Book - The Mechanics of Rollers

Document Name:
0101r255
Section:
TAPPI PRESS
Title:
Mechanics of Rollers, The
TAPPI PRESS
The Mechanics of Rollers
by David R. Roisum, Ph.D.
1996. 306pp., 7"x10" soft cover book
Item Number: 0101R255
ISBN: 0-89852-313-3
Now in Japanese!
translated by Kiyoshi Wada
1997. 306 pp., 7"x10" soft cover
Item Number: 0101R255J
ISBN 0-89852-313-3
The Mechanics of Web Handling is the third book in Dave Roisum's trilogy. The Mechanics of
Winding and The Mechanics of Rollers are also available from TAPPI PRESS.
The Mechanics of Rollers combines the science of web handling with the application of rollers.
This unique book covers design, application, and maintenance for rollers of all sizes, shapes,
and webs. The Mechanics of Rollers is a comprehensive yet easy-to-use reference containing
hundreds of figures, tables, and design equations, plus bibliography, glossary, and index. A
must-have text for anyone involved in buying, selling, or specifying rollers, this book will also
be a valuable reference for machine designers, process engineers, and maintenance
personnel in the paper, film, foil, nonwovens, textiles, and converting industries.
Table of Contents
1
Introduction
2
Tension and Tension Control
1
2
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
10
The Foundation of Web Processes
Roller Applications
Dead and Live Shaft Arrangements
Heads and Journals
Bearings
Roller Geometry - Axial
Roller Geometry - Diametral
Shell Materials
Coverings and Coatings
To Drive or Not to Drive
Roller Drives
Roller Issues
Articles and Books
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Why Web Tension Is Important
Choosing a Process Tension
Load Cell Tension
Load Cell Sizing Example
Other Load Cell Considerations
Dancer Controlled Tension
Dancer Design
Dancer Dynamics
Draw Control
Tension Variations in a Draw Zone
Catenary (Loop) Control
Tension from Motor Readings
Current Control
Page 1 of 16
23
24
26
27
28
Torque Control
Multiple Drive Sections
Down Web Tension Variations
Cross Web Tension Profiles
Bibliography
3
Deflection
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
Why Deflection Must Be Minimized
How Much Deflections is Allowable
Deflection Definition and Forces
Deflection Calculation Made Simple
Deflection Calculation Example
A Closer Deflection Calculation
Cantilevered Machines
Cantilever Calculation Example
Roller Deflection Summary
Bibliography
4
Traction, Torque and Power
39
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
49
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
58
58
60
62
64
64
65
66
67
Why Traction Is Important
Which Mode Is In Effect
The Normal Entry Law
Static Coefficient of Friction
Friction Complications
Air Entrainment
Air Entrainment Model and Application
Air Entrainment Example Calculation
Grooving
Texturizing
Web and Roller Porosity
Measuring Traction
Traction Factors
The Band-Brake Equation
Band Brake Application
Band-Brake and Macroslippage
Band-Brake and Microslippage
Nipped Pull Rollers
S or Bridle Wrapped Drive Rollers
Vacuum, Pressure and Centrifugal
Effects
Roller Drag
Measuring Drag
Inertial Tension
Wrap Angle
Drive Tension
To Drive or Not to Drive
Tension from DC Motor Readings
Summary
Bibliography
5
Nipped Rollers
69
70
71
Nipped Rollers for Web Transport
Nipped Rollers for Web Processing
Nipped Roller Issues
Page 2 of 16
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
89
Web Stresses in a Nip
Hertzian Contact
Determining Peak ZD Nip Stress
Interior Contact Stresses
Complex Nip Models
Nip Loading Mechanisms
Nip Load System Friction
Load Versus Gap Control
Roller Deflection in a Nip
Crowning
Load-Crown Match
Deflection and Bearing Position
Deflection Compensating Techniques
Deflection Compensating Techniques
Roller Geometrical Errors
Nip Impressions
Static Nip Impressions
Dynamic Nip Impressions
Bibliography
6
Shells
91
92
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
Introduction
Axial Shell Geometries
Radial Shell Geometries
Shell Materials
Heads
Shell Stresses
Composites
Case for Composites
Bibliography
7
Journals and Shafts
99 Journals and Shafts Must Be Short
100
Bending
101
Bending Stress Example Problem
102
Torsion
102
Combined Stresses
103
Fatigue
104
Fits
104
Bibliography
8
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
9
113
Bearings
Introduction
Bearing Types
Sizes and Options
Lubrication
Load and Life
Bearing Drag
Maintenance of Bearings
Bibliography
Coatings and Covers
