gps receiver specifications - Research Outputs Repository

APPENDIX A
GPS RECEIVER SPECIFICATIONS
Trimble
SVeeSix Series
Communication
Versatile GPS Receivers
)S receiver boards and modules
OEM applications
The SVeeSix product series provides
an OEM or system integrator with
low-cost, high-performance GPS
receiver boards (SVeeSix) or packaged
modules (SVeeSix Plus). SVeeSix
receivers provide worldwide, day-and-
night, all-weather position and velocity
data for numerous applications. These
include timing, tracking, GIS, agriculture, marine, communications, and
environmental data acquisition.
SVeeSix receivers use Trimble's
advanced tracking algorithms to
optimize data availability and accuracy.
They track up to eight GPS satellites,
typically using six to calculate an overdetermined position. Their position
and velocity filters provide smooth,
reliable positions for mobile applications. And the series' differential receiver
is accurate to better than five meters.
SVeeSix products also provide a
highly accurate time signal and a onepulse-per-second (I PPS) signal. Both
are synchronized to UTC within one
microsecond. Consequently, SVeeSix
products are ideal for multi-site
synchronization and time distribution.
The System Designer's Starter Kit
includes everything you need to evaluate and integrate SVeeSix products.
You get a differential-ready SVeeSix Plus
receiver in a sturdy metal enclosure, as
well as antenna, cables, and manual.
To help you select the best protocol for
your application, the Starter Kit also
includes software and all three of
Trimble's standard I/O protocols.
Trimble offers the most extensive
line of OEM receivers in the industry.
And with over 100 standard OEM
products, Trimble can meet almost any
application need.
Trimble also offers custom OEM
services, including full custom software
and hardware design. What's more,
Trimble will customize the SVeeSix or
any of our other OEM products.
Superior performance, low cost,
ease of integration, and custom design
services make the SVeeSix series the
ideal choice for your OEM application.
YeeSix Series
ersatile GPS Receivers
erformance Specifications
leral:
Li frequency, CA code (SPS),
6 channels, continuous tracking receiver,
Dimensions:
tracks 8 satellites
late rate:
TSIP at 2Hz, NMEA & TAIP at I Hz
uracr.
Position:
Velocity:
Time:
'S accuracy.
Position:
Velocity:
Time:
uisition (typical): Cold start:
Warm start:
Hot start:
amics:
(92 mm x 103 mm x 20 mm)
4.03"D x 4.97"W x 1.1"H
(102 mm x 127 mm x 28 mm)
SVeeSix Plus:
(metal enclosure)
(excluding mounting flange)
2 to 5 m (2 sigma)
0.1 m/sec
1 micro-second (nominal)
Mounting flange:
4.03"D x 6.81"W x 0.062"H
(102 rum x 173 mm x 2 mm)
Antenna:
2.36" (60 mm) dia x 0.76" (19.3 mm)
2 to 5 minutes
Overall external dimensions dependent
50 seconds
30 seconds
upon form and mechanical mounting of
radome assembly
Weight:
Velocity:
500 m/sec maximum
Acceleration: 4g (39.2 m/sec2)
Jerk:
20 m/sec3
rating temp:
-10°C to +60°C (standard board)
-40°C to +85°C (optional board)
age temp:
-55°C to +100°C
ation:
0.008g2/Hz
.05g2/Hz
-3db/octave
Board:
0.8 lbs. (80 g) (with two DB-9 connectors)
(8.4 cm x 17.3 cm x 3.3 cm)
SVeeSix Plus:
0.57 lbs. (260 g) (including mounting flange)
*Board layout and design is configurable to meet specific
customer requirements and applications. Options and
formats prescribed will determine final board size and
layout. Board sizes may vary from minimum of 2" x 2.5
to a maximum of 8" x 11".
5Hz to 20Hz
20 Hz to 100Hz
100Hz to 900 Hz
Common Configurations
SVeeSix standard temperature RS-232:
Note: Specifications comply with
SAE1 1211 requirements
rating humidity:
5% to 95% R.H. non-condensing at +60°C
ude:
-400 m to +18,000 m
23190-61
23190-62
23190-63
TSIP
NMEA
TAIP
SVeeSix Differential-ready extended temperatures RS-232:
chnical Specifications
9 to 32 VDC input (standard)
1.85 Watts nominal (w/o GPS antenna)
2.0 Watts nominal (with GPS antenna)
Add 200 m W for RS-422 electrical interface
Reverse polarity protection
Mechanical connection 3-pin coaxial
23192-61
23192-62
23192-63
TSIP
NMEA
TAIP
SVeeSix Plus standard temperature: RS-232, metal enclosure:
23196-61
23196-62
23196-63
TSIP
NMEA
TAIP
GPS antenna:
21423-00 Magnetic mount with 5-meter cable
21423-20 Non-magnetic mount with 5-meter cable
18334-10 Bulkhead mount without cable
23726-00 Rooftop antenna kit
21425
6-meter cable for bulkhead
21589-00 SveeSix Plus Starter Kit
Includes SveeSix Plus with DGPS, magnetic mount
antenna, TSIP, NMEA and TAIP firmware, software tool
kits for TSIP and TAIP, interface cables, and manual.
put
use-per-second): ± 1 micro-second, open collector
k-up powec
+3 to 12V (1 micro-amp @ +3V)
al port
RS-232 or RS-422
ocol options:
TSIP at 9600 baud, 8-odd-1
NMEA-0183 V2.0 at 4800 baud, 8-none-1
TAIP at 4800 baud, 8-none-1
A messages:
Standard: GGA and VTG
Optional: Any combination of GGA, GLL,
VTG, ZDA, GSA, GSV, RMO
I.E GPS
Trimble
SOLUTION
3.6"D x 4.06W x 0.8"H
(board)
(over connectors*)
25 m SEP without SA
0.1 m/sec without SA
1 micro-second (nominal)
nvironmental Specifications
to power
SveeSix:
Note: All GPS receivers arc subject to degradation of position and velocity
accuracies under Department of Defense-imposed Selective Availability (SA).
Position may be degraded up to tOO meters 2D RMS.
Note: Additional configurations arc available. Consult your Trimble
representative for details.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
Trimble Navigation limited
Trimble Navigation Europe limited
OEM Sales
Trimble House
645 North Mary Avenue
Meridian Office Park
Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3642
1-800-827-8000 inside U.S.
1-408.481-8000 outside U.S.
1-408-481-7744 Fax
Osborn Way, Hook
Hampshire RG27 9HX U.K.
+44-1256-760150
+44-1256-760148 Fax
Trimble Navigation
Singapore PTE Limited
300 Beach Road
f34-05 The Concourse
Singapore 199555
Singapore
+65-296-2700
+65-296-8033 Fax
Trimble
GPS Pathfinder
Community Base Station12-Channel Automated GPS Reference Station
Real-time and post-mission
differential GPS base station.
Community Base Station (PFCBS'")
software records reference data from a
stationary GPS receiver and uses the data
to remove errors from any number of
roving field GPS receivers. PFCBS
generates GPS base station data for both
post-processed and real-time differential
corrections that improve GPS Pathfinder
rover data to the 1 to 5-meter range.
The Community Base Station system
comprises a 12-channel, parallel tracking
GPS receiver, remote GPS antenna,
cabling, power supplies, and the PFCBS
PC-based software and manuals. Twelve
channels track up to twelve satellites,
ensuring maximum differential correction
success. The system's programmable,
automated operation will make your
projects more productive by freeing
personnel from manually supervising base
station activities. The system can log data
continuously or only at specific dates and
times, and automatically performs file
naming and management functions. In
the event of a power failure, the system
can be configured to automatically restart
and append corrections co a pre-existing
data file.
PFCBS base files are used to remove
errors from Selective Availability (SA), as
well as all other systematic errors.
Differentially corrected data is most
accurate when collected near the base
station, though data is accurate anywhere
rib
t,0.1
Ileisifo Stem,
IM
TVS
Cask tire ,III.Jer_110,
within 500km (300 miles) of the PFCBS
installation.
PFCBS stores the base station data in
convenient one-hour files for easy,
convenient file management. Longer
files can easily be created if desired.
These data files are automatically
named, date-stamped and saved without
any user supervision. Using PFINDER
processing software, differential
corrections are applied to field data files.
When attached to an appropriate
modem and radio, the Community Base
Station system transmits RTCM SC-104
standard corrections to rovers for
differential correction. These corrections
are applied in the field by GPS
Pathfinder rovers,c)roducing real-time
accuracy in the 1 to 5-meter range.
PS Pathfinder-Community Base StationChannel Automated GPS Reference Station
Antenna Specifications
dard Features
rd Configuration (PN 17251-40)
hannel GPS receiver
tote Compact Dome Antenna
newt- Antenna cable
bined AC Power Adapter and PC logging cable
AC power supply; PFCBS software
BS software, software key
BS manual
rd Configuration with PF1NDER (PN 17251-45)
eatures of Standard Configuration
4DER GPS processing software
:BS Configuration (PN 18440)
eatures of Standard Configuration (without PFINDER)
DX2, 66 MHz IBM®-compatible PC
340Mb hard drive
8Mb RAM
Super VGA monitor
Tape drive backup
Bulletin board software
PXWARE file compression software
Right-hand, circular polarized
Omnidirectional
Hemispherical coverage
Software Capabilities
Creates GPS Pathfinder SSF base data files for HINDER
postprocessed differential correction program
Automatically starts and stops logging data at pre-selected
days and times
Logs records from up to twelve satellites
Creates files hourly
Names files automatically
Eliminates systematic errors such as Selective Availability
when used with GPS Pathfinder rovers.
Stores synchronized measurement data
Outputs real-time corrections( RTCM SC-104 or TAIP) to a serial port
Outputs real-time corrections to parallel port if second port is
not available (requires parallel to serial converters)
Estimates reference position automatically
User-Supplied PC
ical Characteristics
Recommended Specifications:
2"W x 8.2"D x 5"H
1.4 kg (3 lbs)
tg temp:
temp:
4 watts DC, 10.5V to 35VDC
AC Power Adaptor 110V 60Hz
-10°C to +60°C
-40°C to +70°C
95% non-condensing
Dust proof, splash proof
Accuracy
ra:
g temp:
temp:
r:
A dedicated desktop IBM() PC or compatible with the following:
640K RAM
80 Mb hard drive
2 serial ports, or; 1 serial port and 1 parallel port with parallel to serial
converter
1 parallel printer port for software key
1 high-density 3-1/2" floppy drive
EGA or higher resolution monitor
Minimum configuration requires an 80286 microprocessor with math
coprocessor or 80386 with math coprocessor if generating RTCM
6"W x 3.5"H
0.5kg (1 lb.)
-40°C to +75°C
-40°C to +75°C
Will operate at 100%
Dust proof, splash proof, high-impact
plastic
Receiver Specifications
Accuracy depends on Selective Availability (SA), local environmental
conditions and operating mode.
SA: Without differential correction, all GPS receivers are subject to
degradation of position and velocity accuracies under the Department of
Defense-imposed SA. Accuracy may be degraded up to 100 meters (300
ft.) by SA. The effect on velocity is yet to be determined.
Local environmental conditions: Ionospheric conditions, multipath effects,
or obstruction of the sky by buildings or heavy tree canopy may degrade
accuracy by interfering with signal reception.
Autonomous mode: Receivers used without a base station. Typical position
accuracy is between 12 and 40 meters (40 and 130 ft.) depending on
SA.
Differential correction mode: A number of rover receivers are used with a
nnel parallel, digital
ceiver tracks up to 12 satellites, Li carrier and C/A code.
Selected 1.0 sec. to 15 sec.
< 2 minutes
irst fix:
Trimble base station that is placed at a known location. Rovers within
100km (60 miles) of the base station can be differentially corrected for
1 to 5-meter (3 co 16-foot) accuracy CEP during post-processing.
Accuracy is decreases less than 1 additional meter for every additional
100kmout to 500kmfrom the base station.
CEP is the circular error probable, or median error (50 percent of the
positions calculated for one location would fall within a circle of this
radius).
These specifications subject to change without notice.
Trimble
Surveying & Mapping Division
645 North Mary Avenue
Post Office Box 3642
Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3642
1-800-827-8000 in U.S.
(408) 481-8000 outside U.S.
FAX: (408) 481-7744
Trimble Navigation Europe
Trimble House, Meridian Office Park
Osborn Way, Hook
Hampshire RG27 9HX
England
+44 256-760-150
FAX: +44 256-760-148
Trimble Navigation Singapore
15 Scotts Road
/03-01 Thong Teck Building
Singapore 0922
+65 738-6549
FAX: +65 738-6346
Tracking &
Communication
Lassenc-SK8
Products
GPS Board for Fast Integration
righest performance, smaller size, and
wer power consumption for embedded applications
Introducing the Lassen-SK8 GPS
board, Trimble's new OEM GPS
module for embedded applications
based on Sierra'. GPS technology.
Using the latest 8-channel technology,
Lassen-SK8 offers the highest performance available through a miniature
GPS receiver. Two-thirds the size of
a business card, Lassen-SK8's
extremely low power consumption,
20-second hot acquisition capabilities,
and two-meter differential accuracy
readings make it the choice for
demanding applications.
Lassen-SK8's power consumption
is a mere 0.75 watts. This means that
battery-powered GPS applications can
start up and calculate positions with
less power than any other module
available today. With the fastest
reacquisition time available,
Lassen-SK8 also delivers position
data faster and more often. LassenSK8 even provides this information
in areas where satellite signals are
inhibited by terrain and structures.
If your application requires
differential GPS accuracy, Lassen-SK8
is more than ready. Using industry
standard RTCM SC-104 correction
data or TSIP format corrections,
Lassen-SK8 provides the highest level
of DGPS available in a miniature
GPS receiver. The optional fullmeasurement feature positions you
well ahead of the competition.
Dual serial I/O ports mean greater
flexibility and faster integration. One
serial port uses Trimble's renowned
TSIP binary data protocol to provide
maximum data and control over your
GPS receiver. The second port
outputs your choice of NMEA 0183
Version 2.1 standard data messages and
receives RTCM SC-104 differential
corrections. While TSIP data packets
are output once each second, you can
configure NMEA messages to output
anywhere from once per second to
once every 20 seconds. Use TSIP
commands to configure and permanently store your serial port settings
and NMEA data selections.
