PHP: The Right Way
• Getting Started
–
–
–
–
–
Use the Current Stable Version (5.4)
Built-in web server
Mac Setup
Windows Setup
Vagrant
• Code Style Guide
• Language Highlights
– Programming Paradigms
∗ Object-oriented Programming
∗ Functional Programming
∗ Meta Programming
–
–
–
–
Namespaces
Standard PHP Library
Command Line Interface
XDebug
• Dependency Management
– Composer and Packagist
∗
∗
∗
∗
∗
How to Install Composer
How to Install Composer (manually)
How to Define and Install Dependencies
Updating your dependencies
Checking your dependencies for security issues
– PEAR
∗ How to install PEAR
∗ How to install a package
∗ Handling PEAR dependencies with Composer
• Coding Practices
– The Basics
– Date and Time
1
– Design Patterns
– Exceptions
∗ SPL Exceptions
• Databases
– PDO
– Abstraction Layers
• Security
– Web Application Security
– Password Hashing
– Data Filtering
∗ Sanitization
∗ Validation
– Configuration Files
– Register Globals
– Error Reporting
∗ Development
∗ Production
• Testing
– Test Driven Development
∗ Unit Testing
∗ Integration Testing
∗ Functional Testing
– Behavior Driven Development
∗ BDD Links
– Complementary Testing Tools
∗ Tool Links
• Servers and Deployment
– Platform as a Service (PaaS)
– Virtual or Dedicated Servers
∗ nginx and PHP-FPM
∗ Apache and PHP
– Shared Servers
– Building and Deploying your Application
∗ Build Automation Tools
∗ Continuous Integration
• Caching
– Bytecode Cache
2
– Object Caching
• Resources
–
–
–
–
–
–
From the Source
People to Follow
Mentoring
PHP PaaS Providers
Frameworks
Components
• Community
–
–
–
–
–
–
PHP User Groups
PHP Conferences
Created and maintained by
Project collaborators
Project contributors
Project sponsors
Welcome
There’s a lot of outdated information on the Web that leads new PHP users
astray, propagating bad practices and bad code. This must stop. PHP: The
Right Way is an easy-to-read, quick reference for PHP best practices, accepted
coding standards, and links to authoritative tutorials around the Web.
Getting Started
Use the Current Stable Version (5.4)
If you are just getting started with PHP make sure to start with the current
stable release of PHP 5.4. PHP has made great strides adding powerful new
features over the last few years. Don’t let the minor version number difference
between 5.2 and 5.4 fool you, it represents major improvements. If you are
looking for a function or it’s usage, the documentation on the php.net website
will have the answer.
Built-in web server
You can start learning PHP without the hassle of installing and configuring a
full-fledged web server (PHP 5.4 required). To start the server, run the following
from your terminal in your project’s web root:
3
> php -S localhost:8000
• Learn about the built-in, command line web server
Mac Setup
OSX comes prepackaged with PHP but it is normally a little behind the latest
stable. Lion comes with PHP 5.3.6 and Mountain Lion has 5.3.10.
To update PHP on OSX you can get it installed through a number of Mac
package managers, with php-osx by Liip being recommended.
The other option is to compile it yourself, in that case be sure to have installed either Xcode or Apple’s substitute “Command Line Tools for Xcode” downloadable
from Apple’s Mac Developer Center.
For a complete “all-in-one” package including PHP, Apache web server and
MySQL database, all this with a nice control GUI, try MAMP.
Windows Setup
PHP is available in several ways for Windows. You can download the binaries
and until recently you could use a ‘.msi’ installer. The installer is no longer
supported and stops at PHP 5.3.0.
For learning and local development you can use the built in webserver with
PHP 5.4 so you don’t need to worry about configuring it. If you would like an
“all-in-one” which includes a full-blown webserver and MySQL too then tools
such as the Web Platform Installer, Zend Server CE, XAMPP and WAMP will
help get a Windows development environment up and running fast. That said,
these tools will be a little different from production so be careful of environment
differences if you are working on Windows and deploying to Linux.
If you need to run your production system on Windows then IIS7 will give
you the most stable and best performance. You can use phpmanager (a GUI
plugin for IIS7) to make configuring and managing PHP simple. IIS7 comes
with FastCGI built in and ready to go, you just need to configure PHP as a
handler. For support and additional resources there is a dedicated area on iis.net
for PHP.
Vagrant
Running your application on different environments in development and production can lead to strange bugs popping up when you go live. It’s also tricky to
keep different development environments up to date with the same version for
all libraries used when working with a team of developers.
4
If you are developing on Windows and deploying to Linux (or anything nonWindows) or are developing in a team, you should consider using a virtual
machine. This sounds tricky, but using Vagrant you can set up a simple virtual
machine with only a few steps. These base boxes can then be set up manually,
or you can use “provisioning” software such as Puppet or Chef to do this for you.
Provisioning the base box is a great way to ensure that multiple boxes are set
up in an identical fashion and removes the need for you to maintain complicated
“set up” command lists. You can also “destroy” your base box and recreate it
without many manual steps, making it easy to create a “fresh” installation.
Vagrant creates shared folders used to share your code between your host and
your virtual machine, meaning you can create and edit your files on your host
machine and then run the code inside your virtual machine.
Back to Top
Code Style Guide
The PHP community is large and diverse, composed of innumerable libraries,
frameworks, and components. It is common for PHP developers to choose
several of these and combine them into a single project. It is important that
PHP code adhere (as close as possible) to a common code style to make it easy
for developers to mix and match various libraries for their projects.
The Framework Interop Group has proposed and approved a series of style
recommendations, known as PSR-0, PSR-1 and PSR-2. Don’t let the funny
names confuse you, these recommendations are merely a set of rules that some
projects like Drupal, Zend, Symfony, CakePHP, phpBB, AWS SDK, FuelPHP,
Lithium, etc are starting to adopt. You can use them for your own projects, or
continue to use your own personal style.
Ideally you should write PHP code that adheres to a known standard. This
could be any combination of PSR’s, or one of the coding standards made by
PEAR or Zend. This means other developers can easily read and work with your
code, and applications that implement the components can have consistency
even when working with lots of third-party code.
