SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows Client Version 3.1 User

SSH Secure Shell
for Workstations
Windows Client Version 3.1
User Manual
November, 2001
2
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Corp.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, published, stored in an
electronic database, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, for any purpose, without the
prior written permission of SSH Communications Security Corp.
This software is protected by international copyright laws. All rights reserved. ssh R is a registered trademark of SSH Communications Security
Corp in the United States and in certain other jurisdictions. SSH2,
the SSH logo, SSH IPSEC Express, SSH Certifier, SSH Sentinel, SSH
Complete VPN, and Making the Internet Secure are trademarks of SSH
Communications Security Corp and may be registered in certain jurisdictions. All other names and marks are property of their respective owners.
THERE IS NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND FOR THE ACCURACY OR USEFULNESS OF THIS INFORMATION EXCEPT AS
REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR EXPRESSLY AGREED IN
WRITING.
SSH Communications Security Corp.
Fredrikinkatu 42
FIN-00100 Helsinki
FINLAND
SSH Communications Security Inc.
1076 East Meadow Circle
Palo Alto, CA 94303
USA
SSH Communications Security K.K.
House Hamamatsu-cho Bldg. 5F
2-7-1 Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105-0013, JAPAN
http://www.ssh.com/
e-mail: ssh-sales@ssh.com (sales), http://www.ssh.com/support/ssh/ (support)
Tel: +358 20 500 7030 (Finland), +1 650 251 2700 (USA), +81 3 3459 6830 (Japan)
Fax: +358 20 500 7031 (Finland), +1 650 251 2701 (USA), +81 3 3459 6825 (Japan)
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
CONTENTS
3
Contents
1
2
Introduction
13
1.1
Network Security Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
1.1.1
Security of Internet Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
1.2
Different SSH Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
1.3
SSH2 Protocol Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
1.4
New Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
1.5
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
1.6
Desktop Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
1.7
Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
Configuration
19
2.1
Saving Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
2.2
Multiple Settings Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.3
Loading Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.4
Profile Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
2.4.1
Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.4.2
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
2.4.3
Cipher List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
2.4.4
Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.4.5
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
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CONTENTS
2.5
2.6
3
2.4.6
Keymap Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
2.4.7
Tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
Global Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
2.5.1
Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
2.5.2
Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
2.5.3
Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
2.5.4
Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
2.5.5
User Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
2.5.6
Host Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
2.5.7
SSH Accession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
2.5.8
PKI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
2.5.9
Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
2.5.10 Certificate Enrollment Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
2.5.11 LDAP Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
2.5.12 PKCS #11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
2.5.13 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
2.5.14 PKCS #11 Provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
2.5.15 File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
2.5.16 Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
2.5.17 Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
2.5.18 Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
2.5.19 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
2.5.20 Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
Customize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
Connecting
67
3.1
67
Quick Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3.2
Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
3.2.1
Add Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
3.2.2
Edit Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
3.3.1
Key Generation Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
3.3.2
Key Generation - Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
3.3.3
Key Generation - Key Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
3.3.4
Key Generation - Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
3.3.5
Key Generation - Enter Passphrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
3.3.6
Key Generation - Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
Connecting to a Remote Host Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
3.4.1
Host Identification Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
3.4.2
Connect to Remote Host Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
Uploading Your Public Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
3.5.1
Manually Copying the Key File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
3.5.2
Manually Editing the Authorization File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
3.6
Using Public-Key Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
3.7
Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
3.3
3.4
3.5
4
5
5
Terminal Window
83
4.1
Terminal Window Title Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
4.2
Terminal Window Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
4.3
Terminal Window Shortcut Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
File Transfer
87
5.1
Drag And Drop Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
5.2
Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
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5.2.1
Folder Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
5.3
File View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
5.4
File Transfer Title Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
5.5
File Transfer Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
5.6
File Transfer Shortcut Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
5.7
Differences From Windows Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
5.8
Downloading Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
5.8.1
Download - Select Folder Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
5.8.2
The Downloading Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
Uploading Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
5.9.1
Upload - Select Files Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
5.9.2
The Uploading Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
5.10 File Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
Toolbar Reference
99
6.1
Configuring Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
6.1.1
Moving Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
6.1.2
Moving Toolbar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.1.3
Permanent Toolbar Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.9
6
6.2
Save Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.3
Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.4
Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.5
Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.6
Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.7
Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6.8
Paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.9
Paste Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
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6.10 Find . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.11 New Terminal Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.12 New File Transfer Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.13 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.14 Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.15 Get Help On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.16 File Transfer Specific Toolbar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.16.1 Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
6.16.2 Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.3 Refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.4 Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.5 Upload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.6 Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.7 Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.8 List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.16.9 Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.16.10 ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.16.11 Binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.16.12 Auto Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.17 Quick Connect Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.18 Profiles Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7
Menu Reference
7.1
7.2
111
Configuring Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
7.1.1
Moving Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
7.1.2
Permanent Menu Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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CONTENTS
7.2.1
Save Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.2.2
Quick Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.2.3
Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.2.4
Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.2.5
Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.2.6
Page Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.2.7
Log Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.2.8
Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.2.9
Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
7.2.10 Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.3
7.4
7.5
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.3.1
Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
7.3.2
Paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.3.3
Paste Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.3.4
Select All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.3.5
Select Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.3.6
Select None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.3.7
Find . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.3.8
Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.4.1
Terminal Window View Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
7.4.2
File Transfer View Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Operation Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
7.5.1
Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
7.5.2
Upload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
7.5.3
Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
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7.5.4
Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.5.5
Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.5.6
Go To Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
7.5.7
New Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.5.8
Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.5.9
Rename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.5.10 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
7.5.11 File Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.6
7.7
8
Window Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.6.1
New Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
7.6.2
New File Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.6.3
New Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.6.4
Close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
7.6.5
Close All Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Help Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.7.1
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.7.2
Get Help On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.7.3
SSH on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
7.7.4
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.7.5
Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
7.7.6
Import License File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
7.7.7
About Secure Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Advanced Information
8.1
131
SSH2 Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
8.1.1
Host Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.1.2
Security Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
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CONTENTS
8.2
8.3
Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
8.2.1
CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8.2.2
Certificate Enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.2.3
Certificate Revocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
8.2.4
Directory Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Using Certificate Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8.3.1
9
PKCS #11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Troubleshooting
9.1
9.2
139
Error Dialogs At Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9.1.1
Evaluation Period Ending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9.1.2
Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.1.3
Failed To Read Keymap File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.1.4
File Open Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
9.1.5
Keymap Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
9.1.6
Your License Has Expired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Error Dialogs During Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.2.1
Authentication Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.2.2
Confirm Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
9.2.3
Confirm File Overwrite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.2.4
Connection Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
9.2.5
Disconnected; Authentication Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.2.6
Disconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
9.2.7
Enter Passcode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.2.8
Enter Passphrase For Private Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.2.9
Enter PIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.2.10 Error Renaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
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11
9.2.11 Failed To Create An Incoming Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.2.12 Host Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.2.13 Host Identification Failed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.2.14 New PIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.2.15 PAM Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.2.16 Password Needed for PFX Integrity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.2.17 The Remote Host Uses ssh1 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
9.2.18 Wrong Passphrase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.2.19 Wrong Password - Enter Again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.3
PKCS #11 Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9.3.1
9.4
Signing error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
SSH1 Specific Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.4.1
Unexpected EOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
A Appendices
151
A.1 SSH2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
A.2 SCP2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
A.2.1 SCP2 Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
A.2.2 SCP2 Return Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
A.3 SFTP2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
A.3.1 SFTP2 Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
A.3.2 SFTP2 Command Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
A.4 SSH-keygen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
A.5 Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
A.5.1 Connection Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
A.5.2 File Transfer Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
A.5.3 Installation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
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CONTENTS
A.5.4 Licensing Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
A.5.5 Technical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
A.5.6 Tunneling Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
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Chapter 1
Introduction
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client (ssh2 client) is a program that allows secure network
services over an insecure network.
SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows Client replaces other, insecure terminal applications, such as
Telnet and FTP. It allows you to securely login to remote host computers, to execute commands safely on
a remote computer, and to provide secure encrypted and authenticated communications between two hosts
in an untrusted network. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure
channel, expanding SSH Secure Shell’s usability even further.
SSH Secure Shell with its array of unmatched security features is an essential tool for today’s network
environment. It is a powerful guardian against the numerous security hazards that threaten network
communications.
1.1 Network Security Risks
The open architecture of Internet Protocol (IP) makes it a highly efficient, cost-effective, and flexible
communications protocol for local and global communications. It has been widely adopted, not only on
the global Internet, but also on the internal networks of large corporations.
Internet Protocol was designed to be highly reliable against random network errors. However, it was not
designed to be secure against a malicious attacker. In fact, it is vulnerable to a number of well-known attacks.
This is preventing it from being used to its fullest for business and other purposes involving confidential or
mission-critical data.
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Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1.1 Security of Internet Protocol
The IP protocol suite, including TCP/IP, was designed to provide reliable and scalable communications over
real-world networks. It has served this goal well. However, it was designed twenty years ago in a world where
the Internet consisted of a few hundred closely controlled hosts. The situation has changed. The Internet now
connects tens of millions of computers, controlled by millions of individuals and organizations. The core
network itself is administered by thousands of competing operators, and the network spans the whole globe,
connected by fibers, leased lines, dialup modems, and mobile phones.
The phenomenal growth of the Internet has peaked the interest of businesses, military organizations, governments, and criminals. Suddenly, networks are changing the way business is done. They have changed the
nature of trade and distribution networks, and the way individual people communicate with each other.
This upsurge of business communications, scientific communications and political communications on the
Internet has also brought out negative elements. Criminals are looking for ways of getting a cut of the
emerging business. Industrial espionage has become a reality. Intelligence agencies are showing growing
interest towards networked communications, and they often exchange information with domestic commercial
interest and political groups. Crackers, exchanging information and source code, make attacks that ten years
ago were thought to be only within the reach of superpowers’ intelligence agencies.
Consequently, the IP protocol, while very tolerant of random errors, is vulnerable to malicious attacks. The
most common types of attacks include:
Eavesdropping on a transmission, for example, looking for passwords, credit card numbers, or business
secrets.
Hijacking, or taking over a communication in such a way that the attacker can inspect and modify any
data being transmitted between the communicating parties.
IP spoofing, or faking network addresses or host names in order to fool access control mechanisms
based on them or to redirect connections to a fake server.
The ssh2 protocol is designed to protect network communications against security hazards like these.
1.2 Different SSH Versions
Several different Secure Shell client and server versions exist. The different versions use different implementations of the SSH protocol.
SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client uses SSH protocol version 2 (ssh2), but also supports
connections to SSH version 1 (ssh1) servers. Note, however, that SSH version 2 (ssh2) is a more advanced
protocol than the legacy version ssh1. For more information on using an ssh1 connection, see the SSH web
site http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/ssh1.html.
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1.3. SSH2 Protocol Features
15
Note: SSH Communications Security has deprecated the ssh1 protocol and does not recommend using it. For
more information, see http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/cert/deprecation.html.
The ssh2 protocol provides a set of radical improvements to ssh1. These improvements include:
A much better understood and more secure protocol.
A new design which requires much less code to be run with administrative privileges.
Totally rewritten code that improves security.
New routines for cryptography and mathematics, resulting in considerable improvements in speed.
Support for multiple public key algorithms, including RSA, DSA and Diffie-Hellman key exchange.
Easy to use file transfers using the integrated file transfer agent in SSH Secure Shell for Workstation
Windows client, and the scp2 (secure file copy) and sftp2 (secure file transfer protocol) command line
applications.
1.3 SSH2 Protocol Features
The ssh2 protocol contains the following features:
Secure terminal sessions utilizing secure encryption.
Full, secure replacement for FTP and Telnet, as well as the UNIX r-series of commands: rlogin,
rsh, rcp, rexec.
Multiple high security algorithms and strong authentication methods that prevent such security threats
as identity spoofing and man-in-the-middle attacks.
Multiple ciphers for encryption, including e.g. 3DES, Blowfish and AES.
Password, public key, certificate, smart card, PAM and SecurID authentication methods.
Transparent and automatic tunneling of X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP-based applications, such
as e-mail.
Automatic and secure authentication of both ends of connection. Both the server and the client are
authenticated to prevent identity spoofing, Trojan horses, etc.
Unique secure file transfer interface (SFTP) fully integrated in the client software.
Multiple channels that allow you to have multiple terminal windows and file transfers going through
one secure and authenticated connection.
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Chapter 1. Introduction
1.4 New Features
This version of SSH Secure Shell for Workstation Windows client contains several new features and enhancements.
Some of the most notable new features of SSH Secure Shell version 3.1 are the following:
File transfer speed increase
Files can now be transferred significantly faster.
Keymap editor
The integrated keymap editor makes it easy to change the assigned keyboard keys to suit your personal
preferences.
Paste selection on right mouse click
Now you can copy text on the terminal window simply by highlighting it with the mouse and then paste
it by clicking the right mouse button.
SSH Accession support
Support for SSH Accession makes public-key authentication a fast and automatic process.
Support for authentication agent forwarding
Authentication agent can automatize the use of authentication private keys. Agent forwarding can now
be enabled or disabled based on the ssh protocol used.
URL capture
Now Internet addresses displayed on the terminal window function as links that can be activated with
a mouse click.
User confirmation dialog customization
Now confirmation dialogs can have a preset response, so that the need for user confirmation on confirmation dialogs can be eliminated.
Various bug fixes
This version also contains fixes for various minor bugs found in previous releases.
1.5 System Requirements
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstation Windows client does not have any special hardware or software requirements. Any computer capable of running a current version of the Microsoft Windows operating system
(Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows NT, or Windows 2000) and equipped with a functional
connection to a remote host computer can be used.
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client installation requires about 4 megabytes of disk space.
Note that ssh2 will save each user’s settings in that particular user’s personal directory.
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1.6 Desktop Icons
When you have installed the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client, you will have two separate
program icons on the Windows desktop as well as in the Start menu (by default under Start - Programs
- SSH Secure Shell).
The SSH Secure Shell Client icon and the SSH Secure File Transfer Client icon both start the same application, SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client. The difference between the icons is that they
use different settings files. The Secure Shell Client icon uses a settings file called default.ssh2, and the
Secure File Transfer icon uses a settings file called defaultsftp.ssh2.
By default the settings files have been configured so that they open the appropriate SSH Secure Shell for
Workstations window, either the terminal window or the SSH Secure File Transfer window. If you want to
change the default configuration, you can save your settings to either a new settings file (using the Save As
option from the File menu), or save the new settings using the old settings files (using the Save option from
the File menu).
Please note that when you save your current settings, the window positions are also saved. If you open the
SSH Secure File Transfer client by clicking the appropriate icon, then open a terminal window or two, and
then save the settings, the ’extra’ terminal windows will appear the next time you click the SSH Secure File
Transfer Client icon. If you then close the File Transfer window and save your settings again, the next time
you will see no File Transfer window at all.
Do not be alarmed by this - you can always open a new terminal or File Transfer window by clicking the
appropriate toolbar button or selecting the appropriate menu item. If you then save your settings again, the
new window positions will be used as default values for new connections.
For more information saving the current settings, see section 2.1 (Saving Settings).
1.7 Support
The most current version of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client online help is available
on the SSH Web pages: http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/winhelp/.
Frequently asked questions specific to the SSH Secure Shell Windows client are answered in the SSH Secure
Shell FAQ: http://www.ssh.com/faq.
If the product documentation and the FAQ do not answer your questions and you have purchased the
software, you can contact SSH Secure Shell Technical Support. Use the online support form available at http://www.ssh.com/support/ssh for support requests and http://www.ssh.com/
support/toolkits/bug-report.html for bug reports.
Please see the SSH Web site (http://www.ssh.com/support/ssh/support_offering.cfm)
for more information on the terms and conditions of obtaining technical support for SSH Secure Shell from
SSH Communications Security.
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Chapter 1. Introduction
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
19
Chapter 2
Configuration
Before establishing a connection to a remote host computer, you should first check your connection settings.
The connection settings can be changed by using the Profiles option of the profiles toolbar (see section 3.2
(Profiles)), or alternatively by using the Settings option (see section 6.13 (Settings), found on the toolbar and
the Edit menu).
The Profiles dialog can be used to configure the profile settings that are associated with a single remote host
computer. With the Settings dialog you can control also the global settings that affect all connections.
To open the Settings dialog, click the Settings button on the toolbar or select the Settings option from the Edit
menu.
The different settings categories are visible on the left hand side of the Settings window as a tree structure.
Branches that have a plus sign (+) next to them can be expanded by clicking on the plus sign. Branches that
have a minus sign (-) next to them can be collapsed by clicking on the minus sign.
Click on a branch to display the settings associated with it. You can change the settings by changing the
selections displayed on the right hand side of the settings window. Note that some of the settings do not
take effect until you save the settings and then open a new terminal or file transfer window, or start a new
connection.
2.1 Saving Settings
When you have changed the settings, an asterisk (*) is displayed on the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
Windows client title bar, after the name of the current settings file (for example: default*). This indicates
that the changed settings are not yet permanent - they have not been saved yet.
If you want to make the changes permanent, you can save them for later use. Click the Save button on the
toolbar, or select the Save Setings menu option from the File menu to save any changes you have made to
your current settings. The changes will be saved in the default settings file, default.ssh2.
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Chapter 2. Configuration
The default settings file is loaded automatically when you start the SSH Secure Shell client. Therefore all
the settings that you save in the default settings file take effect immediately when you run the ssh2 client.
These settings are also used for connections started with the Quick Connect option (see section 3.1 (Quick
Connect)).
Note that when you save the current settings, the positions of the currently open terminal and file transfer
windows are also saved. If you arrange your window positions to suit your own taste and save the settings in
the default settings file, the windows will be automatically positioned the way you prefere when you next run
the SSH Secure Shell client.
If you spend a lot of effort customizing your own settings, it is a good idea to create backup copies of your
customized settings files (*.ssh2) and store them in a safe location. This way you will not have to create
the custom settings again, if for some reason (such as hardware failure) your settings files are lost.
2.2 Multiple Settings Files
You can save separate settings files for each remote host computer. This can be done by using the Profiles
option. For more information on using profiles, see section 3.2 (Profiles).
2.3 Loading Settings
It is easy to use a profile that has been previously saved. Select the Profiles option (from the Profiles toolbar
or the File menu), and you will see a menu of previously saved profiles. Click on a profile, and a connection
using the profile settings will immediately be started.
Note that this also works when you are already connected to a remote host computer. The profile will start a
new, separate connection.
Another way to load the settings for a particular connection is to double-click the settings file name, for
example in Windows Explorer. When the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client is installed,
files with the extension .ssh2 are associated with the SSH Secure Shell client. This means that you can start
the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client with any settings file loaded by just doubleclicking
on that settings file.
If you regularly connect to several remote host computers, you can create shortcuts to the corresponding
settings files for example on the Windows desktop. This way you can quickly open the desired connection
with the relevant settings already defined, just by clicking on an icon on the desktop.
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2.4. Profile Settings
21
2.4 Profile Settings
With the Profile Settings page of the Settings dialog you can configure separate connection settings for each
particular remote host computer. To display the Profile Settings, open the Settings dialog and click on the
Profile Settings text on the left hand side of the dialog.
Figure 2.1: The Profile Settings page of the Settings dialog.
User Settings Folder
The directory path to your personal data files is displayed in the text field next to the Browse button. Note that this is not an editable field, but the location of these files can be set by defining the
SSHCLIENT USERPROFILE environment variable. For more information, see the SSH Secure Shell
FAQ (http://www.ssh.com/faq/).
Your personal files include the settings file (default name default.ssh2), your public and private keys,
host keys and the keyboard mapping file (KEYMAP.MAP).
Click the Browse button to quickly access your personal data files. The folder where the settings files
are saved will open. This is useful if you wish to copy or backup your personal settings.
Note that your private keys should always be kept secret. This is important to remember if you are
sharing your local computer with other users. In such case, it is not advisable to store your private
keys on the local disk. For more information on user key files, see section 3.6 (Using Public-Key
Authentication).
OK
Click the OK button to start using the specified settings.
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Chapter 2. Configuration
Cancel
Click the Cancel button to abort any changes you have made to the settings.
Help
Click the Help button to see the relevant help section.
2.4.1 Connection
The protocol settings used in the connection are configured using the Connection page of the Settings dialog.
Any changed connection settings will take effect the next time you login.
Figure 2.2: The Connection page of the Settings dialog.
Host Name
Type the name of the remote host computer which you will connect to using this profile.
User Name
Type the user name you want to use when connecting to the remote host computer.
Port Number
Type the port number you want to use for the ssh2 connection. The default port is 22.
Note: that an sshd2 daemon program must be listening on the specified port on the remote host
computer or the connection attempt will not succeed. If you are unsure of which port the remote host
computer is listening to, contact the system administrator of the remote host.
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2.4. Profile Settings
23
Encryption Algorithm
Select the desired encryption algorithm from the dropdown menu. Valid choices are 3DES,
Blowfish, Twofish, AES, Arcfour, and CAST. You can also select whatever default that
is used by the remote host computer, use no enryption (none) at all, or create your own customized
cipher list. For more information on the Cipher List option, see section 2.4.3 (Cipher List).
For the AES and Twofish algorithms you can also choose the strength of encryption, ie. how many bits
will be used. Greater values are more secure, but slower to use. Possible values are 128, 192 or 256
bits.
Note: If you select none as the encryption algorithm, the communications for this profile will not be
encrypted and all information will be sent as plaintext. The none encryption method is not secure
and is not recommended. Use it only if you are sure of what you are doing. A warning dialog will be
displayed, if you select this option.
MAC Algorithm
Select the desired Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithm (hash algorithm) from the dropdown
menu. Valid choices are HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA1. You can also select whatever default that
is used by the remote host computer, or select to use no message authentication code at all (none). If
you select not to use any MAC algorithm, a confirmation dialog will be displayed.
Compression
Select the desired compression setting from the dropdown menu. Valid choices are zlib and none.
Terminal Answerback
Select the desired terminal answerback from the dropdown menu. Possible choices are ansi, vt100,
vt102, vt220, vt320 and xterm.
Connect through Firewall
Check the check box if you are connecting through a firewall. For more information on the firewall
settings, see section 2.5.18 (Firewall).
Request Tunnels Only (Disable Terminal)
Check the Request Tunnels Only check box if you wish to only set up the specified tunnels and not
request a terminal or file transfer session.
Default SFTP Directory
Type the path to the directory that you want to use as the default local directory for Secure File Transfer
operations.
2.4.2 Authentication
With the Authentication page of the Settings dialog, you can define customized authentication methods. Two
lists are displayed on the page, the upper list for general authentication, and the lower list for authentication
methods user for public-key authentication.
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The icons displayed above the list can be used to add a new authentication method, delete an existing authentication method and move the authentication methods upwards or downwards in the preference list. Authentication methods higher up in the list will be attempted first.
Figure 2.3: Defining the authentication settings
Possible methods for general authentication are the following:
Password
Use password for authentication.
Public Key
Use public-key authentication.
SecurID
Use SecurID for authentication. Using SecurID authentication requires that you have a SecurID device
that generates the numeric codes that are needed to login.
PAM
Use Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) for authentication. PAM is an authentication method
that has gained wide popularity especially on UNIX platforms.
Possible methods for public-key authentication are the following:
User Keys
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Use user keys for authentication. For more information on using user keys, see section 2.5.5 (User
Keys).
User Certificates
Use user certificates for authentication. For more information on using certificates, see section 2.5.9
(Certificates).
PKCS #11 Keys
Authenticate by using PKCS #11 keys (keys stored for example on a smart card). For more information
on using PKCS #11 keys, see section 2.5.12 (PKCS 11).
PKCS #11 Certificates
Authenticate by using PKCS #11 certificates (certificates stored for example on a smart card). For more
information on using PKCS #11 certificates, see section 2.5.12 (PKCS 11).
SSH Accession Keys
Use SSH Accession keys for authentication. SSH Accession is a separate software product by SSH
Communications Security that offers an easy method for utilizing digital certificates and smart cards.
SSH Accession Certificates
Use SSH Accession for authentication. SSH Accession is a separate software product by SSH
Communications Security that offers an easy method for utilizing digital certificates and smart cards.
Note: The automatically handled authentication methods should always be listed first, i.e. public-key authentication should preceed password authentication. This way the automatically handled method will be used
whenever possible.
2.4.3 Cipher List
With the Cipher List page of the Settings dialog you can control which ciphers can be used for the connection.
This selection defines what encryption methods will be available when using the Cipher List encryption
algorithm setting.
The following algorithms can be selected:
AES128
AES192
AES256
3DES
Blowfish
CAST128
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Figure 2.4: Select your preferred encryption algorithms with the Cipher List page.
Twofish128
Twofish192
Twofish256
Arcfour
DES
Please note that DES is a legagy cipher that is not considered to be cryptographically secure. DES is
only included for compatibility with some older protocol versions. It is strongly recommended that
DES is not used.
You can add new ciphers to the Cipher List and remove undesired ciphers from the list with the New and
Delete buttons, and change their order of preference with the Up and Down buttons.
New
Click the New button (the leftmost button on the top right hand side of Cipher List) to add a new cipher
to the list from a dropdown menu. The keyboard shortcut for the New button is the Ins key.
Delete
Select an unwanted cipher entry from the list and then click the Delete button (the second button on the
top right hand side of the cipher list) to remove the cipher. The keyboard shortcut for the Delete button
is the Delete key.
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Up
You can give a cipher a higher priority by clicking it with the mouse, and then clicking the Up button.
The marked algorithms that are located on the top of the list are preferred.
SSH Secure Shell will try to use the first marked algorithm in the connection. If that algorithm is not
supported by the remote host computer, the client software will try the next marked algorithm on the
list, and so on.
Down
To give a cipher a lower priority rating, select it with the mouse, and then click the Down button.
Click the check box next to each algorithm to include or exclude it in the list of available custom algorithms.
An algorithm marked with a check mark is available for use.
To use your customized list of preferred encryption algorithms, select Cipher List as the encryption algorithm on the Connection page of the Settings dialog. For more information, see section 2.4.1 (Connection).
2.4.4 Colors
The colors used in the terminal window can be selected using the Colors page of the Settings dialog. The new
color settings are active immediately when you click the OK button. Note that changing the terminal colors
does not affect what is already visible on the terminal window, but the text output from this point onwards
will use the set color scheme.
To discard the changes, click the Cancel button.
Use Global Colors
Select the Use Global Colors check box if you want to use the same color settings for each connection.
If the check box is selected, you cannot specify different color settings for each connection profile (the
other color settings are grayed out).