Lassen-SK8's Starter Kit provides
everything you need to get started
integrating state-of-the-art GPS into
your application. The new 12-volt,
RS-232 interface module and Toolkit
Software included in the Starter Kit
make the Lassen-SK8 GPS board
computer-ready for your evaluation.
to
3. Trimble
Actual size
asserf-SK8
PS Board for Fast Integration
-
rformance Specifications
Physical Characteristics
rat:
LI frequency, C/A code (SPS), 8-channel,
continuous tracking receiver, 32 correlators
te rate:
TSIP @ 1 Hz; NMEA
racy:
Position: 25 m CEP (50%) without SA
Velocity: 0.1 m/sec without SA
Time: t500 nano-seconds (nominal)
; accuracy:
Position: 2 m CEP (50%)
Velocity: 0.05 m/sec
Time: t500 nano-seconds (nominal)
Dimensions:
3.25" Lx 1.25" W x 0.40" H
(82.6 mm x 31.2 mm x 10.2 mm)
without connectors
1 Hz
isition (typical): Cold start: <2 minutes (90%)
Warm start: <45 seconds (90%)
Hot start: <20 seconds (90%)
3.29" Lx 1.30" W x 0.52" H
(83.6 mm x 33.0 mm x 13.2 mm)
with connectors and optional shield
Weight
0.7 oz. (19.6 g) without optional shield
1.3 oz. (36.4 g) with optional shield
Connectors:
RF: SMB; I/O: 8-pin (2x4), 0.100" header
Accessories
GPS antenna: Compact, active micropatch
Cold start requires no initialization.
Warm start implies last position, time and
almanac are saved by back-up power.
Hot start implies ephemeris also saved.
antenna with 5-meter cable and magnetic
mount. 1.60" x 1.90" x 0.55" high
(40.6 mm x 48.3 mm x 13.9 mm)
guisition
signal loss:
<2 seconds (90%)
mics:
Altitude: -1000 m to +18,000 m
Velocity: 515 m/sec maximum
Hard mount antenna: Compact, hard mount,
active micropatch antenna with single-hole
0.75" threaded mount and TNC connector.
2.46" diameter x 0.75" high
(62.6 mm x 19.0 mm)
Acceleration: 4g (39.2 m/sec2)
Motional Jerk: 20 m/sec3
Rooftop antenna: Bullet antenna with 22-meter
cable and SMB adapter
vironmental Specifications
ding temp:
ge temp:
At
-10°C to +60°C (standard)
-40°C to +85°C (optional)
-55°C to +100°C
RE shield: Optional snap-on metal cover for
severe RF environments
0.008g2/Hz 5 Hz to 20 Hz
0.05g2/Hz 20 Hz to 100 Hz
3dB/octave 100 Hz to 900 Hz
ting humidity: 5% to 95% R.H. non-condensing, 0 +60°C
e:
-400 m to +18,000 m
ysical Characteristics
power:
+5 volts DC, ±5%
r consumption
nal):
up power:
ports/lPPS:
GPS board only: 150 ma, 0.75 watts
With antenna: 175 ma, 0.88 watts
+3.2 to +5 volts DC
2 micro-amp +3.5 volts, +25°C (nominal)
CMOS TTL levels
TSIP 9600 baud, 8-Odd-I
NMEA 0183 v2.I
4800 baud, 8-None-I
RTCM SC-104 4800 baud, 8-None-1
messages:
na power:
GGA, VTG, GLL, ZDA, GSV, GSA
and RMC messages selectable by TSIP
command; selection stored in nonvolatile memory
5V at 25mA available
Short circuit protection
Feedline fault detection
1.
Trimble
E GPS SOLUTION
Ordering Information
Modules:
28835-00 Standard Temperature, TSIP (binary) protocol
and NMEA 0183 (ASCII) protocol, DGPS ready
28835-50 Extended Temperature, TSIP (binary) protocol
and NMEA 0183 (ASCII) protocol, DGPS ready
Antennas:
28367-00 26 dB magnetic mount antenna, 5-meter cable
28367-70 26 dB hard mount antenna, TNC connector
23726-00 35 dB rooftop Bullet antenna, 23-meter cable
Starter Kit
29467-00 Includes Lassen-SK8 board, interface motherboard
in durable metal enclosure with dual DB9, RS-232
interface, AC/DC power converter, magnetic
mount antenna, TSIP and NMEA protocols, software toollcit for TSIP, interface cable, and manual
Manual:
29473-00 Lassen-SK8 System Designer Reference Guide
Tracking & Communication Products
645 North Maly Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
1-800-827-8000 inside U.S.
+114081481-8000 outside U.S.
+1 14081481-7744 Fax
Trimble Navigation Europe Limited
Trimble House
Meridian Office Park
Osborn Way, Hook
Hampshire, R627 9HX U.K.
+44 1256-760150
+44 1256-760148 Fax
Sierra GPS Chipset
High volume, high performance
KEY FEATURES
Trimble's GPS expertise is available
AND BENEFITS
in chipset form with the Sierra"'
Allows the design of
Triinble's leading GPS
technology M a flexible
form factor
Low power enables GPS I
in mobile platforms,
such as cell phones
and PDAs
GPS Chipset. As the leader in
commercial GPS since the industry's inception in the early 1980's,
Trimble has pioneered the imple-
mentation of GPS chipsets. This
experience manifests itself in a
GPS solution which is more
accurate, maintains signal lock
Advanced firmware
provides robust performance, even in urban
canyon environments
better and acquires GPS positions
Trimble technical
support and experience
ensures a successful
product development
low power consumptionall at
faster than other CPS solutions.
The Sierra chipset features
robust performance, small size,
low cost. Chipsets also offer
designers the flexibility needed in
tight form factors that may be
hard to achieve with GPS boards.
Trimble's Sierra reference design
Trimble's Sierra GPS Chipset consists of a GPS DSP ASIC (top) and an RF/IF
down-converter chip (bottom).
has been proven in the field in
applications such as in-vehicle
operated at 3.3V for even greater
Trimble's GPS apart from the
navigation, tracking and security.
power savings.
competition. Through two mancenturies of development effort,
A Two-Chip GPS Engine
down converts the GPS signal
Trimble has implemented
from the 1575.42 MHz frequency
advanced proprietary GPS
algorithms which provide superior
ASICs: Trimble's GPS DSP and
to an intermediate frequency that
digital circuits can process. This
an RF/IF down-converter chip.
two-phase conversion helps reduce
Trimble's firmware maintains
The DSP ASIC features a 32-bit
power consumption without signal
accuracy and satellite lock, over-
CPU on-chip and provides pro-
quality degradation. The chipset
coming the most difficult of
cessing capability that guarantees
can be implemented with either an
challenges, such as urban canyon
industry-leading throughput and
time-to-first fix statistics. The 8-
active or passive antenna design.
blocking, multi-path and RF
channel, 32 correlator architecture
GPS chipset is the Stinger GPS
tion and imperfect viewall
allows fast signal acquisition and
firmware. Trimble provides a
common in mobile operations.
maintains satellite lock in the most
complete firmware set, so that
These technical advantages prove
difficult signal environments. The
your application is ready to run
themselves when Trimble routinely
DSP ASIC also features low power
GPS with no additional develop-
outperforms competition in real-
consumption at 5.0V, and can be
ment. Firmware performance sets
world drive tests.
The RF/IF ASIC double-
The chipset consists of two
At the heart of Trimble's
real-life GPS performance.
interference, atmospheric distor-
Sierra GPS Chipset
High volume, high performance
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICA TIONS
General:
Update rate:
Accuracy':
DGPS accuracy:
Acquisition (typical):
RF/IF ASIC
Li frequency, C/A code (SPS), 8-channel continuous
tracking receiver, 32 correlators.
TSIP @ I Hz: NMEA @ 1 Hz
Position: 25m CEP (50%) without S/A
Velocity: 0.1 m/sec without S/A
Time: 500 nano-seconds (nominal)
Position: 2 m CEP (50%)
Velocity: 0.05 m/sec
Time: 500 nano-seconds (nominal)
Almanac-aided star t: <45 seconds (90%)
Ephemeris-aided start: <20 seconds (90%)
Description:
CPS front end custom silicon bipolar IC containing a
dual down-converter and a frequency synthesizer.
Supply voltage:
5 volts DC t5% or
Package:
3.3 volts DC ±10%
5v: 160 mW
3.3v: 100 mW
28 pin SSOP package (209 mil wide body)
Operating temp:
-40'C to 85'C
Power consumption:
Reaquisition after
signal loss:
Dynamics:
<2 seconds (90%)
Altitude: +18,000 m maximum
Velocity: 515 m/sec maximum
Acceleration: 4g (39.2 m/sec
Motional Jerk: 20 m/sec3
GPS ASIC
Description:
Supply voltage:
CMOS custom IC, containing 8 independent CPS
channels, 32 corr elators and embedded 68330
processor In a single chip .
5 volts DC ±5% or 3.3 volts DC ±10%
Actual size
Board power
Package:
Varies depending on usage
Typical total receiver power
5v: 700 mW
3.3v: 350 mW
144 TQFP (tested die also available)
Operating temp:
-40.0 to 85.0
consumption:
ORDERING INFORMATION
29719-00
Sierra" CPS Chipset includes the CPS ASIC and
RF/IF ASIC
Visit our website at www.trimble.conVoem.
All GPS receivers are subject to degradation of position and velocity
accuracies under Department of Defense imposed Selective Availability (S/A).
Specifications subject to change without notice
Trimble
ADDING VALUE TO GPS
Software 8, Component
Technologies Products
645 Nonh Mary Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
1-800-827-8= inside US
.1-408-481-8000 outside US
.1-408-481-7144 Fax
snratrixoble.eoro
TrimNe Navigation Europe
Limited
Ten Acre Court
Ashford Road, Harrietsham
Maidstone, Kent ME17 110-1
England
.44-1622-858-421
.44-1622-858-284 Fax
Trimble Japan K.E.
Sumitomo Hamainatsu-cho
Bldg. 10F
1.18-16, Hamamatsu-cho
Minato-ku Tokyo
JAPAN 105
.81-3-5472-0880
.81-3-5472-2326 Fax
September 1992
Revision A
Trimble Navigation
4000SSE Geodetic System Surveyor
4000SSE Geodetic Surveyor
Operation Manual
Part Number 20576-00
Trimble Navigation Limited
645 North Mary Avenue
P.O. Box 3642
Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3642
408-481-8000
800-SOS-4TAC
Fax No: 408-737-6074
_
Chapter 1
Introduction and Setup
0
OUICK-START NOW! (SINGLE SURVEY) START PRE-PLANNED (SINGLE SURVEY) MI
START FAST STATIC OR KINEMATIC SURVEY MORE --
ME =I =I =I
=
Figure 1-1. Trimble 4000SSE Geodetic System Surveyor
1-3
Chapter 1
Introduction and Setup
BATTERY MODULE
(including batteries)
Figure 1-2. 4000SSE Geodetic System Surveyor
Exploded View (Rear)
1-4
Introduction and Setup
Chapter 1
OVERVIEW
The Trimble 4000SSE Geodetic Surveyor Series (Figures 1-1
and 1-2) is designed for highest-precision survey,
positioning, and navigation applications. This receiver
continuously tracks L1 and L2 P-code, when available, and
utilizes cross-correlation measurements during periods of
Anti-Spoof (AS) encryption. This enables dual-frequency
code tracking, and thus, highest-precision measurements at
all times. When used with another GPS Geodetic Surveyor
and the GPSurveirm Software Suite, three-dimensional
coordinate differences between stations can be determined.
Other outputs include: station position, normal section
azimuth, slope distance, and vertical angle between the two
survey points.
The 4000SSE performs surveys in static, FastStaticTm,
kinematic, and pseudostatic modes. It also determines time,
latitude, longitude, height, and velocity. A navigation
capability with over 99 waypoints is also available.
When used in differential GPS (DGPS) mode, RTCM
corrections can be generated at one unit and used by
another to provide corrected positions at a one-fix-persecond rate.
The 4000SSE receives L1 and L2 signals sent from the
Global Positioning System (GPS) NAVSTAR satellites. The
receiver automatically acquires and simultaneously tracks up
to 9 GPS satellites; it precisely measures carrier and code
phases (C/A and P, when available) and stores them in an
internal, battery backed-up memory. The 4000SSE receiver
continuously tracks P-code with 9 parallel channels when AS
is off and utilizes Trimble's unique cross-correlation
measurements during times of AS encryption. This enables
the recovery of full-cycle Li and L2 phase signals and dual1-5
Chapter 1
Introduction and Setup
frequency code tracking at all times. The Global Positioning
System is described in Appendix C.
GPS survey baselines are measured by recording GPS
satellite data simultaneously with receivers positioned at
each end of the baseline. One baseline can be measured by
using two units simultaneously; two baselines can be
measured by using three units simultaneously, and so on.
Latitude, longitude, ellipsoidal height values, and the GPS
satellite ephemeris data are referenced to the World
Geodetic System (WGS-84). WGS-84 is almost identical to
the North American Datum, NAD-83, used in North
America.
The satellite carrier-phase signal measurements logged by
the 4000SSE are high-precision data which require postprocessing to obtain survey results. When provided with
sufficient data from at least 4 GPS satellites broadcasting
current ephemerides, the GPSurvey and TRIMVEC Plus
software computes
slope distance accurate to:
Length: 5 mm + 1 ppm x baseline length
Azimuth: 1.0 sec + 5/baseline in km
vertical distance accurate to:
1 cm + 1 ppm x baseline length.
For example, on a 10-kilometer line, you may expect a slope
distance accurate to 1.5 cm, or about a tenth of a foot in
12 miles.
1-6
Introduction and Setup
Chapter 1
CAUTION
Always use the most recent version of the
TRIMVEC Software to download a receiver.
Receiver NAY firmware versions 5.5X require
TRIMVEC Plus software version E or later.
Using an earlier version of the software may
cause anomalous results.
The Windows-based GPSurvey postprocessing software
requires a Windows 3.1 environment. GPSurvey is intended
to ultimately replace TRIMVEC Plus, but in its first release
is supplied to process FastStatic survey measurements made
with Trimble P-code receivers: the 4000SST Geodetic
Surveyor HP, the Geodesist P, and the 4000SSE Geodetic
System Surveyor.
The GPSurvey and TRIMVEC Plus software perform the
data downloading and the processing and quality checking of
the results. Interactive menus simplify the planning and
scheduling of surveys. Loop-closure tests and transformations to state plane systems increase your production quality
and quantity.
Your survey project can be scheduled and entered into the
receiver prior to arriving at the job site to reduce field
operations. On the other hand, last-minute changes can be
easily accommodated and surveys can be started with a
single keystroke.
Position fix, time, satellite tracking data, and other
quantities are displayed on the front-panel liquid crystal
display. Note that the real-time position fixes displayed here
have moderate accuracy and are not survey measurements.
1-7
Chapter 1
Introduction and Setup
When the receiver is tracking sufficient satellites, but not
placed in a "survey mode," the receiver automatically
determines time and position and some other quantities
without user action. This is its "positioning mode."