•
•
•
•
•
Read
Read
Read
Read
Read
about
about
about
about
about
PSR-0
PSR-1
PSR-2
PEAR Coding Standards
Zend Coding Standards
You can use PHP_CodeSniffer to check code against any one of these recommendations, and plugins for text editors like Sublime Text 2 to be given real
time feedback.
5
Use Fabien Potencier’s PHP Coding Standards Fixer to automatically modify
your code syntax so that it conforms with these standards, saving you from
fixing each problem by hand.
English is preferred for all symbol names and code infrastructure. Comments
may be written in any language easily readable by all current and future parties
who may be working on the codebase.
Back to Top
Language Highlights
Programming Paradigms
PHP is a flexible, dynamic language that supports a variety of programming
techniques. It has evolved dramatically over the years, notably adding a solid
object-oriented model in PHP 5.0 (2004), anonymous functions and namespaces
in PHP 5.3 (2009), and traits in PHP 5.4 (2012).
Object-oriented Programming
PHP has a very complete set of object-oriented programming features including
support for classes, abstract classes, interfaces, inheritance, constructors, cloning,
exceptions, and more.
• Read about Object-oriented PHP
• Read about Traits
Functional Programming
PHP supports first-class function, meaning that a function can be assigned to
a variable. Both user defined and built-in functions can be referenced by a
variable and invoked dynamically. Functions can be passed as arguments to
other functions (feature called Higher-order functions) and function can return
other functions.
Recursion, a feature that allows a function to call itself is supported by the
language, but most of the PHP code focus on iteration.
New anonymous functions (with support for closures) are present since PHP 5.3
(2009).
PHP 5.4 added the ability to bind closures to an object’s scope and also improved
support for callables such that they can be used interchangeably with anonymous
functions in almost all cases.
6
•
•
•
•
•
•
Continue reading on Functional Programming in PHP
Read about Anonymous Functions
Read about the Closure class
More details in the Closures RFC
Read about Callables
Read about dynamically invoking functions with call_user_func_array
Meta Programming
PHP supports various forms of meta programming through mechanisms like the
Reflection API and Magic Methods. There are many Magic Methods available
like __get(), __set(), __clone(), __toString(), __invoke(), etc. that allow
developers to hook into class behavior. Ruby developers often say that PHP is
lacking method_missing, but it is available as __call() and __callStatic().
• Read about Magic Methods
• Read about Reflection
Namespaces
As mentioned above, the PHP community has a lot of developers creating lots
of code. This means that one library’s PHP code may use the same class name
as another library. When both libraries are used in the same namespace, they
collide and cause trouble.
Namespaces solve this problem. As described in the PHP reference manual,
namespaces may be compared to operating system directories that namespace
files; two files with the same name may co-exist in separate directories. Likewise,
two PHP classes with the same name may co-exist in separate PHP namespaces.
It’s as simple as that.
It is important for you to namespace your code so that it may be used by other
developers without fear of colliding with other libraries.
One recommended way to use namespaces is outlined in PSR-0, which aims to
provide a standard file, class and namespace convention to allow plug-and-play
code.
• Read about Namespaces
• Read about PSR-0
Standard PHP Library
The Standard PHP Library (SPL) is packaged with PHP and provides a collection of classes and interfaces. It is made up primarily of commonly needed
7
datastructure classes (stack, queue, heap, and so on), and iterators which can
traverse over these datastructures or your own classes which implement SPL
interfaces.
• Read about the SPL
Command Line Interface
PHP was created primarily to write web applications, but it’s also useful for
scripting command line interface (CLI) programs. Command line PHP programs
can help you automate common tasks like testing, deployment, and application
administrativia.
CLI PHP programs are powerful because you can use your app’s code directly
without having to create and secure a web GUI for it. Just be sure not to put
your CLI PHP scripts in your public web root!
Try running PHP from your command line:
> php -i
The -i option will print your PHP configuration just like the phpinfo function.
The -a option provides an interactive shell, similar to ruby’s IRB or python’s
interactive shell. There are a number of other useful command line options, too.
Let’s write a simple “Hello, $name” CLI program. To try it out, create a file
named hello.php, as below.
<?php
if ($argc != 2) {
echo "Usage: php hello.php [name].\n";
exit(1);
}
$name = $argv[1];
echo "Hello, $name\n";
PHP sets up two special variables based on the arguments your script is run
with. $argc is an integer variable containing the argument count and $argv is
an array variable containing each argument’s value. The first argument is always
the name of your PHP script file, in this case hello.php.
The exit() expression is used with a non zero number to let the shell know that
the command failed. Commonly used exit codes can be found here
To run our script, above, from the command line:
8
> php hello.php
Usage: php hello.php [name]
> php hello.php world
Hello, world
• Learn about running PHP from the command line
• Learn about setting up Windows to run PHP from the command line
XDebug
One of the most useful tools in software development is a proper debugger. It
allows you to trace the execution of your code and monitor the contents of the
stack. XDebug, PHP’s debugger, can be utilized by various IDEs to provide
Breakpoints and stack inspection. It can also allow tools like PHPUnit and
KCacheGrind to perform code coverage analysis and code profiling.
If you find yourself in a bind, willing to resort to var_dump/print_r, and you
still can’t find the solution - maybe you need to use the debugger.
Installing XDebug can be tricky, but one of its most important features is
“Remote Debugging” - if you develop code locally and then test it inside a VM
or on another server, Remote Debugging is the feature that you will want to
enable right away.
Traditionally, you will modify your Apache VHost or .htaccess file with these
values:
php_value xdebug.remote_host=192.168.?.?
php_value xdebug.remote_port=9000
The “remote host” and “remote port” will correspond to your local computer
and the port that you configure your IDE to listen on. Then it’s just a matter
of putting your IDE into “listen for connections” mode, and loading the URL:
http://your-website.example.com/index.php?XDEBUG_SESSION_START=1
Your IDE will now intercept the current state as the script executes, allowing
you to set breakpoints and probe the values in memory.
