GS716T_GS724T Software Administration Manual

GS108T Smart Switch
Software Administration
Manual
NETGEAR, Inc.
350 E. Plumeria Drive
San Jose CA 95134 USA
202-10603-01
March 2010
© 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 by NETGEAR, Inc. All rights reserved. FullManual.
Technical Support
Please refer to the support information card that shipped with your product. By registering your product at
http://www.netgear.com/register, we can provide you with faster expert technical support and timely notices of
product and software upgrades.
NETGEAR, INC. Support Information
Phone: 1-888-NETGEAR, for US & Canada only. For other countries, see your Support information card.
E-mail: support@netgear.com
North American NETGEAR Website: http://www.netgear.com
Trademarks
NETGEAR, the NETGEAR logo, and Auto Uplink are trademarks or registered trademarks of NETGEAR, Inc.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.Other brand and product
names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective holders.
March 2010
Statement of Conditions
In the interest of improving internal design, operational function, and/or reliability, NETGEAR reserves the right to
make changes to the products described in this document without notice.
NETGEAR does not assume any liability that may occur due to the use or application of the product(s) or circuit
layout(s) described herein.
Certificate of the Manufacturer/Importer
It is hereby certified that the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch has been suppressed in accordance with the conditions set
out in the BMPT-AmtsblVfg 243/1991 and Vfg 46/1992. The operation of some equipment (for example, test
transmitters) in accordance with the regulations may, however, be subject to certain restrictions. Please refer to the notes
in the operating instructions.
The Federal Office for Telecommunications Approvals has been notified of the placing of this equipment on the market
and has been granted the right to test the series for compliance with the regulations.
Bestätigung des Herstellers/Importeurs
Es wird hiermit bestätigt, daß das GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch gemäß der im BMPT-AmtsblVfg 243/1991 und Vfg
46/1992 aufgeführten Bestimmungen entstört ist. Das vorschriftsmäßige Betreiben einiger Geräte (z.B. Testsender) kann
jedoch gewissen Beschränkungen unterliegen. Lesen Sie dazu bitte die Anmerkungen in der Betriebsanleitung.
Das Bundesamt für Zulassungen in der Telekommunikation wurde davon unterrichtet, daß dieses Gerät auf den Markt
gebracht wurde und es ist berechtigt, die Serie auf die Erfüllung der Vorschriften hin zu überprüfen.
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Voluntary Control Council for Interference (VCCI) Statement
This equipment is in the Class B category (information equipment to be used in a residential area or an adjacent area
thereto) and conforms to the standards set by the Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Data Processing
Equipment and Electronic Office Machines aimed at preventing radio interference in such residential areas. When used
near a radio or TV receiver, it may become the cause of radio interference. Read instructions for correct handling.
Product and Publication Details
Model Number:
GS108T
Publication Date:
March 2010
Product Family:
Smart Switch
Product Name:
GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch
Home or Business Product:
Business
Language:
English
Publication Part Number:
202-10603-01
Publication Version Number:
1.0
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Contents
GS108T Smart Switch Software Administration Manual
About This Manual
Audience ........................................................................................................................... xi
Organization ..................................................................................................................... xi
Conventions, Formats and Scope ....................................................................................xii
How to Print this Manual ..................................................................................................xiii
Revision History ...............................................................................................................xiv
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Switch Management Interface ........................................................................................1-1
Connecting the Switch to the Network ............................................................................1-2
Switch Discovery in a Network with a DHCP Server ......................................................1-3
Switch Discovery in a Network without a DHCP Server .................................................1-5
Configuring the Network Settings on the Administrative System ...................................1-7
Web Access ....................................................................................................................1-8
Smart Control Center Utilities .........................................................................................1-9
Network Utilities .......................................................................................................1-9
Configuration Upload and Download .....................................................................1-10
Firmware Upgrade .................................................................................................1-12
Viewing and Managing Tasks .................................................................................1-14
Understanding the User Interfaces ...............................................................................1-15
Using the Web Interface .........................................................................................1-15
Using SNMP ...........................................................................................................1-20
Interface Naming Convention .......................................................................................1-20
Chapter 2
Configuring System Information
Management ...................................................................................................................2-1
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System Information ..................................................................................................2-1
IP Configuration .......................................................................................................2-3
Time .........................................................................................................................2-5
Denial of Service ....................................................................................................2-12
DNS ........................................................................................................................2-15
Green Ethernet Configuration ................................................................................2-17
SNMP ...........................................................................................................................2-18
SNMPV1/V2 ...........................................................................................................2-19
Trap Flags ..............................................................................................................2-22
SNMP v3 User Configuration .................................................................................2-23
LLDP .............................................................................................................................2-24
LLDP Configuration ................................................................................................2-25
LLDP Port Settings .................................................................................................2-26
LLDP-MED Network Policy ....................................................................................2-28
LLDP-MED Port Settings .......................................................................................2-30
Local Information ....................................................................................................2-31
Neighbors Information ............................................................................................2-34
Services — DHCP Filtering ..........................................................................................2-38
DHCP Filtering Configuration .................................................................................2-39
Interface Configuration ...........................................................................................2-40
Chapter 3
Configuring Switching Information
Ports ...............................................................................................................................3-1
Port Configuration ....................................................................................................3-1
Flow Control .............................................................................................................3-4
Link Aggregation Groups ................................................................................................3-5
LAG Configuration ....................................................................................................3-5
LAG Membership .....................................................................................................3-7
LACP Configuration .................................................................................................3-8
LACP Port Configuration ..........................................................................................3-9
VLANs ..........................................................................................................................3-10
VLAN Configuration ............................................................................................... 3-11
VLAN Membership Configuration ...........................................................................3-12
Port VLAN ID Configuration ...................................................................................3-14
Voice VLAN ..................................................................................................................3-16
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Voice VLAN Properties ...........................................................................................3-16
Voice VLAN Port Setting ........................................................................................3-18
Voice VLAN OUI .....................................................................................................3-19
Auto-VoIP .....................................................................................................................3-20
Spanning Tree Protocol ................................................................................................3-21
STP Switch Configuration ......................................................................................3-22
CST Configuration ..................................................................................................3-25
CST Port Configuration ..........................................................................................3-26
CST Port Status .....................................................................................................3-28
Rapid STP ..............................................................................................................3-30
MST Configuration .................................................................................................3-31
MST Port Configuration ..........................................................................................3-33
STP Statistics .........................................................................................................3-37
Multicast .......................................................................................................................3-38
Auto-Video Configuration .......................................................................................3-38
IGMP Snooping ......................................................................................................3-39
IGMP Snooping Querier .........................................................................................3-50
Forwarding Database ...................................................................................................3-54
MAC Address Table ...............................................................................................3-55
Dynamic Address Configuration .............................................................................3-56
Static MAC Address ...............................................................................................3-58
Chapter 4
Configuring Quality of Service
Class of Service ..............................................................................................................4-1
Basic CoS Configuration ..........................................................................................4-2
CoS Interface Configuration .....................................................................................4-4
Interface Queue Configuration .................................................................................4-5
802.1p to Queue Mapping ........................................................................................4-7
DSCP to Queue Mapping .........................................................................................4-8
Differentiated Services .................................................................................................4-10
Defining DiffServ ....................................................................................................4-10
Diffserv Configuration ............................................................................................. 4-11
Class Configuration ................................................................................................4-12
Policy Configuration ...............................................................................................4-17
Service Configuration .............................................................................................4-23
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Service Statistics ....................................................................................................4-24
Chapter 5
Managing Device Security
Management Security Settings .......................................................................................5-1
Change Password ....................................................................................................5-2
RADIUS Configuration .............................................................................................5-3
Configuring TACACS+ ...........................................................................................5-10
Authentication List Configuration ...........................................................................5-13
Configuring Management Access .................................................................................5-14
HTTP Configuration ...............................................................................................5-15
Secure HTTP Configuration ...................................................................................5-16
Certificate Download ..............................................................................................5-18
Access Profile Configuration ..................................................................................5-19
Access Rule Configuration .....................................................................................5-21
Port Authentication .......................................................................................................5-23
802.1X Configuration .............................................................................................5-24
Port Authentication .................................................................................................5-25
Port Summary ........................................................................................................5-30
Traffic Control ...............................................................................................................5-31
MAC Filter Configuration ........................................................................................5-32
MAC Filter Summary ..............................................................................................5-34
Storm Control .........................................................................................................5-35
Port Security Configuration ....................................................................................5-36
Port Security Interface Configuration .....................................................................5-38
Security MAC Address ...........................................................................................5-39
Protected Ports Membership ..................................................................................5-41
Configuring Access Control Lists ..................................................................................5-42
ACL Wizard ............................................................................................................5-43
MAC ACL ...............................................................................................................5-44
MAC Rules .............................................................................................................5-46
MAC Binding Configuration ....................................................................................5-48
MAC Binding Table .................................................................................................5-49
IP ACL ....................................................................................................................5-50
IP Rules ..................................................................................................................5-52
IP Extended Rule ...................................................................................................5-54
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IP Binding Configuration ........................................................................................5-58
IP Binding Table .....................................................................................................5-59
Chapter 6
Monitoring the System
Ports ...............................................................................................................................6-1
Switch Statistics .......................................................................................................6-1
Port Statistics ...........................................................................................................6-4
Port Detailed Statistics .............................................................................................6-5
EAP Statistics .........................................................................................................6-13
System Logs .................................................................................................................6-14
Memory Logs .........................................................................................................6-15
FLASH Log Configuration ......................................................................................6-17
Server Log Configuration .......................................................................................6-19
Trap Logs ...............................................................................................................6-21
Event Logs .............................................................................................................6-22
Port Mirroring ................................................................................................................6-24
Multiple Port Mirroring ............................................................................................6-24
Chapter 7
Maintenance
Reset ..............................................................................................................................7-1
Device Reboot ..........................................................................................................7-1
Factory Default .........................................................................................................7-2
Upload File From Switch ................................................................................................7-3
Download File To Switch ................................................................................................7-5
TFTP File Download ................................................................................................7-5
HTTP File Download ................................................................................................7-8
File Management ............................................................................................................7-9
Dual Image Configuration ......................................................................................7-10
Dual Image Status .................................................................................................. 7-11
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................................7-12
Ping ........................................................................................................................7-12
Traceroute ..............................................................................................................7-14
Chapter 8
Help
Online Help .....................................................................................................................8-1
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Support .....................................................................................................................8-1
User Guide ...............................................................................................................8-2
Appendix A
Hardware Specifications and Default Values
GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch Specifications ................................................................ A-1
GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch Features and Defaults .................................................. A-2
Appendix B
Configuration Examples
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) ............................................................................ B-1
VLAN Example Configuration ................................................................................. B-2
Access Control Lists (ACLs) .......................................................................................... B-4
MAC ACL Example Configuration ........................................................................... B-4
Standard IP ACL Example Configuration ................................................................ B-6
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) .................................................................................. B-7
Class ....................................................................................................................... B-8
DiffServ Traffic Classes ........................................................................................... B-8
Creating Policies ..................................................................................................... B-9
DiffServ Example Configuration ............................................................................ B-10
802.1X ......................................................................................................................... B-12
802.1X Example Configuration ............................................................................. B-14
MSTP ........................................................................................................................... B-15
MSTP Example Configuration ............................................................................... B-17
Index
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About This Manual
The NETGEAR® GS108T Software Administration Manual describes how to configure and
operate the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch by using the Web-based graphical user interface (GUI).
This manual describes the software configuration procedures and explains the options available
within those procedures.
Audience
The information in this manual is intended for readers with intermediate to advanced system
management skills.
This document was created primarily for the system administrator who wishes to install and
configure the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch in a network. It assumes that the reader has a general
understanding of switch platforms and a basic knowledge of Ethernet and networking concepts. To
install this switch, it is not necessary to understand and use all of its capabilities. Once basic
configuration is performed, it will function in a network using its remaining factory default
settings. However, a greater level of configuration—anywhere from the basic up to the maximum
possible—will allow your network the full benefit of the switch’s features. The Web interface
simplifies this configuration at all levels.
Organization
The GS108T Smart Switch Software Administration Manual contains the following chapters:
•
Chapter 1, “Getting Started”on page 1-1 contains information about performing the initial
system configuration and accessing the user interface.
•
Chapter 2, “Configuring System Information” on page 2-1 describes how to configure
administrative features such as SNMP, DHCP, and port information.
•
Chapter 3, “Configuring Switching Information” on page 3-1 describes how to manage and
monitor the layer 2 switching features.
•
Chapter 4, “Configuring Quality of Service” on page 4-1 describes how to manage the
GS108T Smart Switch software ACLs, and how to configure the Differentiated Services and
Class of Service features.
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•
Chapter 5, “Managing Device Security” on page 5-1 contains information about configuring
switch security information such as port access control, TACACS+, and RADIUS server
settings.
•
Chapter 6, “Monitoring the System” on page 6-1 describes how to view a variety of
information about the switch and its ports, and to configure how the switch monitors events.
•
Chapter 7, “Maintenance” on page 7-1 describes features to help you manage the switch.
•
Chapter 8, “Help”on page 8-1 describes how to access Online Help resources for the switch.
•
Appendix A, “Hardware Specifications and Default Values” on page A-1 contains hardware
specifications and default values on the GS108T Smart Switch.
•
Appendix B, “Configuration Examples” on page B-1 contains examples of how to configure
various features on the GS108T Smart Switch, such as VLANs and Access Control Lists
(ACLs) .
Note: Refer to the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch release notes for information about
issues and workarounds.
Conventions, Formats and Scope
The conventions, formats, and scope of this manual are described in the following paragraphs:
•
•
Typographical Conventions. This manual uses the following typographical conventions:
Italic
Emphasis, books, CDs, file and server names, extensions
Bold
User input, IP addresses, GUI screen text
Fixed
Command prompt, CLI text, code
italic
URL links
Formats. This manual uses the following formats to highlight special messages:
Note: A note provides additional information about a feature or technology.
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Tip: This format is used to highlight a procedure that will save time or resources.
Warning: A caution provides information about critical aspects of the configuration,
combination of settings, events, or procedures that can adversely affect
network connectivity, security, and so on.
Danger: This is a safety warning. Failure to take heed of this notice may result in
personal injury or death.
•
Scope. This manual is written for the GS108T Smart Switch according to these specifications:
Product Version
GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch
Manual Publication Date
March 2010
Note: Product updates for the GS108T Smart Switch are available on the
NETGEAR, Inc. Website at
http://kbserver.netgear.com/products/GS108T.asp
How to Print this Manual
Your computer must have the free Adobe Acrobat reader installed in order to view and print PDF
files. The Acrobat reader is available on the Adobe Web site at
http://www.adobe.com.
•
•
Printing a PDF Chapter. Use the PDF of This Chapter link at the top left of any page.
–
Click the PDF of This Chapter link at the top left of any page in the chapter you want to
print. The PDF version of the chapter you were viewing opens in a browser window.
–
Click the print icon in the upper left of your browser window.
Printing a PDF version of the Complete Manual. Use the Complete PDF Manual link at the
top left of any page.
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–
Click the Complete PDF Manual link at the top left of any page in the manual. The PDF
version of the complete manual opens in a browser window.
–
Click the print icon in the upper left of your browser window.
Tip: If your printer supports printing two pages on a single sheet of paper, you can
save paper and printer ink by selecting this feature.
Revision History
Part Number
Version
Date
Number
202-10603-01 1.0
March 2010
Description
GS108T Hardware v2 and new software features
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Chapter 1
Getting Started
This chapter provides an overview of starting your NETGEAR GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch and
accessing the user interface. It also leads you through the steps to use the Smart Control Center
utility. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“Switch Management Interface” on page 1-1
•
“Connecting the Switch to the Network” on page 1-2
•
“Switch Discovery in a Network with a DHCP Server” on page 1-3
•
“Switch Discovery in a Network without a DHCP Server” on page 1-5
•
“Configuring the Network Settings on the Administrative System” on page 1-7
•
“Web Access” on page 1-8
•
“Smart Control Center Utilities” on page 1-9
•
“Understanding the User Interfaces” on page 1-15
•
“Interface Naming Convention” on page 1-20
Switch Management Interface
Your NETGEAR GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch contains an embedded Web server and
management software for managing and monitoring switch functions. The GS108T functions as a
simple switch without the management software. However, you can use the management software
to configure more advanced features that can improve switch efficiency and overall network
performance.
Web-based management lets you monitor, configure, and control your switch remotely using a
standard Web browser instead of using expensive and complicated SNMP software products. From
your Web browser, you can monitor the performance of your switch and optimize its configuration
for your network. You can configure all switch features, such as VLANs, QoS, and ACLs by using
the Web-based management interface.
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NETGEAR provides the Smart Control Center utility with this product. This program runs under
Microsoft® Windows® XP, Windows 2000, or Windows Vista® and provides a front end that
discovers the switches on your network segment (L2 broadcast domain). When you power up your
switch for the first time, use the Smart Control Center to discover the switch and view the network
information that has been automatically assigned to the switch by a DHCP server; or, if no DHCP
server is present on the network, use the Smart Control Center to discover the switch and assign
static network information.
In addition to enabling NETGEAR switch discovery, the Smart Control Center provides several
utilities to help you maintain the NETGEAR switches on your network, such as password
management, firmware upgrade, and configuration file backup. For more information, see “Smart
Control Center Utilities” on page 1-9.
Connecting the Switch to the Network
To enable remote management of the switch through a Web browser or SNMP, you must connect
the switch to the network and configure it with network information (an IP address, subnet mask,
and default gateway). The switch has a default IP address of 192.168.0.239 and a default subnet
mask of 255.255.255.0.
Use one of the following methods to change the default network information on the switch:
•
Dynamic assignment through DHCP—DHCP is enabled by default on the switch. If you
connect the switch to a network with a DHCP server, the switch obtains its network
information automatically. You can use the Smart Control Center to discover the
automatically-assigned network information. For more information, see “Switch Discovery in
a Network with a DHCP Server” on page 1-3
•
Static assignment through the Smart Control Center—If you connect the switch to a network
that does not have a DHCP server, you can use the Smart Control Center to assign a static IP
address, subnet mask, and default gateway. For more information, see “Switch Discovery in a
Network without a DHCP Server” on page 1-5
•
Static assignment by connecting from a local host—If you do not want to use the Smart
Control Center to assign a static address, you can connect to the switch from a host
(administrative system) in the 192.168.0.0/24 network and change the settings by using the
Web-based management interface on the switch. For information about how to set the IP
address on the administrative system so it is in the same subnet as the default IP address of the
switch, see “Configuring the Network Settings on the Administrative System” on page 1-7.
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Switch Discovery in a Network with a DHCP Server
This section describes how to set up your switch in a network that has a DHCP server. The DHCP
client on the switch is enabled by default. When you connect it to your network, the DHCP server
will automatically assign an IP address to your switch. Use the Smart Control Center to discover
the IP address automatically assigned to the switch.
To install the switch in a network with a DHCP server, use the following steps:
1. Connect the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch to a network with a DHCP server.
2. Power on the switch by connecting its AC-DC power adapter or by connecting Port 1 to a PoE
Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE).
3. Install the Smart Control Center on your computer.
4. Start the Smart Control Center.
5. Click Discover for the Smart Control Center to find your GS108T switch. You should see a
screen similar to the one shown in Figure 1-1.
Getting Started
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Figure 1-1
6. Make a note of the displayed IP address assigned by the DHCP server. You will need this
value to access the switch directly from a Web browser (without using the Smart Control
Center).
Figure 1-2
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7. Select your switch by clicking the line that displays the switch, then click the
Web Browser Access button. The Smart Control Center displays a login window similar to
Figure 1-3 on page 1-5.
Figure 1-3
Use your Web browser to manage your switch. The default password is password. Then use
this page to proceed to management of the switch covered in “Using the Web Interface” on
page 1-15.
Switch Discovery in a Network without a DHCP Server
This section describes how to use the Smart Control Center to set up your switch in a network
without a DHCP server. If your network has no DHCP service, you must assign a static IP address
to your switch. If you choose, you can assign it a static IP address, even if your network has DHCP
service.
To assign a static IP address:
1. Connect the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch to your existing network.
2. Power on the switch by plugging in the AC-DC power adapter or by connecting Port 1 to a
PoE PSE.
3. Install the Smart Control Center on your computer.
4. Start the Smart Control Center.
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5. Click Discover for the Smart Control Center to find your GS108T switch. The utility
broadcasts Layer 2 discovery packets within the broadcast domain to discover the GS108T
Gigabit Smart Switch.You should see a screen similar to Figure 1-1 on page 1-4.
6. Select the switch, then click Configure Device. The page expands to display additional fields
at the bottom of the page, as Figure 1-4 shows.
Figure 1-4
7. Choose the Disabled radio box to disable DHCP.
8. Enter the static switch IP address, gateway IP address and subnet mask, and then type your
password and click Apply.
Note: You must enter the current password every time you use the Smart Control
Center to update the switch setting. The default password is password.
Please ensure that your PC and the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch are in the same subnet. Make a
note of these settings for later use.
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Configuring the Network Settings on the Administrative
System
If you choose not to use the Smart Control Center to configure the network information on the
switch, you can connect directly to the switch from an administrative system, such as a PC or
laptop computer. The IP address of the administrative system must be in the same subnet as the
default IP address on the switch. For most networks, this means you must change the IP address of
the administrative system to be on the same subnet as the default IP address of the switch
(192.168.0.239).
To change the IP address on an administrative system running a Microsoft® Windows® operating
system, open the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) properties screen that you access from the Local Area
Connection properties, as shown in Figure 1-5. You need Windows Administrator privileges to
change these settings.
Figure 1-5
Getting Started
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GS108T Smart Switch Software Administration Manual
Warning: When you change the IP address of your administrative system, you will
loose your connection to the rest of the network. Be sure to write down
your current network address settings before you change them.
To modify the network settings on your administrative system:
1. On your PC, access the MS Windows operating system TCP/IP Properties.
2. Set the IP address of the administrative system to an address in the 192.168.0.0 network, such
as 192.168.0.200. The IP address must be different from that of the switch but within the same
subnet.
3. Click OK.
To configure a static address on the switch:
1. Use a straight-through cable to connect the Ethernet port on the administrative system directly
to any port on the GS108T.
2. Open a Web browser on your PC and connect to the management interface as described in
“Web Access” on page 1-8.
3. Change the network settings on the switch to match those of your network (this procedure is
described in “IP Configuration” on page 2-3).
After you change the network settings on the switch, return the network configuration on your
administrative system to the original settings.
Web Access
To access the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch management interface, use one of the following
methods:
•
From the Smart Control Center, select the switch and click Web Browser Access.
•
Open a Web browser and enter the IP address of the switch in the address field.
You must be able to ping the IP address of the GS108T management interface from your
administrative system for Web access to be available. If you used the Smart Control Center to set
up the IP address and subnet mask, either with or without a DHCP server, use that IP address in the
address field of your Web browser. If you did not change the IP address of the switch from the
default value, enter 192.168.0.239 into the address field.
Clicking Web Browser Access on the Smart Control Center or accessing the switch directly from
your Web browser displays the login screen in Figure 1-6 on page 1-9.
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Figure 1-6
Smart Control Center Utilities
In addition to device discovery and network address assignment, the Smart Control Center
includes several maintenance features. This section describes the following Smart Control Center
utilities:
• “Network Utilities” on page 1-9
• “Configuration Upload and Download” on page 1-10
• “Firmware Upgrade” on page 1-12
Network Utilities
From the Network tab, you can perform the following functions:
•
DHCP Refresh—Forces the switch to release the current bindings and request new address
information from the DHCP server.
•
Reboot Device—Reboots the selected device.
•
Web Browser Access—Launches a Web browser and connects to the management interface
for the selected device.
•
Configure Device—Allows you to change network information for the switch such as the IP
address, and DHCP client mode.
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•
Change Password—Allows you to set a new password for the device. In this process, you are
required to enter the old password and to confirm the new one, which can contain up to 20
ASCII characters.
From the Maintenance tab, you can upload or download a switch configuration file and upgrade
the switch firmware.
Configuration Upload and Download
When you make changes to the switch, the configuration information is stored in a file on the
switch. You can backup the configuration by uploading the configuration file from the switch to an
administrative system. You can download a saved configuration file from the administrative
system to the switch. The configuration file you download to the switch overwrites the running
configuration on the switch.
Configuration upload and download is useful if you want to save a copy of the current switch
configuration (Upload Configuration) before you make changes. If you do not like the changes,
you can use the Download Configuration option to restore the switch to the settings in the saved
configuration file.
To save a copy of the current switch configuration on your administrative system:
1. Click the Maintenance tab and select the device with the configuration to save.
2. Click Upload Configuration.
3. From the Browse for Folder window that appears, navigate to and select the folder where you
want to store the configuration file.
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4. Click OK.
5. Enter the switch password and click Apply.
The file is uploaded to the administrative computer as a *.cfg file. You can open it and view
the contents with a text editor.
To restore the configuration to a previously saved version:
1. Click the Maintenance tab and select the device with the configuration to restore.
2. Click Download Configuration.
3. From the Select a Configuration window that appears, navigate to and select the
configuration file to download to the switch.
4. Click Open.
5. Enter the switch password and click Apply to begin the download process.
Optionally, you can schedule a different date and time to download the configuration file. To
delay the download process, clear the Run Now? check box and enter a date and time to
complete the download.
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Note: Click the Tasks tab to view status information about the configuration download.
Firmware Upgrade
The application software for the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch is upgradeable, enabling your
switch to take advantage of improvements and additional features as they become available. The
upgrade procedure and the required equipment are described in this section. This procedure
assumes that you have downloaded or otherwise obtained the firmware upgrade and that you have
it available as a binary file on your computer. This procedure uses the TFTP protocol to implement
the transfer from computer to switch.
Note: You can also upgrade the firmware using the TFTP Download and HTTP
Download features mentioned in this book. See “Download File To Switch” on
page 7-5.
To upgrade your firmware:
1. Click the Maintenance tab, and then click the Firmware link directly below the tabs (see
Figure 1-1 on page 1-4).
2. Select the switch to upgrade and click Download Firmware.
3. From the Select new firmware window that appears, navigate to and select the firmware
image to download to the switch.
4. Click Open.
5. Enter the switch password to continue downloading the firmware.
6. Click Apply to download the firmware and upgrade the switch with the new image.
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Figure 1-7
Optionally, you can schedule a different date and time to download and install the firmware
image. To delay the upgrade process, clear the Run Now? check box and enter a date and time
to complete the upgrade.
7. When the process is complete, the switch automatically reboots.
Note: Click the Tasks tab to view status information about the firmware upgrade.
Warning: It is important that you do not power-off the administrative system or the
switch while the firmware upgrade is in progress.
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Viewing and Managing Tasks
From the Tasks tab, you can view information about configuration downloads and firmware
upgrades that have already occurred, are in progress, or are scheduled to take place at a later time.
You can also delete or reschedule selected tasks. Figure 1-8 shows the Tasks page.
Figure 1-8
The following list describes the command buttons that are specific to the Tasks page:
•
Delete Task—Remove a completed or schedule task from the list.
•
Reschedule—Change the scheduled date and time for a pending firmware upgrade or
configuration download.
•
Select Range—Select all tasks that occurred or are scheduled to occur within a certain period
of time.
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Understanding the User Interfaces
GS108T software includes a set of comprehensive management functions for configuring and
monitoring the system by using one of the following methods:
•
Web user interface
•
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Each of the standards-based management methods allows you to configure and monitor the
components of the GS108T software. The method you use to manage the system depends on your
network size and requirements, and on your preference.
The GS108T Smart Switch Software Administration Manual describes how to use the Web-based
interface to manage and monitor the system.
Using the Web Interface
To access the switch by using a Web browser, the browser must meet the following software
requirements:
•
HTML version 4.0, or later
•
HTTP version 1.1, or later
•
Java Runtime Environment 1.6 or later
Use the following procedures to log on to the Web interface:
1. Open a Web browser and enter the IP address of the switch in the Web browser address field.
2. The factory default password is password. Type the password into the field on the login
screen, as shown in Figure 1-6 on page 1-9, and then click Login. Passwords are case
sensitive.
3. After the system authenticates you, the System Information page displays.
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Figure 1-9 shows the layout of the GS108T software Web interface.
Navigation Tab
Feature Link
Logout
Button
Help LInk
Help Page
Page Menu
Configuration Status and Options
Figure 1-9
Navigation Tabs, Feature Links, and Page Menu
The navigation tabs along the top of the Web interface give you quick access to the various switch
functions. The tabs are always available and remain constant, regardless of which feature you
configure.
When you select a tab, the features for that tab appear as links directly under the tabs. The feature
links in the blue bar change according to the navigation tab that is selected.
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The configuration pages for each feature are available as links in the page menu on the left side of
the page. Some items in the menu expand to reveal multiple configuration pages, as Figure 1-10 on
page 1-17. shows. When you click a menu item that includes multiple configuration pages, the
item becomes preceded by a down arrow symbol and expands to display the additional pages.
Page Link
Configuration
Pages
Figure 1-10
Configuration and Monitoring Options
The area directly under the feature links and to the right of the page menu displays the
configuration information or status for the page you select. On pages that contain configuration
options, you can input information into fields or select options from drop-down menus.
Each page contains access to the HTML-based help that explains the fields and configuration
options for the page. Each page also contains command buttons.
Table 1-1 shows the command buttons that are used throughout the pages in the Web interface:
Table 1-1. Common Command Buttons
Button
Function
Add
Clicking Add adds the new item configured in the heading row of a table.
Apply
Clicking the Apply button sends the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration
changes take effect immediately.
Cancel
Clicking Cancel cancels the configuration on the screen and resets the data on the screen
to the latest value of the switch.
Delete
Clicking Delete removes the selected item.
Refresh
Clicking the Refresh button refreshes the page with the latest information from the device.
Logout
Clicking the Logout button ends the session.
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Device View
The Device View is a Java® applet that displays the ports on the switch. This graphic provides an
alternate way to navigate to configuration and monitoring options. The graphic also provides
information about device ports, current configuration and status, table information, and feature
components.
The Device View is available from the System> Device View page.
The port coloring indicates whether a port is currently active. Green indicates that the port is
enabled, red indicates that an error has occurred on the port, or red indicates that the link is
disabled.
Figure 1-11 shows the Device View of the system.
Figure 1-11
Click the port you want to view or configure to see a menu that displays statistics and
configuration options. Click the menu option to access the page that contains the configuration or
monitoring options.
Figure 1-12
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If you click the graphic, but do not click a specific port, the main menu appears, as Figure 1-13
shows. This menu contains the same option as the navigation tabs at the top of the page.
Figure 1-13
Help Page Access
Every page contains a link to the online help
, which contains information to assist in
configuring and managing the switch. The online help pages are context sensitive. For example, if
the IP Addressing page is open, the help topic for that page displays if you click Help. Figure 1-9
on page 1-16 shows the location of the Help link on the Web interface.
User-Defined Fields
User-defined fields can contain 1 to 159 characters, unless otherwise noted on the configuration
Web page. All characters may be used except for the following (unless specifically noted in for
that feature):
\
<
/
>|
*
|
?
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Using SNMP
For GS108T software that includes the SNMP module, you can configure SNMP groups and users
that can manage traps that the SNMP agent generates.
GS108T switches use both standard public MIBs for standard functionality and private MIBs that
support additional switch functionality. All private MIBs begin with a “-” prefix. The main object
for interface configuration is in -SWITCHING-MIB, which is a private MIB. Some interface
configurations also involve objects in the public MIB, IF-MIB.
SNMP is enabled by default. The System > Management > System Information Web page,
which is the page that displays after a successful login, displays the information you need to
configure an SNMP manager to access the switch.
Any user can connect to the switch using the SNMPv3 protocol, but for authentication and
encryption, the switch supports only one user which is admin; therefore there is only one profile
that can be created or modified.
To configure authentication and encryption settings for the SNMPv3 admin profile by using the
Web interface:
1. Navigate to the System > SNMP > SNMPv3 > User Configuration page.
2. To enable authentication, select an Authentication Protocol option, which is either MD5 or
SHA.
3. To enable encryption, select the DES option in the Encryption Protocol field. Then, enter an
encryption code of eight or more alphanumeric characters in the Encryption Key field.
4. Click Apply.
To access configuration information for SNMPv1 or SNMPv2, click System > SNMP >
SNMPv1/v2 and click the page that contains the information to configure.
Interface Naming Convention
The GS108T supports physical and logical interfaces. Interfaces are identified by their type and
the interface number. The physical ports are gigabit interfaces and are numbered on the front
panel. You configure the logical interfaces by using the software. Table 1-2 describes the naming
convention for all interfaces available on the switch.
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Table 1-2. Types of Interface
Interface
Description
Example
Physical
The physical ports are gigabit Ethernet
interfaces and are numbered sequentially
starting from one.
g1, g2, g3
Link Aggregation Group (LAG)
LAG interfaces are logical interfaces that are
only used for bridging functions.
l1, l2, l3
LAG1, LAG2
CPU Management Interface
This is the internal switch interface responsible c1
for the switch base MAC address. This interface
is not configurable and is always listed in the
MAC Address Table.
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Chapter 2
Configuring System Information
Use the features in the System tab to define the switch’s relationship to its environment. The
System tab contains links to the following features:
•
“Management” on page 2-1
•
“SNMP” on page 2-18
•
“LLDP” on page 2-24
•
“Services — DHCP Filtering” on page 2-38
Management
This section describes how to display the switch status and specify some basic switch information,
such as the management interface IP address, system clock settings, and DNS information. From
the Management link, you can access the following pages:
•
“System Information” on page 2-1
•
“IP Configuration” on page 2-3
•
“Time” on page 2-5
•
“Denial of Service” on page 2-12
•
“DNS” on page 2-15
•
“Green Ethernet Configuration” on page 2-17
System Information
After a successful login, the System Information page displays. Use this page to configure and
view general device information.
To display the System Information page, click System > Management > System Information. A
screen similar to the following displays.
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Figure 2-1
To define system information:
1. Open the System Information page.
2. Define the following fields:
•
System Name. Enter the name you want to use to identify this switch. You may use up to
31 alphanumeric characters. The factory default is blank.
•
System Location. Enter the location of this switch. You may use up to 31 alphanumeric
characters. The factory default is blank.
•
System Contact. Enter the contact person for this switch. You may use up to 31
alphanumeric characters. The factory default is blank.
3. Click Apply.
The system parameters are applied, and the device is updated.
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The following table describes the status information the System Page displays.
Table 2-1. System Description Fields
Field
Description
Serial Number
The serial number of the switch.
System Object ID
The base object ID for the switch's enterprise MIB.
Date & Time
The current date and time.
System Up Time
Displays the number of days, hours, and minutes since the last system
restart.
Base MAC Address
The universally assigned network address.
Model Name
The model name of the switch.
Boot Version
The boot code version of the switch.
Software Version
The software version of the switch.
IP Configuration
Use the IP Configuration page to configure network information for the management interface,
which is the logical interface used for in-band connectivity with the switch through any of the
switch's front panel ports. The configuration parameters associated with the switch's network
interface do not affect the configuration of the front panel ports through which traffic is switched
or routed.
To access the page, click System > Management > IP Configuration. A screen similar to the
following displays.
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Figure 2-2
To configure the network information for the management interface:
1. Select the appropriate radio button to determine how to configure the network information for
the switch management interface:
•
Dynamic IP Address (DHCP). Specifies that the switch must obtain the IP address
through a DHCP server.
•
Dynamic IP Address (BOOTP). Specifies that the switch must obtain the IP address
through a BootP server.
•
Static IP Address. Specifies that the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway must
be manually configured. Enter this information in the fields below this radio button.
