog will startup the Report
Generator. From this report generator, the user can select any of the pre-defined report
formats to print out the current data. For further discussion on the report generator, see
the section titled Report Generator on 3-64.
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Printing Graphic Data
If the current active window is either the Horizontal Plan View, Profile Plot, or Time
Series Plot, selecting File | Print will display the Print dialog box. From this dialog
box you can specify printer settings, page settings, and other options prior to outputting
the graphical results to the printer.
3.9.14 Exporting Graphical Data
MIKE NET allows you to export the graphical data as a DXF file. This enables you to
export out the contents of the Horizontal Plan View, Profile Plot, or Time Series Plot
contents to AutoCAD, MicroStation, and other applications.
If the current active window is either the Horizontal Plan View, Profile Plot, or Time
Series Plot, select File | Export. MIKE NET will then display the Export dialog box.
First, specify to export as a DXF file, then specify the filename of the DXF file to be
exported, and finally select «OK». MIKE NET will then export the DXF file.
3.9.15 Pump Power
Pump power can be calculated from the analysis results of a pipe network system and
can then be used to compute pump efficiency when calibrating a network model. Note
that an example problem titled Lesson 15 Pump Efficiency and Pump Power provided
in Chapter 5 which illustrates how to calculate pump efficiency. Pump power is
calculated from the following equation.
ρ QHg
P = ---------------η
(3.1)
where
P
= pump power, kW
ρ
= flow density, kg/m3
Q
= flow, l/s
H
= pump head, m
g
= gravity constant, 9.81 m/s2
η
= pump efficiency, default is 1 (1 is equal to 100%)
The default units for reporting the computed pump power and the parameters used to
calculate the pump power are SI units. If a project is defined with English units, MIKE
NET will automatically convert the parameters used to calculate pump power to SI
units. Note that the specified project units will not be changed, nor will any of the input
data or output results.
Pump power can be calculated for a selected pump or for all the pumps in the entire
pipe network system for either steady state or extended period simulations. The
computed pump power analysis results can be viewed from the Browser window,
Project Information dialog box, Time Series Plot, and Analysis Results Table.
To view the computed pump power used by a selected pump:
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1.
Pump power is an output parameter. Therefore an analysis must be performed
and the analysis results loaded into MIKE NET before the pump power can be
calculated. To perform an analysis, select File | Perform Analysis. After the
analysis has been successfully performed, MIKE NET will then ask for the
analysis results output file to be loaded. Select the default output file. The
default output file will have the same file name as the project file name.
2.
To select a pump to calculate pump power for, choose the Select tool from the
Components toolbar and then click on the pump.
3.
The Browser will report the computed pump power for the selected pump for
the current time step.
4.
To select more than one pump, hold down «Shift» when selecting the pumps.
5.
Select File | Project Information to display the Project Information dialog box,
as shown in Figure 3.9.15.1.
Figure 3.9.15.1 Project Information dialog box displays the total pump power
used for the entire simulation for the selected pumps
In the Project Information dialog box, the Total Pump Power reported in the
Components Information frame will be the total pump power used in the entire
simulation for the selected pumps. The Pump Power reported in the Statistics at Time
Step frame will be the pump power for the selected pumps for the current time step
when performing an extended period simulation. If the project is a steady state
simulation, the Pump Power reported in the Statistics at Time Step frame will be equal
to the Total Pump Power reported in the Components Information frame.
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To view the computed pump power used for all of the pumps in the entire pipe network
system:
1.
Pump power is an output parameter. Therefore an analysis must be performed
and the analysis results loaded into MIKE NET before the pump power can be
calculated. To perform an analysis, select File | Perform Analysis. After the
analysis has been successfully performed, MIKE NET will then ask for the
analysis results output file to be loaded. Select the default output file. The
default output file will have the same file name as the project file name.
2.
Display the Project Information dialog box by selecting File |
Project Information. With no pumps selected, the displayed results will be for
all the pumps in the entire pipe network system. The Total Pump Power
reported in the Components Information frame will be the total pump power
used during the entire simulation for the all the pumps in the pipe network
system. The Pump Power reported in the Statistics at Time Step frame will be
the pump power for all the pumps for the current time step when performing an
extended period simulation. If the project is a steady state project, the Pump
Power reported in the Statistics at Time Step frame will be equal to the Total
Pump Power reported in the Components Information frame.
The Pump Power results displayed in the Project Information dialog box is a summary
report of the pump power in the pipe network system. Pump power results can also be
viewed in the Browser window, Time Series Plots, and Analysis Results Table.
Browser
The attributes for individual pumps can be viewed in the Browser window for the
current time step (if the project is an extended period simulation). To view pump power
in the Browser window:
1.
Perform an analysis and load the analysis results as previously described.
2.
Choose the Select tool from the Components toolbar and click on a pump.
3.
The pump attributes will appear in the Browser window, including pump power.
If the project is an extended period simulation, the pump power for a different
time step can be viewed by choosing the Select Time Step tool from the
Browser window and choosing the desired time step.
Time Series Plots
Time Series Plots of pump power can only be displayed for extended period
simulations. To view pump power in a time series plot:
1.
Perform an analysis and load the analysis results as previously described.
2.
Select View | Time Series Plot to activate the time series plot option (a check
mark will be displayed in front of the menu item). Alternately, you can select
the Select Time Series tool from the Browser window.
3.
Click on the pump you wish to have a time series plot generated for.
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4.
The Create Time Series Plot dialog box will automatically appear. In the Create
Time Series Plot dialog box, select the Pump Power check box and then choose
«OK». (For more details on time series plots, see the section titled Time Series
Plots on page 3-74.)
5. The time series plot of the pump power will then be displayed.
The pump power results displayed in the time series profile plot can be saved as an
ASCII file and then imported into a spreadsheet or other program. To do this, right
click on the time series plot and choose File | Write ASCII from the pop-up menu.
Analysis Results Table
Pump power can also be viewed in the Analysis Results Table. To view the pump
power results in the Analysis Results Table:
1.
Perform and load the analysis results as previously described.
2.
Select View | Analysis Results Table to display the Analysis Results Table.
3.
In the Analysis Results Table, select the Links tab to view the pump power
results for all of the pumps in the pipe network system. If the project is an
extended period simulation, the pump power at different time steps can be
viewed by selecting the Select Time Step tool from the Browser window and
choosing the desired time step. For more information on the Analysis Results
Table, see the section titled Analysis Results Table on page 3-63.
3.10 External Database Connections
MIKE NET allows you to easily connect an existing MIKE NET pipe network to an
external GIS spatial database, relational database, or spreadsheet. Examples of these
external linked files include GIS databases by ESRI ArcView and MapInfo
Corporation’s MapInfo, database files from Oracle SQL Server, Microsoft Access,
Microsoft Foxpro, Corel Paradox, and spreadsheets from Microsoft Excel and Lotus
123. This allows the MIKE NET modeling database to be automatically updated from
other departments, in addition to allowing modeling data to be shared with planning
departments, etc.
3.10.1 MIKE NET InterBase Server
MIKE NET uses Borland’s InterBase Workgroup Server (referred to hereafter as
Interbase). Interbase is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that
provides rapid transaction processing and data sharing in multi-user environments. At
its core, Interbase is a server technology that offers transparent support across
heterogeneous networks. InterBase runs on Windows NT, Novell NetWare, and many
implementations of the UNIX operating systems.
MIKE NET InterBase Workgroup Server is a single-user database. However,
InterBase server is also available from Borland as a multi-user server database
allowing multiple users simultaneous access to MIKE NET database files.
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InterBase directly supports client applications such as MIKE NET. InterBase operates
on Windows NT and UNIX servers. Depending on the system, client applications can
be written using embedded SQL and dynamic SQL (DSQL) statements or with lowlevel API function calls.
Through the Borland Desktop Engine (BDE) and Client/Server Express, InterBase
also extends the traditional RDBMS model to offer upsizing solutions for departmental
applications through:
•
Borland desktop applications, such as dBASE for Windows and Paradox for
DOS and Windows.
•
Borland client development tools, such as C++ and BDE SDK.
The workgroup server model enables desktop users to take advantage of the distributed
processing and transaction control of a true RDBMS without sacrificing familiar tools
and interfaces.
Additionally, InterBase Workgroup Server includes a driver for the Open Database
Connectivity standard (ODBC). This driver enables ODBC client applications (such as
Visual Basic or Microsoft Access) to share data with InterBase servers.
3.10.2 Server Database Connection
MIKE NET uses Borland’s InterBase SQL Client-Server Database for data storage and
manipulation. Data describing the pipe network is stored in separate database tables
(such as NODES and LINKS) and can be accessed at any time by other applications,
such as Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Access, and Microsoft Excel.
In order to access the MIKE NET database, the following approaches can be used:
1.
Using native Borland Interbase applications, such as:
A. Borland’s InterBase Database Desktop, which provides complete database
support that enables the user to perform any type of data manipulation, such
as import, export, data editing, and SQL operations.
B. Borland’s Report Smith, which is a complete data reporting tool.
C. Borland’s Delphi programming support tools.
2.
Any Windows database and spreadsheet application, using ODBC drivers.
3.
Using a programming language, such as:
A. Borland Delphi, which provides a direct connection to Borland’s InterBase
database.
B. Microsoft Visual C/C++, using an ODBC connection.
C. Microsoft Visual Basic, using an ODBC connection.
D. Any other programming language that provides ODBC support.
3.10.3 Interbase Server 6.0
MIKE NET modeling package data management is based on the Borland Interbase
database system. The latest version of Interbase database system can be downloaded
from: http://www.interbase.com
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IBConsole
InterBase now provides a single, intuitive graphical user interface, as shown in both
Figures 3.8.3.1 and 3.8.3.2. From within this environment, you can perform all the
tasks necessary to configure and maintain an InterBase server, to create and maintain
databases on that server, and to execute interactive SQL. IBConsole replaces the
earlier Server Manager and InterBase Windows ISQL GUI environments.
You can use IBConsole to:
•
Perform data entry and manipulation
•
Configure and maintain a server
•
Enter and execute interactive SQL
•
Manage server security
•
Backup and restore a database
•
View database and server statistics
•
Validate the integrity of a database
•
Weep a database
•
Recover "in limbo" transactions
Figure 3.10.3.1 IBConsole in Interbase 6.0.
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Figure 3.10.3.2 Properties for Nodes
3.10.4 InterBase SQL Support
Interbase conforms to entry-level SQL-92 requirements. It supports declarative
referential integrity, updateable views, and outer joins. InterBase provides libraries
that support development of embedded SQL and DSQL client applications on
Windows NT and UNIX. On all platforms, client applications can be written to the
InterBase API, a library of low-level engine calls.
InterBase also supports extended SQL features, some of which anticipate SQL-3
extensions to the SQL standard. These include stored procedures, triggers, and
segments BLOB support.
3.10.5 InterBase Database Access
InterBase enables client applications to access a single database, or to access multiple
databases simultaneously. Separate client applications can also access the same
database simultaneously. To control database access and ensure data integrity,
InterBase provides automatic two-phase commit. SQL triggers can notify client
applications when specific database events occur, such as insertions or deletions.
3.10.6 InterBase Login Levels
There are two different user login levels for accessing the MIKE NET InterBase
database files:
•
Administrator Level
•
User Level (normally used)
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These settings can be performed within the InterBase Server Manager, which was part
of the MIKE NET installation.
MIKE NET database files are stored with a GDB file extension.
Administrator Level
When logged into the InterBase Server Manager at Administrator Level, the
administrator can read and change data, change database settings, delete tables, and
modify table structures. However, changing the MIKE NET database structure or
deleting any of the MIKE NET database tables without proper technical database
knowledge may result in damaging the MIKE NET database file to the point that
MIKE NET may not be able to use it.
To login at Administrator Level, the following login is required:
Username:
Password:
sysdba
masterkey
User Level
When logged into the InterBase Server Manager at User Level, the user can read and
change data, but cannot change database settings, delete tables, nor modify table
structures. User Level is the same access level that MIKE NET uses.
To login at User Level, the following login is required:
Username:
Password:
EMS
EMS
3.10.7 Connecting to External Database Sources
MIKE NET can connect to the external data sources such as Dbase DBF files,
Microsoft Access MDB files, ASCII files, ORACLE database files and other ODBC
(Open Database Connectivity) data sources.
How to Connect to External Database
In order to connect to the external data files, it is necessary to define the database alias,
which will be used by MIKE NET to create the database link. The BDE Administrator
alias defines the database, which is located in the Control Panel of Windows. The BDE
administrator is a part of MIKE NET installation.
There are two different database aliases:
1.Native driver
2.ODBC driver
The native driver is used in order to connect to Dbase, Paradox, FoxPro and is called
STANDARD driver in BDE Administrator. The other native driver is INTRBASE and
is used in order to connect to Borland InterBase files. The ODBC drivers allow us to
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connect to any database system, which uses ODBC drivers. These ODBC drivers must
be installed on the same computer as MIKE NET, ODBC drivers for Microsoft Access
are a part of Microsoft Office installation.
In addition to this, selected node and pipe attributes can be imported by selecting Tools
| External Database Support dialog. From within this dialog, the matching attributes
can be selected.
How to define standard database alias such as DBASE
Remark: it is necessary to close MIKE NET when modifying ODBC Data Sources and
BDE Aliases.
Run 32 ODBC Administrator from the Windows Control Panel. Select databases and
create New Alias by selecting Object | New. Select STANDARD for the driver name.
Figure 3.10.7.1 BDE Administrator. The BDE Administrator lists the available
database aliases
It is possible to rename the Alias and to define its settings. Select the Default Driver
and Path to the Dbase DBF files. Note that the Path, which is the directory name, acts
in similar way as the name of the database for database systems, which are based on
one file and stores all tables within this file.
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Figure 3.10.7.2 BDE administrator alias screen. The database alias is defined in the
BDE Administrator
Once the database alias is created it can be used by MIKE NET in order to connect to
the selected data source.
How to define ODBC alias such as Microsoft Access
Remark: it is necessary to close MIKE NET when modifying ODBC Data Sources and
BDE Aliases.
In order to connect Microsoft Access it is necessary to create the ODBC data source.
Create the Database Alias, which will be used in order to import data. Run 32 ODBC
Administrator from the Windows Control Panel and Add new ODBC Data Source.
Define the file name, select the driver type (Microsoft Access).
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Figure 3.10.7.3 Creating a new ODBC Data Source
Select the database name for existing databases or select Create… in order to create
new empty database file, which will be used for data export.
Figure 3.10.7.4 ODBC setup. Define ODBC Data Source
3.10.8 Importing and Exporting GIS Data
MIKE NET can import and export water distribution network data as ESRI ArcView
shape files and MapInfo exchange files, allowing the water distribution network data
to be directly imported and exported into and from ArcView, ARC/INFO, and
MapInfo GIS applications. For example, by exporting from MIKE NET the water
distribution network model as a ArcView shape file, a GIS database can be quickly
developed for a client. Once this data has been imported into the GIS application, join
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operations can be performed with other database tables. By using geocoding, SQL, and
topological queries, the GIS system can provide a wide range of useful thematic maps
of water pressure, water quality constituent concentration, etc.
Importing ESRI ArcView Shape Files
To import ESRI ArcView shape files, select File | Import. MIKE NET will then
display the Import dialog box. Specify to import an ESRI ArcView shape file and then
choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display a file selection dialog box. From this
dialog box, select the file to be imported (∗.SHP) from the file listing and then choose
«OK». MIKE NET will then import the file. If there are any associated ∗.DBF and
∗.SHX GIS files with the same filename prefix, MIKE NET will also import these
automatically at the same time.
Importing MapInfo Exchange Files
To import MapInfo exchange files, select File | Import. MIKE NET will then display
the Import dialog box. Specify to import a MapInfo exchange file and then choose
«OK». MIKE NET will then display a file selection dialog box. From this dialog box,
select the file to be imported from the file listing and then select «OK». MIKE NET
will then import the file.
Exporting ESRI ArcView Shape Files
To export ESRI ArcView shape files, select File | Export. MIKE NET will then
display the Export dialog box. In the Export dialog box, select the ESRI ArcView
Shape File option, and then choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display an Export As
dialog box. Specify the filename of the file to be exported, and then select «OK».
MIKE NET will then export .DBF, .SHP, and .SHX files. Both the graphical and
database data will be exported, as well as the analysis results.
When exporting ESRI ArcView shape files, MIKE NET will change the last character
of the specified filename so that link (pipe) files can be distinguished from node files.
The last character in the filename for link files is L. The last character in the filename
for node files is N. For example, if the specified filename was SAMPLE, the following
files would be exported by MIKE NET:
SAMPLN.DBF
SAMPLN.SHP
SAMPLN.SHX
SAMPLL.DBF
SAMPLL.SHP
SAMPLL.SHX
Node shapefile attribute table
Node shapefile feature geometry
Node shapefile lookup index
Link shapefile attribute table
Link shapefile feature geometry
Link shapefile lookup index
Exporting MapInfo Exchange Files
To export MapInfo exchange files, select File | Export. MIKE NET will then display
the Export dialog box. In the Export dialog box, select the MapInfo Exchange File
option, and then choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display an Export As dialog box.
Specify the filename of the file to be exported, and then select «OK». MIKE NET will
then export the files.
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When exporting MapInfo exchange files, MIKE NET will change the last character of
the specified filename so that link (pipe) files can be distinguished from node files. The
last character in the filename for link files is L. The last character in the filename for
node files is N. For example, if the specified filename was SAMPLE, the following
files would be exported by MIKE NET:
SAMPLN.MIF
SAMPLN.MID
SAMPLL.MIF
SAMPLL.MID
Node graphical file
Node database file
Link graphical file
Link database file
Any vector data displayed in the Horizontal Plan window, including DXF data and
contour lines, will be exported to the MapInfo exchange files. MIF files contain
graphical information, such as points, circles, lines, polylines, and database handles to
attribute data defined in the MID file. MID files contain attribute information for each
graphical element contained within the MIF file.
3.10.9 Connecting with External Applications
MIKE NET database files can be directly connected with external programs, such as
Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel, ESRI ArcView, and MapInfo. These same
techniques can also be used to assist programmers writing interface programs to the
MIKE NET database using Visual Basic, Visual C/C++, and other programming
languages.
To connect MIKE NET with external programs, it is necessary to install the proper
ODBC drivers. Please see Section 2.6 for more detail. It is possible to edit MIKE NET
projects from within other application, such as Microsoft Access. By connecting to
MIKE NET through and external application, the user can perform data editing,
reporting and querying. Moreover, it is possible to have a standalone GIS database that
refers to MIKE NET tables.
Figure 3.10.9.1 Dynamic link to MIKE NET database tables
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MIKE NET
Connecting Using Microsoft Query
To connect Microsoft applications to the MIKE NET database, it is necessary to use
the InterBase ODBC driver and Microsoft Query. Microsoft Query is a universal tool
provided by Microsoft to open ODBC data sources. Microsoft Query is part of
Microsoft Office, and is automatically invoked by several Microsoft applications,
including Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft Word when importing
external data sources.
The following steps can then be used to connect Microsoft applications to the MIKE
NET database using Microsoft Query:
1.
Startup Microsoft Query.
2.
From within Microsoft Query, select NEW from the File Menu. This will
display the Choose Data Source dialog box.
3.
From the Databases tab, double-click on New Data Source.
4.
In box number 1, type in a name to identify the data source. For example, you
can name it MIKE NET Database Connection.
5.
In box number 2, from the pulldown list select the appropriate ODBC driver to
connect to the MIKE NET database. Note that the selected driver must be
installed on your computer in order to connect to the MIKE NET database as a
data source.
6.
Click on «Connect». If an connection cannot be established to the driver, an
error message will be displayed. Otherwise, a driver specific connection dialog
will be displayed.
7.
Select the EMS (∗.GDB) pipe network database file you want to connect to.
Depending on the database driver you selected for your data source, the dialog
box will contain different information you must provide in order to connect to
the data source. You may be asked to supply a login name, a password, the
version of the database you're using, the database location, or other information
specific to the type of database you selected. Note that the login username is
EMS and the password is EMS. (See the section titled InterBase Login Levels
on 3-93 for further information on login levels, usernames, and passwords.)
Once you have finished entering the required information, click «OK».
8.
If you don't want to type your login name and password when you use the data
source, select the Save my UserID and Password in the Data Source definition
check box. If the check box is unavailable, check with the database
administrator to determine whether this option has been disabled.
9.
If you want a particular table in the database to be displayed automatically in
the Query Wizard, click in box 4, and select the table you want from the
pulldown list. For example, select the NODES table.
10. Click «OK». Your data source is now set up.
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Using the Program
Microsoft Access
To connect Microsoft Access to the MIKE NET database, it is necessary to use the
InterBase ODBC driver and Microsoft Query. Setting up Microsoft Query is described
in the previous section.
The following steps can then be used to connect Microsoft Access to the MIKE NET
database:
1.
Startup Microsoft Access.
2.
Select TABLES under the OBJECTS tab in the open dialog box.
3.
Select NEW from the MAIN Menu bar, and then select LINK TABLES.
4.
In the Link dialog box, select ODBC DATABASES in the Files Of Type drop
down list.
5.
Click on the Machine Data Source tab—it will then show a list of all ODBC
machine data sources currently defined for the ODBC drivers installed on your
computer.
6.
Select the MIKE NET database.
7.
Select one or more tables from the MIKE NET database.
8.
The selected data source is now available in Microsoft Access.
Microsoft Excel
To connect Microsoft Excel to the MIKE NET database, it is necessary to use the
InterBase ODBC driver and Microsoft Query. Setting up Microsoft Query is described
in a previous section.
The following steps can then be used to connect Microsoft Excel to the MIKE NET
database:
1.
Startup Microsoft Excel.
2.
Select GET EXTERNAL DATA from the Data Menu and then select CREATE
NEW QUERY.
3.
Microsoft Query is automatically loaded and the Select Data Source dialog box
is displayed. Using the steps outlined in the prior section titled Connecting
Using Microsoft Query, connect to the appropriate MIKE NET database.
4.
Select one or more tables from the MIKE NET database.
5.
Select the appropriate table attributes to use. Use the wildcard character “∗” to
select all table attributes.
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MIKE NET
6.
Close Microsoft Query and return to Microsoft Excel by selecting RETURN
TO EXCEL from the File Menu.
7.
Select options how to transfer the selected data, such as with table attribute
names.
8.
The selected data source is now available in Microsoft Excel.
ESRI ArcView
To connect ESRI ArcView to the MIKE NET database, it is necessary to use the
InterBase ODBC driver.
The following steps can then be used to connect ESRI ArcView to the MIKE NET
database:
1.
Startup ESRI ArcView.
2.
Select SQL CONNECT from the Project Menu.
3.
Select INTERBASE from the list of possible ODBC connections.
4.
Connect to the appropriate EMS (∗.GDB) pipe network database file you want
to connect to. Depending on the database driver you selected for your data
source, the dialog box will contains different information you must provide in
order to connect to the data source. You may be asked to supply a login name,
a password, the version of the database you're using, the database location, or
other information specific to the type of database you selected. Note that the
login username is EMS and the password is EMS. (See the section titled
InterBase Login Levels on 3-93 for further information on login levels,
usernames, and passwords.) Once you have finished entering the required
information, click «OK».
5.
Select one or more tables from the MIKE NET database.
6.
Select the appropriate table attributes to use. Use the wildcard character “∗” to
select all table attributes.
7. The selected data source is now available in ESRI ArcView.
It is possible in ESRI ArcView to join the imported data with existing ArcView tables.
It is also possible to use geocoding to map the imported data on an existing ArcView
map.
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Using the Program
MapInfo
To connect MapInfo to the MIKE NET database, it is necessary to use the InterBase
ODBC driver and a custom setup of MapInfo that includes ODBC Connectivity.
The following steps can then be used to connect MapInfo to the MIKE NET database:
1.
Startup MapInfo.
2.
Select OPEN ODBC TABLE from the File Menu.
3.
Connect to the appropriate EMS (∗.GDB) pipe network database file you want
to connect to. Depending on the database driver you selected for your data
source, the dialog box will contains different information you must provide in
order to connect to the data source. You may be asked to supply a login name,
a password, the version of the database you're using, the database location, or
other information specific to the type of database you selected. Note that the
login username is EMS and the password is EMS. (See the section titled
InterBase Login Levels on 3-93 for further information on login levels,
usernames, and passwords.) Once you have finished entering the required
information, click «OK».
4.
Select one or more tables from the MIKE NET database.
5.
Select the appropriate table attributes to use. Use the wildcard character “∗” to
select all table attributes.
6.
Filter the rows to be downloaded. (This is the same as specifying the WHERE
clause in a SQL query command.) If you select no filtering criteria in this dialog,
all rows will be selected.
7.
Specify the path and filename for the local table to be created by MapInfo.
8. The selected data source is now available in MapInfo.
It is possible in MapInfo to join the imported data with existing MapInfo tables. It is
also possible to use geocoding to map the imported data on an existing MapInfo map.
Linking to Separate Database Tables
Commonly, GIS databases use many more table attributes for defining a pipe network
system than is required for MIKE NET. In addition, the network layout may be
different than and there may be other elements, such as tanks, pumping stations, and
valves) that may be described in the GIS in a completely different way than what is
required in MIKE NET. Therefore, it may be advisable to create separate database
tables within the GIS system for linking to the MIKE NET database.
3.10.10Connecting with Borland InterBase Network Server
MIKE NET includes the Workstation version of the Borland InterBase Server.
However, to connect to the MIKE NET database files with the Borland InterBase
Network Server, the following programs must be installed:
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MIKE NET
•
Borland Database Engine
•
SQL Links
•
Borland InterBase Network Server
3.10.11Data Dictionary File
The data dictionary file allows you to exchange selected data between MIKE NET and
external database sources. Let's assume that the existing Microsoft Access Database
File contains two tables, NODES and PIPES with the following attributes:
Nodes Database Table Attributes (Junctions, Tanks, and Reservoirs)
Field Name
Type
Description
NODEID
INTEGER
Node ID
NODETYPE
INTEGER
Node Type (0: pipe bend, 1: junction, 21:
reservoirs, 22: tank)
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Node description
X
FLOAT
X coordinate
Y
FLOAT
Y coordinate
ELEV
FLOAT
Z coordinate
DEMAND
FLOAT
Junction demand
I2
INTEGER
Bend pipe ID
Pipes Database Table Attributes (Pipes, Valves, and Pumps)
Field Name
Type
Description
LINKID
INTEGER
Link ID
LINKTYPE
INTEGER
Link type (1: pipe, 2: valve, 3: pump)
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Link description
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Diameter
LENGTH
FLOAT
Length
RCOEFF
FLOAT
Roughness coefficient
LCOEFF
FLOAT
Minor loss coefficient
BEND
INTEGER
Pipe bend type (0: without bend, 1: with pipe bends)
The corresponding data dictionary file is as follows:
3-104
Using the Program
[NODES]
InternalTableName = Nodes
ExternalTableName = Nodes
//InternalAttribut = ExternalAttribut
ID = NODEID
NODETYPE = NODETYPE
DESCRIPTION = DESCRIPTION
X=X
Y=Y
ELEV = ELEV
DEMAND = DEMAND
I2 = I2
[Pipes]
InternalTableName = Pipes
ExternalTableName = Pipes
//InternalAttribut = ExternalAttribut
ID = LINKID
LINKTYPE = LINKTYPE
NODE1 = NODE1
NODE2 = NODE2
DIAMETER = DIAMETER
L = LENGTH
RCOEFF = RCOEFF
LCOEFF = LCOEFF
COEFF1 = COEFF1
COEFF2 = COEFF2
DESCRIPTION = DESCRIPTION
BEND = BEND
Figure 3.10.11.1 Example of Nodes table in Microsoft Access
Figure 3.10.11.2 Example of Pipes table in Microsoft Access
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MIKE NET
Figure 3.10.11.3 The MIKE NET network imported from the Nodes and Pipes tables
3.10.12SQL Queries
The Filter dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.10.12.1, is available from all of the
network component editors. (The network component editors are described in detail in
Chapter 4.) The Filter dialog box is used to query the network database to retrieve
particular network components meeting a specified criteria.
Figure 3.10.12.1 The Filter dialog allows you to define a SQL query statement to
retrieve specific network components that meet a specific search criteria
This section discusses the SQL SELECT statement that is used by the Filter dialog box
in constructing a SQL query command
Command Syntax
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Using the Program
The SELECT SQL statement is used to retrieve data from one or more database tables.
The Filter dialog box supports the following form of the SELECT command:
SELECT
List of attributes (∗ - all of them)
FROM
Database table name
WHERE
Search condition
ORDER BY
Order list of attributes
Query Examples
The following examples show how to use the SELECT SQL statement to query the
MIKE NET database to retrieve data from one or more database tables. The Filter
dialog box supports all of these SELECT commands.
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE DIAMETER=12 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Diameter is equal to 12, ordered by link ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE (ID>20 and ID<100) ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Node ID is greater than 20 and less than 100, ordered by node ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE X>20 AND X<200 AND Y>30 AND Y<360
ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from nodes that satisfy the condition: X coordinate is
between 20 and 200 and Y coordinate is between 30 and 360, ordered by node
ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE DIAMETER=12 AND LINKTYPE=1 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Diameter is equal to 12 and link type is 1 (pipe), ordered by link ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE DEMAND>0 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Demand is greater than 0, ordered by node ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE DEMAND<0 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Demand is less than 0 (groundwater well), ordered by node ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE DEMAND>0 AND NODETYPE=1 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Demand is greater than 0 and node type is 1 (junction), ordered by node ID
number
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MIKE NET
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE ID>0 AND NODETYPE=1 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Node ID is greater than 0 and node type is 1 (junction), ordered by node ID
number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE ID>0 AND NODETYPE=2 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Node ID is greater than 0 and node type is 2 (tank or reservoir), ordered by node
ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE INITLEVEL IS NULL AND NODETYPE=2
ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Select tanks (initial level is not specified and node type is 2), ordered by node
ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM NODES WHERE INITLEVEL IS NOT NULL AND NODETYPE=2 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the NODES database table that satisfy the condition:
Select reservoirs (initial level is specified and node type is 2), ordered by node
ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE ID>0 AND LINKTYPE=1 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Select pipes (link type 1) with ID number higher than 0, ordered by link ID
number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE LINKTYPE=2 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Select valves (link type is 2), ordered by link ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE LINKTYPE=3 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Select pumps (link type is 3), ordered by link ID number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE DIAMETER>0 AND LINKTYPE=1 ORDER
BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Select pipes (link type is 1) whose diameter is larger than 0, ordered by link ID
number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE L>0 AND LINKTYPE=1 ORDER BY ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Select pipes (link type is 1) whose length is greater than 0, ordered by link ID
number
SELECT ∗ FROM LINKS WHERE CV=”CV” AND LINKTYPE=1 ORDER BY
ID
Select all attributes from the LINKS database table that satisfy the condition:
Select pipes (link type is 1) that have a check valve, ordered by link ID number
Filter Dialog Box
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Using the Program
See the section titled Common Editor Features in Chapter 4 for a further discussion of
the Filter dialog box.
3.10.13SQL Updates
The Global dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.10.13.1, is available from all of the
network component editors. (The network component editors are described in detail in
Chapter 4.) The Global dialog box is used to perform global updates to data in the
network database for particular network components meeting a specified criteria.
Figure 3.10.13.1 The Global dialog allows you to define a SQL update statement to
retrieve specific network components that meet a specific search criteria and then
perform a global change on a particular attribute of those selected components
This section discusses the SQL UPDATE statement that is used by the Global dialog
box in constructing a SQL update command.
Caution
Be careful when using the UPDATE command to change node or link ID numbers.
This can effect cross-referencing of data.
Command Syntax
The UPDATE SQL statement is used to update data in one or more database tables.
The Global dialog box supports the following form of the UPDATE command:
UPDATE
Database table name
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MIKE NET
SET
Attribute name and its new value
WHERE
Search condition.
Update Examples
The following examples show how to use the UPDATE SQL statement to update data
in one or more database tables. The Global dialog box supports all of these UPDATE
commands.
UPDATE NODES SET ELEV=100 WHERE ID>1 AND NODETYPE=1
Set ELEV = 100 for every junction node with a node ID number greater than 1
UPDATE LINKS SET DIAMETER=12
Set diameter = 12 for every link
UPDATE NODES SET X=X∗-1
Change X coordinate to X = X ∗ -1 (i.e., mirror X)
Global Dialog Box
See the section titled Common Editor Features in Chapter 4 for a further discussion of
the Global dialog box.
3.10.14MIKE NET Database Structure
The following tables describe the database tables and field names used by the MIKE
NET database. These tables and field names can be used to link to external databases
and for performing querying and global updating of data. Internal table, and internal
attributes of public tables are not included in this text and are not a part of the standard
import and export procedures.
Table 3.10.14.1 MIKE NET database contains the following public tables
3-110
Table Name
Description
CONTROLS
Simple IF-THEN settings
CURVES
Curves
EMITTERS
Emitters
ENERGY
Energy settings for pumps
FRICTION
User defined friction loss coefficients
GLOBAL
Global reactin rate coefficients
LOSSES
User defined local loss coefficients
MDEMANDS
Multiple demands
MPATTERNS
Patterns
MPATTMULT
Pattern multipliers
NODES
Junctions, reservoirs, and tanks
PIPES
Pipes, pumps, and valves
Using the Program
PROJECT
Project settings
PZONE
Pressure zones
QUALITY
Initial water quality parameters
REACTIONS
Reaction rate coefficients
RES_JUN
Results for junction nodes
RES_PIP
Results for pipes
RES_PUM
Results for pumps
RES_RES
Results for reservoirs
RES_TAN
Results for tanks
RES_VAL
Results for valves
RULES
Rule-based IF-THEN settings
SOURCES
Source nodes
SQL_SEL
User Defined SQL SELECT commands
SQL_UPD
User defined SQL UPDATE commands
TIMES
Extended period simulation
Table 3.10.14.2 Controls Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Node ID
SETTING
CHAR (6)
Control setting
TVALUE
FLOAT
Time setting
NODEID
INTEGER
Control node ID
UNITS
CHAR (1)
Control time units
CLEVEL
FLOAT
Control pressure level
CONTROLTYPE
INTEGER
Control type
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Control description
SETVALUE
FLOAT
Control setting value
Table 3.10.14.3 Curves Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
CNAME
CHAR (25)
Curve ID
CATEGORY
SMALLINT
Curve category
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Curve description
Table 3.10.14.4 Emitters Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Emmitter ID
NODE
INTEGER
Node ID
FLOWCOEFF
FLOAT
Emitter flow coefficient
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Emitter description
Table 3.10.14.5 Energy Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
PRICEPAT
CHAR (15)
Global energy price pattern ID
EFFIC
FLOAT
Global pump efficiency
EFFICPAT
CHAR (15)
Global pump efficiency pattern ID
DEMCHARGE
FLOAT
Global demand charge
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MIKE NET
Table 3.10.14.6 Friction Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
HW
FLOAT
Hazen-Williams formula
DW
FLOAT
Darcy-Weisbach formula
M
FLOAT
Chezy-Manning formula
Table 3.10.14.7 Global Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
BULKCOEFF
FLOAT
Bulk rate coefficient
WALLCOEFF
FLOAT
Wall rate coefficient
Table 3.10.14.8 Losses Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Minor loss description
COEFF
FLOAT
Minor loss coefficient
Table 3.10.14.9 Mdemands Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
NODE_ID
INTEGER
Description
Demand node ID
DEMAND
FLOAT
Demand
PATTERN
CHAR (25)
Demand Pattern ID
Table 3.10.14.10 MPatterns Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
PNAME
CHAR (25)
Pattern ID
CATEGORY
CHAR (25)
Pattern category
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (40)
Pattern description
Table 3.10.14.11 MPattmult Database Table Attributes
3-112
Field Name
Type
Description
PNAME
CHAR (25)
Pattern ID
MULT
FLOAT
Pattern multiplier
POS
FLOAT
Multiplier position sequence
Using the Program
Table 3.10.14.12 Nodes Database Table Attributes (Junctions, Tanks, and Reservoirs)
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Node ID
NODETYPE
INTEGER
Node Type (0: pipe bend, 1: junction, 21:
reservoirs, 22: tank)
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Node description
X
FLOAT
X coordinate
Y
FLOAT
Y coordinate
ELEV
FLOAT
Z coordinate
DEMAND
FLOAT
Junction demand
DEMCOEFF
FLOAT
Junction demand coefficient
PATTERN
CHAR (25)
Pattern ID
INITLEVEL
FLOAT
Tank initial water depth
MINLEVEL
FLOAT
Tank minimum water depth
MAXLEVEL
FLOAT
Tank maximum water depth
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Tank diameter or tank length
MINVOL
FLOAT
Tank minimum volume
WIDTH
FLOAT
Tank width
STATE
INTEGER
Node state/phase (0: existing, 1: proposed)
LOCDEMAND
FLOAT
Additional junction demand
PZONE
INTEGER
Pressure zone ID
TANKTYPE
INTEGER
Tank type (0: circular, 1: rectangular)
MIXMODEL
INTEGER
Tank mixing model type
COMVOL
FLOAT
Tank compartment volume
I2
INTEGER
Bend pipe ID
Table 3.10.14.13 Pipes Database Table Attributes (Pipes, Valves, and Pumps)
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Link ID
LINKTYPE
INTEGER
Link type (1: pipe, 2: valve, 3: pump)
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Link description
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Diameter
L
FLOAT
Length
RCOEFF
FLOAT
Roughness coefficient
LCOEFF
FLOAT
Minor loss coefficient
CV
CHAR(2)
Check valve (“CV” : exists, “ ” : none)
VALVETYPE
CHAR(3)
Valve type (“PRV”, “PSV”, “PBV”, “FCV”, “TCV”, “GPV“)
SETTING
FLOAT
Valve or pump setting
LOSSCOEFF
FLOAT
Valve loss coefficient
PUMPTYPE
INTEGER
1: constant, 2: 1-point, 3: 3-point curve, 4: 3-point extended
PAR1
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 1
PAR2
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 2
PAR3
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 3
PAR4
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 4
PAR5
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 5
PAR6
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 6
STATE
INTEGER
Link state/phase (0: existing, 1: proposed)
COEFF1
FLOAT
Demand coefficient 1
COEFF2
FLOAT
Demand coefficient 2
STATUS
INTEGER
Initial setting
MATERIAL
CHAR (25)
Pipe material
AGE
INTEGER
Construction Year
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MIKE NET
BEND
INTEGER
Pipe bend type (0: without bend, 1: with pipe bends)
QHCURVE
CHAR (15)
Pump Head-flow curve ID
EFCURVE
CHAR (15)
Pump efficiency curve ID
PATTERN
CHAR (15)
Pump pattern ID
EPRICE
FLOAT
Pump energy price curve ID
EPATTERN
CHAR (15)
Pump energy price pattern ID
HLCURVE
CHAR (15)
Valve head-loss curve ID
TAG
CHAR (15)
Additional description
Table 3.10.14.14 Project Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
VERSION
INTEGER
Description
Database version
PATH
CHAR (80)
Project file path
NAME
CHAR (25)
Project file name
TITLE
CHAR (240)
Project title
UNITS
CHAR (3)
Project units (CFS, MGD, GPM, LPS, AFS,
LPM, MPH, MPD)
HEADLOSS
CHAR (3)
Headloss formula (D-W, H-W, M)
MAP
CHAR (80)
Map file name
SOURCEID
INTEGER
Source node ID
GRAVITY
FLOAT
Specific gravity multiplier
VISCOSITY
FLOAT
Kinematic viscosity
DIFFUSISVITY
FLOAT
Molecular diffusivity
TRIALS
INTEGER
Maximum number of trials
ACCURACY
FLOAT
Hydraulic solution accuracy
SEGMENTS
INTEGER
Maximum number of segments
NTRIALS
INTEGER
Number of trials
UNBALANCED
INTEGER
Hydraulic solution status
EMITTER
FLOAT
Emitter exponent
Table 3.10.14.15 Pzone Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Pressure zone ID
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (25)
Pressure zone description
Table 3.10.14.16 Quality Database Table Attributes
3-114
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Node ID
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
QUALITY
FLOAT
Initial water quality
Using the Program
Table 3.10.14.17 Reactions Database Table Attributes
ID
INTEGER
Node ID
RTYPE
INTEGER
Reaction type
BULKCOEFF
FLOAT
Bulk coefficient
WALLCOEFF
FLOAT
Wall coefficient
PIPE1
INTEGER
Starting pipe ID
PIPE2
INTEGER
Ending pipe ID
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
COEFF
FLOAT
Reaction rate coefficient
ORDERBULK
FLOAT
Bulk reaction rate
ORDERWALL
FLOAT
Wall reaction rate
LIMITPOT
FLOAT
Limiting potential
CORRCOEFF
FLOAT
Corellation factor
Table 3.10.14.18 Res_jun Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Junction node ID
X
FLOAT
X coordinate
Y
FLOAT
Y coordinate
Z
FLOAT
Junction node elevation
DEMAND
FLOAT
Junction node demand
GRADE
FLOAT
Junction node hydraulic grade line
PRESSURE
FLOAT
Junction node pressure
QUALITY
FLOAT
Junction node water quality
Table 3.10.14.19 Res_pip Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Pipe ID
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Pipe diameter
L
FLOAT
Pipe length
RCOEFF
FLOAT
Pipe roughness
FLOW
FLOAT
Pipe flow
VELOCITY
FLOAT
Pipe velocity
HEADLOSS
FLOAT
Pipe headloss
HEADLOSS1000
FLOAT
Pipe headloss per 1000 length units
Table 3.10.14.20 Res_pum Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Pump ID
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
FLOW
FLOAT
Pump flow
POWER
FLOAT
Pump power
HEAD
FLOAT
Pump power
Table 3.10.14.21 Res_res Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Reservoir ID
X
FLOAT
X coordinate
Y
FLOAT
Y coordinate
Z
FLOAT
Reservoir elevation
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DEMAND
FLOAT
GRADE
FLOAT
Reservoir demand
Reservoir hydraulic grade line
QUALITY
FLOAT
Reservoir water quality
Table 3.10.14.22 Res_tan Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Tank ID
X
FLOAT
X coordinate
Y
FLOAT
Y coordinate
Z
FLOAT
Tank elevation
DEMAND
FLOAT
Tank demand
GRADE
FLOAT
Tank hydraulic grade line
QUALITY
FLOAT
Tank water quality
Table 3.10.14.23 Res_val Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Valve ID
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Valve diameter
FLOW
FLOAT
Valve flow
HEADLOSS
FLOAT
Valve headloss
HEADLOSS1000
FLOAT
Valve headloss per 1000 length units
Table 3.10.14.24 Rules Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Rule ID
CONDITION
CHAR (255)
Rule condition
DESCRIPTION
CHAR (40)
Rule description
Table 3.10.14.25 Sources Database Table Attributes
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Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Source ID
NODE
INTEGER
Source node ID
CONCEN
FLOAT
Source concentration
PATTERN
CHAR (25)
Pattern ID
SRCTYPE
INTEGER
Source type
Using the Program
Table 3.10.14.26 SQL_sel Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
SQL SELECT ID
SQLTYPE
INTEGER
SQL SELECT type
SQLDES
CHAR (50)
SQL SELECT description
SQLTEXT
CHAR (250)
SQL SELECT statement
Table 3.10.14.27 SQL_upd Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
SQL UPDATE ID
SQLTYPE
INTEGER
SQL UPDATE type
SQLDES
CHAR (50)
SQL UPDATE description
SQLTEXT
CHAR (250)
SQL UPDATE statement
Table 3.10.14.28 Times Database Table Attributes
Field Name
Type
Description
DURATION
FLOAT
Simulation duration
HYDR_TIMESTEP
FLOAT
Hydraulic time step
QUAL_TIMESTEP
FLOAT
Quality time step
MIN_TRAVELTIME
FLOAT
Minimum travel time
PATTERN_TIMESTEP
FLOAT
Pattern time step
REPORT_TIMESTEP
FLOAT
Report time step
REPORT_START
FLOAT
Report start
DUR_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Duration units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
HYD_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Hydraulic time step units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
QUA_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Quality time step units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
MIN_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Minimum travel time units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
PAT_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Pattern time steps units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
RET_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Report time steps units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
RES_UNITS
CHAR (1)
Report start units (“D”, “H”, “M”, “S”)
CLOCKHRS
INTEGER
Simulation clock hours
CLOCKMIN
INTEGER
Simulation clock minutes
CLOCKAMPM
CHAR (2)
AM/PM
AVERAGED
INTEGER
Result averaging (0: without statistics, 1:
minimum values, 2: maximum values,
3:averaged)
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3.10.15ESRI GIS Shape File Structure
The following tables describe the ESRI GIS shape file format and the fields contained
within the shape files. These field names can be used to link external GIS databases for
performing querying and global updating of data.
Table 3.10.15.1 Nodes Database Table Attributes (Junctions, Tanks, and Reservoirs)
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Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Node ID
NODETYPE
INTEGER
Node type (0: pipe bend, 1: junction, 21:
reservoirs, 22: tank)
NODETEXT
CHAR (15)
Node type (“Junction”, “Reservoir“, “Tank”)
TEXT
CHAR (25)
Node description
X
FLOAT
X coordinate
Y
FLOAT
Y coordinate
ELEV
FLOAT
Z coordinate
DEMAND
FLOAT
Junction demand
DEMCOEFF
FLOAT
Junction demand coefficient
PATTERN
CHAR (25)
Pattern ID
INITLEVEL
FLOAT
Tank initial water depth
MINLEVEL
FLOAT
Tank minimum water depth
MAXLEVEL
FLOAT
Tank maximum water depth
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Tank diameter or tank length
MINVOL
FLOAT
Tank minimum volume
WIDTH
FLOAT
Tank width
STATE
INTEGER
Node state/phase (“Existing”, “Proposed”)
LOCDEMAND
FLOAT
Additional junction demand
PZONE
INTEGER
Pressure zone ID
TANKTYPE
INTEGER
Tank type (0: circular, 1: rectangular)
MIXMODEL
INTEGER
Tank mixing model type
COMVOL
FLOAT
Tank compartment volume
I2
INTEGER
Bend pipe ID
DEMAND_1
FLOAT
Multiple junction demand No.1
PATTERN_1
CHAR (25)
Multiple junction demand No.1 pattern
DEMAND_2
FLOAT
Multiple junction demand No.2
PATTERN_2
CHAR (25)
Multiple junction demand No.2 pattern
DEMAND_3
FLOAT
Multiple junction demand No.3
PATTERN_3
CHAR (25)
Multiple junction demand No.3 pattern
DEMAND_4
FLOAT
Multiple junction demand No.4
PATTERN_4
CHAR (25)
Multiple junction demand No.4 pattern
DEMAND_5
FLOAT
Multiple junction demand No.5
PATTERN_5
CHAR (25)
Multiple junction demand No.5 pattern
Using the Program
Table 3.10.15.2 Pipes Database Table Attributes (Pipes, Valves, and Pumps)
Field Name
Type
Description
ID
INTEGER
Link ID
LINKTYPE
INTEGER
Link type (1: pipe, 2: valve, 3: pump)
LINKTEXT
CHAR (15)
Link type (“Pipe”, “Pump“, “Valve”)
TEXT
CHAR (25)
Link description
NODE1
INTEGER
Starting node ID
NODE2
INTEGER
Ending node ID
DIAMETER
FLOAT
Diameter
L
FLOAT
Length
RCOEFF
FLOAT
Roughness coefficient
LCOEFF
FLOAT
Minor loss coefficient
CV
CHAR(2)
Check valve (“CV” : exists, “ ” : none)
VALVETYPE
CHAR(3)
Valve type (“PRV”, “PSV”, “PBV”, “FCV”, “TCV”, “GPV“)
SETTING
FLOAT
Valve or pump setting
LOSSCOEFF
FLOAT
Valve loss coefficient
PUMPTYPE
INTEGER
1: constant, 2: 1-point, 3: 3-point curve, 4: 3-point extended
PAR1
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 1
PAR2
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 2
PAR3
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 3
PAR4
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 4
PAR5
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 5
PAR6
FLOAT
Pump H-Q curve parameter 6
STATE
INTEGER
Link state/phase (“Existing”,”Proposed”)
COEFF1
FLOAT
Demand coefficient 1
COEFF2
FLOAT
Demand coefficient 2
STATUS
INTEGER
Initial setting
MATERIAL
CHAR (25)
Pipe material
AGE
INTEGER
Construction Year
BEND
INTEGER
Pipe bend type (0: without bend, 1: with pipe bends)
QHCURVE
CHAR (15)
Pump Head-flow curve ID
EFCURVE
CHAR (15)
Pump efficiency curve ID
PATTERN
CHAR (15)
Pump pattern ID
EPRICE
FLOAT
Pump energy price curve ID
EPATTERN
CHAR (15)
Pump energy price pattern ID
HLCURVE
CHAR (15)
Valve head-loss curve ID
TAG
CHAR (15)
Additional description
3.10.16Programming Support
It is relatively easy to connect the MIKE NET database to any programming language
that supports either Borland’s Interbase (such as Borland Delphi) or ODBC
connections (such as Visual Basic and Visual C/C++). In order to connect to the MIKE
NET database, the following must be performed:
•
Data source, such as ODBC or native Interbase support.
•
Create an application that uses the previously defined data source.
•
Open any of the MIKE NET tables and read/write the table attributes using
the programmed application.
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3.11 Program Configuration
MIKE NET configuration information is stored in a configuration file called EMS.INI,
contained in the MIKE NET program directory. If this file is deleted or if you receive
a newer version of MIKE NET, the program will revert to its default configuration
values.
To configure MIKE NET, select Tools | Configuration. This will display the
Configuration dialog box, as shown in Figure 3.11.1. For example, from this dialog
you can specify whether MIKE NET should load when it starts up the last loaded
MIKE NET input file.
Figure 3.11.1 The Configuration dialog box allows you to specify MIKE NET program
configuration information
3.12 MIKE NET Scenario Manager
3.12.1 The Need for a Scenario Manager
Water and Wastewater models have many uses in practice ranging from operational
tools in real-time control applications to design and analysis support tools. Scenario
management is most commonly used in practice today when applying MIKE NET as
a design and analysis tool.
The development of a Water Supply and Water Distribution Master Plan, supply
strategy requires the analysis of a large number of alternative system configurations
and operational controls.
Balancing the lifecycle and capital cost of the proposed infrastructure upgrades or
augmentations against standards of service that the authorities provide develops the
plan or strategy. This process produces a large number of scenarios that must be
examined in order to find the optimal solution. To test the standard of service for each
of these scenarios a numerical model is developed to analyse each of the alternatives.
The difficulty arising from this design process is that a large number of alternative
models are developed where the data stored in each of the models is essentially the
same except for a small number of changes relating to a particular part of the system.
This results in a large amount of duplicate files and combinations of files that must be
used for each alternative.
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Using the Program
The management of this large number of files is cumbersome and prone to error. The
updating of the models with additional information is also extremely cumbersome as
it requires editing of multiple files to change the same element, e.g. if a pipe diameter
is found to have been incorrectly registered in the GIS data during the course of
a project the pipe diameter will have to be updated multiple times in each of the
scenario model files.
The design process also requires the analysis of multiple alternatives in combination
or in isolation. As such it is necessary to build up to 4 models to analyse 2 alternatives
(i.e Base Case, Case1, Case2 and Case1 and 2 in combination).
MIKE NET Scenario Manager provides an easy way of examining these multiple
'What-If' scenarios.
3.12.2 What is a Scenario Manager
The Scenario Manager provides a user interface to MIKE NET that enables the
efficient examination of alternative modelling scenarios such as:
•
Augmentation of existing trunk and reticulation water mains
•
Alternative demand conditions
•
Alternative cost and energy conditions
•
Alternative pumping conditions
•
Alternative storage tanks conditions
•
Alternative operational rule based controls
•
Building of new pipes in order to cater for new development
You can create an unlimited number of scenarios that share data in existing alternatives
and then submit a multiple number of scenarios for a batch run computation. In the
MIKE NET scenario manager there is no limit to what kind of changes that can be
made in the alternatives, e.g. topological changes (adding and deleting elements) can
be made and reports of these changes are available. All the standard MIKE NET
editors are used for editing the alternatives.
3.12.3 Scenarios and Alternatives
The scenario management deals with two levels: The scenario and the alternative level,
where the scenarios contain the alternatives. A scenario is a set of alternatives that
together make up the model.
Alternatives
Alternatives are the basic components of the scenarios. The alternatives contain the
actual data. Different sets of alternatives can be combined in scenarios. Alternatives
can vary independently within scenarios and can be shared between scenarios, as
the different alternatives can be grouped as one pleases within a given scenario. In
MIKE NET the input data can be grouped the following way, corresponding to the
different types of available alternatives:
•
Network data
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•
Multiple demands
•
Extended data
•
Water quality data
•
Cost and energy data
•
Operational data
•
Computational parameters
In Table 1 the different alternatives in MIKE NET are displayed next to the data
belonging to the alternative (by reference to the name of the respective dialogs).
Table 3.12.3.1 Alternatives and data belonging to the alternatives
Alternative
Name of dialogs belonging to the alternativ
(database table)
Network
Junction Editor (NODES)
Reservoir Editor (NODES)
Tank Editor (NODES)
Pipe Editor (PIPES)
Pump Editor (PIPES)
Valve Editor (PIPES)
Emitter Editor (EMITTERS)
Multiple Demand
Multiple Demand Editor (MDEMANDS)
Extended
Times Editor (TIMES)
Patterns Editor (MPATTERNS)
Water Quality
Initial Water Quality Editor (QUALITY)
Point Constituent Source Editor (SOURCES)
Reaction Rate Editor (REACTIONS)
Cost and Energy
Energy Editor (ENERGY)
Water Source Editor (WATER_SRC)
Operational
Control Editor (CONTROLSRule-Based Control Editor
(RULES)
Curves Editor (CURVES)
Computational
Project Options (PROJECT)
The editing facilities are the same as in standard MIKE NET, e.g. elements can be
added or deleted in the different alternatives as one likes to. An easy overview over the
changes made to scenarios and alternatives are provided through different reports of
the changes. After creating an arbitrary number of scenarios a 'Batch Run' facility can
be accessed where user-specified scenarios may be submitted for computation.
Base Data Contra Child Data
When the scenario manager is activated for the first time there will be number of built
in base alternatives to begin with for each alternative. A base alternative can be empty,
e.g. no operational data may be specified to begin with, thus leaving the Operational
Data base alternative empty. It is then possible to add child to the Operational Data
base alternative, which contains operational data. This way a scenario containing
operational data can be tested. The base data is the root of all the alternative trees.
The reasons for adding child alternatives can be many. E.g. it can be for testing what
the performance of the system would be if the diameters for certain pipes are upsized,
or what an increase in population would mean or what the result of applying different
real time control strategies could be. When making a scenario active and starting to edit
the data, all the alternatives that are a part of the scenario may be altered.
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When an alternative has been found that is suited the best for a given system it is
possible to merge the changes from the chosen alternative to the base alternative. It is
also possible to save a given scenario with the specific combinations of alternatives
that is the best for the system on files and perhaps use this as basis for making new
scenarios later on.
Inheritance Principles
With the inheritance from parent alternatives to child alternatives, some specific must
be kept in mind.
Making a change to an alternative will affect all child alternatives of that alternative as
well as having impact on all the scenarios where either the alternative or the children
of that alternative are applied. This also ensures that if one value needs updating it will
be updated in all the scenarios where the alternative is applied (e.g. if a pipe diameter
is found to have been incorrectly registered in the GIS data during the course
of a project then the pipe diameter can be changed one place only, regardless of the
number of scenarios and alternatives that reference this alternative)
•
Adding an element (e.g. a node) in the parent with an ID that already exists
in one or more of the children will overwrite the content of the child element
•
If adding an element (e.g. pump/link) in the parent that cannot be added to all
the children (because some parts may have been deleted/changed there), the
element is added where possible (will work as after performing a soft delete).
Data not Specific to any Alternative/Scenario
Some data is common for all the scenarios and can be accessed from every scenario
regardless of the alternatives that make up that specific scenario. Items not included in
any alternative, but common for the entire project are:
•
Project prototypes
•
Engineering tables
•
Pressure zones
•
User defined objects
•
Pipe roughness calibration data
This data should be understood as belonging to a general project database. As they are
not part of the scenario, they cannot as such be varied from one scenario to another.
Reporting of the Changes
A number of very informative reports are available for tracking and documenting
the changes made in the different scenarios and alternatives. Reports can be produced
using colours or in black/white. Reports can only be produced for the active scenarios/
alternatives.
