Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 7.4

Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration Guide, Release 7.4
First Published: January 08, 2013
Last Modified: March 26, 2013
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CONTENTS
Preface
Preface xlvii
Audience xlvii
Conventions xlvii
Related Documentation xlviii
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request xlix
PART I
CHAPTER 1
System Management 1
Overview 3
Cisco Wireless Overview 3
Single-Controller Deployments 4
Multiple-Controller Deployments 5
Operating System Software 6
Operating System Security 6
Layer 2 and Layer 3 Operation 7
Operational Requirements 7
Configuration Requirements 7
Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers 8
Client Location 8
Controller Platforms 8
Cisco 2500 Series Controllers 8
Cisco 5500 Series Controller 9
Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controllers 9
Cisco 8500 Series Controllers 9
Cisco Virtual Wireless LAN Controllers 10
Cisco Wireless Services Module 2 10
Cisco Wireless Controller on Cisco Services-Ready Engine (SRE) 10
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Cisco UWN Solution WLANs 11
File Transfers 11
Power over Ethernet 11
Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Memory 12
Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Failover Protection 12
CHAPTER 2
Getting Started 15
Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard 15
Connecting the Console Port of the Controller 16
Configuring the Controller (GUI) 16
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard 27
Using the Controller Web GUI 29
Guidelines and Limitations 30
Logging On to the Web GUI 30
Logging out of the GUI 31
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes 31
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (GUI) 31
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (CLI) 32
Loading an Externally Generated SSL Certificate 33
Information About Externally Generated SSL Certificates 33
Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI) 34
Loading an SSL Certificate (CLI) 35
Using the Controller CLI 36
Logging on to the Controller CLI 36
Guidelines and Limitations 36
Using a Local Serial Connection 37
Using a Remote Ethernet Connection 37
Logging Out of the CLI 38
Navigating the CLI 38
Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration 39
Information About the AutoInstall Feature 39
Guidelines and Limitations 40
Obtaining an IP Address Through DHCP and Downloading a Configuration File from
a TFTP Server 40
Selecting a Configuration File 41
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Example: AutoInstall Operation 42
Managing the Controller System Date and Time 43
Information About Controller System Date and Time 43
Guidelines and Limitations 43
Configuring an NTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time 43
Configuring NTP Authentication (GUI) 44
Configuring NTP Authentication (CLI) 44
Configuring the Date and Time (GUI) 45
Configuring the Date and Time (CLI) 46
Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions 48
Information About Telnet and SSH 48
Restrictions for Telnet and SSH 48
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (GUI) 48
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (CLI) 49
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH_old 51
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (GUI) 51
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (CLI) 51
Managing the Controller Wirelessly 52
Enabling Wireless Connections (GUI) 52
Enabling Wireless Connections (CLI) 53
CHAPTER 3
Managing Licenses 55
Installing and Configuring Licenses 55
Information About Installing and Configuring Licenses 55
Restrictions for Using Licenses 56
Obtaining an Upgrade or Capacity Adder License 56
Information About Obtaining an Upgrade or Capacity Adder License 56
Obtaining and Registering a PAK Certificate 57
Installing a License 58
Installing a License (GUI) 58
Installing a License (CLI) 59
Viewing Licenses 59
Viewing Licenses (GUI) 59
Viewing Licenses (CLI) 60
Troubleshooting Licensing Issues 63
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Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License 63
Information About Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License 63
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (GUI) 63
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (CLI) 64
Configuring Right to Use Licensing 65
Information About Right to Use Licensing 65
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (GUI) 66
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (CLI) 66
Rehosting Licenses 67
Information About Rehosting Licenses 67
Rehosting a License 68
Rehosting a License (GUI) 68
Rehosting a License (CLI) 69
Transferring Licenses to a Replacement Controller after an RMA 70
Information About Transferring Licenses to a Replacement Controller after an
RMA 70
Transferring a License to a Replacement Controller after an RMA 71
Configuring the License Agent 71
Information About Configuring the License Agent 71
Configuring the License Agent (GUI) 72
Configuring the License Agent (CLI) 72
CHAPTER 4
Configuring 802.11 Bands 75
Configuring 802.11 Bands 75
Information About Configuring 802.11 Bands 75
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (GUI) 75
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (CLI) 76
Configuring Band Selection 78
Information About Configuring Band Selection 78
Restrictions on Band Selection 79
Configuring Band Selection 80
Configuring Band Selection (GUI) 80
Configuring Band Selection (CLI) 80
CHAPTER 5
Configuring 802.11 Parameters 83
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Configuring the 802.11n Parameters 83
Information About Configuring the 802.11n Parameters 83
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (GUI) 83
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (CLI) 84
Configuring 802.11h Parameters 86
Information About Configuring 802.11h Parameters 86
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (GUI) 86
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (CLI) 87
CHAPTER 6
Configuring DHCP Proxy 89
Information About Configuring DHCP Proxy 89
Restrictions on Using DHCP Proxy 89
Configuring DHCP Proxy (GUI) 90
Configuring DHCP Proxy (GUI) 90
Configuring DHCP Proxy (CLI) 90
Configuring DHCP Proxy (CLI) 91
Configuring a DHCP Timeout (GUI) 91
Configuring a DHCP Timeout (CLI) 91
CHAPTER 7
Configuring SNMP 93
Configuring SNMP (CLI) 93
SNMP Community Strings 95
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (GUI) 95
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (CLI) 95
Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI) 96
SNMP Trap Enhancements 96
CHAPTER 8
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing 97
Information About Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing 97
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI) 98
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI) 98
CHAPTER 9
Configuring Fast SSID Changing 101
Information About Configuring Fast SSID Changing 101
Configuring Fast SSID Changing (GUI) 101
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Configuring Fast SSID Changing (CLI) 101
CHAPTER 10
Configuring 802.3 Bridging 103
Configuring 802.3 Bridging 103
Information About Configuring 802.3 Bridging 103
Restrictions on 802.3 Bridging 103
Configuring 802.3 Bridging 104
Configuring 802.3 Bridging (GUI) 104
Configuring 802.3 Bridging (CLI) 104
Enabling 802.3X Flow Control 104
CHAPTER 11
Configuring Multicast 105
Configuring Multicast Mode 105
Information About Multicast Mode 105
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast Mode 107
Enabling Multicast Mode (GUI) 108
Enabling Multicast Mode (CLI) 108
Viewing Multicast Groups (GUI) 109
Viewing Multicast Groups (CLI) 110
Viewing an Access Point’s Multicast Client Table (CLI) 110
Configuring Multicast Domain Name System 111
Information About Multicast Domain Name System 111
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast DNS 111
Configuring Multicast DNS (GUI) 111
Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI) 113
CHAPTER 12
Configuring Client Roaming 115
Information About Client Roaming 115
Inter-Controller Roaming 115
Intra-Controller Roaming 115
Inter-Subnet Roaming 116
Voice-over-IP Telephone Roaming 116
CCX Layer 2 Client Roaming 116
Guidelines and Limitations 117
Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (GUI) 117
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Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (CLI) 118
Obtaining CCX Client Roaming Information (CLI) 118
Debugging CCX Client Roaming Issues (CLI) 119
CHAPTER 13
Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding 121
Information About Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding 121
Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding (CLI) 121
CHAPTER 14
Configuring Quality of Service 123
Configuring Quality of Service 123
Information About Quality of Service 123
Configuring Quality of Service Profiles 124
Configuring QoS Profiles (GUI) 124
Configuring QoS Profiles (CLI) 125
Configuring Quality of Service Roles 126
Information About Quality of Service Roles 126
Configuring QoS Roles 127
Configuring QoS (GUI) 127
Configuring QoS Roles (CLI) 128
CHAPTER 15
Configuring Application Visibility and Control 131
Information About Application Visibility and Control 131
Restrictions for Application Visibility and Control 132
Configuring Application Visibility and Control (GUI) 132
Configuring Application Visibility and Control (CLI) 133
Configuring NetFlow 134
Information About NetFlow 134
Configuring NetFlow (GUI) 135
Configuring NetFlow (CLI) 135
CHAPTER 16
Configuring Media and EDCA Parameters 137
Configuring Voice and Video Parameters 137
Information About Configuring Voice and Video Parameters 137
Call Admission Control 137
Bandwidth-Based CAC 138
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Load-Based CAC 138
Expedited Bandwidth Requests 138
U-APSD 139
Traffic Stream Metrics 139
Configuring Voice Parameters 140
Configuring Voice Parameters (GUI) 140
Configuring Voice Parameters (CLI) 142
Configuring Video Parameters 143
Configuring Video Parameters (GUI) 143
Configuring Video Parameters (CLI) 144
Viewing Voice and Video Settings 145
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (GUI) 145
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (CLI) 146
Configuring SIP-Based CAC 149
Restrictions for SIP-Based CAC 149
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (GUI) 149
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (CLI) 150
Configuring Media Parameters 151
Configuring Media Parameters (GUI) 151
Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers 151
Information About Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers 151
Prerequisites for Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers 152
Configuring a Preferred Call Number (GUI) 152
Configuring a Preferred Call Number (CLI) 152
Configuring EDCA Parameters 153
Information About EDCA Parameters 153
Configuring EDCA Parameters (GUI) 153
Configuring EDCA Parameters (CLI) 154
CHAPTER 17
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol 157
Information About Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol 157
Restrictions for Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol 157
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol 159
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol (GUI) 159
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CLI) 160
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Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information 161
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information (GUI) 161
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information (CLI) 163
Getting CDP Debug Information 163
CHAPTER 18
Configuring Authentication for the Controller and NTP Server 165
Information About Configuring Authentication for the Controller and NTP Server 165
Configuring the NTP Server for Authentication (GUI) 165
Configuring the NTP Server for Authentication (CLI) 166
CHAPTER 19
Configuring RFID Tag Tracking 167
Information About Configuring RFID Tag Tracking 167
Configuring RFID Tag Tracking (CLI) 168
Viewing RFID Tag Tracking Information (CLI) 169
Debugging RFID Tag Tracking Issues (CLI) 169
CHAPTER 20
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings 171
Information About Resetting the Controller to Default Settings 171
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (GUI) 171
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (CLI) 172
CHAPTER 21
Managing Controller Software and Configurations 173
Upgrading the Controller Software 173
Restrictions for Upgrading Controller Software 173
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI) 176
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI) 178
Predownloading an Image to an Access Point 180
Access Point Predownload Process 180
Restrictions for Predownloading an Image to an Access Point 181
Predownloading an Image to Access Points—Global Configuration (GUI) 182
Configuring Predownload Image to an Access Point (GUI) 183
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI) 185
Transferring Files to and from a Controller 187
Downloading a Login Banner File 187
Downloading a Login Banner File (GUI) 188
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Downloading a Login Banner File (CLI) 189
Clearing the Login Banner (GUI) 190
Downloading Device Certificates 190
Downloading Device Certificates (GUI) 191
Downloading Device Certificates (CLI) 192
Downloading CA Certificates 193
Download CA Certificates (GUI) 193
Downloading CA Certificates (CLI) 194
Uploading PACs 195
Uploading PACs (GUI) 195
Uploading PACs (CLI) 196
Uploading and Downloading Configuration Files 197
Uploading Configuration Files 197
Uploading the Configuration Files (GUI) 198
Uploading the Configuration Files (CLI) 198
Downloading Configuration Files 199
Downloading the Configuration Files (GUI) 199
Downloading the Configuration Files (CLI) 200
Saving Configurations 202
Editing Configuration Files 202
Clearing the Controller Configuration 203
Erasing the Controller Configuration 203
Resetting the Controller 204
CHAPTER 22
Managing User Accounts 205
Configuring Guest User Accounts 205
Information About Creating Guest Accounts 205
Restrictions for Managing User Accounts 205
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account 205
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (GUI) 205
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (CLI) 206
Creating Guest User Accounts as a Lobby Ambassador (GUI) 207
Viewing Guest User Accounts 208
Viewing the Guest Accounts (GUI) 208
Viewing the Guest Accounts (CLI) 208
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Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords 208
Information About Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords 208
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (GUI) 208
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (CLI) 209
Restoring Passwords 209
Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users 210
Information About Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users 210
Changing the SNMP v3 User Default Values (GUI) 210
Changing the SNMP v3 User Default Values (CLI) 211
Generating a Certificate Signing Request 211
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (GUI) 213
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (CLI) 214
CHAPTER 23
Managing Web Authentication 215
Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate 215
Information About Web Authentication Certificates 215
Support for Chained Certificate 215
Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate (GUI) 215
Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate (CLI) 216
Web Authentication Process 217
Disabling Security Alert for Web Authentication Process 218
Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page 220
Information About Default Web Authentication Login Page 220
Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page (GUI) 221
Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page (CLI) 221
Example: Creating a Customized Web Authentication Login Page 223
Example: Modified Default Web Authentication Login Page Example 226
Using a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server 226
Information About Customized Web Authentication Login Page 226
Choosing a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server
(GUI) 227
Choosing a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server
(CLI) 227
Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page 227
Prerequisites for Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page 228
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Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page (GUI) 228
Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page (CLI) 229
Example: Customized Web Authentication Login Page 230
Verifying the Web Authentication Login Page Settings (CLI) 230
Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN 231
Information About Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN 231
Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN (GUI) 231
Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN (CLI) 232
CHAPTER 24
Configuring Wired Guest Access 235
Information About Wired Guest Access 235
Prerequisites for Configuring Wired Guest Access 236
Restrictions for Configuring Wired Guest Access 236
Configuring Wired Guest Access (GUI) 237
Configuring Wired Guest Access (CLI) 238
Supporting IPv6 Client Guest Access 240
CHAPTER 25
Troubleshooting 243
Interpreting LEDs 243
Information About Interpreting LEDs 243
Interpreting Controller LEDs 244
Interpreting Lightweight Access Point LEDs 244
System Messages 244
Information About System Messages 244
Viewing System Resources 247
Information About Viewing System Resources 247
Viewing System Resources (GUI) 248
Viewing System Resources (CLI) 248
Using the CLI to Troubleshoot Problems 248
Configuring System and Message Logging 249
Information About System and Message Logging 249
Configuring System and Message Logging (GUI) 250
Viewing Message Logs (GUI) 252
Configuring System and Message Logging (CLI) 252
Viewing System and Message Logs (CLI) 255
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Viewing Access Point Event Logs 256
Information About Access Point Event Logs 256
Viewing Access Point Event Logs (CLI) 256
Uploading Logs and Crash Files 257
Prerequisites to Upload Logs and Crash Files 257
Uploading Logs and Crash Files (GUI) 257
Uploading Logs and Crash Files (CLI) 258
Uploading Core Dumps from the Controller 259
Information About Uploading Core Dumps from the Controller 259
Configuring the Controller to Automatically Upload Core Dumps to an FTP Server
(GUI) 259
Configuring the Controller to Automatically Upload Core Dumps to an FTP Server
(CLI) 260
Uploading Core Dumps from Controller to a Server (CLI) 261
Uploading Packet Capture Files 262
Information About Uploading Packet Capture Files 262
Restrictions for Uploading Packet Capture Files 263
Uploading Packet Capture Files (GUI) 263
Uploading Packet Capture Files (CLI) 264
Monitoring Memory Leaks 264
Monitoring Memory Leaks (CLI) 264
Troubleshooting CCXv5 Client Devices 266
Information About Troubleshooting CCXv5 Client Devices 266
Restrictions for CCXv5 Client Devices 266
Configuring Diagnostic Channel 266
Configuring the Diagnostic Channel (GUI) 266
Configuring the Diagnostic Channel (CLI) 267
Configuring Client Reporting 271
Configuring Client Reporting (GUI) 272
Configuring Client Reporting (CLI) 272
Configuring Roaming and Real-Time Diagnostics 273
Configuring Roaming and Real-Time Diagnostics (CLI) 273
Using the Debug Facility 276
Information About Using the Debug Facility 276
Configuring the Debug Facility (CLI) 277
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Configuring Wireless Sniffing 281
Information About Wireless Sniffing 281
Prerequisites for Wireless Sniffing 281
Restrictions for Wireless Sniffing 281
Configuring Sniffing on an Access Point (GUI) 282
Configuring Sniffing on an Access Point (CLI) 282
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH_old 283
Information About Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH 283
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (GUI) 284
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (CLI) 284
Debugging the Access Point Monitor Service 285
Information About Debugging the Access Point Monitor Service 285
Debugging Access Point Monitor Service Issues (CLI) 285
Troubleshooting OfficeExtend Access Points 286
Information About Troubleshooting OfficeExtend Access Points 286
Interpreting OfficeExtend LEDs 286
Positioning OfficeExtend Access Points for Optimal RF Coverage 286
Troubleshooting Common Problems 286
Configuring Ports and Interfaces 289
PART II
CHAPTER 26
Overview of Ports and Interfaces 291
Information About Ports 291
Information About Distribution System Ports 292
Restrictions for Configuring Distribution System Ports 292
Information About Service Port 293
Information About Interfaces 293
Restrictions for Configuring Interfaces 294
Information About Dynamic AP Management 294
Information About WLANs 295
CHAPTER 27
Configuring the Management Interface 297
Information About the Management Interface 297
Configuring the Management Interface (GUI) 298
Configuring the Management Interface (CLI) 299
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CHAPTER 28
Configuring the AP-Manager Interface 301
Information the About AP-Manager Interface 301
Restrictions for Configuring AP Manager Interfaces 301
Configuring the AP-Manager Interface (GUI) 302
Configuring the AP Manager Interface (CLI) 302
Configuration Example: Configuring AP-Manager on a Cisco 5500 Series Controller 303
CHAPTER 29
Configuring Virtual Interfaces 307
Information About the Virtual Interface 307
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (GUI) 308
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (CLI) 308
CHAPTER 30
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces 309
Information About Service-Port Interfaces 309
Restrictions for Configuring Service-Port Interfaces 309
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces (GUI) 309
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces (CLI) 310
CHAPTER 31
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces 311
Information About Dynamic Interface 311
Pre - requisites for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces 312
Restrictions for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces 312
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (GUI) 312
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI) 314
CHAPTER 32
Configuring Ports 317
Configuring Ports (GUI) 317
CHAPTER 33
Information About Using Cisco 5500 Series Controller USB Console Port 319
USB Console OS Compatibility 319
Changing the Cisco USB Systems Management Console COM Port to an Unused Port 320
CHAPTER 34
Configuring Link Aggregation 321
Information About Link Aggregation 321
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Restrictions for Link Aggregation 321
Enabling Link Aggregation (GUI) 323
Enabling Link Aggregation (CLI) 324
Verifying Link Aggregation Settings (CLI) 324
Configuring Neighbor Devices to Support Link Aggregation 324
Choosing Between Link Aggregation and Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces 324
CHAPTER 35
Configuring Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces 327
Information About Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces 327
Restrictions for Configuring Multiple AP Manager Interfaces 327
Creating Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces (GUI) 328
Creating Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces (CLI) 328
CHAPTER 36
Configuring VLAN Select 331
Information About VLAN Select 331
Restrictions for Configuring VLAN Select 332
Configuring Interface Groups 332
Information About Interface Groups 332
Restrictions for Configuring Interface Groups 332
Creating Interface Groups (GUI) 332
Creating Interface Groups (CLI) 333
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI) 333
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI) 333
Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI) 334
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI) 334
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI) 334
CHAPTER 37
Configuring Interface Groups 335
Information About Interface Groups 335
Restrictions for Configuring Interface Groups 336
Creating Interface Groups (GUI) 336
Creating Interface Groups (CLI) 336
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI) 337
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI) 337
Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI) 337
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Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI) 337
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI) 338
CHAPTER 38
Configuring Multicast Optimization 339
Information About Multicast Optimization 339
Configuring a Multicast VLAN (GUI) 339
Configuring a Multicast VLAN (CLI) 340
PART III
CHAPTER 39
Configuring VideoStream 341
Configuring VideoStream 343
Information about VideoStream 343
Prerequisites for VideoStream 343
Restrictions for Configuring VideoStream 343
Configuring VideoStream (GUI) 344
Configuring VideoStream (CLI) 347
Viewing and Debugging Media Streams 348
PART IV
CHAPTER 40
Configuring Security Solutions 351
Cisco Unified Wireless Network Solution Security 353
Security Overview 353
Layer 1 Solutions 353
Layer 2 Solutions 353
Restrictions for Layer 2 Solutions 354
Layer 3 Solutions 354
Integrated Security Solutions 354
CHAPTER 41
Configuring RADIUS 355
Information About RADIUS 355
Configuring RADIUS on the ACS 357
Configuring RADIUS (GUI) 358
Configuring RADIUS (CLI) 362
RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller 365
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace) 368
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RADIUS Accounting Attributes 373
CHAPTER 42
Configuring TACACS+ 377
Information About TACACS+ 377
TACACS+ VSA 379
Configuring TACACS+ on the ACS 380
Configuring TACACS+ (GUI) 382
Configuring TACACS+ (CLI) 383
Viewing the TACACS+ Administration Server Logs 384
CHAPTER 43
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries 387
Information About Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries 387
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (GUI) 387
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI) 388
CHAPTER 44
Configuring Local Network Users on the Controller 389
Information About Local Network Users on Controller 389
Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (GUI) 389
Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (CLI) 390
CHAPTER 45
Configuring Password Policies 393
Information About Password Policies 393
Configuring Password Policies (GUI) 394
Configuring Password Policies (CLI) 394
CHAPTER 46
Configuring LDAP 397
Information About LDAP 397
Configuring LDAP (GUI) 398
Configuring LDAP (CLI) 400
CHAPTER 47
Configuring Local EAP 403
Information About Local EAP 403
Restrictions for Local EAP 404
Configuring Local EAP (GUI) 405
Configuring Local EAP (CLI) 408
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CHAPTER 48
Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones 413
Information About SpectraLink NetLink Telephones 413
Configuring SpectraLink NetLink Phones 413
Enabling Long Preambles (GUI) 413
Enabling Long Preambles (CLI) 414
Configuring Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (CLI) 414
CHAPTER 49
Configuring RADIUS NAC Support 417
Information About RADIUS NAC Support 417
Device Registration 418
Central Web Authentication 418
Local Web Authentication 418
Restrictions for RADIUS NAC Support 418
Configuring RADIUS NAC Support (GUI) 419
Configuring RADIUS NAC Support (CLI) 420
CHAPTER 50
Using Management Over Wireless 421
Information About Management over Wireless 421
Enabling Management over Wireless (GUI) 421
Enabling Management over Wireless (CLI) 421
CHAPTER 51
Using Dynamic Interfaces for Management 423
Information About Using Dynamic Interfaces for Management 423
Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI) 424
CHAPTER 52
Configuring DHCP Option 82 425
Information About DHCP Option 82 425
Restrictions for DHCP Option 82 426
Configuring DHCP Option 82 (GUI) 426
Configuring DHCP Option 82 (CLI) 426
CHAPTER 53
Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists 429
Information About Access Control Lists 429
Restrictions for Access Control Lists 429
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Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists (GUI) 430
Configuring Access Control Lists 430
Applying an Access Control List to an Interface 433
Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU 433
Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN 433
Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN 434
Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists (CLI) 434
Configuring Access Control Lists 434
Applying Access Control Lists 435
CHAPTER 54
Configuring Management Frame Protection 437
Information About Management Frame Protection 437
Restrictions for Management Frame Protection 439
Configuring Management Frame Protection (GUI) 439
Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (GUI) 439
Configuring Management Frame Protection (CLI) 440
Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (CLI) 440
Debugging Management Frame Protection Issues (CLI) 440
CHAPTER 55
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies 443
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (GUI) 443
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (CLI) 444
CHAPTER 56
Configuring Identity Networking 447
Information About Identity Networking 447
RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking 448
CHAPTER 57
Configuring AAA Override 453
Information About AAA Override 453
Restrictions for AAA Override 453
Updating the RADIUS Server Dictionary File for Proper QoS Values 454
Configuring AAA Override (GUI) 455
Configuring AAA Override (CLI) 455
CHAPTER 58
Managing Rogue Devices 457
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Information About Rogue Devices 457
Configuring Rogue Detection (GUI) 460
Configuring Rogue Detection (CLI) 461
CHAPTER 59
Classifying Rogue Access Points 465
Information About Classifying Rogue Access Points 465
Restrictions for Classifying Rogue Access Points 467
Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (GUI) 468
Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (GUI) 470
Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (CLI) 473
Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (CLI) 475
CHAPTER 60
Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP 479
Information About Cisco TrustSec SXP 479
Restrictions for Cisco TrustSec SXP 480
Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP (GUI) 481
Creating a New SXP Connection (GUI) 481
Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP (CLI) 482
CHAPTER 61
Configuring Cisco Intrusion Detection System 485
Information About Cisco Intrusion Detection System 485
Shunned Clients 485
Additional Information 486
Configuring IDS Sensors (GUI) 486
Viewing Shunned Clients (GUI) 487
Configuring IDS Sensors (CLI) 487
Viewing Shunned Clients (CLI) 488
CHAPTER 62
Configuring IDS Signatures 491
Information About IDS Signatures 491
Configuring IDS Signatures (GUI) 493
Uploading or Downloading IDS Signatures 493
Enabling or Disabling IDS Signatures 494
Viewing IDS Signature Events (GUI) 496
Configuring IDS Signatures (CLI) 497
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Viewing IDS Signature Events (CLI) 498
CHAPTER 63
Configuring wIPS 501
Information About wIPS 501
Restrictions for wIPS 507
Configuring wIPS on an Access Point (GUI) 507
Configuring wIPS on an Access Point (CLI) 508
Viewing wIPS Information (CLI) 509
CHAPTER 64
Configuring the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy 511
Information About the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy 511
Restrictions for the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy 511
Configuring the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy (GUI) 511
Configuring the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy (CLI) 512
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy (CLI) 512
CHAPTER 65
Configuring Web Auth Proxy 513
Information About the Web Authentication Proxy 513
Configuring the Web Authentication Proxy (GUI) 514
Configuring the Web Authentication Proxy (CLI) 514
CHAPTER 66
Detecting Active Exploits 517
Detecting Active Exploits 517
Working with WLANs 519
PART V
CHAPTER 67
Overview 521
Information About WLANs 521
Prerequisites for WLANs 521
Restrictions for WLANs 522
CHAPTER 68
Configuring WLANs 525
Prerequisites for WLANs 525
Restrictions for WLANs 526
Information About WLANs 527
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Creating and Removing WLANs (GUI) 527
Enabling and Disabling WLANs (GUI) 528
Creating and Deleting WLANs (CLI) 528
Enabling and Disabling WLANs (CLI) 529
Viewing WLANs (CLI) 529
Searching WLANs (GUI) 530
Assigning WLANs to Interfaces 530
Configuring Network Access Identifier (CLI) 530
CHAPTER 69
Setting the Client Count per WLAN 533
Restrictions for Setting Client Count for WLANs 533
Information About Setting the Client Count per WLAN 534
Configuring the Client Count per WLAN (GUI) 534
Configuring the Maximum Number of Clients per WLAN (CLI) 534
Configuring the Maximum Number of Clients for each AP Radio per WLAN (GUI) 535
Configuring the Maximum Number of Clients for each AP Radio per WLAN (CLI) 535
CHAPTER 70
Configuring DHCP 537
Restrictions for Configuring DHCP for WLANs 537
Information About the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 537
Internal DHCP Servers 537
External DHCP Servers 538
DHCP Assignments 538
Configuring DHCP (GUI) 539
Configuring DHCP (CLI) 540
Debugging DHCP (CLI) 540
CHAPTER 71
Configuring DHCP Scopes 541
Restrictions for Configuring DHCP Scopes 541
Information About DHCP Scopes 541
Configuring DHCP Scopes (GUI) 541
Configuring DHCP Scopes (CLI) 542
CHAPTER 72
Configuring MAC Filtering for WLANs 545
Restrictions for MAC Filtering 545
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Information About MAC Filtering of WLANs 545
Enabling MAC Filtering 545
CHAPTER 73
Configuring Local MAC Filters 547
Prerequisites for Configuring Local MAC Filters 547
Information About Local MAC Filters 547
Configuring Local MAC Filters (CLI) 547
CHAPTER 74
Configuring Timeouts 549
Configuring a Timeout for Disabled Clients 549
Information About Configuring a Timeout for Disabled Clients 549
Configuring Timeout for Disabled Clients (CLI) 549
Configuring Session Timeout 549
Information About Session Timeouts 549
Configuring a Session Timeout (GUI) 550
Configuring a Session Timeout (CLI) 550
Configuring the User Idle Timeout 551
Information About the User Idle Timeout Per WLAN 551
Configuring Per-WLAN User Idle Timeout (CLI) 551
CHAPTER 75
Configuring the DTIM Period 553
Information About DTIM Period 553
Configuring the DTIM Period (GUI) 554
Configuring the DTIM Period (CLI) 554
CHAPTER 76
Configuring Peer-to-Peer Blocking 555
Restrictions for Peer-to-Peer Blocking 555
Information About Peer-to-Peer Blocking 555
Configuring Peer-to-Peer Blocking (GUI) 556
Configuring Peer-to-Peer Blocking (CLI) 556
CHAPTER 77
Configuring Layer2 Security 559
Prerequisites for Layer 2 Security 559
Configuring Static WEP Keys (CLI) 560
Configuring Dynamic 802.1X Keys and Authorization (CLI) 560
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Configuring 802.11r BSS Fast Transition 561
Restrictions for 802.11r Fast Transition 561
Information About 802.11r Fast Transition 562
Configuring 802.11r Fast Transition (GUI) 564
Configuring 802.11r Fast Transition (CLI) 565
Troubleshooting 802.11r BSS Fast Transition 566
Configuring MAC Authentication Failover to 802.1X Authentication 566
Configuring MAC Authentication Failover to 802.1x Authentication (GUI) 566
Configuring MAC Authentication Failover to 802.1X Authentication (CLI) 566
Configuring 802.11w 567
Restrictions for 802.11w 567
Information About 802.11w 567
Configuring 802.11w (GUI) 568
Configuring 802.11w (CLI) 569
CHAPTER 78
Configuring a WLAN for Both Static and Dynamic WEP 571
Restrictions for Configuring Static and Dynamic WEP 571
Information About WLAN for Both Static and Dynamic WEP 571
WPA1 and WPA2 572
Configuring WPA1 +WPA2 573
Configuring WPA1+WPA2 (GUI) 573
Configuring WPA1+WPA2 (CLI) 573
CHAPTER 79
Configuring Sticky Key Caching 575
Information About Sticky Key Caching 575
Restrictions for Sticky Key Caching 575
Configuring Sticky Key Caching (CLI) 576
CHAPTER 80
Configuring CKIP 579
Information About CKIP 579
Configuring CKIP (GUI) 580
Configuring CKIP (CLI) 580
CHAPTER 81
Configuring Layer 3 Security 583
Configuring Layer 3 Security Using VPN Passthrough 583
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Restrictions for Layer 3 Security Using VPN Passthrough 583
Information About VPN Passthrough 583
Configuring VPN Passthrough 584
Configuring VPN Passthrough (GUI) 584
Configuring VPN Passthrough (CLI) 584
Configuring Layer 3 Security Using Web Authentication 584
Prerequisites for Configuring Web Authentication on a WLAN 584
Restrictions for Configuring Web Authentication on a WLAN 585
Information About Web Authentication 585
Configuring Web Authentication 586
Configuring Web Authentication (GUI) 586
Configuring Web Authentication (CLI) 586
CHAPTER 82
Configuring Captive Bypassing 587
Information About Captive Bypassing 587
Configuring Captive Bypassing (CLI) 588
CHAPTER 83
Configuring a Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication 589
Information About Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication 589
Configuring a Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication (GUI) 589
Configuring a Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication (CLI) 590
CHAPTER 84
Assigning QoS Profiles 591
Information About QoS Profiles 591
Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN (GUI) 592
Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN (CLI) 593
CHAPTER 85
Configuring QoS Enhanced BSS 595
Prerequisites for Using QoS Enhanced BSS on Cisco 7921 and 7920 Wireless IP
Phones 595
Restrictions for QoS Enhanced BSS 596
Information About QoS Enhanced BSS 596
Configuring QBSS (GUI) 597
Configuring QBSS (CLI) 597
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CHAPTER 86
Configuring Media Session Snooping and Reporting 599
Restrictions for Media Session Snooping and Reporting 599
Information About Media Session Snooping and Reporting 599
Configuring Media Session Snooping (GUI) 600
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI) 600
CHAPTER 87
Configuring Key Telephone System-Based CAC 605
Restrictions for Key Telephone System-Based CAC 605
Information About Key Telephone System-Based CAC 605
Configuring KTS-based CAC (GUI) 606
Configuring KTS-based CAC (CLI) 606
Related Commands 607
CHAPTER 88
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients 609
Restrictions for Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients 609
Information About Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients 609
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients (GUI) 610
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients (CLI) 610
CHAPTER 89
Configuring Seamless IPv6 Mobility 611
Prerequisites for Configuring IPv6 Mobility 611
Restrictions for Configuring IPv6 Mobility 611
Information About IPv6 Mobility 612
Configuring IPv6 Globally 613
Configuring IPv6 Globally (GUI) 613
Configuring IPv6 Globally (CLI) 613
Configuring RA Gaurd for IPv6 Clients 613
Information About RA Guard 613
Configuring RA Guard (GUI) 614
Configuring RA Guard (CLI) 614
Configuring RA Throttling for IPv6 Clients 614
Information about RA Throttling 614
Configuring RA Throttling (GUI) 614
Configuring the RA Throttle Policy (CLI) 615
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Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Caching 615
Information About IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 615
Configuring Neighbor Binding (GUI) 615
Configuring Neighbor Binding (CLI) 616
CHAPTER 90
Configuring Cisco Client Extensions 617
Prerequisites for Configuring Cisco Client Extensions 617
Restrictions for Configuring Cisco Client Extensions 617
Information About Cisco Client Extensions 618
Configuring CCX Aironet IEs (GUI) 618
Viewing a Client’s CCX Version (GUI) 618
Configuring CCX Aironet IEs (CLI) 618
Viewing a Client’s CCX Version (CLI) 619
CHAPTER 91
Configuring Remote LANs 621
Prerequisites for Configuring Remote LANs 621
Restrictions for Configuring Remote LANs 621
Information About Remote LANs 621
Configuring a Remote LAN (GUI) 622
Configuring a Remote LAN (CLI) 622
CHAPTER 92
Configuring AP Groups 625
Prerequisites for Configuring AP Groups 625
AP Groups Supported on Controller Platforms 625
Restrictions for Configuring Access Point Groups 626
Information About Access Point Groups 626
Configuring Access Point Groups 627
Creating Access Point Groups (GUI) 627
Creating Access Point Groups (CLI) 629
Viewing Access Point Groups (CLI) 629
CHAPTER 93
Configuring RF Profiles 631
Prerequisites for Configuring RF Profiles 631
Restrictions for Configuring RF Profiles 631
Information About RF Profiles 632
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Configuring an RF Profile (GUI) 634
Configuring an RF Profile (CLI) 635
Applying an RF Profile to AP Groups (GUI) 636
Applying RF Profiles to AP Groups (CLI) 637
CHAPTER 94
Configuring Web Redirect with 8021.X Authentication 639
Information About Web Redirect with 802.1X Authentication 639
Conditional Web Redirect 639
Splash Page Web Redirect 640
Configuring the RADIUS Server (GUI) 640
Configuring Web Redirect 641
Configuring Web Redirect (GUI) 641
Configuring Web Redirect (CLI) 641
Disabling Accounting Servers per WLAN (GUI) 642
Disabling Coverage Hole Detection per WLAN 642
Disabling Coverage Hole Detection on a WLAN (GUI) 643
Disabling Coverage Hole Detection on a WLAN (CLI) 643
CHAPTER 95
Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration 645
Prerequisites for NAC Out Of Band 645
Restrictions for NAC Out of Band 646
Information About NAC Out-of-Band Integration 647
Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration (GUI) 647
Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration (CLI) 649
CHAPTER 96
Configuring Passive Clients 651
Restrictions for Passive Clients 651
Information About Passive Clients 651
Configuring Passive Clients (GUI) 652
Enabling the Multicast-Multicast Mode (GUI) 652
Enabling the Global Multicast Mode on Controllers (GUI) 653
Enabling the Passive Client Feature on the Controller (GUI) 653
Configuring Passive Clients (CLI) 654
CHAPTER 97
Configuring Client Profiling 655
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Prerequisites for Configuring Client Profiling 655
Restrictions for Configuring Client Profiling 655
Information About Client Profiling 656
Configuring Client Profiling (GUI) 656
Configuring Client Profiling (CLI) 656
CHAPTER 98
Configuring Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 659
Prerequisites for Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 659
Restrictions for Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 659
Information About Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 659
Configuring Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support (CLI) 660
Monitoring the Status of Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support (CLI) 660
CHAPTER 99
Configuring Mobile Concierge 663
Information About Mobile Concierge 663
Configuring Mobile Concierge (802.11u) 663
Configuring Mobile Concierge (802.11u) (GUI) 663
Configuring Mobile Concierge (802.11u) (CLI) 664
Configuring 802.11u Mobility Services Advertisement Protocol 665
Information About 802.11u MSAP 665
Configuring 802.11u MSAP (GUI) 666
Configuring MSAP (CLI) 666
Configuring 802.11u HotSpot 666
Information About 802.11u HotSpot 666
Configuring 802.11u HotSpot (GUI) 666
Configuring HotSpot 2.0 (CLI) 667
Configuring Access Points for HotSpot2 (GUI) 668
Configuring Access Points for HotSpot2 (CLI) 669
Downloading the Icon File (CLI) 673
CHAPTER 100
Configuring Assisted Roaming 675
Restrictions for Assisted Roaming 675
Information About Assisted Roaming 675
Configuring Assisted Roaming (CLI) 676
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PART VI
CHAPTER 101
Controlling Lightweight Access Points 679
Using Access Point Communication Protocols 681
Information About Access Point Communication Protocols 681
Restrictions for Access Point Communication Protocols 682
Configuring Data Encryption 682
Guidelines for Data Encryption 682
Upgrading or Downgrading DTLS Images for Cisco 5500 Series Controllers 683
Guidelines When Upgrading to or from a DTLS Image 683
Configuring Data Encryption (GUI) 684
Configuring Data Encryption (CLI) 684
Viewing CAPWAP Maximum Transmission Unit Information 685
Debugging CAPWAP 685
Controller Discovery Process 686
Restrictions for Controller Discovery Process 687
Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller 687
Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller (GUI) 687
Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller (CLI) 687
CHAPTER 102
Searching for Access Points 689
Information About Searching for Access Points 689
Searching the AP Filter (GUI) 689
Monitoring the Interface Details 692
Searching for Access Point Radios 694
Information About Searching for Access Point Radios 694
Searching for Access Point Radios (GUI) 694
CHAPTER 103
Searching for Access Point Radios 697
Information About Searching for Access Point Radios 697
Searching for Access Point Radios (GUI) 697
CHAPTER 104
Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points 699
Information About Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points 699
Restrictions for Global Credentials for Access Points 700
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Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points (GUI) 700
Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points (CLI) 701
CHAPTER 105
Configuring Authentication for Access Points 703
Information About Configuring Authentication for Access Points 703
Prerequisites for Configuring Authentication for Access Points 703
Restrictions for Authenticating Access Points 704
Configuring Authentication for Access Points (GUI) 704
Configuring Authentication for Access Points (CLI) 705
Configuring the Switch for Authentication 706
CHAPTER 106
Configuring Embedded Access Points 707
Information About Embedded Access Points 707
CHAPTER 107
Converting Autonomous Access Points to Lightweight Mode 709
Information About Converting Autonomous Access Points to Lightweight Mode 709
Restrictions for Converting Autonomous Access Points to Lightweight Mode 710
Reverting from Lightweight Mode to Autonomous Mode 710
Reverting to a Previous Release (CLI) 710
Reverting to a Previous Release Using the MODE Button and a TFTP Server 711
Authorizing Access Points 711
Authorizing Access Points Using SSCs 711
Authorizing Access Points for Virtual Controllers Using SSC 711
Configuring SSC (GUI) 712
Configuring SSC (CLI) 712
Authorizing Access Points Using MICs 712
Authorizing Access Points Using LSCs 713
Configuring Locally Significant Certificates (GUI) 713
Configuring Locally Significant Certificates (CLI) 714
Authorizing Access Points (GUI) 716
Authorizing Access Points (CLI) 716
Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points 717
Information About VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points 717
Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points (GUI) 717
Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points (CLI) 717
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Using DHCP Option 43 and DHCP Option 60 718
Troubleshooting the Access Point Join Process 719
Configuring the Syslog Server for Access Points (CLI) 720
Viewing Access Point Join Information 721
Viewing Access Point Join Information (GUI) 721
Viewing Access Point Join Information (CLI) 722
Sending Debug Commands to Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode 723
Understanding How Converted Access Points Send Crash Information to the Controller 723
Understanding How Converted Access Points Send Radio Core Dumps to the Controller 723
Retrieving Radio Core Dumps (CLI) 724
Uploading Radio Core Dumps (GUI) 724
Uploading Radio Core Dumps (CLI) 725
Uploading Memory Core Dumps from Converted Access Points 725
Uploading Access Point Core Dumps (GUI) 726
Uploading Access Point Core Dumps (CLI) 726
Viewing the AP Crash Log Information 726
Viewing the AP Crash Log information (GUI) 727
Viewing the AP Crash Log information (CLI) 727
Displaying MAC Addresses for Converted Access Points 727
Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode 727
Configuring a Static IP Address on a Lightweight Access Point 728
Configuring a Static IP Address (GUI) 728
Configuring a Static IP Address (CLI) 728
Supporting Oversized Access Point Images 729
Recovering the Access Point—Using the TFTP Recovery Procedure 730
CHAPTER 108
Configuring Packet Capture 731
Information About Packet Capture 731
Restrictions for Packet Capture 732
Configuring Packet Capture (CLI) 732
CHAPTER 109
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points 735
Information About OfficeExtend Access Points 735
OEAP 600 Series Access Points 736
OEAP in Local Mode 736
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Supported WLAN Settings for 600 Series OfficeExtend Access Point 737
WLAN Security Settings for the 600 Series OfficeExtend Access Point 737
Authentication Settings 741
Supported User Count on 600 Series OfficeExtend Access Point 742
Remote LAN Settings 742
Channel Management and Settings 743
Additional Caveats 744
Implementing Security 744
Licensing for an OfficeExtend Access Point 745
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points 745
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points (GUI) 746
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points (CLI) 747
Configuring a Personal SSID on an OfficeExtend Access Point 749
Viewing OfficeExtend Access Point Statistics 751
CHAPTER 110
Using Cisco Workgroup Bridges 753
Information About Cisco Workgroup Bridges 753
Restrictions for Cisco Workgroup Bridges 755
WGB Configuration Example 756
Viewing the Status of Workgroup Bridges (GUI) 757
Viewing the Status of Workgroup Bridges (CLI) 757
Debugging WGB Issues (CLI) 758
CHAPTER 111
Using Non-Cisco Workgroup Bridges 759
Information About Non-Cisco Workgroup Bridges 759
Restrictions for Non-Cisco Workgroup Bridges 760
CHAPTER 112
Configuring Backup Controllers 761
Information About Configuring Backup Controllers 761
Restrictions for Configuring Backup Controllers 762
Configuring Backup Controllers (GUI) 762
Configuring Backup Controllers (CLI) 763
CHAPTER 113
Configuring High Availability 767
Information About High Availability 767
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Restrictions for High Availability 770
Configuring High Availability (GUI) 771
Configuring High Availability (CLI) 773
CHAPTER 114
Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points 775
Information About Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points 775
Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points (GUI) 776
Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points (CLI) 776
Viewing Failover Priority Settings (CLI) 776
CHAPTER 115
Configuring AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count 779
Information About Configuring the AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count 779
Restrictions for Access Point Retransmission Interval and Retry Count 779
Configuring the AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count (GUI) 780
Configuring the Access Point Retransmission Interval and Retry Count (CLI) 780
CHAPTER 116
Configuring Country Codes 783
Information About Configuring Country Codes 783
Restrictions for Configuring Country Codes 784
Configuring Country Codes (GUI) 784
Configuring Country Codes (CLI) 785
CHAPTER 117
Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points 787
Information About Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points 787
Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points (GUI) 787
Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points (CLI) 788
CHAPTER 118
Configuring Probe Request Forwarding 789
Information About Configuring Probe Request Forwarding 789
Configuring Probe Request Forwarding (CLI) 789
CHAPTER 119
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points 791
Information About Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access
Points 791
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (GUI) 791
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Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (CLI) 792
CHAPTER 120
Performing a Link Test 793
Information About Performing a Link Test 793
Performing a Link Test (GUI) 794
Performing a Link Test (CLI) 794
CHAPTER 121
Configuring Link Latency 797
Information About Configuring Link Latency 797
Restrictions for Link Latency 798
Configuring Link Latency (GUI) 798
Configuring Link Latency (CLI) 798
CHAPTER 122
Configuring the TCP MSS 801
Information About Configuring the TCP MSS 801
Configuring TCP MSS (GUI) 801
Configuring TCP MSS (CLI) 802
CHAPTER 123
Configuring Power Over Ethernet 803
Information About Configuring Power over Ethernet 803
Configuring Power over Ethernet (GUI) 805
Configuring Power over Ethernet (CLI) 806
CHAPTER 124
Viewing Clients 809
Viewing Clients (GUI) 809
Viewing Clients (CLI) 810
CHAPTER 125
Configuring LED States for Access Points 811
Configuring LED States 811
Information About Configuring LED States for Access Points 811
Configuring the LED State for Access Points in a Network Globally (GUI) 811
Configuring the LED State for Access Point in a Network Globally (CLI) 811
Configuring LED State on a Specific Access Point (GUI) 812
Configuring LED State on a Specific Access Point (CLI) 812
Configuring Flashing LEDs 812
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Information About Configuring Flashing LEDs 812
Configuring Flashing LEDs (CLI) 812
CHAPTER 126
Configuring Access Points with Dual-Band Radios 815
Configuring Access Points with Dual-Band Radios (GUI) 815
Configuring Access Points with Dual-Band Radios (CLI) 816
PART VII
CHAPTER 127
Configuring Radio Resource Management 817
Configuring RRM 819
Information About Radio Resource Management 819
Radio Resource Monitoring 820
Transmit Power Control 820
Overriding the TPC Algorithm with Minimum and Maximum Transmit Power
Settings 821
Dynamic Channel Assignment 821
Coverage Hole Detection and Correction 823
Benefits of RRM 823
Information About Configuring RRM 823
Restrictions for Configuring RRM 823
Configuring the RF Group Mode (GUI) 824
Configuring the RF Group Mode (CLI) 824
Configuring Transmit Power Control (GUI) 825
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Defer 826
Information About Off-Channel Scanning Defer 826
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Defer for WLANs 827
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Defer for a WLAN (GUI) 827
Configuring Off Channel Scanning Defer for a WLAN (CLI) 827
Configuring Dynamic Channel Assignment (GUI) 828
Configuring Coverage Hole Detection (GUI) 831
Configuring RRM Profile Thresholds, Monitoring Channels, and Monitor Intervals
(GUI) 832
Configuring RRM (CLI) 833
Viewing RRM Settings (CLI) 837
Debug RRM Issues (CLI) 837
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CHAPTER 128
Configuring RRM Neighbor Discovery Packets 839
Information About RRM NDP and RF Grouping 839
Configuring RRM NDP (CLI) 839
CHAPTER 129
Configuring RF Groups 841
Information About RF Groups 841
RF Group Leader 842
RF Group Name 843
Controllers and APs in RF Groups 843
Configuring RF Groups 844
Configuring an RF Group Name (GUI) 844
Configuring an RF Group Name (CLI) 844
Viewing the RF Group Status 845
Viewing the RF Group Status (GUI) 845
Viewing the RF Group Status (CLI) 845
Configuring Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups 846
Information About Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups 846
Configuring Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups 846
Enabling Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (GUI) 846
Configuring Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (CLI) 847
CHAPTER 130
Overriding RRM 849
Information About Overriding RRM 849
Prerequisites for Overriding RRM 849
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings to Access Point Radios 850
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (GUI) 850
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (CLI) 851
Disabling Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment Globally for a Cisco Wireless LAN
Controller 854
Disabling Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (GUI) 854
Disabling Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (CLI) 854
CHAPTER 131
Configuring CCX Radio Management Features 857
Information About CCX Radio Management Features 857
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Radio Measurement Requests 857
Location Calibration 858
Configuring CCX Radio Management 858
Configuring CCX Radio Management (GUI) 858
Configuring CCX Radio Management (CLI) 859
Viewing CCX Radio Management Information (CLI) 859
Debugging CCX Radio Management Issues (CLI) 860
PART VIII
CHAPTER 132
Configuring Cisco CleanAir 863
Information About CleanAir 865
Information About CleanAir 865
Role of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller in a Cisco CleanAir System 866
Interference Types that Cisco CleanAir Can Detect 866
Persistent Devices 867
Persistent Devices Detection 867
Persistent Devices Propagation 867
Detecting Interferers by an Access Point 868
CHAPTER 133
Prerequisites and Restrictions for CleanAir 869
Prerequisites for CleanAir 869
Restrictions for CleanAir 870
CHAPTER 134
Configuring Cisco CleanAir 871
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on the Controller 871
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller (GUI) 871
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller (CLI) 873
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point 877
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (GUI) 877
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (CLI) 878
CHAPTER 135
Monitoring the Interference Devices 879
Prerequisites for Monitoring the Interference Devices 879
Monitoring the Interference Device (GUI) 879
Monitoring the Interference Device (CLI) 881
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Detecting Interferers by an Access Point 881
Detecting Interferers by Device Type 881
Detecting Persistent Sources of Interference 881
Monitoring Persistent Devices (GUI) 882
Monitoring Persistent Devices (CLI) 882
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands 883
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands (GUI) 883
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands (CLI) 883
Viewing a Summary of the Air Quality 883
Viewing Air Quality for all Access Points on a Radio Band 883
Viewing Air Quality for an Access Point on a Radio Band 883
Monitoring the Worst Air Quality of Radio Bands (GUI) 884
Monitoring the Worst Air Quality of Radio Bands (CLI) 884
Viewing a Summary of the Air Quality (CLI) 884
Viewing the Worst Air Quality Information for all Access Points on a Radio Band
(CLI) 884
Viewing the Air Quality for an Access Point on a Radio Band (CLI) 884
Viewing the Air Quality for an Access Point by Device Type (CLI) 885
Detecting Persistent Sources of Interference (CLI) 885
CHAPTER 136
Configuring a Spectrum Expert Connection 887
Information About Spectrum Expert Connection 887
Configuring Spectrum Expert (GUI) 887
Configuring FlexConnect 891
PART IX
CHAPTER 137
Configuring FlexConnect 893
Information About FlexConnect 893
FlexConnect Authentication Process 895
Restrictions for FlexConnect 899
Configuring FlexConnect 900
Configuring the Switch at a Remote Site 900
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect 901
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect for a Centrally Switched WLAN Used
for Guest Access 902
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Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect (GUI) 903
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect (CLI) 904
Configuring an Access Point for FlexConnect 906
Configuring an Access Point for FlexConnect (GUI) 906
Configuring an Access Point for FlexConnect (CLI) 908
Configuring an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN (GUI) 910
Configuring an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN (CLI) 910
Connecting Client Devices to WLANs 910
VideoStream for FlexConnect 911
Configuring the Media Stream for FlexConnect (GUI) 912
Configuring VideoStream for FlexConnect (CLI) 914
Viewing and Debugging Media Streams 915
CHAPTER 138
Configuring FlexConnect ACLs 917
Information About Access Control Lists 917
Restrictions for FlexConnect ACLs 917
Configuring FlexConnect ACLs (GUI) 918
Configuring FlexConnect ACLs (CLI) 920
Viewing and Debugging FlexConnect ACLs (CLI) 921
CHAPTER 139
Configuring FlexConnect Groups 923
Information About FlexConnect Groups 923
FlexConnect Groups and Backup RADIUS Servers 924
FlexConnect Groups and CCKM 924
FlexConnect Groups and Opportunistic Key Caching 924
FlexConnect Groups and Local Authentication 925
Configuring FlexConnect Groups 925
Configuring FlexConnect Groups (GUI) 925
Configuring FlexConnect Groups (CLI) 928
Configuring VLAN-ACL Mapping on FlexConnect Groups 930
Configuring VLAN-ACL Mapping on FlexConnect Groups (GUI) 930
Configuring VLAN-ACL Mapping on FlexConnect Groups (CLI) 930
Viewing VLAN-ACL Mappings (CLI) 930
CHAPTER 140
Configuring AAA Overrides for FlexConnect 931
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Information About Authentication, Authorization, Accounting Overrides 931
Restrictions for AAA Overrides for FlexConnect 932
Configuring AAA Overrides for FlexConnect on an Access Point (GUI) 932
Configuring VLAN Overrides for FlexConnect on an Access Point (CLI) 933
CHAPTER 141
Configuring FlexConnect AP Upgrades for FlexConnect APs 935
Information About FlexConnect AP Upgrades 935
Restrictions for FlexConnect AP Upgrades for FlexConnect Access Points 935
Configuring FlexConnect AP Upgrades (GUI) 936
Configuring FlexConnect AP Upgrades (CLI) 936
Configuring Mobility Groups 937
PART X
CHAPTER 142
Configuring Mobility Groups 939
Information About Mobility 939
Information About Mobility Groups 943
Messaging Among Mobility Groups 945
Using Mobility Groups with NAT Devices 945
Prerequisites for Configuring Mobility Groups 946
Configuring Mobility Groups (GUI) 948
Configuring Mobility Groups (CLI) 949
CHAPTER 143
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics 951
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (GUI) 951
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (CLI) 952
CHAPTER 144
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility 953
Information About Auto-Anchor Mobility 953
Guidelines and Limitations 954
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (GUI) 955
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (CLI) 955
CHAPTER 145
Validating WLAN Mobility Security Values 959
Information About WLAN Mobility Security Values 959
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Using Symmetric Mobility Tunneling 961
Information About Symmetric Mobility Tunneling 961
Guidelines and Limitations 962
Verifying Symmetric Mobility Tunneling (GUI) 962
Verifying if Symmetric Mobility Tunneling is Enabled (CLI) 962
CHAPTER 147
Running Mobility Ping Tests 963
Information About Mobility Ping Tests 963
Guidelines and Limitations 963
Running Mobility Ping Tests (CLI) 964
CHAPTER 148
Configuring Dynamic Anchoring for Clients with Static IP Addresses 965
Information About Dynamic Anchoring for Clients with Static IP 965
How Dynamic Anchoring of Static IP Clients Works 965
Guidelines and Limitations 966
Configuring Dynamic Anchoring of Static IP Clients (GUI) 966
Configuring Dynamic Anchoring of Static IP Clients (CLI) 967
CHAPTER 149
Configuring Foreign Mappings 969
Information About Foreign Mappings 969
Configuring Foreign Controller MAC Mapping (GUI) 969
Configuring Foreign Controller MAC Mapping (CLI) 969
CHAPTER 150
Configuring Proxy Mobile IPv6 971
Information About Proxy Mobile IPv6 971
Restrictions for Proxy Mobile IPv6 971
Configuring Proxy Mobile IPv6 (GUI) 972
Configuring Proxy Mobile IPv6 (CLI) 973
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Preface
This preface describes the audience, organization, and conventions of this document. It also provides
information on how to obtain other documentation. This chapter includes the following sections:
• Audience, page xlvii
• Conventions, page xlvii
• Related Documentation, page xlviii
• Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request, page xlix
Audience
This publication is for experienced network administrators who configure and maintain Cisco wireless LAN
controllers and Cisco lightweight access points.