For more information on survey mode, read Chapter Two.
See Chapter Five for information on the positioning mode
and Chapter Seven for Differential Positioning.
The 4000SSE Geodetic System Surveyor also provides many
advanced features such as Event Marker input, 1 PPS
output, NMEA outputs, RTCM inputs and optional RTCM
outputs, and an extended (99 waypoints) navigation feature.
The receiver has dual I/O ports, three power ports, an
event-marker and 1 PPS port, and an optional external
frequency input.
While one I/O port is being used for sending or receiving
the differential GPS corrections, the second can be used to
store measurements for later postmission analysis and
archiving.
1-8
\Mt/
le% le1,1.1\ MN.
_
lsn2r1V C661
d9
'10-701° c661
IIV
5311g111
p--4142c1
ul -v.sn
TOfu
cg
p4A-ig;,u
.10-1 .2S12
EICJNQTya
\01 V7OZ:10.,LOIN
a1P.. 14e1r1=
11\.,\./1
Chapter 3 Product Description
Chapter Content
Refer to this chapter for:
A simplified functional description of ONCORE operation
PhysiCal.mounting and electrical connection of ONCORE receivers
BASIC ONCORE technical characteristics and operating features
XT ONCORE technical characteristics and operating features
VP ONCORE technical characteristics and operating features
OVERVIEW
The Basic, XT and VP Receivers provide position, velocity, time, and satellite tracking status.
A simplified functional block diagram of an ONCORE Receiver is shown
in the following illustration.
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
ANTENNA
CONNECTOR
I
MEMORY
INON-VOLATILE
ONCORE Receiver Functional Block Diagram
C) MOTOROLA
3.1
OVERVIEW (CONT)
Simplified Block
Diagram Description
The ONCORE Receiver is a 6 -(or 8)channel parallel design capable of
tracking six or eight satellites simultaneously. The module receives the Li,
GPS signal (1575.42 MHz) and operates off the dear/acquisition (C/A)
carrier tracking. The code tracking is carrier aided. The BASIC and XT
ONCORE Receivers can be powered with unregulated 12 Vdc or optionally with regulated 5 Vdc power. Differential GPS and time recovery capabilities are inherent in the architecture and available as options.
lowThe Li band signals transmitted from GPS satellites are collected by a
profile, microstiip patch antenna, passed through a narrow band bandpass
filter, and then amplified by a signal preamplifier contained within the
Antenna Module. Filtered and amplified Li band signals from the
Antenna Module are then routed to the RF signal processing section of the
ONCORE Receiver Module via a single coaxial interconnecting cable. This
interconnecting cable also provides the required +5V for signal preamplifi-
cation in the Antenna Module.
circuit
The RF signal processing section of the ONCORE Receiver printed
GPS
board (PCB) contains the required circuitry for downconverting the
signals received from the Antenna Module. The resulting intermediate frequency (IF) signal is then passed to the 6-(or 8) channel code and carrier
correlator section of the GPS Receiver PCB where a single, high-speed analog-to-digital (AD) converter converts the IF signal to a digital sequence
the
prior to channel separation. This digitized IF signal is then routed to
code
digital signal processor (also contained within the 6-(or 8) channel
eight)
and carrier correlator section) where the signal is split into six (or
separate channels for code correlation, filtering, carrier tracking, code
tracking, and signal detection.
The processed signals are synchronously routed to the position processor
(microprocessor NATI) section. This section controls the GPS Receiver
PCB operating modes and decodes and processes satellite data and
pseudoran.ge and delta range measurements used to compute position and
velocity. In addition, the position processor section contains the required
and a
interface to the R5232 port for the BASIC and XT ONCORE receivers
TTL interface for the VP ONCOIZE receiver.
of
Keep-alive random access memory (RAM) is provided for retention
satellite ephemeris data. To prevent loss of this information when the
signal is
ONCORE Receiver is powered off, an external +12V/+5V BATE
only memorequired. Nonvolatile electrically erasable programmable read
parameters, almanac
ry (EEPROM) is used for storage of custom operating
information, and other information, as specified in Chapter 5.
Retention of the real-time-dock (RTC) value also requires the external
+12V/+5V BATT signal when the ONCORE Receiver is powered off.
ANTENNA MODULE
Description
The Antenna Module is housed in a custom styled, molded encasement
that provides a rugged, durable protective cover, ready for exposure to the
elements.
All of the Antenna Module's electrical circuitry and components are contained within the sealed antenna assembly. The major components include
a low profile, microstrip patch antenna; a ceramic RF filter (i.e., preselector); and a signal preamplifier. The Antenna Module is designed and tuned
to efficiently collect Li band signals transmitted from GPS satellites at a
nominal frequency of 1575.42 MHz. Once collected, the signal is amplified
and relayed to the ONCORE Receiver. Signal preamplification within the
Antenna Module is made possible by external power supplied by the
ONCORE Receiver. The Antenna Module draws 22mA of current (nominal), 25 mA (maximum), at 5 Vdc.
Various Antenna Module mounting options and assembly instructions are
detailed in Chapter 4, Installation.
Antenna Gain Pattern
The ability of an antenna to successfully receive weak signals is represented by the gain of an antenna. Antenna gain varies as a function of the
direction of an incoming signal; some directions are much more appropriate for signal reception than others. Because of this, the gain characteristics
of an antenna play a significant role in the antenna's overall performance.
A cross-sectional view of the antenna gain pattern along a fixed azimuth
(in a vertical cut) is displayed in the following figure. The gain pattern
clearly indicates that the antenna is designed for full, upper hemispherical
coverage with the gain diminishing at low elevations. This cross-section is
representative of any vertical, cross-section over a 0 to 360 degree azimuth
range and thus, the 3-dimensional gain pattern is a symmetric spheroidal
surface. It is important to note that this gain pattern varies in elevation
angle, but not in horizontal azimuth. This design is well-suited for many
GPS applications, accommodating full sky coverage above the local horizon and alleviating ground-reflected multipath effects.
3.3
GPS Core Antenna
95101.80
22.60
14.80
MI2 X 1.75 THREAD
TABLE I
MODEL NO.
ASSEMBLY NO.
COLOR
ANT62301A1
ANT6230181
01V43199T94
GRAY
WHITE
01V41 199U10
NOTE
ALL DIMENSIONS ARE FOR REF,ERENCE,ONLY%
CONNECTOR BOOT (REMOVABLE)
GPS Antenna Dimensions
3.4
9
1,:.7t1MTZMIZIVM
g
1
13 'It
\
,
1
1111
11 II
1i
I,
iiir
s*.6
Va
*F,
://74,14
PI .m
1
444
44
*****#:4
xr-taigivosivigullivoriforp/....4.-.4,,,
'
ititItAiani
tistItistlihiiliiiiminilifitit.
mplowitig
'''':
NO4011,iiiIiiii,h,
VAS41t111111111
st I /in,gilifithp 4
iliNfiliiiiiii
*P2k
MA 2% ^,
tt
ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS
The BASIC, XT and VP ONCORE Receivers receive electrical' power and
receive/transmit ASCII signals through a connector (power/data connec-
tor) mounted on the ONCORE Receivers.
The following tables list assigned signal connections of the BASIC, XI' and
VP ONCORE receivers' power/data connectors. Illustrations of connector
and pin number orientation appear in the discussions for each of the
receivers after printed circuit board mounting paragraphs.
BASIC ONC
Description
Signal Name
Pin it
+12V1+5V BATT
(Optional) +5 Vdc regulated or +12 Vdc
unregulated for running Real Time Clock and
retention of satellite ephemeris information
stored in keep-alive RAM memory
2
+5V MAIN
(Optional) +5 Vdc regulated for power requirements of entire GPS Receiver (+12 Vdc
signal not used)
3
+12V/+5V RTN
Power supply (+5 V or +12 V) return
4
Vpp
Flash memory (EPROM) programming voltage
5
+12V MAIN
+12 Vdc unregulated for power requirements of
entire GPS Receiver
6
1 PPS
(Option A) 1 pulse per second output
7
1 PPS RTN
(Option A) 1 pulse per second return
8
RS232 TXD
Serial RS232 data output
9
RS232 RXD
Serial RS232 data input
10
RS232 RTN
Signal return for RS232 signals.
1
.
XT ONCORE Power/Data Connector Pin Assignments
Description
Signal Name
Pin #
1
SHIELD TO CASE
Shield to case / EMI ground
2
RS232 RXD
Serial RS232 data input
3
RS232 TXD
Serial RS232 data output
4
Vpp
Flash memory (EPROM) Programming Voltage
5
ONEPPS RTN
One pulse per second return
6
+5V/+12V BATT
+5 Vdc regulated or +12 Vdc unregulated for
running Real Time clock and retention of satellite
ephemeris information stored in keep-alive
RAM memory
3.6
7
+5V/+12 RTN
AND RS232 RTN
Power supply (+5V or +12V) return
Return for RS232 signal
8
+12V SW
+12 V switched
9
ONEPPS
One pulse per second signal
ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS (CONT)
VP ONCORE Power/Data Connector Pin Assignments
Pin #
1
Signal Name
BATTERY
Description
External applied back-up
2
+5V PWR
+5 Vdc regulated
3
GROUND
Ground (receiver)
4
Vpp
Rash memory (EPROM) Programming Voltage
N/A
5
6
ONEPPS
One pulse per second signal
7
ONEPPS RN
One pulse per second return
8
TR. TXD
Transmit 5V logic
9
TR. RXD
Receive 5V logic
10
TTL RN
Transmit/receive return
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MOUNTING
Boards shipped in a plastic housing to prevent inadvertent damage and to
provide environmental protection may be installed in the plastic housing
or free of the housing depending on your particular OEM application The
following illustrations show each mounting configuration.
Plastic Encased ONCORE Receiver Mounting
3.7
1
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MOUNTING (CONT)
CAUTION: The GPS Receiver PCB contains parts and
assemblies sensitive to damage by electrostatic discharge (ESD). Use ESD precautionary procedures
when handling, removing or inserting the PCB.
RELEASE TA13S
RELEASE TAB SLOTS
Removal of ONCORE Receiver from Plastic Housing
MAX
COMPONENT
HOT 10.5 mm
COMPONENT
HOT 5.0 mm
03.2 am CLEAFMN1E CN P213
ARC= HOLE FM NXINIT/C
HARCNARE
r.e. S1ACERS,
1,ASHIMS)
Mounting of ONCORE Receiver PCB
3.8
BASIC ONCORE RECEIVER
The following discussion describes the operating features and technical
characteristics for the BASIC ONCORE Receiver.
Operating Features
The BASIC ONCORE Receiver represent hardware version 1.5. It operates
on +5 Vdc regulated or +12 Vdc unregulated power source. Its data port
interface is RS232 compatible. It is shipped within a plastic housing. It has
a 10-pin, rectangular data/power connector and a OSX RF connector for
antenna signal connection.
42 POWER/DATA CONNECTOR
Plt4-OUT DETAILS
PIN NUMBER
SIGNAL NAME
5V/-12V BATT
2
5V-MAIN
3
5V/I2V-RTN
4
Vpp
5
12V-MAIN
6
ONEPPS
7
ONEPPS-RTN
RS-232-TXD
9
RS-2M-RXD
10
RS-232-RTN
BASIC ONCORE Receiver
3.9
F.
BASIC ONCORE GPS Receiver Technical Characteristics
Architecture
General
Characteristics
racking Capability
Performance
Cluwactenstics
6 (or 8) chartnel
LI 1575.42 MHz
C/A code (1.023 MHz dip rate)
Code plus canier tracking (carrier ailed tracking)
6 (or 8) simultaneous satellite vehicles
Velocity: 1000 knots (515 m/s)
> 1000 knots at altitudes <60,000 ft.
Acceleration: 4 g
Jedc 5 rn/s3
ftliCS
uisition lime (Time To Fast
18 sec. typical TTFF (with current almanac, position, time and
ephemeris)
45 sec. typical TIFF (with current almanac, position and time
ix. TIM
2.5 sec. typical reacquire
ositioning Accuracy
Less than 25 meters. SEP (without 5A) Pot) may invoke Selective
Availability (SA), potentially degrading accuracy to 100 m (2dRMS))
MPS accuracy 1-5 meters typical
aning Accuracy (1 Pulse Per
Serial
enna
Active micro strip patch antenna Modul
Powered by Receiver Module (25mA 0 Vdc)
turns
49 std. datums, 2 user defined, default WG5-84
ut Messages
Latitude, longitude, height, velocity, heading, time, satellite tracking
status (Motorola Binary Protocol)
NMEA-0183 Version 2.00 (selected formats) available
Software selectable output rate (Continuous Of Poll)
Broad fist of commanditontrol messages
RS-232C Interface
Communication
Electrical
Characteristics
130 nanosec. cbserved (1s) with SA on
In position hold mode. <50 nanosec. observed (1s) with SA on
ower Requirements
Alive BATT Power
ower Consumption
9 to 16 Vdc or 5 Vdc t 0.25 V
4.75-16 Vdc; 0.3 enA (max) or
3V on-board battery: 15pA (typ.) 6011A (max)
1.3 W 0 5 Vd
1.8 W 0 12 Vdc
Receiver Board 3.94 x 2.76 x 0.7 irt (100 x 70 x 17_8 mrn)
Plastic Housing 4.13 x 3.03 x 1 in. (105 x 77 x 25.4 mm)
Active Antenna Module 4.01 (dia.) x 0.89 in. (102 (dia.) x 22.6 mm)
Physical
Characteristics
Receiver Board 2_3 oz. (64 g)
Receiver in Plastic Housing 3.8 oz. (107 g)
eight
Active firtema Module 4.8 oz. (1362 g)
-
DatarPower: 10 pin (2x5) shrouded header, RF: OSX (subminiature
snap-on)
Environmental
Characteristics
enna to Receiver
interconnection
Single coati& cable (6 dB max loss at L1; 1575,42 MHz)
S. rating Temperature
Receiver Module -30°C to 485°C
Active Antenna -40°C to 4100°C
95% norcondensing 400*C to +60C
untidily
60,000 ft (18 Ian)
>60,000 ft. (18 km) for velocities < 1000 knots
Miscellaneous
features
1 PPS timing output
Raw measurement data
On Board Rechargeable Lithium battery
Differential GPS-standard software feature
RTCM-104 format (remote input)
Motorola custom formal (master output and remote input)
1
1
90.07
5.0
"or 0 16.7
U15
II7
35.79
'
VO
4X
5999
70.0
UEI
03.16
2.31
POWER/DATA CONNECTOR
TABLE II
contronerir LEGEND
OSX RE CONNECTOR
LOCATION
miGNATIoN NE =Mt
-x-
TOP SIDE
C2
C3
C4
C5
CO
C108
C109
C110
01
06
07
BOTTOM SIDE
08
ELI
119
120
CM
OPTIONAL BATTERY
0.