Why Coat
113
114
114
115
116
117
118
119
119
120
121
122
123
124
Why Cover
Anodizing
Plating
Tungsten Carbide
Thermal Coating Processes
Cover Compliance and Nip Pressure
Covers and Speed Control
Cover Modulus
Cover Hardness
Hysteresis and Heat
Cover Failures
Cover Materials
Cover Properties
Bibliography
10
Surface Topology
125
126
127
128
129
129
130
The Importance of the Surface
Roughness and Waviness
Grooving
Web Flattening
Hardness and Durability
Large Scale Topology
Bibliography
167
168
169
170
170
171
171
172
173
173
Clutches
173
174
11
Vibration and Balance
14 Electric Drives
131
132
133
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
1561
152
153
153
Adverse Effects of Machine Vibration
Vibration Sources
Vibration Terminology
A Simple Roller on Simple Mounts
Measuring and Identifying Vibration
Resonances and Mode Shapes
How Much Is Too Much
Unbalance
Simple Static Balancing
Balancing Weights
Couple Unbalance
Balancers
Dynamic Balancing
Balance Grade
Other Balance Specs
Nipped Rollers
Wound Rolls
Wound Roll Instability
Foundations
Framework
Vibration Summary
Selected Bibliography
Bibliography
175
Electric Motivation
176
AC Inverter Drive
177
AC Ventor Drive
178
DC Drives
180
AC to DC Power Conversion
181
Brushless DC
182
Web
Drive
Process
Health
Evaluation
12
Alignment
155
156
157
158
Why Align
Inplane Misalignment and Bending
Inplane Example Problem
High Inplane Misalignments
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
Out-of-Plane Twisting
Diagonal Shear Wrinkles
Manual Alignment Checks
Alignment and the Machine Builder
Alignment and Plant Maintenance
Alignment Service
Alignment Process
Bibliography
13 Mechanical Drives
Mechanical Motivation
Belts
Gears
Couplings
Shafts
Tendency Drives
Variable Speed Transmissions
Pneumatic Brakes and Clutches
Hydraulic Brakes and Drives
Electromechanical Brakes and
Unwind Clutches
Band Brakes on Rolls and Rollers
15 Temperature Control
183
184
185
186
187
187
188
189
190
191
192
Temperature Dependence
How to Measure Temperature
Where to Measure Temperature
Chill Rolls
Electrically Heated Rollers
Heat Pipes
Steam Heated Rollers
Circulating Liquid Heated Rollers
Heat Transfer
Warmup and Shutdown
Bibliography
16 Cores, Chucks and Shafts
Page 3 of 16
193
194
195
196
196
Applications
Deflection and Bending Stresses
Deflection and Vibration
Fiber Cores
Metal Cores
196
197
197
198
199
Mandrels and Spools
Core Chucks
Core Shafts
Sizing Specifications
Bibliography
17
Spreaders
201
202
203
204
207
208
209
210
210
210
211
212
213
214
Introduction
Spreading Principles
Concave Spreader
Bowed Spreader Roller
Bent Pipe and D-Bar Spreaders
Dual Bowed Roller Spreader
Pos-Z Spreader
Expander Rollers
Expander Rollers
Edge Pull Web Stretchers
Compliant Cover Rollers
Grooving
Spreading Is Temporary
Bibliography
18
Specialty Rollers and Elements
215
216
217
217
217
218
220
221
221
222
224
225
226
228
230
Additional Roller Resources
Air Bars
Vacuum Bars
Concave Rollers
Crowned Rollers
Edge Guides
Footage (Length) Counters
Spring Mounted rollers
Skewing or Squaring Rollers
Calendering
Laminator Curl
Embossing
Slitting
Static Electricity
Bibliography
19
Wound Rolls
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
239
243
245
Rolls Versus Rollers
Roll Cylindricity and Defects
Roll Runout, Vibration and Handling
Roll Hardness
Interlayer Slippage
Air Entrainment
Unwind Drive Sizing
Drive Sizing Example - English Units
Drive Sizing Example - Metric Units
Bibliography
20
Maintenance
247
Introduction
Page 4 of 16
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
258
258
259
260
Alignment
Balance and Vibration
Bearings
Cylindricity
Drive Controls
Drive Mechanicals
Grinding
Heated/Chilled rollers
Nips
Purchasing
Rigging
Storage
Transport
Surface Defects
Bibliography
Appendices
261
A Unit Conversion Tables
262
B Selected Bibliography
269
C Calculations and Formulae
Glossary
Index
Page 5 of 16
Index
Abrasion - see Wear
Acceleration - 7, 26, 37, 58-61, 63, 66, 97, 172,
175, 240-244, 252, 274
Acid - 114, 115, 123
Acrylic - 122
Adhesion - see Roller, Release
AFBMA - 105
Air Bar/Roller - 57, 216
Air/Fluid Entrainment - see also Grooving 11, 45-51, 58, 69, 125, 238, 262, 269
Air Flotation - see Flotation
Air Pressure - see Pressure, Air
Alignment - 155-166
Angular - 170
Bearings - 106, 111, 250
Bent Journal - 100
Cantilevered Rollers - 35, 99
Couplings - 170
Datum - 165
Difficulties - 10, 35, 255
Documentation - 164
Doweling - 162, 163
Grinder - 254