By local data below, we mean data that is modified in the current alternative and thus
is defined locally for that alternative.
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MIKE NET
Selected
For an alternative: This will create a report for the local and new data for the selected
group of the active alternative.
For a scenario: This will create a report for the local and new data for all alternatives
belonging to the active scenario.
Selected Compared
For an alternative: This will create a report for the local and new data including the
data from the parent alternative for comparison reasons. The parent data is indicated
by having 'Parent' written in the last field and the local and new data will be indicated
by having 'Inherited, Local, or New' written in the last field.
For a scenario: This will create a report for the local and new data including the data
from the parent alternative belonging to all the alternatives present in that scenario.
This report is created for all alternatives belonging to the active scenario.
All
For an alternative: This will report the content of the alternative, local as well as
inherited data.
For a scenario: This will report the entire content of all the alternatives belonging to
that scenario, displaying local as well as inherited data.
All Compared
For an alternative: This will create a report for all the local data including the data
from the parent alternative. It will also report the deleted records.
For a scenario: This will create a report for all the local data for each alternative
belonging to the scenario including the data from the parent alternative.
Hierarchy
For an alternative: This will report the tree of the alternatives.
For a scenario: This will report the list of scenarios including the tree of the
alternatives of the active scenario.
Saving Scenarios
When having worked with scenarios in a given project you the scenario data is
automatically saved by saving the project.
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3.12.4 The Scenario Manager Window
The Scenario Manager has two tabular pages:
•
Scenarios - for creating, editing and managing scenarios, see Figure 1
•
Alternatives - for creating, editing and managing alternatives, see Figure 2
Figure 3.12.4.1 Scenario Manager Dialog, Scenario Tab
Figure 3.12.4.2 Scenario Manager Dialog, Alternative Tab
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MIKE NET
Creating, Adding and Managing Scenarios
The scenario page is used for creating, editing, and manage scenarios. Per default there
will one built-in scenario, i.e. the Base scenario. The Base scenario cannot be edited or
deleted. An unlimited number of additional scenarios can then be added to cover the
various 'What if' scenarios.
The scenario page consists of seven speed buttons on the top of the window, along with
display of the current (active) scenario. The speed buttons represent some
of the functionality found on the ordinary buttons along the right side of the window.
Add
The add button adds a scenario, per default the alternatives of that scenario will be the
alternatives of the Base scenario, i.e. the Base alternatives. Using the button down
functionality in each field (activated by left-clicking in the field) will allow changing
the alternative content. A default name for the new scenario will be suggested. Left
clicking on the name once and then editing the name can change the name.
Add Child
The add child button adds a scenario that is a child of the highlighted (not to be
confused with the active/current scenario), i.e. the alternatives of new scenario will to
begin with be that of the highlighted scenario. Using the button down functionality
in each field (activated by left-clicking in the field) will allow changing the alternative
content. A default name for the new scenario will be suggested. Left clicking on the
name once and then editing the name can change the name.
Activate
The activate button will load the scenario, i.e. the project data is manipulated so that
all editors contain the appropriate data. Depending on the size of the project this may
take some time.
Delete
The delete button will delete the highlighted scenario. The Base scenario cannot be
deleted. Note that deleting a scenario will not delete any data as the alternatives hold
the data (the scenarios just refer to alternatives). The comments for the scenario being
deleted, however, will also be deleted.
Tree/Table
The Tree/Table button (depending on which view is currently chosen the button will
display the either Tree or Table) will switch between the two views of the scenarios.
Report
The Report button will open up a local menu from which the report type can be chosen.
Help
Activates the online help for the scenario page
Close
Closes the scenario manager
The middle of the scenario window can display either a table with all the scenarios
(along with the alternatives that are used in the specific scenarios), or a tree view of the
scenarios (where only the alternatives of highlighted scenario will be displayed.
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Using the Program
The table view also contains a column with the possibility to choose the scenarios to
commit for a batch run. Pressing the respective buttons easily makes the switch
between the table or tree view.
Run and Bath Run of Scenarios
It is very useful to set-up and run multiple scenarios in a batch run that does not require
user interaction.
Submitting scenarios for a batch run can easily be done by first selecting the relevant
the scenarios on the scenario manager. This is done by checking off the relevant
scenarios in the 'Run' column in the table view, see Figure 3. The actual batch run is
then activated by choosing File | Run Batch Analysis. The selected scenarios for the
batch run will remain unchanged until you un-select them on the scenario page (by
simply removing the check).
Figure 3.12.4.3 Selecting scenarios for a batch run
The result of the different scenarios will be saved in result files corresponding to the
scenario name. E.g. making a batch runoff computation of Scen01 and Scen02 will
result in two result files named Scen01.res and Scen02.res.
Creating, Adding and Managing Alternatives
Alternatives can be edited only if the appropriate scenario is made active. When the
scenario is loaded, the project data is manipulated so that all editors contain the
appropriate data. The title bar of each dialog will display the name of the alternative
that is currently being displayed and edited.
You can make any changes that you like to an alternative, i.e. you can add, modify or
delete data.
The alternative page consists of a number of buttons along the right side of the
window. The window in the middle displays all the alternatives. The alternatives that
are referenced from the active scenario are displayed in bold. The base alternatives are
simply named the same as the alternatives. By right clicking on active alternative
a local menu opens that provides a short cut to all the editors related to that alternative.
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MIKE NET
Add
The add button adds a scenario, per default the alternatives of that scenario will be the
alternatives of the Base scenario, i.e. the Base alternatives. Using the button down
functionality in each field (activated by left-clicking in the field) will allow changing
the alternative content. A default name for the new alternative will be suggested. Left
clicking on the name once and then editing the name can change the name.
Add Child
The add child button adds a scenario that is a child of the highlighted (not to be
confused with the active/current scenario), i.e. the alternatives of new scenario will to
begin with be that of the highlighted scenario. Using the button down functionality in
each field (activated by left-clicking in the field) will allow changing the alternative
content. A default name for the new scenario will be suggested. Left clicking on the
name once and then editing the name can change the name.
Delete
The delete button will delete the highlighted alternative. The Base alternative cannot
be deleted. Remember: Deleting an alternative will delete input data.
Report
The report button will open up a local menu from which the report type can be chosen.
Merge
The merge button will merge the child alternative into the parent alternative.
The merge button will merge the child alternative into the parent alternative. Merge
moves all records from the selected child alternative into its parent alternative, and
then removes the selected alternative. The records in the selected alternative will
replace the corresponding records in the parent. This is helpful when you have been
experimenting with changes in a child alternative, and you want to permanently apply
those changes to the parent alternative. All other alternatives that inherit data from that
parent alternative will reflect these changes.
Duplicate
The duplicate button will make a duplicate of the highlighted alternative. This means
that all the changes made to the highlighted alternative.
Help
Activates the online help for the alternative page.
Close
Closes the scenario manager.
If you e.g. would like to investigate how an upsizing of certain pipes and adding some
real time control to the system can affect the performance of the system, then you
simply start out by making two child alternatives. One for the physical data
(as the pipes are a part of this alternative) and one for the operational data (as the real
time control is a part of that alternative). Then you make a scenario that contains e.g.
the new physical alternative and the new operational data alternative and activate this
scenario. Then you simply start editing the data (e.g. upsizing the pipes and adding real
time control). Once the data is edited in the alternatives as you like them to be you can
perform a simulation. You can also choose to make a new scenario that contains e.g.
the physical alternative (but not the operational data alternative), to see what change
in performance the upgrading of the pipes alone will have. And so on - the
combinations are endless.
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Using the Program
Editing Data
The data, belonging to the active alternative is edited in the standard editors. Most of
the editors, such as Pipe Editor, are adjusted to display flags, which help to distinguish
between base data, inherited data, changed data, and new data.
This flag SMFLAG is a part of the record definition in the corresponding database
tables, and it is easy to use it for data querying. The SMFLAG has the following
values:
•
0: Base data
•
1: Inherited data
•
2: Local data
•
3: New data
•
4: Deleted data
Examples:
Select * from pipes where linktype=1 and smflag = 1
To select pipes inherited from the parent alternative
Select * from pipes where linktype=1 and smflag = 2
To select changed pipes
Select * from pipes where linktype=1 and smflag = 3
To select new pipes
Figure 3.12.4.4 Editing alternatives data
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MIKE NET
Network Alternatives
The network alternatives allow you to add new pipes (nodes) into your project, change
the current network layout, or delete parts of the network.
To edit network alternatives, use the scenario and alternative manager to define the
network alternatives, make its scenario active and then use any of the existing tools to
change the network geometry (insert new pipes and nodes, modify selected pipes,
delete nodes and pipes, etc).
Each time you make the appropriate network alternative active by selecting its
scenario, the horizontal plan window will be regenerated from the database.
Figure 3.12.4.5 Topological alternatives (Base alternative, Alternative 1, Alternative 2)
Demand Scenarios
Demand alternatives/scenarios can be handled in two different ways. Junction demand
is a part of the junction table and it is therefore edited along with the Network
Alternative.
Multiple node demands are stored in the separate database table MDEMANDS and
multiple demands are therefore edited separately in the Multiple Demand Alternative.
If you wish to handle node demands separately from the network alternatives, do not
use base junction demand and base junction pattern but use only multiple node
demands.
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Database Structure of the Scenario Manager
Scenarios and alternatives are stored in the project database; there are several new
database tables, which are automatically created:
Table 3.12.4.1 Database Table
ZS_SCENARIO
Scenarios
ZS_SCENARIODATA
Scenarios link to alternatives
ZS_ALTERNATIVES
Alternatives
ZS_GROUP
Groups used by alternatives
ZS_GROUPDATA
Groups attributes
ZSA_PIPES
Working copy of a PIPES table
ZSB_PIPES
Working copy of a PIPES table
ZSD_PIPES
Working copy of a PIPES table
ZSP_PIPES
Parent data of a PIPES table
ZSA_NODES
Working copy of a NODES table
ZSB_NODES
Working copy of a NODES table
ZSD_NODES
Working copy of a NODES table
ZSP_NODES
Parent data of a NODES table
3-131
MIKE NET
3-132
C H A P T E R
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9
4.1.10
4.1.11
4.1.12
4.2
4.2.1
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.5
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.5
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.6
4.4.6.1
4.6.2
Network Component Editors
Common Editor Features
Junction Editor
Pipe Editor
Pump Editor
Valve Editor
Reservoir Editor
Tank Editor
Curve Editor
Energy Editor
Emitter Editor
Pressure Zone Editor
Multiple Demand Editor
Network Demand
Distributed Demands
Extended Period Simulations
Simple Contol Editor
Rule Based Control Editor
Pattern Editor
Time Editor
Time Editor
Water Quality Simulations
Water Quality Analysis Selection
Water Quality Analysis Parameters
Initial Water Quality Editor
Point Contaminant Source Editor
Reaction Rate Editor
Source Tracing
Network Tracking
Forward and Backward Tracking
Checking Network Connectivity
Modules
Network Calibration and Optimization
User Defined Objects
4
4-1
4-2
4-6
4-10
4-16
4-22
4-28
4-30
4-35
4-36
4-37
4-37
4-38
4-39
4-39
4-41
4-42
4-45
4-47
4-49
4-49
4-51
4-51
4-52
4-53
4-54
4-56
4-58
4-59
4-59
4-60
4-61
4-61
4-68
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.7.8
4.7.9
4.7.10
4.7.11
4.7.12
Miscellaneous
Unit Bases
Synchronize Network References
Recompute Pipe Lengths
Coordinate Adjustment
Proposed to Existing
Locking the Project
Project Information
Prototypes
Engineering Tables
General SQL Command
External Database Support
Generate Node Elevations
4-75
4-75
4-76
4-77
4-77
4-77
4-78
4-78
4-79
4-80
4-81
4-83
4-85
4.1.1
4.1.1.1
4.1.1.2
4.1.1.3
4.1.1.4
4.1.1.5
4.1.2.1
4.1.3.1
4.1.3.2
4.1.4.1
4.1.4.2
4.1.4.3
4.1.4.5
4.1.4.5
4.1.5.1
4.1.5.2
4.1.5.3
4.1.6.1
4.1.6.2
4.1.7.1
4.1.7.2
4.1.7.3
4.1.8.1
4.1.8.2
4.1.8.3
4.1.9.1
4.1.10.1
4.1.11.1
4.1.12.1
4.2.1.1
4.3.1.1
4.3.3.1
4.3.3.2
4.3.3.3
4.3.4.1
4.4.1.1
The Edit Menu allows access to the network component editors 1
The network component editors all have similar features to aid the user in defining a water distribution
network 2
The Filter dialog box allows you to define a SQL query statement to select specific network components
that meet a specific criteria 3
The Global dialog box allows you to define a SQL update statement to select specific network components
that
meet a specific criteria and then perform a global change on a particular attribute of that component 5
Example of an HTML report generated by MIKE NET 5
The Analysis Results Table window provides you with a quick summary of the EPANET analysis results
for the pipe network 6
The Junction Editor allows you to define the junction nodes that define the interconnectivity between the
water
distribution network components 7
The Pipe Editor allows you to define the pipes that make up the water distribution network 11
When clicking on an existing pipe with the Add Pipe tool, MIKE NET will ask whether to insert a junction
node into
the existing pipe for connecting the new pipe 15
The Pump Editor allows you to define the pumps used in the water distribution network 16
A 1-point pump curve contains no extended flow range 18
A Q-H Table used to define the multi-point pump curve19
A 3-point pump curve with no extended flow range. 19
When clicking on an existing pipe with the Add Pump tool, MIKE NET will ask whether to insert a pump
within the existing pipe or to replace the existing pipe with a pump 21
The Valve Editor allows you to define the valves used in the water distribution network 22
MIKE NET valve symbols used to represent the valve type 26
When clicking on an existing pipe with the Add Valve tool, MIKE NET will ask whether to insert a valve
within
the existing pipe or to replace the existing pipe with a valve 26
The Reservoir Editor allows you to define the reservoir nodes that supply an infinite amount of water to
the water
distribution network 28
When clicking on an existing junction node with the Add Reservoir tool, MIKE NET will ask whether to
convert
the selected node into a reservoir 30
The Tank Editor allows you to define the storage tank nodes that supply water to the water distribution
network 31
Definition of storage tank levels 33
When clicking on an existing junction node with the Add Tank tool, MIKE NET will ask whether to convert the
selected node into a storage tank 35
Curve Editor Window, Definition of data curves35
Inserting Values in Curve Editor36
Preview of a defined curve in Curve Editor36
Energy Editor Window37
Emitter Editor37
Pressure Zone Editor dialog box38
Multiple Demand Editor dialog box38
The Distributed Demands dialog box computes the demand at each junction node automatically based
upon the
total demand within a pressure zone or entire network system 40
The Control Editor allows the user to define the network operational controls 43
Pattern Editor Dialog Box 47
The Multipliers dialog box allows the user to define demand and/or constituent concentration multipliers
for the
current pattern ID48
Graphical representation of the pattern multipliers49
The Time Editor allows the user to define the extended period simulation time parameters59
The Project Options dialog box allows the user to define the type of water quality analysis to be performed
MIKE NET
4.4.2.1
4.4.3.1
4.4.4.1
4.4.5.1
4.4.6.1
4.5.1.1
4.6.1.1
4.6.1.2
4.6.1.3
4.6.1.4
4.6.1.5
4.6.1.6
4.6.1.7
4.6.1.8
4.6.1.9
4.6.1.10
4.6.1.11
4.6.1.12
4.6.1.13
4.6.2.1
4.6.2.2
4.6.2.3
4.6.2.4
4.6.2.5
4.7.4.1
4.7.5.1
4.7.7.1
4.7.8.1
4.7.9.1
4.7.10.1
4.7.12.1
51
The Project Options dialog box allows the user to define the analysis parameters used in a water quality
simulation 52
The Initial Water Quality Editor is used to define the initial water quality conditions of the pipe network
system 53
The Point Contaminant Source Editor is used to specify at which nodes an external chemical constituent
enters the
pipe network system 54
The Reaction Rate Editor is used to specify constituent reaction rates at both a global and local level 56
The Trace Node dialog box is used to specify a single node that acts like a tracer in determining what percent of its
water reaches any other node in the network 59
An example of backward tracking, showing how flow is traced backward from the selected node to the
originating source node 60
Schematic illustration of an evolutionary algorithm. The population is initialized (usually randomly). From
this population,
the most fit entities are selected to be altered by genetic operations exemplified by crossover (corresponding to sexual
reproduction) and mutation. Selection is performed based on certain fitness criteria in which the more "fit"
are selected
more often. Crossover simply combines two genotypes by exchanging sub-stings around randomly selected points.
In the illustration above, parental genotypes are indicated as either al 1s or all 0s, for the sake of clarity.
Mutation simply
flips the randomly selected bit62
Horizontal plan with the network layout63
Network calibration and optimization dialog box63
Pipes with fixed value of roughness coefficient (k=3mm)64
Pipe groups can be created by the assistant64
Pipe groups are created based upon pipe attributes automatically65
Pipe roughness groups define the roughness coefficient limits65
Pipe groups are assigned to the defined pipe roughness groups66
Measured flow in two selected points, the inflow into the pressure zone from the main pipeline66
Measured pressure in five selected points66
Targeted flow values67
Targeted pressure values67
Genetic algorithms pipe roughness calibration68
Example of user-defined dialog box, which is automatically created by MIKE NET70
SQL select QBE (Query By Example) Assistant71
The new menu item is automatically created under the main menu system72
MKN_HYDRANTS is automatically created73
The hydrants can be mapped onto the horizontal plan window nodes by corresponding NODEID73
The Coordinate Adjustment dialog box allows the user to adjust the network coordinates due to some coordinate
axis or elevation datum change 77
The Junction Editor illustrates the Phase data entry, that allows the user to distinguish between PROPOSED and
EXISTING network components 78
The Project Information dialog box provides an overview description of the defined water distribution network 79
The Prototypes dialog box allows you to define the properties of any newly inserted components that are
added to
the network system 80
The Engineering Tables define lookup table values for pipe roughness coefficients and minor loss coefficients 81
General SQL Command Dialog Box allows the user to define and execute any SQL statement81
Generate Node Elevation dialog box86
C H A P T E R
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
4
This chapter provides complete descriptions of the MIKE NET data input dialog
boxes. Because the program's data input dialog boxes are usually self-explanatory and
context-sensitive help is always available, this chapter is primarily for reference
purposes only.
For a detailed overview on using this program, see Chapter 3.
4.1
Network Component Editors
The following sections describe the various network component editors (i.e., junctions,
pipes, pumps, reservoirs, tanks, and values). These network component editors allow
you to define each component individually using a spreadsheet like data entry dialog
box. This enables you to view and edit the attributes of all of the components that have
been defined. These component editors also allow you to define a network model
without a graphical layout, if that is necessary.
The network component editors are all available from the Edit Menu, as shown in
Figure 4.1.1.
Figure 4.1.1 The Edit Menu allow access to the network component editors
4-1
MIKE NET
4.1.1 Common Editor Features
All of the network component editors provided within MIKE NET have similar
features to help in defining a water distribution network. This section describes these
common features. A typical network component editor (i.e., Junction Editor) is shown
below in Figure 4.1.1.1.
Figure 4.1.1.1 The network component editors all have similar features to aid the user
in defining a water distribution network
The following subsections describe the common features contained in the network
component editors.
Displaying the Current Network Component
Choosing «Show» will highlight the currently selected network component on the
Horizontal Plan window. However, if a X and Y location has not been defined for the
selected network component or the Horizontal Plan window is not displayed, then this
button will be grayed out.
Graphically Creating a New Network Component
Choosing «Draw» will allow you to graphically place a single new network component
onto the Horizontal Plan window. Then, once the network component has been placed,
the new network component will be added to the component list in the editor.
Graphically Selecting a Network Component
Choosing «Pick» will allow you to graphically select a specific network component
from the Horizontal Plan window. Then, once the network component has been
selected, the selected component will be highlighted in the editor.
4-2
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Filtering Specific Network Components
Choosing «Filter...» will display the Filter dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.1.1.2. The
Filter dialog allows you to define a SQL query to retrieve only those network
components that meet a specific criteria (e.g., retrieve all junction nodes whose
demand is greater than 5 cfs, sorted by node ID).
Figure 4.1.1.2 The Filter dialog box allows you to define a SQL query statement to
select specific network components that meet a specific criteria
The Filter dialog is an extremely powerful feature of MIKE NET. It allows the user to
define specific selection criteria and then have the database select those network
components that meet that criteria.
The SQL Assistant contained within the Filter dialog box will help the user define
simple, straight-forward SQL queries. Clicking on «Construct» will then place the
defined query in the SQL Statement data entry. To perform the selection query, choose
«OK». MIKE NET will then perform a database call to select only those network
components that meet the selection criteria and the network component editor will then
be displayed with only those selected network components. To release the selection
filter from within the network component editor, select «Filter...» and then from the
Filter dialog select «Release». All of the network components will again be displayed
in the network component editor.
If the query is complex—one that cannot be easily defined using the SQL Assistant—
then a SQL query statement can be directly typed into the SQL Statement data entry.
Standard ANSI SQL keywords are allowed. MIKE NET will automatically check to
see if an erroneous SQL statement has been defined when the user selects «OK» and
will report the offending statement back to the user. See the section titled SQL Queries
in Chapter 3 for some example SQL query statements.
If the SQL query statement is to be reused, then a description can be defined for the
query statement and the statement stored in the SQL Manager. Selecting «Store» will
store the currently defined SQL query statement in the SQL Manager.
4-3
MIKE NET
Displaying Filtered Network Components
If a group of network components have been selected using the SQL filtering
capability previously described, then choosing «Map» will highlight all of the selected
network components on the Horizontal Plan window.
Performing Global Network Component Changes
Choosing «Modify...» will display the Modify dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.1.1.3.
The Modify dialog allows you to define a SQL update statement to globally change a
particular attribute of all of the network components currently displayed in the network
component editor. This task is typically performed after a particular set of network
components have been selected using the Filter dialog box.
For example, the Filter dialog box could be used to select only those pipes with a
18 inch diameter. The Global dialog box could then be used to change the roughness
coefficient to a particular value.
Figure 4.1.1.3 The Modify dialog box allows you to define a SQL update statement to
select specific network components that meet a specific criteria and then perform a
global change on a particular attribute of that component
The Modify dialog is an extremely powerful feature of MIKE NET. It allows the user
to define a specific global update command and then have the database perform this
update task.
The SQL Assistant contained within the Update dialog box will help the user define
simple, straight-forward SQL update statements. Clicking on «Construct» will then
place the defined update statement in the SQL Statement data entry. To perform the
update command, choose «OK». MIKE NET will then perform a database call to
update the specified attribute for the currently selected network components. The
network component editor will then be displayed with the network components and the
4-4
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
specified change. To release the selection filter from within the network component
editor, select «Filter...» and then from the Filter dialog select «Release». All of the
network components will again be displayed within the network component editor.
If the update statement is complex—one that cannot be easily defined using the
SQL Assistant—then the SQL statement can be directly typed into the SQL Statement
data entry. Standard ANSI SQL keywords are allowed. MIKE NET will automatically
check to see if an erroneous SQL statement has been defined when the user selects
«OK» and will report the offending statement back to the user. See the section titled
SQL Updates in Chapter 3 for some example SQL update statements.
If the SQL update statement is to be reused, then a description can be defined for the
update statement and the statement stored in the SQL Manager. Selecting «Store» will
store the currently defined SQL update statement in the SQL Manager.
Generating a Report
Choosing «Report...» will generate an HTML report, as shown in Figure 4.1.1.4. A
complete description of report generating capabilities is provided in Chapter 3.
Figure 4.1.1.4 Example of an HTML report generated by MIKE NET
Displaying Output Results
Choosing «Results...» will display the Analysis Results Table window, as shown in
Figure 4.1.1.4, which provides a table summary of the EPANET analysis results. This
allows you to quickly examine the computed results. A complete description of the
Analysis Results Table window is provided in Chapter 3.
4-5
MIKE NET
Figure 4.1.1.5 The Analysis Results Table window provides you with a quick summary
of the EPANET analysis results for the pipe network
4.1.2 Junction Editor
The first step in defining a water distribution network is to define the junction nodes
that define the interconnection between the pipes, pumps, valves, tanks, and reservoirs
that make up the network. Junction nodes are also placed at points of water
consumption or inflow, at points where specific analysis values (e.g., pressure,
concentration, etc.) are desired, and at points where pipe attributes (e.g., diameter,
roughness, etc.) change.
Junction nodes are either defined interactively on the graphical Horizontal Plan
window using the Add Junction tool, or by manual data entry using the Junction
Editor dialog box as shown in Figure 4.1.2.1. The Junction Editor allows you to define
the junction’s ID, location, any external demand, and a description. The Junction
Editor dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Junction Editor.
4-6
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.1.2.1 The Junction Editor allows you to define the junction nodes that define
the interconnectivity between the water distribution network components
A list of the Junction Editor data entries for Figure 4.1.2.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
JUNCTION ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies the junction
node. The junction ID acts as a unique lookup key that identifies the node from
all other nodes. A node can be a junction, reservoir, or tank. Therefore, no two
nodes may have the same ID. However, a node and a link (i.e., pipe, pump, or
valve) can have the same ID. The node ID value must be a positive (non-zero)
integer value.
A new junction ID is automatically suggested by MIKE NET whenever a new
junction node is placed into the list by pressing «Insert». When defining the
junction nodes graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the
Add Junction tool, the junction ID is automatically defined.
When importing (or merging) multiple water distribution network models into
a single network model, MIKE NET will check for collisions between identical
node IDs and will automatically assign a new node ID value for any node being
imported that contains the same node ID value as what already exists in the
network model.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the junction node
being entered. This description can be optionally displayed on the Horizontal
Plan window and in reports generated by the Report Generator.
STATE
This drop down selection list data entry allows you to define whether the
junction node is unmarked (i.e an existing node already contained in the water
distribution network), or is marked (i.e. one that is being considered for future
expansion, etc.). By default, any junction nodes added are unmarked.
4-7
MIKE NET
To convert all of the defined proposed network components (i.e., nodes, pipes,
valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs) into existing components, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. However, once this component conversion has been
performed, it cannot be undone.
BASE DEMAND (optional)
This data entry allows you to define the amount of baseline demand flow to be
applied to the junction node, whose flowrate is in the user-specified unit base.
The default baseline demand flow is zero.
If no water is entering or leaving the network system at this junction node
location, this entry should be specified as zero. If flow is leaving the network
system at this junction node, then a positive value should be specified. If an
inflow into the network system occurs at this junction node (e.g., from a
groundwater extraction well), then a negative value should be specified.
This demand value will be adjusted during an extended period simulation
according to the assigned demand pattern ID. Caution should be exercised if a
groundwater extraction well is defined using this entry, since the groundwater
extraction rate will be adjusted according to the assigned demand pattern ID.
Note that the baseline demand at this junction node can be (optionally)
computed by globally defining the demand for the entire network and then
having MIKE NET distribute this demand to each of the network nodes using
the Distributed Demand dialog box. See the section titled Distributed Demands
on 4-39 for more information on computing distributed demands.
For extended period simulations, the baseline demand can be adjusted during
the simulation due to a predefined time pattern factor. See the section titled
Pattern Editor on 4-48 for more information.
ADDITIONAL DEMAND (optional)
This data entry allows you to define an additional amount of water demand at
this junction node, whose flowrate is in the user-specified unit base. Typically
this value represents some large user (i.e., manufacturing, etc.) of water at this
junction node. The default additional demand is zero.
If no additional water enters or leaves the network system at this junction node
location, then this entry should be specified as zero. If additional flow is leaving
the network system at this junction node, then a positive value should be
specified. If an additional inflow into the network system occurs at this junction
node (e.g., from a groundwater extraction well), then a negative value should be
specified.
This demand value will be adjusted during an extended period simulation
according to the assigned demand pattern ID. Caution should be exercised if a
groundwater extraction well is defined using this entry, since the groundwater
extraction rate will be adjusted according to the assigned demand pattern ID.
This data entry allows you to define a demand value at the junction node that is
not affected by the computed distributed demand which is automatically
assigned by MIKE NET. See the section titled Distributed Demands on 4-39 for
4-8
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
more information on computing distributed demands. Therefore, in instances
where there is a large (fixed) demand at this junction node that is not affected
by population loading, this data entry should be used.
BASE DEMAND PATTERN ID (optional)
This data entry allows you to define the ID of the demand pattern to be applied
to the junction node demand values during an extended period simulation. This
demand pattern will be applied to the defined baseline demand.
If a groundwater well is associated with this node, then a demand pattern should
not be assigned—otherwise the groundwater extraction rate will be adjusted
according to the assigned demand pattern.
Selecting «Table...» allows you to display the selection dialog box, where the
appropriate demand pattern ID can be selected. By default this data entry is
blank and default demand pattern ID of 1 is assigned. See the section titled
Pattern Editor on 4-48 for more information on demand patterns.
MULTIPLE DEMAND
Junctions may have more than one demand assigned to them. This function is
particularly useful if the demand patters of multiple water users are known for
a given junction. It is also possible to assign separate patterns to the demands
assigned to a given junction. The demands and demand patterns can be assigned
from the Junction Editor, by selecting the Multiple option for base demand.
DEMAND COEFFICIENT
The new field was added into the Junction editor. Demand coefficient allows
you to define the share from the whole network demand, which is taken by the
node. This filed is used only by the Demand Distribution function.
Example: the network has 3 nodes, where the demand coefficient is defined;
these values are 10, 10, and 30. For each node, the weighted coefficient is
calculated and based on it; the total network demand is distributed. The node,
where the demand coefficient is not defined will get no demand from the total
network demand: Q
QT
- Ci
q i = ---------------
∑
i = 0.n
where: qi = node demand
Qt = total network demand
ci = demand coefficient
PRESSURE ZONE (optional)
This data entry allows you to define the ID of the pressure zone that the junction
node lies within.
Selecting «Table...» allows you to display the Pressure Zone selection dialog
box, where the appropriate pressure zone ID can be selected. The default
pressure zone is 1.
4-9
MIKE NET
ELEVATION
This data entry defines the elevation above a common datum for the junction
node, in units of ft. or m. This value is used to determine the pressure head at
the node during a simulation. The default elevation is zero.
Junction nodes should have their elevation specified above zero datum (i.e., sea
level) so that pressure computations can be carried out.
X and Y LOCATION (optional)
The X and Y data entries are used to define the physical (map) location of the
junction node, in units of ft. or m. This location definition is optional. In some
cases, the actual location of the junction node is not known—especially in older,
legacy networks. However, if the location is defined, then the junction node will
be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window. When defining the junction nodes
graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Junction tool, the
X, Y location is automatically entered.
Graphical Placement and Editing of Junction Nodes
From the Horizontal Plot window, the Add Junction tool can be used to add a junction
node. As nodes are added graphically to the Horizontal Plot window, their X, Y
locations are stored into the MIKE NET database. While placing a new node, if the
user clicks on an existing node MIKE NET will display an error message informing
the user that an invalid location had been selected.
If desired, from the Horizontal Plan window, the user can move an existing junction
node using the Select tool. By selecting the node and holding down the left mouse
button, the node can be dragged to a new location. As the node is dragged, its
connecting links (i.e., pipes, pumps, and valves) rubber band along with it. Note that
if the node is locked, it cannot be moved (see the section titled Locking the Project on
4-79 for more information).
To delete an existing junction node graphically, select the node using the Select tool
and then press «Delete». The selected node and all its connecting links will then be
deleted. To edit a junction node, double click on the node using the Select tool. The
Junction Editor will then be displayed allowing you to edit the attributes of the selected
node.
4.1.3 Pipe Editor
Pipes are used to transport water from one node to another. Pipes must always begin
and end at a node.
4-10
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Pipes are either defined interactively on the Horizontal Plan window using the
Add Pipe tool, or by manual data entry using the Pipe Editor dialog box as shown in
Figure 4.1.3.1. The Pipe Editor allows you to define the pipe’s ID, diameter, loss
coefficients, nodal connectivity, description, and other attributes. The Pipe Editor
dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Pipe Editor.
Figure 4.1.3.1 The Pipe Editor allows you to define the pipes that make up the water
distribution network
A list of the Pipe Editor data entries for Figure 4.1.3.1 follows, with a short description
given for each entry.
PIPE ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies the pipe link.
The pipe ID acts as a unique lookup key that identifies the link from all other
links. A link can be a pipe, pump, or valve. Therefore, no two links may have
the same link ID. However, a link and node (i.e., junction, reservoir, or tank)
can have the same ID. The link ID value must be a positive (non-zero) integer
value.
A new pipe ID is automatically suggested by MIKE NET whenever a new pipe
is placed into the list by pressing «Insert». When defining the pipes graphically
on the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Pipe tool, the pipe ID is
automatically defined.
When importing (or merging) multiple water distribution network models into
a single network model, MIKE NET will check for collisions between identical
link IDs and will automatically assign a new link ID value for any link being
imported that contains the same link ID value as what already exists in the
network model.
4-11
MIKE NET
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the pipe being
entered. This description can be optionally displayed on the Horizontal Plan
window and in reports generated by the Report Generator.
STATE
This drop down selection list data entry allows you to define whether the pipe
is unmarked (i.e. a pipe already contained in the water distribution network), or
is marked (i.e. one that is being considered for future expansion, etc.). By
default, any pipes added are unmarked.
To convert all of the defined proposed network components (i.e., nodes, pipes,
valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs) into existing components, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. However, once this component conversion has been
performed, it cannot be undone.
DIAMETER
This data entry defines the internal diameter of the pipe, in inches or mm.
LENGTH
This data entry defines the pipe length, in units of ft. or m.
Selecting the User Defined check box allows the user to specify a specific pipe
length—independent of the pipe network layout. Otherwise, if this check box is
not selected and a pipe network layout is specified in which the pipe layout has
been altered, selecting «Recompute» will cause the software to recompute the
pipe length based upon the pipe layout.
A global recomputing of pipe lengths can be performed, if desired. See the
section titled Recompute Pipe Lengths on 4-78 for more information.
ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT
This data entry defines the roughness of the interior surface of the pipe. Based
upon which roughness type loss coefficient has been specified, this value is
unitless for Hazen-Williams or Chezy-Manning headloss formulas, and in
millifeet or mm for the Darcy-Weisbach (or Colebrook-White) formulation.
The roughness type is specified by the user within the Project Options dialog
box. Choosing «...» will display the Select Pipe Roughness Coefficient
selection dialog box, allowing the user to select the appropriate roughness value
to use.
MINOR LOSS COEFFICIENT (optional)
This data entry defines the sum of all the minor (or local) loss coefficients for
the pipe, which are unitless. Choosing «...» will display Select Minor Loss
Coefficient selection dialog box, allowing the user to select the appropriate
minor loss coefficient to use. If more that one minor loss component exists
along the pipe, then the sum of the corresponding minor loss coefficients should
be entered.
DEMAND COEFFICIENTS 1 & 2 (optional)
MIKE NET allows the user to recalculate the nodal water demands based upon
the total network demand using two methods: the Method of Pipe Lengths and
the Method of Two Coefficients. This feature is useful for automatically
assigning the nodal water demand to a large network, since the software will
4-12
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
automatically proportion the total network demand based upon one of these two
methods. These methods are used to mimic the amount of actual demand along
a pipe, based upon the pipe length or pre-defined demand coefficients.
These two data entries define the demand coefficients, k1i and k2i which are used
in these two computational methods. Each method proportions the total network
demand along the pipe by splitting the computed demand between the two
nodes at each end of the pipe.
The Method of Pipe Lengths computes the total water demand assigned to the
current pipe (which is then split between the starting and ending nodes) as:
( Q – Σo i )li k l i
q pi = --------------------------------Σ ( k l i li )
(4.2)
The Method of Two Coefficients computes the total water demand assigned to
the current pipe (which is then split between the starting and ending nodes) as:
( Q – Σo i )k li k 2i
q pi = ------------------------------------Σ ( k l i k 2i )
(4.3)
where:
qpi
=
Q
=
total water demand applied to the pipe, split between the two end nodes.
total network water demand. Note that the total network water demand is defined in
the Distributed Demands dialog box, available from the Edit Menu.
oi
=
sum of additional demands.
li
=
pipe length
See the section titled <Italic Text>Distributed Demands on 4-39 for more
information on computing distributed demands.
STARTING NODE
ENDING NODE
These data entries define the ID of the pipe’s starting (upstream) and ending
(downstream) nodes. These IDs define the pipe connectivity of the network.
The Node Type pull-down selection list allows the user to specify what type of
node is connected to the end of the pipe. Then, choosing «Table...» will display
the Select Node selection dialog box from which the user can select the
appropriate node. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the user to graphically select the
node from the Horizontal Plan window. To reverse the order of the nodes,
choose «Swap·Nodes».
If the computed flow is moving from the starting node to the ending node, the
computed flow value will be positive. If the computed flow is moving from the
ending node to the starting node, the computed flow value will be negative.
PIPE MATERIAL
This option allows the user to define the material of pipe construction. The Pipe
Material is defined by a “string” in the Junction Editor Dialog Box.
4-13
MIKE NET
PIPE AGE
This option allows the user to define the age of the pipe. Pipe age is defined by
an integer, meaning that alpha characters are not allowed to be entered in this
field. There are two common ways the user can define pipe age, either by year
of construction, or number of years the pipe has been in service. The choice is
left to the user.
PIPE STATUS
This option button data entry allows the user to toggle the OPEN and CLOSED
status of the pipe. Choosing CLOSED effectively removes the pipe from the
network system.
CHECK VALVE
This check box data entry defines the presence of a check valve in the pipe. If a
check valve exists, then water is only allowed to flow from the starting to ending
node. This is commonly used to prevent a flow reversal through the pipe. If
conditions exist for flow reversal, the valve shuts and the pipe carries no flow.
By default, no check valve is present in a pipe.
Warning
Note that you cannot set the pipe status of a pipe containing a check valve. Pipes with
a check valve are initially open, and close only if flow within the pipe attempts to
reverse (move from the ending downstream node to the starting upstream node).
Flow Direction
Note that the flow direction for pipes is assumed to be from the starting (upstream)
node to the ending (downstream) node. The order in which these nodes are specified
for each pipe is critical for a proper network representation. To reverse the order of the
nodes, choose «Swap·Nodes».
If the computed flow is moving from the starting node to the ending node, the
computed flow value will be positive. If the computed flow is moving from the ending
node to the starting node, the computed flow value will be negative.
Graphical Placement and Editing of Pipes
From the Horizontal Plot window, the Add Pipe tool can be used in different ways to
place a pipe. If the user clicks on or near an existing node, MIKE NET will snap to the
node and treat this as a starting node. A rubber-banding line will then be drawn from
this node, representing the pipe, while the user selects the ending node. Then, if the
user clicks on or near an existing node, it will snap to that node and treat the selected
node as the ending node—drawing in the pipe. If the user clicks anywhere else, it will
place an ending node at the selected location.
While selecting the starting node, if the user clicks with the Add Pipe tool in the
Horizontal Plan window somewhere else other than a node or a pipe, MIKE NET will
place a starting node at the clicked location.
4-14
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
If the user selects an existing pipe while selecting either the starting or ending nodes,
MIKE NET will display a query dialog, as shown in Figure 4.1.3.2, asking the user
whether to split the pipe and insert a node at the selected location. If the user selects to
insert a node into the pipe, the pipe will be broken into two segments at the point of
selection with a new node added. The length of the two pipe segments will be adjusted
accordingly so that the total length of the two segments equals that of the original pipe.
Figure 4.1.3.2 When clicking on an existing pipe with the Add Pipe tool, MIKE NET will
ask whether to insert a junction node into the existing pipe for connecting the new pipe
To delete an existing pipe graphically, select the pipe using the Select tool and then
press «Delete». The selected pipe will then be deleted. To edit a pipe, double click on
the pipe using the Select tool. The Pipe Editor will then be displayed allowing you to
edit the attributes of the selected pipe.
Snap Tolerance
As you graphically layout pipes in the Horizontal Plan window by clicking on existing
nodes, MIKE NET will snap to the nearest node if it is within a specified snap
tolerance. However, if the cursor is not placed directly on top of the node or within the
specified snap tolerance, MIKE NET may not snap to the node but instead will add a
new junction node.
A snap tolerance is specified in the Configuration dialog box, available from the Tools
Menu. This snap tolerance is specified in screen pixels, and defines how close the
cursor must be to the node in order to snap to the node. Anywhere outside of this snap
tolerance and a new junction node is created.
4-15
MIKE NET
Defining Curved Pipes
MIKE NET uses multi-segmented polylines to represent curved pipes. Intermediate
vertices are used to define the curvature of the pipe. A curved pipe is defined
graphically in the Horizontal Plan window. To define a curved pipe:
1.
Select the Add Curved Pipe tool from the Components toolbar and click on the
starting point in the Horizontal Plan window.
2.
After selecting the starting point, construct the curve of the pipe by clicking in
the Horizontal Plan window at the points the curvature changes to create
intermediate vertices so that an arc or a curved line is formed. Double-click on
the last position to end the curved pipe. If the last position is an existing node,
the end point of the curved pipe will snap to the existing node.
To recompute the pipe length based upon the curved layout, select Tools |
Recompute Pipe Lengths. MIKE NET will then recompute the pipe length for all of
the pipes contained within the network based upon the pipe layout. See the section
titled Recompute Pipe Lengths on 4-78 for more information.
4.1.4 Pump Editor
Pumps are used to raise the hydraulic head of water. Pumps are represented as short
links of negligible length. MIKE NET analysis engine will automatically prevent flow
reversal though a pump, and will issue warning messages when a pump operates
outside of its normal operating range.
Pumps are either defined interactively on the graphical Horizontal Plan window using
the Add Pump tool, or by manual data entry using the Pump Editor dialog box as
shown in Figure 4.1.4.1. The Pump Editor allows you to define the pump’s ID, pump
power curve, status, nodal connectivity, description, and other attributes. The Pump
Editor dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Pump Editor.
4-16
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.1.4.1 The Pump Editor allows you to define the pumps used in the water
distribution network
A list of the Pump Editor data entries for Figure 4.1.4.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
PUMP ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies the pump link.
The pump ID acts as a unique lookup key that identifies the link from all other
links. A link can be a pipe, pump, or valve. Therefore, no two links may have
the same link ID. However, a link and node (i.e., junction, reservoir, or tank)
can have the same ID. The link ID value must be a positive (non-zero) integer
value.
A new pump ID is automatically suggested by MIKE NET whenever a new
pump is placed into the list by pressing «Insert». When defining the pump
graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Pump tool, the pump
ID is automatically defined.
When importing (or merging) multiple water distribution network models into
a single network model, MIKE NET will check for collisions between identical
link IDs and will automatically assign a new link ID value for any link being
imported that contains the same link ID value as what already exists in the
network model.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the pump being
entered. This description can be optionally displayed on the Horizontal Plan
window and in reports generated by the Report Generator.
STATE
This drop down selection list data entry allows you to define whether the pump
is unmarked (i.e. a pump already contained in the water distribution network),
or is marked (i.e. one that is being considered for future expansion, etc.). By
default, any pumps added are unmarked.
To convert all of the defined proposed network components (i.e., nodes, pipes,
valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs) into existing components, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. However, once this component conversion has been
performed, it cannot be undone.
PUMP TYPE
This option button data entry defines the pump operating characteristics. There
are four options available to define the pump specifications. By default, a
constant power pump is selected.
A Constant Power pump is used when the pump characteristic curve is
unknown and a constant power output is assumed. The data entry specifies the
pump power rating, in hp or kw. The default power rating is zero.
A 1-Point Pump Curve pump, as shown in Figure 4.1.4.2, is used for a standard
pump curve with no extended flow range, where the cutoff head is 133% of the
design head and the maximum flow is twice the design flow.
4-17
MIKE NET
The Design Head is in units ft. or m, and are by default zero. The Design Flow
is in the user-specified units, and by default zero.
Head
h1, q1
Flow
Figure 4.1.4.2 A 1-point pump curve contains no extended flow range
A 3-Point Pump Curve, as shown in Figure 4.1.4.4 can be used to describe the
flow-head relationship of the pump.
The Shutoff Head is the head value at zero flow. The Design Head is the
standard operating head. The Design Flow is corresponding flow rate. The High
End Head is the head at the upper end of the normal operating flow range. The
High End Flow is the corresponding flow rate. The Maximum Flow is the flow
rate for the extended flow range.
All heads are in units of ft. or m, and flows are in the user-specified units.
A Q-H Pump Curve can alternatively. The Q-H Pump Curve is created by
providing either a pair of head-flow points, or four or more such points. MIKE
NET creates the pump curve by connecting the points with straight line
segments. The Q-H pump curve should be created in the Curve Editor found in
the Edit menu. Once the Q-H pump curve is created, it can then be assigned to
a pump in the Pump Editor.
4-18
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.1.4.3 A Q-H Table used to define the multi-point pump curve
h0
Head
h1, q1
h2, q2
Flow
Figure 4.1.4.4 A 3-point pump curve with no extended flow range.
STARTING NODE
ENDING NODE
These data entries define the ID of the pump’s starting (upstream) and ending
(downstream) nodes. These IDs define the pump connectivity to the network.
4-19
MIKE NET
The Node Type pull-down selection list allows the user to specify what type of
node is connected to the end of the pump. Then, choosing «Table...» will
display the Select Node selection dialog box from which the user can select the
appropriate node. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the user to graphically select the
node from the Horizontal Plan window.
Pumped flow is always assumed to move from the starting (upstream) node to
the ending (downstream) node. To reverse the order of the nodes, choose
«Swap·Nodes».
PUMP STATUS
The Pump Status defines the initial settings for the pump during the simulation
startup.
The option button data entry allows the user to toggle the OPEN and CLOSED
status of the pump. Choosing CLOSED effectively removes the pump from the
network system.
Note that the Setting data entry field allows the user to adjust the initial setting
of the pump at the start of the simulation. For example, entering a value of 1.2
specifies that the pump operates at 1.2 times its normal speed at the start of the
simulation.
PUMP ENERGY SETTINGS (optional)
MIKE NET is capable of modeling the cost of operating pumps. Within the
Pump Editor, the user can define a method for cost calculation.
Energy Price
The user defines an energy price ($/kw-hour) to be used. In this method, MIKE
NET determines the energy consumed by the pump in kw-hours and multiplies
the energy consumption by the price. Leave blank if not applicable or if the
global value supplied with the project's Energy Options will be used
Efficiency Curve
The ID label of the curve that represents the pump's wire-to-water efficiency (in
percent) as a function of flow rate. This information is used only to compute
energy usage. Leave blank if not applicable or if the global pump efficiency
supplied with the project's Energy Options will be used.
Price Pattern
The ID label of the time pattern used to describe the variation in energy price
throughout the day. Each multiplier in the pattern is applied to the pump's
Energy Price to determine a time-of-day pricing for the corresponding period.
Leave blank if not applicable or if the global pricing pattern specified in the
project's Energy Options will be used.
Variable Pumps
Many times, when performing an extended period simulation, it is desirable to model
a variable pump. A variable pump can vary its speed setting and/or change its status to
open or closed during a simulation. A variable pump is modeled by defining the
pump’s initial settings using the Pump Status previously described and then modifying
4-20
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
the pump’s operation during the extended period simulation using the Control Editor.
The Control Editor is available from the Extended Menu. See the section titled Control
Editor on 4-43 for additional information.
Flow Direction
Note that the flow direction for pumps is assumed to be from the starting (upstream)
node to the ending (downstream) node. The order in which these nodes are specified
is critical for a proper network representation of the pump. To reverse the order of the
nodes, choose «Swap·Nodes».
Graphical Placement and Editing of Pumps
From the Horizontal Plot window, the Add Pump tool can be used in different ways
to place a pump. If the user clicks on an existing pipe, MIKE NET will display a query
dialog, as shown in Figure 4.1.4.5, asking the user whether to insert a pump within the
existing pipe or to replace the existing pipe with a pump.
If the user selects to insert the pump within the pipe, the pipe will be broken into two
segments at the point of selection with two additional nodes added there. A pump will
then be inserted between these newly added nodes. The length of the two pipe
segments will be adjusted accordingly so that the total length of the two segments
equals that of the original pipe.
If the user selects to replace the existing pipe with a pump, the original pipe will be
deleted and a pump will be added between the original pipe’s starting and ending
nodes.
Figure 4.1.4.5 When clicking on an existing pipe with the Add Pump tool, MIKE NET
will ask whether to insert a pump within the existing pipe or to replace the existing pipe
with a pump
4-21
MIKE NET
Another method of using the Add Pump tool to add a pump is, from the Horizontal
Plan window, select a starting node and then an ending node. Clicking on or near an
existing node, MIKE NET will then snap to the selected node and a rubber-banding
line will then be drawn from this node, representing the starting node, while the user
selects the ending node. After selecting the ending node, MIKE NET will then place a
pump between the two selected nodes.
In addition, if the user clicks with the Add Pump tool in the Horizontal Plan window
somewhere else other than a node or a pipe, MIKE NET will place a starting node at
the clicked location. A rubber-banding line will then be drawn from this node,
representing the pump, while the user selects the ending node. If the user clicks on or
near an existing node, it will treat the selected node as the ending node. If the user
clicks anywhere else, it will place an ending node at the selected location. If the user
selects an existing pipe, an error message will be displayed stating that an invalid
ending node was selected.
To delete an existing pump graphically, select the pump using the Select tool and then
press «Delete». The selected pump will then be deleted. To edit a pump, double click
on the pump using the Select tool. The Pump Editor will then be displayed allowing
you to edit the attributes of the selected pump.
4.1.5 Valve Editor
Valves control the flow or pressure of water from one junction node to another. Valves
are represented as short links of negligible length. Note that valve pressure settings are
pressures (e.g., psi or m) and not total head (or hydraulic gradeline elevation). Also,
valves cannot be directly connected to reservoir or storage tank nodes.
Valves are either defined interactively on the Horizontal Plan window using the
Add Valve tool, or by manual data entry using the Valve Editor dialog box as shown
in Figure 4.1.5.1. The Valve Editor allows you to define the valve’s ID, type, status,
nodal connectivity, description, and other attributes. The Valve Editor dialog box is
reached by selecting Edit | Valve Editor.
4-22
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.1.5.1 The Valve Editor allows you to define the valves used in the water
distribution network
A list of the Valve Editor data entries for Figure 4.1.5.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
VALVE ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies the valve link.
The valve ID acts as a unique lookup key that identifies the link from all other
links. A link can be a pipe, pump, or valve. Therefore, no two links may have
the same link ID. However, a link and node (i.e., junction, reservoir, or tank)
can have the same ID. The link ID value must be a positive (non-zero) integer
value.
A new valve ID is automatically suggested by MIKE NET whenever a new
valve is placed into the list by pressing «Insert». When defining the valve
graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Valve tool, the valve
ID is automatically defined.
When importing (or merging) multiple water distribution network models into
a single network model, MIKE NET will check for collisions between identical
link IDs and will automatically assign a new link ID value for any link being
imported that contains the same link ID value as what already exists in the
network model.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the valve being
entered. This description can be optionally displayed on the Horizontal Plan
window and in reports generated by the Report Generator.
STATE
This drop down selection list data entry allows you to define whether the valve
is unmarked (i.e. a valve already contained in the water distribution network),
or is marked (i.e. one that is being considered for future expansion, etc.). By
default, any valves added are unmarked.
To convert all of the defined proposed network components (i.e., nodes, pipes,
valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs) into existing components, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. However, once this component conversion has been
performed, it cannot be undone.
VALVE TYPE
This radio button data entry defines the valve operating characteristics. There
are six options available to define the valve operating characteristics. By default
a pressure reducing valve (PRV) is selected.
A Pressure Reducing Valve (PRV) limits the pressure at the downstream node
to not exceed a preset value when the upstream node pressure is above the PRV
setting. If the upstream pressure is below the setting, flow through the valve is
unrestricted. Should the pressure at the downstream node exceed the pressure at
the upstream node, the valve closes to prevent reverse flow. Note that PRVs
cannot be placed directly in series.
4-23
MIKE NET
A Pressure Sustaining Valve (PSV) attempts to maintain a minimum pressure
at the upstream node when the downstream node pressure is below the PSV
setting. If the downstream pressure is above the setting, flow through the valve
is unrestricted. Should the downstream nodal pressure exceed the upstream
nodal pressure, then the valve closes to prevent reverse flow. Note that PSVs
cannot be placed directly in series.
A Pressure Breaker Valve (PBV) forces a specified pressure loss to occur
across the valve. Flow can be in either direction through the valve.
A Flow Control Valve (FCV) limits the flow through a valve to a specified
amount. The program will produce a warning message if this flow cannot be
maintained without having to add additional head at the valve.
A Throttle Control Valve (TCV) is used to simulate partially closed valves by
adjusting the minor head loss coefficient of the valve. A relationship between
the degree to which the valve is closed and the resulting head loss coefficient is
typically available from the valve manufacturer.
A General Purpose Valve (GPV) provides the capability to model devices and
situations with unique headloss - flow relationships, such as reduced pressure
backflow prevention valves, turbines, and well drawdown behavior. The valve
setting is the ID of a Headloss Curve.
DIAMETER
The internal diameter of the valve, in units of inches or mm.
PRESSURE SETTING or
FLOW SETTING or
LOSS COEFFICIENTS
This data entry defines the pressure setting for PRVs, PSVs, and PBVs, whose
units are in psi or m. Or, this data entry defines the flow settings (in user-defined
flow units) for FCVs, or loss coefficients for TCVs.
When defining a pressure setting, the value specified is pressure (e.g., psi or m)
and not total head (or hydraulic gradeline elevation).
MINOR LOSS COEFFICIENT
This data entry specifies the minor loss coefficient for a fully opened valve. The
default loss coefficient is 0. Choosing «...» will display Select Minor Loss
Coefficient selection dialog box, allowing the user to select the appropriate
minor loss coefficient to use.
STARTING JUNCTION NODE
ENDING JUNCTION NODE
These data entries define the ID of the valve’s starting (upstream) and ending
(downstream) junction nodes. These IDs define the valve connectivity to the
network. Note that a valve cannot be directly connected to a reservoir or storage
tank node.
Choosing «Table...» will display the Select Node selection dialog box from
which the user can select the appropriate junction node. Or, choosing «Pick»
allows the user to graphically select the junction node from the Horizontal Plan
window. To reverse the order of the junction nodes, choose «Swap·Nodes».
4-24
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
VALVE STATUS
This option button data entry allows the user to toggle the OPEN and CLOSED
status of the valve. Choosing CLOSED effectively removes the valve from the
network system.
Variable Valves
Many times, when performing an extended period simulation, it is desirable to model
a variable valve. A variable valve can vary its status to open or closed during a
simulation. A variable valve is modeled by defining the valve’s initial status using the
Valve Editor and then modifying the valve’s status during the extended period
simulation using the Control Editor. The Control Editor is available from the Extended
Menu.
See the section titled Control Editor on 4-43 for additional information.
Check Valves
Note that check valves are defined within the Pipe Editor.
Flow Direction
Note that the flow direction for valves is assumed to be from the starting (upstream)
junction node to the ending (downstream) junction node. The order in which junction
nodes are specified for each valve is critical for a proper network representation of the
valve. To reverse the order of the junction nodes, choose «Swap·Nodes».
Graphical Placement and Editing of Valves
From the Horizontal Plot window, the Add Valve tool can be used in different ways
to place a valve. If the user clicks on an existing pipe, MIKE NET will display a query
dialog, as shown in Figure 4.1.5.3, asking the user whether to insert a valve within the
existing pipe or to replace the existing pipe with a valve.
When a valve is placed into the pipe network system, it will be represented with a valve
symbol corresponding to the valve type, as shown in Figure 4.1.5.2.
4-25
MIKE NET
Figure 4.1.5.2 MIKE NET valve symbols used to represent the valve type
If the user selects to insert the valve within the pipe, the pipe will be broken into two
segments at the point of selection with two additional nodes added there. A valve will
then be inserted between these newly added nodes. The length of the two pipe
segments will be adjusted accordingly so that the total length of the two segments
equals that of the original pipe.
When inserting a valve, a junction node will be automatically inserted before and after
the valve. In order to see these inserted junction nodes, the user may have to zoom in
and stretch the distance between the new junction nodes since the nodes might be
initially seen as overlapping each other. To zoom in and stretch the distance:
4-26
1.
Choose the Zoom tool from the Command toolbar. Then, from within the
Horizontal Plan window, click and drag a zoom window around the valve. The
two junction nodes should now be visible.
2.
