ASTRO.PHYSICS
GTO KEYPAD
Versionv4.12
GTO Keypad with Keypad ftotector
FlashRAM Updates
This and futurekeypadflash RAM updatescan be accomplished
throughthe Internet
periodically
Checkour web sitewww.astro-physics.com
for furtherinformation.
March7, 2008
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ASTRO-PHYSICS
v4.12
GTO KEYPADCONTROLLER
GTO KeypadController
Layoutand Buttonsofthe Keypad
VacuumFluorescentDisplay
N - S - E - W DirectionalButtons
RA/DECREV Button:
STOP Button
NumberButtons
<PREVand NEXT>Buttons
GOTO Button
+ - Button
MENUButton
FOC Button
RetractableHanger
Keypad Protector
KeypadCare and Warranty
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New Featuresof Version4.12
09-06-04Version4.12
08-28-04Version4.11
08-26-04Version4.10
02-16-04Version4.07
Featuresfrom version3.2 (3.2 was only shippedwith new mountsor repairs)
GettingStarted- Do this at home,if possible
Setupyour Mountand CableConnections
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GatherBasic Information
EnterYour Location,Date and Time
PracticeUsingyour Keypad
Your FirstObservingSessionwith V4.12
NormalStartupSequence- For MountsThat are Setup in the Field
AssembleYour Mount
Startupsequence
Star Sync
PolarAlignment- Which methodto choose?
N PolarCalibrate- Calibratingwith Polaris
Two-StarCalibration
Resumefrom Park
ResumeRef-Park1
AlternatePolarCalibrationRoutines& Tips
PolarAligningin the Daytime- NorthernHemisphere
Usingthe Astro-PhysicsDaytimePolarAlignmentRoutinein the SouthernHemisphere
GTO Quick Star DriftMethodof PolarAlignment- Usingthe MeridianDelayFeature
Roland'sFavoritePolarCalibrationRoutine
UsingSoftwareto lmprovePointingAccuracy
How to Find Objectsif You Have LessThan PerfectPolarAlignmentor Non-Orthogonal
Systems
What if I Lose My Calibration?
Auto-ConnectSequence- For Permanent,Polar-AlignedMounts
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lmoortantPoints
ExternalStartupSequence- For Mountsthat are controlledby an ExternalComputer.
lmportantPoint
ObjectsMenu - Have some fun!
Tips for Usingthe Buttonsand Menus
ProceduresCommonto all SlewingCommands
M . N G C .r C
CommonObjectNames
SolarSystemObjects(Sol)
CommonStar Names- Non-scientific
GreekStar Names,organizedby constellation
Abell GalaxyClusters
ADS DoubleStars(AitkenDoubleStar Catalog)
Searchfor Objectsby Type, Magnitude,Catalogand All Sky vs. CurrentConstellation
What'sUo Now Function
Tour ObjectswithinConstellations
CustomRA and DEC Coordinates
Custom ALTI AZ Coordinates
Sun Warning
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3B
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3B
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MainMenufunctions
Brightnessof the displayscreen
Directionalbuttons
Objects
Setuo
Tools
Time/LST
Slew rate(S:)
Buttonrate (B:)
Guidingrate(A:)
Trackingrate (T:)
Casualobservino
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SetupMenus
Locations& Time Menu
Set Site Location
Set Date & Time
Get Time/LocFrMnt
MountMove LimitsMenu
R.A. BacklashAdjustment
DeclinationBacklashAdjustment
Set Safe Zone Limitsfor Your Telescope
Set HorizonLimitsfor Your Telescope
KeypadOptionsMenu
Auto-Connect
ReticleIlluminatorAdjustment
FocusAdjustment
KeypadUpdateMenu
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Park/ MountOptions
Park Your Telescope
Park- 3 Positions
Auto-Park- Park WhereverYou Want
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Parkingand PowerConsiderations
CalibrateMenu
What if I lose my calibration?
SpecifyMountType
Tools Menu
PermanentErrorMemoryAdjustment(PEM)
Photographic
Timer
SmartGuide
Status
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SlewingDuringthe Day
PotentialDangers
How to ObserveSafelv
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Orthogonality
CheckOrthogonality
Effectof Non-orthogonality
on PolarAlignment
PolarAlignmentwith Non-orthogonal
Telescopes
AdditionalTips for Non-Orthogonal
Systems
5B
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AdvancedFeatures
Sync Function
TweakYour PointingAccuracy
Sync Explainedin Detailand comparedto Re-Calibrate
MeridianDelayFunction
SmartGuide
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Understanding
the KeypadControllerand GTO ControlBox Functions
Functionsof the GTO ServoControlBox
Functionsof the Keypad
Upgradingthe GTO ServoControlBox
Upgradingthe Keypad
Upgradingor Repairingthe KeypadDatabase
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6B
Troubleshooting
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UsinglheSkyrMSoftwareV. 5.00.014or Later
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AppendixA: RS-232COMMANDLANGUAGEGTOCP1and GTOCP2ServoControlBoxes
Microcontroller
ChipVersions:C, KC, D, KD, E, E1 and KE1
GeneralTelescopeInformation:
TelescopeMotion
Position
Miscellaneous
Communicating
with Your MountWhen WritingYour Own Programs
RS-232Port Settings:
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AppendixB: RS-232COMMANDLANGUAGEGTOCP3ServoControlBoxesMicrocontroller
Chip
VersionsG throughO
New Commandslntroducedin VersionG
New CommandIntroducedin VersionI
GeneralTelescopeInformation:
TelescopeMotion
B4
B4
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B5
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Position
Miscellaneous
Communicating
with Your MountWhen WritingYour Own Programs
RS-232Port Settings:
AppendixC: CommonStars- By Constellation
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AppendixD: AlphabeticalStar List
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Abbreviations
AppendixE: Constellation
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AppendixF: CommonObjectNames
AppendixG: Aitken'sDoubleStar(ADS)List
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AppendixH: The GreekAlphabet
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Appendixl: SuggestedStarsfor the GTO Quick Star DriftMethod
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AppendixJ: Menu Layout
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GTOKEYPADCONTROLLER
The GTO keypadis the communicationcenterfor the operationof your
GTO mount.We havedesignedthis unitto be as intuitiveand easy to
use as possiblewhilefillingit with terrificfeaturesto make your
observingsessionproductiveand pleasurable.
With a few keystrokes,
you can slewto objectsby theircommonname or catalognumber,set
up searchparametersto find all the open clusters(in the Messier
catalog)that are visibleon a givennight,focus yourtelescopefor
astrophotography,
set the countdowntimerfor the exposure,enterRA
and Dec coordinates
to flnd the newestsuper nova,and much more.
The heartof the controlleris the 4-linedisplayscreenthat will guideyou
throughall operations.
The alphanumerickeypaditselfis translucent
and backlitwith red LEDsfor easy visibilityat night.The buttonsare
also madewith a phosphoresce
materialthat will glow in the darkfor a
brieftime.
Buttonfunctionsare clearlydefinedon the buttonitselfor as an
instruction
on the displayscreen.You do not have to remembershift
key patternsor complexkeystrokeseguences.The directionalbuttons
are shapedlike arrows to help you find them in the dark withoutlooking
at your keypad.The stop buttonis readilyaccessibleif you needto
cancelany slewingrequestimmediately.
The menu system is very easy to navigate.Each screen will display
severalchoices,whichcorrespondto a numberbutton.Simplypressthe
n u m b e rb u t t o nt o i n i t i a t et h e c o m m a n de, . g ." 1 = M ,2 = N G C "W
. h e ny o u
press"1" the Messierentryscreenwill displayand you can enterthe
numberof the objectthat you wish to see. PressGOTO,whichwill
causethe mountto slew.The <PREVand NEXT>buttonswill allowyou
GTO Keypad with Keypad Protectol
to scrollquicklythroughthe listsof commonnamesor to find moredata
about the objectyou are viewing.To adjust most settings,you will press the number indicatedon the screen
severaltimesto scroll(toggle)throughyour choicesand stop at the one you want.
We suggestthat even if you plan to slewto variousobjectsusinga computerprogramon a PC, you shoulduse
the keypadcontrollerfor your initialpolar alignment/calibration
routine.This will provideyour mount with essential
data regardingyour locationand time and will allowyou to polaralignwith ease.
Layout and Buttons of the Keypad
Vacuum FluorescentDisplay
The keypadfeaturesa four-line,20 characteralphanumeric
display.The brightnessof the displayis adjustable
with "dim"and "bright"settings.Pleasereferto the sectionentitled"Brightness
of the displayscreen." lf you are
usingthe keypadin the daylight,you will needto shadethe screenfrom the directlightwith your hand in orderto
see it more clearly.
N - S - E - W DirectionalButtons
These four buttonsare arrangedso that the "E" and "W" buttonscontrolthe movementin right ascensionand the
"N" and "S" buttonscontrolthe declination.
This is the "normal"orientationof objectsin the eyepiecefield.When
you pressthe "N" button,the star shouldmove in an upwarddirectiontowardthe top of your eyepiecefield.In
addition,you can presstwo buttonssimultaneously
for diagonalmovement,e.g.the "N" and "W" buttonswill
causea "NW" movement.
RAJDECReverseScreen
RA/DECREVButton:
Press the RA/DEC REV buttonto access these functions,then press menu to exit from
this screen.This buttonservesseveralfunctions:
1=RevRA :Normal
2=Rev DEC:Normal
9=Re-Calibrate
Meridian< 0W >
Reverse RA,/Dec:lf the star moves down when you push the "N" button,press the RA/DEC REV button
in the lowerrightcornerof the keypad.A reversingmenu will appearon the screen.lf you want to
reversedirectionof the "N" and "S" button,press"1" on the keypadand the displaywill changefrom
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"normal"to "reverse".You can makethe same adjustmentwith the "E" and "W" buttons.When properly
set up, the directionbuttonswill causethe objectto moveaccordingto your orientationat the eyepiece.
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Re-Calibrate:lf you wish to tweakyour pointingaccuracy,slewto an object,use the N-S-E-W
directionalbuttonsto centerthe object,then pressthe RA/DECREV buttonand select#9. This will recalibrateyour mount. Refer to the sectionlater in the manualthat for more detailedinformation.
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MeridianDelay:Advancedastro-photographers
will appreciatethis feature.Referto the Advanced
Featuressectionof the manualthat discussesMeridianSwao and the sectionon the GTO QuickStar
Driftmethodof polaralignment. Do not changethis settingunlessyou understandthe consequences.
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STOPButton
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Pressthe STOP buttonto cancela slewingcommandand stop the movementof the telescopeimmediately.
The
mountwill knowwhereit is, so you can proceedto your next command.lf you move the telescopeby hand,you
mustfollowthe recalibration
orocedure.
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NumberButtons
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The buttonslabeled1-9 and 0 are usedto enternumericaldata and to make menu choices.
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<PREVand NEXT>Buttons
Thesebuttonsare usedfor the followingfunctionsdependingon the commandsyou are entering:movefrom one
menu levelto another,backspaceto make correctionsto numberentryor scrollthroughlistsof objects.The "<"
and ">" symbolsappearon many screendisplays.They signifythat you can pressthe <PREVand NEXT>
buttonsfor more choicesor additionalinformation.
Thesebuttonsare also used in coniunctionwith the FOCUS
buttonas describedbelow.
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GOTOButton
Pressthe GOTO buttonafteryou have selectedthe objectthat you want to view.The mountwill slewto the
object.This buttonis also usedfor otherfunctions,i.e.savinglocationdata.
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+ - Button
This buttonhas two differentfunctions.
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Use it to togglebetween"+" and "-" when enteringRA and Dec coordinates.
To changethe rate of the N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttons,pressthe + - buttonto displaya selection
screen.Use the <PREVand NEXT>buttonsto scrollthroughthe rates.Also you can changethe 'A:'
guidingspeedon this menu as well by pressingthe #7 buttonto scrollthroughthe rates.These
featurescan be accessedwheneverthe N-S-E-Wbuttonsare active.
MENUButton
Pressthis buttonto moveto a previousmenu levelor to cancela prompt.
FOG Button
To use this function,you must have an electricfocuserwith a 6-9V DC motor(availablefrom JMI and others)
pluggedintothe GTO ControlPaneland the corresponding
attachmentto yourfocuser.Holdthe FOCUSbutton
with one fingerand pressthe <PREVand NEXT>buttonsto changefocus.You can changethe speedof the
focusadjustmentto either"High"or "Low".Pleasereferto the FocusAdjustmentsectionfor detailedinstructions
for customerswith lead-free(RoHS)GTO controlboxes.
and furtherinformation
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RetractableHanger
On the backof the controller,lookfor a slot with a thumbrest area.Push up to extendthe hanger.A lengthof
lightweight
cord can be attachedhereto allowyou to hangyour keypadon one of the base knobsof the pier
when it is not in use.
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AUTO.CONNECT
SEQUENGE
FORPERMANENT,
POLAR-ALIGNED
MOUNTS
Auto-connect
is a simplifledstartupsequenceappropriatefor mountsthat meetthe followingrequirements:
.
Remainsat a fixed location
r
Polar-aligned
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Telescopepositionwas not disturbedsince it was
last used.
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You are not usingan externalcomputerto control
your mount.
Pleaserememberthat you mustfollowthe NormalStartup
Sequencedescribedin the previoussectionduringyour first
sessionat this locationbeforesettingyour Auto-Connect
to
YES.