Inplane Misalignment - 155-158, 160
Justification - 9
Landmarks - 165
Level - 161, 165, 248
Methods - 9, 155, 248
Nip Loads - 80
Out-of-Plane Misalignment - 155, 159
Parallel Offset - 170
Parallelism - 77, 161, 248
Publications - 262
Pulleys - 169
Preparation for - 163
Provision for - 107
Schedule - 155, 257
Service - 164
Shims - 162, 163, 165
Square - 161, 165
Tolerances - 9, 37, 56, 155-159, 165
Tramming - 161
Transit - 155, 161, 165, 170
Vibration - 131, 136
and Web Stresses - 155-159, 272
and Wrinkling - 160, 248
Aluminum - 6, 32, 43, 93, 103, 113, 114, 228
Aluminum Oxide - 114, 115, 116
Amperage - see Drive, DC Armature Amps
Anemometer - 185
Angle of Twist - 102, 170, 275
Anodize - 91, 113, 114, 251
Area Moment of Inertia - 32, 33, 101, 269
Axel - see Dead Shaft Roller
Babbitt - 4
Page 6 of 16
Backlash - see Clearance
Baggy Web - see Web, Baggy
Balance
Balancing - 143, 257
Bearing Load - 105, 250
Bent Journal - 100
Couple Unbalance - 142
Critical Speed - 135
Dynamic Balance
Flexible Rotor - 144
Grade - 145, 152
and Grinding - 254
Hard Balance - 143
Publications - 262
Rigid Rotor - 144
Runout - 249
Shells - 91
Soft Balance - 143
Specifications - 145, 146
Static Unbalance - 139, 140
Unbalance Causes - 139
Unbalance Force - 139, 145
Vibration - 132, 134, 137, 249
Weights - 141
Wound Rolls - 195
Band Brake Equation - see also Slippage;
Traction - 43, 44, 50, 52-54, 62, 63, 66
Ball Bearing - see Bearings
Barrel Roller - 203
Barring - see Nip, Vibration
Base - 114, 123
Bearings - 3-5, 105-112
Axial Loads - see Thrust From Nips
Alignment - 155
Babbitt - 106
Ball - 105
Bowed Roller - 204
Brg-Brg Distance - 32-34
Brinelling - 105
Bushings - 106
Clearance - 250
Condition - 105, 250
for Corechucks - 193, 197
Dimension Series - 107
Drag - 7, 8, 23, 26, 41, 58, 61, 63, 97,
105, 108, 110, 171, 250, 253
Drag Measurement - 58, 59, 110
Dynamic Load Rating - 105, 109
Failure - 111
Fit - 5
Floating (expansion) - 91
Grade - 107
and Grinding -253
Helper - 171
Housing - 106
Impact Loads - 258
Journal - 106
Life - 4, 105, 109, 111, 250,269
Loads- 31, 105, 109, 111
Loose - 104
Lubrication - 4, 58, 105, 108, 111, 250
Maintenance - 108, 111
Mountings - 106, 162
Pillow Block - 106
Reliability- 108
Revolutions- 103
RPM Limit - 105
Seals - 105, 107, 108, 111
Sizing- 107, 109
Spares - 257
Spherical Roller- 106
Static Load Rating - 105, 109
Temperature - 107, 111, 250
Thrust- 105, 106
Belt
Alignment- 169
Cogged (Timing) Belt- 168, 169
Flat Belt - 168
Losses - 58
Speed Control - 55, 169, 270
Tension- 169
V Belt - 7, 168, 169
Bending Inplane - see Web, Bending
Bending Moment - 99, 100, 101
Bending Stress - 269
Bent Journal- 100
Bent Pipe Spreader - see Spreading, D-Bar
Bibliography, Selected - 261-268
Bolt - 4,9
Bonding-69,114, 115
Books - 215
Bow - 195, 204, 206
Bowed Roller - see Spreading, Bowed Roller
Bowtie Roller - see Concave Roller Spreader
Brake
Chatter - 131
Pneumatic- 172, 174
Sizing- 172
Strap- 174
Water Cooled- 183
Bridle Wrapped Roller- see S Wrapped Roller
Brinell - sec Hardness
Bulk - sec Web, Caliper
Bumpering- 203
Buna N- 122, 123
Bushing - See Bearings
Butyl- 122
Calendering - 69, 76, 117, 183, 186, 222, 223
Caliper - see Web, Caliper
Camber - see Web, Baggy
Carbon Fiber - see Composite
Cantilevered Rollers - 27, 35, 36, 91, 99, 193
Cartridge Heaters - see Resistance Heating
Cascading- 188
Page 7 of 16
Cast Iron - 93
Cast Steel - 6
Catenary - 273
CC Roll - 84
CEMA - 215
Centrifugal Effects - 46, 47, 57, 141, 142, 145,
269
Ceramic- 114, 116, 190
Chains - 7, 163, 168, 169
Chemical Attack- 121, 122
Chevron - see also Grooving - 127
Chill Rollers - 183, 186
Chrome - 114, 251
Chromium Oxide - 116
Chuck - see Corechuck
Cigar Roller - 203
Circularity - see Runout
Clay - 113
Clearance - 10, 105, 110, 131, 136, 173, 249,
254
Clutch
Application- 170
Chatter - 131
Pneumatic- 172
Unwind- 173
CMM - 215
Coating (Roller) - 6, 113- 116
Coating (Web) - 70, 113, 117, 213
Coefficient of Web/Roller Traction see Friction Measurement; Slippage;
Traction
Combined Stress - 102
Complexity - 7
Compliance - 131
Compliant Cover Spreader - see Spreading,
Compliant Cover
Composite
Durability - 116
Fatigue- 100
Justification - 96, 97
Properties - 6, 32, 93
Shafts- 197
Shell - 6
Concave Roller Spreader - see Spreading,
Concave
Condensate- 188
Conductivity - see Thermal Conductivity and
Static
Cone Pulley - see Belt, Flat
Continuous Lubrication - see Lubrication
Controlled Crown Roll - see CC Roll
Conversion Factors - 261