2. If you selected the Static IP Address option, configure the following network information:
•
IP Address. The IP address of the network interface. The factory default value is
192.168.0.239. Each part of the IP address must start with a number other than zero. For
example, IP addresses 001.100.192.6 and 192.001.10.3 are not valid.
•
Subnet Mask. The IP subnet mask for the interface. The factory default value is
255.255.255.0.
•
Default Gateway. The default gateway for the IP interface. The factory default value is
192.168.0.254.
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3. Specify the VLAN ID for the management VLAN.
The management VLAN is used to establish an IP connection to the switch from a workstation
that is connected to a port in the same VLAN. If not specified, the active management VLAN
ID is 1 (default), which allows an IP connection to be established through any port.
When the management VLAN is set to a different value, an IP connection can be made only
through a port that is part of the management VLAN. It is also mandatory that the port VLAN
ID (PVID) of the port to be connected in that management VLAN be the same as the
management VLAN ID.
The management VLAN has the following requirements:
•
Only one management VLAN can be active at a time.
•
When a new management VLAN is configured, connectivity through the existing
management VLAN is lost.
•
The management station should be reconnected to the port in the new management
VLAN.
Note: Make sure that the VLAN to be configured as the management VLAN exists.
And make sure that the PVID of at least one port that is a port of the VLAN is
the same as the management VLAN ID. For information about creating
VLANs and configuring the PVID for a port, see “VLANs” on page 3-10.
4. If you change any of the network connection parameters, click Apply to apply the changes to
the system.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Time
GS108T software supports the Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP). You can also set the
system time manually
SNTP assures accurate network device clock time synchronization up to the millisecond. Time
synchronization is performed by a network SNTP server. GS108T software operates only as an
SNTP client and cannot provide time services to other systems.
Time sources are established by Stratums. Stratums define the accuracy of the reference clock. The
higher the stratum (where zero is the highest), the more accurate the clock. The device receives
time from stratum 1 and above since it is itself a stratum 2 device.
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The following is an example of stratums:
•
Stratum 0: A real-time clock is used as the time source, for example, a GPS system.
•
Stratum 1: A server that is directly linked to a Stratum 0 time source is used. Stratum 1 time
servers provide primary network time standards.
•
Stratum 2: The time source is distanced from the Stratum 1 server over a network path. For
example, a Stratum 2 server receives the time over a network link, via NTP, from a Stratum 1
server.
Information received from SNTP servers is evaluated based on the time level and server type.
SNTP time definitions are assessed and determined by the following time levels:
•
T1: Time at which the original request was sent by the client.
•
T2: Time at which the original request was received by the server.
•
T3: Time at which the server sent a reply.
•
T4: Time at which the client received the server's reply.
The device can poll Unicast server types for the server time.
Polling for Unicast information is used for polling a server for which the IP address is known.
SNTP servers that have been configured on the device are the only ones that are polled for
synchronization information. T1 through T4 are used to determine server time. This is the
preferred method for synchronizing device time because it is the most secure method. If this
method is selected, SNTP information is accepted only from SNTP servers defined on the device
using the SNTP Server Configuration page.
The device retrieves synchronization information, either by actively requesting information or at
every poll interval.
Time Configuration
Use the Time Configuration page to view and adjust date and time settings.
To display the Time Configuration page, click System > Management > Time > SNTP Global
Configuration.
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Figure 2-3
To configure the time by using the CPU clock cycle as the source:
1. From the Clock Source field, select Local.
2. In the Date field, enter the date in the DD/MM/YYYY format.
3. In the Time field, enter the time in HH:MM:SS format.
Note: If you do not enter a date and time, the switch will calculate the date and time
using the CPU’s clock cycle.
When the Clock Source is set to Local, the Time Zone field is grayed out (disabled):
4. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes occur
immediately.
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To configure the time through SNTP:
1. From the Clock Source field, select SNTP.
When the Clock Source is set to SNTP, the Date and Time fields are grayed out (disabled).
The switch gets the date and time from the network.
2. Use the menu to select the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) time zone in which the switch
is located, expressed as the number of hours. The options in the Time Zone menu specify the
time difference from UTC time zone.
3. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes take
effect immediately.
4. Use the SNTP Server Configuration page to configure the SNTP server settings, as
described in “SNTP Server Configuration” on page 2-9.
5. Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The SNTP Global Status table on the Time Configuration page displays information about the
system’s SNTP client. The following table describes the SNTP Global Status fields.
Table 2-2. SNTP Global Status Fields
Field
Description
Version
Specifies the SNTP Version the client supports.
Supported Mode
Specifies the SNTP modes the client supports. Multiple modes may be
supported by a client.
Last Update Time
Specifies the local date and time (UTC) the SNTP client last updated the
system clock.
Last Attempt Time
Specifies the local date and time (UTC) of the last SNTP request or receipt
of an unsolicited message.
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Table 2-2. SNTP Global Status Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Last Attempt Status
Specifies the status of the last SNTP request or unsolicited message for both
unicast mode. If no message has been received from a server, a status of
Other is displayed. These values are appropriate for all operational modes:
• Other: None of the following enumeration values.
• Success: The SNTP operation was successful and the system time was
updated.
• Request Timed Out: A directed SNTP request timed out without receiving
a response from the SNTP server.
• Bad Date Encoded: The time provided by the SNTP server is not valid.
• Version Not Supported: The SNTP version supported by the server is not
compatible with the version supported by the client.
• Server Unsynchronized: The SNTP server is not synchronized with its
peers. This is indicated via the 'leap indicator' field on the SNTP message.
• Server Kiss Of Death: The SNTP server indicated that no further queries
were to be sent to this server. This is indicated by a stratum field equal to 0
in a message received from a server.
Server IP Address
Specifies the IP address of the server for the last received valid packet. If no
message has been received from any server, an empty string is shown.
Address Type
Specifies the address type of the SNTP Server address for the last received
valid packet.
Server Stratum
Specifies the claimed stratum of the server for the last received valid packet.
Reference Clock Id
Specifies the reference clock identifier of the server for the last received valid
packet.
Server Mode
Specifies the mode of the server for the last received valid packet.
Unicast Sever Max Entries
Specifies the maximum number of unicast server entries that can be
configured on this client.
Unicast Server Current
Entries
Specifies the number of current valid unicast server entries configured for
this client.
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
SNTP Server Configuration
Use the SNTP Server Configuration page to view and modify information for adding and
modifying Simple Network Time Protocol SNTP servers.
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To display the SNTP Server Configuration page, click System > Management > Time > SNTP
Server Configuration.
Figure 2-4
To configure a new SNTP Server:
1. Enter the appropriate SNTP server information in the available fields:
•
Server Type. Specifies whether the address for the SNTP server is an IP address (IPv4) or
hostname (DNS).
•
Address. Enter the IP address or the hostname of the SNTP server.
•
Port. Enter a port number on the SNTP server to which SNTP requests are sent. The valid
range is 1–65535. The default is 123.
•
Priority . Specifies the priority of this server entry in determining the sequence of servers
to which SNTP requests are sent. Enter a priority from 1–3, with 1 being the default and
the highest priority. Servers with lowest numbers have priority.
•
Version. Enter the protocol version number. The range is 1–4.
2. Click Add.
3. Repeat the previous steps to add additional SNTP servers. You can configure up to three SNTP
servers.
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4. To removing an SNTP server, select the check box next to the configured server to remove,
and then click Delete. The entry is removed, and the device is updated.
5. To change the settings for an existing SNTP server, select the check box next to the configured
server and enter new values in the available fields, and then click Apply. Configuration
changes take effect immediately.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The SNTP Server Status table displays status information about the SNTP servers configured on
your switch. The following table describes the SNTP Global Status fields.
Table 2-3. SNTP Server Status Fields
Field
Description
Address
Specifies all the existing Server Addresses. If no Server configuration exists,
a message saying “No SNTP server exists” flashes on the screen.
Last Update Time
Specifies the local date and time (UTC) that the response from this server
was used to update the system clock.
Last Attempt Time
Specifies the local date and time (UTC) that this SNTP server was last
queried.
Last Attempt Status
Specifies the status of the last SNTP request to this server. If no packet has
been received from this server, a status of Other is displayed:
• Other: None of the following enumeration values.
• Success: The SNTP operation was successful and the system time was
updated.
• Request Timed Out: A directed SNTP request timed out without receiving
a response from the SNTP server.
• Bad Date Encoded: The time provided by the SNTP server is not valid.
• Version Not Supported: The SNTP version supported by the server is not
compatible with the version supported by the client.
• Server Unsynchronized: The SNTP server is not synchronized with its
peers. This is indicated via the 'leap indicator' field on the SNTP message.
• Server Kiss Of Death: The SNTP server indicated that no further queries
were to be sent to this server. This is indicated by a stratum field equal to 0
in a message received from a server.
Requests
Specifies the number of SNTP requests made to this server since last agent
reboot.
Failed Requests
Specifies the number of failed SNTP requests made to this server since last
reboot.
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
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Denial of Service
Use the Denial of Service (DoS) page to configure DoS control. The GS108T software provides
support for classifying and blocking specific types of DoS attacks. You can configure your system
to monitor and block six types of attacks:
•
SIP=DIP: Source IP address = Destination IP address.
•
First Fragment: TCP Header size is smaller than the configured value.
•
TCP Fragment: IP Fragment Offset = 1.
•
TCP Flag: TCP Flag SYN set and Source Port < 1024 or TCP Control Flags = 0 and TCP
Sequence Number = 0 or TCP Flags FIN, URG, and PSH set and TCP Sequence Number = 0
or TCP Flags SYN and FIN set.
•
L4 Port: Source TCP/UDP Port = Destination TCP/UDP Port.
•
ICMP: Limiting the size of ICMP Ping packets.
Auto-DoS Configuration
The Auto-DoS Configuration page lets you automatically enable all the DoS features available
on the switch, except for the L4 Port attack. See the previous section for information about the
types of DoS attacks the switch can monitor and block.
To access the Auto-DoS Configuration page, click System > Management > Denial of Service
> Auto-DoS Configuration.
Figure 2-5
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To configure the Auto-DoS feature:
1. Select a radio button to enable or disable Auto-DoS:
•
Disable. Auto-DoS is disabled (default).
•
Enable. Auto-DoS is enabled.
2. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes occur
immediately.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
DoS Configuration
The DoS Configuration page lets you to select which types of DoS attacks for the switch to
monitor and block.
To access the DoS Configuration page, click System > Management > Denial of Service > DoS
Configuration.
Figure 2-6
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To configure individual DoS settings:
1. Select the types of DoS attacks for the switch to monitor and block and configure any
associated values, as the following list describes.
• Denial of Service SIP=DIP. Enable or disable this option by selecting the appropriate
radio button. Enabling SIP=DIP DoS prevention causes the switch to drop packets that
have a source IP address equal to the destination IP address. The factory default is Disable.
• Denial of Service First Fragment. Enable or disable this option by selecting the
appropriate radio button. Enabling First Fragment DoS prevention causes the switch to
drop packets that have a TCP header smaller than the configured Min TCP Hdr Size. The
factory default is Disable.
• Denial of Service Min TCP Hdr Size. Specify the Min TCP Hdr Size allowed. If First
Fragment DoS prevention is enabled, the switch will drop packets that have a TCP header
smaller than this configured Min TCP Hdr Size. The factory default is 20 bytes.
• Denial of Service TCP Fragment. Enable or disable this option by selecting the
appropriate radio button. Enabling TCP Fragment DoS prevention causes the switch to
drop packets that have an IP fragment offset equal to 1. The factory default is Disable.
• Denial of Service TCP Flag. Enable or disable this option by selecting the appropriate
radio button. Enabling TCP Flag DoS prevention causes the switch to drop packets that
have TCP flag SYN set and TCP source port less than 1024 or TCP control flags set to 0
and TCP sequence number set to 0 or TCP flags FIN, URG, and PSH set and TCP
sequence number set to 0 or both TCP flags SYN and FIN set. The factory default is
Disable.
• Denial of Service L4 Port. Enable or disable this option by selecting the appropriate radio
button. Enabling L4 Port DoS prevention causes the switch to drop packets that have TCP/
UDP source port equal to TCP/UDP destination port. The factory default is Disable.
• Denial of Service ICMP. Enable or disable this option by selecting the appropriate radio
button. Enabling ICMP DoS prevention causes the switch to drop ICMP packets that have
a type set to ECHO_REQ (ping) and a size greater than the configured ICMP packet size.
The factory default is Disable.
• Denial of Service Max ICMP Size. Specify the Max ICMP packet size allowed. If ICMP
DoS prevention is enabled, the switch will drop ICMP ping packets that have a size
greater then this configured Max ICMP packet size. The factory default is Disable.
2. If you change any of the DoS settings, click Apply to apply the changes to the switch.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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DNS
You can use these pages to configure information about DNS servers the network uses and how the
switch operates as a DNS client.
DNS Configuration
Use this page to configure global DNS settings and DNS server information.
To access this page, click System > Management > DNS > DNS Configuration.
Figure 2-7
To configure the global DNS settings
1. Specify whether to enable or disable the administrative status of the DNS Client.
•
Enable. Allow the switch to send DNS queries to a DNS server to resolve a DNS domain
name.
•
Disable. Prevent the switch from sending DNS queries.
2. Enter the DNS default domain name to include in DNS queries. When the system is
performing a lookup on an unqualified hostname, this field is provided as the domain name
(for example, if default domain name is netgear.com and the user enters test, then test is
changed to test.netgear.com to resolve the name).
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3. To specify the DNS server to which the switch sends DNS queries, enter an IP address in
standard IPv4 dot notation in the DNS Server Address and click Add. The server appears in
the list below. You can specify up to eight DNS servers. The precedence is set in the order
created.
4. To remove a DNS server from the list, select the check box next to the server you want to
remove and click Delete. If no DNS server is specified, the check box is global and will delete
all the DNS servers listed.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes take
effect immediately.
Host Configuration
Use this page to manually map host names to IP addresses or to view dynamic DNS mappings.
To access this page, click System > Management > DNS > Host Configuration.
Figure 2-8
To add a static entry to the local DNS table:
1. Specify the static host name to add. Enter up to 158 characters.
2. Specify the IP address in standard IPv4 dot notation to associate with the hostname.
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3. Click Add. The entry appears in the list below.
4. To remove an entry from the static DNS table, select the check box next to the entry and click
Delete.
5. To change the hostname or IP address in an entry, select the check box next to the entry and
enter the new information in the appropriate field, and then click Apply.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The Dynamic Host Configuration table shows host name-to-IP address entries that the switch has
learned. The following table describes the dynamic host fields:
Table 2-4. Dynamic Host Status Fields
Field
Description
Host
Lists the host name you assign to the specified IP address.
Total
Amount of time since the dynamic entry was first added to the table.
Elapsed
Amount of time since the dynamic entry was last updated.
Type
The type of the dynamic entry.
Addresses
Lists the IP address associated with the host name.
Click Refresh to refresh the table with the most current data from the switch.
Click Clear to delete Dynamic Host Entries. The table will be repopulated with entries as they are
learned.
Green Ethernet Configuration
Use this page to configure Green Ethernet features. Using the Green Ethernet features allows for
power consumption savings.
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To access this page, click System > Management > Green Ethernet Configuration.
Figure 2-9
To configure the Green Ethernet feature:
1. Enable or disable the Short Cable Mode.
•
Enable. The switch performs a cable test on each cable connect to its ports. If the cable is
less than 10m in length, the port is placed in low power mode (nominal power).
•
Disable. Full transmit power is provided to all ports, regardless of cable length.
2. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes take
effect immediately.
SNMP
From SNMP link under the System tab, you can configure SNMP settings for SNMP V1/V2 and
SNMPv3.
From the SNMP link, you can access the following pages:
•
“SNMPV1/V2” on page 2-19
•
“Trap Flags” on page 2-22
•
“SNMP v3 User Configuration” on page 2-23
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SNMPV1/V2
The pages under the SNMPV1/V2 menu allow you to configure SNMP community information,
traps, and trap flags.
Community Configuration
To display this page, click System > SNMP > SNMP V1/V2 > Community Configuration.
By default, two SNMP Communities exist:
•
Private, with Read/Write privileges and status set to Enable.
•
Public, with Read Only privileges and status set to Enable.
These are well-known communities. Use this page to change the defaults or to add other
communities. Only the communities that you define using this page will have access to the switch
using the SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c protocols. Only those communities with read/write level access
can be used to change the configuration using SNMP.
Use this page when you are using the SNMPv1 and SNMPv2c protocol.
Figure 2-10
To configure SNMP communities:
1. To add a new SNMP community, enter community information in the available fields
described below, and then click Add.
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•
Management Station IP. Specify the IP address of the management station.Together, the
Management Station IP and the Management Station IP Mask denote a range of IP
addresses from which SNMP clients may use that community to access this device. If
either (Management Station IP or Management Station IP Mask) value is 0.0.0.0, access is
allowed from any IP address. Otherwise, every client’s address is ANDed with the mask,
as is the Management Station IP Address; and, if the values are equal, access is allowed.
For example, if the Management Station IP and Management Station IP Mask parameters
are 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0, then any client whose address is 192.168.1.0 through
192.168.1.255 (inclusive) will be allowed access. To allow access from only one station,
use a Management Station IP Mask value of 255.255.255.255, and use that machine’s IP
address for Client Address.
•
Management Station IP Mask. Specify the subnet mask to associate with the
management station IP address.
•
Community String. Specify a community name. A valid entry is a case-sensitive string of
up to 16 characters.
•
Access Mode. Specify the access level for this community by selecting Read/Write or
Read Only from the menu.
•
Status. Specify the status of this community by selecting Enable or Disable from the pull
down menu. If you select Enable, the Community Name must be unique among all valid
Community Names or the set request will be rejected. If you select Disable, the
Community Name will become invalid.
2. To modify an existing community, select the check box next to the community, change the
desired fields, and then click Apply. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
3. To delete a community, select the check box next to the community and click Delete.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Trap Configuration
This page displays an entry for every active Trap Receiver. To access this page, click System >
SNMP > SNMP V1/V2 > Trap Configuration.
Figure 2-11
To configure SNMP trap settings:
1. To add a host that will receive SNMP traps, enter trap configuration information in the
available fields described below, and then click Add.
•
Recipients IP. The address in x.x.x.x format to receive SNMP traps from this device.
•
Version. The trap version to be used by the receiver from the menu.
•
SNMP v1: Uses SNMP v1 to send traps to the receiver.
•
SNMP v2: Uses SNMP v2 to send traps to the receiver.
•
Community String. The community string for the SNMP trap packet to be sent to the trap
manager. This may be up to 16 characters and is case sensitive.
•
Status. Select the receiver’s status from the menu:
•
Enable: Send traps to the receiver.
•
Disable: Do not send traps to the receiver.
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2. To modify information about an existing SNMP recipient, select the check box next to the
recipient, change the desired fields, and then click Apply. Configuration changes take effect
immediately.
3. To delete a recipient, select the check box next to the recipient and click Delete.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Trap Flags
The pages in the Trap Manager folder allow you to view and configure information about SNMP
traps the system generates.
Use the Trap Flags page to enable or disable traps the switch can send to an SNMP manager. When
the condition identified by an active trap is encountered by the switch, a trap message is sent to any
enabled SNMP Trap Receivers, and a message is written to the trap log.
To access the Trap Flags page, click System > SNMP > SNMP V1/V2 > Trap Flags.
Figure 2-12
To configure the trap flags:
1. From the Authentication field, enable or disable activation of authentication failure traps by
selecting the corresponding button. The factory default is Enable.
2. From the Link Up/Down field, enable or disable activation of link status traps by selecting the
corresponding button. The factory default is Enable.
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3. From the Spanning Tree field, enable or disable activation of spanning tree traps by selecting
the corresponding button. The factory default is Enable.
4. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
SNMP v3 User Configuration
This is the configuration for SNMP v3.
To access this page, click System > SNMP > SNMP V3 > User Configuration.
Figure 2-13
The SNMPv3 Access Mode is a read-only field that shows the access privileges for the user
account. The admin account always has Read/Write access, and all other accounts have Read Only
access.
To configure SNMPv3 settings for the user account:
1. In the Authentication Protocol field, specify the SNMPv3 Authentication Protocol setting for
the selected user account. The valid Authentication Protocols are None, MD5, or SHA. If you
select:
•
None: The user will be unable to access the SNMP data from an SNMP browser.
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•
MD5 or SHA: The user login password will be used as SNMPv3 authentication password,
and you must therefore specify a password. The password must be eight characters in
length.
2. In the Encryption Protocol field, choose whether to encrypt SNMPv3 packets transmitted by
the switch.
•
None. Do not encrypt the contents of SNMPv3 packets transmitted from the switch.
•
DES. Encrypt SNMPv3 packets using the DES encryption protocol.
3. If you selected DES in the Encryption Protocol field, enter the SNMPv3 Encryption Key here.
Otherwise, this field is ignored. Valid keys are 0 to 15 characters long.
4. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes take
effect immediately.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
LLDP
The IEEE 802.1AB-defined standard, Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP), allows stations on
an 802 LAN to advertise major capabilities and physical descriptions. This information is viewed
by a network manager to identify system topology and detect bad configurations on the LAN.
From the LLDP link, you can access the following pages:
•
“LLDP Configuration” on page 2-25
•
“LLDP Port Settings” on page 2-26
•
“LLDP-MED Network Policy” on page 2-28
•
“LLDP-MED Port Settings” on page 2-30
•
“Local Information” on page 2-31
•
“Neighbors Information” on page 2-34
LLDP is a one-way protocol; there are no request/response sequences. Information is advertised
by stations implementing the transmit function, and is received and processed by stations
implementing the receive function. The transmit and receive functions can be enabled/disabled
separately per port. By default, both transmit and receive are disabled on all ports. The application
is responsible for starting each transmit and receive state machine appropriately, based on the
configured status and operational state of the port.
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The Link Layer Discovery Protocol-Media Endpoint Discovery (LLDP-MED) is an enhancement
to LLDP with the following features:
•
Auto-discovery of LAN policies (such as VLAN, Layer 2 Priority, and DiffServ settings),
enabling plug and play networking.
•
Device location discovery for creation of location databases.
•
Extended and automated power management of Power over Ethernet endpoints.
•
Inventory management, enabling network administrators to track their network devices and
determine their characteristics (manufacturer, software and hardware versions, serial/asset
number).
LLDP Configuration
Use the LLDP Configuration page to specify LLDP and LLDP-MED parameters that are applied
to the switch.
To display the LLDP Configuration page, click System > LLDP > Basic > LLDP Configuration.
Note: You can also access the LLDP Configuration page by clicking System > LLDP >
Advanced > LLDP Configuration.
Figure 2-14
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To configure global LLDP settings:
1. Configure the following LLDP properties.
•
TLV Advertised Interval. Specify the interval at which frames are transmitted. The
default is 30 seconds, and the valid range is 1–32768 seconds.
•
Hold Multiplier. Specify multiplier on the transmit interval to assign to Time-to-Live
(TTL). The default is 4, and the range is 2–10.
•
Reinitializing Delay. Specify the delay before a reinitialization. The default is 2 seconds,
and the range is 1–10 seconds.
•
Transmit Delay. Specify the interval for the transmission of notifications. The default is 5
seconds, and the range is 5–3600 seconds.
2. To change the LLDP-MED properties in the Fast Start Duration field, specify the number of
LLDP packets sent when the LLDP-MED Fast Start mechanism is initialized, which occurs
when a new endpoint device links with the LLDP-MED network connectivity device. The
default value is 3, and the range is from 1–10.
3. Click Apply to apply the new settings to the system.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. Click Refresh to update the screen with the current information.
LLDP Port Settings
Use the LLDP Port Settings page to specify LLDP parameters that are applied to a specific
interface.
To display the LLDP Port Settings page, click System > LLDP > Advanced > LLDP Port
Settings.
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Figure 2-15
To configure LLDP port settings:
1. Change the LLDP port settings described below:
•
Interface. Specifies the port to be affected by these parameters.
•
Admin Status. Select the status for transmitting and receiving LLDP packets:
•
•
Tx Only: Enable only transmitting LLDP PDUs on the selected ports.
•
Rx Only: Enable only receiving LLDP PDUs on the selected ports.
•
Tx and Rx: Enable both transmitting and receiving LLDP PDUs on the selected ports.
•
Disabled: Do not transmit or receive LLDP PDUs on the selected ports.
Management IP Address. Choose whether to advertise the management IP address from
the interface. The possible field values are:
•
Stop Advertise: Do not advertise the management IP address from the interface.
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•
Auto Advertise: Advertise the current IP address of the device as the management IP
address.
•
Notification. When notifications are enabled, LLDP interacts with the Trap Manager to
notify subscribers of remote data change statistics. The default is Disabled.
•
Optional TLV(s). Enable or disable the transmission of optional type-length value (TLV)
information from the interface. The TLV information includes the system name, system
description, system capabilities, and port description. To configure the System Name, see
“Management” on page 2-1. To configure the Port Description, see “Ports” on page 3-1.
2. If you make any changes to the page, click Apply to apply the new settings to the system.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
LLDP-MED Network Policy
This page displays information about the LLPD-MED network policy TLV transmitted in the
LLDP frames on the selected local interface.
To display this page, click System > LLDP > Advanced > LLDP-MED Network Policy.
Figure 2-16
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From the Interface menu, select the interface with the information to view. The following table
describes the LLDP-MED network policy information that displays on the screen.
Table 2-5. LLPD-MED Network Policy Information Fields
Field
Description
Network Policy Number
Specifies the policy number.
Application
Specifies the media application type associated with the policy, which can be
one of the following:
• Unknown
• Voice
• Guest Voice
• Guest Voice Signaling
• Softphone Voice
• Video Conferencing
• Streaming Video
• Video Signaling
A port can receive multiple application types. The application information is
displayed only if a network policy TLV has been transmitted from the port.
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN ID associated with the policy.
VLAN Type
Specifies whether the VLAN associated with the policy is tagged or
untagged.
User Priority
Specifies the priority associated with the policy.
DSCP
Specifies the DSCP associated with a particular policy type.
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
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LLDP-MED Port Settings
Use this page to enable LLDP-MED mode on an interface and configure its properties.
To display this page, click System > LLDP > Advanced > LLDP-MED Port Settings.
Figure 2-17
To configure LLDP-MED settings for a port:
1. From the Port field, select the port to configure.
2. From the LLDP-MED Status field, enable or disable the LLDP-MED mode for the selected
interface.
3. From the Notification field, specify whether the port should send a topology change
notification if a device is connected or removed.
4. From the Transmit Optional TLVs field, specify whether the port should transmit optional type
length values (TLVs) in the LLDP PDU frames. If enabled, the following LLDP-MED TLVs
are transmitted:
• MED Capabilities
• Network Policy
• Location Identification
• Extended Power via MDI: PSE
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•
•
Extended Power via MDI: PD
Inventory
5. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. These changes occur
immediately and the configuration will be saved.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Local Information
Use the LLDP Local Information page to view the data that each port advertises through LLDP.
To display the LLDP Local Device Information page, click System > Advanced > LLDP > Local
Information.
Figure 2-18
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The following table describes the LLDP local information that displays for each port.
Table 2-6. LLDP Local Information Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Select the interface with the information to display.
Port ID Subtype
Identifies the type of data displayed in the Port ID field.
Port ID
Identifies the physical address of the port.
Port Description
Identifies the user-defined description of the port. To configure the Port
Description, see “Ports” on page 3-1.
Advertisement
Displays the advertisement status of the port.
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
To view additional details about a port, click the name of the port in the Interface column of the
Port Information table.
A popup window displays information for the selected port.
Figure 2-19
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The following table describes the detailed local information that displays for the selected port.
Table 2-7. Local Port Information
Field
Description
Managed Address
Address SubType
Displays the type of address the management interface uses, such as an IPv4
address.
Address
Displays the address used to manage the device.
Interface SubType
Displays the port subtype.
Interface Number
Displays the number that identifies the port.
MAC/PHY Details
Auto-Negotiation
Supported
Specifies whether the interface supports port-speed auto-negotiation. The
possible values are True or False.
Auto-Negotiation Enabled Displays the port speed auto-negotiation support status. The possible values
are True (enabled) or False (disabled).
Auto Negotiation
Advertised Capabilities
Displays the port speed auto-negotiation capabilities such as 1000BASE-T
half-duplex mode or 100BASE-TX full-duplex mode.
Operational MAU Type
Displays the Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) type. The MAU performs
physical layer functions, including digital data conversion from the Ethernet
interface collision detection and bit injection into the network.
MED Details
Capabilities Supported
Displays the MED capabilities enabled on the port.
Current Capabilities
Displays the TLVs advertised by the port.
Device Class
Network Connectivity indicates the device is a network connectivity device.
Network Policies
Application Type
Specifies the media application type associated with the policy.
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN ID associated with the policy.
VLAN Type
Specifies whether the VLAN associated with the policy is tagged or untagged.
User Priority
Specifies the priority associated with the policy.
DSCP
Specifies the DSCP associated with a particular policy type.
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Neighbors Information
Use the LLDP Neighbors Information page to view the data that a specified interface has received
from other LLDP-enabled systems.
To display the LLDP Neighbors Information page, click System > LLDP > Advanced >
Neighbors Information.
Figure 2-20
The following table describes the information that displays for all LLDP neighbors that have been
discovered.
Table 2-8. LLDP Neighbors Information Fields
Field
Description
MSAP Entry
Displays the Media Service Access Point (MSAP) entry number for the
remote device.
Local Port
Displays the interface on the local system that received LLDP information
from a remote system.
Chassis ID Subtype
Identifies the type of data displayed in the Chassis ID field on the remote
system.
Chassis ID
Identifies the remote 802 LAN device's chassis.
Port ID Subtype
Identifies the type of data displayed in the remote system’s Port ID field.
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Table 2-8. LLDP Neighbors Information Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Port ID
Identifies the physical address of the port on the remote system from which
the data was sent.
System Name
Identifies the system name associated with the remote device. If the field is
blank, the name might not be configured on the remote system.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
To view additional information about the remote device, click the link in the MSAP Entry field.
A popup window displays information for the selected port.
Figure 2-21
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Table 2-9. LLPD-MED Local Device Information Fields
Field
Description
Port Details
Local Port
Displays the interface on the local system that received LLDP information
from a remote system.
MSAP Entry
Displays the Media Service Access Point (MSAP) entry number for the
remote device.
Basic Details
Chassis ID Subtype
Identifies the type of data displayed in the Chassis ID field on the remote
system.
Chassis ID
Identifies the remote 802 LAN device's chassis.
Port ID Subtype
Identifies the type of data displayed in the remote system’s Port ID field.
Port ID
Identifies the physical address of the port on the remote system from which
the data was sent.
Port Description
Identifies the user-defined description of the port.
System Name
Identifies the system name associated with the remote device.
System Description
Specifies the description of the selected port associated with the remote
system.
System Capabilities
Specifies the system capabilities of the remote system.
Managed Addresses
Address SubType
Specifies the type of the management address.
Address
Specifies the advertised management address of the remote system.
Interface SubType
Specifies the port subtype.
Interface Number
Identifies the port on the remote device that sent the information.
MAC/PHY Details
Auto-Negotiation
Supported
Specifies whether the remote device supports port-speed auto-negotiation.
The possible values are True or False
Auto-Negotiation Enabled Displays the port speed auto-negotiation support status. The possible values
are True or False
Auto Negotiation
Advertised Capabilities
Displays the port speed auto-negotiation capabilities.
Operational MAU Type
Displays the Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) type. The MAU performs
physical layer functions, including digital data conversion from the Ethernet
interface collision detection and bit injection into the network.
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Table 2-9. LLPD-MED Local Device Information Fields (continued)
Field
Description
MED Details
Capabilities Supported
Specifies the supported capabilities that were received in MED TLV from the
device.
Current Capabilities
Specifies the advertised capabilities that were received in MED TLV from the
device.
Device Class
Displays the LLDP-MED endpoint device class. The possible device classes
are:
• Endpoint Class 1 Indicates a generic endpoint class, offering basic LLDP
services.
• Endpoint Class 2 Indicates a media endpoint class, offering media
streaming capabilities as well as all Class 1 features.
• Endpoint Class 3 Indicates a communications device class, offering all
Class 1 and Class 2 features plus location, 911, Layer 2 switch support and
device information management capabilities.
PoE Device Type
Displays the port PoE type. For example, Powered.
PoE Power Source
Displays the port's power source.
PoE Power Priority
Displays the port's power priority.
PoE Power Value
Displays the port's power value.
Hardware Revision
Displays the hardware version advertised by the remote device.
Firmware Revision
Displays the firmware version advertised by the remote device.
Software Revision
Displays the software version advertised by the remote device.
Serial Number
Displays the serial number advertised by the remote device.
Model Name
Displays the model name advertised by the remote device.
Asset ID
Displays the asset ID advertised by the remote device.
Location Information
Civic
Displays the physical location, such as the street address, the remote device
has advertised in the location TLV. For example, 123 45th St. E. The field
value length range is 6–160 characters.
Coordinates
Displays the location map coordinates the remote device has advertised in
the location TLV, including latitude, longitude and altitude.
ECS ELIN
Displays the Emergency Call Service (ECS) Emergency Location
Identification Number (ELIN) the remote device has advertised in the location
TLV. The field range is 10–25.
Unknown
Displays unknown location information for the remote device.
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Table 2-9. LLPD-MED Local Device Information Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Network Policies
Application Type
Specifies the media application type associated with the policy advertised by
the remote device.
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN ID associated with the policy.
VLAN Type
Specifies whether the VLAN associated with the policy is tagged or untagged.
User Priority
Specifies the priority associated with the policy.
DSCP
Specifies the DSCP associated with a particular policy type.
LLDP Unknown TLVs
Type
Displays the unknown TLV type field.
Value
Displays the unknown TLV value field.
Services — DHCP Filtering
DHCP Filtering is a useful feature that can be employed as a security measure against
unauthorized DHCP servers. A known attack is when an unauthorized DHCP server responds to a
client that is requesting an IP address. The server configures the gateway for the client to be equal
to the IP address of the server. At that point, the client sends all of its IP traffic destined to other
networks to the unauthorized machine. This gives the attacker the possibility of snooping traffic
for passwords or employing a man-in-the-middle attack. DHCP Filtering works by allowing the
administrator to configure each port as either a trusted port or an untrusted port. The port that has
the authorized DHCP server should be configured as a trusted port. Any DHCP responses received
on a trusted port are forwarded. All other ports should be configured as untrusted. Any DHCP (or
BootP) responses received are discarded.
From the Services link, you can access the following pages:
•
“DHCP Filtering Configuration” on page 2-39
•
“Interface Configuration” on page 2-40
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DHCP Filtering Configuration
Use the DHCP Filtering Configuration page to enable or disable the DHCP Filtering feature on the
switch.
To access the DHCP Filter Configuration page, click System > Services > DHCP Filtering >
Configuration.
Figure 2-22
To configure global DHCP filtering settings:
1. In the Admin Mode field, select Enable or Disable to turn the DHCP Filtering feature on or
off.
2. Click Apply to apply the change to the system. Configuration changes take effect
immediately.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Interface Configuration
Use the DHCP Filtering Interface Configuration page to view and configure each port as a trusted
or untrusted port. Any DHCP responses received on a trusted port are forwarded. If a port is
configured as untrusted, any DHCP (or BootP) responses received on that port are discarded.
To access the DHCP Filtering Interface Configuration page, click System > Services > DHCP
Filtering > Interface Configuration.
Figure 2-23
To configure DHCP filtering settings for an interface:
1. To configure DHCP filtering settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure DHCP filtering settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure DHCP filtering settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
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5. Choose the trust mode for the selected port(s) or LAG(s).