This featurecan be activatedor de-activatedin the Keypad
OptionsMenu.You can accessthis by pressingSetup,then
pressing#3=KeypadOptions.Pressbutton#1 to toggle
between"YES","NO" and "EXT".
Whenthe keypadis in the Auto-connect
mode,all you need
to do is connectpowerand the systemwill rememberwhere
you leftoff.The Main Menu will appearon the screenso that
you can go directlyto the ObjectsMenuand enterthe
desiredobjectsto be viewed.
lf the scopehas been moved(butthe mounthas remained
stationary),you will have to find a referencestar, planetor
otherobjectin the eyepieceand sync the scopeon that
objectwith the followingprocedure:
10" f14.6 Maksutov-Cassegralnon 1200GTO
in observatory
1 . T h e M a i n M e n u w i l l d i s p l a yw h e n y o u p o w e r u p .
2.
Point your telescope to a known star or solar system object. Centerin the eyepiece.(lf the object
drifts,you will know that you are not truly polar-aligned).
3.
Go to Objects + Strs. Note:this list also includessolarsystemobjectsat the end of the listthat you
can use.The <PREVbuttonwill take you to the end of the list.
4.
Select your target object. The Cal Star Menuwill appearfor that object.Notethe ">" sign in the upper
rightcorner.
5.
Press >NEXTand the Sync menu will appear.Doublecheckto be sure the objectis stillcentered.
6.
Press 1=Sync current object and Menu to exit.
7.
you may syncthroughthe Stars/Constellation
Note: Alternatively,
routine.lt is also possibleto sync on
Messier,NGC, lC, Abellgalaxies,ADS doublestarsand Objects/Constellation;
howeversincethese
objectsare not discretepoints(or havetwo points,as in doublestars),they are not the idealchoicefor
syncrng.
lf the scope is only off a small amount after slewingto an object,you can move the object into the center of the
fieldwith your N-S-E-Wbuttonsor by physicallypushingthe tube assemblyand then hit the Recalbutton#9 in
the RA / DEC ReverseMenu (see Recalibration
section).
lmportantPoints
Meridian Delay
.
lf you had usedthe MeridianDelayfeaturein the lastobservingsession,then removedthe powerat
the end of the session- When you applypoweragain,the meridiandelay informationis usedto
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determinethe positionof the mount,then resetsto zero.This forcesyou to set up the meridian
delayfor each sessionto preventunintendedconsequences.
lf you parkedthe mount,but did not removepower- When you unparkthe meridiandelaysetting
will stillbe active.Be very carefulto rememberyour settings.
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EXTERNALSTARTUPSEQUENCE
FORMOUNTSTHATARE CONTROLLED
BY AN
EXTERNALCOMPUTER.
Auto-connect:EXT is a simplifiedstartupsequenceappropriatefor mountsthat
meet bothof these requirements:
.
Preciselypolar-aligned
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Your mount is connectedto a computerwith telescopecontrolsoftware
This featurecan be activatedor de-activatedin the Auto-connectsettingsin the
KeypadOptionsMenu.You can accessthis menu by pressingSetup,then
pressing#3 to enterinto the Keypadoptions Menu.press #1 to togglebetween:
Y E S ,N O , a n d E X T .
once Auto-connectis set to EXT, pressthe Menu buttonuntilyou get to the Main
Menu,and then powerthe mountdown in orderto activatethis feature.
t.
Keypad Options Menu
1=Auto-Connect:NO
2/3=Reticle
:0
4=Focus
:High
ExternalStartScreen
External Startup
Press Menu to Cancel
external startup.
Prepare your computer and software. Have your computeron with your telescopecontrolsoftware
runningand connectedto the mountvia eithercoM porton the controlbox.
2 . Power up your Mount and the ExternalStartup Screen will appear on the keypad.This screenwill
checkthe mounteveryfew secondsto see if the computerhas sent it the locationand time data it needs
to completethe startupprocess.
Connect to your mount in the computer software.The displayon the keypadshouldnow changeto
the Main Menu.lf it does not,slew to an objectcloseto wherethe telescopeis pointing.Some software
only sendsthe time and locationdatato the mountaftera slew,not at connection.
The Mount should now show the Main Menu and you are ready to use the keypad. lf yourterescope
was movedsincelasttime you used it, you may need to re-calibrate
on a star.Reterto "nuto-Start
sequence- For Permanent,Polar-Aligned
Mounts"in your GTo Keypadmanualfor this procedure.
lmportant Point
lf you have usedthe ExternalStartupSequence,do not attemptto changethe time on your keypad.Use the
computerprogramto controlthe time.
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OBJECTSMENU. HAVESOMEFUN!
Tips for Usingthe Buttonsand Menus
<=Object RA/DEC=>
1=M
4=Sol 7=R/D
2=NGCS=Strs 8=Tour
3=lG 6=More9=Rcal
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Correctingdata entries - When enteringcatalognumbersintothe keypad,you can use <PREVbuttonto
deletelastdigitentered.Entercorrectdigit.
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Scrolling object lists - Someof the objectselectionscreenswill display"<" and/or">", usuallyin the
corners.Thesesymbolsindicatethat you can scrolla list of objectsusingthe <PREVor NEXT>buttons.lf
you holdthese buttons,the objectnameswill scrollquicklyin some screens(e.9.stars).
.
N-S-E-Wdirectional buttons - The N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttonscan be usedwhen you are in the Main
Menu,ObjectMenu,Photographic
Timer,mostSetupMenus,and when the objectdata screensare
displayed.They are not activewhen you are in objectselectionscreens,i.e.when enteringa Messier
numoer.
.
Review object data of catalog items prior to slew - Enterthe numberof the objectthat you are
considering,
then press>NEXT.The magnitude,objecttype (galaxy,globularcluster,etc.)and constellation
will display.You can pressGOTO in this screento initiatea slew,if you wish,or pressMENUto exitto make
an alternateselection.
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Display current object - Returnto ObjectMenu and press<PREVbutton.The objectdata for the lastobject
that was selectedfor a slew (or that you syncedon) will display.
Display coordinates of catalog object after a slew - Press<PREVbutton.The catalogRA and Dec
coordinates
will display.Notethat the coordinatesof the solarsystemobjectsdisplayon the selectionscreen
beforeyou slew.
Actual current RA'/Deccoordinates - When you are in ObjectsMenu, press NEXT>.The RA/Dec
coordinatesof the exactpositionof your mountwill display.These may be slightlydifferentfrom the above
displaysincethe calculations
that compensatefor atmosphericrefractionand precessionwill changethe
coordinatesslightly.Also, if you movethe mountwith the N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttonsor with a software
programsuch as The Sky,this displayscreenwill be updated.
Actual current AIUAzcoordinates - When you are in ObjectsMenu,pressNEXT>.The AIVAzcoordinates
of the exactpositionof your mountwill display.Also, if you movethe mountwith the N-S-E-Wdirectional
buttonsor with a softwareprogramsuch as The Sky,this displayscreenwill be updatedand the displayby
currentobjectscreenwill not.
.
Re-calibration- You can re-calibrate
Simplypress
on currentobjectat any time to fine{une your calibration.
the RfuDECREV buttonon the keypad,centerthe objectin your eyepiecewith the N-S-E-Wdirectional
buttonsand select9=Re-calibrate.
Pleasereadsectionof the manualthat discussesthe uses of the recalibrateand syncfunctions.
.
Sync - You can sync on a currentobjectaftera slew by pressingthe >NEXTbuttonand selecting1. Please
read sectionof the manualthat discussesthe usesof the re-calibrate
and syncfunctions.
.
Cancel slewing at any time - PressSTOP to cancela slewingoperation.Your telescopewill stop
immediately.
The mountwill knowwhereit is, so proceedto the next objectusingthe N-S-E-Wbuttonsor
catalogrequestsdescribedbelow.Do not movethe telescopeby hand or you will losecalibration.
ProceduresCommon to all Slewing Commands
.
Beginall slewingrequestsat the ObjectsMenu (MainMenu -+ Objects).
o
When you pressGOTO, if the objectis visiblefrom your locationand withinyour safe-zonesetting,the mounl
will slew automatically.
lf not,the screenwill displaythe message"Objectbelowhorizon"or "OutsideSafe
Z o n eS l e w i n gc a n c e l e d. . . "
.
When you are readyto choosethe nextobjectto observe,pressMENU once or twiceas neededto returnto
a selectionmenu.
.
Althoughthe proceduresfor each catalogare outlinedbelow,you will find that it is very easyto navigate.The
You will quicklymovefrom one objectto
commandsare eitherintuitiveor the screenprovidesinstruction.
another.
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lf you movethe telescopemanuallyat any time,otherthan the initialcalibrationroutine,you will lose
calibration.
See section"Whatif I lose my calibration?"
A word aboutcatalogdatabases.The RA and Dec coordinatesfor the objectsin thesecatalogsare basedon
you will undoubtedlyfind differenceswhen comparingthe data to othersources
the year 2000.Nevertheless,
even it they are also basedon the year 2000. Slightdifferencesare acceptable.We have addedprecession
and atmosphericrefractioncalculations,
so the actualRA and Dec coordinatepositionto whichyou will slew
will vary slightlyfrom the catalognumbers.Pleaselet us know if you find grossdiscrepancies.
The separationdata of doublestarsin the ADS catalogis basedon "average"numbers.As you knowthe
apparentseparationcan vary from yearto year. Pleaseconsultan ephemerisfor the most accuratedata.
Magnitudesare estimatesand may vary from one sourceto another.Also,some starsare variable.Some
valuesare missingfrom the databaseand will displayzeros in the field.
M , N G C ,l C
Theseare the mostcommoncatalogsused in astronomyand includethe brightestand mostfamousobjects
includinggalaxies,diffuse(bright)nebulae,planetarynebulae,globularclustersand open clusters.Manyfaint
objectsvisibleonly in largerinstrumentsare includedalso.A few objectsare listedin morethan one catalog,so
there is some overlap.M (Messier)= 110 objects,NGC (New GeneralCatalog)= 7 ,840objects,lC (lndex
Catalog)= 5,386objects'
1.
Go to Objects Menu.
2.
Choose M, NGC or lG - pressthe numberthat correspondsto your choice(e.9.M=1)
3.
Enter the catalog number with your keypad.
4.
Choose action:
a)
Press GOTO to initiate slewing.
b)
Press >NEXTto view the object data, then press GOTO to slew.
c)
Press >NEXTagain to go to the Sync Menu, if you wish (assumingthat you are already
pointing at that object.
d)
Press MENUto return to Objects Menu.
Common Object Names
This is one of our favoritefeatures.Manyof us can't rememberthe catalognumberof
an object;howeverwe rememberthe commonname.Use this procedureto view 100 of
yourfavorites.
C o m m o nO b i e c tN a m e sM e n u
Common Names:
1=47 Tuc
2=AndromedaGalaxy
3=Antennae
1.
From Objects Menu, select Tour.
2.
Select Common Obj. Names. Use <PREVand NEXT>to scrollthroughlist of names.
3.
Choose object. The screenwill displaythe magnitude,type of objectand the constellation
whereit is
found.
4.
Press GOTO to initiate slewing, >NEXTto go to the Sync Menu or <PREVto display RA and DEC
coordinates.
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SolarSystemObjects(Sol)
All the planets,the Moonand the Sun
WARNING- Observingduringthe daytimecan be dangerous.You must referto the sectionentitled"Slewing
Duringthe Day"for precautions.
't.
From Objects Menu, select Sol (Solar).
2.
Press the number that corresponds to your choice. The coordinatesof the objectwill display.lf not,
the displaywill indicatethat it is belowthe horizon.
Menu
sotarsvstem
Press GOTO to initiate slewing or Menu = Exit. lf you selectGOTO,the
7=Satn
Solar Menu
data will not
mountwill slewto the object.The magnitudeand constellation
1=Sun 4=Ven
displayfor theseobjects.lf the objectis belowthe horizon,the displaywill
2=Moon5=Mars9=Nept
providethat information.
3=Merc6=Jupt 0=Plu
Common Star Names - Non-scientific
Manyof these namesare of Arabicorigin.Referto "AppendixD: AlphabeticalStar
List"for the starsthat we have included.The appendixalso showsthe FlamsteedBayernamesand the approximatemagnitudeof each star.
Slar SelectionMenu
Choose Star Z=05:54
1=Polaris
2=Acamar
>
3=Achernar
1.
From Objects Menu, choose Strs (Stars).
2.
Select the star you wish to observe. Scrollthe starslist by pressingthe <PREVor NEXT>buttons.
to your choice.The RA
Holdbuttondown for a more rapidscrollrate.Pressthe numberthat corresponds
and DEC coordinateswill display.
Press GOTO to initiate slewing, >NEXTto Sync, <PREVto select another star or MENU to return
to the Object Menu.
Greek Star Names,organized by constellation
This menu showcasesthe briohteststarsin each constellation.
Menu
Stars/constell.
< - Gons: And + >
1=alf
3=chi
4=del
Stars Next=0
1.
From Objects Menu, select Tour
2.
to whichyourtelescopeis pointingand
Select Stars/Constell.The displaywill identifythe constellation
Referto "AppendixE: Constellation
offerchoicesof starswith Greeknameswithinthat constellation.
and "AppendixH: The GreekAlphabet"to help read
for the full namesof the constellation
Abbreviations"
your star charts.
Consellation Star Screen
a)
Use <PREVand NEXT>buttonsto scrollthroughconstellation
that is visible.
lists. Choosea constellation
b)
Press6 or 0 to scrollthroughthe list of starsavailablewithinthe
currentconstellation.