Converting - 263
Cool Down - 191
Copper- 114
Core - 30, 193-200
Clearance- 195, 197
Deflection- 194
Diameter- 197, 198
Failures- 196, 197
Fiber- 196
Humidity Control - 195
Metal- 195, 113
Sizing- 198
Vibration- 194
Corechuck- 193, 195, 197, 198
Coreshaft- 193, 197
Corrosion - 103, 115, 116, 186, 259
Corrugations - 72, 234
Cost - see also Productivity - 8, 9, 30, 96, 101,
108, 113, 167, 175, 226, 247, 257
Couplings- 155, 170
Cover - 117- 123
Abrasion - see Cover, Wear
Air Entrainment - 46
Barring - see Nip, Vibration
Blowout - 259
Bond- 114
Calendering- 222
Delamination - 75, 121
Glazing - 41, 121
Hardness - 79, 113, 117, 119, 121, 123
Hysteresis - 76, 120, 204
Knife Cuts - 259
Materials - 6, 122, 123
Modeling - 76
Modulus - 119, 123
Motivation - 29, 55
Nip Pressure- 113, 117
Nip Uniformity - 85, 113, 117
Life- 10,70, 113,251
Loose- 121
Properties- 122, 123
Rolling Resistance - 58, 76
Set- 121, 123
Stresses - 75
Swelling - 259
Temperature - 183, 222, 223
Traction - 43, 55
Very Soft - 211
Wear- 121~ 123
Cracks - see also Thermal, Shock - 116, 121,
259
Crease Marks - 259
Critical Speed - see Vibration, Critical Speed
Crown-29,81,82,87,88, 117,217,218,222
223, 256
Curl - see Web, Curl
Current - see Tension Measurement & Control
Curvature - see Spreading, Bowed Roller and
Spreading, D-Bar
Cuts - see Knife Cuts
Cycles - see Roller, Revolutions
Cylindricity - see Roller Diametral Tolerance;
Page 8 of 16
Runout
D-Bar Spreader - see Spreading, D-Bar
Dancer - see Tension Measurement & Control
Database - 215
Dead Shaft Roller
Bowed Roller - 204
Configuration - 3
Deflection Calculation - 32
Forces on - 31
Deceleration - see Acceleration
Deckle - see Web, Width
Decurling - see also Web, Curl - 224
Deflection - 29-38
and Bearing Location - 83
Bowed Roller- 204, 206
Calculation - 32-34, 36
Calendering- 223
Cantilevered - 35, 36, 99,270
Compensation- 84
Composites - 96
Cores- 194
and Crowning - 81, 217
Diameter - 92
Excessive - 9, 10, 30, 163, 251
Guidelines - 30,37, 66
Nipped Roller - 80
Publications - 263
Simply Supported - 32-34,270
and Wrinkles - 194
Delamination - see Cover, Delamination
Density - 32-34, 36, 93, 237
Dents - 114,259
Design Life- 109, 111, 113, 131,247,250,251
Detonation Gun - 115
Dial Indicator- see also Runout- 161, 170
Diameter - see Roller Diameter
Diametral Tolerance - see Roller Diametral
Toler.
Die-Cutting - 70
Dielectric- 116
Diffuser- 189
Doctor Blades - 114, 115, 116, 26
DOM - 6
Drag
Bearing - see Bearings, Drag
Sliding- 54
Draw Control - see Speed Control
Drawing - 12, 56, 0, 182
Drive
AC scalar - 175, 176
AC vector- 7, 175, 177
Armature- 178
Armature Current - 65, 177, 179, 180, 182
Bowed Roller - 204
Brake - 7, 23, 24, 167
Bridge- 176, 180
Brushes- 177,178, 181
Commutator- 177, 178
DC - 7, 22, 23, 175, 177-180
DC Brushless - 175, 181
Draw Control - see Speed Control
Drive Room - 180
Dynamic Braking - 179
Electrical- 175-182
Electromechanical- 173
Emergency Stop - 241-244
Encoder- 181
Field - 178-180
Firing Angle - 180
Follower- 179
Frame Size - 242
Gain- 179
Helper- 179
Hydraulic- 173
Induction Motor - 177
Inertia- 239-244
Inertia Comp - 24, 60, 179, 252
Inverter- see Drive, AC scalar
Losses - 58, 65
Means - 7, 64
Mechanical - 167-174
MG Set - 179, 180
Motoring- 167
Nipped Rollers - 29, 117, 256
Power- 60, 65, 167, 172, 177, 178,
239-244, 271
Power Conversion- 176, 180
Provision - 3
Regenerative Drive - 179
Requirement for - 7, 64, 97, 167
Response - 60, 175, 179, 181
Rotor - 176, 177
RPM Limits - 167, 176, 240, 242
SCR- 179, 180
Sizing - 239-244
Slip- 176
Speed - 176- 179
Speed Control - see Speed Control
Speed. Synchronous- 176, 177
Stall Tension - 181
Stator- 176, 177, 178
Sunday - 235, 254
Tendency - 171, 172
Tension Control - see Tension Control
Tension Difference - 64
Thyristor - see Drive, SCR
Torque - 66, 167, 177-181, 241, 243,
244
Torque Oscillation - 132, 181
Transformer- 180
Tuning - 175, 179, 247, 252, 253
Winder/Unwind- 233
Wrap Angle - 53, 62
Dryer - 120, 183, 187- 189
Page 9 of 16
Dual Bowed Roller Spreader - see Spreading,
Dual
Dual Pass - 189
Dub - 81, 121
Durometer - see also Cover, Hardness - 119,
123
Dust- 226, 228
Dwell Time
Nip- 113,117
Wrap - 66, 183, 190
Eccentricity - see Runout
Economics - see Cost
Eddy Current - see Drive, Electromechanical
Edge Position - see Guiding and Web Edge
Position
Edge Pull Stretchers - see Spreading, Edge
Pull
Equations- 269-275
Electric Motor- see Drive
Electrolysis - 114
Elongation - 93, 123