•
Enable: Any DHCP responses received on this port are forwarded.
•
Disable: Any DHCP (or BootP) responses received on this port are discarded.
6. Click Apply to apply the change to the system. Configuration changes take effect
immediately.
7. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Chapter 3
Configuring Switching Information
Use the features in the Switching tab to define Layer 2 features. The Switching tab contains links
to the following features:
•
“Ports” on page 3-1
•
“Link Aggregation Groups” on page 3-5
•
“VLANs” on page 3-10
•
“Voice VLAN” on page 3-16
•
“Auto-VoIP” on page 3-20
•
“Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 3-21
•
“Multicast” on page 3-38
•
“Forwarding Database” on page 3-54
Ports
The pages on the Ports tab allow you to view and monitor the physical port information for the
ports available on the switch. From the Ports link, you can access the following pages:
•
“Port Configuration” on page 3-1
•
“Flow Control” on page 3-4
Port Configuration
Use the Port Configuration page to configure the physical interfaces on the switch.
To access the Port Configuration page, click Switching > Ports > Port Configuration.
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Figure 3-1
To configure port settings:
1. To configure settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. Configure or view the settings:
•
Description. Enter the description string to be attached to a port. The string can be up to
64 characters in length.
•
Port Type. For most ports this field is blank. Otherwise, the possible values are:
•
•
MON: Indicates that the port is a monitoring port. For additional information about
port monitoring see “Port Mirroring” on page 6-24.
•
LAG: Indicates that the port is a member of a Link Aggregation trunk. For more
information see “Link Aggregation Groups” on page 3-5.
Admin Mode. Use the menu to select the port control administration state, which can be
one of the following:
•
Enable: The port can participate in the network (default).
•
Disable: The port is administratively down and does not participate in the network.
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•
Port Speed. Use the menu to select the port’s speed and duplex mode. If you select Auto,
the duplex mode and speed will be set by the auto-negotiation process. The port’s
maximum capability (full duplex and 1000 Mbps) will be advertised. Otherwise, your
selection will determine the port’s duplex mode and transmission rate. The factory default
is Auto.
•
Sleep Mode. Use the menu to select the port’s Green Ethernet mode, which can be one of
the following:
•
•
Enable: Specifies that when the port link is down, the port automatically goes down
for a short amount of time and wakes up to check link pulses. When the port does not
have a link partner, the sleep mode reduces power consumption.
•
Disable: The port provides full power to the port even if there is no link partner.
Short Cable Mode. Use the menu to select the port’s Green Ethernet mode, which can be
one of the following:
•
Enable: Specifies that cable test is performed when the port link is up at 1 Gbps and if
the cable is less than 10m, PHYs are placed in low power mode (nominal power).
•
Disable: The port does not participate in Green Ethernet mode.
•
Physical Status. Indicates the physical port’s speed and duplex mode
•
Link Status. Indicates whether the Link is up or down.
•
Link Trap. This object determines whether or not to send a trap when link status changes.
The factory default is Enable.
•
•
Enable: Specifies that the system sends a trap when the link status changes.
Disable: Specifies that the system does not send a trap when the link status changes.
•
Maximum Frame Size. Specify the maximum Ethernet frame size the interface supports
or is configured to support. The frame size includes the Ethernet header, CRC, and
payload. (1518–9216). The default maximum frame size is 1518.
•
MAC Address. Displays the physical address of the specified interface.
•
PortList Bit Offset. Displays the bit offset value which corresponds to the port when the
MIB object type PortList is used to manage in SNMP.
•
ifIndex. The ifIndex of the interface table entry associated with this port. If the interface
field is set to All, this field is blank.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make any changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
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Flow Control
IEEE 802.3x flow control works by pausing a port when the port becomes oversubscribed and
dropping all traffic for small bursts of time during the congestion condition. This can lead to highpriority and/or network control traffic loss. When IEEE 802.3x flow control is enabled, lower
speed switches can communicate with higher speed switches by requesting that the higher speed
switch refrains from sending packets. Transmissions are temporarily halted to prevent buffer
overflows.
To display the Flow Control page, click Switching > Ports, and then click the Flow Control link.
Figure 3-2
To configure global flow control settings:
1. From the Global Flow Control (IEEE 802.3x) Mode field, enable or disable IEEE 802.3x flow
control on the system. The factory default is Disable.
•
Enable. The switch sends pause packets if the port buffers become full.
•
Disable. The switch does not send pause packets if the port buffers become full.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
3. If you change the mode, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
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Link Aggregation Groups
Link aggregation groups (LAGs), which are also known as port-channels, allow you to combine
multiple full-duplex Ethernet links into a single logical link. Network devices treat the aggregation
as if it were a single link, which increases fault tolerance and provides load sharing. You assign the
LAG VLAN membership after you create a LAG. The LAG by default becomes a member of the
management VLAN.
A LAG interface can be either static or dynamic, but not both. All members of a LAG must
participate in the same protocols. A static port-channel interface does not require a partner system
to be able to aggregate its member ports.
Static LAGs are supported. When a port is added to a LAG as a static member, it neither transmits
nor receives LAGPDUs. The GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch supports four LAGs.
From the LAGs link, you can access the following pages:
•
“LAG Configuration” on page 3-5
•
“LAG Membership” on page 3-7
•
“LACP Configuration” on page 3-8
•
“LACP Port Configuration” on page 3-9
LAG Configuration
Use the LAG (Port Channel) Configuration page to group one or more full-duplex Ethernet links
to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation group, which is also known as a port-channel.
The switch treats the LAG as if it were a single link.
To access the LAG Configuration page, click Switching > LAG > Basic > LAG Configuration.
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Figure 3-3
To configure LAG settings:
1. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
2. Configure or view the following settings:
•
LAG Name. Specify the name you want assigned to the LAG. You may enter any string of
up to 15 alphanumeric characters. A valid name has to be specified in order to create the
LAG
•
Description. Specify the Description string to be attached to a LAG. It can be up to 64
characters in length.
•
LAG ID. Displays the number assigned to the LAG. This field is read-only.
•
Link Trap. Specify whether you want to have a trap sent when link status changes. The
factory default is Disable, which will cause the trap to be sent.
•
Admin Mode. Select Enable or Disable from the menu. When the LAG (port channel) is
disabled, no traffic will flow and LAGPDUs will be dropped, but the links that form the
LAG (port channel) will not be released. The factory default is Enable.
•
STP Mode. Select the Spanning Tree Protocol Administrative Mode associated with the
LAG.
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•
LAG Type. Select Static or LACP. When the LAG is static, it does not transmit or process
received LAGPDUs, for example the member ports do not transmit LAGPDUs and all the
LAGPDUs it may receive are dropped. The default is Static.
•
Active Ports. A listing of the ports that are actively participating members of this Port
Channel. A maximum of 4 ports can be assigned to a port channel.
•
LAG State. Indicates whether the link is Up or Down.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
LAG Membership
Use the LAG Membership page to select two or more full-duplex Ethernet links to be aggregated
together to form a link aggregation group (LAG), which is also known as a port-channel. The
switch can treat the port-channel as if it were a single link.
To access the LAG Membership page, click Switching > LAG > Basic > LAG Membership.
Figure 3-4
To create a LAG:
1. From the LAG ID field, select the LAG to configure.
2. In the LAG Name field, enter the name you want assigned to the LAG. You may enter any
string of up to 15 alphanumeric characters. A valid name has to be specified to create the LAG.
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3. Click the orange bar to display the ports.
4. Click the box below each port to include in the LAG. Figure 3-5 shows an example of how to
configure LAG1 with ports g7 and g8 as members.
Figure 3-5
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
7. To view the ports that are members of the selected LAG, click Current Members.
LACP Configuration
To display the LACP Configuration page, click Switching > LAG > Advanced > LACP
Configuration.
Figure 3-6
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To configure LACP:
1. From the LACP System Priority field, specify the device’s link aggregation priority relative to
the devices at the other ends of the links on which link aggregation is enabled. A higher value
indicates a lower priority. You can change the value of the parameter globally by specifying a
priority from 0–65535. The default value is 32768.
2. Click Refresh to reload the page and display the most current information.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
LACP Port Configuration
To display the LACP Port Configuration page, click Switching > LAG > Advanced > LACP
Port Configuration.
Figure 3-7
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To configure LACP port priority settings:
1. Select the check box next to the port to configure. You can select multiple ports to apply the
same setting to all selected ports.
Note: You cannot select ports that are not participating in a LAG.
2. Configure the LACP Priority value for the selected port. The field range is 0–255. The
default value is 128.
3. Configure the administrative LACP Timeout value.
•
Long. Specifies a long timeout value.
•
Short. Specifies a short timeout value.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
VLANs
Adding Virtual LAN (VLAN) support to a Layer 2 switch offers some of the benefits of both
bridging and routing. Like a bridge, a VLAN switch forwards traffic based on the Layer 2 header,
which is fast, and like a router, it partitions the network into logical segments, which provides
better administration, security and management of multicast traffic.
By default, all ports on the switch are in the same broadcast domain. VLANs electronically
separate ports on the same switch into separate broadcast domains so that broadcast packets are not
sent to all the ports on a single switch. When you use a VLAN, users can be grouped by logical
function instead of physical location.
Each VLAN in a network has an associated VLAN ID, which appears in the IEEE 802.1Q tag in
the Layer 2 header of packets transmitted on a VLAN. An end station may omit the tag, or the
VLAN portion of the tag, in which case the first switch port to receive the packet may either reject
it or insert a tag using its default VLAN ID. A given port may handle traffic for more than one
VLAN, but it can only support one default VLAN ID.
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From the VLAN link, you can access the following pages:
•
“VLAN Configuration” on page 3-11
•
“VLAN Membership Configuration” on page 3-12
•
“Port VLAN ID Configuration” on page 3-14
VLAN Configuration
Use the VLAN Configuration page to define VLAN groups stored in the VLAN membership
table. The GS108T supports up to 64 VLANs. Three VLANs are created by default:
•
VLAN 1 is the default VLAN of which all ports are members.
•
VLAN 2 is for voice traffic.
•
VLAN 3 is for Auto-Video traffic.
To display the VLAN Configuration page, lick Switching > VLAN > Basic > VLAN
Configuration.
Figure 3-8
To configure VLANs:
1. To add a VLAN, configure the VLAN ID, name, and type, and then click Add.
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•
VLAN ID. Specify the VLAN Identifier for the new VLAN. (You can only enter data in
this field when you are creating a new VLAN.) The range of the VLAN ID is 1–4093.
•
VLAN Name. Use this optional field to specify a name for the VLAN. It can be up to 32
alphanumeric characters long, including blanks. The default is blank. VLAN ID 1 is
always named Default.
•
VLAN Type. This field identifies the type of the VLAN you are configuring. You cannot
change the type of the default VLAN (VLAN ID = 1) because the type is always Default.
When you create a VLAN on this page, its type will always be Static.
2. To delete a VLAN, select the check box next to the VLAN ID and click Delete. You cannot
delete the default VLAN.
3. To modify settings for a VLAN, select the check box next to the VLAN ID, change the desired
information, and then click Apply. Configuration changes occur immediately.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. To reset the VLAN settings on the switch to the factory defaults, select the Reset
Configuration check box, and click OK in the popup message to confirm. If the Management
VLAN is set to a non-default VLAN (VLAN 1), it is automatically set to 1 after a Reset
Configuration.
VLAN Membership Configuration
Use this page to configure VLAN Port Membership for a particular VLAN. You can select the
Group operation through this page.
To display the VLAN Membership Configuration page, click Switching > VLAN > Advanced >
VLAN Membership.
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Figure 3-9
To configure VLAN membership:
1. From the VLAN ID field, select the VLAN to which you want to add ports.
2. Click the orange bar below the VLAN Type field to display the physical ports on the switch.
3. Click the lower orange bar to display the LAGs on the switch.
4. To select the port(s) or LAG(s) to add to the VLAN, click the square below each port or LAG.
You can add each interface as a tagged (T) or untagged (U) VLAN member.
•
Tagged: Frames transmitted from this port are tagged with the port VLAN ID.
•
Untagged: Frames transmitted from this port are untagged. Each port can be an untagged
member of only one VLAN. By default, all ports are an untagged member of VLAN 1.
In the following figure, ports g6, g7, and g8 are being added as tagged members to VLAN 2.
Figure 3-10
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5. Use the Group Operations field to select all the ports and configure them. Possible values
are:
•
Untag All: Select all the ports on which all frames transmitted from this VLAN will be
untagged. All the ports will be included in the VLAN.
•
Tag All: Select the ports on which all frames transmitted for this VLAN will be tagged.
All the ports will be included in the VLAN.
•
Remove All: This selection has the effect of excluding all ports from the selected VLAN.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take place immediately.
Port VLAN ID Configuration
The Port PVID Configuration screen lets you assign a port VLAN ID (PVID) to an interface.
There are certain requirements for a PVID:
•
All ports must have a defined PVID.
•
If no other value is specified, the default VLAN PVID is used.
•
If you want to change the port’s default PVID, you must first create a VLAN that includes the
port as a member.
•
Use the Port VLAN ID (PVID) Configuration page to configure a virtual LAN on a port.
To access the Port PVID Configuration page, click Switching > VLAN > Advanced > Port PVID
Configuration.
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Figure 3-11
To configure PVID information:
1. To configure PVID settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure PVID settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure PVID settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the interfaces to configure. You can select multiple interfaces to
apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading row to
apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. Configure the PVID to assign to untagged or priority tagged frames received on this port.
6. Specify how you want the port to handle untagged and priority tagged frames. Whichever you
select, VLAN tagged frames will be forwarded in accordance with the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
standard. The factory default is Admit All.
•
VLAN Only: The port will discard any untagged or priority tagged frames it receives.
•
Admit All: Untagged and priority tagged frames received on the port will be accepted and
assigned the value of the Port VLAN ID for this port.
7. Specify how you want the port to handle tagged frames:
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•
Enable: A tagged frame will be discarded if this port is not a member of the VLAN
identified by the VLAN ID in the tag. In an untagged frame, the VLAN is the Port VLAN
ID specified for the port that received this frame.
•
Disable: All frames are forwarded in accordance with the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard.
The factory default is Disable.
8. Specify the default 802.1p priority assigned to untagged packets arriving at the port. Possible
values are 0–7.
9. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
10. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take place immediately.
Voice VLAN
Configure the Voice VLAN settings for ports that carry traffic from IP phones. The Voice VLAN
feature can help ensure that the sound quality of an IP phone is safeguarded from deteriorating
when the data traffic on the port is high.
From the VLAN link, you can access the following pages:
•
“Voice VLAN Properties” on page 3-16
•
“Voice VLAN Port Setting” on page 3-18
•
“Voice VLAN OUI” on page 3-19
Voice VLAN Properties
To display the Voice VLAN Properties page, click Switching > Voice VLAN > Basic >
Properties.
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Figure 3-12
To configure Voice VLAN:
1. From the Voice VLAN Status field, enable or disable Voice VLAN on the switch. If the
switch does not handle traffic from IP phones, the status should be disabled.
2. From the Voice VLAN ID field, select the VLAN to use for voice traffic on the switch. The
VLAN must already exist on the switch. For information about how to create VLANs, see
“VLAN Configuration” on page 3-11.
3. From the Class of Service field, set the CoS tag value to be reassigned for packets received on
the Voice VLAN when Remark CoS is enabled.
4. From the Remark CoS field, select Enable or Disable to reassign the CoS tag value to packets
received on the Voice VLAN.
5. From the Voice VLAN Aging Time field, specify the amount of time after the last IP phone’s
OUI is aged out for a specific port. The port will age out after the bridge and voice aging time.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch.
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Voice VLAN Port Setting
To display the Voice VLAN Port Setting page, click Switching > Voice VLAN > Advanced >
Port Setting.
Figure 3-13
To configure Voice VLAN port settings:
1. Select the check box next to the port to configure. You can select multiple check boxes to
apply the same setting to all selected ports.
2. From the Voice VLAN Mode menu, specify whether to enable or disable Voice VLAN on the
selected port.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch.
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Voice VLAN OUI
The Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) identifies the IP phone manufacturer. The switch
comes preconfigured with the following OUIs:
• 00:01:E3: SIEMENS
• 00:03:6B: CISCO1
• 00:12:43: CISCO2
• 00:0F:E2: H3C
• 00:60:B9: NITSUKO
• 00:D0:1E: PINTEL
• 00:E0:75: VERILINK
• 00:E0:BB: 3COM
• 00:04:0D: AVAYA1
• 00:1B:4F: AVAYA2
You can select an existing OUI or add a new OUI and description to identify the IP phones on the
network.
To display the Voice VLAN OUI page, click Switching > Voice VLAN > Advanced > OUI.
Figure 3-14
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To configure OUI settings:
1. To add a new OUI prefix, type the VOIP OUI prefix in the Telephony OUI(s) field, provide a
description of the prefix, and click Add. The OUI prefix must be in the format AA:BB:CC.
2. To delete an OUI prefix from the list, select the check box next to the OUI prefix and click
Delete.
3. To modify information for an entry in the OUI list, select the check box next to the OUI prefix,
update the OUI prefix or description, and then click Apply.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. Click Restore Defaults to restore the list to the preconfigured OUIs.
Auto-VoIP
The Auto-VoIP automatically makes sure that time-sensitive voice traffic is given priority over
data traffic on ports that have this feature enabled. Auto-VoIP checks for packets carrying the
following VoIP protocols:
•
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
•
H.323
•
Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
•
Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
VoIP frames that are received on ports that have the Auto-VoIP feature enabled are marked with
CoS traffic class 3.
To display the Auto-VoIP page, click Switching > Auto-VoIP.
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Figure 3-15
To configure Auto-VoIP settings:
1. Select the check box next to the port to configure. You can select multiple check boxes to
apply the same setting to all selected ports.
2. From the Auto-VoIP Mode menu, specify whether to enable or disable Auto-VoIP on the
selected port.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make any changes to this page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch.
Spanning Tree Protocol
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) provides a tree topology for any arrangement of bridges. STP
also provides one path between end stations on a network, eliminating loops. Spanning tree
versions supported include Common STP, Multiple STP, and Rapid STP.
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Classic STP provides a single path between end stations, avoiding and eliminating loops. For
information on configuring Common STP, see “CST Port Configuration” on page 3-26.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) supports multiple instances of Spanning Tree to
efficiently channel VLAN traffic over different interfaces. Each instance of the Spanning Tree
behaves in the manner specified in IEEE 802.1w, Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP), with slight
modifications in the working but not the end effect (chief among the effects, is the rapid
transitioning of the port to ‘Forwarding’). The difference between the RSTP and the traditional
STP (IEEE 802.1D) is the ability to configure and recognize full-duplex connectivity and ports
which are connected to end stations, resulting in rapid transitioning of the port to ‘Forwarding’
state and the suppression of Topology Change Notification. These features are represented by the
parameters ‘pointtopoint’ and ‘edgeport’. MSTP is compatible to both RSTP and STP. It behaves
appropriately to STP and RSTP bridges. A MSTP bridge can be configured to behave entirely as a
RSTP bridge or a STP bridge.
Note: For two bridges to be in the same region, the force version should be 802.1s and
their configuration name, digest key, and revision level should match. For
additional information about regions and their effect on network topology, refer to
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
The Spanning Tree folder contains links to the following features:
•
“STP Switch Configuration” on page 3-22
•
“CST Configuration” on page 3-25
•
“CST Port Configuration” on page 3-26
•
“CST Port Status” on page 3-28
•
“Rapid STP” on page 3-30
•
“MST Configuration” on page 3-31
•
“MST Port Configuration” on page 3-33
•
“STP Statistics” on page 3-37
STP Switch Configuration
The Spanning Tree Switch Configuration/Status page contains fields for enabling STP on the
switch.
To display the Spanning Tree Switch Configuration/Status page, click Switching > STP > Basic >
STP Configuration.
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Figure 3-16
To configure STP settings on the switch:
1. From the Spanning Tree State field, specify whether to enable or disable Spanning Tree
operation on the switch.
2. From the STP Operation Mode field, Specifies the Force Protocol Version parameter for the
switch. Options are:
•
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol): IEEE 802.1D
•
RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol): IEEE 802.1w
•
MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol): IEEE 802.1s
3. Specify the configuration name and revision level.
•
Configuration Name. Name used to identify the configuration currently being used. It
may be up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
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•
Configuration Revision Level. Number used to identify the configuration currently being
used. The values allowed are between 0 and 65535. The default value is 0.
4. Specify the BPDU Flooding status for all ports or for individual ports. When this feature is
enabled, BPDU packets arriving at this port are flooded to other ports if STP is disabled.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch
6. If you make any configuration changes, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes occur immediately.
The following table describes the STP Status information displayed on the screen.
Table 3-1. Spanning Tree Switch Status Fields
Field
Description
Bridge Identifier
The bridge identifier for the CST. It is made up using the bridge priority and
the base MAC address of the bridge.
Time Since Topology
Change
The time in seconds since the topology of the CST last changed.
Topology Change Count
The number of times the topology has changed for the CST.
Topology Change
The value of the topology change parameter for the switch indicating if a
topology change is in progress on any port assigned to the CST. The value is
either True or False.
Designated Root
The bridge identifier of the root bridge. It is made up from the bridge priority
and the base MAC address of the bridge.
Root Path Cost
Path cost to the Designated Root for the CST.
Root Port
Port to access the Designated Root for the CST.
Max Age (secs)
Specifies the bridge maximum age for CST. The value must be less than or
equal to (2 X Bridge Forward Delay) – 1 and greater than or equal to 2 X
(Bridge Hello Time +1).
Forward Delay (secs)
Derived value of the Root Port Bridge Forward Delay parameter.
Hold TIme (secs)
Minimum time between transmission of Configuration BPDUs.
CST Regional Root
Priority and base MAC address of the CST Regional Root.
CST Path Cost
Path Cost to the CST tree Regional Root.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
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CST Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree CST Configuration page to configure Common Spanning Tree (CST) and
Internal Spanning Tree on the switch.
To display the Spanning Tree CST Configuration page, click Switching > STP > Advanced >
CST Configuration.
Figure 3-17
To configure CST settings:
1. Specify values for CST in the appropriate fields:
•
Bridge Priority. When switches or bridges are running STP, each is assigned a priority.
After exchanging BPDUs, the switch with the lowest priority value becomes the root
bridge. Specifies the bridge priority value for the Common and Internal Spanning Tree
(CST). The valid range is 0–61440. The bridge priority is a multiple of 4096. If you
specify a priority that is not a multiple of 4096, the priority is automatically set to the next
lowest priority that is a multiple of 4096. For example, if the priority is attempted to be set
to any value between 0 and 4095, it will be set to 0. The default priority is 32768.
•
Bridge Max Age (secs). Specifies the bridge maximum age time for the Common and
Internal Spanning Tree (CST), which indicates the amount of time in seconds a bridge
waits before implementing a topological change. The valid range is 6–40, and the value
must be less than or equal to (2 * Bridge Forward Delay) – 1 and greater than or equal to 2
* (Bridge Hello Time +1). The default value is 20.
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•
Bridge Hello Time (secs). Specifies the switch Hello time for the Common and Internal
Spanning Tree (CST), which indicates the amount of time in seconds a root bridge waits
between configuration messages. The value is fixed at 2 seconds.
•
Bridge Forward Delay (secs). Specifies the switch forward delay time, which indicates
the amount of time in seconds a bridge remains in a listening and learning state before
forwarding packets. The value must be greater or equal to (Bridge Max Age / 2) + 1. The
time range is from 4 seconds to 30 seconds. The default value is 15.
•
Spanning Tree Maximum Hops. Specifies the maximum number of bridge hops the
information for a particular CST instance can travel before being discarded. The valid
range is 1–127.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch
3. If you make any configuration changes, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take place immediately.
The following table describes the MSTP status information displayed on the Spanning Tree CST
Configuration page.
Table 3-2. Spanning Tree MSTP Status Fields
Field
Description
MST ID
Table consisting of the MST instances (including the CST) and the
corresponding VLAN IDs associated with each of them.
VID
Table consisting of the VLAN IDs and the corresponding FID associated with
each of them
FID
Table consisting of the FIDs and the corresponding VLAN IDs associated
with each of them.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
CST Port Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree CST Port Configuration page to configure Common Spanning Tree (CST)
and Internal Spanning Tree on a specific port on the switch.
To display the Spanning Tree CST Port Configuration page, click Switching > STP > Advanced >
CST Port Configuration.
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Figure 3-18
To configure CST port settings:
1. To configure CST settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure CST settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure CST settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. Configure the CST values for the selected port(s) or LAG(s):
•
STP Status. Enable or disable the Spanning Tree Protocol Administrative Mode
associated with the port or port channel.
•
Fast Link. Specifies if the specified port is an Edge Port with the CST. Possible values are
Enable or Disable. The default is Disable.
•
Port State. The Forwarding state of this port. This field is read-only.
•
Path Cost. Set the Path Cost to a new value for the specified port in the common and
internal spanning tree. It takes a value in the range of 1–200000000.
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•
Priority. The priority for a particular port within the CST. The port priority is set in
multiples of 16. If you specify a value that is not a multiple of 16, the priority is set to the
priority is automatically set to the next lowest priority that is a multiple of 16. For
example, if you set a value between 0 and 15, the priority is set to 0. If you specify a
number between 16 and 31, the priority is set to 16.
•
External Port Path Cost. Set the External Path Cost to a new value for the specified port
in the spanning tree. It takes a value in the range of 1–200000000.
•
Port ID. The port identifier for the specified port within the CST. It is made up from the
port priority and the interface number of the port.
•
Hello Timer. Specifies the switch Hello time, which indicates the amount of time in
seconds a port waits between configuration messages. The value is fixed at 2 seconds.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make any configuration changes, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take place immediately.
8. Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
CST Port Status
Use the Spanning Tree CST Port Status page to display Common Spanning Tree (CST) and
Internal Spanning Tree on a specific port on the switch.
To display the Spanning Tree CST Port Status page, click Switching > STP > Advanced > CST
Port Status.
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Figure 3-19
The following table describes the CST Status information displayed on the screen.
Table 3-3. Spanning Tree CST Port Status Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Select a physical or port channel interface to configure. The port is
associated with the VLAN(s) associated with the CST.
Port Role
Each MST Bridge Port that is enabled is assigned a Port Role for each
spanning tree. The port role will be one of the following values: Root Port,
Designated Port, Alternate Port, Backup Port, Master Port, or Disabled
Port.
Designated Root
Root Bridge for the CST. It is made up using the bridge priority and the base
MAC address of the bridge.
Designated Cost
Displays cost of the port participating in the STP topology. Ports with a lower
cost are less likely to be blocked if STP detects loops.
Designated Bridge
Bridge Identifier of the bridge with the Designated Port. It is made up using
the bridge priority and the base MAC address of the bridge.
Designated Port
Port Identifier on the Designated Bridge that offers the lowest cost to the
LAN. It is made up from the port priority and the interface number of the port.
Topology Change
Acknowledge
Identifies whether the next BPDU to be transmitted for this port would have
the topology change acknowledgement flag set. It is either True or False.
Edge Port
Indicates whether the port is enabled as an edge port. Possible values are
Enabled or Disabled.
Point-to-point MAC
Derived value of the point-to-point status.
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Table 3-3. Spanning Tree CST Port Status Fields (continued)
Field
Description
CST Regional Root
Displays the bridge priority and base MAC address of the CST Regional
Root.
CST Path Cost
Displays the path Cost to the CST tree Regional Root.
Port Forwarding State
Displays the Forwarding State of this port.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
Rapid STP
Use the Rapid STP page to view information about Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP) port status.
To display the Rapid STP page, click Switching > STP > Advanced > RSTP.
Figure 3-20
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The following table describes the Rapid STP Status information displayed on the screen.
Table 3-4. Rapid STP Status
Field
Description
Interface
The physical or port channel interfaces associated with VLANs associated with the CST.
Role
Each MST Bridge Port that is enabled is assigned a Port Role for each spanning tree.
The port role will be one of the following values: Root Port, Designated Port, Alternate
Port, Backup Port, Master Port, or Disabled Port.
Mode
Specifies the spanning tree operation mode. Different modes are STP, RSTP, and MSTP.
Fast Link
Indicates whether the port is enabled as an edge port.
Status
The Forwarding State of this port.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
MST Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree MST Configuration page to configure Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) on
the switch.
To display the Spanning Tree MST Configuration page, click Switching > STP > Advanced >
MST Configuration.
Figure 3-21
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To configure an MST instance:
1. To add an MST instance, configure the MST values and click Add:
•
MST ID. Specify the ID of the MST to create. Valid values for this are between 1 and
4094.
•
Priority. Specifies the bridge priority value for the MST. When switches or bridges are
running STP, each is assigned a priority. After exchanging BPDUs, the switch with the
lowest priority value becomes the root bridge. The bridge priority is a multiple of 4096. If
you specify a priority that is not a multiple of 4096, the priority is automatically set to the
next lowest priority that is a multiple of 4096. For example, if the priority is attempted to
be set to any value between 0 and 4095, it will be set to 0. The default priority is
32768.The valid range is 0–61440.
•
VLAN ID. The menu contains all VLANs configured on the switch. Select a VLAN to
associate with the MST instance.
2. To delete an MST instance, select the check box next to the instance and click Delete.
3. To modify an MST instance, select the check box next to the instance to configure, update the
values, and click Apply. You can select multiple check boxes to apply the same setting to all
selected ports.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
For each configured instance, the information described in the following table displays on the
page.
Table 3-5. Spanning Tree MST Status
Field
Description
Bridge Identifier The bridge identifier for the selected MST instance. It is made up using the bridge priority
and the base MAC address of the bridge.
Time Since
Topology
Change
Displays the total amount of time since the topology of the selected MST instance last
changed. The time is displayed in hour/minute/second format, for example, 5 hours, 10
minutes, and 4 seconds.
Topology
Change Count
Displays the total number of times topology has changed for the selected MST instance.
Topology
Change
Indicates whether a topology change is in progress on any port assigned to the selected
MST instance. The possible values are True or False.
Designated
Root
Displays the bridge identifier of the root bridge, which is made up from the bridge priority
and the base MAC address of the bridge.
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Table 3-5. Spanning Tree MST Status (continued)
Field
Description
Root Path Cost
Displays the path cost to the Designated Root for this MST instance.
Root Port
Indicates the port to access the Designated Root for this MST instance.
MST Port Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree MST Port Configuration page to configure and display Multiple Spanning
Tree (MST) settings on a specific port on the switch.
To display the Spanning Tree MST Port Status page, click Switching > STP > Advanced > MST
Port Configuration. Figure 3-22 and Figure 3-23 show the left and right portions of the Web
page.
Figure 3-22
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Figure 3-23
Note: If no MST instances have been configured on the switch, the page displays a “No
MSTs Available” message and does not display the fields shown in Table 3-6 on
page 3-35.
Figure 3-24
To configure MST port settings:
1. To configure MST settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure MST settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure MST settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. Configure the MST values for the selected port(s) or LAG(s):
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•
Port Priority. The priority for a particular port within the selected MST instance. The port
priority is set in multiples of 16. If you specify a value that is not a multiple of 16, the
priority is set to the priority is automatically set to the next lowest priority that is a
multiple of 16. For example, if you set a value between 0 and 15, the priority is set to 0. If
you specify a number between 16 and 31, the priority is set to 16.
•
Port Path Cost. Set the Path Cost to a new value for the specified port in the selected
MST instance. It takes a value in the range of 1–200000000.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch
7. If you make any configuration changes, click Apply to send the updated configuration to the
switch. Configuration changes take place immediately.
The following table describes the read-only MST port configuration information displayed on the
Spanning Tree CST Configuration page
Table 3-6. Spanning Tree MST Port Status Fields
Field
Description
Auto-calculated Port Path
Cost
Displays whether the path cost is automatically calculated (Enabled) or not
(Disabled). Path cost is calculated based on the link speed of the port if the
configured value for Port Path Cost is zero.
Port ID
The port identifier for the specified port within the selected MST instance. It
is made up from the port priority and the interface number of the port.
Port Up Time Since
Counters Last Cleared
Time since the counters were last cleared, displayed in Days, Hours,
Minutes, and Seconds.
Port Mode
Spanning Tree Protocol Administrative Mode associated with the port or port
channel. Possible values are Enable or Disable.
Port Forwarding State
Indicates the current STP state of a port. If enabled, the port state
determines what forwarding action is taken on traffic. Possible port states
are:
• Disabled: STP is currently disabled on the port. The port forwards traffic
while learning MAC addresses.
• Blocking: The port is currently blocked and cannot be used to forward
traffic or learn MAC addresses.
• Listening: The port is currently in the listening mode. The port cannot
forward traffic nor can it learn MAC addresses.
• Learning: The port is currently in the learning mode. The port cannot
forward traffic, however, it can learn new MAC addresses.
• Forwarding: The port is currently in the forwarding mode. The port can
forward traffic and learn new MAC addresses
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Table 3-6. Spanning Tree MST Port Status Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Port Role
Each MST Bridge Port that is enabled is assigned a Port Role for each
spanning tree. The port role will be one of the following values: Root Port,
Designated Port, Alternate Port, Backup Port, Master Port, or Disabled
Port.
Designated Root
Root Bridge for the selected MST instance. It is made up using the bridge
priority and the base MAC address of the bridge.
Designated Cost
Displays cost of the port participating in the STP topology. Ports with a lower
cost are less likely to be blocked if STP detects loops.
Designated Bridge
Bridge Identifier of the bridge with the Designated Port. It is made up using
the bridge priority and the base MAC address of the bridge.
Designated Port
Port Identifier on the Designated Bridge that offers the lowest cost to the
LAN. It is made up from the port priority and the interface number of the port.
Click Refresh to update the screen with the latest MST information.
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STP Statistics
Use the Spanning Tree Statistics page to view information about the number and type of bridge
protocol data units (BPDUs) transmitted and received on each port.
To display the Spanning Tree Statistics page, click Switching > STP > Advanced > STP
Statistics.
Figure 3-25
The following table describes the information available on the STP Statistics page.
Table 3-7. Spanning Tree Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Select a physical or port channel interface to view its statistics.
STP BPDUs Received
Number of STP BPDUs received at the selected port.
STP BPDUs Transmitted
Number of STP BPDUs transmitted from the selected port.
RSTP BPDUs Received
Number of RSTP BPDUs received at the selected port.
RSTP BPDUs Transmitted
Number of RSTP BPDUs transmitted from the selected port.
MSTP BPDUs Received
Number of MSTP BPDUs received at the selected port.
MSTP BPDUs Transmitted
Number of MSTP BPDUs transmitted from the selected port.
Click Refresh to update the screen with the latest STP statistics information.
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Multicast
Multicast IP traffic is traffic that is destined to a host group. Host groups are identified by class D
IP addresses, which range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.
From the Multicast link, you can access the following pages:
•
“Auto-Video Configuration” on page 3-38
•
“IGMP Snooping” on page 3-39
•
“IGMP Snooping Querier” on page 3-50
Auto-Video Configuration
The Auto-Video feature simplifies IGMP Snooping Querier configuration if the switch supports
devices or applications running multicast traffic, such as video surveillance cameras.
To access the Auto-Video Configuration page, click Switching > Multicast > Auto-Video.
Figure 3-26
To configure the Auto-Video feature:
1. Enable or disable the Auto-Video feature.
•
Enable. The IGMP Snooping Querier is automatically configured with the default VLAN
ID for the Auto-Video VLAN
•
Disable. IGMP Snooping settings must be manually configured.