The Use Global Colors check box is visible only on the Colors page that is located under Profile
Settings in the Settings dialog.
Text Colors
The text colors affect the terminal window background color and the color of text in both a connected window
and a disconnected window.
Foreground
Select the desired foreground color from the dropdown menu. Foreground color is used for text in a
window that has a connection to a remote host computer. Sixteen colors are available for your selection.
Black is the default foreground color.
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Figure 2.5: The Colors page of the Settings dialog.
Background
Select the desired background color from the dropdown menu. Sixteen colors are available for your
selection. White is the default background color.
Selection
Use the dropdown menu to select the color that will be used as the background color when selecting
text with the mouse. Sixteen colors are available for your selection. Teal is the default selection color.
Disconnected
Use the dropdown menu to select the color that will be used as the foreground color in a terminal window that has no connection to a remote host computer. Sixteen colors are available for your selection.
Gray is the default foreground color for a disconnected terminal window.
Cursor Color
Select the desired cursor color from the dropdown menu. Sixteen colors are available for your selection. Blue
is the default cursor color.
ANSI Colors
With ANSI control codes it is possible to change the color of text in a terminal window. With the ANSI
Colors setting you can select if you want to allow this feature or not. Even if you disable ANSI colors, you
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can still select your favorite text and background colors to be used in the terminal window.
Enable ANSI Colors
Check the Enable ANSI Colors check box to allow ANSI colors to be used in the terminal window.
Reverse Colors
By reversing the display colors you can quickly change the display from positive (dark on light) to negative
(light on dark) to improve visibility.
Reverse Video
Check the Reverse Video check box to change the foreground color into background color and vice
versa. This setting affects the whole terminal window as soon as you click the OK button.
2.4.5 Keyboard
The keyboard settings used for the connection are configured using the Keyboard page of the Settings dialog.
Keyboard mappings take effect immediately when you close the Settings dialog, without needing to restart
the connection.
Figure 2.6: The Keyboard page of the Settings dialog.
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User Defined Keymap File
With the User Defined Keymap File option you can create additional keyboard shortcuts or modify
the existing ones. The additional key mappings are saved into a separate file with the .sshmap file
extension. The current keymap file is displayed on the text field.
You can customize the current key mappings by clicking the Edit button. The Keymap Editor dialog
will appear. For more information on using the Keymap Editor, see section 2.4.6 (Keymap Editor).
If you have an alternative keymap settings file already defined, you can load it by typing the path and
file name in the text field, or by clicking on the button on the righthand side of the text field. Clickin
the button will open an Open dialog that allows you to locate an alternative keymap file.
Backspace sends Delete
Select the Backspace sends Delete check box if you want to map the Backspace key to the Delete
operation.
Delete Sends Backspace
Select the Delete Sends Backspace check box if you want to map the Delete key to the Backspace
operation.
Enter sends CR + LF
Select the Enter sends CR + LF check box if you want to map the Enter key to send the carriage return
(CR) and line feed (LF) characters. Otherwise only the line feed character will be sent.
Lock Function Keys
Select the Lock Function Keys check box if you want to lock the function keys.
Line Wrap
Select the Line Wrap check box if you want the text lines to wrap on the terminal window’s edge. By
default, line wrapping is on.
Use Alt as meta key (send Escape)
Select the Use Alt as meta key (send Escape) check box if you want the Alt key to function as the
meta key in the same way as the Escape key. If this option is selected, you can for example press the
Alt+X key combination to simulate the Escape followed by X.
Keypad Mode
Select how you want the numeric keypad on the right hand side of the regular keyboard to function.
Numeric Keypad: The keypad is used to type numbers.
Application Keypad: The keypad is used for application control (with the keypad keys functioning as
cursor keys, Home, End, Page Up, Page Down, Insert and Delete).
2.4.6 Keymap Editor
The Keymap Editor dialog displays any customizations made to the current keymap. Using the editor you
can define additional key mappings, open saved keymap files and create new keymap files.
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Figure 2.7: Customizing the keymap
The icons on the top of the Keymap Editor dialog allow you to open an already defined keymap file, to start
a new keymap file from scratch, or to save the current keymap customizations into a keymap file:
New
Click the New button to start creating a new keymap file. This will clear all the current keymap
customizations.
Open
Click the Open button to load an already defined keymap file for further customization. The Open
dialog will appear, allowing you to locate the desired keymap file.
Save
Click the Save button to save the current keymap customizations to the currently open keymap file. If
no keymap file has been loaded, the Save As dialog will open, allowing you to specify the file name for
a new keymap file.
Save As
Click the Save As button to save the current keymap customizations into a different keymap file. The
Save As dialog will open, allowing you to specify the file name for a new keymap file.
The large area in the center of the Keymap Editor dialog displays the defined keymap customizations. The
Key column on the left displays the key combination whose function has been customized and the Function
column displays the effect that pressing this particular key combination will cause.
The buttons on the bottom of the Keymap Editor dialog allow you to customize the keymap settings of the
current keymap file:
Add
Click the Add button to add a new keymap customization. A small Keymap Editor dialog appears.
Place the cursor on the Shortcut Key line and press a key combination on the keyboard to select which
key binding you want to modify. The select the desired function for that keypress from the Function
drop-down menu.
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Figure 2.8: Modifying a keymap customization
Edit
Select an already defined keymap customization and click the Edit button to modify the selected customization.
Remove
Select an already defined keymap customization and click the Remove button to delete the selected
customization.
Exit
Click the Exit button to close the Keymap Editor dialog. If you have not saved all your keymap
customizations, a Confirm dialog will open, asking if you want to save the changes you have made or
cancel the exit operation.
2.4.7 Tunneling
Tunneling settings are configured using the Tunneling page of the Settings dialog. Any changed tunneling
settings will take effect the next time you login.
The outgoing and incoming tunnel settings are configured using the Outgoing and Incoming tabs of the
Tunneling page.
Outgoing Tunnel
Outgoing tunnels protect data that your local computer sends from a specified local port to the specified port
on the remote host computer. Click the Outgoing tab to edit outgoing tunnel definitions.
The following fields are used to define an outgoing tunnel. These values can be edited by clicking the Add or
Edit buttons on the Outgoing page of the Settings dialog.
Display Name
The name of the tunnel definition. You can use this field to type in a descriptive name that will help
you to recognize this tunnel definition later on.
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Figure 2.9: The Tunneling page of the Settings dialog.
Type
Select the type of the tunnel from the dropdown list. Valid choices are TCP and FTP.
Listen Port
This is the number of the port that the tunnel ’listens to’, or captures.
Allow Local Connections Only
Leave a check mark in this box if you allow only local connections to be made. This means that
other computers will not be able to use the tunnel created by you. By default, only local connections
are allowed. This is the right choice for most situations. You should carefully consider the security
implications if you decide to also allow outside connections.
Destination Host
This field defines the destination host of the tunnel. The default value is localhost.
Destination Port
The destination port defines what port will be used in the destination end of the tunnel.
Incoming Tunnel
Incoming tunnels protect the data that your local computer is receiving on a specified port from the remote
host computer’s specified port. Click the Incoming tab to edit incoming tunnel definitions.
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The following fields are used to define an incoming tunnel. These values can be edited by clicking the Add
or Edit buttons.
Display Name
The name of the tunnel definition. You can use this field to type in a descriptive name that will help
you to recognize this tunnel definition later on.
Type
Select the type of the tunnel from the dropdown list. Valid choices are TCP and FTP.
Listen Port
The port that the tunnel ’listens to’, or captures from the remote host computer.
Destination Host
This field defines the destination host of the tunnel. The default value is localhost.
Destination Port
The destination port defines what port will be used in the destination end of the tunnel.
Configuring Tunnels
The following buttons are available for configuring outgoing and incoming tunnels.
Add
Click the Add button to add a tunnel definition. An Add New Tunnel dialog appears, allowing you to
define the name, type, listen port, destination host, and destination port of the tunnel. With outgoing
tunnels you can also define if you allow local connections only.
Note that if you are tunneling an FTP connection, you must set the tunnel type as FTP.
Edit
Select a tunnel definition from the displayed list and click the Edit button to edit a previously defined
tunnel. An Edit Tunnel dialog appears, allowing you to edit the name, listen port, destination host, and
destination port of the outgoing tunnel. With outgoing tunnels you can also define if you allow local
connections only.
Remove
Select a tunnel definition from the displayed list and click the Remove button to remove a previously
defined tunnel. Note that the selected tunnel will be removed immediately, with no confirmation dialog
being displayed.
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Tunnel X11 connections
The Secure Shell 2 client can securely tunnel X11 connections from the remote host computer to an XWindows server running on the local computer. Check the Tunnel X11 connections check box to enable
secure X11 tunneling.
Note: You must also be running an X emulator such as Exceed or Reflections X on the Windows computer
for X11 tunneling to work.
Agent Forwarding
Authentication agent (ssh-agent2) is a program to automatize the use of authentication private keys.
When you use the agent, it will be automatically used for public-key authentication. This way, you only have
to type the passphrase of your private key once to the agent. Furthermore, authentication data does not have
to be stored on any other machine than the local machine, and authentication passphrases or private keys
never go over the network.
Agent forwarding can be enabled or disabled based on the ssh protocol used. Select the check box for any of
the options you want to use:
Enable for SSH2 connections
Agent forwarding can be used for SSH2 connections.
Enable SSH1 agent forwarding for SSH2 connections
SSH1 agent forwarding can be used for SSH2 connections.
Enable for SSH1 connections
Agent forwarding can be used for SSH1 connections.
2.5 Global Settings
Global configuration settings are configured using the Global Settings page of the Settings dialog. Global
settings are common for all remote host computers.
Global settings are saved at the same time as profile settings. Global settings are always saved in the user
profile directory with the filename global.dat.
2.5.1 Appearance
The appearance of the application and the terminal window is configured using the Appearance page of the
Settings dialog.
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Figure 2.10: The Global Settings page of the Settings dialog.
Figure 2.11: The Appearance page of the Settings dialog.
Office XP Look
Select the Office XP Look check box to change the way the menu bar and tool bar are displayed to
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match the visual style of Microsoft Office XP.
Show Add Profile Dialog when connected using Quick Connect
Select the Show Add Profile Dialog when connected using Quick Connect check box to briefly
display the Add Profile dialog when connecting to a remote host computer using Quick Connect. This
allows you to create a profile for the host simply by typing in the profile name.
Paste Selection on Right Mouse Click
Select the Paste Selection on Right Mouse Click check box to enable fast copying of text on the
terminal display. When you have this option selected, you can copy text simply by highlighting it and
then paste it by clicking the right mouse button.
Terminal Scrollback Size
Type in the Terminal Scrollback Size field the number of lines that you want to collect in the scrollback
buffer. The larger the value, the more you can scroll back the terminal display to view previous terminal
output. The default value is 500 lines.
Window Caption
The Window Caption settings affect what is displayed in the title bar of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client terminal window and the File Transfer window.
Display Profile Name
Select the Display Profile Name check box to have the name of the current profile to be displayed on
the title bar.
Display Host Name
Select the Display Host Name check box to have the host name of the currently connected remote host
computer to be displayed on the title bar.
2.5.2 Font
The font used in the terminal window can be selected using the Font page of the Settings dialog. The new
font setting affects the terminal window immediately when you click the OK button. To discard the changes,
click the Cancel button.
Font Name
Select the desired font from the Font Name list. The list displays the non-proportional (fixed-width)
fonts installed in your local computer. Note that proportional fonts are not suitable for the terminal
window and therefore are not available for selection.
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Figure 2.12: The Font page of the Settings dialog.
Font Size
Select the desired font size from the Font Size list. Note that the font size affects the size of the terminal
window: the smaller font you select, the smaller the terminal window will be, and vice versa. However,
after this operation the size of the terminal window can be modified to suit your tastes.
2.5.3 Colors
The color settings can be defined either globally or per profile. When the colors are defined under the Global
Settings display, the Use Global Colors option is not available, but the color settings will affect all connection
profiles.
For more information, see section 2.4.4 (Colors).
2.5.4 Messages
On the Messages page of the Settings dialog you can configure default replies to system messages that normally ask for user confirmation.
The messages are listed under several categories. Categories that have a plus sign (+) next to them can be
expanded by clicking on the plus sign. Expanded categories have a minus sign (-) next to them and can be
closed by clicking on the minus sign.
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Figure 2.13: Customizing which confirmation dialogs are displayed
Each confirmation can be set to automatically accept (Yes) or reject (No) the action, or to ask the user for
confirmation (Ask). By default all messages ask the user to confirm the action.
2.5.5 User Keys
Key pairs used for user public-key authentication can be managed using the User Keys page of the Settings
dialog.
Note that your private keys should always be kept secret. This is important to remember if you are sharing
your local computer with other users. In such case, it is not advisable to store your private keys in the local
disk. For more information on user key files, see section 3.6 (Using Public-Key Authentication).
Generate New Keypair
Click the Generate New Keypair button to create a new public and private user key pair. This will
bring up the Key Generation Wizard. For more information on this procedure, see section 3.3.1 (Key
Generation Wizard).)
Delete Keypair
Select a key file from the private key file list and click the Delete button to delete the key file from your
local computer.
Export Keypair
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Figure 2.14: The User Keys page of the Settings dialog.
Select a key file from the private key file list and click the Export Keypair button to export the key pair.
A Select Folder dialog will open, allowing you to specify the target location.
Import Keypair
Click the Import Keypair button to import a keypair. The Import Keypair - Select Files dialog will
open, allowing you to locate the keypair to be imported.
View Public Key
Select a previously generated private key file from the private key file list and click the View Public
Key button to display the corresponding public key. The public key file will be displayed in Notepad.
Change Passphrase
Select a previously generated private key file from the private key file list and click the Change
Passphrase button to change the passphrase for the key.
Upload Public Key
Clicking the Upload Public Key button while connected to a remote server will automatically upload
the selected public key. For more information on this procedure, see section 3.5 (Uploading Your
Public Key).
Private key file list
The private key file list (located above the buttons on the User Keys page) shows the files used to store your
private keys. The public keys are not displayed, as they have the same file names as the private keys, but with
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.pub as the file extension.
Private Key File Name
The Private Key File Name column displays the file names of your private keys.
Comment
The Comment column displays the comments (if any) associated with your private keys.
2.5.6 Host Keys
Public host keys used in remote host authentication process can be managed using the Host Keys page of the
Settings dialog. The keys are listed in the host key file list.
Figure 2.15: The Host Keys page of the Settings dialog.
View
Select a host key file from the host key file list and click the View button to display a host key. Alternatively you can just double-click on the key file name.
Export Key
Select a host key and click the Export Key button to export a host key. The Select Folder dialog will
open, allowing you to specify the target location.
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Import Key
Click the Import Key button to import a host key. The Import Hostkeys - Select Files dialog will open,
allowing you to locate the host key to be imported.
Delete
Select a host key file from the host key file list and click the Delete button to delete the key.
Host key file list
The host keys in your possession are displayed in the host key file list (located above the buttons on the Host
Keys page).
Host Name
The Host Name column displays the host names of your host keys.
Port
The Port column displays the ports used by the connections associated with each host key.
File Name
The File Name column displays the file name of each host key file.
Fingerprint
The Fingerprint column displays the fingerprint of each host key file. The fingerprint is represented
using the SSH Babble format, and it consists of a pronounceable sets of five lowercase letters separated
by dashes.
2.5.7 SSH Accession
On the SSH Accession page of the Settings dialog you can operate the keys and certificates that are available
on SSH Accession. SSH Accession is a separate software product by SSH Communications Security that
offers an easy method for utilizing digital certificates and smart cards.
Upload Public Key
Select a public key from the list and click the Upload Public Key button to upload the key.
View Certificate
Select a certificate from the list and click the View Certificate button to display the contents of the
certificate.
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Figure 2.16:
2.5.8 PKI
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a system where digital certificates are used to increase the reliability and
scalability of authentication. Using certificate authentication requires that certificates are first created with
certification authority (CA) software.
The PKI page displays a short introduction to the concept of PKI.
For more information about public-key infrastructure, see section 8.2 (Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)).
Please note that PKI and PKCS #11 support is only available in commercial distributions of the SSH Secure
Shell for Workstations client.
2.5.9 Certificates
The Certificates page (visible only in commercial distributions) of the Settings dialog can be used to control
certificates created by a certification authority (CA) software.
Certificate list
The available certificates are shown in the certificate list, located on the top of the Certificates page. This list
can be used to view both personal certificates and trusted certification authorities.
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Figure 2.17: A brief overview of PKI.
Figure 2.18: The Certificates page.
Personal
Click the Personal tab to display your personal certificates.
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Trusted Certification Authorities
Click the Trusted Certification Authories tab to display the trusted Certification Authorities.
The following fields are displayed on the certificate list:
Issued To
The Issued To field shows the entity to whom the certificate has been issued.
Issued By
The Issued By field shows the entity who has issued the certificate.
Expiration Date
The Expiration Date field shows when the certificate will expire.
The following buttons can be used to control the certificates:
Import
Click the Import button to import a certificate created with certification authority (CA) software. A file
selection dialog will open, allowing you to browse your directories for the saved certificate file.
Enroll
Click the Enroll button to start the Certificate Enrollment wizard, which is used to request a certification
authority (CA) to issue a certificate. SSH Secure Shell supports the CMPv2 enrollment protocol.
For more information on the process, see section 2.5.10 (Certificate Enrollment Wizard).
Delete
Click the Delete button to remove a selected certificate.
View
Click the View button to display the contents of a selected certificate.
Change Passphrase
Click the Change Passphrase button to type a new passphrase associated with the selected certificate.
Disable CRL Checking
Select the Disable CRL Checking check box to prevent the use of a certificate revocation list (CRL). A
CRL is used to check if any of the used certificates have been revoked.
2.5.10 Certificate Enrollment Wizard
The Certificate Enrollment wizard (available only in commercial distributions) is used to enroll certificates,
i.e. to request a certification authority (CA) to issue a certificate. You can start the wizard by clicking on the
Enroll button of the Certificates page of the Settings dialog.
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Certificate Enrollment - Start
The first page of the Certificate Enrollment wizard displays information on the enrollment process. The
enrollment process will create both a public and a private key. Please note that the process requires the use of
Certificate Management Protocol version 2 (CMPv2).
Figure 2.19: The start of the enrollment process.
Click the Next button to continue the process.
Certificate Enrollment - Identity
On the Identity page, enter the parameters of the certificate to be issued. You can suggest a Common Name
(e.g. John Smith), Organization Unit (like Marketing), Organization (SSH Communications Security Corp.),
Country (US) and Email Address (john.smith@ssh.com).
The certification authority can change these fields before issuing the certificate. The Certificate validity period
and other parameters are determined by the configuration of the CA software.
Please note that certificate enrollment requiring manual acceptance in the CA software is not supported. You
may be able to compensate for this by using PKCS #12 file importing.
Click the Next button to launch the Key Generation Wizard. For more information on the key generation
process, see section 3.3.1 (Key Generation Wizard).
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Figure 2.20: Type the parameters of the certificate.
Certificate Enrollment - Firewall
On the Firewall page, you can define the firewall and proxy settings. These fields can be left empty.
Firewall
Type the firewall location in the text field.
HTTP proxy
Type the HTTP proxy location in the text field.
Click the Next button to continue.
Certificate Enrollment - CA
On the CA page, fill in the following fields:
CA URL
Type in the certification authority (CA) address.
Discover
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Click the Discover button to attempt automatic detection of available certification authority services
and CA certificates. The found CA services will be listed in the text field and can be selected from the
drop-down menu.
Please note that not all systems support the automatic detection functionality.
CA Certificate
Type in the file name of the certificate, or select the file by clicking on the button on the right hand side
of the file name field. The Select CA Certificate dialog will open, allowing you to locate the certificate
file.
View
Click the View button to display the contents of the current certificate.
Retrieve CA Certificates from CA URL
Select the desired CA URL from the drop-down list and click the Retrieve CA Certificates from CA
URL button to retrieve the CA certificates from the selected CA address.
Reference Number
Type in the reference number.
Key
Type in the key information.
Click the Next button to continue.
Certificate Enrollment - Enrollment
On the Enrollment page the actual enrollment takes place. This may take some time (the exact duration
depends on the amount of network traffic, among other factors).
When the process is finished, click the Finish button to continue.
2.5.11 LDAP Servers
In order to make use of the certificate, it must be distributed to directories, where it is available to other
PKI users. SSH Secure Shell supports certificate and certificate revocation lists (CRL) distribution using
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
(Please note that PKI and PKCS #11 support is only available in commercial distributions of the SSH Secure
Shell for Workstations client.)
The LDAP Servers list displays the available LDAP servers.
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Figure 2.21: The enrollment in progress.
Figure 2.22: Adding a new LDAP server entry.
New
Click the New button (the leftmost button on the top right hand side of the LDAP server list) to add
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a new LDAP server to the list. Type in the address of the server using URL format. The keyboard
shortcut for the New button is the Ins key.
Delete
Select an unwanted LDAP server entry from the list and then click the Delete button (the rightmost
button on the top right hand side of the LDAP server list) to remove the server definition. The keyboard
shortcut for the Delete button is the Delete key.
2.5.12 PKCS #11
The PKCS #11 page (visible only in commercial distributions) contains a list showing the configured PKCS
#11 providers. Under each provider is a list of the keys and certificates available. Please note that the list
view does not update automatically, but only when you close and reopen it.
A new provider can be added to the list on the Configuration page of the Settings dialog. For more information, see section 2.5.13 (Configuration).
Figure 2.23: The PKCS #11 providers list.
You can open the PKCS #11 configuration window by double-clicking the card reader icon located on the
right hand side of the SSH Secure Shell terminal window status bar, located on the bottom of the window.
Hardware tokens and PKCS #11 software keys can be used with or without PKI. The standard public-key
authentication can be used with PKCS #11 providers.
The following buttons can be used to operate the PKCS # providers:
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Enable Provider
Select a PKCS #11 provider from the list and click the Enable Provider button to allow the use of the
selected provider.
Disable Provider
Select a PKCS #11 provider from the list and click the Disable Provider button to disallow the use of
the selected provider.
Upload Public Key
Select a key from the list and click the Upload Public Key button to upload one of the public keys from
the token to the server. This allows you to use a hardware token for your personal authentication. In
order to do this, you have to be already connected to a server.
Please note that an RSA token requires RSA support to be compiled in the server software. See section
3.5 (Uploading Your Public Key) for information on how to upload a software public key to the server.
View Certificate
Click the View Certificate button to display the contents of the selected certificate.
2.5.13 Configuration
The Configuration page of the Settings dialog can be used to manually configure PKCS #11 providers.
Figure 2.24: Configuring PKCS #11 providers.
The following fields are visible in the provider list, displayed on the top of the Configuration page:
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Provider Type
The Provider Type field displays the type of the provider.
Initialization String
The Initialization String field displays the string of characters used for initialization.
Enabled
The Enabled field displays whether the use of the provider is currently allowed or not. To change the
Enabled status, click the Edit button.
The following buttons can be used to control the provider settings:
Add
Click the Add button to add a new PKCS #11 provider. The PKCS #11 Provider dialog will open.
Edit
Click the Edit button to change the details of the PKCS #11 provider. The PKCS #11 Provider dialog
will open.
Remove
Click the Remove button to delete the PKCS #11 provider definition.
For more information on the PKCS #11 Provider dialog, see section 2.5.14 (PKCS 11 Provider).
Connection
Also the following connection settings can be specified on the Configuration page:
Disconnect automatically when token is removed from the provider
Select this check box to ensure that a connection will be active only when a token is present.
Connect automatically when token is reinserted
Select this check box to allow automatical connection to be established when the token is again inserted.
Seconds to wait before disconnecting
Type in the text field the number of seconds to wait before the connection is lost when a token is
removed. This field is active only if the Disconnect automatically when token is removed from the
provider check box is selected.
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Figure 2.25: The details of the PKCS #11 provider displayed.
2.5.14 PKCS #11 Provider
The PKCS #11 Provider dialog allows you to view and modify the provider definition.
The following options are available:
Provider Type
Select the provider type from the dropdown menu.
Initialization String
This field displays the character string used for initialization.
Enabled
Leave the Enabled check box checked, except if you have trouble accessing the token from another
application that is running simultaneously. The usability of a PKCS #11 for several simultaneous
applications depends on the specific third party PKCS #11 driver.
PKCS #11
Fill in the following text fields to pass other parameters to the PKCS #11 provider:
DLL
Consult the token manufacturer documentation to determine the file name of the PKCS #11 DLL. Type
this file name in the DLL field.
Slots
The Slots parameter is not required, but if you have problems accessing a specific key on a hardware
token, you may need to modify this parameter accordingly. Consult the third party documentation for
the exact requirements of the Slots parameter.
For example: to use PKCS #11 slots 0 through 10, use the value 0-10, and to use slots 1 through 5
except 3, use the value 1-5,!3.
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Additional Parameters
Additional parameters can be specified, if specified in the third party documentation.
When you save the settings (by using the Save Settings option on the File menu) and then restart SSH Secure
Shell, you should see a small card reader icon on the status bar on the bottom of the terminal window. When
a token is inserted, a smart card appears in the card reader in the icon. When a key is acquired from the token,
a key symbol appears on top of the card reader icon.
If you do not see the card reader icon, check that the DLL name has been entered correctly. If you cannot get
the keys from the token, make sure that the token has been personalized correctly. Please note that hardware
tokens are usually shipped uninitialized, so you are required to personalize the token for yourself. To do this,
you need to consult the third party documentation included with the token.
2.5.15 File Transfer
The default file transfer settings can be configured using the File Transfer page of the Settings dialog. The
new settings will affect subsequently started File Transfer windows.
Figure 2.26: The File Transfer page of the Settings dialog.
Show Root Directory
Check the Show Root Directory check box to show the root directory in the File Transfer window by
default.
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Show Hidden Files
Check the Show Hidden Files check box to show hidden files in the File Transfer window by default.
Confirm Delete
Check the Confirm Delete check box if you want the File Transfer utility to ask for confirmation when
deleting files or folders.
Confirm Overwrite
Check the Confirm Overwrite check box if you want the File Transfer utility to ask for confirmation
when you try to transfer a file that already exists in the target system.
Close Progress Dialog On Success
Check the Close Progress Dialog On Success check box if you want that the Download and Upload
dialogs close automatically when finished.
Display Items by Using
With the Display Items by Using setting you can select the default view for the File Transfer window by
choosing one of the four possible views.