u3
Ul
03
U4
'
U5
06
U7
L N.
w
08
0
U9
1110
o
,
U1I
1112
0
013
1114
PTIONAL APPROVAL LABEL ON MICROPROCESSOR
U15
U16
U17
RIENT WITHIN DESIGNATED
AREA AS SHOWN
Y1
BATTERY
Basic Oncore Dimensions
TO alltI
-r
&II IN
SIZE
NETATION TO NOMIO
14"Y- HEIGHT
TOP
26.37 6.71 11.50 10.50 11.30
12.52 26.39 7..60 4.60
TOP
3.35
TOP
24.33 26.52 7.60 4.60
3.35
BOTTOM 26.87 57.12 6.30 3.51
3.05
BOTTOM 57.35 36.80 3.51 6.30
3.05
TOP
40.34 16.87 7.60 4.60
3.35
TOP
40.34 11.79 7.60 4.60
3.35
TOP
40.34 21.95 7.60 4.60
3.35
TOP
11.51 3.78 11.20 8.69
7.25
TOP
11.38 11.79 5.59 3.81
2.81
TOP
50.75 6.83 5.59 3.81
2.81
TOP
41.99 54.33 5.59 3.81
2.81
TOP
19.38 35.53 15.01 7.37
6.09
TOP
51.26 16.10 10.69 12.50
6.55
TOP
24.71 18.26 12.50 10.69
6.55
TOP
19.09 49.76 8.46 8.16
2.54
BOTTOM 74.75 47.22 18.15 24.15
3.43
BOTTOM 35.26 48.23 14.12 11.56
3.83
TOP
43.00 7.21 10.16 7.62
4.45
TOP
43.00 49.00 6.20 5.00
2.00
TOP
65.61 13.82 12.10 16.90 2.95
TOP
65.48 37.44 12.10 18.90
2.95
TOP
52.78 42.27 8.00 11.30
2.45
TOP
52.78 29.95 8.00 11.30
2.45
BOTTOM 72.85 16.74 28.01 28.01
4.82
TOP
65.48 54.84 10.55 10.45
2.90
TOP
51.64 51.28 6.20 5.00
2.00
TOP
83.13 29.95 12.60 15.10
3.81
81.10 10.01 12.60 15.10
3.81
TOP
TOP
80.59 49.63 12.60 15.10 3.81
BOTTOM 47.70 16.14 10.55 12.95
2.90
TOP
54.18 59.16 8.51 4.06
2.54
6.60
BOTTOM 20.35 18.97 27.00 25.5
XT ONCORE RECEIVER
The following discussion describes the operating features and technical
characteristics for the XT ONCORE Receiver.
Operating Features
ONCORE Receiver represents hardware version 1.5. It operates on
+5 Vdc regulated or +12 Vdc unregulated power source. Its data port
interface is RS232 compatible. It is encased within an aluminum housing.
It has a 9-pin. DB data/power connector and a BNC RF connector for
The
antenna signal connection.
POWER/DATA CONNECTOR
PIN-OUT DETAILS
SIGNAL NAME
PIN NUMBER
1
SHIELD TO CASE/EMI GND
2
3
4
RS-232-RXD
RS-232-1XD
5
ONEPPS-RTN
6
5/I2V-BAT
5/12-RTN AND
7
Vpp
RS232-RTN
XT ONCORE Receiver
3.12
8
12V-SW
9
ONEPPS
1
XT ONCORE GPS Receiver Technical Characteristics
General
Characteristics
Performance
Characteristics
Serial
Communication
Electrical
Receiver Architecture
6 (or 8) channel
Li 1575.42 MHz
C/A code (1.023 MHz chip rate)
Code plus carrier tracking (carrier aided tracking)
Tracking Capability
6 (or 8) simultaneous satellite vehicles
Dynamics
Velocity: 1000 knots (515 m(s)
> 1000 knots at altitudes <60,000 ft.
Acceleration: 4 g
Jerk: 5 m/s3
Acquisition Time (Time To First
Fix, TTFF)
18 sec. typical TIFF (with current almanac, position, time and
ephemeris)
45 sec. typical TIFF (with current almanac, position and time
2.5 sec. typical reacquire
Positioning Accuracy
Less than 25 meters, SEP (without SA) [DoD may invoke Selective
Availability (SA), potentially degrading accuracy to 100 m (2dRMS))
DGPS accuracy 1-5 meters typical
Timing Accuracy (1 Pulse Per
130 nanosec. observed (1s) with SA on
In position hold mode. <50 nanosec. observed (1s) with SA on
Antenna
Active micro strip patch antenna Modul
Powered by Receiver Module (25mA 0 Vdc)
Datums
49 std. datums, 2 user defined, default WGS-84
Output Messages
Latitude, longitude, height, velocity, hearing, time, satellite tracking
status (Motorola Binary Protocol)
NMEA-0183 Version 2.00 (selected formats) available
Software selectable output rate (Continuous or Poll)
Broad list of command/control messages
RS-232C Interface
Power Requirements
9to 16 Vdcor5Vdc±025V
Keep-ANve" BATT Power
4.75-16 Vdc; 0.3 rnA (max) or
3V on-board battery: 15pA (typ.) 6011A (max)
Characteristics
Physical
Characteristics
Environmental
Characteristics
Miscellaneous
Power Consumption
Receiver in Metal Housing 1.8 W 0 12 Vdc
Dimensions
Receiver 5.5 x 42 x 125 in. (140 x 107 x 32 rnm)
Active Antenna Module 4.01 (da.) x 0.89 in. (102 (dia.) x 22.6 mm)
Weight
Receiver in Metal Housing 13.9 oz. (393 g)
Active Antenna Module 4.8 oz. (1362 g)
Connectors
Data/Power: DB-9, RF:BNC
Antenna to Receiver
Interconnection
Single coaxial cable (6 dB max loss at L1; 1575, 42 MHz)
Operating Temperature
Receiver Module -30°C to +85°C
Active Antenna -40°C to +100°C
Humidity
95% noncondensing 430°C to +60°C
Altitude
60,000 fl (18 km)
>60,000 ft (18 kin) for velocities < 1000 knots
Optional features
1 PPS timing output
Raw measurement data
On Board Rechargeable Lithium battery
DGPS
Differential GPS-standard software feature
RTCM-104 format (remote input)
Motorola custom format (master output and remote input)
3.13
50 80
6K 05.54 TURD
136.4C
YAX
50 80
--
MOTOROLA
111011111111111411MUM
17.45
POWER/DATA CONNECT
RF CONNECTOR
211
95.73
107.19
XT ONCORE Housing Dimensions
3.14
1.91
kg
fp:
VP ONCORE RECEIVER
The following discussion describes the operating
features and technical
characteristics for the VP ONCORE Receiver.
Operating Features
The VP ONCORE Receiver
represents hardware version 1.5. It operates on
+5 Vdc regulated power source. Its data port
interface is TTL compatible.
It is shipped within protective packaging. It has
a 10-pin, data/power connector and a OSX RE connector for antenna signal
connection.
VP ONCORE Receiver
1
VP ONCORE .GPS Receiver Technical Characteristics
General
Receiver Architecture
char
Pmance
6 (or 8) channel
L1 1575.42 MHz
GA code (1.023 MHz chip rate)
Code plus carrier tracking (carrier aided tracking)
Tracking Capability
6 (or 8) simultaneous satellite vehicles
Dynamics
Velocity: 1000 knots (515 m(s)
>1000 knots at altitudes <60,000 IL
Acceleration: 4 g
Jedc 5 rn/s3
Characteristics
Acquisition Time (Time To First
18 sec. typical TiFF (with current aknanac, position, time and
Fix, rrrn
ephemeris)
45 sec. typical TIFF (with current almanac, position and time
2.5 sec. typical reacquire
Positioning Acturacy
Less than 25 meters, SEP (without 5A) [DoD may invoke Selective
Avaliabeity (SA), potentially degrading accuracy to 100 m (2dRMs))
DGPS accuracy 1-5 meters typical
Timing Accuracy (1 Pulse Per
Second, 1 PPS)
130 nariosec. observed (1s) with SA on
In position hold mode. < 50 nanosec. observed (1s) with SA on
Antenna
Active micro strip patch antenna Module
Powered by Receiver Module (25mA 0 Vdc)
Passive antenna configuration (see optional features)
Datums
49 std. datums, 2 user defined, default WGS-84
Serial
Communication
Output Messages
Latitude, longitude, height, velocity, hearing, time, satellite tracking
status (Motorola Binary Protocol)
NMEA-0183 Version 2.00 (selected formats) available
Software selectable output rate (Continuous or Poll)
Broad kst of command/control messages
111 Interface
Electrical
Characteristics
Power Requirements
5 ± 0.25 Vdc 50 m Vpp ripple (max)
'Keep-Alive SNIT Power
External 2.5 V to 5.25 V 150A (type 60uA (max)
3V on-board battery 15$1A (typ.) 6011A (max)
Power Consumption
1.1 W 0 5 V
Dimensions
Receiver 200 x 3.25 x 0.64 in. (50.8 x 82.6 x 16.3 mm))
Active Antenna Module 4.01 (cfa.) x 0.89 in. (102 (dia.) x 22.6 mm)
Physical
Characteristics
Envinnunental
Characteristics
Miscellaneous
Weight
Receiver 1.8 oz. (51 g))
Active Antenna Module 4.8 oz. (1362 g)
Connectors
Data/Power: 10 pin (2y5) unshrouded header on 0.100' centers
RF: Right Angle OSX (subminiature snap-on)
Antenna to Receiver
Interconnection
Single cordial cable (for active antenna
1575.42 MHz)
Operating Temperature
Receiver Module -30°C to +85C
Humidity
95% noncondensing +30°C to +60°C
Altitude
60,000 ft. (18 km)
>60,000 ft. (18 kin) for velocities < 1000 knots
Optional features
1 PPS timing output
Raw measurement data
On board Rechargeable Lithium battery
On board LNA option for use with passive antenna
DGPS
Differential GPS-standard software feature
RTCM-104 format (remote input)
Motorola custom format (master output and remote input)
*
1
6 dB max loss at L1;
*
1
3.16
(J1) POWER/DATA LEGEND
PINS
SIGNAL NAME
DESCRIPTION
1
BATTERY
EXTERNAL APPLIED BACK-UP
2
5V PAR
5Vdc REGULATED
3
GROUND
GROUND (RECEIVER)
4
VPP
R.ASH EPROM PROGRAMMING
$
(NOT USED)
6
OHEPPS
1 PULSE PER SECOND OUTPUT
7
ONEPPS-RTN
1 PULSE PER SECOND RETURN
8
TTL-TXD
TRANSMIT 5V LOGIC
9
TTL-FIXD
RECEIVE 511 LOGIC
10
TII-RTN
TRANSIAIT)RECEIVE RETURN
5.84 REF
J1
COMPONENT LEGEND
REF
pcs
DEM
SIDE
LOCATION
Kieft 100311511
.A.
7
$ZE
MON
1117111 T IBillef IT
81
T
12.4
336
eels
-
4.0
C17
T
67.1
6.4
4.3
7.3
26
.11
8
72-44
9.45
12.3
4.9
12
.12
13
3.35
nas
6.0
6.0
6.0
Si
T
10.6
22.6
236
20.3
66
$2
8
10.6
22.6
23.11
39.3
6.9
U3
8
55.5
13.1
14.0
20.0
3.0
U4
T
56.8
72
10.3
75
25
U7
8
16.0
315
113
14.0
3.6
U9
T
34.1
35.5
2t0
11.7
3.2
1)10
8
35.5
35.1
113
15.0
3.6
RF CONNECTOR:
W1
T
60.0
33.7
242
24.2
4.6
MFR: MACOM #5864-5002-10
1)12
13
61.3
all
11.5
15.0
3.6
1.1
T
45.0
59
2.5
6.7
13
13 (BOTTOM SIDE)
NOTE
POWER/DATA CONNECTOR:
MFR: AMP #104326-06
HEADER. 10-PIN W/2.54 CENTERS
(OSX) SUB-MINIATURE SNAP-ON
VP ONCORE Printed Circuit Board
3.17
piper
C/A Sensor
il-time Differential
rigator
r than 1 Meter Accuracy
;htech® SCA Sensor GPS
-er is a powerful navigation sysat offers Real-Time Differential
ility and Super C/A(tm) tracking.
eal for high precision land, sea
r navigation or real-time mappplications. Extensive interface
lines, integrated with leading
xhnology, makes the Super C/A
an ideal differential base staid differential remote unit.
ceiver uses "All-in-View" dedicat:hannel Super C/A code tracking
the carrier phase is used for
hing the low noise code ranges.
lables greater accuracies than
313S receivers that have no card)0thing or low noise code meatechniques. 1 Hz computation
ire standard.
:A Sensor continuously tracks
12 satellites simultan-eously on
arate and parallel channels
kshtech's Super C/A code. Loss
on one channel has no impact
er channels. Since satellite
Information can be viewed
ineously, any oscillator offset is
tely and efficiently removed.
i/Performance Features
:A Sensor provides an accuracy
ilone of 25M SEP subject to the
iment policy of Selective
Ality (100M with SA engaged).
Two SCA receivers, one base and one
remote, provide <1 meter accuracy
using Real-Time Differential (similar
accuracy is achievable using a DNS-12
or a Z-12 as a base station). Sub-meter
accuracy is also achievable using the
U.S. Coast Guard Differential Service.
The base receiver is capable of outputting RTCM SC 104 Version 2.1 via
any one of its serial ports. A telemetry
link such as a data radio or a maritime
beacon system can be used to receive
the differential data. Three RS-232 serial I/O ports provide interfacing with
external devices using the NMEA 0183
format.
One independent measurement is
determined per second with no interpolation or extrapolation from previous
solutions. The position and velocity
computations are performed using all
the satellites in view simultaneously.
Other performance features include:
1 PPS timing pulse accurate to 100
as (SA off). This pulse can be
advanced or delayed for different
triggering applications.
Real-time data outputs to accommodate a variety of raw pseudorange, emphemeris and position
data in either binary or ASCII format which is selectively provided
via any of the serial ports.
The receiver uses a number of different antenna configurations for unique
applications. Antennas are available
for pole-mounted applications, vehicles or aircraft.
Options include:
Photogrammetry/event input marker which accurately time tags
external events to an accuracy of
100 ns (SA off). This information is
either sent back out a serial port or
recorded in the internal memory.