• Learn more about XDebug
Back to Top
9
Dependency Management
There are a ton of PHP libraries, frameworks, and components to choose from.
Your project will likely use several of them — these are project dependencies.
Until recently, PHP did not have a good way to manage these project dependencies. Even if you managed them manually, you still had to worry about
autoloaders. No more.
Currently there are two major package management systems for PHP - Composer
and PEAR. Which one is right for you? The answer is both.
• Use Composer when managing dependencies for a single project.
• Use PEAR when managing dependencies for PHP as a whole on your
system.
In general, Composer packages will be available only in the projects that you
explicitly specify whereas a PEAR package would be available to all of your PHP
projects. While PEAR might sound like the easier approach at first glance, there
are advantages to using a project-by-project approach to your dependencies.
Composer and Packagist
Composer is a brilliant dependency manager for PHP. List your project’s dependencies in a composer.json file and, with a few simple commands, Composer
will automatically download your project’s dependencies and setup autoloading
for you.
There are already a lot of PHP libraries that are compatible with Composer,
ready to be used in your project. These “packages” are listed on Packagist, the
official repository for Composer-compatible PHP libraries.
How to Install Composer
You can install Composer locally (in your current working directory; though this
is no longer recommended) or globally (e.g. /usr/local/bin). Let’s assume you
want to install Composer locally. From your project’s root directory:
curl -s https://getcomposer.org/installer | php
This will download composer.phar (a PHP binary archive). You can run this
with php to manage your project dependencies. Please Note: If you pipe
downloaded code directly into an interpreter, please read the code online first to
confirm it is safe.
10
How to Install Composer (manually)
Manually installing Composer is an advanced technique; however, there are
various reasons why a developer might prefer this method vs. using the interactive
installation routine. The interactive installation checks your PHP installation to
ensure that:
•
•
•
•
•
a sufficient version of PHP is being used
.phar files can be executed correctly
certain directory permissions are sufficient
certain problematic extensions are not loaded
certain php.ini settings are set
Since a manual installation performs none of these checks, you have to decide
whether the trade-off is worth it for you. As such, below is how to obtain
Composer manually:
curl -s https://getcomposer.org/composer.phar -o $HOME/local/bin/composer
chmod +x $HOME/local/bin/composer
The path $HOME/local/bin (or a directory of your choice) should be in your
$PATH environment variable. This will result in a composer command being
available.
When you come across documentation that states to run Composer as php
composer.phar install, you can substitute that with:
composer install
How to Define and Install Dependencies
Composer keeps track of your project’s dependencies in a file called
composer.json. You can manage it by hand if you like, or use Composer itself.
The php composer.phar require command adds a project dependency and if
you don’t have a composer.json file, one will be created. Here’s an example
that adds Twig as a dependency of your project. Run it in your project’s root
directory where you’ve downloaded composer.phar:
php composer.phar require twig/twig:~1.8
Alternatively the php composer.phar init command will guide you through
creating a full composer.json file for your project. Either way, once you’ve
created your composer.json file you can tell Composer to download and install
your dependencies into the vendors/ directory. This also applies to projects
you’ve downloaded that already provide a composer.json file:
11
php composer.phar install
Next, add this line to your application’s primary PHP file; this will tell PHP to
use Composer’s autoloader for your project dependencies.
<?php
require 'vendor/autoload.php';
Now you can use your project dependencies, and they’ll be autoloaded on
demand.
Updating your dependencies
Composer creates a file called composer.lock which stores the exact version of
each package it downloaded when you first ran php composer.phar install.
If you share your project with other coders and the composer.lock file is part of
your distribution, when they run php composer.phar install they’ll get the
same versions as you. To update your dependencies, run php composer.phar
update.
This is most useful when you define your version requirements flexibly. For
instance a version requirement of ~1.8 means “anything newer than 1.8.0, but less
than 2.0.x-dev”. You can also use the * wildcard as in 1.8.*. Now Composer’s
php composer.phar update command will upgrade all your dependencies to
the newest version that fits the restrictions you define.
Checking your dependencies for security issues
The Security Advisories Checker is a web service and a command-line tool, both
will examine your composer.lock file and tell you if you need to update any of
your dependencies.
• Learn about Composer
PEAR
Another veteran package manager that many PHP developers enjoy is PEAR. It
behaves much the same way as Composer, but has some noteable differences.
PEAR requires each package to have a specific structure, which means that the
author of the package must prepare it for usage with PEAR. Using a project
which was not prepared to work with PEAR is not possible.
12
PEAR installs packages globally, which means after installing them once they
are available to all projects on that server. This can be good if many projects
rely on the same package with the same version but might lead to problems if
version conflicts between two projects arise.
How to install PEAR
You can install PEAR by downloading the phar installer and executing it. The
PEAR documentation has detailed install instructions for every operating system.
If you are using Linux, you can also have a look at your distribution package
manager. Debian and Ubuntu for example have a apt php-pear package.
How to install a package
If the package is listed on the PEAR packages list, you can install it by specifying
the official name:
pear install foo
If the package is hosted on another channel, you need to discover the channel
first and also specify it when installing. See the Using channel docs for more
information on this topic.
• Learn about PEAR
Handling PEAR dependencies with Composer
If you are already using Composer and you would like to install some PEAR code
too, you can use Composer to handle your PEAR dependencies. This example
will install code from pear2.php.net:
{
}
"repositories": [
{
"type": "pear",
"url": "http://pear2.php.net"
}
],
"require": {
"pear-pear2/PEAR2_Text_Markdown": "*",
"pear-pear2/PEAR2_HTTP_Request": "*"
}
13
The first section "repositories" will be used to let Composer know it should
“initialise” (or “discover” in PEAR terminology) the pear repo. Then the require
section will prefix the package name like this:
pear-channel/Package
The “pear” prefix is hardcoded to avoid any conflicts, as a pear channel could be
the same as another packages vendor name for example, then the channel short
name (or full URL) can be used to reference which channel the package is in.