Large Icons
Select the Large Icons option to display the File Transfer file view as a Large Icons view. Each file and
folder has a large icon associated with it, making for a clear and uncluttered display.
Small Icons
Select the Small Icons option to display the File Transfer file view as a Small Icons view. Each file and
folder has a small icon associated with it. This makes it possible to display several times more items
than the Large Icons view.
List
Select the List option to display the File Transfer file view as a List view. Each file and folder has a
small icon associated with it, and the files and folders are displayed in one single column underneath
each other.
Details
Select the Details option to display the File Transfer file view as a Details view. The files and folders
are displayed with a small icon, their file name, file size, file type, their last modification date and
attributes visible.
By clicking on the Name, Size, Type and Modified sort bars located on top of the File view, you can sort
the files and folders based on their file name, file size, file type and the time they were last modified.
Clicking the same sort option again reverses the sorting order.
Note that the sort function is not case sensitive: upper case text is sorted together with lower case text.
The file type associations are derived from the your local computer. If you have defined a new file type
description for files with a certain file name extension, also the files in the remote computer are shown
to be of that file type. This makes it easy to recognize particular file types also on the host computer.
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Missing File Association
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client uses file type associations in the same way as Windows Explorer does. When you double-click a file in the File Transfer window, it will be opened using the
application with which its file type has been associated.
All file types are not associated with any application. With this field you can define what application will be
used to open a file that has no file type association. The default application is Notepad, which is a reasonable
choice for files containing text.
To change the default association for unknown file types, click the button next to the text field. A Select
Application dialog will be displayed, allowing you to select the desired application.
Formatting string for file time
In the formatting string field you can type a string that presents how the time and date stamps of the files are
displayed in the File Transfer window. The default value is %c, which means that the date and time will be
presented in the format defined in the Windows country settings (locale).
To change the format of the time and date stamps, replace the default value with a string consisting of some
of the following character combinations.
%a
Abbreviated weekday name
%A
Full weekday name
%b
Abbreviated month name
%B
Full month name
%c
Date and time representation appropriate for locale
%d
Day of month as decimal number (01 - 31)
%H
Hour in 24-hour format (00 - 23)
%I
Hour in 12-hour format (01 - 12)
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%j
Day of year as decimal number (001 - 366)
%m
Month as decimal number (01 - 12)
%M
Minute as decimal number (00 - 59)
%p
Current locale’s A.M. / P.M. indicator for 12-hour clock
%S
Second as decimal number (00 - 59)
%U
Week of year as decimal number, with Sunday as first day of week (00 - 53)
%w
Weekday as decimal number (0 - 6; Sunday is 0)
%W
Week of year as decimal number, with Monday as first day of week (00 - 53)
%x
Date representation for current locale
%X
Time representation for current locale
%y
Year without century, as decimal number (00 - 99)
%Y
Year with century, as decimal number
%z, %Z
Time-zone name or abbreviation; no characters if time zone is unknown
%%
Percent sign
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Figure 2.27: Even more file transfer options displayed.
2.5.16 Advanced
On the Advanced page of the Settings dialog you can configure additional file transfer options. The new
settings will affect subsequently started File Transfer windows.
Preserve Original File Time
Check the Preserve Original File Time check box if you want that the transferred files retain their
original time and date stamp values. If this option is not selected, the transferred files will be stamped
with the time of the transfer.
Upload
The following settings affect the upload process
Preserve original destination permissions
Select this check box to preserve the file permissions of the original file located on the remote host
computer. The transferred file will use the same file permissions as the original file.
Default file permission mask
Type the octal UNIX file permission mask (as with the chmod command) that is to be used as the
default value for files.
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Default directory permission mask
Type the octal UNIX directory permission mask (as with the chmod command) that is to be used as
the default value for directories.
File Transfer Window
The following settings affect the file transfer process:
Number of buffers
Type the number of buffers used in file transfer. The default value is 10.
Buffer size
Type the default buffer size. The default value is 32 kilobytes.
Upload Locally Modified Remote Files
This selection affects how SSH Secure Shell will react if you edit locally a file stored in the remote host
computer.
Yes
If you select the Yes option, the locally modified file will be uploaded to the remote host computer.
No
If you select the No option, the locally modified file will not be uploaded to the remote host computer.
Ask
If you select the Ask option, SSH Secure Shell will ask you to decide if you want to upload a locally
modified file.
2.5.17 Mode
The Mode page of the Settings dialog affects which files will be transferred using ASCII mode.
File Transfer Mode
Select the default file transfer mode from the following options:
ASCII
By default all files will be transferred in ASCII mode.
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Figure 2.28: Selecting the file transfer mode.
Binary
By default all files will be transferred in binary mode.
Auto Select
The files using a file extension specified on the ASCII Extensions list will be transferred in ASCII
mode. All other files will be transferred in binary mode.
ASCII Extensions
Files using a file extension specified in the ASCII Extensions list will be transferred using ASCII mode.
New
Click the New button (the leftmost button on the top right hand side of the ASCII Extensions list) to
add a new file extension to the list. The keyboard shortcut for the New button is the Ins key.
Note that you can use wild cards to specify the file extensions. The ? character matches any 1 character,
and the * character matches any 0 or more characters.
Delete
Select an unwanted file extension entry from the list and then click the Delete button (the rightmost
button on the top right hand side of the ASCII Extensions list) to remove the extension. The keyboard
shortcut for the Delete button is the Delete key.
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2.5.18 Firewall
The firewall settings can be configured using the Firewall page of the Settings dialog. The firewall should run
SOCKS version 4 software.
Figure 2.29: The Firewall page of the Settings dialog.
Firewall URL
Type the firewall address in URL format (for example socks://host.computer:1080).
2.5.19 Security
The security settings can be configured using the Security page of the Settings dialog.
Clear Host Name
Select the Clear Host Name check box to avoid displaying the previous remote host computer name
in the login dialog.
Clear User Name
Select the Clear User Name check box to not display the previous user name in the login dialog.
Empty Clipboard on Exit
Select the Empty Clipboard on Exit check box to remove from the clipboard anything that was recently copied using the cut and paste Edit operations.
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Figure 2.30: The Security page of the Settings dialog.
Empty Scrollback Buffer on Session Close
Select the Empty Scrollback Buffer on Session Close check box to empty any remains of the terminal
output from the scrollback buffer.
SSH1 Connections
From SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client version 2.2.1 onwards, you can connect also to
SSH version 1 (ssh1) servers. With the ssh1 Connections selection you can decide if you want to allow ssh1
connections, deny them, or issue a warning when connecting to a remote host computer that is using version
1 of the SSH protocol.
SSH version 2 (ssh2) is a more advanced and secure protocol than the legacy version ssh1. For more information on using an ssh1 connection, see the SSH web site http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/
ssh1.html.
Note that when using an ssh1 connection, multiple terminal windows and the file transfer operations are not
available.
Allow
Select this option to allow also ssh1 connections.
Warn
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Select this option to issue a notice when an ssh1 connection is made.
Deny
Select this option to disallow ssh1 connections.
Disable password length masking in SSH1 connections
Select this check box to not use password length masking when logging in using the ssh1 protocol.
2.5.20 Printing
The print settings can be configured using the Printing page of the Settings dialog. (Print Settings can also be
selected from the File menu of the terminal window.)
Figure 2.31: The Printing page of the Settings dialog.
Printer Font
Select the font and font size to be used in the printed output. Any non-proportional font installed on
your system can be selected.
Margins
Select the width of the blank border around the page on printed output. The margins for the top,
bottom, left and right of the page can all be specified individually. The default value for all margins is
10 millimeters.
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Header & Footer
Select what additional information appears on the printed pages.
Title appears at the top left of the page and displays the title of the terminal window (for example:
remotehost - SSH Secure Shell).
Date appears at the top right of the page and displays the date and time when the page was printed
(for example: 07 December 2000, 05:47). The date and time format is the same as used in
Windows.
Page Number appears at the bottom right of the page (for example: Page 1 of 2).
2.6 Customize
Select the Customize option from the View menu to modify the menu options, toolbars layout, keyboard
mapping, menu settings and general preferences. Note that you can have only one terminal window open
when using the Customize option.
Figure 2.32: Use the Customize dialog to modify the user interface settings.
Click on the tabs on the top of the dialog to switch between different pages:
Commands tab
Select the Commands tab to move individual menu options. Select the menu category from the list on
the left, and then use the mouse to drag menu options into the menus or toolbars displayed in the SSH
Secure Shell window.
Toolbars tab
Select the Toolbars tab to define which toolbars are displayed on the SSH Secure Shell window.
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If you have made any changes, you can select the toolbars you want reset and then click the Reset
button to return the default toolbar configuration. Click the Reset All button to reset all the toolbars
and menus.
Select either the Profiles or Toolbar option and then check the Show text labels check box to display
text labels on these toolbars. Text labels clarify the toolbar icons, but also take up space.
Keyboard tab
Select the Keyboard tab to define accelerator keys (keyboard shortcuts) for the menu commands.
Use the Category menu to select the category of the accelerator key you want to modify. The categories
are based on the menu hierarchy.
Use the Commands menu to select a specific command from the selected category.
The Description box displays a brief description of the currently selected command.
Use the Set Accelerator for menu to select the profile that you want to associate with the current
keyboard configuration.
The Current Keys field shows the currently assigned accelerator keys.
Click on the Press New Shortcut Key field to activate it. Then press the combination of keys on the
keyboard that you want to associate with the currently selected command.
Click the Assign button the add the definition from the Press New Shortcut Key field to the Current
Keys field.
Select a key assignment from Current Keys field and click the Remove button to delete the selected
assignment.
Click the Reset All button to lose all your changes and reset the keyboard assignments. A confirmation
dialog will be displayed, asking if you really want to do this.
Menu tab
Select the Menu tab to define the menu settings.
Click the Reset button to reset the menus to their original configuration.
Use the Context Menus dropdown menu to display any of the shortcut (or popup) menus: terminal
shortcut menu, file transfer shortcut menu 1 (displayed when you do not have a file selected) or file
transfer shortcut menu 2 (displayed when you have selected a file). Then you can click the Commands
tab and drag menu options into the shortcut menus (and remove items from the shortcut menus by
dragging them off the menu).
Use the Menu animation dropdown menu to select the type of menu animations. The available options
are None, Unfold, Slide and Fade.
Select the Menu shadow check box to display shadows under open menus.
Options tab
Select the Options tab to change general user interface options.
Select the Show ScreenTips on toolbars check box to display a short help text, when you place the
mouse pointer over a toolbar button.
Select the Show shortcut keys in ScreenTips check box to see the possible keyboard shortcut displayed
in addition to the short help text.
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Select the Large Icons check box to display big toolbar icons.
Select the Look 2000 check box to enable Windows 2000 style features in the user interface. This
option has only minimal effects, and it affects mainly the style of toolbar handles.
Help
Click the Help button to display the online help.
Close
Click the Close button to stop the customization process.
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Connecting
SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows Client makes it easy to establish connections to new remote
host computers, and to manage the settings required for each different host.
The Quick Connect option allows you to create new connections fast, minimizing the hassle associated with
configuring each connection. It is easy to define a profile for new hosts, and save just the right settings for
each.
3.1 Quick Connect
Select the Quick Connect option (from the toolbar or from the File menu) to establish a completely new SSH
connection that can be operated independently of any other clients and connections. You can connect to an
entirely new remote host computer and still keep the old connection to a different host open.
The Connect to Remote Host dialog will open, automatically filled in with the values defined in the default
configuration file (default.ssh2). Therefore it makes sense to use the Settings dialog (see section 2.1
(Saving Settings)) to set the most commonly used options and save them in the default.ssh2 configuration file.
When you need to establish a new connection, just click the Quick Connect button to connect to a new
host with the default settings. When connected, you can then customize the settings to match your exact
requirements for this particular host and save the settings as this host’s profile (see section 3.2 ( Profiles)).
But there is an even faster alternative. When you login using the default settings, the Add Profile dialog is
briefly and non-intrusively shown. Click on the dialog and write in the name for the new profile. When you
press the Enter key, the profile is automatically saved. It is accessible from the Profiles menu, and can later
be fully customized.
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3.2 Profiles
If you habitually connect to more than just one remote host computer, you probably want to have different
settings defined for each host. Profiles make it easy to manage different host configurations.
You can have an unlimited amount of different profiles customized for different connections.
Note that the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client considers the profiles as the user’s personal
data and saves the profile definition files in the personal folder of the user. This means that every user of the
local computer can have his or her own profiles, without affecting other users of the same computer.
Select the Profiles option (from the toolbar or the File menu) to either add a new profile definition or edit an
already defined profile.
3.2.1 Add Profile
Adding a new profile is extremely easy. When you have connected to a new host computer, select the Add
Profile option. The Add Profile dialog will open.
Figure 3.1: Just type in a name for the new profile and you are ready!
Type a name for the profile (the name of the host computer is a good choice) and press Enter. You are ready!
When you later want to connect to the same host, just select its profile under the Profiles option. You will be
immediately connected, with all the settings in their proper places - even including the number and positions
of SSH Secure Shell windows.
By using profiles, you can have just the right connection settings for each host, with no hassle or defining
complicated configuration settings. It’s that simple.
3.2.2 Edit Profiles
Click the Edit Profiles option to modify profiles that you have saved earlier. The Edit Profiles dialog will
open, allowing you to edit all the host specific settings associated with this particular connection.
Click on the tabs on the top of the page to switch between pages. For a closer look on the settings displayed
under each tab, see sections 2.4.1 (Connection), 2.4.2 (Authentication), 2.4.5 (Keyboard), 2.4.3 (Cipher List),
2.4.4 (Colors), and 2.4.7 (Tunneling).
You can make changes to several profiles at the same time by changing the profile with the profile tree
displayed on the left hand side of the Edit Profiles dialog.
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Figure 3.2: Use the Profiles dialog to customize settings for each host computer.
When you are finished with the settings, you can click the OK button to save the new profile definition, or the
Cancel button to change your mind and abort your changes.
Note: Before the profile editing operation, the .ssh2 settings are copied into backup files with the file
extension .bak. If you remove these backup files, you will not be able to revert back to the old settings.
Profiles Shortcut Menu
Click the profile tree with the right mouse button, and a shortcut menu will open.
If you right-click on a profile, you can select from the following options:
Connect
Select the Connect option to immediately connect to the remote host computer associated with the
profile.
Copy
Select the Copy option to copy the profile definition into the clipboard. Now you can click an empty
location in the profile tree and paste a copy of the profile there.
Cut
Select the Cut option to remove the profile from its present location in the profile tree. Now you can
click an empty location in the profile tree and paste the profile there.
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Delete
Select the Delete option to remove the profile. A Confirm Delete dialog will open, asking if you are
sure that you want to erase the selected profile.
Rename
Select the Rename option to type in a new name for the profile. It is a good idea to give each profile a
descriptive name, so that the profiles are easy to recognize later on.
If you right-click on an empty spot on the profile tree, you can select from two options:
Paste
Select the Paste option to paste a profile that you have copied.
New Folder
Select the New Folder option to create a new folder in the profile tree.
Organizing Profiles
If you have defined a long list of profiles, it may be a good idea to organize them into folders. Click the
profile list with the right mouse button, and select the New Folder option to create a new folder in the profile
tree structure. Type a name for the new folder.
Now you can use the mouse to drag and drop the profiles and arrange them into folders so that you can
quickly find the profiles you need.
Figure 3.3: Creating a new folder for better organization.
3.3 Key Generation
If you are going to connect to a remote host computer using public-key authentication, you will have to
generate your key pair before connecting.
Public-key authentication is based on the use of digital signatures. Each user creates a pair of ’key’ files. One
of these key files is the user’s public key, and the other is the user’s private key. The server knows the user’s
public key, and only the user has the private key.
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When the user tries to authenticate herself, the server checks for matching public keys and sends a challenge
to the user end. The user is authenticated by signing the challenge using her private key.
Remember that your private key file is used to authenticate you. Never expose your private keys. If anyone
else can access your private key file, they can attempt to login to the remote host computer as you, and claim
to be you. Therefore it is extremely important that you keep your private key file in a secure place and make
sure that no one else has access to it.
Do not use public-key authentication on a computer that is shared with other users. Generate keys only on
your personal computer that no one else can access!
In order to use public-key authentication, you must first generate your own key pair. You can generate your
own key files with the help of a built-in key generation wizard.
3.3.1 Key Generation Wizard
To generate a new key pair, open the Settings dialog and select the User Keys page. Then click the Generate
New Keypair button to run the key generation wizard.
The wizard will generate two key files, your private key and your public key. The private key file has no
file extension, and the public key has the same base file name as the private key, but with .pub as the file
extension. The key files will be stored in your local computer, in the user profile directory.
Figure 3.4: The User Keys page with a key pair already generated.
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3.3.2 Key Generation - Start
The Key Generation - Start page contains important information about safety measures. Read the text and
click the Next button.
Figure 3.5: The Start page of the key generation wizard.
3.3.3 Key Generation - Key Properties
On the Key Properties page, select the type of the key to be generated. You can select to generate either an
RSA or a DSA key, as well as the key length. Larger keys are more secure, but also slower to use.
Key Type
Select the type of the key to be generated. Available options are DSA or RSA.
Key Length
Select the length (complexity) of the key to be generated. Available options are 768, 1024, 2048 or
3072 bits.
3.3.4 Key Generation - Generation
On the Key Generation - Generation page the computer will generate your key files. This can take several
minutes, depending on the chosen key length and the processor speed of the computer.
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Figure 3.6: Selectin the key type
During the key generation phase an animation of random bits is displayed. When the process is ready, the
Next button is ungrayed and you can proceed to the next phase by clicking it.
Figure 3.7: Key generation in process.
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3.3.5 Key Generation - Enter Passphrase
On the Key Generation - Enter Passphrase page you can provide information describing the generated key
pair, and protect the files with a passphrase.
Figure 3.8: Entering a passphrase for a newly generated key pair.
File Name
Type a name for the key file in the File Name field.
Comment
In the Comment field you can write a short comment that describes the key pair - you can for example
describe the connection the files are used for. This field is not obligatory, but can be quite useful.
Passphrase
Type a phrase that you have to enter when handling the key. This passphrase works in a similar way to
a password and gives some protection for your private key.
Make the passphrase difficult to guess. Use at least 8 characters, both letters and numbers. Any
punctuation characters can be used as well.
Memorize the passphrase carefully, and do not write it down.
Passphrase
Type the passphrase again. This ensures that you have not made a typing error.
When you have typed in at least the file name and the passphrase (twice), you can click the Next button to
proceed to the next phase.
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3.3.6 Key Generation - Finish
The Key Generation - Finish page displays important information on the use of the key files.
The new public and private keys have been generated. They are currently stored on your local computer. To
use these keys for public-key authentication, you have to upload the public keys to the remote host computer.
If you are connected to a remote host, you can automatically have a copy of your new public key uploaded to
the server by clicking on the Upload Public Key button. The public key file can be uploaded at a later date as
detailed in the 3.5 (Uploading Your Public Key) section.
Click the Finish button to exit the key generation wizard.
Figure 3.9: Keys have now been generated.
3.4 Connecting to a Remote Host Computer
To connect to a remote host computer, click the Connect icon on the toolbar, select the Connect option from
the File menu, or just hit Enter or Space on the keyboard when the (still disconnected) client window is active.
This brings up the Connect to Remote Host dialog.
When you connect to a remote host computer for the first time, the host will provide your local computer
with a host public key. The host key is the public key for identifying the remote host computer that you’re
connecting to.
This process will bring up the Host Identification dialog.
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3.4.1 Host Identification Dialog
When you connect to a remote host computer for the first time using public-key authentication, the host sends
your local computer its public key in order to identify itself.
To help you to verify the host’s identity, the Host Identification dialog displays a fingerprint of the host’s
public key. The fingerprint is represented using the SSH Babble format, and it consists of a pronounceable
series of five lowercase letters separated by dashes. If you have reason to suspect that the public key you have
received may be forged, you can for example phone the system administrator of the remote host machine and
check if the fingerprint is correct.
If your work requires the strictest degree of absolute security and you cannot trust the network that was used
to deliver the host key, you can ask the system administrator of the remote host computer to deliver the host’s
public key to you personally, for example on a diskette. This way the key is never passed over the network
and you can be absolutely sure that it has not been forged. When using that host key with an SSH Secure
Shell connection, you can be sure that you are connecting to the correct host and that there is no possibility
of outside intrusion. However, for ordinary use this procedure can be seen as overkill.
The Host Identification dialog asks if you want to store the host key on your local computer. If you connect
regularly to the host you will probably want to keep the key. This prevents an attack where someone can steal
your connection.
Figure 3.10: The Host Identification dialog.
Yes
You can save the host key to the local database by clicking Yes.
No
You can continue without saving the host key by clicking No. If you choose not to save the host key
locally, you will be asked to the make this selection again next time you connect to this host.
Cancel
You can also cancel the connection by clicking on the Cancel button. This causes an authentication
failure, and the connection will be canceled.
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Help
Click the Help button to view the online help.
If you save the host key, you do not have to go through this procedure again the next time you login. The
host’s public key will still be checked with each connection, but this will be done automatically, without user
intervention.
The known host keys will be saved in a local database that is specific to each user of the local computer. This
way each user will build a personal database of the public keys of known and trusted hosts.
3.4.2 Connect to Remote Host Dialog
The Connect to Remote Host dialog allows you to specify the host name (or IP address), user name, port
number and authentication method for the new connection.
Figure 3.11: Identify yourself to the remote host computer.
The client remembers your previous connection. If you are going to reconnect to the same host, you do not
have to type in all of the same information all over again.
Host Name
Enter the name (or IP address) of the remote host computer in this field. Unless this is your first
connection, the Host Name field shows the name used in the previous connection. If you want to
connect to the same computer as previously, you do not have to edit this field.
User Name
Enter your user name as used in the remote host computer. Unless this is your first connection, the
User Name field shows the name used in the previous connection. If you want to connect using the
same user name as previously, you do not have to edit this field.
Port Number
Type the number of the port used in the connection in the Port Number field. The port used in the
previous connection is already filled in.
Authentication Method
Select the desired authentication method from the pulldown menu. Possible authentication methods
are Password, Public Key, SecurID, PAM and Profile Settings .
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Password
When you login using password authentication, you will have to type your password each time
you establish a new connection to the remote host computer.
Public Key
Public-key authentication is based on the use of digital signatures. If you want to use public-key
authentication, first you will need to create a pair of ’key’ files (see section 3.3 (Key Generation)).
Before you can login using public-key authentication, you have to upload your public key to the
remote host computer (see section 3.5 ( Uploading Your Public Key)).
For more information on the use of public keys, see section 3.6 (Using Public-Key Authentication).
If you are using ssh protocol version 1 (ssh1) and want to authenticate using public keys, see the
SSH Secure Shell FAQ (http://www.ssh.com/faq/index.cfm?category=449) for
more information.
SecurID
Using SecurID authentication requires that you have a SecurID device that generates the numeric
codes that are needed to login.
PAM
The Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) is an authentication method that has gained wide
popularity especially on UNIX platforms.
Profile Settings
The authentication method specified in the active profile is used. The profile-specific authentication method can be defined using the Connection page of the Settings dialog (see section 2.4.1
(Connection)).
Connect
Click the Connect button to connect to the remote host computer.
Cancel
Click the Cancel button if you change your mind and want to abort the connection.
3.5 Uploading Your Public Key
If you want to use public-key authentication when connecting to the remote host computer, you have to
upload your public key to the host. If you have not yet generated your own public key, see section 3.3 (Key
Generation).
Public keys can be uploaded automatically to a server. After a connection has been made to a remote host, a
User Keypair can be selected from the User Keys settings screen. Clicking on the Upload Public Key button
will display the dialog box below before automatically uploading the public key to the specified directory and
adding an entry for it to the authorization file.
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If you do not use the automatic upload facility, you will need to place your public key file in the .ssh2
subdirectory in your home directory on the remote host computer. The authorization file residing in the
.ssh2 directory must be edited to take the newly transferred key into use.
Figure 3.12: The Upload Public Key dialog.
Destination Folder
This is the subdirectory on the server where the public key file will be uploaded to. If this directory does
not exist then it will be created under your home directory on the server. e.g. ˜username/.ssh2.
The default value is .ssh2
Authorization File
This is the file on the server that contains details of your public keys. If this file does not exist then it
will be created. The default value is authorization.
View Authorization File
Checking this box will allow you to view and edit the authorization file before it is uploaded to
the server.
3.5.1 Manually Copying the Key File
The easiest way to manually copy your public key file is to open the Profile Settings page of the Settings dialog
(select the Settings option from the Edit menu) and to click the Browse button next to the User Settings Folder
field.
The folder containing your user settings is opened. The folder contains a subfolder called UserKeys. Doubleclick on the UserKeys folder to open it.
The folder containing your user keys is opened. Select the file that contains the public key that you want to
copy to the remote host computer. Note that the public key has the file extension .pub. Be careful that you
copy the file with the .pub extension, and not a similarly named file without a file extension (which would
be your private key that you have to keep secure)!
Copy the file to the Windows clipboard by pressing Control+C on the keyboard, or by clicking the file icon
with the right mouse button and selecting Copy from the shortcut menu.
Now connect to the remote host server and open a file transfer window, as described in chapter 5 (File
Transfer).
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Your home directory should contain a subdirectory named .ssh2. If you do not see the .ssh2 directory,
check that you have the Show Hidden Files option selected from the View menu.
Enter the .ssh2 directory and copy the key file there from the clipboard (press Control+V on the keyboard
or click the right mouse button and select Paste from the shortcut menu).
3.5.2 Manually Editing the Authorization File
After you have uploaded your public key to the remote host computer, connect to the host using the SSH
Secure Shell client’s terminal window. Your home directory should contain a .ssh2 subdirectory (note that
the first character of the folder name is a full stop).
First make sure that your current directory is your home directory. Type the following command after the
remote host computer command prompt and press the Enter key:
cd
Then enter the .ssh2 subdirectory by issuing the following command after the command prompt:
cd .ssh2
The .ssh2 directory should contain a text file called authorization. You have to edit that file and add
your public key file name on a separate line in that file. If the authorization file does not yet exist, you
will create it now.
Start your favorite text editor by typing authorization as a parameter after the name of the text editor.