Embossing - 70, 79, 113, 125, 129, 183, 225
Endurance Limit - see Fatigue
Engraving- 129
EPDM- 122, 123
Etching- 114, 129
Expander Rollers - see Spreading, Expander
Roller
Failure Analysis - 253
Failure Criteria - 102
Fatigue - 93, 96, 103
Feedforward - 25
FEM - 76, 133, 135, 190
FFT-71,85, 111, 133, 135, 136, 143, 147, 152,
249, 250
Fiberglass - 113, 251
Filled Rolls - 223, 225
Flame Spray- 115
Flattening - see Spreading, Flattening
Flexibility - see Compliance
Flooring - see Foundation
Flotation - 39-41, 45, 209, 216
Fluorocarbon- 122
Fluid Flow - 184 186, 189
Flutter - see Web, Flutter
Folding - 202
Foldovers - see Web, Wrinkling
Footage Counter - see also Web, Length - 3,
220
Footprint- see Nip, Width
Formula- 269-275
Foundation - 9, 138, 150, 152, 155, 162
Framework - 8, 9, 10, 91, 107, 152, 221
Creep- 155, 162
Design- 151, 162
Stress Relieving - 162
Vibration - 134, 138, 151, 249
Friction Measurement - 43, 44, 50,51, 110, 270
Gears- 169
Losses - 58
Ratio - 168, 244, 270
Speed Control - 55
Grease - see Bearing, Lubrication
Grinding - see Machining
Grooving - 10, 45, 51, 92
Geometry - 48, 126
Patterns- 125
Sizing - 48, 126
Spreading - 212
Winding- 238
Wrinkling - 48, 125, 212
Guiding - 156, 156, 158, 159, 216-219
Active - 218
Center- 218
Displacement- 219
Edge Sensor- 218
Passive - 218
Publications - 264
Steering - 218, 219
Unwind- 219
Winder- 219
Hardness
Covers - see Cover, Hardness
Metals - 93, 113, 114, 129
Wound Rolls - 236
Heads- 3,4
Mounting Styles - 94
Heat
Pipe- 187
Spreading Requirement - 213
Transfer- 186, 190
Web- 7
Zone- 187
Heated Rollers - 120, 187, 188
Herringbone - see also Grooving - 127
Humidity - 195, 229
HVOF - 116
Hydraulic- 173
Hypalon- 122
Hysteresis- 120
Idler Roller - 2, 8, 97
Drag - sec Bearing, Drag
Construction - 3
Criteria- 37
Number of - sec Roller, Count
Temperature Profile - 185
Tension Across - see
Tension, Diff. Across Roller
Tension Downweb Profile
Wrap Angle - 62, 63
Imbalance - sec Balance
Induction Heating
Bearings - 5
Rollers- 187
Page 10 of 16
Information Resources - 215
Inertia- see Roller, Inertia
Inertia Compensation - see Drive, Inertia Comp
Interlayer Slippage - 75, 233, 237
Iron - 93,113
Isolation
Drive - 7, 20
Nip- 24
Jacketed Roller- 188
Journal Bearings - see Bearings
Journals - 3-5
Bearing Sizing - 106
Bending Stresses- 100, 101
Bent- 100
Fatigue - 6, 103
Fillet Radius - 100
Stresses - 99-103
Torsion- 102
Keys and Keyways - 101, 162, 170
Knife Cuts - 113, 121, 259
Knurling - 49
Laminating - see also Calendering
25, 70, 113, 117, 183, 223, 224, 225
Lateral Movement of Web - see also Guiding
202, 203, 205
Length - see Web, Length
Life - see Design Life
Live Shaft Roller
Configuration - 3
Forces on - 31
Deflection Calculation - 32-34
Load Cell - see Tension Measurement, Load
Cell
Loop - See Tension Measurement, Catenary
Lubrication - see Bearing, Lubrication
Machine Builders 215
Machine Design - 8-10, 40, 101, 162
Machining-3,41,81,91,94, 113, 115, 126, 129,
251, 254, 257
Magazines - 215
Maintenance - 8-10, 247-259
Alignment - 155, 160, 162, 163, 165, 248
Balance- 248
Bearings - 108, 111, 250, 253
Clearance or Play - 248
Electric Drives - 167, 252
Failure Analysis - 253
Mechanical Drives - 253
Nipped Rollers - 256
Pulleys- 169
Purchasing - 257
Records - 86, 247, 253
Roller Cylindricity - 163, 248, 251
Rotary Joints - 186
Slender Rollers - 251
Service Intervals - 247, 251, 253
Surface - 259
Temperature Measurement - 255
Vibration - 131, 139, 152
Mandrel - see Coreshaft
Mass Moment of Inertia - 59, 240, 243, 271
Metals- 223
Metal Matrix - 116
Misalignment - see also Alignment
Bearings 106
Deflection Comparison - 30
Edge Position Change - 40
Tension Skewing - 27
Wrinkling- 8
Modulus - 32-34, 36, 93, 119, 123, 1.55, 170,
175, 195
Mohr's Circle - 102
Moisture
Calender- 222
Cores- 194, 195
Length- 220
Moment - see Bending Moment
Moment Transfer - 158
Monopass- 189
Neoprene- 122, 123
Nickel- 115,259
Nip
Air/Fluid Entrainment - 46
Applications - 113
Bearing Force - 105
Calendering - 70, 113, 222
Covers-6, 113, 117, 118
Crown - see Crown and Nip, Deflection
Cylindricity - 256
Deflection - 29, 30-32, 217
Drive - 256
Embossing - 225
Footprint - see Nip, Width
Gap Control - 79, 117
Gearing - 69, 118
Impressions - 86-88, 256
Isolation - see Isolation
Load - 70, 73, 74, 77, 79, 222, 223,
256
Load Friction - 71, 77, 78, 120
Load Control - 77, 78, 79, 117, 256
Models - 76
Pressure - see Nip, Stress Z
Publications - 264
Pull Roller - 55, 69
Rejection - 238