Choose the Select tool from the Components floating toolbar. Then, click and
drag the two junction nodes on either side of the valve further apart. If the
junction nodes cannot be stretched further apart, then the network is locked
against geometry changes. If this is the case, select Edit | Project Lock to
unlock the project. The project lock option is used to prevent unintentional
moving of network components.
3.
After stretching the nodes apart, return to the previous view by choosing the
Zoom Previous tool in the Command toolbar and then click in the Horizontal
Plan window.
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
4.
By default, the valve that is inserted is a pressure reducing valve (PRV). The
type of valve can be changed in the Valve Editor by selecting
Edit | Valve Editor and selecting the desired valve. When the valve type is
changed, the corresponding parameters for the selected valve will be displayed
in the Valve Editor dialog box and the corresponding valve symbol will be
updated in the Horizontal Plan window.
If the user selects to replace the existing pipe with a valve, the original pipe will be
deleted and a valve added between the original pipe’s starting and ending nodes.
Figure 4.1.5.3 When clicking on an existing pipe with the Add Valve tool, MIKE NET
will ask whether to insert a valve within the existing pipe or to replace the existing pipe
with a valve
Another method of using the Add Valve tool to add a valve is, from the horizontal
plan, select a starting node and then an ending node. Clicking on or near an existing
node, MIKE NET will then snap to the selected node and a rubber-banding line will
then be drawn from this node, representing the starting node, while the user selects the
ending node. After selecting the ending node, MIKE NET will then place a valve
between the two selected nodes.
In addition, if the user clicks with the Add Valve tool in the Horizontal Plan window
somewhere else other than a node or a pipe, MIKE NET will place a starting node at
the clicked location. A rubber-banding line will then be drawn from this node,
representing the valve, while the user selects the ending node. If the user clicks on an
existing node, it will treat the selected node as the ending node. If the user clicks
anywhere else, it will place an ending node at the selected location. If the user selects
an existing pipe, an error message will be displayed stating that an invalid ending node
was selected.
To delete an existing valve graphically, select the valve using the Select tool and then
press «Delete». The selected valve will then be deleted. To edit a valve, double click
on the valve using the Select tool. The Valve Editor will then be displayed allowing
you to edit the attributes of the selected valve.
4-27
MIKE NET
4.1.6 Reservoir Editor
Reservoir nodes are also placed at points in the water distribution model where a
infinite source of water (for the sake of the modeling simulation) is available. Hence,
the reservoir water level remains constant during the course of the simulation.
Reservoir nodes are either defined interactively on the graphical Horizontal Plan
window using the Add Reservoir tool, or by manual data entry using the Reservoir
Editor dialog box as shown in Figure 4.1.6.1. The Reservoir Editor allows you to
define the reservoir’s ID, location, pressure zone, water surface elevation, and a
description. The Reservoir Editor dialog box is reached by selecting Edit |
Reservoir Editor.
Figure 4.1.6.1 The Reservoir Editor allows you to define the reservoir nodes that
supply an infinite amount of water to the water distribution network
A list of the Reservoir Editor data entries for Figure 4.1.6.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
RESERVOIR ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies the reservoir
node. The reservoir ID acts as a unique lookup key that identifies the node from
all other nodes. A node can be a junction, reservoir, or tank. Therefore, no two
nodes may have the same ID. However, a node and link (i.e., pipe, pump, or
valve) can have the same ID. The node ID value must be a positive (non-zero)
integer value.
A new reservoir ID is automatically suggested by MIKE NET whenever a new
reservoir node is placed into the list by pressing «Insert». When defining the
reservoir nodes graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the
Add Reservoir tool, the reservoir ID is automatically defined.
4-28
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
When importing (or merging) multiple water distribution network models into
a single network model, MIKE NET will check for collisions between identical
node IDs and will automatically assign a new node ID value for any node being
imported that contains the same node ID value as what already exists in the
network model.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the reservoir node
being entered. This description can be optionally displayed on the Horizontal
Plan window and in reports generated by the Report Generator.
STATE
This drop down selection list data entry allows you to define whether the
reservoir node is unmarked (i.e. a reservoir already contained in the water
distribution network), or is markede (i.e. one that is being considered for future
expansion, etc.). By default, any reservoir nodes added are unmarked.
To convert all of the defined proposed network components (i.e., nodes, pipes,
valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs) into existing components, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. However, once this component conversion has been
performed, it cannot be undone.
PRESSURE ZONE (optional)
This data entry allows you to define the ID of the pressure zone that the
reservoir node lies within.
Selecting «Table...» allows you to display the Pressure Zone selection dialog
box, where the appropriate pressure zone ID can be selected. The default
pressure zone is 1.
CONSTANT WATER HEAD
This data entry defines the water elevation above a common datum for the
reservoir node, in units of ft. or m. This value corresponds to the free surface of
the reservoir, and remains constant during a simulation. A reservoir node
corresponds to an infinite source of water. The default elevation is zero.
HEAD PATTERN (optional)
The ID label of a time pattern used to model time variation in the reservoir's
total head. Leave blank if none applies. This property is useful if the reservoir
represents a tie-in to another system whose pressure varies with time.
X and Y LOCATION (optional)
The X and Y data entries are used to define the physical (map) location of the
reservoir node, in units of ft. or m. This location definition is optional. In some
cases, the actual location of the reservoir node is not known—especially in
older, legacy networks. However, if the location is defined, then the reservoir
node will be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window. When defining the
reservoir nodes graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the
Add Reservoir tool, the X, Y location is automatically entered.
Graphical Placement and Editing of Reservoirs
4-29
MIKE NET
From the Horizontal Plot window, the Add Reservoir tool can be used in different
ways to place a reservoir. If the user clicks on or near an existing junction node, MIKE
NET will snap to the selected node and display a query dialog, as shown in
Figure 4.1.7.3, asking the user whether to convert the selected node into a reservoir.
Figure 4.1.6.2 When clicking on an existing junction node with the Add Reservoir tool,
MIKE NET will ask whether to convert the selected node into a reservoir
If the user clicks with the Add Reservoir tool in the Horizontal Plan window
somewhere else other than a node or a pipe, MIKE NET will place a reservoir node at
the clicked location. If the user selects an existing pipe, an error message will be
displayed stating that an invalid reservoir node was selected.
If desired, from the Horizontal Plan window, the user can move an existing reservoir
using the Select tool. By selecting the reservoir and holding down the left mouse
button, the reservoir can be dragged to a new location. As the reservoir is dragged, its
connecting links (i.e., pipes, pumps, and valves) rubber band along with it. Note that
if nodes are locked, the reservoir cannot be moved (see the section titled Locking the
Project on 4-79 for more information).
To delete an existing reservoir graphically, select the reservoir using the Select tool
and then press «Delete». The selected reservoir and all its connecting links will then
be deleted. To edit a reservoir, double click on the reservoir using the Select tool. The
Reservoir Editor will then be displayed allowing you to edit the attributes of the
selected reservoir.
4.1.7 Tank Editor
Tank nodes are also placed at points in the water distribution model where a water
storage tank is located. Storage tanks are distinguished from reservoirs in that the
tank’s water surface level changes with time as water flows into and out of the tank.
4-30
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Tank nodes are either defined interactively on the graphical Horizontal Plan window
using the Add Tank tool, or by manual data entry using the Tank Editor dialog box as
shown in Figure 4.1.7.1. The Tank Editor allows you to define the storage tank’s ID,
location, pressure zone, water surface elevations, and a description. The Tank Editor
dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Tank Editor.
Figure 4.1.7.1 The Tank Editor allows you to define the storage tank nodes that supply
water to the water distribution network
A list of the Tank Editor data entries for Figure 4.1.7.1 follows, with a short description
given for each entry.
TANK ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies the tank node.
The tank ID acts as a unique lookup key that identifies the node from all other
nodes. A node can be a junction, reservoir, or tank. Therefore, no two nodes
may have the same ID. However, a node and link (i.e., pipe, pump, or valve) can
have the same ID. The node ID value must be a positive (non-zero) integer
value.
A new tank ID is automatically suggested by MIKE NET whenever a new tank
node is placed into the list by pressing «Insert». When defining the tank nodes
graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Tank tool, the tank
ID is automatically defined.
When importing (or merging) multiple water distribution network models into
a single network model, MIKE NET will check for collisions between identical
node IDs and will automatically assign a new node ID value for any node being
imported that contains the same node ID value as what already exists in the
network model.
4-31
MIKE NET
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the storage tank
node being entered. This description can be optionally displayed on the
Horizontal Plan window and in reports generated by the Report Generator.
STATE
This drop down selection list data entry allows you to define whether the tank
node is unmarked (i.e. a tank already contained in the water distribution
network), or is marked (i.e. one that is being considered for future expansion,
etc.). By default, any tank nodes added are unmarked.
To convert all of the defined proposed network components (i.e., nodes, pipes,
valves, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs) into existing components, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. However, once this component conversion has been
performed, it cannot be undone.
PRESSURE ZONE (optional)
This data entry allows you to define the ID of the pressure zone that the tank
node lies within.
Selecting «Table...» allows you to display the Pressure Zone selection dialog
box, where the appropriate pressure zone ID can be selected. The default
pressure zone is 1.
BASE ELEVATION
This data entry defines the bottom elevation, in units of ft. or m, of the storage
tank where the water level in the storage tank is zero, as shown in Figure 4.1.7.2.
The default elevation is zero.
X and Y LOCATION (optional)
The X and Y data entries are used to define the physical (map) location of the
tank node, in units of ft. or m. This location definition is optional. In some cases,
the actual location of the tank node is not known—especially in older, legacy
networks. However, if the location is defined, then the tank node will be
displayed in the Horizontal Plan window. When defining the tank nodes
graphically on the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Tank tool, the X, Y
location is automatically entered.
CIRCULAR or RECTANGULAR or VARIABLE
This option button data entry selects the type of storage tank being defined. By
default, a circular tank is defined. A the elevation-volume relationship for a tank
of variable geometry can also be defined. A Volume Curve determines how
storage tank volume (Y in cubic feet or cubic meters) varies as a function of
water level (X in feet or meters). It is used when it is necessary to accurately
represent tanks whose cross-sectional area varies with height. The lower and
upper water levels supplied for the curve must contain the lower and upper
levels between which the tank operates.
DIAMETER or
LENGTH and WIDTH
These data entries define the storage tank size, in units of ft. or m.
4-32
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
MAXIMUM LEVEL
This data entry defines the maximum level (or depth), in units of ft. or m, that
the water can rise to within the storage tank. The corresponding elevation is
equal to the base elevation plus the maximum level, as shown in Figure 4.1.7.2.
INITIAL LEVEL
This data entry defines the initial water surface level (or depth), in units of ft. or
m, that is used at the start of the simulation. The corresponding elevation is
equal to the base elevation plus the initial level, as shown in Figure 4.1.7.2.
MINIMUM LEVEL
This data entry defines the minimum level (or depth), in units of ft. or m, that
the water can drop to within the storage tank. The corresponding elevation is
equal to the base elevation plus the minimum level, as shown in Figure 4.1.7.2.
INACTIVE VOLUME
This data entry defines the volume of inactive water contained between the
minimum level and the base elevation, in units of ft3 or m3, of the storage tank,
as shown in Figure 4.1.7.2.
Minimum
Level
~
Inactive
Volume
Initial
Level
Maximum
Level
Base
Elevation
Datum
Figure 4.1.7.2 Definition of storage tank levels
Tank Mixing
MKE NET allows the user to choose between four different types of tank
mixing, completely mixed, two compartment mixing, Last In First Out (LIFO)
and First In First Out (FIFO).
The Completely mixed model assumes that all water that enters a tank is
instantaneously and completely mixed with the water already in the tank. It is
the simplest form of mixing behavior to assume, requires no extra parameters to
describe it, and seems to apply quite well to a large number of facilities that
operate in fill-and-draw fashion.
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MIKE NET
The Two-Compartment mixing model divides the available storage volume in a
tank into two compartments, both of which are assumed to be completely
mixed. The inlet/outlet pipes of the tank are assumed to be located in the first
compartment. New water that enters the tank mixes with the water in the first
compartment. If this compartment is full, then it sends its overflow to the second
compartment where it completely mixes with the water already stored there.
When water leaves the tank, it exits from the first compartment, which if full,
receives an equivalent amount of water from the second compartment to make
up the difference. The first compartment is capable of simulating short
circuiting between inflow and outflow while the second compartment can
represent dead zones. The user must supply a single parameter which is the
fraction of the total tank volume devoted to the first compartment.
The First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Plug Flow mixing model assumes that there is
no mixing of water at all during its residence time in a tank. Water parcels move
through the tank in a segregated fashion where the first parcel to enter is also the
first to leave. Physically speaking, this model is most appropriate for baffled
tanks that operate with simultaneous inflow and outflow. There are no
additional parameters needed to describe this mixing model.
The Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) Plug Flow mixing model assumes that there is no
mixing between parcels of water that enter a tank. However in contrast to FIFO
Plug Flow, the water parcels stack up one on top of another, where water enters
and leaves the tank on the bottom. Physically speaking this type of model might
apply to a tall, narrow standpipe with an inlet/outlet pipe at the bottom and a low
momentum inflow. It requires no additional parameters be provided.
From the Horizontal Plot window, the Add Tank tool can be used in different ways to
place a storage tank. If the user clicks on or near an existing junction node, MIKE NET
will snap to the selected node and display a query dialog, as shown in Figure 4.1.7.3,
asking the user whether to convert the selected node into a storage tank.
4-34
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.1.7.3 When clicking on an existing junction node with the Add Tank tool,
MIKE NET will ask whether to convert the selected node into a storage tank
If the user clicks with the Add Tank tool in the Horizontal Plan window somewhere
else other than a node or a pipe, MIKE NET will place a storage tank node at the
clicked location. If the user selects an existing pipe, an error message will be displayed
stating that an invalid storage tank node was selected.
If desired, from the Horizontal Plan window, the user can move an existing storage
tank using the Select tool. By selecting the storage tank and holding down the left
mouse button, the tank can be dragged to a new location. As the tank is dragged, its
connecting links (i.e., pipes, pumps, and valves) rubber band along with it. Note that
if nodes are locked, the storage tank cannot be moved (see the section titled Locking
the Project on 4-79 for more information).
To delete an existing storage tank graphically, select the tank using the Select tool and
then press «Delete». The selected storage tank and all its connecting links will then be
deleted. To edit a storage tank, double click on the tank using the Select tool. The
Tank Editor will then be displayed allowing you to edit the attributes of the selected
tank.
4.1.8 Curve Editor
The user can define data curves and their X, Y coordinate points in Edit Curve Editor.
The following curves can be used to represent relations:
•
•
•
•
Head v. Flow for pumps
Efficiency v. Flow for pumps
Volume v. Depth for tanks
Head Loss v. Flow for General Purpose Valves
Figure 4.1.8.1 Curve Editor Window, Definition of data curves
4-35
MIKE NET
Figure 4.1.8.2 Inserting Values in Curve Editor
Figure 4.1.8.3 Preview of a defined curve in Curve Editor
The points of a curve must be entered in order of increasing X-values (lowest to
highest).
4.1.9 Energy Editor
Computation of pumping energy and cost can be performed in MIKE NET. Users can
either choose pump-specific efficiency curves and electricity rate schedules or can
select a set of default values for these computations.
4-36
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.1.9.1 Energy editor window
The user can compute pumping energy and cost using Edit Energy Editor. The
following parameters can be defined in Energy Editor:
•
•
•
•
Price - Average cost per kW/hour
Pattern - ID label of time pattern describing how energy price varies with
time
Efficiency - Either a single percent efficiency for global setting or the ID
label of an efficiency curve for a specific pump
Demand Charge - Added cost per maximum kW usage during the simulation
period.
4.1.10 Emitter Editor
Emitters are needed to model flow through sprinkler systems and irrigation networks.
They can also be used to simulate leakage in a pipe connected to the junction (if a
discharge coefficient for the leadking crack or joint can be estimated).
Figure 4.1.10.1 Emitter Editor
4.1.11 Pressure Zone Editor
Pressure zones are service areas defined by the hydraulic gradeline value of the sources
that supply them. A pressure zone has one or more sources of supply and may have a
set of closed valves that separate it from other pressure zones.
4-37
MIKE NET
Figure 4.1.11.1 Pressure Zone Editor dialog box
The Pressure Zone Editor dialog box, reached by selecting PRESSURE ZONE
EDITOR from the EDIT menu, is used to define the pressure zones for the pipe
network system.
•
Pressure Zone ID - This data entry is used to define a unique positive integer
ID value that specifies the network pressure zone. Pressure zones are defined
at junction nodes, storage tanks and reservoirs. Note that, by default, all nodes
are defined as belonging to pressure zone 1. Therefore, pressure zone 1 is
always defined and not listed within the Pressure Zone Editor.
•
Description (Optional) - This data entry allows you to enter a description
identifying the pressure zone being defined. This description can be output in
reports generated by the Inprise QuickReport Generator.
4.1.12 Multiple Demand Editor
Multiple demands can be edited either within the junction editor for each particular
junction node or in the Multiple Demand editor, which allows the user to display and
edit all multiple demands.
Figure 4.1.12.1 Multiple Demand Editor dialog box
4-38
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Junction ID
The Junction ID identifies the selected Junctions which multiple demands are
assigned to.
Demand
The demand field shows the all the demand values that are assigned to junctions
with multiple demands. The demand values must be manually entered in the
demand field.
Demand Pattern ID
This field displays the demand pattern ID associated with the Junction. The
demand patterns are defined using the curve editor and can be assigned to
selected junctions in the multiple demand editor by right clicking in the Demand
Pattern ID field.
Category
Pattern category is not editable but is automatically displayed based on the
category defined in the pattern Editor for the particular Pattern ID. It is possible
to import and export multiple demands from the ASCII text files, which allows
easy data exchange with other programs.
4.2
Network Demand
Network demand for water is assigned at junction nodes, on a node by node basis. To
help develop a model, MIKE NET allows the user to automatically define the nodal
demand at all of the nodes within a model, or within a pressure zone, based upon the
total demand on the system or pressure zone. This section discusses how MIKE NET
can automatically distribute this demand to the network system.
Typically in large network systems, the pipe network is broken up into different
pressure zones. Since pressure is related to ground elevation, a network system
covering hilly or mountainous terrain will have more pressure zones than one covering
fairly flat terrain. The section also discusses how MIKE NET defines pressure zones.
4.2.1 Distributed Demands
Network demands are defined at junction nodes, on a node by node basis. For large
network systems, assigning this demand data can be a very tedious job. Since many
times the total demand is known for a particular network pressure zone or for the entire
network system, MIKE NET provides the capability to distribute this total demand
among the applicable junction nodes.
MIKE NET computes the water demands for each node in the network system based
upon the total network demand using two methods: the Method of Pipe Lengths and
the Method of Two Coefficients. This is useful when assigning the nodal water demand
for a large network, since the software will automatically proportion the total network
demand based upon one of these two methods. These methods are used to mimic the
amount of actual demand along a pipe, based upon the pipe length or a pre-defined
demand coefficient.
4-39
MIKE NET
The Distributed Demands dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.2.1.1, is used to
automatically assign the demands at the appropriate junction nodes. The Distributed
Demands dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Distributed Demands.
Figure 4.2.1.1 The Distributed Demands dialog box computes the demand at each
junction node automatically based upon the total demand within a pressure zone or
entire network system
A list of the Distributed Demands data entries for Figure 4.2.1.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
TOTAL NETWORK WATER DEMAND
This data entry is used to specify the total network demand for a particular
network pressure zone or the entire network system. The flow units are userspecified.
Note that this total demand includes the sum of both the standard demands and
additional demands defined at each of the junction nodes. Additional demands
are specified in the Additional Demand field in the Junction Editor. (For a
complete description of standard demands and additional demands, see the
section titled Junction Editor on 4-6.) Note that prior to computing the
distributed demand at each junction node, MIKE NET automatically subtracts
the sum of all the junction node additional demands from the specified total
network water demand.
PRESSURE ZONE ID
This check box allows you to select whether the total network water demand
corresponds to the entire network or a single pressure zone. Checking this box
applies the specified water demand to a single specified pressure zone.
Unchecking this box applies the specified water demand to the entire water
distribution network.
The pressure zone must be specified in the provided data entry field. Selecting
«Table...» displays the Pressure Zone selection dialog box, where the
appropriate pressure zone ID can be selected. The default pressure zone is 1.
METHOD OF PIPE LENGTHS or
METHOD OF TWO COEFFICIENTS
MIKE NET allows the user to compute the nodal water demands based upon the
total network demand using two methods: the Method of Pipe Lengths and the
Method of Two Coefficients. This radio button group allows the user to select
the method to be used.
4-40
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Selecting the Method of Pipe Lengths, MIKE NET computes the total water
demand assigned to each pipe (which is then split between the starting and
ending nodes) as:
( Q – Σo i )li k l i
q pi = --------------------------------Σ ( k l i li )
(4.4)
Selecting the Method of Two Coefficients, MIKE NET computes the total water
demand assigned to each pipe (which is then split between the starting and
ending nodes) as:
( Q – Σo i )k li k 2i
q pi = ------------------------------------Σ ( k l i k 2i )
(4.5)
where:
qpi
=
Total water demand applied to the pipe, split between the two end nodes.
Q
=
Total network water demand minus the sum of all the additional junction node demands.
Note that the total network water demand is defined in the Distributed Demands dialog box,
available from the Edit Menu.
oi
=
Sum of additional demands.
li
=
Pipe length
These demand coefficients are defined for each pipe using the Pipe Editor, as
described on page 4-10. The computed demands, which are assigned once
«Compute» is selected, are stored at each individual node. These demands are
stored in the Junction Editor, as described on page 4-6. Selecting «Reset»
causes all of the nodal demand entries to be set to zero for the entire network,
but it will leave the additional demand entries that are defined unaffected.
4.2.2 Pressure Zone Editor
Pressure zones are service areas defined by the hydraulic gradeline value of the sources
that supply them. A pressure zone has one or more sources of supply and may have a
set of closed valves that separate it from other pressure zones. Because pressure is
related to ground elevation, a system covering hilly or mountainous terrain will have
more pressure zones than one covering relatively flat terrain.
4-41
MIKE NET
The Pressure Zone Editor dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.2.2.1, is used to define the
pressure zones for the pipe network system. The Pressure Zone Editor dialog box is
reached by selecting Edit | Pressure Zone Editor.
Figure 4.2.2.1 The Pressure Zone Editor allows the user to define the pressure zones
contained within the pipe network
A list of the Pressure Zone Editor data entries for Figure 4.2.2.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
PRESSURE ZONE ID
This data entry is used to define a unique ID positive integer value that specifies
the network pressure zone. Pressure zones are defined at junction nodes, storage
tanks, and reservoirs. Note that, by default, all nodes are defined as belonging
to pressure zone 1. Therefore, pressure zone 1 is always defined and not listed
within the Pressure Zone Editor.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the pressure zone
being defined. This description can be output in reports generated by the Report
Generator.
4.3
Extended Period Simulations
Network models are analyzed either as steady state (static) simulations or extended
period (continuous or dynamic) simulations. The data requirements for each type of
model are basically the same; however, additional data is required for extended period
simulations. Extended period data is defined as status, controls, patterns, and times.
Status represents the setting of various network components, which include the initial
status of pipes, pumps, and valves. For example, a pipe’s status could be defined as
being initially closed (as if it were defined as a valve).
Controls (sometimes called switches) allow the settings (or status) of various network
components to change at a particular time, when a specific pressure is reached, or when
a specific water tank level occurs. For example, a pump could be turned off once a
particular water tank level has been reached.
Patterns are used to describe demand fluctuations. Pattern data (sometimes called
hydrograph or curve data) is applied to nodal demands and include a multiplicative
factor that are applied to be nodal demand base value.
Times are used define various time-step parameters, such as:
4-42
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
•
The total duration of the modeling simulation. This is typically 24 hours,
since the demand pattern is nearly always daily.
•
The time step (sometimes called the time interval), which is used to model the
simulation in steps. This is typically 1 hour.
•
The starting time, which establishes the time at which the simulation begins.
The following sections describe available editors that allow you to define an extended
period simulation.
4.3.1 Simple Control Editor
Typically during an extended period simulation, the pipes, pumps, and valves (links)
contained in a network will change their status (i.e., open or close) as storage tanks fill
and empty and pressures change throughout the network system. Also, for a steady
state simulation, network components may change their state as the analysis model
iterates to a valid solution.
Using the Control Editor, as shown in Figure 4.3.1.1, the user can specify the
operational controls for the pipe network system on a one-on-one component basis.
The Control Editor can be used for both extended period simulations and steady state
simulations.
The following situations exemplify the types of operational controls that can be
specified:
•
A pipe can be opened at a given time (based upon the beginning of the
network simulation). This type of operational control has no effect in a steady
state simulation.
•
A pump can be turned on or off depending on the water level in a specified
tank.
•
A pump’s baseline operating speed can be adjusted using a multiplier, thereby
increasing or decreasing the pump’s output.
•
A valve can be opened or closed based upon the pressure in an adjacent node.
The initial status of the network’s pipes, pumps, and valves default to an open status,
and can be changed to a closed status using the Control Editor based upon some
condition. Additionally, pumps have a default pump speed ratio of 1.0 (indicating that
they are operating on their original characteristic operational curves), but which can be
modified based upon a particular condition.
4-43
MIKE NET
The Control Editor dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.3.1.1, is used to define the
operational controls for running the pipe network system. The Control Editor dialog
box is reached by selecting Extended | Control Editor.
Figure 4.3.1.1 The Control Editor allows the user to define the network operational
controls
A list of the Control Editor data entries for Figure 4.3.1.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
LINK TYPE
This pull-down selection list allows the user to select what type of link (i.e.,
pipe, pump, or valve) a control rule is being specified for.
LINK ID
This data entry is used to define the ID of the link to control. Choosing
«Table...» will display the Select Link selection dialog box from which the user
can select the appropriate link type and ID. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the user
to graphically select the link from the Horizontal Plan window.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the control rule
being defined. This description can be optionally included in reports generated
in MIKE NET.
SETTING
This radio button selection entry is used to specify the OPEN or CLOSED status
of the link being controlled, or VALUE which then allows the user to specify a
multiplier to a pump’s operating speed if a pump is being controlled. If VALUE
is selected, then an additional data entry field will be presented to allow the user
to specify the pump speed ratio.
CONDITION
This radio button selection entry is used to specify the control condition that
then applies the operational rule onto the link being controlled.
4-44
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
If the user selects either IF NODE BELOW or IF NODE ABOVE, then a
Control Node ID and a Control Level must be specified. Choosing «Table...»
will display the Select Node selection dialog box from which the user can select
the appropriate node type and ID. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the user to
graphically select the node from the Horizontal Plan window. Note that
reservoirs are not allowed to be selected as a Control Node type.
If a junction node is selected as the controlling node, then a trigger pressure at
the junction node must be specified in the Control Level data entry. If a storage
tank node is selected as the controlling node, then a trigger level (not elevation)
must be specified in the Control Level data entry.
If the user selects AT TIME, then a trigger time (since the start of the
simulation) must be specified in the adjacent data entry field and a time unit
selected from the pull-down selection list. Note that this type of condition has
no effect for steady state simulations, although can be defined should the user
want to perform an extended period simulation at a later time.
LOAD
This button allows the user to load simple controls that have been saved as a text
file. This allows the user to use external editors to prepare and modify the
control settings for the active project.
SAVE
Allows the user to export the simple controls into an ASCII file. The user can
define the file name and path that it is saved to.
MAP
The map button will cause the selected control link to be highlighted in the
horizontal plan view.
MAP ALL
The Map ALl button will cause all control links to be high lighted in the
horizontal plan view.
PREVIEW
This read-only field displays to the user the constructed control rule.
Multiple Controls
During a simulation, a link (pipe, pump, or valve) can be operated by more than one
operational control rule. For example, a link can be opened at a given time and then
closed if a given nodal pressure is exceeded.
Pipes with Check Valves
Note that you cannot set the status of a pipe containing a check valve. Pipes with a
check valve are initially open, and close only if flow within the pipe attempts to move
from the ending (downstream) node to the starting (upstream) node.
Available Operational Controls
The following operational controls can be defined by the user:
4-45
MIKE NET
•
A pipe, pump, or valve can be opened or closed.
•
A pump’s speed ratio can be changed.
•
The pressure setting for PRV (pressure reducing), PSV (pressure sustaining),
and PBV (pressure breaker) valves can be changed.
•
The flow setting for FCV (flow control) valves can be changed.
•
The minor loss coefficient for TCV (throttle control) valves can be changed.
Time Based Controls
The user can specify a specific time from the start of the simulation at which a change
in a link’s status is to occur. For example, pipe 15 can be opened 3 hours into the
simulation and then closed at 4.2 hours into the simulation. This example is shown
below:
LINK 15 OPEN AT TIME 3.0
LINK 15 CLOSED AT TIME 4.2
Storage Tank Water Level Based Controls
The user can specify a storage tank level (not elevation) at which a control will occur.
For example, pump 296 can be opened when the water level in storage tank 40 drops
below 26 feet, and can be closed when the level rises above 40 feet. This example is
shown below:
LINK 296 OPEN IF NODE 40 BELOW 26.0
LINK 296 CLOSED IF NODE 40 ABOVE 40.0
Junction Node Pressure Based Controls
The user can specify a pressure level at which a control will occur if the specified
pressure is above or below the pressure level. For example, valve 55 can be opened if
the pressure at junction node 47 is below 50 psi, and pump 12 operating speed can be
dropped to one-half of its normal speed when the pressure at junction node 12 goes
above 75 psi. This example is shown below:
LINK 55 OPEN IF NODE 47 BELOW 50.0
LINK 12 0.5 IF NODE 12 ABOVE 75.0
4.3.2 Rule Based Controls
Rule-Based Controls allow link status and settings to be based on a combination of
conditions that might exist in the network over an extended period simulation. Rule
based controls will be either in the form of an action clause or a condition clause.
A condition clause in a Rule-Based Control takes the form of:
object id attribute relation value
where
object= a category of network object
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
id = the object's ID label
attribute = an attribute or property of the object
relation = a relational operator
value = an attribute value
Some example conditional clauses are:
JUNCTION 23 PRESSURE > 20
TANK T200 FILLTIME BELOW 3.5
LINK 44 STATUS IS OPEN
SYSTEM DEMAND >= 1500
SYSTEM CLOCKTIME = 7:30 AM
The Object keyword can be any of the following:
NODE LINK SYSTEM
JUNCTION PIPE
RESERVOIR PUMP
TANK VALVE
When SYSTEM is used in a condition no ID is supplied.
The following attributes can be used with Node-type objects:
DEMAND
HEAD
PRESSURE
The following attributes can be used with Tanks:
LEVEL
FILLTIME (hours needed to fill a tank)
DRAINTIME (hours needed to empty a tank)
These attributes can be used with Link-Type objects:
FLOW
STATUS (OPEN, CLOSED, or ACTIVE)
SETTING (Pump speed or Valve setting)
The SYSTEM object can use the following attributes:
DEMAND (total system demand)
TIME (hours from the start of the simulation)
CLOCKTIME (24-hour clock time with AM or PM appended)
Relation operators consist of the following:
= IS
<> NOT
< BELOW
> ABOVE
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MIKE NET
<=> =
An action clause in a Rule-Based Control takes the form of:
object id STATUS/SETTING IS value
where
object = LINK, PIPE, PUMP, or VALVE keyword
id = the object's ID label
value = a status condition (OPEN or CLOSED), pump speed setting, or valve setting
Some example action clauses are:
LINK 23 STATUS IS CLOSED
PUMP P100 SETTING IS 1.5
VALVE 123 SETTING IS 90
4.3.3 Pattern Editor
MIKE NET assumes that water usage rates, external water supply rates, and
constituent source concentrations (for water quality analysis) at nodes remain constant
over a fixed period of time, but that these quantities can change from one time period
to another. The default time period interval is 1 hour, but this can be set to any value.
The value of any of these quantities in a time period equals a baseline value multiplied
by a time pattern factor for that period.
Figure 4.3.3.1 Pattern Editor Dialog Box
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
PATTERN ID
This data entry is used to specify the ID of the component being defined. Note
that this ID must be a positive, non-zero integer value. There is no limit to the
number of demand patterns that can be defined. However, system memory is
conserved if the demand patterns are numbered in sequential order, starting at 1.
CATAGORY (optional)
This data entry allows you to enter a description identifying the demand pattern
being defined. This description can be optionally included in reports.
DESCRIPTION (optional)
This data entry allows the user to enter a category that further define the demand
pattern. For example, a demand might have the description of residential, and a
category of either high density, medium-density or low density to further define
what is meant by residential. This description can optionally be included in
reports generated by the Inprise QuickReport Generator.
MULTIPLIERS
Selecting «Define» will display the Multipliers dialog box, as displayed in
Figure 4.3.3.2. This dialog box allows you to define the baseline demand factors
and constituent concentration levels (multipliers) for the current pattern ID. The
complete pattern is then applied to the baseline demand (or source
concentration) specified at each node (that corresponds with this pattern ID)
over the extended period simulation.
Within each time period, the demand (or source concentration) remains
constant—at a level equal to the multiplier times the baseline value.
There is no limit on the number of multipliers that can be defined for a pattern.
However, since an extended period simulation is generally 24 hours long and
the typical time period length is 1 hour, 24 multipliers are required to
completely define the pattern for the entire simulation. If the total duration of
the defined pattern is less than the total duration of the simulation, then the
defined pattern will be repeated. For example, a 5 day simulation whose hourly
demands repeat themselves on a daily cycle, only 24 multipliers would need to
be defined for the pattern.
For more information on defining the time step interval and analysis period, see
the section titled Time Editor which follows this section.
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MIKE NET
Figure 4.3.3.2 The Multipliers dialog box allows the user to define demand and/
or constituent concentration multipliers for the current pattern ID
It is possible to create a GRAPH for pattern multipliers directly in the PATTERN
EDITOR window, not only in the MULTIPLIERS window. This function allows the
user to display the pattern graph quickly.
Figure 4.3.3.3 Graphical representation of the pattern multipliers
It is possible to multiply pattern multipliers by a global factor. This global factor can
be entered in the Multipliers window by selecting the MULTIPLY button and defining
the global factor. Every multiplier, which is listed in the table, will then be multiplied
by this global factor.
4.3.4 Time Editor
For an extended period simulation, a simulation duration and time step must be
specified. Using the Time Editor, as shown in Figure 4.3.4.1, the user can specify the
extended period simulation time parameters. Only those time parameters that differ
from the default values must be specified. The default time units are hours.
The Time Editor dialog box is reached by selecting Extended | Time Editor.
Figure 4.3.4.1 The Time Editor allows the user to define the extended period
simulation time parameters
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
A list of the Time Editor data entries for Figure 4.3.4.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
ANALYSIS DURATION
This data entry must be specified in order to perform an extended period
simulation, and specifies the length of the entire simulation for both hydraulic
extended period simulations and water quality simulations. The default value
for this data entry is 0 hours, which implies that a steady state simulation will
be performed. Note that a water quality analysis cannot be performed from a
steady state simulation.
HYDRAULIC TIME STEP
This data entry must be specified in order to perform an extended period
simulation, and specifies how often a new hydraulic computation of the pipe
network system is to be computed. The default value is 1 hour.
PATTERN TIME STEP (optional)
This data entry is optional, and specifies the length of time between each pattern
change (i.e., the period of time over which water demands and constituent
source strengths remain constant). If necessary, the software will adjust the
specified Hydraulic Time Step so that it is not greater than the specified Pattern
Time Step. The default value is 1 hour.
REPORT TIME STEP (optional)
This data entry is optional, and specifies the interval of time between which
network conditions are reported. If necessary, the software will automatically
reduce the specified value for the Hydraulic Time Step so that it is no greater
than the Report Time Step. The default value is 1 hour.
REPORT START TIME (optional)
This data entry is optional, and specifies at what time into the simulation the
analysis results should start to be reported. The default value is 0 hour.
QUALITY TIME STEP (optional)
This data entry is used for water quality analysis, and specifies the time step to
be used to track water quality changes in the pipe network system. If this entry
is left blank, the program then uses an internally computed time step based upon
the smallest time of travel through any pipe in the network.
STATISTICS
Type of statistical processing used to summarize the results of an extended
period simulation. Choices are:
NONE (results reported at each reporting time step)
AVERAGE (time-averaged results reported)
MINIMUM (minimum value results reported)
MAXIMUM (maximum value results reported)
RANGE (difference between maximum and minimum results reported)
Statistical processing is applied to all node and link results obtained between the
Report Start Time and the Total Duration
Time Units
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MIKE NET
Note that seconds, minutes, hours, and days can be used as time units, but that hours
are generally used. It is recommended that the same time units be used for all entries
within the Time Editor—that you do not mix time units (i.e., hours and seconds).
4.4
Water Quality Simulations
MIKE NET allows you to perform water quality simulations. In order to perform a
water quality simulation, an extended period simulation must also be specified.
Defining an extended period simulation was discussed in the previous section.
The following sections describe how to perform a particular type of water quality
simulation, and the various water quality editors used to define each type of water
quality simulation.
4.4.1 Water Quality Analysis Selection
The first step in defining a water quality simulation is to select the type of water quality
analysis to be performed. This is accomplished using the Project Options dialog box
Project Type tab, as shown in Figure 4.4.1.1. Note that MIKE NET can only perform
one type of water quality analysis during a simulation.
The Project Options dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Project Options.
Figure 4.4.1.1 The Project Options dialog box allows the user to define the type of
water quality analysis to be performed
A list of water quality options are available from the Project Options dialog box is
shown in Figure 4.4.1.1, along with a short description given for each option.
NO WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS (default)
By selecting this option button entry, no water quality analysis will be
performed. This is the default selection.
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS
This option button entry is used to select that a chemical concentration analysis
is to be performed. MIKE NET will report the concentration of the specified
chemical at each time step for each network node. This type of analysis is
typically performed to determine the amount of chlorine in the network to
maintain safe drinking water standards.
WATER AGE
This option button entry is used to select that a water age analysis is to be
performed. MIKE NET will report the water age at each time step for any
network node, assuming an initial age of zero at the start of the simulation. This
type of analysis is typically performed to determine dead ends (locations of
stagnant water) within a pipe network design.
SOURCE TRACING
This option button entry is used to select that a source tracing analysis is to be
performed. MIKE NET will report, for each time step, the percentage of water
reaching each node from a selected source (origin) node. This type of analysis
is typically performed for constituent tracking.
4.4.2 Water Quality Analysis Parameters
The Project Options dialog box Properties tab, as shown in Figure 4.4.2.1, allows you
to specify the analysis parameters used to perform a water quality simulation.
The Project Options dialog box is reached by selecting Edit | Project Options.
Figure 4.4.2.1 The Project Options dialog box allows the user to define the analysis
parameters used in a water quality simulation
A list of the water quality analysis parameters from the Project Options dialog box is
shown in Figure 4.4.2.1, along with a short description given for each parameter.
These water quality modeling parameters are used when modeling the pipe-wall
reaction mechanism.
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MIKE NET
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
This data entry specifies the specific gravity of the fluid at the temperature
condition being simulated. This data entry allows fluids other than water to be
simulated. Specific gravity is the weight per unit volume of the fluid being
modelled relative to water. The default value is 1.0.
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
This data entry specifies the kinematic viscosity of the fluid at the temperature
condition being simulated. The units of viscosity are ft2/sec (or m2/sec for SI
units). The default value is 1.1x10-5 ft2/sec, corresponding to water at
20 degrees C. Viscosity is used only when the Darcy Weisbach headloss
formula is employed or when a pipe wall reaction mechanism is included in the
water quality analysis.
MOLECULAR DIFFUSIVITY
This data entry specifies the molecular diffusivity of the chemical being
tracked. The units of diffusivity are ft2/sec (or m2/sec for SI units). The default
value is 1.3x10-8 ft2/sec, corresponding to the diffusivity of chlorine in water at
20 degrees C. Diffusivity is used only when the pipe wall reactions are
considered in the water quality analysis.
4.4.3 Initial Water Quality Editor
The initial water quality at the start of a simulation can be assigned to individual nodes
or to groups of nodes. The initial water quality can represent one of the following:
•
Initial concentration for chemical constituents in a chemical propagation
analysis.
•
Initial hour for water age determination.
•
Initial percentage of water originating at a specified source node for source
tracing.
By default, all nodes are assigned with an initial water quality of zero. The Initial
Water Quality Editor, as shown in Figure 4.4.3.1, is used to assign the initial water
quality levels for the pipe network system. The Initial Water Quality Editor dialog box
is reached by selecting Quality | Initial Water Quality Editor.
Figure 4.4.3.1 The Initial Water Quality Editor is used to define the initial water quality
conditions of the pipe network system
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
A list of the Initial Water Quality Editor data entries for Figure 4.4.3.1 follows, with a
short description given for each entry.
NODE 1 ID
This data entry is used to specify an ID which uniquely identifies a node in
which the initial water quality is being specified for.
A new entry is automatically inserted into the list by pressing «Insert».
Choosing «Table...» will display the Select Node selection dialog box from
which the user can select the appropriate node. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the
user to graphically select the node from the Horizontal Plan window.
TO NODE 2 ID (optional)
This data entry is used to specify the ending node ID when specifying a group
of sequential nodes in which the initial water quality is being defined for. If the
initial water quality for a single node is being defined, then this entry should
remain blank.
QUALITY
This data entry is used to specify the initial water quality at the node (or group
of nodes) being defined.
If a chemical concentration water quality simulation is being performed, then
this entry denotes the water quality in mg/liters.
If a water age water quality simulation is being performed, then this entry
denotes the initial age of the water in hours.
If a source tracing water quality simulation is being performed, then this entry
denotes the initial percentage of water from the source (origin) node in percent.
4.4.4 Point Constituent Source Editor
The Point Constituent Source Editor, as shown in Figure 4.4.4.1, allows you to specify
at which nodes an external chemical constituent enters the network system. At least
one node in the network must be specified as a point source of chemical constituent
when performing a chemical concentration analysis.
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MIKE NET
The Point Constituent Source Editor dialog box is reached by selecting Quality |
Point Constituent Source Editor. Note that a Chemical Concentrations water quality
simulation must be specified in the Projects Options dialog box (see Figure 4.4.1.1) in
order access the Point Constituent Source Editor dialog box.
Figure 4.4.4.1 The Point Constituent Source Editor is used to specify at which nodes
an external chemical constituent enters the pipe network system
A list of the Point Constituent Source Editor data entries for Figure 4.4.4.1 follows,
with a short description given for each entry.
NODE TYPE
This pull-down selection list allows the user to select what type of node (i.e.,
junction, reservoir, or tank) the point constituent is being specified for.
NODE ID
This data entry is used to define the ID of the node the point constituent is being
assigned to. Choosing «Table...» will display the Select Node selection dialog
box from which the user can select the appropriate node type and ID. Or,
choosing «Pick» allows the user to graphically select the node from the
Horizontal Plan window.
CONCENTRATION
This data entry is used to specify the baseline concentration (in mg/liter) of the
constituent entering the node as an external source.
For a junction node, if there is no external inflow assigned to the node (such as
a well—denoted by a negative demand), then the resulting water quality at the
node always equals the specified concentration. This allows the user to simulate
chlorine booster stations at a node, such as is used in satellite treatment in a
network.
SOURCE TYPE
Water quality sources are nodes where the quality of external flow entering the
network is specified. They can represent the main treatment works, a well-head
or satellite treatment facility, or an unwanted contaminant intrusion. Source
quality can be made to vary over time by assigning it a time pattern. EPANET
can model the following types of sources:
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
A concentration source fixes the concentration of any external inflow
entering the network at a node, such as flow from a reservoir or from a
negative demand placed at a junction.
A mass booster source adds a fixed mass flow to that entering the node
from other points in the network.
A flow paced booster source adds a fixed concentration to that resulting
from the mixing of all inflow to the node from other points in the network.
A setpoint booster source fixes the concentration of any flow leaving the
node (as long as the concentration resulting from all inflow to the node is
below the setpoint).
The concentration-type source is best used for nodes that represent source water
supplies or treatment works (e.g., reservoirs or nodes assigned a negative
demand). The booster-type source is best used to model direct injection of a
tracer or additional disinfectant into the network or to model a contaminant
intrusion.
PATTERN ID
This data entry allows you to define the ID of the constituent pattern to be
applied to the specified baseline concentration entering the node. If a pattern ID
is omitted for the specified source node, then there is no variation in the source
strength of the constituent.
Selecting «Button» allows you to display the Select Pattern selection dialog
box, where the appropriate pattern ID can be selected.
Point Constituent Source Time Patterns
Point constituent source concentration time patterns are similar in concept to demand
patterns. Each concentration time pattern consists of a set of multipliers that are
multiplied to the specified baseline concentration over the extended period simulation.
This allows the user to model changes in the amount of constituent applied at a node
over an extended period simulation. See the section titled Pattern Editor on 4-48 for
more information on time patterns.
4.4.5 Reaction Rate Editor
The Reaction Rate Editor, as shown in Figure 4.4.5.1, allows you to specify the rate at
which a constituent decays (or grows) by reaction as the constituent travels through the
pipe network. Reaction rates can be defined at a global level where the same reaction
rate applies to the entire network, and at a local level allowing the user to define
reaction rates based upon a particular pipe type, etc. Note that locally defined reaction
rates override globally defined reaction rates.
4-57
The Reaction Rate Editor dialog box is reached by selecting Quality |
Reaction Rate Editor. Note that a Chemical Concentrations water quality simulation
must be specified in the Projects Options dialog box (see Figure 4.4.2.1) in order
access the Reaction Rate Editor dialog box.
Figure 4.4.5.1 The Reaction Rate Editor is used to specify constituent reaction rates
at both a global and local level
A list of the Reaction Rate Editor data entries for Figure 4.4.5.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
GLOBAL BULK REACTION RATE COEFFICIENT
This data entry defines the bulk reaction rate that is applied to all flow in the
pipe network system. Units for bulk reaction rates are in days–1. Note that this
reaction rate coefficient is applied globally to the entire pipe network.
GLOBAL PIPE WALL REACTION RATE COEFFICIENT
This data entry defines the pipe wall reaction rate that is applied to all flow in
the pipe network system. Units for pipe wall reaction rates are in ft/day (or m/
day). Note that this reaction rate coefficient is applied globally to the entire pipe
network.
One method that can be used to compare the relative magnitude of the pipe wall
reaction rate with the bulk reaction rate is to divide the pipe wall reaction rate
coefficient by the hydraulic radius of the pipe (i.e., 1/2 the pipe radius). The
resulting quantity will have the same units as the bulk reaction rate coefficient,
days–1.
LOCAL REACTION TYPE
This pull-down selection list allows the user to select what reaction type (e.g.,
bulk, pipe wall, tank) is being specified for a group of pipes or tanks.
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
LOCAL COEFFICIENT
This data entry allows the user to specify the reaction rate to be applied to the
specified pipes or tanks.
BULK REACTION ORDER
ORDER is used to set the order of reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, at the
pipe wall, or in tanks, respectively. Values for wall reactions must be either 0 or
1. If not supplied the default reaction order is 1.0.
GLOBAL REACTION ORDER
GLOBAL is used to set a global value for all bulk reaction coefficients (pipes
and tanks) or for all pipe wall coefficients. The default value is zero.
BULK/WALL/TANK REACTION ORDER
BULK, WALL, and TANK are used to override the global reaction coefficients
for specific pipes and tanks.
LIMITING POTENTIAL
LIMITING POTENTIAL specifies that reaction rates are proportional to the
difference between the current concentration and some limiting potential value.
ROUGHNESS CORRELATION
ROUGHNESS CORRELATION will make all default pipe wall reaction
coefficients be related to pipe roughness in the following manner:
Head loss Equation
Roughness Correlation
Hazen-Williams
F/C
Darcy-Weisbach
F/log(e/D)
Chezy-Manning
F*n
where F = roughness correlation, C = Hazen-Williams C-factor, e = DarcyWeisbach roughness, D = pipe diameter, and n = Chezy-Manning roughness
coefficient. The default value computed this way can be overridden for any pipe
by using the WALL format to supply a specific value for the pipe.
PIPE1 ID
to PIPE2 ID
These data entries allow the user to specify one or more pipes (in numerical
order) in which the local reaction rate coefficient will be applied to. If the
reaction rate is to be applied to a single pipe, then a value of 0 can entered for
the Pipe2 ID data entry. Choosing «Table...» will display the Select Link
selection dialog box from which the user can select the appropriate link type and
ID. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the user to graphically select the pipe from the
Horizontal Plan window.
Note that these entries are only available for bulk and pipe wall reaction types.
TANK1 ID
to TANK2 ID
These data entries allow the user to specify one or more tanks (in numerical
order) in which the local reaction rate coefficient will be applied to. If the
reaction rate is to be applied to a single tank, then a value of 0 can be entered
for the Tank2 ID data entry. Choosing «Table...» will display the Select Node
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MIKE NET
selection dialog box from which the user can select the appropriate node type
and ID. Or, choosing «Pick» allows the user to graphically select the node from
the Horizontal Plan window.
Note that these entries are only available for a tank reaction type.
Note
Remember to use negative signs on all reaction coefficients that are to represent
constituent decay (e.g., chlorine decay). Otherwise, a positive value denotes
constituent growth.
4.4.6 Source Tracing
The Trace Node dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.4.6.1, allows you to track over time
what percent of water reaching any node in the network had its origin from a specified
node (i.e., junction, tank, or reservoir). Source tracing is a useful tool for analyzing a
network distribution system that draws water from two or more different raw water
supplies. It can be used to show to what degree water from a given source blends with
that from other sources, and how the spatial pattern of this blending changes over time.
The Trace Node dialog box is reached by selecting Quality | Trace Node. Note that a
Source Tracing water quality simulation must be specified in the Projects Options
dialog box (see Figure 4.4.2.1) in order access the Trace Node dialog box.
Figure 4.4.6.1 The Trace Node dialog box is used to specify a single node that acts
like a tracer in determining what percent of its water reaches any other node in the
network
A list of the Trace Node dialog box data entries for Figure 4.4.6.1 follows, with a short
description given for each entry.
NODE TYPE
This pull-down selection list allows the user to select what type of node (i.e.,
junction, reservoir, or tank) the trace node is being specified for.
NODE ID
This data entry is used to define the ID of the node the trace node is being
assigned to. Choosing «Table...» will display the Select Node selection dialog
box from which the user can select the appropriate node type and ID. Or,
choosing «Pick» allows the user to graphically select the node from the
Horizontal Plan window.
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
4.5
Network Tracking
The following sections describe additional capabilities in MIKE NET that allow the
user to perform interactive forward and backward tracking of flow and to check the
network connectivity.
4.5.1 Forward and Backward Tracking
After running a network simulation and loading the analysis results, the user can
perform interactive forward and backward tracking of the flow to show where water
goes and where water originates from for a particular node.
An example of backward tracking is illustrated in Figure 4.5.1.1.
Figure 4.5.1.1 An example of backward tracking, showing how flow is traced backward
from the selected node to the originating source node
To perform forward tracking of the flow, select Tracking | Forward. Then, from the
Horizontal Plan window, click on the node you are interested to perform forward
tracking of flow from. MIKE NET will display the path(s) that the flow takes from the
selected node.
To perform backward tracking of the flow, select Tracking | Backward. Then, from
the horizontal plan, click on the node you are interested to perform backward tracking
of flow from. MIKE NET will display the path(s) that the flow takes to get to the
selected node from the source nodes (i.e., tanks and reservoirs).
4.5.2 Checking Network Connectivity
In defining a large network system, it is sometimes possible to define a disjointed
network where a small part of the network is somehow not connected to the main
network. To check network connectivity to make certain that a disjointed network does
not exist, select Tracking | Network. Then, from the horizontal plan, click on any part
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of the network system. MIKE NET will highlight all nodes (i.e., junction nodes, tanks,
and reservoirs) and links (i.e., pipes, pumps, and valves) that are connected to the
selected network component. If any nodes or links are not connected to the network,
they will not be highlighted.
In the event that the network is quite large and the possibility exists that un-highlighted
nodes or links might not be readily visible, then the Invert Selection icon on the toolbar
palette can be clicked on. Then, all non-highlighted nodes and links will become
highlighted, and the highlighted nodes and links will become un-highlighted. Any
nodes or links that are not connected to the network will be highlighted.
4.6
Modules
The following sections describe the modules available to users in MIKE NET.
4.6.1 Network Calibration and Optimization
The Network Calibration and Optimization module automatically adjusts pipe
roughness coefficients to best match field pressure observations and best reflect what
is actually occurring in your system.
One of the main calibration parameters in the pipe network hydrodynamic model is the
roughness coefficients. Pipe roughness values may be estimated in two ways: using
values from literature or directly from field measurements. To obtain initial estimates
of pipe roughness through field testing, it is a good practice to divide the water
distribution system into composite zones that contain pipes of like material and age.
Additionally, several pipes of different diameters should be tested in each zone to
obtain individual pipe roughness estimates. The process of calibration ideally requires
simulation over an extended period of time, such as a time range for the maximum day
- not just the maximum and minimum hour for the maximum day.
Both English and Metric units are fully supported in the Network Calibration and
Optimization module. Pipe roughness coefficients can be calculated for the HazenWilliams, Darcy-Weisbach (Colebrook-White), or Manning friction loss equations.
Evolutionary Algorithms
Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are engines simulating grossly simplified
processes occurring in nature and implemented in artificial media -- such as a
computer. The fundamental idea is that of emulating the Darwinian theory of
evolution. According to Darwin, evolution is best depicted as the process of the
adaptation of species to their environment as one of "natural selection".
Perceived in this way, all species inhabiting our planet are actually results of this
process of adaptation.
Evolutionary algorithms effectively provide an alternative approach to problem
solving - one in which solutions to the problem are evolved rather than the
problems being solved directly. The family of evolutionary algorithms today is
divided into four main streams: Evolution Strategies (Schwefel, 1981),
Evolutionary Programming (Fogel, 1966), Genetic Algorithms (Holland, 1975)
and Genetic Programming (Koza, 1992).
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Although different and intended for different purposes, all EAs share a common
conceptual base (schematized in Figure 1). In principle, an initial population of
individuals is created in a computer and allowed to evolve using the principles
of inheritance (so that offspring resemble parents), variability (the process of
offspring creation is not perfect -- some mutations occur) and selection (more
fit individuals are allowed to reproduce more often and less fit less often so that
their "genealogical" trees disappear in time). One of the main advantages of
EAs is their domain independence. EAs can evolve almost anything, given an
appropriate representation of evolving structures. Similarly to processes
observed in nature, one should distinguish between an evolving entity's
genotype and its phenotype. The genotype is basically a code to be executed
(such as a code in a DNA strand), whereas the phenotype represents a result of
the execution of this code (such as any living being).
Although the information exchange between evolving entities (parents) occurs
at the level of genotypes, it is the phenotypes in which one is really interested.
Figure 4.6.1.1 Schematic illustration of an evolutionary algorithm. The population is
initialized (usually randomly). From this population, the most fit entities are selected to
be altered by genetic operators exemplified by crossover (corresponding to sexual
reproduction) and mutation. Selection is performed based on certain fitness criteria in
which the more 'fit' are selected more often. Crossover simply combines two genotypes
by exchanging sub-strings around randomly selected points. In the illustration above,
parental genotypes are indicated as either all 1s or all 0s, for the sake of clarity.
Mutation simply flips the randomly selected bit
The phenotype is actually an interpretation of a genotype in a problem domain.
This interpretation can take the form of any feasible mapping. For example, for
optimization and constraint satisfaction purposes, genotypes are typically
interpreted as independent variables of a function to be optimized. Along these
lines, one can employ mapping in which genotypes are interpreted as roughness
coefficients in a free surface pipe flow model with the genetic algorithms (GAs)
directed towards the minimization of the discrepancies between model output
and measured water level and discharge values. Resulting GA represents an
automatic calibration model of hydrodynamic systems.
Introduction
The pipe roughness calibration will be demonstrated on the example of a gravity
network consisting of approximatley 600 nodes and 650 pipes. The water
distribution network is supplied by water from the upstream reservoir with a
fixed HGL = 257 m. The total network demand is approximately 140 l/s,
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MIKE NET
additional 327 l/s supplies adjacent pressure zones from the main pipeline. Flow
and pressure measurements were conducted on the network. The pipe age is
ranging between 20-80 years and the main pipe material is cast-iron.