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2. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes take
effect immediately.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Snooping is a feature that allows a switch to
forward multicast traffic intelligently on the switch. Multicast IP traffic is traffic that is destined to
a host group. Host groups are identified by class D IP addresses, which range from 224.0.0.0 to
239.255.255.255. Based on the IGMP query and report messages, the switch forwards traffic only
to the ports that request the multicast traffic. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic
to all ports and possibly affecting network performance.
A traditional Ethernet network may be separated into different network segments to prevent
placing too many devices onto the same shared media. Bridges and switches connect these
segments. When a packet with a broadcast or multicast destination address is received, the switch
will forward a copy into each of the remaining network segments in accordance with the IEEE
MAC Bridge standard. Eventually, the packet is made accessible to all nodes connected to the
network.
This approach works well for broadcast packets that are intended to be seen or processed by all
connected nodes. In the case of multicast packets, however, this approach could lead to less
efficient use of network bandwidth, particularly when the packet is intended for only a small
number of nodes. Packets will be flooded into network segments where no node has any interest in
receiving the packet. While nodes will rarely incur any processing overhead to filter packets
addressed to unrequested group addresses, they are unable to transmit new packets onto the shared
media for the period of time that the multicast packet is flooded. The problem of wasting
bandwidth is even worse when the LAN segment is not shared, for example in full-duplex links.
Allowing switches to snoop IGMP packets is a creative effort to solve this problem. The switch
uses the information in the IGMP packets as they are being forwarded throughout the network to
determine which segments should receive packets directed to the group address.
IGMP Snooping Configuration
Use the IGMP Snooping Configuration page to configure the parameters for IGMP snooping,
which is used to build forwarding lists for multicast traffic.
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To access the IGMP Snooping Configuration page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP
Snooping > IGMP Snooping Configuration.
Figure 3-27
To configure IGMP Snooping:
1. Enable or disable IGMP Snooping on the switch.
•
Enable. The switch snoops all IGMP packets it receives to determine which segments
should receive packets directed to the group address.
•
Disable. The switch does not snoop IGMP packets.
2. Click Apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes take
effect immediately.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch
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The following table displays information about the global IGMP snooping status and statistics on
the page.
Table 3-8. IGMP Snooping Configuration Fields
Field
Description
IGMP Snooping Status
Select the administrative mode for IGMP Snooping for the switch. The
default is Disable.
Multicast Control Frame
Count
Displays the number of multicast control frames that have been processed
by the CPU.
Interfaces Enabled for
IGMP Snooping
Lists the interfaces currently enabled for IGMP Snooping. To enable
interfaces for IGMP snooping, see “IGMP Snooping Interface Configuration”
on page 3-41.
Data Frames Forwarded by Displays the number of data frames forwarded by the CPU.
the CPU
VLAN Ids Enabled For
IGMP Snooping
Displays VLAN IDs enabled for IGMP snooping. To enable VLANs for IGMP
snooping, see “IGMP Snooping VLAN Configuration” on page 3-48.
VLAN Ids Enabled For
IGMP Snooping Querier
Displays VLAN IDs enabled for IGMP snooping querier.
IGMP Snooping Interface Configuration
Use the IGMP Snooping Interface Configuration page to configure IGMP snooping settings on
specific interfaces.
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To access the IGMP Snooping Interface Configuration page, click Switching > Multicast >
IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping Interface Configuration.
Figure 3-28
To configure IGMP Snooping interface settings:
1. To configure IGMP Snooping settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure IGMP Snooping settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure IGMP Snooping settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. Configure the IGMP Snooping values for the selected port(s) or LAG(s):
•
Admin Mode. Select the interface mode for the selected interface for IGMP Snooping for
the switch from the menu. The default is Disable.
•
Host Timeout. Specify the amount of time you want the switch to wait for a report for a
particular group on a particular interface before it deletes that interface from the group.
Enter a value between 2 and 3600 seconds. The default is 260 seconds.
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•
Max Response Time. Specify the amount of time you want the switch to wait after
sending a query on an interface because it did not receive a report for a particular group on
that interface. Enter a value greater or equal to 1 and less than the Host Timeout, in
seconds. The default is 10 seconds.
•
MRouter Timeout. Specify the amount of time you want the switch to wait to receive a
query on an interface before removing it from the list of interfaces with multicast routers
attached. Enter a value between 0 and 3600 seconds. The default is 0 seconds. A value of
zero indicates an infinite timeout; no expiration.
•
Fast Leave Admin Mode. Select the Fast Leave mode for a particular interface from the
menu. The default is Disable.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make any configuration changes, click Apply to apply the new settings to the switch.
Configuration changes take effect immediately.
IGMP Snooping Table
Use the IGMP Snooping Table page to view all of the entries in the Multicast Forwarding
Database that were created for IGMP snooping.
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To access the IGMP Snooping Table page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP Snooping >
IGMP Snooping Table.
Figure 3-29
The following table describes the fields in the IGMP Snooping Table.
Table 3-9. IGMP Snooping Table Fields
Field
Description
MAC Address
A multicast MAC address for which the switch has forwarding and/or filtering
information. The format is 6 two-digit hexadecimal numbers that are
separated by colons, for example, 01:00:5e:45:67:89.
VLAN ID
A VLAN ID for which the switch has forwarding and filtering information.
Type
This displays the type of the entry. Static entries are those that are
configured by the end user. Dynamic entries are added to the table as a
result of a learning process or protocol.
Description
The text description of this multicast table entry. Possible values are
Management Configured, Network Configured, and Network Assisted.
Interface
The list of interfaces that are designated for forwarding (Fwd) and filtering
(Flt) for the associated address.
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Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear to clear one or all of the IGMP Snooping entries.
•
Click Refresh to reload the page and display the most current information.
Multicast Forwarding Database Table
The Layer 2 Multicast Forwarding Database (MFDB) is used by the switch to make forwarding
decisions for packets that arrive with a multicast destination MAC address. By limiting multicasts
to only certain ports in the switch, traffic is prevented from going to parts of the network where
that traffic is unnecessary.
When a packet enters the switch, the destination MAC address is combined with the VLAN ID and
a search is performed in the Layer 2 Multicast Forwarding Database. If no match is found, then the
packet is either flooded to all ports in the VLAN or discarded, depending on the switch
configuration. If a match is found, then the packet is forwarded only to the ports that are members
of that multicast group.
Use the MFDB Table page to view the port membership information for all active multicast
address entries. The key for an entry consists of a MAC address. Entries may contain data for more
than one protocol.
To access the MFDB Table page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP Snooping > MFDB
Table.
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Figure 3-30
The following table describes the fields in the MFDB Table.
Table 3-10. MFDB Table Fields
Field
Description
MAC Address
The MAC Address to which the multicast MAC address is related.
To search by MAC address, enter the address with the MFDB table entry you
want displayed. Enter six two-digit hexadecimal numbers separated by
colons, for example 00:0f:43:67:89:AB, and then click Go. If the address
exists, that entry will be displayed. An exact match is required.
VLAN ID
The VLAN ID to which the multicast MAC address is related.
Component
This is the component that is responsible for this entry in the Multicast
Forwarding Database. Possible values are IGMP Snooping or Static
Filtering.
Type
This displays the type of the entry. Static entries are those that are
configured by the end user. Dynamic entries are added to the table as a
result of a learning process or protocol.
Description
The text description of this multicast table entry. Possible values are
Management Configured, Network Configured, and Network Assisted.
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Table 3-10. MFDB Table Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Interface
The list of interfaces that are designated for forwarding (Fwd) and filtering
(Flt) for the selected address.
Forwarding Interfaces
The resultant forwarding list is derived from combining all the forwarding
interfaces and removing the interfaces that are listed as the static filtering
interfaces.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
MFDB Statistics
Use the multicast forwarding database Statistics page to view statistical information about the
MFDB table.
To access the MFDB Statistics page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP Snooping > MFDB
Statistics.
Figure 3-31
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The following table describes the information available on the MFDB Statistics page:
Table 3-11. Multicast Forwarding Database Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Max MFDB Table Entries
Displays the maximum number of entries that the Multicast Forwarding
Database table can hold.
Most MFDB Entries Since
Last Reset
The largest number of entries that have been present in the Multicast
Forwarding Database table since the system was last reset. This value is
also known as the MFDB high-water mark.
Current Entries
Displays the current number of entries in the Multicast Forwarding Database
table.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen with the most current data.
IGMP Snooping VLAN Configuration
Use the IGMP Snooping VLAN Configuration page to configure IGMP snooping settings for
VLANs on the system.
To access the IGMP Snooping VLAN Configuration page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP
Snooping > IGMP Snooping VLAN Configuration.
Figure 3-32
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To configure IGMP snooping settings for VLANs:
1. To enable IGMP snooping on a VLAN, enter the VLAN ID in the appropriate field and
configure the IGMP Snooping values:
•
Fast Leave Admin Mode. Enable or disable the IGMP Snooping Fast Leave Mode for the
specified VLAN ID. Enabling fast-leave allows the switch to immediately remove the
layer 2 LAN interface from its forwarding table entry upon receiving an IGMP leave
message for that multicast group without first sending out MAC-based general queries to
the interface.You should enable fast-leave admin mode only on VLANs where only one
host is connected to each layer 2 LAN port. This prevents the inadvertent dropping of the
other hosts that were connected to the same layer 2 LAN port but were still interested in
receiving multicast traffic directed to that group. Also, fast-leave processing is supported
only with IGMP version 2 hosts.
•
Host Timeout. Sets the value for group membership interval of IGMP snooping for the
specified VLAN ID. The valid range is (Maximum Response Time + 1) to 3600 seconds.
•
Maximum Response Time. Enter the amount of time in seconds that a switch will wait
after sending a query on the VLAN because it did not receive a report for a particular
group in that interface. value. The valid range is 1 to 25 seconds. Its value must be less
than the Host Timeout value.
•
MRouter Timeout. Enter the amount of time that a switch will wait to receive a query on
the VLAN before removing it from the list of VLANs with multicast routers attached.
Enter a value between 0 and 3600 seconds. The default is 0 seconds, which means there is
no expiration.
•
Query Mode. Enable or disable the IGMP Querier Mode for the specified VLAN ID.
•
Query Interval. Enter the value for IGMP Query Interval for the specified VLAN ID.
Valid range is 1–1800 seconds. The default is 25 seconds.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
3. To disable IGMP snooping on a VLAN and remove it from the list, select the check box next
to the VLAN ID and click Delete.
4. To modify IGMP snooping settings for a VLAN, select the check box next to the VLAN ID,
update the desired values, and click Apply.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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IGMP Snooping Querier
IGMP snooping requires that one central switch or router periodically query all end-devices on the
network to announce their multicast memberships. This central device is the IGMP querier. The
IGMP query responses, known as IGMP reports, keep the switch updated with the current
multicast group membership on a port-by-port basis. If the switch does not receive updated
membership information in a timely fashion, it will stop forwarding multicasts to the port where
the end device is located.
These pages enable you to configure and display information on IGMP snooping queriers on the
network and, separately, on VLANs.
The IGMP Snooping Querier feature contains links to the following pages:
•
“IGMP Snooping Querier Configuration” on page 3-50
•
“IGMP Snooping Querier VLAN Configuration” on page 3-51
•
“IGMP Snooping Querier VLAN Status” on page 3-53
IGMP Snooping Querier Configuration
Use this page to enable or disable the IGMP Snooping Querier feature, specify the IP address of
the router to perform the querying, and configure the related parameters.
To access this page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP Snooping Querier > IGMP Snooping
> Querier Configuration.
Figure 3-33
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To configure IGMP Snooping Querier settings:
1. From the Querier Admin Mode field, enable or disable the administrative mode for IGMP
Snooping Querier.
2. In the Snooping Querier Address field, specify the IP address to be used as source address in
periodic IGMP queries. This address is used when no address is configured on the VLAN on
which the query is being sent.
3. In the IGMP Version field, specify the IGMP protocol version used in periodic IGMP queries.
4. In the Query Interval field, specify the time interval in seconds between periodic queries sent
by the snooping querier. The Query Interval must be a value in the range of 1–1800 seconds.
The default value is 60.
5. In the Querier Expiry Interval field, specify the time interval in seconds after which the last
querier information is removed. The Querier Expiry Interval must be a value in the range of
60–300 seconds. The default value is 60.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. Click Apply to apply the new settings to the switch. Configuration changes take effect
immediately
8. Click Refresh to update the page with the latest information from the switch.
IGMP Snooping Querier VLAN Configuration
Use this page to configure IGMP queriers for use with VLANs on the network.
To access this page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP Snooping Querier > Querier VLAN
Configuration.
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Figure 3-34
To configure Querier VLAN settings:
1. To create a new VLAN ID for IGMP Snooping, select New Entry from the VLAN ID field and
complete the following fields:
•
VLAN ID. Specifies the VLAN ID for which the IGMP Snooping Querier is to be
enabled.
•
Querier Election Participate Mode. Enable or disable Querier Participate Mode.
•
•
Disabled. Upon seeing another querier of the same version in the VLAN, the
snooping querier moves to the non-querier state.
•
Enabled. The snooping querier participates in querier election, in which the least IP
address operates as the querier in that VLAN. The other querier moves to non-querier
state.
Snooping Querier VLAN Address. Specify the Snooping Querier IP Address to be used
as the source address in periodic IGMP queries sent on the specified VLAN.
2. Click Apply to apply the new settings to the switch. Configuration changes take effect
immediately
3. To disable Snooping Querier on a VLAN, select the VLAN ID and click Delete.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. Click Refresh to update the page with the latest information from the switch.
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IGMP Snooping Querier VLAN Status
Use this page to view the operational state and other information for IGMP snooping queriers for
VLANs on the network.
To access this page, click Switching > Multicast > IGMP Snooping Querier > Querier VLAN
Status.
Figure 3-35
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The following table describes the information available on the Querier VLAN Status page.
Table 3-12. IGMP Snooping Querier VLAN Status Fields
Field
Description
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN ID on which the IGMP Snooping Querier is
administratively enabled and for which VLAN exists in the VLAN database.
Operational State
Specifies the operational state of the IGMP Snooping Querier on a VLAN:
• Querier: The snooping switch is the querier in the VLAN. The snooping
switch will send out periodic queries with a time interval equal to the
configured querier query interval. If the snooping switch sees a better
querier (numerically lower) in the VLAN, it moves to non-querier mode.
• Non-Querier: The snooping switch is in non-querier mode in the VLAN. If
the querier expiry interval timer expires, the snooping switch moves into
querier mode.
• Disabled: The snooping querier is not operational on the VLAN. The
snooping querier moves to disabled mode when IGMP snooping is not
operational on the VLAN, when the querier address is not configured, or
the network management address is not configured.
Operational Version
Displays the IGMP protocol version of the operational querier.
Last Querier Address
Displays the IP address of the last querier from which a query was snooped
on the VLAN.
Last Querier Version
Displays the IGMP protocol version of the last querier from which a query
was snooped on the VLAN.
Operational Max Response Displays the maximum response time to be used in the queries that are sent
Time
by the snooping querier.
Click Refresh to redisplay the page with the latest information from the switch.
Forwarding Database
The forwarding database maintains a list of MAC addresses after having received a packet from
this MAC address. The transparent bridging function uses the forwarding database entries to
determine how to forward a received frame.
The Address Table folder contains links to the following features:
•
“MAC Address Table” on page 3-55
•
“Dynamic Address Configuration” on page 3-56
•
“Static MAC Address” on page 3-58
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MAC Address Table
The MAC Address Table contains information about unicast entries for which the switch has
forwarding and/or filtering information. This information is used by the transparent bridging
function in determining how to propagate a received frame. Use the search function of the MAC
Address Table page to display information about the entries in the table.
To access this page, click Switching > Address Table > Basic > Address Table.
Figure 3-36
To search for an entry in the MAC Address Table:
1. Use the Search By field to search for MAC Addresses by MAC Address, VLAN ID, or
Interface.
•
MAC Address: Select MAC Address from the menu and enter a six-byte hexadecimal
MAC address in two-digit groups separated by colons, then click Go. If the address exists,
that entry will be displayed. An exact match is required.
•
VLAN ID: Select VLAN ID from the menu, enter the VLAN ID, for example, 100. Then
click Go. If any entries with that VLAN ID exist they are displayed.
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•
Interface: Select Interface from the menu, enter the interface ID in g1, g2... format, then,
click Go. If any entries learned on that interface exist, they are displayed.
2. Click Clear to clear Dynamic MAC Addresses in the table.
3. Click Refresh to redisplay the page to show the latest MAC Addresses.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The following table describes the information available for each entry in the address table.
Table 3-13. MAC Address Table Fields
Field
Description
VLAN ID
Specifies the VLAN ID on which the IGMP Snooping Querier is
administratively enabled and for which VLAN exists in the VLAN database.
MAC Address
A unicast MAC address for which the switch has forwarding and/or filtering
information. The format is a six-byte MAC address with each byte separated
by colons. For example, 00:0F:89:AB:CD:EF.
Interface
The port where this address was learned: that is, this field displays the port
through which the MAC address can be reached.
Status
The status of this entry. The possible values are:
• Static: The entry was added when a static MAC filter was defined.
• Learned: The entry was learned by observing the source MAC addresses
of incoming traffic, and is currently in use.
• Management: The system MAC address, which is identified with interface
c1.
Dynamic Address Configuration
Use the Dynamic Addresses page to set the amount of time to keep a learned MAC address entry
in the forwarding database. The forwarding database contains static entries, which are never aged
out, and dynamically learned entries, which are removed if they are not updated within a given
time.
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To access the Configuration page, click Switching > Address Table > Advanced > Dynamic
Addresses.
Figure 3-37
To configure the Dynamic Address setting:
1. Specify the number of seconds the forwarding database should wait before deleting a learned
entry that has not been updated. IEEE 802.1D-1990 recommends a default of 300 seconds.
You may enter any number of seconds between 10 and 1000000. The factory default is 300.
Note: IEEE 802.1D recommends a default of 300 seconds, which is the factory
default.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
3. Click Apply to apply to send the updated configuration to the switch. Configuration changes
take effect immediately.
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Static MAC Address
Use the Static MAC Address Configuration page to configure and view static MAC addresses on
an interface.
To access the Static MAC Address Configuration page, click Switching > Address Table >
Advanced > Static MAC Address.
Figure 3-38
To configure a static MAC address:
1. To add a static MAC address entry
a. Select the VLAN ID corresponding to the MAC address to add.
b. Specify the MAC address to add.
c. Specify the port associated with the MAC address.
d. Click Add.
2. To delete a static MAC address, select the check box next to the entry and click Delete.
3. To modify the settings for a static MAC address, select the check box next to the entry, update
the desired values, and click Apply.
4. Click Refresh to reload the page and display the latest MAC address learned on a specific
port.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Chapter 4
Configuring Quality of Service
Use the features in the QoS tab to configure Quality of Service (QoS) settings on the switch. The
QoS tab contains links to the following features:
•
“Class of Service” on page 4-1
•
“Differentiated Services” on page 4-10
In a typical switch, each physical port consists of one or more queues for transmitting packets on
the attached network. Multiple queues per port are often provided to give preference to certain
packets over others based on user-defined criteria. When a packet is queued for transmission in a
port, the rate at which it is serviced depends on how the queue is configured and possibly the
amount of traffic present in the other queues of the port. If a delay is necessary, packets get held in
the queue until the scheduler authorizes the queue for transmission. As queues become full,
packets have no place to be held for transmission and get dropped by the switch.
QoS is a means of providing consistent, predictable data delivery by distinguishing between
packets that have strict timing requirements from those that are more tolerant of delay. Packets
with strict timing requirements are given “special treatment” in a QoS-capable network. With this
in mind, all elements of the network must be QoS-capable. The presence of at least one node
which is not QoS-capable creates a deficiency in the network path and the performance of the
entire packet flow is compromised.
Class of Service
The Class of Service (CoS) queueing feature lets you directly configure certain aspects of switch
queueing. This provides the desired QoS behavior for different types of network traffic when the
complexities of DiffServ are not required. The priority of a packet arriving at an interface can be
used to steer the packet to the appropriate outbound CoS queue through a mapping table. CoS
queue characteristics that affect queue mapping, such as minimum guaranteed bandwidth, or
transmission rate shaping are user-configurable at the queue (or port) level.
Four queues per port are supported.
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From the Class of Service link under the QoS tab, you can access the following pages:
•
“Basic CoS Configuration” on page 4-2
•
“CoS Interface Configuration” on page 4-4
•
“Interface Queue Configuration” on page 4-5
•
“802.1p to Queue Mapping” on page 4-7
•
“DSCP to Queue Mapping” on page 4-8
Basic CoS Configuration
Use the Trust Mode Configuration page to set the class of service trust mode of an interface. Each
port in the switch can be configured to trust one of the packet fields (802.1p or IP DSCP), or to not
trust any packet’s priority designation (untrusted mode). If the port is set to a trusted mode, it uses
a mapping table appropriate for the trusted field being used. This mapping table indicates the CoS
queue to which the packet should be forwarded on the appropriate egress port(s). Of course, the
trusted field must exist in the packet for the mapping table to be of any use, so there are default
actions performed when this is not the case. These actions involve directing the packet to a specific
CoS level configured for the ingress port as a whole, based on the existing port default priority as
mapped to a traffic class by the current 802.1p mapping table.
Alternatively, when a port is configured as untrusted, it does not trust any incoming packet priority
designation and uses the port default priority value instead. All packets arriving at the ingress of an
untrusted port are directed to a specific CoS queue on the appropriate egress port(s), in accordance
with the configured default priority of the ingress port. This process is also used for cases where a
trusted port mapping is unable to be honored, such as when a non-IP packet arrives at a port
configured to trust the IP DSCP value.
To display the Basic CoS Configuration page, click QoS > Basic > CoS Configuration.
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Figure 4-1
To configure global CoS settings:
1. Select the Global radio button to configure the trust mode settings that apply to all interfaces.
Alternatively, you can select the Interface radio button to apply trust mode settings to
individual interfaces. The per-interface setting overrides the global settings.
2. Select the trust mode for all interfaces (Global Trust Mode) or the selected interface
(Interface Trust Mode). This setting determines the type of CoS marking to trust when the
frame enters the port.
•
Untrusted. Do not trust any CoS packet marking at ingress.
•
802.1p. The eight priority tags that are specified in IEEE 802.1p are p0 to p7. The QoS
setting lets you map each of the eight priority levels to one of four internal hardware
priority queues: High, Normal, Low, and Lowest.
•
DSCP. The six most significant bits of the DiffServ field are called the Differentiated
Services Code Point (DSCP) bits. You can map the DSCP value to one of the eight priority
levels (p0 to p7) of IEEE 802.1p. Then, you can assign the IEEE 802.1p priority level to
one of the four internal hardware queues.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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4. If you change any of the settings on the page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to
the switch.
CoS Interface Configuration
Use the CoS Interface Configuration page to apply an interface shaping rate to all interfaces or to a
specific interface.
To display the CoS Interface Configuration page, click the QoS > CoS tab, and then click the
Advanced > CoS Interface Configuration link.
Figure 4-2
To configure CoS settings for an interface:
1. To configure CoS settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure CoS settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure CoS settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces.
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5. From the Interface Trust Mode field, specify whether or not the selected interface(s) trust a
particular packet marking when the packet enters the port.
•
Untrusted. Do not trust any CoS packet marking at ingress.
•
802.1p. The eight priority tags that are specified in IEEE 802.1p are p0 to p7. The QoS
setting lets you map each of the eight priority levels to one of four internal hardware
priority queues: High, Normal, Low, and Lowest.
•
DSCP. The six most significant bits of the DiffServ field are called the Differentiated
Services Code Point (DSCP) bits. You can map the DSCP value to one of the eight priority
levels (p0 to P7) of IEEE 802.1p. Then, you can assign the IEEE 802.1p priority level to
one of the four internal hardware queues.
6. From the Interface Trust Mode field, specify the maximum bandwidth allowed on the
selected interface(s). This setting is typically used to shape the outbound transmission rate in
increments of 64 kbps. This value is controlled independently of any per-queue maximum
bandwidth configuration. It is effectively a second-level shaping mechanism. The default
value is 0, in increments of 16. A value of 0 means the maximum is unlimited.
7. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
8. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Interface Queue Configuration
Use the Interface Queue Configuration page to define what a particular queue does by configuring
switch egress queues. User-configurable parameters control the amount of bandwidth used by the
queue, the queue depth during times of congestion, and the scheduling of packet transmission from
the set of all queues on a port. Each port has its own CoS queue-related configuration.
The configuration process is simplified by allowing each CoS queue parameter to be configured
globally or per-port. A global configuration change is automatically applied to all ports in the
system.
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To display the Interface Queue Configuration page, click the QoS > CoS tab, and then click the
Advanced > Interface Queue Configuration link.
Figure 4-3
To configure CoS queue settings for an interface:
1. To configure CoS queue settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure CoS queue settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure CoS queue settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply a trust mode or rate to all interfaces.
5. Configure any of the following settings:
•
Queue ID. Use the menu to select the queue to be configured.
•
Minimum Bandwidth. Enter a percentage of the maximum negotiated bandwidth for the
selected queue on the interface. Specify a percentage from 0–100, in increments of 1.
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•
•
Scheduler Type. Selects the type of queue processing from the drop down menu. Options
are Weighted and Strict. Defining on a per-queue basis allows the user to create the desired
service characteristics for different types of traffic.
•
Weighted: Weighted round robin associates a weight to each queue. This is the
default.
•
Strict: Services traffic with the highest priority on a queue first.
Queue Management Type. Displays the type of packet management used for all packets,
which is Taildrop. All packets on a queue are safe until congestion occurs. At this point,
any additional packets queued are dropped.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
802.1p to Queue Mapping
The 802.1p to Queue Mapping page also displays the Current 802.1p Priority Mapping table. To
display the 801.p to Queue Mapping page, click QoS > CoS > Advanced > 802.1p to Queue
Mapping.
Figure 4-4
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To map 802.1p priorities to CoS queues:
1. Select the Global radio button to apply the same 802.1p priority mapping to all CoS
configurable interfaces or select the Interface radio button to apply 802.1p priority mapping to
on a per-interface basis.
If you map 802.1p priorities to individual interfaces, select the Interface radio button and then
select the interface from the drop-down menu. The interface settings override the global
settings for 802.1p priority mapping.
2. Select the queue to map to the predefined 802.1p priority values.
The 802.1p Priority row contains traffic class selectors for each of the eight 802.1p priorities
to be mapped. The priority goes from low (0) to high (3). For example, traffic with a priority of
0 is for most data traffic and is sent using “best effort.” Traffic with a higher priority, such as 3,
might be time-sensitive traffic, such as voice or video.
The values in each drop down menu represent the traffic class. The traffic class is the hardware
queue for a port. Higher traffic class values indicate a higher queue position. Before traffic in a
lower queue is sent, it must wait for traffic in higher queues to be sent.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
DSCP to Queue Mapping
Use the DSCP to Queue Mapping page to specify which internal traffic class to map the
corresponding DSCP value.
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To display the IP DSCP Mapping page, click QoS > CoS > Advanced > DSCP to Queue
Mapping.
Figure 4-5
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To map 802.1p priorities to CoS queues:
1. For each DSCP value, select a hardware queue to associate with the value.
The traffic class is the hardware queue for a port. Higher traffic class values indicate a higher
queue position. Before traffic in a lower queue is sent, it must wait for traffic in higher queues
to be sent. Valid range is 0–3.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
3. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Differentiated Services
The QoS feature contains Differentiated Services (DiffServ) support that allows traffic to be
classified into streams and given certain QoS treatment in accordance with defined per-hop
behaviors.
Standard IP-based networks are designed to provide “best effort” data delivery service. “Best
effort” service implies that the network delivers the data in a timely fashion, although there is no
guarantee that it will. During times of congestion, packets may be delayed, sent sporadically, or
dropped. For typical Internet applications, such as e-mail and file transfer, a slight degradation in
service is acceptable and in many cases unnoticeable. Conversely, any degradation of service has
undesirable effects on applications with strict timing requirements, such as voice or multimedia.
Defining DiffServ
To use DiffServ for QoS, the Web pages accessible from the Differentiated Services menu page
must first be used to define the following categories and their criteria:
1. Class: Create classes and define class criteria.
2. Policy: Create policies, associate classes with policies, and define policy statements.
3. Service: Add a policy to an inbound interface
Packets are classified and processed based on defined criteria. The classification criteria is defined
by a class. The processing is defined by a policy's attributes. Policy attributes may be defined on a
per-class instance basis, and it is these attributes that are applied when a match occurs. A policy
can contain multiples classes. When the policy is active, the actions taken depend on which class
matches the packet.
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Packet processing begins by testing the class match criteria for a packet. A policy is applied to a
packet when a class match within that policy is found.
The Differentiated Services menu page contains links to the various Diffserv configuration and
display features.
To display the page, click QoS > DiffServ. The Differentiated Services menu page contains links
to the following features:
•
“Diffserv Configuration”
•
“Class Configuration”
•
“Policy Configuration”
•
“Service Configuration”
•
“Service Statistics”
Diffserv Configuration
Use the Diffserv Configuration page to display DiffServ General Status Group information, which
includes the current administrative mode setting as well as the current and maximum number of
rows in each of the main DiffServ private MIB tables.
To display the page, click QoS > DiffServ > Advanced > Diffserv Configuration.
Figure 4-6
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To configure the global DiffServ mode:
1. Select the administrative mode for DiffServ:
•
Enable. Differentiated Services are active.
•
Disable. The DiffServ configuration is retained and can be changed, but it is not active.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
3. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
The following table describes the information displayed in the Status table on the DiffServ
Configuration page:
Table 4-1. DiffServ Status Fields
Field
Description
Class Table
Displays the current and maximum number of rows of the class table.
Class Rule Table
Displays the current and maximum number of rows of the class rule table.
Policy Table
Displays the current and maximum number of rows of the policy table.
Policy Instance Table
Displays the current and maximum number of rows of the policy instance
table.
Policy Attributes Table
Displays the current and maximum number of rows of the policy attributes
table.
Service Table
Displays the current and maximum number of rows of the service table.
Click Refresh to update the page with the current settings.
Class Configuration
Use the Class Configuration page to add a new DiffServ class name, or to rename or delete an
existing class. The page also allows you to define the criteria to associate with a DiffServ class. As
packets are received, these DiffServ classes are used to prioritize packets. You can have multiple
match criteria in a class. The logic is a Boolean logical-and for this criteria. After creating a Class,
click the class link to the Class page.
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To display the page, click QoS > DiffServ > Advanced > Class Configuration.
Figure 4-7
To configure a DiffServ class:
1. To create a new class, enter a class name, select the class type, and click Add.
The switch supports only the Class Type value All, which means all the various match criteria
defined for the class should be satisfied for a packet match. All signifies the logical AND of all
the match criteria.
2. To rename an existing class, select the check box next to the configured class, update the
name, and click Apply.
3. To remove a class, click the check box beside the Class Name, then click Delete.
4. Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch. After creating a Class, click the class link to the Class page.
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To configure the class match criteria:
1. Click the class name for an existing class.
Figure 4-8
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The class name is a hyperlink. Figure 4-9 shows the configuration fields for the class.
Figure 4-9
2. Define the criteria to associate with a DiffServ class:
•
Reference Class. Selects a class to start referencing for criteria. A specified class can
reference at most one other class of the same type.
•
Class of Service. Select the field and enter a class of service 802.1p user priority value to
be matched for the packets. The valid range is 0–7.
•
VLAN. Select the field and enter a VLAN ID to be matched for packets. The VLAN ID
range is 0–4093.
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•
EtherType. Select the EtherType field to compare the match criteria against the value in
the header of an Ethernet frame. Select an EtherType keyword or enter an EtherType value
to specify the match criteria.If you specify the EtherType value, select User Value from the
menu and enter a custom protocol identifier to which packets are matched. The value is a
four-digit hexidecimal number in the range of 0600–FFFF.
•
Source MAC. Select this field and enter the source MAC address to compare against an
Ethernet frame.
•
Source MAC Mask. Enter the source MAC address mask specifying which bits in the
destination MAC to compare against an Ethernet frame. An f indicates that the address bit
is significant, and a 0 indicates that the address bit is to be ignored. A MAC mask of
ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff matches a single MAC address.
•
Destination MAC. Select this field and enter the destination MAC address to compare
against an Ethernet frame.
•
Destination MAC Mask. Enter the destination MAC address mask specifying which bits
in the destination MAC to compare against an Ethernet frame. An f indicates that the
address bit is significant, and a 0 indicates that the address bit is to be ignored. A MAC
mask of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff matches a single MAC address.
•
Protocol Type. Requires a packet’s layer 4 protocol to match the protocol you select. If
you select Other, enter a protocol number in the field that appears. The valid range is 0–
255.
•
Source IP Address. Requires a packet’s source port IP address to match the address listed
here. In the IP Address field, enter a valid source IP address in dotted decimal format.
•
Source Mask. Enter a valid subnet mask to determine which bits in the IP address are
significant. Note that this is not a wildcard mask.
•
Source L4 Port. Requires a packet’s TCP/UDP source port to match the port you select.
Select the desired L4 keyword from the list on which the rule can be based. If you select
Other, the screen refreshes and a Port ID field appears. Enter a user-defined Port ID by
which packets are matched to the rule.
•
Destination IP Address. Requires a packet’s destination port IP address to match the
address listed here. In the IP Address field, enter a valid destination IP address in dotted
decimal format.
•
Destination Mask. Enter a valid subnet mask to determine which bits in the IP address are
significant. This is not a wildcard mask.
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•
Destination L4 Port. Requires a packet’s TCP/UDP destination port to match the port you
select. Select the desired L4 keyword from the list on which the rule can be based. If you
select Other, the screen refreshes and a Port ID field appears. Enter a user-defined Port ID
by which packets are matched to the rule.
•
IP DSCP. Matches the packet’s DSCP to the class criteria’s when selected. Select the
DSCP type from the menu or enter a DSCP value to match. If you select Other, enter a
custom value in the DSCP Value field that appears.
•
IP Precedence. Matches the packet’s IP Precedence value to the class criteria’s when
Enter a value in the range of 0–7.
•
IP ToS. Matches the packet’s Type of Service bits in the IP header to the class criteria’s
when selected and a value is entered. In the ToS Bits field, enter a two-digit hexadecimal
number to match the bits in a packet’s ToS field. In the ToS Mask field, specify the bit
positions that are used for comparison against the IP ToS field in a packet.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you change any of the settings on the page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to
the switch. Configuration changes occur immediately.
5. Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
Policy Configuration
Use the Policy Configuration page to associate a collection of classes with one or more policy
statements. After creating a Policy, click the policy link to the Policy page.
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To display the page, click QoS > DiffServ > Advanced > Policy Configuration.
Figure 4-10
To configure a DiffServ policy:
1. To create a new policy, enter a policy name in the Policy Selector field, select the existing
DiffServ class to associate with the policy, and click Add.
The available policy type is In, which indicates the type is specific to inbound traffic. This
field is not configurable.
2. To rename an existing policy or add a new member class to the policy, select the check box
next to the configured class, update the fields, and click Apply.
3. To remove a policy, click the check box beside the policy, then click Delete.
4. Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch. After creating a Class, click the class link to the Class page.
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To configure the policy attributes:
1. Click the name of the policy.
Figure 4-11
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The policy name is a hyperlink. Figure 4-12 shows the configuration fields for the policy.
Figure 4-12
2. Select the queue to which packets will of this policy-class will be assigned .
3. Configure the policy attributes:.
•
Drop. Select this option to drop packets for this policy-class.