When this code is installed it will be available in your vendor directory and
automatically available through the Composer autoloader:
vendor/pear-pear2.php.net/PEAR2_HTTP_Request/pear2/HTTP/Request.php
To use this PEAR package simply reference it like so:
$request = new pear2\HTTP\Request();
• Learn more about using PEAR with Composer
Back to Top
Coding Practices
The Basics
PHP is a vast language that allows coders of all levels the ability to produce
code not only quickly, but efficiently. However while advancing through the
language, we often forget the basics that we first learnt (or overlooked) in favor
of short cuts and/or bad habits. To help combat this common issue, this section
is aimed at reminding coders of the basic coding practices within PHP.
• Continue reading on The Basics
Date and Time
PHP has a class named DateTime to help you when reading, writing, comparing
or calculating with date and time. There are many date and time related
functions in PHP besides DateTime, but it provides nice object-oriented interface
to most common uses. It can handle time zones, but that is outside this short
introduction.
14
To start working with DateTime, convert raw date and time string to an object
with createFromFormat() factory method or do new \DateTime to get the
current date and time. Use format() method to convert DateTime back to a
string for output.
<?php
$raw = '22. 11. 1968';
$start = \DateTime::createFromFormat('d. m. Y', $raw);
echo 'Start date: ' . $start->format('m/d/Y') . "\n";
Calculating with DateTime is possible with the DateInterval class. DateTime
has methods like add() and sub() that take a DateInterval as an argument. Do
not write code that expect same number of seconds in every day, both daylight
saving and timezone alterations will break that assumption. Use date intervals
instead. To calculate date difference use the diff() method. It will return new
DateInterval, which is super easy to display.
<?php
// create a copy of $start and add one month and 6 days
$end = clone $start;
$end->add(new \DateInterval('P1M6D'));
$diff = $end->diff($start);
echo 'Difference: ' . $diff->format('%m month, %d days (total: %a days)') . "\n";
// Difference: 1 month, 6 days (total: 37 days)
On DateTime objects you can use standard comparison:
<?php
if ($start < $end) {
echo "Start is before end!\n";
}
One last example to demonstrate the DatePeriod class. It is used to iterate
over recurring events. It can take two DateTime objects, start and end, and the
interval for which it will return all events in between.
<?php
// output all thursdays between $start and $end
$periodInterval = \DateInterval::createFromDateString('first thursday');
$periodIterator = new \DatePeriod($start, $periodInterval, $end, \DatePeriod::EXCLUDE_START_
foreach ($periodIterator as $date) {
// output each date in the period
echo $date->format('m/d/Y') . ' ';
}
15
• Read about DateTime
• Read about date formatting (accepted date format string options)
Design Patterns
When you are building your application it is helpful to use common patterns in
your code and common patterns for the overall structure of your project. Using
common patterns is helpful because it makes it much easier to manage your code
and lets other developers quickly understand how everything fits together.
If you use a framework then most of the higher level code and project structure
will be based on that framework, so a lot of the pattern decisions are made for
you. But it is still up to you to pick out the best patterns to follow in the code
you build on top of the framework. If, on the other hand, you are not using a
framework to build your application then you have to find the patterns that best
suit the type and size of application that you’re building.
• Continue reading on Design Patterns
Exceptions
Exceptions are a standard part of most popular programming languages, but they
are often overlooked by PHP programmers. Languages like Ruby are extremely
Exception heavy, so whenever something goes wrong such as a HTTP request
failing, or a DB query goes wrong, or even if an image asset could not be found,
Ruby (or the gems being used) will throw an exception to the screen meaning
you instantly know there is a mistake.
PHP itself is fairly lax with this, and a call to file_get_contents() will
usually just get you a FALSE and a warning. Many older PHP frameworks like
CodeIgniter will just return a false, log a message to their proprietary logs and
maybe let you use a method like $this->upload->get_error() to see what
went wrong. The problem here is that you have to go looking for a mistake and
check the docs to see what the error method is for this class, instead of having it
made extremely obvious.
Another problem is when classes automatically throw an error to the screen
and exit the process. When you do this you stop another developer from being
able to dynamically handle that error. Exceptions should be thrown to make a
developer aware of an error, then they can choose how to handle this. E.g:
<?php
$email = new Fuel\Email;
$email->subject('My Subject');
$email->body('How the heck are you?');
16
$email->to('guy@example.com', 'Some Guy');
try
{
$email->send();
}
catch(Fuel\Email\ValidationFailedException $e)
{
// The validation failed
}
catch(Fuel\Email\SendingFailedException $e)
{
// The driver could not send the email
}
SPL Exceptions
The generic Exception class provides very little debugging context for the developer; however, to remedy this, it is possible to create a specialized Exception
type by sub-classing the generic Exception class:
<?php
class ValidationException extends Exception {}
This means you can add multiple catch blocks and handle different Exceptions
differently. This can lead to the creation of a lot of custom Exceptions, some of
which could have been avoided using the SPL Exceptions provided in the SPL
extension.
If for example you use the __call() Magic Method and an invalid method
is requested then instead of throwing a standard Exception which is vague,
or creating a custom Exception just for that, you could just throw new
BadFunctionCallException;.
•
•
•
•
Read about Exceptions
Read about SPL Exceptions
Nesting Exceptions In PHP
Exception Best Practices in PHP 5.3
Back to Top
Databases
Many times your PHP code will use a database to persist information. You have
a few options to connect and interact with your database. The recommended
17
option until PHP 5.1.0 was to use native drivers such as mysql, mysqli, pgsql,
etc.
Native drivers are great if you are only using ONE database in your application,
but if, for example, you are using MySQL and a little bit of MSSQL, or you
need to connect to an Oracle database, then you will not be able to use the same
drivers. You’ll need to learn a brand new API for each database — and that
can get silly.
As an extra note on native drivers, the mysql extension for PHP is no longer
in active development, and the official status since PHP 5.4.0 is “Long term
deprecation”. This means it will be removed within the next few releases, so
by PHP 5.6 (or whatever comes after 5.5) it may well be gone. If you are
using mysql_connect() and mysql_query() in your applications then you will
be faced with a rewrite at some point down the line, so the best option is to
replace mysql usage with mysqli or PDO in your applications within your own
development schedules so you won’t be rushed later on. If you are starting
from scratch then absolutely do not use the mysql extension: use the MySQLi
extension, or use PDO.