Figure 4.6.1.2 Horizontal plan with the network layout
Pipe Roughness Calibration
The calibration of pipe roughness coefficients consists of several steps:
1.Definition of pipe roughness groups and pipe group assignment
2.Definition of targeted pressure values
3.Definition of targeted flow values
4.Detection of closed pipes (optional)
5.Automated calibration of pipe roughness coefficients by Genetic Algorithms
6.Assignment of calibrated pipe roughness values to the pipes
Figure 4.6.1.3 Network calibration and optimization dialog box
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Pipe Groupings
Pipes can be lumped together in separate logical groups based on their known
physical characteristics such as pipe material, age, and diameter. It is assumed
that all pipes within a calibration group (where a single pipe may constitute a
group) will possess an identical roughness coefficient. Any combination of pipe
calibration groups can be specified and their fitness evaluated to match field
observations. Selected pipes can be excluded from these groups and their
roughness coefficients will remain unchanged during the calibration process.
Figure 4.6.1.4 Pipes with fixed value of roughness coefficient (k=3mm)
Automated pipe group assignment
It is necessary to assign each pipe, which roughness coefficient is not fixed, into
a specific group. This can be done manually within the modified pipe editor and/
or it is possible to use the assistant, which will automatically create pipe groups
based on the pipe attributes
Figure 4.6.1.5 Pipe groups can be created by the assistant
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MIKE NET
Figure 4.6.1.6 Pipe groups are created based upon pipe attributes automatically
Group definition
The automatically created groups can be used in the roughness group definition.
We can create as many pipe groups as necessary and define their minimum and
maximum roughness coefficients. Each of these pipe groups can be assigned to
any group within the Calibration Group Distribution Tree by selecting the pipe
group from the list box Assigned Group. This is 1:n relation, which means that
different groups within the tree may be assigned to the same pipe roughness
group. Any group can be also displayed on the horizontal plan.
Figure 4.6.1.7 Pipe roughness groups define the roughness coefficient limits
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.6.1.8 Pipe groups are assigned to the defined pipe roughness groups
Pressure and Flow Measurements
Pressure and flow measurements (fire flow tests, SCADA) can be graphically
designated for any set of junction nodes, pipes in the system. Pipe roughness
coefficients are automatically adjusted so that the model pressure/flow
predictions correlate well with the targeted junction nodes/pipes.
Figure 4.6.1.9 Measured flow in two selected points, the inflow into the pressure zone
from the main pipeline
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MIKE NET
Figure 4.6.1.10 Measured pressure in five selected points
The measured flow and pressure values can be entered from within the
corresponding editors.
Figure 4.6.1.11 Targeted flow values
Figure 4.6.1.12 Targeted pressure values
Genetic Algorithms Calibration
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Genetic Algorithms pipe roughness calibration can be run when the pipes are
assigned to the roughness groups and when one of the flow and pressure
targeted values is defined. Several parameters can be defined for the pipe
calibration:
Initial Population Size: 25 (the default)
Additional Population Growth: 125 (the default)
Maximum Generation Count: 20 (the default)
The initial population size is the number of initial generation members (the
number of networks), which is used by the automated calibration.
The additional population growth is the number of generation members (the
number of networks), which are used during the automated population selection
and calibration.
The maximum generation count is the maximum length of the generation cycle.
Each generation cycle consists of:
1.Initial population estimate
2.additional population is created from the initial population size
3.the hydraulic analysis is performed for each population member (the
network)
4.initial population for the next generation is created from the best population
members
After step 4 has been completed, the cycle is repeated. Three thousand hydraulic
analyses will be executed in this example.
Figure 4.6.1.13 Genetic algorithms pipe roughness calibration
The calibration summary is available by selecting Report from Network
Calibration and Optimization window. If the results are satisfactory, the
calibrated pipe roughness coefficients can be loaded and assigned to pipes by
selecting Update Pipes from Network Calibration and Optimization window.
4.6.2 User Defined Objects
The main principle of MIKE NET user-defined objects is to allow the following tasks:
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Create the user-defined data structure in the database
Create the simple dialogue window for editing
Call the user-defined DLL function which will be used to read data from the
.INP file
Call the user-defined DLL function which will be used to write the data to the
.INP file
Call the modified EPANET2.DLL file for the analysis
Step 2 is done automatically be MIKE NET and steps 3-5 are not mandatory. If only
Step 1 is done, MIKE NET can be used in order to enter the user defined data within
the project database.
User Defined Data Structure
SQL Language is used in order to create the user-defined data structure within
MIKE NET database. These new data structures will be automatically created
each time when the new MIKE NET project is open and/or each time the
existing project is open.
Example of the data structure definition
CREATE TABLE MKN_HYDRANTS
CID SMALLINT NOT NULL,
ID INTGER,
NODEID INTEGER,
FLOWCOEFF FLOAT,
DESCRIPTION CHAR (40),
CONSTRAINT CID_UNIQUE UNIQUE (CID);
This SQL statement is generated and executed by MIKE NET. It is possible to
run the SQL command directly within MIKE NET and/or to let MIKE NET to
execute prepared SQL commands on its startup. Specific NODEID and
LINKID fields are used in order to map the records on the existing nodes and/
or links. If these fields are empty and/or not found, the records are lacking the
horizontal plan visualization.
Each user-defined structure can be deleted by standard SQL commands such as:
DROP TABLE MKN_HYDRANTS
There are no mandatory fields, however, it is highly recommended to have one
unique field defined for each data structure. Each table name must start with the
prefix of "MKN_" in order to be recognized by MIKE NET
Dialog Box for Editing
The simple dialog box for the user-defined structure editing is automatically
created by MIKE NET. It is possible to Add, Delete and Modify the existing
data; it is also possible to navigate through the dataset by selecting First, Next,
Previous and Last commands.
These dialog boxes are automatically created upon all user-defined tables (with
the prefix MKN_) and the corresponding menu items are created under the main
menu system.
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.6.2.1 Example of user-defined dialog box, which is automatically created by
MIKE NET
Database Navigator
The Database Navigator is used in order to insert, delete, post, and refresh
records and to navigate through records with ease.
Clipboard Controls
The Clipboard Controls are user in order to copy/paste the data into/from the
clipboard and to define the clipboard format. The default clipboard format
contains all database fields. It is possible to modify the clipboard format in order
to match the current field selection.
Default clipboard format for MKN_HYDRANTS:
CID,ID,NODEID,FLOWCOEFF,DESCRIPTION
Common Editor Functions
The common editor functions provide the basic functionality to your userdefined objects. It is possible to Map the current record onto the horizontal plan
windows, to Map All records with in the dataset, and to run SQL UPDATE and
SQL SELECT statement using QBE (Query By Example) interface
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MIKE NET
Figure 4.6.2.2 SQL select QBE (Query by Example) Assistant
Reserved Field Names
There are several attribute names, which are reserved for specific and
predefined editor behavior. These are:
CID: This field is used for the internal indexing of table records.
NODEID: This field used for matching the table record with the existing nodes.
If the NODEID corresponds to the existing node ID, the table record can be
displayed by Map and Map All on the horizontal plan window.
Also, the selected node ID (junction, reservoir, tank) from the horizontal plan
window is automatically assigned to the NODEID when the new record is
created by the Database Navigator.
LINKID: This field used for matching the table record with the existing links.
If the LINKID corresponds to the existing link ID, the table record can be
displayed by Map and Map All on the horizontal plan window.
Also, the selected link ID (pipe, pump, valve) from the horizontal plan window
is automatically assigned to the LINKID when the new record is created by the
Database Navigator
User Defined DLL Files
User defined DLL files are used in order to write the data into INP files and to
read it from INP files. It is assumed that the dynamically linked DLL file(s)
contain(s) function prototypes with the same name as the user defined table and
that the list of all parameters is passed to it, along with the table name and call
type. The call type distinguishes among 'read', 'write' and other functions.
Apart from this, the standard EPANET2.DLL file is used by MIKE NET
analysis engine.
Each user-defined object has to have its own DLL file, which is used for the
communication with MIKE NET.
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Write data into EPANET2.0 .INP file
Create your own function, which will be used when MIKE NET writes the
external INP file of r EPANET 2.0 analysis.
Read data into EPANET 2.0 .INPfile
Create your own function, which will be used when MIKE NET reads the
external EPANET 2.0 .INP file.
Modify EPANET2.DLL
Modify the EPANET2.DLL file in order to create implement your userdefined objects within the EPANET 2.0 numerical engine. EPANET2.DLL
file can be compiled from the source files available at EPA web page.
Example Application
Create the user-defined structure
The following table was created by the General SQL Command found in the Tools
menu:
CREATE TABLE mkn_HYDRANTS (CID SMALLINT NOT NULL,
ID INTEGER,
NODEID INTEGER,
FLOWCOEFF FLOAT,
DESCRIPTION CHAR(40),
CONSTRAINT CID_UNIQUE UNIQUE (CID));
Main menu system is updated
MIKE NET automatically adds this structure into the main menu system:
Figure 4.6.2.3 The new menu item is automatically created under the main menu
system
Edit user-defined objects
The HYDRANTS editor is generated by selecting the MKN_HYDRANTS that was
created in User Defined Modules.
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Figure 4.6.2.4 MKN_HYDRANTS is automatically created
The hydrants can be inserted, deleted, edited and displayed:
Figure 4.6.2.5 The hydrants can be mapped onto the horizontal plan window nodes by
corresponding NODEID
Customize the Behavior of Your Objects
library UT_TestDLL;
uses
SysUtils,
Classes;
var
SFile: TextFile;
function MKN_GetTableDescription(var DataSource, MenuCaption: PChar):
Boolean; StdCall;
// DataSource:
// simple alternative = the name of database table
// in this case the DataSource will be automatically changed to 'SELECT * FROM
// <tablename>'
// complex alternative = any SQL SELECT Statement
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
// Menu Caption:
// this string will be used in MikeNet Main Menu
// if this string is empty, original data source will be used automatically
begin
DataSource: = 'MKN_HYDRANTS';
MenuCaption := nil;
Result := True;
end;
function MKN_WriteTable(FileName: PChar): Boolean;
// this function opens the external file for data appending and writes the Section
// Header
// Remark: this function is supposed to ADD the information to the file <FileName>
// the external file can not be over-written as it may already contains other data
begin
// Sample code:
if FileExists(FileName) then
begin
AssignFile(SFile, FileName);
Append(SFile);
writeln(SFile);
writeln(SFile, '[MKN_HYDRANTS]');
writeln(SFile, ';------------------------------------------------------');
// write exact attribute description here
writeln(SFile, ';------------------------------------------------------');
Result := True;
end
else Result := False;
end;
function MKN_WriteAttribute(Name, Value: PChar; IsString: Boolean): Boolean;
// this function writes the attribute value to the external or the internal buffer
begin
// Sample code
Result := True;
if Value<>nil then
write(SFile, Format('%8s ', [Value]))
else
write(SFile, Format('%8s ', ['']));
end;
function MKN_WriteRecord: Boolean;
// this function writes the end of the line to the external file or
// writes the data line to the external file from the internal buffer
begin
// Sample code
Result := True;
writeln(SFile);
end;
function MKN_ReadTable(DataSource, FileName: PChar): Boolean;
// this function opens the external data file and searches for the data section
begin
Result := False;
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end;
function MKN_ReadRecord: Boolean;
// this function determines if the new record in database can be created,
// it can also read the data from the external file to the internal buffer and validate it
begin
Result := False;
end;
function MKN_ReadAttribute(var Name, Value: PChar): Boolean;
// this function returns the pointer to the null terminated string
// representing <Value> of the attribute and the name of the attribute <Name>
// Remark: these strings can not be local variables
// as they have to be accessible from outside this function
begin
Result := False;
end;
function MKN_CloseTableFile: Boolean;
// this function closes the external data file
begin
// Sample code
Result := True;
try CloseFile(SFile); except ; end;
end;
exports
MKN_GetTableDescription index 1,
MKN_WriteTable index 2,
MKN_WriteAttribute index 3,
MKN_WriteRecord index 4,
MKN_ReadTable index 5,
MKN_ReadRecord index 6,
MKN_ReadAttribute index 7,
MKN_CloseTableFile index 8
;
begin
end.
4.7
Miscellaneous
The following sections describe in detail additional capabilities of the MIKE NET
water distribution modeling package.
4.7.1 Unit Bases
The following table lists the units in which the various input parameters are defined as.
Note that flow units in this table can correspond to either gallons per minute (the
default), cubic feet per second, million gallons per day, or liters per second, depending
on what unit base has been specified in the Project Options dialog box Units tab (see
Figure 4.4.1.1 for more information).
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Table 4.7.1.1 Summary of Input Parameter Units
Parameter
English Units
SI (Metric) Units
Junction Elevation
feet
meters
Junction Demand
flow units
flow units
feet
meters
feet above bottom
meters above bottom
feet
meters
Tank Minimum Volume
cubic feet
cubic meters
Junction/Tank Quality
Chemical
Age
Source Trace
milligrams/liter (or user supplied)
hours
percent
same
as
English
feet
meters
Pipe Diameter
inches
millimeters
Pipe Roughness
Hazen-Williams
Darcy-Weisbach
Chezy-Manning
none
millifeet
none
none
millimeters
none
none
none
horsepower
kilowatts
Pump Head
feet
meters
Pump Flow
flow units
flow units
none
none
inches
millimeters
pounds per square inch
meters
flow units
flow units
Tank Bottom Elevation
Tank Levels
Tank Diameter
Pipe Length
Minor Loss Coefficient
Pump Power Rating
Pump Speed Setting
Valve Diameter
Valve Pressure Setting
Valve Flow Setting
Bulk Reaction Coefficient
Wall Reaction Coefficient
days
-1
days-1
feet/day
meters/day
units of concentration
units of concentration
none
none
Viscosity
square feet per second
square meters per second
Diffusivity
square feet per second
square meters per second
Limiting Potential
Specific Gravity
4.7.2 Synchronize Network References
When developing and modifying a network model using the junction, pipe, pump,
reservoir, tank, and reservoir editors, the network will have been changed from what
is currently displayed on the horizontal plan. In order to update the horizontal plan
view with what is defined in the MIKE NET network database, select Tools |
Synchronize Network References.
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4.7.3 Recompute Pipe Lengths
When modifying a network model using the graphical tools in the horizontal plan,
sometimes a pipe length will change due to repositioning of a junction node or
stretching of a curvilinear pipe. In order to update the MIKE NET network database
with what is defined on the horizontal plan, select Tools | Recompute Pipe Lengths.
4.7.4 Coordinate Adjustment
In developing a network model, it is sometimes necessary to adjust the coordinates
based upon some coordinate axis or elevation datum change. MIKE NET allows the
coordinates of the network components to be changed using the Coordinate
Adjustment dialog box, as shown in Figure 4.7.4.1. The Coordinate Adjustment dialog
box is reached by selecting Tools | Coordinate Adjustment.
Figure 4.7.4.1 The Coordinate Adjustment dialog box allows the user to adjust the
network coordinates due to some coordinate axis or elevation datum change
A list of the Coordinate Adjustment dialog box adjustment entries for Figure 4.7.4.1
follows, with a short description given for each entry.
SWAP X & Y
This check box will exchange the X and Y coordinates with each other,
essentially flipping the entire network system along a 45° diagonal line passing
between the positive X and Y axes.
FLIP HORIZONTAL
This check box will flip the entire network system over the X axis.
FLIP VERTICAL
This check box will flip the entire network system over the Y axis.
OFFSET X
OFFSET Y
OFFSET Z
These data entries allow you to shift the X, Y and Z coordinates to account for
a coordinate axis adjustment or an elevation datum change. The offset amount
will be added to the existing coordinates for each network component.
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4.7.5 Proposed to Existing
When performing additions to a network model, it is sometimes useful to specify the
State (as in the planning phase) of newly added network elements as MARKED rather
than UNMARKED. The state specification makes it useful when filtering out only the
proposed elements or existing elements of a network. An example of a State
specification field is shown in the Junction Editor, as shown in Figure 4.7.5.1.
Figure 4.7.5.1 The Junction Editor illustrates the State data entry, that allows the user
to distinguish between MARKED and UNMARKED network components
To change the state of all MARKED network elements to UNMARKED, select Tools |
Unmarked →Marked. MIKE NET will then go through all of the elements contained
within the network database and change their state to UNMARKED.
Caution
Once the component state conversion has been performed, it cannot be undone.
4.7.6 Locking the Project
Sometimes it is useful to lock the existing pipe network so that as new components are
added to the network the existing network nodes cannot accidentally be moved. You
can toggle ON and OFF locking of the network nodes by selecting Edit |
Project Lock. Note that you can continue to edit the existing network nodes and
links—just that when the project is locked, they cannot be accidentally moved.
4.7.7 Project Information
Selecting File | Project Information will display the Project Information dialog box,
as shown in Figure 4.7.7.1. The general tab provides an overview description of the
defined water distribution network system. The Patterns tab provides an overview of
the patterns assigned to within the network and how many times they are used. The
energy tab provides an overview as to what pumps have an energy curve associated
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with them, and the specifics of the assigned curve.The tanks tab informs the user of
how many tanks are defined in the system as well as tank information. The system
demands tab provides the user with junction inflow and outflow in the system.
Figure 4.7.7.1 The Project Information dialog box provides an overview description of
the defined water distribution network
4.7.8 Prototypes
MIKE NET uses prototypes when you define a network model. Prototypes can be
thought of as templates, which are used to automatically assign default values to the
network components as they are added to the network. When a new network
component is created either graphically in the horizontal plan view or using one of the
network component editors (e.g., junction editor), the input variables for that network
component will be assigned values that were defined for the prototype. This can save
a great deal of time when dealing with a large network system that has many
components that have similar characteristics.
Additionally, the minimum and maximum defaults used by the model checker can be
defined within the Project Prototypes editor. The settings contain the minimum and
maximum pipe diameter and minimum pipe length. Warning messages are displayed
each time, the actual pipe diameter and length does not fit within these limits based on
the actual project units.
Selecting Tools | Prototypes will display the Prototypes dialog box, as shown in
Figure 4.7.8.1. From this dialog box you can define prototypes for:
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•
Junction Nodes
•
Pipes
•
Pumps
•
Reservoirs
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
•
Tanks
•
Valves
Figure 4.7.8.1 The Prototypes dialog box allows you to define the properties of any
newly inserted components that are added to the network system
Note
Existing network elements will not be affected with any changes made to a prototype.
Changing a prototype definition only affects new elements that are inserted after the
prototype change has been made. Therefore, there is no risk of losing or changing
component definition information already specified in the network model.
4.7.9 Engineering Tables
Included with MIKE NET are predefined engineering tables that include specified pipe
roughness coefficients and minor loss coefficients, as shown in the Engineering Tables
dialog box as shown in Figure 4.7.9.1. These values are used as lookup coefficient
values when defining the pipe and valves that make up the network system. The
Engineering Tables dialog box is reached by selecting Tools | Engineering Table.
Note that additional coefficients can be added to the provided engineering table values
using this dialog box.
Pipe roughness coefficients are specified as Hazen-Williams C, Darcy-Weisbach ε,
and Manning’s n values for various pipe material. Minor loss coefficients are used in
pipe and valve definitions that contain additional headlosses due to pipe fittings and/
or flow obstructions. When defining minor losses for a network component and more
than one minor loss applies, then the sum of all the minor loss coefficients should be
used to account for the total additional headloss.
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Figure 4.7.9.1 The Engineering Tables define lookup table values for pipe roughness
coefficients and minor loss coefficients
Roughness coefficient and minor loss coefficient lookup table dialog boxes are
displayed from either the Pipe Editor and Valve Editor by clicking on the «...» button,
adjacent to the Roughness and Minor Loss data entries.
4.7.10 General SQL Command
It is possible to execute any SQL command to manipulate data of any database table
in MIKE NET. Select General SQL Command from the Tools menu, and define the
SQL statement. It is possible to execute several commands separated by a semicolon
‘;’. The SQL statement can be loaded and or saved into a text file.
Figure 4.7.10.1 General SQL Command Dialog Box allows the user to define and
execute any SQL statement
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MIKE NET Input Descriptions
It is possible to use much more powerful SQL SELECT and SQL UPDATE commands
within the network editors and/or in the General SQL Command.
Example:
Update pipes set rcoeff = 140 where description like '%.STEEL%'This will set the
roughness coefficient rcoeff=140 for pipes, where the description field contains
STEEL. The % sign stands for any set of character in front and/or after the STELL substring.
Example:
'.MSTELL.Y1920'
can be used for steel pipes constructed in 1920.
It is also possible, at any time, to select these pipes by defining the SQL SELECT
within the Pipe Editor.
Example:
SELECT * FROM PIPES WHERE DESCRIPTION LIKE '%.MSTEEL'
Example:
It is possible to mark the problematic network elements as proposed in the Project
Check window. This is in particular useful when working on large data files. The nodes
and pipes, which contain errors, can be marked as proposed. Then, it is possible to
display them in the horizontal plan and to change their color. Also, it is possible to
select them at any time by defining the SQL SELECT within the editors.
In order to select all proposed junctions, define the following command:
select * from NODES where NODETYPE=1 and STATE=1
In order to select all proposed pipes, define the following command:
select * from PIPES where LINKTYPE=1 and STATE=1
Example:Convert Project Units
It is possible to convert the project units on a fly. In order to convert the current SI
project units in LPS (liters per second) to Imperial units in CFS (cubic feet per second)
select Tools | General SQL Command and load the LPS2CFS.TXT file. This file is
located in MIKE NET\SQL directory and it is a part of the installation. This file
contains a list of SQL UPDATE commands, which changes the table's attributes.
Example of LPS2SCF.TXT file:
update nodes set x=x*3.2808;
update nodes set y=y*3.2808;
update nodes set demand = demand/28.32 where nodetype=1;
update nodes set locdemand=locdemand/28.32;
update nodes set elev=elev*3.2808;
update nodes set minlevel=minlevel*3.2808;
update nodes set initlevel=initlevel*3.2808;
update nodes set maxlevel=maxlevel*3.2808;
update nodes set diameter=diameter*3.2808;
update nodes set width=width*3.2808;
update nodes set minvol=minvol*3.2808*3.2808*3.2808;
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update pipes set diameter=diameter*0.0397;
update pipes set L=L*3.2808;
update pipes set par1=par1*3.2808;
update pipes set par2=par2*3.2808;
update pipes set par4=par4*3.2808;
update pipes set par3=par3/28.32;
update pipes set par5=par5/28.32;
update pipes set par6=par6/28.32;
update pipes set setting=setting/28.32 where valvetype='FCV';
update pipes set setting=setting*1.42 where valvetype='PRV';
update pipes set setting=setting*1.42 where valvetype='PSV';
update pipes set setting=setting*1.42 where valvetype='PBV';
update project set units='CFS';
Similar SQL scripts can be used for GPM (gallons per minute), MGD (million gallons
per day) and also new project units, such as AFD (acre-feet per second), LPM (liters
per minute), CMH (cubic meters per hour), and MLD (million liters per day).
List of attributes
See the Chapter 3 for the detailed information about the names of the MIKE NET
tables and attributes, which can be used in the SQL LANGUAGE.
4.7.11 External Database Support
MIKE NET allows the user to connect to external database sources (such as ODBC
data sources) and to use them for updating actual project data such as node and pipe
attributes, pipe demand coefficients, and node demands. External Database Support is
located in the Tools menu.
This can be used to update the project data from Microsoft Access .MDB files, Dbase
.DBF files, ORACLE databases, and others.
Define Data Source
Define the source Alias name and select Connect. If the status says “Connected”
the ODBC connection was made and the data source is open for data transfer.
Nodes (Update Node Attributes)
Select Nodes page and define the database table name, from which the data will
be transferred and select OPEN. The available table attributes are displayed as
well as their count. Select any attributes within the existing MIKE NET
database for updating from the external DBF file by defining the matching
attributes. Select UPDATE to update the existing MIKE NET nodes, based on
the Geocoding type from the external data source. It is possible to aggregate the
junction demand and additional demand fields. Also, the unlinked nodes can be
created in the MIKE NET database. This allows you to import new nodes into
the network database.
There are 3 different geocoding types:
•
•
•
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Match by ID: the node ID (long integer number) is compared
Match By Description: the node description (string field) is compared
Geocode from X, Y: the node coordinates X, Y are used for the comparison;
the snapping radius has to be defined.
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Pipes (Update Link Attributes)
Select Pipes page and define the database table name, from which the data will
be transferred and select OPEN. The available table attributes are displayed as
well as their count. Select any attributes within the existing MIKE NET
database for updating from the external DBF file by defining the matching
attributes. Select UPDATE to update the existing MIKE NET pipes, based on
the Geocoding type from the external data source. It is possible to aggregate the
pipe demand coefficients. Also, the unlinked pipes can be created in the MIKE
NET database. This allows you to import new pipes into the network database.
There are 3 different geocoding types:
•
•
•
Match by ID: the pipe ID (long integer number) is compared
Match By Description: the pipe description (string field) is compared
Geocode from X, Y: the pipe coordinates X, Y are used for the comparison;
the snapping radius has to be defined.
Demand Coefficients
Select Demand Coefficients page and define the database table name, from
which the data will be transferred and select OPEN. The available table
attributes are displayed as well as their count. Select any attribute corresponding
to the pipe demand factor and select how this attribute would be geocoded from
the external data source to the corresponding pipes in MIKE NET.
Each pipe demand coefficient is calculated as follows:
C1 i = Q s ⁄ L i
Where: C1 i is the pipe demand coefficient 1 (any units)
Qs is the aggregated demand factor for each pipe (any units)
Li is the pipe length (ft., m)
See Demand Processing for more details.
Node Demands
Select Node Demands page and define the database table name, from which the
data will be transferred and select OPEN. The available table attributes are
displayed as well as their count. Select any attribute corresponding to the node
demand factor and select how this attribute would be geocoded from the
external data source to the corresponding nodes in MIKE NET.
Each node demand coefficient is calculated as follows:
∑Cni
Cni = ------------Cn i
Where: Cn i is the node demand coefficient (any units)
Sum(Cni) s is the sum of all demand coefficients transferred from the external
data source (any units)
See Demand Processing for more details.
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4.7.12 Generate Node Elevations
It is possible to generate node elevations from the digital model of terrain, which can
be automatically created from the other nodes in the model database or from an
external file containing measured X, Y and Z coordinates. To generate node elevations
select Generate Node Elevation from the Tools menu.
The digital model of terrain mesh is created using automatic grid size, or user defined
ones. The program does not limit the maximum number of grid points. The unknown
grid elevations are interpolated from the grid.
Source Elevations
There are two different data sources for creating the digital model of terrain.
Existing nodes in the model and external files.
Existing nodes in the model: the SQL SELECT statement can define the range
of the existing nodes in the model. The user may choose to use junction nodes
with the elevation above 1, use the following SQL statement:
ELEV>1 AND NODETYPE = 1
External file: the external file has to be an ASCII text file with ID, X, Y and Z
attributes delimited by a space or by a tabulator on each line of the file.
Target Nodes
It is possible to define the target nodes by SQL SELECT statements, graphical
selection, or the database marked selection. In order to interpolate the node
elevation to each junction node in the model, use the SQL SELECT state:
SELECT*FROM NODES WHERE ELEV<1 AND NODETYPE = 1
if the minimum elevation is above 1.
Computational Grid Size
The computational grid used for the digital model of terrain can be created
either by default grid size, or by the user defined gird size spacing. There is no
limit on the minimum grid size however; the system memory will be conserved
in case of using very smooth mesh size for the large area.
4-86
MIKE NET Input Descriptions
Figure 4.7.12.1 Generate Node Elevation dialog box
4-87
MIKE NET
4-88
C H A P T E R
Example Problems
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.8
5.1.9
5.1.10
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.4.5
Lesson 1
Defining a Pipe Network System
Defining the Project
Defining Junction Node Data
Defining Reservoir Data
Defining Pipe Data
Defining Pump Data
Opening a MIKE NET Data File
Saving Your Data
Performing the Analysis
Prepared Input and Output Files
Viewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 2
Pressure Reducing Valve Static Analysis
Defining a Pressure Reducing Valve
Defining a Junction Node Demand Change
Defining a Global Demand Change
Defining a Pipe Status Change
Prepared input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Comparing the Analysis Results
Lesson 3
Pressure Sustaining Valve Static Analysis
Defining a Pressure Sustaining Valve
Defining a Pump Change
Defining Pipe Diameter Change
Prepared Input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Comparing the Analysis Results
Lesson 4
Flow Control Valve Static Analysis
Defining a Flow Control Valve
Defining a Hydraulic Grade Line Change
Defining a Global Roughness Change
Prepared Input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
5
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-7
5-8
5-10
5-13
5-13
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-21
5-22
5-24
5-25
5-26
5-27
5-28
5-28
5-31
5-32
5-33
5-33
5-34
5-35
5-35
5-37
5-38
5-39
5-39
5-41
5-41
MIKE NET
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
5.8
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.9
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.9.3
5.9.4
5.9.5
5.10
5.10.1
5.10.2
5.10.3
5.10.4
5.10.5
5.10.6
5.11
5.11.1
5.11.2
5.11.3
5.11.4
5.11.5
Lesson 5
Extended Period Analysis
Defining an Extended Period Analysis
Defining and Applying a Demand Pattern
Defining Storage Tank Data
Defining Extended Period Control Rules
Performing an Extended Period Analysis
Prepared Input and Output Files
Viewing the Extended Period Analysis Results
Reviewing Extended Period Analysis Results
Lesson 6
Fire Flow Analysis
Specifying a Design Fire Flow Rate
Specifying a Design Fire Flow Pressure
Prepared Input and Output Files
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 7
Water Quality–Source Tracing Analysis
Defining a Source Tracing Analysis
Defining the Source Node
Prepared Input and Output Files
Percentage of Source Node Water Results
Forward and Backward Tracking of Flow
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 8
Water Quality - Water Age Analysis
Defining a Water Age Analysis
Prepared Input and Output Files
Water Age Results
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 9
Water Quality–Constituent Chlorine Analysis
Defining a Constituent Analysis
Defining Constituent Data
Prepared Input and Output Files
Constituent Chlorine Decay Results
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 10
Distributing Demands and Pressure Zones
Defining Pressure Zones
Distributing Demands
Importing a Background Image
Prepared Input and Output Files
Viewing the Analysis Results
Reviewing the Analysis Results
Lesson 11
Contour Plots, Animation Files, Reports
Generating Contour Plots
Defining a Color Legend
Generating Animation Files
Generating Output Reports
Prepared Input and Output Files
5-43
5-44
5-45
5-49
5-51
5-53
5-54
5-54
5-60
5-64
5-64
5-65
5-66
5-67
5-68
5-69
5-70
5-70
5-71
5-73
5-74
5-75
5-75
5-77
5-77
5-80
5-81
5-81
5-82
5-84
5-85
5-87
5-88
5-88
5-91
5-92
5-93
5-93
5-95
5-96
5-97
5-98
5-101
5-104
5-106
5.12
5.12.1
5.12.2
5.12.3
5.13
5.13.1
5.13.2
5.13.3
5.13.4
5.14
5.14.1
5.14.2
5.14.3
5.15
5.15.1
5.15.2
5.15.3
Lesson 12
Importing KYPIPE, WaterCAD Data Files
Importing KYPIPE Data Files
Importing WaterCAD and CyberNET Data Files
Prepared Input and Output Files
Lesson 13
Exporting and Importing ArcView GIS Data
Exporting Water Distribution Data to ArcView
Updating the ArcView GIS Data
Importing ArcView GIS Data into MIKE NET
Prepared Input and Output Files
Lesson 14
Constructing a Pipe Network System from a DXF File
Importing a DXF File as a Background Image
Prepared Input and Output Files
Automatic Construction of a Pipe Network System
Lesson 15
Pump Efficiency and Pump Power
Pump Efficiency
Pump Power
Prepared Input and Output Files
5-107
5-107
5-112
5-116
5-118
5-119
5-122
5-126
5-130
5-132
5-132
5-134
5-134
5-136
5-136
5-139
5-140
5.1.1
5.1.1.1
5.1.2.1
5.1.2.2
5.1.2.3
5.1.3.1
5.1.4.1
5.1.5.1
5.1.5.2
5.1.8.1
5.1.10.1
5.1.10.2
5.1.10.3
component
5.1.10.4
5.1.10.5
5.1.10.6
5.1.10.7
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.1.1
5.2.2.1
5.2.3.1
5.2.4.1
5.2.7.1
5.2.7.2
5.3.1
5.3.1.1
5.3.2.1
5.3.3.1
5.3.6.1
5.4.1
5.4.1.1
5.4.2.1
5.4.3.1
5.4.5.1
5.5.1
5.5.1.1
5.5.1.2
5.5.2.1
5.5.2.2
5.5.2.3
5.5.2.4
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.2
5.5.4.1
5.5.5.1
5.5.7.1
5.5.7.2
5.5.7.3
5.5.7.4
5.5.7.5
5.5.7.6
5.5.7.7
5.5.7.8
5.5.7.9
5.5.8.1
5.5.8.2
5.5.8.3
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system used in this lesson2
The Project Options dialog box2
Use the Add Junction tool for interactively laying out the network junction nodes4
The Junction Editor dialog box5
The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box is used to adjust the display settings for Horizontal Plan window6
Adding a reservoir to the pipe network system8
The Pipe Editor dialog box10
Input requirements for the various types of pump curves12
The Pump Editor dialog box12
The Check Project dialog box is used to check over the pipe network model for errors14
The EPANET Analysis Results15
The hydraulic analysis results in the Analysis Results Table16
The Component Browser allows you to examine the input attributes and analysis results for any network
17
The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box allows you to customize the Horizontal Plan graphical plot18
Computed flow direction arrows plotted on the pipe network in Horizontal Plan window19
The Create Profile Plot dialog box allows you to specify what results are to be plotted on the profile plot20
Profile plots allow you to graphically plot the analysis results along any pipeline path20
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system21
The Open dialog box22
The Valve Editor dialog box24
The Junction Editor dialog box25
The Global dialog box26
The Pipe Editor dialog box27
The Compare Alternatives dialog box29
The Analysis Results Table dialog is used to display the comparison results30
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system31
The Valve Editor dialog box32
The Pump Editor dialog box33
The Pipe Editor dialog box34
The Analysis Results Table dialog is used to display the comparison results36
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system37
The Valve Editor dialog box38
The Reservoir Editor dialog box39
The Global dialog box40
The Analysis Results Table dialog is used to display the comparison results42
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system43
The Project Options dialog box45
The Time Editor dialog box46
The Pattern Editor dialog box46
The Multipliers dialog box47
A demand pattern curve47
The Global dialog box48
The Tank Editor dialog box50
The Pipe Editor dialog box51
The Control Editor dialog box52
The Check Project dialog box is used to check over the pipe network model for errors53
EPANET Analysis Results54
The Analysis Results Table at 0:00 hours55
The Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in which to display results55
The Analysis Results Table at 8:00 hours56
The Component Browser displays analysis results for the selected network component57
The Create Time Series Plot dialog box58
Time Series Plot for demand at junction node 758
The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box59
The analysis results displayed in the Horizontal Plan window60
The Demand Curve (Pattern 2)60
Extended period demand and pressure results for junction node 561
Extended period flow results for pump 162
MIKE NET
5.5.8.4
5.5.8.5
5.6.1.1
5.7.1
5.7.1.1
5.7.1.2
5.7.2.1
5.7.2.2
5.7.4.1
5.7.4.2
5.7.4.3
5.7.4.4
5.7.5.1
5.8.1
5.8.1.1
5.8.1.2
5.8.3.1
5.8.3.2
5.8.3.3
5.8.3.4
5.9.1
5.9.1.1
5.9.2.1
5.9.2.2
5.9.2.3
5.9.4.1
5.9.4.2
5.9.4.3
5.9.4.4
5.10.1
5.10.1.1
5.10.1.2
5.10.2.1
5.10.3.1
5.10.3.2
5.10.3.3
5.11.1
5.11.1.1
5.11.1.3
5.11.2.1
5.11.2.2
5.11.2.3
5.11.2.4
5.11.2.5
5.11.2.6
5.11.3.1
5.11.3.2
5.11.3.3
5.11.3.4
5.11.3.5
5.11.4.1
5.11.4.3
5.12.1.1
5.12.1.2
5.12.1.3
5.12.1.4
5.12.1.5
5.12.1.6
5.12.1.7
Extended period flow results for pump 1462
Extended period flow results from pipe 16 which services the storage tank located at the hospital64
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system used to define a fire flow analysis64
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system68
Project Options dialog box69
Time Editor dialog box69
Trace Node dialog box70
Select Node dialog box70
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box71
Analysis results on day 0 at 0:00 hours72
Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in which to display results72
Results on day 1 at 0:00 hours73
Forward tracking of water from reservoir 1074
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system75
Project Options dialog box76
Time Editor dialog box76
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box78
Analysis results on day 0 at 0:00 hours78
Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in which to display results79
Results on day 1 at 0:00 hours79
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system81
The Project Options dialog box82
Initial Water Quality Editor dialog box82
Point Contaminant Source Editor dialog box83
Reaction Rate Editor dialog box84
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box85
Analysis results on day 0 at 0:00 hours86
Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in which to display results86
Results on day 1 at 0:00 hours87
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system88
The Pressure Zone Editor dialog box89
The Global dialog box90
The Distributed Demands dialog box92
The Layer Control dialog box93
The Import dialog box93
Horizontal Plan window with the background image displayed94
A schematic diagram of the pipe network system96
Generate Contour Plot dialog box97
Pressure contour plot displayed in the Horizontal Plan window97
Color Legend dialog box99
Generate Legend dialog box99
Color Legend dialog box with Legend 1 defined99
Layer Control dialog box100
Contour Options dialog box100
Contour plot displayed with the colors assigned in the color legend101
The pipe network system displayed in the Horizontal Plan window102
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box102
Animate toolbar103
Animation of graduated symbols at each of the junction nodes showing water quality103
Gauge bars can also be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window104
Analysis results displayed in the buil-in Report Generator105
Analysis results exported to Microsoft Excel106
MS-DOS Command Prompt dialog box108
Executing the KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA at the Command Prompt window109
Import dialog box109
Check Model dialog box110
Reported errors and warnings in importing the KYPIPE input data file120
Converted EPANET input data file KYPIPE.INP111
Check Model dialog box112
5.12.2.1
5.12.2.2
5.12.2.3
5.12.2.4
5.13.1
5.13.1.1
5.13.1.2
5.13.1.3
5.13.1.4
5.13.1.5
5.13.2.1
place
5.13.2.2
5.13.2.3
5.13.2.4
5.13.3.1
5.13.3.2
5.13.3.3
5.13.3.4
5.13.3.6
5.13.3.7
5.13.3.8
5.14.1
5.14.1.1
5.14.1.2
5.14.3.1
5.14.3.2
5.15.1
5.15.1.1
5.15.1.2
5.15.2.1
5.15.2.2
File Transfer dialog box113
The pipe network model to be exported from WaterCAD114
Import dialog box115
Imported WaterCAD data displayed on the Horizontal Plan window116
The water distribution network from a major metropolitan city, which is used in the lesson118
Export dialog box118
ArcView Project window119
The View1 window in ArcView120
The Add Theme dialog box in ArcView120
Graphical layout of the imported water distribution network121
Using the Zoom In tool, drag a zoom window over the area where the pipe network modification will take
122
Zoomed-in area where the network modification will take place123
The water distribution network with additional pipes already drawn in124
Attribute database table for the pipes (links) contained within the ArcView GIS125
ArcView Convert dialog box126
Project Options dialog box126
Import dialog box127
Assign Database Attributes for Pipes dialog box128
Check Model dialog box129
Reported errors in importing the ArcView GIS data130
Recomputed pipe lengths130
The water distribution network in AutoCAD that will be imported into MIKE NET132
The Import dialog box133
The DXF file imported as a background image133
The Import dialog box134
The consructed water distribution network imported from a DXF file135
The pipe network system used in this lesson136
Time series plot of pump power for pump 1138
Time Series plot of pump power for pump 14138
The Project Information dialog box139
The Project Information dialog box140
MIKE NET
C H A P T E R
Example Problems
5
This chapter contains several lessons. Each lesson is designed to illustrate how to use
MIKE NET for a particular task. The input data files for these lessons are automatically
installed by the provided installation program. The installation program will place the
lesson files in any subdirectory you specify.
The lessons presented in this chapter build off the skills developed in earlier lessons.
Since each lesson includes a completed analysis, it is possible for the user to skip ahead
to a particular lesson of interest. However, skills that were described in earlier lessons
will be assumed in subsequent lessons.
It is important that MIKE NET be properly installed prior to attempting the provided
lessons. Please refer to the section titled Installation Procedure contained in Chapter 2
should you need to install MIKE NET.
5.1
Lesson 1
Defining a Pipe Network System
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define the
input data for a pipe network system. This lesson discusses the steps required to begin
a project, define a pipe network system, perform an analysis, and display the graphical
results.
Before you begin to define your pipe network using MIKE NET, it is generally more
efficient to gather all of the materials you will need to define the model. For example,
create a schematic diagram of the pipe network system to be analyzed. Then, list all of
the junction nodes, pipes, pumps, valves, storage tanks, and other components that
make up the water distribution model.
Figure 5.1.1 shows a schematic diagram of the pipe network to be created in this
lesson. The pipe network system shown in Figure 5.1.1 consists of two reservoir
nodes, 8 junction nodes, 13 pipes, and a booster pump. Reservoir A is the designated
pressure source, so water is pumped into the water distribution system from
reservoir A. To simplify data input, all pipes, pumps, reservoir nodes, and junction
nodes should be numbered in the schematic diagram, as shown in Figure 5.1.1. In
subsequent lessons, additional components will be added to this schematic diagram.
5-1
MIKE NET
Figure 5.1.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system used in this lesson
The pipe network system, as shown in Figure 5.1.1, is intended to represent a typical
water distribution system for a small city. Each pipe shown in the figure represents a
large water main underneath a major city street. Thus, these pipes are labeled with their
ID numbers in the schematic diagram. At junction nodes, demands are indicated by
arrows either leaving (positive demands) or entering (negative demands) the nodes.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this lesson,
see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-14.
5.1.1 Defining the Project
To begin a new project, select File | New. The program will then display the Project
Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.1.1.1. The program automatically displays
the Project Options dialog box whenever a new project is started. This dialog box
allows you to specify project configuration information for the pipe network system to
be modeled. Project configuration data includes analysis type, friction loss
formulation, simulation options, analysis options, and flowrate units. Alternatively, to
display the Project Options dialog box, select Edit | Project Options.
Figure 5.1.1.1 The Project Options dialog box
5-2
Example Problems
The Project Options dialog box, when first displayed, will contain default values. This
lesson uses these default values, so no changes are necessary to these settings in the
Project Options dialog box.
Dynamic Data Input
Many of the data input dialog boxes in MIKE NET are dynamic, and thus change based
on the settings specified in the Project Options dialog box. For example, the friction
loss formulation (i.e., Hazen Williams, Darcey Weisbach, or Chezy Manning) selected
within the Project Options dialog box determines what units are displayed for the
Roughness data entry field displayed in the Pipe Editor dialog box.
5.1.2 Defining Junction Node Data
After defining the initial project configuration values, the next step is to define the
junction node data for the pipe network system. Table 5.1.2.1 lists elevation, demand,
and label data used to define the eight junction nodes contained in the pipe network
system shown in Figure 5.1.1.
Table 5.1.2.1 Junction node data for the pipe network system shown in Figure 5.1.1
Node
Elevation (ft)
Demand (cfs)
Description
1
97
0.0
2
102
0.0
3
96
0.8
4
100
0.0
5
120
0.5
Fire Station
6
110
1.0
Electrical Plant
7
104
1.1
Hospital
8
96
-1.2
Pumping Well
Manufacturing Plant
Each junction node has a unique numerical ID that identifies it. For each junction node,
an elevation and water demand is defined. Typically, junction nodes are labeled with
location names corresponding to building names. Therefore, junction nodes 3, 5, 6, 7,
and 8 are given label descriptions that indicate their location and may suggest the type
of demand that can be expected at each location.
The easiest way of defining the junction node data is to graphically define this data in
the Horizontal Plan window. To display the Horizontal Plan window, select View |
Horizontal Plan. Because there is no data yet defined for this project, the Horizontal
Plan window is opened using the default coordinate extents. The default coordinate
extents can be defined in the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box (displayed by
selecting Plan | Options—this menu item is only available if the Horizontal Plan
window is active). In this example we will use the default coordinate extents for
defining the water distribution network.
We will use the Horizontal Plan window to interactively layout a schematic
representation of the water distribution network. Once the network has been
graphically laid out, we will then further define the actual junction node, pipe, and
other related data using the network component editors in MIKE NET.
5-3
MIKE NET
Figure 5.1.2.1 Use the Add Junction tool for interactively laying out the network
junction nodes
In order to quickly draw a network layout, click on the Add Junction tool from the
Components floating toolbar as shown in Figure 5.1.2.1. The icon will become active
(it will appear pressed down) and you can then point and click within the Horizontal
Plan window to graphically add junction node locations. Using this tool and referring
to Figure 5.1.1, start by adding junction node 1 and continue through to junction
node 8. Place these nodes in the sequential order as they are shown in Figure 5.1.1 so
that the node IDs match the rest of this lesson’s input. When finished, click again on
the Add Junction tool (it will pop back up) to end insertion of junction nodes.
5-4
Example Problems
Once the junction nodes have been graphically laid out in the Horizontal Plan window,
additional data can be specified to further define the junction nodes that comprise the
model. This is done by using the Junction Editor dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.1.2.2. To display the Junction Editor, select Edit | Junction Editor.
Figure 5.1.2.2 The Junction Editor dialog box
Each junction node has a unique numerical ID that identifies it. The data used to define
each junction node includes node elevation, water demand, pattern ID, additional
demand, pressure zone, X–Y coordinates, and a text description. These data
requirements are described in detail in the section titled Junction Editor in Chapter 4.
In this example we will only define the junction node data that is shown in
Table 5.1.2.1.
To define additional data for junction node 1 (see the schematic layout shown in
Figure 5.1.1 and the node data in Table 5.1.2.1), select node 1 from the list of junction
nodes in the Junction Editor. For the Elevation data entry specify 97, and for the
Demand data entry specify 0. Because junction node 1 does not have a demand pattern,
pressure zone ID, or a text description, the remaining data entries can remain blank.
Once the data for junction node 1 has been defined, repeat this process for the other
remaining junction node data in Table 5.1.2.1. Note that data can be defined in either
the data entry fields or directly in the table.
Horizontal Plan Options
To display node ID numbers in the Horizontal Plan window, select Plan | Options
(displayed on the menu bar only when a Horizontal Plan View window is already
displayed). The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box will be displayed, as shown in
5-5
MIKE NET
Figure 5.1.2.3. (A faster method of displaying the Plan Menu is by clicking with
theright mouse button while in the Horizontal Plan window.)
Figure 5.1.2.3 The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box is used to adjust the display
settings for Horizontal Plan window
From the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box, select the Nodes tab and then turn on the
Node Labels checkbox in the Draw group box. Next, turn on the Node ID checkbox in
the Node Options group box. Selecting «Apply» will cause the node ID numbers to be
displayed in the Horizontal Plan window.
From the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box it is also possible to select the font used
for displaying the node labels and whether the node labels are to be displayed with a
fixed font size or whether they are to be scaled proportionally to the Horizontal Plan
scale. This can be done by turning on the Scaled Labels checkbox in the Display group
box of the Display tab of the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box. In this simple
example it is better to leave the Scaled Label checkbox turned off. Note that you can
format link labels in a similar way.
Displaying Multiple Dialog Boxes
To allow you to be more efficient while defining your water distribution model, MIKE
NET allows you to open multiple dialog boxes simultaneously. For example, you can
keep the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box displayed while you make changes to the
display settings, and examine the effects of the defined changes by clicking on
«Apply». Any number of dialog boxes can be opened simultaneously. The header bar
of the currently active dialog box will be highlighted.
In this lesson, if desired, you can simultaneously display the Junction Editor, Pipe
Editor, Reservoir Editor, and Pump Editor dialog boxes. To open these dialog boxes,
select Junction Editor, Pipe Editor, Reservoir Editor, and Pump Editor from the
Edit Menu. If necessary, once these dialog boxes are displayed, you can minimize any
5-6
Example Problems
of these dialog boxes by clicking on the minimize icon in the dialog box upper right
corner. This will shrink the dialog box to a small task button bar on the MIKE NET
desktop work space.
Network Definition Methods
MIKE NET is extremely flexible in how a water distribution model can be developed.
The user can develop a model from scratch using a variety of input methods, including
importation of data files from a GIS database or pre-existing water distribution models,
schematically drawing the pipe network, or by simple data entry.
If a map of the water distribution system is available, MIKE NET can import this map
and display it as a background image—allowing the user to then graphically construct
and layout the pipe network system using the Horizontal Plan window. Network
components can be selected from the Components floating toolbar, and then
graphically placed on the screen at the precise location of each component.
Many times, existing water distribution systems do not have a detailed map that can be
used to graphically construct a network model. For these situations, MIKE NET allows
the user to develop a model by simply defining water distribution components (i.e.,
pipes, junction nodes, pumps, values, tanks, and reservoirs) using the network
component editor dialog boxes.
Using Prototype Definitions
It is possible to define prototype values for each of the network components, such as
junction nodes, reservoirs, tanks, pipes, pumps, and valves. This can be done by
selecting Tools | Prototypes. This is especially useful, for example, when adding
many pipes of the same diameter and roughness to a model.
5.1.3 Defining Reservoir Data
The next step is to define the reservoir data for the pipe network system. Table 5.1.3.1
lists the reservoir data used to define the reservoirs contained in the pipe network
system shown in Figure 5.1.1.
Table 5.1.3.1 Reservoir node data for the pipe network system as shown in
Figure 5.1.1
Node (ID)
HGL (ft)
Description
9
100
Reservoir A
10
200
Reservoir B
As was performed in defining the junction node data, we will graphically define the
reservoir nodes in the Horizontal Plan window using the Add Reservoir tool. Select
the Add Reservoir tool from the Components floating toolbar. The icon will become
active (it will appear pressed down) and then point and click within the Horizontal Plan
window to graphically add reservoir node locations. Place these reservoir nodes in the
sequential order as they are shown in Figure 5.1.1 so that the node IDs match the rest
of this lesson’s input. When finished, click again on the Add Reservoir tool to end
insertion of reservoir nodes.
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MIKE NET
Once the reservoir nodes have been graphically laid out in the Horizontal Plan
window, additional data can be specified to further define the reservoirs that comprise
the model. This is done using the Reservoir Editor dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.1.3.1. To display the Reservoir Editor, select Edit | Reservoir Editor.
Figure 5.1.3.1 Adding a reservoir to the pipe network system
Each reservoir has a unique numerical ID that identifies it. The data used to define each
reservoir node includes constant water elevation, which is a mandatory field, and
several optional fields such as a text description, pressure zone, X–Y coordinates, and
phase. These data requirements are described in detail in the section titled Reservoir
Editor in Chapter 4. In this example use the Reservoir Editor to define the reservoir
data shown in Table 5.1.3.1.
Converting Junction Node to Reservoir Node
You can easily convert an existing junction node to a reservoir or tank node using
MIKE NET. To convert a junction node to a reservoir node, select the Add Reservoir
tool from the Components floating toolbar and click on the existing junction node in
the Horizontal Plan window. MIKE NET will display a query dialog, asking you
whether to convert the selected junction node to a reservoir. Note that this method can
be used to convert from a reservoir node to tank node (by using the Add Tank tool) or
from either a reservoir or tank node to a junction node (by using the Add Junction
tool).
5.1.4 Defining Pipe Data
The next step in defining this network model is to define the pipe data. Table 5.1.4.1
lists the pipe data used to define the pipes contained in the pipe network system shown
in Figure 5.1.1.
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Example Problems
Table 5.1.4.1 Pipe data for the pipe network system shown in Figure 5.1.1
Pipe
Length
Diameter
Friction
Minor
(ID)
Start
Nodes
End
(feet)
(inches)
Loss
Loss
Label
2
1
2
5200
12
80
0.0
Randall St
3
2
3
1000
12
120
0.0
Randall St
4
2
4
8000
12
100
0.0
Regent St
5
4
5
9000
12
110
0.0
Park St
6
4
6
3400
12
120
0.1
Washington Ave
7
4
7
3450
12
120
0.0
Park St
8
1
7
4000
8
80
0.0
University Ave
9
7
6
2500
12
100
0.8
University Ave
10
8
6
3000
8
100
0.0
State St
11
1
8
5400
12
90
0.0
University Bay Dr
12
10
6
700
15
100
0.1
University Ave
We will begin by graphically defining the pipes in the Horizontal Plan window using
the Add Pipe tool. Select the Add Pipe tool from the Components floating toolbar.
The icon will become active (it will appear pressed down). Using Figure 5.1.1 as a
guide for laying out the pipe network, point and click within the Horizontal Plan
window on a node. A rubberbanding line representing the pipe will appear between the
cursor and the node. Point and click on another node to define the pipe. To end
insertion of a pipe, press «Enter» and the rubberbanding line will end. Place these pipes
in the sequential order as they are shown in Figure 5.1.1 so that the pipe IDs match the
rest of this lesson’s input. Continue laying out pipes until you have completed the pipe
network system, as is shown in Figure 5.1.1.
Note that while you are defining a pipe using the rubberbanding line, pressing «Enter»
will end the line at the last junction node, double-clicking with the left mouse button
will end the pipe at the current cursor position by inserting a junction node, pressing
«Backspace» will delete the last inserted junction node and pipe segment, and pressing
«Esc» will abort the pipe insertion.
As you click on or near an existing node, MIKE NET will snap to the node and treat
this as a starting node. A rubber-banding line will then be drawn from this node,
representing the pipe, while you select the ending node. Then, if you click on or near
an existing node, it will snap to that node and treat the selected node as the ending
node—drawing in the pipe. If you click anywhere else, it will place an ending node at
the selected location.
While selecting the starting node, if you click with the Add Pipe tool in the Horizontal
Plan window somewhere else other than a node or a pipe, MIKE NET will place a
starting node at the clicked location. Additional information on how to use the
Add Pipe tool to graphically layout a pipe network is discussed in the section titled
Pipe Editor in Chapter 4.
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MIKE NET
Once the pipes have been graphically laid out in the Horizontal Plan window,
additional data can be specified to further define the pipes that comprise the model.
This is done using the Pipe Editor, as shown in Figure 5.1.4.1. To display the Pipe
Editor, select Edit | Pipe Editor.
Figure 5.1.4.1 The Pipe Editor dialog box
Each pipe has a unique numerical ID that identifies it. Each pipe definition includes
the two connecting nodes, identified as starting and ending nodes. The specified flow
direction is defined as going from the starting node to the ending node. To reverse the
order of the nodes, choose «Swap·Nodes».
The data used to define each pipe includes length, diameter, friction loss coefficient
(roughness or roughness coefficient), minor loss coefficient, and demand coefficients.
If a friction loss coefficient is not available, a value can be interpolated using the data
tables accessed through the MIKE NET Options Menu. Minor loss coefficients can be
specified if effects of fittings along a pipeline are to be considered (see the section
titled Minor Loss Coefficients in Chapter 6). Additional detail defining these data entry
fields is discussed in the section titled Pipe Editor in Chapter 4. In this example we will
use the Pipe Editor to define the pipe data shown in Table 5.1.4.1.
Note that the pipe ID is automatically assigned when the pipes are drawn in the
Horizontal Plan window. Therefore in your example, if you did not follow the layout
of the pipe network as shown in Figure 5.1.1, the pipe IDs may differ than what is
shown in Table Table 5.1.4.1. Therefore, when defining the additional pipe data for
this lesson, only consider the starting and ending nodes when identifying what data is
to be entered into the Pipe Editor.
5.1.5 Defining Pump Data
The function of a booster pump is to overcome the friction resistance and head loss in
transporting water from one location to another. There are three types of booster
pumps available in MIKE NET, including flow pumps, power pumps, and head
pumps.
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Example Problems
Flow Pumps
A flow pump is a booster pump whose flowrate is constant. Data required to fully
describe a constant flow pump include its controlled pipe and specified flowrate
(in cfs, gpm, or mgd). Flow pumps are defined as a Flow Control Valve (FCV) in
the Valve Editor.
Power Pumps
A power pump is a booster pump whose pump power is constant. Data required to
fully describe a power pump include its controlled pipe and specified power
(in HP).
Head Pumps
Head pumps can be defined as constant head pumps, exponential pumps, and
exponential extended pumps.
A constant head pump is a booster pump whose head is constant regardless of
operating flowrate. The parameters of a constant head pump include its controlled
pipe and constant pump head (in feet or meters).