And alf
Mag : 02.6 Gon:And
Type: Stars
Menu=Exit
3.
Choose a star. Screenwill displaythe magnitudeof the star.
4.
You have several choices: PressGOTO to initiateslewing,>NEXTto sync,<PREVfor RA and DEC
Menu.
coordinatesor MENUto exit to the Stars/Constellation
Abell Galaxy Clusters
We have included2,712of the Abell GalaxyClusters.
1.
From Objects Menu, choose "More". This will bringyou to the More
ObjectsMenu.
2.
Choose Abell Galaxies
J.
Enter Abell Number. Notethat not all Abell Galaxiesare in the database
4.
Choose action:
l\,4ore
ObiectsMenu
1=AbellGalaxies
2=ADS Double Stars
3=Search
4=What's Uo Now
7
7
7
7
7
7
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I
F
7
7
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7
F
f
a
7
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F
F
T
F
;
a
7
;
t
-
t
-
C'
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5.
e)
Press GOTO to initiate slewing. lf the numberthat you have enteredis not in the databaseor
is belowthe horizon,the displaywill let you know.
f)
Press >NEXT to view the object data, then press GOTO to slew or >NEXT to display the
sync menu.
Press MENUto return to More objects Menu to make an alternatechoice.
ADS DoubleStars(AitkenDoubleStar Catalog)
we have included215 o'fthe most populardoublestarsin this catalog.please
referto AppendixG; Aitken's Double star (ADS) list for the ADS numbersthat we
haveincludedand the corresponding
Greekstar name.
1.
From Objects Menu, choose ,,More".This will bringyou to the More
ObjectsMenu.
2'
ADS DoubleStarslvlenu
1=00513
3=01630
2=00755
4=01683
6=Prev ADS Next:
Choose ADS Double Stars. The screen will displaythe name of the constellationto which vour
telescopeis pointed.A list of ADS objectswithinthat constellation
is shown.
a)
Use <PREVand NEXT>buttonsto scrollthroughconstellation
lists. Choosea constellation
that is visible.
b)
Press 6 or 0 to scroll throughthe list of stars availablewithin the currentconstellation.
Ghoose a double star. When you selectan object,the screen will displaythe approximateseparation
of
the stars,constellation
and objecttype. Rememberthat apparentseparationmay vary from year to year.
Consultan ephemerisfor the most accuratedata.
4.
Press GOTO to initiate slewing, >NEXTto sync, <PREVto view RA and Dec coordinates
or MENU
to exit.
search for objects by Type,Magnitude,catalog and All sky vs. current
Constellation
Use this routineto specifysearchparameters,e.g. if you want to view all the open
clustersin the Messiercatalogup to 9th magnitudethat are visiblein the entire
sky.This is particularly
usefulto tailorthe listto your apertureor observing
preferences,
or just for fun.
1.
From Objects Menu, select ,,More".This will bringyou to the More
ObiectsMenu.
Search Screen
1 = R a n g e :A l l S k y
2=Type : All
3 = M a g : 1 04 = D B :
GoTo=SrchMenu=Exit
2.
Select Search Function.The screenshownwill appear.
3.
use the keypad to make selections to narrow the range of your search.
a)
Range - Press 1 to alternatebetweenthesechoices:All Sky and Cur. Con. (current
constellation).
b)
c)
Type - Press2 to alternatebetweenthesechoices:All, Galaxy,Open Clus (opencluster),Glob
Clus (globularcluster),Planetary(planetarynebula),Nebula,bot. Star (doublestar)
Mag (magnitude)- Press3 to scrollbetweenmagnitudelevelsof 1-20.This will identifvthe
highestmagnitudethat will be included.Use this to limityour searchrangeto objectsihut uru
easilyviewedin your telescope.
The searchlooksat the wholenumberof the magnitudeso if you specifya limitof '10in your
search,objectsbetween10-11will appearalso (e.g.10.6).
lf an objectdoes not have magnitudedata available,it is storedas "0".As a result,these
objectswill appearin your searcheven if they actuallyexceedyour limit.
d)
DB (databaseor catalog)- Press4 to alternatebetweenthesechoices:Mess (Messier),NGC
and lC
39
e)
Press GOTO.The screenwill display"Searching".
i)
The displaywill show the firstitem of the searchand give you severalchoicesas
shown.
ii)
lf thereare no objectsthat meetthis criterion,the SearchMenu screenwill reappear.
Specifynew search criterion.
iii)
The searchtimes may be 30 secondsor longerif you are searchinga largedatabase,
like NGC objects.
Press GOTO again if you want to slew to this object. The mountwill slew and objectdata
will display.PressNEXT>for the sync menu or <PREVto show RA and Dec coordinates.
s)
Press Menu. The next searchobjectwill displayor if therearen'tany more,the searchmenu
selectionscreenwill reappear.
h)
PressMENU againto returnto ObjectsMenu.
What'sUp Now Function
1.
Go to the What's Up Now screen.
(MainMenu-+ObjectsMenu + 6=More-->4=What'sUp Now )
2,
Press the Next>. The keypadwill search its M, NGC, and lC databases
and randomlysuggestan objectthat is abovethe horizonat your
location.Due to the complexcalculations
that are madeto selectan
object,you may noticea slightpausewith a message**what'sup"* after
pressingthe NEXT>button.This is normal.The selectionis randombut
basedon what is aboveyour currentsky horizonand if there is any
horizonlimitset in the keypad.See "Set HorizonLimitsFor Your
Telescope"for more informationaboutthis feature.
A typicalresponsefrom What'sUp showsthe catalog#, magnitude,
objecttype and constellation.
You may then pressGOTOto slewto that
obiector NEXT>to find a new one.
More ObjectsMenu
1=AbellGalaxies
2=ADS Double Stars
3=Search
4=What's Up Now
What'sUp Now Screen
What's Up Now
Press '>' requests
what's Up object...
Press Menu to Exit
f
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f
f
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f
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f
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t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
:
.
t
3
:
Tour Objects within Gonstellations
lf you are observingwithina constellation
and want to know what otherMessier,NGC or lC objectsare nearby,
this tour will provideyou with lotsof observingideas.
1-
From Objects Menu, select Tour.
2.
Select Objects/Constell.The displaywill identifythe constellation
to whichyour telescopeis pointing
and offerchoicesof objectswithinthat constellation.
3.
Use <PREVand NEXT>buttonsto scrollthroughthe alphabetical
constellation
lists. Choosea
constellation
that is visible.
4.
Press6 or 0 to scrollthroughthe listof objectsavailablewithinthe currentconstellation.
5.
Choose an object. Screenwill displayobjectdata includingmagnitude,objecttype and the
constellation.
6.
PressGOTO to initiateslewing,NEXT>to sync or <PREVto displayRA and Dec coordinates.
3
-
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
.
CustomRA and DECCoordinates
CustomRAJDECEntrvScreen
This menuoptionallowsyou to slew to any positionin the sky as longas you knowthe
RA and Dec coordinates.
This featureis particularly
handyif you wishto locatecomets,
supernovas,asteroidsor any objectthat is not includedin our catalogs.
Custom RAJDECEntry
RA :
19:30:43
DEC: +27:57:34
GOTO / Menu to Exit
1.
From Obiects Menu, select R/D. The CustomRAJDECEntrywill appear.
2.
Enter RA and Dec coordinates.Press>NEXTto bypassany numbersthat you do not wish to change.
Press<PREVif you want to back up to correctan error.To changethe "+" or "-" pressthe "+ -" button.
-
3
.
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40
e
t
3.
Press GOTO to initiate slew or Menu=Exit.
When the slew is complete,pressMENUto returnto the ObjectsMenu.lf you press>NEXT,the RA and Dec
coordinates
will appear.Note:in earlierversionof the keypadfirmware,the RA,/Deccoordinateswere usedfor an
RA PositionMemoryfeature.However,this featurelimitedthe normalfunctionand was confusingto most users.
GustomALT / AZ Coordinates
This menu optionallowsyou to slewto any positionin the sky as longas you knowthe altitudeand azimuth
angles.This featureis particularly
handyif you wish to take your dark framefor CCD imagingor observe
terrestrialobjectswith the trackingturned off.
1.
From Objects Menu, select AlAz. The CustomAIUAzEntrywill appear.
2.
Enter Altitude and Azimuth coordinates.
3.
Press GOTO to initiate slew or MENUto Exit. Use <PREVto make
corrections.
You will now returnto the ObiectsMenu.
Custom ALlt/Az Entrv Screen
CustomALt/AzEntry
Alt :
00:00:00
Az : 000:00:00
GOTO/ Menuto Exit
Sun Warning
It is importantto rememberthat slewingto objectsnearthe sun can be quitedangerousto your eyesight.lf the
sun is abovethe horizon,the keypadwill go throughan additionalcheckroutineto be surethat the objector
positionthat you selectis outsidea safe viewingzone. lf the objectis the sun itselfor within15 degreesof the
sun,the followingwarningwill display
S u n W a r n i n qS c r e e n
WARNING:Looking at
or near the sUN can
DAMAGEyour eyes.
GOTO/ Menu=Exit
Pleasebe sure that you have installeda good qualitySAFEfilterthat coversthe opticsin frontof the telescope
Neveruse eyepiecefilterssincethey may breakdue to the intenseheatof the sun. Do not use solarfiltersthat
are cracked(glass),torn (Mylar)or have many pinholes(eitherglassand Mylar).
I
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F
MAINMENUFUNCTIONS
t
Brightnessof the display screen
I
I
t
a
Use the <PREV and NEXT> buttonsto adjust the brightnessof the displayto a
brightor dim setting.
1=Object 5=S:1200
6=8:600
2=Setup
7--A:1
3=Tools
4=Time/LST8=T:Side
Note:Evenwhen the keypadis set to the brightsetting,it will be difficultto see
duringdaylighthours.You will need to shieldit with your hands.This is an
screen.We originallychosethis
drawbackof the vacuum-fluorescent
unfortunate
displaybecauseof its excellentperformancein cold weatherdown to -40' F (-40"C,yes, the numberis the
belowfreezingand wouldnot work well at all in
same).Alternativedisplaysscrollvery slowlyat temperatures
Sincemany of our customers(andourselves)observeduringthe cold Midwesternwinter
extremetemperatures.
months,we opted for performance.
.
t
t
.
.
Directional butfons
t
u
The N-S-E-Wbuttonsare activeat this point.
,
Objects
This is yourgatewayto all objectdatabases,tour functionsand the RAJDeccoordinateentryscreen.
Referto the previoussectionof the manualfor a completediscussionof the optionsavailablehere.
t
j
t
Sefup
Referto the next sectionof the manualfor a completediscussionof the optionsavailablehere.
F
.
Iools
:
Referto a latersectionof the manualfor a completediscussionof the optionsavailablehere.
t
Time/LST
This displayscreenwill show your localtime,date,LST (localsiderealtime,also
knownas the zenithhour)and GMT (GreenwichMean Time,also knownas UST UniversalStandardTime).lf you have not gone throughthe startuproutine,only the
localtime and date will display.lt cannotcalculateLST and GMT untilyou enteryour
location(unlessAuto-startis set to "yes").Pressand hold MENU buttona few
secondsto exit screen.In addition,the currentselectedlocationwill appearin the
'1
lowerrightcorner.For example,LOC=1indicatesthat location is currentlyselected
Time DisplayScreen
T I M E :1 7 : 4 01 2
DATE:07:06:1998
GMT 22:40:29
-LS,T,11:42 lO!,1
You will noticethat the displaywill appearto skip a secondonce in a while.This happensbecausethe display
does not updateexactlyin sync with the clock.As a result,it gets slightlybehindand has to skip a secondto
catchuo. This is not a problem.
This is a displayscreenonly.You must go intothe Locationand Time menuto changethe data,time and
location.
e
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t
3
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e
3
Slew rate (S,
Press"5" on your keypadto changeslew rate:1200x,900x,or 600x. Notethat the selectionchanges(toggles)
eachtime you pressthe button.We recommendthat you use slowerratesin cold weather.
Button rate (B:)
Press"6" on your keypadto changethe buttonrate:.25x,.5x, 1x, 12x, 64x,600x,or 1200x.This determinesthe
ratethat the mountwill movewhen the N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttonsare pushed.The selectionchangeseachtime
you pressthe button.This ratecan also be changedon a displayscreenaccessedby the + - button.
42
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e
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3
3
e
c
Guiding rate(A:)
Press"7" on your keypadto changethe Guidingrate:.25x,.5x,or 1x.This determinesthe ratethat the mountwill
movewhen an auto-guideror computerguidingprogrammovesthe mountthroughthe auto guiderporton the
controlbox. The selectionchangeseach time you pressthe button.
Note:The GTO servocontrolbox on your mountusesthe lastguide rate commandsentto it. The guide ratecan
eitherbe controlledby the keypador an externalsource.lf an externalsourcesendsthe last command,the
displayof the keypadcannotdisplaythe new rate.
Tracking rate (T:)
Press"8" on your keypadto changethe trackingrate:Side (Sidereal),Sol (Solar),Lun (Lunar)and Stop
Casualohserving
lf you just want to make quickcasualvisualobservations
with your telescopeand do not plan to use the go{o
featuresof the keypadcontroller,you can operateyourtelescopetotallyfromthis screen.Sinceyou haveset up
your mountwith the polaraxis pointingtowardPolaris(or the southerncelestialpole)the RA trackingratewill help
to keep your object in the field of view. You will, of course,have to move your telescopeby hand from one object
to anotheror use the directionalbuttons.lf you have encodersinstalled(optionalaccessory),you can use JMI
DigitalSettingCircles(optionalaccessory).
