LM4862 675 mW Audio Power Amplifier with Shutdown

LM4862
www.ti.com
SNAS102F – MAY 1997 – REVISED MAY 2013
LM4862
675 mW Audio Power Amplifier with Shutdown
Mode
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FEATURES
DESCRIPTION
•
The LM4862 is a bridge-connected audio power
amplifier capable of delivering typically 675mW of
continuous average power to an 8Ω load with 1%
THD+N from a 5V power supply.
1
2
•
•
•
•
No Output Coupling Capacitors, Bootstrap
Capacitors or Snubber Circuits are Necessary
Small Outline or PDIP Packaging
Unity-Gain Stable
External Gain Configuration Capability
Pin Compatible with LM4861
APPLICATIONS
•
•
•
Portable Computers
Cellular Phones
Toys and Games
KEY SPECIFICATIONS
•
•
•
Boomer audio power amplifiers were designed
specifically to provide high quality output power with a
minimal amount of external components. Since the
LM4862 does not require output coupling capacitors,
bootstrap capacitors, or snubber networks, it is
optimally suited for low-power portable systems.
The LM4862 features an externally controlled, lowpower consumption shutdown mode, as well as an
internal thermal shutdown protection mechanism.
The unity-gain stable LM4862 can be configured by
external gain-setting resistors.
THD+N for 500mW Continuous Average
Output Power at 1kHz into 8Ω 1% (max)
Output Power at 10% THD+N at 1kHz into 8Ω
825 mW (typ)
Shutdown Current 0.7μA (typ)
Typical Application
Connection Diagram
*Refer to Application Information for information concerning proper
selection of the input coupling capacitor.
Figure 1. Typical Audio Amplifier Application
Circuit
Figure 2. Small Outline and PDIP Package-Top
View
See Package Number D0008A or P0008E
1
2
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of
Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date.
Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas
Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not
necessarily include testing of all parameters.
Copyright © 1997–2013, Texas Instruments Incorporated
LM4862
SNAS102F – MAY 1997 – REVISED MAY 2013
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These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
Absolute Maximum Ratings (1) (2)
Supply Voltage
6.0V
−65°C to +150°C
Storage Temperature
−0.3V to VDD + 0.3V
Input Voltage
(3)
Internally limited
ESD Susceptibility (4)
2000V
ESD Susceptibility (5)
200V
Power Dissipation
Junction Temperature
Soldering Information
Thermal Resistance
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
150°C
Small Outline Package
Vapor Phase (60 sec.)
215°C
Infrared (15 sec.)
220°C
θJC (typ)—D0008A
35°C/W
θJA (typ)—D0008A
170°C/W
θJC (typ)—P0008E
37°C/W
θJA (typ)—P0008E
107°C/W
Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for
which the device is functional, but do not ensure specific performance limits. Electrical Characteristics state DC and AC electrical
specifications under particular test conditions which ensure specific performance limits. This assumes that the device is within the
Operating Ratings. Specifications are not ensured for parameters where no limit is given, however, the typical value is a good indication
of device performance.
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the Texas Instruments Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and
specifications
The maximum power dissipation must be derated at elevated temperatures and is dictated by TJMAX, θJA, and the ambient temperature
TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation is PDMAX = (TMAX − TA)/θJA. For the LM4862, TJMAX = 150°C. The typical junction-toambient thermal resistance, when board mounted, is 170°C/W for package number D0008A and is 107°C/W for package number
P0008E.
Human body model, 100 pF discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor.
Machine Model, 200 pF–240 pF discharged through all pins.