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•
Mark CoS. Enter the specified Class of Service queue number to mark all packets for the
associated traffic stream with the specified class of service value in the priority field of the
802.1p header. If the packet does not already contain this header, one is inserted. The CoS
value is an integer from 0–7.
•
Mark IP Precedence. Use this attribute to mark all packets for the associated traffic
stream with the IP Precedence value you enter in the IP Precedence Value field.
•
Mark IP DSCP. Use this attribute to mark all packets for the associated traffic stream
with IP DSCP value you choose from the menu.
•
Simple Policy. Use this attribute to establish the traffic policing style for the specified
class. The simple form of the policy command uses a single data rate and burst size,
resulting in two outcomes: confirm and violate.
4. If you select the Simple Policy attribute, you can configure the following fields:
•
Color Mode. Color Aware mode requires the existence of one or more color classes that
are valid for use with this policy instance; otherwise, the color mode is color blind, which
is the default.
•
Color Conform Class. A valid color class contains a single, non-excluded match criterion
for one of the following fields (provided the field does not conflict with the classifier of
the policy instance itself).
•
Color Conform Mode. The match-criteria of the color Conform class.
•
Committed Rate. The committed rate is specified in kilobits-per-second (Kbps) and is an
integer from 1–4294967295.
•
Committed Burst Size. The committed burst size is specified in kilobytes (KB) and is an
integer from 1–128.
•
Conform Action. Determines what happens to packets that are considered conforming
(below the police rate). Select one of the following actions:
•
Send. (default) These packets are presented unmodified by DiffServ to the system
forwarding element.
•
Drop. These packets are immediately dropped.
•
Mark CoS. These packets are marked by DiffServ with the specified CoS value
before being presented to the system forwarding element. This selection requires that
the Mark CoS value field be set.
•
Mark IP Precedence. These packets are marked by DiffServ with the specified IP
Precedence value before being presented to the system forwarding element. This
selection requires that the Mark IP Precedence value field be set.
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•
•
Mark IP DSCP. These packets are marked by DiffServ with the specified DSCP
value before being presented to the system forwarding element. This selection
requires that the DSCP value field be set.
Violate Action. Determines what happens to packets that are considered non-conforming
(above the police rate). Select one of the following actions:
•
Send. (default) These packets are presented unmodified by DiffServ to the system
forwarding element.
•
Drop. (default) These packets are immediately dropped.
•
Mark CoS. These packets are marked by DiffServ with the specified CoS value
before being presented to the system forwarding element. This selection requires that
the Mark CoS value field be set.
•
Mark IP Precedence. These packets are marked by DiffServ with the specified IP
Precedence value before being presented to the system forwarding element. This
selection requires that the Mark IP Precedence value field be set.
•
Mark IP DSCP. These packets are marked by DiffServ with the specified DSCP
value before being presented to the system forwarding element. This selection
requires that the DSCP value field be set.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. If you change any of the settings on the page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to
the switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
7. Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
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Service Configuration
Use the Service Configuration page to activate a policy on an interface.
To display the page, click QoS > DiffServ > Advanced > Service Configuration.
Figure 4-13
To configure DiffServ policy settings on an interface:
1. To configure DiffServ policy settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure DiffServ policy settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure DiffServ policy settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. You can select multiple ports and
LAGs to apply the same setting to the selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading
row to apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. To activate a policy for the selected interface(s) select the policy from the Policy In menu, and
then click Apply.
6. To remove a policy from the selected interface(s) select None from the Policy In menu, and
then click Apply.
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7. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Service Statistics
Use the Service Statistics page to display service-level statistical information about all interfaces
that have DiffServ policies attached.
To display the page, click the QoS > DiffServ tab and then click the Advanced > Service
Statistics link.
Figure 4-14
The following table describes the information available on the Service Statistics page.
Table 4-2. Service Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Displays the interface for which service statistics are to display.
Direction
Displays the direction of packets for which service statistics display, which is always
In.
Policy Name
Displays the policy associated with the selected interface.
Operational Status
Displays the operational status of this service interface, which is either Up or Down.
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Table 4-2. Service Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Discarded Packets
Displays the total number of packets discarded for all class instances in this service
policy for any reason due to DiffServ treatment. This is the overall count per-interface,
per-direction.
Member Classes
Selects the member class for which octet statistics are to display.
Click Refresh to update the page with the most current information.
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Chapter 5
Managing Device Security
Use the features available from the Security tab to configure management security settings for
port, user, and server security.The Security tab contains links to the following features:
•
“Management Security Settings” on page 5-1
•
“Configuring Management Access” on page 5-14
•
“Port Authentication” on page 5-23
•
“Traffic Control” on page 5-31
•
“Configuring Access Control Lists” on page 5-42
Management Security Settings
From the Management Security Settings page, you can configure the login password, Remote
Authorization Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) settings, Terminal Access Controller Access
Control System (TACACS+) settings, and authentication lists.
To display the page, click the Security > Management Security tab. The Management Security
folder contains links to the following features:
•
“Change Password” on page 5-2
•
“RADIUS Configuration” on page 5-3
•
“Configuring TACACS+” on page 5-10
•
“Authentication List Configuration” on page 5-13
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Change Password
Use the page to change the login password. To display the page, click Security > Management
Security > User Configuration > Change Password.
Figure 5-1
To change the login password for the management interface:
1. Specify the current password in the Old Password. The entered password will be displayed in
asterisks (*). Passwords are 1–20 alphanumeric characters in length and are case sensitive.
2. Enter the new password. It will not display as it is typed, and only asterisks (*) will show on
the screen. Passwords are 1–20 alphanumeric characters in length and are case sensitive.
3. To confirm the password, enter it again to make sure you entered it correctly. This field will
not display, but will show asterisks (*)
4. Use the Reset Password field to reset the password to the default value.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Note: In the case of a lost password, press the Factory Default Reset button on the front
panel for more than one second to restore the factory default. The reset button will
only reboot the device.
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RADIUS Configuration
RADIUS servers provide additional security for networks. The RADIUS server maintains a user
database, which contains per-user authentication information. The switch passes information to the
configured RADIUS server, which can authenticate a user name and password before authorizing
use of the network. RADIUS servers provide a centralized authentication method for:
•
Web Access
•
Access Control Port (802.1X)
The RADIUS folder contains links to the following features:
•
“Global Configuration” on page 5-3
•
“RADIUS Server Configuration” on page 5-5
•
“Accounting Server Configuration” on page 5-7
Global Configuration
Use the RADIUS Configuration page to add information about one or more RADIUS servers on
the network.
To access the RADIUS Configuration page, click Security > Management Security > RADIUS
> Global Configuration.
Figure 5-2
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The Current Server IP Address field is blank if no servers are configured (see “RADIUS Server
Configuration” on page 5-5). The switch supports up to three configured RADIUS servers. If more
than one RADIUS servers are configured, the current server is the server configured as the primary
server. If no servers are configured as the primary server, the current server is the most recently
added RADIUS server.
To configure global RADIUS server settings:
1. In the Max Number of Retransmits field, specify the value of the maximum number of times
a request packet is retransmitted to the RADIUS server.
Consideration to maximum delay time should be given when configuring RADIUS max
retransmit and RADIUS timeout. If multiple RADIUS servers are configured, the max
retransmit value on each will be exhausted before the next server is attempted. A retransmit
will not occur until the configured timeout value on that server has passed without a response
from the RADIUS server. Therefore, the maximum delay in receiving a response from the
RADIUS application equals the sum of (retransmit times timeout) for all configured servers. If
the RADIUS request was generated by a user login attempt, all user interfaces will be blocked
until the RADIUS application returns a response.
2. In the Timeout Duration field, specify the timeout value, in seconds, for request
retransmissions.
Consideration to maximum delay time should be given when configuring RADIUS max
retransmit and RADIUS timeout. If multiple RADIUS servers are configured, the max
retransmit value on each will be exhausted before the next server is attempted. A retransmit
will not occur until the configured timeout value on that server has passed without a response
from the RADIUS server. Therefore, the maximum delay in receiving a response from the
RADIUS application equals the sum of (retransmit times timeout) for all configured servers. If
the RADIUS request was generated by a user login attempt, all user interfaces will be blocked
until the RADIUS application returns a response.
3. From the Accounting Mode menu, select whether the RADIUS accounting mode is enabled
or disabled on the current server.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
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RADIUS Server Configuration
Use the RADIUS Server Configuration page to view and configure various settings for the current
RADIUS server configured on the system.
To access the RADIUS Server Configuration page, click Security > Management Security, and
then click the RADIUS > Server Configuration link.
Figure 5-3
To configure a RADIUS server:
1. To add a RADIUS server, specify the settings the following list describes, and click Add.
•
In the Server Address field, specify the IP address of the RADIUS server to add.
•
In the Authentication Port field, specify the UDP port number the server uses to verify
the RADIUS server authentication. The valid range is 0–65535.
•
From the Secret Configured menu, select Yes to add a RADIUS secret in the next field.
You must select Yes before you can configure the RADIUS secret. After you add the
RADIUS server, this field indicates whether the shared secret for this server has been
configured.
•
In the Secret field, type the shared secret text string used for authenticating and encrypting
all RADIUS communications between the GS108T Smart Switch and the RADIUS server.
This secret must match the RADIUS encryption.
•
From the Active menu, specify whether the server is a Primary or Secondary server.
•
From the Message Authenticator menu, enable or disable the message authenticator
attribute for the selected server.
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2. To modify settings for a RADIUS server that is already configured on the switch, select the
check box next to the server address, update the desired fields, and click Apply.
3. Click Refresh to update the page with the most current information.
4. To delete a configured RADIUS server, select the check box next to the server address, and
then click Delete.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The following table describes the RADIUS server statistics available on the page.
Table 5-1. RADIUS Server Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Server Address
This displays all configured RADIUS servers.
Round Trip Time
The time interval, in hundredths of a second, between the most recent
Access-Reply/Access-Challenge and the Access-Request that matched it
from this RADIUS authentication server.
Access Requests
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets sent to this server. This
number does not include retransmissions.
Access Retransmissions
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets retransmitted to this
server.
Access Accepts
The number of RADIUS Access-Accept packets, including both valid and
invalid packets, that were received from this server.
Access Rejects
The number of RADIUS Access-Reject packets, including both valid and
invalid packets, that were received from this server.
Access Challenges
The number of RADIUS Access-Challenge packets, including both valid and
invalid packets, that were received from this server.
Malformed Access
Responses
The number of malformed RADIUS Access-Response packets received
from this server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length.
Bad authenticators or signature attributes or unknown types are not included
as malformed access-responses.
Bad Authenticators
The number of RADIUS Access-Response packets containing invalid
authenticators or signature attributes received from this server.
Pending Requests
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets destined for this server
that have not yet timed out or received a response.
Timeouts
The number of authentication timeouts to this server.
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Table 5-1. RADIUS Server Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Unknown Types
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from
this server on the authentication port.
Packets Dropped
The number of RADIUS packets received from this server on the
authentication port and dropped for some other reason.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear Counters to clear the authentication server and RADIUS statistics to their default
values.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
Accounting Server Configuration
Use the RADIUS Accounting Server Configuration page to view and configure various settings
for one or more RADIUS accounting servers on the network.
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To access the RADIUS Accounting Server Configuration page, click Security > Management
Security > RADIUS > Accounting Server Configuration.
Figure 5-4
To configure the RADIUS accounting server:
1. In the Accounting Server Address field, specify the IP address of the RADIUS accounting
server to add.
2. In the Port field, specify the UDP port number the server uses to verify the RADIUS
accounting server authentication. The valid range is 0–65535.
3. From the Secret Configured menu, select Yes to add a RADIUS secret in the next field. You
must select Yes before you can configure the RADIUS secret. After you add the RADIUS
accounting server, this field indicates whether the shared secret for this server has been
configured.
4. In the Secret field, type the shared secret to use with the specified accounting server.
5. From the Accounting Mode menu, enable or disable the RADIUS accounting mode.
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6. Click Apply to update the switch with the RADIUS Accounting server settings.
7. To delete a configured RADIUS Accounting server, click Delete.
8. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The following table describes RADIUS accounting server statistics available on the page.
Table 5-2. RADIUS Accounting Server Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Accounting Server Address Displays the IP address of the supported RADIUS accounting server.
Round Trip Time (secs)
Displays the time interval, in hundredths of a second, between the most
recent Accounting-Response and the Accounting-Request that matched it
from this RADIUS accounting server.
Accounting Requests
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent to this server.
This number does not include retransmissions.
Accounting
Retransmissions
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets retransmitted to this
server.
Accounting Responses
Displays the number of RADIUS packets received on the accounting port
from this server.
Malformed Accounting
Responses
Displays the number of malformed RADIUS Accounting-Response packets
received from this server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid
length. Bad authenticators and unknown types are not included as
malformed accounting responses.
Bad Authenticators
Displays the number of RADIUS Accounting-Response packets that
contained invalid authenticators received from this accounting server.
Pending Requests
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets destined for this server
that have not yet timed out or received a response.
Timeouts
The number of accounting timeouts to this server.
Unknown Types
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from
this server on the accounting port.
Packets Dropped
The number of RADIUS packets received from this server on the accounting
port and dropped for some other reason.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear Counters to reset all statistics to their default value.
•
Click Refresh to update the page with the most current information.
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Configuring TACACS+
TACACS+ provides a centralized user management system, while still retaining consistency with
RADIUS and other authentication processes. TACACS+ provides the following services:
•
Authentication: Provides authentication during login and via user names and user-defined
passwords.
•
Authorization: Performed at login. When the authentication session is completed, an
authorization session starts using the authenticated user name. The TACACS+ server checks
the user privileges.
The TACACS+ protocol ensures network security through encrypted protocol exchanges between
the device and TACACS+ server.
The TACACS+ folder contains links to the following features:
•
“Configuring TACACS+” on page 5-10
•
“TACACS+ Server Configuration” on page 5-11
TACACS+ Configuration
The TACACS+ Configuration page contains the TACACS+ settings for communication between
the switch and the TACACS+ server you configure via the inband management port.
To display the TACACS+ Configuration page, click Security > Management Security, and then
click the TACACS+ > TACACS+ Configuration link.
Figure 5-5
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To configure global TACACS+ settings:
1. In the Key String field, specify the authentication and encryption key for TACACS+
communications between the GS108T and the TACACS+ server. The valid range is 0–128
characters. The key must match the key configured on the TACACS+ server.
2. In the Connection Timeout field, specify the maximum number of seconds allowed to
establish a TCP connection between the GS108T and the TACACS+ server. The valid range is
1–30 seconds.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make any changes to the page, click Apply to apply the new settings to the system.
TACACS+ Server Configuration
Use the TACACS+ Server Configuration page to configure up to five TACACS+ servers with
which the switch can communicate.
To display the TACACS+ Server Configuration page, click Security > Management Security,
and then click the TACACS+ > Server Configuration link.
Figure 5-6
To configure TACACS+ server settings:
1. To add a new TACACS+ server, select Add from the TACACS+ Server field, enter the IP
address of the server to add, and click Apply.
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Note: The Add option is available if fewer than five TACACS+ servers are
configured on the system, and the Server Address field is only available when
Add is selected in the TACACS+ Server IP Address field.
After you add one or more TACACS+ servers, additional fields appear on the TACACS+
Server Configuration page.
Figure 5-7
2. In the Priority field, specify the order in which the TACACS+ servers are used.
3. In the Port field, specify the authentication port number through which the TACACS+ session
occurs. The default is port 49, and the range is 0–65535.
4. In the Key String field, specify the authentication and encryption key for TACACS+
communications between the GS108T and the TACACS+ server. This key must match the
encryption used on the TACACS+ server. The valid range is 0–128 characters.
5. In the Connection Timeout field, specify the amount of time that passes before the
connection between the device and the TACACS+ server times out. The field range is from 1
to 30 seconds.
6. If you make changes to the page, or add a new entry, click Apply to apply the changes to the
system.
7. To delete a configured TACACS+ server, select the IP address of the server from the
TACACS+ Server IP Address drop down menu, and then click Delete.
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Authentication List Configuration
Use the Authentication List page to configure the default login list. A login list specifies one or
more authentication methods to validate switch or port access for the admin user.
Note: Admin is the only user on the system and is assigned to a preconfigured list named
defaultList, which you cannot delete.
To access the Authentication List page, click Security > Management Security, and then click
the Authentication List link.
Figure 5-8
To change the authentication method for the defaultList:
1. Select the check box next to the defaultList name
2. Use the drop down menu in the 1 column to select the authentication method that should
appear first in the selected authentication login list. If you select a method that does not time
out as the first method, such as ‘local’, no other method will be tried, even if you have
specified more than one method. This parameter will not appear when you first create a new
login list. User authentication occurs in the order the methods are selected. Possible methods
are as follows:
•
Local: The user's locally stored ID and password will be used for authentication. Since the
local method does not time out, if you select this option as the first method, no other
method will be tried, even if you have specified more than one method.
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•
RADIUS: The user's ID and password will be authenticated using the RADIUS server. If
you select RADIUS or TACACS+ as the first method and an error occurs during the
authentication, the switch uses Method 2 to authenticate the user.
•
TACACS+: The user's ID and password will be authenticated using the TACACS+ server.
If you select RADIUS or TACACS+ as the first method and an error occurs during the
authentication, the switch attempts user authentication Method 2.
•
None: The authentication method is unspecified. This option is only available for Method
2 and Method 3.
3. Use the menu in the 2 column to select the authentication method, if any, that should appear
second in the selected authentication login list. This is the method that will be used if the first
method times out. If you select a method that does not time out as the second method, the third
method will not be tried. This parameter will not appear when you first create a new login list.
4. Use the menu in the 3 column to select the authentication method, if any, that should appear
third in the selected authentication login list. This parameter will not appear when you first
create a new login list.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Configuring Management Access
From the Access page, you can configure HTTP and Secure HTTP access to the GS108T
management interface. You can also configure Access Control Profiles and Access Rules.
The Security > Access tab contains the following folders:
•
“HTTP Configuration” on page 5-15
•
“Secure HTTP Configuration” on page 5-16
•
“Certificate Download” on page 5-18
•
“Access Profile Configuration” on page 5-19
•
“Access Rule Configuration” on page 5-21
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HTTP Configuration
Use the HTTP Configuration page to configure the HTTP server settings on the system.
To access the HTTP Configuration page, click the Security tab, then click Access, and then click
the HTTP > HTTP Configuration link.
Figure 5-9
To configure the HTTP server settings:
1. Enable or disable the Web Java Mode. This applies to both secure and un-secure HTTP
connections. The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed. The
default value is Enable.
2. In the HTTP Session Soft Timeout field, specify the number of minutes an HTTP session can
be idle before a timeout occurs.
After the session is inactive for the configured amount of time, the administrator is
automatically logged out and must re-enter the password to access the management interface.
A value of zero corresponds to an infinite timeout. The default value is 5 minutes. The
currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed.
3. In the HTTP Session Hard Timeout field, specify the hard timeout for HTTP sessions.
This timeout is unaffected by the activity level of the session. The value must be in the range
of (0–168) hours. A value of zero corresponds to an infinite timeout. The default value is 24
hours. The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed.
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4. In the Maximum Number of HTTP Sessions field, specify the maximum number of HTTP
sessions that can exist at the same time. The value must be in the range of (0–16). The default
value is 16. The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Secure HTTP Configuration
Secure HTTP enables the transmission of HTTP over an encrypted Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or
Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection. When you manage the switch by using a Web
interface, secure HTTP can help ensure that communication between the management system and
the switch is protected from eavesdroppers and man-in-the-middle attacks.
Use the Secure HTTP Configuration page to configure the settings for HTTPS communication
between the management station and the switch.
To display the Secure HTTP Configuration page, click Security > Access, and then click the
HTTPS > HTTPS Configuration link.
Figure 5-10
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To configure HTTPS settings:
1. Use the radio buttons in the HTTPS Admin Mode field to enable or disable the
Administrative Mode of Secure HTTP.
The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed. The default value is
Disable. You can only download SSL certificates when the HTTPS Admin mode is disabled.
2. Use the radio buttons in the SSL Version 3 field to enable or disable Secure Sockets Layer
Version 3.0. The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed. The
default value is Enable.
3. Use the radio buttons in the TLS Version 1 field to enable or disable Transport Layer Security
Version 1.0. The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed. The
default value is Enable.
4. In the HTTPS Port field, specify the TCP port to use for HTTPS data. The value must be in the
range of 1–65535. Port 443 is the default value. The currently configured value is shown when
the Web page is displayed.
5. In the HTTPS Session Soft Timeout field, specify the number of minutes an HTTPS session
can be idle before a timeout occurs.
After the session is inactive for the configured amount of time, the administrator is
automatically logged out and must re-enter the password to access the management interface.
A value of zero corresponds to an infinite timeout. The default value is 5 minutes. The
currently configured value is shown when the Web page is displayed.
6. In the HTTPS Session Hard Timeout field, specify the number of hours an HTTPS session
can remain active, regardless of session activity. The value must be in the range of (1–168)
hours. The default value is 24 hours. The currently configured value is shown when the Web
page is displayed.
7. In the Maximum Number of HTTPS Sessions field, specify the maximum number of
HTTPS sessions that can be open at the same time. The value must be in the range of (0–2).
The default value is 2. The currently configured value is shown when the Web page is
displayed.
8. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
9. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
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Certificate Download
For the Web server on the switch to accept HTTPS connections from a management station, the
Web server needs a public key certificate. You can generate a certificate externally (for example,
off-line) and download it to the switch.
To display the Certificate Download page, click Security > Access, and then click the HTTPS >
Certificate Download link.
Downloading SSL Certificates. Before you download a file to the switch, the following
conditions must be true:
•
The file to download from the TFTP server is on the server in the appropriate directory.
•
The file is in the correct format.
•
The switch has a path to the TFTP server.
Figure 5-11
To configure the certificate download settings for HTTPS sessions:
1. From the File Type menu, select the type of SSL certificate to download, which can be one of
the following:
•
SSL Trusted Root Certificate PEM File. SSL Trusted Root Certificate File (PEM
Encoded).
•
SSL Server Certificate PEM File. SSL Server Certificate File (PEM Encoded).
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•
SSL DH Weak Encryption Parameter PEM File. SSL Diffie-Hellman Weak Encryption
Parameter File (PEM Encoded).
•
SSL DH Strong Encryption Parameter PEM File. SSL Diffie-Hellman Strong
Encryption Parameter File (PEM Encoded).
2. In the TFTP Server IP field, specify the address of the TFTP server. The address can be an IP
address in standard x.x.x.x format or a hostname. The hostname must start with a letter of the
alphabet. Make sure that the software image or other file to be downloaded is available on the
TFTP server.
3. In the Remote File Name field, specify the name of the file to download, including the path.
You may enter up to 32 characters.
4. Select the Start File Transfer check box.
5. Click Apply to start the transfer. A status message displays during the transfer and upon
successful completion of the transfer.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Access Profile Configuration
Use the Access Profile Configuration page to configure settings that control management access to
the switch. Access profile configuration requires three steps:
1. Use the Access Profile Configuration page to create an access profile. To add rules to the
profile, the access profile must be deactivated, which is the default setting.
2. Use the Access Rule Configuration page to add one or more access rules to the profile.
3. Return to the Access Profile Configuration page to activate the profile.
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To access the Access Profile Configuration page, click Security > Access, and then click the
Access Control > Access Profile Configuration link.
Figure 5-12
To configure an Access Profile:
1. In the Access Profile Name field, specify the name of the access profile to be added. The
maximum length is 32 characters.
2. To activate an access profile, select the Activate Profile check box. You cannot add rules to an
active profile.
3. To deactivate an access profile, select the Deactivate Profile check box.
4. To remove an access profile, select the Remove Profile check box. The access profile should
be deactivated before removing the access profile.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
6. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
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The Profile Summary table shows the rules that are configured for the profile, as the following
table describes.
Table 5-3. Profile Summary Fields
Field
Description
Rule Type
Identifies the action the rule takes, which is either Permit or Deny.
Service Type
Displays the type of service to allow or prohibit from accessing the switch
management interface:
• SNMP
• HTTP
• HTTPS
Source IP Address
Displays the IP Address of the client that may or may not originate
management traffic.
Mask
Displays the subnet mask associated with the IP address.
Priority
Displays the priority of the rule. The rules are validated against the incoming
management request in the ascending order of their priorities. If a rule
matches, action is performed and subsequent rules below are ignored.
Click Refresh to update the page with the most current information.
Access Rule Configuration
Use the Access Rule Configuration page to configure the rules about what systems can access the
GS108T Web interface and what protocols are allowed.
To access the Access Rule Configuration page, click Security > Access, and then click the Access
Control > Access Rule Configuration link.
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Figure 5-13
Before you create access rules, make sure:
•
An access profile exists.
•
The access profile is deactivated.
To configure access profile rules:
1. To add an access profile rule, configure the following settings and click Add.
•
•
Rule Type: Specify whether the rule permits or denies access to the GS108T management
interface.
•
Select Permit to allow access to the management interface for traffic that meets the
criteria you configure for the rule. Any traffic that does not meet the rules is denied.
•
Select Deny to prohibit access to the management interface for traffic that meets the
criteria you configure for the rule. Any traffic that does not meet the rules is allowed
access to the switch. Unlike MAC ACLs and IP ACLs, there is no implied deny all
rule at the end of the rule list.
Service Type. Select the type of service to allow or prohibit from accessing the switch
management interface:
•
•
•
SNMP
HTTP
HTTPS
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•
Source IP Address. Specify the IP Address of the client originating the management
traffic.
•
Mask. Specify the subnet mask associated with the IP address. The subnet mask is a
standard subnet mask, and not an inverse (wildcard) mask that you use with IP ACLs.
•
Priority. Configure priority to the rule. The rules are validated against the incoming
management request in the ascending order of their priorities. If a rule matches, action is
performed and subsequent rules below are ignored. For example, if a Source IP
10.10.10.10 is configured with priority 1 to permit, and Source IP 10.10.10.10 is
configured with priority 2 to Deny, then access is permitted if the profile is active, and the
second rule is ignored.
2. To modify an access rule, select the check box next to the Rule Type, update the desired
settings, and click Apply
3. To delete an access rule, select the check box next to the Rule Type, and click Delete.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Port Authentication
In port-based authentication mode, when 802.1X is enabled globally and on the port, successful
authentication of any one supplicant attached to the port results in all users being able to use the
port without restrictions. At any given time, only one supplicant is allowed to attempt
authentication on a port in this mode. Ports in this mode are under bidirectional control. This is the
default authentication mode.
The 802.1X network has three components:
•
Authenticators: Specifies the port that is authenticated before permitting system access.
•
Supplicants: Specifies the host connected to the authenticated port requesting access to the
system services.
•
Authentication Server: Specifies the external server, for example, the RADIUS server that
performs the authentication on behalf of the authenticator, and indicates whether the user is
authorized to access system services.
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From the Port Authentication link, you can access the following pages:
•
Basic:
•
•
“802.1X Configuration” on page 5-24
Advanced:
•
“Port Authentication” on page 5-25
•
“Port Summary” on page 5-30
802.1X Configuration
Use the 802.1X Configuration page to enable or disable port access control on the system.
To display the 802.1X Configuration page, click Security > Port Authentication > Basic >
802.1X Configuration.
Figure 5-14
To configure global 802.1X settings:
1. Select the appropriate radio button in the Port Based Authentication State field to enable or
disable 802.1X administrative mode on the switch.
•
Enable. Port-based authentication is permitted on the switch.
•
Disable. The switch does not check for 802.1X authentication before allowing traffic on
any ports, even if the ports are configured to allow only authenticated users.
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2. Select the appropriate radio button in the Guest VLAN field to enable or disable the guest
VLAN supplicant mode.
•
Enabled. When no 802.1X supplicant is authenticated on a port, the port still provides
limited network access, as determined by a guest VLAN configured on the authentication
server.
•
Disabled. A guest VLAN cannot be used for unauthorized ports.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you change the settings, click Apply to apply the new settings to the system.
Port Authentication
Use the Port Authentication page to enable and configure port access control on one or more ports.
To access the Port Authentication page, click Security > Port Authentication, and then click the
Advanced > Port Authentication link.
Note: Use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the browser to view all the fields on
the Port Authentication page. Figure 5-15 and Figure 5-16 are both images of the
Port Authentication page.
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Figure 5-15
Figure 5-16
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To configure 802.1X settings for the port:
1. Select the check box next to the port to configure. You can also select multiple check boxes to
apply the same settings to the select ports, or select the check box in the heading row to apply
the same settings to all ports.
2. For the selected port(s), specify the following settings:
•
Port Control. Defines the port authorization state. The control mode is only set if the link
status of the port is link up. The possible field values are:
•
Auto: Automatically detects the mode of the interface.
•
Authorized: Places the interface into an authorized state without being authenticated.
The interface sends and receives normal traffic without client port-based
authentication.
•
Unauthorized: Denies the selected interface system access by moving the interface
into unauthorized state. The switch cannot provide authentication services to the client
through the interface.
•
Guest VLAN ID. This field allows the user to configure the Guest VLAN ID on the
interface. The valid range is 0–4093.The default value is 0. Enter 0 to reset the Guest
VLAN ID on the interface.
•
Guest VLAN Period. This input field allows the user to enter the Guest VLAN period for
the selected port. The Guest VLAN period is the value, in seconds, of the timer used by
the Guest VLAN Authentication. The Guest VLAN timeout must be a value in the range
of 1–300. The default value is 90.
•
Periodic Reauthentication. Use this field to enable or disable reauthentication of the
supplicant for the specified port. Select Enable and Disable. If the value is Enable,
reauthentication will occur. Otherwise, reauthentication will not be allowed. The default
value is Disable. Changing the selection will not change the configuration until the Apply
button is pressed.
•
Reauthentication Period. Indicates the time span in which the selected port is
reauthenticated. The field value is in seconds. The range is 1–65535, and the field default
is 3600 seconds.
•
Quiet Period. Defines the amount of time that the switch remains in the quiet state
following a failed authentication exchange. The possible field range is 0–65535. The field
value is in seconds. The field default is 60 seconds.
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•
Resending EAP. This input field allows you to configure the transmit period for the
selected port. The transmit period is the value, in seconds, of the timer used by the
authenticator state machine on the specified port to determine when to send an EAPOL
EAP Request/Identify frame to the supplicant. The transmit period must be a number in
the range of 1–65535. The default value is 30. Changing the value will not change the
configuration until you click the Apply button.
•
Max EAP Requests. This input field allows you to enter the maximum requests for the
selected port. The maximum requests value is the maximum number of times the
authenticator state machine on this port will retransmit an EAPOL EAP Request/Identity
before timing out the supplicant. The maximum requests value must be in the range of 1–
10. The default value is 2. Changing the value will not change the configuration until you
click the Apply button.
•
Supplicant Timeout. Defines the amount of time that lapses before EAP requests are
resent to the user. The field value is in seconds. The field default is 30 seconds.
•
Server Timeout. Defines the amount of time that lapses before the switch resends a
request to the authentication server. The field value is in seconds. The range is 1–65535,
and the field default is 30 seconds.
•
Control Direction. This displays the control direction for the specified port, which is
always Both. The control direction dictates the degree to which protocol exchanges take
place between Supplicant and Authenticator.The unauthorized controlled port exerts
control over communication in both directions (disabling both incoming and outgoing
frames). This field is not configurable.
•
Protocol Version. This field displays the protocol version associated with the selected
port. The only possible value is 1, corresponding to the first version of the 802.1X
specification. This field is not configurable.
•
PAE Capabilities. This field displays the port access entity (PAE) functionality of the
selected port. Possible values are Authenticator or Supplicant. This field is not
configurable.
•
Authenticator PAE State. This field displays the current state of the authenticator PAE
state machine. Possible values are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Initialize
Disconnected
Connecting
Authenticating
Authenticated
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•
•
•
•
•
Backend State. This field displays the current state of the backend authentication state
machine. Possible values are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aborting
Held
ForceAuthorized
ForceUnauthorized
Request
Response
Success
Fail
Timeout
Initialize
Idle
EAPOL Flood Mode. This field is used to enable or disable the EAPOL Flood mode per
Interface.The default value is Disable.
3. Click Apply to send the updated screen to the switch and cause the changes to occur on the
switch and the changes will be saved.
4. Click Initialize to begin the initialization sequence on the selected port(s). This button is only
selectable if the control mode is auto. If the button is not selectable, it will be grayed out.
When this button is clicked, the action is immediate. It is not required to click Apply for the
action to occur.
5. Click Reauthenticate to begin the reauthentication sequence on the selected port. This button
is only selectable if the control mode is auto. If the button is not selectable, it will be grayed
out. When this button is pressed, the action is immediate. It is not required to click Apply for
the action to occur.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Port Summary
Use the Port Summary page to view information about the port access control settings on a specific
port.
To access the Port Summary page, click Security > Port Authentication > Advanced > Port
Summary.
Figure 5-17
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The following table describes the fields on the Port Summary page.
Table 5-4. Port Summary Fields
Field
Description
Port
The port whose settings are displayed in the current table row.
Control Mode
Defines the port authorization state. The control mode is only set if the link
status of the port is link up. The possible field values are:
• Auto: Automatically detects the mode of the interface.
• Force Authorized: Places the interface into an authorized state without
being authenticated. The interface sends and receives normal traffic
without client port-based authentication.
• Force Unauthorized: Denies the selected interface system access by
moving the interface into unauthorized state. The switch cannot provide
authentication services to the client through the interface.
Operating Control Mode
This field indicates the control mode under which the port is actually
operating. Possible values are:
• ForceUnauthorized
• ForceAuthorized
• Auto
• N/A: If the port is in detached state it cannot participate in port access
control.
Reauthentication Enabled
Displays if reauthentication is enabled on the selected port. This is a
configurable field. The possible values are true and false. If the value is true,
reauthentication will occur. Otherwise, reauthentication will not be allowed.
Port Status
This field displays the authorization status of the specified port. The possible
values are Authorized, Unauthorized, and N/A. If the port is in detached
state, the value will be N/A since the port cannot participate in port access
control.
Click Refresh to update the information on the screen.
Traffic Control
From the Traffic Control link, you can configure MAC Filters, Storm Control, Port Security, and
Protected Port settings. To display the page, click the Security > Traffic Control tab.
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The Traffic Control folder contains links to the following features:
•
MAC Filter:
•
“MAC Filter Configuration” on page 5-32
•
“MAC Filter Summary” on page 5-34
•
“Storm Control” on page 5-35
•
Port Security:
•
•
“Port Security Configuration” on page 5-36
•
“Port Security Interface Configuration” on page 5-38
•
“Security MAC Address” on page 5-39
“Protected Ports Membership” on page 5-41
MAC Filter Configuration
Use the MAC Filter Configuration page to create MAC filters that limit the traffic allowed into and
out of specified ports on the system.
To display the MAC Filter Configuration page, click Security > Traffic Control, and then click
the MAC Filter > MAC Filter Configuration link.
Figure 5-18
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To configure MAC filter settings:
1. To configure a new MAC filter:
a. Select Create Filter from the MAC Filter menu. If no filters have been configured, this is
the only option available.
b. From the VLAN ID menu, select the VLAN to use with the MAC address to fully identify
packets you want filtered. You can change this field only when the Create Filter option is
selected from the MAC Filter menu.
c. In the MAC Address field, specify the MAC address of the filter in the format
00:01:1A:B2:53:4D. You can change this field when you have selected the Create Filter
option.