• PHP: Choosing an API for MySQL
PDO
PDO is a database connection abstraction library — built into PHP since 5.1.0
— that provides a common interface to talk with many different databases. PDO
will not translate your SQL queries or emulate missing features; it is purely for
connecting to multiple types of database with the same API.
More importantly, PDO allows you to safely inject foreign input (e.g. IDs) into
your SQL queries without worrying about database SQL injection attacks. This
is possible using PDO statements and bound parameters.
Let’s assume a PHP script receives a numeric ID as a query parameter. This ID
should be used to fetch a user record from a database. This is the wrong way to
do this:
<?php
$pdo = new PDO('sqlite:users.db');
$pdo->query("SELECT name FROM users WHERE id = " . $_GET['id']); // <-- NO!
This is terrible code.
You are inserting a raw query parameter into
a SQL query. This will get you hacked in a heartbeat. Just imagine if a hacker passes in an inventive id parameter by calling a URL
like http://domain.com/?id=1%3BDELETE+FROM+users. This will set the
$_GET[’id’] variable to 1;DELETE FROM users which will delete all of your
users! Instead, you should sanitize the ID input using PDO bound parameters.
18
<?php
$pdo = new PDO('sqlite:users.db');
$stmt = $pdo->prepare('SELECT name FROM users WHERE id = :id');
$stmt->bindParam(':id', $_GET['id'], PDO::PARAM_INT); //<-- Automatically sanitized by PDO
$stmt->execute();
This is correct code. It uses a bound parameter on a PDO statement. This
escapes the foreign input ID before it is introduced to the database preventing
potential SQL injection attacks.
• Learn about PDO
You should also be aware that database connections use up resources and it was
not unheard-of to have resources exhausted if connections were not implicitly
closed, however this was more common in other languages. Using PDO you can
implicitly close the connection by destroying the object by ensuring all remaining
references to it are deleted, ie. set to NULL. If you don’t do this explicitly, PHP
will automatically close the connection when your script ends unless of course
you are using persistent connections.
• Learn about PDO connections
Abstraction Layers
Many frameworks provide their own abstraction layer which may or may not
sit on top of PDO. These will often emulate features for one database system
that another is missing from another by wrapping your queries in PHP methods,
giving you actual database abstraction. This will of course add a little overhead,
but if you are building a portable application that needs to work with MySQL,
PostgreSQL and SQLite then a little overhead will be worth it the sake of code
cleanliness.
Some abstraction layers have been built using the PSR-0 namespace standard so
can be installed in any application you like:
•
•
•
•
Aura SQL
Doctrine2 DBAL
ZF2 Db
ZF1 Db
Back to Top
19
Security
Web Application Security
There are bad people ready and willing to exploit your web application. It is
important that you take necessary precautions to harden your web application’s
security. Luckily, the fine folks at The Open Web Application Security Project
(OWASP) have compiled a comprehensive list of known security issues and
methods to protect yourself against them. This is a must read for the securityconscious developer.
• Read the OWASP Security Guide
Password Hashing
Eventually everyone builds a PHP application that relies on user login. Usernames and passwords are stored in a database and later used to authenticate
users upon login.
It is important that you properly hash passwords before storing them. Password
hashing is an irreversible, one way function performed against the users password.
This produces a fixed-length string that can not be feasibly reversed. This means
you can compare a hash against another to determine if they both came from the
same source string, but you can not determine the original string. If passwords
are not hashed and your database is accessed by an unauthorized third-party,
all user accounts are now compromised. Some users may (unfortunately) use
the same password for other services. Therefore, it is important to take security
seriously.
Hashing passwords with password_hash
In PHP 5.5 password_hash will be introduced. At this time it is using BCrypt,
the strongest algorithm currently supported by PHP. It will be updated in the
future to support more algorithms as needed though. The password_compat
library was created to provide forward compatibility for PHP >= 5.3.7.
Below we hash a string, we then check the hash against a new string. Because
our two source strings are different (‘secret-password’ vs. ‘bad-password’) this
login will fail.
<?php
require 'password.php';
$passwordHash = password_hash('secret-password', PASSWORD_DEFAULT);
20
if (password_verify('bad-password', $passwordHash)) {
//Correct Password
} else {
//Wrong password
}
•
•
•
•
Learn about password_hash
password_compat for PHP >= 5.3.7 && < 5.5
Learn about hashing in regards to cryptography
PHP password_hash RFC
Data Filtering
Never ever (ever) trust foreign input introduced to your PHP code. Always
sanitize and validate foreign input before using it in code. The filter_var and
filter_input functions can sanitize text and validate text formats (e.g. email
addresses).
Foreign input can be anything: $_GET and $_POST form input data, some
values in the $_SERVER superglobal, and the HTTP request body via
fopen(’php://input’, ’r’). Remember, foreign input is not limited to form
data submitted by the user. Uploaded and downloaded files, session values,
cookie data, and data from third-party web services are foreign input, too.
While foreign data can be stored, combined, and accessed later, it is still foreign
input. Every time you process, output, concatenate, or include data in your
code, ask yourself if the data is filtered properly and can it be trusted.
Data may be filtered differently based on its purpose. For example, when
unfiltered foreign input is passed into HTML page output, it can execute HTML
and JavaScript on your site! This is known as Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and
can be a very dangerous attack. One way to avoid XSS is to sanitize all usergenerated data before outputting it to your page by removing HTML tags
with the strip_tags function or escaping characters with special meaning into
their respective HTML entities with the htmlentities or htmlspecialchars
functions.
Another example is passing options to be executed on the command line. This can
be extremely dangerous (and is usually a bad idea), but you can use the built-in
escapeshellarg function to sanitize the executed command’s arguments.
One last example is accepting foreign input to determine a file to load from the
filesystem. This can be exploited by changing the filename to a file path. You
need to remove ”/”, “../”, null bytes, or other characters from the file path so it
can’t load hidden, non-public, or sensitive files.