Conventions
This document uses the following conventions:
Table 1: Conventions
Convention
Indication
bold font
Commands and keywords and user-entered text appear in bold font.
italic font
Document titles, new or emphasized terms, and arguments for which you supply
values are in italic font.
[]
Elements in square brackets are optional.
{x | y | z }
Required alternative keywords are grouped in braces and separated by vertical
bars.
[x|y|z]
Optional alternative keywords are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical
bars.
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Related Documentation
Convention
Indication
string
A nonquoted set of characters. Do not use quotation marks around the string or
the string will include the quotation marks.
courier
Note
Tip
Caution
font
Terminal sessions and information the system displays appear in courier font.
<>
Nonprinting characters such as passwords are in angle brackets.
[]
Default responses to system prompts are in square brackets.
!, #
An exclamation point (!) or a pound sign (#) at the beginning of a line of code
indicates a comment line.
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the
manual.
Means the following information will help you solve a problem.
Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might perform an action that could result in equipment
damage or loss of data.
Related Documentation
These documents provide complete information about Cisco Wireless:
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controller configuration guides:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/products_installation_and_configuration_guides_list.html
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controller command references:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/prod_command_reference_list.html
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controller System Message Guide:
• http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/products_system_message_guides_list.html
• Release Notes for Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers and Lightweight Access Points:
• http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps10315/prod_release_notes_list.html
• Cisco Wireless Mesh Access Points, Design and Deployment Guide:
• http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11451/products_implementation_design_guides_list.html
• Cisco Prime Infrastructure documentation:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps12239/products_documentation_roadmaps_list.html
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Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request
• Cisco Mobility Services Engine documentation:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps9806/tsd_products_support_series_home.html
Click this link to access user documentation pertaining to Cisco Wireless solution:
http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/psa/default.html?mode=prod
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request
For information on obtaining documentation, using the Cisco Bug Search Tool (BST), submitting a service
request, and gathering additional information, see What's New in Cisco Product Documentation, at: http://
www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/general/whatsnew/whatsnew.html.
Subscribe to What's New in Cisco Product Documentation, which lists all new and revised Cisco technical
documentation, as an RSS feed and deliver content directly to your desktop using a reader application. The
RSS feeds are a free service.
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I
System Management
• Overview, page 3
• Getting Started, page 15
• Managing Licenses, page 55
• Configuring 802.11 Bands, page 75
• Configuring 802.11 Parameters, page 83
• Configuring DHCP Proxy, page 89
• Configuring SNMP, page 93
• Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing, page 97
• Configuring Fast SSID Changing, page 101
• Configuring 802.3 Bridging, page 103
• Configuring Multicast, page 105
• Configuring Client Roaming, page 115
• Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding, page 121
• Configuring Quality of Service, page 123
• Configuring Application Visibility and Control, page 131
• Configuring Media and EDCA Parameters, page 137
• Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol, page 157
• Configuring Authentication for the Controller and NTP Server, page 165
• Configuring RFID Tag Tracking, page 167
• Resetting the Controller to Default Settings, page 171
• Managing Controller Software and Configurations, page 173
• Managing User Accounts, page 205
• Managing Web Authentication, page 215
• Configuring Wired Guest Access, page 235
• Troubleshooting, page 243
CHAPTER
1
Overview
• Cisco Wireless Overview, page 3
• Operating System Software, page 6
• Operating System Security, page 6
• Layer 2 and Layer 3 Operation, page 7
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers, page 8
• Controller Platforms, page 8
• Cisco UWN Solution WLANs, page 11
• File Transfers, page 11
• Power over Ethernet, page 11
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Memory, page 12
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Failover Protection, page 12
Cisco Wireless Overview
Cisco Wireless is designed to provide 802.11 wireless networking solutions for enterprises and service
providers. Cisco Wireless simplifies deploying and managing large-scale wireless LANs and enables a unique
best-in-class security infrastructure. The operating system manages all data client, communications, and system
administration functions, performs radio resource management (RRM) functions, manages system-wide
mobility policies using the operating system security solution, and coordinates all security functions using
the operating system security framework.
Cisco Wireless solution consists of Cisco wireless LAN controllers and their associated lightweight access
points controlled by the operating system, all concurrently managed by any or all of the operating system user
interfaces:
• An HTTP and/or HTTPS full-featured Web User Interface hosted by Cisco wireless LAN controllers
can be used to configure and monitor individual controllers.
• A full-featured command-line interface (CLI) can be used to configure and monitor individual Cisco
wireless LAN controllers.
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Cisco Wireless Overview
• The Cisco Prime Infrastructure, which you use to configure and monitor one or more Cisco wireless
LAN controllers and associated access points. The Prime Infrastructure has tools to facilitate large-system
monitoring and control. For more information about Cisco Prime Infrastructure, see http://www.cisco.com/
en/US/products/ps12239/tsd_products_support_series_home.html.
• An industry-standard SNMP V1, V2c, and V3 interface can be used with any SNMP-compliant third-party
network management system.
The Cisco Wireless solution supports client data services, client monitoring and control, and all rogue access
point detection, monitoring, and containment functions. It uses lightweight access points, Cisco wireless LAN
controllers, and the optional Cisco Prime Infrastructure to provide wireless services to enterprises and service
providers.
Note
Unless otherwise noted in this publication, all of the Cisco wireless LAN controllers are referred to as
controllers, and all of the Cisco lightweight access points are referred to as access points.
Single-Controller Deployments
A standalone controller can support lightweight access points across multiple floors and buildings
simultaneously and support the following features:
• Autodetecting and autoconfiguring lightweight access points as they are added to the network.
• Full control of lightweight access points.
• Lightweight access points connect to controllers through the network. The network equipment may or
may not provide Power over Ethernet (PoE) to the access points.
Some controllers use redundant Gigabit Ethernet connections to bypass single network failures.
Note
Some controllers can connect through multiple physical ports to multiple subnets in the network. This
feature can be helpful when you want to confine multiple VLANs to separate subnets.
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This figure shows a typical single-controller deployment.
Figure 1: Single-Controller Deployment
Multiple-Controller Deployments
Each controller can support lightweight access points across multiple floors and buildings simultaneously.
However, full functionality of the Cisco wireless LAN solution occurs when it includes multiple controllers.
A multiple-controller system has the following additional features:
• Autodetecting and autoconfiguring RF parameters as the controllers are added to the network.
• Same-subnet (Layer 2) roaming and inter-subnet (Layer 3) roaming.
• Automatic access point failover to any redundant controller with a reduced access point load.
The following figure shows a typical multiple-controller deployment. The figure also shows an optional
dedicated management network and the three physical connection types between the network and the controllers.
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Operating System Software
Figure 2: Typical Multiple-Controller Deployment
Operating System Software
The operating system software controls controllers and lightweight access points. It includes full operating
system security and radio resource management (RRM) features.
Operating System Security
Operating system security bundles Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3 security components into a simple, Cisco
WLAN solution-wide policy manager that creates independent security policies for each of up to 16 wireless
LANs.
The 802.11 Static WEP weaknesses can be overcome using the following robust industry-standard security
solutions:
• 802.1X dynamic keys with extensible authentication protocol (EAP).
• Wi-Fi protected access (WPA) dynamic keys. The Cisco WLAN solution WPA implementation includes:
◦Temporal key integrity protocol (TKIP) and message integrity code checksum dynamic keys
◦WEP keys, with or without a preshared key passphrase
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Layer 2 and Layer 3 Operation
• RSN with or without a preshared key
• Optional MAC filtering
The WEP problem can be further solved using the following industry-standard Layer 3 security solutions:
• Passthrough VPNs
• Local and RADIUS MAC address filtering
• Local and RADIUS user/password authentication
• Manual and automated disabling to block access to network services. In manual disabling, you block
access using client MAC addresses. In automated disabling, which is always active, the operating system
software automatically blocks access to network services for a user-defined period of time when a client
fails to authenticate for a fixed number of consecutive attempts. This feature can be used to deter
brute-force login attacks.
These and other security features use industry-standard authorization and authentication methods to ensure
the highest possible security for your business-critical wireless LAN traffic.
Layer 2 and Layer 3 Operation
Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) communications between the controller and lightweight access
points can be conducted at Layer 2 or Layer 3. Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points protocol
(CAPWAP) communications between the controller and lightweight access points are conducted at Layer 3.
Layer 2 mode does not support CAPWAP.
Note
The IPv4 network layer protocol is supported for transport through a CAPWAP or LWAPP controller
system. IPv6 (for clients only) and AppleTalk are also supported but only on Cisco 5500 Series Controllers
and the Cisco WiSM2. Other Layer 3 protocols (such as IPX, DECnet Phase IV, OSI CLNP, and so on)
and Layer 2 (bridged) protocols (such as LAT and NetBeui) are not supported.
Operational Requirements
The requirement for Layer 3 LWAPP communications is that the controller and lightweight access points can
be connected through Layer 2 devices on the same subnet or connected through Layer 3 devices across subnets.
Another requirement is that the IP addresses of access points should be either statically assigned or dynamically
assigned through an external DHCP server.
The requirement for Layer 3 CAPWAP communications is that the controller and lightweight access points
can be connected through Layer 2 devices on the same subnet or connected through Layer 3 devices across
subnets.
Configuration Requirements
When you are operating the Cisco wireless LAN solution in Layer 2 mode, you must configure a management
interface to control your Layer 2 communications.
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Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers
When you are operating the Cisco wireless LAN solution in Layer 3 mode, you must configure an AP-manager
interface to control lightweight access points and a management interface as configured for Layer 2 mode.
Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers
When you are adding lightweight access points to a multiple-controller deployment network, it is convenient
to have all lightweight access points associate with one master controller on the same subnet. That way, the
you do not have to log into multiple controllers to find out which controller newly-added lightweight access
points associated with.
One controller in each subnet can be assigned as the master controller while adding lightweight access points.
As long as a master controller is active on the same subnet, all new access points without a primary, secondary,
and tertiary controller assigned automatically attempt to associate with the master controller. This process is
described in Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Failover Protection, on page 12.
You can monitor the master controller using the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Web User Interface and watch as
access points associate with the master controller. You can then verify the access point configuration and
assign a primary, secondary, and tertiary controller to the access point, and reboot the access point so it
reassociates with its primary, secondary, or tertiary controller.
Note
Lightweight access points without a primary, secondary, and tertiary controller assigned always search
for a master controller first upon reboot. After adding lightweight access points through the master
controller, you should assign primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers to each access point. We
recommend that you disable the master setting on all controllers after initial configuration.
Client Location
When you use Cisco Prime Infrastructure in your Cisco wireless LAN solution, controllers periodically
determine the client, rogue access point, rogue access point client, radio frequency ID (RFID) tag location
and store the locations in the Cisco Prime Infrastructure database.
Controller Platforms
Controllers are enterprise-class high-performance wireless switching platforms that support 802.11a/n and
802.11b/g/n protocols. They operate under control of the operating system, which includes the radio resource
management (RRM), creating a Cisco UWN solution that can automatically adjust to real-time changes in
the 802.11 RF environment. Controllers are built around high-performance network and security hardware,
resulting in highly reliable 802.11 enterprise networks with unparalleled security.
The following controllers are supported:
Cisco 2500 Series Controllers
The Cisco 2500 Series Wireless Controller works in conjunction with Cisco lightweight access points and
the Cisco Prime Infrastructure to provide system-wide wireless LAN functions. The Cisco 2500 Series
controller provides real-time communication between a wireless access points and other devices to deliver
centralized security policies, guest access, wireless intrusion prevention system (wIPS), context-aware
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(location), RF management, quality of services for mobility services such as voice and video, and OEAP
support for the teleworker solution.
For more information about Cisco 2500 series controllers, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11630/
index.html.
Cisco 5500 Series Controller
The Cisco 5500 Series Wireless LAN Controller is currently available in one model: 5508. The Cisco 5500
Series Wireless Controller is a highly scalable and flexible platform that enables systemwide services for
mission-critical wireless networking in medium-sized to large enterprises and campus environments.
The Cisco 5500 Series Controller can be equipped with one or two power supplies. When the controller is
equipped with two power supplies, the power supplies are redundant, and either power supply can continue
to power the controller if the other power supply fails.
For more information about the Cisco 5500 Series Controller, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/
ps10315/tsd_products_support_series_home.html.
Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controllers
The Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller enables you to deploy full featured, scalable, and secure FlexConnect
network services across geographic locations. Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller virtualizes the complex
security, management, configuration and troubleshooting operations within the data center and then transparently
extends those services to each store. Deployments using Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller are easier for IT
to set up, manage and scale.
The Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller is designed to meet the scaling requirements to deploy the FlexConnect
solution in branch networks. Cisco Wireless supports two major deployment models: FlexConnect and monitor
mode. FlexConnect is designed to support wireless branch networks by allowing the data to be switched
locally while the access points are being controlled and managed by a centralized controller. It aims at delivering
a cost effective FlexConnect solution on a large scale.
Restrictions
For a FlexConnect only deployment, the following restrictions apply:
• Multicast-unicast is the only available default mode.
• Global multicast and IGMP snooping are not supported.
• IPv6 and Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) are supported but not multicast data.
For more information about the Cisco Flex 7500 series controllers, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/
ps11635/tsd_products_support_series_home.html.
Cisco 8500 Series Controllers
Cisco 8500 Series Controllers were introduced in the 7.3 release with support for local mode, FlexConnect,
and mesh modes. The Cisco 8500 Series Controller is a highly scalable and flexible platform that enables
mission-critical wireless networking in large-scale service provider and large-campus deployments.
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Controller Platforms
Note
The DC powered 8510 controller is not available with any of the country-specific power cords. Therefore,
we recommend that you use a 12 gauge wire and connect to the DC power supply.
Restrictions
• Local mode only deployment—Multicast-multicast is the default mode.
• Local and FlexConnect mode deployment:
• If you require IPv6 on FlexConnect mode APs, disable global multicast and change to
multicast-unicast mode. IPv6 and Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) works, but
multicast data and video streaming are not supported across the controller.
• If you do not require IPv6 and GARP on FlexConnect APs, change the mode to multicast-multicast
and enable global multicast and IGMP/MLD snooping. IPv6, GARP, multicast data, and
VideoStream are supported on FlexConnect APs.
For more information about the Cisco 8500 series controllers, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/
ps12722/tsd_products_support_series_home.html.
Cisco Virtual Wireless LAN Controllers
The virtual wireless LAN controller is software that can run on hardware that is compliant with an industry
standard virtualization infrastructure. Virtual Wireless LAN controllers provide flexibility for users to select
the hardware based on their requirement.
Note
When you take a snapshot of the virtual wireless LAN controller, the VMware suspends activities for
about 15 seconds. During this time, the APs are disconnected from the virtual wireless LAN controller.
For more information about the Cisco Virtual Wireless LAN controllers, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/
products/ps12723/tsd_products_support_series_home.html.
Cisco Wireless Services Module 2
The Cisco Wireless Services Module 2 (WiSM2) provides medium-sized to large single-site WLAN
deployments with exceptional performance, security, and scalability to support mission-critical wireless
business communications. It helps to lower hardware costs and offers flexible configuration options that can
reduce the total cost of operations and ownership for wireless networks.
For more information about Cisco WiSM2, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11634/index.html.
Cisco Wireless Controller on Cisco Services-Ready Engine (SRE)
The Cisco wireless controller application on the Cisco Services-Ready Engine (SRE) enables systemwide
wireless functions in small to medium-sized enterprises and branch offices. Delivering 802.11n performance
and scalability, the Cisco wireless controller on the SRE is an entry-level controller that provides low total
cost of ownership and investment protection by integrating seamlessly with the existing network. The Cisco
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SRE modules are router blades for the Cisco Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 (ISR G2), which allows
you to provision the Cisco Wireless Controller applications on the module remotely at any time. This can
help your organization to quickly deploy wireless on-demand, reduce operating costs, and consolidate the
branch office infrastructure.
This controller provides real-time communication between Cisco Aironet access points, the Cisco Prime
Infrastructure, and the Cisco Mobility Services Engine (MSE) to deliver centralized security policies, wireless
intrusion prevention system (wIPS) capabilities, award-winning RF management, context-aware capabilities
for location tracking, and quality of service (QoS) for voice and video.
For more information about Cisco wireless controller application on the Cisco Services-Ready Engine (SRE),
see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11716/index.html.
Cisco UWN Solution WLANs
The Cisco UWN solution can control up to 512 WLANs for lightweight access points. Each WLAN has a
separate WLAN ID (1 through 512), a separate profile name, and a WLAN SSID and can be assigned with
unique security policies. The lightweight access points broadcast all active Cisco UWN solution WLAN SSIDs
and enforce the policies defined for each WLAN.
Note
We recommend that you assign one set of VLANs for WLANs and a different set of VLANs for
management interfaces to ensure that controllers operate with optimum performance and ease of
management.
If management over wireless is enabled across the Cisco UWN solution, you can manage the system across
the enabled WLAN using CLI and Telnet, HTTP/HTTPS, and SNMP.
File Transfers
You can upload and download operating system code, configuration, and certificate files to and from the
controller using the GUI, CLI, or Cisco Prime Infrastructure.
Power over Ethernet
Lightweight access points can receive power through their Ethernet cables from 802.3af-compatible Power
over Ethernet (PoE) devices, which can reduce the cost of discrete power supplies, additional wiring, conduits,
outlets, and installation time. PoE frees you from having to mount lightweight access points or other powered
equipment near AC outlets, which provides greater flexibility in positioning the access points for maximum
coverage.
When you are using PoE, you run a single CAT-5 cable from each lightweight access point to PoE-equipped
network elements, such as a PoE power hub or a Cisco WLAN solution single-line PoE injector. When the
PoE equipment determines that the lightweight access point is PoE-enabled, it sends 48 VDC over the unused
pairs in the Ethernet cable to power the access point.
The PoE cable length is limited by the 100BASE-T or 10BASE-T specification to 100 m or 200 m, respectively.
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Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Memory
Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Memory
The controller contains two kinds of memory: volatile RAM, which holds the current, active controller
configuration, and NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM), which holds the reboot configuration. When you are
configuring the operating system in the controller, you are modifying volatile RAM; you must save the
configuration from the volatile RAM to the NVRAM to ensure that the controller reboots in the current
configuration.
Knowing which memory you are modifying is important when you are doing the following tasks:
• Using the configuration wizard
• Clearing the controller configuration
• Saving configurations
• Resetting the controller
• Logging out of the CLI
Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Failover Protection
During installation, we recommend that you connect all lightweight access points to a dedicated controller,
and configure each lightweight access point for final operation. This step configures each lightweight access
point for a primary, secondary, and tertiary controller and allows it to store the configured mobility group
information.
During the failover recovery, the following tasks are performed:
• The configured access point attempts to contact the primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers, and
then attempts to contact the IP addresses of the other controllers in the mobility group.
• DNS is resolved with the controller IP address.
• DHCP servers get the controller IP addresses (vendor-specific option 43 in DHCP offer).
In multiple-controller deployments, if one controller fails, the access points perform the following tasks:
• If the lightweight access point has a primary, secondary, and tertiary controller assigned, it attempts to
associate with that controller.
• If the access point has no primary, secondary, or tertiary controllers assigned or if its primary, secondary,
or tertiary controllers are unavailable, it attempts to associate with a master controller.
• If the access point finds no master controller, it attempts to contact stored mobility group members by
the IP address.
• If the mobility group members are available, and if the lightweight access point has no primary, secondary,
and tertiary controllers assigned and there is no master controller active, it attempts to associate with
the least-loaded controller to respond to its discovery messages.
When controllers are deployed, if one controller fails, active access point client sessions are momentarily
dropped while the dropped access point associates with another controller, allowing the client device to
immediately reassociate and reauthenticate.
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Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Failover Protection
To know more about high availability, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6366/products_tech_
note09186a00809a3f5d.shtml
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CHAPTER
2
Getting Started
• Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard, page 15
• Connecting the Console Port of the Controller, page 16
• Configuring the Controller (GUI), page 16
• Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard, page 27
• Using the Controller Web GUI, page 29
• Loading an Externally Generated SSL Certificate, page 33
• Information About Externally Generated SSL Certificates, page 33
• Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI), page 34
• Loading an SSL Certificate (CLI), page 35
• Using the Controller CLI, page 36
• Logging on to the Controller CLI, page 36
• Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration, page 39
• Information About the AutoInstall Feature, page 39
• Guidelines and Limitations, page 40
• Managing the Controller System Date and Time, page 43
• Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions, page 48
• Managing the Controller Wirelessly, page 52
Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard
The configuration wizard enables you to configure basic settings on the controller. You can run the wizard
after you receive the controller from the factory or after the controller has been reset to factory defaults. The
configuration wizard is available in both GUI and CLI formats.
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Connecting the Console Port of the Controller
Connecting the Console Port of the Controller
Before you can configure the controller for basic operations, you need to connect it to a PC that uses a VT-100
terminal emulation program (such as HyperTerminal, ProComm, Minicom, or Tip).
Note
On Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, you can use either the RJ-45 console port or the USB console port. If
you use the USB console port, plug the 5-pin mini Type B connector into the controller’s USB console
port and the other end of the cable into the PC’s USB Type A port. The first time that you connect a
Windows PC to the USB console port, you are prompted to install the USB console driver. Follow the
installation prompts to install the driver. The USB console driver maps to a COM port on your PC; you
then need to map the terminal emulator application to the COM port.
Step 1
Connect one end of a null-modem serial cable to the controller’s console port and the other end to your PC’s serial port.
Step 2
Start the PC’s VT-100 terminal emulation program.
Configure the terminal emulation program for these parameters:
Step 3
• 9600 baud
• 8 data bits
• 1 stop bit
• No parity
• No hardware flow control
Step 4
Plug the AC power cord into the controller and a grounded 100 to 240 VAC, 50/60-Hz electrical outlet.Turn on the
power supply. The bootup script displays operating system software initialization (code download and power-on self
test verification) and basic configuration.
If the controller passes the power-on self test, the bootup script runs the configuration wizard, which prompts you for
basic configuration input.
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Connect your PC to the service port and configure it to use the same subnet as the controller.
Start Internet Explorer 6.0 SP1 (or later) or Firefox 2.0.0.11 (or later) on your PC and browse to http://192.168.1.1. The
configuration wizard appears.
Note
You can use both HTTP and HTTPS when using the service port interface. HTTPS is enabled by default and
HTTP can also be enabled. The default IP address to connect to the service port interface is 192.168.1.1.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Figure 3: Configuration Wizard — System Information Screen
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
In the System Name text box, enter the name that you want to assign to this controller. You can enter up to 31 ASCII
characters.
In the User Name text box, enter the administrative username to be assigned to this controller. You can enter up to 24
ASCII characters. The default username is admin.
In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter the administrative password to be assigned to this controller.
You can enter up to 24 ASCII characters. The default password is admin.
Starting in release 7.0.116.0, the following password policy has been implemented:
• The password must contain characters from at least three of the following classes:
◦Lowercase letters
◦Uppercase letters
◦Digits
◦Special characters
• No character in the password must be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The new password must not be the same as the associated username and not be the username reversed.
• The password must not be cisco, ocsic, or any variant obtained by changing the capitalization of letters of the word
Cisco. In addition, you cannot substitute 1, I, or ! for i, 0 for o, or $ for s.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Step 6
Click Next. The SNMP Summary screen appears.
Figure 4: Configuration Wizard — SNMP Summary Screen
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
If you want to enable Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) v1 mode for this controller, choose Enable from
the SNMP v1 Mode drop-down list. Otherwise, leave this parameter set to Disable.
Note
SNMP manages nodes (servers, workstations, routers, switches, and so on) on an IP network. Currently, there
are three versions of SNMP: SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3.
If you want to enable SNMPv2c mode for this controller, leave this parameter set to Enable. Otherwise, choose Disable
from the SNVP v2c Mode drop-down list.
If you want to enable SNMPv3 mode for this controller, leave this parameter set to Enable. Otherwise, choose Disable
from the SNVP v3 Mode drop-down list.
Click Next.
When the following message appears, click OK:
Default values are present for v1/v2c community strings.
Please make sure to create new v1/v2c community strings once the system comes up.
Please make sure to create new v3 users once the system comes up.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
The Service Interface Configuration screen appears.
Figure 5: Configuration Wizard — Service Interface Configuration Screen
Step 12
Step 13
If you want the controller’s service-port interface to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server, select the DHCP Protocol
Enabled check box. If you do not want to use the service port or if you want to assign a static IP address to the service
port, leave the check box unselected.
Note
The service-port interface controls communications through the service port. Its IP address must be on a different
subnet from the management interface. This configuration enables you to manage the controller directly or
through a dedicated management network to ensure service access during network downtime.
Perform one of the following:
• If you enabled DHCP, clear out any entries in the IP Address and Netmask text boxes, leaving them blank.
• If you disabled DHCP, enter the static IP address and netmask for the service port in the IP Address and Netmask
text boxes.
Step 14
Click Next.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
The LAG Configuration screen appears.
Figure 6: Configuration Wizard — LAG Configuration Screen
Step 15
Step 16
To enable link aggregation (LAG), choose Enabled from the Link Aggregation (LAG) Mode drop-down list. To disable
LAG, leave this text box set to Disabled.
Click Next
The Management Interface Configuration screen appears.
Figure 7: Configuration Wizard — Management Interface Configuration Screen
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
The management interface is the default interface for in-band management of the controller and connectivity
to enterprise services such as AAA servers.
In the VLAN Identifier text box, enter the VLAN identifier of the management interface (either a valid VLAN identifier
or 0 for an untagged VLAN). The VLAN identifier should be set to match the switch interface configuration.
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the management interface.
In the Netmask text box, enter the IP address of the management interface netmask.
In the Gateway text box, enter the IP address of the default gateway.
In the Port Number text box, enter the number of the port assigned to the management interface. Each interface is mapped
to at least one primary port.
In the Backup Port text box, enter the number of the backup port assigned to the management interface. If the primary
port for the management interface fails, the interface automatically moves to the backup port.
In the Primary DHCP Server text box, enter the IP address of the default DHCP server that will supply IP addresses to
clients, the controller’s management interface, and optionally, the service port interface.
In the Secondary DHCP Server text box, enter the IP address of an optional secondary DHCP server that will supply IP
addresses to clients, the controller’s management interface, and optionally, the service port interface.
Click Next. The AP-Manager Interface Configuration screen appears.
Note
This screen does not appear for Cisco 5500 Series Controllers because you are not required to configure an
AP-manager interface. The management interface acts like an AP-manager interface by default.
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the AP-manager interface.
Click Next. The Miscellaneous Configuration screen appears.
Note
Step 17
Step 18
Step 19
Step 20
Step 21
Step 22
Step 23
Step 24
Step 25
Step 26
Step 27
Figure 8: Configuration Wizard — Miscellaneous Configuration Screen
Step 28
In the RF Mobility Domain Name text box, enter the name of the mobility group/RF group to which you want the
controller to belong.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Although the name that you enter here is assigned to both the mobility group and the RF group, these groups
are not identical. Both groups define clusters of controllers, but they have different purposes. All of the controllers
in an RF group are usually also in the same mobility group and vice versa. However, a mobility group facilitates
scalable, system-wide mobility and controller redundancy while an RF group facilitates scalable, system-wide
dynamic RF management.
The Configured Country Code(s) text box shows the code for the country in which the controller will be used. If you
want to change the country of operation, select the check box for the desired country.
Note
You can choose more than one country code if you want to manage access points in multiple countries from a
single controller. After the configuration wizard runs, you must assign each access point joined to the controller
to a specific country.
Click Next.
When the following message appears, click OK:
Note
Step 29
Step 30
Step 31
Warning! To maintain regulatory compliance functionality, the country code
setting may only be modified by a network administrator or qualified IT professional.
Ensure that proper country codes are selected before proceeding.?
The Virtual Interface Configuration screen appears.
Figure 9: Configuration Wizard — Virtual Interface Configuration Screen
Step 32
Step 33
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the controller’s virtual interface. You should enter a fictitious, unassigned
IP address.
Note
The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, DHCP relay, and embedded Layer 3 security
such as guest web authentication and VPN termination. All controllers within a mobility group must be configured
with the same virtual interface IP address.
In the DNS Host Name text box, enter the name of the Domain Name System (DNS) gateway used to verify the source
of certificates when Layer 3 web authorization is enabled.
Note
To ensure connectivity and web authentication, the DNS server should always point to the virtual interface. If
a DNS hostname is configured for the virtual interface, then the same DNS hostname must be configured on
the DNS servers used by the client.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Step 34
Click Next. The WLAN Configuration screen appears.
Figure 10: Configuration Wizard — WLAN Configuration Screen
Step 35
Step 36
Step 37
Step 38
In the Profile Name text box, enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the profile name to be assigned to this WLAN.
In the WLAN SSID text box, enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the network name, or service set identifier
(SSID). The SSID enables basic functionality of the controller and allows access points that have joined the controller
to enable their radios.
Click Next.
When the following message appears, click OK:
Default Security applied to WLAN is: [WPA2(AES)][Auth(802.1x)]. You can change
this after the wizard is complete and the system is rebooted.?
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
The RADIUS Server Configuration screen is displayed.
Figure 11: Configuration Wizard — RADIUS Server Configuration Screen
Step 39
Step 40
In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the RADIUS server.
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared secret.
Note
Due to security reasons, the RADIUS shared secret key reverts to ASCII mode even if you have selected HEX
as the shared secret format from the Shared Secret Format drop-down list.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Step 41
Step 42
Step 43
Step 44
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret text boxes, enter the secret key used by the RADIUS server.
In the Port Number text box, enter the communication port of the RADIUS server. The default value is 1812.
To enable the RADIUS server, choose Enabled from the Server Status drop-down list. To disable the RADIUS server,
leave this text box set to Disabled.
Click Apply. The 802.11 Configuration screen appears.
Figure 12: Configuration Wizard — 802.11 Configuration Screen
Step 45
To enable the 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g lightweight access point networks, leave the 802.11a Network Status,
802.11b Network Status, and 802.11g Network Status check boxes selected. To disable support for any of these
networks, unselect the check boxes.
Step 46
To enable the controller’s radio resource management (RRM) auto-RF feature, leave the Auto RF check box selected.
To disable support for the auto-RF feature, unselect this check box.
Note
The auto-RF feature enables the controller to automatically form an RF group with other controllers. The group
dynamically elects a leader to optimize RRM parameter settings, such as channel and transmit power assignment,
for the group.
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Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Step 47
Click Next. The Set Time screen appears.
Figure 13: Configuration Wizard — Set Time Screen
Step 48
Step 49
To manually configure the system time on your controller, enter the current date in Month/DD/YYYY format and the
current time in HH:MM:SS format.
To manually set the time zone so that Daylight Saving Time (DST) is not set automatically, enter the local hour difference
from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in the Delta Hours text box and the local minute difference from GMT in the Delta
Mins text box.
Note
When manually setting the time zone, enter the time difference of the local current time zone with respect to
GMT (+/–). For example, Pacific time in the United States is 8 hours behind GMT. Therefore, it is entered as
–8.
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Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
Step 50
Click Next. The Configuration Wizard Completed screen appears.
Figure 14: Configuration Wizard — Configuration Wizard Completed Screen
Step 51
Step 52
Click Save and Reboot to save your configuration and reboot the controller.
When the following message appears, click OK:
Configuration will be saved and the controller will be
rebooted. Click ok to confirm.?
The controller saves your configuration, reboots, and prompts you to log on.
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
Before You Begin
• The available options appear in brackets after each configuration parameter. The default value appears
in all uppercase letters.
• If you enter an incorrect response, the controller provides you with an appropriate error message, such
as “Invalid Response,” and returns you to the wizard prompt.
• Press the hyphen key if you ever need to return to the previous command line.
Step 1
When prompted to terminate the AutoInstall process, enter yes. If you do not enter yes, the AutoInstall process begins
after 30 seconds.
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Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
The AutoInstall feature downloads a configuration file from a TFTP server and then loads the configuration
onto the controller automatically.
Enter the system name, which is the name that you want to assign to the controller. You can enter up to 31 ASCII
characters.
Enter the administrative username and password to be assigned to this controller. You can enter up to 24 ASCII characters
for each.
Starting in release 7.0.116.0, the following password policy has been implemented:
Note
Step 2
Step 3
• The password must contain characters from at least three of the following classes:
• Lowercase letters
• Uppercase letters
• Digits
• Special characters
• No character in the password must be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The new password must not be the same as the associated username and not be the username reversed.
• The password must not be cisco, ocsic, or any variant obtained by changing the capitalization of letters of the word
Cisco. In addition, you cannot substitute 1, I, or ! for i, 0 for o, or $ for s.
Step 4
If you want the controller’s service-port interface to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server, enter DHCP. If you do
not want to use the service port or if you want to assign a static IP address to the service port, enter none.
Note
The service-port interface controls communications through the service port. Its IP address must be on a different
subnet from the management interface. This configuration enables you to manage the controller directly or
through a dedicated management network to ensure service access during network downtime.
Step 5
If you entered none in Step 4, enter the IP address and netmask for the service-port interface on the next two lines.
Enable or disable link aggregation (LAG) by choosing yes or NO.
Enter the IP address of the management interface.
Note
The management interface is the default interface for in-band management of the controller and connectivity
to enterprise services such as AAA servers.
Enter the IP address of the management interface netmask.
Enter the IP address of the default router.
Enter the VLAN identifier of the management interface (either a valid VLAN identifier or 0 for an untagged VLAN).
The VLAN identifier should be set to match the switch interface configuration.
Enter the IP address of the default DHCP server that will supply IP addresses to clients, the management interface of
the controller, and optionally, the service port interface. Enter the IP address of the AP-manager interface.
Note
This prompt does not appear for Cisco 5500 Series Controllers because you are not required to configure an
AP-manager interface. The management interface acts like an AP-manager interface by default.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Enter the IP address of the controller’s virtual interface. You should enter a fictitious unassigned IP address.
Note
The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, DHCP relay, and embedded Layer 3 security
such as guest web authentication and VPN termination. All controllers within a mobility group must be configured
with the same virtual interface IP address.
If desired, enter the name of the mobility group/RF group to which you want the controller to belong.
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Using the Controller Web GUI
Although the name that you enter here is assigned to both the mobility group and the RF group, these groups
are not identical. Both groups define clusters of controllers, but they have different purposes. All of the controllers
in an RF group are usually also in the same mobility group and vice versa. However, a mobility group facilitates
scalable, system-wide mobility and controller redundancy while an RF group facilitates scalable, system-wide
dynamic RF management.
Enter the network name or service set identifier (SSID). The SSID enables basic functionality of the controller and allows
access points that have joined the controller to enable their radios.
Enter YES to allow clients to assign their own IP address or no to require clients to request an IP address from a DHCP
server.
To configure a RADIUS server now, enter YES and then enter the IP address, communication port, and secret key of
the RADIUS server. Otherwise, enter no. If you enter no, the following message appears: “Warning! The default WLAN
security policy requires a RADIUS server. Please see the documentation for more details.”
Enter the code for the country in which the controller will be used.
Note
Enter help to view the list of available country
codes.
Note
You can enter more than one country code if you want to manage access points in multiple countries from a
single controller. To do so, separate the country codes with a comma (for example, US,CA,MX). After the
configuration wizard runs, you need to assign each access point joined to the controller to a specific country.
Enable or disable the 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g lightweight access point networks by entering YES or no.
Note
Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
Step 17
Step 18
Step 19
Step 20
Enable or disable the controller’s radio resource management (RRM) auto-RF feature by entering YES or no.
Note
The auto-RF feature enables the controller to automatically form an RF group with other controllers. The group
dynamically elects a leader to optimize RRM parameter settings, such as channel and transmit power assignment,
for the group.
If you want the controller to receive its time setting from an external Network Time Protocol (NTP) server when it powers
up, enter YES to configure an NTP server. Otherwise, enter no.
Note
The controller network module installed in a Cisco Integrated Services Router does not have a battery and cannot
save a time setting. Therefore, it must receive a time setting from an external NTP server when it powers up.
Step 21
If you entered no in Step 20 and want to manually configure the system time on your controller now, enter YES. If you
do not want to configure the system time now, enter no.
Step 22
If you entered YES in Step 21, enter the current date in the MM/DD/YY format and the current time in the HH:MM:SS
format.
When prompted to verify that the configuration is correct, enter yes or NO.
The controller saves your configuration when you enter yes, reboots, and prompts you to log on.
Step 23
Using the Controller Web GUI
A web browser, or graphical user interface (GUI), is built into each controller.
It allows up to five users to simultaneously browse into the controller HTTP or HTTPS (HTTP + SSL)
management pages to configure parameters and monitor the operational status for the controller and its
associated access points.
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Using the Controller Web GUI
Note
We recommend that you enable the HTTPS interface and disable the HTTP interface to ensure more robust
security for your Cisco UWN solution.
Guidelines and Limitations
Follow these guidelines when using the controller GUI:
• The GUI must be used on a PC running Windows 7, Windows XP SP1 (or later releases), or Windows
2000 SP4 (or later releases).
• The controller GUI is compatible with Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6.0 SP1 (or later versions)
or Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.11 (or later versions).
Note
Opera and Netscape are not supported.
• You can use either the service port interface or the management interface to access the GUI. We
recommend that you use the service-port interface.
• You can use both HTTP and HTTPS when using the service port interface. HTTPS is enabled by default
and HTTP can also be enabled. The default IP address to connect to the service port interface is
192.168.1.1.
• Click Help at the top of any page in the GUI to display online help. You might need to disable your
browser’s pop-up blocker to view the online help.
Logging On to the Web GUI
Step 1
Enter the controller IP address in your browser’s address bar. For a secure connection, enter https://ip-address. For a
less secure connection, enter http://ip-address.
Step 2
When prompted, enter a valid username and password, and click OK.
The Summary page is displayed.
Note
The administrative username and password that you created in the configuration wizard are case sensitive. The
default username is admin, and the default password is admin.
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Logging out of the GUI
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Click Logout in the top right corner of the page.
Click Close to complete the log out process and prevent unauthorized users from accessing the controllercontroller GUI.
When prompted to confirm your decision, click Yes.
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes
This section provides instructions to enable the distribution system port as a web port (using HTTP) or as a
secure web port (using HTTPS). You can protect communication with the GUI by enabling HTTPS. HTTPS
protects HTTP browser sessions by using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. When you enable HTTPS,
the controller generates its own local web administration SSL certificate and automatically applies it to the
GUI. You also have the option of downloading an externally generated certificate.
You can configure web and secure web mode using the controller GUI or CLI.
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > HTTP-HTTPS.
The HTTP-HTTPS Configuration page is displayed.
Step 2
To enable web mode, which allows users to access the controller GUI using “http://ip-address,” choose Enabled from
the HTTP Access drop-down list. Otherwise, choose Disabled. The default value is Disabled. Web mode is not a secure
connection.
Step 3
To enable secure web mode, which allows users to access the controller GUI using “https://ip-address,” choose Enabled
from the HTTPS Access drop-down list. Otherwise, choose Disabled. The default value is Enabled. Secure web mode
is a secure connection.
In the Web Session Timeout text box, enter the amount of time, in minutes, before the web session times out due to
inactivity. You can enter a value between 10 and 160 minutes (inclusive). The default value is 30 minutes.
Click Apply.
If you enabled secure web mode in Step 3, the controller generates a local web administration SSL certificate and
automatically applies it to the GUI. The details of the current certificate appear in the middle of the HTTP-HTTPS
Configuration page.
Note
If desired, you can delete the current certificate by clicking Delete Certificate and have the controller generate
a new certificate by clicking Regenerate Certificate.
Click Save Configuration.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
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Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable web mode by entering this command:
config network webmode {enable | disable}
This command allows users to access the controller GUI using "http://ip-address." The default value is disabled. Web
mode is not a secure connection.
Step 2
Enable or disable secure web mode by entering this command:
config network secureweb {enable | disable}
This command allows users to access the controller GUI using “https://ip-address.” The default value is enabled. Secure
web mode is a secure connection.
Step 3
Enable or disable secure web mode with increased security by entering this command:
config network secureweb cipher-option high {enable | disable}
This command allows users to access the controller GUI using “https://ip-address” but only from browsers that support
128-bit (or larger) ciphers. The default value is disabled.
Step 4
Enable or disable SSLv2 for web administration by entering this command:
config network secureweb cipher-option sslv2 {enable | disable}
If you disable SSLv2, users cannot connect using a browser configured with SSLv2 only. They must use a browser that
is configured to use a more secure protocol such as SSLv3 or later. The default value is disabled.
Step 5
Enable or disable preference for RC4-SHA (Rivest Cipher 4-Secure Hash Algorithm) cipher suites (over CBC cipher
suites) for web authentication and web administration by entering this command:
config network secureweb cipher-option rc4-preference {enable | disable}
Step 6
Verify that the controller has generated a certificate by entering this command:
show certificate summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Web Administration Certificate................. Locally Generated
Web Authentication Certificate................. Locally Generated
Certificate compatibility mode:................ off
Step 7
(Optional) Generate a new certificate by entering this command:
config certificate generate webadmin
After a few seconds, the controller verifies that the certificate has been generated.
Step 8
Save the SSL certificate, key, and secure web password to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) so that your changes are retained
across reboots by entering this command:
save config
Step 9
Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
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Loading an Externally Generated SSL Certificate
Loading an Externally Generated SSL Certificate
This section describes how to load an externally generated SSL certificate.
Information About Externally Generated SSL Certificates
You can use a TFTP server to download an externally generated SSL certificate to the controller. Follow these
guidelines for using TFTP:
• If you load the certificate through the service port, the TFTP server must be on the same subnet as the
controller because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.
Also, if you load the certificate through the distribution system network port, the TFTP server can be
on any subnet.
• A third-party TFTP server cannot run on the same PC as the Cisco Prime Infrastructure because the
Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP server and the third-party TFTP server require the same communication
port.
Note
Chained certificates are supported for web authentication only and not for the
management certificate.
Note
Every HTTPS certificate contains an embedded RSA key. The length of the key can
vary from 512 bits, which is relatively insecure, to thousands of bits, which is very
secure. When you obtain a new certificate from a Certificate Authority, make sure that
the RSA key embedded in the certificate is at least 768 bits long.
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Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI)
Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI)
Step 1
On the HTTP Configuration page, select the Download SSL Certificate check box.
Figure 15: HTTP Configuration Page
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.
In the Maximum Retries text box, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the
certificate.
In the Timeout text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate.
In the Certificate File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
In the Certificate File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate (webadmincert_name.pem).
(Optional) In the Certificate Password text box, enter a password to encrypt the certificate.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot > Save and Reboot to reboot the controller for your changes to take effect,
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Loading an SSL Certificate (CLI)
Step 1
Use a password to encrypt the HTTPS certificate in a .PEM-encoded file. The PEM-encoded file is called a web
administration certificate file (webadmincert_name.pem).
Step 2
Move the webadmincert_name.pem file to the default directory on your TFTP server.
Step 3
To view the current download settings, enter this command and answer n to the prompt:
transfer download start
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode...........................................
Data Type......................................
TFTP Server IP.................................
TFTP Path......................................
TFTP Filename..................................
Are you sure you want to start? (y/n) n
Transfer Canceled
Step 4
TFTP
Admin Cert
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
<directory path>
Use these commands to change the download settings:
transfer download mode tftp
transfer download datatype webauthcert
transfer download serverip TFTP_server IP_address
transfer download path absolute_TFTP_server_path_to_the_update_file
transfer download filename webadmincert_name.pem
Step 5
To set the password for the .PEM file so that the operating system can decrypt the web administration SSL key and
certificate, enter this command:
transfer download certpassword private_key_password
Step 6
To confirm the current download settings and start the certificate and key download, enter this command and answer y
to the prompt:
transfer download start
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode...........................................
Data Type......................................
TFTP Server IP.................................
TFTP Path......................................
TFTP Filename..................................
Are you sure you want to start? (y/n) y
TFTP Webadmin cert transfer starting.
Certificate installed.