Operating Ratings
Temperature Range
TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX
2
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ 85°C
2.7V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V
Supply Voltage
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Electrical Characteristics (1) (2)
The following specifications apply for VDD = 5V unless otherwise specified. Limits apply for TA = 25°C.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
LM4862
Typical
VDD
Supply Voltage
(3)
Limit
(4)
Units
(Limits)
2.7
V (min)
5.5
V (max)
6.0
mA (max)
IDD
Quiescent Power Supply Current
VIN = 0V, IO = 0A (5)
3.6
ISD
Shutdown Current
VPIN1 = VDD
0.7
5
μA (max)
VOS
Output Offset Voltage
VIN = 0V
5
50
mV (max)
PO
Output Power
THD = 1% (max); f = 1 kHz; RL = 8Ω
675
500
mW (min)
THD + N = 10%; f = 1 kHz; RL = 8Ω
825
mW
THD + N
Total Harmonic Distortion + Noise
PO = 500 mWrms; RL = 8Ω
AVD = 2; 20 Hz ≤ f ≤ 20 kHz
0.55
%
PSRR
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
VDD = 4.9V to 5.1V
50
dB
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
All voltages are measured with respect to the ground pin, unless otherwise specified.
Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for
which the device is functional, but do not ensure specific performance limits. Electrical Characteristics state DC and AC electrical
specifications under particular test conditions which ensure specific performance limits. This assumes that the device is within the
Operating Ratings. Specifications are not ensured for parameters where no limit is given, however, the typical value is a good indication
of device performance.
Typicals are measured at 25°C and represent the parametric norm.
Limits are ensured to TI's AOQL (Average Outgoing Quality Level).
The quiescent power supply current depends on the offset voltage when a practical load is connected to the amplifier.
Automatic Switching Circuit
Figure 3. Automatic Switching Circuit
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External Components Description
(Figure 1)
Components
Functional Description
1.
Ri
Inverting input resistance which sets the closed-loop gain in conjunction with Rf. This resistor also forms a high pass filter
with Ci at fc = 1/(2πRiCI).
2.
Ci
Input coupling capacitor which blocks the DC voltage at the amplifier's input terminals. Also creates a highpass filter with Ri
at fc = 1/(2πRiCi). Refer to PROPER SELECTION OF EXTERNAL COMPONENTS for an explanation of how to determine
the value of Ci.
3.
RF
Feedback resistance which sets the closed-loop gain in conjunction with Ri.
4.
CS
Supply bypass capacitor which provides power supply filtering. Refer to POWER SUPPLY BYPASSING for proper
placement and selection of the supply bypass capacitor.
5.
CB
Bypass pin capacitor which provides half-supply filtering. Refer to PROPER SELECTION OF EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
for proper placement and selection of the half-supply bypass capacitor.
4
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Typical Performance Characteristics
THD+N
vs
Frequency
THD+N
vs
Frequency
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
THD+N
vs
Frequency
THD+N
vs
Output Power
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
THD+N
vs
Output Power
THD+N
vs
Output Power
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
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Typical Performance Characteristics (continued)
6
Output Power vs
Supply Voltage
Output Power vs
Supply Voltage
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Output Power vs
Supply Voltage
Output Power vs
Load Resistance
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Power Dissipation vs
Output Power
Power Derating Curve
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
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Typical Performance Characteristics (continued)
Dropout Voltage vs
Power Supply
Noise Floor
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Frequency Response vs
Input Capacitor Size
Power Supply
Rejection Ratio
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Open Loop
Frequency Response
Supply Current vs
Supply Voltage
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
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APPLICATION INFORMATION
BRIDGE CONFIGURATION EXPLANATION
As shown in Figure 1, the LM4862 has two operational amplifiers internally, allowing for a few different amplifier
configurations. The first amplifier's gain is externally configurable, while the second amplifier is internally fixed in
a unity-gain, inverting configuration. The closed-loop gain of the first amplifier is set by selecting the ratio of Rf to
Ri while the second amplifier's gain is fixed by the two internal 10 kΩ resistors. Figure 1 shows that the output of
amplifier one serves as the input to amplifier two which results in both amplifiers producing signals identical in
magnitude, but out of phase 180°. Consequently, the differential gain for the IC is
AVD = 2*(Rf/Ri)
(1)
By driving the load differentially through outputs Vo1 and Vo2, an amplifier configuration commonly referred to as
“bridged mode” is established. Bridged mode operation is different from the classical single-ended amplifier
configuration where one side of the load is connected to ground.