43
SETUPMENUS
Locations & Time Menu
Set Site Location
Referto the earlier"GettingStarted- Do This at Home"sectionfor this
information.
1=Locations& Time
2=MountMove Limits
3=KeypadOptions
4=Park/ Mount
Set Date& Time
Referto the earlier"GettingStarted- Do This at Home"sectionfor this information.
Get Time/Loc FrMnt
^ -
lf you are usingan externalcomputerto controlyour telescope,the mount
TIME:21:12:38
and the keypadcouldbe usingdifferentlocationand time settings.This
LONG:W089:25:00
commandwill syncthe keypadwith the last locationthat was sentto the
LAT :N 42:38:00
mountby the computerthroughthe RS-232serialport.This featureis
extremelyhandyfor computerssyncedwith atomicclocksand GPS units.
When this feature is selected,a displaywill appear with the informationthe keypad has obtainedfrom
the mount.Comparethis screento your computer'ssettingsto be sure they match.lf they do not match
closelyyou may needto send the computersettingsto the mountagain by usingthe initializecommand
in The Skyor by sendinga slew commandin othertelescopecontrolprograms.
Press menu to leave this prompt.You will also notice if you have used this featurethat your location
indicatorin the Time/LSTmenuwill show LOC: E. This indicatesthat you are usingthe external
informationin the mountto establishyour locationand time ratherthan your presetlocationsin the
keypadsmemory.
Note: You cannotmanuallyedit the time with your keypadif you have selectedthe Get Time/LocFr Mnt.
lf you needto updateyour time, pleaseenterthe Get Time/LocFr Mnt commandagain.
44
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a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
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a
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a
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PARK/ MOUNTOPTIONS
ParkYour Telescope
The keypadallows you to park the telescopeat
the end of your observingsession.You can
thenturn off the powerand the mountwill
retainthis positionfor the next session.When
the parkcommandis cancelled,you are ready
to resumewithoutgoingthroughthe calibration
routine.Once the telescopeis parked,it
cannotbe movedby hand or the calibrationwill
be lostand you will have to repeatthe startup
sequenceat the beginningof your next
observingsession.
Thereare four methodsof parking.You may
chooseone of three pre-determinedpark
positionsor you may simplyremovethe power
and the driveelectronicswill storethe
informationregardingthe last positionin its
memory.
-
Park Position3
Northernand
Southern
Hemispheres
ParkPosition1
NorthernHemisohere
he southernhemisphere
is mirrorreversed. The
scopels stilllevelon the
wesl slde of the mount.
ibutis facingthe southern
t,
horizon. The
shaf is
i counterweighf
I a/so stillleveland
I polnt4g due ea9!
)
a
-
a
)
a
a
a
a
The scope is pointing to the pole. The
counterweighl shafr rs pointing down.
RA axis is vertical. Dec = 90
Go to Mount Menu. (Main Menu -+
i
I
:
i
Setup+ Park/ MountOpt menu).
l
- 3 POSitiOnS
Pafk
1.
2.
Choose either 1, 2 or 3 with the
buttons. Dependingon which number
you choose,the scope will slew to one of
the park positionsshown in the photos.
The'screen
willstate,"Plswaittillscope
reachesparkpointbeforepoweroff.
)
)
,
3.
?
?
?
i
i
Again.the southern
hemisphere
is mirror
reversed-The
reverseo.
t ne scope
stillpointsto the eastern
easlrsfo
.lo'':?.n',bul
the
te^ft
wh::^f\li,:sth" i
I
-'
J
p
gf Park 2
South.
id
Remove the power to avoid potential damage by lightning. Disconnectthe powersupplyfrom
the wall for optimalprotection.
)
f.
I
I
The scope is level on top of the mount facing the
eastern horizon. The counterweight shaftis
Potnttngdown.
nq axisis veriical, Dec = 0
51
e
a
c
4'
a
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a
e
Turn the power on when you are ready to begin your next observing session.
a)
lf Auto-connectis set to "YES",the mountwill begintrackingin R.A.when you
apply
power.
b)
lf Auto-connectis set to "NO",the mountwill not begintrackingin R.A. untilyou
choose
your locationfrom the Site Menu,then selectResumefrom pjrk.
c)
lf Auto-connectis set to "EXT",the mount will not begin trackingin R.A. until it
receives
locationand time datafrom an externalcomputer.
c
c
c
c
c
Auto-Park- ParkWhereveryou Want
1'
Set Auto-connect
to "YES" (Main.Menu-->2=Setup-+ 3=Keypadoptionsmenu).Toggle,,.1,,
to set
"YES". (The otherchoicesare ,,NO"and ,,EXT',.)
2'
When you havefinishedyour observingsession,simplyturn the poweroff. The
mountwill stop
tracking.Pleasedo not parkthe mountwith the counierweights
higherthan the telescope.lt is not a
recommendedpark position.
3'
When you restorethe power,the keypadwill displaythe Main Menu and will
begintrackingin R.A.
again.lt will rememberyour location,date/timeand will know wnereyour scope pointed
is
(assumingthat you have not movedyour telescopein the interim).
Parking and Power Considerations
12v DC powersthe mount;howeveryou can use a 110 to 12VDC powersupply
(5 amp minimum)
whenever1'l0V is available.lf you have a heavyload,you may considerup
io l'oV. we recommendthat you
do not leaveyour mountpluggedinto 110Vcurientwhen you are not observing.
lt is betterto removethe
powerplug and all connectionsto otherelectronicequipment
that is pluggedinto a powersource,r.e.serial
cables connectedto your computer,so that if your observatoryis struck dy lightning
or a severe power surge
occurs,your driveelectronicswill not be damaged.We recommendthat ybuiake
tf,e same precautions
with
your drive electronicsthat you would take with any fine electronic
equipment.
The Parkfunctionin the keypadwill stopthe RA tracking- the mountgoes into
a non-drivenqurescenr
mode'All poweris removedfrom the servomotors,but the micro-controller
does not sleepand is waitingfor
a commandto startmovingagain.Normally,this wouldbe a softwaresignalfrom
the keypador planetarium
program'but it is possiblethat a surgeor glitchin the powercan
mimici commandto startmoving.lf you
don'tturn off the power,you may find your scopejammedup againstthe mount
or the ceilingof your
observatorythe next morning. We suggestthe foilowingroutin6.park the scope
and wait for the motorsto
stop moving'Pullthe plug on the batteryor disconnectirom the powersupply.
Neverwalk away from the
scope duringthe parkingslew and then forget to remove power.
ff you have a permanentobservatorywith remote operationand are using a
12-voltpowersupply,we
suggestthat you turn the poweroff with some kind of switch.We strongtyrecommend
that this switchcut
BorH sides of the line-topreventany possibilityof damage from a nearby lightning
strike. lf even one wire
ts connectedto the 110-voltline,there is the possibility
oia groundloop pickingup electricar
energyand
feedingit intothe servodrive.The 12-voltinputis filteieduni
take quitea oit ot energy;however
lightningcan generateenormouscurrentsin a lengthof wire that
""n can causedamaoe.
CalibrateMenu
You can also accessa calibrationmenufrom the SetupMenu,as follows,if you
accidentally
movethe
mount and telescope,wjthoutremovingpower, and must re-calibrate.Normally,
this procedurewould not be
used in the middleof an observingsession.
12'
Go to Park / Mount opt. Menu. (MainMenu -+ setup -+ park / Mountopt.)
Choose Cafibrate Menu (lt4). You have two choices.Refer to the appropriate
sectionsin the
NormalStartupSequencesection.
a)
N PolarCalibrate
b)
2-Star Catibrate
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AO
ai
ei
^l
What if I lose my calibration?
Assumingthat the mount itselfdid not move and you are polar-aligned,you can use the sync functionas
describedunderAdvancedFeatureslaterin the manual.This is the quickestand easiestmethod.
go to calibrateMenu as describedaboveand followthe N PolarCalibrateor 2-StarCalibrate
Alternatively,
procedure.Sinceyou will alreadybe polaralignedand your locationhas been selected,you are simply
tellingthe mountwhereit is pointing.No furtheradjustmentsshouldbe needed.Note;do not use the solar
systemobjectsin these routinessincethe RA/Decpositionschangewith time.
SpecifyMount Type
This settingis made at Astro-Physics.Tb check or make corrections,follow this
Drocedure.
P a r k/ M o u n tO p t r o n sM e n u
1,2,3=MountPark
alibrateMenu
u n t T y p e :A P 1
1.
Go to the Park/MountOptions Menu. (MainMenu -+ Setup-+
ParUMountOpt.)
2.
Press S=MountType. Noticethat the numberfieldchangeseach time you press5.
Scroll through choices - Continueto press5 to choose:AP'1200,AP900,AP600Eor AP400.lf you own a
mountproducedby ParallaxInstruments
or MountainInstruments,
checkwith them for your propersetting.
For the MachlGTO,chooseAP1200or AP900.
TOOLSMENU
ToolsMenu
Permanent Error Memory Adjustment (PEM)
Astrophotography
and CCD lmagingdemandthe highesttrackingaccuracyto
obtainpinpointstar imagesthroughoutyour photographic
exposure.You do not
need PEM unlessyou are engagedin one of theseactivities.
1=PEM
2=SmartGuide
3=PhotoTimer
0=Status
permanentperiodicerrorcompensation
The servodriveelectronicscontaina very sophisticated
circuit
(othermanufacturers
callthis PPEC).Becausea majorityof the periodicerroris due to the RA driveworm
it is possibleto significantly
reduceit by simplyhavingthe controller"memorize"the
and is quitepredictable,
playthem backfor each cycleof the worm.
correctionsyou make with your buttoninputsand automatically
This circuithas some uniquefeaturesthat makesit easy to operateand almosttotallyfoolproof.
Polaralignyour mountso that you have minimumR.A.and Dec drift.Be sure that the nightis steady
enoughwith minimumatmosphericmotion,and pick a star nearthe zenithto minimizeatmospheric
refractionerrors.You must use an eyepiecewith a crosshair.The recordingprocesswill take about7
minutesto completefor the 1200and 900 mountsand 8 minutesfor the 600E and 400 mounts.The keypad
will displaythe PEM recordingscreenfor the full 8 minutes.However,the actual recordingwill only occur for
the appropriatelengthof time for your mount.This timinginformationis storedin the GTO ServoControl
Box.
Record Permanent Error Memory
1.
Select response rate for N-S-E-Wbuttons at the Main Menu. For
mediumpower,use 1x, for higherpowersuse .5x or.25x.
2.
Go to PEM setup screen (MainMenu + Tools-->PEM).
3.
Be sure the PEM state is set to NONE.
P E M S e t u pS c r e e n
PEM Setup
PEM State: None
1=Rec2=Play 3=None
Press MENU to Exit
Put star on crosshair. Placea mediumbrightnessstar on the crosshairat moderatelyhigh power
so you can easilysee the R.A.gear drift.Practicemovingthe star with your N-S-E-Wdirectiona.
buttonsto get the feel of guiding.To changethe responseratefor the N-S-E-Wbuttons,press+/button.
secondslater,signaledwith a single
Choose Record.The recordcyclewill beginapproximately'10
throughoutthe entirecycle.
audiblebeep.The screenwill show "Recording"
o.
Keep star on crosshair. Duringthe 7-minuterecordingperiod,it is necessaryto keepthe star on
the crosshairusingthe N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttons.Everybuttoninputwill be recorded.Avoid
trying to guide out any atmosphericscintillationsince this will add a random noise error into your
finalguide rate.lf an ST-4 autoguideror STV is available,it can be usedto guide,and the
SLEWINGDURINGTHE DAY
You must take extra precautionswhen observingduringthe daytime.lf not done correctly, you may suffer
permanent damage to your eyesight. Be sure to superviseall childrenand other observerswho may not be
awareof the dangers.
Observingin the daytimeoffers many rewards- findingthe planetsand stars, and observingsunspotsand solar
prominencesof the sun itself.
Potential Dangers
As the telescopeis slewingfrom one part of the sky to another,it may pass acrossthe face of the sun or near
enoughso that lookingthroughthe telescopewould be dangerousunlessyou have a propersolarfilter.DO
NOT LOOK DIRECTLYINTOTHE TELESCOPEOR VIEWFINDERWHILETHE TELESCOPEIS SLEWING.
The positionof the planetor star that you wish to see may be too closeto the sun to observesafely.CHECK
T H E P O S I T I O NO F T H E T E L E S C O P EB E F O R EY O U L O O KI N T OT H E E Y E P I E C EO R V I E W F I N D E RB
. E
S U R ET H A T l T l S N O T P O I N T I N GA T O R A N Y W H E R EN E A RT H E S U N .R e m e m b etrh a tt h e f i n d e rh a s a
wide fieldof view so you can see a largeportionof the sky.
.
PLEASEDO NOT OVERRIDETHE SUN SAFE ZONE DURINGTHE DAY.This featureis in the keypadfor
your safety.
.
Observingthe sun. Be surethat you have installeda good qualitySAFE solarfilterthat coversthe opticsin
front of the telescope.Never use eyepiecefilterssince they may break due to the intenseheat of the sun. Do
not use solarfiltersthat are cracked(glass),torn (Mylar)or have many pinholes(eitherglassor Mylar).lf you
use a photographic
solarfilter,be sureto use an additionalneutral-density
filterwhen viewingthroughand
eyepieceor the viewfinderof your camera.