Please restart the switch (reset system) to use
Step 7
TFTP
Site Cert
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
directory path
webadmincert_name
the new certificate.
To save the SSL certificate, key, and secure web password to NVRAM so that your changes are retained across reboots,
enter this command:
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Using the Controller CLI
save config
Step 8
To reboot the controller, enter this command:
reset system
Using the Controller CLI
A Cisco UWN solution command-line interface (CLI) is built into each controller. The CLI enables you to
use a VT-100 terminal emulation program to locally or remotely configure, monitor, and control individual
controllers and its associated lightweight access points. The CLI is a simple text-based, tree-structured interface
that allows up to five users with Telnet-capable terminal emulation programs to access the controller.
Note
See the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Command Reference for information on specific commands.
Note
If you want to input any strings from the XML configuration into CLI commands, you must enclose the
strings in quotation marks.
Logging on to the Controller CLI
You can access the controller CLI using one of the following two methods:
• A direct serial connection to the controller console port
• A remote console session over Ethernet through the preconfigured service port or the distribution system
ports
Before you log on to the CLI, configure your connectivity and environment variables based on the type of
connection you use.
Guidelines and Limitations
On Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, you can use either the RJ-45 console port or the USB console port. If you
use the USB console port, plug the 5-pin mini Type B connector into the controller’s USB console port and
the other end of the cable into the PC’s USB Type A port. The first time that you connect a Windows PC to
the USB console port, you are prompted to install the USB console driver. Follow the installation prompts to
install the driver. The USB console driver maps to a COM port on your PC; you then need to map the terminal
emulator application to the COM port.
See the Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions section for information on enabling Telnet sessions.
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Logging on to the Controller CLI
Using a Local Serial Connection
Before You Begin
You need these items to connect to the serial port:
• A PC that is running a VT-100 terminal emulation program (such as HyperTerminal, ProComm, Minicom,
or Tip)
• A null-modem serial cable
To log on to the controller CLI through the serial port, follow these steps:
Step 1
Connect one end of a null-modem serial cable to the controller’s console port and the other end to your PC’s serial port.
Step 2
Start the PC’s VT-100 terminal emulation program. Configure the terminal emulation program for these parameters:
• 9600 baud
• 8 data bits
• 1 stop bit
• No parity
• No hardware flow control
Note
Note
Step 3
Minimum serial timeout on Controller is 15 seconds instead of 1
minute.
The controller serial port is set for a 9600 baud rate and a short timeout. If you would like to change either
of these values, enter config serial baudrate baudrate and config serial timeout timeout to make your
changes. If you enter config serial timeout 0, serial sessions never time out.
When prompted, enter a valid username and password to log into the controller. The administrative username and
password that you created in the configuration wizard are case sensitive.
Note
The default username is admin, and the default password is
admin.
The CLI displays the root level system prompt:
#(system prompt)>
Note
The system prompt can be any alphanumeric string up to 31 characters. You can change it by entering the config
prompt command.
Using a Remote Ethernet Connection
Before You Begin
You need these items to connect to a controller remotely:
• A PC with access to the controller over the Ethernet network
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Logging on to the Controller CLI
• The IP address of the controller
• A VT-100 terminal emulation program or a DOS shell for the Telnet session
Note
Step 1
By default, controllers block Telnet sessions. You must use a local connection to the serial port to enable
Telnet sessions.
Verify that your VT-100 terminal emulation program or DOS shell interface is configured with these parameters:
• Ethernet address
• Port 23
Step 2
Step 3
Use the controller IP address to Telnet to the CLI.
When prompted, enter a valid username and password to log into the controller. The administrative username and
password that you created in the configuration wizard are case sensitive.
Note
The default username is admin, and the default password is
admin.
The CLI displays the root level system prompt.
Note
The system prompt can be any alphanumeric string up to 31 characters. You can change it by entering the config
prompt command.
Logging Out of the CLI
When you finish using the CLI, navigate to the root level and enter logout. The system prompts you to save
any changes you made to the volatile RAM.
Note
The CLI automatically logs you out without saving any changes after 5 minutes of inactivity. You can set
the automatic logout from 0 (never log out) to 160 minutes using the config serial timeout command.
Navigating the CLI
The CLI is organized into five levels:
• Root Level
• Level 2
• Level 3
• Level 4
• Level 5
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Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration
When you log into the CLI, you are at the root level. From the root level, you can enter any full command
without first navigating to the correct command level.
The following table lists commands you use to navigate the CLI and to perform common tasks.
Table 2: Commands for CLI Navigation and Common Tasks
Command
Action
help
At the root level, view system wide navigation
commands
?
View commands available at the current level
command ?
View parameters for a specific command
exit
Move down one level
Ctrl-Z
Return from any level to the root level
save config
At the root level, save configuration changes from
active working RAM to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)
so they are retained after reboot
reset system
At the root level, reset the controller without logging
out
Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration
This section describes how to use the AutoInstall feature for controllers without a configuration.
Information About the AutoInstall Feature
When you boot up a controller that does not have a configuration, the AutoInstall feature can download a
configuration file from a TFTP server and then load the configuration onto the controller automatically.
If you create a configuration file on a controller that is already on the network (or through a Prime Infrastructure
filter), place that configuration file on a TFTP server, and configure a DHCP server so that a new controller
can get an IP address and TFTP server information, the AutoInstall feature can obtain the configuration file
for the new controller automatically.
When the controller boots, the AutoInstall process starts. The controller does not take any action until
AutoInstall is notified that the configuration wizard has started. If the wizard has not started, the controller
has a valid configuration.
If AutoInstall is notified that the configuration wizard has started (which means that the controller does not
have a configuration), AutoInstall waits for an additional 30 seconds. This time period gives you an opportunity
to respond to the first prompt from the configuration wizard:
Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:
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Guidelines and Limitations
When the 30-second abort timeout expires, AutoInstall starts the DHCP client. You can abort the AutoInstall
task even after this 30-second timeout if you enter Yes at the prompt. However, AutoInstall cannot be aborted
if the TFTP task has locked the flash and is in the process of downloading and installing a valid configuration
file.
Guidelines and Limitations
AutoInstall uses the following interfaces:
• Cisco 5500 Series Controllers
◦eth0—Service port (untagged)
◦dtl0—Gigabit port 1 through the NPU (untagged)
Obtaining an IP Address Through DHCP and Downloading a Configuration File from a TFTP
Server
AutoInstall attempts to obtain an IP address from the DHCP server until the DHCP process is successful or
until you abort the AutoInstall process. The first interface to successfully obtain an IP address from the DHCP
server registers with the AutoInstall task. The registration of this interface causes AutoInstall to begin the
process of obtaining TFTP server information and downloading the configuration file.
Following the acquisition of the DHCP IP address for an interface, AutoInstall begins a short sequence of
events to determine the host name of the controller and the IP address of the TFTP server. Each phase of this
sequence gives preference to explicitly configured information over default or implied information and to
explicit host names over explicit IP addresses.
The process is as follows:
• If at least one Domain Name System (DNS) server IP address is learned through DHCP, AutoInstall
creates a /etc/resolv.conf file. This file includes the domain name and the list of DNS servers that have
been received. The Domain Name Server option provides the list of DNS servers, and the Domain Name
option provides the domain name.
• If the domain servers are not on the same subnet as the controller, static route entries are installed for
each domain server. These static routes point to the gateway that is learned through the DHCP Router
option.
• The host name of the controller is determined in this order by one of the following:
◦If the DHCP Host Name option was received, this information (truncated at the first period [.]) is
used as the host name for the controller.
◦A reverse DNS lookup is performed on the controller IP address. If DNS returns a hostname, this
name (truncated at the first period [.]) is used as the hostname for the controller.
• The IP address of the TFTP server is determined in this order by one of the following:
◦If AutoInstall received the DHCP TFTP Server Name option, AutoInstall performs a DNS lookup
on this server name. If the DNS lookup is successful, the returned IP address is used as the IP
address of the TFTP server.
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Guidelines and Limitations
◦If the DHCP Server Host Name (sname) text box is valid, AutoInstall performs a DNS lookup on
this name. If the DNS lookup is successful, the IP address that is returned is used as the IP address
of the TFTP server.
◦If AutoInstall received the DHCP TFTP Server Address option, this address is used as the IP
address of the TFTP server.
◦AutoInstall performs a DNS lookup on the default TFTP server name (cisco-wlc-tftp). If the DNS
lookup is successful, the IP address that is received is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.
◦If the DHCP server IP address (siaddr) text box is nonzero, this address is used as the IP address
of the TFTP server.
◦The limited broadcast address (255.255.255.255) is used as the IP address of the TFTP server.
• If the TFTP server is not on the same subnet as the controller, a static route (/32) is installed for the IP
address of the TFTP server. This static route points to the gateway that is learned through the DHCP
Router option.
Selecting a Configuration File
After the hostname and TFTP server have been determined, AutoInstall attempts to download a configuration
file. AutoInstall performs three full download iterations on each interface that obtains a DHCP IP address. If
the interface cannot download a configuration file successfully after three attempts, the interface does not
attempt further.
The first configuration file that is downloaded and installed successfully triggers a reboot of the controller.
After the reboot, the controller runs the newly downloaded configuration.
AutoInstall searches for configuration files in the order in which the names are listed:
• The filename that is provided by the DHCP Boot File Name option
• The filename that is provided by the DHCP File text box
• host name-confg
• host name.cfg
• base MAC address-confg (for example, 0011.2233.4455-confg)
• serial number-confg
• ciscowlc-confg
• ciscowlc.cfg
AutoInstall runs through this list until it finds a configuration file. It stops running if it does not find a
configuration file after it cycles through this list three times on each registered interface.
Note
The downloaded configuration file can be a complete configuration, or it can be a minimal configuration
that provides enough information for the controller to be managed by the Cisco Prime Infrastructure. Full
configuration can then be deployed directly from the Prime Infrastructure.
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Guidelines and Limitations
Note
AutoInstall does not expect the switch connected to the controller to be configured for either channels.
AutoInstall works with a service port in LAG configuration.
Note
Cisco Prime Infrastructure provides AutoInstall capabilities for controllers. A Cisco Prime Infrastructure
administrator can create a filter that includes the host name, the MAC address, or the serial number of the
controller and associate a group of templates (a configuration group) to this filter rule. The Prime
Infrastructure pushes the initial configuration to the controller when the controller boots up initially. After
the controller is discovered, the Prime Infrastructure pushes the templates that are defined in the
configuration group. For more information about the AutoInstall feature and Cisco Prime Infrastructure,
see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure documentation.
Example: AutoInstall Operation
The following is an example of an AutoInstall process from start to finish:
Welcome to the Cisco Wizard Configuration Tool
Use the '-' character to backup
Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:
AUTO-INSTALL: starting now...
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP TFTP Filename ==> 'abcd-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP TFTP Server IP ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP siaddr ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Domain Server[0] ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Domain Name ==> 'engtest.com'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP yiaddr ==> 172.19.29.253
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Netmask ==> 255.255.255.0
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' - setting DHCP Gateway ==> 172.19.29.1
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'service-port' registered
AUTO-INSTALL: interation 1 -- interface 'service-port'
AUTO-INSTALL: DNS reverse lookup 172.19.29.253 ===> 'wlc-1'
AUTO-INSTALL: hostname 'wlc-1'
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP server 1.100.108.2 (from DHCP Option 150)
AUTO-INSTALL: attempting download of 'abcd-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP Config transfer starting.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP file ==> 'bootfile1'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP TFTP Filename ==> 'bootfile2-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP siaddr ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Server[0] ==> 1.100.108.2
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Server[1] ==> 1.100.108.3
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Server[2] ==> 1.100.108.4
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Domain Name ==> 'engtest.com'
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP yiaddr ==> 1.100.108.238
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Netmask ==> 255.255.254.0
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' - setting DHCP Gateway ==> 1.100.108.1
AUTO-INSTALL: interface 'management' registered
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'Config file transfer failed - Error from server: File not
found' (3)
AUTO-INSTALL: attempting download of 'wlc-1-confg'
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP Config transfer starting.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP receive complete... updating configuration.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'TFTP receive complete... storing in flash.' (2)
AUTO-INSTALL: TFTP status - 'System being reset.' (2)
Resetting system
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Managing the Controller System Date and Time
Managing the Controller System Date and Time
This section describes how to manage the date and time of a controller system.
Information About Controller System Date and Time
You can configure the controller system date and time at the time of configuring the controller using the
configuration wizard. If you did not configure the system date and time through the configuration wizard or
if you want to change your configuration, you can follow the instructions in this section to configure the
controller to obtain the date and time from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server or to configure the date
and time manually. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is used as the standard for setting the time zone on the
controller.
You can also configure an authentication mechanism between various NTP servers.
Guidelines and Limitations
• If you are configuring wIPS, you must set the controller time zone to UTC.
• Cisco Aironet lightweight access points might not connect to the controller if the date and time are not
set properly. Set the current date and time on the controller before allowing the access points to connect
to it.
• You can configure an authentication channel between the controller and the NTP server.
Configuring an NTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time
Each NTP server IP address is added to the controller database. Each controller searches for an NTP server
and obtains the current time upon reboot and at each user-defined polling interval (daily to weekly).
Use these commands to configure an NTP server to obtain the date and time:
• To specify the NTP server for the controller, enter this command:
config time ntp server index ip_address
• To specify the polling interval (in seconds), enter this command:
config time ntp interval
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Configuring NTP Authentication (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > NTP > Servers to open the NTP Servers page.
Step 2
Click New to add an NTP server.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Choose a server priority from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list.
Enter the NTP server IP address in the Server IP Address text box.
Enable NTP server authentication by selecting the NTP Server Authentication check box.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Step 7
Choose Controller > NTP > Keys.
Step 8
Click New to create a key.
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Enter the key index in the Key Index text box.
Choose the key format from the Key Format drop-down list.
Enter the key in the Key text box.
Click Apply.
Configuring NTP Authentication (CLI)
Note
By default, MD5 is used.
• config time ntp auth enable server-index key-index
• config time ntp auth disable server-index
• config time ntp key-auth add key-index md5 key-format key
• Delete an authentication key by entering this command:
config time ntp key-auth delete key-index
• View the list of NTP key Indices by entering this command:
show ntp-keys
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Configuring the Date and Time (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Commands > Set Time to open the Set Time page.
Figure 16: Set Time Page
The current date and time appear at the top of the page.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
In the Timezone area, choose your local time zone from the Location drop-down list.
Note
When you choose a time zone that uses Daylight Saving Time (DST), the controller automatically sets its system
clock to reflect the time change when DST occurs. In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday in
March and ends on the first Sunday in November.
Note
You cannot set the time zone delta on the controller GUI. However, if you do so on the controller CLI, the
change is reflected in the Delta Hours and Mins text boxes on the controller GUI.
Click Set Timezone to apply your changes.
Step 6
In the Date area, choose the current local month and day from the Month and Day drop-down lists, and enter the year in
the Year text box.
In the Time area, choose the current local hour from the Hour drop-down list, and enter the minutes and seconds in the
Minutes and Seconds text boxes.
Note
If you change the time zone location after setting the date and time, the values in the Time area are updated to
reflect the time in the new time zone location. For example, if the controller is currently configured for noon
Eastern time and you change the time zone to Pacific time, the time automatically changes to 9:00 a.m.
Click Set Date and Time to apply your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
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Configuring the Date and Time (CLI)
Step 1
Configure the current local date and time in GMT on the controller by entering this command:
config time manual mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss
When setting the time, the current local time is entered in terms of GMT and as a value between 00:00 and
24:00. For example, if it is 8:00 a.m. Pacific time in the United States, you would enter 16:00 because the Pacific
time zone is 8 hours behind GMT.
Perform one of the following to set the time zone for the controller:
Note
Step 2
• Set the time zone location in order to have Daylight Saving Time (DST) set automatically when it occurs by entering
this command:
config time timezone location location_index
where location_index is a number representing one of the following time zone locations:
1 (GMT-12:00) International Date Line West
2 (GMT-11:00) Samoa
3 (GMT-10:00) Hawaii
4 (GMT-9:00) Alaska
5 (GMT-8:00) Pacific Time (US and Canada)
6 (GMT-7:00) Mountain Time (US and Canada)
7 (GMT-6:00) Central Time (US and Canada)
8 (GMT-5:00) Eastern Time (US and Canada)
9 (GMT-4:00) Atlantic Time (Canada)
10 (GMT-3:00) Buenos Aires (Argentina)
11 (GMT-2:00) Mid-Atlantic
12 (GMT-1:00) Azores
13 (GMT) London, Lisbon, Dublin, Edinburgh (default value)
14 (GMT +1:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Rome, Vienna
15 (GMT +2:00) Jerusalem
16 (GMT +3:00) Baghdad
17 (GMT +4:00) Muscat, Abu Dhabi
18 (GMT +4:30) Kabul
19 (GMT +5:00) Karachi, Islamabad, Tashkent
20 (GMT +5:30) Colombo, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi
21 (GMT +5:45) Katmandu
22 (GMT +6:00) Almaty, Novosibirsk
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23 (GMT +6:30) Rangoon
24 (GMT +7:00) Saigon, Hanoi, Bangkok, Jakarta
25 (GMT +8:00) Hong Kong, Beijing, Chongqing
26 (GMT +9:00) Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo
27 (GMT +9:30) Darwin
28 (GMT+10:00) Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra
29 (GMT+11:00) Magadan, Solomon Is., New Caledonia
30 (GMT+12:00) Kamchatka, Marshall Is., Fiji
31 (GMT+12:00) Auckland (New Zealand)
Note
If you enter this command, the controller automatically sets its system clock to reflect DST when it occurs.
In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November.
• Manually set the time zone so that DST is not set automatically by entering this command:
config time timezone delta_hours delta_mins
where delta_hours is the local hour difference from GMT, and delta_mins is the local minute difference from GMT.
When manually setting the time zone, enter the time difference of the local current time zone with respect to GMT
(+/–). For example, Pacific time in the United States is 8 hours behind GMT. Therefore, it is entered as –8.
Note
You can manually set the time zone and prevent DST from being set only on the controller
CLI.
Step 3
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 4
Verify that the controller shows the current local time with respect to the local time zone by entering this command:
show time
Information similar to the following appears:
Time.................................... Thu Apr 7 13:56:37 2011
Timezone delta........................... 0:0
Timezone location....................... (GMT +5:30) Colombo, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata
NTP Servers
NTP Polling Interval.........................
Index
------1
Note
3600
NTP Key Index
NTP Server
NTP Msg Auth Status
--------------------------------------------------------------1
209.165.200.225
AUTH SUCCESS
If you configured the time zone location, the Timezone Delta value is set to “0:0.” If you manually configured
the time zone using the time zone delta, the Timezone Location is blank.
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Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions
Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions
This section describes how to configure Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) sessions.
Information About Telnet and SSH
Telnet is a network protocol used to provide access to the controller’s CLI. Secure Shell (SSH) is a more
secure version of Telnet that uses data encryption and a secure channel for data transfer. You can use the
controller GUI or CLI to configure Telnet and SSH sessions.
Restrictions for Telnet and SSH
• Only the FIPS approved algorithm aes128-cbc is supported when using SSH to control WLANs.
• The controller does not support raw Telnet mode.
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Telnet-SSH to open the Telnet-SSH Configuration page.
Figure 17: Telnet-SSH Configuration Page
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Step 2
Step 6
In the Telnet Login Timeout text box, enter the number of minutes that a Telnet session is allowed to remain inactive
before being terminated. The valid range is 0 to 160 minutes (inclusive), and the default value is 5 minutes. A value of
0 indicates no timeout.
From the Maximum Number of Sessions drop-down list, choose the number of simultaneous Telnet or SSH sessions
allowed. The valid range is 0 to 5 sessions (inclusive), and the default value is 5 sessions. A value of zero indicates that
Telnet/SSH sessions are disallowed.
From the Allow New Telnet Sessions drop-down list, choose Yes or No to allow or disallow new Telnet sessions on
the controller. The default value is No.
From the \ drop-down list, choose Yes or No to allow or disallow new SSH sessions on the controller. The default value
is Yes.
Click Apply.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration.
Step 8
To see a summary of the Telnet configuration settings, choose Management > Summary. The Summary page appears.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Figure 18: Summary Page
This page shows whether additional Telnet and SSH sessions are permitted.
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (CLI)
Step 1
Allow or disallow new Telnet sessions on the controller by entering this command:
config network telnet {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Step 2
Allow or disallow new SSH sessions on the controller by entering this command:
config network ssh {enable | disable}
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The default value is enabled.
Step 3
Specify the number of minutes that a Telnet session is allowed to remain inactive before being terminated by entering
this command:
config sessions timeout timeout
where timeout is a value between 0 and 160 minutes (inclusive). The default value is 5 minutes. A value of 0 indicates
no timeout.
Step 4
Specify the number of simultaneous Telnet or SSH sessions allowed by entering this command:
config sessions maxsessions session_num
where session_num is a value between 0 and 5 (inclusive). The default value is 5 sessions. A value of zero indicates that
Telnet/SSH sessions are disallowed.
Step 5
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 6
See the Telnet and SSH configuration settings by entering this command:
show network summary
Information similar to the following appears:
RF-Network Name............................. TestNetwork1
Web Mode.................................... Enable
Secure Web Mode............................. Enable
Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option High.......... Disable
Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option SSLv2......... Disable
Secure Shell (ssh).......................... Enable
Telnet................................... Disable
...
Step 7
See the Telnet session configuration settings by entering this command:
show sessions
Information similar to the following appears:
CLI Login Timeout (minutes)............ 5
Maximum Number of CLI Sessions....... 5
Step 8
See all active Telnet sessions by entering this command:
show loginsession
Information similar to the following appears:
ID
User Name
Connection From
Idle Time
Session Time
-- --------------- --------------- ------------ -----------00
admin
EIA-232
00:00:00
00:19:04
Step 9
You can close all active Telnet sessions or a specific Telnet session by entering this command:
config loginsession close {all | session_id}
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Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH_old
The controller supports the use of the Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) protocols to troubleshoot lightweight
access points. Using these protocols makes debugging easier, especially when the access point is unable to
connect to the controller.
• To avoid potential conflicts and security threats to the network, the following commands are unavailable
while a Telnet or SSH session is enabled: config terminal, telnet, ssh, rsh, ping, traceroute, clear,
clock, crypto, delete, fsck, lwapp, mkdir, radius, release, reload, rename, renew, rmdir, save, set,
test, upgrade.
• Commands available during a Telnet or SSH session include debug, disable, enable, help, led, login,
logout, more, no debug, show, systat, undebug and where.
Note
For instructions on configuring Telnet or SSH SSH sessions on the controller, see the
Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions section.
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Click the name of the access point for which you want to enable Telnet or SSH.
Choose the Advanced tab to open the All APs > Details for (Advanced) page.
Select the Telnet check box to enable Telnet connectivity on this access point. The default value is unchecked.
Select the SSH check box to enable SSH connectivity on this access point. The default value is unchecked.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (CLI)
Step 1
Enable Telnet or SSH connectivity on an access point by entering this command:
config ap {telnet | ssh} enable Cisco_AP
The default value is disabled.
Note
Disable Telnet or SSH connectivity on an access point by entering this command: config ap {telnet | ssh}
disable Cisco_AP
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
See whether Telnet or SSH is enabled on an access point by entering this command:
show ap config general Cisco_AP
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Information similar to the following appears:
Cisco AP Identifier..............................
Cisco AP Name....................................
Country code.....................................
Reg. Domain allowed by Country...................
AP Country code..................................
AP Regulatory Domain.............................
Switch Port Number ..............................
MAC Address......................................
IP Address Configuration.........................
IP Address.......................................
IP NetMask.......................................
Gateway IP Addr..................................
Domain...........................................
Name Server......................................
Telnet State.....................................
Ssh State........................................
...
5
AP33
Multiple Countries:US,AE,AR,AT,AU,BH
802.11bg:-ABCENR 802.11a:-ABCEN
US - United States
802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A
2
00:19:2f:11:16:7a
Static IP assigned
10.22.8.133
255.255.248.0
10.22.8.1
Enabled
Enabled
Managing the Controller Wirelessly
You can monitor and configure controllers using a wireless client. This feature is supported for all management
tasks except uploads from and downloads to the controller.
Before you can open the GUI or the CLI from a wireless client device, you must configure the controller to
allow the connection.
Enabling Wireless Connections (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Log onto the GUI.
Choose Management > Mgmt Via Wireless page.
Enable the Controller Management to be accessible from wireless clients.
Click Apply.
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Enabling Wireless Connections (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log onto the CLI.
Enter the config network mgmt-via-wireless enable command.
Step 3
Step 4
Use a wireless client to associate to a lightweight access point connected to the controller.
On the wireless client, open a Telnet session to the controller, or browse to the controller GUI.
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3
Managing Licenses
• Installing and Configuring Licenses, page 55
• Rehosting Licenses, page 67
• Configuring the License Agent, page 71
Installing and Configuring Licenses
Information About Installing and Configuring Licenses
You can order Cisco 5500 Series Controllers with support for 12, 25, 50, 100, 250 or 500 access points as the
controller’s base capacity. You can add additional access point capacity through capacity adder licenses
available at 25, 50, 100 and 250 access point capacities. You can add the capacity adder licenses to any base
license in any combination to arrive at the maximum capacity of 500 access points. The base and adder licenses
are supported through both rehosting and RMAs.
The base license supports the standard base software set, and the premium software set is included as part of
the base feature set, which includes this functionality:
• Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) data encryption for added security across remote WAN and
LAN links.
• The availability of data DTLS is as follows:
• Cisco 5500 Series Controller—The Cisco 5500 Series Controller is available with two licensing
options: One with data DTLS capabilities and another image without data DTLS.
• 2500, WiSM2—These platforms by default do not contain DTLS. To turn on data DTLS, you must
install a license. These platforms will have a single image with data DTLS turned off. To use data
DTLS, you must have a license.
• Support for OfficeExtend access points, which are used for secure mobile teleworking.
All features included in a Wireless LAN Controller WPLUS license are now included in the base license.
There are no changes to Cisco Prime Infrastructure BASE and PLUS licensing. These WPlus license features
are included in the base license:
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• OfficeExtend AP
• Enterprise Mesh
• CAPWAP Data Encryption
For information about upgrade and capacity adder licenses, see the product data sheet of your controller model.
Restrictions for Using Licenses
The following are the restrictions you must keep in mind when using licenses for the controllers:
• The licensing change can affect features on your wireless LAN when you upgrade or downgrade software
releases, so you should be aware of these guidelines:
◦If you have a WPlus license and you upgrade from 6.0.x.x to 7.x.x.x, your license file contains
both Basic and WPlus license features. There is no disruption in feature availability and operation.
◦If you have a WPlus license and you downgrade from 7.x.x.x to 6.0.196.0 or 6.0.188.0 or 6.0.182.0,
your license file contains only base license, and you will lose all WPlus features.
◦If you have a base license and you downgrade from 6.0.196.0 to 6.0.188.0 or 6.0.182.0, when you
downgrade, you lose all WPlus features.
• In the controller software 7.0.116.0 and later releases, the AP association trap is ciscoLwappApAssociated.
In prior releases, the trap was bsnAPAssociated.
• The ap-count licenses and their corresponding image-based licenses are installed together. The controller
keeps track of the licensed access point count and does not allow more than the number of access points
to associate to it.
• The Cisco 5500 Series Controller is shipped with both permanent and evaluation base and base-ap-count
licenses. If desired, you can activate the evaluation licenses, which are designed for temporary use and
set to expire after 60 days.
• No licensing steps are required after you receive your Cisco 5500 Series Controller because the licenses
you ordered are installed at the factory. In addition, licenses and product authorization keys (PAKs) are
preregistered to serial numbers. However, as your wireless network evolves, you might want to add
support for additional access points or upgrade from the standard software set to the base software set.
To do so, you must obtain and install an upgrade license.
Obtaining an Upgrade or Capacity Adder License
This section describes how to get an upgrade or capacity adder license.
Information About Obtaining an Upgrade or Capacity Adder License
A certificate with a product authorization key (PAK) is required before you can obtain an upgrade license.
You can use the capacity adder licenses to increase the number of access points supported by the controller
up to a maximum of 500 access points. The capacity adder licenses are available in access point capacities of
10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 access points. You can add these licenses to any of the base capacity licenses of 12,
25, 50, 100 and 250 access points.
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For example, if your controller was initially ordered with support for 100 access points (base license
AIR-CT5508-100-K9), you could increase the capacity to 500 access points by purchasing a 250 access point,
100 access point, and a 50 access point additive capacity license (LIC-CT5508-250A, LIC-CT5508-100A,
and LIC-CT5508-50A).
You can find more information on ordering capacity adder licenses at this URL: http://www.cisco.com/en/
US/products/ps10315/products_data_sheets_list.html
Note
If you skip any tiers when upgrading (for example, if you do not install the -25U and -50U licenses along
with the -100U), the license registration for the upgraded capacity fails.
For a single controller, you can order different upgrade licenses in one transaction (for example, -25U, -50U,
-100U, and -250U), for which you receive one PAK with one license. Then you have only one license (instead
of four) to install on your controller.
If you have multiple controllers and want to upgrade all of them, you can order multiple quantities of each
upgrade license in one transaction (for example, you can order 10 each of the -25U, -50U, -100U, and -250
upgrade licenses), for which you receive one PAK with one license. You can continue to register the PAK
for multiple controllers until it is exhausted.
For more information about the base license SKUs and capacity adder licenses, see the respective controller’s
data sheet.
Obtaining and Registering a PAK Certificate
Step 1
Order the PAK certificate for an upgrade license through your Cisco channel partner or your Cisco sales representative,
or order it online at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/go/ordering
Step 2
If you are ordering online, begin by choosing the primary upgrade SKU L-LIC-CT5508-UPG or LIC CT5508-UPG.
Then, choose any number of the following options to upgrade one or more controllers under one PAK. After you receive
the certificate, use one of the following methods to register the PAK:
• Cisco License Manager (CLM)—This method automates the process of obtaining licenses and deploying them
on Cisco devices. For deployments with more than five controllers, we recommend using CLM to register PAKs
and install licenses. You can also use CLM to rehost or RMA a license.
Note
Note
You cannot use CLM to change the licensed feature set or activate an ap-count evaluation license. To
perform these operations, you must follow the instructions in the Activating an AP-Count Evaluation
License section. Because you can use CLM to perform all other license operations, you can disregard the
remaining licensing information in this chapter except these two sections and the Configuring the License
Agent section if you want your controller to use HTTP to communicate with CLM.
You can download the CLM software and access user documentation at this URL: http://www.cisco.com/
go/clm
• Licensing portal—This alternative method enables you to manually obtain and install licenses on your controller.
If you want to use the licensing portal to register the PAK, follow the instructions in Step 3.
Step 3
Use the licensing portal to register the PAK as follows:
a) Go to http://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet
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b) On the main Product License Registration page, enter the PAK mailed with the certificate in the Product Authorization
Key (PAK) text box and click Submit.
c) On the Validate Features page, enter the number of licenses that you want to register in the Qty text box and click
Update.
d) To determine the controller’s product ID and serial number, choose Controller > Inventory on the controller GUI
or enter the show license udi command on the controller CLI.
Information similar to the following appears on the controller CLI:
Device#
------*0
PID
SN
------------------- --------------AIR-CT5508-K9
CW1308L030
UDI
----------------------AIR-CT5508-K9:FCW1308L030
e) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller on which you plan to install
the license, read and accept the conditions of the end-user license agreement (EULA), complete the rest of the text
boxes on this page, and click Submit.
f) On the Finish and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
g) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download License. The license is e-mailed
within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
h) When the e-mail arrives, follow the instructions provided.
i) Copy the license file to your TFTP server.
Installing a License
Installing a License (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Commands to open the License Commands page.
Step 2
From the Action drop-down list, choose Install License. The Install License from a File section appears.
Step 3
Step 4
In the File Name to Install text box, enter the path to the license (*.lic) on the TFTP server.
Click Install License. A message appears to show whether the license was installed successfully. If the installation fails,
the message provides the reason for the failure, such as the license is an existing license, the path was not found, the
license does not belong to this device, you do not have correct permissions for the license, and so on.
If the end-user license agreement (EULA) acceptance dialog box appears, read the agreement and click Accept to accept
the terms of the agreement.
Note
Typically, you are prompted to accept the EULA for evaluation, extension, and rehost licenses. The EULA is
also required for permanent licenses, but it is accepted during license generation.
Save a backup copy of all installed licenses as follows:
a) From the Action drop-down list, choose Save License.
b) In the File Name to Save text box, enter the path on the TFTP server where you want the licenses to be saved.
Note
You cannot save evaluation
licenses.
Step 5
Step 6
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c) Click Save Licenses.
Step 7
Reboot the controller.
Installing a License (CLI)
Step 1
Install a license on the controller by entering this command:
license install url
where url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
To remove a license from the controller, enter the license clear license_name command. For example, you
might want to delete an expired evaluation license or any unused license. You cannot delete unexpired evaluation
licenses, the permanent base image license, or licenses that are in use by the controller.
If you are prompted to accept the end-user license agreement (EULA), read and accept the terms of the agreement.
Note
Typically, you are prompted to accept the EULA for evaluation, extension, and rehost licenses. The EULA is
also required for permanent licenses, but it is accepted during license generation.
Add comments to a license or delete comments from a license by entering this command:
license comment {add | delete} license_name comment_string
Note
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Save a backup copy of all installed licenses by entering this command:
license save url
where url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
Step 5
Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system.
Viewing Licenses
Viewing Licenses (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Licenses to open the Licenses page.
This page lists all of the licenses installed on the controller. For each license, it shows the license type, expiration, count
(the maximum number of access points allowed for this license), priority (low, medium, or high), and status (in use, not
in use, inactive, or EULA not accepted).
Note
Controller platforms do not support the status of “grace period” or “extension” as a license type. The license
status will always show “evaluation” even if a grace period or an extension evaluation license is installed.
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Note
Step 2
If you ever want to remove a license from the controller, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for
the license and click Remove. For example, you might want to delete an expired evaluation license or any
unused license. You cannot delete unexpired evaluation licenses, the permanent base image license, or licenses
that are in use by the controller.
Click the link for the desired license to view more details for a particular license. The License Detail page appears.
This page shows the following additional information for the license:
• The license type (permanent, evaluation, or extension)
• The license version
• The status of the license (in use, not in use, inactive, or EULA not accepted)
• The length of time before the license expires
Note
Permanent licenses never
expire.
• Whether the license is a built-in license
• The maximum number of access points allowed for this license
• The number of access points currently using this license
Step 3
Step 4
If you want to enter a comment for this license, type it in the Comment text box and click Apply.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Viewing Licenses (CLI)
Before You Begin
• See the license level, license type, and number of access points licensed on the controller by entering
this command:
show sysinfo
Information similar to the following appears:
Manufacturer's Name.............................. Cisco Systems Inc.
Product Name..................................... Cisco Controller
Product Version.................................. 7.0
RTOS Version..................................... 7.0
Bootloader Version............................... 5.2
Emergency Image Version.......................... N/A
Build Type....................................... DATA + WPS
System Name...................................... Cisco 69
System Location.................................. na
System Contact................................... abc@cisco.com
System ObjectID.................................. 1.3.6.1.4.1.14179.1.1.4.3
IP Address....................................... 10.10.10.10
System Up Time................................... 3 days 1 hrs 12 mins 42 secs
System Timezone Location.........................
CurrentBoot License Level..........................base
CurrentBoot License Type...........................Permanent
NextBoot License Level............................base
NextBoot License Type.............................Permanent
Operating Environment............................ Commercial (0 to 40 C)
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Internal Temp Alarm Limits.......................
Internal Temperature.............................
State of 802.11b Network.........................
State of 802.11a Network.........................
Number of WLANs..................................
Number of Active Clients.........................
Burned-in MAC Address............................
Crypto Accelerator 1.............................
Crypto Accelerator 2.............................
Power Supply 1...................................
Power Supply 2...................................
Maximum number of APs supported..................
Note
0 to 65 C
+40 C
Enabled
Enabled
4
0
00:1A:6D:DD:1E:40
Absent
Absent
Absent
Present, OK
12
The Operating Environment and Internal Temp Alarm Limits data are not displayed for
Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controllers.
• See a brief summary of all active licenses installed on the controller by entering this command:
show license summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Index 1 Feature: wplus
Period left: 0 minute 0 second
Index 2 Feature: wplus-ap-count
Period left: 0 minute 0 second
Index3
Feature: base
Period left: Life time
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Medium
Index 4 Feature: base-ap-count
Period left: 6 weeks, 4 days
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: 250/250/0
License Priority: High
• See all of the licenses installed on the controller by entering this command:
show license all
Information similar to the following appears:
License Store: Primary License Storage
StoreIndex: 1 Feature: base
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, Not in Use
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Medium
StoreIndex: 3 Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Active, In Use
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 3 days
License Count: 250/0/0
License Priority: High
• See the details for a particular license by entering this command:
show license detail license_name
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Information similar to the following appears:
Index:
1
Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, Not in Use
License Count: 12/0/0
License Priority: Medium
Store Index: 0
Store Name: Primary License Storage
Index:
2
Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Inactive
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 4 days
License Count: 250/0/0
License Priority: Low
Store Index: 3
Store Name: Evaluation License Storage
• See all expiring, evaluation, permanent, or in-use licenses by entering this command:
show license {expiring | evaluation | permanent | in-use}
Information similar to the following appears for the show license in-use command:
StoreIndex: 2
License
License
License
License
StoreIndex: 3
License
License
License
Note
Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
Type: Permanent
State: Active, In Use
Count: 12/12/0
Priority: Medium
Feature: base Version: 1.0
Type: Permanent
State: Active, In Use
Count: Non-Counted License Priority: Medium
Controller platforms do not support the status of “grace period” or “extension” as a license
type. The license status will always show “evaluation” even if a grace period or an
extension evaluation license is installed.
• See the maximum number of access points allowed for this license on the controller, the number of
access points currently joined to the controller, and the number of access points that can still join the
controller by entering this command:
show license capacity
Information similar to the following appears:
Licensed Feature
---------------AP Count
Max Count
--------250
Current Count
------------4
Remaining Count
--------------246
• See statistics for all licenses on the controller by entering this command:
show license statistics
• See a summary of license-enabled features by entering this command:
show license feature
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Troubleshooting Licensing Issues
• Configure debugging of license agent by entering this command:
debug license agent {errors | all} {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of licensing core events and core errors by entering this command:
debug license core {all | errors | events} {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of licensing errors by entering this command:
debug license errors {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of licensing events by entering this command:
debug license events {enable | disable}
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License
Information About Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License
If you are considering upgrading to a license with a higher access point count, you can try an evaluation license
before upgrading to a permanent version of the license. For example, if you are using a permanent license
with a 50-access-point count and want to try an evaluation license with a 100-access-point count, you can try
out the evaluation license for 60 days.
AP-count evaluation licenses are set to low priority by default so that the controller uses the ap-count permanent
license. If you want to try an evaluation license with an increased access point count, you must change its
priority to high. If you no longer want to have this higher capacity, you can lower the priority of the ap-count
evaluation license, which forces the controller to use the permanent license.
Note
To prevent disruptions in operation, the controller does not switch licenses when an evaluation license
expires. You must reboot the controller in order to return to a permanent license. Following a reboot, the
controller defaults to the same feature set level as the expired evaluation license. If no permanent license
at the same feature set level is installed, the controller uses a permanent license at another level or an
unexpired evaluation license.
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Licenses to open the Licenses page.
The Status column shows which licenses are currently in use, and the Priority column shows the current priority of each
license.
Step 2
Activate an ap-count evaluation license as follows:
a) Click the link for the ap-count evaluation license that you want to activate. The License Detail page appears.
b) Choose High from the Priority drop-down list and click Set Priority.
Note
You can set the priority only for ap-count evaluation licenses. AP-count permanent licenses always have a
medium priority, which cannot be configured.
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c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Step 3
Click OK when prompted to confirm your decision about changing the priority of the license.
When the EULA appears, read the terms of the agreement and then click Accept.
When prompted to reboot the controller, click OK.
Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect.
Click Licenses to open the Licenses page and verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a high priority and
is in use. You can use the evaluation license until it expires.
If you decide to stop using the ap-count evaluation license and want to revert to using an ap-count permanent license,
follow these steps:
a) On the Licenses page, click the link for the ap-count evaluation license that is in use.
b) Choose Low from the Priority drop-down list and click Set Priority.
Note
You can set the priority only for ap-count evaluation licenses. AP-count permanent licenses always have a
medium priority, which cannot be configured.
c) Click OK when prompted to confirm your decision about changing the priority of the license.
d) When the EULA appears, read the terms of the agreement and then click Accept.
e) When prompted to reboot the controller, click OK.
f) Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect.
g) Click Licenses to open the Licenses page and verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a low priority and
is not in use. Instead, the ap-count permanent license should be in use.
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (CLI)
Step 1
See the current status of all the licenses on your controller by entering this command:
show license all
Information similar to the following appears:
License Store: Primary License Storage
StoreIndex: 0 Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: 12/0/0
License Priority: Medium
StoreIndex: 1 Feature: base
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Medium
StoreIndex: 2 Feature: base
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Inactive
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 4 days
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Low
StoreIndex: 3 Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
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License Type: Evaluation
License State: Inactive
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 4 days
License Count: 250/0/0
License Priority: Low
The License State text box shows the licenses that are in use, and the License Priority text box shows the current priority
of each license.
In the 7.2.110.0 release, the command output displays the full in-use count for active base-ap-count license even
though there are no APs connected.
Activate an ap-count evaluation license as follows:
a) Raise the priority of the base-ap-count evaluation license by entering this command:
license modify priority license_name high
Note
Step 2
You can set the priority only for ap-count evaluation licenses. AP-count permanent licenses always have a
medium priority, which cannot be configured.
b) Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect by entering this command:
reset system
Note
c) Verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a high priority and is in use by entering this command:
show license all
You can use the evaluation license until it expires.
Step 3
If you decide to stop using the ap-count evaluation license and want to revert to using an ap-count permanent license,
follow these steps:
a) Lower the priority of the ap-count evaluation license by entering this command:
license modify priority license_name low
b) Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect by entering this command:
reset system
c) Verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a low priority and is not in use by entering this command:
show license all
Instead, the ap-count permanent license should be in use.
Configuring Right to Use Licensing
Information About Right to Use Licensing
Right to Use (RTU) licensing is a model in which licenses are not tied to a unique device identifier (UDI),
product ID, or serial number. Use RTU licensing to enable a desired AP license count on the controller after
you accept the End User License Agreement (EULA). This allows you to add AP counts on a controller
interacting with external tools.
RTU licensing is supported only on Cisco Flex 7500 Series and Cisco 8500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers.
In the RTU licensing model, the following types of licenses are available:
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• Permanent or base licenses—These licenses are programmed into the controller hardware at the time of
manufacturing. These licenses are base count licenses that cannot be deleted or transferred.
• Adder licenses—These licenses are wireless access point count licenses that you can activate by accepting
the RTU EULA. The EULA states that you are obliged to purchase the specified access point count
licenses at the time of activation. You must activate these licenses for the purchased access points count
and accept the EULA.
You can remove an adder license from one controller and transfer the license to another controller in
the same product family. For example, an adder license such as LIC-CT7500-100A can be transferred
(partially or fully) from one Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controller to another Cisco Flex 7500 Series
Controller.
Note
Licenses embedded in the controller at the time of shipment is not transferrable.
• Evaluation licenses—These licenses are demo or trial mode licenses that are valid for 90 days. Fifteen
days prior to the expiry of the 90-day period, you are notified about the requirement to buy the permanent
license. These evaluation licenses are installed with the license image. You can activate the evaluation
licenses anytime with a command. A EULA is prompted after you run the activation command on the
controller CLI. The EULA states that you are obligated to pay for the specified license count within 90
days of usage. The countdown starts after you accept the EULA.
Whenever you add or delete an access point adder license on the controller, you are prompted with an RTU
EULA. You can either accept or decline the RTU EULA for each add or delete operation.
For high-availability (HA) controllers when you enable HA, the controllers synchronize with the enabled
license count of the primary controller and support high availability for up to the license count enabled on the
primary controller.
You can view the RTU licenses through the controller GUI or CLI. You can also view these licenses across
multiple wireless controllers through Cisco Prime Infrastructure.
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Management > Software Activation > Licenses to open the Licenses page.
Step 3
In the Adder License area, choose to add or delete the number of APs that an AP license can support, enter a value, and
click Set Count.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (CLI)
• Add or delete the number of APs that an AP license can support by entering this command:
license {add | delete} ap-count count
• Add or delete a license for a feature by entering this command:
license {add | delete} feature license_name
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• Activate or deactivate an evaluation AP count license by entering this command:
license {activate | deactivate} ap-count eval
Note
When you activate the license, you are prompted to accept or reject the End User License
Agreement (EULA) for the given license. If you activate a license that supports fewer
number of APs than the current number of APs connected to the controller, the activation
command fails.
• Activate or deactivate a feature license by entering this command:
license {activate | deactivate} feature license_name
• See the licensing information by entering this command:
show license all
Rehosting Licenses
This section describes how to rehost licenses.
Information About Rehosting Licenses
Revoking a license from one controller and installing it on another is called rehosting. You might want to
rehost a license in order to change the purpose of a controller. For example, if you want to move your
OfficeExtend or indoor mesh access points to a different controller, you could transfer the adder license from
one controller to another controller of the same model (intramodel transfer). This can be done in the case of
RMA or a network rearchitecture that requires you to transfer licenses from one appliance to another. It is not
possible to rehost base licenses in normal scenarios of network rearchitecture. The only exception where the
transfer of base licenses is allowed is for RMA when you get a replacement hardware when your existing
appliance has a failure.
Evaluation licenses cannot be rehosted.
In order to rehost a license, you must generate credential information from the controller and use it to obtain
a permission ticket to revoke the license from the Cisco licensing site. Next, you must obtain a rehost ticket
and use it to obtain a license installation file for the controller on which you want to install the license.
Note
A revoked license cannot be reinstalled on the same controller.
Note
Starting in the release 7.3, the Right-to-Use licensing is supported on the Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controllers,
thereby the rehosting behavior changes on these controllers. If you require to rehost licenses, you need to
plan rehosting the installed adder licenses prior to an upgrade.
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Rehosting a License
Rehosting a License (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Choose Management > Software Activation > Commands to open the License Commands page.
From the Action drop-down list, choose Rehost. The Revoke a License from the Device and Generate Rehost Ticket
area appears.
In the File Name to Save Credentials text box, enter the path on the TFTP server where you want the device credentials
to be saved and click Save Credentials.
To obtain a permission ticket to revoke the license, follow these steps:
a) Click Cisco Licensing (https://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet).
b) On the Product License Registration page, click Look Up a License under Manage Licenses.
c) Enter the product ID and serial number for your controller.
Note
To find the controller’s product ID and serial number, choose Controller > Inventory on the controller
GUI.
d) Open the device credential information file that you saved in Step 3 and copy and paste the contents of the file into
the Device Credentials text box.
e) Enter the security code in the blank box and click Continue.
f) Choose the licenses that you want to revoke from this controller and click Start License Transfer.
g) On the Rehost Quantities page, enter the number of licenses that you want to revoke in the To Rehost text box and
click Continue.
h) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller for which you plan to revoke
the license, read and accept the conditions of the End User License Agreement (EULA), complete the rest of the text
boxes on this page, and click Continue.
i) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
j) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download Permission Ticket. The rehost
permission ticket is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
k) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost permission ticket to your TFTP server.
Step 5
Use the rehost permission ticket to revoke the license from this controller and generate a rehost ticket as follows:
a) In the Enter Saved Permission Ticket File Name text box, enter the TFTP path and filename (*.lic) for the rehost
permission ticket that you generated in Step 4.
b) In the Rehost Ticket File Name text box, enter the TFTP path and filename (*.lic) for the ticket that will be used to
rehost this license on another controller.
c) Click Generate Rehost Ticket.
d) When the End User License Agreement (EULA) acceptance dialog box appears, read the agreement and click Accept
to accept the terms of the agreement.
Step 6
Use the rehost ticket generated in Step 5 to obtain a license installation file, which can then be installed on another
controller as follows:
a) Click Cisco Licensing.
b) On the Product License Registration page, click Upload Rehost Ticket under Manage Licenses.
c) On the Upload Ticket page, enter the rehost ticket that you generated in Step 5 in the Enter Rehost Ticket text box
and click Continue.
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d) On the Validate Features page, verify that the license information for your controller is correct, enter the rehost
quantity, and click Continue.
e) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller on which you plan to use
the license, read and accept the conditions of the End User License Agreement (EULA), complete the rest of the text
boxes on this page, and click Continue.
f) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
g) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download License. The rehost license
key is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
h) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost license key to your TFTP server.
i) Follow the instructions in the Installing a License section to install this on another controller.
Rehosting a License (CLI)
Step 1
Save device credential information to a file by entering this command:
license save credential url
where url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
Step 2
Obtain a permission ticket to revoke the license as follows:
a) Go to https://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet. The Product License Registration page
appears.
b) Under Manage Licenses, click Look Up a License.
c) Enter the product ID and serial number for your controller.
Note
To find the controller’s product ID and serial number, enter the show license udi command on the controller
CLI.
d) Open the device credential information file that you saved in Step 1 and copy and paste the contents of the file into
the Device Credentials text box.
e) Enter the security code in the blank box and click Continue.
f) Choose the licenses that you want to revoke from this controller and click Start License Transfer.
g) On the Rehost Quantities page, enter the number of licenses that you want to revoke in the To Rehost text box and
click Continue.
h) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller for which you plan to revoke
the license, read and accept the conditions of the End-User License Agreement (EULA), complete the rest of the text
boxes on this page, and click Continue.
i) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
j) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download Permission Ticket. The rehost
permission ticket is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
k) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost permission ticket to your TFTP server.