An exponential standard pump is a booster pump whose pump head is described
by a pump characteristic curve fitted to three data points. Each data point consists
of a pump head and a corresponding flowrate. The pump curve is represented by
an exponential formula fitted to these three points. The parameters of an
exponential pump include its controlled pipe and three data points. A standard
pump curve with no extended flow range (where the cut-off head is 133% of the
design head and the maximum flow is twice the design flow) is used if only a
single operating point is specified.
An exponential extended pump is a booster pump whose pump curve is
represented by an exponential formula fitted to three points. The parameters of an
exponential pump include its controlled pipe, three data points and maximum flow
in extended flow range.
Illustrations of the input requirements for the various types of pump curves are shown
in Figure 5.1.5.1.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.1.5.1 Input requirements for the various types of pump curves
The pipe network system, as shown in Figure 5.1.1, contains a booster pump on pipe 1.
This pump is an exponential pump. The pump can be added to the pipe network either
graphically using the Add Pump tool from the Components floating toolbar or by
defining the starting and ending nodes in the Pump Editor dialog box. In this example,
we will use the Pump Editor to define the pump. To display the Pump Editor, select
Edit | Pump Editor.
Figure 5.1.5.2 The Pump Editor dialog box
To add a new pump in the Pump Editor, click on «Insert». A new pump will then be
added into the pump table, allowing you to define the necessary pump data. In the
Pump Type frame select the 3-point pump curve option, used to define an exponential
pump. An exponential pump is defined by a head versus flowrate curve. Therefore,
5-12
Example Problems
three data points must be entered in the Head and Flow data entries. For the first data
point, enter 300 for the shutoff head value. Define the second data point by entering
250 for the design head and 8 for the design flow. Finally for the high end values, enter
160 as the head and 10 for the flow. Next, define the starting and ending pump nodes,
looking at the node IDs shown in Figure 5.1.1. Note that the order of these two nodes
define the pumping direction. To reverse the direction of the pump (and the order of
the nodes), choose «Swap·Nodes».
When you are finished defining the pipe network system, save the completed pipe
network system as LESSON1A.GDB by using File | Save As. For more details, see the
section titled Saving Your Data in this lesson. In this lesson we will save each
modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed,
reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
Note
All pumps are assumed to be operating continuously throughout a simulation unless
the Pump Status is set to CLOSED in the Pump Editor or the Control Editor. In
addition, the program automatically prevents reverse flow through a pump, and issues
a warning message when a pump is operating outside of its normal operating range.
Additional information on defining pumps can be found in the section titled Pump
Editor in Chapter 4.
Graphically Defining Pumps
You can also define pumps graphically from the Horizontal Plan window. To insert a
pump between two existing junction nodes, select the Add Pump tool from the
Components floating toolbar. Then select the beginning and ending junction nodes.
MIKE NET will then insert a pump between these two nodes. If you want to insert a
pump into a pipe, select the Add Pump tool and click on the pipe that you want to
insert a pump into. MIKE NET will display a query dialog box, asking if you want to
replace the pipe with a pump or insert a pump into the pipe. For more details on
inserting a pump, see the section titled Pump Editor in Chapter 4.
5.1.6 Opening a MIKE NET Data File
If you prefer, instead of interactively entering the data for this lesson, you can load in
an existing MIKE NET data file that has the completed pipe network data used for this
lesson. To open this data file, select File | Open. MIKE NET will display an Open
dialog box. For this lesson, select LESSON1.GDB from the LESSONS\LESSON1
subdirectory by double clicking on the filename or highlighting the filename and
selecting «OK». MIKE NET will then load this data file. This data file contains all the
data used to define the pipe network system for this lesson, as shown in Figure 5.1.1.
5.1.7 Saving Your Data
To save the pipe network system you have defined, select File | Save or File | Save As.
Select the appropriate subdirectory and then enter a filename of up to eight characters.
The program will automatically append the extension .GDB to the filename.
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MIKE NET
5.1.8 Performing the Analysis
After you have finished defining the pipe network model, you can perform an analysis
of the pipe network system. Select File | Perform Analysis. MIKE NET will then
display a query dialog box, asking whether to check the project for errors. Click on
«Yes». MIKE NET will then display the Check Model dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.1.8.1.
Figure 5.1.8.1 The Check Model dialog box is used to check over the pipe network
model for errors
From within the Check Model dialog box, select «OK» to run a check of the model.
MIKE NET will perform several tests on the pipe network model. If a modeling input
error is reported, you will need to correct the input data defining the model.
If no errors were reported, MIKE NET will then automatically perform a hydraulic
analysis of the pipe network model. If an error is reported during the analysis, it will
be necessary to correct the input model to remove the error. However, it is normal for
warnings to be reported during the analysis. The user should check the analysis output
to make certain that any reported warnings or status messages do not pose a threat to
the validity of the analysis results.
5.1.9 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSSON1A.GDB, LESSON1A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the basic network components defined. These files are used as the
starting files for this lesson.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON1 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
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Example Problems
5.1.10 Viewing the Analysis Results
After the analysis has been successfully performed, you next need to load the analysis
results into MIKE NET. Select File | Load Analysis Results. MIKE NET will display
a Load Analysis Results dialog box. From this dialog box, select the analysis results
file LESSON1A.BIN. MIKE NET will then load this analysis results file into memory.
EPANET Analysis Results
To review the analysis results generated by the EPANET Analysis Engine, select
View | EPANET Analysis Results. MIKE NET will display a file viewer, as shown
in Figure 5.1.10.1, displaying the EPANET analysis results. If there are any warning
messages during the analysis, they will be displayed in the EPANET analysis results.
Figure 5.1.10.1 The EPANET Analysis Results
Further discussion on displaying EPANET analysis results is provided in the section
titled Viewing the EPANET Analysis Results contained in Chapter 3.
Analysis Results Table
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MIKE NET
To review the loaded analysis results in a tabular format, select View |
Analysis Results Table. MIKE NET will then display the Analysis Results Table
dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.1.10.2. From this dialog box, choose «Select·All» to
display the results for all of the nodes and links within the system. Your analysis results
should be similar to those as shown in Figure 5.1.10.2.
Figure 5.1.10.2 The hydraulic analysis results in the Analysis Results Table
Further discussion on displaying results in the Analysis Results Table is provided in
the section titled Analysis Results Table contained in Chapter 3.
Component Browser
The Component Browser allows you to graphically select any network component
from the Horizontal Plan window by simply clicking with the Select tool, and will
then display that component’s input attributes and analysis results. This allows you to
quickly examine the pipe network system at the component level (i.e., pipe, junction
node, valve, pump, tank, and reservoir), check what is defined for the model, and
determine the computed analysis results. For example, selecting a pipe from the
5-16
Example Problems
Horizontal Plan window will display in the Component Browser the pipe ID, diameter,
length, roughness coefficient, headloss, and flowrate. Figure 5.1.10.3 displays the
Component Browser.
Figure 5.1.10.3 The Component Browser allows you to examine the input attributes
and analysis results for any network component
Further discussion is provided in the section titled Component Browser contained in
Chapter 3.
Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots
The Horizontal Plan window allows you to graphically plot the analysis results directly
onto the pipe network schematic. In the Horizontal Plan window, complete contouring
of the analysis results is available, including node elevation, HGL, pressure, demand,
and any water quality constituent. This allows you to quickly interpret the modeling
results and identify any trouble areas. And, directional flow arrows can be plotted on
top of the pipes to show the flow direction for any time-step. In addition, MIKE NET
provides automatic color-coding of pipes and nodes based upon any input or output
property, allowing the network to be color-coded based upon pipe sizes, flowrates,
velocities, headlosses, nodal pressures, nodal demands, hydraulic grades, elevations,
water age, percent source contributions, water quality concentrations, and any other
attribute. Numerical ranges for colors can be specified. Furthermore, pipes can be
plotted with variable width and nodes with variable radius, allowing you to quickly
identify those areas of the network experiencing the most flow, headloss, water quality
constituent concentration, etc.
MIKE NET allows extensive customization of the Horizontal Plan graphical plot.
From the Plan Menu (displayed on the menu bar only when a Horizontal Plan View
window is already displayed), select Options. (Alternatively, the Plan Menu can be
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MIKE NET
displayed as a pop-up menu by simply pressing the right mouse button while the cursor
is located over the Horizontal Plan window.) This will display the Horizontal Plan
Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.1.10.4.
Figure 5.1.10.4 The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box allows you to customize the
Horizontal Plan graphical plot
From the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box, select the Properties tab. In the Link
Arrows section, select Flow Direction. Note that the Threshold Value data entry field
defines the minimum flow quantity for which a flow direction arrow will be displayed.
Note that you can use this capability to identify those pipes that carry the majority of
pipe flow by setting the threshold value to a value equal to one-half the maximum
flowrate in the network.
Selecting «Apply» displays these changes on the displayed Horizontal Plan window.
You should see the flow direction arrows displayed on the pipe network in the
Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.1.10.5.
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Example Problems
Figure 5.1.10.5 Computed flow direction arrows plotted on the pipe network in
Horizontal Plan window
Further discussion on plotting graphical results in the Horizontal Plan window is
provided in the section titled Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots contained in Chapter 3.
Profile Graphical Plots
Profile plots allow you to graphically plot the analysis results along any pipeline path.
To display a profile plot, a profile path must first be defined from the pipe network
horizontal plan. Once the profile path has been defined and the profile plot displayed,
the path can be saved for later re-use.
Profile plots can have two separate vertical axes to allow plotting of variables from two
separate unit families, such as flow and pressure. Profile plots can be plotted along any
user-specified route. Profile plots can be generated as line graphs, bar graphs, or
mixed—along with complete graph customization. For example, profile plots can be
plotted with an envelope to show the minimum and maximum values reached during
an extended period simulation.
To define a profile plot path, select View | Profile Plot | Define Path. MIKE NET will
then allow you to graphically select from the Horizontal Plan window the profile path
to use. Simply click on the junction nodes that makeup the path that you want the
profile plot to display. When finished defining the profile plot path, press «Enter».
While defining the profile plot path, pressing the «Backspace» key will delete the last
added profile plot path segment. To abort the define profile plot path command,
press «Esc».
To display a Profile Plot window of the currently defined profile plot path, select
View | Profile Plot | Display Plot. This will display the Create Profile Plot dialog box,
as shown in Figure 5.1.10.6, which allows you to specify what results are to be plotted
on the profile plot.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.1.10.6 The Create Profile Plot dialog box allows you to specify what results
are to be plotted on the profile plot
Selecting «OK» from the Create Profile Plot dialog box will then display the
completed Profile Plot window, similar to the Profile Plot window shown in
Figure 5.1.10.7.
Figure 5.1.10.7 Profile plots allow you to graphically plot the analysis results along any
pipeline path
Further discussion on plotting profile results is provided in the section titled Profile
Graphical Plots contained in Chapter 3.
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Example Problems
5.2
Lesson 2
Pressure Reducing Valve Static Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define a
pressure reducing valve (PRV), perform a steady state analysis, and view the analysis
results for the defined pipe network system. Also presented is a brief review of the
analysis results.
This lesson also simulates the effect of various modifications not related to
maintaining the pressure at junction node 2. These modifications include a junction
node demand change, peak demand change, and pipe status change. The effect of these
modifications will be cumulative. We will save the analysis results after each
modification has been applied so that the analysis results can be later viewed and
compared to each other.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.2.1. The pipe network system consists of two reservoirs, 8 junction nodes, 13
pipes, a booster pump, and a pressure reducing valve. Water is distributed from
reservoir A to the pipe network system and to the supplementary reservoir B by the
pressure from the booster pump. To simplify data input, all pipes, pumps, reservoirs,
and junction nodes are numbered in the diagram.
Figure 5.2.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
In this lesson a pressure reducing valve (PRV) is installed between junction nodes 1
and 2. The PRV is intended to regulate the pressure downstream of the PRV.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-27.
Begin this lesson by loading LESSON2A.GDB from the LESSONS\LESSON2
subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
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MIKE NET
To load the file:
1.
Select File | Open. The program will then display the Open dialog box, as
shown in Figure 5.2.2.
Figure 5.2.2 The Open dialog box
2.
Select LESSON2A.GDB from the listing of files or type LESSON2A.GDB in
the File Name box and then select «Open» to open the selected file. If the
filenames for the lessons are not listed, make certain you are in the
LESSONS\LESSON2 subdirectory.
5.2.1 Defining a Pressure Reducing Valve
The basic network file (LESSON2A.GDB) comes with a pressure reducing valve
(PRV) already defined to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. However,
this section explains the steps used to specify a PRV for the existing network system.
Therefore, in this lesson you do not have to insert a PRV—it has been done for you.
As shown in Figure 5.2.1, this PRV will regulate the pressure at the downstream
node 2. The booster pump feeding node 1 may cause the pressure at junction node 2 to
be too high. To prevent this, a pressure reducing valve has been installed between
nodes 1 and 2.
A pressure reducing valve is used to regulate the pressure at the downstream node of
the pipe it is installed. With a PRV, the pressure at the downstream node will not be
higher than a constant specified pressure (the pressure setting of the PRV). For a more
detailed discussion of PRVs, see the section titled Valve Editor in Chapter 4.
Inserting a Pressure Reducing Valve
When you want to insert a valve into an existing pipe, you must insert it as a new
component. This can be easily done within the Horizontal Plan window using the
Add Valve tool from the Components floating toolbar. To insert a valve:
5-22
1.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal View.
2.
Select the Add Valve tool from the Components floating toolbar and click on
the pipe in the Horizontal Plan window where you want to place the valve.
Example Problems
3.
A query dialog box will be displayed, asking you to choose between inserting
the valve into the pipe or replace the pipe with a valve. Choose inserting the
valve into the pipe. A valve will be inserted. The result will be shown in the
Horizontal Plan window.
Note
When inserting a valve, a junction node will be automatically inserted before and after
the valve. In order to see these inserted junction nodes, you may have to zoom in and
stretch the distance between the new junction nodes since the nodes might be initially
seen as overlapping each other. To zoom in and stretch the distance:
1.
Choose the Zoom tool from the Command toolbar. Then, from within the
Horizontal Plan window, click and drag a zoom window around the valve. You
should now see the two junction nodes.
2.
Choose the Select tool from the Components floating toolbar. Then, click and
drag the two junction nodes on either side of the valve further apart. If the
junction nodes cannot be stretched further apart, then the network is locked
against geometry changes. If this is the case, select Edit | Project Lock to
unlock the project. The project lock is used to prevent unintentional moving of
network components.
3.
After stretching the nodes apart, return to your previous view by choosing the
Zoom Previous tool in the Command toolbar and then click in the Horizontal
Plan window.
Inserting a Valve Between Two Junction Nodes
You can graphically add a valve between two existing junction nodes. To do this,
select the Add Valve tool from the Components floating toolbar. Then, select the
beginning and ending junction nodes. MIKE NET will then insert a valve between
these two nodes.
Defining PRV Properties
The properties of a PRV include valve diameter, the pressure head setting, and minor
loss coefficient. Figure 5.2.1 shows the pressure reducing valve that was inserted.
Once the PRV has been inserted into the pipe network, the next step is to define the
properties of the PRV. This is done using the Valve Editor, as shown in Figure 5.2.1.1.
To display the Valve Editor, select Edit | Valve Editor.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.2.1.1 The Valve Editor dialog box
In this lesson, we have set the valve as a pressure reducing valve in the Valve Type
frame, defined the valve diameter as 12 inches, set the pressure setting to 46 psi, and
set the minor loss coefficient to 0.600. Select «Close» to store these values and close
the Valve Editor dialog box.
When you are finished defining the PRV, save the completed network with a PRV as
LESSON2A.GDB by using File | Save As. In this lesson we will save each
modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed,
reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5.2.2 Defining a Junction Node Demand Change
In this section, we will use a junction node demand change to simulate a marked
increase in demand at a particular junction node. Junction node 3 of the pipe network
system shown in Figure 5.2.1 represents a large manufacturing plant. On a particular
day of the month a large portion of the manufacturing equipment is flushed and
cleaned. Obviously this will require more water than usual. To simulate this unusually
high demand and its effects on the rest of the pipe network system, a junction node
demand change can be applied.
5-24
Example Problems
Figure 5.2.2.1 The Junction Editor dialog box
To simulate the increased demand of the flushing, select Edit | Junction Editor and
select junction node 3, as shown in Figure 5.2.2.1, and change the demand to 0.80 cfs.
Select «Close» to apply the change to the network and close the Junction Editor dialog
box.
When you are finished defining the junction node demand change, save the completed
network with a PRV and junction node demand change as LESSON2B.GDB by using
File | Save As. As explained earlier, we will save each modification to the pipe
network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed, reviewed, and compared
later in this lesson.
5.2.3 Defining a Global Demand Change
In this section, we will define a peak demand on the network system to simulate a
severe demand condition. This is done by applying a global water demand change.
This global demand change is used to simulate a peak-hour demand. A steady state
analysis of the network at peak-hour conditions can be used to verify the efficiency of
the pipe network and identify ineffective areas based on the PRV that was previously
installed. A global demand factor of 1.5 is the multiplication factor applied to the
demands at all junction nodes to simulate this severe demand condition.
To change global demands at all junction nodes by a factor of 1.5:
1.
Select Edit | Junction Editor to open the Junction Editor dialog box.
2.
Choose «Global» in the Junction Editor dialog to display the Global dialog box,
as shown in Figure 5.2.3.1.
3.
In the SQL Statement frame, type
UPDATE NODES SET DEMAND=DEMAND∗1.5 WHERE NODETYPE=1
and select «Store» to create an untitled entry in the SQL Manager.
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MIKE NET
4.
In the SQL Manager frame, choose Untitled in the Update Description field and
change the name of this SQL statement to PEAK. The SQL Manager stores the
SQL statements that have been used in the project so that the statements can be
reviewed or applied again at a later time.
5.
Select «OK» to store the defined global change and close the Global dialog box.
This also causes the program to apply the defined global change to all of the
components of the network system that meet the selection criteria of the SQL
statement. If you do not want to apply the defined global change to the network
system, choose «Cancel».
Figure 5.2.3.1 The Global dialog box
SQL Assistant
Using the SQL Assistant, a simple SQL command can be quickly constructed.
However, for complex SQL commands, a SQL statement must be manually entered.
For more information on SQL statements and the SQL language, see the section titled
SQL Queries in Chapter 3.
When you are finished defining the peak demand change, save the completed network
with a PRV, junction node demand change, and a peak demand change as
LESSON2C.GDB by using File | Save As. As explained earlier, we will save each
modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed,
reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5.2.4 Defining a Pipe Status Change
In a pipe network system, a pipe can be either open or closed. In MIKE NET, a pipe
status change allows the user to simulate the pipe network system under either
condition. A pipe status change is only applicable to pipes that do not have check
valves, as check valves already control the pipe's open and closed status.
5-26
Example Problems
This lesson will use a pipe status change to simulate the effect of closing one pipe in
the network system. Pipe 7 in the network system is the pipe that runs under Park
Street. Due to road construction on Park Street, pipe 7 is closed. An analysis of the
network in this condition will show the effect of closing pipe 7 on the network system.
Figure 5.2.4.1 The Pipe Editor dialog box
To change the pipe status, select Edit | Pipe Editor. Choose pipe 7 and close the valve
by selecting the Closed option button in the Pipe Status frame. Select «Close» to apply
the changes to the network and close the Pipe Editor dialog box.
When you are finished defining the pipe status change, save the completed network
with a PRV, junction node demand change, peak demand change, and a pipe status
change as LESSON2D.GDB by using File | Save As. Once again, we will save each
modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed,
reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5.2.5 Prepared input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
LESSSON2A.GDB, LESSON2A.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the basic network components and the PRV defined. These files are used
as the starting files for this lesson.
2.
LESSON2B.GDB, LESSON2B.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the PRV and a junction node demand change defined.
3.
LESSON2C.GDB, LESSON2C.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the PRV, junction node demand change, and peak demand change defined.
4.
LESSON2D.GDB, LESSON2D.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the PRV, junction node demand change, peak demand change, and pipe
status change defined.
5-27
MIKE NET
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON2 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
To analyze the pipe network models you have defined, refer to the section titled
Performing an Analysis in Lesson 1.
5.2.6 Reviewing the Analysis Results
The analysis results from the various modifications of the network system can be
viewed individually or can be compared with each other. To view the analysis results
individually, see the section titled Viewing the Analysis Results in Lesson 1. Also, note
that there are additional ways to display the analysis results, such as the Component
Browser window, Profile Plot window, and Horizontal Plan window. These are also
discussed in Lesson 1.
In this lesson, a pressure reducing valve is used to regulate the pressure at junction
node 2 (LESSON2A). The pressure at all the junction nodes are between 38 psi and
114 psi (within a reasonable operating range). The high pressure at node 1 (114 psi) is
caused by the pressure from the booster pump and is the first node that water from
reservoir 1 is sent to. The pressure at junction node 2 (the junction node regulated by
the PRV) is 46 psi. Thus, the PRV effectively reduced the pressure at node 2 to 46 psi.
The first cumulative effect applied was a junction node demand change (LESSON2B).
The demand at node 3 was changed to model increased water usage at the
manufacturing plant. The demand at node 3 is increased to 0.8 cfs.
The peak demand change was the second cumulative effect applied to the network
(LESSON2C). Here a global demand factor of 1.5 is used to model the peak-hour
demand situation. The demand at each junction node in the system was increased by
this factor. For example, the demand at junction node 6 was raised from 1.0 cfs to
1.5 cfs. This had a slight effect of lowering the pressure at this node from 40.99 psi to
40.46 psi.
The last cumulative effect applied is a pipe status change. Pipe 7 is closed to model
road construction on Park Street (LESSON2D). From the analysis results it can be seen
that pipe 7 has no flow going through it, indicating that pipe 7 is closed.
5.2.7 Comparing the Analysis Results
The Compare Alternatives feature can be used to compare analysis results for two or
more simulations. This feature is used to compare the analysis result files by
computing the difference for every component of the network from two analysis result
files for a parameter modification to the same network. In this case, we will be
comparing LESSON2A.BIN to LESSON2B.BIN to see how a peak demand change
effects the pipe network.
In order to use the Compare Alternatives feature, we have to have two analysis result
files. MIKE NET will subtract the two analysis results files from each other. Note that
it is only possible to subtract two analysis result files if the number of nodes, pipes, and
time-steps (if performing an extended period simulation) are the same. In this lesson
5-28
Example Problems
we will compare the pipe network with a PRV defined (LESSON2A.BIN) and the pipe
network with a PRV and a junction node demand change defined (LESSON2B.BIN).
Comparison of the other network modifications is left to the reader.
To compare these two analysis result files:
1.
Select File | Compare Alternatives. The Compare Alternatives dialog box will
appear as shown in Figure 5.2.7.1. In this dialog box two analysis result files
(Project 1 and Project 2) must be defined.
2.
Choose «Select» in the Project 1 frame and define LESSON2A.BIN for
Project 1 and choose «Select» in the Project 2 frame and define
LESSON2B.BIN for Project 2. Select «OK» when finished.
Figure 5.2.7.1 The Compare Alternatives dialog box
The results from LESSON2B.BIN will be subtracted from LESSON2A.BIN. For more
details on comparing alternatives, including other comparisons that can be performed,
see the section titled Displaying and Outputting Analysis Results in Chapter 3.
Viewing the Comparison Results
To view the results after running the Compare Alternatives feature, select View |
Analysis Results Table. A table showing the comparison results will be displayed, as
shown in Figure 5.2.7.2. Note that you can also view the comparison results in the
Component Browser window, Profile Plot window, and Horizontal Plan window.
5-29
MIKE NET
Figure 5.2.7.2 The Analysis Results Table dialog is used to display the comparison
results
Since the results for LESSON2B.BIN were subtracted from LESSON2A.BIN, a
positive value in the Analysis Results Table indicates that the value in
LESSON2A.BIN is higher than in LESSON2B.BIN. A negative value indicates that
the value in LESSON2A.BIN is lower than in LESSON2B.BIN. A zero value indicates
that there is no difference.
Compared Results of LESSON2A.BIN and LESSON2B.BIN
From the Analysis Results Table in Figure 5.2.7.2, it can be seen that the effect of the
junction node demand change has caused the pressure at every junction node in the
network to either decrease or remain the same.
Compared Results of LESSON2B.BIN and LESSON2C.BIN
The peak-hour demand also slightly reduces the booster pump head and the pressures
at all the network junction nodes. Note that the inflow at junction node 8, the pumping
well, is also increased. This means that the peak-hour demand requires an increase in
water drawn from the pumping well.
Compared Results of LESSON2C.BIN and LESSON2D.BIN
Although the pump head and most junction node pressures do not change much, the
pressure at junction node 7 is increased by almost 10 psi. This change, however, has
little effect on the water usage at junction node 7. The pressure increase at junction
node 7 is contrary to what is anticipated based on the original input data. The defined
flow direction in pipe 7 is from junction node 4 to junction node 7. If this were
accurate, closing pipe 7 would cause the pressure at junction node 4 to increase, not at
junction node 7. Thus, water is actually flowing from junction node 7 to junction
node 4. This can be verified by the negative flowrate for pipe 7.
5-30
Example Problems
5.3
Lesson 3
Pressure Sustaining Valve Static Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define a
pressure sustaining valve (PSV) to maintain pressure, perform a steady state analysis,
and view the analysis results for the defined pipe network system. Also presented is a
brief review of the analysis results.
This lesson also simulates the effect of various modifications related to maintaining the
pressure at a hospital located at junction node 7. These modifications include a pump
speed ratio change and pipe diameter change. The effect of these modifications will be
cumulative. We will save the analysis results after each modification has been applied
so that the analysis results can be later viewed and compared to each other.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.3.1. The pipe network system consists of two reservoirs, 8 junction nodes, 13
pipes, a booster pump, and a pressure sustaining valve. Water is distributed from
reservoir A to the pipe network system and to the supplementary reservoir B by the
pressure from the booster pump. To simplify data input, all pipes, pumps, fixed nodes,
and junction nodes are numbered in the diagram.
Figure 5.3.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
In this lesson a pressure sustaining valve (PSV) is installed between junction nodes 6
and 7. The PSV is intended to maintain a minimum pressure at junction node 7 which
represents a hospital.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-34.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON3A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON3 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
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MIKE NET
5.3.1 Defining a Pressure Sustaining Valve
The basic network file (LESSON3A.GDB) comes with a pressure sustaining valve
(PSV) already defined to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. Therefore,
in this lesson you do not have to insert a PSV—it has already been done for you. As
shown in Figure 5.3.1, this PSV will control the pressure at junction node 7 which
represents the hospital where a minimum water pressure is required.
A pressure sustaining valve attempts to maintain a minimum pressure at the upstream
node when the downstream node is below the PSV setting. If the downstream pressure
is above the setting, flow through the valve is unrestricted. Should the downstream
nodal pressure exceed the upstream nodal pressure, then the valve closes to prevent
reverse flow. Note that PSVs cannot be placed directly in series. For a more detailed
discussion on pressure sustaining valves, see the section titled Valve Editor in
Chapter 4.
To insert a valve, refer to the section titled Defining a Pressure Reducing Valve in
Lesson 2.
Defining PSV Properties
Once the pressure sustaining valve has been inserted into the pipe network, the next
step is to define the properties of the PSV. This is done using the Valve Editor, as
shown in Figure 5.3.1.1. To display the Valve Editor, select Edit | Valve Editor.
Figure 5.3.1.1 The Valve Editor dialog box
In this lesson, we have set the valve as a pressure sustaining valve in the Valve Type
frame, defined the valve diameter as 8 inches, set the pressure setting to 60 psi, and set
the minor loss coefficient to 0.600. Select «Close» to store these values and close the
Valve Editor dialog box.
When you are finished defining the PSV, save the completed network with a PSV as
LESSON3A.GDB by using File | Save As. In this lesson we will save each
modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed,
reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5-32
Example Problems
5.3.2 Defining a Pump Change
The next step in this lesson is to define a change in the pump speed ratio. In this lesson,
the pump installed on pipe 1 is an exponential pump. Therefore, the parameter that will
be changed is the pump speed ratio. In Lessons 1 and 2, it was discovered that most of
the water from Reservoir A is transported directly to Reservoir B. This indicates that
the pump is too powerful and not operating efficiently. To save energy, the pump speed
ratio will be reduced to 0.8.
To edit the pump parameters:
1.
Select Edit | Pump Editor to display the Pump Editor dialog box.
2.
In the Pump Status frame of the Pump Editor dialog box, enter a new speed ratio
of 0.8. When finished, the Pump Editor dialog box should look like
Figure 5.3.2.1.
3.
Select «Close» to update and close the Pump Editor dialog box.
Figure 5.3.2.1 The Pump Editor dialog box
When you are finished defining the pump speed ratio, save the completed network with
a PSV and a pump speed ratio change as LESSON3B.GDB by using File | Save As.
As explained earlier, we will save each modification to the pipe network system as a
separate file so that they can be analyzed, reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5.3.3 Defining Pipe Diameter Change
The last step in this lesson is to define a pipe diameter change. We will change the
diameter of pipe 8 to simulate the effect of replacing the pipe with a larger pipe. In
MIKE NET, the pipe parameters such as diameter, length, and roughness can be
changed to simulate different effects. For example, changing a pipe's roughness
coefficient allows the user to simulate the effect of different pipe materials and/or pipe
aging.
5-33
MIKE NET
Because the pump speed ratio was reduced in the last analysis, maintaining the
required minimum pressure at the hospital may require that pipe 8 be replaced with a
larger diameter pipe. An analysis of the network containing the larger pipe will show
the effect of this diameter change on the network system.
To change the pipe diameter:
1.
Select Edit | Pipe Editor to open the Pipe Editor dialog box.
2.
Select pipe 8 and change the diameter from 8 inches to 15 inches. When
finished, the Pipe Editor dialog box should look like Figure 5.3.3.1.
3.
Select «Close» to update and close the Pipe Editor dialog box.
Figure 5.3.3.1 The Pipe Editor dialog box
When you are finished defining the pipe diameter change, save the completed network
with a PSV, a pump speed ratio change, and a pipe diameter change as
LESSON3C.GDB by using File | Save As. Again, we will save each modification to
the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed, reviewed, and
compared later in this lesson.
5.3.4 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
5-34
1.
LESSSON3A.GDB, LESSON3A.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the basic network components and the PSV defined. These files are used
as the starting files for this lesson.
2.
LESSON3B.GDB, LESSON3B.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the PSV and pump speed ratio change defined.
3.
LESSON3C.GDB, LESSON3C.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the PSV, pump speed ratio change, and pipe diameter change defined.
Example Problems
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON3 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
To analyze the pipe network models you have defined, refer to the section titled
Performing an Analysis in Lesson 1.
5.3.5 Reviewing the Analysis Results
The analysis results from the various modifications of the network system can be
viewed individually or can be compared with each other. To view the analysis results
individually, see the section titled Viewing the Analysis Results in Lesson 1. Also, note
that there are additional ways to display the analysis results, such as the Component
Browser window, Profile Plot window, and Horizontal Plan window. These are also
discussed in Lesson 1.
This lesson begins by illustrating the use of a pressure sustaining valve to maintain a
minimum water pressure at a specific junction node (LESSON3A). The pressure
sustaining valve is used to maintain a specific pressure at junction node 7. In the
analysis results of the network with a PSV installed, the pressure of 60 psi is
successfully maintained at junction node 7.
The first cumulative effect applied was a pump ratio change (LESSON3B). For greater
efficiency, a smaller booster pump was used for the current system. The pump speed
ratio was set to 0.8. As a result of this change, the pressure sustaining valve closes
(pressure falls below 60 psi). This indicates that flow in the pipe containing the PSV is
reversed. To maintain the required pressure at the hospital, more water needs to be
supplied.
The second and last cumulative effect was conducted using a larger pipe diameter for
pipe 8 (LESSON3C). Pipe 8 supplies water to the hospital. The change in pipe
diameter effects the flowrate and head loss in pipe 8. The diameter is nearly doubled
(from 8 inches to 15 inches) and the head loss is reduced from 41 ft to 19 ft. The
analysis output report indicates that the PSV is re-opened (a pressure of 60 psi is again
maintained).
5.3.6 Comparing the Analysis Results
The Compare Alternatives feature can be used to compare analysis results for two or
more simulations. This feature is used to compare the analysis result files by
computing the difference for every component of the network from two analysis result
files for a parameter modification to the same network. In this case, we will be
comparing LESSON3A.BIN to LESSON3B.BIN to see how a pump speed ratio
change effects the pipe network system.
To learn how to compare two analysis result files and view the comparison results,
refer to the section titled Comparing the Analysis Results in Lesson 2.
Compared Results of LESSON3A.BIN and LESSON3B.BIN
A table showing the comparison results of LESSON3A and LESSON3B is shown in
Figure 5.3.6.1.
5-35
MIKE NET
Figure 5.3.6.1 The Analysis Results Table dialog is used to display the comparison
results
From the Analysis Results Table, shown in Figure 5.3.6.1, it can be seen that the effect
of the pump speed ratio change on the network has caused the pressure to drop over
the entire pipe network system and has decreased all flow going to the hospital.
Comparison of the other network modification result files is left to the reader.
5-36
Example Problems
5.4
Lesson 4
Flow Control Valve Static Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define a flow
control valve (FCV) to regulate flow, perform a steady state analysis, and view the
analysis results for the defined pipe network system. Also presented is a brief review
of the analysis results.
This lesson also simulates the effect of various modifications to the network. These
modifications include a hydraulic grade line change and a global roughness change.
The effect of these modifications will be cumulative. We will save the analysis results
after each modification has been applied so that the analysis results can be later viewed
and compared to each other.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.4.1. The pipe network system consists of two reservoirs, 8 junction nodes, 13
pipes, a booster pump, and a flow control valve. Water is distributed from reservoir A
to the pipe network system and to the supplementary reservoir B by the pressure from
the booster pump. To simplify data input, all pipes, pumps, fixed nodes, and junction
nodes are numbered in the diagram.
Figure 5.4.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
In this lesson a flow control valve (FCV) is installed between junction nodes 4 and 6.
The FCV is used to maintain a constant (minimum) flowrate to the electrical plant
(junction node 6) due to electrical generation requirements.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-41.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON4A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON4 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
5-37
MIKE NET
5.4.1 Defining a Flow Control Valve
The basic network file (LESSON4A.GDB) comes with a flow control valve (FCV)
already defined to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. Therefore, in this
lesson you do not have to insert a FCV—it has already been done for you. As shown
in Figure 5.4.1, this FCV will control the flow at junction node 6 which represents the
electrical plant where a constant flow is required.
A flow control valve is used to regulate the flow at the downstream node of the pipe.
With a FCV, the flow at the downstream node will not be lower than a constant
specified flow (the flow setting of the FCV). For a more detailed discussion on flow
control valves, see the section titled Valve Editor in Chapter 4.
To insert a valve, refer to the section titled Defining a Pressure Reducing Valve in
Lesson 2.
Defining FCV Properties
Once the flow control valve has been inserted into the pipe network, the next step is to
define the properties of the FCV. This is done using the Valve Editor, as shown in
Figure 5.4.1.1. To display the Valve Editor, select Edit | Valve Editor. The Valve
Editor will appear.
Figure 5.4.1.1 The Valve Editor dialog box
In this lesson, we have set the valve as a flow control valve in the Valve Type frame,
defined the valve diameter as 12 inches, set the flow control setting to 1.5 cfs, and set
the minor loss coefficient to 0.600. Select «Close» to store these values and close the
Valve Editor dialog box.
When you are finished defining the FCV, save the completed network with a FCV as
LESSON4A.GDB by using File | Save As. In this lesson we will save each
modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed,
reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5-38
Example Problems
5.4.2 Defining a Hydraulic Grade Line Change
In this section, we will define a HGL change in reservoir B to simulate the effect of
weather conditions on the pipe network system. Reservoirs and storage tanks are
generally pressure sources in the pipe network system. The HGL at these components
depend on the water surface elevation of the pressure source. This elevation can
change as a result of external conditions. For example, a reservoir's water surface
elevation can increase after a severe rainfall. This increase in water surface elevation
can increase the HGL at the fixed node representing the reservoir. In MIKE NET, this
situation can be modeled by changing the HGL at reservoir 10.
To simulate this effect, select Edit | Reservoir Editor and select junction node 10, as
shown in Figure 5.4.2.1, and change the water level to 220 ft. Select «Close» to apply
the change to the network and close the Reservoir Editor dialog box.
Figure 5.4.2.1 The Reservoir Editor dialog box
When you are finished defining the HGL change, save the completed network with a
FCV and a HGL change as LESSON4B.GDB by using File | Save As. As explained
earlier, we will save each modification to the pipe network system as a separate file so
that they can be analyzed, reviewed, and compared later in this lesson.
5.4.3 Defining a Global Roughness Change
The last step in this lesson is to define a global roughness change to simulate the effect
of aging on the pipe network. In this example, a Hazen-Williams head loss is being
used for defining pipe roughness (see the Project Options dialog box for these
settings). This means that lowering a defined Hazen-Williams coefficient value
increases the effective roughness. In this section, a global roughness multiplication
factor of 0.7 will be applied to all pipes in the network to increase the effective
roughness by 30% to simulate the effect of pipe aging. The global roughness
multiplication factor is a factor multiplied to the currently defined roughness
coefficient of each pipe.
5-39
MIKE NET
To decrease the global roughness coefficient in all pipes by a factor of 0.7:
1.
Select Edit | Pipe Editor to open the Pipe Editor dialog box.
2.
Choose «Global» in the Pipe Editor dialog to display the Global dialog box, as
shown in Figure 5.4.3.1.
3.
In the SQL Statement frame, type
UPDATE PIPES SET RCOEFF=0.7∗RCOEFF WHERE LINKTYPE=1
and select «Store» to create an untitled entry in the SQL Manager.
4.
In the SQL Manager frame, choose Untitled in the Update Description field and
change the name of this SQL statement to 0.7 Pipe Coeff. The SQL Manager
stores the SQL statements that have been used in the project so that the
statements can be reviewed or applied again at a later time.
5.
Select «OK» to store the global change to the network and close the Global
dialog box. This causes the program to apply the defined global change to all of
the components of the network system that meet the selection criteria of the
SQL statement. If you do not want to apply the defined global change to the
network system, choose «Cancel».
Figure 5.4.3.1 The Global dialog box
SQL Assistant
Using the SQL Assistant, a simple SQL command can be quickly constructed.
However, for complex SQL commands, a SQL statement must be manually entered.
For more information on SQL statements and the SQL language, see the section titled
SQL Queries in Chapter 3.
5-40
Example Problems
When you are finished defining the global roughness change, save the completed
network with a FCV, a hydraulic grade line change, and a global roughness change as
LESSON4C.GDB by using File | Save As. Again, we will save each modification to
the pipe network system as a separate file so that they can be analyzed, reviewed, and
compared later in this lesson.
5.4.4 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
LESSSON4A.GDB, LESSON4A.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the basic network components and the FCV defined. These files are used
as the starting files for this lesson.
2.
LESSON4B.GDB, LESSON4B.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the FCV and HGL change defined.
3.
LESSON4C.GDB, LESSON4C.BIN. These files are the input and output files
with the FCV, HGL change, and a global roughness change defined.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON4 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
To analyze the pipe network models you have defined, refer to the section titled
Performing an Analysis in Lesson 1.
5.4.5 Reviewing the Analysis Results
The analysis results from the various modifications of the network system can be
viewed individually or can be compared with each other. To view the analysis results
individually, see the section titled Viewing the Analysis Results in Lesson 1. Also, note
that there are additional ways to display the analysis results, such as the Component
Browser window, Profile Plot window, and Horizontal Plan window. These are also
discussed in Lesson 1.
This lesson illustrates the use of a flow control valve to maintain a specified flowrate
in a pipe (LESSON4A). The flow control valve is used between nodes 4 and 6 to
maintain a specified constant (minimum) flowrate at the electrical plant, located at
node 6. The flowrate in this valve is set to 1.5 cfs. As a result of the valve, the pressure
difference between nodes 4 and 6 is as high as 19 psi. The friction loss along the pipe
is approximately 33 ft.
The HGL change was the first cumulative effect applied to the network (LESSON4B).
This increase was the result of a higher water surface elevation in reservoir B due to a
severe rainfall.
The second and last cumulative effect applied was a global pipe roughness change to
simulate the effect of aging of the pipes in the pipe network system (LESSON4C). A
global roughness factor of 0.7 is applied to each pipe roughness coefficient causing the
friction loss in the entire network to increase.
5-41
MIKE NET
Compared Results of LESSON4A.BIN and LESSON4B.BIN
To learn how to compare two analysis result files and view the comparison results,
refer to the section titled Comparing the Analysis Results in Lesson 2.
A table showing the comparison results of LESSON4A and LESSON4B is shown in
the Analysis Results Table in Figure 5.4.5.1.
Figure 5.4.5.1 The Analysis Results Table dialog is used to display the comparison
results
From the Analysis Results Table shown in Figure 5.4.5.1, it can be seen that the effect
of a HGL change on the network has caused the pressure in the junction nodes to either
increase or remain the same. Comparison of the other network modification result files
is left to the reader.
5-42
Example Problems
5.5
Lesson 5
Extended Period Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define an
extended period analysis, extended period control rules (i.e., control of storage tanks
and pumps), and perform an extended period analysis for the defined pipe network
system. Also presented is a brief review of the analysis results.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.5.1. The pipe network system consists of two reservoirs, 8 junction nodes, 15
pipes, 2 booster pumps, and a storage tank. Water is distributed from reservoir A to the
pipe network system and to the supplementary reservoir B by the pressure from the
booster pumps. To simplify data input, all pipes, pumps, fixed nodes, and junction
nodes are numbered in the diagram.
Figure 5.5.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-54.
The input data for the network system used in this lesson, shown in Table 5.5.1 through
Table 5.5.4, is similar to the input data used in the previous lessons. However, some of
the component parameters have changed.
5-43
MIKE NET
Table 5.5.1 Junction node data for the pipe network system shown in Figure 5.5.1
Node
ID
Elevation
(ft)
Demand
(cfs)
Label
1
97
0.0
2
102
0.0
3
96
0.8
4
100
0.0
5
120
0.5
Fire Station
6
110
1.0
Electrical Plant
7
104
1.1
Hospital
8
96
-1.2
Pumping Well
11
97
0
Manufacturing Plant
Table 5.5.2 Reservoir data for the pipe network system
Node
ID
Connected to Pipe
ID
HGL
(ft)
Label
9
1, 14
350
Reservoir A
10
12
260
Reservoir B
Table 5.5.3 Pipe data for the pipe network system shown in Figure 5.5.1
Pipe
Length
Diameter
Friction
Minor
Start
Nodes
End
ID
(ft)
(in)
Loss
Loss
Label
1
2
2
5200
12
80
0.0
2
3
3
1000
12
120
0.0
Randall St.
2
4
4
8000
12
100
0.0
Regent St.
4
5
5
9000
12
110
0.0
Park St.
4
6
6
3400
12
120
0.1
Washington Ave.
4
7
7
3450
12
120
0.0
Park St.
1
7
8
4000
8
80
0.0
University Ave.
7
6
9
2500
12
100
0.8
University Ave.
8
6
10
3000
8
100
0.0
State St.
University Bay Dr.
Randall St.
1
8
11
5400
12
90
0.0
10
6
12
700
15
100
0.1
University Ave.
8
7
13
2100
15
120
0.0
Park St.
11
1
15
10
15
90
0.0
Table 5.5.4 Pump input data for the pipe network system
Pump ID
1
14
Head
Flowrate
(ft)
(cfs)
50
0
40
10
20
20
30
0
20
10
10
20
The pipe network shown in Figure 5.5.1 contains a high demand service pump
(pump 1) and a low demand service pump (pump 14). These pumps are installed in
parallel pipes from reservoir A, as shown in Figure 5.5.1.
Pumps 1 and 14 are parallel pumps with distinct characteristics. Initially, pump 1 is
defined as closed and pump 14 is defined as open.
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Example Problems
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choosing LESSON5.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON5 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
5.5.1 Defining an Extended Period Analysis
The basic network file (LESSON5.GDB) has been defined with the extended period
input data already specified to reduce the time required to complete this lesson.
However, this section explains the steps used to define an extended period analysis
project. The project configuration includes specifying the project type and extended
period time parameters. To define the project type, select Edit | Project Options. The
program will then display the Project Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.5.1.1.
Figure 5.5.1.1 The Project Options dialog box
From the Project Options dialog box, select the extended period Hydraulics option.
Select «OK» to apply this change and close the Project Options dialog box.
An extended period analysis requires that extended period time parameters be defined.
To edit the extended period time parameters, select Extended | Time Editor to display
the Time Editor dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.5.1.2.
Figure 5.5.1.2 The Time Editor dialog box
The Analysis Duration, which has been defined as 24 hours, is the overall time the
simulation will take. The Hydraulic Time Step specifies how often a new hydraulic
computation of the pipe network system is to be computed. Here, it has been defined
as 1 hour. The Pattern Time Step is defined as 4.00 hours. The Pattern Time Step
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MIKE NET
defines and specifies the length of time between each pattern change (i.e., the period
of time over which water demands and constituent source strengths remain constant).
The Report Time Step specifies the interval of time in which network conditions are
reported in the analysis results, and has been defined as 2 hours. The remaining default
values will be used for the rest of the parameters. For a more detailed discussion on
extended period time parameters, see the section titled Time Editor in Chapter 4.
Choose «OK» to apply these changes and close the Time Editor dialog box.
5.5.2 Defining and Applying a Demand Pattern
Data in an extended period analysis can change during a simulation (e.g., demand,
external flow to a storage tank, etc.). Demand changes can be applied globally to all
junction nodes or to specific junction nodes.
In this section, we will use a demand curve to simulate a simplified diurnal demand
curve that corresponds with the data defined in the Time Editor. At each time step, a
new demand factor is applied to the original demands defined at the junction nodes.
These factors are defined in the Pattern Editor. To display the Pattern Editor, select
Extended | Pattern Editor. The program will then display the Pattern Editor dialog
box, as shown in Figure 5.5.2.1.
Figure 5.5.2.1 The Pattern Editor dialog box
To define a demand pattern:
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1.
Select «Insert» and enter a Pattern ID of 2.
2.
Select «Define» to specify the desired demand pattern. The Multipliers dialog
box, as shown in Figure 5.5.2.2, will appear allowing time-specific factors
(multipliers) to be specified. Note that this data has already been specified for
you to save time. From Figure 5.5.2.2 it can be seen that the 24 hour period has
been broken up into 4 hour demand pattern time-steps, which was specified in
the Time Editor.
Example Problems
Figure 5.5.2.2 The Multipliers dialog box
Again, note that the demand pattern multipliers have already been defined. However,
in order to define the time-step intervals:
1.
Select «Insert» 5 times. You will see that MIKE NET automatically specifies
the time interval as 4 hours, corresponding to the Pattern Time Step specified in
the Time Editor.
2.
Enter the multipliers for each time step according to Figure 5.5.2.2. A graph of
the defined demand pattern can be shown by selecting «Graph».
Figure 5.5.2.3 A demand pattern curve
3.
Select «Close» to save the demand pattern and close the Multipliers dialog box.
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MIKE NET
This demand pattern curve can now be defined over the entire network or at any
junction node in the network. In this section, we will apply this demand pattern for the
entire network by specifying a global change. To define the demand pattern for the
entire network:
1.
Select Edit | Junction Editor to open the Junction Editor dialog box.
2.
Choose «Global» in the Junction Editor dialog to display the Global dialog box.
3.
In the SQL Assistant, specify Update Junction Set as PATTERN, Condition Is
as =, and Value to 2, as shown in Figure 5.5.2.4. Select «Construct» to create
the statement in the SQL Statement frame. Select «Store» to create an untitled
entry in the SQL Manager frame.
4.
In the SQL Manager frame, choose Untitled in the Update Description field and
change the name of this SQL statement to Pattern 2. When finished, the Global
dialog box should look like Figure 5.5.2.4.
5.
Select «OK» to apply the global change to the network and close the Global
dialog box. This causes the program to apply the defined global change to all of
the components of the network system that meet the selection criteria of the
SQL statement. If you do not want to apply the defined SQL statement to the
network system, choose «Cancel».
Figure 5.5.2.4 The Global dialog box
SQL Assistant
Using the SQL Assistant, a simple SQL command can be quickly constructed.
However, for complex SQL commands, a SQL statement must be manually entered.
For more information on SQL statements and the SQL language, see the section titled
SQL Queries in Chapter 3.
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Example Problems
5.5.3 Defining Storage Tank Data
To make certain that the demand at the hospital (junction node 7) is always met, a
storage tank will be installed near the hospital, as shown in Figure 5.5.1. As was
previously explained, this lesson comes with the storage tank already defined to reduce
the time required to complete this lesson. Therefore, in this lesson you do not have to
define a storage tank—it has already been done for you. However, this section explains
the steps used to define a storage tank for the existing network system. To define a
storage tank:
1.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal View.
2.
Select the Add Tank tool from the Components floating toolbar and click on
the position in the Horizontal Plan window where you want to place the tank. In
this case, place the tank close to junction node 7.
The next step is to define a pipe connection from the tank to junction node 7.
1.
Again, display the Horizontal Plan window, if it is not displayed, by selecting
View | Horizontal View.
2.
Select the Add Pipe tool from the Components floating toolbar and click on the
tank and drag a line to junction node 7. Double click on junction node 7 to finish
inserting the pipe.
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MIKE NET
After defining the storage tank and the connecting pipe to the pipe network system, we
must define the tank and pipe parameters. To define the tank parameters
1.
Select Edit | Tank Editor to display the Tank Editor dialog box.
2.
Select tank 12 and enter 250 feet for the Base Elevation. In the Type frame,
select the Circular option button. Enter 42 feet for the Maximum Level and the
Initial Level and 30 feet for the Minimum Level. The default settings will be
used for the rest of the input data parameters. When finished, the tank definition
should be as shown in Figure 5.5.3.1. Select «Close» to store these values and
close the Tank Editor dialog box..
Figure 5.5.3.1 The Tank Editor dialog box
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Example Problems
Next, we have to define the parameters for the pipe connecting the storage tank to the
hospital. To define the pipe parameters:
1.
Select Edit | Pipe Editor to display the Pipe Editor dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.5.3.2.
2.
Select pipe 16 (the pipe connecting the tank to the hospital) and enter 100 feet
for the pipe length, 20 inches for the diameter, and 90 for the roughness
coefficient. Initially, the tank connected to this pipe will be modeled as closed.
Select the Closed option button in the Pipe Status frame. Select «Close» to store
these values and close the Pipe Editor dialog box.
Figure 5.5.3.2 The Pipe Editor dialog box
5.5.4 Defining Extended Period Control Rules
Typically during an extended period simulation, the pipes, pumps, and valves
contained in a network will change their status (i.e., open or closed) as storage tanks
recharge and discharge water and pressures change throughout the network system.
Therefore, it is necessary to define extended period control rules to control these
systems. Note that this has already been done for you to save time. However, this
section explains the steps used to define the extended period control rules for the pipes
and pumps in the water distribution network system.
As was explained earlier, the network has two pumps. The first pump (pump 1) is used
during high demands in the network and the second pump (pump 14) is used during
low demands in the network. Initially, pump 1 is closed. We will use the pressure at
the fire department as the operating criteria for these pumps. As for pipe 16, we will
define the controls so that pipe 16 opens and supplies water from the storage tank to
the hospital at 4 hours after the start of the simulation.
In this lesson we will regulate the operation of the pumps and the pipe connecting the
tank with the hospital. The control of the pumps and pipe depends on the status of the
pump (open or closed) that is to be controlled. The initial operating criteria for the
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MIKE NET
pumps and pipe was defined in the Pump Editor (Pump 1 is closed and pump 14 is
opened) and the Pipe Editor (status of pipe 16 is closed), respectively. To define these
controls:
1.
Select Extended | Control Editor to open the Control Editor dialog box shown
in Figure 5.5.4.1.
Figure 5.5.4.1 The Control Editor dialog box
5-52
2.
To insert some blank control rules, press «Insert» 5 times.
3.
For the first control rule, define the Link Type as Pump, Link ID as 1, and
Description to High demand service pump 1. In the Settings frame, set Setting
to Open, Condition to If Node Below, Control Node to 5, and Control Level to
70.00 psi. When finished, LINK 1 OPEN IF NODE 5 BELOW 70.00 should
be displayed in the Preview field.
4.
For the second control rule, define the Link Type as Pump, Link ID as 1, and
Description to High demand service pump 1. In the Settings frame, set Setting
to Closed, Condition to If Node Above, Control Node to 5, and Control Level
to 72.00 psi. When finished, LINK 1 CLOSED IF NODE 5 ABOVE 72.00
should be displayed in the Preview field.
5.
For the third control rule, define the Link Type as Pump, Link ID to 14, and
Description to Low demand service pump 14. In the Settings frame, set
Setting to Closed, Condition to If Node Below, Control Node to 5, and Control
Level to 70.00 psi. When finished, LINK 14 CLOSED IF NODE 5
BELOW 70.00 should be displayed in the Preview field.
6.
For the fourth control rule, define the Link Type as Pump, Link ID to 14, and
Description to Low demand service pump 14. In the Settings frame, set
Setting to Open, Condition to If Node Above, Control Node to 5, and Control
Level to 72.00 psi. When finished, LINK 14 OPEN IF NODE 5
ABOVE 72.00 should be displayed in the Preview field.
Example Problems
7.
For the last control rule, define the Link Type as Pipe, Link ID to 16, and
Description to Pipe 16 operating sequence. In the Settings frame, set Setting
to Open, Condition to At Time, Control Node to 4, and Control Level to
HOURS. When finished, LINK 16 OPEN AT TIME 4 HOURS should be
displayed in the Preview field.
8.
Select «Close» to store these control rules and close the Control Editor dialog
box.
When you are finished defining the extended period model, save the completed
network as LESSON5A.GDB by using File | Save As so that the results can be
analyzed and reviewed later in this lesson.
5.5.5 Performing an Extended Period Analysis
After you have finished defining the pipe network model, you can perform an extended
period analysis of the pipe network system. Performing an extended period analysis is
exactly the same as a steady state analysis. To perform an extended period analysis,
select File | Perform Analysis. MIKE NET will then display a query dialog box,
asking whether to check the project for errors. Click on «Yes». MIKE NET will then
display the Check Model dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.5.5.1.
Figure 5.5.5.1 The Check Model dialog box is used to check over the pipe network
model for errors
From within the Check Model dialog box, select «OK» to run a check of the project.
MIKE NET will perform several tests on the pipe network model. If a modeling input
error is reported, you will need to correct the input data defining the model.
If no errors were reported, MIKE NET will then automatically perform an extended
period analysis of the pipe network model. If an error is reported during the analysis,
it will be necessary to correct the input model to remove the error. However, it is
normal for warnings to be reported during the analysis. The user should check the
analysis output to make certain that any reported warnings or status messages do not
pose a threat to the validity of the analysis results.
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MIKE NET
5.5.6 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSSON5A.GDB, LESSON5A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the basic network components, extended period hydraulics, demand
pattern, tank, and extended period control rules defined. These files are used
as the starting files for this lesson.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON5 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
5.5.7 Viewing the Extended Period Analysis Results
After the extended period analysis has been successfully performed, you next need to
load the extended period analysis results into MIKE NET before you can view the
results. Viewing extended period analysis results is slightly different from viewing
steady state analysis results.
The extended period analysis results can be viewed from the EPANET Analysis
Results, Analysis Results Table, Component Browser window, Time Series Plot, and
Horizontal Plan window. To load the analysis results, select File |
Load Analysis Results.
EPANET Analysis Results
To review the analysis results generated by the EPANET Analysis Engine, select
View | EPANET Analysis Results. MIKE NET will display a file viewer, as shown
in Figure 5.5.7.1, displaying the EPANET analysis results. If there are any warning
messages during the analysis, they will be displayed in the EPANET Analysis Results.
Figure 5.5.7.1 EPANET Analysis Results
5-54
Example Problems
Further discussion on displaying EPANET analysis results is provided in the section
titled Viewing the Analysis Results contained in Chapter 3.
Analysis Results Table
To review an extended period analysis results in a tabular format using the Analysis
Results Table, follow these steps:
1.
Select View | Analysis Results Table to display the Analysis Results Table, as
shown in Figure 5.5.7.2.
Figure 5.5.7.2 The Analysis Results Table at 0:00 hours
2.