Rolling Resistance - 7, 58, 118
Speed Control - 69, 118
and Spreading - 213
Stress, Shear- 72, 74
Stress, Z - 72, 73, 74, 88, 271
Thrust- 100, 105, 193, 198
Uniformity - 71, 72, 82, 85, 113, 117
Vibration - 71, 85, 123, 132, 138, 147,
Page 11 of 16
148, 259
Width - 73, 74, 87, 113, 117
Winding - 194, 234
Wrap Angle - 62
Nip Induced Defects (winding) - 69, 75, 194,
196
Nitrile- 122
Noise - 131,216, 253
Nonwovens - 43, 70, 186, 223, 225
Normal Entry Law - 42, 156, 202, 204, 265
Number of Rollers - see Roller, Count
Nylon - 228
Oil - See Bearing, Lubrication
Oil Canning - see Shell, Wall Deflection
Oil Heat - 189
Oil Resistant Covers - 122, 123
Operators - 8,131
Organizations - 215
Ovens
Air Float - 39, 216
Guiding - 218
Spreading Requirement - 213
Temperature- 120, 183, 185
Oxides - 41, 114, 115
Ozone- 122
P&J - see also Cover, Hardness - 119
Pans- 39
Paper - 43, 113, 183, 194, 223, 225, 228, 251
Patterns
Permeability - see Web, Permeability
Pillow Block- see Bearings, Pillow Block
PIV - see Speed Control, Variable
Transmissions
Pivots - 77
Plasma Spray - 116
Plating- 114
Play - see Clearance
Pneumatics - see Pressure, Air Cylinder
Poisson Ratio - 118
Polar Moment of Inertia - 170
Polyester- 228
Polyurethane - 118, 122, 123, 228
Porosity - see Web, Permeability
Pos-Z Spreader - see Spreading, Pos-Z
Power - 271
Pressfit- 4, 100, 104, 170
Pressure
Air/Hyd Cylinder - 17, 23, 74, 77, 78,
172, 256
Web on Bar/Roller - 45, 49, 57, 216, 272
Printing - see also Edge Position; Tension,
Control
Covers- 113, 117
Drying of Ink - 183
Plated Rollers- 114
Process - 70
Publications- 265
Smoothness - 223
Web, Registration - 125
Productivity - 60, 91, 131
Profilometer- see Surface Roughness
Puddling- 188
Pull Roll - see Nip, Pull Roll
Pulley - see Belt
Purchasing- 257
Pyrometer - see Temperature, Measurement
Ra - see Surface Roughness
Refrigerated Air- 186
Registration - see Web, Registration
Reliability - see also Design Life - 247, 253
Resilience - see also Cover, Hysteresis 120-122
Resistance Heating - 187
Resonance - see Vibration
Revolutions- 103
Rigging- 111, 258
Rimming 188
Ring Deflection - see Shell, Wall Deflection
RMS - see Surface Roughness
Rockwell - see Hardness
Roll Handling - 233, 235
Roller
Cantilevered - see Cantilevered Roller
Count - 8, 11,53, 59-61,66, 110, 163,
186, 248
Critical Speed - see Vibration,
Dead Shaft - see Dead Shaft Roller
Deflection - see Deflection
Diameter - see Roller Diameter
Diametral Tolerance - see Roller
Diametral Tolerance
Drag - see Bearing, Drag
Eccentricity- 145
Grooving - see Grooving
Handling - 233
Idler - see Idler Roller
Inertia- 8, 23, 59-61, 63, 64, 66, 93, 96,
239-244
Length - S, 32-36, 92
Live Shaft - see Live Shaft Roller
Misalignment - see Misalignment
Pressure from Web - 45, 49
Process - 2
Publications - 265
Pull - 55
Release- 10, 113, 115, 116
Revolutions- 103
Runout - see Runout
Shell - see Shell
Slenderness - 5, 9, 30
Span Length - see Span Length
Storage - 254, 258
Surface - see Surface
Tension - see Tension Force over
Page 12 of 16
Roller
Tolerances- 37
Transport - 2
Width - 5, 92
Weight - 29, 31, 32-36, 96, 105, 275
Wrap Angle - see Wrap Angle
Roller Diameter - 7, 8, 19, 66, 225
Air Entrainment - 46-47
Covered Rollers in Nip - 118
Deflection - 9, 31, 32-34, 92
Effective - 220
Geometry - 5
Inertia - see Roller, Inertia
and Nip Pressure - 222
Traction - 42, Sl
Web Caliper - 62
Wrinkling - 62
Roller Diametral Tolerance - 5, 9, 27, 46, 71,
85, 115, 117, 126, 203, 233, 234, 251
Roller Radial Tolerances - see Runout
Rolling - 70, 74
Rolling Friction - 76
Rotary Joint - 186
Roughness - see Surface Roughness
RPM
Bearing- 105
Belt Transmission - 168, 169
Limits- 169, 171
and Surface Speed - 19, 168, 118, 234,
273
Vibration- 133, 145
Rubber- 118, 122, 228
Runout-9,79,85, 103, 105, 115, 117, 126, 133,
144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 233, 235,
249, 25I
Rust - see Corrosion
S Wrapped Roller - 6
Safety - 95, 101, 113, 131, 149, 197, 226, 228,
255, 256, 258
Safety Factor- 101
SBR- 122
Scale- 186, 189
Scoring- 259
Sensors
Edge - 218
Footage - 220
Speed - see Tachometer
Temperature - see Temperature, Measure
Set - see Cover, Set
Shafts - see also Journals
Bent - 131
Inshaft- 170
Lineshaft- 170
Stresses - 99-103
Through - see Dead Shaft Roller
Wind/Unwind- 30
Shear Diagram - 99
Sheeters - 62, 69
Shell- 3
Drilled - 92
Oil Canning - 5
Material - 92
Temperature- 185, 189
Wall Deflection - 5, 80, 91, 92, 96
Wall Thickness - 5, 92