For example, if your favorite text editor is Pico, type the following after the remote host computer’s command
prompt:
pico authorization
When in the text editor, add a new line containing the word key, a space and the public key file name. For
example, if the public key file name is public key.pub, add the following line to the authorization
file:
key public_key.pub
Now save the authorization file and exit the text editor. When you login the next time, public-key
authentication should be working. If it is not, check that you have typed the public key file name correctly
in the authorization file, and that the correct public key file is located in the .ssh2 directory on the
remote host computer.
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3.6 Using Public-Key Authentication
When you connect to a remote host computer using public-key authentication, you will first see the Connect
to Remote Host dialog. When you hit the Enter key, public-key authentication will be attempted and if that
fails the client will try password authentication.
If there is a suitable public key, the Enter Passphrase for Private Key dialog should be shown. This dialog
indicates that the remote host computer is willing to accept your public key to authenticate you. If you do not
see the Enter Passphrase for Private Key dialog, check that you have properly uploaded your public key, as
described in section 3.5 (Uploading Your Public Key).
Type in the passphrase associated with this key. You defined the passphrase when you create the public key see section 3.3.5 (Key Generation - Enter Passphrase) for more information.
(If you again just press the Enter key, the key will not be used and the system will ask your password instead.)
If you enter the correct passphrase, you will connect to the remote host computer.
Note that in some cases the remote host computer may be configured to use both public-key authentication
and password authentication for increased security. In that case you will first have to type in your password,
and after that to also use public key authentication.
The authentication sequence above assumes that the client is configured to use any authentication method
(see section 2.4.2 (Authentication Methods)).
3.7 Command Line Options
For some purposes it may be useful to operate the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows Client from
the command line (command prompt).
The SSH Secure Shell client command line syntax is:
sshclient [-r] [-p port] [-u user] [-h host] [profile.ssh2]
The following command line options can be used to define the connection parameters:
-r
The -r option will reset all customizations made to the user interface (toolbars and menus). A confirmation dialog will be displayed.
-p [port number ]
The -p option specifies the port number used for the connection. If this option is not specified, the port
number defined in the default profile will be used.
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-u [user name ]
The -u option specifies the user name for the connection. If this option is not specified, the user name
defined in the default profile will be used.
-h [host name ]
The -h option specifies the host name for the connection. If this option is not specified, the host name
defined in the default profile will be used.
[profile.ssh2 ]
If a profile is specified, it must the last option on the command line. Any command line parameters
will override the profile settings. If no profile is specified, the default profile (default.ssh2) will
be used.
For example, the following command would immediately start a connection to a host called remotehost and
connect as guest. The port number is not specified, so the connection would use the port specified in the
default profile.
sshclient -h remotehost -u guest
The following command would immediately start a connection to remotehost using the settings defined in the
profile file custom.ssh2.
sshclient -h remotehost custom.ssh2
If the host is not specified (using the -h option) and no profile is specified, the login dialog will open, automatically filled with the values specified on the command line.
For example, the following command would display the login dialog with the port number already defined as
222 and the user name as guest.
sshclient -u guest -p 222
Several other command line utilities are shipped with the Windows client. For more information, see the
appendices section (A (Appendices)).
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Chapter 4
Terminal Window
The terminal window is a secure replacement for Telnet connections. It offers a command line interface to
the remote host computer. Note that the most important function of the terminal window is to allow you to
operate the remote host computer. Therefore the terminal window does not capture some common keyboard
shortcuts (such as Ctrl+C for copy), but passes them instead to the remote host computer, where they can
be used to control remote program execution.
Apart from the text display itself, a lot of connection information is visible in title and status bars of the
Terminal window.
Figure 4.1: The Terminal window.
4.1 Terminal Window Title Bar
The title bar is located on the top of the window.
The leftmost item on the title bar is the window icon. Click it to display the Window menu or doubleclick it
to close the window.
The next item on the title bar is the window’s sequence number. This helps you to distinguish between
different windows using the same connection.
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Next on the title bar is displayed the remote computer’s host name. For example, a second window associated
with a connection to a host computer called remote would display as 2:remote.
After the host name, the next item on the title bar is the name of the settings file in use. If you are not using
a settings file that has been saved with a specific file name (using the Save As option on the File menu), a
settings file called default is in use.
The last text item on the title bar is the name of the client, SSH Secure Shell.
4.2 Terminal Window Status Bar
The status bar is located at the bottom of the Terminal window. When browsing through the menu options or
toolbar buttons, the status bar displays a short context sensitive help text.
When the menus or toolbars are not browsed, the left side of the status bar indicates to which remote
host computer you are currently connected. If you are not connected, the status bar displays the text Not
connected - Press Enter/Space to connect.
The next status bar field shows the current protocol version, encryption algorithm, and MAC algorithm separated by dashes (for example: ssh2 - 3des-cbc - hmac-md5). Note that the status bar displays some
of the algorithm names in a longer form than the Connection screen of the Settings dialog.
The next field displays the number of columns and rows of the terminal window. If you change the size of
the terminal window, this window size indicator will be immediately updated.
If you have a smart card reader active, you should see a small card reader icon on the next column of the status
bar. When a token is inserted, a smart card appears in the card reader in the icon. When a key is acquired
from the token, a key symbol appears on top of the card reader icon. If the icon does not appear, see section
2.5.14 (PKCS 11 Provider) for troubleshooting information.
The next field displays the text CAP if your Caps Lock key is currently on.
The last field of the terminal window status bar displays the text NUM if your Num Lock key is currently on.
Figure 4.2: Terminal window status bar.
4.3 Terminal Window Shortcut Menu
Click the terminal window with the right mouse button to display a shortcut menu. By default, the following
menu options are available:
Copy
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Copy text into the Windows clipboard.
Paste
Paste text from the Windows clipboard.
Paste Selection
Copy the currently selected text into the cursor location without first copying it into the Windows
clipboard.
Select All
Select all of the scrollback buffer.
Select Screen
Select all text currently displayed on the screen. The rest of the scrollback buffer will not be selected.
Select None
Cancel the current selection.
Find
Search for text from the scrollback buffer.
New Terminal
Open a new terminal window.
New File Transfer
Open a new File Transfer window.
Close Window
Close the current window.
Settings
Open the Settings dialog.
The available options can be configured using the Customize dialog (see section 2.6 (Customize)).
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Chapter 5
File Transfer
SSH Secure Shell makes it easy and convenient to transfer files between your local computer and the remote
host computer. You can upload and download files by using an intuitive, graphical user interface similar in
functionality to the Windows Explorer.
You can open the File Transfer window by clicking on the New File Transfer Window button on the Secure
Shell toolbar, or by selecting the New File Transfer option from the Window menu. You can have an unlimited
number of individual File Transfer windows open at the same time.
Figure 5.1: The File Transfer dialog.
The Secure Shell 2 File Transfer contains several unique features that make secure transfer operations fast
and easy.
Note, however, that the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client is not just an alternative to an
FTP client. You cannot for example use the ssh2 client to login to a normal, insecure FTP host. The remote
host computer must be running an ssh2 server.
Please note that the maximum size of a transferred file depends on the limitations of the file system.
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5.1 Drag And Drop Operations
You can use drag and drop mouse operations to copy and move files to and from the remote host computer.
This works in a similar fashion to the standard Windows drag and drop operations. If you hold down the Shift
or Control keys when selecting files with the mouse, you can select multiple files and copy them all at the
same time. If you hold down the Shift key, all the files and folders between the first and last selection will be
selected. If you hold down the Control key, you can select individual files and folders one by one.
If you doubleclick a file, the file will be opened by using a custom application. (Notepad will be used
by default.) For more information on specifying the custom application, see section 2.5.15 (Missing File
Association).
5.2 Folder View
The directory structure of the remote host computer is visible on the left hand pane of the File Transfer
window. The directory structure is presented as a tree-like folder structure, familiar from the Windows
Explorer.
Folders that have a plus sign (+) next to them can be opened by clicking on the plus sign. Open folders have
a minus sign (-) next to them and can be closed by clicking on the minus sign.
You can click on a folder to view its contents on the right hand side pane of the File Transfer window. The
displayed folder shows up highlighted on the folder view.
Opening or closing a folder in the folder view does not affect the file view on the right hand side, unless you
close the displayed folder’s parent folder. In that case the closed folder becomes the new displayed folder.
5.2.1 Folder Colors
To make file transfer operations easier, the folders in the remote host computer are displayed in different
colors according to their status.
Yellow folders are ’familiar folders’ that are known to be available for your use. Usually this means that you
have opened them earlier.
Gray folders are ’unknown folders’ that have not yet been visited. Therefore the SSH Secure Shell for
Workstations Windows client does not yet know if the remote host computer allows you to access them.
Red folders are ’forbidden folders’. You don’t have a permission to access them, and therefore the remote
host computer does not allow you to view their contents. If you select a red folder, the File view on the right
will be blank. Select some other folder to continue.
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Green folders are ’folders being loaded’. When you select a new folder, it turns green for the time it takes to
list its contents. Unless the folder contains a large number of files and subfolders (or the connection is slow),
the folder does not stay green longer than a fraction of a second.
5.3 File View
The files in the currently open folder are displayed on the File View pane on the right hand side of the File
Transfer window. If you have not yet opened any folders, the initial view shows the files in your ’home
directory’ on the remote host computer.
You can open folders visible in the File View pane by clicking them the same way as in the Folder view.
You can move in the directory tree also by clicking the Parent Directory button in the toolbar, or by pressing
the Backspace key on the keyboard. This moves the view from the current directory to its parent directory.
The file icons and file type descriptions are derived from the client computer. If you have a specific icon
associated with a certain file type, the files in the host computer show up with the familiar icon. This makes
it faster and easier for you to recognize files of different type.
You can use the Tab key to switch between the folder view and the file view.
5.4 File Transfer Title Bar
The title bar is located on the top of the window.
The leftmost item on the title bar is the window icon. Click it to display the Window menu or doubleclick to
close the window.
The next item on the title bar is the window’s sequence number. This helps you to distinguish between
different windows using the same connection.
Next on the title bar is displayed the remote computer’s host name. For example, a second window associated
with a connection to a host computer called remote would display as 2:remote.
After the host name, the next item on the title bar is the name of the settings file in use. If you are not using
a settings file that has been saved with a specific file name (using the Save As option on the File menu), a
settings file called default is in use.
The last text item on the title bar is the name of the client, SSH Secure Shell File Transfer.
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5.5 File Transfer Status Bar
The status bar is located at the bottom of the File Transfer window. When browsing through the menu options
or toolbar buttons, the status bar displays a short context sensitive help text.
Figure 5.2: The File Transfer status bar displaying the size of a selected file.
When the menus or toolbars are not browsed, the left side of the status bar displays the current remote host
computer and the path in the remote host.
The next status bar field shows the current protocol version, encryption algorithm, and MAC algorithm separated by dashes (for example: ssh2 - 3des-cbc - hmac-md5). Note that the status bar displays some
of the algorithm names in a longer form than the Connection screen of the Settings dialog.
The rightmost field of the File Transfer status bar displays the number of files and subfolders in the current
folder, as well as the total size of the files. If you select file(s) in the folder view, the field changes to display
the number and total file size of the current selection. This is especially useful when estimating the amount
of total data to be transferred.
5.6 File Transfer Shortcut Menu
Click the File Transfer window with the right mouse button to display a shortcut menu. The available menu
options depend on whether you have selected a file or not.
The following menu options are available when you have not selected a file:
Paste
Paste a file from the File Transfer ’clipboard’.
Upload
Transfer a file from the local computer into the remote host computer.
Up
Move the File Transfer window focus into the parent directory of the current directory.
Home
Move the File Transfer window focus into your home directory.
Go to Folder
Opens the Go to Folder dialog where you can type in a path of the folder which you want to open.
Refresh
Redraw the File Transfer window.
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Select All
Select all files and folders in the current folder.
View
Opens a submenu from which you can select the view type (large icons, small icons, list or details
view).
Arrange Icons
Opens a submenu from which you can select how the icons are arranged (by name, by type, by size or
by date).
New Folder
Creates a new folder and prompts you to enter a name for it. If you enter nothing, the folder will not
be created.
The following menu options are available when you have selected a file or folder:
Open
Open the currently selected file or folder.
Copy
Copy the currently selected file into the File Transfer ’clipboard’.
Download
Transfer the currently selected file into the local computer.
Delete
Remove the currently selected file.
Rename
Change the name of the currently selected file.
Properties
Display the attributes of the currently selected file, including the file permissions (on UNIX systems).
The available options can be configured using the Customize dialog (see section 2.6 ( Customize)).
5.7 Differences From Windows Explorer
The File Transfer window operates very much the same way as the familiar Windows Explorer. However, due
to the different nature of handling files locally in your own computer (as per Windows Explorer) and handling
them over a secured remote connection in the host computer (as per SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
Windows client File Transfer), there are some differences in operation.
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Deleting folders
It is not possible to delete a remote folder that is not empty. Delete the files and subfolders residing in
the folder first.
Multiple paste operations
During copy and paste operations, the file names are not changed when the files are pasted. Therefore
it is not possible to paste files several times into one location, creating ’copies of’ the pasted files as in
Windows Explorer.
5.8 Downloading Files
By using the File Transfer window it is easy to download files from the remote host computer into your local
computer. There are several different ways to download a file - or several files at the same time.
To select multiple files, hold down the Shift or Control keys when selecting files with the mouse. If you hold
down the Shift key, all the files and folders between the first and last selection will be selected. If you hold
down the Control key, you can select individual files and folders one by one.
Drag and drop
Dragging and dropping is probably the easiest way to download files. Simply click on the file(s) you
want to download, hold down the mouse button and move the file to a location where you want it - for
example on the Windows desktop - and release the button.
Download button
You can click the Download button on the toolbar to download the selected file(s).
Shortcut menu
When you click a file or folder using the right mouse button, a shortcut menu appears. The shortcut
menu shows the most common file operations: open, copy, download, rename and delete. Select the
desired operation from the menu, and it will be applied to all of the currently selected files or folders.
When the download starts, a Download - Select Folder dialog will appear, allowing you to select where the
downloaded file(s) should be saved. After you have selected the appropriate folder (or other location), you
will see a Downloading dialog that shows the current downloading status.
5.8.1 Download - Select Folder Dialog
When you start a download operation, a Download - Select Folder window is displayed. This is a standard
Windows file selection dialog, where you can select the location where you want the selected file(s) to be
downloaded.
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You can use the Look in selection box to select a folder, a local or network drive or your desktop. Note:
Transferring files to or from a network drive is not supported on Windows 95.
Another way to select the desired folder is to type its directory path in the Folder field. Note that you can use
this field only to specify the folder name. Do not write in a file name after the selected directory path. The
file name will be the same the file has in the remote host computer.
Figure 5.3: Creating a new directory for downloaded files.
The most common operations can be achieved by clicking on the four buttons on the right hand side of the
Look in selection box. You can click on the Up One Level button to move to the parent folder of the current
folder. If you want to create a new folder, click on the Create New Folder button. You can also select between
the Small Icons and Details views by clicking on the appropriate buttons.
5.8.2 The Downloading Dialog
The Downloading dialog displays the current status of download.
At the top of the dialog a familiar file copy animation indicates a transfer in progress. The progress bar below
the file copy animation shows the approximate percentage of how much of the current file transfer has been
completed.
A more exact figure is displayed on the Transferred field below the progress bar. The Transferred field
displays how much of the file has currently been transferred and what is the total file size.
The Transfer Rate field shows the current rate of transfer (how many kilobytes of data are being transferred
per second).
The message area, located below the Transferred and Transfer Rate fields, displays the transferred files and
their sizes. Also any informational or error messages are displayed there.
When the download is complete, the title of the Downloading window changes into Download Complete.
Click the Close button to close the dialog and return to the File Transfer window.
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Figure 5.4: The download has been completed.
5.9 Uploading Files
The File Transfer window can be used to upload files from your local computer to the remote host computer.
There are several different ways to upload a file.
It is also possible to upload several files at the same time. To select multiple files, hold down the Shift or
Control keys when selecting files with the mouse. If you hold down the Shift key, all the files and folders between the first and last selection will be selected. If you hold down the Control key, you can select individual
files and folders one by one.
Drag and drop
Dragging and dropping is probably the easiest way to upload files. Simply click on the local file(s) you
want to upload (for example on the desktop or the Windows Explorer), hold down the mouse button,
move the file(s) into the File Transfer window’s file view and release the button.
Upload button
You can click the Upload button on the File Transfer window’s toolbar to upload the selected file(s).
Shortcut menu
When you click on an empty space in the File Transfer window’s file view using the right mouse button,
a shortcut menu appears. The shortcut menu allows several file transfer operations: Paste, Upload, Up,
Home, Go To Folder, Refresh, Select All, View, Arrange Icons and New Folder. Select the desired
operation from the menu.
When the upload starts, a Upload - Select Files dialog will appear, allowing you to select the file(s) that
should be uploaded. After you have selected the file(s), click the Upload button. You will see a Uploading
dialog that shows the current uploading status.
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5.9.1 Upload - Select Files Dialog
When you start an upload operation, a Upload - Select Files window is displayed. This is a standard Window
file selection dialog, where you can select which file(s) you want to upload.
You can use the Look in selection box to select the location of the file(s): a folder, a local or network drive or
your desktop.
Figure 5.5: Select the file you want to upload.
Note that the File name field displayed at the bottom of the dialog displays the selected file name. The field is
read-only - you cannot type in the desired file name. Select the files by clicking them with the mouse instead.
The most common operations can be achieved by clicking on the four buttons on the right hand side of the
Look in selection box. You can click on the Up One Level button to move to the parent folder of the current
folder. If you want to create a new folder, click on the Create New Folder button. You can also select between
the Small Icons and Details views by clicking on the appropriate buttons.
5.9.2 The Uploading Dialog
The Uploading dialog displays the current uploading status.
At the top of the dialog a familiar file copy animation indicates a transfer in progress. The progress bar below
the file copy animation shows the approximate percentage of how much of the current file transfer has been
completed.
A more exact figure is displayed on the Transferred field below the progress bar. The Transferred field
displays how much of the file has currently been transferred and what is the total file size.
The Transfer Rate field shows the current rate of transfer (how many kilobytes of data are being transferred
per second).
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The message area, located below the Transferred and Transfer Rate fields, displays the transferred files and
their sizes. Also any informational or error messages are displayed there.
When the upload is complete, the title of the Uploading window changes into Upload Complete. Click the
Close button to close the dialog and return to the File Transfer window.
Figure 5.6: A file has been uploaded.
5.10 File Properties
Selecting a file in the File View window then selecting the Operation, Properties menu option brings up the
File Properties page which allows you to view and change some of the remote files properties. The Properties
page can also be accessed by right clicking on a file in the File View pane and selecting Properties.
File Name
At the top of the page the file name and icon are shown. If multiple files are selected, a count of the
number of files and folders is displayed.
Type
The type of the selected file(s).
Location
The directory where the selected file(s) are located on the remote host.
Size
The size of the selected file. If multiple files are selected the total size of all the files is diplayed.
Modified Date
The last modified date for the selected file.
Permissions
The 9 check boxes can be used to set the permissions of a file or a group of files. If multiple files are
selected with conflicting permissions then some of the check boxes will appear grayed out. Clicking
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Figure 5.7: Properties page for a file.
on a greyed out check box will clear the check mark. If there are any check boxes are grayed out when
the OK button is pressed it will have the effect of leaving that value unchanged on the remote file.
Permissions can also be set by entering standard octal UNIX permission masks (as with the chmod
command) in the Permission Mask field. Values entered here override and update the check box values.
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Toolbar Reference
The most important functions of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client’s terminal window
and File Transfer window can be accessed using the toolbar. By default the toolbar is located at the top of
the SSH2 client window, right under the menubar.
Figure 6.1: The basic toolbar contains buttons for the most frequently used functions.
By default the profiles toolbar is located under the basic toolbar, containing the Quick Connect and Profiles
options.
Figure 6.2: The profiles toolbar contains the Quick Connect and Profiles buttons.
6.1 Configuring Toolbars
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client has a dynamic user interface that is very easy to
modify to match to your tastes. You can select the position of the toolbars, and even move individual buttons
from one place to another.
6.1.1 Moving Toolbars
You can use the mouse to grab the toolbars by their handles (located on the lefthand end of each toolbar) and
move them around the SSH Secure Shell window.
You can have the toolbars floating freely in the window, or anchor them in the top, bottom or even either side
of the window. Experiment to find the toolbar positions that you like best.
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6.1.2 Moving Toolbar Buttons
You can also move individual toolbar buttons around and arrange them so that they best serve your needs.
To move a toolbar button, keep the Alt key on the keyboard pressed down and grab a button with your
mouse. You will see a new mouse pointer appear. Click the button with your left mouse button, keep the
mouse button pressed down and move the button around. When you release the mouse button, the toolbar
button will be move to a new position.
Note: If you move a button to somewhere else than a toolbar (for example, in the terminal window text area),
it is removed from the window. But don’t worry - the changes become permanent only if you use the Save
Settings option (see section 6.2 (Save Settings)).
6.1.3 Permanent Toolbar Changes
If you want to make the new toolbar positions permanent, use the Save Settings option (from the toolbar or
the File menu) to save your settings.
If you change your mind and want to return the toolbars to their original positions, select the Reset Toolbars
option from the View menu. A confirmation dialog will open, asking if you really want to discard the changes
you have made. If you select Yes, the toolbars will return to their original configuration. If have modified
your menus, this option will reset also them.
6.2 Save Settings
Select the Save Settings option to save any changes you have made to your current settings. The default
settings file where the configuration will be saved is default.ssh2.
If you want to save your current settings in a new settings file, select the Add Profile option under the Profiles
option (see section 3.2 (Profiles)).
6.3 Print
Select the Print option to output the contents of the current scrollback buffer to your printer. The standard
Windows Print dialog will appear, allowing you to select the printer settings.
The print range can also be selected from this dialog. Selecting All will print the entire contents of the
terminal scrollback buffer. If the whole scrollback buffer will fill more than one page when printed, a range
of pages to print can be selected. If any text is selected when you use the Print option, the default print range
will be Selection, which will only print the currently selected text.
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Figure 6.3: The Print dialog allows you to specify the printer settings.
You can use the Print Preview option (see section 6.4 (Print Preview)) to help you to determine which pages
to print and how the printout will look like.
Note: when you use a network printer, the area selected for printing will be sent unencrypted over the network
to the printer.
The Print option is available only in the terminal window.
6.4 Print Preview
Select the Print Preview option to display the entire contents of the terminal scrollback buffer, split into pages
in the same way as the scrollback buffer will appear when printed.
Figure 6.4: The Print Preview option show the scrollback buffer as it would appear when printed.
The following buttons can be used to preview the print result:
Print
The Print button opens the Print dialog, allowing you to specify the printer settings and print the result.
Next Page
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Click the Next Page button to preview the next page of output. The keyboard shortcut for Next Page is
the Page Down key.
Prev Page
Click the Prev Page button to preview the previous page of output. The keyboard shortcut for Prev
Page is the Page Up key.
One Page / Two Pages Toggle
Click the One Page / Two Pages Toggle button to display two pages of output side by side. When in
two page print preview mode, the Two page button is replaced by One Page button, which allows you
to return to the one page print preview mode. This button cannot be used when you have zoomed the
page.
Zoom In
Click the Zoom In button to see a closeup of the currently displayed print preview page. You can use
this button to zoom up to the natural size of the printout. You can zoom in also by clicking the left
mouse button on the preview view.
Zoom Out
Click the Zoom Out button to return from a zoomed in view of the print preview page. You can zoom
out until the whole page is displayed.
Close
Click the Close button to close the Print Preview dialog. The dialog can be closed also by pressing the
Esc key.
The Print Preview option is available only in the terminal window.
6.5 Connect
Select the Connect option to connect to a remote host computer. A Connect to Remote Host dialog will open.
Figure 6.5: The Connect to Remote Host dialog.
For more information on this dialog, see section 3.4.2 (Connect to Remote Host Dialog).
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6.6 Disconnect
Select the Disconnect option to quit the current connection. A Confirm Disconnect dialog is displayed,
allowing you to confirm if you really want to disconnect. Select No or Cancel to keep the connection open,
or Yes to end the connection. If you do not want to see the Disconnect confirmation dialog again, select the
Do not ask this question again check box.
Figure 6.6: The Confirm Disconnect dialog gives you the last change option of changing your mind.
Note that one connection can have several windows open (such as an SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
Windows client terminal window and a File Transfer window). Disconnecting affects all windows associated
with a single connection.
However, if you have started other, separate SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows clients, they are not
affected by this disconnect operation. Disconnecting quits one connection and all of its associated windows,
but no other, separate connections.
6.7 Copy
Select the Copy option to create a temporary copy of the selected text or files.
If you are copying text (in the terminal window), the text is placed on the Windows clipboard and can be
pasted in the terminal window or any Windows text window.
If you are copying files (in the File Transfer window), a Download dialog is displayed, but the selected files
are not yet copied to any specific location. This resembles using the Windows clipboard: You can copy files
to a temporary storage and paste them later into another location.
If you do a new copy operation when the previously copied text or files have not yet been copied anywhere,
the previous selection is lost, as the new selection replaces the old one.
Note that the copy option is not available until you have selected some text (in the terminal window) or one
or several files or folders (in the File Transfer window).
You can do a copy operation also by using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+Insert. This shortcut is available
in both Terminal and File Transfer windows.
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6.8 Paste
Select the Paste option to add previously copied text or files or folders into a new location.
If you are pasting text (in the terminal window), the text that was copied earlier into the clipboard will be
inserted in the cursor location. You can paste text that was copied from the terminal window or any other
Windows text window.
If you are pasting files (in the File Transfer window), an Upload dialog is displayed when the files are pasted
to the new location. This resembles using the Windows clipboard: You can copy files to a temporary storage
and paste them later into another location. The file names of the pasted files and folders do not change during
the operation. Therefore it is not possible to paste files or folders several times into one location.
Note that the paste operation is not available until you have previously copied something in the clipboard.
You can do a paste operation also by using the keyboard shortcut Shift-Insert on the keyboard. This shortcut
is available in both Terminal and File Transfer windows.
6.9 Paste Selection
Select the Paste Selection option to paste text into the terminal window without first copying anything to the
clipboard. The Paste Selection operation copies whatever is currently selected in the terminal window to the
present cursor position. If no text is selected, Paste Selection pastes the single character in the current cursor
position.