How fo Observe Safely
Place dust cover or propersolar filters on the main objectiveof the telescopeand the finder scope before
you slewthe telescope,use the N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttonsor move it manually.Be sure to inspectyour
solarfilterbeforehandto be surethat it is not damagedin any way that will allowlightthrough.Use a black
markerto coverthe pinholesthat may appearin the coating.
2 . Slewor movethe telescooe.
J.
Visuallycheckthe positionof the telescopeto be sure that it is not pointingat or anywherenearthe sun.
A
lf you are observingplanets,the moon or stars- removethe dust coveror filteronly when you are surethat
it is safe.
q
To observethe sun - ALWAYS leave your solar filter in place over the front of the objectiveand finder.
o.
Put the solar filtersor dustcoversback on the telescopebeforeslewingto the next object.
ADVANCEDFEATURES
The followingparagraphsdetailsome very importantand powerfulfeaturesof your keypadand servodrive
system. Be sure you readthis sectioncarefullyand understandthe materialpresented. Sync and Re-Calibrate
are vitalpartsof the GOTO system. The MeridianDelayfeatureis a tremendousassetwhen imaging,as well as
beingan integralpartof the GTO QuickStar Driftmethodof polaralignment. They are only of value,however,
the bestcalibrationobjectsto use are singlebrightstars.
when used correctly. With both Sync and Re-Calibrate,
and you don't haveto guessat wherethe centeris. Solarsystem
Singlebrightstarsare easy to distinguish,
objectsare usefulfor daytimeobservingand setup,but be careful! lf you use the sun as your sync object,
you must be sure to use a solar filter on both your finder scope and your objective to protect your eyes!
are neveras good as a single
Othersolarsystemobjects,althoughusefulfor daylightand twilightcalibrations
brightstar. Becausethe moon and planetsmove in relationto the restof the sky, theirpositionsmust be
calculated. They are also not pointsources,so againyou mustestimatethe center,(nottoo hardwith Mars,but
moreof a challengewith a crescentmoon).
Sync Function
Pleasenote: The Svnc command should onlv be used AFTER vou are properlv polar aligned!
Sync is usedtypicallyat the startof an observingsessionor afterthe mounthas been movedby hand.Sync
calibratesthe mounton a knownobjectin the database,one to whichyou have positionedyour telescope
shaft
manually.Sync also establishesthe orientationof the mountwith respectto the telescope,counterweight
and pier. Sync assumesthat you have placedyour telescopeon the properside of the meridian,i.e. a telescope
placedon the west side of the mountpointingto a star in the east.This assuresthat the telescopewill be
positionedon the properside of the mountfor all subsequentobjects.PLEASEREADTHE COMPARISON
BELOWTO AVOID POTENTIALPROBLEMS!Theseare typical
BETWEEN"SYNC"AND "RE-CALIBRATE"
usesof Sync.
Startup-Your mount is polar aligned and Auto-start is set to "no"
1. The Site Menuwill displaywhen you powerup the mount.lf you had not parked,the mountwill start
t r a c k i n gi n R . A .i m m e d i a t e l yH.o w e v e ri,f y o u h a d p a r k e di n p o s i t i o n s1 , 2 o r 3 a t t h e e n d o f t h e l a s t
session,the mountwill NOT starttrackinguntilyou chooseyour locationfrom the site menu.
to the mount.
Chooseyour location.This will send location,date,time and daylightsavingsinformation
The Sync,Align,and ResumeMenuwill now appear.
Point your telescopeto a known bright star or solar system object. Make sure the object is on the
oppositeside of the meridianfrom the telescope- see below. Center it in the eyepiece.(lf the object
drifts,you will knowthat you are not truly polar-aligned).
4.
Select:1=StarSync and scrollthroughthe commonstar namesusing<PREVand >NEXTuntilyou find
the one that is centeredin your eyepiece.The solarsystemobjectsare at the end of the list.Remember,
you can use the <PREVbuttonto scrollfrom the backof the list.
number (1,2 or 3) and then pressGOTO. This
Selectyour targetobjectby pressingthe corresponding
will sync on the object.The mountwill not actuallyslew anywhere.The Main Menu will appear.Begin
observing. Note:to help preventmistakes(maybeyou pressed1 for Algediwhen you meantto press2
for Algenib??) the keypadwill not allowyou to sync on an objectthat is belowyour horizon.
Startup - Your mount is polar-aligned,Auto-start is set to "yes", however the telescope has been moved
1. The Main Menuwill displaywhen you powerup and the mountwill starttracking(whetheryou parkedat
the end of the lastsessionor not).
2.
Manuallypoint your telescopeto a known star or solar system object. Make surethe object is on the
opposite side of the meridianfrom the telescope- see below. Center in the eyepiece(if the object
drifts,you will know that you are not truly polar-aligned).
3.
Go to Objects-+ Stars. The Star SelectionMenu will appear. (The solarsystemobjectsare at the end
of the list.) Use <PREVand >NEXTto scrollthroughthe list.
4.
number(1,2 or 3). The Star SelectionScreen
Selectyourtargetobjectby pressingthe corresponding
for that star will appear. Note:the ">" sign has been leftoff of the screento help preventaccidental
syncing. DO NOT pressGOTO. Also note:to help preventmistakes(maybeyou pressed1 for
Algediwhen you meantto press2 for Algenib??) the keypadwill not allowyou to sync on an objectthat
is belowyour horizon.
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5.
Press>NEXTand the Sync confirmation
screenwill appear.
6.
Doublecheckto be surethe objectis stillcenteredand that your mount'sorientationis correct.Press
1=Synccurrentobject. The keypadwill beep and displayan -- ObjectSynced- message. Press
Menuto exit.
Your mount is polar-alignedand you were moving the telescope manually to look at a few objects before
slewing with the go-to feature.
Use the same procedureas above,beginningwith step 2.
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Tweak Your Pointing Accuracy
You slew to an objectand center it in your eyepiecewith your N-S-E-Wdirectionalbuttons.You have two choices,
(preferred)or sync.Both are possible,howeverre-calibrate
eitherre-calibrate
is safestand easiestand involves
the leastnumberof keystrokes. Manythingscan affectthe pointingaccuracyof your system. The accuracyof
your clockand locationsettingsand especlallythe orthogonality
of your entiresystemcan play a role. Don't
driveyourselfcrazytryingto make everyslew hit the dead centerof a high powereyepiece.
lf orthogonalityissues are affectingyour pointingaccuracy,use a smart strategyto compensate. Organizeyour
observingaroundone or severalregionsof sky. The regionscan be on oppositesidesof the meridian,but slews
withinthe regionshouldnot requireyou to crossthe meridian. When you finisha region,slew to a brightstar in
the next regionand re-calibrate.As long as you are not swappingsidesby crossingthe meridian,you shouldbe
ableto slewto objectswithina reasonableradiusof your calibrationstarwith satisfactory
accuracy. The useful
radiuswill simplydependon the degreeto whichyour systemis not orthogonal,but you shouldbe able to
observein a radiusof 20 to 30 deoreesbeforere-calibratino.
Re-calibrate
Re-calis usedto re-calibrate
the positionof the mountif an objectdoes not appearin the centerof the field.Recalibratecan be usedeven when the objectis pastthe meridianand the telescopeis belowthe mount.Re-Calrecalibrateson the last objectto which the telescopewas sent.
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Let'ssay that you slewto Caph (betaCas.)and centerusingN-S-E-Wbuttons.Simplypressthe RA/DECREV
buttonand select9=Re-Calibrate.
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optionif the keypadhas the targetobjectin its memory,i.e.you just gave
Note:You can only use the recalibration
a slew commandand the keypadalreadyknowsit shouldbe at that object.You CANNOTuse this optionif you
manuallymovethe telescopeto anotherposition,sincethe keypadwouldhave no way of knowingwhat that
objectis. In this situation,use sync as describedbelow.
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Sync
As in the exampleabove,let'ssay that you slew to Caph (betaCas.),then,by hand,centerthe objectin your
eyepiece. From the Star Object Screenfor Caph, press the >NEXT buttonwhich will displaythe Sync
Confirmation
Screen- makesure your telescopeis positionedcorrectly(see
StarObiectScreen- Caoh
below). Press 1=Sync,the keypadwill beep,and then pressMENUto exit.
Star:Caph
Beforesyncing:
00:09:'ll
.
Make sure your mountand telescopeare properlyoriented.
EC:+59:09:00
.
You must be polaraligned
enu=Exit 1=BkMk
.
Do NOT have your MeridianDelayfeatureturnedon
procedure
The sync
is outlinedaboveand the commandis describedfurtherin the followingsection
Sync Explainedin Detail and compared to Re-Calibrate
Sync and Re-calibrate
are oftenusedas synonymsin everydayuse, but to the Keypadand GTO ControlBox
directingthe movementsof your mount,they are differentand distinct. Understanding
this distinctionwill aid you
in enjoyingyourAstro-Physics
GOTO system.
The Synccommandis typicallyused at the beginningof an observingor imagingsession. Sync tellsthe mount
where it is pointingand defineswhich is the telescopeside and whichis the counterweight
side. lt is a powerful
commandin that it disregardsearlierslewingcommandsand startsover. lt does not take the lastentered
positionintoaccount,but tellsthe mount- "You are here," basedon the objectdisplayedon the keypadscreen.
It assumesthat the telescopeis correctlypointedwith the sync object and the telescopeon oooositesides of the
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meridian. Eachtime you use sync,you redefinethe orientationof the telescopeand counterweight
to the mount.
lf used in the wrongway, the sync commandwill causethe mountto slew incorrectlyand possiblycausedamage
to equipment. lt shouldthereforebe used with caution.
Why is the Sync commanda potentialproblemif used incorrectly?Thereare two main reasons. The first
reasoncomes from the fact that both axes of the mount are full 360' circlesthat are not restrictedin their motion.
The secondcomesfrom the fact that the mountmust relyon the informationit is given:in particular,
the date,
time,daylightsavingsand locationdata to knowwherethe meridianis. As smartand sophisticated
as these
systemsare, they cannotsee the sky or theirown orientationand must rely on the operatorto give them their
properstart.
Let'sexaminethe firstissue. Why wouldthe full
E+W
ftleridian
circularnatureof the axes createa problempotential?
(N-S Centerlino)
First,if you loosenyour clutches,and then remove
your telescope,mountinghardwareand counterweight
shaft,you can simplyturn both axes roundand round
to your heart'scontent. Sincethe clutcheswere
disengaged,the servodrivesystemcan not possibly
have any idea where the axes are pointingbeforeyou
tell it by syncingthe mount. This is a criticalproblem
becauseof the fact that for any locationin the sky,
there would be two possibleways to point at it if there
(likea pier)in the way. See the
were no obstructions
illustration
at right. Both imagesshow a telescope
pointingat the same object. The imageon the rightis
obviouslywrong,and no experiencedastronomer
wouldpositionhis or her mountlikethis, but the mount
cannotknowwhichalternativehas been chosen. The softwarewas thereforewrittento subsequently
slewthe
mountassumingthe sync positionwas correctas shownon the left. lt basesits assumptionof wherethe
meridianis and wherethe pier is on the correctorientationof the systemwhen it is synced.
Well,you mightask, if no one wouldbe dumb enoughto syncwith theirmountpositionedlikethe one on the right
in the illustration
above,why even bringit up? The reasonis that thingsaren'talwaysas easy as the above
- it was designedto make the pointobvious. Take a look at the next illustration. ls it OK to use
illustration
sync in eitherof thesesituations? The answeris maybe,but I wouldn'treallyadviseit.
Which one?
**
tleridian
(N*S Canterlino)
This bringsus to the secondmain reasonthat sync can be a problem
if used incorrectlv. The illustration
at leftshowsthat it can be
difficultto tell whichside of the meridianyou are pointingat when
pointingnearthe meridian. This assumesthat the meridianis
whereit's supposedto be. Now wait a minute,you say. We all
knowthat the meridianis the north- south linethat is straightup:
directlyoverhead. lt goes throughthe zenith. lt has to be whereit's
supposedto be! That is true,but the mountcan'tsee llkeyou and I
can. lt can'tlook up and see the meridian;it has to calculatethe
meridianbasedon the data we give it. That data is the location,the
date,the time and whetheror not daylightsavingsis in effect.
Errorsin this data will resultin errorsin the calculatedoositionof the
meridianwith respectto the objectbeingsynced.
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Daylightsavingsis an easy exampleto understand. lt changesour clocksby
one hour,forwardeach spring,backwardeach fall. Each hour is equivalentto
15" of sky. Therefore,a simplemistakein the enteredvalue(off or on) for
daylightsavingswill throwthe calculatedmeridianoff by a whopping15'. The
next illustration
at rightshowsthis. The telescopeis 10' east of the true
meridian. lf syncingon a star with the telescopein this position,you would
thinkthat everythingis fine, but if you have your daylightsavingsturnedoff=0
(and it shouldbe on=1),the calculatedmeridianwill be 5' too far to the eastto
sync! Likewise,just enteringthe wrong location(i.e.your backyard location
numberinsteadof your darksitelocationnumber)can throwyou off by enough
to makeany sync closeto the meridianworth reconsidering.
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Calculated
Meridiandue
to Daylight
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Sync is a very important,handyand powerfulcommand. Don'tbe scaredto
use it,just followthesesafe guidelinesnow that you understandhow it works:
1.