• Learn about data filtering
21
• Learn about filter_var
• Learn about filter_input
• Learn about handling null bytes
Sanitization
Sanitization removes (or escapes) illegal or unsafe characters from foreign input.
For example, you should sanitize foreign input before including the input in
HTML or inserting it into a raw SQL query. When you use bound parameters
with PDO, it will sanitize the input for you.
Sometimes it is required to allow some safe HTML tags in the input when
including it in the HTML page. This is very hard to do and many avoid it by
using other more restricted formatting like Markdown or BBCode, although
whitelisting libraries like HTML Purifier exists for this reason.
See Sanitization Filters
Validation
Validation ensures that foreign input is what you expect. For example, you may
want to validate an email address, a phone number, or age when processing a
registration submission.
See Validation Filters
Configuration Files
When creating configuration files for your applications, best practices recommend
that one of the following methods be followed:
• It is recommended that you store your configuration information where it
cannot be accessed directly and pulled in via the file system.
• If you must store your configuration files in the document root, name the
files with a .php extension. This ensures that, even if the script is accessed
directly, it will not be outputed as plain text.
• Information in configuration files should be protected accordingly, either
through encryption or group/user file system permissions
Register Globals
NOTE: As of PHP 5.4.0 the register_globals setting has been removed and
can no longer be used. This is only included as a warning for anyone in the
process of upgrading a legacy application.
22
When enabled, the register_globals configuration setting that makes several
types of variables (including ones from $_POST, $_GET and $_REQUEST) available
in the global scope of your application. This can easily lead to security issues as
your application cannot effectively tell where the data is coming from.
For example: $_GET[’foo’] would be available via $foo, which can override
variables that have not been declared. If you are using PHP < 5.4.0 make sure
that register_globals is off.
• Register_globals in the PHP manual
Error Reporting
Error logging can be useful in finding the problem spots in your application,
but it can also expose information about the structure of your application to
the outside world. To effectively protect your application from issues that could
be caused by the output of these messages, you need to configure your server
differently in development versus production (live).
Development
To show every possible error during development, configure the following
settings in your php.ini:
display_errors = On
display_startup_errors = On
error_reporting = -1
log_errors = On
Passing in the value -1 will show every possible error, even when new
levels and constants are added in future PHP versions. The E_ALL
constant also behaves this way as of PHP 5.4. - php.net
The E_STRICT error level constant was introduced in 5.3.0 and is not part of
E_ALL, however it became part of E_ALL in 5.4.0. What does this mean? In
terms of reporting every possible error in version 5.3 it means you must use
either -1 or E_ALL | E_STRICT.
Reporting every possible error by PHP version
• < 5.3 -1 or E_ALL
• 5.3 -1 or E_ALL | E_STRICT
• > 5.3 -1 or E_ALL
23
Production
To hide errors on your production environment, configure your php.ini as:
display_errors = Off
display_startup_errors = Off
error_reporting = E_ALL
log_errors = On
With these settings in production, errors will still be logged to the error logs
for the web server, but will not be shown to the user. For more information on
these settings, see the PHP manual:
•
•
•
•
error_reporting
display_errors
display_startup_errors
log_errors
Back to Top
Testing
Writing automated tests for your PHP code is considered a best practice and
can lead to well-built applications. Automated tests are a great tool for making
sure your application does not break when you are making changes or adding
new functionality and should not be ignored.
There are several different types of testing tools (or frameworks) available for
PHP, which use different approaches - all of which are trying to avoid manual
testing and the need for large Quality Assurance teams, just to make sure recent
changes didn’t break existing functionality.
Test Driven Development
From Wikipedia:
Test-driven development (TDD) is a software development process
that relies on the repetition of a very short development cycle: first
the developer writes a failing automated test case that defines a
desired improvement or new function, then produces code to pass
that test and finally refactors the new code to acceptable standards.
Kent Beck, who is credited with having developed or ‘rediscovered’
the technique, stated in 2003 that TDD encourages simple designs
and inspires confidence
24
There are several different types of testing that you can do for your application
Unit Testing
Unit Testing is a programming approach to ensure functions, classes and methods
are working as expected, from the point you build them all the way through the
development cycle. By checking values going in and out of various functions and
methods, you can make sure the internal logic is working correctly. By using
Dependency Injection and building “mock” classes and stubs you can verify that
dependencies are correctly used for even better test coverage.
When you create a class or function you should create a unit test for each
behavior it must have. At a very basic level you should make sure it errors if
you send it bad arguments and make sure it works if you send it valid arguments.
This will help ensure that when you make changes to this class or function
later on in the development cycle that the old functionality continues to work
as expected. The only alternative to this would be var_dump() in a test.php,
which is no way to build an application - large or small.
The other use for unit tests is contributing to open source. If you can write a
test that shows broken functionality (i.e. fails), then fix it, and show the test
passing, patches are much more likely to be accepted. If you run a project which
accepts pull requests then you should suggest this as a requirement.
PHPUnit is the de-facto testing framework for writing unit tests for PHP
applications, but there are several alternatives
•
•
•
•
SimpleTest
Enhance PHP
PUnit
atoum
Integration Testing
From Wikipedia:
Integration testing (sometimes called Integration and Testing, abbreviated “I&T”) is the phase in software testing in which individual
software modules are combined and tested as a group. It occurs
after unit testing and before validation testing. Integration testing
takes as its input modules that have been unit tested, groups them
in larger aggregates, applies tests defined in an integration test plan
to those aggregates, and delivers as its output the integrated system
ready for system testing.
Many of the same tools that can be used for unit testing can be used for
integration testing as many of the same principles are used.
25
Functional Testing
Sometimes also known as acceptance testing, functional testing consists of using
tools to create automated tests that actually use your application instead of just
verifying that individual units of code are behaving correctly and that individual
units can speak to each other correctly. These tools typically work using real
data and simulating actual users of the application.