This function is almost like having two different clipboards available at the same time. Paste Selection is
especially useful for quick copying of text from the output of previous commands.
The Paste Selection toolbar button is available only in the terminal window.
6.10 Find
Select the Find option to locate text (or any other characters) from the scrollback buffer. Regular expressions
can be used to select characters matching a specific pattern.
Find what
Type in the characters that you want to search for in the Find what field. If you want to use regular
expressions to define the search term, select the Regular expression option, or select a ready defined
regular expression by clicking the ellipsis button (...) on the right hand side of the Find what field.
...
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Figure 6.7: The Find dialog helps you to locate text from the scrollback buffer.
Click the ellipsis button (...) to select from a ready list regular expressions. Using this option will turn
on the Regular expression option.
The following regular expression types can be selected:
Any Character
Character in Range
Character not in Range
Beginning of Line
End of Line
Or
0 or More Matches
1 or More Matches
Optional Match
Match exactly n times
Match n or more times
Match at most n times
Match no less than n times and no more than m times
Match whole word only
Select the Match whole word only option to limit the search to match only whole words (i.e. so that
”wave” would not match ”waves”).
Match case
Select the Match case option to specify that the search result should be case sensitive (i.e. so that
”Wave” would not match ”wave” or ”waVe”).
Regular expression
Select the Regular expression option to specify the search term using regular expressions. This option
is automatically selected if you click the ellipsis button (...) on the right hand side of the Find what
field.
Direction
Use the Direction option to specify whether the search should start upwards on downwards from the
present position in the scrollback buffer.
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The direction of the search is relative to the last match made in the current search. If there have been
no previous matches, Up will search from the bottom of the buffer upwards, and Down will search
downwards from the very beginning of the buffer.
Up
The Up option specifies that the search should start backwards from the present position.
Down
The Down option specifies that the search should start forward from the present position.
Find Next
Click the Find Next button to find the next match for the search term. Note that the direction where the
search will continue is defined by the Direction option.
Cancel
Click the Cancel button to close the Find dialog.
6.11 New Terminal Window
Select the New Terminal Window option to open a new SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client
terminal window. The new window is immediately connected to the same remote host computer as the current
window, saving you the trouble of typing your password again.
Multiple windows to a single connection allow you to for example debug your code in one window, execute
it in another, display reference information in a third one and read your mail in a fourth window.
The sequence number of each window is displayed on the window’s title bar, in front of the remote host
computer’s name. For example, a second window associated with a connection to a host computer called
remote would display as 2:remote.
Note: To close any extra windows when you no longer need them, click on the X-shaped close button located
on the window’s title bar on the upper right hand corner of the window. Do not click on the Disconnect
button or select the Disconnect option from the File menu, as this would close the connection in all windows
associated with this particular connection.
6.12 New File Transfer Window
Select the New File Transfer Window option to open a File Transfer window. To make file handling as easy
as possible, you can open an unlimited number of File Transfer windows.
The sequence number of each window is displayed on the window’s title bar, in front of the remote host
computer’s name. For example, a third window associated with a connection to a host computer called
remote would display as 3:remote.
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Note: To close any extra windows when you no longer need them, click on the X-shaped close button located
on the window’s title bar on the upper right hand corner of the window. Do not click on the Disconnect
button or select the Disconnect option from the File menu, as this would close the connection in all windows
associated with this particular connection.
6.13 Settings
Select the Settings option to bring up the Settings dialog. Settings can be used to control both the global
settings and the profile settings for each particular remote host computer. For more information on the
Settings dialog, see chapter 2 (Configuration).
6.14 Help
Select the Help option to open the SSH Secure Shell Windows client help window. In the help window you
can browse, search and print help information.
6.15 Get Help On
Select the Get Help On option to change the mouse pointer to a help pointer. You can use the help pointer
to click on buttons, menu items or other details of the user interface to see context sensitive help on any
particular item.
6.16 File Transfer Specific Toolbar Buttons
The following toolbar buttons are available only in the File Transfer window.
Figure 6.8: The buttons that are available only in the File Transfer window are located between the Settings
button and the Help button.
6.16.1 Up
Select the Up option to move the view from the current folder to its parent folder.
For example: You have a directory called home and it has a subdirectory called mail. If you are currently
viewing the mail folder and click the Up button, the focus moves to the home folder.
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6.16.2 Home
Select the Home option to return to your home directory on the remote host computer. This is useful if you
are exploring a complex directory tree and want to quickly return to where you came from.
6.16.3 Refresh
Select the Refresh option to redraw the File Transfer window. This may be necessary if you have for example
uploaded a file that does not immediately become visible on the remote host computer.
6.16.4 Download
Select the Download option to download a file - i.e. to copy it from the remote host computer to your local
computer.
6.16.5 Upload
Select the Upload option to upload a file - i.e. to copy it from your local computer to the remote host computer.
6.16.6 Large Icons
Select the Large Icons option to display the file view as a Large Icons view. Each file and folder has a large
icon associated with it, making for a clear and uncluttered display.
6.16.7 Small Icons
Select the Small Icons option to display the file view as a Small Icons view. Each file and folder has a small
icon associated with it. This makes it possible to display several times more items than the Large Icons view.
6.16.8 List
Select the List option to display the file view as a List view. Each file and folder has a small icon associated
with it, and the files and folders are displayed in one single column underneath each other.
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6.16.9 Details
Select the Details option to display the file view as a Details view. The files and folders are displayed with a
small icon, their file name, file size, file type, last modification date and attributes visible.
By clicking on the Name, Size, Type and Modified sort bars located on top of the File view, you can sort the
files and folders based on their file name, file size, file type and the time they were last modified. Selecting
the same sort option again reverses the sorting order.
Note that the sort function is not case sensitive: upper case text is sorted together with lower case text.
The file types are derived from the your local computer. If you have defined a new file type description for
files with a certain file name extension, also the files in the remote computer are shown to be of that file type.
This makes it easy to recognize particular file types also on the remote computer.
6.16.10 ASCII
Select the ASCII option to transfer files in ASCII mode.
6.16.11 Binary
Select the Binary option to transfer files in binary mode.
6.16.12 Auto Select
Select the Auto Select option to automatically change the transfer mode based on the file extension. Files
using a file extension specified on the ASCII Extensions list on the Mode page of the Settings dialog will
be transferred in ASCII mode. All other files will be transferred in binary mode. For more information, see
section 2.5.17 (Mode).
6.17 Quick Connect Button
Click the Quick Connect button on the profiles toolbar to open a new connection using the default settings.
For more information, see section 3.1 ( Quick Connect).
6.18 Profiles Button
Click the Profiles button on the profiles toolbar to open the Profiles menu. For more information on how to
use profiles, see section 3.2 (Profiles).
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Menu Reference
Together with the toolbar, the terminal window menus allow quick access to different terminal operations.
The following menus are available: File, Edit, View, Operation (only in the File Transfer window), Window
and Help.
7.1 Configuring Menus
The SSH Secure Shell menus can be configured as easily as the toolbars. You can freely select the position
of the menus, and even move them into toolbars.
7.1.1 Moving Menus
You can move the SSH Secure Shell menus into new positions and arrange them so that they best serve your
needs.
To move a menu, keep the Alt key on the keyboard pressed down and click a menu with your mouse. You
will see a new mouse pointer appear. Keep the mouse button pressed down and move the menu around. When
you release the mouse button, the menu will be move to a new position.
This way you can arrange the order of the menus, or even move menus into toolbars. Experiment to find the
best configuration for you.
It also possible to move the individual menu options. This can be done using the Commands page of the
Customize dialog (see section 2.6 ( Customize)).
Note: If you move a menu to somewhere else than the menu bar or a toolbar (for example, in the terminal
window text area), it is removed from the window. But don’t worry - the changes become permanent only if
you use the Save Settings option (see section 6.2 (Save Settings)).
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7.1.2 Permanent Menu Changes
If you want to make the new menu positions permanent, use the Save Settings option (from the toolbar or the
File menu) to save your settings.
If you change your mind and want to return the menus to their original positions, select the Reset Toolbars
option from the View menu. A confirmation dialog will open, asking if you really want to discard the changes
you have made. If you select Yes, the menus will return to their original configuration. If have modified also
your toolbars, this option will reset them, too.
7.2 File Menu
The File menu allows access to the settings file and connect/disconnect operations.
7.2.1 Save Settings
Select the Save Settings option to save any changes you have made to your current settings. The default
settings file where the configuration will be saved is default.ssh2.
If you want to save your current settings in a new settings file, select the Add Profile option under the Profiles
option (see section 3.2 (Profiles)).
7.2.2 Quick Connect
Select the Quick Connect menu option from the File menu to open a new connection using the default settings.
For more information, see section 3.1 ( Quick Connect).
7.2.3 Profiles
Select the Profiles menu option from the File menu to open the Profiles menu. For more information on how
to use profiles, see section 3.2 (Profiles).
7.2.4 Print
The Print menu option will allow you output the contents of the current scrollback buffer to a printer. For
more information on printing, see section 6.3 (Print).
The Print option is available only in the terminal window.
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7.2.5 Print Preview
Selecting Print Preview will display the entire contents of the scrollback buffer split into pages in the same
way it will be printed. For more information on previewing the printer output, see section 6.4 (Print Preview).
The Print Preview option is available only in the terminal window.
7.2.6 Page Setup
The Page Setup menu option allows you to specify how printed pages will look. For more information, see
section 2.5.20 (Printing).
The Page Setup menu option is available only in the terminal window.
7.2.7 Log Session
Choose the Log Session option to save an entire transcript of the current terminal session to a file.
When Log Session is selected, the Save As dialog opens, asking for a filename for the log file. This file will
be created if it does not already exist, and it will contain a transcript of the connection. Selecting the Log
Session menu item for a second time stops logging.
When logging is active, a checkmark appears next to the Log Session menu option.
The Log Session menu option is available only in the terminal window.
7.2.8 Connect
Select the Connect option to establish a new SSH connection to a remote host computer. A Connect to Remote
Host dialog will appear, allowing you to specify the host name (or IP address), user name and password for
the new connection.
An alternative way to establish a new connection is to press the Enter key on the keyboard when disconnected.
This keyboard shortcut has the same effect as choosing the Connect option from the File menu or the toolbar.
Note that the Connect option is available only when you are not connected to any remote host computer. If
you want to establish a completely new, separate SSH connection, select the Quick Connect option instead.
7.2.9 Disconnect
Select the Disconnect option to disconnect from the present remote host computer. A Confirm Disconnect
dialog appears, allowing you to confirm if you really want to disconnect. Select No or Cancel to keep the
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connection open, or Yes to end the connection.
Note that one connection can have several windows open (such as an SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client terminal window and the File Transfer window). Disconnecting affects all windows associated
with a single connection.
However, if you have started other, separate SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows clients, they are not
affected by this disconnect operation. Disconnecting quits one connection and all of its associated windows,
but none of the separate connections.
7.2.10 Exit
Select the Exit option to quit the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client. A Confirm Exit dialog
appears, allowing you to confirm if you really want to exit. Select No or Cancel to keep the ssh2 client
running, or Yes to exit.
Note that one connection can have several windows open (for example several File Transfer windows and
several terminal windows). Exiting affects all windows associated with a single connection.
However, if you have started other, separate SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows clients, they are
not affected by this exit operation. Exiting quits one connection and all of its associated windows, but none
of the separate connections.
7.3 Edit Menu
The Edit menu allows you to copy and paste text in the terminal window and to make changes to your
connection settings.
7.3.1 Copy
Select the Copy option to create a temporary copy of the selected file(s). A Download dialog is displayed,
but the selected files are not yet copied to any specific location. This resembles using the Windows clipboard:
You can copy files to a temporary storage and paste them later into another location.
If you do a new copy operation when the previously copied files have not yet been copied anywhere, the
previous selection is lost, as the new selection replaces the old one.
Note that the copy operation is not available until you have selected one or several files or folders.
The keyboard shortcut for the copy option is Ctrl+Insert. The shortcut has the same effect as choosing
the Copy option from the Edit menu or toolbar.
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7.3.2 Paste
Select the Paste option to add previously copied files or folders into a new location. An Upload dialog is
displayed when the files are pasted to the new location. This resembles using the Windows clipboard: You
can copy files to a temporary storage and paste them later into another location. You can do a paste operation
also by pressing Ctrl+V on the keyboard.
The file names of the pasted files and folders do not change during the operation. Therefore it is not possible
to paste files or folders several times into one location.
Note that the paste operation is not available until you have previously copied something in the SSH Secure
Shell for Workstations Windows client ’clipboard’.
The keyboard shortcut for Paste is Shift+Insert. The shortcut has the same effect as choosing the Paste option
from the Edit menu or toolbar.
7.3.3 Paste Selection
Select the Paste Selection option to paste text without first copying anything to the clipboard. The Paste Selection operation copies whatever is currently selected in the terminal window to the present cursor position.
If no text is selected, Paste Selection pastes the single character in the current cursor position.
This function is almost like having two different clipboards available at the same time. Paste Selection is
especially useful for quick copying of text from the output of previous commands.
The Paste Selection menu item is only available in the terminal window.
7.3.4 Select All
Choose the Select All option to select all the text in the current terminal window and the scrollback buffer (or
all the files and folders in the current remote directory, when using the File Transfer window).
Note that in the terminal window, the selection can span quite a few lines backwards from what is currently
visible. If you want to select just what is currently displayed on screen, use the Select Screen menu option
instead.
When used in the terminal window, this operation makes it fast and easy for example to save long command
output strings or to create a temporary log of what is displayed on the screen.
For file transfer, this enables you to operate on the whole contents of a directory at one time. This can be
especially useful when downloading, copying or deleting files.
The keyboard shortcut for Select All is Ctrl+A. This has the same effect as choosing the Select All option
from the Edit menu.
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7.3.5 Select Screen
Choose the Select Screen option to select all the text that is currently visible in the terminal window. Note
that unlike the Select All menu option, Select Screen does not capture the scrollback buffer.
This operation can be especially useful for screen captures and quick snapshots of the command output.
The Select Screen menu option is available only in the terminal window.
7.3.6 Select None
Choose the Select None option to cancel any previous selection. This operation immediately clears the
selection in the terminal window.
The Select None menu option is available only in the terminal window.
7.3.7 Find
Choosing the Find option allows you to search for text within the scrollback buffer. For more information on
searching, see section 6.10 ( Find).
The Find menu option is available only in the terminal window.
7.3.8 Settings
Select the Settings option to bring up the Settings dialog. Settings can be used to control both the global
settings and the profile settings for each particular remote host computer. For more information on the
Settings dialog, see section 2 (Configuration).
7.4 View Menu
The View menu allows you to select the way the window is displayed. The terminal window and the File
Transfer window have their own set of View menu options.
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7.4.1 Terminal Window View Menu Options
Toolbar
Select the Toolbar option to toggle the toolbar on and off. When the toolbar is visible, a checkmark appears
next to the Toolbar menu option.
Status Bar
Select the Status Bar option to toggle the status bar on and off. When the status bar is visible, a checkmark
appears next to the Status Bar menu option.
Profiles Bar
Select the Profiles Bar option to toggle the profiles bar on and off. When the toolbar is visible, a checkmark
appears next to the Profiles Bar menu option.
Customize
Select the Customize option to modify the menu options, toolbars, menu settings and general settings. The
Customize dialog opens. For more information on customizing the user interface, see section 2.6 (Customize).
Reset Toolbars
Select the Reset Toolbars option to reset the toolbar and menu positions to their original state. This is a good
choice if you regret the changes you have made, or have misplaced some menu or toolbar option.
Reset Terminal
Select the Reset Terminal option to reset the terminal settings to the state they were in when connecting. This
will clear the terminal window and the scrollback buffer and reset the keymap, characterset and fonts.
7.4.2 File Transfer View Menu Options
Toolbar
Select the Toolbar option to toggle the toolbar on and off. When the toolbar is visible, a checkmark appears
next to the Toolbar menu option.
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Status Bar
Select the Status Bar option to toggle the status bar on and off. When the status bar is visible, a checkmark
appears next to the Status Bar menu option.
Profiles Bar
Select the Profiles Bar option to toggle the profiles bar on and off. When the toolbar is visible, a checkmark
appears next to the Profiles Bar menu option.
Customize
Select the Customize option to modify the menu options, toolbars, menu settings and general settings. The
Customize dialog opens. For more information on customizing the user interface, see section 2.6 (Customize).
Reset Toolbars
Select the Reset Toolbars option to reset the toolbar and menu positions to their original state. This is a good
choice if you regret the changes you have made, or have misplaced some menu or toolbar option.
Large Icons
Select the Large Icons option to display the file view as a Large Icons view. Each file and folder has a large
icon associated with it, resulting in a clear and uncluttered display.
If the Large Icons option is selected, a selection marker appears next to the Large Icons menu option.
Small Icons
Select the Small Icons option to display the file view as a Small Icons view. Each file and folder has a small
icon associated with it. This makes it possible to display several times more items than the Large Icons view.
If the Small Icons option is selected, a selection marker appears next to the Small Icons menu option.
List
Select the List option to display the file view as a List view. Each file and folder has a small icon associated
with it, and the files and folders are displayed in one single column underneath each other.
If the List option is selected, a selection marker appears next to the List menu option.
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Details
Select the Details option to display the file view as a Details view. The files and folders are displayed with a
small icon, their file name, file size, file type, last modification date and attributes visible.
By clicking on the Name, Size, Type and Modified sort bars located on top of the File view, you can sort the
files and folders based on their file name, file size, file type and the time they were last modified. Selecting
the same sort option again reverses the sorting order.
Note that the sort function is not case sensitive: upper case text is sorted together with lower case text.
The file types are derived from the your local computer. If you have defined a new file type description for
files with a certain file name extension, also the files in the remote computer are shown to be of that file type.
This makes it easy to recognize particular file types also on the host computer.
Arrange Icons
Select the Arrange Icons option to open a submenu where you can select in which order the files and folders
are displayed in the file view. A selection marker appears next to the currently selected Arrange Icons option.
By Name: The files and folders are arranged alphabetically based on their file name.
By Type: The files and folders are arranged alphabetically based on their file type.
By Size: The files are arranged by their file size. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
By Date: The files and folders are arranged by the time they were last modified.
If you have selected the Details view, you can achieve the same effect by clicking on the Name, Size, Type
and Modified sort bars located on top of the File view. Selecting the same Arrange Icons option again reverses
the sorting order.
Note that the sort function is not case sensitive: upper case text is sorted together with lower case text.
Show Root Directory
Select the Show Root Directory option to toggle if the root directory is displayed in the folder view. If the
root directory is not displayed, you are not able to select or view any folders above your home directory in
the directory tree hierarchy. By default the root directory is not displayed.
If the Show Root Directory option is selected, a selection marker appears next to the Show Root Directory
menu option.
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Show Hidden Files
Select the Show Hidden Files option to toggle if the normally hidden files in the remote host computer are
displayed in the file view.
By default, UNIX hosts do not display any files or directories that begin with the dot (.) character, such as
.rhosts or .profile. Selecting the Show Hidden Files option corresponds to specifying the -a switch of the ls
command.
If the Show Hidden Files option is selected, a selection marker appears next to the Show Hidden Files menu
option.
Refresh
Select the Refresh option to redraw the File Transfer window. This may be necessary if you have for example
uploaded a file that does not immediately become visible on the remote host computer.
The keyboard shortcut for Refresh is F5.
7.5 Operation Menu
The Operation menu allows you to copy files to and from the remote host computer, and to navigate the
remote directory structure. The Operation menu is available only in the File Transfer window.
7.5.1 Open
The Open option can be used to view a file on the remote host computer. First select a file from the File
Transfer window and the select the Open option. The file will be downloaded and displayed.
7.5.2 Upload
Select the Upload option to upload a file - i.e. to copy it from your local computer to the remote host computer.
The keyboard shortcut for Upload is Ctrl+U. This has the same effect as choosing the Up option from the
Operation menu or the toolbar.
7.5.3 Download
Select the Download option to download a file - i.e. to copy it from the remote host computer to your local
computer.
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Note that you must first select the remote file(s) before selecting Download. If no files or folders are selected,
the Download menu option is grayed out.
The keyboard shortcut for Download is Ctrl+D. This has the same effect as choosing the Download option
from the Operation menu or the toolbar.
7.5.4 Up
Select the Up option to move the view from the current folder to its parent folder.
For example: You have a directory called home and it has a subdirectory called mail. If you are currently
viewing the mail folder and click the Up button, the focus moves to the home folder.
The keyboard shortcut for Up is the Backspace key. This has the same effect as choosing the Upload option
from the Operation menu or the toolbar.
7.5.5 Home
Select the Home option to return to your home directory on the remote host computer. This is useful if you
are exploring a complex directory tree and want to quickly return to where you came from.
The keyboard shortcut for Home is Ctrl+H. This has the same effect as choosing the Home option from the
Operation menu or the toolbar.
7.5.6 Go To Folder
Select the Go to Folder option to enter a folder where you want to move directly. A Go to Folder dialog
appears, allowing you to type in the path to the desired directory. The current directory path is displayed in
the text field for your reference, eliminating the need to type in long directory paths from scratch. Type in the
desired directory path and press Enter. The specified directory instantly appears.
If you specify a directory that does not exist, the file view turns blank and the nonexistent directory appears
in the folder view as a red folder, meaning that such a folder is not accessible to you. These ’false directories’
can serve as useful reminders that you have tried to access directories with such names, but remember that
they may not actually exist on the remote host computer.
The keyboard shortcut for Go To Folder is Ctrl+G. This has the same effect as choosing the Go to Folder
option from the Operation menu.
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7.5.7 New Folder
Select the New Folder option to create a new folder on the remote host computer. A new folder appears on
file view along with a text field where you can type in the name for the new folder.
If you do not type a name for the new folder but just hit Enter, a new folder is not created.
The keyboard shortcut for New Folder is Ctrl+N. This has the same effect as choosing the New Folder option
from the Operation menu.
7.5.8 Delete
Select the Delete option to delete file(s) or folder(s) on the remote host computer. A Confirm Delete dialog
appears, allowing you to confirm if you really want to delete the selected files or folders. Select No or Cancel
to keep the selected items, or Yes to delete them.
The keyboard shortcut for Delete is the Delete key. This has the same effect as choosing the Delete option
from the Operation menu.
7.5.9 Rename
Select first a file from the File Transfer window and then the Rename option to rename the file.
The keyboard shortcut for rename is F2. This has the same effect as choosing the Rename option from the
Operation menu.
You can also rename a file by clicking on the file with the right mouse button. A shortcut menu containing
the Rename option will appear.
Please note that the rename operation requires an SSH Secure Shell server version 2.2.0 (or later). Earlier
SSH Secure Shell server versions do not support the rename operation, and using this option will produce the
Error Renaming File message - for more information, see section 9.2.10 (Error Renaming).
7.5.10 Properties
Select first a file from the File Transfer window and then the Properties option to view the file properties.
You can also view a file’s properties by clicking on the file with the right mouse button. A shortcut menu
containing the Properties option will appear. You can select multiple files and view their properties.
For more details about the Properties Page, see section 5.10 (File Properties).
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7.5.11 File Transfer Mode
Select the File Transfer Mode option to set in which transfer mode files will be transferred. A submenu opens,
containing the following options:
ASCII
Select ASCII option to transfer files in ASCII mode.
Binary
Select the Binary option to transfer files in binary mode.
Auto Select
Select the Auto Select option to automatically change the transfer mode based on the file extension. Files
using a file extension specified on the ASCII Extensions list on the Mode page of the Settings dialog will
be transferred in ASCII mode. All other files will be transferred in binary mode. For more information, see
section 2.5.17 (Mode).
7.6 Window Menu
The Window menu allows you to open and close different types of windows.
7.6.1 New Terminal
Select the New Terminal option to open a new SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client terminal
window. The new window is immediately connected to the same remote host computer as the current window,
saving you the trouble of typing your password again.
Multiple windows to a single connection allow you to for example debug your code in one window, execute
it in another, display reference information in a third one and read your mail in a fourth window.
The sequence number of each window is displayed on the window’s title bar, in front of the remote host
computer’s name. For example, a second window associated with a connection to a host computer called
remote would display as 2:remote.
To close any extra windows when you no longer need them, click on the X-shaped close window button
located on the window’s title bar on the upper right hand corner of the window. Do not click on the Disconnect
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button or select the Disconnect option from the File menu, as this would close the connection in all windows
associated with this particular connection.
7.6.2 New File Transfer
Select the New File Transfer option to open a new File Transfer window. To make file managing as easy as
possible, you can open an unlimited number of File Transfer windows.
The sequence number of each window is displayed on the window’s title bar, in front of the remote host
computer’s name. For example, a third window associated with a connection to a host computer called
remote would display as 3:remote.
To close any extra windows when you no longer need them, click on the X-shaped close window button
located on the window’s title bar on the upper right hand corner of the window. Do not click on the Disconnect
button or select the Disconnect option from the File menu, as this would close the connection in all windows
associated with this particular connection.
7.6.3 New Explorer
Select the New Explorer option to open a new Windows Explorer window. The Windows Explorer is the
familiar Windows utility that can be used to manage the files and folders in your local computer. You can
have multiple Explorer windows open at the same time to make file management easier.
The New Explorer menu option is available only in the File Transfer window.
7.6.4 Close
Select the Close option to close the current window. Other windows are unaffected, even if they are associated
with the same connection.
7.6.5 Close All Others
Select the Close all Others option to close all the other SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client
windows associated with this particular connection.
A single connection can have several windows open (such as an SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows
client terminal window and a File Transfer window). The Close All Others operation affects all the other
windows associated with a particular connection.
However, if you have started other, separate SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows clients, they are not
affected by this operation. Close All Others only affects one connection and all of its associated windows,
but no other, separate connections.
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7.7 Help Menu
The Help menu allows you to access the help and copyright information.
7.7.1 Contents
Select the Contents option from the Help menu to view the help as Web pages. A browser will open and the
HTML based help files will be loaded locally, from your own computer. The contents page will appear. Click
on a chapter you want to explore, or click the Index link to see an alphabetical listing of keywords.
If you want to check the Web help instead of the locally installed help files, see the SSH Secure Shell for
Workstations Windows client Web help: http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/winhelp/.