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Your mountMUST be polaraligned. Sincesync establishesthe
mount'sorientationwith respectto the telescope,counterweight
shaft
and pier,polaralignmentis a prerequisite.
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2 . NEVERsync if your counterweight
shaftis pointingup. Avoidsyncingif your counterweight
shaftis
closeto horizontal. Rememberthat the syncobjectand the telescopemust be on oppositesidesof the
mount/ meridian.
J.
4.
5.
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Do not use sync if your meridiandelayfeatureis turnedon. Meridiandelayoverridesthe mount's
orientation
/ clockinformationand can leadto the same problemas syncingwhen the mountis
improperlyoriented.
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Comparethe current"2" valuein the Star SelectionMenu Screenwith
the R.A.valuefor the star you will be syncingon. Rememberthat the
"2" value changesalong with time; you can't use the "Z" value you
rememberfrom severalhoursago. lf the R.A. numberis largerthan
the "Z" value,the star is east of the mount'scalculatedmeridianand
the scooeshouldbe on the west side of the mount. lf the R.A.value
is smaller,the star is west of the calculatedmeridianand the scope
shouldbe on the east. This is an especiallygood way to check,since
it usesthe mount'scalculatedmeridianand thereforebypassesany
errorsin time or locationdata.
(
StarSelectionMenu- Altair
ChooseStar 2=16 54
1=Alshain
2=Altair
3=Altais
StarObiectScreen- Altair
Star:Altair
RA: 19.50:47
DEC:+08:52:06
GOTO / Menu=Exit
To verifythat everythingis set correctlyonce you have synced,go to
your ObjectsMenu and Choose7=R/D for the customRA / DEC EntryScreen. For the R.A.,enterthe
"Z" value from step 2 above. (lf it has been more than a minuteor two, get a fresh "2" value from the
Star SelectionMenu.) For the DEC value,enteryour latitude+l- 20". (The +/- 20" is in case you have
safe zone limitsset for your system. lf your systemallowsthe scopeto pointstraightup, you can just
enteryour latitude.)Press GOTO. Afterslewing,your counterweight
shaftshouldbe perfectly
horizontal. lf you were able to enterjust your latitudefor a DEC value,the scopewill be pointingstraight
up as well. This is a good test becauseit also indicateswhetheryour time and locationdata are correct.
Your sync will resultin greaterpointingaccuracyif you sync to a singlestar that is closeto the celestial
equator,ratherthan closeto your pole. This has nothingto do with the sync commanditself,but instead
is becauseof the geometryof the celestialsphere. Thinkof the longitudelineson a globe,how they are
widestat the equator,but convergeat the poles. A smallerrorin centeringa star nearthe polewould
translateintoa largerR.A.errorthan the same centeringerroron a star nearthe celestialequator.
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Meridian
(N-S Center-line)
$g
^,"t$si
Counterweight Shafts
:7"'"'\
OK to
Sync!
OK to
Sync!
Do NOT
Sync!
In summary,you use the sync commandonce in an observingor imagingsessionunlessthe telescopegets
physicallymovedby hand or by accident(as opposedto movedwith the N-S-E-Wbuttons). While it can be used
to tweak pointingaccuracy,we preferto use re-calibratefor that. We also recommendthat you Sync on objects
that are at least 15 deg. (1 hour)from the meridian. This will help safeguardyou from a potentialclockrelated
problem- i.e.you forgotaboutdaylightsavingstime,and it makesit easierto see that the objectand telescope
are on oppositesidesof the meridian. lf you are permanentlymountedand do not disturbthe scopeposition,
you do not need to use it after the very first setup.
Re-calibrate
is the "tweak"command. lt is quickand easy and is perfectfor fine-tuningyour pointingaccuracy
corrects
duringyour observingor imagingsession. Ratherthan tellingthe mountwhere it is pointing,re-calibrate
its minorpointinginaccuracies.Re-calibrate
workson the objectin memorythat the mountthinksit is already
pointingat. lt does not care what objectis displayedon the screenat the time,only wherethe last GOTO
the mount'spositionin memory,it doesn'tmatterif the telescope
commandsent it. Sinceit does not re-establish
and Re-calobjectare both on the same side of the meridian. lt is thereforea safercommandto use duringyour
session.
Rememberthat for both commands,the preferredobjectof choicewill alwaysbe a singlebrightstar becauseit is
a singlepointsource. Avoiddoubleor multiplestarsif possible. Solarsystemobjectscan be usefulfor daylight
syncingor re-calibrating.In addition,rememberthat pointingaccuracyis also dependenton the accuracyof the
polaralignmentand the orthogonality
of the entiresystem.
GAUTION: lt is importantto notethat externalsoftwareprogramsmay not make the same distinctionbetween
(or whateverthey call it) with otherprograms. For
the 2 terms,so be carefulwhen syncingor re-calibrating
safetysake you may want to treatany similarcommandin externalsoftwarelikea Sync commandand use it only
with the objectand telescopeon oppositesidesof the meridian.
Meridian Delay Function
This function should be used with caution to prevent accidentaltelescope contact with the pier.
In normaluse, the telescopewill trackthroughthe meridianwhen you are followingan object.However,when you
enterthe objectagain,or if you entera nearbyobjectthat has driftedpast the meridian,the telescope
switchessidesso that the scopewill be "rightside up" insteadof divingunderthe mount.
automatically
you may wish to delaythe meridianswap,especiallyif you are imaging
Sometimes,for astro-photography,
mosaicsand the area is beginningto driftacrossthe meridian.
To delaythe swap,pressthe buttonmarkedRA/ DEC/REV.The last menu item is the meridian,set normallyto
zero-By usingthe PREV<and NEXT>buttonsyou can entera t hourto 6 hourdelayor advanceof the meridian
swap.A settingof 1W meansthat the scopewill continueto slew to objectsup to t hour pastthe meridianin the
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west. lt effectivelydelaysthe meridianswap by t hour.A 6 hourdelay meansthe scopewill slew all the way to
the horizonon the "wrong"side of the mount.Enteringa 1E meansthat the scopecan be placedon the otherside
of the mountby t hourearlierthan normal.
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As a generalrule,objectson the pole side of your zenithare poor choicesfor usingthe meridiandelay. When
the telescopeis pointedat an objecton the poleside,the backof the instrumentcan hit the pier if you go pastthe
meridian. Objectsaway from the pole (southif you are in the north,northif you are in the south)are less likelyto
be a problem. You can see this quiteeasilyby looseningyour clutchesand swingingyour telescopearound
your mount. Pointyour scopeat variouspointsin the sky alonga north/ southline and then see how far you can
swingthe RA past the meridianbeforestrikingthe pier. In so doing,you can learna rangeof "safe"declination
valuesand meridiandelay parametersfor your locationand particularsetup.
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When you turn the poweroff,the meridianhouroffsetwill returnto the defaultsettingof "0W."You will haveto
make a consciousdecisionto changeit duringeach observingsession.lf you are permanentlymountedand
leaveyour poweron, be sure to rememberthat you have madethis setting.We encourageyou to returnto "0W"
at the end of your observingsession.
Noteto programmers:
The meridiandelayis accomplishedby sendinga time to the mountthat is from 1 up to 6
hoursdifferentthan the clocktime.6 hoursplus,delaysthe meridianto the east,6 hoursminusdelaysthe
meridianto the west.So, if you want to delaythe meridianfrom your computerterminal,just sendthe revisedtime
to the servodriveper the AP protocol.Caution:lf you parkthe mountwith this fake time and turn off the power,
then unparkit later,the mountwill pointat the wrong RA. lt will be off by the amountyou faked.lf you are goingto
send a fake time to the mountwith your computer,then make sure you resetto the correcttime beforeyou park
the mountand turn off the oower.
SmartGuide
Referto the sectionin the ToolsChapterfor detailspertainingto this feature.
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UNDERSTANDING
THE KEYPADCONTROLLER
AND
GTOCONTROLBOX FUNCTIONS
Functionsof the GTO SenzoControl Box
Thesenotesapplyto the GTOCP'I, GTOCP2and GTOCP3modelsof the controlbox. The modelnumberis silkscreenedon the face plate of the box.
The main functionof the servo controlbox is to drive the RA and DEC motors.The motorsare DC servoswith
built-inshaft encoders.The rotationrate of the motors is controlledwith a servo feedbackloop. The servo looks at
the returnpulsesfrom the shaftencodersand adjuststhe currentto the motorso that the rate is identicalto the
commandedrate (i.e.from .25xsiderealto 1200x sidereal).The servois digitallycontrolled,and the shaft
positionis updatedat a rateof 2000 times per second.
The centralcomputerin the servois a microprocessor
that convertsinputcommandsto electricalsignalsto move
the motor.The inputcommandsare in the form of the AP protocol,e.g. :Sr 02.45:32.5#whichwoulddefinea
move positionof 2hr 45min32.5secin rightascension.The microprocessor
convertsthose numbersto specific
shaftanglesof the two axes,and determineswhetherthe telescopeshouldaccessthat positionfrom the east
side or west side of the mount.The servorespondsto commandsto move in RA or DEC when any of the 4
buttonsare pushed,accordingto the rate set on the keypad(from.25xto 1200x).The servowill also initiate
movementin the 4 directionsfrom inputssent to the CCD guiderport at ratesset by the keypad,typically1x, .5x
or .25xthe siderealrate.
The servomicroprocessor
storesvitaldate,time and locationinformationsentto it from the keypad,or a
planetariumprogramvia one of the inputports.lt storesworm periodicerrorinformation(PEM)so that it can be
playedbackwhen requiredfor high-accuracy
tracking.
The mainfunctionof the servocontrolbox is to convertinputdata from the keypador a planetariumprogram(in
the form of the AP protocol)to electricalsignalsto the motor to producethe desiredmotor motionand to result in
the telescopepointingat the desiredobjectin the sky.
Functionsof the Keypad
The keypadcontrolleris reallya smallhand heldcomputerwith planetariumsoftware.lt has a databasefor tens
of thousandsof objectsthat can be accessedby keypadentryor scrollingthrougha menu.
To orientthe systemproperlywith respectto the sky requiresdate,time and locationinformation.
The keypad
containsan accuratedate and time clockpoweredby a lithiumbattery.Togetherwith the locationdatathat is
enteredby the user,the keypadusesthis informationto calculatewhat part of the sky is up at any giventime.The
keypadalso sendsthis information
to the servocontrollerto calculatewherethe horizonlimitsare, and wherethe
meridianline is located.This preventsthe scopefrom pointingintothe groundand allowsthe servoto do a
meridianswap so the tube assemblydoes not dive underthe mountand hit the pier.
The mainfunctionof the keypadis to send RA and DEC numbersto the mountfor the objectsthat the user enters
intothe keypad.This is exactlythe same as the functionsof a typicalplanetariumprogram.In fact, mostof the
keypadfunctionscan be replacedwith those containedin PulseGuideby Ray Gralak,Digital Sky Voiceor an
advancedplanetariumprogram,like The Sky Level 5 or 6 from SoftwareBisqueor StarryNightPro Plusfrom
lmaginova.You can thereforedisconnectthe keypadentirelyfrom the mountwithoutlosingany of the functionsof
the mountincludingparking,jogging,centeringor movingto variouspartsof the sky. You can also controlthings
likefocus motorsand reticlebrightnessfrom your desktopcomputer.Not all planetariumprogramssupportall of
thesefunctions;pleasecheckthe featuresof the programyou are considering.
We have separatedthe functionsof the servocontrolbox and keypad to allowfor maximumflexibilityto the user.
The servois a stand-aloneunitthat can be controlledentirelyby the keypad,by a desktopcomputerwith a
suitableplanetariumprogramwithoutthe keypad,or with both keypadand desktopattached.
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Upgrading the GTO SenzoControl Box
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Upgradesto the logicof the GTO controlbox (GTOCPI or GTOCP2models)are made by installinga new ROM
chip,sincethe chip is housedin a removablecarrier,the old one can be poppedout easilyand the new one
easedinto place.
.
peoplecould
We decidedthat we couldn'tallowInternetupdatesto this chip becauseunfriendlyand unauthorized
piratethe software.We haveworkedtoo hard on its developmentto give it away.We hope you understand.
:
.
.
Upgrading the Keypad
t
The keypadhas flash RAM memory.Version4.x and futureversionsof the keypadfirmwarewill be available
throughan Internetdownload.The GTO controlbox must have a version"C" or higherversionof the microcontrollerchip in orderto accomplishthe Internetdownload.The versionnumberis writtenon the chip and was
issuedafterJanuary22,2001. Referto the technicalsupportsectionof our web site for additionalinformation.
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Upgrading or Repairingthe Keypad Database
The objectdatabaseis storedin a separatememorylocationwithinthe keypadthan the controlfirmware.lt is
storedin memorywhich is poweredby a small3V Lithiumbattery.Shouldthis batteryfail,the databasebecome
corruptedor a new databasebecomeavailable,you can upgradeor repairyourdatabaseusinga utilityfound in
the technicalsupportsectionof the Astro-Physics
website.The GTO controlbox must have a version"C" or
higherversionof the micro-controllerchip in orderto accomplishthe Internetdownload.The versionnumberis
writtenon the chip and was issuedafterJanuary22,2001. You may wish to referto the technicalsupportsection
of our web site for additionalinformation.
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TROUBLESHOOTING
Additionaltios relatedto soecificmountsare in the mountinstructionmanual.
The keypad displayed the rnessage "motor stall."