In the Analysis Results Table, you are only able to view the results for a single
time step at a time. The results shown in Figure 5.5.7.2 are for the start of the
extended period simulation. To display the results at a different time step, select
View | Time Step to display the Time Step dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.5.7.3. Alternatively, you can click on the Time Step icon in the
Component Browser.
Figure 5.5.7.3 The Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time
step in which to display results
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MIKE NET
3.
From the Time Step dialog box, choose day 0 at time 8:00 hours and then select
«OK» to display the results at this time step in the Analysis Results Table. The
results for the selected time step will be displayed in the Analysis Results Table,
as shown in Figure 5.5.7.4.
Figure 5.5.7.4 The Analysis Results Table at 8:00 hours
Further discussion on displaying results in the Analysis Results Table is provided in
the section titled Analysis Results Table contained in Chapter 3.
Component Browser
The Component Browser allows you to graphically select any network component
from the Horizontal Plan window by simply clicking with the Select tool, and will
then display that component’s input attributes and analysis results. This allows you to
quickly examine the pipe network system at the component level (i.e., pipe, junction
node, value, pump, tank, and reservoir), check what is defined for the model, and
determine the completed analysis results.
To view the extended period analysis results in the Component Browser:
5-56
1.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan. Then,
choose the Select tool from the Components floating toolbar and choose any
component in the Horizontal Plan window. The analysis results for the chosen
component will appear in the Component Browser, as shown in Figure 5.5.7.5.
2.
To change the time step that is displayed in the Component Browser, click on
the Time Step tool in the Component Browser. Then, choose a different time
step. The results for the selected time step will be displayed in the Component
Browser. Alternatively, you can select View | Time Step to select a different
time step to be displayed.
Example Problems
Figure 5.5.7.5 The Component Browser displays analysis results for the
selected network component
Further discussion is provided in the section titled Component Browser contained in
Chapter 3.
Time Series Plot
A Time Series Plot allows you to graphically display the analysis results for any
network element for an extended period analysis. Multiple Time Series Plots can be
generated for the various network elements, such as pipe flow, velocity, headloss,
nodal demand, pressure, hydraulic grade, water age, water quality constituent
concentration, pump characteristic operating curve, tank water level, and net system
demand.
To view the extended period analysis results in a Time Series Plot:
1.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan. Select
View | Time Series Plot to display a check symbol in front of the Time Series
Plot menu item, indicating that the Time Series Plot feature has been activated.
2.
Double-click on any component in the Horizontal Plan window. This will
display the Create Time Series Plot dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.5.7.6.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.5.7.6 The Create Time Series Plot dialog box
3.
Select the values to be displayed in the Time Series Plot. Choose «OK» to
display the Time Series Plot, as shown in Figure 5.5.7.7.
Figure 5.5.7.7 Time Series Plot for demand at junction node 7
Further discussion is provided in the section titled Time Series Plot contained in
Chapter 3.
Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots
The Horizontal Plan window allows you to graphically plot the analysis results directly
onto the pipe network schematic. In the Horizontal Plan window, complete contouring
of the analysis results is available, including node elevation, HGL, pressure, demand,
and any water quality constituent. This allows you to quickly interpret the modeling
results and identify any trouble areas. And, directional flow arrows can be plotted on
5-58
Example Problems
top of the pipes to show the flow direction for any time-step. In addition, MIKE NET
provides automatic color-coding of pipes and nodes based upon any input or output
property, allowing the network to be color-coded based upon pipe sizes, flowrates,
velocities, headlosses, nodal pressures, nodal demands, hydraulic grades, elevations,
water age, percent source contributions, water quality concentrations, and any other
attribute. Numerical ranges for colors can be specified. Furthermore, pipes can be
plotted with variable width and nodes with variable radius, allowing you to quickly
identify those areas of the network experiencing the most flow, headloss, water quality
constituent concentration, etc.
To display the extended period analysis results in the Horizontal Plan window:
1.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
2.
Select Plan | Options to display the Horizontal Plan Options dialog, as shown
in Figure 5.5.7.8. Alternately, you can right-click in the Horizontal Plan
window to display a shortcut menu and then select Options. From the
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box, choose the values that you want to display.
Figure 5.5.7.8 The Horizontal Plan Options dialog box
3.
Select «OK» to display the selected extended period analysis results in the
Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.5.7.9, and close the Horizontal
Plan Options dialog box.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.5.7.9 The analysis results displayed in the Horizontal Plan window
5.5.8 Reviewing Extended Period Analysis Results
An extended period analysis is a series of steady state analyses conducted over an
extended time period. Each individual analysis is referred to as a time step. MIKE NET
assumes constant pipe flowrates and no change in external conditions between time
steps. Thus, the results computed at each time step are based upon the previous time
step's computed results and the changes applied.
The diurnal demand curve for this lesson was defined using the Pattern Editor. The
demand curve in Figure 5.5.8.1 begins with a demand factor of 1.0 at 0 hours and ends
with a demand factor of 1.0 at 24 hours. The peak network demand is specified at
8 hours when all the demands in the network are increased by a factor of 1.7. The
minimum network demand is specified at 20 hours when all the demands in the
network are reduced by a factor of 0.7.
Figure 5.5.8.1 The Demand Curve (Pattern 2)
5-60
Example Problems
There are two pumps installed on two pipes that are parallel to each other and are both
connected to reservoir A. One pump is a high demand service pump (pump 1) that
operates during high demand hours, while the other is a low demand service pump
(pump 14) that is used during low demand hours.
The pumps have been configured so that only one pump is operating at a given time.
The high demand service pump and the low demand service pump are controlled by
the measured pressure at junction node 5. From the analysis results, it can be seen that
the high demand service pump (pump 1) remains in service until hour 18, as shown in
Figure 5.5.8.3. Figure 5.5.8.4 shows that the low demand service pump then becomes
active for the remainder of the simulation. The two pumps operation correspond with
the pressure at junction node 5, as shown in Figure 5.5.8.2.
Figure 5.5.8.2 Extended period demand and pressure results for junction node 5
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.5.8.3 Extended period flow results for pump 1
Figure 5.5.8.4 Extended period flow results for pump 14
The storage tank that is located at the hospital is initially full and is closed. As shown
in Figure 5.5.8.5, pipe 16 services the storage tank located at the hospital. As shown in
this figure, after 4 hours the tank is opened and begins to supply water to the network
to satisfy increasing demands (an inflow to the network is indicated as a positive
value). Note that the graph in this figure changes linearly from a value of 0 cfs at
hour 2, to a peak value at hour 4. This is caused by performing a network simulation
on a 2 hour time step. A shorter time step would cause a more abrupt change in the
graph at hour 4.
5-62
Example Problems
When the peak network demand occurs at 8 hours, the high service pump is still active
and the tank continues to supply water to the network. At 10 hours, the tank begins to
refill (a negative value indicates that water is flowing into the tank). The tank refills
during the low demand period in the pipe network system. During this period, the low
demand service pump becomes activated at hour 18:00 because of the reduced network
demands. The storage tank is completely full and again able to release water to the
hospital at 19:00 hours.
Figure 5.5.8.5 Extended period flow results from pipe 16 which services the storage
tank located at the hospital
Although not illustrated in this lesson, a storage tank can become closed due to
overfilling or overdrawing. When a tank is closed, it will be reopened when water
begins flowing into an empty tank or flowing out of a full tank.
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MIKE NET
5.6
Lesson 6
Fire Flow Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define and
perform a fire flow steady state analysis for the defined pipe network system. Also
presented is a brief review of the analysis results.
A fire flow is the maximum flow rate available at a specific minimum pressure,
typically 20 psi. There are two basic ways to model a fire flow:
1.
Specify a design fire flow rate and compute the available fire flow pressure.
2.
Specify a design fire flow pressure and compute the available fire flow rate.
In this lesson, we will model a fire flow using both of these methods.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-66.
5.6.1 Specifying a Design Fire Flow Rate
Specifying a design fire flow rate is the easiest method for simulating a fire flow. Using
this method, we will determine the fire flow pressure at junction node 5 (Fire
Hydrant 2) that provides the required fire flow.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson, is shown in
Figure 5.6.1.1. The pipe network system consists of 2 reservoirs, 8 junction nodes,
12 pipes, and a booster pump. To simplify data input, all pipes, pumps, fixed nodes,
and junction nodes are numbered.
Figure 5.6.1.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system used to define a fire
flow analysis
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Example Problems
Begin this section by selecting File | Open and selecting LESSON6A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON6 subdirectory. This file contains the network system already
defined to reduce the time required to complete this section.
Junction node 5 (Fire Hydrant 2 at the Fire Department) is the junction node that the
constraint flow will be defined at since it is the farthest junction node in the pipe
network system from the water source, which therefore will have the greatest head loss
and thus is considered a critical location. The design fire flow rate method involves
finding a pressure at junction node 5 which provides the required fire flow rate. To
compute the available fire flow pressure:
1.
Select File | Perform Fire Flow Analysis to display the Fire Flow Analysis
Editor. Select junction node 5. Select Calculate Available Pressure for Design
Flow Set and set the design fire flow to 3 cfs. This is your new constraint
flowrate. Select «Calculate» to to run the fire flow analysis for the selected
node.
2.
Load the analysis results by selecting «Open» in the Fire Flow Analysis Results
file open dialog.
3.
Display the analysis results for junction node 5 in the Results tab of the Perform
Fire Flow Analysis dialog. It can be seen that a demand of 3 cfs requires a
pressure of 23.6 psi at junction node 5.
Determining the fire flow pressure that provides a required fire flow rate can either be
done for the selected junction node, such as junction node 5 or for more of selected
junction nodes or the whole network respectivelly.
1.
Repeat the previous procedure but select Use All Junction Nodes in the Fire
Flow Analysis dialog. Select «Calculate» to to run the fire flow analysis for each
node int he network.
2.
From the analysis results, corresponding pressure can be determined for each
junction node. In order to view the fire flow analysis results in the horizontal
plan view, color nodes by pressure and adjust the corresponding color legend.
The fire flow pressure is retrieved from the separate fire flow analysis for each
node. Therefore, other results than fire flow pressure are not available for nodes
and pipes.
When you are finished computing the fire flow pressure, save the completed network
as LESSON6A.GDB by using File | Save As so that the results can be analyzed and
reviewed later in this lesson.
5.6.2 Specifying a Design Fire Flow Pressure
Another method for modeling a fire flow is to specify a design fire flow pressure and
to determine the maximum flow rate at junction node 5 to maintain a minimum
residual pressure at that node. This maximum flow rate then corresponds to the fire
flow.
Begin this section by selecting File | Open and selecting LESSON6A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON6 subdirectory. This file contains the network system already
defined to reduce the time required to complete this section.
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MIKE NET
The design fire flow pressure method involves finding a fire flow rate at junction
node 5 which is available under the required fire flow pressure. To compute the
available fire flow rate:
1.
Select File | Perform Fire Flow Analysis to display the Fire Flow Analysis
Editor. Select junction node 5. Select Calculate Available Flow for Design
Pressure Set and set the design fire flow pressure to 20 psi. This is your new
constraint pressure. Select «Calculate» to run the fire flow analysis for the
selected node.
2.
Load the analysis results by selecting «Open» in the Fire Flow Analysis Results
file open dialog.
3.
Display the analysis results for junction node 5 in the Results tab of the Perform
Fire Flow Analysis dialog. It can be seen that a maximum available flow of
3.2 cfs maintains the minimum residual pressure of 20 psi at junction node 5.
Determining the fire flow pressure that provides a required fire flow rate can either be
done for the selected junction node, such as junction node 5 or for more of selected
junction nodes or the whole network respectively.
1.
Repeat the previous procedure but select Use All Junction Nodes in the Fire
Flow Analysis dialog. Select «Calculate» to run the fire flow analysis for each
node in he network.
2.
From the analysis results, corresponding pressure can be determined for each
junction node. In order to view the fire flow analysis results in the horizontal
plan view, color nodes by demand and adjust the corresponding color legend.
The fire flow rate is retrieved from its separate fire flow analysis for each node.
Therefore, other results than fire flow pressure are not available for nodes and
pipes.
When you are finished computing the fire flow pressure, save the completed network
as LESSON6A.GDB by using File | Save As so that the results can be analyzed and
reviewed later in this lesson.
5.6.3 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
LESSSON6A.GDB, LESSON6A.BIN. These files are the input and output files
for computing the available fire flow pressure. These files illustrate how to
model a fire flow using a design fire flow rate.
2.
LESSSON6B.GDB, LESSON6B.BIN. These files are the input and output files
for computing the available fire flow rate. These files illustrate how to model a
fire flow using a design fire flow pressure.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON6 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
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5.6.4 Reviewing the Analysis Results
In this lesson, a fire flow was simulated at junction node 5 by using two different
methods—defining a design fire flow rate flow and defining a design fire flow residual
pressure. In this lesson, the fire flow was simulated at the same junction node so that
the results from the two methods can be compared to each other.
Using the first method (computing an available pressure for the design fire flow rate),
it was found that a demand of 3.0 cfs requires a residual pressure of 23.6 psi.
Using the second method (computing a available flow for the design fire flow
pressure), it was found that a maximum demand of 3.2 cfs requires a residual pressure
of 20.0 psi.
It can be seen that the results from both methods of computing fire flow bring
consistent results. The method that is most suitable to use depends on the
circumstances of the situation.
In both methods a pressure hydrant (hydrant 1) can be used to monitor the static
pressure while the residual hydrant (hydrant 2, at the fire station) is operating. The
pressure at hydrant 1 is 46.54 psi for both methods, thus giving a pressure difference
of 26.54 psi between hydrant 1 and hydrant 2. A pressure difference of 26.54 psi
indicates that the pipe network system still has a good hydraulic capacity (Walski
1984, 259).
Determining the fire flow rate satisfying the minimum residual pressure calculates the
maximum available flow. However, the actual fire flow rate which can be withdrawn
from the network depends on other important parameters, such as the fire hydrant size.
To simulate this, it is possible to define the fire hydrant connecting pipe size, its length
and the friction losses. More realistic results are achieved by this approach and can be
compared to the fire flow tests.
It is also possible to compute a Discharge versus Pressure curve for fire flow at
junction node 5.
Although not illustrated in this lesson, an extended period simulation of the pipe
network system can also be performed while computing a fire flow analysis.
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5.7
Lesson 7
Water Quality–Source Tracing Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define and
perform a source tracing water quality analysis for the defined pipe network system.
Also presented is a brief review of the analysis results.
Source tracing is a method of tracking water in a pipe network system. Water is tracked
from a single, selected source node (i.e., junction node, tank, or reservoir) and traced
throughout the entire pipe network system. The analysis results from the source trace
analysis are shown in percentages at each node in the network, showing the amount of
water from the selected source node, in comparison to all the other potential sources of
water into the pipe network system. This method is especially useful for a water
network distribution system in which there are more than one source supplying a
demand area and an analysis is required to determine the distribution of the flow from
those sources.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.7.1. The pipe network system consists of two reservoirs, 8 junction nodes, 12
pipes, and a booster pump. There are three sources of water for the pipe network
system (Reservoir 9, Reservoir 10, and Pumping Well at node 8), all which interact
with each other. To simplify data input, junction nodes are numbered in the diagram.
Figure 5.7.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-70.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON7A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON7 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
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Example Problems
5.7.1 Defining a Source Tracing Analysis
The network file (LESSON7A.GDB) has been defined with all the water quality input
data already specified to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. However,
this section explains the steps used to define the water quality source tracing data input.
Before a source tracing analysis can be performed, the project type must be properly
defined. To define the project type, select Edit | Project Options to display the Project
Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.7.1.1. Select the Extended Period Water
Quality and Source Tracing options. When finished, the option settings should appear
as shown in Figure 5.7.1.1. Select «OK» to apply these changes and close the Project
Options dialog box.
Figure 5.7.1.1 Project Options dialog box
Since this project is an extended period analysis, the extended period time parameters
will have to be defined. To define the extended period time parameters, select
Extended | Time Editor to display the Time Editor dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.7.1.2. Define the extended period time parameters as in Figure 5.7.1.2. Select
«OK» to apply these changes and close the Time Editor dialog box.
Figure 5.7.1.2 Time Editor dialog box
For more details on extended period time parameters, see the section titled Time Editor
in Chapter 4.
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5.7.2 Defining the Source Node
The next step is to define the source node (i.e., junction, tank, or reservoir) in which
the water originates from so that it can be traced. To define the source node:
1.
Select Quality | Trace Node. The Trace Node dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.7.2.1, will appear.
Figure 5.7.2.1 Trace Node dialog box
2.
Specify the node which will act as the source node by selecting «Table». The
Select Node dialog box in Figure 5.7.2.2 will appear. In the Select Node dialog
box, select the Reservoirs option button and choose reservoir B. Select «OK» to
close the Select Node dialog box.
Figure 5.7.2.2 Select Node dialog box
3.
Choose «Close» in the Trace Node dialog box to apply the selected trace node
to the network model and close the Trace Node dialog box.
When you are finished defining the source node, save the completed network as
LESSON7A.GDB by using File | Save As so the results can be analyzed and reviewed
later in this lesson.
5.7.3 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSSON7A.GDB, LESSON7A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the water quality source tracing already defined.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON7 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
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Example Problems
To analyze the extended period water quality model you have defined, refer to the
section titled Performing an extended period Analysis in Lesson 5.
5.7.4 Percentage of Source Node Water Results
After performing the analysis, you are ready to view the analysis results. We will use
only one viewing method to reduce the time required for this lesson. For more details
on viewing extended period analysis results, see the section titled Viewing the extended
period Analysis Results in Lesson 5. In this lesson, we will display the analysis results
in the Horizontal Plan window.
To display the percentage of water that was received at each node in the pipe network
system from the single selected source node in comparison to all the other potential
source (input) nodes:
1.
Select File | Load Analysis Results and in the Open dialog box choose
LESSON7A.BIN. Select «Open» to load the analysis results.
2.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
3.
Choose the parameters that are to be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window
by right-clicking the mouse while positioned inside of the Horizontal Plan
window. Choose Options from the pop-up menu to display the Horizontal Plan
Options dialog box. Alternately, you can select Plan | Options to display the
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box. Choose the Nodes tab and set the
parameters as shown in Figure 5.7.4.1.
Figure 5.7.4.1 Horizontal Plan Options dialog box
4.
Select «OK» to close the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box and display the
analysis results. The specified parameters will then be displayed in the
Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.7.4.2.
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Figure 5.7.4.2 Analysis results on day 0 at 0:00 hours
5.
The results shown in Figure 5.7.4.2 are for the start of the extended period
simulation. Note that the percentage of source node water is 0% at all the nodes
in the model. To display the results at a different time step, select View |
Time Step to display the Time Step dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.7.4.3.
Alternately, you can click on the Time Step tool in the Component Browser.
Figure 5.7.4.3 Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in
which to display results
6.
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From the Time Step dialog box, choose day 1 at time 0:00 hours and then select
«OK» to display the results at this time step in the Horizontal Plan window. The
results for this time step are displayed in Figure 5.7.4.4. Observe the percentage
of source node water (from Reservoir B, node 10) that has been distributed to
the nodes in the pipe network system.
Example Problems
Figure 5.7.4.4 Results on day 1 at 0:00 hours
5.7.5 Forward and Backward Tracking of Flow
In this section we will demonstrate how to perform forward and backward tracking of
flow to and from any selected node. Note that this capability is unique to MIKE NET
and does not require any specialized model setup in order to function. For example,
this can be performed with a standard, steady state simulation model.
In this section we will track graphically where the water from reservoir 10 goes to in
the pipe network system. To track the water through the pipe network system:
1.
Select Tracking | Forward.
2.
In the Horizontal Plan window, select reservoir 10.
A flow path in the Horizontal Plan window will be displayed, as shown in
Figure 5.7.5.1, illustrating where the water from reservoir 10 goes.
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Figure 5.7.5.1 Forward tracking of water from reservoir 10
Note that this same procedure can be used for backward tracking of water to determine
from which sources a node receives water from.
5.7.6 Reviewing the Analysis Results
From the tracking results shown in Figure 5.7.4.2 at time step day 0, 0:00 hours, it can
be seen that the water in the pipe network system has not yet been distributed within
the pipe network system. The percentage of water from source node 10 for every
junction node is 0%.
In Figure 5.1.5.4 at time step day 1, 0:00 hours the water has been distributed
throughout the pipe network system for 24 hours and the percentage display at each
junction node represents the percentage of water from reservoir 10. For example, at
junction node 4, 64.58% of the water is from reservoir 10.
Note that only one source node can be defined for a source trace water quality
simulation. Therefore, if source tracing for more than one source node is required, a
source trace water quality model simulation for each source node is required.
Source Tracing from the other water sources (reservoir 9 and groundwater well at
junction node 8) is left to the reader.
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Example Problems
5.8
Lesson 8
Water Quality - Water Age Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define and
perform a water age analysis for the defined pipe network system. Also presented is a
brief review of the analysis results.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.8.1. The pipe network system consists of two reservoirs, 8 junction nodes, 12
pipes, and a booster pump. To simplify data input, junction nodes are numbered in the
diagram.
Figure 5.8.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-77.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON8A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON8 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
5.8.1 Defining a Water Age Analysis
The network file (LESSON8A.GDB) has been defined with all of the water age input
data already specified to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. However,
this section explains the steps used to define the water age input data.
Before a water age analysis can be performed, the project type must be properly
defined. To define the project type, select Edit | Project Options to display the Project
Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.8.1.1. Select the Extended Period Water
Quality and Water Age options. When finished, the option settings should appear as
shown in Figure 5.8.1.1. The default settings will be used for the remaining
parameters. Select «OK» to apply these changes and close the Project Options dialog
box.
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Figure 5.8.1.1 Project Options dialog box
Since this project is an extended period analysis, the extended period time parameters
will have to be defined. To define the extended period time parameters, select
Extended | Time Editor to display the Time Editor dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.8.1.2. Define the extended period time parameters as in Figure 5.8.1.2. Select
«OK» to apply these changes and close the Time Editor dialog box.
Figure 5.8.1.2 Time Editor dialog box
For more details on extended period time parameters, see the section titled Time Editor
in Chapter 4.
When you are finished defining the project options and extended period time
parameters, save the project as LESSON8A.GDB by using File | Save As so the results
can be analyzed and reviewed later in this lesson.
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Example Problems
5.8.2 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSSON8A.GDB, LESSON8A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the water age input data already defined.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON8 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
To analyze the extended period water quality model you have defined, refer to the
section titled Performing an extended period Analysis in Lesson 5.
5.8.3 Water Age Results
After performing the analysis, you are ready to view the analysis results. We will use
only one viewing method to reduce the time required for this lesson. For more details
on viewing extended period analysis results, see the section titled Viewing the extended
period Analysis Results in Lesson 5. In this lesson we will display the analysis results
in the Horizontal Plan window.
To display the water age at each node in the pipe network system:
1.
Select File | Load Analysis Results and in the Open dialog box choose
LESSON8A.BIN. Select «Open» to load the analysis results.
2.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
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MIKE NET
3.
Choose the parameters that are to be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window
by right-clicking the mouse while positioned inside of the Horizontal Plan
window. Choose Options from the pop-up menu to display the Horizontal Plan
Options dialog box. Alternately, you can select Plan | Options to display the
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box. Choose the Nodes tab and set the
parameters as shown in Figure 5.8.3.1.
Figure 5.8.3.1 Horizontal Plan Options dialog box
4.
Select «OK» to close the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box and display the
analysis results. The specified parameters will then be displayed in the
Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.8.3.2
.
Figure 5.8.3.2 Analysis results on day 0 at 0:00 hours
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Example Problems
5.
The results shown in Figure 5.8.3.2 are for the start of the extended period
simulation. Note that the water age is 0:00 hours at all the nodes in the model.
To display the results at a different time step, select View | Time Step to display
the Time Step dialog box as shown in Figure 5.8.3.3. Alternately, you can click
on the Time Step tool in the Component Browser.
Figure 5.8.3.3 Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in
which to display results
6.
From the Time Step dialog box, choose day 1 at time 0:00 hours and then select
«OK» to display the results for this time step in the Horizontal Plan window.
The results for this time step are displayed in Figure 5.8.3.4. Observe the water
age reported at each node in the pipe network system.
Figure 5.8.3.4 Results on day 1 at 0:00 hours
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5.8.4 Reviewing the Analysis Results
Water age is the time that water has been in the system, reported at each junction node.
This includes the time it takes the water to travel from the source to each junction node.
From the water age results shown in Figure 5.8.3.2 at time step day 0, 0:00 hours, the
water age in the system is 0:00 hours at every node. The water has not yet been
distributed within the pipe network system.
As shown in Figure 5.8.3.4, at junction node 5 on day 1, 0:00 hours, the water age is
5.160 hours old. A water age of 5.160 hours is the composite time it takes the water to
reach junction node 5 from all the source nodes (the time the water stays at junction
node 5 is 0.00 since it is consumed instantly by the demand at junction node 5). As for
junction node 3, the water age is 23 hours old, indicating that it took 1 hour to reach
junction node 3, where it then remains at the junction node for the rest of the simulation
(the analysis duration is 24 hours, the water age is 23 hours, the travel time is 24 hours
minus 23 hours which equals to 1 hour). This is because there are no demands at
junction node 3—the water at junction node 3 remains unused during the simulation
thus making the water at junction node 3 increase in age. At junction node 7, the water
age is 1.560 hours (which is equal to the time it takes the water to reach junction
node 7).
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Example Problems
5.9
Lesson 9
Water Quality–Constituent Chlorine Analysis
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define and
perform a constituent chlorine analysis for the defined pipe network system. Also
presented is a brief review of the analysis results.
A constituent analysis is used to simulate the growing or decaying of constituents from
an initial source in the pipe network system over a period of time through the entire
pipe network system. In this lesson we will be simulating chlorine decay in the pipe
network system.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.9.1. The pipe network system consists of one reservoir, 10 junction nodes, 12
pipes, and a booster pump. To simplify data input, junction nodes are numbered in the
diagram.
Figure 5.9.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-84.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON9A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON9 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
5.9.1 Defining a Constituent Analysis
The network file (LESSON9A.GDB) has been defined with all of the constituent input
data already specified to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. However,
this section explains the steps used to define the constituent analysis input data.
Before a constituent analysis can be performed, the project type must be properly
defined. To define the project type, select Edit | Project Options to display the Project
Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.9.1.1. Select the Extended Period Water
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Quality and Chemical Concentrations options. When finished, the options settings
should appear as shown in Figure 5.9.1.1. Select «OK» to apply these changes and
close the Project Options dialog box.
Figure 5.9.1.1 The Project Options dialog box
Since this project is an extended period analysis, the extended period time parameters
will have to be defined. To define the extended period time parameters, see the section
titled Defining a Water Age Analysis in Lesson 8. We will be using the same extended
period time parameters as in Lesson 8.
5.9.2 Defining Constituent Data
In this lesson we will simulate a chlorine decay in the network system over a 24 hour
period. Reservoir A is the initial constituent source. Initially, the chlorine in the pipe
network system has a concentration of 0.3 mg/l. The chlorine at the constituent source
(Reservoir A) has a concentration of 1.00 mg/l before being distributed through the
entire pipe network system. Therefore, we will define the initial chlorine concentration
in the pipe network system, the chlorine concentration in the constituent source, and
the constituent reaction rates.
To define the initial chlorine concentration in the pipe network system:
1.
Select Quality | Initial Water Quality Editor to display the Initial Water
Quality Editor as shown in Figure 5.9.2.1.
Figure 5.9.2.1 Initial Water Quality Editor dialog box
2.
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Set Node1 ID to 1, To Node2 ID to 11, and Quality to 0.3 mg/l. Nodes 1
through 11 will be defined with an initial chlorine concentration of 0.3 mg/l.
Example Problems
3.
Select «Close» to apply these changes and close the Initial Water Quality
Editor.
To define the constituent source:
1.
Select Quality | Point Constituent Source Editor to display the Point
Constituent Source Editor as shown in Figure 5.9.2.2.
Figure 5.9.2.2 Point Constituent Source Editor dialog box
2.
In the Source Node frame, set the Node Type to Reservoir and Node ID to 9.
Set the Concentration to 1.00 mg/l. Choose «Close» to apply these changes and
close the Point Constituent Source Editor dialog box.
To define the reaction rates:
1.
Select Quality | Reaction Rate Editor to display the Reaction Rate Editor
dialog box as shown in Figure 5.9.2.3.
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Figure 5.9.2.3 Reaction Rate Editor dialog box
2.
Set the Bulk Reaction Rate Coefficient in the Global Settings frame to -0.5. The
bulk reaction rate is defined as how rapidly constituent grows or decays over a
period of time. In this lesson the units for the reaction rate coefficient time
period is per day. The minus value indicates a decay.
3.
Set the Pipe Wall Reaction Rate coefficient to -1.0. The pipe wall reaction rate
is defined as the rate at which a constituent reacts with the wall of a pipe. In this
lesson the units are ft/day. The minus value indicates a decay.
4.
Choose «Close» to apply these changes and close the Reaction Rate Editor
dialog box.
5.9.3 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSSON9A.GDB, LESSON9A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the constituent input data already defined.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON9 subdirectory and can be used to
perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively enter
the data for this lesson.
To analyze the extended period water quality model you have defined, refer to the
section titled Performing an extended period Analysis in Lesson 5.
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Example Problems
5.9.4 Constituent Chlorine Decay Results
After performing the analysis, you are ready to view the analysis results. We will use
only one viewing method to reduce the time required for this lesson. For more details
on viewing extended period analysis results, see the section titled Viewing the extended
period Analysis Results in Lesson 5. In this lesson we will display the analysis results
in the Horizontal Plan window.
To display the chlorine decay at each node in the pipe network system:
1.
Select File | Load Analysis Results and in the Open dialog box choose
LESSON9A.BIN. Select «Open» to load the analysis results.
2.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
3.
Choose the parameters that are to be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window
by right-clicking the mouse while positioned inside of the Horizontal Plan
window. Choose Options from the pop-up menu to display the Horizontal Plan
Options dialog box. Alternately, you can select Plan | Options to display the
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box. Choose the Nodes tab and set the
parameters as shown in Figure 5.9.4.1.
Figure 5.9.4.1 Horizontal Plan Options dialog box
4.
Select «OK» to close the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box and display the
analysis results. The specified parameters will then be displayed in the
Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.9.4.2.
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Figure 5.9.4.2 Analysis results on day 0 at 0:00 hours
5.
The results shown in Figure 5.9.4.2 are for the start of the extended period
simulation. Note that the constituent concentration is 0.300 mg/l at all the nodes
in the pipe network system, equal to the initial water quality values we
specified. To display the results at a different time step, select View | Time Step
to display the Time Step dialog box as shown in Figure 5.9.4.3. Alternately, you
can click on the Time Step tool in the Component Browser.
Figure 5.9.4.3 Time Step dialog box allows you to select a different time step in
which to display results
6.
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From the Time Step dialog box, choose day 1 at 0:00 hours and then select
«OK» to display the results at this time step in the Horizontal Plan window. The
results of this time step is displayed in Figure 5.9.4.4. Observe the change in
chlorine constituent reported at each node in the pipe network system.
Example Problems
Figure 5.9.4.4 Results on day 1 at 0:00 hours
5.9.5 Reviewing the Analysis Results
The results of extended water quality simulation show both an increase in chlorine and
a decay of chlorine. For example, at junction node 1 the concentration increases from
0.30 mg/l to 1.00 mg/l. This is caused by the higher concentration from reservoir A
flowing into junction node 1. Looking further away from the chlorine source at
junction node 11, we observe a chlorine concentration of 0.1 mg/l.
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5.10 Lesson 10
Distributing Demands and Pressure Zones
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to define
distributed demands, pressure zones, import a background image, and perform a steady
state analysis for the defined pipe network system. Also presented is a brief review of
the analysis results.
Distributed demands are used to compute the demand for each junction node in the
network system when only the total demand in a pipe network system or a particular
pressure zone of the pipe network system is known.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be analyzed in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.10.1. The pipe network system consists of two pressure zones, a Main Zone
and Eastern Zone. Water in the Main Zone is supplied from reservoir A by pump 1
(pump 2 is a spare pump and is not operating) to tank 1. Water in the Eastern Zone is
supplied from reservoir B, through pump 3 to tank 2. Both zones are connected with a
pipe, but the connecting pipe will be closed.
Figure 5.10.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-94.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON10A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON10 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
5.10.1 Defining Pressure Zones
The network file (LESSON10A.GDB) has been defined with all of the input data
already defined to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. However, this
lesson explains the steps used to define the pressure zones.
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Example Problems
The Main Zone represents the major portion of the city on both sides of the lake and
supplies most of the demand area. The supply water comes from reservoir A with a
constant water level of 700 ft. The supply water is pumped through pump 1 (pump 2
is a spare pump and is not operating) to tank 1. The tank bottom is 770 ft and the
maximum water level is 800 ft. Water is distributed through the pipe network system
from this tank. The pipes in the network system have a Hazen-Williams roughness
coefficient ranging from 120 to 150.
The Eastern Zone represents a small outlying area of the city. Water is supplied to the
Eastern Zone from reservoir B and is sent to tank 2 by pump 3.
To define the pressure zones:
1.
Select Edit | Pressure Zone Editor to display the Pressure Zone Editor, as
shown in Figure 5.10.1.1.
Figure 5.10.1.1 The Pressure Zone Editor dialog box
2.
Insert two blank fields by pressing «Insert» twice. For the first field, set the
Pressure Zone ID to 1 and Description to Main Zone. For the second field, set
the Pressure Zone ID to 2 and Description to Eastern Zone. Select «Close» to
store these pressure zones and close the Pressure Zone Editor dialog box.
After defining the pressure zones, the junction nodes in the pipe network system will
require pressure zones to be assigned to them. In this lesson, it is more convenient to
use a SQL global update command to assign pressure zones because of the large
number of junction nodes in the model. Although assigning a pressure zone can be
individually assigned for each junction node, in this lesson will be performed using a
SQL update statement. The Main Zone contains junction nodes from 3 to 114 and the
Eastern Zone contains junction nodes from 115 to 126.
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To assign pressure zones to the junction nodes:
1.
Select Edit | Junction Editor to display the Junction Editor. In the Junction
Editor, select «Global» to display the Global dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.10.1.2.
Figure 5.10.1.2 The Global dialog box
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2.
In the SQL Assistant frame, set the Update Junctions Set to PZONE, set
Condition Is to =, assign Value to 1, set Where to ID, set Condition Is to <=, and
assign Value to 114. Select «Construct» to display the newly defined SQL
Statement in the SQL Statement frame, as shown in Figure 5.10.1.2. This SQL
statement assigns a pressure zone 1 (Main Zone) to every junction node with an
ID number of less than or equal to 114, thereby saving the time required to
manually assign a pressure zone to each junction node. Select «Store» to create
an untitled entry in the SQL Manager.
3.
In the SQL Manager frame, choose Untitled in the Update Description field and
change the name of this SQL statement to Main Zone. The SQL Manager stores
the SQL statements that have been used in the project so that the statements can
be reviewed or applied again at a later time.
4.
Select «OK» to store the defined global change and close the Global dialog box.
This also causes the program to apply the defined global change to the pipe
network system.
5.
Repeat steps 1 through 4 again, but change the Update Junction Node to
PZONE, Condition Is to =, assign Value to 2, set Where to ID, set Condition Is
to >, assign Value to 114, and the SQL statement name to Eastern Zone. This
SQL assigns statement assigning pressure zone 2 (Eastern Zone) to every
junction node with an ID number greater than 114.
Example Problems
Typically in large network systems, the pipe network is broken up into different
pressure zones. Since pressure is related to ground elevation, a network system
covering hilly or mountainous terrain will have more pressure zones than one covering
fairly flat terrain. For more details on other methods that can be used to define a
pressure zone, see the section titled Pressure Zone Editor in Chapter 4.
5.10.2 Distributing Demands
Network demands are defined at junction nodes, on a node by node basis. For large
network systems, such as in this lesson, assigning this demand data can be a very
tedious job. Since many times the total demand is known for a particular network
pressure zone or for the entire network system, MIKE NET provides the capability to
distribute this total demand among the applicable junction nodes.
In this section the total network demand will be distributed to the pipe network system
for each pressure zone using the method of distributed demands. In this lesson the
demands at each of the junction nodes in the pipe network system is unknown—only
the total demand for each pressure zone is known. The total demand in the Main Zone
and the Eastern Zone is 705 gpm and 35 gpm, respectively.
Using the distributed demand feature, MIKE NET can compute the water demand for
each node in the network system based upon the total network demand using one of
two methods: the Method of Pipe Lengths and the Method of Two Coefficients. This is
useful when assigning the nodal water demand for a large network, since the software
will automatically proportion the total network demand based upon the selected
method. These methods are used to mimic the amount of actual demand along each
pipe, based upon the pipe length or a pre-defined demand coefficient.
Note that the total network demand includes the sum of both the standard demands and
additional demands defined at each of the junction nodes. (For a description of the
difference between standard demands and additional demands, see the section titled
Junction Editor in Chapter 4.) Note that prior to computing the distributed demand at
each junction node, MIKE NET automatically subtracts the sum of any previously
specified junction node additional demands from the specified total network water
demand.
For the two methods of computing distributed demands:
1.
The Method of Pipe Lengths uses demand coefficient 1 defined at each junction
node and the contributing pipe length that is connected to each junction node.
2.
The Method of Two Coefficients uses demand coefficients 1 and 2 defined at
each junction node.
For more information on distributed demands, see the section titled Distributed
Demands in Chapter 4.
In this lesson, we will use the Method of Pipe Lengths to compute the distributed
demands, since only demand coefficient 1 was defined at each of the junction nodes.
To distribute the demands among the junction nodes:
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1.
Select Edit | Distributed Demands to display the Distributed Demand dialog
box as shown in Figure 5.10.2.1.
Figure 5.10.2.1 The Distributed Demands dialog box
2.
Select «Reset» to delete any previously defined junction node demands for the
junction nodes contained in the model (defined in the Demand field of the
Junction Editor). Note that this will have no effect on any already defined
junction node additional demands.
3.
Set the Total Network Water Demand to 705 gpm. Choose the check box in
front of Pressure Zone ID and set the Pressure Zone ID to 1 (Main Zone).
Choose the Method of Pipe Lengths option button. When finished, select
«Compute» to distribute the total demand of 705 gpm over the Main Zone. Note
that there are several previously defined individual, additional demands in the
Main Zone (defined in the Additional Demand field in the Junction Editor).
These additional demands are summed together and then subtracted from the
specified total network water demand prior to computing the distributed
demands.
4.
Repeat steps 1 through 3, but change the Total Network Water Demand to
35 gpm and change the Pressure Zone ID to 2 (Eastern Zone) to distribute the
total demand of 35 gpm over the Eastern Zone.
5.
When finished, choose «Close» to close the Distributed Demands dialog box.
6.
To view the computed distributed demand values, select Edit |
Junction Editor. The computed demand values are shown in the demand field.
5.10.3 Importing a Background Image
MIKE NET allows a background image file to be imported and displayed as a
background image in the Horizontal Plan window. This is particularly useful when
manually digitizing the water distribution network on top of a municipal map.
To import a background image:
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1.
Open the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
2.
Select View | Layer Control to display the Layer Control dialog box, as shown
in Figure 5.10.3.1. The Layer Control dialog box controls what layers are to be
displayed in the Horizontal Plan window. The check box in front of each of the
layer names indicate that the layer is displayed in the Horizontal Plan window.
Example Problems
Figure 5.10.3.1 The Layer Control dialog box
3.
Click on «Import» to display the Import dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.10.3.2. This dialog is used to select the background image file to
import.
Figure 5.10.3.2 The Import dialog box
4.
Select CITY.TFW and choose «Open» to load the background image map
coordinate world file. The background image map raster file with a
corresponding name CITY.BMP will be automatically referenced and loaded.
Any background image raster file that is to be imported must have a
corresponding coordinate world file. This file contains specified world
coordinates to position the raster image. The loaded background image is then
displayed in the Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.10.3.3.
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Figure 5.10.3.3 Horizontal Plan window with the background image displayed
The background image displayed in Figure 5.10.3.3 was used for laying out the pipe
network for this lesson. For further details on importing background image files and
registering background image files to real-world coordinates, see the section titled
Importing Graphical Data in Chapter 3.
5.10.4 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSSON10A.GDB, LESSON10A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the basic network components, pressure zones, distributed
demands, and background image defined.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON10 subdirectory and can be used
to perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively
enter the data for this lesson.
To analyze the steady state model you have defined, refer to the section titled
Performing an Analysis in Lesson 1.
5.10.5 Viewing the Analysis Results
For further information on viewing the analysis results, see section titled Viewing the
Analysis Results in Lesson 1.
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Example Problems
5.10.6 Reviewing the Analysis Results
From the analysis results, it can be seen that the sum of all the junction node demands
and additional demands is equal to the total demand that was distributed over each of
the pressure zones.
The sum of additional demands in Main Zone: 113 gpm
The sum of distributed demands in the Main Zone: 592 gpm
The total demand in the Main Zone: 705 gpm
The total demand in the Eastern Zone: 35 gpm
It can be seen in the Junction Editor that computing a distributed demand did not affect
the previously defined additional demands. The computed distributed demand was
only applied to the Demand field.
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5.11 Lesson 11
Contour Plots, Animation Files, Reports
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to generate
contour plots, animation files, and output reports of the analysis results.
In MIKE NET contour plots can be generated for either input or output data, and are
displayed in the Horizontal Plan window. For example, node elevation, water age,
water quality, headloss, and pressure can be contoured by MIKE NET.
Animation (AVI) files generated by MIKE NET can be used to animate extended
period analysis results. The generated animation files can be used as an animated
report of the analysis results.
MIKE NET can generate reports using the built-in report generator, Comprehensive
user defined reports can be also create by exporting the input and output data into
Microsoft Access and using the predefine templates for generating the reports.The
input and output data also be copied into a clipboard and pasted into a spreadsheet.
A schematic diagram for the pipe network to be used in this lesson is shown in
Figure 5.11.1. This lesson is identical to the pipe network system used in Lesson 7.
Figure 5.11.1 A schematic diagram of the pipe network system
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-106.
Begin this lesson by selecting File | Open and choose LESSON11A.GDB from the
LESSONS\LESSON11 subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system.
The network file (LESSON11A.GDB) has been defined with all of the input data
already defined to reduce the time required to complete this lesson. However, this
lesson explains the steps used to generate contour plots, animation files, and reports.
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Example Problems
5.11.1 Generating Contour Plots
In this section we will describe how to generate contour plots in the Horizontal Plan
window representing pressure for the entire pipe network system. Contour plots can
also be generated for a portion of the pipe network system, if desired.
To generate a pressure contour plot:
1.
Since pressure is an output parameter, an analysis must be performed before a
contour plot of pressure can be generated. To perform an analysis, see the
section titled Performing an extended period Analysis in Lesson 5. However,
for this lesson a completed output file has already been provided. Select File |
Load Analysis Results and in the Open dialog box choose LESSON11A.BIN.
Select «Open» to load the analysis results.
2.
Select View | Generate Contour Lines to display the Generate Contour Plot
dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.11.1.1.
Figure 5.11.1.1 Generate Contour Plot dialog box
3.
In the Generate Contour Lines frame, select the Pressure option.
4.
In the Generate Contour Lines dialog box, select «OK» to close the Generate
Contour Lines dialog box and display the computed pressure contour plot in the
Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.11.1.2.
Figure 5.11.1.2 Pressure contour plot displayed in the Horizontal Plan window
Note rOnce the pr
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Fore more information on displaying contour plots, see the section titled Contour Plots
in Chapter 4.
5.11.2 Defining a Color Legend
Once the pressure contour plot has been generated, a color legend scenario can be
defined to display the contour plot according to a specific color interval. The contour
lines will then be displayed in different colors, based upon their values.
To define a color legend for the pressure contour plot:
1.
Select View | Color Legend to display the Color Legend dialog box, as shown
in Figure 5.11.2.1. Each color legend stores four different color legend
scenarios. Each color legend scenario can be associated with a different
parameter so that the color legend scenario can then be used for displaying that
parameter throughout the project. Pressure will be associated with the first color
legend scenario.
Figure 5.11.2.1 Color Legend dialog box
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Example Problems
2.
In the Color Legend dialog box, the first color legend scenario (tab 1) should be
selected. Then, in the Color Legend dialog box, select Tools |
Generate Legend to display the Generate Legend dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.11.2.2.
Figure 5.11.2.2 Generate Legend dialog box
3.
In the Node Quantities frame, select the Pressure option. Set Number of
Intervals to 25. Choose «Compute» to determine the minimum and maximum
range of the parameter chosen in the Node Quantities frame. A minimum value
of 0 psi and a maximum value of 70.96 psi is computed. Manually change the
maximum value to 100 psi in order to equally divide the specified 25 intervals.
Therefore, the pressure range of 0 to 100 psi will be divided into 25 intervals.
Click in the Generate Color Shade check box to enable color shading and click
on the color box and select a light brown color. Choose «OK» to apply these
changes to the first color legend scenario and close the Generate Legend dialog
box.
4.
The Color Legend dialog box will then have the first color legend scenario
defined, as shown in Figure 5.11.2.3.
Figure 5.11.2.3 Color Legend dialog box with Legend 1 defined
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MIKE NET
5.
In the Color Legend dialog box, select File | Save As and save the color legend
as LESSON11.PAL so that it can be reused or re-edited later. Note that more
than one color legend can used or defined in a project. The Color Legend can
also be manually defined. For more details, see the section titled Color Legend
in Chapter 4.
After defining the color legend and the first color legend scenario, the color legend
scenario will have to be assigned to the contour plots. To assign the first color legend
scenario to the contour plots:
1.
The Horizontal Plan window must be open. If it is not, select View |
Horizontal Plan to open and display the Horizontal Plan window.
2.
Select View | Layer Control to display the Layer Control dialog box, as shown
in Figure 5.11.2.4. The layer CONTOURS - PRESSURE should be displayed
in the Layer Control dialog box. If it is not displayed, repeat the steps of
generating contour plots.
Figure 5.11.2.4 Layer Control dialog box
3.
Highlight the contour layer, as shown in Figure 5.11.2.4, and choose «Options».
This will display the Contour Options dialog, as displayed in Figure 5.11.2.5.
Figure 5.11.2.5 Contour Options dialog box
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Example Problems
4.
In the Contour Options dialog box, select the Legend Colors option and then
choose the first color legend scenario, as shown in Figure 5.11.2.5. This is the
legend that was previously defined in this lesson. Select Filled Contours if you
wish to fill the contours with the colour or selct Line Contours. Choose «OK»
to apply these settings and close the dialog box.
5.
The pressure contour plot in the Horizontal Plan window will be then assigned
the first color legend, as shown in Figure 5.11.2.6.
Figure 5.11.2.6 Contour plot displayed with the colors assigned in the color
legend
Note
For more information on color legends, see the section titled Color Legend in
Chapter 3.
5.11.3 Generating Animation Files
This section describes how to generate an AVI (video for windows) animation file of
the analysis results. Animation files can be generated for any extended period analysis
result (e.g., Analysis Results Table, Horizontal Plan window, Profile Plot, and Contour
Plot). The animation to be generated in this section is created from the water quality
source tracing analysis performed in Lesson 7. This animation will be displayed in the
Horizontal Plan window.
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To generate an AVI animation:
1.
Perform an analysis on LESSON11.GDB and the load the analysis results
(LESSON11.BIN).
2.
Select View | Horizontal Plan to display the Horizontal Plan window, as
shown in Figure 5.11.3.1.
Figure 5.11.3.1 The pipe network system displayed in the Horizontal Plan
window
3.
Select Plan | Options to display the Horizontal Plan Options dialog box, as
shown in Figure 5.11.3.2. Set the parameters so that they match those of
Figure 5.11.3.2. Choose «OK» to apply these settings and close the Horizontal
Plan Options dialog box.
Figure 5.11.3.2 Horizontal Plan Options dialog box
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Example Problems
4.
Select View | Toolbars to display the Animate toolbar, as shown in
Figure 5.11.3.3.
Figure 5.11.3.3 Animate toolbar
5.
In the Animate toolbar, select «Play» to generate and play an animation of the
extended period analysis results. This will display an animation of the graduated
symbols at each of the junction nodes, as is shown in Figure 5.11.3.4. To write
an AVI file of the animation, select «Options» and select «Write·AVI» . Save
the animation as LESSON11-1.AVI
Figure 5.11.3.4 Animation of graduated symbols at each of the junction nodes showing
water quality
Guage Bars
As shown in Figure 5.11.3.5, gauge bars can be used in the same way as graduated
symbols in the Horizontal Plan window. To use gauge bars instead of graduated
symbols, select the Gauge Bars check box instead of Graduated Symbols in the
Horizontal Plan Options dialog box, shown in Figure 5.11.3.2.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.11.3.5 Gauge bars can also be displayed in the Horizontal Plan window
Included with this lesson are prepared animations of the profile plot analysis results
and a Horizontal Plan contour plot. For more details, see the section titled Prepared
Input and Output Files in this lesson on 5-106.
5.11.4 Generating Output Reports
In MIKE NET, a report can be generated anywhere a «Report» button is provided (e.g.,
Junction Editor, Time Editor, Initial Water Quality Editor, Analysis Results Table). In
this lesson, a report of the analysis results will be generated.
To generate a report:
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1.
Perform an analysis for LESSON11.GDB and then load the analysis results
(LESSON11.BIN).
2.
Select View | Analysis Results Table to display the Analysis Results Table.
3.
In the Analysis Results Table, choose «Report». The Time Step dialog box will
appear. Select the first time step and choose «OK». The built-in Report
Generator will be displayed, as shown in Figure 5.11.4.1.
Example Problems
4.
If the project is an extended period analysis, you will have to select a time step
from the Time Step dialog box. If you select «Report» from any of the input data
dialogs (i.e., Junction Editor), then an input data report will be generated and the
Time Step dialog box will not appear. If the project is a steady state analysis, the
Time Step dialog box will not be displayed and MIKE NET will display the
Report Generator directly.
Figure 5.11.4.1 Analysis results displayed in the buil-in Report Generator
Exporting Data to Spreadsheets
MIKE NET can export input and output data directly to a spreadsheet (e.g., Excel,
Lotus, Quattro). Here, the report results from the previous section will be exported as
a Microsoft Excel file.
To export data directly to a spreadsheet format:
1.
2.
In the Analysis Results Table, select Edit | Copy to Clipboard to copy the
active page with the results into a clipboard.
The report can be then copied and edited in Microsoft Excel, as shown in
Figure 5.11.4.2
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MIKE NET
.
Figure 5.11.4.2 Analysis results exported to Microsoft Excel
5.11.5 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
LESSSON11A.GDB, LESSON11A.BIN. These files are the input and output
files with the contour plot, and color legend defined. These files are used as the
starting files for this lesson.
2.
LESSON11.PAL. This file is the color legend defined for this lesson.
3.
LESSON11-1.AVI. This file is an animation file of the source tracking analysis
results displayed in the Horizontal Plan window.
4.
LESSON11-2.AVI. This file is an animation file of the pressure contour plots
at different time steps. The animation is displayed in the Horizontal Plan
window.
5.
LESSON11-3.AVI. This file is an animation file of the source tracking analysis
results displayed in the Profile Plot window.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON11 subdirectory and can be used
to perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively
enter the data for this lesson.
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Example Problems
5.12 Lesson 12
Importing KYPIPE and WaterCAD - Cybernet Files
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to import
KYPIPE, WaterCAD, and Cybernet data files. Also presented is a brief review of the
importing results.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-116.
5.12.1 Importing KYPIPE Data Files
MIKE NET can import University of Kentucky KYPIPE input data files. However, the
supplied stand-alone file convertor KYP2EPA.EXE must be first used to convert the
KYPIPE input data file into an EPANET input data file. Then the converted EPANET
file can then be directly imported into MIKE NET as an EPANET formatted input data
file. Once this EPANET formatted file has been produced, it can be directly imported
into MIKE NET.
The KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA.EXE must be operated from the
MS-DOS command prompt. The syntax for the KYP2EPA program is as follows:
KYP2EPA kypfile epafile
where
kypfile is the name of an existing KYPIPE input data file
epafile is the name of the EPANET file to be produced
Any KYPIPE input data file to be imported is assumed to adhere to the format
specified in the KYPIPE User’s Manual, written by Dr. Donald J. Wood, titled
Computer Analysis of Flow in Pipe Networks Including Extended Period Simulations,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1980 and 1986.
To import a KYPIPE input data file into MIKE NET:
Open a MS-DOS Command Prompt window by choosing the Command Prompt icon
from the Windows Program menu. A Command Prompt window will appear, as shown
in Figure 5.12.1.1
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MIKE NET
.
Figure 5.12.1.1 MS-DOS Command Prompt dialog box
6.
Go to the directory where MIKE NET was installed into. Usually, the program
is installed in the MIKENET directory. Therefore, you can type the following
DOS command at the MS-DOS prompt:
CD \MIKE NET
7.
Next, we need to run the KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA.EXE to
convert the already existing KYPIPE input data file into an EPANET input data
file. At the MS-DOS prompt, type the following:
KYP2EPA LESSONS\LESSON12\KYPIPE.DAT LESSONS\LESSON12\KYPIPE.INP
In the above command line, the existing KYPIPE input file is KYPIPE.DAT
and the generated EPANET input file is KYPIPE.INP. Note that we assigned
the EPANET input file a file extension of INP. This is because MIKE NET
assumes a default file extension of INP when importing EPANET input files.
When converting a KYPIPE input data file, if the original KYPIPE input file is
not in the same directory as the KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA.EXE,
include the file path when specifying the filenames, as was shown in
Figure 5.12.1.2. In this example, the resulting converted EPANET input data
file was written to the LESSONS\LESSON12 directory.
Figure 5.12.1.2 Executing the KYPIPE conversion program KYP2EPA at the
Command Prompt window
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Example Problems
If there was any error in generating the EPANET input data file, the KYPIPE
conversion program will report the error. If generating an EPANET input data
file was successful, the message KYPIPE to EPANET conversion completed
will be displayed, as shown in Figure 5.12.1.2.
8.
Return to Windows by typing the following command at the MS-DOS prompt:
EXIT
9.
In MIKE NET, select File | Import to display the Import dialog box, as shown
in Figure 5.12.1.3.
Figure 5.12.1.3 Import dialog box
10. In the Import dialog box, select the EPANET Data Files option and then choose
«OK». MIKE NET will then display a file selection dialog box. From this dialog
box, select the EPANET input file KYPIPE.INP in the directory that it was
written to (C:\MIKENET\LESSONS\LESSON12) and then choose «OK».
MIKE NET will then import this file.
11. After the KYPIPE.INP file has been imported, MIKE NET will display a dialog
box reporting that the imported file has no graphical layout. Choose «OK». This
happens because KYPIPE data files do not have a graphical layout—KYPIPE
does not support graphical layouts.
12. MIKE NET will then ask if you want to run a model check on the imported input
data file. Choose «OK».
13. After the model checking is finished, save the imported file as KYPIPE.GDB.
The process of importing the KYPIPE input data file into MIKE NET is
complete
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.
Reviewing Import Results
During the model check by MIKE NET, any pipe network input data errors and
warnings are reported, as shown in Figure 5.12.1.4.
Figure 5.12.1.4 Check Model dialog box
The model checker detected possible errors and warnings in the pump data and the
pattern data of the imported KYPIPE data file. To view the details of these errors and
warnings, select «View» and an error log will appear, as shown in Figure 5.12.1.5.
Alternatively, you can select Tools | View Model Errors to view the reported model
errors and warnings.
Figure 5.12.1.5 Reported errors and warnings in importing the KYPIPE input data file
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Example Problems
From the error log report it can be seen that the characteristic curve of pump 9 is not
decreasing. In addition, there are no demand patterns defined for some of the junction
nodes. The cause of these errors and warnings are found in the converted EPANET
input data file KYPIPE.INP, as shown in Figure 5.12.1.6. KYPIPE.INP is an ASCII
text file which can be viewed by any text file viewer.
Figure 5.12.1.6 Converted EPANET input data file KYPIPE.INP
After reviewing the converted EPANET input data file KYPIPE.INP, it can be seen
that a demand pattern ID was defined for some of the junction nodes, but the demand
pattern itself was never defined thereby causing MIKE NET to report the warning
shown in Figure 5.12.1.5. Further review of the EPANET input data file reveals that
the reported pump error was being caused by the specified maximum flow in extended
flow range (q3) for the extended 3-point pump curve having the same value as the
specified flow at upper end of normal operating flow range (q2).