7.7.2 Get Help On
Select the Get Help On option to change the mouse pointer to a help pointer. You can use the help pointer
to click on buttons, menu items or other details of the user interface to see context sensitive help on any
particular item.
7.7.3 SSH on the Web
Select the SSH on the Web option to open a submenu containing Web links to SSH Secure Shell Web pages.
Online Help
Select the Online Help option to load the Web version of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows
client help (http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/winhelp/). This is useful if you want to see
the most up-to-date version of the help.
Frequently Asked Questions
Select the Frequently Asked Questions option to load the online version of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client FAQ (http://www.ssh.com/faq/).
Home Page
Select the Home Page option to open the SSH Communications Security home page (http://www.ssh.
com).
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7.7.4 Troubleshooting
Select the Troubleshooting option to display the Troubleshooting dialog. If you encounter problems when
using the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client, you can send a bug report by using the support
web form at http://www.ssh.com/support. To make the support team’s work easier, you should
describe your system and the problem situation as carefully as possible. The Troubleshooting dialog helps
you in this.
Click the Copy to Clipboard button to copy the troubleshooting report on the Windows clipboard. You can
then paste (Ctrl+V) the report into the support web form. But please describe your problem also in your
own words - the Troubleshooting dialog cannot do that for you!
Figure 7.1: The Troubleshooting dialog.
7.7.5 Debugging
Select the Debugging option to gather debugging information useful for tracking possible errors. The Debugging dialog opens.
Enable Debugging
Select the Enable Debugging check box to log debugging information. Enabling this option slows down
the client, so it should be only done to track error situations, for example when requested by SSH technical
support.
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Figure 7.2: The Debugging dialog
Debug
The Debug options define how much debugging information will be collected and where the data will be
saved.
Level
Type in a number to indicate the debug level. Higher numbers will produce more debugging data. A
typical value for debug level is 3 or 4. Debug levels approaching 10 will produce large amounts of
debugging data and make the software very slow.
Alternatively you can specify different debug levels for different operations. For example the debug
value 4, ssheventloop=7 would define the general debug level as 4, but for ssheventloop
activity the debug level would be 7.
File
Select the file where debug data will be saved. Either type in the path and filename, or click the button
on the righthand side of the text field to open a Save As dialog, allowing you to locate the save file.
Clear File on Startup
Select the Clear File on Startup check box to delete the debug data every time SSH Secure Shell is
launched.
Note: If this option is not checked, the log file will keep continuosly growing and must be manually
manually cleared.
Debug File
The Debug File are displays a scrollable view of the currently gathered debug data.
Clear File
Click the Clear File button to empty the current debug data file.
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Open File in Editor
Click the Open File in Editor button to open the current debug data file in a text editor, allowing you
to view, edit, save or print the data.
OK
Click the OK button to accept the current settings and close the Debugging dialog.
Cancel
Click the Cancel button to discard the changes and close the Debugging dialog.
7.7.6 Import License File
With the Import License File option you can register your copy of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
Windows client.
After you have applied for a license file from the SSH e-commerce web site (http://commerce.ssh.
com) and received a license file (which is called license.dat by default), select the Import License
File menu option from the Help menu. You will be presented with a dialog requesting a file name. Locate
the license.dat file and click the OK button. You should see a dialog telling that the license file was
successfully imported and copied to the installation directory. Click the OK button to continue. Your copy of
the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client is now registered.
7.7.7 About Secure Shell
Select the About Secure Shell option to view the copyright information on the SSH Communications
Security’s SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client. Also version and license information is displayed. Click the OK button to close the dialog.
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Figure 7.3: The About dialog displays copyright, licensing and version information.
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Chapter 8
Advanced Information
SSH is a protocol for secure remote login and other secure network services over an insecure network. It
consists of three major components:
Transport layer protocol [SSH-TRANS] provides server authentication, confidentiality, and integrity.
It may optionally also provide compression. The transport layer will typically be run over a TCP/IP
connection, but might also be used on top of any other reliable data stream.
User authentication protocol [SSH-USERAUTH] authenticates the client-side user to the server. It runs
over the transport layer protocol.
Connection protocol [SSH-CONN] multiplexes several logical channels into the encrypted tunnel. It
runs over the user authentication protocol.
The client sends a service request once a secure transport layer connection has been established. A second
service request is sent after user authentication is complete. This allows new protocols to be defined and
coexist with the protocols listed above.
The connection protocol provides channels that can be used for a wide range of purposes. Standard methods
are provided for setting up secure interactive shell sessions and for forwarding (”tunneling”) arbitrary TCP/IP
ports and X11 connections.
8.1 SSH2 Functionality
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client connects and logs into the specified remote host computer. Upon login, the user must prove his identity to the remote host computer by using some authentication
method.
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Public-key authentication is based on the use of digital signatures. Each user creates a public / private key
pair for authentication purposes. The server knows the user’s public key, but only the user has her private
key.
When the user tries to authenticate herself, the server sends a challenge to the user. User is authenticated by
signing the challenge using the private key.
Private / public key pairs can be created with a built-in key generation wizard. (See section 3.3.1 (Key
Generation Wizard).)
Other authentication methods can be used as well. If other methods fail, the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client prompts for a password. Since all communications is encrypted, the password will not
be available for eavesdroppers.
When the user’s identity has been accepted by the server, the server either executes the given command, or
logs into the remote host computer and gives the user a normal shell on the remote computer. All communication with the remote command or shell will be automatically encrypted. The session can be transparent
and can be used to reliably transfer binary data.
The session terminates when the command or shell on the remote machine exits and all X11 and TCP/IP
connections have been closed. The exit status of the remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh2.
If the user is using X11, the connection to the X11 display is automatically forwarded to the remote side
in such a way that any X11 programs started from the shell (or command) will go through the encrypted
channel, and the connection to the real X server will be made from the local machine.
SSH2 will also automatically set up Xauthority data on the server machine. For this purpose, it will generate
a random authorization cookie, store it in Xauthority on the server, and verify that any forwarded connections
carry this cookie and replace it by the real cookie when the connection is opened. The real authentication
cookie is never sent to the server machine (and no cookies are sent in the plain).
If the user is using an authentication agent, the connection to the agent is automatically forwarded to the
remote side unless disabled.
Forwarding of arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be specified. TCP/IP forwarding
can be used for secure connections to electronic wallets or going through firewalls.
SSH2 automatically maintains and checks a database containing public keys of hosts. When logging on to
a host for the first time, the host’s public key is stored to a file in the user’s personal directory. If a host’s
identification changes, SSH2 issues a warning and disables password authentication to prevent for example a
malicious Trojan horse program from getting the user’s password. Another purpose of this mechanism is to
prevent man-in-the-middle attacks that could otherwise be used to circumvent the encryption.
SSH2 also has built-in support for SOCKS version 4 for traversing firewalls.
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8.1.1 Host Keys
Each server host must have a host key. Hosts may have multiple host keys using multiple different algorithms.
Multiple hosts may share the same host key. Every host must have at least one key using each required public
key algorithm.
The server host key is used during key exchange to verify that the client is really communicating with the
correct server. For this to be possible, the client must have prior knowledge of the server’s public host key.
Two different trust models can be used:
The client has a local database that associates each host name (as typed by the user) with the corresponding public host key. This method requires no centrally administered infrastructure, and no
third-party coordination. The downside is that the database of name-key associations may become
burdensome to maintain.
The host name - key association is certified by a trusted certification authority. The client knows only
the CA root key, and can verify the validity of all host keys certified by accepted CAs.
The second alternative eases the maintenance problem, since ideally only a single CA key needs to
be securely stored on the client. On the other hand, each host key must be appropriately certified
by a central authority before authorization is possible. Also, a lot of trust is placed on the central
infrastructure.
8.1.2 Security Properties
The primary goal of the SSH protocols is improved security on the Internet.
All encryption, integrity, and public key algorithms used are well-known, well-established algorithms.
All algorithms are used with cryptographically sound key sizes that are believed to provide protection
against even the strongest cryptanalytic attacks for decades.
All algorithms are negotiated, and in case some algorithm is broken, it is easy to switch to some other
algorithm without modifying the base protocol.
8.2 Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
A system that uses digital certificates for authentication and thus helps establish secure communications
is called a public-key infrastructure (PKI). A PKI consists of end entities, certification authorities (trusted
parties who sign and issue certificates), and registration authorities (parties who handle the identification of
end entities).
(Please note that PKI and PKCS #11 support is only available in commercial distributions of the SSH Secure
Shell for Workstations client.)
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A PKI provides a means for reliable authentication of parties in an online environment by using asymmetric
encryption. In addition to authentication, the PKI also enables secure digital communications and transactions.
In asymmetric encryption, every entity (communicating party) has a key pair that consists of a public key and
a private key. Private keys are secret and are known only to their owners. Private keys are used for signing
and decrypting messages.
Public keys are, as the name implies, public and can be published on, for example, a web server. Public keys
are used for validating signatures and encrypting messages. Before public-key operations can be made, the
public key has to be received securely so that no one can substitute the genuine key with a tampered one.
Certificates can be used for distributing public keys of end entities.
Certificates are digital documents that are used for secure authentication of communicating parties. Certificates are also used for sending the public keys of the entities to other entities. A certificate binds identity
information about an entity to the entity’s public key for a certain validity period. Certificates can be thought
of as analogous to passports that guarantee the identity of their bearers.
To enable wide usage of certificates and interoperable implementations from multiple vendors, certificates
have to be based on standards. The most advanced and widespread certificate specifications at the moment
are defined by the PKIX Working Group of the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).
8.2.1 CA
The trusted parties that sign, issue and manage certificates are called certification authorities (CA). A CA
is the instance that vouches for the identity and trustworthiness of the end entity it grants the certificates
to. Certification authorities can be thought of as being analogous to governments issuing passports for their
citizens.
CA can be a third party trusted by everyone in the PKI, or it can belong to the same organization as the end
entities. CAs can also certify other CAs (to issue certificates) by signing so-called CA certificates. This leads
to a tree-like structure of CA hierarchies. The top CA in the ”tree” is called a root CA. A new root CA is
established in two steps:
1. Generation of a CA key pair and a CA certificate.
2. Exporting the CA public key ”out-of-band” to all end entities in the PKI.
The public keys of CAs are usually built into specific client applications. CA keys are then distributed when
the client applications are installed to the end users’ devices (workstations, laptops, PDAs). Before end
entities can communicate securely, also their public keys need to be certified by enrolling the end entities into
the PKI and having their certificates issued by the CA.
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8.2.2 Certificate Enrollment
Certificate enrollment is an action in which a CA certifies a public key. A certification authority can delegate
authentication of the end entities as well as certain other administrational tasks to so-called registration authorities (RA). Using local RAs a large geographically or operationally distributed PKI can work in a scalable
way, even when the actual certificate issuing is centralized.
The actual enrollment process consists of the following steps:
1. Generation of a key pair
2. End entity requesting certification for the public key
3. CA or RA verifying the identity of the end entity
4. CA generating a certificate for the end entity and making it available (if the request is approved).
End entities can use standard request formats to request certificates from a CA. The CA uses the underlying
policy to decide whether to approve the request or not. The policy decision and the approval/denial can be
automatic, or it may be required that the operator of the CA has to approve certificate requests manually. If
identification of the end entity is needed, the RA may perform this function. If the request is approved, a
signed certificate will be issued and delivered to a public directory. Finally, when the issued certificates are
available in the directories, all entities in the PKI can verify each other’s certificates with the CA’s public key.
8.2.3 Certificate Revocation
If a private key of an end entity is compromised or the right to authenticate with a certificate is lost during
the certificate’s validity period, the certificate has to be revoked, and all PKI users have to be informed about
this. Certificate revocation lists (CRL) can be used for this purpose.
A CRL is a time-stamped list identifying the revoked certificates and is signed by a CA. The presence of the
signature allows CRLs to be distributed via un-trusted channels in public directories, just like the certificates.
Each CA issues CRLs on a regular basis, the issuance period being defined in the CA’s security policy.
Certificate validation has to include the retrieval of the latest CRL to check the status of the certificate. X.509
v2 CRL is a standard PKIX CRL format.
As the certificate revocation lists are updated on a periodic basis, they don’t provide real-time status information for the PKI. If more strict security needs to be followed, online status data has to be provided for relying
end entities. In Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) OCSP responders respond to end entities’ status
requests with signed responses about the revocation status of a certificate. This kind of function is required
for example in a PKI where high-value business transactions are digitally signed.
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8.2.4 Directory Services
Certificates and CRLs have to be distributed to directories in order to be available to PKI users. Information
about how CRLs are to be obtained can be indicated in an extension field (distribution point) of an X.509 v3
certificate.
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) has become a de facto standard procedure for CRL and
certificate distribution. This enables interoperability with third party directory servers based on the LDAP
standard. OCSP can be seen as an replacement for LDAP since with it revocation lists are not needed.
However, encryption certificates still need to be fetched from somewhere, such as an LDAP directory.
8.3 Using Certificate Authentication
In order to use certificate authentication you need to issue certificates for users and hosts using a certification
authority (CA) software such as SSH Certifier(TM).
The first requirement for using certificates is to import the certificates of the CAs that you trust. Trusting a
CA means that to the best of your knowledge the private key of the CA has not been compromised. The CA
certificates will be the connecting links between entities that have been issued a certificate.
Requesting a CA to issue a certificate is called certificate enrollment. SSH Secure Shell supports the CMPv2
enrollment protocol. If CMPv2 is not available in the CA software, the enrollment can be done in another
application and the resulting certificates can be imported to SSH Secure Shell using the PKCS #12 format.
PKCS #12 format files can contain one or more user or CA certificates and private keys. SSH Secure Shell
determines the contents of the file and writes the entries to the corresponding directories for subsequent use.
Standard PKCS #12 files generated using applications such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet
Explorer are supported.
Other supported formats for importing user and CA certificates are PKCS #7, BER and X.509 binary. If a
user certificate is imported the corresponding private key must be made available to SSH Secure Shell. For
this purpose, PKCS #12 is recommended.
In the certification request you can suggest a Common Name (e.g. John Smith), Organization Unit
(like Marketing), Organization (SSH Communications Security Corp.), Country (US) and Email Address
(john.smith@ssh.com).
The CA can change these fields before issuing the certificate. The certificate validity period and other parameters are determined by the configuration of the CA software. Please note that certificate enrollment requiring
manual acceptance in the CA software is not supported. You may be able to compensate this by using PKCS
#12 file importing.
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8.3.1 PKCS #11
PKCS #11 is a runtime interface to hardware tokens and software keys. To be able to use a hardware token,
such as a smart card or a USB token, a third party driver is required. The driver is usually a single DLL
(Dynamic Link Library) file residing in the Windows system directory. You need to install the software
included with the hardware token before configuring SSH Secure Shell.
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Chapter 9
Troubleshooting
If you should encounter an error message when using the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows
client, please read the error message carefully and follow the suggested course of action. Some possible error
messages and their suggested corrective actions are described below.
9.1 Error Dialogs At Startup
If you get an error dialog when you try to run SSH Secure Shell, you may need to update the common controls
library, comctl32.dll. The older library version is included in at least some Windows 95 installations.
To obtain the update, go to the Microsoft web site http://www.microsoft.com/msdownload/
ieplatform/ie/comctrl x86.asp and download the latest version.
9.1.1 Evaluation Period Ending
This message indicates that the evaluation period for this copy of SSH Secure Shell client will soon end. You
are allowed to use the client for free for the duration of the evaluation period, and after that you should obtain
a license in order to continue using the software.
For more information on the license agreement, read the file license.txt located in the directory where SSH
Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client was installed.
Now is a good time to register the software to ensure that your network connections will always be secure.
The fastest and most convenient way to obtain a license for your SSH Secure Shell client is to visit the SSH
e-commerce web site at http://commerce.ssh.com/.
The licensing is a quick and easy operation. The license file is a small, fast loading file that you can download
immediately. You can import the license file (license.dat) by selecting the Import License File option from
the Help menu.
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You will be presented with a dialog requesting a file name. Locate the license.dat file and click the OK
button. You should see a dialog telling that the license file was successfully imported. Click the OK button
to continue. Your copy of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations is now registered.
Alternatively, if you want to download the newest version of the licensed SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
software, you can download the whole package with the license already installed.
Thank you for evaluating the SSH Secure Shell Windows Client!
9.1.2 Expiration
This error indicates that the evaluation period for this copy of the SSH Secure Shell client has ended. The
client software cannot be used until you obtain a valid license.
For more information on the license agreement, read the file license.txt located in the same directory as the
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client.
The fastest and most convenient way to obtain a license for your SSH Secure Shell client is to visit the SSH
e-commerce web site at http://commerce.ssh.com/.
The licensing is a quick and easy operation. The license file is a small, fast loading file that you can download
immediately. You can import the license file (license.dat) by selecting the Import License File option from
the Help menu.
You will be presented with a dialog requesting a file name. Locate the license.dat file and click the OK
button. You should see a dialog telling that the license file was successfully imported. Click the OK button
to continue. Your copy of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations is now registered.
Alternatively, if you want to download the newest version of the licensed SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
software, you can download the whole package with the license already installed.
Thank you for evaluating the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations!
9.1.3 Failed To Read Keymap File
This error message indicates that for some reason the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client
is unable to read the KEYMAP.MAP file. When the ssh2 client is started for the first time, it checks for
the existence of the keymap file, and if the client does not find it, it copies it to the current user’s personal
directory.
For easy access to your personal data files, open the Profile Settings page of the Settings dialog and click the
Browse button.
Check that the KEYMAP.MAP file is in the correct folder and that its Read-only attribute is not set.
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9.1.4 File Open Error
This error indicates that a configuration file (such as KEYMAP.MAP or default.ssh2) could not be properly
opened. The file may be damaged, or the file may define an unknown configuration value.
This error may indicate that you are using a configuration file that was created using an earlier version of the
SSH Secure Shell client. You can remedy this by saving your configuration file again (select the Save option
from the File menu).
9.1.5 Keymap Error
This error indicates that the SSH Secure Shell client has not been able to read a keymap file (KEYMAP.MAP,
KEYMAP22.MAP or OUTPUT.MAP) that defines how the keyboard input/output is processed. The keymap
file is either missing, corrupted or renamed with an unrecognizable file name.
Close the SSH Secure Shell client and check the keymap file. If it is missing or corrupted, reinstall the
SSH Secure Shell client. The new installation will leave your saved configuration settings intact, and after
reinstalling you can continue using SSH Secure Shell client as before.
9.1.6 Your License Has Expired
This error indicates that the license for this copy of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client
has expired. The client software cannot be used until you obtain a new license.
For more information on the license agreement, read the file license.txt located in the same directory as the
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client.
The fastest and most convenient way to obtain a license for your SSH Secure Shell client is to visit the SSH
e-commerce web site at http://commerce.ssh.com/.
The licensing is a quick and easy operation. The license file is a small, fast loading file that you can download
immediately. You can import the license file (license.dat) by selecting the Import License File option from
the Help menu.
You will be presented with a dialog requesting a file name. Locate the license.dat file and click the OK
button. You should see a dialog telling that the license file was successfully imported. Click the OK button
to continue. Your copy of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations is now registered.
Alternatively, if you want to download the newest version of the licensed SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
software, you can download the whole package with the license already installed.
Thank you for using the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client!
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9.2 Error Dialogs During Operation
The following error dialogs may occur when operating SSH Secure Shell.
9.2.1 Authentication Failure
This error message indicates that the authentication process between your local computer and the remote host
computer has for some reason failed.
The most common cause for failed authentication is an incorrect password, likely caused by a typing mistake.
Also the user name may be incorrect. Check that you have typed it correctly.
One possible reason for authentication failure is that the remote host computer may have been configured to
require several authentication methods to be used. For example both password and public key authentication
could be used for increased security. Even if you entered your password correctly, some other required authentication method could have failed. A relatively common situation is one where the remote host computer
is expecting public-key authentication and you have not sent your public key to the host. You can do this by
following the instructions in section 3.5 (Uploading Your Public Key).
It may also be possible that your account on the remote host computer has been disabled or that the remote
host computer is having temporary problems causing errors with the login procedure.
Try to connect again and carefully type in your user name and password. If after a couple of retries you
are sure that you have entered both of them correctly, contact the system administrator of the remote host
computer.
9.2.2 Confirm Disconnect
This dialog is displayed when you are disconnecting an active connection. You can either confirm the disconnect operation or cancel it.
Yes
Click the Yes button to close the currently active connection.
No
Click the No button to keep the current connection.
Cancel
Click the Cancel button to change your mind and abort the disconnect operation. This has the same
effect as selecting No. (This option is included to make the selection more intuitive for users who have
clicked the Disconnect button in error.)
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Help
Click the Help button to view the help.
Note that one connection can have several windows open (such as an SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
Windows client terminal window and a File Transfer window). Disconnecting affects all windows associated
with a single connection. All tunnels associated with the disconnected connection will be terminated as well.
However, if you have started other, separate SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows clients, they are not
affected by this disconnect operation. Disconnecting quits one connection and all of its associated windows,
but no other, separate connections. You can differentiate between different windows associated with a single
connection by the window’s sequence number, displayed on the title bar.
You can differentiate between different windows associated with a single connection by the window’s sequence number, displayed on the title bar (see section 4.1 (Terminal Window Title Bar)).
9.2.3 Confirm File Overwrite
The Confirm File Overwrite dialog indicates that a file you are transfering already exists in the target system.
You can choose if you want to replace the old file with the transferred file.
You have the following options:
Yes
Click the Yes button to replace the old file.
Yes to All
Click the Yes to All button to replace this file and also all the other files that already exist in the target
system.
No
Click the No button to avoid overwriting the already existing file.
Cancel
Click the Cancel button to abort the file transfer operation.
9.2.4 Connection Failure
This error indicates that the SSH Secure Shell client cannot establish a connection to the remote host computer. There are several reasons that might cause this situation.
It may be that you have simply made a typing mistake, and there is an error in the name of the remote host
computer. In this case you should also receive an error stating that the host is unknown.
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Check that you have defined the correct port number for the connection. The port can be changed on the
Connection page of the Settings dialog.
There may be problems with the configuration or physical setup of the network connection. Verify that other
network connections are functioning.
This problem may also arise if your local system is protected by a firewall and the firewall has not been
properly configured. If you suspect that this is the case, ask your local system administrator to reconfigure
the firewall.
There may also be a temporary problem with the remote host computer. If this is the case, you should wait for
a while and try to connect again later. Contact the administrator of the remote host computer for additional
information.
9.2.5 Disconnected; Authentication Error
The error message ”Disconnected; Authentication Error (No further authentication methods available.)” indicates that any of the methods that have been used to authenticate you to the server have not been successful.
A relatively common situation is one where the remote host computer is expecting public-key authentication
to be used and you have not sent your public key to the host. You can do this by following the instructions in
section 3.5 (Uploading Your Public Key).
This error is also produced if the system’s name server is not doing reverse lookups correctly. Ask your
system administrator to configure the name server so that it does reverse lookups properly.
If this is not possible, the system administrator has to edit the file /etc/ssh2/sshd2 config on the
SSH server and change the RequireReverseMapping setting to no.
This is a common problem for modem connections. Typical modem connections use dynamic IP addresses.
This means that the IP address changes from one connection to another, and these dynamic IP addresses have
no permanent name server entries in the Domain Name System (DNS). If this is the case, you will have to
ask your service provider to edit the sshd2 config file on the SSH server.
9.2.6 Disconnection
This error indicates that the connection to the remote host computer has been lost.
There may be problems with the configuration or the physical setup of either your or the remote host computer’s network connection.
It may also be that the remote host computer has been rebooted, which has disconnected your computer from
the host.
Usually problems of this kind are temporary, and you can try again after waiting for a while. If this does not
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help, check your local network, and if necessary, contact also the system administrator of the remote host
computer.
9.2.7 Enter Passcode
When using SecurID for authentication, you have to enter the passcode in order to authenticate the connection.
In some situations you may not be able to do this immediately, but will have to wait for the token to change.
9.2.8 Enter Passphrase For Private Key
This message indicates that the remote host computer is willing to accept your public key to authenticate you
in the future.
Type in the passphrase associated with this key. (You defined the passphrase when you created the public key
- see section 3.3.5 (Key Generation - Enter Passphrase) for more information.)
If you just press the Enter key, public authentication will not be used, and the system will ask you to type in
your password instead.
9.2.9 Enter PIN
When using certificate authentication, the Enter PIN dialog will display information on the provider used.
You will have to enter the personal identification number (PIN) associated with the token.
9.2.10 Error Renaming
This error message indicates that a file or folder on the remote host computer could not be renamed. Usually
this means that the SSH server software is too old to support renaming.
The rename operation requires an SSH Secure Shell server version 2.2.0 (or later). Earlier SSH Secure Shell
server versions do not support the rename operation. Renaming remote files or folders is not possible until
the system administrator of the remote host computer updates the SSH server software.
9.2.11 Failed To Create An Incoming Tunnel
This error indicates that the system has not been able to create the requested tunnel.
The most common reason for this failure is that a tunnel with the same name already exists. The similarly
named tunnel may have been created by another SSH Secure Shell client connected to the same server.
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If the system has several of Secure Shell users, they may already have reserved several available ports. In this
case just try again to find a free port.
Another possible reason is that you have no permission to open the requested port. The system administrator
may have set a policy that restricts opening of communications ports - this is common practice especially
with incoming ports. Check the local policy from the system administrator. Please note that only the system
administrator (root) can open port numbers under 1024.
Please note that both incoming and outgoing tunnels produce their own error messages. If both fail, the client
will display two separate error messages.
9.2.12 Host Identification
When you connect to a remote host computer for the first time, the host sends your local computer its public
key in order to identify itself. To help you to verify the host’s identity, the Host Identification dialog displays
a fingerprint of the host’s public key. The fingerprint is represented using the SSH Babble format, and it
consists of a pronounceable series of five lowercase letters separated by dashes. If you have reason to suspect
that the public key you have received may be forged, you can for example phone the system administrator of
the remote host machine and check if the fingerprint is correct.
You can save the host key on your local computer by clicking the Yes button. This is the recommended action.
If you save the host key, you won’t have to answer this dialog again when connecting to the same host from
the same computer.
If you do not want to save the host key, click the No button. You can connect normally, but the next time you
connect to the same host, the remote host will send you its public key and you will again be asked, if you
want to save the key on your local computer.