A 4 mb memory board for additional data storage when post-processing of data is desired.
Li carrier phase which supports
the ability to attain centimeter level
accuracy when accompanied with
the PNAV post-processing software.
PNAV Post-Processing Software
Ashtech's newest application software package was designed to pro-
duce high-accuracy positions resulting
from the post-processing of carrierphase, dual-frequency, full wavelength
Li and L2 data. This software, combined with the Super C/A Sensor data
provides a powerful new capability in
GPS, providing sub-meter accuracy.
This capability is especially valuable
for post-processed differential when a
data link is not available.
Sub-meter accuracy is achievable
with the standard configuration, while
sub-decimeter accuracy is achievable
with the carrier phase option.
1170 Kifer Road / Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Tel: 408-524-1400 / Fax: 408-524-1500
Washington Tel: 703-476-2212 / Fax: 703-476-2214
Montana Tel: 406-388-1993 / Fax: 406-388-1883
England Tel: 44 1993 883 533/ Fax: 44 1993 883 977
Moscow Tel: 7-502-256-5400 / Fax: 7-502-256-5360
Web http://www.ashtech.com
Ashtech
uper C/A Sensor Specifications
;solution and Accuracy
?asured and Computed Data
Standard Features
12 channel all-in-view operation
itonomous Positing
25m rms
Carrier-smoothed pseudo ranges
4 Watt Power Consumption
al-time
lerential position
<lm rms
3 RS-232 I/O Ports (38,400 Baud)
NMEA 0183 outputs
(PDOP<4)
1 second update rate
st-processed
sition
lcm + lppm
ith Li Carrier Phase (Optional)
locity
lcm/second
(PDOP<4, 0.02
knots)
date rate
Once per second
ne to first fix
.Typically < 1
minute
vironmental & Physical
erating temp
-20°C to +55°C
rage temp
-30°C to +75°C
eed (Max)
Does not exceed
1,000 knots
itude (Max)
0.5 Mb memory (20,000 epochs)
QA/QC range residuals and expected 1 sigma position error output via
Standard Accessories
Receiver operating manual
Mounting plate
Optional Accessories
Data radios (UHF/VHF)
PNAV post-processing software
10, 30, 60 meter antenna cable
Antenna line amplifier
Aircraft antenna system
serial port
Real-Time Differential (As user
equipment in RTCM 104 format RTCM receives Type 1,2,3,6,9,16)
1 PPS accurate time pulse
Real-Time data outputs
Power input 6-15 VDC
1 Year Warranty
Optional Features
Base mode RTCM Type 1, 3, 9, 16
4.5 Mb memory (180,000 epochs)
Memory board-4 mb
Photogrammetry/Event Input
60,000 ft
ligher altitude and velocities up to
?5,000 knots are available under palliated export license.
nensions
3.65"W x 1.9"H x 6.2"D
tpyright June 1996, Ashtech Inc. SCA696
Jper C/A Sensor is a trademark and Ashtech is a registered
ademark of Ashtech Inc. Other trademarks property of their
espectiye owners.
3ecifications are subject to change without notice.
.
Ashtech
1 Introduction
Zodiac GPS Receiver Family Designer's Guide
1
INTRODUCTION
Zodiac family of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are single-board, 12 parallelchannel receiver engines. Each board is intended as a component for an Original Equipment
Manufacturer (OEM) product. While the body of this Designer's Guide provides information
Rockwell's
common to the entire Zodiac family, specific technical information for a particular board product can be
found in the appendixes.
Each of these receivers continuously tracks all satellites in view and provides accurate satellite positioning
data. They are designed for high performance and maximum flexibility in a wide range of OEM
configurations including handhelds, panel mounts, sensors, and in-vehicle automotive products. The highly
integrated digital receivers incorporate two custom Rockwell devices including the Rockwell Zodiac chip
set: the "Gemini/Pisces" MonoPacm" and the "Scorpio" Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The combination of
custom devices minimizes the receivers' size to about 28 square centimeters and satisfies harsh industrial
requirements.
1.1 Product Overview
1.1.1 Description. The Rockwell Zodiac family
of GPS receivers (the "Jupiter" model is shown in
Figure 1-1) decodes and processes signals from
all visible GPS satellites. These satellites, in
various orbits around the Earth, broadcast radio
frequency (RF) ranging codes and navigation data
messages. The Zodiac receivers use all available
signals to produce a highly accurate and robust
navigation solution that can be used in a wide
variety of end product applications.
The Zodiac receivers are packaged on 28 square
centimeter printed circuit boards intended for
harsh industrial applications. The receivers
require conditioned DC power and a GPS signal
from a passive or active antenna. To provide the
igi
-4
tra
Figure 1-1. The Rockwell "Jupiter" GPS Receiver (Top View Shown Approximately 4x Actual Size)
12/96
Page 1-1
1-Introduction
Zodiac GPS Receiver Family Designer's Guide
lowest total system cost with minimal power
consumption, each of the receivers provide only
those components that are required for the
majority of applications. For instance, if a passive
antenna can be used in close physical proximity
to the receiver, no preamplifier is required.
conditions. Altitude information required for 2-D
operation is determined by the receiver or may
be provided by the OEM.
The all-in-view tracking of the Zodiac receiver
family provides robust performance in
applications that require high vehicle dynamics
and in applications that operate in areas of high
signal blockage such as dense urban centers. The
receivers continuously track all visible GPS
satellites and use all the measurements to
produce an overdetermined, smoothed
navigation solution. This solution is relatively
immune to the position jumps induced by
blockage that can occur in other receivers with
fewer channels.
National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA0183) format or Rockwell binary message format.
The 12-channel architecture provides rapid TimeTo-First-Fix (TTFF) under all startup conditions.
While the best TTFF performance is achieved
when time of day and current position estimates
are provided to the receiver, the flexible Zodiac
signal acquisition system takes advantage of all
available information to provide a rapid TTFF.
Acquisition is guaranteed under all initialization
conditions as long as visible satellites are not
obscured.
For applications that require timing
synchronization to GPS accuracies, the Zodiac
receivers provide an output timing pulse that is
synchronized to one second Universal Time
Coordinated (UTC) boundaries.
The Zodiac receivers contain two independent
serial ports, one of which is configured for
primary input and output data flow using the
The second port is used to receive Differential
GPS (DGPS) corrections in the Radio Technical
Commission For Maritime Services (RTCM SC109) format. The receivers support DGPS
operations for dramatically improved accuracies
over standard CPS.
A complete description of the serial data interface
for the entire Zodiac family of GPS receivers is
contained in this Designer's Guide.
1.1.2 Receiver Architecture. Figure 1-2
illustrates the internal architecture of the Zodiac
receivers. Each receiver is designed around two
custom Rockwell devices that contain most of the
required GPS functionality. The "Gemini/Pisces"
To minimize TTFF following a power down, each
of the Zodiac receivers can accept external
voltage to maintain power to the Static RandomAccess Memory (SRAM) and Real-Time Clock
(RTC) for periods following the loss of prime
power. The use of external voltage assures the
shortest possible TTFF following a short power
down. The OEM may extend the operation of the
RTC by providing standby power on a connector
pin in which case a short TTFF is achieved by
using the RTC time data and prior position data
from the receiver's Electrical Eraseable
Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM).
The Zodiac family supports two dimensional
(2-D) operation when less than four satellites are
available or when required by operating
Page 1-2
MonoPac' contains all the RF downconversion
and amplification circuitry, and presents sampled
data to the "Scorpio" device. The 'Scorpio"
device contains an integral microprocessor and
all GPS specific signal processing hardware.
Memory and other supporting components
configure the receiver into a complete navigation
system.
Figure 1-3 illustrates an architecture that might be
used to integrate a particular Zodiac receiver with
an applications processor that drives peripheral
devices such as a display and keyboard. The
interface between the applications processor and
the Zodiac receiver is through the serial data
interface.
12/96
1-Introduction
Zodiac GPS Receiver Family Designer's Guide
29 MHz
XTAL
DGPS Data
(RTCM SC-10I)
[I II
RF MONOPAC
SIGNAL SAMPLES
RF Connector
"GEMINr
"SCORPIO" DSP
CUES
"PISCES"
PI
A/D CTRL
Pre-Select
Filter
ff
Serial Port 2
Serial Port 1
OEM Host Interface
1PPS, 10 KHz
IOF
Timing Reference
0.95
Post-Select
Filter
XTAL
AAMP2-8
RTC
11011
32 KHz
XTAL
H Serial
EEPROM
contains Rockwell
software
Prime Power
RESET
ReguLkted Power
RESET F
Power Supervisor
and SRAM Control
Logic
Backup Power
EMI Filtering,
Voltage Regulator,
Backup Source
Figure 1-2. Internal Zodiac Architecture
DGPS
(Optional)
Preamplifier
(Optional)
Power
Supply
GPS Receiver
Engine
Power/Communications
Interface
OEM
Display
Applications
Processor
Keypad
Figure 1-3. Possible Zodiac/OEM Architecture
12/96
Page 1-3
1 Introduction
Zodiac CPS Receiver Family Designer's Guide
1.2 Features
The Zodiac family of CPS receivers offers the following physical, operational, and support features:
OEM product development is fully supported through applications engineering.
One of the smallest, most compact CPS receiver footprints measuring 2.800" x 1.575" x 0.480"
(approximately 70 x 40 x 12 mm).
Twelve parallel satellite tracking channels.
Supports NMEA-0183 data protocol.
Direct, differential RTCM SC-104 data capability dramatically improves positioning accuracy. Available
in both Rockwell binary and NMEA host modes.
Static navigation enhancements to minimize wander due to SA.
Designed for passive or active antennas for lowest system cost.
Maximum navigation accuracy achievable with the Standard Positioning Service (SPS).
Enhanced TTFF upon power-up when in a "Keep-Alive" power condition before start-up.
Meets rigid shock and vibration requirements including low-frequency vibration.
Automatic Altitude Hold Mode from Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional navigation.
Automatic cold start acquisition process (when no initialization data is entered by the user).
Maximum operational flexibility and configurability via user commands.
Ability to accept externally supplied initialization data.
Three-Satellite Navigation startup from acquisition.
User selectable satellites.
User selectable visible satellite mask angle.
Standard microminiature coaxial RF jack receptacle.
Standard 2x10
I/O connector.
Page 1-4
12/96
APPENDIX B
ON TIME RUNNING ANALYSIS
Appendix B On Time Running Analysis
1410E1
MapInto Professional
file Edit flitiects
Quay 'able
Ogtions
Mee SLindow Help
roLigUig pjig*Orti-L%-littltnitltdigt111
Zoom .20 73 km
ilEdning None
Figure 1 1622 Bus 1/10/98 AM and PM
Table 1 On Time Running Analysis 1/10/98 AM
Date
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
Seaview Downs
Marion Centre
Marion Road
Marion Road
Keswick Bridge
Vic. Square
Pant. House
Torrens Road
Days Regency
Arndale S.C.
Arndale S.C.
Mansfield Park
Port Adelaide
G Junction Rd
42
B
24
11A
1
VS7
Z3
7A
14
D
D
29
40
35
6:58
7:10
7:17
7:29
7:40
7:46
7:57
8:04
8:13
8:18
8:23
8:31
8:48
8:51
GPS
Time
6:57:26
NA
7:15:54
7:27:38
7:34:52
7:45:10
7:54:00
8:01:23
8:06:45
NA
NA
8:27:56
8:45:44
8:49:22
Difference
0:00:34
NA
0:01:06
0:01:22
0:05:08
0:00:50
0:03:00
0:02:37
0:06:15
NA
NA
0:03:04
0:02:16
0:01:38
Table 2 On Time Running Analysis 1/10/98 PM
Date
AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
1/10/98
West Street
Beckman St
Keswick Bridge
Vic. Square
Pant. House
King Wm St
King Wm St
Govt. House
Grote Street
Keswick Bridge
Marion Road
Marion Road
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
Query,
'able
()Owls Map Mbnclow help
Arylve-rotAtit'bilatirti.
IZPolnlOg kat
1
14:51
VS7
Z3
Z4
Z4
A3
W2
1
11A
24
14:58
15:10
15:12
15:19
15:22
15:33
15:40
15:50
16:01
MOM
,....1.:Mapinlo Professional
I Elia Ea QPjacts
8
14:29
14:40
20
Difference
GPS
Time
14:26:57 0:02:03
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
15:18:11
0:08:11
NA
NA
NA
NA
15:20:08 0:01:52
15:32:38 0:00:22
15:42:22 0:02:22
15:51:22 0:01:22
16:01:36 0:00:36
ilggagioatatoasam
Figure 2 1622 Bus 2/10/98 AM and PM
Table 5 On Time Running Analysis 6/10/98 AM
Date AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time GPS Time Difference
6:19:00
0:01:00
6:20
11
Anzac Hwy
AM
6/10/98
6:27:47
0:01:47
7
6:26
Marion Rd
AM
6/10/98
NA
NA
6:38
Currie St
B2
AM
6/10/98
6:40
6:37:30
0:02:30
E2
Currie St
AM
6/10/98
NA
NA
6:45
Cl
Frome Street
AM
6/10/98
NA
NA
C1
7:05
Frome Street
AM
6/10/98
0:00:06
7:10:06
V1
7:10
Currie St
AM
6/10/98
0:04:18
7:24
7:19:42
7
Burbridge Road
AM
6/10/98
7:31:05
0:06:55
23
7:38
Military Rd
AM
6/10/98
NA
NA
7:46
Glenelg
6/10/98 AM
NA
NA
7:52
Glenelg
6/10/98 AM
0:05:20
8:00
8:05:20
23
Military
Rd
6/10/98 AM
Table 6 On Time Running Analysis 6/10/98 PM
Date AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time
12:51
Anzac Hwy
11
6/10/98
PM
7
12:59
Marion
Rd
PM
6/10/98
13:12
Currie St
B2
PM
6/10/98
E2
13:15
Currie St
6/10/98
PM
C1
13:20
Frome Street
6/10/98
PM
C1
13:36
PM
Frome Street
6/10/98
V1
13:41
Currie St
PM
6/10/98
13:58
Burbridge Road
7
6/10/98
PM
23
14:12
Military Rd
6/10/98
PM
GPS Time Difference
12:49:03
0:01:57
13:02:35
NA
13:15:20
NA
NA
13:40:38
13:52:35
14:05:57
0:03:35
NA
0:00:20
NA
NA
0:00:22
0:05:25
0:06:03
MapInfo Professional - [routstopspm
Figure 4 1622 Bus 7/10/98 PM
Table 7 On Time Running Analysis 7/10/98 PM
Date AM/PM Sto Descri tion Sto No TA Time GPS Time Difference
15:38:05
0:03:05
Al
15:35
Govt. House
PM
7/10/98
15:40:38
0:02:38
Kin Wm St
D2
15:38
PM
7/10/98
0:01:31
15
15:56
15:57:31
PM
Castle Plaza Stn
7/10/98
16:04
16:03:28
0:00:32
26
PM
She herds Hill Rd
7/10/98
NA
NA
16:17
Blackwood Stn
PM
7/10/98
0:03:41
Kin Wm St
D2
16:50
16:53:41
7/10/98
PM
Al
16:52
16:50:50
0:01:10
Govt. House
7/10/98
PM
NA
NA
Kin Wm St
D2
16:55
7/10/98
PM
17:13
17:20:56
0:07:56
Castle Plaza Stn
15
7/10/98
PM
26
17:22
17:26:52
0:04:52
PM
She herds Hill Rd
7/10/98
-1
MEM
Moped(' Professional
file
Edit
r,D 6.1
Qbjects
Query
table
pi 114. kb! al -221 Itml
1,
02tions
Map S66ndow
delp
cpl sal -2_411
i.:10...0-01:0Y..tqp
Figure 6 1622 Bus 16/11/98 AM
Table 9 On Time Running Analysis 16/11/98 AM
Date
AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time GPS Time Difference
Aberfoyle Hub
16/11/98 AM
54
7:17
7:16:03
0:00:57
16/11/98 AM
Murrays Hill Rd
41
7:29
6:26:45
1:02:15
16/11/98 AM
Blackwood Stn
7:44
NA
NA
16/11/98 AM
Blackwood Stn
7:49
NA
NA
16/11/98 AM
Rankeys Hill Rd
37
7:57
6:57:37
0:59:23
16/11/98 AM
Main Road
23
8:06
7:08:02
0:57:58
16/11/98 AM
Belair Road
19
8:16
7:13:34
1:02:26
Table 10 On Time Running Analysis 16/11/98 PM
Date
AM/PM
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
16/11/98
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
PM
Stop Description
Marino
47
Seacombe Rd
39
Marion Centre
F
Diagonal Rd
27
Glenelg
West Beach Rd
19
Seaview Rd
26
Grange Stn
30A
West Lakes Mall Stn
Webb Old Port
35
Port Adelaide
40
Port Adelaide
40
Webb Old Port
35
West Lakes Mall Stn
30A
Grange Stn
Seaview Rd
26
,0MelpInto Professiontil - [roulslupspM,Stoputmg....,AdePds Mop]
Eke
Edit
ce,
Zoom: 35.00 km
Qbjects
1IN gizi
Query
as
Stop No TA Time
'able °Winne Mop
.0. NMI El CD
tin
k?