Functional Testing Tools
• Selenium
• Mink
• Codeception is a full-stack testing framework that includes acceptance
testing tools
Behavior Driven Development
There are two different types of Behavior-Driven Development (BDD): SpecBDD
and StoryBDD. SpecBDD focuses on technical behavior or code, while StoryBDD
focuses on business or feature behaviors or interactions. PHP has frameworks
for both types of BDD.
With StoryBDD, you write human-readable stories that describe the behavior
of your application. These stories can then be run as actual tests against your
application. The framework used in PHP applications for StoryBDD is Behat,
which is inspired by Ruby’s Cucumber project and implements the Gherkin DSL
for describing feature behavior.
With SpecBDD, you write specifications that describe how your actual code
should behave. Instead of testing a function or method, you are describing how
that function or method should behave. PHP offers the PHPSpec framework for
this purpose. This framework is inspired by the RSpec project for Ruby.
BDD Links
• Behat, the StoryBDD framework for PHP, inspired by Ruby’s Cucumber
project;
• PHPSpec, the SpecBDD framework for PHP, inspired by Ruby’s RSpec
project;
• Codeception is a full-stack testing framework that uses BDD principles.
26
Complementary Testing Tools
Besides individual testing and behavior driven frameworks, there are also a
number of generic frameworks and helper libraries useful for any preferred
approach taken.
Tool Links
• Selenium is a browser automation tool which can be integrated with
PHPUnit
• Mockery is a Mock Object Framework which can be integrated with
PHPUnit or PHPSpec
• Prophecy is a highly opinionated yet very powerful and flexible PHP object
mocking framework. It’s integrated with PHPSpec and can be used with
PHPUnit.
Back to Top
Servers and Deployment
PHP applications can be deployed and run on production web servers in a
number of ways.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
PaaS provides the system and network architecture necessary to run PHP
applications on the web. This means little to no configuration for launching
PHP applications or PHP frameworks.
Recently PaaS has become a popular method for deploying, hosting, and scaling
PHP applications of all sizes. You can find a list of PHP PaaS “Platform as a
Service” providers in our resources section.
Virtual or Dedicated Servers
If you are comfortable with systems administration, or are interested in learning
it, virtual or dedicated servers give you complete control of your application’s
production environment.
27
nginx and PHP-FPM
PHP, via PHP’s built-in FastCGI Process Manager (FPM), pairs really nicely
with nginx, which is a lightweight, high-performance web server. It uses less
memory than Apache and can better handle more concurrent requests. This is
especially important on virtual servers that don’t have much memory to spare.
• Read more on nginx
• Read more on PHP-FPM
• Read more on setting up nginx and PHP-FPM securely
Apache and PHP
PHP and Apache have a long history together. Apache is wildly configurable and
has many available modules to extend functionality. It is a popular choice for
shared servers and an easy setup for PHP frameworks and open source apps like
WordPress. Unfortunately, Apache uses more resources than nginx by default
and cannot handle as many visitors at the same time.
Apache has several possible configurations for running PHP. The most common
and easiest to setup is the prefork MPM with mod_php5. While it isn’t the most
memory efficient, it is the simplest to get working and to use. This is probably
the best choice if you don’t want to dig too deeply into the server administration
aspects. Note that if you use mod_php5 you MUST use the prefork MPM.
Alternatively, if you want to squeeze more performance and stability out of
Apache then you can take advantage of the same FPM system as nginx and
run the worker MPM or event MPM with mod_fastcgi or mod_fcgid. This
configuration will be significantly more memory efficient and much faster but it
is more work to set up.
•
•
•
•
Read
Read
Read
Read
more
more
more
more
on
on
on
on
Apache
Multi-Processing Modules
mod_fastcgi
mod_fcgid
Shared Servers
PHP has shared servers to thank for its popularity. It is hard to find a host
without PHP installed, but be sure it’s the latest version. Shared servers allow
you and other developers to deploy websites to a single machine. The upside
to this is that it has become a cheap commodity. The downside is that you
never know what kind of a ruckus your neighboring tenants are going to create;
loading down the server or opening up security holes are the main concerns. If
your project’s budget can afford to avoid shared servers you should.
28
Building and Deploying your Application
If you find yourself doing manual database schema changes or running your
tests manually before updating your files (manually), think twice! With every
additional manual task needed to deploy a new version of your app, the chances
for potentially fatal mistakes increase. Whether you’re dealing with a simple
update, a comprehensive build process or even a continuous integration strategy,
build automation is your friend.
Among the tasks you might want to automate are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dependency management
Compilation, minification of your assets
Running tests
Creation of documentation
Packaging
Deployment
Build Automation Tools
Build tools can be described as a collection of scripts that handle common tasks
of software deployment. The build tool is not a part of your software, it acts on
your software from ‘outside’.
There are many open source tools available to help you with build automation,
some are written in PHP others aren’t. This shouldn’t hold you back from using
them, if they’re better suited for the specific job. Here are a few examples:
Phing is the easiest way to get started with automated deployment in the PHP
world. With Phing you can control your packaging, deployment or testing process
from within a simple XML build file. Phing (which is based on Apache Ant)
provides a rich set of tasks usually needed to install or update a web app and
can be extended with additional custom tasks, written in PHP.
Capistrano is a system for intermediate-to-advanced programmers to execute
commands in a structured, repeatable way on one or more remote machines. It
is pre-configured for deploying Ruby on Rails applications, however people are
successfully deploying PHP systems with it. Successful use of Capistrano
depends on a working knowledge of Ruby and Rake.
Dave Gardner’s blog post PHP Deployment with Capistrano is a good starting
point for PHP developers interested in Capistrano.
Chef is more than a deployment framework, it is a very powerful Ruby based
system integration framework that doesn’t just deploy your app but can build
your whole server environment or virtual boxes.
Chef resources for PHP developers:
29
• Three part blog series about deploying a LAMP application with Chef,
Vagrant, and EC2
• Chef Cookbook which installs and configures PHP 5.3 and the PEAR
package management system
Further reading:
• Automate your project with Apache Ant
• Maven, a build framework based on Ant and how to use it with PHP
Continuous Integration
Continuous Integration is a software development practice where
members of a team integrate their work frequently, usually each
person integrates at least daily — leading to multiple integrations
per day. Many teams find that this approach leads to significantly
reduced integration problems and allows a team to develop cohesive
software more rapidly.