The original KYPIPE input data file KYPIPE.DAT had these errors intentionally
inserted so that the model checking and review of the imported data could be
demonstrated. The original model is a steady state model and does not require any
demand patterns. The maximum flow in the extended flow range (q3) was set to the
same value flow at upper end of the normal operating flow range (q2). The correct
value for q3 is 5000 cfs. Once the model is imported into MIKE NET, the reported
import errors and warnings can be quickly corrected.
To correct the reported errors and warnings in the imported model:
1.
Select Edit | Pump Editor to display the Pump Editor dialog box. In the Pump
Type frame, specify the Maximum Flow as 5000 cfs. Select «Close» to apply
the change and close the Pump Editor dialog box.
2.
Select Edit | Junction Node Editor to display the Junction Node Editor. In the
Junction Node Editor, remove any specified demand pattern IDs at any of the
junction nodes. Select «Close» to apply these changes and close the Junction
Node Editor dialog box.
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3.
Perform a model check again by selecting Tools | Check Model. As shown in
Figure 5.12.1.7, no more errors or warnings are reported and the model is now
corrected.
Figure 5.12.1.7 Check Model dialog box
5.12.2 Importing WaterCAD - Cybernet Data Files
MIKE NET can import Haestad Methods WaterCAD input data files. Because
WaterCAD uses a proprietary database format, in order to import data from
WaterCAD two utilities must be run to capture the EPANET input data file and pipe
network geometry coordinates.
Creating an EPANET Input File
To first process to import data from WaterCAD is to create an .INP file that contains
the EPANET network input data. In this lesson the example WaterCAD input data file
EXAMPLE.WCD will be used. To create the EPANET network input data file:
1.
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Run the FTRANS.EXE program that was supplied with MIKE NET by double
clicking on it with Windows Explorer. This program can be found in the same
directory that MIKE NET was installed into. The FTRANS File Transfer dialog
box will appear, as shown in Figure 5.12.2.1.
Example Problems
Figure 5.12.2.1 File Transfer dialog box
2.
In the Input Directory frame, select the directory which contains the WaterCAD
input data file (EXAMPLE.WCD) that is to be imported.
3.
In the Output Directory frame, select the output directory in which the EPANET
input data file will be written to. Note that it is necessary to select different
directories for both the Input Directory and Output Directory.
4.
Click on «Start» and the title bar of the File Transfer dialog box will display
Running, showing that it is operating. The FTRANS program must remain
running while WaterCAD performs a simulation for the model to be exported
from WaterCAD. The FTRANS program will create a EPANET input data file
with the same name as the .WCD file but with a .INP file extension.
5.
Run the WaterCAD program.
6.
From WaterCAD, open the project file EXAMPLE.WCD that you want to
export data from, as shown in Figure 5.12.2.2.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.12.2.2 The pipe network model to be exported from WaterCAD
7.
From WaterCAD, perform an analysis of the pipe network.
8.
When the analysis is completed, an EPANET input file with a corresponding
name (EXAMPLE.INP) will be automatically placed in the defined output
directory.
You can repeat steps 6 and 7 as many times as you want for as many input data files
you want to export from WaterCAD.
Creating a Network Geometry File
The second process is to create a coordinate shapefile that provides the network
coordinate data. The following steps need to be followed:
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1.
Run the WaterCAD program.
2.
From WaterCAD, export the project as a shapefile.
3.
Select Node and Pipe from the Export Wizard and select «Next».
4.
Specify the filename for exporting the Pipe shapefile.
5.
Select «Next».
6.
Specify the filename for exporting the Node shapefile.
7.
Select «Insert» and specify to export the following attributes: X, Y
8.
Select «Next».
9.
Select Add External Database Connection and then select «Finished».
Example Problems
You are now finished with the Haestad Methods program--you can exit it.
Importing the Created Files into MIKE NET
Once the EPANET input data file (EXAMPLE.INP) and network geometry coordinate
file (NODE.SHP, PIPE.SHP) have been created, the final step is to import the files into
MIKE NET.
To import these files into MIKE NET, follow these steps.
1.
Start up MIKE NET and then select File | Import. Select CYBERNET WATERCAD 3.x Data Files. This will display the Import dialog box, as shown
in Figure 5.12.2.3.
Figure 5.12.2.3 Import dialog box
2.
From the Import dialog box, select the WaterCAD Data Files option to import
and then choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display a file selection dialog box.
From this dialog box, select the created EPANET input data file
EXAMPLE.INP. Select the node and link shapefiles and then choose «OK».
MIKE NET will then import the EXAMPLE.INP file and a corresponding .SHP
network geometry coordinate files.
3.
Make certain that the specified unit base for the imported WaterCAD model is
set to English Units. This is because WaterCAD only uses English Units when
performing an analysis. Select Edit | Project Options to display the Project
Options dialog to set the unit base to English units.
4.
Save the imported model as WATERCAD.GDB. Once the model has been
saved, the model can be viewed in the Horizontal Plan window, as shown in
Figure 5.12.2.4
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MIKE NET
.
Figure 5.12.2.4 Imported WaterCAD data displayed on the Horizontal Plan
window
Once the WaterCAD project has been successfully imported into MIKE NET, the
project should be checked to make sure that the WaterCAD project was correctly
imported. Note that manual editing of the imported network data may sometimes be
necessary.
5.12.3 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
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1.
KYPIPE.DAT. This file is the KYPIPE input data file that is imported in this
lesson.
2.
KYPIPE.INP. This file is the converted EPANET input data file that was
generated from KYPIPE.DAT.
3.
KYPIPE1.INP. This file is the converted EPANET input data file that was
generated from KYPIPE.DAT with the errors fixed.
4.
KYPIPE.GDB. This file is the saved MIKENET project file created by
importing the converted KYPIPE file KYPIPE.INP.
5.
EXAMPLE.WCD. This file is the WaterCAD input data file that is imported
into MIKE NET.
6.
EXAMPLE.INP. This file is the input file captured from WaterCAD during a
simulation using the utility program FTRANS.EXE.
7.
NODE.SHP, PIPE.SHP. These file are ESRI shapefiles containing the x-y
coordinates that were exported from WaterCAD-Cybernet.
Example Problems
8.
EXAMPLE.MAP. This file is the map file containing the x-y coordinates
generated from EXAMPLE.MDB.
9.
WATERCAD.GDB. This file is the MIKE NET project saved from the
imported WaterCAD file.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON12 subdirectory and can be used
to perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively
enter the data for this lesson.
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5.13 Lesson 13
Exporting and Importing ArcView GIS Data
This lesson takes you step-by-step, illustrating how to use MIKE NET to export and
import ArcView GIS water distribution network data and modify the pipe network
parameters in both ArcView and MIKE NET.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files that have already been set
up in order for you to quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this
lesson, see the section titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-125.
MIKE NET can import and export water distribution network data as ESRI ArcView
shape files, allowing the water distribution network data to be directly imported and
exported into and from ArcView. For example, by exporting the water distribution
network model from MIKE NET as an ArcView shape file (.SHP), a GIS database can
be quickly developed for a client. Once this data has been imported into the GIS
application, join operations can be performed with other database tables. By using
geocoding, SQL, and topological queries, the GIS system can provide a wide range of
useful thematic maps of water pressure, water quality constituent concentration, etc.
The GIS data used in this lesson is of an actual water distribution network from a major
metropolitan city. This lesson demonstrates the complete procedure for exporting and
importing GIS data from and back into MIKE NET. Also, included in this lesson is an
example of network parameter editing within ArcView GIS to illustrate how pipe
network parameters can be modified in a GIS and then re-imported back into MIKE
NET. The project that is used in this lesson is shown in Figure 5.13.1.
Figure 5.13.1 The water distribution network from a major metropolitan city, which is
used in the lesson
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Example Problems
5.13.1 Exporting Water Distribution Data to ArcView
To export a water distribution network from MIKE NET projects to ArcView:
1.
From within MIKE NET, select File | Open and load ESRI.GDB into MIKE
NET. ESRI.GDB can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON13 directory.
2.
Select File | Export to display the Export dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.13.1.1. In the Export dialog box, select the ESRI ArcView Shape File
option, and then choose «OK». MIKE NET will then display an Export As
dialog box. From this dialog box specify a filename of ESRI.SHP and then
choose «OK». The water distribution network will be exported as ArcView
data.
Figure 5.13.1.1 Export dialog box
When MIKE NET exports a water distribution network as ArcView data, it
exports the data as three separate file types: ArcView shape files (.SHP),
ArcView index files (.SHX), and ArcView attribute table files (.DBF). Note that
a set of these three files will be generated for both nodes and links (i.e., pipes),
therefore a total of six files will be created.
When exporting ESRI ArcView shape files, MIKE NET will change the last
character of the specified filename so that link (pipe) files and node files can be
distinguished from each other. The last character in the filename for link files
is L. The last character in the filename for node files is N. For example, in this
lesson the link and node shape files that are generated are ESRL.SHP and
ESRN.SHP. MIKE NET automatically generates all six files in this manner.
3.
Start-up ArcView GIS. The ArcView main application window and Project
window will appear, as shown in Figure 5.13.1.2.
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Figure 5.13.1.2 ArcView Project window
4.
In the Project window click on the Views icon to start a new view. ArcView will
display a View1 window, as shown in Figure 5.13.1.3.
Figure 5.13.1.3 The View1 window in ArcView
5.
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Select View | Add Theme to add a new theme. The Add Theme dialog box will
appear, as shown in Figure 5.13.1.4. Select the directory that the MIKE NET
shape files were exported to. The shape files ESRL.SHP and ESRN.SHP should
appear in the file list box. Import both of these shape files by holding down
«Shift» to multi-select these files, then click on the filenames to highlight them,
and choose «OK». ArcView will then import these files. Note that ArcView will
automatically import the corresponding index (.SHX) file and attribute table
(.DBF) file if they are contained in the same subdirectory and have the same
filename as the shape file.
Example Problems
Figure 5.13.1.4 The Add Theme dialog box in ArcView
6.
After importing both shape files, two check boxes will appear in the sidebar list
in the View1 window. The first check box displays the imported nodes and the
second check box displays the imported links (or arcs). Select both check boxes
to graphically display this data in the View1 window, as shown in
Figure 5.13.1.5.
Figure 5.13.1.5 Graphical layout of the imported water distribution network
7.
To save the imported water distribution network as an ArcView project, select
File | Save Project As. The Project Save As dialog box will appear. In the
Project Save As dialog box save the imported water distribution network as
ESRI.APJ, in the same directory as the ArcView shape files.
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Once the water distribution network has been exported to ArcView GIS, the pipe
network layout can be updated (i.e., pipes added, deleted, moved, resized, edited, etc.)
within the GIS whenever there are changes to the water distribution network. If an
updated analysis of the water distribution network system is required, the water
distribution network contained within ArcView GIS can be exported back into MIKE
NET and reanalyzed.
GIS Water Distribution Network Data
Most municipal GIS systems which contain water distribution network data only store
information concerning the pipe data (i.e., location, size, age, etc.), and do not contain
information concerning starting and ending junction nodes, pumps, valves, storage
tanks, reservoirs, demand patterns, etc. This is because these GIS databases are mainly
used for inventory asset management and not for water distribution network modeling.
If they do contain data on storage tanks, valves, and pumps, the data stored has to do
with inventory management and equipment maintenance—and not information that
MIKE NET can use for modeling.
Therefore, although MIKE NET exports to the ArcView shape file all of the water
distribution network link and node information (i.e., pipes, valves, pumps, junction
nodes, storage tanks, and reservoirs), most municipal GIS users are typically only
interested in the exported pipe information. Because of this GIS data shortage, MIKE
NET has been written so that it does not require any other information other than pipe
information when importing GIS data for defining a water distribution model. MIKE
NET will automatically determine the water distribution topological references while
it imports the GIS pipe data. However, this then requires the modeler to add
information defining the storage tanks, reservoirs, pumps, and valves that make up the
water distribution network.
5.13.2 Updating the ArcView GIS Data
Updating of the water distribution network can occur within ArcView GIS. For
example, pipes can be added, pipe diameters can be changed, and junction nodes can
be moved. In this section we will illustrate updating of the water distribution network
system by adding more pipes to the current pipe network.
To add pipes to the water distribution network contained in ArcView:
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Example Problems
1.
As shown in Figure 5.13.2.1, select the Zoom In tool and then drag a zoom
window over the area to be modified.
Figure 5.13.2.1 Using the Zoom In tool, drag a zoom window over the area
where the pipe network modification will take place
A zoomed-in view of the water distribution network will appear, as shown in
Figure 5.13.2.2. The network modification will be performed in this area.
Figure 5.13.2.2 Zoomed-in area where the network modification will take place
2.
Select the Link Theme as the active theme by selecting it from the list of
coverages displayed on the side of the View1 window. To make the Link Theme
active, click on it in the list.
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MIKE NET
3.
Select Theme | Start Editing to begin adding pipes to the pipe network system.
To add additional pipes to the water distribution network contained within
ArcView, select the Draw Line tool from the Drawing Toolbar. To access the
Draw Line tool, click and hold down on the Drawing Toolbar icon. The
Drawing Toolbar will appear. From the Drawing Toolbar, select the Draw Line
tool. Then, draw-in some additional pipes, as shown in Figure 5.13.2.3.
Alternatively, you can open the already prepared ArcView GIS file ESR1.APJ,
which has the additional pipes already added.
Figure 5.13.2.3 The water distribution network with additional pipes already
drawn in
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Example Problems
4.
Once the additional pipes have been added, their corresponding attribute data
(i.e., pipe diameter, pipe length, roughness, etc.) can be defined. Select Theme |
Table to display the Attribute Database Table dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.13.2.4.
Figure 5.13.2.4 Attribute database table for the pipes (links) contained within
the ArcView GIS
5.
In the Attribute Database Table dialog box it can be seen that the parameters for
the newly added pipes are blank. The added pipes will appear at the end of the
table. For these pipes, specify the following:
Diameter: 80 mm
Roughness: 2.0
6.
When finished defining the newly added pipe attribute data, select Theme |
Stop Editing to end the editing and save the project. Save the modified pipe
network system as ESRI.APJ in the same directory as the MIKE NET shape
files.
5.13.3 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
ESRI.GDB. This file is the MIKE NET data file that is used as the starting file
for this lesson.
2.
ESRL.SHP, ESRL.SHX, ESRL.DBF. These files are the shape files for pipes
for ESRI.GDB.
3.
ESRN.SHP, ESRN.SHX, ESRN.DBF. These files are the shape files for
junction nodes for ESRI.GDB.
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MIKE NET
4.
ESR1L.SHP, ESR1L.SHX, ESR1L.DBF. These files are the shape files for
pipes and the added pipes for ESRI.GDB.
5.
ESR1N.SHP, ESR1N.SHX, ESR1N.DBF. These files are the shape files for
pipes and the added pipes for ESRI.GDB.
6.
ESRI.APJ. This file is the imported project saved in ArcView format.
7.
ESR1I.APJ. This file is the imported project saved in ArcView format with the
added pipes.
8.
EMS.SHP, EMS.SHX, EMS.DBF. These files are the shape files for pipes with
the added pipes exported from ESR1I.APJ.
9.
ESRI1.GDB. This file is the ArcView project imported and saved as a MIKE
NET project.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON13 subdirectory and can be used
to perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively
enter the data for this lesson.
5.13.4 Data into MIKE NET
To import ArcView GIS water distribution network data into MIKE NET, the data
contained within the ArcView GIS must first be exported to a shape file. Note that in
this lesson we will only import the pipe information, since most GIS databases only
contain this information. MIKE NET will then automatically determine the topological
references required to define the pipe connectivity.
To export this data to shape files:
1.
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In ArcView, select the Link Theme as the active theme by selecting it from the
list of coverages displayed on the side of the View1 window. To make the Link
Theme active, click on it in the list.
Example Problems
2.
Select Theme | Convert to Shapefiles. The Convert dialog box will appear, as
shown in Figure 5.13.4.1. Select the subdirectory in which to save this data,
specify the filename EMS.SHP, and select «OK». ArcView will then save this
file and also automatically generate the corresponding ArcView index file
(.SHX) and ArcView attribute table file (.DBF). This file will contain all of the
pipe information describing the water distribution network.
Figure 5.13.4.1 ArcView Convert dialog box
3.
The exported ArcView shape file EMS.SHP (and associated SHX and DBF
files) can now be imported into MIKE NET. From within MIKE NET, select
File | New. This will display the Project Options dialog box, as shown in
Figure 5.13.4.2. Since the GIS data was in metric (SI) units, select LPS Units
from the Units tab and then select «OK».
Figure 5.13.4.2 Project Options dialog box
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MIKE NET
4.
Next, from within MIKE NET select File | Import. This will display the Import
dialog box, as shown in Figure 5.13.4.3. In the Import dialog box, select the
ESRI ArcView Shape Files option, and then choose «OK». MIKE NET will
then display an Import ESRI ArcView Shapefile dialog box. SelectUser
Defined Format and then select «OK».
Figure 5.13.4.3 Import dialog box
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Example Problems
5.
The User Defined Format dialog box will next appear in MIKE NET, as shown
in Figure 5.13.2.3. This dialog box is used to assign which attribute fields
contained within the ArcView shapefile correspond to the equivalent MIKE
NET database fields. From this dialog box the drop-down lists can be used to
interactively match-up data fields contained within the ArcView shape file with
those used by MIKE NET. For example, select Diameter from the Link
Diameter drop-down list to make a connection to this database field. Similarly,
define the data connection for the Link Roughness data field. The remaining
data fields can be left undefined. The snap node tolerance is used for
determining the pipe network connectivity by identifying where duplicate nodes
exist and then assuming that a pipe connectivity occurs there. Set the snap node
tolerance to 0.1 m.When finished defining these database connections,
select «OK».
Figure 5.13.4.4 Assign Database Attributes for Pipes dialog box
As discussed previously, water distribution network GIS databases typically do
not have a junction node attribute data that cross-reference with the pipe
attribute data defining the starting and ending junction nodes. However, the
starting and ending junction node information is necessary when defining a
water distribution network to be modeled by EPANET. MIKE NET handles this
by automatically defining junction nodes after importing the pipe data, and will
assign a starting and ending node to each imported pipe. This allows MIKE
NET to easily import any type of line or polyline data to define the water
distribution network pipe layout, since the nodal and topological
cross-references are automatically established.
6.
7.
MIKE NET will then import the shapefile data (i.e., DBF, SHP, and SHX files)
and construct a graphical representation of the water distribution system. Note
that as MIKE NET imports the shapefile information, it automatically
constructs the corresponding junction nodes. This is because junction node data
is rarely defined in municipal GIS data.
Once the GIS data is imported, MIKE NET will then ask if you want to run a
model check on the imported input data file. Choose «OK».
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MIKE NET
8.
After the model checking has finished, save the project as ESRI.GDB by
selecting File | Save As. The process of importing the ArcView GIS shapefile
into MIKE NET is complete.
Reviewing Import Results
During the model check by MIKE NET, any pipe network input data errors were
reported, as shown in Figure 5.13.4.5.
Figure 5.13.4.5 Check Model dialog box
The model checker detected errors in the pipe data and the project data of the imported
ArcView GIS data. To view the details of the error, select «View» and an error log will
appear, as shown in Figure 5.13.4.6. Alternatively, you can select Tools |
View Model Errors to view the reported model errors.
Figure 5.13.4.6 Reported errors in importing the ArcView GIS data
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Example Problems
From the error log report it can be seen that there are no pipe lengths are defined. This
is because the ArcView GIS pipe data simply has X, Y coordinates defined at its ends,
and no pipe length defined. To compute the pipe lengths based upon these coordinates,
select Tools | Recompute Pipe Lengths. This command will update the pipe data with
lengths defined based upon these coordinates. The results can be seen in
Figure 5.13.4.7.
Figure 5.13.4.7 Recomputed pipe lengths
Rechecking the model with the MIKE NET Model Checker, we continue to see errors
being reported. These errors are being reported for links that are not pipes, but rather
links that are for pumps and valves. Therefore, some manual editing is necessary of the
imported ArcView GIS data so that it can be modeled. Optionally, instead of manually
editing this data, if the ArcView GIS contains pump and valve data the Linktype field
can be defined during the importation process. In this way, the imported link data will
be properly associated with the correct link type.
5.13.5 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
ESRI.GDB. This file is the MIKE NET data file that is used as the starting file
for this lesson.
2.
ESRL.SHP, ESRL.SHX, ESRL.DBF. These files are the shape files for pipes
for ESRI.GDB.
3.
ESRN.SHP, ESRN.SHX, ESRN.DBF. These files are the shape files for
junction nodes for ESRI.GDB.
4.
ESR1L.SHP, ESR1L.SHX, ESR1L.DBF. These files are the shape files for
pipes and the added pipes for ESRI.GDB.
5.
ESR1N.SHP, ESR1N.SHX, ESR1N.DBF. These files are the shape files for
pipes and the added pipes for ESRI.GDB.
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MIKE NET
6.
ESRI.APJ. This file is the imported project saved in ArcView format.
7.
ESR1I.APJ. This file is the imported project saved in ArcView format with the
added pipes.
8.
EMS.SHP, EMS.SHX, EMS.DBF. These files are the shape files for pipes with
the added pipes exported from ESR1I.APJ.
9.
ESRI1.GDB. This file is the ArcView project imported and saved as a MIKE
NET project.
These files can be found in the LESSONS\LESSON13 subdirectory and can be used
to perform the analysis and view the analysis results, without having to interactively
enter the data for this lesson.
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Example Problems
5.14 Lesson 14
Constructing a Pipe Network System from a DXF File
This lesson illustrates two different ways to use MIKE NET to construct a pipe
network for a water distribution system from a DXF file.
To save time with this lesson, we have prepared data files in order for you to quickly
follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this lesson, see the section titled
Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-135.
DXF files from AutoCAD and Microstation can be imported two different ways within
MIKE NET. The first method is to use the DXF file as a background image in the
Horizontal Plan window in order to further describe the pipe network system layout
and to show streets, buildings, and other graphical information. The second method is
to use the DXF file as a graphical layout of the pipe network system and have MIKE
NET create an equivalent pipe network. When a DXF file is used to define a pipe
network system, MIKE NET utilizes the point attributes (X, Y, and Z coordinates)
from the lines and polylines contained within the DXF file to create the pipe network
system.
The DXF file used in this lesson is of an example of a typical water distribution
network. The water distribution network used in this lesson is shown in Figure 5.14.1.
Figure 5.14.1 The water distribution network in AutoCAD that will be imported into
MIKE NET
5.14.1 Importing a DXF File as a Background Image
To import a DXF file to be used as a background image:
1.
Display the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan.
2.
As shown in Figure 5.14.1.1, select File | Import to display the import dialog
box.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.14.1.1 The Import dialog box
3.
Select the AutoCAD DXF Background File option button and select «OK».
MIKE NET will then display the Import file selection dialog box.
4.
Select NETWORK.DXF from the LESSON14 subdirectory and then choose
«Open».
5.
MIKE NET will then import the DXF file and display it in the background of
the Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.14.1.2. A pipe network
system can now be manually constructed on top of the imported DXF file.
Figure 5.14.1.2 The DXF file imported as a background image
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Example Problems
5.14.2 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
1.
CITY1.DXF. This file is the first DXF file of the city used in this lesson.
2.
AUTOCAD.GDB. This file is the automatically created pipe network system
saved as a MIKE NET project file.
5.14.3 Automatic Construction of a Pipe Network System
To import a DXF file to construct an equivalent pipe network system:
1.
Display the Horizontal Plan window by selecting View | Horizontal Plan
2.
As shown in Figure 5.14.3.1, select File | Import to display the Import dialog
box and select Import DXF Network Layout File.
Figure 5.14.3.1 The Import dialog box
3.
Select NETWORK.DXF from the LESSON14 subdirectory and select Import
Network and Geocode Labels to Node and Link Attributes. Define the Snapping
Tolerance. This dialog defines the snapping radius in which to consider the end
points of lines and polylines belonging to the same junction node. It can also be
used to remove erroneous line segments, such as a circle symbol marking a
junction node. The snapping radius, by default, is 0.1 ft (or 0.1 m). Select
Geocode Labels to Node and Link Attributes and select «Define». In this
example, we will geocode text labels from the layer PIPES to Pipe Diameter.
Select LINKS from Define Node and Link Attributes dialog and select the
PIPES layer for the Diameter field. Increase the Snapping Tolerance to 900
units and Select «OK».
4.
Select «OK». The pipe network system will then be imported and displayed in
the Horizontal Plan window, as shown in Figure 5.14.3.2.
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MIKE NET
Figure 5.14.3.2 The consructed water distribution network imported from a DXF
file
5.
Save the constructed model as AUTOCAD.GDB by selecting File | Save As.
Once the model has been imported, pipe diameters, pipe roughness, storage tanks,
nodal demands and other water distribution data must be defined to complete the
model.
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Example Problems
5.15 Lesson 15
Pump Efficiency and Pump Power
This lesson illustrates how to use MIKE NET to compute the pump power used in a
pipe network system and how to calculate pump efficiency.
To save time with this lesson, we have already prepared data files in order for you to
quickly follow through the lesson. For a list of all the files in this lesson, see the section
titled Prepared Input and Output Files on 5-141.
Pump power can be calculated for selected pumps in a pipe network system or for all
the pumps in the entire pipe network system for either steady state and extended period
simulations. The computed pump power analysis results can be viewed from the
Component Browser, Project Information dialog box, Time Series Plot, and Analysis
Results Table.
This lesson uses the pipe network system constructed in Lesson 5 of this chapter. The
layout of this pipe network system is shown in Figure 5.15.1.
Figure 5.15.1 The pipe network system used in this lesson
Begin this lesson by loading LESSON15.GDB from the LESSONS\LESSON15
subdirectory. This file contains the pipe network system to be used in this lesson.
5.15.1 Pump Efficiency
In this section of the lesson we will calculate the efficiency of pump 1 and pump 14.
We will begin by calibrating the MIKE NET calculated pump efficiencies for pumps
1 and 14 with data obtained from site observation. This will allow us to determine the
actual working efficiency for these pumps. The site observation data consists of an
hourly measurement of power used (in kW) by pumps 1 and 14 over a 24 hour period.
The observed site data obtained is as shown in Table 5.15.1.1.
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MIKE NET
Table 5.15.1.1 Observed Pump Power
Time
Pump 1
Pump 14
0:00 hr
37.31 kW
0.00 kW
1:00 hr
37.31 kW
0.00 kW
2:00 hr
37.31 kW
0.00 kW
3:00 hr
37.31 kW
0.00 kW
4:00 hr
37.68 kW
0.00 kW
5:00 hr
37.88 kW
0.00 kW
6:00 hr
38.00 kW
0.00 kW
7:00 hr
38.06 kW
0.00 kW
8:00 hr
38.16 kW
0.00 kW
9:00 hr
38.21 kW
0.00 kW
10:00 hr
38.24 kW
0.00 kW
11:00 hr
38.25 kW
0.00 kW
12:00 hr
38.06 kW
0.00 kW
13:00 hr
37.98 kW
0.00 kW
14:00 hr
37.93 kW
0.00 kW
15:00 hr
37.91 kW
0.00 kW
16:00 hr
37.52 kW
0.00 kW
17:00 hr
37.36 kW
0.00 kW
18:00 hr
37.27 kW
0.00 kW
19:00 hr
0.00 kW
17.59 kW
20:00 hr
0.00 kW
17.64 kW
21:00 hr
0.00 kW
17.67 kW
22:00 hr
0.00 kW
17.69 kW
23:00 hr
0.00 kW
17.70 kW
24:00 hr
0.00 kW
17.83 kW
To perform pump power analysis of the pipe network system:
5-138
1.
Pump power is an output parameter. Therefore an analysis must be performed
and the analysis results loaded into MIKE NET before the pump power can be
calculated. To perform an analysis, select File | Perform Analysis. After the
analysis has been successfully performed, MIKE NET will then ask for the
analysis results output file to be loaded. Select the default output file. The
default output file will have the same file name as the project file name.
2.
Select View | Time Series Plot to activate the time series plot option (a check
mark will be displayed in front of the menu item). Alternatively, you can select
the Select Time Series tool from the Component Browser.
3.
Click on pump 1. The Create Time Series Plot dialog box will automatically
appear. In the Create Time Series Plot dialog box, select the Pump Power check
box and unselect all of the other parameters. Then choose «OK». A time series
plot of the pump power will then be displayed, as shown in Figure 5.15.1.1.
4.
Repeat step 3 for pump 14. The time series plot of the pump power will then be
displayed, as shown in Figure 5.15.1.2
Example Problems
Figure 5.15.1.1 Time series plot of pump power for pump 1
Figure 5.15.1.2 Time series plot of pump power for pump 14
It can be seen that the pump power results computed by MIKE NET for pumps 1 and
14 are less than the pump power measured from the site observation. This is because
the pump power computed by MIKE NET assumed a pump efficiency of 100% and in
actual operation the pump efficiency is less. Additional power is required in the field
to produce the same equivalent power computed by MIKE NET assuming a pump
efficiency of 100%.
The actual pump efficiency can be quickly computed by dividing the pump power
computed by MIKE NET (assuming an efficiency of 100%) by the actual measured
pump power used. Since we are dealing with time series data, it may be easier to use a
5-139
MIKE NET
spreadsheet to compute the efficiency at every time step and then average all of the
computed efficiency values. Doing this, we are able to determine that pumps 1 and 14
are operating at an efficiency of approximately 85.6%.
Once the efficiency of the pumps have been computed, these values can be used in
further calibrating the water distribution model.
5.15.2 Pump Power
In this section we will calculate the pump power used in the pipe network system.
Pump power can be calculated for a selected pump or for all pumps in the entire pipe
network system.
To view the computed pump power used by a selected pump:
1.
Choose the Select tool from the Components toolbar and select Pump 1 from
the Horizontal Plan window. Note that more than one pump can be selected by
holding down «Shift» and clicking on the desired pumps.
2.
The pump attributes will appear in the Component Browser, including the
computed pump power.
3.
Select File | Project Information to display the Project Information dialog box,
as shown in Figure 5.15.2.1.
Figure 5.15.2.1 The Project Information dialog box
The Total Pump Power reported in the Components Information frame is the total
pump power used in the entire simulation for the selected pumps. The Pump Power
reported in the Statistics at Time Step frame is the pump power for the selected pumps
for the current time step when performing an extended period simulation. The time
step can be changed by choosing the Select Time Step tool from the Component
Browser and choosing the desired time step.
To view the computed pump power used for all of the pumps in the entire pipe network
system:
5-140
Example Problems
1.
Select File | Project Information to display the Project Information dialog box,
as shown in Figure 5.15.2.2. With no pumps selected, the displayed results will
be for all the pumps in the entire pumps in the entire pipe network system. In
the Components Information frame of the Project Information dialog box, it can
be seen that the Total Pump Power for the all the pumps in the pipe network
system is 16,362.6 kWh. From the previous section we determined that the
actual pump efficiency was 85.6%. Therefore, using an 85.6% efficiency we
can determine the actual Total Pump Power used (19,114.5 kWh) by dividing
the reported total pump power at 100% efficiency (16,362.6 kWh) by the pump
efficiency determined earlier (0.856). (16,362.6 kWh / 0.856 = 19,114.5 kWh).
Figure 5.15.2.2 The Project Information dialog box
If no pumps are selected, the Total Pump Power in the Components Information frame
is reported for all the pumps in the pipe network system. The Total Pump Power in the
Components Information frame is the total pump power throughout the pipe network
system for either steady state and extended period simulations.
If the model is a steady state simulation, then the Pump Power reported in the Statistics
at Time Step frame will be the Total Pump Power for the entire pipe network system
at a selected time step. The time step can be changed by selecting the Select Time
Step tool in the Components Browser and selecting the desired time step.
To calculate the pump power for selected pumps:
5.15.3 Prepared Input and Output Files
Completed input and output files were provided for this lesson. These files are:
•
LESSON15.GDB, LESSON15.BIN. These files are the initial project files
used in this lesson.
5-141
MIKE NET
5-142
C H A P T E R
EPANET Program Methodology
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.3
6.4
6.4.1
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.5.6
6.5.7
6.6
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.6
Overview
History
Analysis Methods
Applications of MIKE NET
Skeletonization
The Water Distribution Network
Pipes
Pumps
Valves
Minor Losses
Nodes
Time Patterns
Hydraulic Simulation Model
Water Age and Source Tracing
Water Quality Simulation Model
Advective Transport in Pipes
Mixing at Pipe Junctions
Mixing in Storage Facilities
Bulk Flow Reactions
Pipe Wall Reactions
Lagrangian TransportAlgorithm
Tank Mixing Models
Model Calibration
Accuracy Concerns
Reasons for Calibrating a Model
Calibration Model Data Requirements
Calibration Simulations
Model Adjustments
References
6
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-6
6-7
6-9
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-19
6-20
6-26
6-27
6-27
6-27
6-27
6-28
6-30
6-31
6-32
6-34
6-35
6-36
6-37
6-39
6-41
6-42
6.1.4.1
6.1.4.2
6.2.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.2.1
6.2.2.2
6.2.2.3
6.2.2.4
6.2.5.1
6.2.5.2
6.3.1
6.5.6.1
6.5.7.1
6.5.7.2
6.5.7.3
6.5.7.4
A complete water distribution network, showing all pipes contained within the network 5
An equivalent skeleton water distribution network, showing those pipes that are considered significant to
the
flow and distribution of water for a steady state simulation5
Node-link representation of a wate distribution network6
Bend points are inserted to separate two parallel pipes to allow them to be selectable9
Effect of relative speed (n) on a pump curve12
MIKE NET can model both parallel pumps and pumps in series13
When modeling pumps in parallel, an equivalent single pump curve can be determined by adding together
the
characteristic pump curve discharge values from the other individual pump curves14
When modeling pumps in series, an equivalent single pump curve can be determined by adding the characteristic pump
curve head values fromt he other idividual pump curves14
A pumped groundwater well is modeled as a reservoir with an attahced pump in EPANET18
A groundwater well pump curve may need to be adjusted downward to account for groundwater well drawdown and
recharge effects19
Time pattern for water usage20
Behavoir of Segments in the Lagrangian Solution Method32
Complete mixed tank mixing model schematic33
Two compartment tank mixing model shcematic33
FIFO tank mixing model schematic34
LIFO tank mixing model schematic34
MIKE NET
C H A P T E R
EPANET Program Methodology
6
Continued global growth has placed increasing demand upon existing water
distribution systems. This growth has fueled the increasing need to analyze existing
and design new water distribution systems. In addition, recent concern and awareness
about the safety of our drinking water has raised other questions about water quality of
existing and proposed municipal water distribution systems.
MIKE NET can be used to simulate existing and proposed water distribution systems.
It can analyze the performance of the system and can be used to design system
components to meet distribution requirements. In addition, it can perform water
quality modeling, determining the age of water, performing source tracking, finding
the fate of a dissolved substance, or determining substance growth or decay.
This chapter describes the EPANET analysis program that MIKE NET uses to perform
its water distribution network analysis. The program’s theoretical basis, its
capabilities, and ways of utilizing the program for analyzing water distribution
networks is discussed.
6.1
Overview
The EPANET computer model used for water distribution network analysis is
composed of two parts: (1) the input data file and (2) the EPANET computer program.
The data file defines the characteristics of the pipes, the nodes (ends of the pipe), and
the control components (such as pumps and valves) in the pipe network. The computer
program solves the nonlinear energy equations and linear mass equations for pressures
at nodes and flowrates in pipes.
EPANET Input Data File
The EPANET input data file, created automatically by MIKE NET, includes
descriptions of the physical characteristics of pipes and nodes, and the connectivity of
the pipes in a pipe network system. The user can graphically layout the water
distribution network, if desired. Values for the pipe network parameters are entered
through easy-to-use dialog boxes. MIKE NET then creates the EPANET input data file
in the format required to run the analysis. The pipe parameters include the length,
inside diameter, minor loss coefficient, and roughness coefficient of the pipe. Each
pipe has a defined positive flow direction and two nodes. The parameters of nodes
consist of the water demand or supply, elevation, and pressure or hydraulic grade line.
The hydraulic grade line (HGL) is the summation of node elevation and pressure head
at the node. The control components, which usually are installed on pipes, include
control valves and booster pumps. They are also part of the input data file.
6-1
MIKE NET
EPANET Computer Program
The EPANET computer program was developed by the U.S. EPA (Environmental
Protection Agency). The program computes the flowrates in the pipes and then HGL
at the nodes. The calculation of flowrates involves several iterations because the mass
and energy equations are nonlinear. The number of iterations depends on the system
of network equations and the user-specified accuracy. A satisfactory solution of the
flowrates must meet the specified accuracy, the law of conservation of mass and
energy in the water distribution system, and any other requirements imposed by the
user. The calculation of HGL requires no iteration because the network equations are
linear. Once the flowrate analysis is complete, the water quality computations are then
performed.
6.1.1 History
Pipe network analysis of water distribution systems has evolved from a timeconsuming process done infrequently to a quick and easy process done regularly on
systems of all sizes.
Pipe network analysis initially started early in 1940. Years later, two network analysis
programs were introduced by Shamir and Howard (1968) and Epp and Fowler (1970).
Both programs used the Newton-Raphson method to linearize the nonlinear mass and
energy equations. The major differences between these two programs are:
1.
The Shamir-Howard program is based on node-oriented equations, while the
Epp-Fowler program is based on loop-oriented equations.
2.
The Shamir-Howard program solves for pressure, demand, and the parameters
of pipes and nodes, while the Epp-Fowler program solves only for pressures and
flowrates.
Since then, several programs have been developed, based on improved computing
techniques as well as advances in computer hardware. Recently, several computer
programs running on personal computers, such as EPANET, UNWB-LOOP,
WADISO, U of K KYPIPE, and WATER have been created and made available. Of
the four programs, only EPANET and U of K KYPIPE can perform dynamic
simulation over a extended period of time and only EPANET can perform water
quality analysis. In addition, WADISO can perform optimization analysis.
6.1.2 Analysis Methods
Three types of analysis may be conducted using MIKE NET: steady state (static)
analysis, extended period (dynamic) analysis, and water quality analysis. Steady state
analysis is used to compute the pipe flowrates and the node HGL in a steady state pipe
network system. Extended period analysis simulates the continuous flowrate and
pressure changes over a period of time. Water quality analysis is used to compute the
age of water, perform source tracking, calculate the fate of a dissolved substance, or
determine the growth or decay of a substance. Each of these analysis types are
discussed in detail in the following sections.
6-2
EPANET Program Methodology
Steady State Hydraulics
The calculation of flowrates and pressures for a steady state pipe network system is
called a steady state analysis. This analysis computes the pipe flowrates and the node
hydraulic grade line elevations (HGL) so that the conservation of energy and mass are
satisfied. The pipe network system can include pumps, check valves, and various types
of control valves.
Extended Period Hydraulics
An extended period (dynamic) analysis is used to analyze a pipe network for an
extended period of time. The total simulation time is usually divided into several time
steps. At each time step an analysis is conducted for the pipe network based on the
current network parameters and the pipe flowrates calculated from the previous time
step.
In an extended period simulation, storage tanks and hydraulic switches are often
present as part of the water distribution system. The system operating parameters at
each time step depend on external conditions and the pipe flowrates from the previous
time step. External conditions are operating parameters controlled by factors outside
the system, such as external demand or pump power. The previous time step flowrates
are also used to predict the storage tank HGL for the current time step.
Water Quality Analysis
A water quality analysis can be used by operations, planning, and engineering
departments to study the flow and distribution of water. Source tracking, travel time
determination, water age, and concentration levels of chemical constituents and
contaminants are the primary concerns addressed by water quality models. In addition,
tracking paths of flow and distribution provide the engineer insight to the origin and
amount of water supplied to a particular location, as well as concentration levels of
chemical constituents and contaminants.
Water quality models can also be used to study water retention time for reservoir
operations, pipeline travel times, and the percentage of water supplied to a location
from multiple sources (i.e., treatment plants, wells, and reservoirs). Additionally,
water quality models can be used to develop a hydrant flushing program to reduce
water stagnation at dead ends within the pipe network. And, site sampling locations,
future rechlorination facility locations, cross-connection locations, and reservoir
operating strategies can be designed and analyzed.
6.1.3 Applications of MIKE NET
Water distribution analysis software, such as MIKE NET, is typically used for three
broad areas of analysis. These areas of analysis are generally referred to as planning,
design, and operation applications (AWWA Manual M32, 1989).
Some examples of these applications include (1) analysis and design of booster pumps
and storage tanks for municipal or rural water distribution systems, and (2) analysis
and design of chlorination satellite stations.
6-3
MIKE NET
Planning
MIKE NET can be used in the planning of pipe network systems to meet forecasted
demands of the next 10 years or 20 years. For example, the program can be used to
develop long term capital-improvement plans for the existing pipe network system.
These plans can include staging, sizing, and locating future pipe network and water
chlorination facilities. The software can also be used in the development of a main
rehabilitation plan or a system-improvement plan. And, a network analysis can provide
suggestions and recommendations to prepare for the occurrence of any unusual events.
Design
MIKE NET can be used to design a new pipe network system or improve on the
existing pipe network system. For example, the analysis conducted using MIKE NET
could help users in selecting and sizing pipe network components, such as pipes,
booster pumps, and pressure regulating valves. As a part of the analysis, the
performance of the pipe network system can be analyzed to verify that the system
satisfies fire-flow demand requirements.
Operation
The operating status of a water distribution system (e.g., the pipe flowrates and
junction node pressures) can be determined by MIKE NET. The analysis can then be
used to develop operational strategies based on the guidelines for maximum use of
available water and efficient management of electrical energy. MIKE NET can also be
used for system troubleshooting, such as finding the location of a pipe break.
6.1.4 Skeletonization
In the past, water distribution models have not included all of the pipes contained in
the network system due to the fact that the numerical modeling schemes used and the
memory requirements required could handle only a limited number of pipes and nodes.
These limitations required skeletonization of the pipe network system, where only a
subset of all the pipes contained within the network system was defined. However,
these limitations have eroded over the past years as enhanced programming methods
and increased computer hardware capabilities have come into being.
Skeleton network models typically include only those pipes that are considered
significant to the flow and distribution of water. For example, a skeleton model might
only consider 12 inch and larger diameter mains. Smaller diameter mains might also
be included if they supply water to a significant area or complete a loop in the network.
Examples of a complete network model and an equivalent skeleton network model are
shown in Figure 6.1.4.1 and Figure 6.1.4.2.
6-4
EPANET Program Methodology
Pipe Diameter
6" and smaller
8"
12"
16"
Figure 6.1.4.1 A complete water distribution network, showing all pipes contained
within the network
Pipe Diameter
6" and smaller
8"
12"
16"
Figure 6.1.4.2 An equivalent skeleton water distribution network, showing those pipes
that are considered significant to the flow and distribution of water for a steady state
simulation
A major advantage with working with a skeleton model is that they are much easier to
define since there is less data involved, and the simulation time is shorter since not as
many pipes are involved in computing a solution. Also, the displaying of results is
quicker and more readable since less pipes are involved. In addition, the number of
iterations required to converge to a solution is typically less as well.
6-5
MIKE NET
Skeletonization, however, can adversely affect model accuracy. For example,
skeletonization should not be used when performing water quality modeling since the
flow rates, paths, and velocities for all pipes are critical components to a water quality
simulation. For steady state water distribution simulations, though, skeletonization can
produce results that have sufficient accuracy if the water consumption has been
properly assigned to the defined nodes. For example, a skeleton model node might not
only represent the water demand within the immediate area, but also demand for a
smaller pipe that services an area much farther away. Also, if an existing calibrated
model has been converted into a skeleton model, it may be necessary to recalibrate the
new skeleton model since the nodal demands would be represented differently.
As was stated before, a skeleton model should not be used when performing water
quality modeling. However, in other situations, the modeler must decide when it is
appropriate to skeletonize a network model to produce results with sufficient accuracy
to meet the modeling requirements. Therefore, when and where to skeletonize a
network must be decided upon a case by case basis.
6.2
The Water Distribution Network
A water distribution system is a pipe network which delivers water from single or
multiple supply sources to consumers. Typical water supply sources include
reservoirs, storage tanks, and external water supply at junction nodes such as
groundwater wells. Consumers include both municipal and industrial users. The pipe
network consists of pipes, nodes, pumps, control valves, storage tanks, and reservoirs.
EPANET views the water distribution system as a network containing nodes and links,
where the nodes are connected by links. Figure 6.2.1 illustrates a node-link
representation of a simple water distribution network.
Figure 6.2.1 Node-link representation of a water distribution network
As shown in Figure 6.2.1, links can represent the following components in a network:
•
Pipes
•
Pumps
•
Valves
Nodes, besides representing the connection point between pipes, can represent the
following components in a network:
•
6-6
Points of water consumption (demand nodes)
EPANET Program Methodology
•
Points of water input (source nodes)
•
Locations of tanks or reservoirs (storage nodes)
How the EPANET program models the hydraulic behavior of each of these
components is described in the following sections. All flow rates in this discussion will
be assumed as cubic feet per second (cfs), although the program can also accept flow
rates in gallons per minute (gpm), million gallons per day (mgd), and liters per
second (L/s).
6.2.1 Pipes
Every pipe is connected to two nodes at its ends. In a pipe network system, pipes are
the channels used to convey water from one location to another. The physical
characteristics of a pipe include the length, inside diameter, roughness coefficient, and
minor loss coefficient. The pipe roughness coefficient is associated with the pipe
material and age. The minor loss coefficient is due to the fittings along the pipe.
When water is conveyed through the pipe, hydraulic energy is lost due to the friction
between the moving water and the stationary pipe surface. This friction loss is a major
energy loss in pipe flow and is a function of flowrate, pipe length, diameter, and
roughness coefficient.
The head lost to friction associated with flow through a pipe can be expressed in a
general fashion as:
h L = aq
b
(6.1)
where
hL
=
q
=
head loss, ft
flow, cfs
a
=
a resistance coefficient
b
=
a flow exponent
EPANET can use any one of three popular forms of the headloss formula shown in
Equation 6.1: the Hazen-Williams formula, the Darcy-Weisbach formula, or the
Chezy-Manning formula. MIKE NET allows the user to choose the formulation to use.
The Hazen-Williams formula is probably the most popular head loss equation for
water distribution systems, the Darcy-Weisbach formula is more applicable to laminar
flow and to fluids other than water, and the Chezy-Manning formula is more
commonly used for open channel flow. Table 6.2.1.1 lists resistance coefficients and
flow exponents for each formula. Note that each formula uses a different pipe
roughness coefficient, which must be determined empirically. Table 6.2.1.2 lists
general ranges of these coefficients for different types of new pipe materials. Be aware
that a pipe's roughness coefficient can change considerably with age.
While the Darcy-Weisbach relationship for closed-conduit flows is generally
recognized as a more accurate mathematical formulation over a wider range of flow
than the Hazen-Williams formulation, the field data on ε values (required for the
Darcy-Weisbach formulation) are not as readily available as are the C values for the
pipe wall roughness coefficient (used in the Hazen-Williams formulation).
6-7
MIKE NET
Table 6.2.1.1 Pipe head loss formulas
Formula
Resistance Coefficient (a)
Flow Exponent (b)
Hazen-Williams
4.72 C-1.85 d-4.87 L
1.85
Darcy-Weisbach
0.0252 f(ε ,d,q) d-5 L
2
Chezy-Manning
(full pipe flow)
4.66 n2 d-5.33 L
2
Notes:
C = Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient
ε = Darcy-Weisbach roughness coefficient, ft
f = friction factor (dependent on ε, d, and q)
d = pipe diameter, ft
L = pipe length, ft
Table 6.2.1.2 Roughness coefficients for new pipe
Hazen-Williams C
Darcy-Weisbach ε,
millifeet
Manning’s n
Cast Iron
130 - 140
0.85
0.012 - 0.015
Concrete or
Concrete Lined
120 - 140
1.0 - 10
0.012 - 0.017
Galvanized Iron
120
0.5
0.015 - 0.017
Plastic
140 - 150
0.005
0.011 - 0.015
Steel
140 - 150
0.15
0.015 - 0.017
110
----
0.013 - 0.015
Material
Vitrified Clay
Pipes can contain check valves in them that restrict flow to a specific direction. They
can also be made to open or close at pre-set times, when tank levels fall below or above
certain set-points, or when nodal pressures fall below or above certain set-points. The
normal initial condition for a pipe containing a check valve or a pump is to be in open
mode. The pipe will then switch to closed mode only when flow is reversed.
In addition to the energy loss caused by friction between the fluid and the pipe wall,
energy losses also are caused by obstructions in the pipeline, changes in flow direction,
and changes in flow area. These losses are called minor losses because their
contribution to the reduction in energy is usually much smaller than frictional losses.
Head loss, which is the sum of friction loss and minor losses, reduces the flowrate
through the pipe.
Modeling Parallel Pipes
MIKE NET can model parallel pipes. To define a set of parallel pipes, simply draw in
pipes with the same starting and ending nodes. However, to prevent the pipes from
being drawn exactly on top of one another, it is suggested that one of the pipes have at
least one vertex (or bend point) inserted in it so that the pipes are displayed slightly
separated (see Figure 6.2.1.1). For information on defining curved pipes, see the
section titled Pipe Editor in Chapter 4.
6-8
EPANET Program Methodology
Figure 6.2.1.1 Bend points are inserted to separate two parallel pipes to allow them to
be selectable
6.2.2 Pumps
A pump is a device that raises the hydraulic head of water. EPANET represents pumps
as links of negligible length with specified upstream and downstream junction nodes.
Pumps are described with a pump characteristic curve. The pump curve describes the
additional head imparted to a fluid as a function of its flow rate through the pump.
EPANET is capable of modeling several types of user defined pumps, constant energy
pumps, single-point pump curves, three-point pump curves, multiple point pump
curves, and variable speed pump.
Constant energy pumps operate at the same horsepower or kilowatt rating over all
combinations of head and flow. In this case the equation of the pump curve would be:
8.81Hp
h G = -----------------q
(6.2)
where
hG = head gain, ft
Hp = pump horsepower
q = flow, cfs
A single point pump curve is defined by a single head-flow combination that represents
a pump’s desired operating point. EPANET fills in the rest of the curve by assuming:
1. a shutoff head at zero flow equal to 133% of the design head.
2. a maximum flow at zero head equal to twice the design flow.
6-9
MIKE NET
A three-point pump curve is defined by three operating points:
1. Low Flow (flow and head at low or zero flow conditions)
2. Design Flow (flow and head at desired operating point)
3. Maximum Flow (flow and head at maximum flow)
A multi-point pump curve is defined by providing either a pair of head-flow points or
four or more such points. EPANET creates the complete curve by connecting the
points with straight line segments.
6-10
EPANET Program Methodology
For variable speed pumps, the pump curve shifts as the speed of the pump changes. The
relationships between flow (Q) and head (H) at speed N1 and N2 are:
Q1
N1
------- = ------Q2
N2
H1
N
------- = ------1H2
N2
2
EPANET will shut a pump down if the system demands a head higher than the first
point on a curve (i.e., the shutoff head.) A pump curve must be supplied for each pump
the system unless the pump is a constant energy pump.
Pumping Rate Limits
Flow through a pump is unidirectional (i.e., one flow direction only) and pumps must
operate within the head and flow limits imposed by their characteristic curves. If the
system conditions require that the pump produce more than its shutoff head, EPANET
will attempt to close off the pump and will issue a warning message.
Controlling Pumps
EPANET allows you to turn pumps on or off at pre-set times, when tank levels fall
below or rise above certain set-points, or when nodal pressures fall below or rise above
certain set-points. Variable speed pumps can also be considered by specifying using
the Control Editor (see the section titled Control Editor in Chapter 4 for further
information) that their speed setting be changed under these same types of conditions.
By definition, the original pump curve supplied to the program has a relative speed
setting of 1. If the pump speed doubles, then the relative setting would be 2; if run at
half speed, the relative setting is 0.5 and so on. Figure 6.2.2.1 illustrates how changing
a pump's speed setting affects its characteristic curve.
6-11
MIKE NET
Figure 6.2.2.1 Effect of relative speed (n) on a pump curve
6-12
EPANET Program Methodology
Modeling Pumps in Parallel and Series
As shown in Figure 6.2.2.2, MIKE NET can model parallel pumps and pumps in
series. To model parallel pumps, it is necessary to insert the pumps on the same from
and to nodes. To model pumps in series (where the outlet of the first pump directly
discharges into the inlet of the second pump), it is necessary to insert the pumps one
after the other on the same pipe.
Figure 6.2.2.2 MIKE NET can model both parallel pumps and pumps in series
If desired, the two or more pumps can be modeled as an equivalent composite single
pump that has a characteristic curve equal to the sum of the individual pump curves.
For pumps that are in parallel, the discharge values for the individual pump curves are
added together to end up with the equivalent single pump curve. If the pumps are
connected together in series, then the head values are for the individual pump curves
are added together to end up with the equivalent single pump curve.
For example, as shown in Figure 6.2.2.3, if two pumps are connected in parallel and
one pump operates at a flow rate of 50 gpm with a head of 75 ft and the other pump
operates at a 60 gpm with a head of 75 ft, then the resultant single equivalent pump
curve flow rate of 110 gpm would be available with a head of 75 ft.
6-13
MIKE NET
200
Head (ft)
150
Equiv
100
ilent P
ump
2
mp
Pu
p1
Pum
50
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
Discharge (gpm)
Figure 6.2.2.3 When modeling pumps in parallel, an equivalent single pump curve can
be determined by adding together the characteristic pump curve discharge values from
the other individual pump curves
Similarly, as shown in Figure 6.2.2.4, if two pumps are connected in series and one
pump provides a head of 75 ft at a flow rate of 50 gpm and the other pump provides a
head of 65 feet at a flow rate of 50 gpm, then the resultant single equivalent pump curve
head of 140 ft would be available at a flow rate of 50 gpm.
Equiv
200
ilent P
ump
Head (ft)
150
Pump 1
Pump 2
100
50
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
Discharge (gpm)
Figure 6.2.2.4 When modeling pumps in series, an equivalent single pump curve can
be determined by adding together the characteristic pump curve head values from the
other individual pump curves
When modeling pumps in series, it is preferable to use an equivalent composite pump
to represent the multiple pumps in series. This is because it is much easier to control a
single pump than multiple pumps simultaneously when the pumps turn on and off. In
6-14
EPANET Program Methodology
addition, multiple pumps in series can cause numerical disconnections in the pipe
network when EPANET checks to see if the upstream grade is greater than the
downstream grade plus the available pump head.
6.2.3 Valves
Aside from the valves in pipes that are either fully opened or closed (such as check
valves), EPANET can also represent valves that control either the pressure or flow at
specific points in a network. Such valves are considered as links of negligible length
with specified upstream and downstream junction nodes. The types of valves that can
be modeled are described below.
Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV)
Pressure reducing valves (PRV) limit the pressure on their downstream end to not
exceed a pre-set value when the upstream pressure is above the setting. If the upstream
pressure is below the setting, then flow through the valve is unrestricted. Should the
pressure on the downstream end exceed that on the upstream end, the valve closes to
prevent reversal of flow.
Pressure Sustaining Valves (PSV)
Pressure sustaining valves (PSV) try to maintain a minimum pressure on their
upstream end when the downstream pressure is below that value. If the downstream
pressure is above the setting, then flow through the valve is unrestricted. Should the
downstream pressure exceed the upstream pressure then the valve closes to prevent
reverse flow.
Pressure Breaker Valves (PBV)
Pressure breaker valves (PBV) force a specified pressure loss to occur across the valve.
Flow can be in either direction through the valve.
Flow Control Valves (FCV)
Flow control valves (FCV) limit the flow through a valve to a specified amount. The
program produces a warning message if this flow cannot be maintained without having
to add additional head at the valve.
Throttle Control Valves (TCV)
Throttle control valves (TCV) simulate a partially closed valve by adjusting the minor
head loss coefficient of the valve. A relationship between the degree to which the valve
is closed and the resulting head loss coefficient is usually available from the valve
manufacturer.
General Purpose Valves (GPV)
6-15
MIKE NET
A General Purpose Valve (GPV) provides the capability to model devices and
situations with unique headloss - flow relationships, such as reduced pressure
backflow prevention valves, turbines, and well drawdown behavior. The valve setting
is the ID of a Headloss Curve.