Step 3
Use the rehost permission ticket to revoke the license from this controller and generate a rehost ticket as follows:
a) Revoke the license from the controller by entering this command:
license revoke permission_ticket_url
where permission_ticket_url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
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b) Generate the rehost ticket by entering this command:
license revoke rehost rehost_ticket_url
where rehost_ticket_url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
c) If prompted, read and accept the terms of the End-User License Agreement (EULA).
Step 4
Use the rehost ticket generated in Step 3 to obtain a license installation file, which can then be installed on another
controller as follows:
a) Go to https://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet.
b) On the Product License Registration page, click Upload Rehost Ticket under Manage Licenses.
c) On the Upload Ticket page, enter the rehost ticket that you generated in Step 3 in the Enter Rehost Ticket text box
and click Continue.
d) On the Validate Features page, verify that the license information for your controller is correct, enter the rehost
quantity, and click Continue.
e) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller on which you plan to use
the license, read and accept the conditions of the End-User License Agreement (EULA), complete the rest of the text
boxes on this page, and click Continue.
f) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
g) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download License. The rehost license
key is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
h) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost license key to your TFTP server.
i) Follow the instructions in the Installing a License (GUI), on page 58 section to install this license on another
controller.
Transferring Licenses to a Replacement Controller after an RMA
Information About Transferring Licenses to a Replacement Controller after an RMA
If you return a Cisco 5500 Series Controller to Cisco as part of the Return Material Authorization (RMA)
process, you must transfer that controller’s licenses within 60 days to a replacement controller that you receive
from Cisco.
Replacement controllers come preinstalled with the following licenses: permanent base and evaluation base,
base-ap-count. No other permanent licenses are installed. The SKU for replacement controllers is
AIR-CT5508-CA-K9.
Because licenses are registered to the serial number of a controller, you can use the licensing portal on
Cisco.com to request that the license from your returned controller be revoked and authorized for use on the
replacement controller. After your request is approved, you can install the old license on the replacement
controller. Any additional ap-count licenses if installed in the returned controller has to be rehosted on the
replacement controller. Before you begin, you need the product ID and serial number of both the returned
controller and the replacement controller. This information is included in your purchase records.
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Note
The evaluation licenses on the replacement controller are designed for temporary use and expire after 60
days. To prevent disruptions in operation, the controller does not switch licenses when an evaluation
license expires. You must reboot the controller in order to return to a permanent license. If the evaluation
licenses expire before you transfer the permanent licenses from your defective controller to your replacement
controller, the replacement controller remains up and running using the permanent base license, but access
points are no longer able to join the controller.
Transferring a License to a Replacement Controller after an RMA
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Browse to http://cisco.com/go/license.
On the Product License Registration page, choose Transfer > License for RMA.
Click Specify Device and then choose the controller model from the Product Family drop-down list.
Complete the on-screen instructions to generate the license file.
The license is provided online or in an e-mail.
Step 5
Step 6
Copy the license file to the TFTP server.
Install the license by choosing Management > Software Activation > Commands > Action > Install License.
Configuring the License Agent
Information About Configuring the License Agent
If your network contains various Cisco-licensed devices, you might want to consider using the Cisco License
Manager (CLM) to manage all of the licenses using a single application. CLM is a secure client/server
application that manages Cisco software licenses network wide.
The license agent is an interface module that runs on the controller and mediates between CLM and the
controller’s licensing infrastructure. CLM can communicate with the controller using various channels, such
as HTTP, Telnet, and so on. If you want to use HTTP as the communication method, you must enable the
license agent on the controller.
The license agent receives requests from CLM and translates them into license commands. It also sends
notifications to CLM. It uses XML messages over HTTP or HTTPS to receive the requests and send the
notifications. For example, CLM sends a license install command, and the agent notifies CLM after the license
expires.
Note
You can download the CLM software and access user documentation at http://www.cisco.com/go/clm.
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Configuring the License Agent (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Management > Software Activation > License Agent to open the License Agent Configuration page.
Select the Enable Default Authentication check box to enable the license agent, or leave it unselected to disable this
feature. The default value is unselected.
In the Maximum Number of Sessions text box, enter the maximum number of sessions for the license agent. The valid
range is 1 to 25 sessions (inclusive).
Configure the license agent to listen for requests from the CLM as follows:
a) Select the Enable Listener check box to enable the license agent to receive license requests from the CLM, or unselect
this check box to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
b) In the Listener Message Processing URL text box, enter the URL where the license agent receives license requests
(for example, http://209.165.201.30/licenseAgent/custom). The Protocol parameter indicates whether the URL requires
HTTP or HTTPS.
Note
You can specify the protocol to use on the HTTP Configuration
page.
c) Select the Enable Authentication for Listener check box to enable authentication for the license agent when it is
receiving license requests, or unselect this check box to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
d) In the Max HTTP Message Size text box, enter the maximum size for license requests. The valid range is 0 to 9999
bytes, and the default value is 0.
Step 4
Step 5
Configure the license agent to send license notifications to the CLM as follows:
a) Select the Enable Notification check box to enable the license agent to send license notifications to the CLM, or
unselect this check box to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
b) In the URL to Send the Notifications text box, enter the URL where the license agent sends the notifications (for
example, http://www.cisco.com/license/notify).
c) In the User Name text box, enter the username required in order to view the notification messages at this URL.
d) In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter the password required in order to view the notification
messages at this URL.
Step 6
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring the License Agent (CLI)
Step 1
Enable the license agent by entering one of these commands:
• config license agent default authenticate—Enables the license agent default listener with authentication.
• config license agent default authenticate none—Enables the license agent default listener without authentication.
Note
To disable the license agent default listener, enter the config license agent default disable command.
The default value is disabled.
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Step 2
Specify the maximum number of sessions for the license agent by entering this command:
config license agent max-sessions sessions
The valid range for the sessions parameter is 1 to 25 (inclusive), and the default value is 9.
Step 3
Enable the license agent to receive license requests from the CLM and to specify the URL where the license agent receives
the requests by entering this command:
config license agent listener http {plaintext | encrypt} url authenticate [none] [max-message size] [acl acl]
The valid range for the size parameter is 0 to 65535 bytes, and the default value is 0.
Note
Step 4
To prevent the license agent from receiving license requests from the CLM, enter the config license agent
listener http disable command. The default value is disabled.
Configure the license agent to send license notifications to the CLM and to specify the URL where the license agent
sends the notifications by entering this command:
config license agent notify url username password
Note
To prevent the license agent from sending license notifications to the CLM, enter the config license agent notify
disable username password command. The default value is disabled.
Step 5
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 6
See statistics for the license agent’s counters or sessions by entering this command:
show license agent {counters | sessions}
Information similar to the following appears for the show license agent counters command:
License Agent Counters
Request Messages Received:10: Messages with Errors:1
Request Operations Received:9: Operations with Errors:0
Notification Messages Sent:12: Transmission Errors:0: Soap Errors:0
Information similar to the following appears for the show license agent sessions command:
License Agent Sessions: 1 open, maximum is 9
Note
To clear the license agent’s counter or session statistics, enter the clear license agent {counters | sessions}
command.
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4
Configuring 802.11 Bands
• Configuring 802.11 Bands, page 75
• Configuring Band Selection, page 78
Configuring 802.11 Bands
Information About Configuring 802.11 Bands
You can configure the 802.11b/g/n (2.4-GHz) and 802.11a/n (5-GHz) bands for the controller to comply with
the regulatory requirements in your country. By default, both 802.11b/g/n and 802.11a/n are enabled.
When a controller is configured to allow only 802.11g traffic, 802.11b client devices are able to successfully
connect to an access point but cannot pass traffic. When you configure the controller for 802.11g traffic only,
you must mark 11g rates as mandatory.
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the Global Parameters page.
Step 2
Select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box to enable the 802.11a or 802.11b/g band. To disable the
band, unselect the check box. The default value is enabled. You can enable both the 802.11a and 802.11b/g bands.
Step 3
If you enabled the 802.11b/g band in Step 2, select the 802.11g Support check box if you want to enable 802.11g network
support. The default value is enabled. If you disable this feature, the 802.11b band is enabled without 802.11g support.
Specify the period at which the SSID is broadcast by the access point by entering a value between 20 and 1000 milliseconds
(inclusive) in the Beacon Period text box. The default value is 100 milliseconds.
Note
The beacon period in controllers is listed in terms of milliseconds. The beacon period can also be measured in
time units, where one time unit equals 1024 microseconds or 102.4 milliseconds. If a beacon interval is listed
as 100 milliseconds in a controller, it is only a rounded off value for 102.4 milliseconds. Due to hardware
limitation in certain radios, even though the beacon interval is, say 100 time units, it is adjusted to 102 time
units, which roughly equals 104.448 milliseconds. When the beacon period is to be represented in terms of time
units, the value is adjusted to the nearest multiple of 17.
Step 4
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Step 5
Specify the size at which packets are fragmented by entering a value between 256 and 2346 bytes (inclusive) in the
Fragmentation Threshold text box. Enter a low number for areas where communication is poor or where there is a great
deal of radio interference.
Make access points advertise their channel and transmit power level in beacons and probe responses for CCX clients.
Select the DTPC Support check box. Otherwise, unselect this check box. The default value is enabled.
Client devices using dynamic transmit power control (DTPC) receive the channel and power level information from the
access points and adjust their settings automatically. For example, a client device used primarily in Japan could rely on
DTPC to adjust its channel and power settings automatically when it travels to Italy and joins a network there.
Step 6
Note
Note
Step 7
On access points that run Cisco IOS software, this feature is called world
mode.
DTPC and 801.11h power constraint cannot be enabled simultaneously.
Specify the maximum allowed clients by entering a value between 1 to 200 in the Maximum Allowed Client text box.
The default value is 200.
Use the Data Rates options to specify the rates at which data can be transmitted between the access point and the client.
These data rates are available:
Step 8
• 802.11a—6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps
• 802.11b/g—1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps
For each data rate, choose one of these options:
• Mandatory—Clients must support this data rate in order to associate to an access point on the controller.
• Supported—Any associated clients that support this data rate may communicate with the access point using that
rate. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate.
• Disabled—The clients specify the data rates used for communication.
Step 9
Click Apply.
Step 10
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (CLI)
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a band by entering this command:
config 802.11a disable network
Note
Step 2
Disable the 802.11b/g band by entering this command:
config 802.11b disable network
Note
Step 3
The 802.11a band must be disabled before you can configure the 802.11a network parameters in this section.
The 802.11b band must be disabled before you can configure the 802.11b network parameters in this section.
Specify the rate at which the SSID is broadcast by the access point by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} beaconperiod time_unit
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where time_unit is the beacon interval in time units (TUs). One TU is 1024 microseconds. You can configure the access
point to send a beacon every 20 to 1000 milliseconds.
Step 4
Specify the size at which packets are fragmented by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} fragmentation threshold
where threshold is a value between 256 and 2346 bytes (inclusive). Specify a low number for areas where communication
is poor or where there is a great deal of radio interference.
Step 5
Make access points advertise their channel and transmit power level in beacons and probe responses by entering this
command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b } dtpc {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled. Client devices using dynamic transmit power control (DTPC) receive the channel and
power level information from the access points and adjust their settings automatically. For example, a client device used
primarily in Japan could rely on DTPC to adjust its channel and power settings automatically when it travels to Italy and
joins a network there.
On access points that run Cisco IOS software, this feature is called world
mode.
Specify the maximum allowed clients that can be configured by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} max-clients max_allow_clients
Note
Step 6
The valid range is between 1 to 200.
Step 7
Specify the rates at which data can be transmitted between the controller and the client by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} rate {disabled | mandatory | supported} rate
where
• disabled—Clients specify the data rates used for communication.
• mandatory—Clients support this data rate in order to associate to an access point on the controller.
• supported—Any associated clients that support this data rate may communicate with the access point using that
rate. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate.
• rate—The rate at which data is transmitted:
◦6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps (802.11a)
◦1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps (802.11b/g)
Step 8
Enable the 802.11a band by entering this command:
config 802.11a enable network
The default value is enabled.
Step 9
Enable the 802.11b band by entering this command:
config 802.11b enable network
The default value is enabled.
Step 10
Enable or disable 802.11g network support by entering this command:
config 802.11b 11gSupport {enable | disable}
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The default value is enabled. You can use this command only if the 802.11b band is enabled. If you disable this feature,
the 802.11b band is enabled without 802.11g support.
Step 11
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 12
View the configuration settings for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b}
Information similar to the following appears:
802.11a Network............................... Enabled
11nSupport.................................... Enabled
802.11a Low Band........................... Enabled
802.11a Mid Band........................... Enabled
802.11a High Band.......................... Enabled
802.11a Operational Rates
802.11a 6M Rate.............................. Mandatory
802.11a 9M Rate.............................. Supported
802.11a 12M Rate............................. Mandatory
802.11a 18M Rate............................. Supported
802.11a 24M Rate............................. Mandatory
802.11a 36M Rate............................. Supported
802.11a 48M Rate............................. Supported
802.11a 54M Rate............................. Supported
...
Beacon Interval.................................. 100
...
Default Channel............................... 36
Default Tx Power Level........................ 1
DTPC Status................................... Enabled
Fragmentation Threshold....................... 2346
Maximum Number of Clients per AP................. 200
Configuring Band Selection
Information About Configuring Band Selection
Band selection enables client radios that are capable of dual-band (2.4- and 5-GHz) operation to move to a
less congested 5-GHz access point. The 2.4-GHz band is often congested. Clients on this band typically
experience interference from Bluetooth devices, microwave ovens, and cordless phones as well as co-channel
interference from other access points because of the 802.11b/g limit of three nonoverlapping channels. To
prevent these sources of interference and improve overall network performance, you can configure band
selection on the controller.
Band selection is enabled globally by default.
Band selection works by regulating probe responses to clients. It makes 5-GHz channels more attractive to
clients by delaying probe responses to clients on 2.4-GHz channels.
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Restrictions on Band Selection
• Band-selection enabled WLANs do not support time-sensitive applications like voice and video because
of roaming delays.
• Band selection can be used only with Cisco Aironet 1040, 1140, 1250, 1260, 3500, and the 3600 series
access points.
Note
OEAP 600 Series access points do not support band select.
• Band selection operates only on access points that are connected to a controller. A FlexConnect access
point without a controller connection does not perform band selection after a reboot.
• The band-selection algorithm directs dual-band clients only from the 2.4-GHz radio to the 5-GHz radio
of the same access point, and it only runs on an access point when both the 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz radios
are up and running.
• You can enable both band selection and aggressive load balancing on the controller. They run
independently and do not impact one another.
• It is not possible to enable or disable band selection and client load balancing globally through the
controller GUI or CLI. You can, however, enable or disable band selection and client load balancing
for a particular WLAN. Band selection and client load balancing are enabled globally by default.
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Configuring Band Selection
Configuring Band Selection (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Advanced > Band Select to open the Band Select page.
Step 2
In the Probe Cycle Count text box, enter a value between 1 and 10. The cycle count sets the number of suppression
cycles for a new client. The default cycle count is 2.
In the Scan Cycle Period Threshold (milliseconds) text box, enter a value between 1 and 1000 milliseconds for the
scan cycle period threshold. This setting determines the time threshold during which new probe requests from a client
come from a new scanning cycle. The default cycle threshold is 200 milliseconds.
In the Age Out Suppression (seconds) text box, enter a value between 10 and 200 seconds. Age-out suppression sets
the expiration time for pruning previously known 802.11b/g/n clients. The default value is 20 seconds. After this time
elapses, clients become new and are subject to probe response suppression.
In the Age Out Dual Band (seconds) text box, enter a value between 10 and 300 seconds. The age-out period sets the
expiration time for pruning previously known dual-band clients. The default value is 60 seconds. After this time elapses,
clients become new and are subject to probe response suppression.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
In the Acceptable Client RSSI (dBm) text box, enter a value between –20 and –90 dBm. This parameter sets the
minimum RSSI for a client to respond to a probe. The default value is –80 dBm.
Click Apply.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration.
Step 9
To enable or disable band selection on specific WLANs, choose WLANs > WLAN ID. The WLANs > Edit page
appears.
Click the Advanced tab.
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
In the Load Balancing and Band Select text area, if you want to enable band selection, select the Client Band Select
check box. If you want to disable band selection, leave the check box unselected. The default value is disabled.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Band Selection (CLI)
Step 1
Set the probe cycle count for band select by entering this command:
config band-select cycle-count cycle_count
You can enter a value between 1 and 10 for the cycle_count parameter.
Step 2
Set the time threshold for a new scanning cycle period by entering this command:
config band-select cycle-threshold milliseconds
You can enter a value for threshold between 1 and 1000 for the milliseconds parameter.
Step 3
Set the suppression expire to the band select by entering this command:
config band-select expire suppression seconds
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You can enter a value for suppression between 10 to 200 for the seconds parameter.
Step 4
Set the dual band expire by entering this command:
config band-select expire dual-band seconds
You can enter a value for dual band between 10 and 300 for the seconds parameter.
Step 5
Set the client RSSI threshold by entering this command:
config band-select client-rssi client_rssi
You can enter a value for minimum dBm of a client RSSI to respond to a probe between 20 and 90 for the client_rssi
parameter.
Step 6
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 7
Enable or disable band selection on specific WLANs by entering this command:
config wlan band-select allow {enable | disable} wlan_ID
You can enter a value between 1 and 512 for wlan_ID parameter.
Step 8
Verify your settings by entering this command:
show band-select
Information similar to the following appears:
Band Select Probe Response.......................
Cycle Count...................................
Cycle Threshold...............................
Age Out Suppression...........................
Age Out Dual Band.............................
Client RSSI...................................
Step 9
Enabled
3 cycles
300 milliseconds
20 seconds
20 seconds
-30 dBm
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
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Configuring 802.11 Parameters
• Configuring the 802.11n Parameters, page 83
• Configuring 802.11h Parameters, page 86
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters
Information About Configuring the 802.11n Parameters
This section provides instructions for managing 802.11n devices such as the Cisco Aironet 1140 and 3600
Series Access Points on your network. The 802.11n devices support the 2.4- and 5-GHz bands and offer
high-throughput data rates.
The 802.11n high-throughput rates are available on all 802.11n access points for WLANs using WMM with
no Layer 2 encryption or with WPA2/AES encryption enabled.
Note
Some Cisco 802.11n APs may intermittently emit incorrect beacon frames, which can trigger false wIPS
alarms. We recommend that you ignore these alarms. The issue is observed in the following Cisco 802.11n
APs: 1140, 1250, 2600, 3500, and 3600.
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > High Throughput to open the (5 GHz or 2.4 GHz) High Throughput
page.
Select the 11n Mode check box to enable 802.11n support on the network. The default value is enabled.
Select the check boxes of the desired rates to specify the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) rates at which data can
be transmitted between the access point and the client. These data rates, which are calculated for a 20-MHz channel
width using a short guard interval, are available:
• 0 (7 Mbps)
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• 1 (14 Mbps)
• 2 (21 Mbps)
• 3 (29 Mbps)
• 4 (43 Mbps)
• 5 (58 Mbps)
• 6 (65 Mbps)
• 7 (72 Mbps)
• 8 (14 Mbps)
• 9 (29 Mbps)
• 10 (43 Mbps)
• 11 (58 Mbps)
• 12 (87 Mbps)
• 13 (116 Mbps)
• 14 (130 Mbps)
• 15 (144 Mbps)
Any associated clients that support the selected rates may communicate with the access point using those rates.
However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate. The MCS settings determine
the number of spatial streams, the modulation, the coding rate, and the data rate values that are used.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Step 5
Use the 802.11n data rates that you configured by enabling WMM on the WLAN as follows:
a) Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
b) Click the ID number of the WLAN for which you want to configure WMM mode.
c) When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the QoS tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Qos) page.
d) From the WMM Policy drop-down list, choose Required or Allowed to require or allow client devices to use WMM.
Devices that do not support WMM cannot join the WLAN.
If you choose Allowed, devices that cannot support WMM can join the WLAN but will not benefit from the 802.11n
rates.
e) Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Note
To determine if an access point supports 802.11n, look at the 11n Supported text box on either the 802.11a/n
(or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Configure page or the 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) AP Interfaces > Details page.
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (CLI)
• Enable 802.11n support on the network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport {enable | disable}
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• Specify the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) rates at which data can be transmitted between the
access point and the client by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport mcs tx {0-15} {enable | disable}
• Use the 802.11n data rates that you configured by enabling WMM on the WLAN as follows:
config wlan wmm {allow | disable | require} wlan_id
The require parameter requires client devices to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot
join the WLAN.
If set to allow, devices that cannot support WMM can join the WLAN but do not benefit from 802.11n
rates.
• Specify the aggregation method used for 802.11n packets as follows:
a) Disable the network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
b) Specify the aggregation method entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport {a-mpdu | a-msdu} tx priority {0-7 | all} {enable | disable}
Aggregation is the process of grouping packet data frames together rather than transmitting them
separately. Two aggregation methods are available: Aggregated MAC Protocol Data Unit (A-MPDU)
and Aggregated MAC Service Data Unit (A-MSDU). A-MSDU is performed in hardware and
therefore is the default method.
You can specify the aggregation method for various types of traffic from the access point to the
clients. This table defines the priority levels (0-7) assigned per traffic type.
Table 3: Traffic Type Priority Levels
User Priority
Traffic Type
0
Best effort
1
Background
2
Spare
3
Excellent effort
4
Controlled load
5
Video, less than 100-ms latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10-ms latency and jitter
7
Network control
You can configure each priority level independently, or you can use the all parameter to configure
all of the priority levels at once. When you use the enable command, the traffic associated with that
priority level uses A-MPDU transmission. When you use the disable command, the traffic associated
with that priority level uses A-MSDU transmission. Configure the priority levels to match the
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aggregation method used by the clients. By default, A-MPDU is enabled for priority level 0, 4 and
5 and the rest are disabled. By default, A-MSDU is enabled for all priorities except 6 and 7.
c) Reenable the network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
• Configure the 802.11n-5 GHz A-MPDU transmit aggregation scheduler by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} 11nsupport a-mpdu tx scheduler {enable | disable | timeout rt timeout-value}
The timeout value is in milliseconds. The valid range is between 1 millisecond to 1000 milliseconds.
• Configure the guard interval for the network by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} 11nsupport guard_interval {any | long}
• Configure the Reduced Interframe Space (RIFS) for the network by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} 11nsupport rifs rx {enable | disable}
• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
• View the configuration settings for the 802.11 networks by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b}
Configuring 802.11h Parameters
Information About Configuring 802.11h Parameters
802.11h informs client devices about channel changes and can limit the transmit power of those client devices.
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Disable the 802.11 band as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n > Network to open the 802.11a Global Parameters page.
b) Unselect the 802.11a Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n > DFS (802.11h) to open the 802.11h Global Parameters page.
In the Power Constraint area, enter the local power constraint. The valid range is between 0 dBm and 30 dBm.
In the Channel Switch Announcement area, select the Channel Announcement check box if you want the access point
to announce when it is switching to a new channel and the new channel number, or unselect this check box to disable
the channel announcement. The default value is disabled.
If you enabled the channel announcement, the Channel Quiet Mode check box appears. Select this check box if you
want the access point to stop transmitting on the current channel, or unselect this check box to disable quiet mode. The
default value is disabled.
Click Apply.
Reenable the 802.11a band as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n > Network to open the 802.11a Global Parameters page.
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
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b) Select the 802.11a Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (CLI)
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a network by entering this command:
config 802.11a disable network
Step 2
Enable or disable an access point to announce when it is switching to a new channel, and the new channel number by
entering this command:
config 802.11h channelswitch {enable | disable} switch_mode
Enter either 0 or 1 for the switch_mode parameter to specify whether transmissions are restricted until the actual channel
switch (0), or are not restricted (1). By default, this feature is in disabled state.
Step 3
Configure a new channel using the 802.11h channel announcement by entering this command:
config 802.11h setchannel channel channel
Step 4
Configure the 802.11h power constraint value by entering this command:
config 802.11h powerconstraint value
Use increments of 3 dB for the value so that the AP goes down one power level at a time.
Step 5
Reenable the 802.11a network by entering this command:
config 802.11a enable network
Step 6
View the status of the 802.11h parameters by entering this command:
show 802.11h
Information similar to the following appears:
Power Constraint................................. 0
Channel Switch................................... Disabled
Channel Switch Mode.............................. 0
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6
Configuring DHCP Proxy
• Information About Configuring DHCP Proxy, page 89
• Restrictions on Using DHCP Proxy, page 89
• Configuring DHCP Proxy (GUI), page 90
• Configuring DHCP Proxy (CLI), page 90
• Configuring a DHCP Timeout (GUI), page 91
• Configuring a DHCP Timeout (CLI), page 91
Information About Configuring DHCP Proxy
When DHCP proxy is enabled on the controller, the controller unicasts DHCP requests from the client to the
configured servers. At least one DHCP server must be configured on either the interface associated with the
WLAN or the WLAN itself.
When DHCP proxy is disabled on the controller, those DHCP packets transmitted to and from the clients are
bridged by the controller without any modification to the IP portion of the packet. Packets received from the
client are removed from the CAPWAP tunnel and transmitted on the upstream VLAN. DHCP packets directed
to the client are received on the upstream VLAN, converted to 802.11, and transmitted through a CAPWAP
tunnel toward the client. As a result, the internal DHCP server cannot be used when DHCP proxy is disabled.
The ability to disable DHCP proxy allows organizations to use DHCP servers that do not support Cisco’s
native proxy mode of operation. It should be disabled only when required by the existing infrastructure.
Note
DHCP proxy is enabled by default.
Restrictions on Using DHCP Proxy
• DHCP proxy must be enabled in order for DHCP option 82 to operate correctly.
• All controllers that will communicate must have the same DHCP proxy setting.
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Configuring DHCP Proxy (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Advanced > DHCP to open the DHCP Parameters page.
Step 2
Step 3
Select the Enable DHCP Proxy check box to enable DHCP proxy on a global basis. Otherwise, unselect the check box.
The default value is selected.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring DHCP Proxy (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Choose Controller > Interfaces.
Select the interface you want to configure the DHCP proxy.
You can configure the DHCP proxy on the management, virtual, ap manager, or dynamic interfaces in the controller.
The Interfaces > Edit page is displayed with DHCP information on the primary and secondary DHCP servers configured
in the controller. If the primary and secondary servers are not listed, you must enter values for the IP address of the
DHCP servers in the text boxes displayed in this window.
Select from the following option of the proxy mode drop-down to enable DHCP proxy on the selected management
interface:Global—Uses the global DHCP proxy mode on the controller.Enabled—Enables the DHCP proxy mode on
the interface. When you enable DHCP proxy on the controller; the controller unicasts the DHCP requests from the client
to the configured servers. You must configure at least one DHCP server on either the interface associated with the WLAN
or on the WLAN.Disabled—Disables the DHCP proxy mode on the interface. When you disable the DHCP proxy on
the controller, the DHCP packets transmitted to and from the clients are bridged by the controller without any modification
to the IP portion of the packet. Packets received from the client are removed from the CAPWAP tunnel and transmitted
on the upstream VLAN. DHCP packets directed to the client are received on the upstream VLAN, converted to 802.11,
and transmitted through a CAPWAP tunnel toward the client. As a result, the internal DHCP server cannot be used when
DHCP proxy is disabled.
Check the Enable DHCP option 82 checkbox to ensure additional security when DHCP is used to allocate network
addresses, check the Enable DHCP option 82 checkbox.
Click Apply to save the configuration.
Configuring DHCP Proxy (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable DHCP proxy by entering this command:
config dhcp proxy {enable | disable}
Step 2
View the DHCP proxy configuration by entering this command:
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show dhcp proxy
Information similar to the following appears:
DHCP Proxy Behavior: enabled
Configuring DHCP Proxy (CLI)
Step 1
Configure the DHCP primary and secondary servers on the interface. To do this, enter the following commands:
• config interface dhcp management primary primary-server
• config interface dhcp dynamic-interface interface-name primary primary-s
Step 2
Configure DHCP proxy on the management or dynamic interface of the controller. To do this, enter the following
command:
• config interface dhcp management proxy-mode enableglobaldisable
• config interface dhcp dynamic-interface interface-name proxy-mode enableglobaldisable.
Step 3
To ensure additional security when DHCP is configured, use the config interface dhcpinterface typeoption-82
enable command.
Enter the save config command.
Step 4
To view the proxy settings of the controller interface enter the show dhcp proxy command.
Note
Configuring a DHCP Timeout (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Advanced > DHCP to open the DHCP Parameters page.
Step 2
Step 3
Select the DHCP Timeout (5 - 120 seconds) check box to enable a DHCP timeout on a global basis. Otherwise, unselect
the check box. The valid range is 5 through 120 seconds.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring a DHCP Timeout (CLI)
Configure a DHCP timeout by entering this command:
config dhcp timeout seconds
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7
Configuring SNMP
• Configuring SNMP (CLI), page 93
• SNMP Community Strings, page 95
• Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI), page 96
Configuring SNMP (CLI)
Note
To view the controller trap log, choose Monitor and click View All under “Most Recent Traps” on the
controller GUI.
• Create an SNMP community name by entering this command:
config snmp community create name
• Delete an SNMP community name by entering this command:
config snmp community delete name
• Configure an SNMP community name with read-only privileges by entering this command:
config snmp community accessmode ro name
• Configure an SNMP community name with read-write privileges by entering this command:
config snmp community accessmode rw name
• Configure an IP address and subnet mask for an SNMP community by entering this command:
config snmp community ipaddr ip-address ip-mask name
Note
This command behaves like an SNMP access list. It specifies the IP address from which the device accepts
SNMP packets with the associated community. An AND operation is performed between the requesting
entity’s IP address and the subnet mask before being compared to the IP address. If the subnet mask is set
to 0.0.0.0, an IP address of 0.0.0.0 matches to all IP addresses. The default value is 0.0.0.0.
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Note
The controller can use only one IP address range to manage an SNMP community.
• Enable or disable a community name by entering this command:
config snmp community mode {enable | disable}
• Configure a destination for a trap by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver create name ip-address
• Delete a trap by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver delete name
• Change the destination for a trap by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver ipaddr old-ip-address name new-ip-address
• Enable or disable the traps by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver mode {enable | disable}
• Configure the name of the SNMP contact by entering this command:
config snmp syscontact syscontact-name
Enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters for the contact name.
• Configure the SNMP system location by entering this command:
config snmp syslocation syslocation-name
Enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters for the location.
• Verify that the SNMP traps and communities are correctly configured by entering these commands:
show snmpcommunity
show snmptrap
• See the enabled and disabled trap flags by entering this command:
show trapflags
If necessary, use the config trapflags command to enable or disable trap flags.
• Configure when the warning message should be displayed after the number of clients or RFID tags
associated with the controller hover around the threshold level by entering this command:
config trapflags {client | rfid} max-warning-threshold {threshold-between-80-to-100 | enable | disable}
The warning message is displayed at an interval of 600 seconds (10 minutes).
• Configure the SNMP engine ID by entering this command:
config snmp engineID engine-id-string
Note
The engine ID string can be a maximum of 24 characters.
• View the engine ID by entering this command:
show snmpengineID
• Configure the SNMP version by entering this command:
config snmp version {v1 | v2c | v3} {enable | disable}
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SNMP Community Strings
The controller has commonly known default values of "public" and "private" for the read-only and read-write
SNMP community strings. Using these standard values presents a security risk. If you use the default community
names, and since these are known, the community names could be used to communicate to the controller
using SNMP. Therefore, we strongly advise that you change these values.
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management and then Communities under SNMP. The SNMP v1 / v2c Community page appears.
Step 2
If “public” or “private” appears in the Community Name column, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for
the desired community and choose Remove to delete this community.
Step 3
Click New to create a new community. The SNMP v1 / v2c Community > New page appears.
Step 4
Step 6
In the Community Name text box, enter a unique name containing up to 16 alphanumeric characters. Do not enter “public”
or “private.”
In the next two text boxes, enter the IP address from which this device accepts SNMP packets with the associated
community and the IP mask.
Choose Read Only or Read/Write from the Access Mode drop-down list to specify the access level for this community.
Step 7
Choose Enable or Disable from the Status drop-down list to specify the status of this community.
Step 8
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 9
Click Save Configuration to save your settings.
Step 10
Repeat this procedure if a “public” or “private” community still appears on the SNMP v1 / v2c Community page.
Step 5
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (CLI)
Step 1
See the current list of SNMP communities for this controller by entering this command:
show snmp community
Step 2
If "public" or "private" appears in the SNMP Community Name column, enter this command to delete this community:
config snmp community delete name
The name parameter is the community name (in this case, “public” or “private”).
Step 3
Create a new community by entering this command:
config snmp community create name
Enter up to 16 alphanumeric characters for the name parameter. Do not enter “public” or “private.”
Step 4
Enter the IP address from which this device accepts SNMP packets with the associated community by entering this
command:
config snmp community ipaddr ip_address ip_mask name
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Step 5
Specify the access level for this community by entering this command, where ro is read-only mode and rw is read/write
mode:
config snmp community accessmode {ro | rw} name
Step 6
Enable or disable this SNMP community by entering this command:
config snmp community mode {enable | disable} name
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 8
Repeat this procedure if you still need to change the default values for a “public” or “private” community string.
Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI)
SNMP traps are defined for CPU and memory utilization of AP and controller. The SNMP trap is sent out
when the threshold is crossed. The sampling period and statistics update interval can be configured using
SNMP and CLI.
• Configure the sampling interval by entering this command:
config service statistics sampling-interval seconds
• Configure the statistics interval by entering this command:
config service statistics statistics-interval seconds
• See sampling and service interval statistics by entering this command:
show service statistics interval
SNMP Trap Enhancements
This feature provides soaking of SNMP traps and resending of traps after a threshold that you can configure
called the hold time. The hold time helps in suppressing false traps being generated. The traps that are supported
are for CPU and memory utilization of AP and controller. The retransmission of the trap occurs until the trap
is cleared.
• Configure the hold time after which the SNMP traps are to be resent by entering this command:
config service alarm hold-time seconds
• Configure the retransmission interval of the trap by entering this command:
config service alarm trap retransmit-interval seconds
• Configure debugging of the traps by entering this command:
debug service alarm {enable | disable}
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8
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing
• Information About Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing, page 97
• Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI), page 98
• Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI), page 98
Information About Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing
Enabling aggressive load balancing on the controller allows lightweight access points to load balance wireless
clients across access points. You can enable aggressive load balancing using the controller.
Note
Clients are load balanced between access points on the same controller. Load balancing does not occur
between access points on different controllers.
When a wireless client attempts to associate to a lightweight access point, association response packets are
sent to the client with an 802.11 response packet including status code 17. The code 17 indicates that the AP
is busy. The AP responds with an association response bearing 'success' if the AP threshold is not met, and
with code 17 (AP busy) if the AP utilization threshold is reached or exceeded and another less busy AP heard
the client request.
For example, if the number of clients on AP1 is more than the number of clients on AP2 plus the load-balancing
window, then AP1 is considered to be busier than AP2. When a client attempts to associate to AP1, it receives
an 802.11 response packet with status code 17, indicating that the access point is busy, and the client attempts
to associate to a different access point.
You can configure the controller to deny client associations up to 10 times (if a client attempted to associate
11 times, it would be allowed to associate on the 11th try). You can also enable or disable load balancing on
a particular WLAN, which is useful if you want to disable load balancing for a select group of clients (such
as time-sensitive voice clients).
Passive scanning clients will be able to associate to an AP irrespective of whether load balancing is enabled
or not.
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Note
Cisco 600 Series OfficeExtend Access Points do not support client load balancing.
With the 7.4 release, FlexConnect access points do support client load balancing.
You can configure the controller to analyze the WAN interface utilization of neighboring APs and then load
balance the clients across the lightly loaded APs. You can configure this by defining a load balancing threshold.
By defining the threshold, you can measure the WAN interface utilization percentage. For example, a threshold
value of 50 triggers the load balancing upon detecting utilization of 50% or more on an AP-WAN interface.
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Wireless > Advanced > Load Balancing to open the Load Balancing page.
In the Client Window Size text box, enter a value between 1 and 20.
The window size becomes part of the algorithm that determines whether an access point is too heavily loaded to accept
more client associations:
load-balancing window + client associations on AP with the lightest load = load-balancing threshold
In the group of access points accessible to a client device, each access point has a different number of client associations.
The access point with the lowest number of clients has the lightest load. The client window size plus the number of
clients on the access point with the lightest load forms the threshold. Access points with more client associations than
this threshold is considered busy, and clients can associate only to access points with client counts lower than the threshold.
Step 3
In the Maximum Denial Count text box, enter a value between 0 and 10.
The denial count sets the maximum number of association denials during load balancing.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
To enable or disable aggressive load balancing on specific WLANs, do the following:
a) Choose WLANs > WLAN ID. The WLANs > Edit page appears.
b) In the Advanced tab, select or unselect the Client Load Balancing check box.
c) Click Apply.
d) Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI)
Step 1
Set the client window for aggressive load balancing by entering this command:
config load-balancing window client_count
You can enter a value between 0 and 20 for the client_count parameter.
Step 2
Set the denial count for load balancing by entering this command:
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config load-balancing denial denial_count
You can enter a value between 1 and 10 for the denial_count parameter.
Step 3
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 4
Enable or disable aggressive load balancing on specific WLANs by entering this command:
config wlan load-balance allow {enable | disable} wlan_ID
You can enter a value between 1 and 512 for wlan_ID parameter.
Step 5
Verify your settings by entering this command:
show load-balancing
Step 6
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 7
Configure the load balance mode on a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan load-balance mode {client-count | uplink-usage} wlan-id
This feature requires the AP to upload its uplink usage statistics to the controller periodically. Check these statistics by
entering this command:
show ap stats system cisco-AP
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9
Configuring Fast SSID Changing
• Information About Configuring Fast SSID Changing, page 101
• Configuring Fast SSID Changing (GUI), page 101
• Configuring Fast SSID Changing (CLI), page 101
Information About Configuring Fast SSID Changing
When fast SSID changing is enabled, the controller allows clients to move faster between SSIDs. When fast
SSID is enabled, the client entry is not cleared and the delay is not enforced.
When fast SSID changing is disabled, the controller enforces a delay before clients are allowed to move to a
new SSID. When fast SSID is disabled and the client sends a new association for a different SSID, the client
entry in the controller connection table is cleared before the client is added to the new SSID.
Configuring Fast SSID Changing (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller to open the General page.
Step 2
Step 3
From the Fast SSID Change drop-down list, choose Enabled to enable this feature or Disabled to disable it. The default
value is disabled.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring Fast SSID Changing (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable fast SSID changing by entering this command:
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config network fast-ssid-change {enable | disable}
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
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10
Configuring 802.3 Bridging
• Configuring 802.3 Bridging, page 103
• Enabling 802.3X Flow Control, page 104
Configuring 802.3 Bridging
Information About Configuring 802.3 Bridging
The controller supports 802.3 frames and the applications that use them, such as those typically used for cash
registers and cash register servers. However, to make these applications work with the controller, the 802.3
frames must be bridged on the controller.
You can also configure 802.3 bridging using the Cisco Prime Network Control System. See the Cisco Prime
Network Control System Configuration Guide for instructions.
Restrictions on 802.3 Bridging
• Support for raw 802.3 frames allows the controller to bridge non-IP frames for applications not running
over IP.
The raw 802.3 frame contains destination MAC address, source MAC address, total packet length, and
payload.
• By default, Cisco 5500 Series Controllers bridge all non-IPv4 packets (such as AppleTalk, IPv6, and so
on). You can also use ACLs to block the bridging of these protocols.
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Configuring 802.3 Bridging
Configuring 802.3 Bridging (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > General to open the General page.
Step 2
Step 3
From the 802.3 Bridging drop-down list, choose Enabled to enable 802.3 bridging on your controller or Disabled to
disable this feature. The default value is Disabled.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring 802.3 Bridging (CLI)
Step 1
See the current status of 802.3 bridging for all WLANs by entering this command:
show network
Step 2
Enable or disable 802.3 bridging globally on all WLANs by entering this command:
config network 802.3-bridging {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Step 3
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Enabling 802.3X Flow Control
802.3X Flow Control is disabled by default. To enable it, enter the config switchconfig flowcontrol enable
command.
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11
Configuring Multicast
• Configuring Multicast Mode, page 105
• Configuring Multicast Domain Name System, page 111
Configuring Multicast Mode
Information About Multicast Mode
If your network supports packet multicasting, you can configure the multicast method that the controller uses.
The controller performs multicasting in two modes:
• Unicast mode—In this mode, the controller unicasts every multicast packet to every access point associated
to the controller. This mode is inefficient but might be required on networks that do not support
multicasting.
• Multicast mode—In this mode, the controller sends multicast packets to a CAPWAP multicast group.
This method reduces overhead on the controller processor and shifts the work of packet replication to
your network, which is much more efficient than the unicast method.
When you enable multicast mode and the controller receives a multicast packet from the wired LAN, the
controller encapsulates the packet using CAPWAP and forwards the packet to the CAPWAP multicast group
address. The controller always uses the management interface for sending multicast packets. Access points
in the multicast group receive the packet and forward it to all the BSSIDs mapped to the interface on which
clients receive multicast traffic. From the access point perspective, the multicast appears to be a broadcast to
all SSIDs.
The controller supports Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) v1 snooping for IPv6 multicast. This feature
keeps track of and delivers IPv6 multicast flows to the clients that request them. To support IPv6 multicast,
you must enable Global Multicast Mode.
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Note
When you disable the Global Multicast Mode, the controller still forwards the IPv6 ICMP multicast
messages, such as router announcements and DHCPv6 solicits, as these are required for IPv6 to work. As
a result, enabling the Global Multicast Mode on the controller does not impact the ICMPv6 and the
DHCPv6 messages. These messages will always be forwarded irrespective of whether or not the Global
Multicast Mode is enabled.
In controller software 4.2 or later releases, Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping is introduced
to better direct multicast packets. When this feature is enabled, the controller gathers IGMP reports from the
clients, processes them, creates unique multicast group IDs (MGIDs) from the IGMP reports after selecting
the Layer 3 multicast address and the VLAN number, and sends the IGMP reports to the infrastructure switch.
The controller sends these reports with the source address as the interface address on which it received the
reports from the clients. The controller then updates the access point MGID table on the access point with the
client MAC address. When the controller receives multicast traffic for a particular multicast group, it forwards
it to all the access points, but only those access points that have active clients listening or subscribed to that
multicast group send multicast traffic on that particular WLAN. IP packets are forwarded with an MGID that
is unique for an ingress VLAN and the destination multicast group. Layer 2 multicast packets are forwarded
with an MGID that is unique for the ingress interface.
When IGMP snooping is disabled, the following is true:
• The controller always uses Layer 2 MGID when it sends multicast data to the access point. Every interface
created is assigned one Layer 2 MGID. For example, the management interface has an MGID of 0, and
the first dynamic interface created is assigned an MGID of 8, which increments as each dynamic interface
is created.
• The IGMP packets from clients are forwarded to the router. As a result, the router IGMP table is updated
with the IP address of the clients as the last reporter.
When IGMP snooping is enabled, the following is true:
• The controller always uses Layer 3 MGID for all Layer 3 multicast traffic sent to the access point. For
all Layer 2 multicast traffic, it continues to use Layer 2 MGID.
• IGMP report packets from wireless clients are consumed or absorbed by the controller, which generates
a query for the clients. After the router sends the IGMP query, the controller sends the IGMP reports
with its interface IP address as the listener IP address for the multicast group. As a result, the router
IGMP table is updated with the controller IP address as the multicast listener.
• When the client that is listening to the multicast groups roams from one controller to another, the first
controller transmits all the multicast group information for the listening client to the second controller.
As a result, the second controller can immediately create the multicast group information for the client.
The second controller sends the IGMP reports to the network for all multicast groups to which the client
was listening. This process aids in the seamless transfer of multicast data to the client.
• If the listening client roams to a controller in a different subnet, the multicast packets are tunneled to
the anchor controller of the client to avoid the reverse path filtering (RPF) check. The anchor then
forwards the multicast packets to the infrastructure switch.
Note
The MGIDs are controller specific. The same multicast group packets coming from the
same VLAN in two different controllers may be mapped to two different MGIDs.
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Note
If Layer 2 multicast is enabled, a single MGID is assigned to all the multicast addresses
coming from an interface.
Note
The number of multicast addresses supported per VLAN for a Cisco WLC is 100.
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast Mode
• The Cisco Unified Wireless Network solution uses some IP address ranges for specific purposes, and
you should keep these ranges in mind when configuring a multicast group:
◦224.0.0.0 through 224.0.0.255—Reserved link local addresses
◦224.0.1.0 through 238.255.255.255—Globally scoped addresses
◦239.0.0.0 through 239.255.x.y /16—Limited scope addresses
• When you enable multicast mode on the controller, you also must configure a CAPWAP multicast group
address. Access points subscribe to the CAPWAP multicast group using IGMP.
• Cisco 1100, 1130, 1200, 1230, and 1240 access points use IGMP versions 1, 2, and 3.
• Access points in monitor mode, sniffer mode, or rogue detector mode do not join the CAPWAP multicast
group address.
• The CAPWAP multicast group configured on the controllers should be different for different controllers.
• Access points running recent Cisco IOS versions transmit multicast frames at the highest configured
basic rate and management frames at the lowest basic mandatory rates, can cause reliability problems.
Access points running LWAPP or autonomous Cisco IOS should transmit multicast and management
frames at the lowest configured basic rate. Such behavior is necessary to provide good coverage at the
cell's edge, especially for unacknowledged multicast transmissions where multicast wireless transmissions
might fail to be received.
Because multicast frames are not retransmitted at the MAC layer, clients at the edge of the cell might
fail to receive them successfully. If reliable reception is a goal, multicast frames should be transmitted
at a low data rate. If support for high data rate multicast frames is required, it might be useful to shrink
the cell size and disable all lower data rates.
Depending on your requirements, you can take the following actions:
• If you need to transmit multicast data with the greatest reliability and if there is no need for great
multicast bandwidth, then configure a single basic rate, that is low enough to reach the edges of
the wireless cells.
• If you need to transmit multicast data at a certain data rate in order to achieve a certain throughput,
you can configure that rate as the highest basic rate. You can also set a lower basic rate for coverage
of nonmulticast clients.
• Multicast mode does not operate across intersubnet mobility events such as guest tunneling. It does,
however, operate with interface overrides using RADIUS (but only when IGMP snooping is enabled)
and with site-specific VLANs (access point group VLANs).
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• For LWAPP, the controller drops multicast packets sent to UDP control port 12223. For CAPWAP, the
controller drops multicast packets sent to UDP control and data ports 5246 and 5247, respectively.
Therefore, you may want to consider not using these port numbers with the multicast applications on
your network.
• We recommend that any multicast applications on your network not use the multicast address configured
as the CAPWAP multicast group address on the controller.
• For multicast to work on 2500 series controller, you have to configure the multicast IP address.
• Multicast mode is not supported on Cisco Flex 7500 Series Controllers.
Enabling Multicast Mode (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Multicast to open the Multicast page.
Step 2
Select the Enable Global Multicast Mode check box to configure sending multicast packets. The default value is
disabled.
Note
FlexConnect supports unicast mode
only.
If you want to enable IGMP snooping, select the Enable IGMP Snooping check box. If you want to disable IGMP
snooping, leave the check box unselected. The default value is disabled.
To set the IGMP timeout, enter a value between 30 and 7200 seconds in the IGMP Timeout text box. The controller
sends three queries in one timeout value at an interval of timeout/ 3 to see if any clients exist for a particular multicast
group. If the controller does not receive a response through an IGMP report from the client, the controller times out the
client entry from the MGID table. When no clients are left for a particular multicast group, the controller waits for the
IGMP timeout value to expire and then deletes the MGID entry from the controller. The controller always generates a
general IGMP query (that is, to destination address 224.0.0.1) and sends it on all WLANs with an MGID value of 1.
Enter the IGMP Query Interval (seconds).
Select the Enable MLD Snooping check box to support IPv6 forwarding decisions.
Note
To enable MLD Snooping, you must enable Global Multicast Mode of the controller.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
In the MLD Timeout text box, enter a value between 30 and 7200 seconds to set the MLD timeout.
Enter the MLD Query Interval (seconds). The valid range is between 15 and 2400 seconds.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 10
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Enabling Multicast Mode (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable multicasting on the controller by entering this command:
config network multicast global {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
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The config network broadcast {enable | disable} command allows you to enable or disable broadcasting
without enabling or disabling multicasting as well. This command uses the multicast mode currently on the
controller to operate.
Perform either of the following:
a) Configure the controller to use the unicast method to send multicast packets by entering this command:
config network multicast mode unicast
Note
Step 2
b) Configure the controller to use the multicast method to send multicast packets to a CAPWAP multicast group by
entering this command:
config network multicast mode multicast multicast_group_ip_address
Step 3
Enable or disable IGMP snooping by entering this command:
config network multicast igmp snooping {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Step 4
Set the IGMP timeout value by entering this command:
config network multicast igmp timeout timeout
You can enter a timeout value between 30 and 7200 seconds. The controller sends three queries in one timeout value at
an interval of timeout/3 to see if any clients exist for a particular multicast group. If the controller does not receive a
response through an IGMP report from the client, the controller times out the client entry from the MGID table. When
no clients are left for a particular multicast group, the controller waits for the IGMP timeout value to expire and then
deletes the MGID entry from the controller. The controller always generates a general IGMP query (that is, to destination
address 224.0.0.1) and sends it on all WLANs with an MGID value of 1.
Step 5
Enable or disable MLD snooping by entering this command:
config network multicast mld snooping {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Note
Step 6
To enable MLD snooping, you must enable global multicast mode of the controller.