You can also cancel the connection attempt by clicking the Cancel button. This results in an authentication
failure, and the connection will be canceled. The host key is not saved and your local computer will not be
no connected to the remote host computer.
9.2.13 Host Identification Failed
This error signifies that the identification method used by the remote host computer does not match what was
expected by the SSH Secure Shell client.
A change in the host identification may be caused by one of the following reasons:
The administrator of the remote host computer has changed the identification method.
The administrator of the remote host computer has changed the IP address (or the host name) of the
remote host.
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The administrator of the remote host computer has upgraded the system from SSH version 1 server to
SSH version 2.
An intruder is trying to pose as the remote host computer.
If you encounter this situation, do not proceed with the connection! First you should contact the system
administrator of the remote host computer (preferably by phone) and check the reason for the failed identification. Only proceed with the connection when you are sure that the error is not caused by an intruder.
9.2.14 New PIN
Enter a new personal identification number (PIN) in order to continue. Enter the PIN twice, once in each
field. This ensures that you have not made a typing mistake.
9.2.15 PAM Response
When using Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) as the authentication method, SSH Secure Shell will
ask you to provide the information that the remote host computer is requesting - typically a password.
Figure 9.1: Type in your answer to the authentication query.
9.2.16 Password Needed for PFX Integrity Check
When using PKCS #12 format files to import user or CA certificates and private keys, you will have to enter
the password associated with the PKCS #12 file to be imported.
9.2.17 The Remote Host Uses ssh1 Protocol
This message indicates that you are connecting to a remote host computer that is using version 1 of the Secure
Shell protocol (ssh1).
Please note that an SSH version 2 (ssh2) is a more advanced protocol than the legacy version ssh1. For more
information on using an ssh1 connection, see the SSH web site http://www.ssh.com/products/
ssh/ssh1.html.
SSH Communications Security has deprecated the ssh1 protocol and does not recommend using it. For more
information, see http://www.ssh.com/products/ssh/cert/deprecation.html.
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If you choose to accept the ssh1 connection, multiple terminal windows and the file transfer operations are
not available.
If you do not want to see this message again, select the appropriate ssh1 Connections setting from the Security
page of the Settings dialog. For more information on this option, see section 2.5.19 (Security).
9.2.18 Wrong Passphrase
This error indicates that the passphrase you entered is incorrect and that the private key file could not be read.
It also possible that the key file has been damaged, but this is unlikely.
This error will result in authentication failure (see section 9.2.1 (Authentication Failure)) and disconnection
(see section 9.2.6 (Disconnection)). Click the OK button on both error dialogs to continue.
Try to connect again. If this error is repeated, upload your public key to the remote host computer again. For
more information on this procedure, see section 3.5 (Uploading Your Public Key).
9.2.19 Wrong Password - Enter Again
This error indicates that the password you typed does not match what the remote host computer expected.
You have probably made a typing mistake (or possibly left the password field blank, when the host computer
expected to receive a password). Retype your password and hit the Enter key to try again.
If after several attempts you are sure that you have typed your password correctly, contact the system administrator of the remote host computer.
9.3 PKCS #11 Keys
If you have any problems with specific PKCS #11 providers, please check first for notes on your provider at
http://www.ssh.com/support/ssh/faq/.
9.3.1 Signing error
In some cases signing errors occur when using a PKCS #11 provider key for authentication. If your PKCS
#11 provider (e.g. a hardware token) has multiple keys, it may be that not all the keys can be used for
authentication.
Try changing the Slots value in the PKCS #11 configuration (see section 2.5.14 (PKCS 11 Provider)).
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When experimenting with the value, saving the settings and restarting the application, you will see different
keys being used for authentication. Upload each key at a time to the remote host computer. One of the keys
may be valid for authentication.
9.4 SSH1 Specific Error Messages
The following error message may be encountered when using ssh1 connection.
9.4.1 Unexpected EOF
This error message indicates that the connection to the server has been lost (literally meaning that the ssh2
client has encountered an unexpected End Of File signal).
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Appendix A
Appendices
The SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client is shipped with several command line tools. Their
functionality is briefly explained in the following appendices. (For information on the command line options
of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client, see section 3.7 (Command Line Options).)
Also included is a list of answers to frequently asked questions about the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations
Windows client.
A.1 SSH2
SSH2.EXE is a command line version of the SSH Secure Shell 2 utility.
The syntax of ssh2 is:
ssh2 [options] [user@]host[#port] [command]
The following options are available:
-l
+x
-x
-i
-F
-t
-v
-d
-V
-q
user
file
file
level
Log in using this user name.
Enable X11 connection forwarding.
Disable X11 connection forwarding.
Identity file for public-key authentication
Read an alternative configuration file.
Tty; allocate a tty even if command is given.
Verbose; display verbose debugging messages. Equal to ‘-d 2’
Set debug level.
Display version number only.
Quiet; don’t display any warning messages.
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-c cipher
-m
-p
-S
-L
-R
+C
-C
-o
-O
-E
-h
Select encryption algorithm. Multiple -c options are
allowed and a single -c flag can have only one cipher.
MAC
Select MAC algorithm. Multiple -m options are
allowed and a single -m flag can have only one MAC.
port
Connect to this port. Server must be on the same port.
Don’t request a session channel.
listen-port:host:port
Forward local port to remote address
listen-port:host:port
Forward remote port to local address
These cause SSH to listen for connections on a port, and
forward them to the other side by connecting to host:port.
Enable compression.
Disable compression.
’option’ Process the option as if it was read from a configuration file.
provider Use provider as the external key provider
string
Use string as initialization string for external key provider
Display this help.
The command can be either of the following:
remote command [arguments ...]
Run command in remote host.
-s service
Enable a service in remote server.
Type ssh2 without arguments to see the command line syntax and the location of the configuration files.
A.2 SCP2
SCP2.EXE is a Windows port of the UNIX Secure Copy 2 tool (scp2).
SCP2 is used to securely copy files over the network. The program uses the ssh2 protocol for data transfer,
and uses the same authentication and provides the same security as ssh2. SCP2 will ask for passwords or
passphrases if they are needed for authentication.
Any file name may contain a host, user and port specification to indicate that the file is to be copied to/from
that host. Copies between two remote hosts are permitted.
SCP2 uses the same host keys and user keys as the graphical SSH Secure Shell Windows client. The default
location for these files is the directory used to store the user profile. The -k switch can be used to override the
default location. Certificate authentication can be used in some configurations with SCP2, but SCP2 exists for
scripting purposes and certificate usage is not recommended. (Please note that PKI and PKCS #11 support is
available only in commercial distributions of the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations client.)
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Please note that SCP2 offers no fallback to the ssh1 protocol.
A.2.1 SCP2 Syntax
The Windows command line version of SCP2 does not read the ssh2 config file or any other configuration
files. It receives all its parameters from the command line.
The following parameters can be used:
SYNOPSIS
scp2 [-D debug_level] [-d] [-q] [-Q] [-p] [-u] [-r] [-a] [-v] [-c cipher]
[-C] [-P ssh2-port] [-f fw-name] [-F fw-port] [-k dir] [-V] [-h]
[[user@]host[#port]:]file ...
[[user@]host[#port]:]file_or_dir
OPTIONS
-D debug_level_spec
-d
-q
-Q
-p
-u
-r
-a
-v
-c cipher
-C
-P
-f
-F
-k
-V
-h
ssh2-port
fw-name
fw-port
dir
Set debug level. (Syntax is module=level)
Force target to be a directory.
Make scp quiet (only fatal errors are displayed).
Don’t show progress indicator.
Preserve file attributes and timestamps.
Remove source files after copying.
Recurse subdirectories.
transfer files in ASCII mode.
Verbose mode; equal to ’-D 2’.
Select encryption algorithm. Multiple -c options are
allowed and a single -c flag can have only one cipher.
Sets compression on. Default is off.
sshd2 port.
Firewall name.
Firewall port.
Store host keys and read user keys from this dir
instead of the user profile dir.
Display version.
Display this help.
Switches added for the Windows version of SCP2 are -C, -f, -F and -k.
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A.2.2 SCP2 Return Values
The Windows command line version of SCP2 returns the following values based on the success of the operation.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Operation was successful.
Operation resulted in an undetermined error within sshfilecopy.
Destination is not directory, but it should be.
Maximum symlink level exceeded.
Connecting to host failed.
Connection broke for some reason.
File doesn’t exist.
No permission to access file.
Undetermined error from sshfilexfer.
File transfer protocol mismatch.
A.3 SFTP2
SFTP2.EXE is a Windows port of the UNIX Secure File Transfer 2 tool (sftp2).
SFTP2 is an FTP-like client that can be used for file transfer over the network. SFTP2 uses ssh2 in data
connections, so the file transport is secure.
In order to connect using SFTP2, you need to make sure that sshd2 is running on the remote host computer
you are connecting to.
SYNOPSIS
sftp2 [-D debug_level_spec] [-B batchfile] [-S path] [-h]
[-V] [-P port] [-b buffer_size] [-N max_requests]
[-c cipher] [-m mac] [user@]host[#port]
OPTIONS
-D debug_level_spec
Debug mode. Makes SFTP2 to send verbose debug output.
The debugging level is either a number (0-99),
or a comma-separated list of assignments
ModulePattern=debug_level.
-B batchfile
Batch mode. Reads commands from a file instead of
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standard input. Since this mode is intended for
scripts, SFTP2 will not try to interact with the user,
which means that only passwordless authentication methods
will work. In batch mode, a failure to change the current
working directory will cause SFTP2 to abort.
Other errors are ignored.
-S path
Specifies the path to the ssh2 binary.
-h
Prints the command syntax and exits.
-V
Prints version information and exits.
-P port
Specifies the port to be used.
-b buffer_size
Specifies the size of the buffer.
-N max_requests
Specifies the maximum number of allowed requests.
-c cipher
Specifies the cipher to be used.
-m mac
Specifies the MAC algorithm to be used.
user
Specify the username to use when connecting.
(Optional)
host
Specify the host to connect to.
port
Specify the port on the host to connect to.
(Optional)
A.3.1 SFTP2 Commands
When SFTP2 is ready to accept commands, it will display a prompt (sftp ). The user can then enter any
of the following commands:
open [host name ]
Tries to connect to the specified host.
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Appendix A. Appendices
localopen
Opens a local connection. This is intended for debugging and testing.
close
Closes the current session.
quit
Quits the application.
cd [directory ]
Changes the current remote working directory.
lcd [directory ]
Changes the current local working directory.
pwd
Prints the name of the current remote working directory.
lpwd
Prints the name of the current local working directory.
ls [-R [-l] [file ...]]
Lists the names of the files on the remote server. For directories, the contents of the directory are listed.
When the -R option is specified, the directory trees are listed recursively. (By default, the subdirectories
of the argument directories are not visited.)
When the -l option is specified, file sizes, modification times, permissions and owners (as supported by
the file system) are also shown.
When no arguments are given, it is assumed that the contents of the current directory are being listed.
Currently the options -R and - l are mutually incompatible.
lls [-R [-l] [file ...]]
The same as ls, but operates on local files.
get [file ... ]
Transfers the specified files from the remote end to the local end. Directories are recursively copied
with their contents.
mget [file ... ]
Synonymous to get.
put [file ... ]
Transfers the specified files from the local end to the remote end. Directories are recursively copied
with their contents.
mput [file ... ]
Synonymous to put.
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rename [source [target]]
Renames the file source to target.
lrename [source [target]]
Same as rename, but operates on local files.
rm [file ]
Tries to delete the specified file.
lrm [file ]
The same as rm, but operates on local files.
mkdir [directory ]
Tries to create the specified directory.
lmkdir [directory ]
The same as mkdir, but operates on local files.
rmdir [directory ]
Tries to delete the specified directory.
lrmdir [directory ]
The same as rmdir, but operates on local files.
help [topic ]
If topic is not given, lists the available topics. If topic is given, outputs the available online help on the
topic.
A.3.2 SFTP2 Command Interpretation
SFTP2 understands both backslashes and quotation marks on the command line. A backslash can be used for
ignoring the special meaning of any character in the command line interpretation. It will be removed even if
the character it precedes has no special meaning.
Quotation marks can be used for specifying filenames with spaces.
Also, if you do get . or put . you will get or put every file in the current directory and possibly override
files in your current directory.
SFTP2 supports wild cards (also known as glob patterns) given to commands ls, lls, get, and put.
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Appendix A. Appendices
A.4 SSH-keygen2
SSH-KEYGEN2.EXE is a Windows port of the UNIX ssh2 key generation tool (ssh-keygen2).
The ssh-keygen2 is a tool that generates and manages authentication keys for ssh2. Each user wishing to use
ssh2 with public-key authentication can run this tool to create authentication keys. Additionally, the system
administrator may use this to generate host keys for the SSH Secure Shell server.
(Please note that PKI and PKCS #11 support is only available in commercial distributions of SSH Secure
Shell.)
SYNOPSIS
ssh-keygen2 [-b bits] [-t dsa|rsa] [-c comment_string]
[-e file] [-p passphrase] [-P] [-h] [-?] [-q] [-1 file] [-i]
[-D file] [-B number] [-V] [-r file] [-x file] [-k file]
[-7 file] [-F file] [key1 key2 ...]
OPTIONS
-b bits
Length of the key in bits, for example 1024 bits.
-t dsa | rsa
Choose the type of the key. Valid options are
dsa and rsa.
-c comment_string
Specify the key’s comment string.
-e file
Edit the specified key. Makes ssh-keygen2 interactive.
You can change the key’s passphrase or comment.
-p passphrase
Specify the passphrase used.
-P
Specify that the key will be saved with an empty
passphrase.
-h | -?
Print a short summary of ssh-keygen2 commands.
-q
Hide the progress indicator.
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-1 file
Convert key from ssh1 format to ssh2 format.
-i file
Load and display information on ’file’.
-D file
Derive the public key from the private key ’file’.
-B number
The number base for displaying key information (default 10).
-V
Print version string and exit.
-r file
Stir in data from file to the random pool.
-x file
Convert private key from X.509 format to ssh2 format.
-k file
Convert a PKCS #12 file to an ssh2 format certificate
and private key.
-7 file
Extract certificates from a PKCS #7 file.
-F file
Dump the fingerprint of a given publickey. The fingerprint is given in the Bubble Babble format, which
makes the fingerprint look like a string of "real"
words (making it easier to pronounce).
A.5 Frequently Asked Questions
The FAQ gives answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client. For more information, see the SSH Secure Shell online FAQ (http://www.ssh.
com/faq).
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Appendix A. Appendices
A.5.1 Connection Issues
Does SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client support connecting to an ssh1 server?
Yes. But please note that this is a terminal emulation compatibility feature - this means that File Transfer,
command line SCP2 and multiple windows will not work when connecting to an ssh1 server.
When connecting to a host where I know I have an account, ssh2 says Disconnected;
authentication error (No further authentication methods available.)
(for
ssh-2.0.13 server), or doesn’t let me in, even when I type the correct password (for newer servers).
What’s wrong?
The server is probably trying to check that the host name you gave it has a DNS entry. Most dialup connections do not have a DNS entry.
In older ssh2 server versions, the default /etc/sshd2 config file had a statement
RequireReverseMapping yes. This should be changed to RequireReverseMapping no.
Ask your system administrator to change this. If you still have problems, consult your system administrator.
Does the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client have support for host keys (to manage
public keys of multiple hosts)?
Yes, SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client supports host keys. Select the Settings option from
the Edit menu, and open the Host Keys page (under Global Settings). There you can set your host keys
options.
A.5.2 File Transfer Issues
I’m using SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client. I can connect to the server and see the
files on remote host computer, but the Modified column is blank. I would like to be able to see the last
modified time.
This is a problem with the server side of the software. Most likely the server is running SSH Secure Shell
server version 2.0.13 or earlier. Please ask your system administrator to update the SSH Secure Shell server
software to resolve this problem.
Can I configure the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client to open the File Transfer window by default?
Yes - just open the File Transfer window, close all terminal windows and save the settings (by selecting the
Save option from the File menu). The next time when you start the client, only the File Transfer window will
open. When you save the settings, the window positions and types are saved so you can have any combination
of windows to open by default.
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A.5.3 Installation Issues
I have installed the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows Client, and when I start the program,
several windows are opened. What is going on?
When you save your current settings, also the window positions are saved. If you start the SSH Secure Shell
client, open a new terminal window or two, and then save the settings, the ’extra’ terminal windows will
appear when you next time start the SSH Secure Shell client. If you open the File Transfer window and save
your settings, the next time also the File Transfer window will appear.
If you have too many (or too few) windows open by default, or the window positions are not to your liking,
you can always arrange the windows as you want them to appear, and then save your settings (by selecting
the Save option from the File menu). The new window positions will be used when you start the SSH Secure
Shell client again.
How can I uninstall the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client?
Open your Windows Control Panel (by clicking the Start button and then clicking the Control Panel option
from the Settings menu). Doubleclick on the Add/Remove Programs icon, then select SSH Secure Shell, and
follow the displayed instructions.
A.5.4 Licensing Issues
Do I have to reinstall if I have been using an evaluation version and purchase the software?
No, all you should need to do is import the license.dat file. The license.dat file turns an evaluation
version (which is basically just the same binary without a license file) into a licensed version (either commercial or non-commercial, depending on the contents of the license file). This means that you don’t necessarily
need to download the binary again, if you have been evaluating the software and then decide to purchase a
commercial (or non-commercial) license. This makes life easier if you have a slow Internet connection.
Use the Import License option from the Help menu to import the license.dat file into the SSH Secure
Shell for Workstations Windows client. (Browse the directory tree to select the appropriate license.dat
file).
A.5.5 Technical Issues
What ports does the SSH connection use?
SSH connection uses port 22 for the server, ports 1024 and higher for the client.
What type of terminal emulation is supported?
The terminal emulation is compatible up to vt320 standard (i.e. vt100, vt220, vt320, ANSI [90%]) and is
partly xterm compliant.
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Appendix A. Appendices
Where can I find a list of supported platforms for SSH Secure Shell?
The list of supported platforms can be found at the SSH portability web page (http://www.ssh.com/
products/ssh/portability.html).
A.5.6 Tunneling Issues
Can I tunnel X11 connections through Secure Shell?
Yes. Perform the following steps to forward X11 traffic:
1. Install an X emulation program (for example Exceed or Reflections).
2. Select the Settings option from the Edit menu. Select the Tunneling page on the Settings dialog. Ensure
that Tunnel X11 Connections check box is checked.