A bridge amplifier design has a few distinct advantages over the single-ended configuration, as it provides
differential drive to the load, thus doubling output swing for a specified supply voltage. Consequently, four times
the output power is possible as compared to a single-ended amplifier under the same conditions. This increase in
attainable output power assumes that the amplifier is not current limited or clipped. In order to choose an
amplifier's closed-loop gain without causing excessive clipping which will damage high frequency transducers
used in loudspeaker systems, please refer to AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN.
A bridge configuration, such as the one used in LM4862, also creates a second advantage over single-ended
amplifiers. Since the differential outputs, Vo1 and Vo2, are biased at half-supply, no net DC voltage exists across
the load. This eliminates the need for an output coupling capacitor which is required in a single supply, singleended amplifier configuration. Without an output coupling capacitor, the half-supply bias across the load would
result in both increased internal lC power dissipation and also permanent loudspeaker damage.
POWER DISSIPATION
Power dissipation is a major concern when designing a successful amplifier, whether the amplifier is bridged or
single-ended. A direct consequence of the increased power delivered to the load by a bridge amplifier is an
increase in internal power dissipation. Equation 2 states the maximum power dissipation point for a bridge
amplifier operating at a given supply voltage and driving a specified output load.
PDMAX = 4*(VDD)2/(2π2RL)
(2)
Since the LM4862 has two operational amplifiers in one package, the maximum internal power dissipation is 4
times that of a single-ended amplifier. Even with this substantial increase in power dissipation, the LM4862 does
not require heatsinking. From Equation 2, assuming a 5V power supply and an 8Ω load, the maximum power
dissipation point is 625 mW. The maximum power dissipation point obtained from Equation 2 must not be greater
than the power dissipation that results from Equation 3:
PDMAX = (TJMAX–TA)/θJA
(3)
For package D0008A, θJA = 170°C/W and for package P0008E, θJA = 107°C/W. TJMAX = 150°C for the LM4862.
Depending on the ambient temperature, TA, of the system surroundings, Equation 3 can be used to find the
maximum internal power dissipation supported by the IC packaging. If the result of Equation 2 is greater than
that of Equation 3, then either the supply voltage must be decreased, the load impedance increased, or the
ambient temperature reduced. For the typical application of a 5V power supply, with an 8Ω load, the maximum
ambient temperature possible without violating the maximum junction temperature is approximately 44°C
provided that device operation is around the maximum power dissipation point. Power dissipation is a function of
output power and thus, if typical operation is not around the maximum power dissipation point, the ambient
temperature can be increased. Refer to Typical Performance Characteristics for power dissipation information for
lower output powers.
8
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POWER SUPPLY BYPASSING
As with any power amplifier, proper supply bypassing is critical for low noise performance and high power supply
rejection. The capacitor location on both the bypass and power supply pins should be as close to the device as
possible. As displayed in Typical Performance Characteristics, the effect of a larger half supply bypass capacitor
is improved PSSR due to increased half-supply stability. Typical applications employ a 5V regulator with 10 μF
and a 0.1 μF bypass capacitors which aid in supply stability, but do not eliminate the need for bypassing the
supply nodes of the LM4862. The selection of bypass capacitors, especially CB, is thus dependant upon desired
PSSR requirements, click and pop performance as explained in PROPER SELECTION OF EXTERNAL
COMPONENTS, system cost, and size constraints.
SHUTDOWN FUNCTION
In order to reduce power consumption while not in use, the LM4862 contains a shutdown pin to externally turn off
the amplifier's bias circuitry. The shutdown feature turns the amplifier off when a logic high is placed on the
shutdown pin. The trigger point between a logic low and logic high level is typically half supply. It is best to switch
between ground and supply to provide maximum device performance. By switching the shutdown pin to VDD, the
LM4862 supply current draw will be minimized in idle mode. While the device will be disabled with shutdown pin
voltages less than VDD, the idle current may be greater than the typical value of 0.7 μA. In either case, the
shutdown pin should be tied to a definite voltage because leaving the pin floating may result in an unwanted
shutdown condition.