You cannot define filters for the following MAC addresses:
• 00:00:00:00:00:00
• 01:80:C2:00:00:00 to 01:80:C2:00:00:0F
• 01:80:C2:00:00:20 to 01:80:C2:00:00:21
• FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
d. Click the orange bar to display the available ports and select the port(s) to include in the
inbound filter. If a packet with the MAC address and VLAN ID you specify is received on
a port that is not in the list, it will be dropped.
e. Click the orange bar to display the available ports and select the port(s) you to include in
the outbound filter. Packets with the MAC address and VLAN ID you selected will be
transmitted only out of ports that are in the list. Destination ports can be included only in
the Multicast filter.
2. To delete a configured MAC Filter, select it from the menu, and then click Delete.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
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MAC Filter Summary
Use the MAC Filter Summary page to view the MAC filters that are configured on the system.
To display the MAC Filter Summary page, click Security > Traffic Control, and then click the
MAC Filter > MAC Filter Summary link.
Figure 5-19
The following table describes the information displayed on the page:
Table 5-5. MAC Filter Summary Fields
Field
Description
MAC Address
Identifies the MAC address that is filtered.
VLAN ID
The VLAN ID used with the MAC address to fully identify packets you want filtered.
You can only change this field when you have selected the Create Filter option.
Source Port
Members
Displays the ports included in the inbound filter.
Destination Port
Members
Displays the ports included in the outbound filter.
Click Refresh to update the page with the most current information.
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Storm Control
A broadcast storm is the result of an excessive number of broadcast messages simultaneously
transmitted across a network by a single port. Forwarded message responses can overload network
resources and/or cause the network to time out.
The switch measures the incoming broadcast/multicast/unknown unicast packet rate per port and
discards packets when the rate exceeds the defined value. Storm control is enabled per interface,
by defining the packet type and the rate at which the packets are transmitted.
To display the Storm Control page, click Security > Traffic Control, and then click the Storm
Control link.
Figure 5-20
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To configure storm control settings:
1. Select the check box next to the port to configure. Select multiple check boxes to apply the
same setting to all selected ports. Select the check box in the heading row to apply the same
settings to all ports.
2. From the Ingress Control Mode menu, select the mode of broadcast affected by storm control.
•
Disable. Do not use storm control.
•
Unknown Unicast. If the rate of unknown L2 unicast (destination lookup failure) traffic
ingressing on an interface increases beyond the configured threshold, the traffic will be
dropped.
•
Multicast. If the rate of L2 multicast traffic ingressing on an interface increases beyond
the configured threshold, the traffic will be dropped.
•
Broadcast. If the rate of L2 broadcast traffic ingressing on an interface increases beyond
the configured threshold, the traffic will be dropped.
3. In the Threshold field, specify the maximum rate at which unknown packets are forwarded.
The range is a percent of the total threshold between 0–100%. The default is 5%.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Port Security Configuration
Use the Port Security feature to lock one or more ports on the system. When a port is locked, only
packets with an allowable source MAC addresses can be forwarded. All other packets are
discarded.
To display the Port Security Configuration page, click Security > Traffic Control, and then click
the Port Security > Port Security Configuration link.
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Figure 5-21
To configure the global port security mode:
1. In the Port Security Mode field, select the appropriate radio button to enable or disable port
security on the switch.
2. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
3. If you change the mode, click Apply to apply the change to the system.
The Port Security Violation table shows information about violations that occurred on ports that
are enabled for port security. The following table describes the fields in the Port Security Violation
table.
Table 5-6. Port Security Violation Fields
Field
Description
Port
Identifies the port where a violation occurred.
Last Violation MAC
Displays the source MAC address of the last packet that was discarded at a
locked port.
VLAN ID
Displays the VLAN ID corresponding to the Last Violation MAC address.
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
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Port Security Interface Configuration
A MAC address can be defined as allowable by one of two methods: dynamically or statically.
Both methods are used concurrently when a port is locked.
Dynamic locking implements a first arrival mechanism for Port Security. You specify how many
addresses can be learned on the locked port. If the limit has not been reached, then a packet with an
unknown source MAC address is learned and forwarded normally. When the limit is reached, no
more addresses are learned on the port. Any packets with source MAC addresses that were not
already learned are discarded. You can effectively disable dynamic locking by setting the number
of allowable dynamic entries to zero.
Static locking allows you to specify a list of MAC addresses that are allowed on a port. The
behavior of packets is the same as for dynamic locking: only packets with an allowable source
MAC address can be forwarded.
To display the Port Security Interface Configuration page, click Security > Traffic Control, and
then click the Port Security > Interface Configuration link.
Figure 5-22
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To configure port security settings:
1. To configure port security settings for a physical port, click PORTS.
2. To configure port security settings for a Link Aggregation Group (LAG), click LAGS.
3. To configure port security settings for both physical ports and LAGs, click ALL.
4. Select the check box next to the port or LAG to configure. Select multiple check boxes to
apply the same setting to all selected interfaces. Select the check box in the heading row to
apply the same settings to all interfaces.
5. Specify the following settings:
•
Port Security. Enable or Disable the port security feature for the selected port.
•
Max Allowed Dynamically Learned MAC. Sets the maximum number of dynamically
learned MAC addresses on the selected interface. Valid range is 0–600.
•
Max Allowed Statically Locked MAC. Sets the maximum number of statically locked
MAC addresses on the selected interface. Valid range is 0–20.
•
Enable Violation Traps. Enables or disables the sending of new violation traps
designating when a packet with a disallowed MAC address is received on a locked port.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
7. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Security MAC Address
Use the Security MAC Address page to convert a dynamically learned MAC address to a statically
locked address.
To display the Security MAC Address page, click Security > Traffic Control, and then click the
Port Security > Security MAC Address link.
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Figure 5-23
To convert learned MAC addresses:
1. Select the Convert Dynamic Address to Static check box.
2. Click Apply. The Dynamic MAC Address entries are converted to Static MAC address entries
in a numerically ascending order until the Static limit is reached.
The Dynamic MAC Address Table shows the MAC addresses and their associated VLANs learned
on the selected port. Use the Port List menu to select the interface for which you want to display
data.
Table 5-7. Dynamic MAC Address Table Fields
Field
Description
VLAN ID
Displays the VLAN ID corresponding to the Last Violation MAC address.
MAC Address
Displays the MAC addresses learned on a specific port.
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
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Protected Ports Membership
If a port is configured as protected, it does not forward traffic to any other protected port on the
switch. Use the Protected Ports Membership page to configure the ports as protected or
unprotected.
To display the Protected Ports Membership page, click the Security > Traffic Control >
Protected Ports link.
Figure 5-24
To configure protected ports:
1. Click the orange bar to display the available ports.
2. Click the box below each port to configure as a protected port. Protected ports are marked with
an X. No traffic forwarding is possible between two protected ports.
3. Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. If you make changes to the page, click Apply to apply the changes to the system.
Configuration changes take effect immediately.
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Configuring Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACLs) ensure that only authorized users have access to specific resources
while blocking off any unwarranted attempts to reach network resources. ACLs are used to
provide traffic flow control, restrict contents of routing updates, decide which types of traffic are
forwarded or blocked, and above all provide security for the network. GS108T software supports
IPv4 and MAC ACLs.
You first create an IPv4-based or MAC-based ACL ID. Then, you create a rule and assign it to a
unique ACL ID. Next, you define the rules, which can identify protocols, source, and destination
IP and MAC addresses, and other packet-matching criteria. Finally, use the ID number to assign
the ACL to a port or to a VLAN interface.
The Security > ACL folder contains links to the following features:
•
“ACL Wizard” on page 5-43
•
Basic:
• “MAC ACL” on page 5-44
• “MAC Rules” on page 5-46
• “MAC Binding Configuration” on page 5-48
• “MAC Binding Table” on page 5-49
•
Advanced:
• “IP ACL” on page 5-50
• “IP Rules” on page 5-52
• “IP Extended Rule” on page 5-54
• “IP Binding Configuration” on page 5-58
• “IP Binding Table” on page 5-59
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ACL Wizard
The ACL Wizard simplifies the ACL rule configuration process. The Wizard contains a short list
of access criteria that you can either permit or deny. When you select the permit or deny link
associated with the access criteria, you are redirected to a page that is automatically configured
with several of the settings.
Note: Before you use the ACL Wizard to configure rules, you must create either a MAC
ACL, Standard IP ACL, or Extended IP ACL that will contain the rules. To create a
MAC ACL, see “MAC ACL” on page 5-44. To create a standard or extended IP
ACL, see “IP ACL” on page 5-50.
To display the ACL Wizard page, click Security > ACL.
Figure 5-25
To use the ACL Wizard:
1. Determine the type of ACL to configure and create a MAC ACL, standard IP ACL, or
extended IP ACL.
•
To permit or deny traffic based on the Source MAC Address, create a MAC ACL.
•
To permit or deny traffic based on the Destination MAC Address, create a MAC ACL.
•
To permit or deny traffic based on the Source IP Address, create a Standard ACL.
•
To permit or deny traffic based on the Destination IP Address, create an Extended ACL.
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•
To permit or deny traffic based on the TCP or UDP Source Port ID, create an Extended
ACL.
•
To permit or deny traffic based on the TCP or UDP Destination Port ID, create an
Extended ACL.
2. Click the Permit or Deny link associated with the access criteria on the ACL Wizard page.
The switch redirects you to a page that contains the fields to configure the ACL rule, and
several of the fields are preconfigured. For example, if you select the Permit link associated
with the Select Devices Based on Source IP Address option, the Source IP Address Rules
page displays, and the only information you must provide is the source IP address and source
mask.
3. Configure the desired rule.
4. Click Apply to save the rule.
MAC ACL
A MAC ACL consists of a set of rules which are matched sequentially against a packet. When a
packet meets the match criteria of a rule, the specified rule action (Permit/Deny) is taken and the
additional rules are not checked for a match.
There are multiple steps involved in defining a MAC ACL and applying it to the switch:
1. Use the “MAC ACL” page to create the ACL ID.
2. Use the “MAC Rules” page to create rules for the ACL.
3. Use the “MAC Binding Configuration” page to assign the ACL by its ID number to a port.
4. Optionally, use the “MAC Binding Table” page to view the configurations.
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To display the MAC ACL page, click Security > ACL. The MAC ACL page is under the Basic
link.
Figure 5-26
The MAC ACL table displays the number of ACLs currently configured in the switch and the
maximum number of ACLs that can be configured. The current size is equal to the number of
configured IPv4 ACLs plus the number of configured MAC ACLs.
To configure a MAC ACL:
1. To add a MAC ACL, specify a name for the MAC ACL in the Name field, and click Add. The
name string may include alphabetic, numeric, dash, underscore, or space characters only. The
name must start with an alphabetic character.
Each configured ACL displays the following information:
•
Rules. Displays the number of rules currently configured for the MAC ACL.
•
Direction. Displays the direction of packet traffic affected by the MAC ACL, which can
be Inbound or blank.
2. To delete a MAC ACL, select the check box next to the Name field, then click Delete.
3. To change the name of a MAC ACL, select the check box next to the Name field, update the
name, then click Apply.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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MAC Rules
Use the MAC Rules page to define rules for MAC-based ACLs. The access list definition includes
rules that specify whether traffic matching the criteria is forwarded normally or discarded. A
default 'deny all' rule is the last rule of every list.
To display the MAC Rules page, click Security > ACL, then click the Basic > MAC Rules link.
Figure 5-27
To configure MAC ACL rules:
1. From the ACL Name field, specify the existing MAC ACL to which the rule will apply. To set
up a new MAC ACL use the “MAC ACL” page.
2. To add a new rule, enter an ID for the rule, configure the following settings, and click Add.
•
Action. Specify what action should be taken if a packet matches the rule's criteria:
•
Permit: Forwards packets that meet the ACL criteria.
•
Deny: Drops packets that meet the ACL criteria.
•
Assign Queue. Specifies the hardware egress queue identifier used to handle all packets
matching this ACL rule. Enter an identifying number from 0–3 in this field.
•
Match Every. Requires a packet to match the criteria of this ACL. Select True or False
from the drop down menu. Match Every is exclusive to the other filtering rules, so if
Match Every is True, the other rules on the screen are not available.
•
CoS. Requires a packet’s class of service (CoS) to match the CoS value listed here. Enter a
CoS value between 0–7 to apply this criteria.
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•
Destination MAC. Requires an Ethernet frame’s destination port MAC address to match
the address listed here. Enter a MAC address in this field. The valid format is
xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx.
•
Destination MAC Mask. If desired, enter the MAC Mask associated with the Destination
MAC to match. The MAC address mask specifies which bits in the destination MAC to
compare against an Ethernet frame. Use F’s and zeros in the MAC mask, which is in a
wildcard format. An F means that the bit is not checked, and a zero in a bit position means
that the data must equal the value given for that bit. For example, if the MAC address is
aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff, and the mask is 00:00:ff:ff:ff:ff, all MAC addresses with
aa:bb:xx:xx:xx:xx result in a match (where x is any hexadecimal number). A MAC mask
of 00:00:00:00:00:00 matches a single MAC address.
•
EtherType Key. Requires a packet’s EtherType to match the EtherType you select. Select
the EtherType value from the drop down menu. If you select User Value, you can enter a
custom EtherType value.
•
EtherType User Value. This field is configurable if you select User Value from the
EtherType drop down menu. The value you enter specifies a customized Ethertype to
compare against an Ethernet frame. The valid range of values is 0x0600–0xFFFF.
•
Source MAC. Requires a packet’s source port MAC address to match the address listed
here. Enter a MAC address in the this field. The valid format is xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx.
•
Source MAC Mask. If desired, enter the MAC mask for the source MAC address to
match. Use Fs and zeros in the MAC mask, which is in a wildcard format. An F means that
the bit is not checked, and a zero in a bit position means that the data must equal the value
given for that bit. The valid format is xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx. A MAC mask of
00:00:00:00:00:00 matches a single MAC address.
•
VLAN. Requires a packet’s VLAN ID to match the ID listed here. Enter the VLAN ID to
apply this criteria. The valid range is 1–4093.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
4. To delete a rule, select the check box associated with the rule and click Delete.
5. To change a rule, select the check box associated with the rule, change the desired fields and
click Apply.
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MAC Binding Configuration
When an ACL is bound to an interface, all the rules that have been defined are applied to the
selected interface. Use the MAC Binding Configuration page to assign MAC ACL lists to ACL
Priorities and Interfaces.
To display the MAC Binding Configuration page, click Security > ACL, then click the Basic >
MAC Binding Configuration link.
Figure 5-28
To configure MAC ACL interface bindings:
1. Select an existing MAC ACL from the ACL ID menu.
The packet filtering direction for ACL is Inbound, which means the MAC ACL rules are
applied to traffic entering the port.
2. Specify an optional sequence number to indicate the order of this access list relative to other
access lists already assigned to this interface and direction.
A low number indicates high precedence order. If a sequence number is already in use for this
interface and direction, the specified access list replaces the currently attached access list using
that sequence number. If the sequence number is not specified by the user, a sequence number
that is one greater than the highest sequence number currently in use for this interface and
direction will be used. The valid range is 1–4294967295.
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3. Click the appropriate orange bar to expose the available ports or LAGs.
•
To add the selected ACL to a port or LAG, click the box directly below the port or LAG
number so that an X appears in the box.
•
To remove the selected ACL from a port or LAG, click the box directly below the port or
LAG number to clear the selection. An X in the box indicates that the ACL is applied to
the interface.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. Click Apply to save any changes to the running configuration.
MAC Binding Table
Use the MAC Binding Table page to view or delete the MAC ACL bindings.
To display the MAC Binding Table, click Security > ACL, then click the Basic > Binding Table
link.
Figure 5-29
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The following table describes the information displayed in the MAC Binding Table.
Table 5-8. MAC ACL Rule Configuration Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Displays the interface to which the MAC ACL is bound.
Direction
Specifies the packet filtering direction for ACL. The only valid direction
is Inbound, which means the MAC ACL rules are applied to traffic
entering the port.
ACL Type
Displays the type of ACL assigned to selected interface and direction.
ACL ID
Displays the ACL Name identifying the ACL assigned to selected
interface and direction.
Sequence No
Displays the Sequence Number signifying the order of specified ACL
relative to other ACLs assigned to selected interface and direction.
To delete a MAC ACL-to-interface binding, select the check box next to the interface and click
Delete.
IP ACL
IP ACLs allow network managers to define classification actions and rules for specific ingress
ports. Packets can be filtered on ingress (inbound) ports only. If the filter rules match, then some
actions can be taken, including dropping the packet or disabling the port. For example, a network
administrator defines an ACL rule that says port number 20 can receive TCP packets. However, if
a UDP packet is received the packet is dropped.
ACLs are composed of access control entries (ACE), or rules, that consist of the filters that
determine traffic classifications.
Use the IP ACL Configuration page to add or remove IP-based ACLs.
To display the IP ACL page, click Security > ACL, then click the Advanced > IP ACL link.
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Figure 5-30
The IP ACL area shows the current size of the ACL table versus the maximum size of the ACL
table. The current size is equal to the number of configured IPv4 plus the number of configured
MAC ACLs. The maximum size is 100.
To configure an IP ACL:
1. In the IP ACL ID field, specify the ACL ID. The ID is an integer in the following range:
•
1–99: Creates an IP Standard ACL, which allows you to permit or deny traffic from a
source IP address.
•
100–199: Creates an IP Extended ACL, which allows you to permit or deny specific types
of layer 3 or layer 4 traffic from a source IP address to a destination IP address. This type
of ACL provides more granularity and filtering capabilities than the standard IP ACL.
Each configured ACL displays the following information:
• Rules. Displays the number of rules currently configured for the IP ACL.
• Type. Identifies the ACL as either a standard or extended IP ACL.
2. To delete an IP ACL, select the check box next to the IP ACL ID field, then click Delete.
3. To change the name of an IP ACL, select the check box next to the IP ACL ID field, update the
name, then click Apply.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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IP Rules
Use the IP Rules page to define rules for IP-based standard ACLs. The access list definition
includes rules that specify whether traffic matching the criteria is forwarded normally or discarded.
Note: There is an implicit “deny all” rule at the end of an ACL list. This means that if an
ACL is applied to a packet and if none of the explicit rules match, then the final
implicit “deny all” rule applies and the packet is dropped.
To display the IP Rules page, click Security > ACL, then click the Advanced > IP Rules link.
Figure 5-31
To configure rules for an IP ACL:
1. To add an IP ACL rule, select the ACL ID to add the rule to, complete the fields described in
the following list, and click Add.
•
Rule ID. Specify a number from 1–10 to identify the IP ACL rule. You can create up to 10
rules for each ACL.
•
Action. Selects the ACL forwarding action, which is one of the following:
•
Permit. Forwards packets which meet the ACL criteria.
•
Deny. Drops packets which meet the ACL criteria.
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•
Assign Queue ID. Specifies the hardware egress queue identifier used to handle all
packets matching this ACL rule. Enter an identifying number from 0–3 in the appropriate
field.
•
Match Every. Requires a packet to match the criteria of this ACL. Select True or False
from the drop down menu. Match Every is exclusive to the other filtering rules, so if
Match Every is True, the other rules on the screen are not available.
•
Source IP Address. Requires a packet’s source IP address to match the address listed
here. Type an IP Address in the appropriate field using dotted-decimal notation. The
address you enter is compared to a packet's source IP Address.
•
Source IP Mask. Specifies the source IP address wildcard mask. Wild card masks
determines which bits are used and which bits are ignored. A wild card mask of
255.255.255.255 indicates that no bit is important. A wildcard of 0.0.0.0 indicates that all
of the bits are important. Wildcard masking for ACLs operates differently from a subnet
mask. A wildcard mask is in essence the inverse of a subnet mask. For example, to apply
the rule to all hosts in the 192.168.1.0/24 subnet, you type 0.0.0.255 in the Source IP Mask
field. This field is required when you configure a source IP address.
2. To delete an IP ACL rule, select the check box associated with the rule, and then click Delete.
3. To update an IP ACL rule, select the check box associated with the rule, update the desired
fields, and then click Apply. You cannot modify the Rule ID of an existing IP rule.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. If you change any of the settings on the page, click Apply to send the updated configuration to
the switch. Configuration changes take effect immediately.
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IP Extended Rule
Use the IP Extended Rules page to define rules for IP-based extended ACLs. The access list
definition includes rules that specify whether traffic matching the criteria is forwarded normally or
discarded.
Note: There is an implicit “deny all” rule at the end of an ACL list. This means that if an
ACL is applied to a packet and if none of the explicit rules match, then the final
implicit “deny all” rule applies and the packet is dropped.
To display the IP extended Rules page, click Security > ACL, then click the Advanced > IP
Extended Rules link.
Figure 5-32
To configure rules for an IP ACL:
1. To add an IP ACL rule, select the ACL ID to add the rule to, select the check box in the
Extended ACL Rule table, and click Add. The page displays the extended ACL Rule
Configuration fields, as Figure 5-33 on page 5-55 shows.
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Figure 5-33
2. Configure the new rule.
•
Rule ID. Specify a number from 1–10 to identify the IP ACL rule. You can create up to 10
rules for each ACL.
•
Action. Selects the ACL forwarding action, which is one of the following:
•
Permit. Forwards packets which meet the ACL criteria.
•
Deny. Drops packets which meet the ACL criteria.
•
Egress Queue. Specifies the hardware egress queue identifier used to handle all packets
matching this ACL rule. Enter an identifying number from 0–3 in the appropriate field.
•
Match Every. Requires a packet to match the criteria of this ACL. Select True or False
from the drop down menu. Match Every is exclusive to the other filtering rules, so if
Match Every is True, the other rules on the screen are not available.
•
Protocol Type. Requires a packet’s protocol to match the protocol listed here. Select a
type from the drop down menu or enter the protocol number in the available field.
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•
Src IP Address. Requires a packet’s source IP address to match the address listed here.
Type an IP Address in the appropriate field using dotted-decimal notation. The address
you enter is compared to a packet's source IP Address.
•
Src IP Mask. Specifies the source IP address wildcard mask. Wild card masks determines
which bits are used and which bits are ignored. A wild card mask of 255.255.255.255
indicates that no bit is important. A wildcard of 0.0.0.0 indicates that all of the bits are
important. Wildcard masking for ACLs operates differently from a subnet mask. A
wildcard mask is in essence the inverse of a subnet mask. For example, to apply the rule to
all hosts in the 192.168.1.0/24 subnet, you type 0.0.0.255 in the Source IP Mask field. This
field is required when you configure a source IP address.
•
Src L4 Port. Requires a packet’s TCP/UDP source port to match the port listed here.
Click Complete one of the following fields:
•
Source L4 Keyword: Select the desired L4 keyword from a list of source ports on
which the rule can be based.
•
Source L4 Port Number: If the source L4 keyword is Other, enter a user-defined Port
ID by which packets are matched to the rule.
•
Dst IP Address. Requires a packet’s destination port IP address to match the address
listed here. Enter an IP Address in the appropriate field using dotted-decimal notation. The
address you enter is compared to a packet's destination IP Address.
•
Dst IP Mask. Specifies the destination IP address wildcard mask. Wild card masks
determines which bits are used and which bits are ignored. A wild card mask of
255.255.255.255 indicates that no bit is important. A wildcard of 0.0.0.0 indicates that all
of the bits are important. Wildcard masking for ACLs operates differently from a subnet
mask. A wildcard mask is in essence the inverse of a subnet mask. For example, to apply
the rule to all hosts in the 192.168.1.0/24 subnet, you type 0.0.0.255 in the Source IP Mask
field. This field is required when you configure a source IP address.
•
Dst L4 Port. Requires a packet’s TCP/UDP destination port to match the port listed here.
Complete one of the following fields:
•
Destination L4 Keyword: Select the desired L4 keyword from a list of destination
ports on which the rule can be based.
•
Destination L4 Port Number: If the destination L4 keyword is Other, enter a userdefined Port ID by which packets are matched to the rule.
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•
Service Type. Choose one of the Service Type match conditions for the extended IP ACL
rule. The possible values are IP DSCP, IP precedence, and IP TOS, which are alternative
ways of specifying a match criterion for the same Service Type field in the IP header,
however each uses a different user notation. After you select the service type, specify the
value associated with the type.
•
IP DSCP: Specify the IP DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) value. The DSCP is defined as
the high-order six bits of the Service Type octet in the IP header. Select an IP DSCP
value from the menu. To specify a numeric value in the available field, select Other
from the menu and type an integer from 0 to 63 in the field.
•
IP Precedence: The IP Precedence field in a packet is defined as the high-order three
bits of the Service Type octet in the IP header. This is an optional configuration. Enter
an integer from 0 to 7.
•
IP TOS Bits: Matches on the Type of Service bits in the IP header when checked. In
the first TOS field, specify the two-digit hexadecimal TOS number. The second field
is for the TOS Mask, which specifies the bit positions that are used for comparison
against the IP TOS field in a packet. The TOS Mask value is a two-digit hexadecimal
number from 00 to ff, representing an inverted (i.e. wildcard) mask. The zero-valued
bits in the TOS Mask denote the bit positions in the TOS Bits value that are used for
comparison against the IP TOS field of a packet. For example, to check for an IP TOS
value having bits 7 and 5 set and bit 1 clear, where bit 7 is most significant, use a TOS
Bits value of a0 and a TOS Mask of 00.
3. To delete an IP ACL rule, select the check box associated with the rule, and then click Delete.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
Note: You cannot modify an existing IP Extended ACL rule. To change the settings, you
must delete the rule, then add it and configure the desired settings.
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IP Binding Configuration
When an ACL is bound to an interface, all the rules that have been defined are applied to the
selected interface. Use the IP Binding Configuration page to assign ACL lists to ACL Priorities
and Interfaces.
To display the IP Binding Configuration page, click Security > ACL, then click the Advanced >
IP Binding Configuration link.
Figure 5-34
To configure IP ACL interface bindings:
1. Select an existing IP ACL from the ACL ID menu.
The packet filtering direction for ACL is Inbound, which means the IP ACL rules are applied
to traffic entering the port.
2. Specify an optional sequence number to indicate the order of this access list relative to other
access lists already assigned to this interface and direction.
A low number indicates high precedence order. If a sequence number is already in use for this
interface and direction, the specified access list replaces the currently attached access list using
that sequence number. If the sequence number is not specified by the user, a sequence number
that is one greater than the highest sequence number currently in use for this interface and
direction will be used. The valid range is 1–4294967295.
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3. Click the appropriate orange bar to expose the available ports or LAGs.
•
To add the selected ACL to a port or LAG, click the box directly below the port or LAG
number so that an X appears in the box.
•
To remove the selected ACL from a port or LAG, click the box directly below the port or
LAG number to clear the selection. An X in the box indicates that the ACL is applied to
the interface.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
5. Click Apply to save any changes to the running configuration.
IP Binding Table
Use the IP Binding Table page to view or delete the IP ACL bindings.
To display the IP Binding Table, click Security > ACL, then click the Advanced > Binding Table
link.
Figure 5-35
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The following table describes the information displayed in the MAC Binding Table.
Table 5-9. IP ACL Binding Table Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Displays the interface to which the IP ACL is bound.
Direction
Specifies the packet filtering direction for ACL. The only valid direction is
Inbound, which means the IP ACL rules are applied to traffic entering the
port.
ACL Type
Displays the type of ACL assigned to selected interface and direction.
ACL ID
Displays the ACL Number identifying the ACL assigned to selected interface
and direction.
Seq No.
Displays the Sequence Number signifying the order of specified ACL relative
to other ACLs assigned to selected interface and direction.
To delete an IP ACL-to-interface binding, select the check box next to the interface and click
Delete.
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Chapter 6
Monitoring the System
Use the features available from the Monitoring tab to view a variety of information about the
switch and its ports and to configure how the switch monitors events. The Monitoring tab contains
links to the following features:
•
“Ports” on page 6-1
•
“System Logs” on page 6-14
•
“Port Mirroring” on page 6-24
Ports
The pages available from the Ports link contain a variety of information about the number and type
of traffic transmitted from and received on the switch. From the Ports link, you can access the
following pages:
•
“Switch Statistics” on page 6-1
•
“Port Statistics” on page 6-4
•
“Port Detailed Statistics” on page 6-5
•
“EAP Statistics” on page 6-13
Switch Statistics
The Switch Statistics page displays detailed statistical information about the traffic the switch
handles.
To access the Switch Statistics page, click Monitoring > Ports > Switch Statistics.
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Figure 6-1
The following table describes the Switch Statistics displayed on the screen.
Table 6-1. Switch Statistics Fields
Field
Description
ifIndex
This object indicates the ifIndex of the interface table entry associated with
the processor of this switch.
Octets Received
The total number of octets of data received by the processor (excluding
framing bits, but including FCS octets).
Packets Received Without
Errors
The total number of packets (including broadcast packets and multicast
packets) received by the processor.
Unicast Packets Received
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher layer
protocol.
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Table 6-1. Switch Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Multicast Packets Received The total number of packets received that were directed to a multicast
address. This number does not include packets directed to the broadcast
address.
Broadcast Packets
Received
The total number of packets received that were directed to the broadcast
address. This does not include multicast packets.
Receive Packets Discarded The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded, even
though no errors had been detected, in order to prevent their being delivered
to a higher layer protocol. A possible reason for discarding a packet could be
to free up buffer space.
Octets Transmitted
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including framing
characters.
Packets Transmitted
Without Errors
The total number of packets transmitted out of the interface.
Unicast Packets
Transmitted
The total number of packets that higher level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Multicast Packets
Transmitted
The total number of packets that higher level protocols requested be
transmitted to a Multicast address, including those that were discarded or
not sent.
Broadcast Packets
Transmitted
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to the Broadcast address, including those that were discarded or
not sent.
Transmit Packets
Discarded
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded, even
though no errors had been detected, in order to prevent their being delivered
to a higher layer protocol. A possible reason for discarding a packet could be
to free up buffer space.
Most Address Entries Ever
Used
The highest number of Forwarding Database Address Table entries that
have been learned by this switch since the most recent reboot.
Address Entries in Use
The number of Learned and static entries in the Forwarding Database
Address Table for this switch.
Maximum VLAN Entries
The maximum number of Virtual LANs (VLANs) allowed on this switch.
Most VLAN Entries Ever
Used
The largest number of VLANs that have been active on this switch since the
last reboot.
Static VLAN Entries
The number of presently active VLAN entries on this switch that have been
created statically.
Dynamic VLAN Entries
The number of presently active VLAN entries on this switch.
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Table 6-1. Switch Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
VLAN Deletes
The number of VLANs on this switch that have been created and then
deleted since the last reboot.
Time Since Counters Last
Cleared
The elapsed time, in days, hours, minutes, and seconds, since the statistics
for this switch were last cleared.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear Counters to clear all the statistics counters, resetting all switch summary and
detailed statistics to default values. The discarded packets count cannot be cleared.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
Port Statistics
The Port Statistics page displays a summary of per-port traffic statistics on the switch.
To access the Port Summary page, click Monitoring > Ports, and then click the Port Statistics
link.
Figure 6-2
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The following table describes the per-port statistics displayed on the screen.
Table 6-2. Port Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Lists the ports on the system.
Total Packets Received
Without Errors
The total number of packets received that were without errors.
Packets Received With
Error
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them from
being deliverable to a higher layer protocol.
Broadcast Packets
Received
The total number of good packets received that were directed to the
broadcast address. This does not include multicast packets.
Packets Transmitted
Without Errors
The number of frames that have been transmitted by this port to its segment.
Transmit Packet Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
Collision Frames
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet segment.
Time Since Counters Last
Cleared
The elapsed time, in days, hours, minutes, and seconds since the statistics
for this port were last cleared.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
To clear all the counters for all ports on the switch, select the check box in the row heading and
click Clear. The button resets all statistics for all ports to default values.
•
To clear the counters for a specific port, select the check box associated with the port and click
Clear.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the data on the screen and display the most current statistics.
Port Detailed Statistics
The Port Detailed Statistics page displays a variety of per-port traffic statistics.
To access the Port Detailed page, click the Monitoring > Ports tab, and then click Port Detailed
Statistics. (Figure 6-3 on page 6-6 shows some, but not all, of the fields on the Port Detailed
Statistics page.)
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Figure 6-3
The following table describes the detailed port information displayed on the screen. To view
information about a different port, select the port number from the Interface menu.
Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Interface
Use the drop down menu to select the interface for which data is to be
displayed or configured.
MST ID
Displays the created or existing MSTs.
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Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
ifIndex
This field indicates the ifIndex of the interface table entry associated with this
port on an adapter.
Port Type
For most ports this field is blank. Otherwise the possible values are:
• Mirrored: Indicates that the port has been configured as a monitoring port
and is the source port in a port mirroring session. For additional information
about port monitoring and probe ports, see “Multiple Port Mirroring” on
page 6-24.
• Probe: Indicates that the port has been configured as a monitoring port and
is the destination port in a port mirroring session. For additional information
about port monitoring and probe ports, see “Multiple Port Mirroring” on
page 6-24.
• Port Channel: Indicates that the port has been configured as a member of a
port-channel, which is also known as a link Aggregation Group (LAG).
Port Channel ID
If the port is a member of a port channel, the port channel's interface ID and
name are shown. Otherwise, Disable is shown.
Port Role
Each MST Bridge Port that is enabled is assigned a Port Role for each
spanning tree. The port role will be one of the following values: Root Port,
Designated Port, Alternate Port, Backup Port, Master Port, or Disabled Port.
STP Mode
Displays the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Administrative Mode for the port or
LAG. The possible values for this field are:
• Enable: Enables the Spanning Tree Protocol for this port.
• Disable: Disables the Spanning Tree Protocol for this port.
STP State
Displays the port's current state Spanning Tree state. This state controls what
action a port takes on receipt of a frame. If the bridge detects a malfunctioning
port it will place that port into the broken state. The other five states are
defined in IEEE 802.1D:
• Disabled
• Blocking
• Listening
• Learning
• Forwarding
• Broken
Admin Mode
Displays the port control administration state:
• Enable: The port can participate in the network (default).
• Disable: The port is administratively down and does not participate in the
network.
LACP Mode
Selects the Link Aggregation Control Protocol administration state:
• Enable: Specifies that the port is allowed to participate in a port channel
(LAG), which is the default mode.
• Disable: Specifies that the port cannot participate in a port channel (LAG).
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Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Physical Mode
Indicates the port speed and duplex mode. In auto-negotiation mode, the
duplex mode and speed are set from the auto-negotiation process.
Physical Status
Indicates the port speed and duplex mode status.
Link Status
Indicates whether the link is up or down.
Link Trap
This object determines whether or not to send a trap when link status
changes. The factory default is Enable.
• Enable: Specifies that the system sends a trap when the link status
changes.
• Disable: Specifies that the system does not send a trap when the link status
changes.
Packets RX and TX 64
Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Packets RX and TX 65-127 The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
Octets
that were between 65 and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
Packets RX and TX 128255 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
that were between 128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
Packets RX and TX 256511 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
that were between 256 and 511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
Packets RX and TX 5121023 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
that were between 512 and 1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
Packets RX and TX 10241518 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
that were between 1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
Packets RX and TX > 1522 The total number of packets (including bad packets) received or transmitted
Octets
that are in excess of 1522 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Octets Received
The total number of octets of data (including those in bad packets) received on
the network (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets). This object can
be used as a reasonable estimate of ethernet utilization. If greater precision is
desired, the etherStatsPkts and etherStatsOctets objects should be sampled
before and after a common interval.
Packets Received 64
Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64
octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
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Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Packets Received 65-127
Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 65 and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Received 128-255 The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
Octets
between 128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Received 256-511 The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
Octets
between 256 and 511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Received 5121023 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 512 and 1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Received 10241518 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were
between 1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Received > 1522
Octets
The total number of packets received that were in excess of 1522 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Total Packets Received
Without Errors
The total number of packets received that were without errors.