Editin : routs ops M
Figure 7 1622 Bus 18/11/98 PM
ndow
help
14:00
14:06
14:17
14:25
14:33
14:44
14:53
14:58
15:05
15:12
15:17
15:30
15:35
15:41
15:49
15:56
GPS
Difference
Time
12:58:57 1:01:03
13:03:47 1:02:13
NA
13:22:44
NA
NA
13:49:54
13:55:38
NA
14:10:54
14:23:00
14:27:23
14:32:41
NA
14:48:34
14:54:39
NA
1:02:16
NA
NA
1:03:06
1:02:22
NA
1:01:06
0:54:00
1:02:37
1:02:19
NA
1:00:26
1:01:21
REIM
Table 11 On Time Running Analysis 18/11/98 PM
AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time
Date
12:47
2
Pennington Tce
PM
18/11/98
12:50
A3
Govt House
PM
18/11/98
13:01
W2
Grote Street
PM
18/11/98
13:08
Keswick Bridge
1
PM
18/11/98
8
13:18
Beckman St
PM
18/11/98
13:28
20
West Street
18/11/98
PM
GPS Time Difference
0:03:56
12:43:04
0:01:32
12:48:28
0:01:48
12:59:12
0:03:03
13:04:57
13:13:48
0:04:12
13:24:24
0:03:36
MapInto Professional - Iroutstopsam,Stopamg....,Adelrds Mop]
M file
Edit
Objects Quell/
.`:;1
Zoom 10 00 km
/able
t78
jEditie
ORtions Map Window Help
'OMNI
outsteesam
Figure 8 1622 Bus 26/11/98 AM
ir_141*-1
Table 12 On Time Running Analysis 26/11/98 PM
Date
AM/PM
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
26/11/98
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
AM
Stop Description
Stop No TA Time
Marino
47
Seacombe Rd
39
Marion Centre
F
Diagonal Rd
27
Glenelg
West Beach Rd
19
Seaview Rd
26
30A
Grange Stn
West Lakes Mall Stn
Webb Old Port
35
40
Port Adelaide
40
Port Adelaide
Webb Old Port
35
Edit Qbjects
Query
'able
Ogtions
Mop Window help
liololglArlydtdcal_fjtJlemItmlonlsglIt_?1
oom: 20.40
Difference
0:01:45
NA
NA
0:00:28
NA
NA
0:01:09
0:00:23
NA
0:02:02
0:01:49
0:02:20
0:00:13
MEM
...4gMapInfo Professional
Elle
7:20
7:26
7:36
7:43
7:52
8:04
8:12
8:17
8:26
8:33
8:40
8:50
8:55
GPS
Time
7:18:15
NA
NA
7:43:28
NA
NA
8:10:51
8:16:37
NA
8:30:58
8:38:11
8:47:40
8:54:47
Editng: routstopspm
Figure 9 1622 Bus 30/11/98 AM and PM
Table 13 On Time Running Analysis 30/11/98 AM
AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time GPS Time Difference
Date
0:03:34
AM
Oakridge Rd
45
7:13
7:09:26
30/11/98
AM
Flagstaff Hill Stn
34
7:27
7:21:51
0:05:09
30/11/98
AM
King Wm St
7:58
30/11/98
X2
7:54:34
0:03:26
30/11/98
AM
King Wm St
Z4
8:01
NA
NA
King Wm St
30/11/98
AM
Z4
8:08
NA
NA
AM
King Wm St
30/11/98
Cl
8:13
8:11:22
0:01:38
AM
Sturt Street
30/11/98
X1
8:20
8:18:20
0:01:40
30/11/98
AM
Col Lt Gdns Stn
18
8:37
8:35:16
0:01:44
Table 14 On Time Running Analysis 30/11/98 PM
Date AM/PM Stop Description Stop No TA Time GPS Time Difference
30/11/98 PM
Seacombe
37
14:11
14:09:48 0:01:12
Heights
30/11/98 PM
Marion Centre
B
14:19
NA
NA
30/11/98 PM
Oaklands Rd
25
14:27
14:25:27 0:01:33
30/11/98 PM
Bray Street
18
14:34
NA
NA
30/11/98 PM
Marion Road
11A
14:39
14:37:38 0:01:22
30/11/98 PM
Keswick Bridge
1
14:49
14:48:37 0:00:23
30/11/98 PM
Vic Square
VS7
14:56
14:56:20 0:00:20
30/11/98 PM
Parlt House
Z3
15:08
15:07:42 0:00:18
30/11/98 PM
Torrens Road
7A
15:16
15:15:20 0:00:40
30/11/98 PM
Days Regency
18
15:26
15:26:24 0:00:24
30/11/98 PM
Arndale SC
D
15:31
NA
NA
30/11/98 PM
Arndale SC
D
15:36
NA
NA
30/11/98 PM
Mansfield Park
29
15:46 15:43:48
0:02:12
30/11/98 PM
G Junction Rd
35
15:57
15:53:17
0:03:43
30/11/98 PM
Port Adelaide
40
16:00
16:02:34
0:02:34
30/11/98 PM
Port Adelaide
40
16:05
16:03:12
0:01:48
30/11/98 PM
G Junction Rd
35
16:08
16:07:00
0:01:00
APPENDIX C
SELECTED ABSTRACTS OF
ROCCO ZITO
Note: Full papers of the selected abstracts are available on the CD ROM enclosed, as well as a
copy of the thesis. The abstracts have been placed in the following order.
Taylor, M A P, Woolley, J E and Zito, R (2000). Integration of the global positioning system
and geographical information systems for traffic congestion studies. Transportation
Research C Vo18 2000.
Taylor, M A P, Woolley, J E and Zito, R (2000). Measuring and modelling on-road fuel
consumption, emissions and vehicle performance. Proceedings 6th International Conference
on Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering. Singapore, July
(National University of Singapore: Singapore), CD-ROM, Paper CR1038.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP(1999) Fuel Consumption and Emissions Modelling of the South
Australian Vehicle Fleet Using an Instrumented Vehicle. Proceedings Intelligent Transport
Systems Australia 4th International Conference. Adelaide May 1999.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP(1999) Real Time GPS / GIS Applications. Proceedings The
4th
International Symposium on Satellite Navigation Technologies and Applications. Brisbane
July 1999.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP(1999) Real Time GPS/GIS Navigation for Police Helicopter
Operations.
Proceedings
Intelligent Transport
Systems
Australia
4th
International
Conference. Adelaide May 1999.
D'Este, G M, Zito, R, Taylor, MAP (1998). Using GPS to measure traffic system
performance. Journal of Computer Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. 14 pp 273283
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP(1998) Real Time Navigation for Police Operations. Proceedings
3rd
International Symposium on GPS Technology. Tainan, Taiwan. Nov 1998.
Zito R., Taylor M.A.P., and Blanks C. (1997), Differential GPS for Efficient Vehicle
Movement, Proc, The Third International Conference of ITS Australia, Brisbane, March
1997.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP (1997) New developments in GPS and GIS technology,
Proceedings of the 21st ATRF conference, Adelaide Australia, Vol 21.
Tan F. C.K, Zito R. and Jaksa D. (1996), Real Time Integration of GPS for Vehicle
Monitoring, 2nd International GPS Symposium, Taiwan, May 1996.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP(1996) Speed Profiles and Vehicle Fuel Consumption at LATM
Devices. Proceedings ARRB 18th Conference, Vol 18(7) pp. 391-406
Zito, R, Taylor, MAP and D'Este, GM (1995) GPS in the Time Domain: How Useful a tool
for IVHS. Transportation Research C, Vol3c (4) pp. 193-209
Zito, R, Taylor, MAP and D'Este, GM and F.C.K. Tan (1995) Road Transport Applications
of GPS. Proceedings The 5th South East Asian and 36th Australian Surveyors Conference.
Singapore 16 - 20 July, pp. 65-75
Zito, R, Taylor, MAP and D'Este, GM (1995) What can GPS Deliver? What do Users Really
Need?. Presented at World Conference of Transportation Research. Sydney Australia. July.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP(1995) An Integrated GPS/GIS System for Real Time Congestion
Delay and Vehicle Performance Monitoring. Proceedings International Conference
Applications of New Technology to Transport Systems. Melbourne Australia. 17-19 May,
Voll 1, pp.91-105.
Zito, R. and Taylor, M.A.P. (1995). The use of GPS and GIS in environmental impact
assessment. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Voll (2), pp.
487-497.
Zito, R and Taylor, MAP (1994) The use of GPS in Travel Time Surveys. Traffic
Engineering and Control. Vol 35 (12), pp685-690.
Zito, R and D'Este, G (1994) GPS in the Time Domain. Proceedings of International
Conference on Advanced Technologies in Transportation and Traffic Management,
Singapore.
TRANSPORTATION
RESEARCH
PART C
PERGAMON
Transportation Research Part C 8 (2000) 257-285
www.elsevier.corn/locate/trc
Integration of the global positioning system and geographical
information systems for traffic congestion studies
Michael A.P. Taylor *, Jeremy E. Woolley, Rocco Zito
Transport Systems Centre, School of Geoinformatics, Planning and Building, University of South Australia,
North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, Australia
Abstract
The Transport Systems Centre (TSC) has developed an integrated Global Positioning System (GPS)
Geographical Information System (GIS) for collecting on-road traffic data from a probe vehicle. This
system has been further integrated with the engine management system of a vehicle to provide time-tagged
data on GPS position and speed, distance travelled, acceleration, fuel consumption, engine performance,
and air pollutant emissions on a second-by-second basis. These data are handled within a GIS and can be
processed and queried during the data collection (from a notebook PC in the vehicle) or saved to a file for
later analysis. The database so generated provides a rich source of information for studies of travel times
and delays, congestion levels, and energy and emissions. A case study application of the system is described
focusing on studies of congestion levels on two parallel routes in a major arterial corridor in metropolitan
Adelaide, South Australia. As part of these investigations, a discussion of the nature of traffic congestion is
given. This provides both a general definition of traffic congestion and the discussion of a number of
parametric measures of congestion. The computation of these parameters for the study corridor on the
basis of data collected from the integrated GPSGIS system is described. The GIS provides a database
management platform for the integration, display, and analysis of the data collected from GPS and the invehicle instrumentation. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Moving observer traffic studies; Traffic congestion; Global Positioning System; Geographic Information
System; Traffic data analysis
1. Introduction
Transportation data, in common with many other data sets in civil engineering and the social
sciences, often have spatial attributes. For example, traffic counts come from specific sites, travel
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +61-8-8302-1861; fax: 61-8-8302-1880.
E-mail address: map.taylor@unisa.ed.au (M.A.P. Taylor).
0968-090X1005 - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
P11: S0968-090X(00)00015-2
MEASURING AND MODELLING ON-ROAD FUEL CONSUMPTION, EMISSIONS AND
VEHICLE PERFORMANCE
Michael A P Taylor, Jeremy E Woolley And Rocco Zito
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
GPO Box 2471
Adelaide SA 5001
Australia
Abstract for AATT6
The Transport Systems Centre (TSC) specialises in the collection and modelling of on-road data for
fuel consumption and emissions modelling and traffic performance, travel time, queuing and delay
studies. As part of its research the TSC has developed an instrumented vehicle, which can record data
about its progression (speed, distance travelled, acceleration rate and fuel consumption rate over time)
using on-board data logging capability and position (and speed) using differential GPS. These data
acquisition tasks are managed by an integrated database system run on a notebook PC in the vehicle.
An emissions recording capability has been added to the system, using data obtained directly from the
vehicle's engine management computer and supported by 'engine maps' of emissions derived from
dynamometer tests.