Set the MLD timeout value by entering this command:
config network multicast mld timeout timeout
Enter the MLD Query Interval (seconds). The valid range is between 15 and 2400 seconds.
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Viewing Multicast Groups (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Monitor > Multicast. The Multicast Groups page appears.
This page shows all the multicast groups and their corresponding MGIDs.
Step 2
Click the link for a specific MGID (such as MGID 550) to see a list of all the clients joined to the multicast group in that
particular MGID.
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Viewing Multicast Groups (CLI)
Before You Begin
• See all the multicast groups and their corresponding MGIDs by entering this command:
show network multicast mgid summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Layer2 MGID Mapping:
------------------InterfaceName
-------------------------------management
test
wired
vlanId
-----0
0
20
MGID
---0
9
8
Layer3 MGID Mapping:
------------------Number of Layer3 MGIDs........................... 1
Group address
--------------239.255.255.250
Vlan
---0
MGID
---550
• See all the clients joined to the multicast group in a specific MGID by entering this command:
show network multicast mgid detail mgid_value
where the mgid_value parameter is a number between 550 and 4095.
Information similar to the following appears:
Mgid........................................ 550
Multicast Group Address..................... 239.255.255.250
Vlan........................................ 0
Rx Packet Count............................. 807399588
No of clients............................... 1
Client List.................................
Client MAC
Expire Time (mm:ss)
00:13:02:23:82:ad
0:20
Viewing an Access Point’s Multicast Client Table (CLI)
To help troubleshoot roaming events, you can view an access point’s multicast client table from the controller
by performing a remote debug of the access point.
Step 1
Initiate a remote debug of the access point by entering this command:
debug ap enable Cisco_AP
Step 2
See all of the MGIDs on the access point and the number of clients per WLAN by entering this command:
debug ap command “show capwap mcast mgid all” Cisco_AP
Step 3
See all of the clients per MGID on the access point and the number of clients per WLAN by entering this command:
debug ap command “show capwap mcast mgid id mgid_value” Cisco_AP
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Configuring Multicast Domain Name System
Information About Multicast Domain Name System
Multicast Domain Name System (mDNS) service discovery provides a way to announce and discover the
services on the local network. The mDNS service discovery enables wireless clients to access Apple services
such as Apple Printer and Apple TV advertised in a different Layer 3 network. mDNS performs DNS queries
over IP multicast. mDNS supports zero-configuration IP networking. As a standard, mDNS uses multicast IP
address 224.0.0.251 as the destination address and 5353 as the UDP destination port.
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast DNS
• mDNS over IPv6 is not supported.
• mDNS is not supported on access points in FlexConnect mode in a locally switched WLAN and mesh
access points.
• mDNS is not supported on remote LANs.
• mDNS is not supported on Cisco AP1240 and Cisco AP1130.
• Third-party mDNS servers or applications are not supported on the Cisco WLC using the mDNS feature.
Devices that are advertised by the third-party servers or applications are not populated on the mDNS
service or device table correctly on the Cisco WLC.
• Video is not supported on Apple iOS 6 with WMM in enabled state.
Configuring Multicast DNS (GUI)
Step 1
Configure the global mDNS parameters and the Master Services Database by following these steps:
a) Choose Controller > mDNS > General.
b) Select or unselect the mDNS Global Snooping check box to enable or disable snooping of mDNS packets, respectively.
c) Enter the mDNS query interval in minutes. The query interval is the frequency at which the controller queries for a
service.
d) Choose a service from the Select Service drop-down list.
Note
To add a new mDNS-supported service to the list, choose Other. Specify the service name and the service
string. The controller snoops and learns about the mDNS service advertisements only if the service is available
in the Master Services Database. The controller can snoop and learn a maximum of 64 services.
e) Select or unselect the Query Status check box to enable or disable an mDNS query for a service, respectively.
f) Click Add.
g) Click Apply.
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h) To view the details of an mDNS service, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow of a service, and choose
Details.
Step 2
Configure an mDNS profile by following these steps:
a) Choose Controller > mDNS > Profiles.
The controller has a default mDNS profile, which is default-mdns-profile. It is not possible to delete the default
profile.
b) To create a new profile, click New, enter a profile name, and click Apply.
c) To edit a profile, click a profile name on the mDNS Profiles page; from the Service Name drop-down list, choose
a service to be associated with the profile, and click Apply.
You can add multiple services to a profile.
Step 3
Click Save Configuration.
What to Do Next
After creating a new profile, you must map the profile to an interface group, an interface, or a WLAN. Clients
receive service advertisements only for the services associated with the profile. The highest priority is given
to the profiles associated with interface groups, followed by the interface profiles, and then the WLAN profiles.
Each client is mapped to a profile based on the order of priority.
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface group by following these steps:
1 Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
2 Click the corresponding interface group name.
The Interface Groups > Edit page is displayed.
3 From the mDNS Profile drop-down list, choose a profile.
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface by following these steps:
1 Choose Controller > Interfaces.
2 Click the corresponding interface name.
The Interfaces > Edit page is displayed.
3 From the mDNS Profile drop-down list, choose a profile.
• Map an mDNS profile to a WLAN by following these steps:
1 Choose WLANs. click the WLAN ID to open the WLANs > Edit page.
2 Click the corresponding WLAN ID.
The WLANs > Edit page is displayed.
3 Click the Advanced tab.
4 Select the mDNS Snooping check box.
5 From the mDNS Profile drop-down list, choose a profile.
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Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI)
• Configure mDNS snooping by entering this command:
config mdns snooping {enable | disable}
• Configure an mDNS service by entering this command:
config mdns service {{create service-name service-string query {enable | disable}} | delete
service-name}
• Configure a query for an mDNS service by entering this command:
config mdns service query {enable | disable} service-name
• Configure a query interval for mDNS services by entering this command:
config mdns query interval value-in-minutes
• Configure an mDNS profile by entering this command:
config mdns profile {create | delete} profile-name
Note
If you try to delete an mDNS profile that is already associated with an interface group,
an interface, or a WLAN, an error message is displayed.
• Configure mDNS services to a profile by entering this command:
config mdns profile service {add | delete} profile-name service-name
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface group by entering this command:
config interface group mdns-profile {interface-group-name | all} {mdns-profile-name | none}
Note
If the mDNS profile name is none, no profiles are attached to the interface group. Any
existing profile that is attached is removed.
• View information about an mDNS profile that is associated with an interface group by entering this
command:
show interface group detailed interface-group-name
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface by entering this command:
config interface mdns-profile {management | {interface-name | all}} {mdns-profile-name | none}
• View information about the mDNS profile that is associated with an interface by entering this command:
show interface detailed interface-name
• Configure mDNS for a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan mdns {enable | disable} {wlan-id | all}
• Map an mDNS profile to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan mdns profile {wlan-id | all} {mdns-profile-name | none}
• View information about an mDNS profile that is associated with a WLAN by entering this command:
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show wlan wlan-id
• View information about all mDNS profiles or a particular mDNS profile by entering this command:
show mdns profile {summary | detailed mdns-profile-name}
• View information about all mDNS services or a particular mDNS service by entering this command:
show mdns service {summary | detailed mdns-service-name}
• View information about the mDNS domain names that are learned by entering this command:
show mdns domain-name-ip summary
• View the mDNS profile for a client by entering this command:
show client detail client-mac-address
• View the mDNS details for a network by entering this command:
show network summary
• Clear the mDNS service database by entering this command:
clear mdns service-database {all | service-name}
• View events related to mDNS by entering this command:
debug mdns message {enable | disable}
• View mDNS details of the events by entering this command:
debug mdns detail {enable | disable}
• View errors related to mDNS processing by entering this command:
debug mdns error {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of all mDNS details by entering this command:
debug mdns all {enable | disable}
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12
Configuring Client Roaming
• Information About Client Roaming, page 115
• Guidelines and Limitations, page 117
• Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (GUI), page 117
• Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (CLI), page 118
• Obtaining CCX Client Roaming Information (CLI), page 118
• Debugging CCX Client Roaming Issues (CLI), page 119
Information About Client Roaming
The Cisco UWN solution supports seamless client roaming across lightweight access points managed by the
same controller, between controllers in the same mobility group on the same subnet, and across controllers
in the same mobility group on different subnets. Also, in controller software release 4.1 or later releases, client
roaming with multicast packets is supported.
You can adjust the default RF settings (RSSI, hysteresis, scan threshold, and transition time) to fine-tune the
operation of client roaming using the controller GUI or CLI.
Inter-Controller Roaming
Multiple-controller deployments support client roaming across access points managed by controllers in the
same mobility group and on the same subnet. This roaming is also transparent to the client because the session
is sustained and a tunnel between controllers allows the client to continue using the same DHCP- or
client-assigned IP address as long as the session remains active. The tunnel is torn down, and the client must
reauthenticate when the client sends a DHCP Discover with a 0.0.0.0 client IP address or a 169.254.*.* client
auto-IP address or when the operator-set session timeout is exceeded.
Intra-Controller Roaming
Each controller supports same-controller client roaming across access points managed by the same controller.
This roaming is transparent to the client as the session is sustained, and the client continues using the same
DHCP-assigned or client-assigned IP address. The controller provides DHCP functionality with a relay
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function. Same-controller roaming is supported in single-controller deployments and in multiple-controller
deployments.
Inter-Subnet Roaming
Multiple-controller deployments support client roaming across access points managed by controllers in the
same mobility group on different subnets. This roaming is transparent to the client because the session is
sustained and a tunnel between the controllers allows the client to continue using the same DHCP-assigned
or client-assigned IP address as long as the session remains active. The tunnel is torn down, and the client
must reauthenticate when the client sends a DHCP Discover with a 0.0.0.0 client IP address or a 169.254.*.*
client auto-IP address or when the operator-set user timeout is exceeded.
Voice-over-IP Telephone Roaming
802.11 voice-over-IP (VoIP) telephones actively seek out associations with the strongest RF signal to ensure
the best quality of service (QoS) and the maximum throughput. The minimum VoIP telephone requirement
of 20-millisecond or shorter latency time for the roaming handover is easily met by the Cisco Unified Wireless
Network (Cisco UWN) solution, which has an average handover latency of 5 or fewer milliseconds when
open authentication is used. This short latency period is controlled by controllers rather than allowing
independent access points to negotiate roaming handovers.
The Cisco UWN solution supports 802.11 VoIP telephone roaming across lightweight access points managed
by controllers on different subnets, as long as the controllers are in the same mobility group. This roaming is
transparent to the VoIP telephone because the session is sustained and a tunnel between controllers allows
the VoIP telephone to continue using the same DHCP-assigned IP address as long as the session remains
active. The tunnel is torn down, and the VoIP client must reauthenticate when the VoIP telephone sends a
DHCP Discover with a 0.0.0.0 VoIP telephone IP address or a 169.254.*.* VoIP telephone auto-IP address
or when the operator-set user timeout is exceeded.
CCX Layer 2 Client Roaming
The controller supports five CCX Layer 2 client roaming enhancements:
• Access point assisted roaming—This feature helps clients save scanning time. When a CCXv2 client
associates to an access point, it sends an information packet to the new access point listing the
characteristics of its previous access point. Roaming time decreases when the client recognizes and uses
an access point list built by compiling all previous access points to which each client was associated and
sent (unicast) to the client immediately after association. The access point list contains the channels,
BSSIDs of neighbor access points that support the client’s current SSID(s), and time elapsed since
disassociation.
• Enhanced neighbor list—This feature focuses on improving a CCXv4 client’s roam experience and
network edge performance, especially when servicing voice applications. The access point provides its
associated client information about its neighbors using a neighbor-list update unicast message.
• Enhanced neighbor list request (E2E)—The End-2-End specification is a Cisco and Intel joint program
that defines new protocols and interfaces to improve the overall voice and roaming experience. It applies
only to Intel clients in a CCX environment. Specifically, it enables Intel clients to request a neighbor
list at will. When this occurs, the access point forwards the request to the controller. The controller
receives the request and replies with the current CCX roaming sublist of neighbors for the access point
to which the client is associated.
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Note
To see whether a particular client supports E2E, choose Wireless > Clients on the
controller GUI, click the Detail link for the desired client, and look at the E2E Version
text box in the Client Properties area.
• Roam reason report—This feature enables CCXv4 clients to report the reason why they roamed to a
new access point. It also allows network administrators to build and monitor a roam history.
• Directed roam request—This feature enables the controller to send directed roam requests to the client
in situations when the controller can better service the client on an access point different from the one
to which it is associated. In this case, the controller sends the client a list of the best access points that
it can join. The client can either honor or ignore the directed roam request. Non-CCX clients and clients
running CCXv3 or below must not take any action. No configuration is required for this feature.
Guidelines and Limitations
• Controller software release 4.2 or later releases support CCX versions 1 through 5. CCX support is
enabled automatically for every WLAN on the controller and cannot be disabled. The controller stores
the CCX version of the client in its client database and uses it to generate and respond to CCX frames
appropriately. Clients must support CCXv4 or v5 (or CCXv2 for access point assisted roaming) in order
to utilize these roaming enhancements.
The roaming enhancements mentioned above are enabled automatically, with the appropriate CCX
support.
• FlexConnect access points in standalone mode do not support CCX Layer 2 roaming.
• Client roaming between 600 Series Access points is not supported.
Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Client Roaming. The 802.11a (802.11b) > Client Roaming page appears.
If you want to fine-tune the RF parameters that affect client roaming, choose Custom from the Mode drop-down list
and go to Step 3. If you want to leave the RF parameters at their default values, choose Default and go to Step 8.
Step 3
In the Minimum RSSI text box, enter a value for the minimum received signal strength indicator (RSSI) required for
the client to associate to an access point. If the client’s average received signal power dips below this threshold, reliable
communication is usually impossible. Therefore, clients must already have found and roamed to another access point
with a stronger signal before the minimum RSSI value is reached.
The range is –90 to –50 dBm.
The default is –85 dBm.
Step 4
In the Hysteresis text box, enter a value to indicate how much greater the signal strength of a neighboring access point
must be in order for the client to roam to it. This parameter is intended to reduce the amount of roaming between access
points if the client is physically located on or near the border between two access points.
The range is 3 to 20 dB.
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The default is 3 dB.
Step 5
In the Scan Threshold text box, enter the minimum RSSI that is allowed before the client should roam to a better access
point. When the RSSI drops below the specified value, the client must be able to roam to a better access point within the
specified transition time. This parameter also provides a power-save method to minimize the time that the client spends
in active or passive scanning. For example, the client can scan slowly when the RSSI is above the threshold and scan
more rapidly when the RSSI is below the threshold.
The range is –90 to –50 dBm.
The default is –72 dBm.
Step 6
In the Transition Time text box, enter the maximum time allowed for the client to detect a suitable neighboring access
point to roam to and to complete the roam, whenever the RSSI from the client’s associated access point is below the scan
threshold.
The Scan Threshold and Transition Time parameters guarantee a minimum level of client roaming performance. Together
with the highest expected client speed and roaming hysteresis, these parameters make it possible to design a wireless
LAN network that supports roaming simply by ensuring a certain minimum overlap distance between access points.
The range is 1 to 5 seconds.
The default is 5 seconds.
Step 7
Click Apply.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration.
Step 9
Repeat this procedure if you want to configure client roaming for another radio band.
Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (CLI)
Configure CCX Layer 2 client roaming parameters by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} l2roam rf-params {default | custom min_rssi roam_hyst scan_thresh trans_time}
Obtaining CCX Client Roaming Information (CLI)
Step 1
View the current RF parameters configured for client roaming for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this
command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} l2roam rf-param
Step 2
View the CCX Layer 2 client roaming statistics for a particular access point by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} l2roam statistics ap_mac
This command provides the following information:
• The number of roam reason reports received
• The number of neighbor list requests received
• The number of neighbor list reports sent
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• The number of broadcast neighbor updates sent
Step 3
View the roaming history for a particular client by entering this command:
show client roam-history client_mac
This command provides the following information:
• The time when the report was received
• The MAC address of the access point to which the client is currently associated
• The MAC address of the access point to which the client was previously associated
• The channel of the access point to which the client was previously associated
• The SSID of the access point to which the client was previously associated
• The time when the client disassociated from the previous access point
• The reason for the client roam
Debugging CCX Client Roaming Issues (CLI)
If you experience any problems with CCX Layer 2 client roaming, enter this command:
debug l2roam [detail | error | packet | all] {enable | disable}
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13
Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding
• Information About Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding, page 121
• Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding (CLI), page 121
Information About Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding
In the controller software Release 5.2 or later releases, the controller enforces strict IP address-to-MAC address
binding in client packets. The controller checks the IP address and MAC address in a packet, compares them
to the addresses that are registered with the controller, and forwards the packet only if they both match. In
previous releases, the controller checks only the MAC address of the client and ignores the IP address.
You must disable IP-MAC address binding to use an access point in sniffer mode if the access point is
associated with a 5500 series controller, a 2500 series controller, or a controller network module. To disable
IP-MAC address binding, enter the config network ip-mac-binding disable.
WLAN must be enabled to use an access point in sniffer mode if the access point is associated with a 5500
series controller, a 2500 series controller, or a controller network module. If WLAN is disabled, the access
point cannot send packets.
Note
If the IP address or MAC address of the packet has been spoofed, the check does not pass, and the controller
discards the packet. Spoofed packets can pass through the controller only if both the IP and MAC addresses
are spoofed together and changed to that of another valid client on the same controller.
Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable IP-MAC address binding by entering this command:
config network ip-mac-binding {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled.
Note
You might want to disable this binding check if you have a routed network behind a workgroup bridge (WGB).
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You must disable this binding check in order to use an access point in sniffer mode if the access point is joined
to a Cisco 5500 Series Controller.
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Note
Step 2
Step 3
View the status of IP-MAC address binding by entering this command:
show network summary
Information similar to the following appears:
RF-Network Name.............................
Web Mode....................................
Secure Web Mode.............................
Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option High..........
Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option SSLv2.........
...
ctrl4404
Disable
Enable
Disable
Disable
IP/MAC Addr Binding Check ............... Enabled
...<?Line-Break?><?HardReturn?>
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Configuring Quality of Service
• Configuring Quality of Service, page 123
• Configuring Quality of Service Roles, page 126
Configuring Quality of Service
Information About Quality of Service
Quality of service (QoS) refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to selected network
traffic over various technologies. The primary goal of QoS is to provide priority including dedicated bandwidth,
controlled jitter and latency (required by some real-time and interactive traffic), and improved loss
characteristics.
The controller supports four QoS levels:
• Platinum/Voice—Ensures a high quality of service for voice over wireless.
• Gold/Video—Supports high-quality video applications.
• Silver/Best Effort—Supports normal bandwidth for clients. This is the default setting.
• Bronze/Background—Provides the lowest bandwidth for guest services.
Note
VoIP clients should be set to Platinum.
You can configure the bandwidth of each QoS level using QoS profiles and then apply the profiles to WLANs.
The profile settings are pushed to the clients associated to that WLAN. In addition, you can create QoS roles
to specify different bandwidth levels for regular and guest users. Follow the instructions in this section to
configure QoS profiles and QoS roles. You can also define the maximum and default QoS levels for unicast
and multicast traffic when you assign a QoS profile to a WLAN.
The wireless rate limits can be defined on both upstream and downstream traffic. Rate limits can be defined
per SSID and/or specified as a maximum rate limit for all clients. These rate limits can be individually
configured.
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Configuring Quality of Service Profiles
You can configure the Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Bronze QoS profiles.
Configuring QoS Profiles (GUI)
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks so that you can configure the QoS profiles.
To disable the radio networks, choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network, unselect the 802.11a (or
802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and click Apply.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Choose Wireless > QoS > Profiles to open the QoS Profiles page.
Click the name of the profile that you want to configure to open the Edit QoS Profile page.
Change the description of the profile by modifying the contents of the Description text box.
Define the data rates on a per-user basis as follows:
a) Define the average data rate for TCP traffic per user by entering the rate in Kbps in the Average Data Rate text boxes.
A value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
b) Define the peak data rate for TCP traffic per user by entering the rate in Kbps in the Burst Data Rate text boxes. A
value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
Note
The burst data rate should be greater than or equal to the average data rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may
block traffic to and from the wireless client.
Ensure that you configure the average data rate before you configure the burst data rate.
c) Define the average real-time rate for UDP traffic per user by entering the rate in Kbps in the Average Real-Time
Rate text boxes. A value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
Note
Average Data Rate is used to measure TCP traffic while Average Real-time rate is used for UDP traffic.
They are measured in kbps for all the entries. The values for Average Data Rate and Average Real-time rate
can be different because they are applied to different upper layer protocols such as TCP and UDP. These
different values for the rates do not impact the bandwidth.
d) Define the peak real-time rate for UDP traffic per user by entering the rate in Kbps in the Burst Real-Time Rate text
boxes. A value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
Note
The burst real-time rate should be greater than or equal to the average real-time rate. Otherwise, the QoS
policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.
Step 6
Define the data rates on a per-SSID basis as follows:
a) Define the average data rate TCP traffic per SSID by entering the rate in Kbps in the Average Data Rate text boxes.
A value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
b) Define the peak data rate for TCP traffic per SSID by entering the rate in Kbps in the Burst Data Rate text boxes. A
value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
Note
The burst data rate should be greater than or equal to the average data rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may
block traffic in the WLANs.
c) Define the average real-time rate for UDP traffic per SSID by entering the rate in Kbps in the Average Real-Time
Rate text boxes. A value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
d) Define the peak real-time rate for UDP traffic per SSID by entering the rate in Kbps in the Burst Real-Time Rate
text boxes. A value of 0 indicates that the value specified in the selected QoS profile will take effect.
Note
The burst real-time rate should be greater than or equal to the average real-time rate. Otherwise, the QoS
policy may block traffic in the WLANs.
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Step 7
Define the maximum and default QoS levels for unicast and multicast traffic when you assign a QoS profile to a WLAN.
a) From the Maximum Priority drop-down list, choose the maximum QoS priority for any data frames transmitted by
the AP to any station in the WLAN.
For example, a QoS profile named ‘gold’ targeted for video applications has the maximum priority set to video by
default.
b) From the Unicast Default Priority drop-down list, choose the QoS priority for unicast data frames transmitted by the
AP to non-WMM stations in the WLAN
c) From the Multicast Default Priority drop-down list, choose the QoS priority for multicast data frames transmitted by
the AP to stations in the WLAN,
Note
The default unicast priority cannot be used for non-WMM clients in a mixed WLAN.
Step 8
Choose 802.1p from the Protocol Type drop-down list and enter the maximum priority value in the 802.1p Tag text box
to define the maximum value (0–7) for the priority tag associated with packets that fall within the profile.
The tagged packets include CAPWAP data packets (between access points and the controller) and packets sent toward
the core network.
If a QoS profile has 802.1p tagging configured and if this QoS profile is assigned to a WLAN that uses an
untagged interface on the controller, the client traffic will be blocked.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Reenable the 802.11 networks.
To enable the radio networks, choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network, select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g)
Network Status check box, and click Apply.
Note
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Configuring QoS Profiles (CLI)
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks so that you can configure the QoS profiles by entering these commands:
config 802.11{a | b} disable network
Step 2
Change the profile description by entering this command:
config qos description {bronze | silver | gold | platinum }description
Step 3
Define the average data rate for TCP traffic per user or per SSID by entering this command:
config qos average-data-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} {per-ssid | per-client} {downstream | upstream}
rate
For the rate parameter, you can enter a value between 0 and 512,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes
no bandwidth restriction on the QoS profile.
Define the peak data rate for TCP traffic per user or per SSID by entering this command:
config qos burst-data-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} {per-ssid | per-client} {downstream | upstream} rate
Note
Step 4
Step 5
Define the average real-time data rate for UDP traffic per user or per SSID by entering this command:
config qos average-realtime-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} {per-ssid | per-client} {downstream | upstream}
rate
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Step 6
Define the peak real-time data rate for UDP traffic per user or per SSID by entering this command:
config qos burst-realtime-rate {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} {per-ssid | per-client} {downstream | upstream}
rate
Step 7
Define the maximum and default QoS levels for unicast and multicast traffic when you assign a QoS profile to a WLAN
by entering this command:
config qos priority {bronze | gold | platinum | silver} {maximum priority} {default unicast priority} {default multicast
priority}
You choose from the following options for the maximum priority, default unicast priority, and default multicast priority
parameters:
• besteffort
• background
• video
• voice
Step 8
Define the maximum value (0–7) for the priority tag associated with packets that fall within the profile, by entering these
commands:
config qos protocol-type {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} dot1p
config qos dot1p-tag {bronze | silver | gold | platinum} tag
The tagged packets include CAPWAP data packets (between access points and the controller) and packets sent toward
the core network.
Note
The 802.1p tagging has impact only on wired packets. Wireless packets are impacted only by the maximum
priority level set for a QoS profile.
If a QoS profile has 802.1p tagging configured and if this QoS profile is assigned to a WLAN that uses an
untagged interface on the controller, the client traffic will be blocked.
Reenable the 802.11a and 802.11b/g networks so that you can configure the QoS profiles by entering these commands:
config 802.11{a | b} enable network
Note
Step 9
Configuring Quality of Service Roles
Information About Quality of Service Roles
After you configure a QoS profile and apply it to a WLAN, it limits the bandwidth level of clients associated
to that WLAN. Multiple WLANs can be mapped to the same QoS profile, which can result in bandwidth
contention between regular users (such as employees) and guest users. In order to prevent guest users from
using the same level of bandwidth as regular users, you can create QoS roles with different (and presumably
lower) bandwidth contracts and assign them to guest users.
You can configure up to ten QoS roles for guest users.
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Note
If you choose to create an entry on the RADIUS server for a guest user and enable RADIUS authentication
for the WLAN on which web authentication is performed rather than adding a guest user to the local user
database from the controller, you need to assign the QoS role on the RADIUS server itself. To do so, a
“guest-role” Airespace attribute needs to be added on the RADIUS server with a datatype of “string” and
a return value of “11.” This attribute is sent to the controller when authentication occurs. If a role with the
name returned from the RADIUS server is found configured on the controller, the bandwidth associated
to that role is enforced for the guest user after authentication completes successfully.
Configuring QoS Roles
Configuring QoS (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Wireless > QoS > Roles to open the QoS Roles for the Guest Users page.
This page shows any existing QoS roles for guest users.
If you want to delete a QoS role, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that role and choose
Remove.
Click New to create a new QoS role. The QoS Role Name > New page appears.
In the Role Name text box, enter a name for the new QoS role. The name should uniquely identify the role of the QoS
user (such as Contractor, Vendor, and so on).
Click Apply.
Click the name of the QoS role to edit the bandwidth of a QoS role. The Edit QoS Role Data Rates page appears.
Note
The values that you configure for the per-user bandwidth contracts affect only the amount of bandwidth going
downstream (from the access point to the wireless client). They do not affect the bandwidth for upstream traffic
(from the client to the access point).
Note
The Access Points that support per-user bandwidth contracts for upstream (from the client to the access point)
are - AP1140, AP1040, AP3500, AP3600, AP1250, and AP1260.
Define the average data rate for TCP traffic on a per-user basis by entering the rate in Kbps in the Average Data Rate
text box. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction
on the QoS role.
Define the peak data rate for TCP traffic on a per-user basis by entering the rate in Kbps in the Burst Data Rate text box.
You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth restriction on the QoS
role.
Note
The burst data rate should be greater than or equal to the average data rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may block
traffic to and from the wireless client.
Note
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Ensure that you configure the average data rate before you configure the burst data rate.
Define the average real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per-user basis by entering the rate in Kbps in the Average Real-Time
Rate text box. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth
restriction on the QoS role.
Define the peak real-time rate for UDP traffic on a per-user basis by entering the rate in Kbps in the Burst Real-Time
Rate text box. You can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth
restriction on the QoS role.
Note
The burst real-time rate should be greater than or equal to the average real-time rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy
may block traffic to and from the wireless client.
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Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Apply a QoS role to a guest user by following the instructions in the Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller
(GUI) section.
Configuring QoS Roles (CLI)
Step 1
Create a QoS role for a guest user by entering this command:
config netuser guest-role create role_name
Note
Step 2
If you want to delete a QoS role, enter the config netuser guest-role delete role_name command.
Configure the bandwidth contracts for a QoS role by entering these commands:
• config netuser guest-role qos data-rate average-data-rate role_name rate—Configures the average data rate
for TCP traffic on a per-user basis.
• config netuser guest-role qos data-rate burst-data-rate role_name rate—Configures the peak data rate for TCP
traffic on a per-user basis.
Note
The burst data rate should be greater than or equal to the average data rate. Otherwise, the QoS policy may
block traffic to and from the wireless client.
• config netuser guest-role qos data-rate average-realtime-rate role_name rate—Configures the average real-time
rate for UDP traffic on a per-user basis.
• config netuser guest-role qos data-rate burst-realtime-rate role_name rate—Configures the peak real-time rate
for UDP traffic on a per-user basis.
Note
Note
Step 3
The burst real-time rate should be greater than or equal to the average real-time rate. Otherwise, the QoS
policy may block traffic to and from the wireless client.
For the role_name parameter in each of these commands, enter a name for the new QoS role. The name
should uniquely identify the role of the QoS user (such as Contractor, Vendor, and so on). For the rate
parameter, you can enter a value between 0 and 60,000 Kbps (inclusive). A value of 0 imposes no bandwidth
restriction on the QoS role.
Apply a QoS role to a guest user by entering this command:
config netuser guest-role apply username role_name
For example, the role of Contractor could be applied to guest user jsmith.
Note
Note
If you do not assign a QoS role to a guest user, the Role text box in the User Details shows the role as “default.”
The bandwidth contracts for this user are defined in the QoS profile for the WLAN.
If you want to unassign a QoS role from a guest user, enter the config netuser guest-role apply username
default command. This user now uses the bandwidth contracts defined in the QoS profile for the WLAN.
Step 4
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 5
See a list of the current QoS roles and their bandwidth parameters by entering this command:
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show netuser guest-roles
Information similar to the following appears:
Role Name........................................
Average Data Rate...........................
Burst Data Rate.............................
Average Realtime Rate.......................
Burst Realtime Rate.........................
Contractor
10
10
100
100
Role Name........................................ Vendor
Average Data Rate........................... unconfigured
Burst Data Rate............................. unconfigured
Average Realtime Rate....................... unconfigured
Burst Realtime Rate...................... unconfigured
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Configuring Application Visibility and Control
• Information About Application Visibility and Control, page 131
• Restrictions for Application Visibility and Control, page 132
• Configuring Application Visibility and Control (GUI), page 132
• Configuring Application Visibility and Control (CLI), page 133
• Configuring NetFlow, page 134
Information About Application Visibility and Control
Application Visibility and Control (AVC) classifies applications using deep packet inspection techniques with
the Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR) engine, and provides application-level visibility and
control into Wi-Fi networks. After the applications are recognized, the AVC feature enables you to either
drop or mark the data traffic.
Using AVC, we can detect more than 1000 applications. AVC enables you to perform real-time analysis and
create policies to reduce network congestion, costly network link usage, and infrastructure upgrades.
Note
You can view list of 30 applications in Top Applications in Monitor Summary section of the UI.
AVC DSCP marks only the DSCP of the original packet in the controller in both directions (upstream and
downstream). It does not affect the outer CAPWAP DCSP. AVC DSCP is applicable only when the application
is classified. For example, based on the AVC profile configuration, if an application is classified as ftp or
http, the corresponding DSCP marking is applied irrespective of the WLAN QoS. For downstream, the DSCP
value of outer CAPWAP header and inner packet’s DSCP are taken from AVC DSCP. WLAN QoS is only
applicable for all traffic from WLC to AP through CAPWAP. It does not change the DSCP of the original
packet.
Using AVC rule, you can limit the bandwidth of a particular application for all the clients joined on the WLAN.
These bandwidth contracts coexist with per-client downstream rate limiting with per client downstream rate
limits that takes precedence over the per-application rate limits.
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Note
When you downgrade the controller from 8.0 to any earlier version, the AVC rate limit rules display the
action as drop. This action is expected since the AVC rate limit rule is introduced in the controller version
8.0.
AVC is supported on the following controller platforms: Cisco 2500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers, Cisco
5500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers, Cisco Flex 7500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers in central switching
mode, Cisco 8500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers, and Cisco Wireless Services Module 2 (WiSM2).
The number of concurrent flows supported for AVC classification on different controller platforms for 8.0
release are noted in the following table. The absolute maximum number of flows supported on one platform
cannot exceed more than 110% of the numbers shown in the following table and this 10% extra flows support
will happen based on availability of the free memory in the system.
Controller
Flow
Cisco 5500 Series Wireless LAN Controller
1,75,000
Cisco 2500 Series Wireless LAN Controller
25,000
WISM-2
3,75,000
Cisco 8500 Series Wireless LAN Controller
3,50,000
Restrictions for Application Visibility and Control
• IPv6 packet classification is not supported.
• Layer 2 roaming is not supported across controllers.
• Multicast traffic is not supported.
• The number of applications that you can apply rate limit is 3.
• Only one rule can be configured per application. An application cannot have both a rate limit as well as
a Mark rule.
Configuring Application Visibility and Control (GUI)
Step 1
Create and configure an AVC profile by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > Application Visibility and Control > AVC Profiles.
b) Click New.
c) Enter the AVC profile name.
d) Click Apply.
e) On the AVC Profile Name page, click the corresponding AVC profile name.
The AVC Profile > Edit page is displayed.
f) Click Add New Rule.
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g) Choose the application group and the application name from the respective drop-down lists.
View the list of default AVC applications available by choosing Wireless > Application Visibility and Control >
AVC Applications.
h) From the Action drop-down list, choose either of the following:
• Drop—Drops the upstream and downstream packets that correspond to the chosen application.
• Mark—Marks the upstream and downstream packets that correspond to the chosen application with the
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value that you specify in the DSCP (0 to 63) drop-down list. The
DSCP value helps you provide differentiated services based on the QoS levels.
Note
The default action is to give permission to all
applications.
i) If you choose Mark from the Action drop-down list, choose a DSCP value from the DSCP (0 to 63) drop-down list.
The DSCP value is a packet header code that is used to define QoS across the Internet. The DSCP values are mapped
to the following QoS levels:
• Platinum (Voice)—Assures a high QoS for Voice over Wireless.
• Gold (Video)—Supports high-quality video applications.
• Silver (Best Effort)—Supports normal bandwidth for clients.
• Bronze (Background)—Provides the lowest bandwidth for guest services.
You can also choose Custom and specify the DSCP value. The valid range is from 0 to 63.
j) Click Apply.
k) Click Save Configuration.
Step 2
Associate an AVC profile to a WLAN by following these steps:
a) Choose WLANs and click the corresponding WLAN ID.
The WLANs > Edit page is displayed.
b)
c)
d)
e)
Click the QoS tab.
Choose the AVC profile from the AVC Profile drop-down list.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Application Visibility and Control (CLI)
• Create or delete an AVC profile by entering this command:
config avc profile avc-profile-name {create | delete}
• Add a rule for an AVC profile by entering this command:
config avc profile avc-profile-name rule add application application-name {drop | mark dscp-value
| ratelimit Average Ratelimit value Burst Ratelimit value}
• Remove a rule for an AVC profile by entering this command:
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config avc profile avc-profile-name rule remove application application-name
• Configure an AVC profile to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan avc wlan-id profile avc-profile-name {enable | disable}
• Configure application visibility for a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan avc wlan-id visibility {enable | disable}
Note
Application visibility is the subset of an AVC profile. Therefore, visibility is
automatically enabled when you configure an AVC profile on the WLAN.
• View information about all AVC profile or a particular AVC profile by entering this command:
show avc profile {summary | detailed avc-profile-name}
• View information about AVC applications by entering this command:
show avc applications [application-group]
• View various statistical information about AVC by entering this command:
show avc statistics
• Configure troubleshooting for AVC events by entering this command:
debug avc events {enable | disable}
• Configure troubleshooting for AVC errors by entering this command:
debug avc error {enable | disable}
Configuring NetFlow
Information About NetFlow
NetFlow is a protocol that provides information about network users and applications, peak usage times, and
traffic routing. The NetFlow protocol collects IP traffic information from network devices to monitor traffic.
The NetFlow architecture consists of the following components:
• Collector—Entity that collects all the IP traffic information from various network elements.
• Exporter—Network entity that exports the template with the IP traffic information. The controller acts
as an exporter.
Note
Cisco Wireless LAN Controller does not support IPv6 address as Exporter for NetFlow.
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Configuring NetFlow (GUI)
Step 1
Configure the Exporter by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > Netflow > Exporter.
b) Click New.
c) Enter the Exporter name, IP address, and the port number.
The valid range for the port number is from 1 to 65535.
d) Click Apply.
e) Click Save Configuration.
Step 2
Configure the NetFlow Monitor by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > Netflow > Monitor.
b) Click New and enter the Monitor name.
c) On the Monitor List page, click the Monitor name to open the Netflow Monitor > Edit page.
d) Choose the Exporter name and the Record name from the respective drop-down lists.
e) Click Apply.
f) Click Save Configuration.
Step 3
Associate a NetFlow Monitor to a WLAN by following these steps:
a) Choose WLANs and click the WLAN ID to open the WLANs > Edit page.
b) In the QoS tab, choose the NetFlow Monitor from the Netflow Monitor drop-down list.
c) Click Apply.
d) Click Save Configuration.
Configuring NetFlow (CLI)
• Create an Exporter by entering this command:
config flow create exporter exporter-name ip-addr port-number
• Create a NetFlow Monitor by entering this command:
config flow create monitor monitor-name
• Associate or dissociate a NetFlow Monitor with an Exporter by entering this command:
config flow {add | delete} monitor monitor-name exporter exporter-name
• Associate or dissociate a NetFlow Monitor with a Record by entering this command:
config flow {add | delete} monitor monitor-name record ipv4_client_app_flow_record
• Associate or dissociate a NetFlow Monitor with a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan flow wlan-id monitor monitor-name {enable | disable}
• See a summary of NetFlow Monitors by entering this command:
show flow monitor summary
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• See information about the Exporter by entering this command:
show flow exporter {summary | statistics}
• Configure a debug of NetFlow by entering this command:
debug flow {detail | error | info} {enable | disable}
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Configuring Media and EDCA Parameters
• Configuring Voice and Video Parameters, page 137
• Configuring SIP-Based CAC, page 149
• Configuring Media Parameters, page 151
• Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers, page 151
• Configuring EDCA Parameters, page 153
Configuring Voice and Video Parameters
Information About Configuring Voice and Video Parameters
Three parameters on the controller affect voice and/or video quality:
• Call admission control
• Expedited bandwidth requests
• Unscheduled automatic power save delivery
Each of these parameters is supported in Cisco Compatible Extensions (CCX) v4 and v5.
Note
Traffic stream metrics (TSM) can be used to monitor and report issues with voice quality.
Call Admission Control
Call admission control (CAC) enables an access point to maintain controlled quality of service (QoS) when
the wireless LAN is experiencing congestion. The Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) protocol deployed in CCXv3
ensures sufficient QoS as long as the wireless LAN is not congested. However, in order to maintain QoS
under differing network loads, CAC in CCXv4 is required. Two types of CAC are available: bandwidth-based
CAC and load-based CAC.
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Bandwidth-Based CAC
Bandwidth-based, or static, CAC enables the client to specify how much bandwidth or shared medium time
is required to accept a new call and in turn enables the access point to determine whether it is capable of
accommodating this particular call. The access point rejects the call if necessary in order to maintain the
maximum allowed number of calls with acceptable quality.
The QoS setting for a WLAN determines the level of bandwidth-based CAC support. To use bandwidth-based
CAC with voice applications, the WLAN must be configured for Platinum QoS. To use bandwidth-based
CAC with video applications, the WLAN must be configured for Gold QoS. Also, make sure that WMM is
enabled for the WLAN. See the Information About Configuring 802.3 Bridging, on page 103 section for QoS
and WMM configuration instructions.
Note
You must enable admission control (ACM) for CCXv4 clients that have WMM enabled. Otherwise,
bandwidth-based CAC does not operate properly.
Load-Based CAC
Load-based CAC incorporates a measurement scheme that takes into account the bandwidth consumed by all
traffic types (including that from clients), co-channel access point loads, and collocated channel interference,
for voice applications. Load-based CAC also covers the additional bandwidth consumption resulting from
PHY and channel impairment.
In load-based CAC, the access point continuously measures and updates the utilization of the RF channel
(that is, the percentage of bandwidth that has been exhausted), channel interference, and the additional calls
that the access point can admit. The access point admits a new call only if the channel has enough unused
bandwidth to support that call. By doing so, load-based CAC prevents oversubscription of the channel and
maintains QoS under all conditions of WLAN loading and interference.
Note
Load-based CAC is supported only on lightweight access points. If you disable load-based CAC, the
access points start using bandwidth-based CAC.
Expedited Bandwidth Requests
The expedited bandwidth request feature enables CCXv5 clients to indicate the urgency of a WMM traffic
specifications (TSPEC) request (for example, an e911 call) to the WLAN. When the controller receives this
request, it attempts to facilitate the urgency of the call in any way possible without potentially altering the
quality of other TSPEC calls that are in progress.
You can apply expedited bandwidth requests to both bandwidth-based and load-based CAC. Expedited
bandwidth requests are disabled by default. When this feature is disabled, the controller ignores all expedited
requests and processes TSPEC requests as normal TSPEC requests.
This table lists examples of TSPEC request handling for normal TSPEC requests and expedited bandwidth
requests.
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Table 4: TSPEC Request Handling Examples
2
CAC Mode
Reserved
bandwidth
for voice
1
calls
Usage
Normal
TSPEC
Request
TSPEC with Expedited
Bandwidth Request
Bandwidth-based
CAC
75%
(default
setting)
Less than 75%
Admitted
Admitted
Between 75% and 90%
(reserved bandwidth for
voice calls exhausted)
Rejected
Admitted
More than 90%
Rejected
Rejected
Less than 75%
Admitted
Admitted
Between 75% and 85%
(reserved bandwidth for
voice calls exhausted)
Rejected
Admitted
More than 85%
Rejected
Rejected
Load-based CAC
1 For bandwidth-based CAC, the voice call bandwidth usage is per access point and does not take into account co-channel access points. For load-based CAC,
the voice call bandwidth usage is measured for the entire channel.
2 Bandwidth-based CAC (consumed voice and video bandwidth) or load-based CAC (channel utilization [Pb]).
Note
Admission control for TSPEC g711-40ms codec type is supported.
Note
When video ACM is enabled, the controller rejects a video TSPEC if the non-MSDU size in the TSPEC
is greater than 149 or the mean data rate is greater than 1 Kbps.
U-APSD
Unscheduled automatic power save delivery (U-APSD) is a QoS facility defined in IEEE 802.11e that extends
the battery life of mobile clients. In addition to extending battery life, this feature reduces the latency of traffic
flow delivered over the wireless media. Because U-APSD does not require the client to poll each individual
packet buffered at the access point, it allows delivery of multiple downlink packets by sending a single uplink
trigger packet. U-APSD is enabled automatically when WMM is enabled.
Traffic Stream Metrics
In a voice-over-wireless LAN (VoWLAN) deployment, traffic stream metrics (TSM) can be used to monitor
voice-related metrics on the client-access point air interface. It reports both packet latency and packet loss.
You can isolate poor voice quality issues by studying these reports.
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The metrics consist of a collection of uplink (client side) and downlink (access point side) statistics between
an access point and a client device that supports CCX v4 or later releases. If the client is not CCX v4 or CCXv5
compliant, only downlink statistics are captured. The client and access point measure these metrics. The access
point also collects the measurements every 5 seconds, prepares 90-second reports, and then sends the reports
to the controller. The controller organizes the uplink measurements on a client basis and the downlink
measurements on an access point basis and maintains an hour’s worth of historical data. To store this data,
the controller requires 32 MB of additional memory for uplink metrics and 4.8 MB for downlink metrics.
TSM can be configured through either the GUI or the CLI on a per radio-band basis (for example, all 802.11a
radios). The controller saves the configuration in flash memory so that it persists across reboots. After an
access point receives the configuration from the controller, it enables TSM on the specified radio band.
Note
Access points support TSM entries in both local and FlexConnect modes.
This table shows the upper limit for TSM entries in different controller series.
Note
TSM Entries
5500
7500
MAX AP TSM entries
100
100
MAX Client TSM entries
250
250
MAX TSM entries
100*250=25000
100*250=25000
Once the upper limit is reached, additional TSM entries cannot be stored and sent to Cisco Prime
Infrastructure. If client TSM entries are full and AP TSM entries are available, then only the AP entries
are stored, and vice versa. This leads to partial output. TSM cleanup occurs every one hour. Entries are
removed only for those APs and clients that are not in the system.
Configuring Voice Parameters
Configuring Voice Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Ensure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Platinum QoS level.
Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled and click Apply.
Step 3
Choose Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status
check box, and click Apply to disable the radio network.
Step 4
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Media. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media page appears. The Voice
tab is displayed by default.
Select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable bandwidth-based CAC for this radio band. The default value
is disabled.
Select the Admission Control (ACM) you want to use by choosing from the following choices:
Step 5
Step 6
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• Load-based—To enable channel-based CAC. This is the default option.
• Static—To enable radio-based CAC.
Step 7
In the Max RF Bandwidth text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for voice
applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new calls on this
radio band.
The range is 5% to 85%. The sum of maximum bandwidth percentage of voice and video should not exceed 85%.
The default is 75%.
Step 8
In the Reserved Roaming Bandwidth text box, enter the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth that is reserved
for roaming voice clients. The controller reserves this bandwidth from the maximum allocated bandwidth for roaming
voice clients.
The range is 0% to 25%.
The default is 6%.
Step 9
To enable expedited bandwidth requests, select the Expedited Bandwidth check box. By default, this text box is disabled.
Step 10
To enable SIP CAC support, select the SIP CAC Support check box. By default, SIP CAC support is disabled.
Step 11
From the SIP Codec drop-down list, choose one of the following options to set the codec name. The default value is
G.711. The options are as follows:
• User Defined
• G.711
• G.729
Step 12
In the SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box, enter the bandwidth in kilobits per second.
The possible range is 8 to 64.
The default value is 64.
The SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box is highlighted only when you select the SIP codec as User-Defined. If you
choose the SIP codec as G.711, the SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box is set to 64. If you choose the SIP codec
as G.729, the SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box is set to 8.
In the SIP Voice Sample Interval (msecs) text box, enter the value for the sample interval.
In the Maximum Calls text box, enter the maximum number of calls that can be made to this radio. The maximum call
limit includes both direct and roaming-in calls. If the maximum call limit is reached, the new or roaming-in calls result
in failure.
The possible range is 0 to 25.
Note
Step 13
Step 14
The default value is 0, which indicates that there is no check for maximum call limit.
Note
If SIP CAC is supported and the CAC method is static, the Maximum Possible Voice Calls and Maximum
Possible Roaming Reserved Calls fields appear.
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Step 15
Step 19
Select the Metrics Collection check box to collect traffic stream metrics. By default, this box is unselected. That is, the
traffic stream metrics is not collected by default.
Click Apply.
Reenable all WMM WLANs and click Apply.
Choose Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and
click Apply to reenable the radio network.
Click Save Configuration.
Step 20
Repeat this procedure if you want to configure voice parameters for another radio band.
Step 16
Step 17
Step 18
Configuring Voice Parameters (CLI)
Before You Begin
Ensure that you have configured SIP-based CAC.
Step 1
See all of the WLANs configured on the controller by entering this command:
show wlan summary
Step 2
Make sure that the WLAN that you are planning to modify is configured for WMM and the QoS level is set to Platinum
by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Step 3
Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled prior to changing the voice parameters by entering the command:
config wlan disable wlan_id
Step 4
Disable the radio network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
Step 5
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Step 6
Enable or disable bandwidth-based voice CAC for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice acm {enable | disable}
Step 7
Set the percentage of maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for voice applications on the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network
by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice max-bandwidth bandwidth
The bandwidth range is 5 to 85%, and the default value is 75%. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access
point rejects new calls on this network.
Step 8
Set the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming voice clients by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice roam-bandwidth bandwidth
The bandwidth range is 0 to 25%, and the default value is 6%. The controller reserves this much bandwidth from the
maximum allocated bandwidth for roaming voice clients.
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Step 9
Configure the codec name and sample interval as parameters and to calculate the required bandwidth per call by entering
this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice sip codec {g711 | g729} sample-interval number_msecs
Step 10
Configure the bandwidth that is required per call by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice sip bandwidth bandwidth_kbps sample-interval number_msecs
Step 11
Reenable all WLANs with WMM enabled by entering this command:
config wlan enable wlan_id
Step 12
Reenable the radio network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
Step 13
View the TSM voice metrics by entering this command:
show [802.11a | 802.11b] cu-metrics AP_Name
The command also displays the channel utilization metrics.
Step 14
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Step 15
Configure voice automatically for a WLAN by entering this command:
config auto-configure voice cisco wlan-id radio {802.11a | 802.11b | all}
Step 16
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Configuring Video Parameters
Configuring Video Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Ensure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Gold QoS level.
Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled and click Apply.
Choose Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network
Status check box, and click Apply to disable the radio network.
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Media. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media page appears.
In the Video tab, select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable video CAC for this radio band. The default
value is disabled.
From the CAC Method drop-down list, choose between Static and Load Based methods.
The static CAC method is based on the radio and the load-based CAC method is based on the channel.
Note
Step 7
For TSpec and SIP based CAC for video calls, only Static method is supported.
In the Max RF Bandwidth text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for video
applications on this radio band. When the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new requests on this
radio band.
The range is 5% to 85%. The sum of maximum bandwidth percentage of voice and video should not exceed 85%. The
default is 0%.