A Headloss Curve is used to described the headloss (Y in feet or meters) through a
General Purpose Valve (GPV) as a function of flow rate (X in flow units). It provides
the capability to model devices and situations with unique headloss - flow
relationships, such as reduced flow backflow prevention valves, turbines, and well
drawdown behavior.
6.2.4 Minor Losses
Minor head losses (also called local losses) can be associated with the added
turbulence that occurs at bends, junctions, meters, and valves. The importance of such
losses will depend on the layout of the pipe network and the degree of accuracy
required. EPANET allows each pipe and valve to have a minor loss coefficient
associated with it. It computes the resulting head loss from the following formula:
2
0.0252Kq
h L = -------------------------4
d
(6.3)
where
hL
=
head loss, ft
d
=
diameter in, ft
K
=
loss coefficients
q
=
flow rate, cfs
Table 6.2.4.1 gives values of K for several different kinds of pipe network
components.
6-16
EPANET Program Methodology
Table 6.2.4.1 Loss coefficients for common pipe network components
Component
Loss Coefficient
Globe valve, fully open
10.0
Angle valve, fully open
5.0
Swing check valve, fully open
2.5
Gate valve, fully open
0.2
Short-radius elbow
0.9
Medium-radius elbow
0.8
Long-radius elbow
0.6
45° elbow
0.4
Closed return bend
2.2
Standard tee - flow through run
0.6
Standard tee - flow through branch
1.8
Square entrance
0.5
Exit
1.0
6.2.5 Nodes
Nodes are the locations where pipes connect. Two types of nodes exist in a pipe
network system, (1) fixed nodes and (2) junction nodes. Fixed nodes are nodes whose
HGL are defined. For example, reservoirs and storage tanks are considered fixed
nodes, because their HGL are initially defined. Junction nodes are nodes whose HGL
are not yet determined and must be computed in the pipe network analysis.
Degree of freedom, elevation, and water demand are the three important input
parameters for a node (see Figure 6.2.1). A node's degree of freedom is the number of
pipes that connect to that node. In EPANET, a junction node may be connected to more
than one pipe, but a fixed node (i.e., storage tank or reservoir) must be connected to
exactly one pipe. Therefore, a fixed node's degree of freedom is always one, and a
junction node's degree of freedom may be greater than one. The elevation of a node
can sometimes be obtained from system maps or drawings. More often, it is
approximated using topographic maps. Water demand at a junction node is the
summation of all water drawn from or added to the system at that node.
All nodes should have their elevation specified above sea level (i.e., greater than zero)
so that the contribution to hydraulic head due to elevation can be computed. Any water
consumption or supply rates at nodes that are not storage nodes must be known for the
duration of time the network is being analyzed. Storage nodes (i.e., tanks and
reservoirs) are special types of nodes where a free water surface exists and the
hydraulic head is simply the elevation of water above sea level. Tanks are
distinguished from reservoirs by having their water surface level change as water flows
into or out of them—reservoirs remain at a constant water level no matter what the
flow is.
EPANET models the change in water level of a storage tank with the following
equation:
q
∆y = ---- ∆t
A
(6.4)
6-17
MIKE NET
where
∆y
=
change in water level, ft
q
=
flow rate into (+) or out of (-) tank, cfs
A
=
cross-sectional area of the tank, ft2
∆t
=
time interval, sec
For each storage tank, the program must know the cross-sectional area as well as the
minimum and maximum permissible water level. Reservoir-type storage nodes are
usually used to represent external water sources, such as lakes, rivers, or groundwater
wells. Storage nodes should not have an external water consumption or supply rate
associated with them.
Modeling Pumped Groundwater Wells
The water supply to the water distribution network is furnished by reservoirs and
storage tanks. Reservoirs are treated as inexhaustible sources of water, and as such
their water level never varies. However, as a storage tank empties, its water level
lowers and it has to be refilled by pumping from either a reservoir or a groundwater
well. In EPANET, a pumped groundwater well is modeled the same as a pumped
reservoir, as shown in Figure 6.2.5.1.
Storage Tank
Reservoir
12
11
Pump
12
11
112
111
Equivalent Pumped
Groundwater Well
113
22
21
21
13
23
22
121
122
31
31
32
Figure 6.2.5.1 A pumped groundwater well is modeled as a reservoir with an attached
pump in EPANET
In order to model a pumped groundwater well, an equivalent pumped reservoir must
be defined (as shown in Figure 6.2.5.1) since a pumped groundwater well cannot be
explicitly defined with EPANET. Note that a pump cannot be directly attached to
reservoir or storage tank, therefore junction nodes are automatically inserted by MIKE
NET when assigning a pump to the link attached to a reservoir or storage tank.
6-18
EPANET Program Methodology
As the storage tank empties and its water level falls to a certain amount, control rules
turn on the groundwater (reservoir) pump to start refilling of the storage tank. The
control rules used to regulate the starting and stopping of the groundwater pump are
defined within the Control Editor (see the section titled Control Editor in Chapter 4 for
further information).
Head
As pumping of the groundwater occurs, drawdown of the water table elevation at the
groundwater well can occur, as shown in Figure 6.2.5.2. At higher pumping rates, the
groundwater well may not be able to recharge fast enough to maintain the pumping rate
specified by the defined groundwater well pump curve. To account for this effect, the
groundwater well pump curve may need to be adjusted downward, as shown in
Figure 6.2.5.2, if this effect is a significant factor in modeling the refilling of the
storage tank.
Static
ped
Pum
Discharge
Figure 6.2.5.2 The groundwater well pump curve may need to be adjusted downward
to account for groundwater well drawdown and recharge effects
Modeling Hydraulically Adjacent Storage Tanks
When performing an extended period simulation, if two or more storage tanks are
hydraulically adjacent to each other it is possible that oscillations can occur between
the tanks as the water bounces back and forth between them. This fluctuation is caused
by small differences in flow rates as the tanks refill individually, causing the water
level in the tanks to differ over time thereby causing the oscillation between the tanks.
To prevent this effect from occurring, it is recommended that hydraulically adjacent
tanks be modeled as a single composite tank with an equivalent total surface area and
storage volume equal to the sum of the individual tanks.
6.3
Time Patterns
EPANET assumes that water usage rates, external water supply rates, and constituent
source concentrations at nodes remain constant over a fixed period of time, but that
these quantities can change from one time period to another. The default time period
interval is one hour, but this can be set to any desired value using the Time Editor (see
the section titled Time Editor in Chapter 4 for further information). The value of any
of these quantities in a time period equals a baseline value multiplied by a time pattern
6-19
MIKE NET
factor for that period. Figure 6.3.1illustrates a pattern of factors that might apply to
daily water demands, where each demand period is of two hours duration. Different
patterns can be assigned to individual nodes or groups of nodes.
2
1.6
Usage Factor
1.4
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
,,
,
,
0.5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Demand Period
Figure 6.3.1 Time pattern for water usage
The Pattern Editor is used to define the time patterns to be used in an extended period
simulation. See the section titled Pattern Editor in Chapter 4 for information on how
to define time patterns.
6.4
Hydraulic Simulation Model
The method used in EPANET to solve the flow continuity and headloss equations that
characterize the hydraulic state of the pipe network at a given point in time can be
termed a hybrid node-loop approach. Todini and Pilati (1987) and later Salgado et al.
(1988) chose to call it the "Gradient Method". Similar approaches have been described
by Hamam and Brameller (1971) (the "Hybrid Method) and by Osiadacz (1987) (the
"Newton Loop-Node Method"). The only difference between these methods is the way
in which link flows are updated after a new trial solution for nodal heads has been
found. Because Todini's approach is simpler, it was chosen for use in EPANET.
Assume we have a pipe network with N junction nodes and NF fixed grade nodes
(tanks and reservoirs). Let the flow-headloss relation in a pipe between nodes i and j
be given as:
H i – H j = h ij = r Q n ij + mQ 2 ij
(6.5)
where H = nodal head, h = headloss, i = resistance coefficient, Q = flow rate, n = flow
exponent, and m = minor loss coefficient. The value of the resistance coefficient will
depend on which friction headloss formula is being used (see below). For pumps, the
headloss (negative of the head gain) can be represented by a power law of the form
6-20
EPANET Program Methodology
n
hij = −ω 2 ( h0 − r (Qij / ω ) )
where h0 is the shutoff head for the pump, ω is a relative speed setting, and r and n are
the pump curve coefficients. The second set of equations that must be satisfied is flow
continuity around all nodes:
∑Qi j – Di
= 0
(6.6)
j
for i = 1,... N.
where Di is the flow demand at node i and by convention, flow into a node is positive.
For a set of known heads at the fixed grade nodes, we seek a solution for all heads Hi
and flows Qij that satisfy Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9).
The Gradient solution method begins with an initial estimate of flows in each pipe that
may not necessarily satisfy flow continuity. At each iteration of the method, new nodal
heads are found by solving the matrix equation.
AH = F
(6.7)
where A = an (NxN) Jacobian matrix, H = an (Nx1) vector of unknown nodal heads,
and F = an (Nx1) vector of right hand side terms.
The diagonal elements of the Jacobian matrix are:
Aii = ∑ pij
j
while the non-zero, off-diagonal terms are:
Aij = − pij
where pij is the inverse derivative of the headloss in the link between nodes i and j with
respect to flow. For pipes,
pij =
1
nr Qij
n −1
+ 2m Qij
while for pumps
1
Pij = -----------------------------------Q ij n – 1
n ω2 r  -------
ω
Each right hand side term consists of the net flow imbalance at a node plus a flow
correction factor:
6-21
MIKE NET


Fi =  ∑ Qij − Di  + ∑ y ij + ∑ pif H f
f
 j
 j
where the last term applies to any links connecting node i to a fixed grade node f and
the flow correction factor yij is: P
n
2
Y ij = p ( r Q ij + m Q ij ) sgn ( Q ij )
for pipes and
(
yij = − pijω 2 h0 − r (Qij / ω ) n
)
for pumps, where sgn(x) is 1 if x > 0 and -1 otherwise. (Qij is always positive for
pumps.)
After new heads are computed by solving Eq. (6.10), new flows are found from:
Q i j = Qij – ( y i j – pi j ( H i – H j ) )
(6.8)
If the sum of absolute flow changes relative to the total flow in all links is larger than
some tolerance (e.g., 0.001), then Eqs. (6.10) and (6.11) are solved once again. The
flow update formula (6.11) always results in flow continuity around each node after
the first iteration.
EPANET implements this method using the following steps:
1. The linear system of equations 6.10 is solved using a sparse matrix method based on
node re-ordering (George and Liu, 1981). After re-ordering the nodes to minimize
the amount of fill-in for matrix A, a symbolic factorization is carried out so that only
the non-zero elements of A need be stored and operated on in memory. For extended
period simulation this re-ordering and factorization is only carried out once at the
start of the analysis.
2. For the very first iteration at time 0, the flow in a pipe is chosen equal to the flow
corresponding to a velocity of 1 ft/sec. The flow through a conventional pump equals
the design flow specified for the pump curve. An initial flow of 1 cfs is assumed for
other types of pumps. (All computations are made with head in feet and flow in cfs).
3. The resistance coefficient for a pipe (r) is computed as described in Table 3.1. For
the Darcy-Weisbach headloss equation, the friction factor f is computed by different
equations depending on the flow's Reynolds Number (Re):
Hagen - Poiseuille formula for Re < 2,000 (Bhave, 1991):
64
f = ------Re
Swamee and Jain approximation to the Colebrook - White equation for Re > 4,000
(Bhave, 1991):
6-22
EPANET Program Methodology
f =
0.25
  ε
5.74 
 Ln 3.7 d + Re 0.9 

 
2
Cubic Interpolation From Moody Diagram for 2,000 < Re < 4,000 (Dunlop, 1991):
f = ( X1 + R ( X2 + R ( X3 + X4 ) ) )
Re
R = ------64
X 1 = 7FA – FB
X 2 = 0.128 – 17 FA + 2.5 FB
X 3 = – 0.128 + 13 FA – 2 FB
X 4 = R ( 0.032 – 3 FA + 0.5 FB )
F A = ( Y 3 ) –2
FB = FA  2 – ----------------------------
( Y2 ) ( Y3 )
0.00514215
5.74ε
Y 2 = ----------- + -----------3.7 d Re0.9
ε
-
Y 3 = –0.86859 Ln  ----------- + ----------------3.7 d 40000.9
where
5.74
ε = pipe roughness and d = pipe diameter.
4.The minor loss coefficient based on velocity head (K) is converted to one based on
flow (m) with the following relation:
0.02517 K
m = ----------------------4
d
5. Emitters at junctions are modeled as a fictitious pipe between the junction and a
fictitious reservoir. The pipe's headloss parameters are n = (1/γ ), r = (1/C)n, and m = 0
where C is the emitter's discharge coefficient and γ is its pressure exponent. The head
at the fictitious reservoir is the elevation of the junction. The computed flow through
the fictitious pipe becomes the flow associated with the emitter.
6. Open valves are assigned an r-value by assuming the open valve acts as a smooth
pipe (f = 0.02) whose length is twice the valve diameter. Closed links are assumed to
obey a linear headloss relation with a large resistance factor, i.e., h = 108Q, so that p =
10-8 and y = Q. For links where (r+m)Q < 10-7, p = 107 and y = Q/n.
7. Status checks on pumps, check valves (CVs), flow control valves, and pipes
connected to full/empty tanks are made after every other iteration, up until the 10th
iteration. After this, status checks are made only after convergence is achieved. Status
checks on pressure control valves (PRVs and PSVs) are made after each iteration.
8. During status checks, pumps are closed if the head gain is greater than the shutoff
head (to prevent reverse flow). Similarly, check valves are closed if the headloss
through them is negative (see below). When these conditions are not present, the link
is re-opened. A similar status check is made for links connected to empty/full tanks.
6-23
MIKE NET
Such links are closed if the difference in head across the link would cause an empty
tank to drain or a full tank to fill. They are re-opened at the next status check if such
conditions no longer hold.
9. Simply checking if h < 0 to determine if a check valve should be closed or open was
found to cause cycling between these two states in some networks due to limits on
numerical precision. The following procedure was devised to provide a more robust
test of the status of a check valve (CV):
if |h| > Htol
then
if h > -Htol then
if Q < -Qtol then
else
else
if Q < -Qtol then
else
status = CLOSED
status = CLOSED
status = OPEN
status = CLOSED
status = unchanged
where Htol = 0.0005 ft and Qtol = 0.0001 cfs.
10. If the status check closes an open pump, pipe, or CV, its flow is set to 10-6 cfs. If
a pump is re-opened, its flow is computed by applying the current head gain to its
characteristic curve. If a pipe or CV is re-opened, its flow is determined by solving Eq.
(6.8) for Q under the current headloss h, ignoring any minor losses.
11. Matrix coefficients for pressure breaker valves (PBVs) are set to the following:
p = 108 and y = 108Hset, where Hset is the pressure drop setting for the valve (in feet).
Throttle control valves (TCVs) are treated as pipes with r as described in item 6 above
and m taken as the converted value of the valve setting (see item 4 above).
12. Matrix coefficients for pressure reducing, pressure sustaining, and flow control
valves (PRVs, PSVs, and FCVs) are computed after all other links have been analyzed.
Status checks on PRVs and PSVs are made as described in item 7 above. These valves
can either be completely open, completely closed, or active at their pressure or flow
setting.
13. The logic used to test the status of a PRV is as follows:
If current status = ACTIVE then
if Q < -Qtol
if Hi < Hset + Hml - Htol
If curent status = OPEN then
if Q < -Qtol
if Hi > Hset + Hml + Htol
If current status = CLOSED then
if Hi > Hj + Htol
and Hi < Hset - Htol
if Hi > Hj + Htol
and Hj < Hset - Htol
6-24
then new status = CLOSED
then new status = OPEN
else new status = ACTIVE
then new status = CLOSED
then new status = ACTIVE
else new status = OPEN
then new status = OPEN
then new status = ACTIVE
EPANET Program Methodology
else new status = CLOSED
where Q is the current flow through the valve, Hi is its upstream head, Hj is its
downstream head, Hset is its pressure setting converted to head, Hml is the minor loss
when the valve is open (= mQ2), and Htol and Qtol are the same values used for check
valves in item 9 above. A similar set of tests is used for PSVs, except that when testing
against Hset, the i and j subscripts are switched as are the > and < operators.
14. Flow through an active PRV is maintained to force continuity at its downstream
node while flow through a PSV does the same at its upstream node. For an active PRV
from node i to j:
Pij = 0
Fj = Fj + 108Hset
Ajj = Ajj + 108
This forces the head at the downstream node to be at the valve setting Hset. An
equivalent assignment of coefficients is made for an active PSV except the subscript
for F and A is the upstream node i. Coefficients for open/closed PRVs and PSVs are
handled in the same way as for pipes.
15. For an active FCV from node i to j with flow setting Qset, Qset is added to the flow
leaving node i and entering node j, and is subtracted from Fi and added to Fj. If the
head at node i is less than that at node j, then the valve cannot deliver the flow and it
is treated as an open pipe.
16. After initial convergence is achieved (flow convergence plus no change in status
for PRVs and PSVs), another status check on pumps, CVs, FCVs, and links to tanks is
made. Also, the status of links controlled by pressure switches (e.g., a pump controlled
by the pressure at a junction node) is checked. If any status change occurs, the
iterations must continue for at least two more iterations (i.e., a convergence check is
skipped on the very next iteration). Otherwise, a final solution has been obtained.
17. For extended period simulation (EPS), the following procedure is
implemented:
a. After a solution is found for the current time period, the time step for
the next solution is the minimum of:
· the time until a new demand period begins,
· the shortest time for a tank to fill or drain,
· the shortest time until a tank level reaches a point that triggers a
change in status for some link (e.g., opens or closes a pump) as
stipulated in a simple control,
· the next time until a simple timer control on a link kicks in,
· the next time at which a rule-based control causes a status change
somewhere in the network.
6-25
MIKE NET
In computing the times based on tank levels, the latter are assumed to change in a
linear fashion based on the current flow solution. The activation time of rule-based
controls is computed as follows:
· Starting at the current time, rules are evaluated at a rule time step. Its default
value is 1/10 of the normal hydraulic time step (e.g., if hydraulics are
updated every hour, then rules are evaluated every 6 minutes).
· Over this rule time step, clock time is updated, as are the water levels in
storage tanks (based on the last set of pipe flows computed).
· If a rule's conditions are satisfied, then its actions are added to a list. If an
action conflicts with one for the same link already on the list then the action
from the rule with the higher priority stays on the list and the other is
removed. If the priorities are the same then the original action stays on the
list.
· After all rules are evaluated, if the list is not empty then the new actions are
taken. If this causes the status of one or more links to change then a new
hydraulic solution is computed and the process begins anew.
· If no status changes were called for, the action list is cleared and the next
rule time step is taken unless the normal hydraulic time step has elapsed.
b. Time is advanced by the computed time step, new demands are found, tank
levels are adjusted based on the current flow solution, and link control rules
are checked to determine which links change status.
c. A new set of iterations with Eqs. (6.10) and (6.11) are begun at the current set
of flows.
6.4.1 Water Age and Source Tracing
Water age is the time spent by a parcel of water in the network. It provides a simple,
non-specific measure of the overall quality of delivered drinking water. New water
entering the network from reservoirs or source nodes enters with age of zero. As this
water moves through the pipe network it splits apart and blends together with parcels
of varying age at pipe junctions and storage facilities. EPANET provides automatic
modeling of water age. Internally, it treats age as a reactive constituent whose growth
follows zero-order kinetics with a rate constant equal to 1 (i.e., each second the water
becomes a second older).
Source tracing tracks over time what percent of water reaching any node in the network
had its origin at a particular node. The source node can be any node in the network,
including storage nodes. Source tracing is a useful tool for analyzing distribution
systems drawing water from two or more different raw water supplies. It can show to
what degree water from a given source blends with that from other sources, and how
the spatial pattern of this blending changes over time. EPANET provides an automatic
facility for performing source tracing. The user need only specify which node is the
source node. Internally, EPANET treats this node as a constant source of a nonreacting constituent that enters the network with a concentration of 100.
6-26
EPANET Program Methodology
6.5
Water Quality Simulation Model
The governing equations for EPANET’s water quality module are based on the
principles of conservation of mass coupled with reaction kinetics. The following
phenomenon are represented (Rossman et al., 1993; Rossman and Boulos, 1996):
6.5.1 Advective Transport in Pipes
A dissolved substance will travel down the length of a pipe with the same average
velocity as the carrier fluid while at the same time reacting (either growing or
decaying) at some given rate. Longitudinal dispersion is usually not an important
transport mechanism under most operating conditions. This means there is no
intermixing of mass between adjacent parcels of water traveling down a pipe.
Advective transport within a pipe is represented with the following equation:
∂C i
∂t
= – ui
∂C i
∂x
+ r(Ci)
where Ci = concentration (mass/volume) in pipe i as a function of distance x and time
t, ui = flow velocity (length/time) in pipe i, and r = rate of reaction (mass/volume/time)
as a function of concentration.
6.5.2 Mixing at Pipe Junctions
At junctions receiving inflow from two or more pipes, the mixing of fluid is taken to
be complete and instantaneous. Thus the concentration of a substance in water leaving
the junction is simply the flow-weighted sum of the concentrations from the inflowing
pipes. For a specific node k one can write:
∑jε IkQ Cj x = L j + Qk, ex t Ck, ext
C i x = 0 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
∑jε IkQj + Qk, ex t
where i = link with flow leaving node k, Ik = set of links with flow into k, Lj = length
of link j, Qj = flow (volume/time) in link j, Qk,ext = external source flow entering the
network at node k, and Ck,ext = concentration of the external flow entering at node k.
The notation Ci|x=0 represents the concentration at the start of link i, while Ci|x=L is
the concentration at the end of the link
6.5.3 Mixing in Storage Facilities
It is convenient to assume that the contents of storage facilities (tanks and reservoirs)
are completely mixed. This is a reasonable assumption for many tanks operating under
fill-and-draw conditions providing that sufficient momentum flux is imparted to the
inflow (Rossman and Grayman, 1999). Under completely mixed conditions the
concentration throughout the tank is a blend of the current contents and that of any
entering water. At the same time, the internal concentration could be changing due to
reactions. The following equation expresses these phenomena:
∂
(V C ) =
∂t s s
∑iε IsQi Ci x = Li – ∑jε OsQj Cs + r ( Cs )
where Vs = volume in storage at time t, Cs = concentration within the storage facility,
Is = set of links providing flow into the facility, and Os = set of links withdrawing flow
from the facility.
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MIKE NET
6.5.4 Bulk Flow Reactions
While a substance moves down a pipe or resides in storage it can undergo reaction with
constituents in the water column. The rate of reaction can generally be described as a
power function of concentration:
r = kC n
where k = a reaction constant and n = the reaction order. When a limiting concentration
exists on the ultimate growth or loss of a substance then the rate expression becomes
R = K b (C L − C )C ( n −1)
for n > 0, Kb > 0
for n > 0, Kb < 0
R = K b (C − C L )C ( n −1)
where CL = the limiting concentration.
Some examples of different reaction rate expressions are:
Simple First-Order Decay (CL = 0, Kb < 0, n = 1)
R = K bC
The decay of many substances, such as chlorine, can be modeled adequately as a
simple first-order reaction.
First-Order Saturation Growth (CL > 0, Kb > 0, n = 1):
R = K b (C L − C )
This model can be applied to the growth of disinfection by-products, such as
trihalomethanes, where the ultimate formation of by-product (CL) is limited by the
amount of reactive precursor present.
Two-Component, Second Order Decay (CL ¹ 0, Kb < 0, n = 2):
R = K b C (C − C L )
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EPANET Program Methodology
This model assumes that substance A reacts with substance B in some unknown ratio
to produce a product P. The rate of disappearance of A is proportional to the product
of A and B remaining. CL can be either positive or negative, depending on whether
either component A or B is in excess, respectively. Clark (1998) has had success in
applying this model to chlorine decay data that did not conform to the simple firstorder model.
Michaelis-Menton Decay Kinetics (CL > 0, Kb < 0, n < 0):
K C
CL – C
b
R = ----------------
As a special case, when a negative reaction order n is specified, EPANET will utilize
the Michaelis-Menton rate equation, shown above for a decay reaction. (For growth
reactions the denominator becomes CL + C.) This rate equation is often used to
describe enzyme-catalyzed reactions and microbial growth. It produces first-order
behavior at low concentrations and zero-order behavior at higher concentrations. Note
that for decay reactions, CL must be set higher than the initial concentration present.
Koechling (1998) has applied Michaelis-Menton kinetics to model chlorine decay in a
number of different waters and found that both Kb and CL could be related to the
water's organic content and its ultraviolet absorbance as follows:
K b = – 0.32 UVA
1.365
( 100 UVA )
– ---------------------------
DOC
CL = 4.98UVA − 1.91DOC
where UVA = ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (1/cm) and DOC = dissolved organic
carbon concentration (mg/L).
Note: These expressions apply only for values of Kb and CL used with MichaelisMenton kinetics.
Zero-Order growth (CL = 0, Kb = 1, n = 0)
R = 1.0
This special case can be used to model water age, where with each unit of time the
"concentration" (i.e., age) increases by one unit.
The relationship between the bulk rate constant seen at one temperature (T1) to that at
another temperature (T2) is often expressed using a van't Hoff - Arrehnius equation of
the form:
K b 2 = K b1θ T 2 −T 1
where q is a constant. In one investigation for chlorine, q was estimated to be 1.1 when
T1 was 20 deg. C (Koechling, 1998).
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MIKE NET
6.5.5 Pipe Wall Reactions
While flowing through pipes, dissolved substances can be transported to the pipe wall
and react with material such as corrosion products or biofilm that are on or close to the
wall. The amount of wall area available for reaction and the rate of mass transfer
between the bulk fluid and the wall will also influence the overall rate of this reaction.
The surface area per unit volume, which for a pipe equals 2 divided by the radius,
determines the former factor. The latter factor can be represented by a mass transfer
coefficient whose value depends on the molecular diffusivity of the reactive species
and on the Reynolds number of the flow (Rossman et. al, 1994). For first-order
kinetics, the rate of a pipe wall reaction can be expressed as:
2k k C
R ( kw + kf )
w f
r = -------------------------
where kw = wall reaction rate constant (length/time), kf = mass transfer coefficient
(length/time), and R = pipe radius. For zero-order kinetics the reaction rate cannot be
any higher than the rate of mass transfer, so
r = MIN (k w , k f C )(2 / R )
where kw now has units of mass/area/time.
Mass transfer coefficients are usually expressed in terms of a dimensionless Sherwood
number (Sh):
k f = Sh
D
d
in which D = the molecular diffusivity of the species being transported (length2/time)
and d = pipe diameter. In fully developed laminar flow, the average Sherwood number
along the length of a pipe can be expressed as
Sh = 3.65 +
0.0668(d / L) Re Sc
2/3
1 + 0.04[(d / L) Re Sc ]
in which Re = Reynolds number and Sc = Schmidt number (kinematic viscosity of
water divided by the diffusivity of the chemical) (Edwards et.al, 1976). For turbulent
flow the empirical correlation of Notter and Sleicher (1971) can be used:
Sh = 0.0149 Re 0.88 Sc1/ 3
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EPANET Program Methodology
6.5.6 Lagrangian Transport Algorithm
EPANET's water quality simulator uses a Lagrangian time-based approach to track the
fate of discrete parcels of water as they move along pipes and mix together at junctions
between fixed-length time steps (Liou and Kroon, 1987). These water quality time
steps are typically much shorter than the hydraulic time step (e.g., minutes rather than
hours) to accommodate the short times of travel that can occur within pipes. As time
progresses, the size of the most upstream segment in a pipe increases as water enters
the pipe while an equal loss in size of the most downstream segment occurs as water
leaves the link. The size of the segments in between these remains unchanged.
The following steps occur at the end of each such time step:
1. The water quality in each segment is updated to reflect any reaction that may have
occurred over the time step.
2.The water from the leading segments of pipes with flow into each junction is blended
together to compute a new water quality value at the junction. The volume contributed
from each segment equals the product of its pipe's flow rate and the time step. If this
volume exceeds that of the segment then the segment is destroyed and the next one in
line behind it begins to contribute its volume.
3. Contributions from outside sources are added to the quality values at the junctions.
The quality in storage tanks is updated depending on the method used to model mixing
in the tank (see below).
4. New segments are created in pipes with flow out of each junction, reservoir, and
tank. The segment volume equals the product of the pipe flow and the time step. The
segment's water quality equals the new quality value computed for the node.
To cut down on the number of segments, Step 4 is only carried out if the new node
quality differs by a user-specified tolerance from that of the last segment in the outflow
pipe. If the difference in quality is below the tolerance then the size of the current last
segment in the outflow pipe is simply increased by the volume flowing into the pipe
over the time step.
This process is then repeated for the next water-quality time step. At the start of the
next hydraulic time step the order of segments in any links that experience a flow
reversal is switched. Initially each pipe in the network consists of a single segment
whose quality equals the initial quality assigned to the downstream node.
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MIKE NET
Figure 6.5.6.1 Behavior of Segments in the Lagrangian Solution Method
6.5.7 Tank Mixing Models
EPANET can use four different types of models to characterize mixing within storage
tanks: Complete Mixing, Two-Compartment Mixing, First In First Out (FIFO) Plug
Flow and Last In Fist Out (LIFO) Plug Flow. Different models can be used with
different tanks within a network.
Complete Mixing assumes that all water that enters the tank is instantaneously and
completely mixed with the water already in the tank.
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EPANET Program Methodology
Figure 6.5.7.1 Complete mixed tank mixing model schematic
It is the simplest mixing behavior to assume, requires no extra parameters to describe
it, and seems to apply well to a large number of facilities that operate in a fill and draw
fashion.
Two-Compartment Mixing divides the available storage volume into two
compartments.
Figure 6.5.7.2 Two compartment tank mixing model schematic
The inlet/outlet pipes of the tank are assumed to be in the first compartment. New
water that enters the tank is mixed with the first compartment. If this compartment is
full, then it sends the overflow water to the second compartment where it completely
mixes with the water stored there. When water leaves the tank, it exits from the first
compartment, which if full, receives an equal volume of water from the second
compartment to make up the difference. The first compartment is capable of simulating
short circuiting between inflow and outflow, while the second compartment represents
dead zones. The user must define a single parameter, which is the fraction of the
volume of the tank to be dedicated to the first compartment.
FIFO Plug Flow assumes that there is no mixing during the residence time of the water
in the tank.
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MIKE NET
Figure 6.5.7.3 FIFO tank mixing model schematic
Water parcels move through the tank in a segregated fashion, where the first parcel to
enter the tank is also the first to leave. Physically speaking, this model best represents
baffled tanks with constant inflow and outflow. There are no additional parameters to
describe in this model.
LIFO Plug Flow assumes that there is no mixing between parcels of water that enter
the tank.
Figure 6.5.7.4 LIFO tank mixing model schematic
However, in contrast to the FIFO Plug Flow model, the parcels stack up one on top of
another, where water enters and leaves from the bottom. In this fashion, the first parcel
to enter the tank is also the last to leave. Physically speaking this type of model might
apply to a tall narrow standpipe with an inflow/outflow pipe at the bottom and a low
momentum inflow. It requires no additional parameters be provided
6.6
Model Calibration
Once a water distribution model has been developed, it must be calibrated so that it
accurately represents the actual working real-life water distribution network under a
variety of conditions. This involves making minor adjustments to the input data so that
the model accurately simulates both the pressure and flow rates in the system. Note that
both the pressure and flow rates need to be matched together, since pressure and flow
6-34
EPANET Program Methodology
rates are dependent upon each other. Therefore, matching only pressures or flow rates
is not sufficient enough. Also, ideally the model should be calibrated over an extended
period of time, such as a time range for the maximum day—not just the maximum and
minimum hour for the maximum day.
This section discusses the concepts and steps involved in calibrating a water
distribution model.
6.6.1 Accuracy Concerns
The computed pressure and measured field (actual) pressure will not exactly match for
every node contained within the network system—there will be differences within the
system. However, the maximum amount of these differences needs to be considered
when performing a model calibration. Generally there are three types of measurements
used to determine the degree of accuracy reached when calibrating a model.
Pressure Differential Method
The simplest and easiest method in determining how accurate a simulated network
model is to the actual network is to look at the maximum pressure differential between
simulated and actual node pressures. For example, in a large system of several hundred
or thousands of nodes, the model is generally considered calibrated if the pressure
difference between the simulated and actual node pressures is within 5 to 10 psi of each
other. For smaller network systems, with maybe a 100 or less nodes, this pressure
differential would likely be considered too high.
Percent Pressure Differential Method
A more precise determination of accuracy is to look at the pressure differential as a
percentage. For example, at a base pressure of 100 psi a 4 psi pressure differential
between simulated and actual pressures represents a 4 percent differential, but at a base
pressure of 40 psi this represents a 10 percent differential. Therefore, looking at the
pressure differential as a percentage is a more precise measure of accuracy.
Head Loss Differential Method
The most precise determination of accuracy is to examine the difference in pipe head
loss between simulated and actual. Head loss is more sensitive to calibration errors
than pressure. As was discussed previously, it is better to look at the percent
differential in head loss rather than the actual head loss values.
Although the head loss method is better than the other methods in determining
accuracy, from a practical standpoint the pressure differential method and the percent
pressure differential method are far easier to use and understand. Therefore, since the
main point is to establish a common unit of measure to determine the degree of
accuracy reached when calibrating a model, any of these methods can be used.
During the calibration process there should be a point where the modeler has decided
that enough time has been spent on calibrating the model to the actual network and he
should move on to analyzing the pipe network system.
6-35
6.6.2 Reasons for Calibrating a Model
Calibration is an important process that should be performed. A calibrated model
establishes model credibility, sets a benchmark, can be used to predict potential
problems, establish understanding of the system operation, and uncover errors with the
system.
EPANET Program Methodology
Model Credibility
Through the process of calibrating a model, credibility of the model is established. The
data and modeling assumptions of an uncalibrated model are unlikely to match the
actual system. On the other hand, a calibrated model is known to simulate a network
system for a range of operating conditions. Its input data has been examined and
adjusted to insure that the model can be used as an accurate, predictive tool. Hence, use
of an uncalibrated model is not good engineering practice, since it will most likely lead
to inaccurate model results and poor engineering decisions based upon these results.
Benchmark
Once a network model has been calibrated to a known range of operating conditions,
it can be used as a benchmark. Pressure and flow rates computed by this model become
the benchmark from which pressure and flow rates computed by subsequent, modified
models can be compared. The differences between the two models can then be used to
analyze the changes brought about in the modified system.
Predict Potential Problems
A calibrated model can be used to predict any potential problems due to changes in the
system operation. A modified model, for example, might include additional valves or
pumps to increase the number of pressure zones in a system. These changes can then
be compared with the benchmark calibrated model to see what changes in pressure and
flow rates have occurred.
Understand System Operations
In the process of calibrating a model, by collecting and analyzing data used to define
the model and studying the existing network system, the engineer gains valuable
insight and knowledge of the network system. The engineer needs to simulate many of
the same system settings and operations that a network operator makes in order to
calibrate the model to the actual operation of the network system. In addition, by
analyzing the system operation, possible improvements to system operation may be
determined.
Uncover Errors
Calibration requires collecting data about the system. Many times during the process
of calibrating a model, questionable model results are investigated. Inconsistencies
between the modeled results and the actual field conditions are examined, with
additional field data being collected and analyzed. Incorrect pipe diameters may be
determined, or even incorrectly closed valves discovered.
6.6.3 Calibration Model Data Requirements
The data requirements for performing a model calibration is made up with the fact that
some data is fixed and unchanging (e.g., pipe diameter, length, etc.), some data is
variable with time (e.g., demand patterns, pump rates, discharge pressures, reservoir
elevations, etc.), and some data is assumed (e.g., pipe roughness values, consumption
rates, etc.). Some data, such as consumption, is measured but sometimes also assumed.
6-37
MIKE NET
Fixed data is easily obtained or measured. Variable data is more difficult to obtain and
measure, but generally can be gathered from SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data
Acquisition) system information or manual chart and graph systems. And, although it
would be ideal to gather this information in order to perform an extended period
simulation, it is extremely difficult to do for a large network system. This task is easily
performed on a small system. But, for a large system, it may only be possible to gather
this data for a single time period (i.e., maximum hour).
Simulation Type Considerations
Before collecting the data, it is important to decide whether a steady state or an
extended period calibration simulation is to be performed. A steady state simulation is
used to calibrate the maximum (peak) hour demand, whereas an extended period
simulation is needed to calibrate a maximum day demand or when performing water
quality modeling.
Complexity of the network system determines the degree of difficulty in calibrating the
model. The more pipes, pumps, tanks, reservoirs, valves, pressure zones, and demand
patterns there are, the more difficult the calibration process is and the less accurate the
calibrated model will be.
The availability of data is also a limiting factor. For example, calibrating to the
maximum hour requires data for only one time period. Calibration should also be
performed for the minimum hour of the maximum day. Therefore, data would be
required for two time periods. Extending the calibration process to an extended period
simulation for the maximum day increases the data requirements to 24 time periods.
What can be done to simplify the calibration process is to approach the calibration
process incrementally. To elaborate, first calibrate the model for the maximum hour.
This will provide a good understanding of the network system, and can usually be
accomplished with a reasonable degree of accuracy—even for large network systems.
Then, the minimum hour can be calibrated. Knowledge learned in calibrating the
maximum hour can be used to speed-up the calibration process for the minimum hour.
Once both of these simulations have been calibrated, calibration of the maximum day
extended period simulation can be performed if time permits and the data is readily
available.
Data Acquisition
Calibration data should be compiled and organized so that it can be used in an efficient
manner. In addition, a map of the network system is essential to properly calibrate the
system. All pipes, pumps, valves, tanks, and reservoirs should be identified, including
nodal elevations, pressure zone boundaries, and other important information.
SCADA data and graphs are useful since they contain data that will be referenced
when developing the calibrated model. Even though the maximum hour is typically of
primary interest, values for the entire day are also important since they provide an
overall understanding of the operation of the network system. This information, for
example, allows the user to compare the discharge pressure value at a particular
location on the system during the day with the maximum hour value.
6-38
EPANET Program Methodology
Operational Review
Operational rules must be determined for the network system for all major system
components. Discussions with system operators should be performed to determine the
operational rules and strategy behind how specific operations are performed. For
example, under what conditions do system operators turn on a pump, close a control
valve, or adjust a pressure-regulating valve? Is water pressure at particular key
locations in the network act as a flag to turn on a particular pump? Are pumping
schedules ever changed to try to minimize power costs? Are all facilities currently
available for use, or are some facilities off-line for maintenance repair?
An operational review is essential in order to accurately calibrate the model and to
make recommendations to improve system operation. In addition, by discussing and
reviewing this information with system operators, a good working relationship is
generally established between the modeler and the operators. And, the modeler and
operators can teach each other about the system. The modeler can then use this
information toward planning and improving the water distribution system so that the
operators can then more easily manage the system.
Recalibration Frequency
Whenever changes occur in the water distribution network, such as operational
changes, network configuration, or increases in water consumption, the degree of
accuracy for the calibrated model is reduced. If these changes are severe enough, the
model will need to be recalibrated. In practice this means that the model should be
recalibrated whenever major new facilities are added to the network system, a new
record for maximum hour is set, or operational procedures change significantly.
Therefore, recalibration may be necessary every few years.
Many experts feel that calibration should be performed on an annual basis, regardless
of what changes have occurred to the network system. Many times the primary reason
to recalibrate the system is so that knowledge learned about the network can be used
to improve the system operation. And, if the system changes are rather insignificant,
then the recalibration process can be quickly and easily performed. By updating the
model calibration annually, changes to the model are less extensive and are easier to
implement in order to get the model back in tune with the actual network system.
6.6.4 Calibration Simulations
Once all of the necessary data has been gathered, the network model can be
constructed. It is important that the network model accurately represents the physical
layout of the system. Pipes and nodes must be accurately located in the model. Pipe
roughness values should be estimated—based upon the age of the pipe.
Next, consumption values must be defined at the nodes. To save time initially, MIKE
NET provides a method of globally applying the total network demand to each of the
individual network nodes using the Distributed Demand dialog box. See the section
titled Distributed Demands in Chapter 4 for more information on computing
distributed demands. Also, operational data must be defined for all pumps, valves,
storage tanks, and reservoirs. Finally, a network simulation can be performed with
EPANET.
Initial Simulation
6-39
MIKE NET
An initial simulation is performed to simply determine what the resulting pressures and
flow rates are in the pipe network. This simulation may be simplified by using single
operational values rather than complete operational data. At this stage of the network
calibration, exact operational data is not required. For example, a reservoir elevation
could be entered as rounded to the nearest whole number elevation, rather than to a
tenth of a foot. Similarly, a single value pump definition could be used rather than a
pump curve for each of the pumps defined in the network. As long as the simplified
data is generally accurate, a balanced run can be produced so that the pipe network and
operational input data can be checked.
Comparing Model Output
After the initial analysis output has been checked and verified, the modeled results can
then be compared with actual measured field values. A table of actual flow rates and
pressures should be prepared at key locations in the system so that comparisons with
the computed analysis results can be quickly performed. Table 6.6.4.1 and
Table 6.6.4.2 illustrate a comparison of flow rates and pressures between actual field
measurements and computed values.
Table 6.6.4.1 Comparison of actual field flow rates and computed flow rates
Location
Actual
Pipe
ID
Actual
Flow Rate
(mgd)
Computed
Pipe
ID
Computed
Flow Rate
(mgd)
Actual
Difference
(mgd)
Percent
Difference
(%)
University Avenue @ Hilldale
Shopping Center
346
32
597
34
+6
+2
East Johnson at State Capitol
Building
1067
42
234
40
-2
-5
Middleton Heights Pump
Station
2734
11
112
12
+1
+8
Table 6.6.4.2 Comparison of actual field pressures and computed pressures
Location
Actual
Node
ID
Actual
Pressure
(psi)
Computed
Node
ID
Computed
Pressure
(psi)
Actual
Difference
(psi)
Percent
Difference
(%)
Pump station discharge
pressure at
6300 University Avenue
2934
55
132
60
+5
+8
Pressure regulating valve
downstream pressure at
6612 Mineral Point Road
1367
59
253
56
-3
-5
Control valve downstream
pressure at
State Capitol Building
4589
87
306
90
+3
+3
Note that the comparison process is best handled by comparing values on a broad scale,
and then working downward to a more detailed examination of values on a more
localized level. For example, examine the flow rates at the network supply points first.
The computed and actual flow rates from these supply points should be compared.
Next, flow rates and discharge pressures at pump stations should be examined.
Continue this narrowing of scope as the calibration process progresses.
6.6.5 Model Adjustments
Once the differences between the computed and actual measured values can be
determined, adjustments to the model data can be performed to make the computed
results match more closely to that of the actual data. When performing comparisons,
differences in flow rates and pressures should be examined.
6-40
EPANET Program Methodology
The computed flow rates and pressures may be lower or higher from the measured
values. Table 6.6.5.1 allows you to quickly determine the cause for these
differences—allowing you to adjust the model input to more closely match the
measured values.
Table 6.6.5.1 Causes for differences between computed and measured flow rates and
pressures
Network Parameter
Computed Flow Rate and
Pressure Too Low
Computed Flow Rate and
Pressure Too High
Total System Demand
High
Low
Pipe Roughness
Low
High
Pump Lifts
Low
High
Pressure Regulating Valve
Settings
Low
High
Reservoir Elevation Settings
Low
High
Flow Control Valves
Not opened enough
Opened too much
Individual Nodal Demand
High
Low
In adjusting the model input data, there are four areas where adjustments can be
considered. These input data adjustments are discussed in the following sections.
Operational Data Adjustments
Possible operational data adjustments to increase or decrease flow might include
raising or lowering of reservoir elevations, or increasing or decreasing pump lifts.
However, if the original operational data has been collected to a reasonable degree of
accuracy, then major adjustments may not be valid. However, minor adjustments can
be made to this data since there is always some degree of uncertainty.
Consumption Data Adjustments
Generally, a system-wide consumption value is known to reasonable accuracy due to
pumping records. However, the distribution of this consumption may not be known to
the same degree of accuracy. Therefore, a redistribution of nodal consumption may
need to be performed.
Network Data Adjustments
There always exists the chance of input errors when defining a network model. For
example, pipe diameters or lengths could be defined in error. Or, perhaps a pressure
regulating valve was missed in the initial model definition. Therefore, it is important
to check over the defined network input data to make certain errors were not made.
6-41
MIKE NET
Pipe Roughness Adjustments
Pipe roughness values are typically estimated based upon material type and age.
Sometimes pump tests are conducted to more accurately estimate pipe roughness, but
this is typically for a single pipe. Therefore there exists a great deal of uncertainty in
the assigned pipe roughness values. Therefore, pipe roughness values should be
adjusted after the previously identified adjustments have been performed.
Number of Simulation Iterations
After performing these input data adjustments, a new computational analysis must be
performed and the computed results compared again with the actual measured results.
Numerous iterations may be necessary until the desired degree of accuracy is achieved.
For a small network system with fairly reliable input data, a calibrated model might be
achieved within 10 or fewer iterations. For more complicated network systems, a
calibrated model may require more than 100 iterations.
6.7
References
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EPANET Program Methodology
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6-43
MIKE NET
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6-44
EPANET Program Methodology
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6-45
MIKE NET
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6-47
MIKE NET
6-48
Index
INDEX
A
Accuracy Concerns 6-35
Advective Transport in Pipes 6-27
Aerial View 3-7
Alternate Licensing Methods 2-6
Analysis Methods 6-2
Analysis Results 3-59, 3-61, 5-15, 5-28,
5-35, 5-41, 5-54, 5-60, 5-67, 5-74, 5-80, 5-94
Analysis Results Table 3-63, 3-64, 3-90,
5-55
Animation 3-78, 3-79
Animation Files 5-96
Applications 6-3
AQUIS 1-4
ARC/INFO 1-1
ArcView 1-1, 1-3
ArcView GIS 5-118
AutoCAD 1-4
Available Operational Controls
AVI 1-2
Connecting with Borland InterBase
Network Server 3-103
Connecting with External
Applications 3-99
Contour Plots 3-80, 3-81, 5-96
Control Editor 4-43
Controlling Pumps 6-11
Converting 5-8
Coordinate Adjustment 4-78
Copy to Other Programs 3-79
Curve Editor 4-35
Cybernet 1-4, 3-31, 5-107, 5-112
D
4-45
B
Background Image 5-133
Backup Files 3-49
BC 3-44
Benchmark 6-37
BMP 1-2
Browser 1-2, 3-8, 3-62, 3-89
Bulk Flow Reactions 6-28
C
Calibration Model 6-37
Calibration Simulations 6-39
Chapter 3-1, 5-1
Characteristics 6-1
Check Boxes 3-11
Checking Network Connectivity 4-61
Chlorine Decay Results 5-85
Circular 4-32
Color Legend 3-69, 3-82
Command Buttons 3-11
Comparing Model Output 6-40
Comparison Results 5-29
Component Browser 5-16, 5-56
Connecting to External Database
Sources 3-94
Connecting Using Microsoft Query 3-100
Data
Export 2-2
Data Acquisition 6-38
Data Tables 3-11
Defining a Color Legend 5-98
Defining Pressure Zone 5-88
Defining the Model 3-19
Defining the Project 5-2
Demand Pattern 5-46
Demand Processing 3-50
Desktop 3-5
Developing Pipe Demand
Coefficients 3-52
Displaying Output Results 4-5
Distributed Demands 4-39
Distributing Demands 5-88, 5-91
Draw Menu 3-17
DXF 1-2, 3-37, 5-133
E
Edit Menu 3-13
Editing 3-55
Emitter Editor 4-37
Emitters 3-22
Energy Editor 4-36
Engineering Tables 4-81
Entering Data 3-23
EPANET 1-4, 3-35, 3-44, 6-1
EPANET Analysis Result 5-15
Errors 3-57
ESRI 3-38, 3-102
ESRI GIS Shape File Structure 3-118
ESRI Shape file Polygons 3-43
MIKE NET
Executing the Analysis 3-58
Exporting ESRI 3-98
Exporting MapInfo 3-98
Extended Menu 3-15
Extended Period Analysis 5-43, 5-53
Extended Period Data 3-23
Extended Period Hydraulics 6-3
Extended Period Simulations 4-42
External Database Support 4-84
Horizontal Plan Graphical Plots
F
Import 3-42
Import Results 5-130
Importing a Background Image 5-92
Importing and Exporting Data 3-29
Importing and Exporting GIS Data 3-97
Importing Data 3-28
Importing ESRI 3-98
Importing Graphical Data 3-25
Importing MapInfo 3-98
Importing Other Input 3-28
Initial Simulation 6-39
Initial Water Quality Editor 4-54
Installation Procedure 1-5, 2-3
Installing 2-4
InterBase 3-90, 3-93
Interbase 3-91
Internal Reports 3-65
Interval Menu 3-82
FIFO 4-33, 4-34, 6-32
File Menu 3-12, 3-82
Filename Extensions 3-49
Fire Flow Analysis 5-64
Fire Flow Data 3-23
Fire Flow Pressure 5-65
Floating Toolbars 3-9
Flow Control Valve 4-24, 5-37
flow control valve 3-23
Flow Control Valves 6-15
Forward and Backward Tracking 4-61,
5-73
G
General Purpose Valve 3-23, 4-24, 6-15
General SQL 4-82
Generate Node Elevations 4-86
Generating a Report 4-5
Generating Animation Files 5-101
Generating Contour Plots 5-97
Generating Output Reports 5-104
Genetic Algorithms Calibration 4-68
GIS 1-1, 5-122
Global Bulk Reaction Rate
Coefficient 4-58
Global Editing 3-55
Global Pipe Wall Reaction Rate
Coefficient 4-58
Graphical Input 3-24
Group Labels 3-11
Guage Bars 5-103
H
H2ONET 1-4, 3-33
Head Loss Differential Method 6-35
Help 3-2
Help Menu 3-17
History 6-2
Horizontal Plan 3-62, 3-70, 5-17
3-68,
5-58
Horizontal Plan Options 5-5
Horizontal Plan Window 3-6
HTML format 1-2
Hydraulic Simulation Model 6-20
Hydraulically Adjacent Storage
Tanks 6-19
I
J
Junction 3-22
Junction Node Data 5-3
Junction Node Pressure Based
Controls 4-46
K
KYPIPE
1-4, 3-30, 5-107
L
Lagrangian Transport Algorithm
Layer Control 3-84
Layer Control Commands 3-86
Licensing 1-4, 2-2
LICWATER 1-4, 3-33
LIFO 4-33, 4-34, 6-32
Linking to Separate Database
Tables 3-103
Local Coefficient 4-59
Locking the Project 4-79
Log File 3-29, 3-44, 3-57
6-31
Index
Loss Coefficients
LYNX 1-4, 3-34
P
4-24
M
Map Files 3-36
MapInfo 1-1, 1-3, 3-103
Menu Bar 3-5
Method of pipe length 3-50
Method of two coefficients 3-50
Methodology 6-1
Microsoft Access 1-2, 3-101
Microsoft Access Reports 3-65
Microsoft Excel 3-101
Microstation 1-4
MIKE NET 1-3, 3-1
MIKE NET Database Structure 3-110
MIKE NET Input 3-46
Minor Loss Coefficient 4-24
Minor Losses 6-16
Miscellaneous 4-76
Mixing at Pipe Junctions 6-27
Mixing in Storage Facilities 6-27
Model Adjustments 6-40
Model Calibration 6-34
Model Credibility 6-37
Modeling Parallel Pipes 6-8
Modules 4-62
Multiple Controls 4-45
Multiple Demand Editor 4-38
Multiple Horizontal Plan 3-6
N
Network Calibration 4-62
Network Component Editor 4-1
Network Data 3-21
Network Definition Methods 5-7
Network Demand 4-39
Network Server Technical
Information 2-8
Network Tracking 4-61
Node Demand Coefficients 3-51
Nodes 6-17
Number of Simulation Iterations 6-42
O
ODBC 1-3, 2-4, 2-5, 3-37
Operational Review 6-39
Optional Graphical Layers
3-85
Pattern Editor 4-48
Percent Pressure Differential
Method 6-35
Percentage of Source Node Water
Results 5-71
Performing 3-56, 3-57
Performing the Analysis 5-14
Pipe 3-22
Pipe Demand Coefficients 3-50
Pipe Editor 4-10
Pipe Network System 5-135
Pipe Q-H Curve 3-78
Pipe Roughness Adjustments 6-42
Pipe Wall Reactions 6-30
Pipes 6-7
Plan Menu 3-16
Point Constituent Source Editor 4-55
Pop-Up Menu 3-17
Predict Potential Problems 6-37
Prepared Input and Output Files 5-14,
5-34, 5-41, 5-54, 5-66, 5-70, 5-84, 5-94, 5-106,
5-116, 5-131, 5-135, 5-141
Prepared input and Output Files 5-27
Pressure Breaker Valve 3-23, 4-24, 6-15
Pressure Differential Method 6-35
Pressure Reducing Valve 3-23, 4-23, 5-21,
6-15
Pressure Sustaining Valve 3-23, 4-24,
5-31, 6-15
Pressure Zone 4-32, 5-88
Pressure Zone Editor 4-37, 4-41
Printing 3-61, 3-64, 3-86
Profil Graphical Plot 3-70
Profile Graphical Plots 5-19
Program
Output 2-2
Updates 1-4
Program Configuration 3-120
Program Menus 3-12
Programming Support 3-119
Project 5-2
Project Data 3-21
Project Information 4-79
Proposed to Existing 4-79
Prototypes 4-80
Pump 3-22
Pump Data 5-10
Pump Editor 4-16
MIKE NET
Pump Efficiency 5-137
Pump Power 5-137, 5-140
Pumped Groundwater Wells 6-18
Pumps 6-9
Pumps in Parallel and Series 6-13
Q
Quality Menu 3-15
Query Examples 3-107
R
Radio Buttons 3-11
Reaction Rate Editor 4-57
Reasons for Calibrating a Model
Recalibration Frequency 6-39
Recompute Pipe Lengths 4-78
Rectangular 4-32
References 6-42
Report Generator 1-2, 3-64
Report Templates 1-2
Reports 5-96
Reservoir Data 5-7
Reservoir Editor 4-28
Roughness Coefficient 3-21
Rule Based Controls 4-46
6-36
S
Saving 3-47
Scroll Bars 3-10
Series Menu 3-18
Simulation Type Considerations 6-38
Skeletonization 6-4
Source Tracing 4-60, 6-26
Source Tracing Analysis 5-69
SQL 1-3, 3-106, 3-109, 5-26
SQL Assistant 5-40, 5-48
Standard Graphical Layers 3-85
Static Analysis 5-21, 5-31, 5-37
Steady State Hydraulics 6-3
Storage Tank Water Level Based
Controls 4-46
Support
Technical Support 1-4
Synchronize Network References 4-77
System Requirements 1-5, 2-2
Scenario Manager 3-120
T
Tank 3-22
Tank Editor
4-30
Tank Mixing 4-33
Tank Mixing Models 6-32
Technical Support 1-5, 2-1
Throttle Control Valve 3-23, 4-24, 6-15
TIFF 1-2
Time Based Controls 4-46
Time Editor 4-50
Time Patterns 6-19
Time Series Plot 3-77, 5-57
Time Series Plots 3-74, 3-89
Time Units 4-51
Title Bar 3-5, 3-10
Toolbar 3-6, 3-19
Toolbars 3-18
Tools Menu 3-16
Tracking Menu 3-15
Troubleshooting 2-7, 2-8
U
Uncover Errors 6-37
Understand System Operations 6-37
Unit 4-76
Updates 1-4
Updating 5-122
Upgrades 1-6
User Defined Data Structure 4-70
User Defined Objects 4-69
V
Valve 3-23
Valve Editor 4-22
Valves 6-15
Variable 4-32
View Menu 3-14
W
Water 1-4
Water Age 6-26
Water Age Analysis 5-75
Water Age Results 5-77
Water Distribution Network 6-6
Water Quality - Water Age Analysis 5-75
Water Quality Analysis 4-52, 4-53, 6-3
Water Quality Data 3-23
Water Quality Simulation 4-52, 6-27
Water Quality–Constituent Chlorine
Analysis 5-81
Water Quality–Source Tracing
Analysis 5-68
WaterCAD 1-4, 3-32, 5-107, 5-112
Index
WATNET 1-4, 3-34
Web Page HTML Reports 3-67
Window Menu 3-17
Windows Terminology 3-4
MIKE NET
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