Shipping- 258
Shoes - see Pans
Shore - see also Cover, Hardness - 119
Silicone - 122, 123, 228
Siphon- 188
Skewing - 84
Skewing Roller- 221, 256
Slack Web - see Web, Slack
Sleeves - see also Covers - 204
Slenderness - see Roller, Diameter; also
Deflection, Excessive
Slides - 77
Sliding - see Slippage
Slippage - 8,9, 10, 26, 39-41, 54, 66
D-Bar Spreader - 203
Drag Calculation - 54
Drive - 7, 64, 167
Flattening- 128
Interlayer - see Interlayer Slippage
Nip - 55, 69
Pos-Z Spreader - 209
Tension Difference - 45-57
Wrap Angle - see Wrap Angle
Slit Separation - see Spreading
Slitters - 70, 113, 176, 226-227, 265
Smoothness - see Web, Smoothness
Solvents- 183, 115, 121, 122, 123,213,228
Spalling - 75, 259
Span Length - 8, 21, 155-159, 206, 218, 219
Spares - 257
Specific Heat - 189
Speed
Air/Fluid Entrainment - 46, 47, 50
and Calendering - 222
Centrifugal Limit - 57
Changes - see Acceleration
Design - 131
and Drag - 58
Dwell Time - see Dwell Time
Oscillation - 132
Measurement - 3, 41
and Power - 65
from RPM - see RPM
Traction - 42, 46, 47, 51
and Vibration - 249
Speed Control - 7, 12
and Covers - 55, 69, 118
Draw Definition - 19, 270
Drawing- 56
Page 13 of 16
Precision - 7, 19, 171, 177,182
Publications - 264
Time Constant - 20
Traction - 55,56
Variable Transmissions - 168. 171
Speed Control Continued
Variations - 20
Speed Reference - 24
Spherical Roller Bearing - see Bearings
Spline- 173
Spoiler Bar- 188
Spool - see Coreshaft
Spreading - 201 -214
Bowed Roller - 204-206, 210
Compliant Cover - 211
Concave Roller - 203, 217
D-Bar- 207
Definition - 201
Deflection - 30, 62
Dual Bowed Roller - 208
Edge Pull Stretchers - 210
Expander Rollers - 210
Flattening - 128, 211
Grooving - 48, 125, 126
Locations - 213
Motivation - 29
Pos-Z- 209, 216
Publications- 265
Sizing- 159
Traction Requirement - 62, 113, 201, 202
Spring Mounted Roller- 221
Squaring Roller - 221
Stainless Steel - 6, 116
Static Electricity - 10, 44, 228-229, 266
Static Lubrication - see Lubrication
Steam Heated Rollers, 188
Steel - 6, 32, 43, 93, 103, 113, 228
Stickies - 259
Stiffness-to-Weight - 6
Storage - see Roller, Storage
Strength
Covers- 123
Shells - 93
Strength-to-Weight- 6
Stress
Concentration Factor - 101
Journal - 99-103
Shaft - 36,99-103
Roller - 92, 95, 96
Web - see Tension; Web Bending.
Web, Twisting
Surface Roughness - 8, 259
Air/Fluid Entrainment - 45. 49
Chipping- 259
Chrome- 114
Coating- 113
Cracks - 259
Embossing - 225
Measurement- 126
Publications- 263
Traction - 41, 43, 44, 51, 125
Tungsten Carbide - 115
Waviness- 126
Swelling - see Cover, Swelling
Swetting- 186
Tachometer- see Speed, Measurement
Taping Rollers - 203
TAPPI - 215
Teflon - I IS, 228
Telescope - 233, 237
Temperature- 183-192
Bearings- 106-108
Calendering 222, 223
Covers- 122
Grinding - 254
and Hysteresis - 120
and Length - 220
Machine Condition - 253
Measurement - 120, 183-185, 255
and Modulus - 119
Motors- 177, 178
Oven- 185
Profile - 185, 190, 255
Publications - 266
versus Time - 191, 255
Web - 183, 185
Tendency Drive - see Drive, Tendency
Tension
Air Entrainment - see Air Entrainment
Deflection of Roller - 11, 29,31-33
Design for - 11,97
Difference Across Roller - 7,11, 52-54,
59, 60, 110
Force over a Roller - 13, 105
in Laminating - 25, 224
and Length - 220
and Roller Force Resultant- 13, 14,270
Setpoint- 12, 25, 155, 252, 266
Stall Tension - 181
and Traction - see Band-Brake;
Slippage; Traction
and Wrinkling - 155, 160
Tension Crossweb Profile (see also Web,
Baggy) - 27, 34, 55, 155-159, 202,
203, 205, 221
Tension Downweb Profile - see also
Tension, Difference Across Roller 26, 37, 53, 58-61,64, 66, 97, 167, 171
Tension Measurement and Control
Brakes and Clutches - 172
Catenary - 21, 62, 182, 273
Current
Control - 23
DC Motor amps - 22, 65, 273
Page 14 of 16
Dancer - 16-18
Calibration- 17
Configuration- 17
and Damping - 18
Friction - 16, 252
Inertia Compensated- 18
Mass- 16-18
Publications- 263
Sensitivity - 17, 252
Sensors- 16, 17
Tension From - 16
Tension Range - 17
Vacuum- 17
Draw - sec Speed Control
Isolation - see Isolation
Load Cell - 13-15, 50, 66, 221
Amplifier- 15
Calibration - 15, 252
Sensitivity- 13, 182
Sizing- 14
Troubleshooting - 15, 247
Loop - see Tension M&C, Catenary
Precision - 14, 17, 19, 26, 167, 175,
182, 252
Taper- 24
Tension Temporal Variations
see also Acceleration
40, 60, 172, 194
Tenter - see Spreading, Edge Pull
Textiles - 43
Thermal
Coating- 116
Conductivity - 91, 189, 190
Expansion-91,96, 106, 111, 184, 189,
274