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Step 8
In the Reserved Roaming Bandwidth text box, enter the percentage of the maximum RF bandwidth that is reserved for
roaming clients for video.
Configure the SIP CAC Support by selecting or unselecting the SIP CAC Support check box.
SIP CAC is supported only if SIP Snooping is enabled.
Step 9
Note
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
You cannot enable SIP CAC if you have selected the Load Based CAC method.
Click Apply.
Reenable all WMM WLANs and click Apply.
Choose Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box, and
click Apply to reenable the radio network.
Click Save Configuration.
Repeat this procedure if you want to configure video parameters for another radio band.
Configuring Video Parameters (CLI)
Before You Begin
Ensure that you have configured SIP-based CAC.
Step 1
See all of the WLANs configured on the controller by entering this command:
show wlan summary
Step 2
Make sure that the WLAN that you are planning to modify is configured for WMM and the QoS level is set to Gold by
entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Step 3
Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled prior to changing the video parameters by entering this command:
config wlan disable wlan_id
Step 4
Disable the radio network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
Step 5
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Step 6
Enable or disable video CAC for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video acm {enable | disable}
Step 7
To configure the CAC method as either static or load-based, enter this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video cac-method {static | load-based}
Step 8
Set the percentage of maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for video applications on the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network
by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video max-bandwidth bandwidth
The bandwidth range is 5 to 85%, and the default value is 5%. However, the maximum RF bandwidth cannot exceed
85% for voice and video. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new calls on this network.
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If this parameter is set to zero (0), the controller assumes that you do not want to do any bandwidth allocation
and, therefore, allows all bandwidth requests.
To configure the percentage of the maximum RF bandwidth that is reserved for roaming clients for video, enter this
command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video roam-bandwidth bandwidth
Note
Step 9
Step 10
To configure the CAC parameters for SIP-based video calls, enter this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video sip {enable | disable}
Step 11
Process or ignore the TSPEC inactivity timeout received from an access point by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac video tspec-inactivity-timeout {enable | ignore}
Step 12
Reenable all WLANs with WMM enabled by entering this command:
config wlan enable wlan_id
Step 13
Reenable the radio network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
Step 14
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Viewing Voice and Video Settings
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Monitor > Clients to open the Clients page.
Step 2
Click the MAC address of the desired client to open the Clients > Detail page.
This page shows the U-APSD status (if enabled) for this client under Quality of Service Properties.
Step 3
Click Back to return to the Clients page.
Step 4
See the TSM statistics for a particular client and the access point to which this client is associated as follows:
a) Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired client and choose 802.11aTSM or 802.11b/g TSM.
The Clients > AP page appears.
b) Click the Detail link for the desired access point to open the Clients > AP > Traffic Stream Metrics page.
This page shows the TSM statistics for this client and the access point to which it is associated. The statistics are
shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp text box shows the specific interval when the statistics were collected.
Step 5
See the TSM statistics for a particular access point and a particular client associated to this access point, as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n. The 802.11a/n Radios or 802.11b/g/n
Radios page appears.
b) Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose 802.11aTSM or 802.11b/g
TSM. The AP > Clients page appears.
c) Click the Detail link for the desired client to open the AP > Clients > Traffic Stream Metrics page.
This page shows the TSM statistics for this access point and a client associated to it. The statistics are shown in
90-second intervals. The timestamp text box shows the specific interval when the statistics were collected.
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Viewing Voice and Video Settings (CLI)
Step 1
See the CAC configuration for the 802.11 network by entering this command:
show ap stats {802.11a | 802.11b}
Step 2
See the CAC statistics for a particular access point by entering this command:
show ap stats {802.11a | 802.11b} ap_name
Information similar to the following appears:
Call Admission Control (CAC) Stats
Voice Bandwidth in use(% of config bw)......... 0
Total channel MT free........................ 0
Total voice MT free.......................... 0
Na Direct.................................... 0
Na Roam...................................... 0
Video Bandwidth in use(% of config bw)......... 0
Total num of voice calls in progress........... 0
Num of roaming voice calls in progress......... 0
Total Num of voice calls since AP joined....... 0
Total Num of roaming calls since AP joined..... 0
Total Num of exp bw requests received.......... 5
Total Num of exp bw requests admitted.......... 2
Num of voice calls rejected since AP joined...... 0
Num of roam calls rejected since AP joined..... 0
Num of calls rejected due to insufficient bw....0
Num of calls rejected due to invalid params.... 0
Num of calls rejected due to PHY rate.......... 0
Num of calls rejected due to QoS policy..... 0
In the example above, “MT” is medium time, “Na” is the number of additional calls, and “exp bw” is expedited bandwidth.
Note
Suppose an AP has to be rebooted when a voice client associated with the AP is on an active call. After the AP
is rebooted, the client continues to maintain the call, and during the time the AP is down, the database is not
refreshed by the controller. Therefore, we recommend that all active calls are ended before the AP is taken
down.
Step 3
See the U-APSD status for a particular client by entering this command:
show client detail client_mac
Step 4
See the TSM statistics for a particular client and the access point to which this client is associated by entering this
command:
show client tsm {802.11a | 802.11b} client_mac {ap_mac | all}
The optional all command shows all access points to which this client has associated. Information similar to the following
appears:
Client Interface Mac:
00:01:02:03:04:05
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Measurement Duration:
90 seconds
Timestamp
1st Jan 2006, 06:35:80
UpLink Stats
================
Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
Total packet Count.........................................80
Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2
DownLink Stats
================
Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
Total packet Count.........................................80
Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2
Note
Note
Step 5
The statistics are shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp text box shows the specific interval when the
statistics were collected.
Clear the TSM statistics for a particular access point or all the access points to which this client is associated
by entering this clear client tsm {802.11a | 802.11b} client_mac {ap_mac | all} command.
See the TSM statistics for a particular access point and a particular client associated to this access point by entering this
command:
show ap stats {802.11a | 802.11b} ap_name tsm {client_mac | all}
The optional all command shows all clients associated to this access point. Information similar to the following appears:
AP Interface Mac:
Client Interface Mac:
Measurement Duration:
00:0b:85:01:02:03
00:01:02:03:04:05
90 seconds
Timestamp
1st Jan 2006, 06:35:80
UpLink Stats
================
Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
Total packet Count.........................................80
Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2
DownLink Stats
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================
Average Delay (5sec intervals)............................35
Delay less than 10 ms.....................................20
Delay bet 10 - 20 ms......................................20
Delay bet 20 - 40 ms......................................20
Delay greater than 40 ms..................................20
Total packet Count.........................................80
Total packet lost count (5sec).............................10
Maximum Lost Packet count(5sec)............................5
Average Lost Packet count(5secs)...........................2
The statistics are shown in 90-second intervals. The timestamp text box shows the specific interval when the
statistics were collected.
Enable or disable debugging for call admission control (CAC) messages, events, or packets by entering this command:
debug cac {all | event | packet}{enable | disable}
Note
Step 6
where all configures debugging for all CAC messages, event configures debugging for all CAC events, and packet
configures debugging for all CAC packets.
Step 7
Use the following command to perform voice diagnostics and to view the debug messages between a maximum of two
802.11 clients:
debug voice-diag {enable | disable} mac-id mac-id2 [verbose]
The verbose mode is an optional argument. When the verbose option is used, all debug messages are displayed in the
console. You can use this command to monitor a maximum of two 802.11 clients. If one of the clients is a non-WiFi
client, only the 802.11 client is monitored for debug messages.
It is implicitly assumed that the clients being monitored are on
call.
Note
The debug command automatically stops after 60
minutes.
Use the following commands to view various voice-related parameters:
Note
Step 8
• show client voice-diag status
Displays information about whether voice diagnostics is enabled or disabled. If enabled, will also displays information
about the clients in the watch list and the time remaining for the diagnostics of the voice call.
If voice diagnostics is disabled when the following commands are entered, a message indicating that voice diagnostics
is disabled appears.
• show client voice-diag tspec
Displays the TSPEC information sent from the clients that are enabled for voice diagnostics.
• show client voice-diag qos-map
Displays information about the QoS/DSCP mapping and packet statistics in each of the four queues: VO, VI, BE,
BK. The different DSCP values are also displayed.
• show client voice-diag avrg_rssi
Display the client’s RSSI values in the last 5 seconds when voice diagnostics is enabled.
• show client voice-diag roam-history
Displays information about the last three roaming calls. The output contains the timestamp, access point associated
with roaming, roaming reason, and if there is a roaming failure, the reason for the roaming-failure.
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• show client calls {active | rejected} {802.11a | 802.11bg | all}
This command lists the details of active TSPEC and SIP calls on the controller.
Step 9
Use the following commands to troubleshoot video debug messages and statistics:
• debug ap show stats {802.11b | 802.11a} ap-name multicast—Displays the access point’s supported multicast
rates.
• debug ap show stats {802.11b | 802.11a} ap-name load—Displays the access point’s QBSS and other statistics.
• debug ap show stats {802.11b | 802.11a} ap-name tx-queue—Displays the access point’s transmit queue traffic
statistics.
• debug ap show stats {802.11b | 802.11a} ap-name client {all | video | client-mac}—Displays the access point’s
client metrics.
• debug ap show stats {802.11b | 802.11a} ap-name packet—Displays the access point’s packet statistics.
• debug ap show stats {802.11b | 802.11a} ap-name video metrics—Displays the access point’s video metrics.
• debug ap show stats video ap-name multicast mgid number —Displays an access point’s Layer 2 MGID database
number.
• debug ap show stats video ap-name admission—Displays an access point’s admission control statistics.
• debug ap show stats video ap-name bandwidth—Displays an access point’s video bandwidth.
Configuring SIP-Based CAC
Restrictions for SIP-Based CAC
• SIPs are available only on the Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, Cisco 8500 Series Controllers, and on the
1240, 1130, and 11n access points.
• SIP CAC should only be used for phones that support status code 17 and do not support TSPEC-based
admission control.
• SIP CAC will be supported only if SIP snooping is enabled.
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (GUI)
Before You Begin
• Ensure that you have set the voice to the platinum QoS level.
• Ensure that you have enabled call snooping for the WLAN.
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• Ensure that you have enabled the Admission Control (ACM) for this radio.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Wireless > Advanced > SIP Snooping to open the SIP Snooping page.
Specify the call-snooping ports by entering the starting port and the ending port.
Click Apply and then click Save Configuration.
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (CLI)
Step 1
Set the voice to the platinum QoS level by entering this command:
config wlan qos wlan-id Platinum
Step 2
Enable the call-snooping feature for a particular WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan call-snoop enable wlan-id
Step 3
Enable the ACM to this radio by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac {voice | video} acm enable
Step 4
To configure the call snooping ports, enter this command:
config advanced sip-snooping-ports starting-port ending-port
Step 5
To troubleshoot SIP-based CAC events, enter this command:
debug sip event {enable | disable}
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Configuring Media Parameters
Configuring Media Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Ensure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Gold QoS level.
Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled and click Apply.
Step 3
Choose Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network
Status check box, and click Apply to disable the radio network.
Step 4
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Media. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media > Parameters page appears.
Step 5
Choose the Media tab to open the Media page.
Step 6
Select the Unicast Video Redirect check box to enable Unicast Video Redirect. The default value is disabled.
Step 7
In the Maximum Media Bandwidth (0-85%) text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth to be allocated
for media applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the specified value, the access point rejects new calls
on this radio band.
The default value is 85%; valid values are from 0 to 85%.
Step 8
Step 9
In the Client Phy Rate text box, enter the value for the rate in kilobits per second at which the client operates.
In the Maximum Retry Percent (0-100%) text box, enter the percentage of the maximum retry. The default value is
80.
Select the Multicast Direct Enable check box to enable the Multicast Direct Enable text box. The default value is
enabled.
From the Max Streams per Radio drop-down list, choose the maximum number of allowed multicast direct streams
per radio. Choose a value between 1 to 20 or No Limit. The default value is set to No Limit.
From the Max Streams per Client drop-down list, choose the maximum number of allowed clients per radio. Choose
a value between 1 to 20 or No Limit. The default value is set to No Limit.
If you want to enable the best radio queue for this radio, select the Best Effort QoS Admission check box. The default
value is disabled.
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers
Information About Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers
You can configure a controller to support calls from clients that do not support TSPEC-based calls. This
feature is known as voice prioritization. These calls are given priority over other clients utilizing the voice
pool. Voice prioritization is available only for SIP-based calls and not for TSPEC-based calls. If the bandwidth
is available, it takes the normal flow and allocates the bandwidth to those calls.
You can configure up to six preferred call numbers. When a call comes to one of the configured preferred
numbers, the controller does not check on the maximum call limit. It invokes the CAC to allocate bandwidth
for the preferred call. The bandwidth allocation is 85 percent of the entire bandwidth pool, not just from the
maximum configured voice pool. The bandwidth allocation is the same even for roaming calls.
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Prerequisites for Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers
You must configure the following before configuring voice prioritization:
• Set WLAN QoS to platinum.
• Enable ACM for the radio.
• Enable SIP call snooping on the WLAN.
Configuring a Preferred Call Number (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Set the WLAN QoS profile to Platinum.
Enable ACM for the WLAN radio.
Enable SIP call snooping for the WLAN.
Choose Wireless > Advanced > Preferred Call to open the Preferred Call page.
All calls configured on the controller appear.
Note
To remove a preferred call, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow and choose Remove.
Step 5
Click Add Number to add a new preferred call.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
In the Call Index text box, enter the index that you want to assign to the call. Valid values are from 1 through 6.
In the Call Number text box, enter the number.
Click Apply to add the new number.
Configuring a Preferred Call Number (CLI)
Step 1
Set the voice to the platinum QoS level by entering this command:
config wlan qos wlan-id Platinum
Step 2
Enable the ACM to this radio by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac {voice | video} acm enable
Step 3
Enable the call-snooping feature for a particular WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan call-snoop enable wlan-id
Step 4
Add a new preferred call by entering this command:
config advanced sip-preferred-call-no call_index {call_number | none}
Step 5
Remove a preferred call by entering this command:
config advanced sip-preferred-call-no call_index none
Step 6
View the preferred call statistics by entering the following command:
show ap stats {802.11{a | b} | wlan} ap_name
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Step 7
Enter the following command to list the preferred call numbers:
show advanced sip-preferred-call-no
Configuring EDCA Parameters
Information About EDCA Parameters
Enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) parameters are designed to provide preferential wireless channel
access for voice, video, and other quality-of-service (QoS) traffic.
Configuring EDCA Parameters (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network
Status check box, and click Apply to disable the radio network.
Step 2
Choose EDCA Parametersunder 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n. The 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) > EDCA Parameters page
appears.
Choose one of the following options from the EDCA Profile drop-down list:
Step 3
• WMM—Enables the Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) default parameters. This is the default value. Choose this option
when voice or video services are not deployed on your network.
• Spectralink Voice Priority—Enables SpectraLink voice priority parameters. Choose this option if SpectraLink
phones are deployed on your network to improve the quality of calls.
• Voice Optimized—Enables EDCA voice-optimized profile parameters. Choose this option when voice services
other than SpectraLink are deployed on your network.
• Voice & Video Optimized—Enables EDCA voice- and video-optimized profile parameters. Choose this option
when both voice and video services are deployed on your network.
• Custom Voice—Enables custom voice EDCA parameters for 802.11a. The EDCA parameters under this option
also match the 6.0 WMM EDCA parameters when this profile is applied.
Note
Step 4
If you deploy video services, admission control (ACM) must be
disabled.
If you want to enable MAC optimization for voice, select the Enable Low Latency MAC check box. Otherwise, leave
this check box unselected, which is the default value. This feature enhances voice performance by controlling packet
retransmits and appropriately aging out voice packets on lightweight access points, which improves the number of voice
calls serviced per access point.
Note
We do not recommend you to enable low latency MAC. You should enable low latency MAC only if the WLAN
allows WMM clients. If WMM is enabled, then low latency MAC can be used with any of the EDCA profiles.
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Step 5
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 6
To reenable the radio network, choose Network under 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n, select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g)
Network Status check box, and click Apply.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring EDCA Parameters (CLI)
Step 1
Disable the radio network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
Step 2
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
Enable a specific EDCA profile by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} edca-parameters {wmm-default | svp-voice| optimized-voice|
optimzed-voice-video| custom-voice}
• wmm-default—Enables the Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) default parameters. This is the default value. Choose this
option when voice or video services are not deployed on your network.
• svp-voice—Enables SpectraLink voice priority parameters. Choose this option if SpectraLink phones are deployed
on your network to improve the quality of calls.
• optimized-voice—Enables EDCA voice-optimized profile parameters. Choose this option when voice services
other than SpectraLink are deployed on your network.
• optimized-video-voice—Enables EDCA voice- and video-optimized profile parameters. Choose this option when
both voice and video services are deployed on your network.
• custom-voice—Enables custom voice EDCA parameters for 802.11a. The EDCA parameters under this option also
match the 6.0 WMM EDCA parameters when this profile is applied.
Note
Step 4
If you deploy video services, admission control (ACM) must be
disabled.
View the current status of MAC optimization for voice by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b}
Information similar to the following appears:
Voice-mac-optimization...................Disabled
Step 5
Enable or disable MAC optimization for voice by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} voice-mac-optimization {enable | disable}
This feature enhances voice performance by controlling packet retransmits and appropriately aging out voice packets
on lightweight access points, which improves the number of voice calls serviced per access point. The default value is
disabled.
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Step 6
Reenable the radio network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
Step 7
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
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17
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol
• Information About Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol, page 157
• Restrictions for Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol, page 157
• Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol, page 159
• Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information, page 161
• Getting CDP Debug Information, page 163
Information About Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol
The Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a device discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco-manufactured
equipment. A device enabled with CDP sends out periodic interface updates to a multicast address in order
to make itself known to neighboring devices.
The default value for the frequency of periodic transmissions is 60 seconds, and the default advertised
time-to-live value is 180 seconds. The second and latest version of the protocol, CDPv2, introduces new
time-length-values (TLVs) and provides a reporting mechanism that allows for more rapid error tracking,
which reduces downtime.
Note
Cisco recommends that you disable Cisco Discovery Protocol on the controller and access point when
connected to non-Cisco switches as CDP is unsupported on non-Cisco switches and network elements.
Restrictions for Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol
• CDPv1 and CDPv2 are supported on the following devices:
◦Cisco 5500 and 2500 Series Controllers
◦CAPWAP-enabled access points
◦An access point connected directly to a Cisco 5500 Series Controller
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Note
To use the Intelligent Power Management feature, ensure that CDPv2 is enabled on the
Cisco 2500 Series Controllers. CDP v2 is enabled by default.
• The Cisco 600 Series OEAP access points do not support CDP.
• The support of CDPv1 and CDPv2 enables network management applications to discover Cisco devices.
• The following TLVs are supported by both the controller and the access point:
◦Device-ID TLV: 0x0001—The hostname of the controller, the access point, or the CDP neighbor.
◦Address TLV: 0x0002—The IP address of the controller, the access point, or the CDP neighbor.
◦Port-ID TLV: 0x0003—The name of the interface on which CDP packets are sent out.
◦Capabilities TLV: 0x0004—The capabilities of the device. The controller sends out this TLV with
a value of Host: 0x10, and the access point sends out this TLV with a value of Transparent Bridge:
0x02.
◦Version TLV: 0x0005—The software version of the controller, the access point, or the CDP
neighbor.
◦Platform TLV: 0x0006—The hardware platform of the controller, the access point, or the CDP
neighbor.
◦Power Available TLV: 0x001a— The amount of power available to be transmitted by power
sourcing equipment to permit a device to negotiate and select an appropriate power setting.
◦Full/Half Duplex TLV: 0x000b—The full- or half-duplex mode of the Ethernet link on which CDP
packets are sent out.
• These TLVs are supported only by the access point:
◦Power Consumption TLV: 0x0010—The maximum amount of power consumed by the access
point.
◦Power Request TLV:0x0019—The amount of power to be transmitted by a powerable device in
order to negotiate a suitable power level with the supplier of the network power.
• Changing the CDP configuration on the controller does not change the CDP configuration on the access
points that are connected to the controller. You must enable and disable CDP separately for each access
point.
• You can enable or disable the CDP state on all or specific interfaces and radios. This configuration can
be applied to all access points or a specific access point.
• The following is the behavior assumed for various interfaces and access points:
◦CDP is disabled on radio interfaces on indoor (nonindoor mesh) access points.
◦Nonmesh access points have CDPs disabled on radio interfaces when they join the controller. The
persistent CDP configuration is used for the APs that had CDP support in its previous image.
◦CDP is enabled on radio interfaces on indoor-mesh and mesh access points.
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◦Mesh access points will have CDP enabled on their radio interfaces when they join the controller.
The persistent CDP configuration is used for the access points that had CDP support in a previous
image. The CDP configuration for radio interfaces is applicable only for mesh APs.
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > CDP > Global Configuration to open the CDP > Global Configuration page.
Step 2
Step 6
Select the CDP Protocol Status check box to enable CDP on the controller or unselect it to disable this feature. The
default value is selected.
Note
Enabling or disabling this feature is applicable to all controller
ports.
From the CDP Advertisement Version drop-down list, choose v1 or v2 to specify the highest CDP version supported on
the controller. The default value is v1.
In the Refresh-time Interval text box, enter the interval at which CDP messages are to be generated. The range is 5 to
254 seconds, and the default value is 60 seconds.
In the Holdtime text box, enter the amount of time to be advertised as the time-to-live value in generated CDP packets.
The range is 10 to 255 seconds, and the default value is 180 seconds.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 8
Perform one of the following:
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
• To enable or disable CDP on a specific access point, follow these steps:
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Click the link for the desired access point.
Choose the Advanced tab to open the All APs > Details for (Advanced) page.
Select the Cisco Discovery Protocol check box to enable CDP on this access point or unselect it to disable this
feature. The default value is enabled.
Note
If CDP is disabled in Step 2, a message indicating that the Controller CDP is disabled appears.
• Enable CDP for a specific Ethernet interface, radio, or slot as follows:
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Click the link for the desired access point.
Choose the Interfaces tab and select the corresponding check boxes for the radios or slots from the CDP
Configuration section.
Note
Configuration for radios is only applicable for mesh access
points.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
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• To enable or disable CDP on all access points currently associated to the controller, follow these steps:
Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.
Select the CDP State check box to enable CDP on all access points associated to the controller or unselect it to
disable CDP on all access points. The default value is selected. You can enable CDP on a specific Ethernet interface,
radio, or slot by selecting the corresponding check box. This configuration will be applied to all access points
associated with the controller.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 9
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable CDP on the controller by entering this command:
config cdp {enable | disable}
CDP is enabled by default.
Step 2
Specify the interval at which CDP messages are to be generated by entering this command:
config cdp timer seconds
The range is 5 to 254 seconds, and the default value is 60 seconds.
Step 3
Specify the amount of time to be advertised as the time-to-live value in generated CDP packets by entering this command:
config cdp holdtime seconds
The range is 10 to 255 seconds, and the default value is 180 seconds.
Step 4
Specify the highest CDP version supported on the controller by entering this command:
config cdp advertise {v1 | v2}
The default value is v1.
Step 5
Enable or disable CDP on all access points that are joined to the controller by entering the config ap cdp {enable |
disable} all command.
The config ap cdp disable all command disables CDP on all access points that are joined to the controller and all access
points that join in the future. CDP remains disabled on both current and future access points even after the controller or
access point reboots. To enable CDP, enter the config ap cdp enable all command.
After you enable CDP on all access points joined to the controller, you may disable and then reenable CDP on
individual access points using the command in Step 6. After you disable CDP on all access points joined to the
controller, you may not enable and then disable CDP on individual access points.
Enable or disable CDP on a specific access point by entering this command:
config ap cdp {enable | disable} Cisco_AP
Note
Step 6
Step 7
Configure CDP on a specific or all access points for a specific interface by entering this command:
config ap cdp {ethernet | radio} interface_number slot_id {enable | disable} {all | Cisco_AP}
Note
When you use the config ap cdp command to configure CDP on radio interfaces, a warning message appears
indicating that the configuration is applicable only for mesh access points.
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Step 8
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Monitor > CDP > Interface Neighbors to open the CDP > Interface Neighbors page appears.
This page shows the following information:
• The controller port on which the CDP packets were received
• The name of each CDP neighbor
• The IP address of each CDP neighbor
• The port used by each CDP neighbor for transmitting CDP packets
• The time left (in seconds) before each CDP neighbor entry expires
• The functional capability of each CDP neighbor, defined as follows: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route
Bridge, S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, or M - Remotely Managed Device
• The hardware platform of each CDP neighbor device
Step 2
Click the name of the desired interface neighbor to see more detailed information about each interface’s CDP neighbor.
The CDP > Interface Neighbors > Detail page appears.
This page shows the following information:
• The controller port on which the CDP packets were received
• The name of the CDP neighbor
• The IP address of the CDP neighbor
• The port used by the CDP neighbor for transmitting CDP packets
• The CDP version being advertised (v1 or v2)
• The time left (in seconds) before the CDP neighbor entry expires
• The functional capability of the CDP neighbor, defined as follows: Router, Trans Bridge,?Source Route Bridge,
Switch, Host, IGMP, Repeater, or Remotely Managed Device
• The hardware platform of the CDP neighbor device
• The software running on the CDP neighbor
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Step 3
Step 4
Choose AP Neighbors to see a list of CDP neighbors for all access points connected to the controller. The CDP AP
Neighbors page appears.
Click the CDP Neighbors link for the desired access point to see a list of CDP neighbors for a specific access point.
The CDP > AP Neighbors page appears.
This page shows the following information:
• The name of each access point
• The IP address of each access point
• The name of each CDP neighbor
• The IP address of each CDP neighbor
• The port used by each CDP neighbor
• The CDP version being advertised (v1 or v2)
Step 5
Click the name of the desired access point to see detailed information about an access point’s CDP neighbors. The CDP
> AP Neighbors > Detail page appears.
This page shows the following information:
• The name of the access point
• The MAC address of the access point’s radio
• The IP address of the access point
• The interface on which the CDP packets were received
• The name of the CDP neighbor
• The IP address of the CDP neighbor
• The port used by the CDP neighbor
• The CDP version being advertised (v1 or v2)
• The time left (in seconds) before the CDP neighbor entry expires
• The functional capability of the CDP neighbor, defined as follows: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge,?B - Source Route
Bridge, S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater, or M - Remotely Managed Device
• The hardware platform of the CDP neighbor device
• The software running on the CDP neighbor
Step 6
Choose Traffic Metrics to see CDP traffic information. The CDP > Traffic Metrics page appears.
This page shows the following information:
• The number of CDP packets received by the controller
• The number of CDP packets sent from the controller
• The number of packets that experienced a checksum error
• The number of packets dropped due to insufficient memory
• The number of invalid packets
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Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information (CLI)
Step 1
See the status of CDP and to view CDP protocol information by entering this command:
show cdp
Step 2
See a list of all CDP neighbors on all interfaces by entering this command:
show cdp neighbors [detail]
The optional detail command provides detailed information for the controller’s CDP neighbors.
This command shows only the CDP neighbors of the controller. It does not show the CDP neighbors of the
controller’s associated access points. Additional commands are provided below to show the list of CDP neighbors
per access point.
See all CDP entries in the database by entering this command:
show cdp entry all
Note
Step 3
Step 4
See CDP traffic information on a given port (for example, packets sent and received, CRC errors, and so on) by entering
this command:
show cdp traffic
Step 5
See the CDP status for a specific access point by entering this command:
show ap cdp ap-name Cisco_AP
Step 6
See the CDP status for all access points that are connected to the controller by entering this command:
show ap cdp all
Step 7
See a list of all CDP neighbors for a specific access point by entering these commands:
• show ap cdp neighbors ap-name Cisco_AP
• show ap cdp neighbors detail Cisco_AP
Note
Step 8
The access point sends CDP neighbor information to the controller only when the information changes.
See a list of all CDP neighbors for all access points connected to the controller by entering these commands:
• show ap cdp neighbors all
• show ap cdp neighbors detail all
Note
The access point sends CDP neighbor information to the controller only when the information changes.
Getting CDP Debug Information
• Get debug information related to CDP packets by entering by entering this command:
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debug cdp packets
• Get debug information related to CDP events by entering this command:
debug cdp events
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Configuring Authentication for the Controller and
NTP Server
• Information About Configuring Authentication for the Controller and NTP Server, page 165
• Configuring the NTP Server for Authentication (GUI), page 165
• Configuring the NTP Server for Authentication (CLI), page 166
Information About Configuring Authentication for the Controller and NTP Server
Starting in release 7.0.116.0, the controller software is now compliant with RFC 1305. As per this requirement,
controllers must synonymize time with an NTP server by authentication. By default, an MD5 checksum is
used.
Configuring the NTP Server for Authentication (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Controller > NTP > Server to open the NTP Severs page.
Click New to add a new NTP Server.
In the Server Index (Priority) text box, enter the NTP server index.
The controller tries Index 1 first, then Index 2 through 3, in a descending order. Set this to 1 if your network is using
only one NTP server.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Enter the server IP address.
Enable or disable the NTP Authentication.
If you enable the NTP Authentication, enter the Key Index.
Click Apply.
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Configuring the NTP Server for Authentication (CLI)
Before You Begin
• config time ntp auth enable server-index key-index—Enables NTP authentication on a given NTP
server.
• config time ntp key-auth add key-index md5 key-format key—Adds an authentication key. By default
MD5 is used. The key format can be "ascii" or "hex".
• config time ntp key-auth delete key-index—Deletes authentication keys.
• config time ntp auth disable server-index—Disables NTP authentication.
• show ntp-keys—Displays the NTP authentication related parameter.
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Configuring RFID Tag Tracking
• Information About Configuring RFID Tag Tracking, page 167
• Configuring RFID Tag Tracking (CLI), page 168
• Viewing RFID Tag Tracking Information (CLI), page 169
• Debugging RFID Tag Tracking Issues (CLI), page 169
Information About Configuring RFID Tag Tracking
The controller enables you to configure radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag tracking. RFID tags are
small wireless devices that are affixed to assets for real-time location tracking. They operate by advertising
their location using special 802.11 packets, which are processed by access points, the controller, and the
mobility services engine.
To know more about the tags supported by controller, see http://www.cisco.com/web/partners/pr46/pr147/
ccx_wifi_tags.html. The mobility services engine receives telemetry and chokepoint information from tags
that are compliant with this CCX specification.
Table 5: Cisco Compatible Extensions for RFID Tags Summary
Partners
AeroScout
WhereNet
Pango (InnerWireless)
Product Name
T2
T3
Wheretag IV
V3
Temperature
X
X
—
X
Pressure
—
—
—
—
Humidity
—
—
—
—
Status
—
—
—
—
Fuel
—
—
—
—
Telemetry
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Partners
AeroScout
WhereNet
Pango (InnerWireless)
Quantity
—
—
—
—
Distance
—
—
—
—
Motion Detection
X
X
—
X
Number of Panic Buttons
1
2
0
1
X
X
X
X
Tampering
Battery Information
X
X
X
Multiple-Frequency Tags3
X
X
X
3 For chokepoint systems, note that the tag can work only with chokepoints coming from the same vendor.
Note
The Network Mobility Services Protocol (NMSP) runs on the mobility services engine. For NMSP to
function, the TCP port (16113) over which the controller and the mobility services engine communicate
must be open (not blocked) on any firewall that exists between these two devices.
The Cisco-approved tags support these capabilities:
• Information notifications—Enables you to view vendor-specific and emergency information.
• Information polling—Enables you to monitor battery status and telemetry data. Many telemetry data
types provide support for sensory networks and a large range of applications for RFID tags.
• Measurement notifications—Enables you to deploy chokepoints at strategic points within your buildings
or campuses. Whenever an RFID tag moves to within a defined proximity of a chokepoint, the tag begins
transmitting packets that advertise its location in relation to the chokepoint.
You can configure and view RFID tag tracking information through the controller CLI.
Configuring RFID Tag Tracking (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable RFID tag tracking by entering this command:
config rfid status {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled.
Step 2
Specify a static timeout value (between 60 and 7200 seconds) by entering this command:
config rfid timeout seconds
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The static timeout value is the amount of time that the controller maintains tags before expiring them. For example, if a
tag is configured to beacon every 30 seconds, we recommend that you set the timeout value to 90 seconds (approximately
three times the beacon value). The default value is 1200 seconds.
Step 3
Enable or disable RFID tag mobility for specific tags by entering these commands:
• config rfid mobility vendor_name enable—Enables client mobility for a specific vendor’s tags. When you enter
this command, tags are unable to obtain a DHCP address for client mode when attempting to select and/or download
a configuration.
• config rfid mobility vendor_name disable—Disables client mobility for a specific vendor’s tags. When you enter
this command, tags can obtain a DHCP address. If a tag roams from one subnet to another, it obtains a new address
rather than retaining the anchor state.
Note
These commands can be used only for Pango tags. Therefore, the only valid entry for vendor_name is
“pango” in all lowercase letters.
Viewing RFID Tag Tracking Information (CLI)
Step 1
See the current configuration for RFID tag tracking by entering this command:
show rfid config
Step 2
See detailed information for a specific RFID tag by entering this command:
show rfid detail mac_address
where mac_address is the tag’s MAC address.
Step 3
See a list of all RFID tags currently connected to the controller by entering this command:
show rfid summary
Step 4
See a list of RFID tags that are associated to the controller as clients by entering this command:
show rfid client
Debugging RFID Tag Tracking Issues (CLI)
If you experience any problems with RFID tag tracking, use these debug commands.
• Configure MAC address debugging by entering this command:
debug mac addr mac_address
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Note
We recommend that you perform the debugging on a per-tag basis. If you enable
debugging for all of the tags, the console or Telnet screen is inundated with messages.
• Enable or disable debugging for the 802.11 RFID tag module by entering this command:
debug dot11 rfid {enable | disable}
• Enable or disable RFID debug options by entering this command:
debug rfid {all | detail | error | nmsp | receive} {enable | disable}
where
◦all configures debugging of all RFID messages.
◦detail configures debugging of RFID detailed messages.
◦error configures debugging of RFID error messages.
◦nmsp configures debugging of RFID NMSP messages.
◦receive configures debugging of incoming RFID tag messages.
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Resetting the Controller to Default Settings
• Information About Resetting the Controller to Default Settings, page 171
• Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (GUI), page 171
• Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (CLI), page 172
Information About Resetting the Controller to Default Settings
You can return the controller to its original configuration by resetting the controller to factory-default settings.
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Start your Internet browser.
Enter the controller IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network Password dialog box
appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name text box. The default username is admin.
Step 4
Enter the wireless device password in the Password text box and press Enter. The default password is admin.
Step 5
Choose Commands > Reset to Factory Default.
Step 6
Click Reset.
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
When prompted, confirm the reset.
Reboot the controller without saving the configuration.
Use the configuration wizard to enter configuration settings. See the Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI
Configuration Wizard section for more information.
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Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (CLI)
Step 1
Enter the reset system command. At the prompt that asks whether you need to save changes to the configuration, enter
N. The unit reboots.
Step 2
When you are prompted for a username, enter the recover-config command to restore the factory-default configuration.
The controller reboots and displays this message:
Welcome to the Cisco WLAN Solution Wizard Configuration Tool
Step 3
Use the configuration wizard to enter configuration settings. See the Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI
Configuration Wizard section for more information.
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Managing Controller Software and
Configurations
• Upgrading the Controller Software, page 173
• Transferring Files to and from a Controller, page 187
• Saving Configurations, page 202
• Editing Configuration Files, page 202
• Clearing the Controller Configuration, page 203
• Erasing the Controller Configuration, page 203
• Resetting the Controller, page 204
Upgrading the Controller Software
When you upgrade the controller software, the software on the access points associated with the controller is
also automatically upgraded. When an access point is loading software, each of its LEDs blinks in succession.
Up to 10 access points can be concurrently upgraded from the controller.
Caution
Do not power down the controller or any access point during this process; otherwise, you might corrupt
the software image. Upgrading a controller with a large number of access points can take as long as 30
minutes, depending on the size of your network. However, with the increased number of concurrent access
point upgrades supported in the controller software release, the upgrade time should be significantly
reduced. The access points must remain powered, and the controller must not be reset during this time.
Restrictions for Upgrading Controller Software
• If you require a downgrade from one release to another, you might lose the configuration from your
current release. The workaround is to reload the previous controller configuration files saved on the
backup server or to reconfigure the controller.
• It is not possible to directly upgrade to this release from a release that is older than 6.0.182.0.
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• You can upgrade or downgrade the controller software only between certain releases. In some instances,
you must first install an intermediate release prior to upgrading to the latest software release.
• When you upgrade the controller to an intermediate software release, you must wait until all of the access
points that are associated with the controller are upgraded to the intermediate release before you install
the latest controller software. In large networks, it can take some time to download the software on each
access point.
• When you upgrade to the latest software release, the software on the access points associated with the
controller is also automatically upgraded. When an access point is loading software, each of its LEDs
blinks in succession.
• We recommend that you access the controller GUI using Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP1 (or a later
release) or Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.11 (or a later release).
• Cisco controllers support standard SNMP Management Information Base (MIB) files. MIBs can be
downloaded from the Software Center on Cisco.com.
• The controller software is factory installed on your controller and automatically downloaded to the
access points after a release upgrade and whenever an access point joins a controller. We recommend
that you install the latest software version available for maximum operational benefit.
• We recommend that you install Wireless LAN Controller Field Upgrade Software for Release 1.7.0.0-FUS,
which is a special AES package that contains several system-related component upgrades. These include
the bootloader, field recovery image, and FPGA/MCU firmware. Installing the FUS image requires
special attention because it installs some critical firmware. The FUS image is independent of the runtime
image. For more information, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/wireless/controller/release/notes/
fus_rn_1_7_0_0.html.
• Ensure that you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the software upgrade. Follow these guidelines
when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
◦Ensure that your TFTP server supports files that are larger than the size of the controller software
release. Some TFTP servers that support files of this size are tftpd32 and the TFTP server within
the Cisco Prime Infrastructure. If you attempt to download the controller software and your TFTP
server does not support files of this size, the following error message appears: “TFTP failure while
storing in flash.”
◦If you are upgrading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be
on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable
• When you plug a controller into an AC power source, the bootup script and power-on self-test run to
initialize the system. During this time, you can press Esc to display the bootloader Boot Options Menu.
The menu options for the 5500 and Flex 7500 series controllers are different than for other controller
platforms.
Bootloader menu for 5500 Series Controllers:
Boot Options
Please choose an option from below:
1. Run primary image
2. Run backup image
3. Change active boot image
4. Clear Configuration
5. Format FLASH Drive
6. Manually update images
Please enter your choice:
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Bootloader menu for other controller platforms:
Boot Options
Please choose an option from below:
1. Run primary image
2. Run backup image
3. Manually update images
4. Change active boot image
5. Clear Configuration
Please enter your choice:
Enter 1 to run the current software, enter 2 to run the previous software, enter 4 (on a 5500 series
controller), or enter 5 (on another controller platform) to run the current software and set the controller
configuration to factory defaults. Do not choose the other options unless directed to do so.
Note
See the Installation Guide or the Quick Start Guide for your controller for more details
on running the bootup script and power-on self-test.
• Control which address(es) are sent in CAPWAP discovery responses when NAT is enabled on the
Management Interface using the following command:
config network ap-discovery nat-ip-only {enable | disable}
where
• enable—Enables use of NAT IP only in Discovery response. This is the default. Use this command
if all APs are outside of the NAT gateway.
• disable—Enables use of both NAT IP and non-NAT IP in discovery response. Use this command
if APs are on the inside and outside of the NAT gateway; for example, Local Mode and OfficeExtend
APs on the same controller.
Note
To avoid stranding APs, you must disable AP link-latency (if enabled) before you use
the disable option for the config network ap-discovery nat-ip-only command. To
disable AP link-latency, use the config ap link-latency disable all command.
• You can configure 802.1p tagging by using the config qos dot1p-tag {bronze | silver | gold | platinum}
tag. For the 7.2.103.0 and later releases, if you tag 802.1p packets, the tagging has impact only on wired
packets. Wireless packets are impacted only by the maximum priority level set for QoS.
• You can reduce the network downtime using the following options:
• You can predownload the AP image.
• For FlexConnect access points, use the FlexConnect Efficient AP upgrade feature to reduce traffic
between the controller and the AP (main site and the branch).
• Do not power down the controller or any access point during the upgrade process; otherwise, you might
corrupt the software image. Upgrading a controller with a large number of access points can take as long
as 30 minutes, depending on the size of your network. However, with the increased number of concurrent
access point upgrades supported, the upgrade time should be significantly reduced. The access points
must remain powered, and the controller must not be reset during this time.
• If you want to downgrade to a previous release, do either of the following:
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• Delete all WLANs that are mapped to interface groups and create new ones.
• Ensure that all WLANs are mapped to interfaces rather than interface groups.
• After you perform these functions on the controller, you must reboot the controller for the changes to
take effect:
• Enable or disable link aggregation (LAG)
• Enable a feature that is dependent on certificates (such as HTTPS and web authentication)
• Add new or modify existing SNMP v3 users
• Modify an existing SNMP v3 engine ID
• Add a new license or modify an existing license
• Increase the priority for a license
• The controller bootloader stores a copy of the active primary image and the backup image. If the primary
image becomes corrupted, you can use the bootloader to boot with the backup image.
With the backup image stored before rebooting, be sure to choose Option 2: Run Backup Image from
the boot menu to boot from the backup image. Then, upgrade with a known working image and reboot
the controller.
• The recovery image provides a backup image that can be used if an access point power-cycles during
an image upgrade. The best way to avoid the need for access point recovery is to prevent an access point
from power-cycling during a system upgrade. If a power-cycle occurs during an upgrade to an oversized
access point image, you can recover the access point using the TFTP recovery procedure.
To recover the access point using the TFTP recovery procedure, follow these steps:
1 Download the required recovery image from Cisco.com (c1100-rcvk9w8-mx, c1200-rcvk9w8-mx,
or c1310-rcvk9w8-mx) and install it in the root directory of your TFTP server.
2 Connect the TFTP server to the same subnet as the target access point and power-cycle the access
point. The access point boots from the TFTP image and then joins the controller to download the
oversized access point image and complete the upgrade procedure.
3 After the access point has been recovered, you can remove the TFTP server.
• You can upgrade to a new release of the controller software or downgrade to an older release even if
Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) is enabled.
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Upload your controller configuration files to a server to back them up.
Note
We highly recommend that you back up your configuration files of the controller prior to upgrading the controller
software. Otherwise, you must manually reconfigure the controller.
Get the controller software image by following these steps:
a) Browse to the Cisco Software Center: http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html.
b) Choose Wireless > Wireless LAN Controller.
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The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules and Standalone Controllers.
c) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
d) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
e) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine which release
to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support, and bug
fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an upgraded release.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
Repeat steps a through k to download the remaining file.
Copy the controller software image (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
(Optional) Disable the 802.11 networks.
Note
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend that you disable
the 802.11 networks as a precautionary measure.
Disable any WLANs on the controller.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Code.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 9
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout
text boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 10
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries for the Maximum Retries text field, and 6 seconds for the
Timeout text field should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values if desired. To
do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software in the Maximum
Retries text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software in the
Timeout text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the software.
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the controller software file (filename.aes).
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
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c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
Step 17
Step 18
Step 19
Step 20
Step 21
Step 22
Click Download to download the software to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the download.
After the download is complete, click Reboot.
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Click OK to confirm.
After the controller reboots, repeat step 6 to step 17 to install the remaining file.
Reenable the WLANs.
For Cisco WiSM2, reenable the controller port channel on the Catalyst switch.
If you have disabled the 802.11 networks in Step 4, reenable them.
To verify the controller software version, choose Monitor on the controller GUI and see Software Version in the
Controller Summary area.
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Upload your controller configuration files to a server to back them up.
Note
We highly recommend that you back up your controller's configuration files prior to upgrading the controller
software. Otherwise, you must manually reconfigure the controller.
Get the controller software image by following these steps:
a) Browse to the Cisco Software Center: http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html.
b) Choose Wireless > Wireless LAN Controller.
The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules and Standalone Controllers.
c) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
d) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
e) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine which release
to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support, and bug
fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an upgraded release.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
Step 3
Step 4
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
Repeat steps a through k to download the remaining file.
Copy the controller software image (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
(Optional) Disable the 802.11 networks.
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Note
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend that you disable
the 802.11 networks as a precautionary measure.
Step 5
Disable any WLANs on the controller (using the config wlan disable wlan_id command).
Step 6
Step 7
Log onto the controller CLI.
Enter the ping server-ip-address command to verify that the controller can contact the TFTP or FTP server.
Step 8
View current download settings by entering the transfer download start command. Answer n to the prompt to view the
current download settings.
Change the download settings, if necessary by entering these commands:
Step 9
• transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
• transfer download datatype code
• transfer download serverip server-ip-address
• transfer download filename filename
• transfer download path server-path-to-file
Note
Pathnames on a TFTP or FTP server are relative to the server’s default or root directory. For example, in
the case of the Solaris TFTP server, the path is “/”.
If you are using a TFTP server, also enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any adjustment.
However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP
server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the amount of time (in seconds)
that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, also enter these commands:
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
View the current updated settings by entering the transfer download start command. Answer y to the prompt to confirm
the current download settings and start the software download.
Save the code update to nonvolatile NVRAM and reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
The controller completes the bootup process.
After the controller reboots, repeat Steps 6 through 11 to install the remaining file.
Reenable the WLANs by entering this command:
config wlan enable wlan_id
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Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
For Cisco WiSMs, re-enable the controller port channel on the Catalyst switch.
If you have disabled the 802.11 networks in Step 4, renable them.
To verify the controller software that is installed, enter the show sysinfo command and see Product Version.
Step 17
To verify the Cisco Unified Wireless Network Controller Boot Software file that is installed on the controller, enter the
show sysinfo command on the controller CLI and see Recovery Image Version or Emergency Image Version.
Note
If a Cisco Unified Wireless Network Controller Boot Software ER.aes file is not installed, Recovery Image
Version or Emergency Image Version show 'N/A.'
Predownloading an Image to an Access Point
To minimize a network outages, you can now download an upgrade image to the access point from the
controller without resetting the access point or losing network connectivity. Previously, you would download
an upgrade image to the controller and reset it, which causes the access point to go into discovery mode. After
the access point discovers the controller with the new image, the access point downloads the new image,
resets, goes into discovery mode, and rejoins the controller.
You can now download the upgrade image to the controller and then download the image to the access point
while the network is still up. You can also schedule a reboot of the controller and access points, either after
a specified amount of time or at a specific date and time. When both devices are up, the access point discovers
and rejoins the controller.
Access Point Predownload Process
The access point predownload feature works as follows:
• The controller image is downloaded.
◦The primary image becomes the backup image of the controller and the downloaded image becomes
the new primary image. Change the current boot image as the backup image by using the config
boot backup command to ensure that if a system failure occurs, the controller boots with the last
working image of the controller.
◦To switch over to the new downloaded image, start predownload of the upgraded image using the
config ap image predownload primary all command.
◦The upgrade image is downloaded as the backup image on the access points. You can verify this
by using the show ap image all command.
◦Change the boot image to primary image manually using the config boot primary command and
reboot the controller for the upgrade image to be activated.
or
◦You issue a scheduled reboot with the swap keyword. The swap keyword has the following
importance: The swapping occurs to the primary and backup images on the access point and the
currently active image on controller with the backup image.
◦When the controller reboots, the access points are disassociated and eventually come up with an
upgraded image. Once the controller responds to the discovery request sent by an access point with
its discovery response packet, the access point sends a join request.
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• The actual upgrade of the images occur. The following sequence of actions occur:
◦During boot time, the access point sends a join request.
◦The controller responds with the join response with the image version that the controller is running.
◦The access point compares its running image with the running image on the controller. If the
versions match, the access point joins the controller.
◦If the versions do not match, the access point compares the version of the backup image and if
they match, the access point swaps the primary and backup images and reloads and subsequently
joins the controller.
◦If the primary image of the access point is the same as the controller image, the access point reloads
and joins the controller.
◦If none of the above conditions are true, the access point sends an image data request to the
controller, downloads the latest image, reloads, and joins the controller.
Restrictions for Predownloading an Image to an Access Point
• The maximum number of concurrent predownloads is limited to half the number of concurrent normal
image downloads. This limitation allows new access points to join the controller during image
downloading.
If you reach the predownload limit, then the access points that cannot get an image sleep for a time
between 180 to 600 seconds and then reattempt the predownload.
• Before you predownload, you should change the active controller boot image to the backup image to
ensure that if the controller reboots for some reason, it comes back up with the earlier running image,
not the partially downloaded upgrade image.
• Access points with 16-MB total available memory (1130 and 1240 access points) may not have enough
free memory to download an upgrade image and may automatically delete crash info files, radio files,
and any backup images to free up space. However, this limitation does not affect the predownload process
because the predownload image replaces any backup image on the access point.
• When the system time is changed by using the config time command, the time set for a scheduled reset
is not valid and the scheduled system reset is canceled. You are given an option either to cancel the
scheduled reset before configuring the time or retain the scheduled reset and not configure the time.
• All the primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers should run the same images as the primary and
backup images. That is, the primary image of all three controllers should be X and the secondary image
of all three controllers should be Y or the feature is not effective.
• At the time of the reset, if any AP is downloading the controller image, the scheduled reset is canceled.
The following message appears with the reason why the scheduled reset was canceled:
%OSAPI-3-RESETSYSTEM_FAILED: osapi_task.c:4458 System will not reset as software is
being upgraded.
• Predownloading a 7.2 or later version of image on a Cisco Aironet 1240 access point is not supported
when upgrading from a previous controller release. If predownloading is attempted to the Cisco Aironet
1240 access point, the AP gets disconnected.