The vehicle is being used in a number of studies, including the effects of lower urban speed limits on
fuel consumption and emissions, traffic studies at complex road junctions, and network-wide changes
in travel time and fuel use from a new freeway construction project (the Southern Expressway). The
Southern Expressway was constructed to complement the transport needs of the population located in
the southern areas of metropolitan Adelaide and is unique in that traffic flows in only one direction
when in use. With the inaugural opening of the first stage of the Southern Expressway in December
1997, an opportunity existed to examine the initial effects on fuel consumption and travel time
between the existing arterial road route (Main South Road) and the new freeway route both before and
after the facility was opened. The TSC is currently investigating the effects of induced traffic on the
network containing the expressway and as part of this research, travel time and fuel consumption data
has been collected allowing the direct comparison between using each alternative route. This data has
been collected using the TSC's instrumented vehicle. GPS data from the vehicle provides both spatial
and time/distance based data from which various traffic parameters can be derived including travel
time, stopped time, travel speeds (instantaneous and average) and various congestion indices. The
engine management system module provides data such as time, distance, speed, fuel consumption,
RPM, throttle position, engine temperature, engine gear, use of air conditioning and economy/power
mode. The data provide the basis for direct comparison of the routes and the formulation of emissions
models whereby the net benefit of the new infrastructure can be quantified. One use of the
instrumented vehicle data is as input to simulation modelling of traffic flows in the Southern
Expressway-Main South Road corridor, which is being undertaken using the Paramics traffic network
microsimulation package. Paramics allows the occurrence of traffic incidents and their effects to be
studied.
Fuel Consumption and Emissions Modelling of the South Australian Vehicle Fleet Using
an Instrumented Vehicle
Mr Rocco Zito
Research Engineer
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
Prof Michael A.P. Taylor
Director
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
Drive cycle data can be used as a basis for predicting, comparing and modelling fuel
consumption and emissions data for the particular vehicle being tested. To this end the
Transport Systems Centre (TSC) of the University of South Australia (UniSA) have an
instrumented VS Holden Commodore that has the ability to output time, distance, speed, fuel
consumption, rpm, manifold pressure, throttle position and geographical position using GPS
at one second update rates. It is proposed that this vehicle undergo a process of engine
mapping that will enable the real time emissions variables to be calculated in combination
with the previously mentioned vehicle variables. Once this has been achieved, the car can be
used to collect real time emissions data.
Driving cycles are dependent on many factors. A driving cycle must be created from a large
database of real-world driving data collected from a representative fleet of vehicles driven on
typical road types under the full range of expected traffic conditions.
To obtain representative driving cycle data various regions throughout the Adelaide
metropolitan area will need to be sampled. Kenworthy and Newman (1982) have suggested a
method for determining different socio-economic regions within a metropolitan area. This
paper will present a similar type of socio economic analysis used to identify different regions
in metropolitan Adelaide. The analysis uses the most recent census data (CDATA 96) from
the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). This will allow an up to date analysis and
definition of the socio economic regions within the Adelaide metropolitan area.
The driving of the various routes in the different socio economic regions will occur during
different times of the day, ideally during the AM and PM peaks together with some interpeak
driving. It is important to cover all aspects of metropolitan driving since recent trends (Oxlad
1997) are showing that the journey to and from work is becoming a smaller percentage of
total commuter trips. Therefore the interpeak trips need to be represented in any sort of
standard driving cycle.
Once the GPS and other data has been collected it will be imported into a Geographical
Information System (GIS) were it can be displayed and analysed spatially as well as
analytically. The TSC already has the Adelaide metropolitan street centre line data that will
be added as a layer to the GIS so that the exact route, speed profile and time data can be
determined on a link by link basis. This data will then be used as the basis for deriving the
standard driving cycle. The paper will go on to describe how this drive cycle data will be
used to extrapolate fuel consumption and emissions predictions for the South Austalian
vehcile fleet.
References
Kenworthy and Newman (1982). A Driving Cycle for Perth: Methodology and Preliminary
Results, Proc. Joint SAE-A/ARRB Second Conference on Traffic, Energy and Emissions,
Melbourne, Australia, May 19-21, 1982.
Oxlad, L. (1997) The temporal distribution of travel in Adelaide a policy perspective,
Proceedings of the 21g Australasian Transport Research Forum, Adelaide, South Australia,
21(2), pp917-934.
Real Time GPS / GIS Applications
ABSTRACT
This paper will highlight some of the ongoing research work that is happening at the
Transport Systems Centre of the University of South Australia in the field of Real time
GPS / GIS application. The applications include real time vehicle tracking using various
GPS techniques. The role of GIS in this application not only as a display tool but also as
a real time performance analysis tool. Allowing real time traffic information to be made
available, enabling users of the road network to make more informed decisions about
where and when they will travel. The paper will then go on to show how the real time
data that has been stored in the GIS can be used as a planning tool.
Other applications include the use of GPS in public transport, examples will show how
GPS is used as a part of a scheduling system for demand responsive public transport.
Enabling requests for service to be scheduled in real time within a GIS interface.
The paper will also demonstrate how GPS data can be integrated with data from the
engine management system of a vehicle to give highly detailed information. This data
includes the vehicle's position, its fuel consumption, what gear it is in, its RPM, manifold
pressure, if the air condition is on as well as various other engine parameters. Real time
emissions data is also able to be derived from this data. The paper will show how this
detailed database can be displayed and analysed in a GIS to determine various engine and
environmental performance measures.
The paper will focus on these applications and show that GPS is an easy method of
collecting spatial data and GIS is an ideal way of displaying and analysing it.
Real Time GPS-GIS Navigation for Police Helicopter Operations
The South Australian Police Department and the Transport Systems Centre of the University
of South Australia are taking the initiative of applying new technologies to law enforcement.
In 1996 the South Australian Police Department approached the Transport Systems Centre to
discuss the possibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) together with
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to improve the performance of police operations.
There were numerous areas in the police force that were identified as potential benefactors of
these new technology products.
The S.T.A.R. Division Helicopter Operations branch was the first to have a working
prototype of real time GPS/GIS integration developed by the Transport Systems Centre
(TSC). It was identified that precise helicopter navigation over the metropolitan area been an
extremely difficult task for police and aircrew to perform.
The use of real time GPS/GIS techniques in a helicopter is a novel due to the different
physical characteristics of a helicopter when compared to a land vehicle. The prototype
system consists of a laptop computer connected to a GPS receiver fitted to the helicopter.
Software was developed to integrate the GPS information into a GIS in real time. The
layering capabilities of GIS allowed several different geographical databases to be overlaid.
For the prototype a vector and raster representation of the Adelaide street network is being
used. The raster map is a digital image of the Adelaide paper based UBD street directory
which is commercially available in a standard raster format. This allowed all streets to be
identified easily and automatic panning was enabled so the map image was constantly
updated in relation to the helicopter's position.
The prototype system demonstrated that the concept is feasible however several important
research questions need to be addressed. Improvements to the prototype system are required
to make it a fully operational and commercial system.
GPS position, time and speed data can be used as a measure of tactical response and
effectiveness with the data also having the potential to be used as evidence in a court of law.
Police helicopter operations can benefit from a coordinated approach to GPS and GIS data
and this will be elaborated on within the paper.
After the completion of the project the advantages that can be expected include :
A nationally and internationally marketable real time GPS/GIS solution for police
helicopters;
faster response times to emergency situations;
a more coordinated approach in police operations;
greater percentage of offenders apprehended;
more effective use of police resources; and
applicable to other emergency services.
Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering 14 (1999) 255-265
Using GPS to Measure Traffic System Performance
Glen M. D'Este, Rocco Zito & Michael A. P. Taylor*
Transport Systems Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
Abstract: Traffic system performance can be measured in
in the level of demand associated with morning and evening
various ways, but from the user perspective, congestion is the
major criterion. This article examines some novel uses of GPS
commuter peaks and other recurrent events. On the other
hand, nonrecurrent congestion is inherently unpredictable
and is usually associated with incidents such as accidents,
breakdowns, and road works. Point congestion is concerned
with isolated bottlenecks, whereas network congestion is an
in the measurement of vehicle speeds and travel times and
their synthesis into measures of congestion and ultimately of
the performance of the urban road system. The article also
will discuss the integration of GPS-based congestion measures into an ITS framework, techniques for implementing
a congestion-monitoring system, and implications for urban
road system planners, managers, and users.
areawide phenomenon characterized by unstable flow conditions that may manifest at a variety of sites and is indicative of
a general lack of road capacity. For a comprehensive review
of concepts, parameters, theories, and models of congestion,
see Taylor.8
1 INTRODUCTION
The performance of urban road traffic systems is a major
concern to transport planners, road users, and all members
of the urban community. Traffic system performance can be
measured in various ways, but from the user perspective,
congestion is the major criterion. Congestion is a slippery
concept that is discussed widely, but a definition is seldom
attempted. Indeed, the definition will depend on context and
perspective. From a planning perspective, congestion occurs
when demand for a transport facility (such as a road) exceeds its ability to supply an acceptable level of service. This
leads to the economic perspective, which is to see congestion
as the imposition of additional costs (manifested as delays
and queuing) by one traveler on other travelers. On a more
practical level, the common lay view is that congested traffic conditions simply mean the blockage of roads by queued
vehicles.
The problem of defining and characterizing congestion is
further complicated by the fact that congestion can take various forms; congestion can be recurrrent or nonrecurrent and
can be located at isolated points or across a network. Recur-
rent congestion occurs as a result of predictable variations
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
MAP.Taylor@UniSA.edu.au.
A common thread in discussions of road congestion is
delays. From the perspective of the road user, delays lead
to lower travel speeds and longer travel times. It follows that
speed and travel time can be meaningful and, more important,
measurable indicators of congestion and hence road system
performance.
The problem is collecting the data. Congestion is a dynamic
phenomenon with elements of both space and time, so useful
measures of performance should be based on real-time information about travel times, vehicles speeds, and the movement
of vehicles in the traffic stream. One way of collecting this
information is by the use of probe vehicles equipped with onboard kinematic instrumentation, another is by detecting the
passage of electronically tagged vehicles past detectors installed at key locations in the road network (systems in place
in Houston and Sydney, Australia, operate in this way), yet
another option is the use of a satellite-based system such as
the NavStar Global Positioning System (UPS).
GPS has been eagerly accepted by the transport industry
because it can provide useful real-time information about vehicle or facility location. Most applications of GPS in transport involve real-time vehicle tracking, monitoring, scheduling and control, route guidance, or asset management. These
applications are well known and well documented. However,
these applications concentrate on receiver location and in
most cases do not exploit the ability of GPS to simultaneously deliver information in both the spatial and temporal
0 1999 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. Published by Blackwell Publishers, 350 Main Street. Malden, MA 02148, USA,
and 108 Cowley Road, Oxford 0X4 11F, UK.
Real Time GPS/GIS Navigation for Police Helicopter Operations
The South Australian Police Department and the Transport Systems Centre of the University
of South Australia are taking the initiative of applying new technologies to law enforcement.
In 1996 the South Australian Police Department approached the Transport Systems Centre to
discuss the possibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) together with
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to improve the performance of police operations.
There were numerous areas in the police force that were identified as potential benefactors of
these new technology products.
The S.T.A.R. Division Helicopter Operations branch was the first to have a working
prototype of real time GPS/GIS integration developed by the Transport Systems Centre
(TSC). It was identified that precise helicopter navigation over the metropolitan area been an
extremely difficult task for police and aircrew to perform.
The use of real time GPS/GIS techniques in a helicopter is a novel due to the different
physical characteristics of a helicopter when compared to a land vehicle. The prototype
system consists of a laptop computer connected to a GPS receiver fitted to the helicopter.
Software was developed to integrate the GPS information into a GIS in real time. The
layering capabilities of GIS allowed several different geographical databases to be overlaid.
For the prototype a vector and raster representation of the Adelaide street network is being
used. The raster map is a digital image of the Adelaide paper based UBD street directory
which is commercially available in a standard raster format. This allowed all streets to be
identified easily and automatic panning was enabled so the map image was constantly
updated in relation to the helicopter's position.
The prototype system demonstrated that the concept is feasible however several important
research questions need to be addressed. Improvements to the prototype system are required
to make it a fully operational and commercial system.
GPS position, time and speed data can be used as a measure of tactical response and
effectiveness with the data also having the potential to be used as evidence in a court of law.
Police helicopter operations can benefit from a coordinated approach to GPS and GIS data
and this will be elaborated on within the paper.
After the completion of the project the advantages that can be expected include
A nationally and internationally marketable real time GPS/GIS solution for police
helicopters;
faster response times to emergency situations;
a more coordinated approach in police operations;
greater percentage of offenders apprehended;
more effective use of police resources; and
applicable to other emergency services.
ABSTRACT
Differential GPS for Efficient Vehicle Movement
Authors : Rocco Zito, Michael A.P. Taylor and Cameron Blanks
This paper highlights a couple of examples where GPS has been used not just for vehicle
location but where its functionality has been extended further to provide the users with more
accurate details about vehicle movements. These examples highlight the fact that GPS is only
one component of a total system that is needed for users to get an understanding of efficient
vehicle movement.
The first example will show how Macmahons mining contractors have utilised GPS to track
their dump trucks to get an overall picture of mine efficiency. This project has been
developed in conjunction with the Transport Systems Centre (TSC) of the University of South
Australia and has now matured to such an extent that its scope is broadening with the advent
of more accurate and reliable GPS techniques.
These techniques include the application of differential GPS that enable the real time
accuracies of GPS to increase from ±50m to ±5m. To achieve these increased accuracies
there are a number of techniques that can be implemented. The advantages and disadvantages
of these techniques are discussed together with an assessment of how the most appropriate
technique will be implemented in the mining application.
The paper also highlights the use of differential GPS in public transportation applications such
as Demand Responsive Public Transport. The application highlights the real time integration
between GPS and a Geographical Information System ( GIS ), together with Computer Aided
Dispatch ( CAD) software to form part of a real time system. There are many CAD
algorithms available in the literature , the one chosen for this application is quite simple but
has significant advantages in the real time GPS/GIS environment that make it worth further
development.
Zito, R
New developments in GPS and GIS technology
Mr Rocco Zito
Research Engineer
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
Prof Michael A.P. Taylor
Director
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
Introduction
The Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
have been developing independently of each other at rapid rates. GPS is now at the
stage where it can provide centimetre level accuracies in real time. GIS's packages have
now migrated from work stations to the new ever more powerful desktop and laptop
personal computers. This paper will go on to show how the Transport Systems Centre
of the University of South Australia has integrated these new developments and applied
them in a number of wide ranging applications.
The application for which these new technologies have found a use include real time
congestion monitoring, real time kinematic surveying, new public transport systems, the
use of GPS and GIS in police helicopter applications and the use of GPS and GIS in
environmental analysis. These applications will be elaborated on in the paper with
specific examples describing how these new technology tools have provided the
solution.