Unicast Packets Received The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Multicast Packets
Received
The total number of good packets received that were directed to a multicast
address. This number does not include packets directed to the broadcast
address.
Broadcast Packets
Received
The total number of good packets received that were directed to the broadcast
address. This does not include multicast packets.
Total Packets Received
with MAC Errors
The total number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Jabbers Received
The total number of packets received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either a bad Frame
Check Sequence (FCS) with an integral number of octets (FCS Error) or a bad
FCS with a non-integral number of octets (Alignment Error). This definition of
jabber is different than the definition in IEEE-802.3 section 8.2.1.5 (10BASE5)
and section 10.3.1.4 (10BASE2). These documents define jabber as the
condition where any packet exceeds 20 ms. The allowed range to detect
jabber is between 20 ms and 150 ms.
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Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Fragments Received
The total number of packets received that were less than 64 octets in length
with ERROR CRC (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Undersize Received
The total number of packets received that were less than 64 octets in length
with GOOD CRC (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Alignment Errors
The total number of packets received that had a length (excluding framing bits,
but including FCS octets) of between 64 and 1518 octets, inclusive, but had a
bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS) with a non-integral number of octets.
Rx FCS Errors
The total number of packets received that had a length (excluding framing bits,
but including FCS octets) of between 64 and 1518 octets, inclusive, but had a
bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS) with an integral number of octets
Overruns
The total number of frames discarded as this port was overloaded with
incoming packets, and could not keep up with the inflow.
Total Received Packets
Not Forwarded
A count of valid frames received which were discarded (i.e., filtered) by the
forwarding process.
Local Traffic Frames
The total number of frames dropped in the forwarding process because the
destination address was located off of this port.
802.3x Pause Frames
Received
A count of MAC Control frames received on this interface with an opcode
indicating the PAUSE operation. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in half-duplex mode.
Unacceptable Frame Type The number of frames discarded from this port due to being an unacceptable
frame type.
Multicast Tree Viable
Discards
The number of frames discarded when a lookup in the multicast tree for a
VLAN occurs while that tree is being modified.
Reserved Address
Discards
The number of frames discarded that are destined to an IEEE 802.1 reserved
address and are not supported by the system.
Broadcast Storm
Recovery
The number of frames discarded that are destined for FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
when Broadcast Storm Recovery is enabled.
CFI Discards
The number of frames discarded that have CFI bit set and the addresses in
RIF are in non-canonical format.
Upstream Threshold
The number of frames discarded due to lack of cell descriptors available for
that packet's priority level.
Total Packets Transmitted The total number of octets of data (including those in bad packets) transmitted
(Octets)
on the network (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets). This object
can be used as a reasonable estimate of ethernet utilization. If greater
precision is desired, the etherStatsPkts and etherStatsOctets objects should
be sampled before and after a common interval.
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Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Packets Transmitted 64
Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were 64
octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Packets Transmitted 65127 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were
between 65 and 127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Transmitted 128255 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were
between 128 and 255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Transmitted 256511 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were
between 256 and 511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Transmitted 5121023 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were
between 512 and 1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Transmitted
1024-1518 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were
between 1024 and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Packets Transmitted
1519-1522 Octets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) transmitted that were
between 1519 and 1522 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
Total Packets Transmitted The number of frames that have been transmitted by this port to its segment.
Successfully
Unicast Packets
Transmitted
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Multicast Packets
Transmitted
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a Multicast address, including those that were discarded or not
sent.
Broadcast Packets
Transmitted
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to the Broadcast address, including those that were discarded or
not sent.
Total Transmit Errors
The sum of Single, Multiple, and Excessive Collisions.
Tx FCS Errors
The total number of packets transmitted that had a length (excluding framing
bits, but including FCS octets) of between 64 and 1518 octets, inclusive, but
had a bad Frame Check Sequence (FCS) with an integral number of octets
Tx Oversized
The total number of frames that exceeded the max permitted frame size. This
counter has a max increment rate of 815 counts per second at 10 Mb/s.
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Table 6-3. Port Detailed Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Underrun Errors
The total number of frames discarded because the transmit FIFO buffer
became empty during frame transmission.
Total Transmit Packets
Discarded
The sum of single collision frames discarded, multiple collision frames
discarded, and excessive frames discarded.
Single Collision Frames
A count of the number of successfully transmitted frames on a particular
interface for which transmission is inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames A count of the number of successfully transmitted frames on a particular
interface for which transmission is inhibited by more than one collision.
Excessive Collision
Frames
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due to
excessive collisions.
Port Membership
Discards
The number of frames discarded on egress for this port due to egress filtering
being enabled.
STP BPDUs Received
Number of STP BPDUs received at the selected port.
STP BPDUs Transmitted
Number of STP BPDUs transmitted from the selected port.
RSTP BPDUs Received
Number of RSTP BPDUs received at the selected port.
RSTP BPDUs Transmitted Number of RSTP BPDUs transmitted from the selected port.
MSTP BPDUs Received
Number of MSTP BPDUs received at the selected port.
MSTP BPDUs Transmitted Number of MSTP BPDUs transmitted from the selected port.
802.3x Pause Frames
Transmitted
A count of MAC Control frames transmitted on this interface with an opcode
indicating the PAUSE operation. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in half-duplex mode.
EAPOL Frames Received
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received by
this authenticator.
EAPOL Frames
Transmitted
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by this
authenticator.
Time Since Counters Last The elapsed time, in days, hours, minutes, and seconds since the statistics for
Cleared
this port were last cleared.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear to clear all the counters. This resets all statistics for this port to the default values.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the data on the screen and display the most current statistics.
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EAP Statistics
Use the EAP Statistics page to display information about EAP packets received on a specific port.
To display the EAP Statistics page, click the Monitoring > Ports tab, and then click the EAP
Statistics link.
Figure 6-4
The following table describes the EAP statistics displayed on the screen.
Table 6-4. EAP Statistics Fields
Field
Description
Ports
Specifies the interface which is polled for statistics.
Frames Received
Displays the number of valid EAPOL frames received on the port.
Frames Transmitted
Displays the number of EAPOL frames transmitted through the port.
Start Frames Received
Displays the number of EAPOL Start frames received on the port.
Log off Frames Received
Displays the number of EAPOL Log off frames that have been received on
the port.
Last Frame Version
Displays the protocol version number attached to the most recently
received EAPOL frame.
Last Frame Source
Displays the source MAC Address attached to the most recently received
EAPOL frame.
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Table 6-4. EAP Statistics Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Invalid Frames Received
Displays the number of unrecognized EAPOL frames received on this
port.
Length Error Frames
Received
Displays the number of EAPOL frames with an invalid Packet Body
Length received on this port.
Response/ID Frames
Received
Displays the number of EAP Respond ID frames that have been received
on the port.
Response Frames Received
Displays the number of valid EAP Response frames received on the port.
Request/ID Frames
Transmitted
Displays the number of EAP Requested ID frames transmitted through the
port.
Request Frames Transmitted
Displays the number of EAP Request frames transmitted through the port.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
To clear all the EAP counters for all ports on the switch, select the check box in the row
heading and click Clear. The button resets all statistics for all ports to default values.
•
To clear the counters for a specific port, select the check box associated with the port and
click Clear.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the data on the screen and display the most current statistics.
System Logs
The switch may generate messages in response to events, faults, or errors occurring on the
platform as well as changes in configuration or other occurrences. These messages are stored
locally and can be forwarded to one or more centralized points of collection for monitoring
purposes or long term archival storage. Local and remote configuration of the logging capability
includes filtering of messages logged or forwarded based on severity and generating component.
The Monitoring > Logs tab contains links to the following folders:
•
“Memory Logs” on page 6-15
•
“FLASH Log Configuration” on page 6-17
•
“Server Log Configuration” on page 6-19
•
“Trap Logs” on page 6-21
•
“Event Logs” on page 6-22
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Memory Logs
The in-memory log stores messages in memory based upon the settings for message component
and severity. Use the Memory Logs page to set the administrative status and behavior of logs in the
system buffer. These log messages are cleared when the switch reboots.
To access the Memory Log page, click the Monitoring > Logs tab, and then click the Memory
Log link.
Figure 6-5
To configure the Memory Log settings:
1. Use the radio buttons in the Admin Status field to determine whether to log messages.
•
Enable: Enables system logging.
•
Disable: Prevents the system from logging messages.
2. From the Behavior menu, specify the behavior of the log when it is full.
•
Wrap: When the buffer is full, the oldest log messages are deleted as the system logs new
messages.
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•
Stop on Full: When the buffer is full, the system stops logging new messages and
preserves all existing log messages.
3. If you change the buffered log settings, click Apply to apply the changes to the system and the
changes will be saved.
The Memory Log table also appears on the Memory Log page.
Table 6-5. Memory Log Table Fields
Field
Description
Total Number of Messages
Displays the number of messages the system has logged in memory.
Only the 64 most recent entries are displayed on the page.
The rest of the page displays the Memory Log messages. The following example applies to the
format of all logged messages which are displayed for the message log, persistent log, or console
log.
Messages logged to a collector or relay via syslog have an identical format of either type.
<15>Aug 24 05:34:05 STK0 MSTP[2110]: mspt_api.c(318) 237 %% Interface
12 transitioned to root state on message age timer expiry
The example log message above indicates a message with severity 7(15 mod 8) (debug). The
message was generated by the MSTP component running in thread id 2110. The message was
generated on Aug 24 05:34:05 by line 318 of file mstp_api.c. This is the 237th message logged.
Example user-level message:
<15>Aug 24 05:34:05 STK0 MSTP[2110]: mspt_api.c(318) 237 %% Interface
12 transitioned to root state on message age timer expiry
The example log message above indicates a user-level message (1) with severity 7 (debug). The
message was generated by component MSTP running in thread id 2110. The message was
generated on Aug 24 05:34:05 by line 318 of file mstp_api.c. This is the 237th message logged.
Messages logged to a collector or relay via syslog have an identical format to the above message.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear to clear the messages out of the buffered log in the memory.
•
Click Refresh to update the page with the latest messages in the log.
•
Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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FLASH Log Configuration
The FLASH log is a log that is stored in persistent storage, which means that the log messages are
retained across a switch reboot.
•
The first log type is the system startup log. The system startup log stores the first N messages
received after system reboot. This log always has the log full operation attribute set to stop on
full and can store up to 32 messages.
•
The second log type is the system operation log. The system operation log stores the last N
messages received during system operation. This log always has the log full operation attribute
set to overwrite. This log can store up to 1000 messages.
Either the system startup log or the system operation log stores a message received by the log
subsystem that meets the storage criteria, but not both. On system startup, if the startup log is
configured, it stores messages up to its limit. The operation log, if configured, then begins to store
the messages.
Use the FLASH Log Configuration page to enable or disable persistent logging and to set the
severity filter.
To access the FLASH Log Configuration page, click the Monitoring > Logs tab, and then click
the FLASH Log link.
Figure 6-6
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To configure the FLASH Log settings:
1. Use the radio buttons in the Admin Status field to determine whether to log messages to
persistent storage.
•
Enable: Enables persistent logging.
•
Disable: Prevents the system from logging messages in persistent storage.
2. From the Severity Filter field, specify the type of log messages to record. A log records
messages equal to or above a configured severity threshold. For example, if you select Error,
the logged messages include Error, Critical, Alert, and Emergency. The default severity level
is Alert(1). The severity can be one of the following levels:
•
Emergency (0): The highest level warning level. If the device is down or not functioning
properly, an emergency log is saved to the device.
•
Alert (1): The second highest warning level. An alert log is saved if there is a serious
device malfunction, such as all device features being down. Action must be taken
immediately.
•
Critical (2): The third highest warning level. A critical log is saved if a critical device
malfunction occurs, for example, two device ports are not functioning, while the rest of
the device ports remain functional.
•
Error (3): A device error has occurred, such as if a port is offline.
•
Warning (4): The lowest level of a device warning.
•
Notice (5): Normal but significant conditions. Provides the network administrators with
device information.
•
Info (6): Provides device information.
•
Debug (7): Provides detailed information about the log. Debugging should only be
entered by qualified support personnel.
3. If you make any changes to the page, click Apply to apply the change to the system.
The rest of the page displays the number of persistent messages the system has logged and the
persistent log messages.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear to clear the messages out of the buffered log.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the page with the most current data from the switch.
•
Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Server Log Configuration
Use the Server Log Configuration page to allow the switch to send log messages to the remote
logging hosts configured on the system.
To access the Server Log Configuration page, click the Monitoring > Logs tab, and then click the
Server Log link.
Figure 6-7
To configure local log server settings:
1. Use the radio buttons in the Admin Status field to determine whether to send log messages to
the remote syslog hosts configured on the switch.
•
Enable: Messages will be sent to all configured hosts (syslog collectors or relays) using
the values configured for each host.
•
Disable: Stops logging to all syslog hosts. Disable means no messages will be sent to any
collector/relay.
2. In the Local UDP Port field, specify the port on the switch from which syslog messages are
sent.
3. Click Apply to save the settings.
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The Server Log Configuration area also displays the following information:
•
The Messages Relayed field shows the number of messages forwarded by the syslog function
to a syslog host. Messages forwarded to multiple hosts are counted once for each host.
•
The Messages Ignored field shows the number of messages that were ignored.
To configure a remote log server
1. To add a remote syslog host (log server), specify the settings in the following list and click
Add.
•
Host Address. Specify the IP address or hostname of the host configured for syslog.
•
Port. Specify the port on the host to which syslog messages are sent. The default port is
514.
•
Severity Filter. Use the menu to select the severity of the logs to send to the logging host.
Logs with the selected severity level and all logs of greater severity are sent to the host.
For example, if you select Error, the logged messages include Error, Critical, Alert, and
Emergency. The default severity level is Alert(1). The severity can be one of the following
levels:
•
Emergency (0): The highest level warning level. If the device is down or not
functioning properly, an emergency log is saved to the device.
•
Alert (1): The second highest warning level. An alert log is saved if there is a serious
device malfunction, such as all device features being down.
•
Critical (2): The third highest warning level. A critical log is saved if a critical device
malfunction occurs, for example, two device ports are not functioning, while the rest
of the device ports remain functional.
•
Error (3): A device error has occurred, such as if a port is offline.
•
Warning (4): The lowest level of a device warning.
•
Notice (5): Provides the network administrators with device information.
•
Informational (6): Provides device information.
•
Debug (7): Provides detailed information about the log. Debugging should only be
entered by qualified support personnel.
2. To delete an existing host, select the check box next to the host and click Delete.
3. To modify the settings for an existing host, select the check box next to the host, change the
desired information, and click Apply.
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4. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
The Status field in the Server Configuration table shows whether the remote logging host is
currently active.
Trap Logs
Use the Trap Logs page to view information about the SNMP traps generated on the switch.
To access the Trap Logs page, click the Monitoring > Logs tab, and then click the Trap Logs link.
Figure 6-8
The following table describes the Trap Log information displayed on the screen.
Table 6-6. Trap Log Statistics
Field
Description
Number of Traps
Since Last Reset
The number of traps that have occurred since the switch last reboot.
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Table 6-6. Trap Log Statistics (continued)
Field
Description
Trap Log Capacity
The maximum number of traps stored in the log. If the number of traps exceeds the
capacity, the entries will overwrite the oldest entries.
Number of Traps
Since Log Last
Viewed
The number of traps that have occurred since the traps were last displayed.
Displaying the traps by any method (such as terminal interface display, Web
display, or upload file from switch) will cause this counter to be cleared to 0.
The page also displays information about the traps that were sent.
Table 6-7. Trap Logs
Field
Description
Log
The sequence number of this trap.
System Up Time
The time at which this trap occurred, expressed in days, hours, minutes, and
seconds since the last reboot of the switch.
Trap
Information identifying the trap.
Click Clear Counters to clear all the counters. This resets all statistics for the trap logs to the
default values.
Event Logs
Use the Event Log page to display the event log, which is used to hold error messages for
catastrophic events. After the event is logged and the updated log is saved in flash memory, the
switch will be reset. The log can hold at least 2,000 entries and is erased when an attempt is made
to add an entry after it is full. The event log is preserved across system resets.
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To access the Event Log page, click the Monitoring > Logs tab, and then click the Event Logs
link.
Figure 6-9
The following table describes the Event Log information displayed on the screen.
Table 6-8. Event Log Fields
Field
Description
Entry
The number of the entry within the event log. The most recent entry is first.
Type
Specifies the type of entry.
Filename
The GS108T source code filename identifying the code that detected the
event.
Line
The line number within the source file of the code that detected the event.
Task ID
The OS-assigned ID of the task reporting the event.
Code
The event code passed to the event log handler by the code reporting the
event.
Time
The time the event occurred, measured from the previous reset.
Use the buttons at the bottom of the page to perform the following actions:
•
Click Clear to clear the messages out of the Event Log.
•
Click Refresh to refresh the data on the screen and display the most current information.
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Port Mirroring
The page under the Mirroring link allows you to view and configure port mirroring on the system.
Multiple Port Mirroring
Port mirroring selects the network traffic for analysis by a network analyzer. This is done for
specific ports of the switch. As such, many switch ports are configured as source ports and one
switch port is configured as a destination port. You have the ability to configure how traffic is
mirrored on a source port. Packets that are received on the source port, that are transmitted on a
port, or are both received and transmitted, can be mirrored to the destination port.
The packet that is copied to the destination port is in the same format as the original packet on the
wire. This means that if the mirror is copying a received packet, the copied packet is VLAN tagged
or untagged as it was received on the source port. If the mirror is copying a transmitted packet, the
copied packet is VLAN tagged or untagged as it is being transmitted on the source port.
Use the Multiple Port Mirroring page to define port mirroring sessions.
To access the Multiple Port Mirroring page, click Monitoring > Port Mirroring.
Figure 6-10
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To configure Port Mirroring:
1. Select the check box next to a port to configure it as a source port.
2. In the Destination Port field, specify the port to which port traffic is be copied. Use the g1,
g2,...format to specify the port. You can configure only one destination port on the system.
3. From the Session Mode menu, select the mode for port mirroring on the selected port:
•
Enable. Multiple Port Mirroring is active on the selected port.
•
Disable. Port mirroring is not active on the selected port, but the mirroring information is
retained.
4. Click Apply to apply the settings to the system. If the port is configured as a source port, the
Mirroring Port field value is Mirrored.
5. To delete a mirrored port, select the check box next to the mirrored port, and then click Delete.
6. Click Cancel to cancel the configuration on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the
latest value of the switch.
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Chapter 7
Maintenance
Use the features available from the Maintenance tab to help you manage the switch. The
Maintenance tab contains links to the following features:
•
“Reset” on page 7-1
•
“Upload File From Switch” on page 7-3
•
“Download File To Switch” on page 7-5
•
“File Management” on page 7-9
•
“Troubleshooting” on page 7-12
Reset
The Reset menu contains links to the following options:
•
“Device Reboot” on page 7-1
•
“Factory Default” on page 7-2
Device Reboot
Use the Device Reboot page to reboot the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch.
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To access the Device Reboot page, click Maintenance > Reset > Device Reboot.
Figure 7-1
To reboot the switch:
1. Select the check box on the page.
2. Click Apply. The switch resets immediately. The management interface is not available until
the switch completes the boot cycle. After the switch resets, the login screen appears.
Factory Default
Use the Factory Default page to reset the system configuration to the factory default values.
Note: If you reset the switch to the default configuration, the IP address is reset to
192.168.0.239, and the DHCP client is enabled. If you loose network connectivity
after you reset the switch to the factory defaults, see “Connecting the Switch to the
Network” on page 1-2 .
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To access the Factory Defaults page, click Maintenance > Reset > Factory Default.
Figure 7-2
To reset the switch to the factory default settings:
1. Select the check box on the page.
2. Click Apply. The switch resets immediately.
Upload File From Switch
Use the File Upload page to upload configuration (ASCII), log (ASCII), and image (binary) files
from the switch to the TFTP server.
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To display the File Upload page, click Maintenance > Upload > File Upload.
Figure 7-3
To upload a file from the switch to the TFTP server:
1. Use the File Type menu to specify the type of file you want to upload:
•
Code: Uploads a stored code image.
•
Text Configuration: Uploads the text configuration file.
•
Error Log: Uploads the system error (persistent) log, sometimes referred to as the event
log.
•
Buffered Log: Uploads the system buffered (in-memory) log.
•
Trap Log: Uploads the system trap records.
2. If the file type is Code, specify whether to upload image1 or image2. This field is only visible
when Code is selected as the File Type.
3. From the Server Address Type filed, specify the format to use for the address you type in the
TFTP Server Address field:
•
IPv4. Indicates the TFTP server address is an IP address in dotted-decimal format.
•
DNS. Indicates the TFTP server address is a hostname.
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4. In the Server Address field, specify the IP address or hostname of the TFTP server. The
address you type must be in the format indicated by the TFTP Server Address Type.
5. In the Transfer File Path field, specify the path on the TFTP server where you want to put the
file. You may enter up to 32 characters. Include the backslash at the end of the path. A path
name with a space is not accepted. Leave this field blank to save the file to the root TFTP
directory.
6. In the Transfer File Name field, specify a destination file name for the file to upload. You
may enter up to 32 characters. The transfer fails if you do not specify a file name. For a code
transfer, use an .stk file extension.
7. Select the Start File Transfer check box to initiate the file upload.
8. Click Apply to begin the file transfer.
The last row of the table displays information about the progress of the file transfer. The page
refreshes automatically until the file transfer completes or fails.
Download File To Switch
The switch supports system file downloads from a remote system to the switch by using either
TFTP or HTTP.
The Download menu contains links to the following options:
•
“TFTP File Download” on page 7-5
•
“HTTP File Download” on page 7-8
TFTP File Download
Use the Download File to Switch page to download device software, the image file, the
configuration files and SSL files from a TFTP server to the switch.
You can also download files via HTTP. See “HTTP File Download” on page 7-8 for additional
information.
To access the TFTP File Download page, click Maintenance > Download > TFTP File
Download.
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Figure 7-4
Before you download a file to the switch, the following conditions must be true:
•
The file to download from the TFTP server is on the server in the appropriate directory.
•
The file is in the correct format.
•
The switch has a path to the TFTP server.
To download a file to the switch from a TFTP server:
1. From the File Type menu, Specify what type of file you want to download to the switch:
•
Code: The code is the system software image, which is saved in one of two flash sectors
called images (image1 and image2). The active image stores the active copy; while the
other image stores a second copy. The device boots and runs from the active image. If the
active image is corrupt, the system automatically boots from the non-active image. This is
a safety feature for faults occurring during the boot upgrade process.
•
Text Configuration: A text-based configuration file enables you to edit a configured text
file (startup-config) offline as needed without having to translate the contents for the
switch to understand. The most common usage of text-based configuration is to upload a
working configuration from a device, edit it offline to personalize it for another similar
device (for example, change the device name, serial number, IP address), and download it
to that device.
•
Boot Code: The boot code used to automatically boot the system.
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•
SSL Trusted Root Certificate PEM File: SSL Trusted Root Certificate File (PEM
Encoded).
•
SSL Server Certificate PEM File: SSL Server Certificate File (PEM Encoded).
•
SSL DH Weak Encryption Parameter PEM File: SSL Diffie-Hellman Weak Encryption
Parameter File (PEM Encoded).
•
SSL DH Strong Encryption Parameter PEM File: SSL Diffie-Hellman Strong
Encryption Parameter File (PEM Encoded).
2. If you are downloading a GS108T image (Code), select the image on the switch to overwrite.
This field is only visible when Code is selected as the File Type.I
Note: It is recommended that you not overwrite the active image. The system will
display a warning that you are trying to overwrite the active image.
3. From the Server Address Type filed, specify the format for the address you type in the TFTP
Server Address field
•
IPv4. Indicates the TFTP server address is an IP address in dotted-decimal format.
•
DNS. Indicates the TFTP server address is a hostname.
4. In the Server Address field, specify the IP address or hostname of the TFTP server. The
address you type must be in the format indicated by the TFTP Server Address Type.
5. In the Transfer File Path field, specify the path on the TFTP server where the file is located.
You may enter up to 32 characters. Include the backslash at the end of the path. A path name
with a space is not accepted. Leave this field blank to save the file to the root TFTP directory.
6. In the Remote File Name field, specify the name of the file to download from the TFTP
server. You may enter up to 32 characters. A file name with a space is not accepted.
7. Select the Start File Transfer check box to initiate the file upload.
8. Click Apply to begin the file transfer.
The last row of the table displays information about the progress of the file transfer. The page
refreshes automatically until the file transfer completes or fails.
To activate a software image that you download to the switch, see “File Management” on
page 7-9.
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HTTP File Download
Use the HTTP File Download page to download files of various types to the switch using an HTTP
session (for example, via your Web browser).
To display this page, click Maintenance > Download > HTTP File Download.
Figure 7-5
To download a file to the switch from by using HTTP:
1. From the File Type menu, Specify what type of file you want to download to the switch:
•
Code: The code is the system software image, which is saved in one of two flash sectors
called images (image1 and image2). The active image stores the active copy; while the
other image stores a second copy. The device boots and runs from the active image. If the
active image is corrupt, the system automatically boots from the non-active image. This is
a safety feature for faults occurring during the boot upgrade process.
•
Text Configuration: A text-based configuration file enables you to edit a configured text
file (startup-config) offline as needed without having to translate the contents for the
switch to understand. The most common usage of text-based configuration is to upload a
working configuration from a device, edit it offline to personalize it for another similar
device (for example, change the device name, serial number, IP address), and download it
to that device.
•
Boot Code: The boot code used to automatically boot the system.
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•
SSL Trusted Root Certificate PEM File: SSL Trusted Root Certificate File (PEM
Encoded).
•
SSL Server Certificate PEM File: SSL Server Certificate File (PEM Encoded).
•
SSL DH Weak Encryption Parameter PEM File: SSL Diffie-Hellman Weak Encryption
Parameter File (PEM Encoded).
•
SSL DH Strong Encryption Parameter PEM File: SSL Diffie-Hellman Strong
Encryption Parameter File (PEM Encoded).
2. If you are downloading a GS108T image (Code), select the image on the switch to overwrite.
This field is only visible when Code is selected as the File Type.I
Note: It is recommended that you not overwrite the active image. The system will
display a warning that you are trying to overwrite the active image.
3. Click Browse to open a file upload window to locate the file you want to download.
4. Click Cancel to cancel the operation on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the latest
value of the switch.
5. Click the Apply button to initiate the file download.
Note: After a file transfer is started, please wait until the page refreshes. When the page
refreshes, the Select File option will be blanked out. This indicates that the file
transfer is done.
File Management
The system maintains two versions of the GS108T software in permanent storage. One image is
the active image, and the second image is the backup image. The active image is loaded during
subsequent switch restarts. This feature reduces switch down time when upgrading or
downgrading the GS108T software.
The File Management menu contains links to the following options:
•
“Dual Image Configuration” on page 7-10
•
“Dual Image Status” on page 7-11
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Dual Image Configuration
The system running a legacy software version will ignore (not load) a configuration file created by
the newer software version. When a configuration file created by the newer software version is
discovered by the system running an older version of the software, the system will display an
appropriate warning to the user.
Use the Dual Image Configuration page to set the boot image, configure an image description, or
delete an image.
To display the Dual Image Configuration page, click Maintenance > File Management > Dual
Image > Dual Image Configuration.
Figure 7-6
To configure Dual Image settings:
1. Select the image to configure.
The Current-active field displays the name of the active image.
2. To configure a descriptive name for the selected software image, type the name in the Image
Description field.
3. To set the selected image as the active image, select the Active Image check box.
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Note: After activating an image, you must perform a system reset of the switch in
order to run the new code.
4. To remove the selected image from permanent storage on the switch, select the Delete Image
check box. You cannot delete the active image.
5. Click Cancel to cancel the operation on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the latest
value of the switch.
6. Click Apply to apply the settings to the switch.
Dual Image Status
You can use the Dual Image Status page to view information about the system images on the
device.
To display the Dual Image Status page, click Maintenance > File Management > Dual Image >
Dual Image Status.
Figure 7-7
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The following table describes the information on the Dual Image Status page.
Table 7-1. Dual Image Status Fields
Field
Description
Unit
The unit ID of the switch is always 1.
Image1 Ver
Displays the version of the image1 code file.
Image2 Ver
Displays the version of the image2 code file.
Current-active
Displays the currently active image on this switch.
Next-active
Displays the image to be used on the next restart of this switch.
Image1 Description
Displays the description associated with the image1 code file.
Image2 Description
Displays the description associated with the image2 code file.
Click Refresh to display the latest information from the switch.
For information about how to update or change the system images, see “File Management” on
page 7-9.
Troubleshooting
The Troubleshooting menu contains links to the following options:
•
“Ping” on page 7-12
•
“Traceroute” on page 7-14
Ping
Use the Ping page to tell the switch to send a Ping request to a specified IP address. You can use
this feature to check whether the switch can communicate with a particular network host.
To access the Ping page, click Maintenance > Troubleshooting > Ping.
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Figure 7-8
To configure the settings and ping a host on the network:
1. In the Hostname/IP Address field, specify the IP address or the hostname of the station you
want the switch to ping. The initial value is blank. This information is not retained across a
power cycle.
2. Optionally, configure the following settings:
• Count. Specify the number of pings to send. The valid range is 1–15.
• Interval. Specify the number of seconds between pings sent. The valid range is 1–60.
• Size. Specify the size of the ping (ICMP) packet to send. The valid range is 0–65507.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the operation on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the latest
value of the switch.
4. Click Apply to send the ping. The switch sends the number of pings specified in the Count
field, and the results are displayed below the configurable data in the Ping area.
•
If successful, you will see “Reply From IP/Host: icmp_seq = 0. time = xx usec. Tx = x,
Rx = x Min/Max/Avg RTT = x/x/x msec.”
•
If a reply to the ping is not received, you will see “Reply From IP/Host: Destination
Unreachable. Tx = x, Rx = 0 Min/Max/Avg RTT = 0/0/0 msec”.
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Traceroute
Use the Traceroute utility to discover the paths that a packet takes to a remote destination.
To display this page, click Maintenance > Troubleshooting > Traceroute.
Figure 7-9
To configure the Traceroute settings and send probe packets to discover the route to a host on the
network:
1. In the Hostname/IP Address field, specify the IP address or the hostname of the station you
want the switch to ping. The initial value is blank. This information is not retained across a
power cycle.
2. Optionally, configure the following settings:
•
Probes Per Hop. Specify the number of times each hop should be probed. The valid range
is 1–10.
•
MaxTTL. Specify the maximum time-to-live for a packet in number of hops. The valid
range is 1–255.
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•
InitTTL. Specify the initial time-to-live for a packet in number of hops. The valid range is
0– 255.
•
MaxFail. Specify the maximum number of failures allowed in the session. The valid
range is 0–255.
•
Interval. Specify the time between probes in seconds. The valid range is 1–60.
•
Port. Specify the UDP destination port in probe packets. The valid range is 1–65535.
•
Size. Specify the size of probe packets. The valid range is 0–65507.
3. Click Cancel to cancel the operation on the screen and reset the data on the screen to the latest
value of the switch.
4. Click Apply to initiate the traceroute. The results display in the TraceRoute area.
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Chapter 8
Help
Use the features available from the Help tab to connect to online resources for assistance. The
Help tab contains a link to “Online Help”.
Online Help
The Online Help includes the following pages:
•
“Support” on page 8-1
•
“User Guide” on page 8-2
Support
Use the Support page to connect to the Online Support site at netgear.com.
To access the Support page, click Help > Support.
Figure 8-1
To connect to the NETGEAR support site for the GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch, click Apply.
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User Guide
Use the User Guide page to access the GS108T Smart Switch Software Administration Manual (the
guide you are now reading) that is available on the NETGEAR Website.
To access the User Guide page, click Help > User Guide.
Figure 8-2
To access to the User Guide that is available online, click Apply.
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Appendix A
Hardware Specifications and Default Values
GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch Specifications
The GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch conforms to the TCP/IP, UDP, HTTP, ICMP, TFTP, DHCP,
IEEE 802.1D, IEEE 802.1p, and IEEE 802.1Q standards.
Table A-1. GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch Specifications
Feature
Value
Interfaces
Eight 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports
PoE
PoE-Powered Device
Flash memory size
16 MB
SRAM size and type
64 MB DDR
Table A-2. Switch Performance
Feature
Value
Switching capacity
Non-Blocking Full WireSpeed on all packet sizes
Forwarding method
Store and Forward
Packet forwarding rate
10M:14,880 pps/
100M:148,810 pps/
1G:1,488,000 pps
MAC addresses
4K
Green Ethernet
Power consumption savings by cable length (<10m)
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GS108T Gigabit Smart Switch Features and Defaults
Table A-3. Port Characteristics
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
Auto negotiation/static speed/
duplex
All ports
Auto negotiation
Auto MDI/MDIX
N/A
Enabled
802.3x flow control/back pressure
1 (per system)
Disabled
Port mirroring
1
Disabled
Port trunking (aggregation)
4
Pre-configured
802.1D spanning tree
1
Disabled
802.1w RSTP
1
Disabled
802.1s spanning tree
3 instances
Disabled
Static 802.1Q tagging
64
VID = 1
Member ports = 8
Learning process
Supports Static and dynamic MAC Dynamic learning is enabled by
entries
default
Table A-4. Quality Of Service
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
Number of queues
4
N/A
Port based
N/A
N/A
802.1p
1
Enabled
DSCP
1
Disabled
Rate limiting
All ports
Disabled
Auto-QoS
All ports
Disabled
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Table A-5. Security
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
802.1x
All ports
Disabled
MAC ACL
100 (Shared with IP ACL)
All MAC addresses allowed
IP access list
100 (shared with MACACL)
All IP addresses allowed
Password control access
1
Idle timeout = 5 mins.
Password = “password”
Management security
1 profile with 20 rules for HTTP/
HTTPS/SNMP access to allow/
deny an IP address/subnet
All IP addresses allowed
Port MAC lock down
All ports
Disabled
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
Storm control
All ports
Disabled
Jumbo frame
All ports
Disabled
Max = 9216 bytes
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
Boot code update
1
N/A
DHCP/manual IP
1
DHCP enabled/192.168.0.239
Default gateway
1
192.168.0.254
System name configuration
1
NULL
Configuration save/restore
1
N/A
Firmware upgrade
1
N/A
Restore defaults
1 (Web and front-panel button)
N/A
Dual image support
1
Enabled
Factory reset
1
N/A
Table A-6. Traffic Control
Table A-7. System Setup
Hardware Specifications and Default Values
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Table A-8. Other Features
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
IGMP snooping v1/v2
All ports
Disabled
Configurations upload/download
1
N/A
EAPoL flooding
All ports
Disabled
BPDU flooding
All ports
Disabled
Static multicast groups
8
Disabled
Filter multicast control
1
Disabled
Feature
Sets Supported
Default
Multi-session Web connections
16
Enabled
SNMPv1/V2c
SNMP v3
Max 5 community entries
Enabled (read, read-write
communities)
Time control
1 (Local or SNTP)
Local Time enabled
LLDP/LLDP-MED
All ports
Disabled
Logging
3 (Memory/Flash/Server)
Memory Log enabled
MIB support
1
Disabled
Smart Control Center
N/A
Enabled
Statistics
N/A
N/A
Table A-9. Management
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Appendix B
Configuration Examples
This chapter contains information about how to configure the following features:
•
“Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)” on page B-1
•
“Access Control Lists (ACLs)” on page B-4
•
“Differentiated Services (DiffServ)” on page B-7
•
“802.1X” on page B-12
•
“MSTP” on page B-15
Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)
A local area network (LAN) can generally be defined as a broadcast domain. Hubs, bridges, or
switches in the same physical segment or segments connect all end node devices. End nodes can
communicate with each other without the need for a router. Routers connect LANs together,
routing the traffic to the appropriate port.