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• There are two images for the1550 Mesh AP - 1550 with 64 MB memory and 1550 with 128 MB memory.
During the controller upgrade to 7.6 and higher versions, the AP images are downloaded and there are
two reboots.
Predownloading an Image to Access Points—Global Configuration (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Upload your controller configuration files to a server to back them up.
Note
We highly recommend that you back up your controller's configuration files prior to upgrading the controller
software. Otherwise, you must manually reconfigure the controller.
Follow these steps to obtain the controller software:
a) Browse to the Cisco Software Center: http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html
b) Choose Wireless from the center selection window.
c) Click Wireless LAN Controllers.
The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules and Standalone Controllers.
d) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
e) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
f) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine which release
to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support, and bug
fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an upgraded release.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
Repeat steps a through k to download the remaining file.
Copy the controller software file (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
(Optional) Disable the controller 802.11X networks.
Note
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend that you disable
the 802.11X networks as a precautionary measure.
For Cisco WiSM2, shut down the controller port channel on the Catalyst switch to allow the controller to reboot before
the access points start downloading the software.
Disable any WLANs on the controller.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Code.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
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• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 10
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout text
boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 11
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software in the Maximum Retries
text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software in the Timeout
text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the software.
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the controller software file (filename.aes).
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 15
Click Download to download the software to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the download.
Step 16
To configure the predownloading of access point images globally, choose Wireless > Access Points > Global
Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.
In the AP Image Pre-download section, perform one of the following:
Step 17
• To instruct all the access points to predownload a primary image from the controller, click Download Primary
under the AP Image Pre-download.
• To instruct all the access points to swap their primary and backup images, click Interchange Image.
• To download an image from the controller and store it as a backup image, click Download Backup.
• To abort the predownload operation, click Abort Predownload.
Step 18
Step 19
Click OK.
Click Apply.
Configuring Predownload Image to an Access Point (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Upload your controller configuration files to a server to back them up.
Note
We highly recommend that you back up your controller's configuration files prior to upgrading the controller
software. Otherwise, you must manually reconfigure the controller.
Follow these steps to obtain the controller software:
a) Browse to the Cisco Software Center: http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html
b) Select Wireless from the center selection window.
c) Click Wireless LAN Controllers.
The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules and Standalone Controllers.
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d) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
e) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
f) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine which release
to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support, and bug
fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an upgraded release.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Step 3
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
Repeat steps a through k to download the remaining file.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Copy the controller software file (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
(Optional) Disable the 802.11 networks.
Note
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend that you disable
the 802.11 networks as a precautionary measure.
For Cisco WiSM2, shut down the controller port channel on the Catalyst switch to allow the controller to reboot before
the access points start downloading the software.
Disable any WLANs on the controller.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Code.
Step 9
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
Step 4
Step 5
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available from the 7.4 release onwards
Step 10
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout
text boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 11
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software in the Maximum Retries
text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software in the Timeout
text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the software.
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the controller software file (filename.aes).
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
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c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 15
Click Download to download the software to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the download.
Step 16
To configure the predownloading of a specific access point, choose Wireless > All APs > AP_Name to open the All
AP Details page for the selected AP.
Click the Advanced tab.
In the AP Image Pre-download section, perform one of the following:
Step 17
Step 18
• To instruct the access point to predownload a primary image from the controller, click Download Primary under
the AP Image Pre-download.
• To instruct the access point to swap its primary and backup images, click Interchange Image.
• To download an image from the controller and store it as a backup image, click Download Backup.
• To abort the predownload operation, click Abort Predownload.
Step 19
Step 20
Click OK.
Click Apply.
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI)
Using the CLI, you can predownload an image to a specific access point or to all access points.
Step 1
Follow these steps to obtain the controller software:
a) Browse to the Cisco Software Center: http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html
b) Select Wireless from the center selection window.
c) Click Wireless LAN Controllers.
The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules and Standalone Controllers.
d) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
e) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
f) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine which release
to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support, and bug
fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an upgraded release.
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
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l) Repeat steps a through n to download the remaining file.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Copy the controller software file (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
(Optional) Disable the 802.11 networks.
Note
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend that you disable
the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n networks as a precautionary measure.
For Cisco WiSM2, shut down the controller port channel on the Catalyst switch to allow the controller to reboot before
the access points start downloading the software.
Step 5
Disable any WLANs on the controller using the config wlan disable wlan_id command.
Step 6
Specify access points that will receive the predownload image.
Use one of these commands to specify access points for predownload:
• Specify access points for predownload by entering this command:
config ap image predownload {primary | backup} {ap_name | all}
The primary image is the new image; the backup image is the existing image. Access points always boot with the
primary image.
• Swap an access point’s primary and backup images by entering this command:
config ap image swap {ap_name | all}
• Display detailed information on access points specified for predownload by entering this command:
show ap image {all | ap-name}
The output lists access points that are specified for predownloading and provides for each access point, primary and
secondary image versions, the version of the predownload image, the predownload retry time (if necessary), and the
number of predownload attempts. The output also includes the predownload status for each device. The status of the
access points is as follows:
• None—The access point is not scheduled for predownload.
• Predownloading—The access point is predownloading the image.
• Not supported—The access point (1120, 1230, and 1310) does not support predownloading.
• Initiated—The access point is waiting to get the predownload image because the concurrent download limit has
been reached.
• Failed—The access point has failed 64 predownload attempts.
• Complete—The access point has completed predownloading.
Step 7
Set a reboot time for the controller and the access points.
Use one of these commands to schedule a reboot of the controller and access points:
• Specify the amount of time delay before the devices reboot by entering this command:
reset system in HH:MM:SS image {swap | no-swap} reset-aps [save-config]
Note
The swap operand in the reset command will result in the swapping of the primary and backup images
on both the controller and the access point.
The controller sends a reset message to all joined access points, and then the controller resets.
• Specify a date and time for the devices to reboot by entering this command:
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reset system at YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS image {swap | no-swap} reset-aps [save-config]
The controller sends a reset message to all joined access points, and then the controller resets.
Note
The swap operand in the reset command will result in the swapping of the primary and backup images
on both the controller and the access point.
• Set up an SNMP trap message that announces the upcoming reset by entering this command:
reset system notify-time minutes
The controller sends the announcement trap the configured number of minutes before the reset.
• Cancel the scheduled reboot by entering this command:
reset system cancel
Note
If you configure reset times and then use the config time command to change the system time on the
controller, the controller notifies you that any scheduled reset times will be canceled and must be
reconfigured after you set the system time.
Use the show reset command to display scheduled resets.
Information similar to the following appears:
System reset is scheduled for Apr 08 01:01:01 2010.
Current local time and date is Apr 07 02:57:44 2010.
A trap will be generated 10 minutes before each scheduled system reset.
Use 'reset system cancel' to cancel the reset.
Configuration will be saved before the system reset.
Transferring Files to and from a Controller
Controllers have built-in utilities for uploading and downloading various files. Follow the instructions in these
sections to import files using either the controller GUI or CLI:
• Downloading a Login Banner File
• Downloading Device Certificates
• Downloading CA Certificates
• Uploading PACs
• Uploading and Downloading Configuration Files
Downloading a Login Banner File
You can download a login banner file using either the GUI or the CLI. The login banner is the text that appears
on the page before user authentication when you access the controller GUI or CLI using Telnet, SSH, or a
console port connection.
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You save the login banner information as a text (*.txt) file. The text file cannot be larger than 1296 characters
and cannot have more than 16 lines of text.
Note
The ASCII character set consists of printable and nonprintable characters. The login banner supports only
printable characters.
Here is an example of a login banner:
Welcome to the Cisco Wireless Controller!
Unauthorized access prohibited.
Contact sysadmin@corp.com for access.
Follow the instructions in this section to download a login banner to the controller through the GUI or CLI.
However, before you begin, make sure that you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the file download.
Follow these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet
as the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the
controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be
on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
• A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure because
the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP server require
the same communication port.
Note
Clearing the controller configuration does not remove the login banner. See the Clearing
the Login Banner (GUI) section for information about clearing the login banner using
the controller GUI or CLI.
Note
The controller can have only one login banner file. If you download another login banner
file to the controller, the first login banner file is overwritten.
Downloading a Login Banner File (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Copy the login banner file to the default directory on your server.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 3
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Login Banner.
Step 4
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
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• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server type you chose in Step 4.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout text
boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 6
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Maximum Retries
text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Timeout
text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the login banner file.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the login banner text (*.txt) file.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Click Download to download the login banner file to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the
download.
Downloading a Login Banner File (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log into the controller CLI.
Specify the transfer mode used to download the config file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Download the controller login banner by entering this command:
transfer download datatype login-banner
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the name of the config file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer download filenamefilename.txt
Step 7
If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any adjustment.
However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP
server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the amount of time (in seconds)
that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the timeout parameter.
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Step 8
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
Note
Step 9
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
View the download settings by entering the transfer download start command. Enter y when prompted to confirm the
current settings and start the download process.
Clearing the Login Banner (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Commands > Login Banner to open the Login Banner page.
Step 2
Step 3
Click Clear.
When prompted, click OK to clear the banner.
To clear the login banner from the controller using the controller CLI, enter the clear login-banner command.
Downloading Device Certificates
Each wireless device (controller, access point, and client) has its own device certificate. For example, the
controller is shipped with a Cisco-installed device certificate. This certificate is used by EAP-FAST (when
not using PACs), EAP-TLS, PEAP-GTC, and PEAP-MSCHAPv2 to authenticate wireless clients during local
EAP authentication. However, if you want to use your own vendor-specific device certificate, it must be
downloaded to the controller.
Note
For more information about configuring local EAP, see the Configuring Local EAP section.
Follow the instructions in this section to download a vendor-specific device certificate to the controller through
the GUI or CLI. However, before you begin, make sure you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the
certificate download. Follow these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet
as the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the
controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be
on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
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• A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure because
the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP server require
the same communication port.
Note
All certificates downloaded to the controller must be in PEM format.
Downloading Device Certificates (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Copy the device certificate to the default directory on your server.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 3
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Vendor Device Certificate.
Step 4
Step 5
In the Certificate Password text box, enter the password that was used to protect the certificate.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 6
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout text
boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 7
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Maximum Retries
text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Timeout
text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Click Download to download the device certificate to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the
download.
After the download is complete, choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot.
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Step 14
Click OK to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
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Downloading Device Certificates (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log onto the controller CLI.
Specify the transfer mode used to download the config file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Specify the type of the file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype eapdevcert
Step 4
Specify the certificate’s private key by entering this command:
transfer download certpassword password
Step 5
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 6
Specify the name of the config file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 7
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename.pem
Step 8
If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
Step 9
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any adjustment.
However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP
server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the amount of time (in seconds)
that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
Note
Step 10
Step 11
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
View the updated settings by entering the transfer download start command. Answer y when prompted to confirm the
current settings and start the download process.
Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
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Downloading CA Certificates
Controllers and access points have a Certificate Authority (CA) certificate that is used to sign and validate
device certificates. The controller is shipped with a Cisco-installed CA certificate. This certificate may be
used by EAP-FAST (when not using PACs), EAP-TLS, PEAP-GTC, and PEAP-MSCHAPv2 to authenticate
wireless clients during local EAP authentication. However, if you want to use your own vendor-specific CA
certificate, it must be downloaded to the controller.
Note
For more information about configuring local EAP, see the Configuring Local EAP section.
Follow the instructions in this section to download CA certificates to the controller through the GUI or CLI.
However, before you begin, make sure that you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the certificate
download. Follow these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet
as the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the
controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be
on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
• A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure because
the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP server require
the same communication port.
Note
All certificates downloaded to the controller must be in PEM format.
Download CA Certificates (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Copy the CA certificate to the default directory on your server.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Vendor CA Certificate.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout text
boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
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Step 6
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Maximum Retries
text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Timeout
text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log on to the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log on to the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Click Download to download the CA certificate to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the download.
After the download is complete, choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot.
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Click OK to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
Downloading CA Certificates (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log on to the controller CLI.
Specify the transfer mode used to download the config file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Specify the type of the file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype eapdevcert
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the config file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename.pem
Step 7
If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
Step 8
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any adjustment.
However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP
server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the amount of time (in seconds)
that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands:
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• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
Note
Step 9
Step 10
View the updated settings by entering the transfer download start command. Answer y when prompted to confirm the
current settings and start the download process.
Reboot the controller by entering the reset system command.
Uploading PACs
Protected access credentials (PACs) are credentials that are either automatically or manually provisioned and
used to perform mutual authentication with a local EAP authentication server during EAP-FAST authentication.
When manual PAC provisioning is enabled, the PAC file is manually generated on the controller.
Follow the instructions in this section to generate and load PACs from the controller through the GUI or CLI.
However, before you begin, make sure you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the PAC upload. Follow
these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are uploading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet as
the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.
• If you are uploading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be on
the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
• A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure because
the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP server require
the same communication port.
Uploading PACs (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose PAC (Protected Access Credential).
In the User text box, enter the name of the user who will use the PAC.
In the Validity text box, enter the number of days for the PAC to remain valid. The default setting is zero (0).
In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter a password to protect the PAC.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
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• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the PAC.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the PAC file. PAC files have a .pac extension.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the upload occurs. The
default value is 21.
Step 11
Step 12
Click Upload to upload the PAC from the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the upload.
Follow the instructions for your wireless client to load the PAC on your client devices. Make sure to use the password
that you entered above.
Uploading PACs (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log on to the controller CLI.
Specify the transfer mode used to upload the config file by entering this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Upload a Protected Access Credential (PAC) by entering this command:
transfer upload datatype pac
Step 4
Specify the identification of the user by entering this command:
transfer upload pac username validity password
Step 5
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer upload serverip server-ip-address
Step 6
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer upload path server-path-to-file
Step 7
Specify the name of the config file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload filename manual.pac.
Step 8
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
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Step 9
Step 10
View the updated settings by entering the transfer upload start command. Answer y when prompted to confirm the
current settings and start the upload process.
Follow the instructions for your wireless client to load the PAC on your client devices. Make sure to use the password
that you entered above.
Uploading and Downloading Configuration Files
We recommend that you upload your controller’s configuration file to a server to back it up. If you lose your
configuration, you can then download the saved configuration to the controller.
Note
Do not download a configuration file to your controller that was uploaded from a different controller
platform. For example, a Cisco 5500 Series Controller does not support the configuration file from a Cisco
2500 Series Controller.
Follow these guidelines when working with configuration files:
• Any CLI with an invalid value is filtered out and set to default by the XML validation engine. Validation
occurs during bootup. A configuration may be rejected if the validation fails. A configuration may fail
if you have an invalid CLI. For example, if you have a CLI where you try to configure a WLAN without
adding appropriate commands to add the WLAN.
• A configuration may be rejected if the dependencies are not addressed. For example, if you try to
configure dependent parameters without using the add command. The XML validation may succeed but
the configuration download infrastructure will immediately reject the configuration with no validation
errors.
• An invalid configuration can be verified by using the show invalid-config command. The show
invalid-config command reports the configuration that is rejected by the controller either as part of
download process or by XML validation infrastructure.
Note
You can also read and modify the configuration file.
• The FTP or the TFTP servers for transfer of configuration, image, and so on, must be reachable over a
wired connection. The transfer cannot be performed over one of the wireless clients of the Cisco WLC.
If you try to use a wireless client of the Cisco WLC, you are prompted with a system message saying
that the server is not reachable. However, if you use a wireless client that is associated with another
Cisco WLC, the FTP or the TFTP servers are reachable.
Uploading Configuration Files
You can upload configuration files using either the GUI or the CLI.
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Uploading the Configuration Files (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Configuration.
Step 3
Encrypt the configuration file by selecting the Configuration File Encryption check box and entering the encryption
key in the Encryption Key text box.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
Step 4
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the configuration file.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the configuration file.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the upload occurs. The
default value is 21.
Step 9
Click Upload to upload the configuration file to the server. A message appears indicating the status of the upload. If the
upload fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Uploading the Configuration Files (CLI)
Step 1
Specify the transfer mode used to upload the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 2
Specify the type of file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload datatype config
Step 3
Encrypt the configuration file by entering these commands:
• transfer encrypt enable
• transfer encrypt set-key key, where key is the encryption key used to encrypt the file.
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the server by entering this command:
transfer upload serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer upload path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the configuration file to be uploaded by entering this command:
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transfer upload filename filename
Step 7
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands to specify the username and password used to log into the FTP
server and the port number through which the upload occurs:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
Step 8
Initiate the upload process by entering this command:
transfer upload start
Step 9
When prompted to confirm the current settings, answer y.
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode.............................................
TFTP Server IP...................................
TFTP Path........................................
TFTP Filename....................................
Data Type........................................
Encryption.......................................
TFTP
10.10.10.4
Config/
AS_4402_4_2_55_8_Config.xml
Config File
Disabled
**************************************************
*** WARNING: Config File Encryption Disabled ***
**************************************************
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N) Y
File transfer operation completed successfully.
If the upload fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Downloading Configuration Files
You can download configuration files using either the GUI or the CLI.
Downloading the Configuration Files (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Configuration.
Step 3
If the configuration file is encrypted, select the Configuration File Encryption check box and enter the encryption key
used to decrypt the file in the Encryption Key text box.
Note
The key that you enter here should match the one entered during the upload process.
Step 4
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
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• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout text
boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 6
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the configuration file in the Maximum
Retries text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the configuration file
in the Timeout text box.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the configuration file.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the configuration file.
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 10
Click Download to download the file to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the download, and
the controller reboots automatically. If the download fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Downloading the Configuration Files (CLI)
Note
The controller does not support incremental configuration downloads. The configuration file contains all
mandatory commands (all interface address commands, mgmtuser with read-write permission commands,
and interface port or LAG enable or disable commands) required to successfully complete the download.
For example, if you download only the config time ntp server index server_address command as part of
the configuration file, the download fails. Only the commands present in the configuration file are applied
to the controller, and any configuration in the controller prior to the download is removed.
Step 1
Specify the transfer mode used to download the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 2
Specify the type of file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype config
Step 3
If the configuration file is encrypted, enter these commands:
• transfer encrypt enable
• transfer encrypt set-key key, where key is the encryption key used to decrypt the file.
Note
The key that you enter here should match the one entered during the upload process.
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Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the configuration file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename
Step 7
If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
Step 8
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any adjustment.
However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP
server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the amount of time (in seconds)
that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands to specify the username and password used to log into the FTP
server and the port number through which the download occurs:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
Step 9
View the updated settings by entering this command:
transfer download start
Step 10
When prompted to confirm the current settings and start the download process, answer y.
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode.............................................
TFTP Server IP...................................
TFTP Path........................................
TFTP Filename....................................
Data Type........................................
Encryption.......................................
TFTP
10.10.10.4
Config/
AS_4402_4_2_55_8_Config.xml
Config File
Disabled
**************************************************
*** WARNING: Config File Encryption Disabled ***
**************************************************
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N)
y
File transfer operation completed successfully.
If the download fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
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Saving Configurations
Controllers contain two kinds of memory: volatile RAM and NVRAM. At any time, you can save the
configuration changes from active volatile RAM to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) using one of these commands:
• save config—Saves the configuration from volatile RAM to NVRAM without resetting the controller.
• reset system—Prompts you to confirm that you want to save configuration changes before the controller
reboots.
• logout—Prompts you to confirm that you want to save configuration changes before you log out.
Editing Configuration Files
When you save the controller’s configuration, the controller stores it in XML format in flash memory. Controller
software release 5.2 or later releases enable you to easily read and modify the configuration file by converting
it to CLI format. When you upload the configuration file to a TFTP/FTP/SFTP server, the controller initiates
the conversion from XML to CLI. You can then read or edit the configuration file in a CLI format on the
server. When you are finished, you download the file back to the controller, where it is reconverted to an
XML format and saved.
Step 1
Upload the configuration file to a TFTP/FTP/SFTP server by performing one of the following:
• Upload the file using the controller GUI.
• Upload the file using the controller CLI.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Read or edit the configuration file on the server. You can modify or delete existing CLI commands and add new CLI
commands to the file.
Note
To edit the configuration file, you can use either Notepad or WordPad on Windows or the VI editor on
Linux.
Save your changes to the configuration file on the server.
Download the configuration file to the controller by performing one of the following:
• Download the file using the controller GUI.
• Download the file using the controller CLI.
The controller converts the configuration file to an XML format, saves it to flash memory, and then reboots using the
new configuration. CLI commands with known keywords and proper syntax are converted to XML while improper CLI
commands are ignored and saved to flash memory. Any CLI commands that have invalid values are replaced with default
values. To see any ignored commands or invalid configuration values, enter this command:
show invalid-config
Note
Step 5
You cannot execute this command after the clear config or save config command.
If the downloaded configuration contains a large number of invalid CLI commands, you might want to upload the invalid
configuration to the TFTP or FTP server for analysis. To do so, perform one of the following:
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• Upload the invalid configuration using the controller GUI. Follow the instructions in the Uploading Configuration
Files (GUI) section but choose Invalid Config from the File Type drop-down list in Step 2 and skip Step 3.
• Upload the invalid configuration using the controller CLI. Follow the instructions in the Uploading Configuration
Files (CLI) section but enter the transfer upload datatype invalid-config command in Step 2 and skip Step 3.
Step 6
The controller does not support the uploading and downloading of port configuration CLI commands. If you want to
configure the controller ports, enter these commands:
• config port linktrap {port | all} {enable | disable}—Enables or disables the up and down link traps for a specific
controller port or for all ports.
• config port adminmode {port | all} {enable | disable}—Enables or disables the administrative mode for a specific
controller port or for all ports.
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Clearing the Controller Configuration
Step 1
Clear the configuration by entering this command:
clear config
Enter y at the confirmation prompt to confirm the action.
Step 2
Reboot the system by entering this command:
reset system
Enter n to reboot without saving configuration changes. When the controller reboots, the configuration wizard starts
automatically.
Step 3
Follow the instructions in the Configuring the Controller-Using the Configuration Wizard section to complete the initial
configuration.
Erasing the Controller Configuration
Step 1
Reset the configuration by entering this command:
reset system
At the confirmation prompt, enter y to save configuration changes to NVRAM. The controller reboots.
Step 2
When you are prompted for a username, restore the factory-default settings by entering this command:
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recover-config
The controller reboots and the configuration wizard starts automatically.
Step 3
Follow the instructions in the Configuring the Controller-Using the Configuration Wizard section to complete the initial
configuration.
Resetting the Controller
You can reset the controller and view the reboot process on the CLI console using one of the following two
methods:
• Turn the controller off and then turn it back on.
• On the CLI, enter reset system. At the confirmation prompt, enter y to save configuration changes to
NVRAM. The controller reboots.
When the controller reboots, the CLI console displays the following reboot information:
• Initializing the system.
• Verifying the hardware configuration.
• Loading microcode into memory.
• Verifying the operating system software load.
• Initializing with its stored configurations.
• Displaying the login prompt.
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22
Managing User Accounts
• Configuring Guest User Accounts, page 205
• Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords, page 208
• Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users, page 210
• Generating a Certificate Signing Request, page 211
Configuring Guest User Accounts
Information About Creating Guest Accounts
The controller can provide guest user access on WLANs. The first step in creating guest user accounts is to
create a lobby administrator user, also known as a lobby ambassador account. Once this account has been
created, a lobby ambassador can create and manage guest user accounts on the controller. The lobby ambassador
has limited configuration privileges and access only to the web pages used to manage the guest accounts.
The lobby ambassador can specify the amount of time that the guest user accounts remain active. After the
specified time elapses, the guest user accounts expire automatically.
Restrictions for Managing User Accounts
The local user database is limited to a maximum of 2048 entries, which is also the default value. This database
is shared by local management users (including lobby ambassadors), local network users (including guest
users), MAC filter entries, exclusion list entries, and access point authorization list entries. Together they
cannot exceed the configured maximum value.
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Local Management Users to open the Local Management Users page.
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This page lists the names and access privileges of the local management users.
If you want to delete any of the user accounts from the controller, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow and choose Remove. However, deleting the default administrative user prohibits both GUI and CLI access
to the controller. Therefore, you must create a user with administrative privileges (ReadWrite) before you remove
the default user.
Click New to create a lobby ambassador account. The Local Management Users > New page appears.
In the User Name text box, enter a username for the lobby ambassador account.
Note
Management usernames must be unique because they are stored in a single database.
Note
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter a password for the lobby ambassador account.
Note
Passwords are case sensitive. The settings for the management User Details parameters depends on the settings
that you make in the Password Policy page. The following requirements are enforced on the password
• The password should contain characters from at least three of the following classes: lowercase letters,
uppercase letters, digits, and special characters.
• No character in the password can be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The password should not contain a management username or the reverse letters of a username.
• The password should not contain words like Cisco, oscic, admin, nimda, or any variant obtained by changing
the capitalization of letters by substituting 1, |, or ! or substituting 0 for o or substituting $ for s.
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Choose LobbyAdmin from the User Access Mode drop-down list. This option enables the lobby ambassador to create
guest user accounts.
Note
The ReadOnly option creates an account with read-only privileges, and the ReadWrite option creates an
administrative account with both read and write privileges.
Click Apply to commit your changes. The new lobby ambassador account appears in the list of local management users.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (CLI)
To create a lobby ambassador account use the following command:
config mgmtuser add lobbyadmin_username lobbyadmin_pwd lobby-admin
Note
Replacing lobby-admin with read-only creates an account with read-only privileges. Replacing
lobby-admin with read-write creates an administrative account with both read and write privileges.
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Creating Guest User Accounts as a Lobby Ambassador (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Log into the controller as the lobby ambassador, using the username and password. The Lobby Ambassador Guest
Management > Guest Users List page appears.
Click New to create a guest user account. The Lobby Ambassador Guest Management > Guest Users List > New page
appears.
In the User Name text box, enter a name for the guest user. You can enter up to 24 characters.
Perform one of the following:
• If you want to generate an automatic password for this guest user, select the Generate Password check box. The
generated password is entered automatically in the Password and Confirm Password text boxes.
• If you want to create a password for this guest user, leave the Generate Password check box unselected and enter
a password in both the Password and Confirm Password text boxes.
Note
Step 5
Passwords can contain up to 24 characters and are case
sensitive.
From the Lifetime drop-down lists, choose the amount of time (in days, hours, minutes, and seconds) that this guest user
account is to remain active. A value of zero (0) for all four text boxes creates a permanent account.
Default: 1 day
Range: 5 minutes to 30 days
The smaller of this value or the session timeout for the guest WLAN, which is the WLAN on which the guest
account is created, takes precedence. For example, if a WLAN session timeout is due to expire in 30 minutes
but the guest account lifetime has 10 minutes remaining, the account is deleted in 10 minutes upon guest account
expiry. Similarly, if the WLAN session timeout expires before the guest account lifetime, the client experiences
a recurring session timeout that requires reauthentication.
Note
You can change a guest user account with a nonzero lifetime to another lifetime value at any time while the
account is active. However, to make a guest user account permanent using the controller GUI, you must delete
the account and create it again. If desired, you can use the config netuser lifetime user_name 0 command to
make a guest user account permanent without deleting and recreating it.
From the WLAN SSID drop-down list, choose the SSID that will be used by the guest user. The only WLANs that are
listed are those WLANs for which Layer 3 web authentication has been configured.
Note
We recommend that you create a specific guest WLAN to prevent any potential conflicts. If a guest account
expires and it has a name conflict with an account on the RADIUS server and both are on the same WLAN, the
users associated with both accounts are disassociated before the guest account is deleted.
In the Description text box, enter a description of the guest user account. You can enter up to 32 characters.
Click Apply to commit your changes. The new guest user account appears in the list of guest users on the Guest Users
List page.
From this page, you can see all of the guest user accounts, their WLAN SSID, and their lifetime. You can also edit or
remove a guest user account. When you remove a guest user account, all of the clients that are using the guest WLAN
and are logged in using that account’s username are deleted.
Note
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Repeat this procedure to create any additional guest user accounts.
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Viewing Guest User Accounts
Viewing the Guest Accounts (GUI)
To view guest user accounts using the controller GUI, choose Security > AAA > Local Net Users. The Local
Net Users page appears.
From this page, you can see all of the local net user accounts (including guest user accounts) and can edit or
remove them as desired. When you remove a guest user account, all of the clients that are using the guest
WLAN and are logged in using that account’s username are deleted.
Viewing the Guest Accounts (CLI)
To see all of the local net user accounts (including guest user accounts) using the controller CLI, enter this
command:
show netuser summary
Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords
Information About Configuring Administrator Usernames and Passwords
You can configure administrator usernames and passwords to prevent unauthorized users from reconfiguring
the controller and viewing configuration information. This section provides instructions for initial configuration
and for password recovery.
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Management > Local Management Users.
Click New.
Enter the username and password, and confirm the password.
Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters. Usernames and passwords
cannot contain spaces.
Step 4
Choose the User Access Mode as one of the following:
• ReadOnly
• ReadWrite
• LobbyAdmin
Step 5
Click Apply.
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Configuring Usernames and Passwords (CLI)
Step 1
Configure a username and password by entering one of these commands:
• config mgmtuser add username password read-write—Creates a username-password pair with read-write
privileges.
• config mgmtuser add username password read-only—Creates a username-password pair with read-only privileges.
Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters. Usernames and passwords
cannot contain spaces.
Note
Step 2
If you ever need to change the password for an existing username, enter the config mgmtuser password
username new_password command.
List the configured users by entering this command:
show mgmtuser
Restoring Passwords
Before You Begin
Ensure that you are accessing the controller CLI through the console port.
Step 1
After the controller boots up, enter Restore-Password at the User prompt.
Note
For security reasons, the text that you enter does not appear on the controller console.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
At the Enter User Name prompt, enter a new username.
At the Enter Password prompt, enter a new password.
At the Re-enter Password prompt, reenter the new password. The controller validates and stores your entries in the
database.
When the User prompt reappears, enter your new username.
When the Password prompt appears, enter your new password. The controller logs you in with your new username and
password.
Step 5
Step 6
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Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users
Information About Changing the Default Values for SNMP v3 Users
The controller uses a default value of “default” for the username, authentication password, and privacy password
for SNMP v3 users. Using these standard values presents a security risk. Therefore, Cisco strongly advises
that you change these values.
Note
SNMP v3 is time sensitive. Ensure that you configure the correct time and time zone on your controller.
Changing the SNMP v3 User Default Values (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > SNMP > SNMP V3 Users to open the SNMP V3 Users page.
Step 2
If “default” appears in the User Name column, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired user and
choose Remove to delete this SNMP v3 user.
Step 3
Click New to add a new SNMP v3 user. The SNMP V3 Users > New page appears.
Step 4
Step 10
Step 11
In the User Profile Name text box, enter a unique name. Do not enter “default.”
Choose Read Only or Read Write from the Access Mode drop-down list to specify the access level for this user. The
default value is Read Only.
From the Authentication Protocol drop-down list, choose the desired authentication method: None, HMAC-MD5 (Hashed
Message Authentication Coding-Message Digest 5), or HMAC-SHA (Hashed Message Authentication Coding-Secure
Hashing Algorithm). The default value is HMAC-SHA.
In the Auth Password and Confirm Auth Password text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication.
You must enter at least 12 characters that include both letters and numbers.
From the Privacy Protocol drop-down list, choose the desired encryption method: None, CBC-DES (Cipher Block
Chaining-Digital Encryption Standard), or CFB-AES-128 (Cipher Feedback Mode-Advanced Encryption Standard-128).
The default value is CFB-AES-128.
Note
In order to configure CBC-DES or CFB-AES-128 encryption, you must have selected either HMAC-MD5 or
HMAC-SHA as the authentication protocol in Step 6.
In the Priv Password and Confirm Priv Password text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for encryption. You
must enter at least 12 characters that include both letters and numbers.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Step 12
Reboot the controller so that the SNMP v3 user that you added takes effect.
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
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Changing the SNMP v3 User Default Values (CLI)
Step 1
See the current list of SNMP v3 users for this controller by entering this command:
show snmpv3user
Step 2
If “default” appears in the SNMP v3 User Name column, enter this command to delete this user:
config snmp v3user delete username
The username parameter is the SNMP v3 username (in this case, “default”).
Step 3
Create a new SNMP v3 user by entering this command:
config snmp v3user create username {ro | rw} {none | hmacmd5 | hmacsha} {none | des | aescfb128} auth_key
encrypt_key
where
• username is the SNMP v3 username.
• ro is read-only mode and rw is read-write mode.
• none, hmacmd5, and hmacsha are the authentication protocol options.
• none, des, and aescfb128 are the privacy protocol options.
• auth_key is the authentication shared secret key.
• encrypt_key is the encryption shared secret key.
Do not enter “default” for the username, auth_key, and encrypt_key parameters.
Step 4
Enter the save config command.
Step 5
Reboot the controller so that the SNMP v3 user that you added takes effect by entering reset system command.
Generating a Certificate Signing Request
Step 1
Step 2
Install and open the OpenSSL application.
Enter the command:
OpenSSL> req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout mykey.pem -out myreq.pem
Controllers support a maximum key size of 2048 bits.
You must provide the correct Common Name. Ensure that the host name that is used to create the certificate
(Common Name) matches the Domain Name System (DNS) host name entry for the virtual interface IP on the
controller. This name should exist in the DNS as well. Also, after you make the change to the VIP interface,
you must reboot the system in order for this change to take effect.
After you issue the command, you are prompted to enter information such as country name, state, city, and so on.
Note
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Information similar to the following appears:
OpenSSL> req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout mykey.pem -out myreq.pem
Loading 'screen' into random state - done
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
................................................................++++++
...................................................++++++
writing new private key to 'mykey.pem'
----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:US
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:CA
Locality Name (eg, city) []:San Jose
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:ABC
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:CDE
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:XYZ.ABC
Email Address []:Test@abc.com
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:Test123
An optional company name []:
OpenSSL>
After you provide all the required details two files are generated:
• A new private key that includes the name mykey.pem
• A CSR that includes the name myreq.pem
Step 3
Copy and paste the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) information into any CA enrollment tool. After you submit the
CSR to a third party CA, the third party CA digitally signs the certificate and sends back the signed certificate chain
through e-mail. In case of chained certificates, you receive the entire chain of certificates from the CA. If you only have
one intermediate certificate similar to the example above, you will receive the following three certificates from the CA:
• Root certificate.pem
• Intermediate certificate.pem
• Device certificate.pem
Note
Step 4
Ensure that the certificate is Apache-compatible with SHA1 encryption.
Once you have all the three certificates, copy and paste into another file the contents of each .pem file in this order:
------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----*Device cert*
------END CERTIFICATE-----------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----*Intermediate CA cert *
------END CERTIFICATE-------------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----*Root CA cert *
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------END CERTIFICATE------
Step 5
Save the file as All-certs.pem.
Combine the All-certs.pem certificate with the private key that you generated along with the CSR (the private key of the
device certificate, which is mykey.pem in this example), and save the file as final.pem.
Create the All-certs.pem and final.pem files by entering these commands:
Step 6
Step 7
openssl> pkcs12 -export -in All-certs.pem -inkey mykey.pem
-out All-certs.p12 -clcerts -passin pass:check123
-passout pass:check123
openssl> pkcs12 -in All-certs.p12 -out final-cert.pem
-passin pass:check123 -passout pass:check123
final.pem is the file that we need to download to the controller.
Note
You must enter a password for the parameters -passin and -passout. The password that is configured for the
-passout parameter must match the certpassword parameter that is configured on the controller. In the above
example, the password that is configured for both the -passin and -passout parameters is check123.
What to Do Next
Download the final.pem file to the controller either using CLI or GUI.
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Copy the device certificate final.pem to the default directory on your TFTP server.
Choose Security > Web Auth > Certificate to open the Web Authentication Certificate page.
Check the Download SSL Certificate check box to view the Download SSL Certificate From Server parameters.
Step 4
In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.
Step 5
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Step 6
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
Step 7
In the Certificate Password text box, enter the password to protect the certificate.
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Click Apply.
After the download is complete, choose Commands > Reboot and click Save and Reboot.
Click OK in order to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
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Downloading Third-Party Certificate (CLI)
Step 1
Move the final.pem file to the default directory on your TFTP server. Change the download settings by entering the
following commands:
(Cisco
(Cisco
(Cisco
(Cisco
(Cisco
Step 2
Controller)
Controller)
Controller)
Controller)
Controller)
>
>
>
>
>
transfer
transfer
transfer
transfer
transfer
download
download
download
download
download
mode tftp
datatype webauthcert
serverip <TFTP server IP address>
path <absolute TFTP server path to the update file>
filename final.pem
Enter the password for the .pem file so that the operating system can decrypt the SSL key and certificate.
(Cisco Controller) > transfer download certpassword password
Ensure that the value for certpassword is the same as the -passout parameter when you generate a
CSR.
Start the certificate and key download by entering the this command:
transfer download start
Note
Step 3
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > transfer download start
Mode............................................. TFTP
Data Type........................................ Site Cert
TFTP Server IP................................... 10.77.244.196
TFTP Packet Timeout.............................. 6
TFTP Max Retries................................. 10
TFTP Path........................................./
TFTP Filename.................................... final.pem
This may take some time.
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N) y
TFTP EAP Dev cert transfer starting.
Certificate installed.
Reboot the switch to use new certificate.
Step 4
Reboot the controller.
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23
Managing Web Authentication
• Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate, page 215
• Web Authentication Process, page 217
• Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page, page 220
• Using a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server, page 226
• Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page, page 227
• Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN, page 231
Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate
Information About Web Authentication Certificates
The operating system of the controller automatically generates a fully functional web authentication certificate,
so you do not need to do anything in order to use certificates with Layer 3 web authentication. However, if
desired, you can prompt the operating system to generate a new web authentication certificate, or you can
download an externally generated SSL certificate.
Support for Chained Certificate
Cisco WLC allows the device certificate to be downloaded as a chained certificate (up to a level of 2) for web
authentication. Wildcard certificates are also supported. For more information about chained certificates, see
the Generate CSR for Third-Party Certificates and Download Chained Certificates to the WLC document at
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6366/products_configuration_example09186a0080a77592.shtml.
Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > Web Auth > Certificate to open the Web Authentication Certificate page.
This page shows the details of the current web authentication certificate.
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Step 2
If you want to use a new operating system-generated web authentication certificate, follow these steps:
a) Click Regenerate Certificate. The operating system generates a new web authentication certificate, and a successfully
generated web authentication certificate message appears.
b) Reboot the controller to register the new certificate.
Step 3
If you prefer to use an externally generated web authentication certificate, follow these steps:
a) Verify that the controller can ping the TFTP server.
b) Select the Download SSL Certificate check box.
c) In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.
The default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and Timeout text boxes should work correctly
without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
d) Enter the maximum number of times that each download can be attempted in the Maximum Retries text box and the
amount of time (in seconds) allowed for each download in the Timeout text box.
e) In the Certificate File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
f) In the Certificate File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate (certname.pem).
g) In the Certificate Password text box, enter the password for the certificate.
h) Click Apply to commit your changes. The operating system downloads the new certificate from the TFTP server.
i) Reboot the controller to register the new certificate.
Obtaining a Web Authentication Certificate (CLI)
Step 1
See the current web authentication certificate by entering this command:
show certificate summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Web Administration Certificate................... Locally Generated
Web Authentication Certificate................... Locally Generated
Certificate compatibility mode:............... off
Step 2
If you want the operating system to generate a new web authentication certificate, follow these steps:
a) To generate the new certificate, enter this command:
config certificate generate webauth
b) To reboot the controller to register the new certificate, enter this command:
reset system
Step 3
If you prefer to use an externally generated web authentication certificate, follow these steps:
Note
We recommend that the Common Name (CN) of the externally generated web authentication certificate be
1.1.1.1 (or the equivalent virtual interface IP address) in order for the client’s browser to match the domains of
the web authentication URL and the web authentication certificate.
1 Specify the name, path, and type of certificate to be downloaded by entering these commands:
transfer download mode tftp
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transfer download datatype webauthcert
transfer download serverip server_ip_address
transfer download path server_path_to_file
transfer download filename certname.pem
transfer download certpassword password
transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any adjustment.
However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that each download
can be attempted for the retries parameter and the amount of time (in seconds) allowed for each download
for the timeout parameter.
2 Start the download process by entering this command:
Note
transfer download start
3 Reboot the controller to register the new certificate by entering this command:
reset system
Web Authentication Process
Web authentication is a Layer 3 security feature that causes the controller to not allow IP traffic (except
DHCP-related packets) from a particular client until that client has correctly supplied a valid username and
password. When you use web authentication to authenticate clients, you must define a username and password
for each client. When the clients attempt to join the wireless LAN, their users must enter the username and
password when prompted by a login page.
Note
If a client uses more than 20 DNS resolved addresses, the controller overwrites the 21st address in the
first address space in the Mobile Station Control Block (MSCB) table, but the first address is still retained
in the client. If the client again tries to use the first address, it will not be reachable because the controller
does not have this address in the list of allowed addresses for the client's MSCB table.
Note
One-Time Passwords (OTP) are not supported on web authentication.
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Disabling Security Alert for Web Authentication Process
When web authentication is enabled (under Layer 3 Security), users might receive a web-browser security
alert the first time that they attempt to access a URL.
Figure 19: Typical Web-Browser Security Alert
Note
When clients connect to a WebAuth SSID with preauthorization ACL configured to allow VPN users, the
clients will get disconnected from the SSID every few minutes. Webauth SSIDs must not connect without
authenticating on the web page.
After the user clicks Yes to proceed (or if the client’s browser does not display a security alert), the web
authentication system redirects the client to a login page.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Click View Certificate on the Security Alert page.
Click Install Certificate.
When the Certificate Import Wizard appears, click Next.
Choose Place all certificates in the following store and click Browse.
Choose Place all certificates in the following store and click Browse.
Expand the Trusted Root Certification Authorities folder and choose Local Computer.
Click OK.
Click Next > Finish.
Step 9
When the “The import was successful” message appears, click OK.
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Because the issuer text box is blank on the controller self-signed certificate, open Internet Explorer, choose Tools >
Internet Options > Advanced, unselect the Warn about Invalid Site Certificates check box under Security, and click
OK.
Step 10
Reboot the PC. On the next web authentication attempt, the login page appears.
The following figure shows the default web authentication login page.
Figure 20: Default Web Authentication Login Page
The default login page contains a Cisco logo and Cisco-specific text. You can choose to have the web authentication
system display one of the following:
• The default login page
• A modified version of the default login page
• A customized login page that you configure on an external web server
• A customized login page that you download to the controller
The Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page section provides instructions for choosing how the web
authentication login page appears.
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When the user enters a valid username and password on the web authentication login page and clicks Submit, the web
authentication system displays a successful login page and redirects the authenticated client to the requested URL.
Figure 21: Successful Login Page
The default successful login page contains a pointer to a virtual gateway address URL in the https://<IP
address>/logout.html format. The IP address that you set for the controller virtual interface serves as the redirect address
for the login page
Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page
Information About Default Web Authentication Login Page
If you are using a custom web-auth bundle that is served by the internal controller web server, the page should
not contain more than 5 elements (including HTML, CSS, and Images). This is because the internal controller
web server implements a DoS protection mechanism that limits each client to open a maximum of 5 (five)
concurrent TCP connections depending on the load. Some browsers may try to open more than 5 TCP sessions
at the same time (For example Firefox 4) if the page contains more elements and this may result in the page
loading slowly depending on how the browser handles the DoS protection.
If you do not want users to connect to a web page using a browser that is configured with SSLv2 only, you
can disable SSLv2 for web authentication by entering the config network secureweb cipher-option sslv2
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disable command. If you enter this command, users must use a browser that is configured to use a more
secure protocol such as SSLv3 or later releases. The default value is disabled.
Note
Cisco TAC is not responsible for creating a custom webauth bundle.
If you have a complex custom web authentication module, it is recommended that you use an external web-auth
config on the controller, where the full login page is hosted at an external web server.
Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Choose Security > Web Auth > Web Login Page to open the Web Login page.
From the Web Authentication Type drop-down list, choose Internal (Default).
If you want to use the default web authentication login page as is, go to Step 8. If you want to modify the default login
page, go to Step 4.
If you want to hide the Cisco logo that appears in the top right corner of the default page, choose the Cisco Logo Hide
option. Otherwise, click the Show option.
If you want the user to be directed to a particular URL (such as the URL for your company) after login, enter the desired
URL in the Redirect URL After Login text box. You can enter up to 254 characters.
Note
The controller supports web authentication redirects only to HTTP (HTTP over TCP) servers. It does not support
web authentication redirects to HTTPS (HTTP over SSL) servers.
If you want to create your own headline on the login page, enter the desired text in the Headline text box. You can enter
up to 127 characters. The default headline is “Welcome to the Cisco wireless network.”
If you want to create your own message on the login page, enter the desired text in the Message text box. You can enter
up to 2047 characters. The default message is “Cisco is pleased to provide the Wireless LAN infrastructure for your
network. Please login and put your air space to work.”
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Preview to view the web authentication login page.
If you are satisfied with the content and appearance of the login page, click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Otherwise, repeat any of the previous steps as necessary to achieve your desired results.
Choosing the Default Web Authentication Login Page (CLI)
Step 1
Specify the default web authentication type by entering this command:
config custom-web webauth_type internal
Step 2
If you want to use the default web authentication login page as is, go to Step 7. If you want to modify the default login
page, go to Step 3.
To show or hide the Cisco logo that appears in the top right corner of the default login page, enter this command:
config custom-web weblogo {enable | disable}
Step 3
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Step 4
If you want the user to be directed to a particular URL (such as the URL for your company) after login, enter this
command:
config custom-web redirecturl url
You can enter up to 130 characters for the URL. To change the redirect back to the default setting, enter the clear
redirecturl command.
The controller supports web authentication redirects only to HTTP (HTTP over TCP) servers. It does not support
web authentication redirects to HTTPS (HTTP over SSL) servers.
If you want to create your own headline on the login page, enter this command:
config custom-web webtitle title
Note
Step 5
You can enter up to 130 characters. The default headline is “Welcome to the Cisco wireless network.” To reset the
headline to the default setting, enter the clear webtitle command.
Step 6
If you want to create your own message on the login page, enter this command:
config custom-web webmessage message
You can enter up to 130 characters. The default message is “Cisco is pleased to provide the Wireless LAN infrastructure
for your network. Please login and put your air space to work.” To reset the message to the default setting, enter the clear
webmessage command.
Step 7
To enable or disable the web authentication logout popup window, enter this command:
config custom-web logout-popup {enable | disable}
Step 8
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Step 9
Import your own logo into the web authentication login page as follows:
1 Make sure that you have a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server available for the file download. Follow these
guidelines when setting up a TFTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP server must be on the same subnet as the service
port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP server can be on the same or a
different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
• A third-party TFTP server cannot run on the same computer as the Cisco Prime Infrastructure because the Prime
Infrastructure built-in TFTP server and the third-party TFTP server require the same communication port.
2 Ensure that the controller can contact the TFTP server by entering this command:
ping ip-address
3 Copy the logo file (in .jpg, .gif, or .png format) to the default directory on your TFTP server. The maximum file size
is 30 kilobits. For an optimal fit, the logo should be approximately 180 pixels wide and 360 pixels high.
4 Specify the download mode by entering this command:
transfer download mode tftp
5 Specify the type of file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype image
6 Specify the IP address of the TFTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip tftp-server-ip-address
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Some TFTP servers require only a forward slash (/) as the TFTP server IP address, and the TFTP server
automatically determines the path to the correct directory.
7 Specify the download path by entering this command:
Note
transfer download path absolute-tftp-server-path-to-file
8 Specify the file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download filename {filename.jpg | filename.gif | filename.png}
9 View your updated settings and answer y to the prompt to confirm the current download settings and start the download
by entering this command:
transfer download start
10 Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Note
Step 10
If you ever want to remove this logo from the web authentication login page, enter the clear webimage
command.
Follow the instructions in the Verifying the Web Authentication Login Page Settings (CLI), on page 230 section to verify
your settings.
Example: Creating a Customized Web Authentication Login Page
This section provides information on creating a customized web authentication login page, which can then
be accessed from an external web server.