Real Time Integration of GPS for Vehicle Monitoring
Francis C.K. Tan
Senior Lecturer
School of Surveying
University of South Australia
Building
The Levels
Pooraka 5095
Adelaide, Australia
ph : + 61 8 302 3163
fax : + 61 8 302 3375
Rocco Zito
Daniel Jaksa
Research Engineer
AUSNAV Manager
Transport Systems Centre
AUSLIG
University of South Australia
Scrivener
The Levels
Pooraka 5095
Adelaide, Australia
ph : + 61 8 302 3512
fax : + 61 8 302 3972
Dunlop Court
Fern Hill Park
Bruce, ACT, 2617
ph : + 61 6 261 4335
fax : + 61 6 201 4366
ABSTRACT
The Australian Surveying and Land Information Group (AUSLIG) has implemented a real
time differential GPS service in Australia named AUSNAV. The differential corrections are
broadcast as a phase modulated sub-carrier on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's
Triple J FM radio network. When a GPS receiver receives these signal the real time
positional accuracy of GPS reduces from ±50m to ±1m. This paper will go on to describe
how the AUSNAV system works, how accurate and reliable it is and some of the transport
applications it can be used for.
Traffic engineering applications of this new technology are now beginning to surface. Some
specific examples are the use of GPS in real time congestion, delay and vehicle performance
monitoring. The examples used in this paper will address issues from a practical point of
view and give some results on accuracy and reliability issues of GPS in actual traffic
situations. In addition, it shows how GPS data can be used to derive a number of congestion
parameters for use in traffic systems monitoring. The paper indicates the value of integration
of GPS with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for display and analysis of data.
Speed Profiles and Vehicle Fuel Consumption at LATM Devices
Rocco Zito
Research Engineer
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
Michael A P Taylor
Professor of Transport Planning, and
Director of Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
ABSTRACT
Physical devices such as roundabouts at intersections and humps and chicanes at midblock sites have been widely used in residential areas as speed controls on local
streets, and have demonstrated some success in this regard. At the same time, certain
devices, particularly speed humps, have become increasingly unpopular in the
community. There is now much agitation to the use of physical 'spot' treatments for
speed control and a groundswell of interest in the use of lower speed limits in
residential areas has emerged. Part of the reaction to mid-block devices concerns the
limitations on vehicle parking and manoeuvring space on-street, which particularly
affects residents and properties abutting the devices. Another part stems from the
(perceived) increase in traffic inconvenience and denigration of the microenvironment in the vicinity of the devices through continual vehicle acceleration and
deceleration and noise emissions. Some engineers and researchers have suggested that
the devices also lead to increased fuel consumption and pollutant emissions by motor
vehicles (eg Van Every and Holmes, 1992). There is also debate over the relative
merits of alternative speed limits and physical speed control devices in terms of
average speeds and travel times on local streets
Transp. Res.-C, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 193-209, 1995
Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd
Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved
0968-090X/95 $9.50+0.00
Pergamon
0968-090X(95)00006-2
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS IN THE TIME DOMAIN:
HOW USEFUL A TOOL FOR INTELLIGENT
VEHICLE-HIGHWAY SYSTEMS?
R. ZITO, G. D'ESTE and M. A. P. TAYLOR
Transport Systems Centre, University of South Australia, The Levels, South Australia 5095,
Australia
( Received 31 January 1995)
Abstract
Much of the research and development work in intelligent vehicle-highway systems
(IVHS) relies on the availability of methods for locating and monitoring vehicles (e.g. "probe
vehicles") in real time across a road network. This paper considers the use of the global positioning
system (UPS) as one method for obtaining information on the position, speed and direction of
travel of vehicles. It reports the results of a series of field studies, in which real-time UPS data were
compared to data collected by an instrumented vehicle, under a range of physical and traffic
conditions. The field studies and consequent data analysis provide a picture of the reliability and
usefulness of UPS data for traffic monitoring purposes, and hence the possibilities for the use of
UPS in IVHS projects. The use of UPS receivers tailored for mobile applications, and able to
provide direct observations of vehicle speed and travel direction, coupled with database management using geographic information systems (GIS) software, was found to provide a reliable and
efficient system for vehicle monitoring. Field data collection under "ideal" UPS conditions indi-
cated that accurate speed and position data were readily obtained from the GPS. Under less
favourable conditions (e.g. in downtown networks), data accuracy decreased but useful information could still be obtained. In addition, the conditions and situations under which GPS data
errors could be expected were noted. The finding that it is possible to relate standard UPS signal
quality indicators to increased errors in speed and position provides an enhanced degree of
confidence in the use of the UPS system for real-time traffic observations.
INTRODUCTION
Much of the research and development work in IVHS relies on the availability of methods
for locating and monitoring vehicles (e.g. "probe vehicles") in real time across a road
network. This paper considers the use of the global positioning system (GPS) as one
method for obtaining information on the position, speed and direction of travel of
vehicles. It reports the results of a series of field studies, in which real-time GPS data were
compared to data collected by an instrumented vehicle, under a range of physical and
traffic conditions. The field studies and consequent data analysis provide a picture of the
reliability and usefulness of GPS data for traffic monitoring purposes, and hence the
possibilities for the use of GPS in IVHS projects.
The GPS consists of some 24 satellites encircling the earth at inclined orbits of 600 .
There are six terrestrial control stations that update the satellites with new information as
it comes to hand (see Fig. 1 for a schematic representation of the GPS system). GPS is
owned and maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense, and is available worldwide to
any user who has a GPS receiver. The basic output from a receiver is the x, y and z
coordinates for a moving or stationary object, at possible update rates of the order of
once/s. Figure 1 shows the three segments that make up the GPS system, with the user
segment being the final segment where the GPS data can be used in many different applications, such as transport planning, management, control and scheduling, and hence can
play a potentially important role in IVHS.
193
ROAD TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS OF GPS
Rocco Zito, BEng(Hons)
Research Engineer, Transport Systems Centre and School of Civil Engineering, University
of South Australia.
Michael A.P. Taylor, BEng(Hons), M.Eng.Sc, PhD
Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director, Transport Systems Centre, University of
South Australia
Glen M. D'Este, BSc(Hons), PhD
Senior Research Fellow, Transport Systems Centre, University of South Australia
Francis C.K. Tan, BSurv. (ions), M.Surv.Sc
Senior Lecturer, School of Surveying, University of South Australia
ABSTRACT
Over the past decade, the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has become
established as a standard surveying technique. However the use of GPS to establish
control points and locate static objects, is only tapping part of its potential. GPS can
deliver accurate time tagged data about the location, speed, and reliability of GPS at update
rates of once per second. This makes it possible to track moving objects and hence opens
up many applications in the transport sector.
As the transport industry has grown to appreciate the full potential of GPS, transport
applications have proliferated. This paper reviews the current state of practice in applying
GPS to road transport, concentrating on applications that involve moving vehicles. These
dynamic applications of GPS in the road transport sector fall into several categories; fleet
monitoring and route guidance, Intelligent Transport Systems and road system
performance. Each of these applications is considered in turn, highlighting practical
examples and interesting GPS issues.
ROCCO ZITO, ROAD TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS OF GPS
What can GPS deliver? What do users really need?
Rocco Zito, BEng(Hons)
Research Engineer, Transport Systems Centre and School of Civil Engineering,
University of South Australia.
Michael A.P. Taylor, BEng(Hons), M.Eng.Sc, PhD
Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director, Transport Systems Centre, University of
South Australia
Glen M. D'Este, BSc(Hons), PhD
Senior Research Fellow, Transport Systems Centre, University of South Australia
GPS technology can deliver large continuous stream of data on spatial and temporal
aspects of transport activities, together with reliability parameters. As technology
improves and costs reduce, it becomes possible to collect this data with even greater
frequency and accuracy. However, do users really need to tap all the power and
capabilities of GPS or is it sufficient to work with a lesser amount and quality of data?
The answer depends on the application to which GPS technology is being applied.
The aim of this paper is to provide current and intending UPS users a comprehensive
guide to the state of the art in GPS technology, and the real needs of various applications
in terms of hardware, quality and frequency of data capture, post processing of data and
GIS integration. The authors have considerable experience in the use of GIS and GPS for
a variety of uses under a range of conditions and are well placed to provide a practical
perspective on GPS requirements for transport applications.
This paper will address a range of practical issues including
positional accuracy and reliability
periodic data capture v polling
frequency of data capture and data overload
absolute v differential GPS
real time v post processing data
standardisation and data protocols
communications
GIS software and other software system integration
price v performance and size
alternatives to GPS
in the context of applications including
IVHS
monitoring, scheduling and control
transport planning
asset management
An Integrated GPS/GIS System for Real Time Congestion, Delay and Vehicle
Performance Monitoring.
Rocco Zito, BEng(Hons)
Research Engineer, Transport Systems Centre, School of Civil Engineering, University
of South Australia.
Michael A.P.Taylor, BEng(Hons I), M.Eng.Sc, Ph.D
Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director, Transport Systems Centre, University of
South Australia
ABSTRACT
With the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) a new era in transport data
collection has arrived. Research at the Transport Systems Centre (TSC) has
demonstrated that GPS can allow the capture of not only positional data but also
time, speed and GPS reliability variables at a rate of once per second. This data can
then be processed in real-time and used as a means of quantifying the amount of
congestion and delay being experienced on the road network : This is a direct
application of IVHS.
Another breakthrough is the development of Geographical Information Systems
(GIS). These systems allow data to be displayed in a spatial context as well as
associating attributes to this spatial data. It is these systems that allow the vast
amounts of data collected by GPS to be turned into useful information, which can
also be displayed in real time.
This GPS-GIS combination forms an effective partnership in that the GPS system
allows the efficient collection of data, while the GIS provides an interface that
allows this data to be displayed together with its attributes. GIS packages also
perform queries on the database, with results being displayed graphically. Thus the
combination provides a very powerful tool that can be used in the assessment of any
transportation system.
This paper presents a case study showing the features of GPS-GIS integration with
a series of travel time runs performed along the first authors journey-to-work, in
October-November 1994. The paper discusses how GPS-GIS integration will aid in
Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS) in public transport (using the case
study of the 580 bus route in metropolitan Adelaide) as well as wide area
congestion monitoring. The paper indicates the levels of accuracy and reliability of
GPS, and describes some of the disadvantages for GPS applications in urban areas
and investigates the means to overcome them.
The Use of GPS and GIS in Environmental Impact Assessment
Rocco Zito, BEng(Hons)
Research Engineer, Transport Systems Centre and School of Civil Engineering, University of
South Australia.
Michael A.P. Taylor, BEng(Hons), M.Eng.Sc, Ph.D
Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director, Transport Systems Centre, University of South
Australia
Recently the Global Positioning System (GPS) has become fully operational, this has meant
that all-weather 24 hour continuous positional data is available globally. This data can and is
being used in the transportation industry for various applications, including vehicle fleet
monitoring, computer aided dispatch, public transport and many other applications. This
paper will show how the integration of positional data obtained from GPS together with
vehicle and traffic data obtained from other systems will help in the environmental assessment
of various projects, and in other applications such as automatic vehicle location and
congestion monitoring.
GPS alone can provide second by second positional information as well as time and speed
data as the vehicle travels through a street network. This data alone is very useful for the
assessment of traffic schemes, ITS applications, and also in public transport (1994 Zito and
Taylor) and (1995 Zito, Taylor and D'Este). It is the integration of this data with other
systems such as the Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Fuel Consumption and Travel
Time Data Acquisition System (FCTTDAS), that provide time, fuel consumption, distance
and speed data. Traffic noise levels can also be measured using an appropriately calibrated
noise metre. Engine parameters can be obtained to give an assessment of engine performance
and emissions as the vehicle is travelling. It is this data that is combined with spatial GPS
data to give environmental indicators throughout a street network.
However unless this data can be displayed and analysed in an efficient and effective manner it
will just add to information overload. This is where Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
are invaluable. They provide a medium that allows the display and analysis of data both
spatially and numerically, thereby turning massive amounts of data into manageable pieces of
information.
This information could then be used to assess the effectiveness of various schemes, since the
data could be collected before and after a scheme is implemented and therefore the benefits or
disbenefits quantified. The data collected could be used in environmental models hence, the
benefits of various schemes could be assessed before they are implemented, and so used as a
justification for the project. It is the use of this information that would allow transportation
professionals to make more informed decisions about projects and how they should be
implemented to benefit the environment. The paper will describe the integration of GPS data
with other transport databases to provide a rich information source for environmental impact
assessment of transport projects.
References
ZITO R, D'ESTE G M and TAYLOR M A P (1995). GPS in The Time Domain: How Useful
a Tool for IVHS? (Submitted to Transportation Research C)
Zito, R and Taylor, M A P (1994). The use of GPS in travel time-time surveys. Traffic
Engineering and Control 35 (12), pp. 685-690.
The Use of GPS in Travel Time Surveys
Rocco Zito, BEng(Hons)
Research Engineer, Transport Systems Centre, School of Civil Engineering,
University of South Australia.
Michael A.P.Taylor, BEng(Hons I), M.Eng.Sc, Ph.D
Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director, Transport Systems Centre, University of
South Australia
ABSTRACT
Travel time surveys have long been used to provide performance data for the
assessment of traffic systems. The traditional methods of finding the amount of travel
time have been difficult to apply and sometimes provided only limited information.
With the advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) a new era in transport data
collection has arrived. Not only will it benefit data collection in travel time surveys
but other areas dealing with transportation issues will also gain, for example road
asset management, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, and real time vehicle
tracking among others.
Another recent breakthrough is the development of Geographical Information
Systems (GIS). These systems allow data to be displayed in a spatial context as well
as associating attributes to this spatial data. This concept has only recently become
available on personal computers.
The GPS-GIS combination forms an effective partnership in that the GPS system
allows the efficient collection of data, while the GIS provides an interface that allows
this data to be displayed together with its spatial attributes. Some GIS packages also
perform queries on the database, with results thus being displayed graphically. Thus
the combination provides a very powerful tool that can be used in the assessment of
any transportation system.
GPS IN THE TIME DOMAIN
R Zito, G D'Este and M A P Taylor
Transport Systems Centre
University of South Australia
The Levels, South Australia 5095
Australia
Abstract
The Global Positioning System (GPS) consists of some 24 satellites encircling the earth at inclined
orbits of 60 degrees. There are six terrestrial control stations that update the satellites with new
information as it comes to hand (see Figure 1 for a schematic representation of the GPS system).
GPS is owned and maintained by the US Department of Defense, and is available world wide to any
user who has a GPS receiver. The basic output from a receiver is the x, y, and z coordinates for a
moving or stationary object, at possible update rates of the order of once per second. Figure 1 shows
the three segments that make up the GPS system, with the user segment being the final segment
where the GPS data can be used in many different applications, such as transport planning,
management, control and scheduling, and hence can play a potentially important role in IVHS.
1
Download PDF
Similar pages