– Martin Fowler
There are different ways to implement continuous integration for PHP. Recently
Travis CI has done a great job of making continuous integration a reality even for
small projects. Travis CI is a hosted continuous integration service for the open
source community. It is integrated with GitHub and offers first class support for
many languages including PHP.
Further reading:
• Continuous Integration with Jenkins
• Continuous Integration with PHPCI
• Continuous Integration with Teamcity
Back to Top
Caching
PHP is pretty quick by itself, but bottlenecks can arise when you make remote
connections, load files, etc. Thankfully, there are various tools available to speed
up certain parts of your application, or reduce the number of times these various
time consuming tasks need to run.
30
Bytecode Cache
When a PHP file is executed, under the hood it is first compiled to bytecode
(also known as opcode) and, only then, the bytecode is executed. If a PHP file
is not modified, the bytecode will always be the same. This means that the
compilation step is a waste of CPU resources.
This is where Bytecode cache comes in. It prevents redundant compilation
by storing bytecode in memory and reusing it on successive calls. Setting up
bytecode cache is a matter of minutes, and your application will speed up
significantly. There’s really no reason not to use it.
Popular bytecodes caches are:
•
•
•
•
APC
XCache
Zend Optimizer+ (part of Zend Server package)
WinCache (extension for MS Windows Server)
Object Caching
There are times when it can be beneficial to cache individual objects in your
code, such as with data that is expensive to get or database calls where the result
is unlikely to change. You can use object caching software to hold these pieces
of data in memory for extremely fast access later on. If you save these items to
a data store after you retrieve them, then pull them directly from the cache for
following requests, you can gain a significant improvement in performance as
well as reduce the load on your database servers.
Many of the popular bytecode caching solutions let you cache custom data as
well, so there’s even more reason to take advantage of them. APC, XCache, and
WinCache all provide APIs to save data from your PHP code to their memory
cache.
The most commonly used memory object caching systems are APC and memcached. APC is an excellent choice for object caching, it includes a simple API
for adding your own data to its memory cache and is very easy to setup and
use. The one real limitation of APC is that it is tied to the server it’s installed
on. Memcached on the other hand is installed as a separate service and can be
accessed across the network, meaning that you can store objects in a hyper-fast
data store in a central location and many different systems can pull from it.
Note that when running PHP as a (Fast-)CGI application inside your webserver,
every PHP process will have its own cache, i.e. APC data is not shared between your worker processes. In these cases, you might want to consider using
memcached instead, as it’s not tied to the PHP processes.
31
In a networked configuration APC will usually outperform memcached in terms
of access speed, but memcached will be able to scale up faster and further. If
you do not expect to have multiple servers running your application, or do not
need the extra features that memcached offers then APC is probably your best
choice for object caching.
Example logic using APC:
<?php
// check if there is data saved as 'expensive_data' in cache
$data = apc_fetch('expensive_data');
if ($data === false) {
// data is not in cache; save result of expensive call for later use
apc_add('expensive_data', $data = get_expensive_data());
}
print_r($data);
Learn more about popular object caching systems:
•
•
•
•
•
APC Functions
Memcached
Redis
XCache APIs
WinCache Functions
Back to Top
Resources
From the Source
• PHP Website
• PHP Documentation
People to Follow
•
•
•
•
•
Rasmus Lerdorf
Fabien Potencier
Derick Rethans
Chris Shiflett
Sebastian Bergmann
32
•
•
•
•
Matthew Weier O’Phinney
Pádraic Brady
Anthony Ferrara
Nikita Popov
Mentoring
• phpmentoring.org - Formal, peer to peer mentoring in the PHP community.
PHP PaaS Providers
• PagodaBox
• AppFog
• Heroku (PHP support is undocumented but based on stable Facebook
partnership link)
• fortrabbit
• Engine Yard Orchestra PHP Platform
• Red Hat OpenShift Platform
• dotCloud
• AWS Elastic Beanstalk
• cloudControl
• Windows Azure
• Zend Developer Cloud
• Google App Engine
Frameworks
Rather than re-invent the wheel, many PHP developers use frameworks to build
out web applications. Frameworks abstract away many of the low-level concerns
and provide helpful, easy-to-use interfaces to complete common tasks.
You do not need to use a framework for every project. Sometimes plain PHP is
the right way to go, but if you do need a framework then there are three main
types available:
• Micro Frameworks
• Full-Stack Frameworks
• Component Frameworks
Micro-frameworks are essentially a wrapper to route a HTTP request to a
callback, controller, method, etc as quickly as possible, and sometimes come
33
with a few extra libraries to assist development such as basic database wrappers
and the like. They are prominently used to build remote HTTP services.
Many frameworks add a considerable number of features on top of what is
available in a micro-framework and these are known Full-Stack Frameworks.
These often come bundled with ORMs, Authentication packages, etc.
Component-based frameworks are collections of specialized and single-purpose
libraries. Disparate component-based frameworks can be used together to make
a micro- or full-stack framework.
• Popular PHP Frameworks
Components
As mentioned above “Components” are another approach to the common goal
of creating, distributing and implementing shared code. Various component
repositories exist, the main two of which are:
• Packagist
• PEAR
Both of these repositories have command line tools associated with them to help
the installation and upgrade processes, and have been explained in more detail
in the Dependency Management section.
There are also component-based frameworks, which allow you to use their components with minimal (or no) requirements. For example, you can use the FuelPHP
Validation package, without needing to use the FuelPHP framework itself. These
projects are essentially just another repository for reusable components:
•
•
•
•
Aura
FuelPHP (2.0 only)
Laravel’s “Illuminate Components”
Symfony Components
Back to Top
•
•
•
•
•
Josh Lockhart
Kris Jordan
Phil Sturgeon
New Media Campaigns
Licensed CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 . . . .
34
Download PDF
Similar pages