This errormessageindicatesthat the keypadand servobox are unableto communicatewith each other.lf the
mountwas shippedafterFebruary16, 2000,the LED on the controlbox will also turn yellowindicatingthat the
overloadprotectionfeaturehas been activated.Althougholder mountsdo not havethe yellowLED,the overload
protectionfeatureis active.Theseare the conditionsthat will causethe errormessage:
.
Your telescopeis not balancedproperly.Referto your mountmanualfor guidance.
.
The motorsare not connectedto the servobox. Be sure all connectorsare lockedin olace.
.
A wire connectionin one of the mountcablesis broken.
o
One of the motorsis not functioning.
.
The mesh of the worm gear and worm wheel is too tight.This will causethe motorsto overload,whichwill
cause the overloadprotectionfeature of the servo box to activateand shut down the signalto the motors.
.
The microprocessor
chip,which containsthe programlogic,is missingfrom the servo box.
.
One of the smallgears in the motorbox of the 1200or 900 is jammed.
.
Foreignmaterialgot intothe motorgearbox.
Solution:
Checkall possibilities
aboveand correct,if possible.To initiatetrackingagain,pressthe N-S-E-Wbuttons,initiate
a slew or go to Main Menu and press "0" Status(if you stillget an errormessage,pressthe buttona secondtime,
just to be surethat the buffercleared).lf you have not movedthe telescopewhilediagnosingthe problem,the
positionwill stillbe in memoryand you can continueas if nothingever happened.
lf the "motorstall"messageappearsagain,you have not correctedthe causeof the problem.lf you are unableto
resolveit, check the technicalsupportsectionof our website beforecontactingAstro-Physics.Additional
troubleshooting
and adjustmentinformation
will be postedthere in the future.
The keypad display says "low battery."
Your batteryoutputhas droppedbelow 11 volts. lf you plug in your Kendrickheater,CCD cameraor otherpowerhungrydeviceintothe same batterythat operatesyour mount,your batteryvoltagewill drop momentarily.
We
recommendthat you poweryour mountfrom a separatebattery.You mightconsidera largemarinebattery.lf
110V is available,we recommendthat you use a powersupply(filteredand regulated)with a minimumoutputof 5
amps at 12V DC. DO NOT use a wall-transformer.
The keypad locks up on the "Astro-Physics" screen and will not advance to the
next screen.
Thereare severalconditionsthat mav causethis to occur.
Batterypowerhas dropped.lf you measurethe outputof your batteryto be above 11.5V,but the keypadis
lockingup, pleasecontactAstro-Physics.
lf your batterymeasuresbelow 11.5V,rechargeor replaceyour
battery.
Recentlightningstrikeor powersurgedamagedcomponentsin the controlbox.The controlbox will haveto
be returnedto Astro-Physics.
Pleasecall aheadfor a returnauthorization
number.
Otherunknownchip failurein the controlbox. ContactAstro-Physics.
The keypadwas loadedwith version4.12 withAuto-Connectset to yes and keypadwas not resetto default
values.This may have occurredduringprogrammingat Astro-Physics
or followingan internetdownload
beforethis issuewas discovered.To remedy,referto the TechnicalSupportsectionof the websiteand read
pertainingto the 4.12 upgrade.
the revisedinstructions
Keypadlocksup in cold weatherbut worksfine when used in warmertemperatures.
This is a rare problem
causedby a defectivereal-timeclockin the keypad.ContactAstro-Physics.
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Corrodedcircuitboardin the keypad.
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The keypad display text blinks on and off, but there is no clicking sound.
.
Batterypower has dropped below the requiredthreshold.lf you measurethe output of your batteryto be
above 11.5V,but the keypadis stillblinkingone and off, pleasecontactAstro-Physics.
lf your battery
measuresbelow11.5V,rechargeor replaceyour battery.
The keypad is resetting - making a clicking sound as the screen display
disappears and reappears
lf Auto-Connecthad been set to NO, the LocationSelectionMenu will appeareach time requestingyou to startup
again.lf Auto-Connecthad been set to YES or EXT,the displaywill reappearwhereveryou leftoff.The clicking
noisewill be annoying,but you will not losefunctionality.
Thereare severalootentialcausesand detailedsolutions.whichare outlinedon our websitein the Technical
Supportsection.
The RA drive makes random movements and jumps in position as it is tracking.
r
lt is possiblethat someoneprogrammedthe PEM correctionin a randommanner.Checkthe PEM setup
screento see if the PLAY settingis active.lf it is, changethe settingto NONE and observethe action of the
mount.This is most likelyto occurwhen a groupof peopleuse the mountand one personexperiments,
unbeknownst
to the others.To remedy,leavethe settingto NONE untila properPEM recordingis made.
The telescope slewed in the wrong direction toward the pier.
your telescopewill slew safelyfrom one part of the sky
As longas you providethe mountwith properinformation,
to another.Theseare a few scenariosthat can causea oroblem:
o
You did not startyourfirstsessionat that locationby followingthe NormalStartupProcedureoutlinedin the
manual.
.
Your time or daylightsavingsis not set correctly(if it appliesto your stateor country).In the locationmenu,
pressthe "0" numberbuttonif daylightsavingsis not in effect(e.9.winter).Enter"1" if daylightsavingsis in
effect(e.9.summer).Rememberto changethis when we "springforward"or "fallback".
.
When you selectedyour calibrationstar,the scopewas set up on the wrongside of the mount.Or, in
conjunctionwith the daylightsavingsissue,if the daylightsavingsis set incorrectly
and you choosea star
nearthe meridian,the scopemay be on the wrongside of the mountaccordingto the time set on the keypad.
You must pointto starsin the west when yourtelescopeis on the east side of the mountand starsin the east
when your scopeis on the west side.When the starsare high and closeto the zenith,this can be tricky.
However,you can tell whichside the star is on by lookingat the "2" numberin the upperrightcornerof the
Choose Star screen,then comparingthat numberwith the RA numberof the star you choose. lf the RA
numberis larger,the star is in the east.lf your scopeis not on the correctside,the mountwill not slew
properlyand the telescopecouldstrikethe pier/tripod.
.
You identifieda star incorrectlywhen you selectedit.
.
Your time settingsentto the mountby the computermay be inaccurate.
I pressed the keypad button and it jumped ahead fwo sfeps.
This happensif you holdthe buttontoo long.Just give it a shortpress.
The power light goes out and the motors sfop.
The voltageof your batteryhas probablygone below 10 volts.
The motors moved when I disconnected one of the cables.
This is causedwhen the contactsof the connectorsdisconnectbriefly,then reconnectagain as you removethe
cable.We recommendthat wheneveryou disconnectany of the cables,you do so quicklywith a firm outward
movement.
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The scope got lost when I tried fo sef the keypad to UT (universal time).
The mountMUST be set to localtime.Othenruise
it placesthe meridianat some placeotherthan straightabove
you. RA and DEC is fixedfor any object(exceptthe solarsystem),but the RA time for the zenithis tied to local
time.This is the only way the mountknowswhetheran objectis in the east or west,and consequently
what side
of the mountyour scopeoughtto be on.
I parked the mount last night, but it startedmoving again.
Pleaseread"Parkingand PowerConsiderations"
underthe ParkingYour TelescopeSection.
The Time/LSf Screen doesn't exit right away when I hit the menu button.
Pleasepushand hold the menu buttonuntilyou are broughtbackto the main menu.A quickpush may not be
recognizedrightaway in this menu due to the way the time softwareis handled.
The Keypad doesn't save my data when / press the MENU button to leave the
entry screen.
Due to the changein the way the cursorcontrolworksfrom Version3.2 and lower,you MUST pressthe GOTO
buttonto save your data, i.e.locationor date/time.Pressingthe MENU buttonwill exit the screenand looseany
data you entered.This changewas made to accommodatethe full cursorcontrolenabledby pressingthe <PREV
and NEXT>buttons.
The GOTO buttonnow acts likethe ENTERor GO buttonon a comouteror web browserand the Menu button
acts likethe ESC or BACK buttonon a comouteror web browser.
The Keypad will not accept my location data I received from my GPS or a
Website.
Manywebsitesand GPS unitsreturnyour locationin a decimalnumberof Lat and Long
i.e.42.3589Latitude 89.0409Longitude
The keypad'sinputis in Degrees,Minutes,Seconds
i.e. 42" 21' 32" Latitude89' 02'27" Longitude
lf you were to type the decimaldata into your keypadit wouldgive you an errormessage.This happensbecause
the decimalnumberis not equivalentto the Degrees,Minutes,Secondsformat.The 4.x keypadhas error
checkingthat will not allowmorethan 60 minutesor 60 secondsto be entered.lt is possibleto have inaccurate
locationdata in your mountif none of the minuteor secondvaluesyou enteredwere over 60
Pleasedoublecheckyour locationdata to make sure you enteredit in the correctformat.
Here is a linkto a free onlineconverterthat will give you the properformatfor entryinto your keypad.
http://www.fcc.qov/mb/audio/bickel/DDDM
MSS-decimal.html
It is also relativelyeasy to calculatethe conversion. Usingthe exampleabove:
1.
S e p a r a t e w h o l e d e g r e e s f r odm
e c i m a pl o r t i o n :4 2 ' + 0 . 3 5 8 9 ' L a t . a n d 8 9 " + 0 . 0 4 0 9 "L o n g .
2.
Multiplythe decimalportiontimes 60. This will give you the minutes:
3.
4.
a.
0.3589 X 60 = 21.534 MinutesLatitude- DO NOT round- use 21'
b.
0.0409 X 60 =
2.454 MinutesLongitude- DO NOT round- use 02'
Repeatthe multiplication
with the decimalportionof the minutescalculatedin step2. This will give the
seconds:
a.
0.534 X 60 = 32.04 SecondsLatitude- roundto 32"
b.
0.454 X 60 = 27.24 SecondsLongitude- roundto 27"
Combine: Latitude:42" + 21' + 32" and Lonoitude:89" + 02' + 27"
;
The Mount will not park correctly, nor will it point properly, it also indicatesthat
an object is below the horizon when I can cleartysee if is not.
This can occurif you did not enteryour location,date and time data and followthe NormalStartupProcedure.
Everytime you startup at a new locationor changeyour time,you mustfollowthe NormalStartupprocedureto
sendvitaldate,time and locationdata to your mount. otherwise,it will be lost.
I am trying to upgrade my keypad and the loader is telling me that it finds the
mount but the firmwareis the incorrect version.
Thereare few oossiblecauses:
The firstis that your controlbox firmwareis in fact a versionthat does not supportonlineKeypadupgrades
(VersionB or lower). PleasecallAstro-Physics
to get your chip upgraded.
The secondis that your computeris set to an incorrectCOM portand is communicating
with anotherdeviceon
your COM port, most commonlya modem.Verify your COM port settingswith anotherprogram like PulseGuideor
The Skyto make surethat you have communication
with the mount.Checkthe COM port settingin the program
and make surethe same COM port is selectedin the keypadloadingprogram.
I am upgrading my keypad from the website and the toader appears to be working
but no data is appearing on the screen other than sending page x...
In mostcasesthis is causedby attemptingto loadthe keypadthroughthe bottomporton the controlbox.The
keypadMUST be loadedthroughtop COM port on the controlbox or the loadwill fail. lf you have already
attemptedto load your keypadin this mannerand are only leftwith a blinkingcursoron the screen,you can start
the loadingstepsfrom the startand your keypadwill load properly.Pleasefollowall downloadinstructions
very
carefully.
When I enter an object if s/ews to the wrong place, tells me that it is betow the
horizon by several degrees and has completely incorrect object data.
lf all 3 of thesesymptomsare occurringit is likelythat your keypad'sdatabasehas beencorruptedor lost.Many
thingscan causethis to happen,removingthe internalkeypadbatteryimproperly,havinga dead or dieingbattery
or powersurgescausedby lightningstrikesare all commontriggersfor this.To reloadyour keypad'sdatabase
you will needto downloada utilityfrom the Astro-Physics
websiteto repairyour database.lf the database
continuesto fail afteryou have reloadedit, pleasecallAstro-Physics
for furtherinstructions.
My motorized focuser won't operate at the slow speed setting.
Pleasereferto the sectionearlierin the manualon usingthe focuscontrolfunctions. You probablyhavea
GTOCP3controlbox with RoHScompliantlead-freecomponents.The lead-freedriverchip does not supportthe
slow focus speed for all motors. You can still use the externalcontrollerthat came with the focus motor.