In many applications, a microcontroller or microprocessor output is used to control the shutdown circuitry which
provides a quick, smooth transition into shutdown. Another solution is to use a single-pole, single-throw switch
that when closed, is connected to ground and enables the amplifier. If the switch is open, then a soft pull-up
resistor of 47 kΩ will disable the LM4862. There are no soft pull-down resistors inside the LM4862, so a definite
shutdown pin voltage must be applied externally, or the internal logic gate will be left floating which could disable
the amplifier unexpectedly.
AUTOMATIC SWITCHING CIRCUIT
As shown in Figure 3, the LM4862 and the LM4880 can be set up to automatically switch on and off depending
on whether headphones are plugged in. The LM4880 is used to drive a stereo single ended load, while the
LM4862 drives a bridged internal speaker.
The Automatic Switching Circuit is based upon a single control pin common in many headphone jacks which
forms a normally closed switch with one of the output pins. The output of this circuit (the voltage on pin 5 of the
LM4880) has two states based on the position of the switch. When the switch inside the headphone jack is open,
the LM4880 is enabled and the LM4862 is disabled since the NMOS inverter is on. If a headphone jack is not
present, it is assumed that the internal speakers should be on and the external speakers should be off. Thus the
voltage on the LM4862 shutdown pin is low and the voltage on the LM4880 shutdown pin is high.
The operation of this circuit is rather simple. With the switch closed, RP and RO form a resistor divider which
produces a gate voltage of less than 50 mV. The gate voltage keeps the NMOS inverter off and RSD pulls the
shutdown pin of the LM4880 to the supply voltage. This shuts down the LM4880 and places the LM4862 in its
normal mode of operation. When the switch is open, the opposite condition is produced. Resistor RP pulls the
gate of the NMOS high which turns on the inverter and produces a logic low signal on the shutdown pin of the
LM4880. This state enables the LM4880 and places the LM4862 in shutdown mode.
Only one channel of this circuit is shown in Figure 3 to keep the drawing simple but a typical application would be
a LM4880 driving a stereo headphone jack and two LM4862's driving a pair of internal speakers. If a single
internal speaker is required, one LM4862 can be used as a summer to mix the left and right inputs into a mono
channel.
PROPER SELECTION OF EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
Proper selection of external components in applications using integrated power amplifiers is critical to optimize
device and system performance. While the LM4862 is tolerant of external component combinations,
consideration to component values must be used to maximize overall system quality.
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The LM4862 is unity-gain stable which gives a designer maximum system flexibility. The LM4862 should be used
in low gain configurations to minimize THD+N values, and maximize the signal to noise ratio. Low gain
configurations require large input signals to obtain a given output power. Input signals equal to or greater than 1
Vrms are available from sources such as audio codecs. Please refer to AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN for
a more complete explanation of proper gain selection.
Besides gain, one of the major considerations is the closed-loop bandwidth of the amplifier. To a large extent, the
band-width is dictated by the choice of external components shown in Figure 1. The input coupling capacitor, Ci,
forms a first order high pass filter which limits low frequency response. This value should be chosen based on
needed frequency response for a few distinct reasons.
Selection of Input Capacitor Size
Large input capacitors are both expensive and space hungry for portable designs. Clearly, a certain sized
capacitor is needed to couple in low frequencies without severe attenuation. But in many cases the speakers
used in portable systems, whether internal or external, have little ability to reproduce signals below 100–150 Hz.
Thus using a large input capacitor may not increase system performance.
In addition to system cost and size, click and pop performance is effected by the size of the input coupling
capacitor, Ci. A larger input coupling capacitor requires more charge to reach its quiescent DC voltage (nominally
½ VDD). This charge comes from the output via the feedback and is apt to create pops upon device enable. Thus,
by minimizing the capacitor size based on necessary low frequency response, turn-on pops can be minimized.
Besides minimizing the input capacitor size, careful consideration should be paid to the bypass capacitor value.