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is a local area network with a definition that maps workstations on some
basis other than geographic location (for example, by department, type of user, or primary
application). To enable traffic to flow between VLANs, traffic must go through a router, just as if
the VLANs were on two separate LANs.
A VLAN is a group of PCs, servers, and other network resources that behave as if they were
connected to a single network segment—even though they might not be. For example, all
marketing personnel might be spread throughout a building. Yet if they are all assigned to a single
VLAN, they can share resources and bandwidth as if they were connected to the same segment.
The resources of other departments can be invisible to the marketing VLAN members, accessible
to all, or accessible only to specified individuals, depending on how the IT manager has set up the
VLANs.
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VLANs have a number of advantages:
•
It is easy to do network segmentation. Users that communicate most frequently with each
other can be grouped into common VLANs, regardless of physical location. Each group’s
traffic is contained largely within the VLAN, reducing extraneous traffic and improving the
efficiency of the whole network.
•
They are easy to manage. The addition of nodes, as well as moves and other changes, can be
dealt with quickly and conveniently from a management interface rather than from the wiring
closet.
•
They provide increased performance. VLANs free up bandwidth by limiting node-to-node and
broadcast traffic throughout the network.
•
They ensure enhanced network security. VLANs create virtual boundaries that can be crossed
only through a router. So standard, router-based security measures can be used to restrict
access to each VLAN.
Packets received by the switch are treated in the following way:
•
When an untagged packet enters a port, it is automatically tagged with the port’s default
VLAN ID tag number. Each port has a default VLAN ID setting that is user configurable (the
default setting is 1). The default VLAN ID setting for each port can be changed in the Port
PVID Configuration screen. See “Port VLAN ID Configuration” on page 3-14.
•
When a tagged packet enters a port, the tag for that packet is unaffected by the default VLAN
ID setting. The packet proceeds to the VLAN specified by its VLAN ID tag number.
•
If the port through which the packet entered does not have membership with the VLAN
specified by the VLAN ID tag, the packet is dropped.
•
If the port is a member of the VLAN specified by the packet’s VLAN ID, the packet can be
sent to other ports with the same VLAN ID.
•
Packets leaving the switch are either tagged or untagged, depending on the setting for that
port’s VLAN membership properties. A U for a given port means that packets leaving the
switch from that port are untagged. Inversely, a T for a given port means that packets leaving
the switch from that port are tagged with the VLAN ID that is associated with the port.
The example given in this section comprises numerous steps to illustrate a wide range of
configurations to help provide an understanding of tagged VLANs.
VLAN Example Configuration
This example demonstrates several scenarios of VLAN use and describes how the switch handles
tagged and untagged traffic.
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In this example, you create two new VLANs, change the port membership for default VLAN 1,
and assign port members to the two new VLANs:
1. In the Basic VLAN Configuration screen (see “VLAN Configuration” on page 3-11), create
the following VLANs:
•
A VLAN with VLAN ID 10.
•
A VLAN with VLAN ID 20.
2. In the VLAN Membership screen (see “VLAN Membership Configuration” on page 3-12)
specify the VLAN membership as follows:
•
For the default VLAN with VLAN ID 1, specify the following members: port 7 (U) and
port 8 (U).
•
For the VLAN with VLAN ID 10, specify the following members: port 1 (U), port 2 (U),
and port 3 (T).
•
For the VLAN with VLAN ID 20, specify the following members: port 4 (U), port 5 (T),
and port 6 (U).
3. In the Port PVID Configuration screen (see “Port VLAN ID Configuration” on page 3-14),
specify the PVID for ports g1 and g4 so that packets entering these ports are tagged with the
port VLAN ID:
•
Port g1: PVID 10
•
Port g4: PVID 20
4. With the VLAN configuration that you set up, the following situations produce results as
described:
•
If an untagged packet enters port 1, the switch tags it with VLAN ID 10. The packet has
access to port 2 and port 3. The outgoing packet is stripped of its tag to leave port 2 as an
untagged packet. For port 3, the outgoing packet leaves as a tagged packet with VLAN ID
10.
•
If a tagged packet with VLAN ID 10 enters port 3, the packet has access to port 1 and port
2. If the packet leaves port 1 or port 2, it is stripped of its tag to leave the switch as an
untagged packet.
•
If an untagged packet enters port 4, the switch tags it with VLAN ID 20. The packet has
access to port 5 and port 6. The outgoing packet is stripped of its tag to become an
untagged packet as it leaves port 6. For port 5, the outgoing packet leaves as a tagged
packet with VLAN ID 20.
Configuration Examples
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Access Control Lists (ACLs)
ACLs ensure that only authorized users have access to specific resources while blocking off any
unwarranted attempts to reach network resources.
ACLs are used to provide traffic flow control, restrict contents of routing updates, decide which
types of traffic are forwarded or blocked, and provide security for the network. ACLs are normally
used in firewall routers that are positioned between the internal network and an external network,
such as the Internet. They can also be used on a router positioned between two parts of the network
to control the traffic entering or exiting a specific part of the internal network. The added packet
processing required by the ACL feature does not affect switch performance. That is, ACL
processing occurs at wire speed.
Access lists are a sequential collection of permit and deny conditions. This collection of
conditions, known as the filtering criteria, is applied to each packet that is processed by the switch
or the router. The forwarding or dropping of a packet is based on whether or not the packet
matches the specified criteria.
Traffic filtering requires the following two basic steps:
1. Create an access list definition.
The access list definition includes rules that specify whether traffic matching the criteria is
forwarded normally or discarded. Additionally, you can assign traffic that matches the criteria
to a particular queue or redirect the traffic to a particular port. A default deny all rule is the last
rule of every list.
2. Apply the access list to an interface in the inbound direction.
GS108T switches allow ACLs to be bound to VLANs, physical ports, and LAGs. Binding an ACL
to a VLAN is efficient because you can bind an ACL to a single VLAN that has multiple ports as
members instead of binding an ACL to each port.
The GS108T switch supports MAC ACLs and IP ACLs.
MAC ACL Example Configuration
The following example shows how to create a MAC-based ACL that permits Ethernet traffic from
the Sales department on specified ports and denies all other traffic on those ports.
1. From the MAC ACL screen, create an ACL with the name Sales_ACL for the Sales
department of your network (See “MAC ACL” on page 5-44).
By default, this ACL will be bound on the inbound direction, which means the switch will
examine traffic as it enters the port.
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2. From the MAC Rules screen, create a rule for the Sales_ACL with the following settings:
• ID: 1
• Action: Permit
• Assign Queue: 0
• Match Every: False
• CoS: 0
• Destination MAC: 01:02:1A:BC:DE:EF
• Destination MAC Mask: 00:00:00:00:FF:FF
• Source MAC: 02:02:1A:BC:DE:EF
• Source MAC Mask: 00:00:00:00:FF:FF
• VLAN ID: 2
For more information about MAC ACL rules, see “MAC Rules” on page 5-46.
3. From the MAC Binding Configuration screen, assign the Sales_ACL to the interface gigabit
ports 6, 7, and 8, and then click Apply (See “MAC Binding Configuration” on page 5-48).
Figure B-1
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You can assign an optional sequence number to indicate the order of this access list relative to
other access lists if any are already assigned to this interface and direction.
4. The MAC Binding Table displays the interface and MAC ACL binding information (See
“MAC Binding Table” on page 5-49).
The ACL named Sales_ACL looks for Ethernet frames with destination and source MAC
addresses and MAC masks defined in the rule. Also, the frame must be tagged with VLAN ID 2,
which is the Sales department VLAN. The CoS value of the frame must be 0, which is the default
value for Ethernet frames. Frames that match this criteria are permitted on interfaces 6, 7, 8, 9, and
10 and are assigned to the hardware egress queue 0, which is the default queue. All other traffic is
explicitly denied on these interfaces. To allow additional traffic to enter these ports, you must add
a new permit rule with the desired match criteria and bind the rule to interfaces 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10.
Standard IP ACL Example Configuration
The following example shows how to create an IP-based ACL that prevents any IP traffic from the
Finance department to be allowed on the ports that are associated with other departments. Traffic
from the Finance department is identified by each packet’s network IP address.
1. From the IP ACL screen, create a new IP ACL with an IP ACL ID of 1 (See “IP ACL” on
page 5-50).
2. From the IP Rules screen, create a rule for IP ACL 1 with the following settings:
• Rule ID: 1
• Action: Deny
• Assign Queue ID: 0 (optional: 0 is the default value)
• Match Every: False
• Source IP Address: 192.168.187.0
• Source IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
For additional information about IP ACL rules, see “IP Rules” on page 5-52.
3. Click Add.
4. From the IP Rules screen, create a second rule for IP ACL 1 with the following settings:
• Rule ID: 2
• Action: Permit
• Match Every: True
5. Click Add.
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6. From the IP Binding Configuration page, assign ACL ID 1 to the interface gigabit ports 2, 3,
and 4, and assign a sequence number of 1 (See “IP Binding Configuration” on page 5-58).
By default, this IP ACL is bound on the inbound direction, so it examines traffic as it enters
the switch.
7. Click Apply.
8. From the IP Binding Configuration page, assign ACL ID 2 to the interface gigabit ports 2, 3,
and 4, and assign a sequence number of 2.
9. Click Apply.
10. Use the IP Binding Table screen to view the interfaces and IP ACL binding information (See
“IP Binding Table” on page 5-59).
The IP ACL in this example matches all packets with the source IP address and subnet mask of the
Finance department's network and deny it on the Ethernet interfaces 2, 3, and 4 of the switch. The
second rule permits all non-Finance traffic on the ports. The second rule is required because there
is an explicit deny all rule as the lowest priority rule.
Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
Standard IP-based networks are designed to provide best effort data delivery service. Best effort
service implies that the network deliver the data in a timely fashion, although there is no guarantee
that it will. During times of congestion, packets may be delayed, sent sporadically, or dropped. For
typical Internet applications, such as e-mail and file transfer, a slight degradation in service is
acceptable and in many cases unnoticeable. However, any degradation of service has undesirable
effects on applications with strict timing requirements, such as voice or multimedia.
Quality of Service (QoS) can provide consistent, predictable data delivery by distinguishing
between packets that have strict timing requirements from those that are more tolerant of delay.
Packets with strict timing requirements are given special treatment in a QoS-capable network.
With this in mind, all elements of the network must be QoS-capable. If one node is unable to meet
the necessary timing requirements, this creates a deficiency in the network path and the
performance of the entire packet flow is compromised.
There are two basic types of QoS:
•
Integrated Services: network resources are apportioned based on request and are reserved
(resource reservation) according to network management policy (RSVP, for example).
•
Differentiated Services: network resources are apportioned based on traffic classification and
priority, giving preferential treatment to data with strict timing requirements.
Configuration Examples
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GS108T switches support DiffServ.
The DiffServ feature contains a number of conceptual QoS building blocks you can use to
construct a differentiated service network. Use these same blocks in different ways to build other
types of QoS architectures.
There are 3 key QoS building blocks needed to configure DiffServ:
• Class
• Policy
• Service (i.e., the assignment of a policy to a directional interface)
Class
You can classify incoming packets at layers 2, 3 and 4 by inspecting the following information for
a packet:
• Source/destination MAC address
• EtherType
• Class of Service (802.1p priority) value (first/only VLAN tag)
• VLAN ID range (first/only VLAN tag)
• Secondary 802.1p priority value (second/inner VLAN tag)
• Secondary VLAN ID range (second/inner VLAN tag)
• IP Service Type octet (also known as: ToS bits, Precedence value, DSCP value)
• Layer 4 protocol (TCP, UDP etc.)
• Layer 4 source/destination ports
• Source/destination IP address
From a DiffServ point of view, there are two types of classes:
• DiffServ traffic classes
• DiffServ service levels/forwarding classes
DiffServ Traffic Classes
With DiffServ, you define which traffic classes to track on an ingress interface. You can define
simple BA classifiers (DSCP) and a wide variety of multi-field (MF) classifiers:
• Layer 2; Layers 3, 4 (IP only)
• Protocol-based
• Address-based
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You can combine these classifiers with logical AND or OR operations to build complex MFclassifiers (by specifying a class type of all or any, respectively). That is, within a single class,
multiple match criteria are grouped together as an AND expression or a sequential OR expression,
depending on the defined class type. Only classes of the same type can be nested; class nesting
does not allow for the negation (i.e., exclude option) of the referenced class.
To configure DiffServ, you must define service levels, namely the forwarding classes/PHBs
identified by a given DSCP value, on the egress interface. These service levels are defined by
configuring BA classes for each.
Creating Policies
Use DiffServ policies to associate a collection of classes that you configure with one or more QoS
policy statements. The result of this association is referred to as a policy.
From a DiffServ perspective, there are two types of policies:
•
Traffic Conditioning Policy: a policy applied to a DiffServ traffic class
•
Service Provisioning Policy: a policy applied to a DiffServ service level
You must manually configure the various statements and rules used in the traffic conditioning and
service provisioning policies to achieve the desired Traffic Conditioning Specification (TCS) and
the Service Level Specification (SLS) operation, respectively.
Traffic Conditioning Policy
Traffic conditioning pertains to actions performed on incoming traffic. There are several distinct
QoS actions associated with traffic conditioning:
•
Dropping: drop a packet upon arrival. This is useful for emulating access control list
operation using DiffServ, especially when DiffServ and ACL cannot co-exist on the same
interface.
•
Marking IP DSCP or IP Precedence: marking/re-marking the DiffServ code point in a
packet with the DSCP value representing the service level associated with a particular
DiffServ traffic class. Alternatively, the IP Precedence value of the packet can be marked/remarked.
•
Marking CoS (802.1p): sets the three-bit priority field in the first/only 802.1p header to a
specified value when packets are transmitted for the traffic class. An 802.1p header is inserted
if it does not already exist. This is useful for assigning a layer 2 priority level based on a
DiffServ forwarding class (i.e., DSCP or IP Precedence value) definition to convey some QoS
characteristics to downstream switches which do not routinely look at the DSCP value in the
IP header.
Configuration Examples
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•
Policing: a method of constraining incoming traffic associated with a particular class so that it
conforms to the terms of the TCS. Special treatment can be applied to out-of-profile packets
that are either in excess of the conformance specification or are non-conformant. The DiffServ
feature supports the following types of traffic policing treatments (actions):
• drop: the packet is dropped
• mark cos: the 802.1p user priority bits are (re)marked and forwarded
• mark dscp: the packet DSCP is (re)marked and forwarded
• mark prec: the packet IP Precedence is (re)marked and forwarded
• send: the packet is forwarded without DiffServ modification
Color Mode Awareness: Policing in the DiffServ feature uses either color blind or color aware
mode. Color blind mode ignores the coloration (marking) of the incoming packet. Color aware
mode takes into consideration the current packet marking when determining the policing
outcome. An auxiliary traffic class is used in conjunction with the policing definition to
specify a value for one of the 802.1p, Secondary 802.1p, IP DSCP, or IP Precedence fields
designating the incoming color value to be used as the conforming color. The color of
exceeding traffic may be optionally specified as well.
•
Counting: updating octet and packet statistics to keep track of data handling along traffic
paths within DiffServ. In this DiffServ feature, counters are not explicitly configured by the
user, but are designed into the system based on the DiffServ policy being created. See the
Statistics section of this document for more details.
•
Assigning QoS Queue: directs traffic stream to the specified QoS queue. This allows a traffic
classifier to specify which one of the supported hardware queues are used for handling packets
belonging to the class.
•
Redirecting: forces classified traffic stream to a specified egress port (physical or LAG). This
can occur in addition to any marking or policing action. It may also be specified along with a
QoS queue assignment.
DiffServ Example Configuration
To create a DiffServ Class/Policy and attach it to an interface from a GS108T switch, follow these
steps:
1. From the QoS Class Configuration screen, create a new class with the following settings:
• Class Name: Class1
• Class Type: All
For more information about this screen, see “Class Configuration” on page 4-12.
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2. Click the Class1 hyperlink to view the DiffServ Class Configuration screen for this class.
3. Configure the following settings for Class1:
• Protocol Type: UDP
• Source IP Address: 192.12.1.0
• Source Mask: 255.255.255.0
• Source L4 Port: Other, and enter 4567 as the source port value
• Destination IP Address: 192.12.2.0
• Destination Mask: 255.255.255.0
• Destination L4 Port: Other, and enter 4568 as the destination port value
For more information about this screen, see “Class Configuration” on page 4-12.
4. Click Apply.
5. From the Policy Configuration screen, create a new policy with the following settings:
• Policy Selector: Policy1
• Member Class: Class1
For more information about this screen, see “Policy Configuration” on page 4-17.
6. Click Add to add the new policy.
7. Click the Policy1 hyperlink to view the Policy Class Configuration screen for this policy.
8. Configure the Policy attributes as follows:
• Assign Queue: 1
• Policy Attribute: Simple Policy
• Color Mode: Color Blind
• Committed Rate: 1000000 Kbps
• Committed Burst Size: 128 KB
• Confirm Action: Send
• Violate Action: Drop
For more information about this screen, see “Policy Configuration” on page 4-17.
9. From the Service Configuration screen, select the check box next to interfaces g7 and g8. to
attach the policy to these interfaces, and then click Apply (See “Service Configuration” on
page 4-23).
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All UDP packet flows destined to the 192.12.2.0 network with an IP source address from the
192.12.1.0 network that have a Layer 4 Source port of 4567 and Destination port of 4568 from this
switch on ports 35 and 36 are assigned to hardware queue 1.
On this network, traffic from streaming applications uses UDP port 4567 as the source and 4568 as
the destination. This real-time traffic is time sensitive, so it is assigned to a high-priority hardware
queue. By default, data traffic uses hardware queue 0, which is designated as a best-effort queue.
Also the confirmed action on this flow is to send the packets with a committed rate of
1000000 Kbps and burst size of 128 KB. Packets that violate the committed rate and burst size are
dropped.
802.1X
Local Area Networks (LANs) are often deployed in environments that permit unauthorized
devices to be physically attached to the LAN infrastructure, or permit unauthorized users to
attempt to access the LAN through equipment already attached. In such environments, it may be
desirable to restrict access to the services offered by the LAN to those users and devices that are
permitted to use those services.
Port-based network access control makes use of the physical characteristics of LAN infrastructures
in order to provide a means of authenticating and authorizing devices attached to a LAN port that
has point-to-point connection characteristics and of preventing access to that port in cases in which
the authentication and authorization process fails. In this context, a port is a single point of
attachment to the LAN, such as ports of MAC bridges and associations between stations or access
points in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs.
The IEEE 802.11 standard describes an architectural framework within which authentication and
consequent actions take place. It also establishes the requirements for a protocol between the
authenticator (the system that passes an authentication request to the authentication server) and the
supplicant (the system that requests authentication), as well as between the authenticator and the
authentication server.
The GS108T switch supports a guest VLAN, which allows unauthenticated users to have limited
access to the network resources.
Note: You can use QoS features to provide rate limiting on the guest VLAN to limit the
network resources the guest VLAN provides.
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Another 802.1X feature is the ability to configure a port to Enable/Disable EAPoL packet
forwarding support.You can disable or enable the forwarding of EAPoL when 802.1X is disabled
on the device.
The ports of an 802.1X authenticator switch provide the means in which it can offer services to
other systems reachable via the LAN. Port-based network access control allows the operation of a
switch’s ports to be controlled in order to ensure that access to its services is only permitted by
systems that are authorized to do so.
Port access control provides a means of preventing unauthorized access by supplicants to the
services offered by a system. Control over the access to a switch and the LAN to which it is
connected can be desirable in order to restrict access to publicly accessible bridge ports or to
restrict access to departmental LANs.
Access control is achieved by enforcing authentication of supplicants that are attached to an
authenticator's controlled ports. The result of the authentication process determines whether the
supplicant is authorized to access services on that controlled port.
A Port Access Entity (PAE) is able to adopt one of two distinct roles within an access control
interaction:
1. Authenticator: A Port that enforces authentication before allowing access to services
available via that Port.
2. Supplicant: A Port that attempts to access services offered by the Authenticator.
Additionally, there exists a third role:
3. Authentication server: Performs the authentication function necessary to check the
credentials of the Supplicant on behalf of the Authenticator.
All three roles are required in order to complete an authentication exchange.
GS108T switches support the Authenticator role only, in which the PAE is responsible for
communicating with the Supplicant. The Authenticator PAE is also responsible for submitting the
information received from the Supplicant to the Authentication Server in order for the credentials
to be checked, which will determine the authorization state of the Port. The Authenticator PAE
controls the authorized/unauthorized state of the controlled Port depending on the outcome of the
authentication process, such as Local and/or RADIUS.
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Supplicant
Authenticator
Switch
Authentication
Server (RADIUS)
192.168.10.23
Supplicant
Figure B-2
802.1X Example Configuration
This example shows how to configure the switch so that 802.1X-based authentication is required
on the ports in a corporate conference room (g5–g8). These ports are available to visitors and need
to be authenticated before granting access to the network. The authentication is handled by an
external RADIUS server. When the visitor is successfully authenticated, traffic is automatically
assigned to the guest VLAN. This example assumes that a VLAN has been configured with a
VLAN ID of 150 and VLAN Name of Guest.
1. From the Port Authentication screen, select ports g5, g6, g7, and g8.
2. From the Port Control menu, select Unauthorized.
The Port Control setting for all other ports where authentication is not needed should be Auto
or Authorized. When the Port Control setting is Authorized, the port is unconditionally put in a
force-Authorized state and does not require any authentication. When the Port Control setting
is Auto, the authenticator PAE sets the controlled port mode
3. In the Guest VLAN field for ports g5–g8, enter 150 to assign these ports to the guest VLAN.
You can configure additional settings to control access to the network through the ports. See
“Port Security Interface Configuration” on page 5-38 for information about the settings.
4. Click Apply.
5. From the 802.1X Configuration screen, set the Port Based Authentication State and Guest
VLAN Mode to Enable, and then click Apply (See “Port Security Configuration” on
page 5-36).
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This example uses the default values for the port authentication settings, but there are several
additional settings that you can configure. For example, the EAPOL Flood Mode field allows
you to enable the forwarding of EAPoL frames when 802.1X is disabled on the device.
6. From the RADIUS Server Configuration screen, configure a RADIUS server with the
following settings:
• Server Address: 192.168.10.23
• Secret Configured: Yes
• Secret: secret123
• Active: Primary
For more information, see “RADIUS Configuration” on page 5-3.
7. Click Add.
8. From the Authentication List screen, configure the default List to use RADIUS as the first
authentication method (See “Authentication List Configuration” on page 5-13).
This example enables 802.1X-based port security on the GS108T switch and prompts the hosts
connected on ports g5-g8 for a 802.1X-based authentication. The switch passes the authentication
information to the configured RADIUS server. The RADIUS server must be configured to allow
access on the Guest VLAN.
MSTP
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) runs on bridged networks to help eliminate loops. If a bridge loop
occurs, the network can become flooded with traffic. IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree
Protocol (MSTP) supports multiple instances of Spanning Tree to efficiently channel VLAN
traffic over different interfaces. Each instance of the Spanning Tree behaves in the manner
specified in IEEE 802.1w, Rapid Spanning Tree, with slight modifications in the working but not
the end effect (chief among the effects is the rapid transitioning of the port to the Forwarding
state).
The difference between the RSTP and the traditional STP (IEEE 802.1D) is the ability to configure
and recognize full duplex connectivity and ports that are connected to end stations, resulting in
rapid transitioning of the port to the Forwarding state and the suppression of Topology Change
Notification. These features are represented by the parameters pointtopoint and edgeport. MSTP is
compatible to both RSTP and STP. It behaves appropriately to STP and RSTP bridges.
A MSTP bridge can be configured to behave entirely as a RSTP bridge or a STP bridge. So, an
IEEE 802.1s bridge inherently also supports IEEE 802.1w and IEEE 802.1D.
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The MSTP algorithm and protocol provides simple and full connectivity for frames assigned to
any given VLAN throughout a Bridged LAN comprising arbitrarily interconnected networking
devices, each operating MSTP, STP or RSTP. MSTP allows frames assigned to different VLANs
to follow separate paths, each based on an independent Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI),
within Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) Regions composed of LANs and or MSTP Bridges. These
Regions and the other Bridges and LANs are connected into a single Common Spanning Tree
(CST). [IEEE DRAFT P802.1s/D13]
MSTP connects all Bridges and LANs with a single Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST).
The CIST supports the automatic determination of each MST region, choosing its maximum
possible extent. The connectivity calculated for the CIST provides the CST for interconnecting
these Regions, and an Internal Spanning Tree (IST) within each Region. MSTP ensures that
frames with a given VLAN ID are assigned to one and only one of the MSTIs or the IST within the
Region, that the assignment is consistent among all the networking devices in the Region and that
the stable connectivity of each MSTI and IST at the boundary of the Region matches that of the
CST. The stable active topology of the Bridged LAN with respect to frames consistently classified
as belonging to any given VLAN thus simply and fully connects all LANs and networking devices
throughout the network, though frames belonging to different VLANs can take different paths
within any Region, per IEEE DRAFT P802.1s/D13.
All bridges, whether they use STP, RSTP or MSTP, send information in configuration messages
via Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) to assign port roles that determine each port’s
participation in a fully and simply connected active topology based on one or more spanning trees.
The information communicated is known as the spanning tree priority vector. The BPDU structure
for each of these different protocols is different. A MSTP bridge will transmit the appropriate
BPDU depending on the received type of BPDU from a particular port.
An MST Region comprises of one or more MSTP Bridges with the same MST Configuration
Identifier, using the same MSTIs, and which have no Bridges attached that cannot receive and
transmit MSTP BPDUs. The MST Configuration Identifier has the following components:
1. Configuration Identifier Format Selector
2. Configuration Name
3. Configuration Revision Level
4. Configuration Digest: 16-byte signature of type HMAC-MD5 created from the MST
Configuration Table (a VLAN ID to MSTID mapping)
As there are Multiple Instances of Spanning Tree, there is a MSTP state maintained on a per-port,
per-instance basis (or on a per port per VLAN basis: as any VLAN can be in one and only one
MSTI or CIST). For example, port A can be forwarding for instance 1 while discarding for
instance 2. The port states have changed since IEEE 802.1D specification.
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To support multiple spanning trees, a MSTP bridge has to be configured with an unambiguous
assignment of VLAN IDs (VIDs) to spanning trees. This is achieved by:
1. Ensuring that the allocation of VIDs to FIDs is unambiguous.
2. Ensuring that each FID supported by the Bridge is allocated to exactly one Spanning Tree
Instance.
The combination of VID to FID and then FID to MSTI allocation defines a mapping of VIDs to
spanning tree instances, represented by the MST Configuration Table.
With this allocation we ensure that every VLAN is assigned to one and only one MSTI. The CIST
is also an instance of spanning tree with a MSTID of 0.
An instance may occur that has no VIDs allocated to it, but every VLAN must be allocated to one
of the other instances of spanning tree.
The portion of the active topology of the network that connects any two bridges in the same MST
Region traverses only MST bridges and LANs in that region, and never Bridges of any kind
outside the Region, in other words connectivity within the region is independent of external
connectivity.
MSTP Example Configuration
This example shows how to create an MSTP instance from the GS108T switch. The example
network has three different GS108T switches that serve different locations in the network. In this
example, ports g1–g5 are connected to host stations, so those links are not subject to network
loops. Ports g6-g8 are connected across switches 1, 2 and 3.
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Ports g1-g5
Connected to Hosts
Ports g1-g5
Connected to Hosts
Ports g6-g10
Connected to Switch 2 and 3
Ports g6-g8
Connected to
Switch 1 and 3
Switch 1
Root Bridge
Switch 2
Ports g6-g8
Connected to Switch 1 and 2
Switch 3
Ports g1-g5
Connected to Hosts
Figure B-3
Perform the following procedures on each switch to configure MSTP:
1. Use the VLAN Configuration screen to create VLANs 300 and 500 (see “VLAN
Configuration” on page 3-11).
2. Use the VLAN Membership screen to include ports g1–g8 as tagged (T) or untagged (U)
members of VLAN 300 and VLAN 500 (see “VLAN Membership Configuration” on
page 3-12).
3. From the STP Configuration screen, enable the Spanning Tree State option (see “STP Switch
Configuration” on page 3-22).
Use the default values for the rest of the STP configuration settings. By default, the STP
Operation Mode is MSTP and the Configuration Name is the switch MAC address.
4. From the CST Configuration screen, set the Bridge Priority value for each of the three
switches to force Switch 1 to be the root bridge:
• Switch 1: 4096
• Switch 2: 12288
• Switch 3: 20480
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Note: Bridge priority values are multiples of 4096.
If you do not specify a root bridge and all switches have the same Bridge Priority value, the
switch with the lowest MAC address is elected as the root bridge (see “CST Configuration” on
page 3-25).
5. From the CST Port Configuration screen, select ports g1–g8 and select Enable from the STP
Status menu (see “CST Port Configuration” on page 3-26).
6. Click Apply.
7. Select ports g1–g5 (edge ports), and select Enable from the Fast Link menu.
Since the edge ports are not at risk for network loops, ports with Fast Link enabled transition
directly to the Forwarding state.
8. Click Apply.
You can use the CST Port Status screen to view spanning tree information about each port.
9. From the MST Configuration screen, create a MST instances with the following settings:
• MST ID: 1
• Priority: Use the default (32768)
• VLAN ID: 300
For more information, see “MST Configuration” on page 3-31.
10. Click Add.
11. Create a second MST instance with the following settings
• MST ID: 2
• Priority: 49152
• VLAN ID: 500
12. Click Add.
In this example, assume that Switch 1 has become the Root bridge for the MST instance 1, and
Switch 2 has become the Root bridge for MST instance 2. Switch 3 has hosts in the Sales
department (ports g1, g2, and g3) and in the HR department (ports g4 and g5). Switches 1 and 2
also have hosts in the Sales and Human Resources departments. The hosts connected from
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Switch 2 use VLAN 500, MST instance 2 to communicate with the hosts on Switch 3 directly.
Likewise, hosts of Switch 1 use VLAN 300, MST instance 1 to communicate with the hosts on
Switch 3 directly.
The hosts use different instances of MSTP to effectively use the links across the switch. The same
concept can be extended to other switches and more instances of MSTP.
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Index
Numerics
802.1X 5-3, 5-24
example configuration B-12
A
access control
ACL example configuration B-4
ACLs 5-42
management interface 5-14
authentication
802.1X 5-23, B-12
enable 1-20
list 5-13
port-based 5-23
RADIUS 5-3, 5-5
SNMP 1-20, 2-22, 2-23
TACACS+ 5-10
Auto-Video 3-11, 3-38
C
certificate 5-18
changing the password 1-10, 5-2
Configuration
802.1X 5-24
Access Control Lists 5-42
Access Profile 5-19
Access Rule 5-21
Authentication List 5-13
Class 4-12
Community 2-19
CoS 4-2
DHCP Filtering 2-39
Differentiated Services 4-10
Diffserv 4-11
DNS 2-15
Dual Image 7-10
Dynamic Address 3-56
Dynamic Host 2-17
Global 3-39
Green Ethernet 2-17
HTTP 5-15
IGMP Snooping 3-39
LACP 3-8
LACP Port 3-9
LAG 3-5
LLDP 2-25
MAC Filter 5-32
Management Access 5-14
MST Port 3-33
Network Settings on the Administrative
System 1-7
password 5-2
Policy 4-17
Port Security 5-36
Port VLAN ID 3-14
RADIUS 5-3
Global 5-3
Secure HTTP 5-16
SNMP v3 User 2-23
SNTP Server 2-9
Standard IP ACL Example B-6
STP 3-21
TACACS+ 5-10
Time 2-6
Trap 2-21
VLAN 3-11
VLAN example B-2
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VLAN Port Membership 3-12
CoS 4-2
customer support 1-ii
D
defaults A-1
CoS B-6
factory 5-2
DES 1-20
Device View 1-18
DHCP
client 1-2
Filtering 2-38
Filtering Interface Configuration 2-40
refreshing the client 1-9
DiffServ 4-10
DNS 2-15
DoS 2-12
download
a file 7-6
files via HTTP 7-5
from a remote system 7-5
software 7-5
Dual Image Status 7-11
E
EAP 6-13
EAPOL 6-13
F
file management 7-9
firmware 1-12
firmware download 7-5
G
getting started 1-1
Green Ethernet 2-17, 3-3
guest VLAN configuration B-14
H
help, HTML-based 1-17
HTTP 5-15
management interface access 1-8
secure 5-14
using to download files 7-8
HTTPS 5-16
I
ICMP 2-12
IEEE 802.11x B-12
IEEE 802.1AB 2-24
IEEE 802.1D 3-22
IEEE 802.1Q 3-10, 3-22
IEEE 802.1s 3-22
IEEE 802.1w 3-22
IEEE 802.1X 5-3
IEEE 802.3 flow control 3-4
IGMP 3-39
interface
LAG 3-5
logical 1-21
naming convention 1-20
physical 1-21
queue configuration 4-6
IP address
administrative system 1-7
static configuration 1-9
switch 1-2, 2-3
IP DSCP 4-2
Mapping 4-9
L
LACP port configuration 3-9
LAG VLAN 3-5
LAGPDUs 3-5
LAGs 3-5
Membership 3-7
Static 3-5
LLDP 2-24
Local Information 2-31
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Neighbors Information 2-34
packets 2-26
Port Settings 2-26
LLDP-MED 2-25
M
MAC 2-3, 2-33, 3-29, 3-39
ACL 5-44
bridge identifier 3-32
CPU Management Interface 1-21
Dynamic Address 3-56
Filter Summary 5-34
MFDB Table 3-45
multicast destination 3-45
Rules 5-46
searching address table 3-55
Static Address 3-58
MD5 2-6
MIBs 1-20
N
navigation 1-16
O
OUI 3-19
P
password
change 1-10, 5-2
login 5-2
Ping 7-12
PoE 1-3, 1-5
port
authentication 5-23
summary 5-30
Power Sourcing Equipment 1-3
PSE 1-3, 1-5
Q
R
RADIUS 5-1
server 5-3
statistics 5-6
reboot 1-9, 7-1
registering 1-ii
reset
button 5-2
configuration to defaults 7-2
switch 7-1
RSTP 3-22
S
Security MAC Address 5-39
server, HTTP 5-15
Simple Network Time Protocol 2-5
SNMP
traps 2-21
using 1-20
v1, v2 2-19
v3 2-23
SNTP 2-5, 2-6
Global Status 2-8
Server Configuration 2-10
Server Status 2-11
Specifications A-1
SSL 5-16
storm control 5-35
STP 3-21
example configuration B-15
Status 3-22
Stratum
0 2-6
1 2-6
2 2-6
Support 1-ii
QoS 4-1
802.1p to Queue Mapping 4-7
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T
U
T1 2-6
T2 2-6
T3 2-6
T4 2-6
TACACS+
folder 5-10
settings 5-10
Technical Support 1-ii
Time 2-5
Clock Source 2-8
configure through SNTP 2-8
levels 2-6
Local 2-7
UTC 2-8
Zone 2-7
TraceRoute 7-14
Traffic Control 5-31
Trap
Flags 2-22
Manager 2-22
Unicast 2-6
upload configuration 7-3
V
Video 3-11
VLAN 3-10
example configuration B-1
guest 5-25, 5-27, B-12
ID 3-10
management 2-5
managing 3-10
Port VLAN ID 3-14
PVID 3-14
voice 3-16
Voice VLAN OUI 3-19
VoIP 3-20
W
Web interface panel 1-16
Index-4
v1.0, March 2010
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