3. Save your settings for the SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client.
4. Logout of the SSH Secure Shell Windows client, and log back in.
5. Start the X server program.
6. Run xterm or xclock from Secure Shell, and the X11 forwarding should work.
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INDEX
163
Index
... button, 105
.bak, 69
.profile, 120
.pub, 41, 71
.rhosts, 120
.ssh2, 20, 69, 79, 80
.ssh2 file, 20
.sshmap, 30
3DES, 23, 25
About Secure Shell option, 128
account, 142
Add button, 34
Add New Tunnel dialog, 34
Add Profile dialog, 67
Add/Remove Programs, 161
adding a profile, 68
administrator, 75, 142, 144
advanced information, 131
AES, 23
AES128, 25
AES192, 25
AES256, 25
agent forwarding, 35
algorithm, 84, 90, 133
algorithms: cipher list, 23
alphabetical sorting, 55, 109, 119
ANSI, 161
ansi, 23
ANSI colors, 29
ANSI Colors setting, 28
ANSI control codes, 28
Appearance page, 35
application icon, 17
application keypad, 30
Arcfour, 23, 26
Arrange Icons option, 119
ASCII mode, 59
ASCII option, 109, 123
associated windows, 103, 114, 124, 143
association, 20
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
association: file type, 55
asterisk, 19
asymmetric encryption, 134
attribute: Read-only, 140
attributes, 55, 109, 119
attributes of files, 91
authentication, 23, 43, 70, 132–134, 136, 142
authentication agent, 35, 132
authentication cookie, 132
authentication error, 142, 144
authentication failure, 76, 142, 146
authentication method, 77, 78, 131, 144
Authentication page, 23
authentication process, 142
authentication: public-key, 39, 78, 81, 145
authorization file, 75, 78–81
auto select mode, 60
Auto Select option, 109, 123
Babble format, 76, 146
background color, 27–29
Backspace, 30, 89, 121
Backspace operation, 30
Backspace sends Delete, 30
backup file, 69
bak, 69
Basic Encoding Rules (BER), 136
BER (Basic Encoding Rules), 136
binary mode, 60
Binary option, 109, 123
binding keys, 31
Blowfish, 23, 25
border, 63
Browse button, 21, 140
browser, 125
bug fixes, 16
bug report, 126
business information, 13
By Date, 119
By Name, 119
By Size, 119
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By Type, 119
CA (certification authority), 43, 45, 134, 136
CA certificate, 134, 147
CA root key, 133
Cancel button, 22, 27, 37, 76, 78
cancel selection, 116
Caps Lock key, 84
carriage return, 30
case sensitive, 55, 109, 119
case sensitive search, 105
case sensitivity, 55, 119
CAST, 23
CAST128, 25
certificate, 43, 133, 134, 147
certificate authentication, 136
certificate enrollment, 135, 136
Certificate Enrollment wizard, 45
certificate list, 43
Certificate Management Protocol (CMP), 46
certificate request, 135
certificate revocation, 135
certificate revocation list (CRL), 45, 135
certificate validity, 134
certificate validity period, 136
certification authority, 133
certification authority (CA), 43, 45, 134, 136
Certifier, 136
challenge, 71, 132
Change Passphrase button, 40, 45
changed settings, 19
changing file permissions, 91
channel, 131
checkmark, 113, 117, 118
chmod, 58, 59, 97
cipher, 27
Cipher List, 26
cipher list, 23
Cipher List page, 25
Clear Host Name, 61
clear selection, 116
Clear User Name, 61
client icon, 17
client version differences, 141
client windows, 124
clipboard, 61, 69, 103, 104, 114, 115, 126
Close all Others option, 124
Close button, 93, 96, 102
close button, 106, 107
Close option, 124
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INDEX
Close Progress Dialog On Success check box, 55
close window button, 123, 124
closed folder, 88
closing windows, 106, 124
CMP, 46
CMPv2, 45, 136
color of folders, 89
color of text, 27, 28
color scheme, 27
color settings, 27
color: ANSI colors, 29
color: background, 28
color: cursor, 28
color: disconnected, 28
color: foreground, 27
color: selection, 28
color: terminal colors, 27
colors, 88
Colors page, 27
command line, 81, 153
command line interface, 83
command line options, 81
command output, 115
command prompt, 81
Commands tab, 64
comment, 74
Comment column, 41
common controls library, 139
Common Name, 46, 136
common settings, 35
compression, 23
configuration, 17, 19, 67
configuration file, 21, 100, 112, 141
configuring menu items, 64
configuring menus, 111
configuring toolbars, 99
Confirm Delete check box, 55
Confirm Delete dialog, 70, 122
Confirm Disconnect dialog, 103, 113
Confirm Exit dialog, 114
Confirm File Overwrite dialog, 143
Confirm Overwrite check box, 55
confirmation, 55
confirmation dialog, 38
Connect, 75
Connect button, 78
Connect icon, 75
Connect option, 69, 102, 113
Connect to Remote Host dialog, 75, 77, 81, 102, 113
connected window, 27
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
INDEX
connection, 42, 78, 124
Connection Failure error message, 144
connection information, 83
Connection page, 22, 144
connection protocol, 131
Connection screen, 84, 90
connection settings, 19, 21, 22, 107, 116
connection: lost, 149
connection: ssh1, 63
Contents option, 125
Context Menus dropdown menu, 65
context sensitive help, 84, 90, 107, 125
Control key, 88, 92, 94
Control Panel, 161
cookie, 132
copy, 88, 92, 103, 104, 108, 114, 115, 120
Copy option, 69, 103, 114
Copy to Clipboard button, 126
copying files, 108, 120, 121
copying text, 37
copyright information, 125, 128
corrective actions, 139
Country, 46, 136
country settings, 56
CR, 30
cracker, 14
Create New Folder button, 93, 95
creating a new folder, 93, 95
creating new folders, 122
CRL (certificate revocation list), 135
Ctrl+A, 115
Ctrl+C, 83
Ctrl+D, 121
Ctrl+G, 121
Ctrl+H, 121
Ctrl+Insert, 103, 114
Ctrl+N, 122
Ctrl+U, 120
Ctrl+V, 115, 126
current folder, 107, 121
current selection, 90
current settings, 17, 19, 100, 112, 161
current window, 106, 123, 124
cursor color, 28
cursor keys, 30
cursor position, 104, 115
custom application, 88
custom authentication, 27
Customize option, 64, 117, 118
customized algorithm list, 23
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165
customized authentication, 23
cut and paste, 61
Cut option, 69
data files, 21, 140
database, 133
date format, 57
date on printouts, 64
date stamp, 56, 58
debugging, 126
default configuration, 67
default menu position, 112
default menus, 117, 118
default port, 22
default profile, 82
default terminal settings, 117
default toolbar position, 100
default toolbars, 117, 118
default view, 55
default.ssh2, 17, 19, 21, 67, 82, 100, 112, 141
defaultsftp.ssh2, 17
Delete, 42, 122
Delete, 122
delete, 39, 55, 92
Delete button, 39, 45
Delete key, 30
Delete operation, 30
Delete option, 70, 122
Delete Sends Backspace, 30
deleting a file, 122
deleting folders, 92
DES, 26
desktop, 17, 20, 92–95
destination host, 33, 34
destination port, 33, 34
Details option, 55, 109, 119
Details view, 55, 109, 119
dialup connection, 160
differences between SSH versions, 62, 141, 148
digital certificate, 43, 133
digital signature, 70, 78, 132
Direction option, 105
directory, 93, 115, 121
directory path, 21, 93, 121
directory services, 136
directory structure, 88, 120
directory tree, 89, 108, 119, 121
directory: creating new directory, 122
directory: root directory, 54, 119
Disable Provider button, 51
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disconnect, 106, 107, 113, 124
Disconnect button, 106, 107, 124
Disconnect option, 103, 113
disconnected color, 28
disconnected window, 27
Disconnected; Authentication Error, 144
Disconnected; authentication error,
160
disconnecting, 103, 114, 143
Disconnection error message, 145
disk space, 16
diskette, 76
display colors, 29
Display Host Name, 37
Display Items by Using setting, 55
Display Profile Name, 37
DLL, 137
DNS, 144, 160
DNS entry, 144
Domain Name System, 144
DOS shell, 81
doubleclicking, 20
Down option, 106
Download, 121
download, 87, 92
Download - Select Folder Dialog, 92
Download button, 92
Download dialog, 55, 103, 114
Download option, 108, 120
downloading, 93, 108, 121
Downloading dialog, 92, 93
downloading status, 92
drag and drop, 88
DSA, 72
dynamic IP address, 144
dynamic link library (DLL), 137
eavesdropping, 14
Edit button, 34
Edit menu, 19, 114
Edit operations, 61
Edit Profiles option, 68
Edit Tunnel dialog, 34
editing profiles, 68
editor, 80
electronic wallet, 132
ellipsis button, 105
Email Address, 46, 136
Empty Clipboard on Exit, 61
Empty Scrollback Buffer on Session Close, 62
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INDEX
emulation: terminal emulation, 161
Enable ANSI Colors check box, 29
Enable Provider button, 51
encrypted communications, 13
encrypted tunnel, 131
encryption, 133, 134
encryption algorithm, 23, 84, 90
encryption algorithm: cipher list, 23
End, 30
End Of File (EOF), 149
ending a connection, 103, 114, 143
enhancements, 16
Enroll button, 45
enrollment, 135
enrollment protocol, 45, 136
Enter, 30, 75, 113
Enter Passphrase for Private Key dialog, 81
Enter sends CR + LF, 30
entity, 133
environment variable, 21
EOF (End Of File), 149
error, 139–144, 148, 149
error at startup, 139
error message, 93, 96, 139, 140, 142, 145
error messages: ssh1 specific, 149
Error Renaming File message, 122
error: lost connection, 149
error: signing, 148
evaluating, 140
evaluation period, 139
evaluation version, 161
Exceed, 35, 162
Exit option, 114
Expiration Date field, 45
Explorer, 20, 91, 94, 124
Explorer windows: multiple, 124
Export Key button, 41
Export Keypair button, 40
extra windows, 106, 107, 123, 124
extraneous windows, 17
F2, 122
failed authentication, 142
failed host identification, 147
Failed to create an incoming tunnel error message, 146
Failed To Read Keymap File, 140
failed tunnel, 146
faking network addresses, 14
false directories, 121
familiar folders, 88
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
INDEX
FAQ, 17, 125
features: new, 16
file, 88, 92, 94, 108, 120
file attributes, 91, 109
file copy animation, 93, 95
file extension, 30, 41, 60, 71, 109, 123
file handling, 106
file icon, 89
file management, 124
file managing, 124
File menu, 19, 112
file name, 40–42, 55, 71, 74, 92, 93, 104, 109, 115, 119,
128, 140, 141
File Name column, 42
file name extension, 55, 109, 119
File name field, 95
file permissions, 58, 91
file properties, 91
file selection dialog, 92, 95
file size, 55, 87, 90, 109, 119
file time, 57
File Transfer, 55, 87, 91, 106, 124
file transfer, 62, 88, 148, 154
file transfer icon, 17
file transfer mode, 59
File Transfer Mode option, 123
File Transfer page, 54
file transfer settings, 54
File Transfer shorcut menu, 90
file transfer shortcut menu 1, 65
file transfer shortcut menu 2, 65
File Transfer utility, 55
File Transfer window, 37, 54, 55, 58, 87–90, 99, 103,
108, 114, 120, 124, 143, 160
file type, 55, 56, 89, 109, 119
file type association, 20, 55
file type associations, 56
file type description, 55, 89, 109, 119
file types, 56
file view, 55, 108, 109, 118–122
File View pane, 89
file: private key, 39
file: public key, 39
files, 89
files: copying, 108, 120, 121
files: deleting, 55, 122
files: hidden, 120
find, 116
Find Next button, 106
Find option, 104, 116
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167
Find what field, 104
finding text, 104
fingerprint, 76, 146
Fingerprint column, 42
firewall, 23, 47, 132, 144
Firewall page, 61
firewall settings, 61
first connection, 75, 77
fixed-width font, 37
folder, 88, 92–95, 121, 122
folder colors, 89
Folder field, 93
folder management, 124
folder name, 93
folder view, 119
folder: creating new folder, 122
folder: root directory, 54, 119
folder: user settings, 21
folders being loaded, 89
folders: deleting, 55, 92
font, 37, 63
Font Name list, 37
Font page, 37
font setting, 37
font size, 38, 63
Font Size list, 38
font: fixed-width, 37
font: installed, 37
font: non-proportional, 37
font: proportional, 37
font: terminal font, 37
footer on printouts, 64
forbidden folders, 88
foreground color, 27, 29
forged public key, 76, 146
formatting string, 56
forwarding, 32, 131, 132
forwarding: agent, 35
Frequently Asked Questions, 17
Frequently Asked Questions option, 125
FTP, 13, 15, 33, 34, 154
FTP client, 87
FTP connection, 34
FTP host, 87
FTP tunneling, 34
function keys, 30
general user interface options, 65
Generate New Keypair, 39
Generate New Keypair button, 71
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generating keys, 75
Get Help On option, 107, 125
glob patterns, 157
global colors, 27
global configuration settings, 35
global settings, 19, 35, 107, 116
Global Settings page, 35
global.dat, 35
Go To Folder, 121
Go to Folder dialog, 90, 121
Go to Folder option, 121
graphical user interface, 87
graphical user interface (GUI) help, 107, 125
gray folder, 89
grayed out option, 121
green folder, 89
GUI control help, 107, 125
hacker, 14
hardware token, 50, 137, 148
hash algorithm, 23
header on printouts, 64
help, 17, 125
Help button, 22, 77
help files, 125
Help menu, 125
Help option, 107
help pointer, 107, 125
help window, 107
help: context sensitive, 107, 125
hidden files, 55, 120
hijacking, 14
HMAC-MD5, 23
HMAC-SHA1, 23
Home, 30, 121
home directory, 79, 89, 108, 119, 121
Home option, 108, 121
home page, 125
Home Page option, 125
host, 76
host computer, 148
host identification, 76, 146
Host Identification Failed error, 147
host key, 21, 41, 42, 75, 76, 133, 146, 160
host key file, 42
host key file list, 41, 42
Host Keys page, 41, 160
host name, 22, 37, 42, 77, 82, 84, 89, 113, 133, 146
Host Name column, 42
host public key, 75
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
INDEX
host settings, 67, 107, 116
host: unknown host, 144
HTTP proxy, 47
icon, 17, 20, 55, 83, 89, 108, 109, 118, 119
icons: moving, 100
IETF, 134
Import button, 45
Import Hostkeys - Select Files dialog, 42
Import Key button, 42
Import Keypair - Select Files dialog, 40
Import Keypair button, 40
Import License File menu option, 128
Import License File option, 128, 139–141
Import License option, 161
improvements, 16
incoming tunnel, 33
Index link, 125
informational message, 93, 96
Initialization String field, 52
Insert, 30
installation, 16, 161
installation directory, 128
installed fonts, 37
integrity, 133
Internet, 13, 14
Internet connection, 161
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 134
Internet Explorer, 136
Internet Protocol, 13
intruder, 147
IP, 13
IP address, 77, 113, 144, 146
IP spoofing, 14
Issued By field, 45
Issued To field, 45
issuer, 133
key binding, 31
key exchange, 133
key file, 39, 41, 42, 70, 71
Key Generation - Enter Passphrase, 74
Key Generation - Finish, 75
Key Generation - Generation, 72
Key Generation - Start, 72
key generation wizard, 71
key length, 72
key pair, 39, 70, 71, 74, 132
key pair: generating, 75
key: host public key, 75
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
INDEX
keyboard, 30, 89, 104, 113, 115, 141
keyboard mapping, 21, 29
Keyboard page, 29
keyboard settings, 29
keyboard shortcut, 83, 103, 104, 113–115, 120–122
Keyboard tab, 65
keymap editor, 30
keymap file, 140, 141
KEYMAP.MAP, 21, 140, 141
KEYMAP22.MAP, 141
keypad, 30
Keypad Mode, 30
keypad mode, 30
keywords, 125
Large Icons check box, 66
Large Icons option, 55, 108, 118
Large Icons view, 55, 108, 118
last modified, 55, 109, 119
last modified time, 160
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), 48,
136
LDAP directory, 136
LDAP Servers list, 48
LF, 30
license, 128, 139–141
license agreement, 139–141
license file, 128, 161
license.dat, 128
license.dat, 139–141, 161
license.txt, 139–141
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), 48,
136
line feed, 30
Line Wrap, 30
line wrapping, 30
List option, 55, 108, 118
List view, 55, 108, 118
listen port, 33, 34
local computer, 87, 94, 108, 120, 124, 142
local connection, 33, 34
local connections, 34
local database, 76
local drive, 93, 95
local forwards, 32
locale, 56
localhost, 33, 34
locating text, 104
Lock Function Keys, 30
log file, 113
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
169
log session, 113
Log Session option, 113
logical channel, 131
login, 142
login dialog, 61
Look 2000 check box, 66
Look in selection box, 93, 95
lower case, 55, 109, 119
ls, 120
MAC (Message Authentication Code), 23
MAC algorithm, 84, 90
man-in-the-middle attack, 132
mapping keys, 29
margins, 63
Match case option, 105
Match whole word only option, 105
maximum file size, 87
MD5, 23
Menu animation dropdown menu, 65
menu customization, 64
menu option, 84, 90
menu options, 64
menu options: moving, 64
Menu tab, 65
menu: configuring, 111
menu: moving, 111
menu: reset position, 112
menu: reseting, 117, 118
message, 38
message area, 93, 96
Message Authentication Code (MAC), 23
Microsoft, 16, 139
Microsoft Internet Explorer, 136
Microsoft Office, 37
Microsoft Windows, 16
mission-critical data, 13
modem, 144
modification date, 55, 109, 119
Modified, 119
Modified column, 160
mouse, 88, 92, 94, 95
mouse pointer, 107, 125
move, 88
moving menu options, 64
moving menus, 111
moving toolbar buttons, 100
moving toolbars, 99
multiple Explorer windows, 124
multiple terminal windows, 62, 148
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
170
multiple windows, 17, 87, 106, 107, 124
multiplexing, 131
Name, 119
name, 34, 77, 106, 123, 124
name server, 144
Netscape Navigator, 136
network connection, 144
network drive, 93, 95
network errors, 13
network printer, 101
new connection, 113
new directory, 122
New Explorer option, 124
new features, 16
New File Transfer option, 87, 124
New File Transfer Window button, 87
New File Transfer Window option, 106
New Folder, 122
new folder, 93, 95, 122
New Folder option, 70, 122
new key pair, 71
new SSH connection, 67, 113
New Terminal option, 123
New Terminal Window option, 106
next match, 106
Next Page button, 102
No further authentication methods
available, 144
non-proportional font, 37, 63
nonexistent directory, 121
Notepad, 40, 56, 88
Num Lock key, 84
number of columns and rows, 84
number of files and subfolders, 90
numeric keypad, 30
OCSP, 135
Office XP Look, 36
OK button, 21, 27, 37
One Page button, 102
one page print preview mode, 102
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP), 135
online help, 17, 77, 107
Online Help option, 125
open, 92
open folder, 88
Open option, 120
Operation menu, 120
Options tab, 65
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
INDEX
options: command line, 81
Organization, 46, 136
Organization Unit, 46, 136
organizing profiles, 70
Outgoing page, 32
outgoing tunnel, 32, 34
OUTPUT.MAP, 141
Page Down, 30
page number on printouts, 64
Page Up, 30
pages to print, 101
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module), 78, 147
Parent Directory button, 89
parent folder, 89, 93, 95, 107, 121
passphrase, 45, 74, 81, 145, 148
password, 78, 106, 113, 123, 132, 142, 147, 148
password authentication, 78, 81, 132
password error, 148
password length masking, 63
Paste, 115
paste, 37, 92, 103, 104, 114, 115
Paste option, 70, 104, 115
Paste Selection on Right Mouse Click, 37
Paste Selection option, 104, 115
pasted file, 104, 115
path, 90, 93
pattern matching, 104
percentage of transfer, 93, 96
permissions, 58
permissions of files, 91
personal data, 21, 68
personal directory, 132, 140
personal files, 21
personal folder, 68
personal identification number (PIN), 145, 147
Personal tab, 44
Pico, 80
PIN, 145, 147
PKCS #11, 137
PKCS #11 provider, 148
PKCS #12, 46, 136, 147
PKCS #7, 136
PKI, 133
PKIX Working Group, 134
Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM), 78, 147
Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM), 24, 78
pointer: help pointer, 107, 125
pop up menu, 92, 94
popup menu, 90
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
INDEX
popup menu customization, 64
port, 33, 34, 42, 81, 144, 146, 161
port 22, 161
Port column, 42
port forwarding, 32
port number, 22, 77
port: destination port, 33, 34
port: listen port, 33, 34
position of windows, 17, 20
positioning menu items, 64
positioning menus, 111
positioning toolbar buttons, 100
positioning toolbars, 99
preferred algorithms, 23
Preserve Original File Time check box, 58
Prev Page button, 102
preview, 102
previous connection, 77
previous remote host computer, 61
previous user, 61
Print button, 101
Print dialog, 100, 101
Print option, 101
print preview mode, 102
Print Preview option, 101
print range, 100
print settings, 63
printed output, 63
printer, 63, 101, 102
printer settings, 100, 101
printing, 63, 101, 102
Printing page, 63
printout footer, 64
printout header, 64
private key, 21, 39–41, 70, 71, 132, 134, 147
private key file, 40
private key file list, 39, 40
Private Key File Name column, 41
private key: comments, 41
private key: generating, 39
processor speed, 72
profile, 37, 68, 78
profile color settings, 27
profile settings, 19, 35, 107, 116
Profile Settings page, 21, 79, 140
profile tree, 68–70
profile: adding, 68
profile: default, 82
profile: editing, 68
profiles bar, 117, 118
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
171
Profiles Bar option, 117, 118
Profiles button, 109
Profiles menu option, 112
Profiles option, 19, 20, 68
profiles toolbar, 109
profiles: organizing, 70
program icon, 17
progress bar, 93, 95
properties of files, 91
Properties option, 122
proportional fonts, 37
protocol, 13
protocol settings, 22
protocol version, 84, 90
protocol: connection, 131
protocol: ssh1, 15
protocol: ssh2, 15
protocol: transport layer, 131
protocol: user authentication, 131
provider, 148
Provider Type field, 52
proxy: HTTP, 47
pub, 40
public host key, 41, 133, 160
public key, 40, 70, 71, 75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 132, 134, 145,
146
public key algorithm, 133
public key authentication, 81
public key file, 79, 80
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), 43
public key, forged, 76, 146
public key: deleting, 39
public key: generating, 39
public key: uploading, 40, 79
public-key authentication, 23, 39, 70, 71, 75, 78, 80, 81,
132, 145
public-key authentication: ssh1, 78
public-key infrastructure (PKI), 133
questions, 17
Quick Connect button, 109
Quick Connect menu option, 112
Quick Connect option, 67, 113
quitting a connection, 103, 114, 143
RA (registration authority), 133, 135
random errors, 13
range of printed pages, 101
rate of transfer, 93, 95
rcp, 15
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
172
Read-only attribute, 140
red folder, 89, 121
redraw, 108, 120
reference number, 47
Reflections, 162
Reflections X, 35
Refresh option, 108, 120
refresh window, 108, 120
regex (regular expression), 104, 105
registering, 128, 140, 141
registration authority (RA), 133, 135
regular expression, 104
regular expression (regex), 104, 105
reinstalling, 141
remote computer, 84, 89
remote host authentication, 41
remote host computer, 13, 19, 21–23, 27, 28, 35, 37,
62, 67, 71, 75–81, 83, 84, 87–90, 92–94,
102, 106–108, 113, 116, 120–124, 131, 142,
144–148, 160
remote host computer name, 61
Remove button, 34
removing the installation, 161
rename, 92, 122, 145
Rename option, 70, 122
repositioning menu items, 64
repositioning menus, 111
repositioning toolbar buttons, 100
repositioning toolbars, 99
RequireReverseMapping, 144
Reset All button, 65
Reset button, 65
reset menus, 112
Reset Terminal option, 117
reset toolbars, 100
Reset Toolbars option, 100, 112, 117, 118
reseting menus, 117, 118
reseting toolbars, 117, 118
return menus to default, 112
return toolbars to default, 100
Reverse Colors setting, 29
reverse lookup, 144
reverse sorting, 55, 109, 119
Reverse Video check box, 29
revocation, 135
rexec, 15
right mouse button, 92, 94
rlogin, 15
root CA, 134
root directory, 54, 119
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
INDEX
root folder, 119
RSA, 72
rsh, 15
safety measures, 72
Save As dialog, 113
Save As option, 17
Save button, 19
Save option, 17
Save Setings menu option, 19
Save Settings option, 100, 112
saving, 20
saving settings, 17, 100, 112
scp2, 152
SCP2.EXE, 152
scrollback buffer, 37, 62, 100, 101, 104, 105, 115
search scrollback, 116
search term, 104–106
searching text, 104
secure channel, 13, 132
Secure Copy 2 tool, 152
secure file transfer, 15
Secure File Transfer 2 tool, 154
secure network services, 13, 131
Secure Shell client, 14
SecurID authentication, 24, 78
SecurID device, 24, 78
security issues, 33
Security page, 61, 148
security settings, 61
Select All, 115
Select All menu option, 116
Select All option, 115
Select Application dialog, 56
Select Files, 95
Select Folder, 92
Select Folder dialog, 41, 92
select multiple files, 88
Select None option, 116
Select Screen menu option, 115
Select Screen option, 116
selected text, 101
selecting text, 115, 116
selection, 104, 115
selection color, 28
selection marker, 118–120
selection: canceling, 116
separate clients, 103, 114, 124, 143
separate connections, 103, 114, 124, 143
separate SSH connection, 113
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
INDEX
sequence number, 83, 89
sequence number of each window, 106, 123, 124
server, 144
server connection: lost, 149
server software, 145
server version, 122, 145, 160
service provider, 144
service request, 131
session logging, 113
settings, 19, 21, 22, 54, 58, 59
Settings button, 19
settings categories, 19
Settings dialog, 19, 21–23, 25, 27, 29, 32, 35, 37, 39,
41, 54, 61, 71, 79, 84, 90, 107, 116, 140,
144, 148, 162
settings file, 17, 20, 21, 84, 89, 100, 112
Settings option, 19, 107, 116
Settings window, 19
settings: common, 35
settings: global, 35, 107, 116
settings: host, 67, 107, 116
settings: profile, 21, 107, 116
settings: saving, 17, 20, 100, 112
SFTP, 15
sftp2, 154
SFTP2.EXE, 154
SHA1, 23
Shift key, 88, 92, 94
Shift+Insert, 115
Shift-Insert, 104
shorcut menu, 90
shortcut, 20, 103, 104, 114, 115
shortcut key, 31
shortcut menu, 84, 92, 94, 122
shortcut menu customization, 64
Show Add Profile Dialog when connected using Quick
Connect, 37
Show Hidden Files check box, 55
Show Hidden Files option, 120
Show Root Directory check box, 54
Show Root Directory option, 119
Show ScreenTips on toolbars check box, 65
Show shortcut keys in ScreenTips check box, 65
Show text labels check box, 65
signature, 134
signing error, 148
Size, 119
size of installation, 16
size of transferred file, 93, 96
size of windows, 38
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
173
Small Icons option, 55, 108, 118
Small Icons view, 55, 108, 118
smart card, 137
smart card reader, 84
SOCKS, 61
SOCKS version 4, 132
software key, 137
sort bar, 55, 109, 119
sorting, 55, 109, 119
sorting order, 55, 109, 119
Space, 75
space requirements, 16
spoofing, 14
SSH Babble format, 42, 76, 146
SSH Certifier(TM), 136
SSH client version differences, 141
SSH Communications Security, 125, 128
SSH on the Web option, 125
SSH protocol, 62
SSH Secure File Transfer Client icon, 17
SSH Secure File Transfer window, 17
SSH Secure Shell 2, 151
SSH Secure Shell Client icon, 17
SSH Secure Shell for Workstations Windows client, 13
SSH Secure Shell server, 122, 145
SSH Secure Shell Windows client help, 107
SSH server, 144, 145
SSH version 1, 14, 62, 148
SSH version 2, 14, 62, 147, 148
SSH version differences, 15, 62, 148
SSH Web pages, 17
ssh-agent2, 35
SSH-CONN, 131
ssh-keygen2, 158
SSH-KEYGEN2.EXE, 158
SSH-TRANS, 131
SSH-USERAUTH, 131
ssh1, 14, 62, 63, 147, 149, 153, 160
ssh1 connection, 63
ssh1 connection: lost, 149
ssh1 Connections, 148
ssh1 Connections selection, 62
ssh1 server, 160
ssh1 specific error messages, 149
ssh1: public-key authentication, 78
ssh2, 14, 62, 147
ssh2, 69
ssh2 client, 13
ssh2 connection, 22
ssh2 key generation tool, 158
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
174
ssh2 settings file, 20
SSH2.EXE, 151
ssh2 config, 153
SSHCLIENT USERPROFILE, 21
sshd2 config, 144
sshmap, 30
Start menu, 17
startup error, 139
status bar, 84, 90, 117, 118
Status Bar option, 117, 118
status of download, 92
status of upload, 94, 95
subfolder, 92
submenu, 119
support, 126
support service, 17
support team, 126
support web form, 126
system administrator, 142, 145, 146
system message, 38
system requirements, 16
Tab key, 89
taking over a communication, 14
TCP, 33, 34
TCP/IP, 14
TCP/IP connection, 131, 132
TCP/IP port, 131
technical support, 17
Telnet, 13, 15, 83
temporary copy, 103, 114
temporary storage, 103, 104, 114, 115
terminal answerback, 23
terminal colors, 27
terminal emulation, 160, 161
terminal font, 37
terminal operations, 111
terminal output, 37, 62
terminal scrollback buffer, 100, 101
Terminal Scrollback Size, 37
terminal session, 113
terminal shortcut menu, 65
Terminal window, 84
terminal window, 17, 27–30, 35, 37, 38, 83, 84, 99, 103,
104, 106, 114–116, 123, 124, 143
terminal window menus, 111
terminal window shortcut menu, 84
terminal windows, 114
terminal: reset, 117
text colors, 27
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
INDEX
text display, 83
text editor, 80
text field, 122
text labels, 65
text lines, 30
text output, 27
text selection, 101
text: searching, 104
text: selecting, 115, 116
time format, 57
time on printouts, 64
time stamp, 56, 58
title bar, 19, 37, 83, 89, 106, 107, 123, 124
title on printouts, 64
token, 50
toolbar, 19, 87, 92, 94, 99, 117
toolbar button, 84, 90
toolbar buttons: moving, 100
Toolbar option, 117
toolbar: configuring, 99
toolbar: moving, 99
toolbar: reset position, 100
toolbar: reseting, 117, 118
toolbars, 64
Toolbars tab, 64
transcript, 113
transfer files, 87
transfer in progress, 93, 95
transfer mode, 59, 123
Transfer Rate field, 93, 95
Transferred field, 93, 95
transferred files, 93, 96
transport layer connection, 131
transport layer protocol, 131
Trojan horse, 132
Troubleshooting dialog, 126
Troubleshooting option, 126
troubleshooting report, 126
trusted, 133
Trusted Certification Authories tab, 45
tunnel, 34, 131, 145
tunnel definition, 32, 34
Tunnel Failed error message, 146
tunnel type, 33, 34
Tunnel X11 Connections check box, 162
Tunnel X11 connections check box, 35
tunnel: incoming, 33, 34
tunnel: outgoing, 32, 33
tunneling, 32, 131
Tunneling page, 32
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
INDEX
tunneling settings, 32
two page print preview mode, 102
Twofish, 23
Twofish128, 26
Twofish192, 26
Twofish256, 26
Type, 119
type, 89
typing mistake, 142, 143, 147, 148
Unexpected EOF error, 149
uninstalling, 161
UNIX, 152, 154, 158
UNIX file permissions, 91
unknown file type, 56
unknown folders, 88
unknown host, 144
Up, 121
Up One Level button, 93, 95
Up option, 106, 107, 121
upload, 87, 94, 95, 120
Upload - Select Files dialog, 94, 95
Upload button, 94
Upload dialog, 55, 104, 115
Upload option, 108, 120
Upload Public Key, 40
Upload Public Key button, 51
uploading, 95, 108, 120
Uploading dialog, 94, 95
uploading status, 94, 95
upper case, 55, 109, 119
USB token, 137
Use Global Colors option, 38
user authentication, 131
user authentication protocol, 131
user certificate, 147
user interface, 107, 125
user key, 39, 71, 79
user name, 22, 61, 77, 82, 113, 142
user profile directory, 35, 71
user settings, 79
user settings folder, 21
UserKeys folder, 79
validity period, 46, 134, 136
version differences, 62, 141, 148
view, 55
View button, 41, 45
View menu, 116
View Public Key button, 40
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
175
view type, 91
vt100, 23, 161
vt102, 23
vt220, 23, 161
vt320, 23, 161
Web help, 125
Web page, 125
wild card, 60, 157
Window Caption, 37
Window menu, 83, 87, 89, 123
window position, 17, 20, 161
window positions, 20
window size, 38
window size indicator, 84
window: help window, 107
window: refreshing, 108, 120
window: sequence number, 106, 107, 124
Windows, 16
Windows 2000, 16, 66
Windows 95, 16, 139
Windows 98, 16, 140
windows associated to a connection, 103, 114, 143
Windows desktop, 17, 20
Windows Explorer, 56, 87, 88, 91, 124
Windows ME, 16
Windows NT, 16
windows: closing, 106, 124
windows: multiple, 17, 87, 106, 107, 124
wrapping text lines, 30
Wrong Password error message, 148
X emulation, 162
X emulator, 35
X server, 162
X-Windows, 35
X.509, 136
X.509 v2, 135
X.509 v3, 136
X11, 132
X11 connection, 35, 131, 162
X11 tunneling, 35, 162
Xauthority data, 132
xclock, 162
xterm, 23, 161
xterm, 162
yellow folder, 89
Yes button, 143
Yes to All button, 143
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
176
INDEX
zlib, 23
Zoom In button, 102
Zoom Out button, 102
c 2001 SSH Communications Security Oyj
SSH Secure Shell Windows Client
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