Shock- 189, 191, 255
Thermometer - see Temperature, Measurement
Thiokol- 122
Threading - 69
Thrust from Nips - 100, 105, 193, 198
Time Constant - 191
TIR - see Runout
Titanium Oxide - 116
Torque
Acceleration - see Acceleration
Belt Drive 169
Brakes and Clutches - 172
Control - 23
on Cores - 195
Drag - see Bearing, Drag
Drive - see Drive, Torque
Nipped Roller - 118, 169
Shaft Stress - see Torsional Stress
Tension Difference - 50
Torsional
Angle of Twist - 170, 275
Backlash - 253
Resonance - see Vibration
Stress - 102, 170, 275
Traction - see also Slippage - 39-59
Air/Fluid Entrainment - 45-50
Band Brake Equation - 52-54, 275
Coatings - 113
Drive- 167
Measuring- 50-51, 62
Nip - 55, 69, 71
Normal Entry Law - 42
Publications- 267
Requirements - 7, 9, 64
S Wrapped Roller - 56
Speed (Draw) Control - 20
and Spreading - 202, 203, 205, 210,
211
Surface Topology- 115, 125
Wrap Angle - see Wrap Angle
Vacuum Roller- 57
Transit - see Alignment
Transportation - see Shipping
Transmission- 168
Triboelectric Series - 228
Trim Removal - 227
Troughing - see Web, Wrinkling
Tungsten Carbide - 49, 91, 113, 114, 115, 116,
251
Twisting - see Web, Twisting
U-Joint - see Coupling
Unbalance - see Balance
Units - 261
Unwind - see also Winder - 60, 167, 172, 174,
195, 197, 219, 239-244
Urethane - see Polyurethane
Vacuum Roller - 57, 125, 216
Vibration - 9, 131-138, 150-152
Amplitude- 132
Antinode- 132
Avoidance- 135, 138, 149
Balance - see Balance
Bearings 105
Beating- 135
Critical Speed - 37, 96, 133-137, 263
Damping - 96, 133, 147
Frequency 133, 134
Grinder- 254
Half Critical- 133, 135
Imbalance - see Balance
Measurement - see also FFT - 249
Mode Shape- 134, 136, 149
Natural Frequency - 134- 137
Nips - see Nip, Vibration
Publications - 267
Resonance- 132, 134, 137, 138, 195
Severity- 132, 138, 146
Torsional Resonance - 170
Unbalance - see Balance
Page 15 of 16
Winder- see Winder, Vibration
Viscosity - 45-47, 51, 189
Voltage 229
Warmup - 191
Water
Cooling- 172, 186
Covers- 123
Drying of Paper - 183
Treatment- 186
Waviness - see Surface Roughness, Waviness
Wear - see also Slippage - 54, 55, 91, 113,
114, 1 IS, 116, 119, 125, 126, 128, 207,
247, 25I
Weave - 213
Web
Baggy - 27, 31, 34, 46,51, 201, 206,
220, 233
Basis Weight - 12, 21, 46, 182
Bending (In Plane) - 39, 156-158, 202
203
Blocking- 186
Breaking Length - 57
Breaks- 12, 131, 138, 165, 182
Caliper - 12, 62, 69, 70, 71, 155, 156, 182,~
1
222, 223, 234
Contraction - see also Spreading - 29,
30, 31
Curl - 25, 223, 224, 267
Edge Position - see also Guiding - 8, 39,
40, 42, 182, 213
Edge Quality - 226
Expansion - 7, 20
Flutter- 132, 138, 216, 268
Foldovers - see Web, Wrinkling
Handling - 9,215
Heating - 7
Length - 11, 220, 271
Marking - 8, 9, 10, 39, 55, 125, 174,
186, 207, 216
Material Properties - 66
Materials- I
Modulus - 20,30,155, 175
Path - see Web, Edge Position
Permeability - 42,45,49-51
Porosity - see Web, Permeability
Profile.- 183
Registration - 9, 11, 20, 41,225
Scratches - see Web, Marking
Slack- 35, 158, 160, 182
Smoothness - 222, 223
Strength - 12, 21
Stretch - 19, 21,182
Temperature - see Temperature, Web
Troughing - see Web, Contraction and
Spreading
Twisting (Out-of-Plane) - 31, 159, 202,
208, 209
Yielding- 12
Width - 4, 7-9, 11, 65, 92, 182, 212,
213
Wrinkling - 9, 29, 30, 48, 55, 62, 69,71,
72, 125, 126, 155, 160, 161, 165,
194, 205, 212, 213, 248, 259, 268
Web Handling Research Center - 215
Weight - see Roller, Weight
Weld- 4
WHRC - see Web Handling Research Center
Windage - 7
Winder- 233-246
Acceleration Rate - 60
Cores - see Cores
Drive - 64, 239-244
Drums - 69, 115
Guiding - 219
Nip - 69,71
Publications - 268
Shafts - 96
Vibration - 132, 137, 147-150, 195, 249
Wire Arc - 116
Wire Combustion- 116
Wound Roll - 233-246
Air Entrainment - 238
Corrugations - 234
Cylindricity - 195, 234
Defects - 234-238
Handling - 233
Hardness - 236
Interlayer Slippage - 233,237
Interweaving - see Spreading
Length, see Web, Length
Offsets- 182
Publications - 268
Ridges - 234
Roll Structuring - 236
Rolling Resistance - 58
Starring - 238
Stresses - 235, 236
Support- 193
Telescoping - 233
Wound-in-tension- 19
Wrap Angle - 8, 66
Design Requirement - 62, 63, 206
Roller Force- 13
Traction - 9, 40, 42, 50-54, 62, 63, 205
S Wrap - 56
Sizing - 53
Wrinkling - see Web, Wrinkling
Wrinkle Removal - see Spreading
WK2 - see Roller, Inertia
WR2 - see Roller, Inertia
Yankee Dryer - 188
Zirconium Oxide - 116
Page 16 of 16
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