Bypass capacitor, CB, is the most critical component to minimize turn-on pops since it determines how fast the
LM4862 turns on. The slower the LM4862's outputs ramp to their quiescent DC voltage (nominally ½ VDD), the
smaller the turn-on pop. Choosing CB equal to 1.0 μF along with a small value of Ci (in the range of 0.1 μF to
0.39 μF), should produce a virtually clickless and popless shutdown function. While the device will function
properly, (no oscillations or motorboating), with CB equal to 0.1 μF, the device will be much more susceptible to
turn-on clicks and pops. Thus, a value of CB equal to 1.0 μF or larger is recommended in all but the most cost
sensitive designs.
AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN
Design a 500 mW/8Ω Audio Amplifier
Given:
Power Output
500 mWrms
Load Impedance
8Ω
Input Level
1 Vrms
Input Impedance
20 kΩ
Bandwidth
100 Hz–20 kHz ± 0.25 dB
A designer must first determine the minimum supply rail to obtain the specified output power. By extrapolating
from Figure 10, Figure 11, and Figure 12 in Typical Performance Characteristics, the supply rail can be easily
found. A second way to determine the minimum supply rail is to calculate the required Vopeak using Equation 4
and add the dropout voltage. Using this method, the minimum supply voltage would be (Vopeak + (2*VOD)), where
VOD is extrapolated from the Figure 16 in Typical Performance Characteristics.
(4)
Using the Output Power vs Supply Voltage graph for an 8Ω load, the minimum supply rail is 4.3V. But since 5V is
a standard supply voltage in most applications, it is chosen for the supply rail. Extra supply voltage creates
headroom that allows the LM4862 to reproduce peaks in excess of 500 mW without clipping the signal. At this
time, the designer must make sure that the power supply choice along with the output impedance does not
violate the conditions explained in POWER DISSIPATION.
Once the power dissipation equations have been addressed, the required differential gain can be determined
from Equation 5.
(5)
(6)
Rf/Ri = AVD/2
10
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From Equation 5, the minimum AVD is 2; use AVD = 2.
Since the desired input impedance was 20 kΩ, and with a AVD of 2, a ratio of 1:1 of Rf to Ri results in an
allocation of Ri = Rf = 20 kΩ. The final design step is to address the bandwidth requirements which must be
stated as a pair of −3 dB frequency points. Five times away from a –3 dB point is 0.17 dB down from passband
response which is better than the required ±0.25 dB specified. This fact results in a low and high frequency pole
of 20 Hz and 100 kHz respectively. As stated in External Components Description , Ri in conjunction with Ci
create a highpass filter.
Ci ≥ 1/(2π*20 kΩ*20 Hz) = 0.397 μF; use 0.39 μF.
(7)
The high frequency pole is determined by the product of the desired high frequency pole, fH, and the differential
gain, AVD. With an AVD = 2 and fH = 100 kHz, the resulting GBWP = 100 kHz which is much smaller than the
LM4862 GBWP of 12.5 MHz. This figure displays that if a designer has a need to design an amplifier with a
higher differential gain, the LM4862 can still be used without running into bandwidth problems.
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REVISION HISTORY
Changes from Revision E (May 2013) to Revision F
•
12
Page
Changed layout of National Data Sheet to TI format .......................................................................................................... 11
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
18-Oct-2013
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
LM4862M
ACTIVE
SOIC
D
8
95
TBD
Call TI
Call TI
-40 to 85
LM
4862M
LM4862M/NOPB
ACTIVE
SOIC
D
8
95
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
SN | CU SN
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
-40 to 85
LM
4862M
LM4862MX/NOPB
ACTIVE
SOIC
D
8
2500
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
SN | CU SN
Level-1-260C-UNLIM
-40 to 85
LM
4862M
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
18-Oct-2013
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
8-May-2013
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
LM4862MX/NOPB
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
SOIC
D
8
SPQ
Reel
Reel
A0
Diameter Width (mm)
(mm) W1 (mm)
2500
330.0
12.4
Pack Materials-Page 1
6.5
B0
(mm)
K0
(mm)
P1
(mm)
5.4
2.0
8.0
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
12.0
Q1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
8-May-2013
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
LM4862MX/NOPB
SOIC
D
8
2500
367.0
367.0
35.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
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