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APPENDIXC: GOMMONSTARS- By
CONSTELLATION
Andromeda
Alpheratz
21-AlphaAndromedae
Alf And
2.1
Mirach
43-BetaAndromedae
Bet And
2.4
Almach
57-GammalAndromeoae
Gam And
2.3
Sadalmelik
34-AlphaAquarii
Alf Aqr
3.2
Sadalsuud
22-BetaAquarii
Bet Aqr
3.1
Skat
76-DeltaAquarii
Del Aqr
Albali
2-EpsilonAquarii
Eps Aqr
3.8
Altair
53-AlphaAquilae
Alf Aql
0.9
Alshain
60-BetaAquilae
Bet Aql
3.9
farazed
50-GammaAquilae
Gam Aql
z.d
Hamal
13-AlphaArietis
Alf Ari
2.2
Sheratan
6-BetaArietis
Bet Ari
2.7
Mesarthim
5-Gamma2Arietis
Gam Ari
4.8
Capella
AlphaAurigae
Alf Aur
0.1
Menkalinan
34-BetaAurigae
Bet Aur
2.1
Arcturus
'16-4lpha
Bootis
Alf Boo
0.2
Nekkar
42-Beta Bootis
Bet Boo
J.t)
Seginus
27-GammaBootis
Gam Boo
3.0
lzar
36-EpsilonBootis
Eps Boo
2.7
Muphrid
8-Eta Bootis
Eta Boo
2.8
Alkalurops
5 1 - M u 1B o 6 t i s
Mu Boo
4.5
Acubens
65-AlphaCancri
Alf Cnc
4.3
AsellusBorealis
43-GammaCancri
GamCnc
4.7
AsellusAustralis
47-DeltaCancri
D e lC n c
4.2
Sirius
9-AlphaCanis Majoris
AIf CMa
-1.6
Mirzam
2-BetaCanis Majoris
Bet CMa
2.0
Wezen
25-DeltaCanis Majoris
Del CMa
2.0
Aquarius
Canis Major
93
e
3
F
e
Adhara
21-EpsilonCanisMajoris
Eps CMa
Furud
1-ZetaCanis Majoris
ZetCMa
3.1
Aludra
3'l-EtaCanis Majoris
Eta CMa
2.4
a
a
Procyon
'l
0-AlphaCanisMinoris
A I fC M i
0.5
Gomeisa
3-BetaCanisMinoris
Bet CMi
J. l
3
3
3
Cor Caroli
'12-Alpha
CanumVenaticorum
Alf CVn
2.9
Chara
8-BetaCanumVenaticorum
Bet CVn
4.J
Algedi
6-4lpha2Capricorni
Alf Cap
?c
Dabih
9-Beta1Capricorni
Bet Cap
J.J
Nashira
40-GammaCapricorni
GamCap
3.8
t
t
DenebAlgedi
49-DeltaCapricorni
D e lC a p
3.0
.
t.o
3
C a n i sM i n o r
Ganis Venatici
-
e
-
Gapricornus
3
.
Garina
Canopus
AlphaCarinae
Alf Car
-0.9
.
Miaplacidus
BetaCarinae
Bet Car
1.8
.
Avior
EpsilonCarinae
Eps Car
1.7
-
Aspidiske
lota Carinae
lot Car
2.5
t
Schedar
'18-Alpha
Cassiopeiae
Alf Cas
2.5
Caph
Beta Cassiopeia
Bet Cas
2.5
Navi
27-GammaCassiopeiae
Gam Cas
2.8
Ruchbah
37-DeltaCassiopeiae
Del Cas
2.7
Cassiopeia
-
t
-
Centaurus
AlphaCentauri
Alphal Centauri
Alf Cen
0.1
t
Hadar
Beta Centauri
Bet Cen
0.9
-
Menkent
S-ThetaCentauri
Tet Cen
2.3
Alderamin
5-AlphaCephei
Alf Cep
2.6
-
Alfirk
8-BetaCephei
Bet Cep
3.3
-
Erral
35-GammaCephei
Gam Cep
3.4
Kurhah
t
17-XiCephei
Xi Cep
4.6
Menkar
92-AlphaCeti
Alf Cet
2.8
3
3
Diphda
16-BetaCeti
Bet Cet
2.2
Kaffaljidhma
86-GammaCeti
Gam Cet
J.b
BatenKaitos
55-ZetaCeti
Zet Cet
J.v
Mira
OmicronCeti
OmiCet
2.1
t
3
Gepheus
Cetus
-
Columba
Phact
Alpha Columbae
Alf Col
2.8
Wazn
Beta Columbae
Bet Col
3.2
Alphecca
5-AlphaCoronaeBorealis
Alf CrB
2.3
Nusakan
3-BetaCoronaeBorealis
Bet CrB
3.7
Alchiba
1-AlphaCorvi
Alf Crv
4.2
Gienah
4-GammaCorvi
Gam Crv
2.8
Algorab
7-Delta Corvi
Del Crv
J. l
Alkes
7-AlphaCrateris
Alf Crt
4.2
Acrux
Alpha2Crucis
Alf Cru
1.6
Mimosa
Beta Crucis
Bet Cru
Gacrux
G a m m aC r u c i s
Gam Cru
1.5
'1.6
Deneb
50-AlphaCygni
Alf Cyg
1.3
Albireo
6-Betal Cygni
Bet Cyg
5.2
Sadr
37-GammaCygni
Gam Cyg
z.J
Thuban
11-AlphaDraconis
Alf Dra
J.O
Rastaban
23-BetaDraconis
Bet Dra
?n
Eltanin
33-GammaDraconis
Gam Dra
2.4
Altais
S7-DeltaDraconis
Del Dra
3.2
Edasich
12)ota Draconis
lot Dra
J.C
Giausar
1-LambdaDraconis
Lam Dra
4.1
Alrakis
2 1 - M uD r a c o n i s
Mu Dra
5.1
Grumium
32-XiDraconis
Xi Dra
3.9
Kitelpha
8-AlphaEquulei
Alf Equ
4.1
Achernar
Alpha Eridani
Alf Eri
u.o
Cursa
67-BetaEridani
Bet Eri
2.9
Zaurak
34-GammaEridani
Gam Eri
3.2
Azha
3-EtaEridani
Eta Eri
4.0
Acamar
Theta Eridani
Tet Eri
3.2
Beid
38-OmicronEridani
OmiEri
4.1
Keid
40-Omicron2Eridani
OmiEri
4.5
Corona Borealis
Corvus
Crater
Crux
Cygnus
Draco
Equuleus
Eridanus
95
a
-
Gemini
Castor
66-4lphaGeminorum
Alf Gem
t.o
Pollux
78-BetaGeminorum
Bet Gem
1.2
Alhena
24-GammaGeminorum
GamGem
1.9
Wasat
55-DeltaGeminorum
D e lG e m
Mebsuta
2 7 - E p s i l oG
n eminorum
E p sG e m
J.Z
Mekbuda
43-ZetaGeminorum
Zet Gem
J.Y
Eta Geminorum
Eta Gem
3.3
Propus
a
a
a
a
7
J
:
a
a
j
Grus
AlNair
AlphaGruis
Alf Gru
2.2
Rasalgethi
64-4lphaHerculis
Alf Her
3.5
Kornephoros
27-BetaHerculis
Bet Her
2.6
Alphard
30-AlphaHydrae
Alf Hya
2.2
Hercules
-
j
(j
Hydra
-
Leo
Regulus
32-AlphaLeonis
Alf Leo
t.J
-
Denebola
94-BetaLeonis
Bet Leo
2.2
-
Algieba
41-Gamma2Leonis
Gam Leo
2.6
Zosma
68-DeltaLeonis
Del Leo
z.o
Adhafera
36-Zeta Leonis
Zet Leo
J.b
Alterf
4-LambdaLeonis
Lam Leo
4.5
Chertan
70-ThetaLeonis
Tet Leo
3.4
Rasalas
24-MuLeonis
Mu Leo
4.1
Arneb
11-AlphaLeporis
Alf Lep
2.7
Nihal
9-BetaLeporis
Bet Lep
3.0
Zubenelgenubi
9-Alpha2Librae
Atf Lib
z.Y
Zubeneschamali
27-BetaLibrae
Bet Lib
2.7
Libra
Lyra
a
a
-
j
;
a
J
a
a
a
a
-
Vega
3-AlphaLyrae
Alf Lyr
0.1
Sheliak
10-BetaLyrae
Bet Lyr
?o
Sulafat
1 4 - G a m m aL y r a e
Gam Lyr
J.J
Rasalhague
55-AlphaOphiuchi
Alf Oph
2.1
Cebalrai
60-BetaOphiuchi
Bet Oph
2.9
Yed Prior
1-DeltaOphiuchi
DelOph
3.0
Yed Posterior
2-Epsilon
Ophiuchi
E p sO p h
3.3
Sabik
35-EtaOphiuchi
Eta Oph
z.o
Marfik
1 O - L a m b dO
ap h i u c h i
Lam Oph
3.9
Ophiuchus
-
-
a
Orion
Betelgeuse
58-AIphaOrionis
Alf Ori
0.6
Rigel
19-BetaOrionis
Bet Ori
0.3
Bellatrix
24-Gamma Orionis
Gam Ori
Alnilam
46-EpsilonOrionis
Eps Ori
1.7
'1.8
Mintaka
34-DeltaOrionis
DelOri
Alnitak
S}-ZetaOrionis
Zet Ori
2.0
Trapezium
41'Thetal Orionis
Tet Ori
5.4
Saiph
53-KappaOrionis
Kap Ori
2.2
Meissa
39-LambdaOrionis
Lam Ori
3.7
Peacock
Alpha Pavonis
Alf Pav
2.1
Markab
54-AlphaPegasi
Alf Peg
z.o
Scheat
53-BetaPegasi
Bet Peg
2.6
Algenib
88-GammaPegasi
Gam Peg
2.9
Enif
8-EpsilonPegasi
Eps Peg
2.5
Homam
4Z-ZetaPegasi
Zet Peg
J.O
Matar
44-E1aPegasi
Eta Peg
3.1
Biham
26-ThetaPegasi
Tet Peg
3.7
Mirfak
33-AlphaPersei
Alf Per
1.9
Algol
26-Beta Persei
Bet Per
2.9
Atik
44-ZeIa Persei
Zet Per
2.9
Menkib
46-Xi Persei
Xi Per
4.0
Ankaa
AlphaPhoenicis
Alf Phe
2.4
Alrescha
11 3 - A l p h aP i s c i u m
Alf Psc
4.3
Fomalhaut
24-AlphaPiscisAustrini
Alf PsA
Rukbat
Alpha Sagittarii
Alf Sgr
4.1
Arkab
Betal Sagittarii
Bet Sgr
4.3
Alnasi
10-Gamma2Sagittarii
Gam Sgr
?t
Kaus Media
19-DeltaSagittarii
D e lS g r
2.8
KausAustralis
20-EpsilonSagittarii
Eps Sgr
z.v
Ascella
38-ZelaSagittarii
Zet Sgr
2.7
Kaus Borealis
22-LambdaSagittarii
Lam Sgr
2.9
Nunki
34-SigmaSagittarii
Sig Sgr
2.1
Pavo
Pegasus
Perseus
Phoenix
Pisces
Piscis Austrinus
'1.3
Sagittarius
97
I
I
I
I
Scorpius
(
Antares
21-AlphaScorpii
Alf Sco
1.1
Graffias
8-BetaScorpii
Bet Sco
2.9
Shaula
35-LambdaScorpii
Lam Sco
1.7
a
Lesath
34-UpsilonScorpii
Ups Sco
2.8
I
I
Unukalhai
24-AlphaSerpentis
Alf Ser
2.8
I
I
Alya
63-ThetaSerpentis
Tet Ser
4.5
:
Serpens
Taurus
(
a
Bet Tau
1.1
'1.8
25-EtaTauri
Eta Tau
3.0
(
Celaeno
16Tauri
1 6T a u
5.4
Electra
17 Tauri
17Tau
J.d
Taygeta
19Tauri
19Tau
4.4
Maia
20 Tauri
20Tau
?o
Sterope
21 f auri
21 fau
60
Merope
23 Tauri
23f au
4.3
C
f
Atlas
27 f auri
27 fau
3.8
c
Pleione
28 Tauri
28Tau
5.2
J
Aldebaran
87-AlphaTauri
Alf Tau
Elnath
112-BetaTauri
Alcyone
Triangulum Australe
(
(
:
:
(
Atria
AlphaTrianguliAustralis
Alf TrA
1.9
Dubhe
50-AlphaUrsaeMajoris
Alf UMa
2.0
Merak
48-BetaUrsaeMajoris
BetUMa
2.4
Phecda
64-GammaUrsaeMajoris
Gam UMa
2.5
Alioth
77-DeltaUrsaeMajoris
EpsUMa
1.7
Megrez
69-DeltaUrsaeMajoris
DelUMa
3.4
Mizar
79-ZetaUrsae Majoris
Zet UMa
2.4
Alkaid
85-EtaUrsaeMajoris
Eta UMa
1.9
Ursa Major
(
(
(
(
(
I
(
C
J
Talitha
9-lotaUrsaeMajoris
lot UMa
?n
Tania Borealis
33-LambdaUrsaeMajoris
LamUMa
J.C
(
TaniaAustralis
34-MuUrsaeMajoris
Mu UMa
J.Z
J
Alula Borealis
54-NuUrsaeMajoris
Nu UMa
3.7
AlulaAustralis
53-Xi Ursae Majoris
Xi UMa
3.9
Muscida
1-OmicronUrsaeMajoris
OmiUMa
Alcor
80 UrsaeMajoris
80 UMa
4.0
Polaris
'l-AlphaUrsaeMinoris
AIfUMi
2.1
Kochab
7-BetaUrsaeMinoris
BetUMi
2.2
Ursa Minor
c
j
J
(
c
c
J
3
J
d
Pherkad
13-GammaUrsaeMinoris
GamUMi
3.1
Regor
Gamma2Velorum
Gam Vel
1.9
Suhail
LambdaVelorum
Lam Vel
2.2
Spica
67-AlphaVirginis
Alf Vir
1.2
Zavijava
S-BetaVirginis
Bet Vir
J.U
Porrima
2 9 - G a m m aV i r g i n i s
Gam Vir
2.9
Vindemaitrix
4 7 - E p s i l oV
n irginis
E p sV i r
3.0
Zaniah
1S-EtaVirginis
Eta Vir
4.0
Syrma
99-lotaVirginis
lot Vir
+.2
99
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