Here is a web authentication login page template. It can be used as a model when creating your own customized
page:
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Pragma" content="no-cache">
<meta HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
<title>Web Authentication</title>
<script>
function submitAction(){
var link = document.location.href;
var searchString = "redirect=";
var equalIndex = link.indexOf(searchString);
var redirectUrl = "";
if (document.forms[0].action == "") {
var url = window.location.href;
var args = new Object();
var query = location.search.substring(1);
var pairs = query.split("&");
for(var i=0;i<pairs.length;i++){
var pos = pairs[i].indexOf('=');
if(pos == -1) continue;
var argname = pairs[i].substring(0,pos);
var value = pairs[i].substring(pos+1);
args[argname] = unescape(value);
}
document.forms[0].action = args.switch_url;
}
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if(equalIndex >= 0) {
equalIndex += searchString.length;
redirectUrl = "";
redirectUrl += link.substring(equalIndex);
}
if(redirectUrl.length > 255)
redirectUrl = redirectUrl.substring(0,255);
document.forms[0].redirect_url.value = redirectUrl;
document.forms[0].buttonClicked.value = 4;
document.forms[0].submit();
}
function loadAction(){
var url = window.location.href;
var args = new Object();
var query = location.search.substring(1);
var pairs = query.split("&");
for(var i=0;i<pairs.length;i++){
var pos = pairs[i].indexOf('=');
if(pos == -1) continue;
var argname = pairs[i].substring(0,pos);
var value = pairs[i].substring(pos+1);
args[argname] = unescape(value);
}
//alert( "AP MAC Address is " + args.ap_mac);
//alert( "The Switch URL to post user credentials is " + args.switch_url);
document.forms[0].action = args.switch_url;
// This is the status code returned from webauth login action
// Any value of status code from 1 to 5 is error condition and user
// should be shown error as below or modify the message as it suits
// the customer
if(args.statusCode == 1){
alert("You are already logged in. No further action is required on your part.");
}
else if(args.statusCode == 2){
alert("You are not configured to authenticate against web portal. No further action
is required on your part.");
}
else if(args.statusCode == 3){
alert("The username specified cannot be used at this time. Perhaps the username is
already logged into the system?");
}
else if(args.statusCode == 4){
alert("The User has been excluded. Please contact the administrator.");
}
else if(args.statusCode == 5){
alert("Invalid username and password. Please try again.");
}
else if(args.statusCode == 6){
alert("Invalid email address format. Please try again.");
}
}
</script>
</head>
<body topmargin="50" marginheight="50" onload="loadAction();">
<form method="post" action="https://209.165.200.225/login.html">
<input TYPE="hidden" NAME="buttonClicked" SIZE="16" MAXLENGTH="15" value="0">
<input TYPE="hidden" NAME="redirect_url" SIZE="255" MAXLENGTH="255" VALUE="">
<input TYPE="hidden" NAME="err_flag" SIZE="16" MAXLENGTH="15" value="0">
<div align="center">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
<tr> <td>&nbsp;</td></tr>
<tr align="center"> <td colspan="2"><font size="10" color="#336699">Web
Authentication</font></td></tr>
<tr align="center">
<td colspan="2"> User Name &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<input type="TEXT" name="username" SIZE="25"
MAXLENGTH="63" VALUE="">
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</td>
</tr>
<tr align="center" >
<td colspan="2"> Password &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<input type="Password" name="password"
SIZE="25" MAXLENGTH="24">
</td>
</tr>
<tr align="center">
<td colspan="2"><input type="button" name="Submit" value="Submit" class="button"
onclick="submitAction();">
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
</form>
</body>
</html>
These parameters are added to the URL when the user’s Internet browser is redirected to the customized login
page:
• ap_mac—The MAC address of the access point to which the wireless user is associated.
• switch_url—The URL of the controller to which the user credentials should be posted.
• redirect—The URL to which the user is redirected after authentication is successful.
• statusCode—The status code returned from the controller’s web authentication server.
• wlan—The WLAN SSID to which the wireless user is associated.
The available status codes are as follows:
• Status Code 1: “You are already logged in. No further action is required on your part.”
• Status Code 2: “You are not configured to authenticate against web portal. No further action is required
on your part.”
• Status Code 3: “The username specified cannot be used at this time. Perhaps the username is already
logged into the system?”
• Status Code 4: “You have been excluded.”
• Status Code 5: “The User Name and Password combination you have entered is invalid. Please try again.”
Note
For additional information, see the External Web Authentication with Wireless LAN
Controllers Configuration Example at this URL: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/
tk722/tk809/technologies_configuration_example09186a008076f974.shtml
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Example: Modified Default Web Authentication Login Page Example
This figure shows an example of a modified default web authentication login page.
Figure 22: Modified Default Web Authentication Login Page Example
These CLI commands were used to create this login page:
• config custom-web weblogo disable
• config custom-web webtitle Welcome to the AcompanyBC Wireless LAN!
• config custom-web webmessage Contact the System Administrator for a Username and Password.
• transfer download start
• config custom-web redirecturl url
Using a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web
Server
Information About Customized Web Authentication Login Page
You can customize the web authentication login page to redirect to an external web server. When you enable
this feature, the user is directed to your customized login page on the external web server.
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You must configure a preauthentication access control list (ACL) on the WLAN for the external web server
and then choose this ACL as the WLAN preauthentication ACL under Security Policies > Web Policy on the
WLANs > Edit page.
Choosing a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Security > Web Auth > Web Login Page to open the Web Login page.
From the Web Authentication Type drop-down list, choose External (Redirect to external server).
In the Redirect URL after login text box, enter the URL that you want the user to be redirected after a login.
For example, you may enter your company's URL here and the users will be directed to that URL after login. The
maximum length is 254 characters. By default, the user is redirected to the URL that was entered in the user's browser
before the login page was served. of the customized web authentication login page on your web server. You can enter
up to 252 characters.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
In the External Webauth URL text box, enter the URL that is to be used for external web authentication.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Choosing a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server (CLI)
Step 1
Specify the web authentication type by entering this command:
config custom-web webauth_type external
Step 2
Specify the URL of the customized web authentication login page on your web server by entering this command:
config custom-web ext-webauth-url url
You can enter up to 252 characters for the URL.
Step 3
Specify the IP address of your web server by entering this command:
config custom-web ext-webserver {add | delete} server_IP_address
Step 4
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Step 5
Follow the instructions in the Verifying the Web Authentication Login Page Settings (CLI), on page 230 section to verify
your settings.
Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page
You can compress the page and image files used for displaying a web authentication login page into a.tar file
for download to a controller. These files are known as the webauth bundle. The maximum allowed size of the
files in their uncompressed state is 1 MB. When the .tar file is downloaded from a local TFTP server, it enters
the controller’s file system as an untarred file.
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You can download a login page example from Cisco Prime Infrastructure and use it as a starting point for
your customized login page. For more information, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure documentation.
Note
If you load a webauth bundle with a .tar compression application that is not GNU compliant, the controller
cannot extract the files in the bundle and the following error messages appear: “Extracting error” and
“TFTP transfer failed.” Therefore, we recommend that you use an application that complies with GNU
standards, such as PicoZip, to compress the .tar file for the webauth bundle.
Note
Configuration backups do not include extra files or components, such as the webauth bundle or external
licenses, that you download and store on your controller, so you should manually save external backup
copies of those files or components.
Note
If the customized webauth bundle has more than 3 separated elements, we advise you to use an external
server to prevent page load issues that may be caused because of TCP rate-limiting policy on the controller.
Prerequisites for Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page
• Name the login page login.html. The controller prepares the web authentication URL based on this
name. If the server does not find this file after the webauth bundle has been untarred, the bundle is
discarded, and an error message appears.
• Include input text boxes for both a username and password.
• Retain the redirect URL as a hidden input item after extracting from the original URL.
• Extract and set the action URL in the page from the original URL.
• Include scripts to decode the return status code.
• Make sure that all paths used in the main page (to refer to images, for example).
• Ensure that no filenames within the bundle are greater than 30 characters.
Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Copy the .tar file containing your login page to the default directory on your server.
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Webauth Bundle.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
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• SFTP (available in the 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
Step 6
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, enter the maximum number of times the controller should attempt to download the .tar
file in the Maximum Retries text box.
The range is 1 to 254.
The default is 10.
Step 7
If you are using a TFTP server, enter the amount of time in seconds before the controller times out while attempting to
download the *.tar file in the Timeout text box.
The range is 1 to 254 seconds.
The default is 6 seconds.
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
In the File Path text box, enter the path of the .tar file to be downloaded. The default value is “/.”
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the .tar file to be downloaded.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
1 In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
2 In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
3 In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download occurs.
The default value is 21.
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
Click Download to download the .tar file to the controller.
Choose Security > Web Auth > Web Login Page to open the Web Login page.
From the Web Authentication Type drop-down list, choose Customized (Downloaded).
Click Apply.
Click Preview to view your customized web authentication login page.
If you are satisfied with the content and appearance of the login page, click Save Configuration.
Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Copy the .tar file containing your login page to the default directory on your server.
Specify the download mode by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp
Step 3
Specify the type of file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype webauthbundle
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip tftp-server-ip-address.
Note
Some TFTP servers require only a forward slash (/) as the TFTP server IP address, and the TFTP server
automatically determines the path to the correct directory.
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Step 5
Specify the download path by entering this command:
transfer download path absolute-tftp-server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename.tar
Step 7
View your updated settings and answer y to the prompt to confirm the current download settings and start the download
by entering this command:
transfer download start
Step 8
Specify the web authentication type by entering this command:
config custom-web webauth_type customized
Step 9
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Example: Customized Web Authentication Login Page
This figure shows an example of a customized web authentication login page.
Figure 23: Customized Web Authentication Login Page Example
Verifying the Web Authentication Login Page Settings (CLI)
Verify your changes to the web authentication login page by entering this command:
show custom-web
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Information About Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN
You can display different web authentication login, login failure, and logout pages to users per WLAN. This
feature enables user-specific web authentication pages to be displayed for a variety of network users, such as
guest users or employees within different departments of an organization.
Different login pages are available for all web authentication types (internal, external, and customized).
However, different login failure and logout pages can be specified only when you choose customized as the
web authentication type.
Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Click the ID number of the WLAN to which you want to assign a web login, login failure, or logout page.
Choose Security > Layer 3.
Make sure that Web Policy and Authentication are selected.
To override the global authentication configuration web authentication pages, select the Override Global Config check
box.
When the Web Auth Type drop-down list appears, choose one of the following options to define the web authentication
pages for wireless guest users:
• Internal—Displays the default web login page for the controller. This is the default value.
• Customized—Displays custom web login, login failure, and logout pages. If you choose this option, three separate
drop-down lists appear for login, login failure, and logout page selection. You do not need to define a customized
page for all three options. Choose None from the appropriate drop-down list if you do not want to display a
customized page for that option.
Note
These optional login, login failure, and logout pages are downloaded to the controller as webauth.tar
files.
• External—Redirects users to an external server for authentication. If you choose this option, you must also enter
the URL of the external server in the URL text box.
You can choose specific RADIUS or LDAP servers to provide external authentication on the WLANs > Edit
(Security > AAA Servers) page. Additionally, you can define the priority in which the servers provide authentication.
Step 7
Step 8
If you chose External as the web authentication type in Step 6, choose AAA Servers and choose up to three RADIUS
and LDAP servers using the drop-down lists.
Note
The RADIUS and LDAP external servers must already be configured in order to be selectable options on the
WLANs > Edit (Security > AAA Servers) page. You can configure these servers on the RADIUS Authentication
Servers page and LDAP Servers page.
Establish the priority in which the servers are contacted to perform web authentication as follows:
Note
The default order is local, RADIUS,
LDAP.
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1 Highlight the server type (local, RADIUS, or LDAP) that you want to be contacted first in the box next to the Up
and Down buttons.
2 Click Up and Down until the desired server type is at the top of the box.
3 Click the < arrow to move the server type to the priority box on the left.
4 Repeat these steps to assign priority to the other servers.
Step 9
Step 10
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN (CLI)
Step 1
Determine the ID number of the WLAN to which you want to assign a web login, login failure, or logout page by entering
this command:
show wlan summary
Step 2
If you want wireless guest users to log into a customized web login, login failure, or logout page, enter these commands
to specify the filename of the web authentication page and the WLAN for which it should display:
• config wlan custom-web login-page page_name wlan_id—Defines a customized login page for a given WLAN.
• config wlan custom-web loginfailure-page page_name wlan_id—Defines a customized login failure page for a
given WLAN.
Note
To use the controller’s default login failure page, enter the config wlan custom-web loginfailure-page
none wlan_id command.
• config wlan custom-web logout-page page_name wlan_id—Defines a customized logout page for a given WLAN.
Note
To use the controller’s default logout page, enter the config wlan custom-web logout-page none wlan_id
command.
Step 3
Redirect wireless guess users to an external server before accessing the web login page by entering this command to
specify the URL of the external server:
config wlan custom-web ext-webauth-url ext_web_url wlan_id
Step 4
Define the order in which web authentication servers are contacted by entering this command:
config wlan security web-auth server-precedence wlan_id {local | ldap | radius} {local | ldap | radius} {local | ldap
| radius}
The default order of server web authentication is local, RADIUS and LDAP.
All external servers must be preconfigured on the controller. You can configure them on the RADIUS
Authentication Servers page and the LDAP Servers page.
Define which web authentication page displays for a wireless guest user by entering this command:
config wlan custom-web webauth-type {internal | customized | external} wlan_id
Note
Step 5
where
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• internal displays the default web login page for the controller. This is the default value.
• customized displays the custom web login page that was configured in Step 2.
Note
You do not need to define the web authentication type in Step 5 for the login failure and logout pages as
they are always customized.
• external redirects users to the URL that was configured in Step 3.
Step 6
Use a WLAN-specific custom web configuration rather than a global custom web configuration by entering this command:
config wlan custom-web global disable wlan_id
If you enter the config wlan custom-web global enable wlan_id command, the custom web authentication
configuration at the global level is used.
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Note
Step 7
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24
Configuring Wired Guest Access
• Information About Wired Guest Access, page 235
• Prerequisites for Configuring Wired Guest Access, page 236
• Restrictions for Configuring Wired Guest Access, page 236
• Configuring Wired Guest Access (GUI), page 237
• Configuring Wired Guest Access (CLI), page 238
• Supporting IPv6 Client Guest Access, page 240
Information About Wired Guest Access
Wired guest access enables guest users to connect to the guest access network from a wired Ethernet connection
designated and configured for guest access. Wired guest access ports might be available in a guest office or
through specific ports in a conference room. Like wireless guest user accounts, wired guest access ports are
added to the network using the lobby ambassador feature.
Wired guest access can be configured in a standalone configuration or in a dual-controller configuration that
uses both an anchor controller and a foreign controller. This latter configuration is used to further isolate wired
guest access traffic but is not required for deployment of wired guest access.
Wired guest access ports initially terminate on a Layer 2 access switch or switch port configured with VLAN
interfaces for wired guest access traffic. The wired guest traffic is then trunked from the access switch to a
controller. This controller is configured with an interface that is mapped to a wired guest access VLAN on
the access switch.
Note
Although wired guest access is managed by anchor and foreign anchors when two controllers are deployed,
mobility is not supported for wired guest access clients. In this case, DHCP and web authentication for
the client are handled by the anchor controller.
Note
You can specify the amount of bandwidth allocated to a wired guest user in the network by configuring
a QoS role and a bandwidth contract.
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You can create a basic peer to peer WLAN ACL and apply it to the wired guest WLAN. This will not block
peer to peer traffic and the guest users can still communicate with each other.
Prerequisites for Configuring Wired Guest Access
To configure wired guest access on a wireless network, you must perform the following:
1 Configure a dynamic interface (VLAN) for wired guest user access
2 Create a wired LAN for guest user access
3 Configure the controller
4 Configure the anchor controller (if terminating traffic on another controller)
5 Configure security for the guest LAN
6 Verify the configuration
Restrictions for Configuring Wired Guest Access
• Wired guest access interfaces must be tagged.
• Wired guest access ports must be in the same Layer 2 network as the foreign controller.
• Up to five wired guest access LANs can be configured on a controller. Also in a wired guest access
LAN, multiple anchors are supported.
• Layer 3 web authentication and web passthrough are supported for wired guest access clients. Layer 2
security is not supported.
• Do not trunk a wired guest VLAN to multiple foreign controllers, as it might produce unpredictable
results.
• The controller does not use the callStationIDType parameter configured for the Radius server while
authenticating wired clients, instead the controller uses the system MAC address configured for the
callStationIDType parameter.
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Configuring Wired Guest Access (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
To create a dynamic interface for wired guest user access, choose Controller > Interfaces. The Interfaces page appears.
Click New to open the Interfaces > New page.
Enter a name and VLAN ID for the new interface.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
In the Port Number text box, enter a valid port number. You can enter a number between 0 and 25 (inclusive).
Select the Guest LAN check box.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
To create a wired LAN for guest user access, choose WLANs.
Step 13
Step 14
Step 15
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Select the Enabled check box for the Status parameter.
Web authentication (Web-Auth) is the default security policy. If you want to change this to web passthrough, choose
the Security tab after completing Step 16 and Step 17.
Step 16
From the Ingress Interface drop-down list, choose the VLAN that you created in Step 3. This VLAN provides a path
between the wired guest client and the controller by way of the Layer 2 access switch.
From the Egress Interface drop-down list, choose the name of the interface. This WLAN provides a path out of the
controller for wired guest client traffic.
If you want to change the authentication method (for example, from web authentication to web passthrough), choose
Security > Layer 3. The WLANs > Edit (Security > Layer 3) page appears.
From the Layer 3 Security drop-down list, choose one of the following:
Step 17
Step 18
Step 19
On the WLANs page, choose Create New from the drop-down list and click Go. The WLANs > New page appears.
From the Type drop-down list, choose Guest LAN.
In the Profile Name text box, enter a name that identifies the guest LAN. Do not use any spaces.
From the WLAN ID drop-down list, choose the ID number for this guest LAN.
Note
You can create up to five guest LANs, so the WLAN ID options are 1 through 5 (inclusive).
• None—Layer 3 security is disabled.
• Web Authentication—Causes users to be prompted for a username and password when connecting to the wireless
network. This is the default value.
• Web Passthrough—Allows users to access the network without entering a username and password.
Note
Step 20
Step 21
Step 22
There should not be a Layer 3 gateway on the guest wired VLAN, as this would bypass the web
authentication done through the controller.
If you choose the Web Passthrough option, an Email Input check box appears. Select this check box if you want users
to be prompted for their e-mail address when attempting to connect to the network.
To override the global authentication configuration set on the Web Login page, select the Override Global Config check
box.
When the Web Auth Type drop-down list appears, choose one of the following options to define the web authentication
pages for wired guest users:
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• Internal—Displays the default web login page for the controller. This is the default value.
• Customized—Displays custom web login, login failure, and logout pages. If you choose this option, three separate
drop-down lists appear for login, login failure, and logout page selection. You do not need to define a customized
page for all three options. Choose None from the appropriate drop-down list if you do not want to display a
customized page for that option.
Note
These optional login, login failure, and logout pages are downloaded to the controller as webauth.tar
files.
• External—Redirects users to an external server for authentication. If you choose this option, you must also enter
the URL of the external server in the URL text box.
You can choose specific RADIUS or LDAP servers to provide external authentication on the WLANs > Edit
(Security > AAA Servers) page. Additionally, you can define the priority in which the servers provide authentication.
Step 23
Step 24
If you chose External as the web authentication type in Step 22, choose AAA Servers and choose up to three RADIUS
and LDAP servers using the drop-down lists.
Note
The RADIUS and LDAP external servers must already be configured in order to be selectable options on the
WLANs > Edit (Security > AAA Servers) page. You can configure these servers on the RADIUS Authentication
Servers page and LDAP Servers page.
To establish the priority in which the servers are contacted to perform web authentication as follows:
Note
The default order is local, RADIUS,
LDAP.
1 Highlight the server type (local, RADIUS, or LDAP) that you want to be contacted first in the box next to the Up
and Down buttons.
2 Click Up and Down until the desired server type is at the top of the box.
3 Click the < arrow to move the server type to the priority box on the left.
4 Repeat these steps to assign priority to the other servers.
Step 25
Step 26
Step 27
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Repeat this process if a second (anchor) controller is being used in the network.
Configuring Wired Guest Access (CLI)
Step 1
Create a dynamic interface (VLAN) for wired guest user access by entering this command:
config interface create interface_name vlan_id
Step 2
If link aggregation trunk is not configured, enter this command to map a physical port to the interface:
config interface port interface_name primary_port {secondary_port}
Step 3
Enable or disable the guest LAN VLAN by entering this command:
config interface guest-lan interface_name {enable | disable}
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This VLAN is later associated with the ingress interface created in Step 5.
Step 4
Create a wired LAN for wired client traffic and associate it to an interface by entering this command:
config guest-lan create guest_lan_id interface_name
The guest LAN ID must be a value between 1 and 5 (inclusive).
Note
To delete a wired guest LAN, enter the config guest-lan delete guest_lan_id command.
Step 5
Configure the wired guest VLAN’s ingress interface, which provides a path between the wired guest client and the
controller by way of the Layer 2 access switch by entering this command:
config guest-lan ingress-interface guest_lan_id interface_name
Step 6
Configure an egress interface to transmit wired guest traffic out of the controller by entering this command:
config guest-lan interface guest_lan_id interface_name
Note
Step 7
If the wired guest traffic is terminating on another controller, repeat Step 4 and Step 6 for the terminating (anchor)
controller and Step 1 through Step 5 for the originating (foreign) controller. Additionally, configure the config
mobility group anchor add {guest-lan guest_lan_id | wlan wlan_id} IP_address command for both controllers.
Configure the security policy for the wired guest LAN by entering this command:
config guest-lan security {web-auth enable guest_lan_id | web-passthrough enable guest_lan_id}
Web authentication is the default
setting.
Enable or disable a wired guest LAN by entering this command:
config guest-lan {enable | disable} guest_lan_id
Note
Step 8
Step 9
If you want wired guest users to log into a customized web login, login failure, or logout page, enter these commands
to specify the filename of the web authentication page and the guest LAN for which it should display:
• config guest-lan custom-web login-page page_name guest_lan_id—Defines a web login page.
• config guest-lan custom-web loginfailure-page page_name guest_lan_id—Defines a web login failure page.
Note
To use the controller’s default login failure page, enter the config guest-lan custom-web loginfailure-page
none guest_lan_id command.
• config guest-lan custom-web logout-page page_name guest_lan_id—Defines a web logout page.
Note
To use the controller’s default logout page, enter the config guest-lan custom-web logout-page none
guest_lan_id command.
Step 10
If you want wired guest users to be redirected to an external server before accessing the web login page, enter this
command to specify the URL of the external server:
config guest-lan custom-web ext-webauth-url ext_web_url guest_lan_id
Step 11
If you want to define the order in which local (controller) or external (RADIUS, LDAP) web authentication servers are
contacted, enter this command:
config wlan security web-auth server-precedence wlan_id {local | ldap | radius} {local | ldap | radius} {local | ldap
| radius}
The default order of server web authentication is local, RADIUS, LDAP.
All external servers must be preconfigured on the controller. You can configure them on the RADIUS
Authentication Servers page or the LDAP Servers page.
Define the web login page for wired guest users by entering this command:
Note
Step 12
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config guest-lan custom-web webauth-type {internal | customized | external} guest_lan_id
where
•
• internal displays the default web login page for the controller. This is the default value.
• customized displays the custom web pages (login, login failure, or logout) that were configured in Step 9.
• external redirects users to the URL that was configured in Step 10.
Step 13
Use a guest-LAN specific custom web configuration rather than a global custom web configuration by entering this
command:
config guest-lan custom-web global disable guest_lan_id
Note
Step 14
If you enter the config guest-lan custom-web global enable guest_lan_id command, the custom web
authentication configuration at the global level is used.
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Information on the configured web authentication appears in both the show run-config and show running-config
commands.
Display the customized web authentication settings for a specific guest LAN by entering this command:
show custom-web {all | guest-lan guest_lan_id}
Note
Step 15
If internal web authentication is configured, the Web Authentication Type displays as internal rather than external
(controller level) or customized (WLAN profile level).
Display a summary of the local interfaces by entering this command:
show interface summary
Note
Step 16
The interface name of the wired guest LAN in this example is wired-guest and its VLAN ID is
236.
Display detailed interface information by entering this command:
Note
show interface detailed interface_name
Step 17
Display the configuration of a specific wired guest LAN by entering this command:
show guest-lan guest_lan_id
Note
Enter the show guest-lan summary command to see all wired guest LANs configured on the controller.
Step 18
Display the active wired guest LAN clients by entering this command:
show client summary guest-lan
Step 19
Display detailed information for a specific client by entering this command:
show client detail client_mac
Supporting IPv6 Client Guest Access
The client is in WebAuth Required state until the client is authenticated. The controller intercepts both IPv4
and IPv6 traffic in this state and redirects it to the virtual IP address of the controller. Once authenticated, the
user's MAC address is moved to the run state and both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic is allowed to pass.
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In order to support the redirection of IPv6-only clients, the controller automatically creates an IPv6 virtual
address based on the IPv4 virtual address configured on the controller. The virtual IPv6 address follows the
convention of [::ffff:<virtual IPv4 address>]. For example, a virtual IP address of 192.0.2.1 would translate
into [::ffff:192.0.2.1]. For an IPv6 captive portal to be displayed, the user must request an IPv6 resolvable
DNS entry such as ipv6.google.com which returns a DNSv6 (AAAA) record.
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25
Troubleshooting
• Interpreting LEDs, page 243
• System Messages, page 244
• Viewing System Resources, page 247
• Using the CLI to Troubleshoot Problems, page 248
• Configuring System and Message Logging, page 249
• Viewing Access Point Event Logs, page 256
• Uploading Logs and Crash Files, page 257
• Uploading Core Dumps from the Controller, page 259
• Uploading Packet Capture Files, page 262
• Monitoring Memory Leaks, page 264
• Troubleshooting CCXv5 Client Devices, page 266
• Using the Debug Facility, page 276
• Configuring Wireless Sniffing, page 281
• Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH_old, page 283
• Debugging the Access Point Monitor Service, page 285
• Troubleshooting OfficeExtend Access Points, page 286
Interpreting LEDs
Information About Interpreting LEDs
This section describes how to interpret controller LEDs and lightweight access point LEDs.
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Interpreting Controller LEDs
See the quick start guide for your specific controller for a description of the LED patterns. See the list of
controllers and the respective documentation at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/index.html.
Interpreting Lightweight Access Point LEDs
See the quick start guide or hardware installation guide for your specific access point for a description of the
LED patterns. See the list of access points and the respective documentation at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/
products/hw/wireless/index.html.
System Messages
Information About System Messages
This table lists some common system messages and their descriptions. For a complete list of system messages,
see the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller System Message Guide, Release 7.0.
Table 6: System Messages and Descriptions
Error Message
Description
apf_utils.c 680: Received a CIF field
A client is sending an association request on a security-enabled
without the protected bit set from mobile WLAN with the protected bit set to 0 (in the Capability field of
xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
the association request). As designed, the controller rejects the
association request, and the client sees an association failure.
dtl_arp.c 480: Got an idle-timeout message The controller’s network processing unit (NPU) sends a timeout
from an unknown client xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx message to the central processing unit (CPU) indicating that a
particular client has timed out or aged out. This situation typically
occurs when the CPU has removed a wireless client from its
internal database but has not notified the NPU. Because the client
remains in the NPU database, it ages out on the network
processor and notifies the CPU. The CPU finds the client that
is not present in its database and then sends this message.
STATION_DISASSOCIATE
The client may have intentionally terminated usage or may have
experienced a service disruption.
STATION_DEAUTHENTICATE
The client may have intentionally terminated usage or this
message could indicate an authentication issue.
STATION_AUTHENTICATION_FAIL
Check disable, key mismatch, or other configuration issues.
STATION_ASSOCIATE_FAIL
Check load on the Cisco radio or signal quality issues.
LRAD_ASSOCIATED
The associated lightweight access point is now managed by this
controller.
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Error Message
Description
LRAD_DISASSOCIATED
The lightweight access point may have associated to a different
controller or may have become completely unreachable.
LRAD_UP
The lightweight access point is operational; no action required.
LRAD_DOWN
The lightweight access point may have a problem or is
administratively disabled.
LRADIF_UP
The Cisco radio is UP.
LRADIF_DOWN
The Cisco radio may have a problem or is administratively
disabled.
LRADIF_LOAD_PROFILE_FAILED
The client density may have exceeded system capacity.
LRADIF_NOISE_PROFILE_FAILED
The non-802.11 noise has exceeded the configured threshold.
LRADIF_INTERFERENCE_PROFILE_FAILED 802.11 interference has exceeded threshold on channel; check
channel assignments.
LRADIF_COVERAGE_PROFILE_FAILED A possible coverage hole has been detected. Check the
lightweight access point history to see if it is a common problem
and add lightweight access points if necessary.
LRADIF_LOAD_PROFILE_PASSED
The load is now within threshold limits.
LRADIF_NOISE_PROFILE_PASSED
The detected noise is now less than threshold.
LRADIF_INTERFERENCE_PROFILE_PASSED The detected interference is now less than threshold.
LRADIF_COVERAGE_PROFILE_PASSED The number of clients receiving a poor signal are within
threshold.
LRADIF_CURRENT_TXPOWER_CHANGED Informational message.
LRADIF_CURRENT_CHANNEL_CHANGED Informational message.
LRADIF_RTS_THRESHOLD_CHANGED Informational message.
LRADIF_ED_THRESHOLD_CHANGED Informational message.
LRADIF_FRAGMENTATION_THRESHOLD_ Informational message.
CHANGED
RRM_DOT11_A_GROUPING_DONE
Informational message.
RRM_DOT11_B_GROUPING_DONE
Informational message.
ROGUE_AP_DETECTED
May be a security issue. Use maps and trends to investigate.
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Error Message
Description
ROGUE_AP_REMOVED
A detected rogue access point has timed out. The unit might
have shut down or moved out of the coverage area.
AP_MAX_ROGUE_COUNT_EXCEEDED The current number of active rogue access points has exceeded
system threshold.
LINK_UP
Positive confirmation message.
LINK_DOWN
A port may have a problem or is administratively disabled.
LINK_FAILURE
A port may have a problem or is administratively disabled.
AUTHENTICATION_FAILURE
An attempted security breech has occurred. Investigate.
STP_NEWROOT
Informational message.
STP_TOPOLOGY_CHANGE
Informational message.
IPSEC_ESP_AUTH_FAILURE
Check WLAN IPsec configuration.
IPSEC_ESP_REPLAY_FAILURE
Check for an attempt to spoof an IP address.
IPSEC_ESP_POLICY_FAILURE
Check for a IPsec configuration mismatch between WLAN and
client.
IPSEC_ESP_INVALID_SPI
Informational message.
IPSEC_OTHER_POLICY_FAILURE
Check for a IPsec configuration mismatch between WLAN and
client.
IPSEC_IKE_NEG_FAILURE
Check for a IPsec IKE configuration mismatch between WLAN
and client.
IPSEC_SUITE_NEG_FAILURE
Check for a IPsec IKE configuration mismatch between WLAN
and client.
IPSEC_INVALID_COOKIE
Informational message.
RADIOS_EXCEEDED
The maximum number of supported Cisco radios has been
exceeded. Check for a controller failure in the same Layer 2
network or add another controller.
SENSED_TEMPERATURE_HIGH
Check fan, air conditioning, and/or other cooling arrangements.
SENSED_TEMPERATURE_LOW
Check room temperature and/or other reasons for low
temperature.
TEMPERATURE_SENSOR_FAILURE
Replace temperature sensor as soon as possible.
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Error Message
Description
TEMPERATURE_SENSOR_CLEAR
The temperature sensor is operational.
POE_CONTROLLER_FAILURE
Check ports; a possible serious failure has been detected.
MAX_ROGUE_COUNT_EXCEEDED
The current number of active rogue access points has exceeded
system threshold.
SWITCH_UP
The controller is responding to SNMP polls.
SWITCH_DOWN
The controller is not responding to SNMP polls; check controller
and SNMP settings.
RADIUS_SERVERS_FAILED
Check network connectivity between RADIUS and the controller.
CONFIG_SAVED
The running configuration has been saved to flash; it will be
active after a reboot.
MULTIPLE_USERS
Another user with the same username has logged in.
FAN_FAILURE
Monitor controller temperature to avoid overheating.
POWER_SUPPLY_CHANGE
Check for a power-supply malfunction.
COLD_START
The controller may have been rebooted.
WARM_START
The controller may have been rebooted.
Viewing System Resources
Information About Viewing System Resources
You can determine the amount of system resources being used by the controller. Specifically, you can view
the current controller CPU usage, system buffers, and web server buffers.
The Cisco 5500 Series Controllers have multiple CPUs, so you can view individual CPU usage. For each
CPU, you can see the percentage of the CPU in use and the percentage of the CPU time spent at the interrupt
level (for example, 0%/3%).
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Viewing System Resources (GUI)
On the controller GUI, choose Management > Tech Support > System Resource Information. The System
Resource Information page appears.
Figure 24: System Resource Information Page
Viewing System Resources (CLI)
On the controller CLI, enter these commands:
• show cpu
Where the first number is the CPU percentage that the controller spent on the user application and the
second number is the CPU percentage that the controller spent on the OS services.
• show tech-support
Using the CLI to Troubleshoot Problems
If you experience any problems with your controller, you can use the commands in this section to gather
information and debug issues.
• show process cpu—Shows how various tasks in the system are using the CPU at that instant in time.
This command is helpful in understanding if any single task is monopolizing the CPU and preventing
other tasks from being performed.
The Priority field shows two values: 1) the original priority of the task that was created by the actual
function call and 2) the priority of the task divided by a range of system priorities.
The CPU Use field shows the CPU usage of a particular task.
The Reaper field shows three values: 1) the amount of time for which the task is scheduled in user mode
operation, 2) the amount of time for which the task is scheduled in system mode operation, and 3) whether
the task is being watched by the reaper task monitor (indicated by a “T”). If the task is being watched
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by the reaper task monitor, this field also shows the timeout value (in seconds) before which the task
needs to alert the task monitor.
Note
If you want to see the total CPU usage as a percentage, enter the show cpu command.
• show process memory—Shows the allocation and deallocation of memory from various processes in
the system at that instant in time.
In the example above, the following fields provide information:
The Name field shows the tasks that the CPU is to perform.
The Priority field shows two values: 1) the original priority of the task that was created by the actual
function call and 2) the priority of the task divided by a range of system priorities.
The BytesInUse field shows the actual number of bytes used by dynamic memory allocation for a
particular task.
The BlocksInUse field shows the chunks of memory that are assigned to perform a particular task.
The Reaper field shows three values: 1) the amount of time for which the task is scheduled in user mode
operation, 2) the amount of time for which the task is scheduled in system mode operation, and 3) whether
the task is being watched by the reaper task monitor (indicated by a “T”). If the task is being watched
by the reaper task monitor, this field also shows the timeout value (in seconds) before which the task
needs to alert the task monitor.
• show tech-support—Shows an array of information related to the state of the system, including the
current configuration, last crash file, CPU utilization, and memory utilization.
• show run-config—Shows the complete configuration of the controller. To exclude access point
configuration settings, use the show run-config no-ap command.
Note
If you want to see the passwords in clear text, enter the config passwd-cleartext enable command. To
execute this command, you must enter an admin password. This command is valid only for this particular
session. It is not saved following a reboot.
• show run-config commands—Shows the list of configured commands on the controller. This command
shows only values configured by the user. It does not show system-configured default values.
Configuring System and Message Logging
Information About System and Message Logging
System logging allows controllers to log their system events to up to three remote syslog servers. The controller
sends a copy of each syslog message as it is logged to each syslog server configured on the controller. Being
able to send the syslog messages to multiple servers ensures that the messages are not lost due to the temporary
unavailability of one syslog server. Message logging allows system messages to be logged to the controller
buffer or console.
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Configuring System and Message Logging (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Logs > Config. The Syslog Configuration page appears.
Figure 25: Syslog Configuration Page
Step 2
Step 3
In the Syslog Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server to which to send the syslog messages and
click Add. You can add up to three syslog servers to the controller. The list of syslog servers that have already been
added to the controller appears below this text box.
Note
If you want to remove a syslog server from the controller, click Remove to the right of the desired
server.
To set the severity level for filtering syslog messages to the syslog servers, choose one of the following options from
the Syslog Level drop-down list:
• Emergencies = Severity level 0
• Alerts = Severity level 1 (default value)
• Critical = Severity level 2
• Errors = Severity level 3
• Warnings = Severity level 4
• Notifications = Severity level 5
• Informational = Severity level 6
• Debugging = Severity level 7
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If you set a syslog level, only those messages whose severity is equal to or less than that level are sent to the syslog
servers. For example, if you set the syslog level to Warnings (severity level 4), only those messages whose severity is
between 0 and 4 are sent to the syslog servers.
Step 4
To set the facility for outgoing syslog messages to the syslog servers, choose one of the following options from the
Syslog Facility drop-down list :
• Kernel = Facility level 0
• User Process = Facility level 1
• Mail = Facility level 2
• System Daemons = Facility level 3
• Authorization = Facility level 4
• Syslog = Facility level 5 (default value)
• Line Printer = Facility level 6
• USENET = Facility level 7
• Unix-to-Unix Copy = Facility level 8
• Cron = Facility level 9
• FTP Daemon = Facility level 11
• System Use 1 = Facility level 12
• System Use 2 = Facility level 13
• System Use 3 = Facility level 14
• System Use 4 = Facility level 15
• Local Use 0 = Facility level 16
• Local Use 2 = Facility level 17
• Local Use 3 = Facility level 18
• Local Use 4 = Facility level 19
• Local Use 5 = Facility level 20
• Local Use 5 = Facility level 21
• Local Use 5 = Facility level 22
• Local Use 5 = Facility level 23
Step 5
Step 6
Click Apply.
To set the severity level for logging messages to the controller buffer and console, choose one of the following options
from both the Buffered Log Level and Console Log Level drop-down lists:
• Emergencies = Severity level 0
• Alerts = Severity level 1
• Critical = Severity level 2
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• Errors = Severity level 3 (default value)
• Warnings = Severity level 4
• Notifications = Severity level 5
• Informational = Severity level 6
• Debugging = Severity level 7
• Disable— This option is available only for Console Log level. Select this option to disable console logging.
If you set a logging level, only those messages whose severity is equal to or less than that level are logged by the controller.
For example, if you set the logging level to Warnings (severity level 4), only those messages whose severity is between
0 and 4 are logged.
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Select the File Info check box if you want the message logs to include information about the source file. The default
value is enabled.
Select the Trace Info check box if you want the message logs to include traceback information. The default is disabled.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Viewing Message Logs (GUI)
To view message logs using the controller GUI, choose Management > Logs > Message Logs. The Message
Logs page appears.
Note
To clear the current message logs from the controller, click Clear.
Configuring System and Message Logging (CLI)
Step 1
Enable system logging and set the IP address of the syslog server to which to send the syslog messages by entering this
command:
config logging syslog host server_IP_address
You can add up to three syslog servers to the controller.
Note
Step 2
To remove a syslog server from the controller by entering this command: config logging syslog host
server_IP_address delete
Set the severity level for filtering syslog messages to the syslog server by entering this command:
config logging syslog level severity_level
where severity_level is one of the following:
• emergencies = Severity level 0
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• alerts = Severity level 1
• critical = Severity level 2
• errors = Severity level 3
• warnings = Severity level 4
• notifications = Severity level 5
• informational = Severity level 6
• debugging = Severity level 7
Note
As an alternative, you can enter a number from 0 through 7 for the severity_level parameter.
If you set a syslog level, only those messages whose severity is equal to or less than that level are sent to the
syslog server. For example, if you set the syslog level to Warnings (severity level 4), only those messages whose
severity is between 0 and 4 are sent to the syslog server.
Set the severity level for filtering syslog messages for a particular access point or for all access points by entering this
command:
config ap logging syslog level severity_level {Cisco_AP | all}
Note
Step 3
where severity_level is one of the following:
• emergencies = Severity level 0
• alerts = Severity level 1
• critical = Severity level 2
• errors = Severity level 3
• warnings = Severity level 4
• notifications = Severity level 5
• informational = Severity level 6
• debugging = Severity level 7
Note
If you set a syslog level, only those messages whose severity is equal to or less than that level are sent to
the access point. For example, if you set the syslog level to Warnings (severity level 4), only those messages
whose severity is between 0 and 4 are sent to the access point.
Step 4
Set the facility for outgoing syslog messages to the syslog server by entering this command:
config logging syslog facility facility_code
where facility_code is one of the following:
• authorization = Authorization system. Facility level = 4.
• auth-private = Authorization system (private). Facility level = 10.
• cron = Cron/at facility. Facility level = 9.
• daemon = System daemons. Facility level = 3.
• ftp = FTP daemon. Facility level = 11.
• kern = Kernel. Facility level = 0.
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• local0 = Local use. Facility level = 16.
• local1 = Local use. Facility level = 17.
• local2 = Local use. Facility level = 18.
• local3 = Local use. Facility level = 19.
• local4 = Local use. Facility level = 20.
• local5 = Local use. Facility level = 21.
• local6 = Local use. Facility level = 22.
• local7 = Local use. Facility level = 23.
• lpr = Line printer system. Facility level = 6.
• mail = Mail system. Facility level = 2.
• news = USENET news. Facility level = 7.
• sys12 = System use. Facility level = 12.
• sys13 = System use. Facility level = 13.
• sys14 = System use. Facility level = 14.
• sys15 = System use. Facility level = 15.
• syslog = The syslog itself. Facility level = 5.
• user = User process. Facility level = 1.
• uucp = Unix-to-Unix copy system. Facility level = 8.
Step 5
Set the severity level for logging messages to the controller buffer and console, enter these commands:
• config logging buffered severity_level
• config logging console severity_level
where severity_level is one of the following:
• emergencies = Severity level 0
• alerts = Severity level 1
• critical = Severity level 2
• errors = Severity level 3
• warnings = Severity level 4
• notifications = Severity level 5
• informational = Severity level 6
• debugging = Severity level 7
Note
As an alternative, you can enter a number from 0 through 7 for the severity_level parameter.
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If you set a logging level, only those messages whose severity is equal to or less than that level are logged by
the controller. For example, if you set the logging level to Warnings (severity level 4), only those messages
whose severity is between 0 and 4 are logged.
Save debug messages to the controller buffer, the controller console, or a syslog server by entering these commands:
Note
Step 6
• config logging debug buffered {enable | disable}
• config logging debug console {enable | disable}
• config logging debug syslog {enable | disable}
By default, the console command is enabled, and the buffered and syslog commands are disabled.
Step 7
To cause the controller to include information about the source file in the message logs or to prevent the controller from
displaying this information by entering this command:
config logging fileinfo {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled.
Step 8
Configure the controller to include process information in the message logs or to prevent the controller from displaying
this information by entering this command:
config logging procinfo {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Step 9
Configure the controller to include traceback information in the message logs or to prevent the controller from displaying
this information by entering this command:
config logging traceinfo {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Step 10
Enable or disable timestamps in log messages and debug messages by entering these commands:
• config service timestamps log {datetime | disable}
• config service timestamps debug {datetime | disable}
where
◦datetime = Messages are timestamped with the standard date and time. This is the default value.
◦disable = Messages are not timestamped.
Step 11
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Viewing System and Message Logs (CLI)
To see the logging parameters and buffer contents, enter this command:
show logging
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Viewing Access Point Event Logs
Information About Access Point Event Logs
Access points log all system messages (with a severity level greater than or equal to notifications) to the access
point event log. The event log can contain up to 1024 lines of messages, with up to 128 characters per line.
When the event log becomes filled, the oldest message is removed to accommodate a new event message.
The event log is saved in a file on the access point flash, which ensures that it is saved through a reboot cycle.
To minimize the number of writes to the access point flash, the contents of the event log are written to the
event log file during normal reload and crash scenarios only.
Viewing Access Point Event Logs (CLI)
Use these CLI commands to view or clear the access point event log from the controller:
• To see the contents of the event log file for an access point that is joined to the controller, enter this
command:
show ap eventlog Cisco_AP
Information similar to the following appears:
AP event log download has been initiated
Waiting for download to complete
AP event log download completed.
======================= AP Event log Contents =====================
*Sep 22 11:44:00.573: %CAPWAP-5-CHANGED: CAPWAP changed state to IMAGE
*Sep 22 11:44:01.514: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Dot11Radio0,
changed state to down
*Sep 22 11:44:01.519: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Dot11Radio1,
changed state to down
*Sep 22 11:44:53.539: *** Access point reloading. Reason: NEW IMAGE DOWNLOAD ***
*Mar 1 00:00:39.078: %CAPWAP-3-ERRORLOG: Did not get log server settings from DHCP.
*Mar 1 00:00:42.142: %CDP_PD-4-POWER_OK: Full power - NEGOTIATED inline power source
*Mar 1 00:00:42.151: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Dot11Radio1, changed state to up
*Mar 1 00:00:42.158: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Dot11Radio0, changed state to up
*Mar 1 00:00:43.143: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Dot11Radio1,
changed state to up
*Mar 1 00:00:43.151: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Dot11Radio0,
changed state to up
*Mar 1 00:00:48.078: %CAPWAP-3-ERRORLOG: Could Not resolve CISCO-CAPWAP-CONTROLLER
*Mar 1 00:01:42.144: %CDP_PD-4-POWER_OK: Full power - NEGOTIATED inline power source
*Mar 1 00:01:48.121: %CAPWAP-3-CLIENTERRORLOG: Set Transport Address: no more AP manager
IP addresses remain
*Mar 1 00:01:48.122: %CAPWAP-5-CHANGED: CAPWAP changed state to JOIN
*Mar 1 00:01:48.122: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Dot11Radio0, changed state to
administratively down
*Mar 1 00:01:48.122: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Dot11Radio1, changed state to
administratively down
• To delete the existing event log and create an empty event log file for a specific access point or for all
access points joined to the controller, enter this command:
clear ap-eventlog {specific Cisco_AP | all}
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Uploading Logs and Crash Files
Prerequisites to Upload Logs and Crash Files
• Follow the instructions in this section to upload logs and crash files from the controller. However, before
you begin, ensure you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the file upload. Follow these guidelines
when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
◦If you are uploading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet
as the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the
controller.
◦If you are uploading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be
on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
◦A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure
because the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP
server require the same communication port.
Uploading Logs and Crash Files (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Command > Upload File. The Upload File from Controller page appears.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose one of the following:
• Event Log
• Message Log
• Trap Log
• Crash File
Step 3
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in the 7.4 and later releases)
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the log or crash file.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the log or crash file.
If you chose FTP as the Transfer Mode, follow these steps:
1 In the Server Login Username text box, enter the FTP server login name.
2 In the Server Login Password text box, enter the FTP server login password.
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3 In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number of the FTP server. The default value for the server port
is 21.
Step 8
Click Upload to upload the log or crash file from the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the upload.
Uploading Logs and Crash Files (CLI)
Step 1
To transfer the file from the controller to a server, enter this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 2
To specify the type of file to be uploaded, enter this command:
transfer upload datatype datatype
where datatype is one of the following options:
• crashfile—Uploads the system’s crash file.
• errorlog—Uploads the system’s error log.
• panic-crash-file—Uploads the kernel panic information if a kernel panic occurs.
• systemtrace—Uploads the system’s trace file.
• traplog—Uploads the system’s trap log.
• watchdog-crash-file—Uploads the console dump resulting from a software-watchdog-initiated reboot of the
controller following a crash. The software watchdog module periodically checks the integrity of the internal software
and makes sure that the system does not stay in an inconsistent or nonoperational state for a long period of time.
Step 3
To specify the path to the file, enter these commands:
• transfer upload serverip server_ip_address
• transfer upload path server_path_to_file
• transfer upload filename filename
Step 4
If you are using an FTP server, also enter these commands:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
Step 5
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
To see the updated settings, enter this command:
transfer upload start
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Step 6
When prompted to confirm the current settings and start the software upload, answer y.
Uploading Core Dumps from the Controller
Information About Uploading Core Dumps from the Controller
To help troubleshoot controller crashes, you can configure the controller to automatically upload its core dump
file to an FTP server after experiencing a crash. You cannot upload the core dump file directly to an FTP or
TFTP server but you can upload a crash file to an FTP or TFTP server. The controllers save the core dump
file to flash memory following a crash.
Configuring the Controller to Automatically Upload Core Dumps to an FTP Server (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Management > Tech Support > Core Dump to open the Core Dump page.
Figure 26: Core Dump Page
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
To enable the controller to generate a core dump file following a crash, select the Core Dump Transfer check box.
To specify the type of server to which the core dump file is uploaded, choose FTP from the Transfer Mode drop-down
list.
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the FTP server.
Note
The controller must be able to reach the FTP
server.
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Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
In the File Name text box, enter the name that the controller uses to label the core dump file.
In the User Name text box, enter the username for FTP login.
In the Password text box, enter the password for FTP login.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring the Controller to Automatically Upload Core Dumps to an FTP Server (CLI)
Step 1
To enable or disable the controller to generate a core dump file following a crash, enter this command:
config coredump {enable | disable}
Step 2
To specify the FTP server to which the core dump file is uploaded, enter this command:
config coredump ftp server_ip_address filename
where
• server_ip_address is the IP address of the FTP server to which the controller sends its core dump file.
Note
The controller must be able to reach the FTP
server.
• filename is the name that the controller uses to label the core dump file.
Step 3
To specify the username and password for FTP login, enter this command:
config coredump username ftp_username password ftp_password
Step 4
To save your changes, enter this command:
save config
Step 5
To see a summary of the controller’s core dump file, enter this command:
Example:
Information similar to the following appears:
show coredump summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Core Dump is enabled
FTP
FTP
FTP
FTP
Server IP.................................... 10.10.10.17
Filename..................................... file1
Username..................................... ftpuser
Password.................................. *********
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Uploading Core Dumps from Controller to a Server (CLI)
Step 1
To see information about the core dump file in flash memory, enter this command:
show coredump summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Core Dump is disabled
Core Dump file is saved on flash
Sw Version.................................... 6.0.83.0
Time Stamp.................................... Wed Feb 4 13:23:11 2009
File Size..................................... 9081788
File Name Suffix........................... filename.gz
Step 2
To transfer the file from the controller to a server, enter these commands:
• transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
• transfer upload datatype coredump
• transfer upload serverip server_ip_address
• transfer upload path server_path_to_file
• transfer upload filename filename
Note
Step 3
After the file is uploaded, it ends with a .gz suffix. If desired, you can upload the same core dump file
multiple times with different names to different servers.
If you are using an FTP server, also enter these commands:
• transfer upload username username
transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
Step 4
To view the updated settings, enter this command:
transfer upload start
Step 5
When prompted to confirm the current settings and start the software upload, answer y.
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Uploading Packet Capture Files
Information About Uploading Packet Capture Files
When a Cisco 5500 Series Controller’s data plane crashes, it stores the last 50 packets that the controller
received in flash memory. This information can be useful in troubleshooting the crash.
When a crash occurs, the controller generates a new packet capture file (*.pcap) file, and a message similar
to the following appears in the controller crash file:
Last 5 packets processed at each core are stored in
"last_received_pkts.pcap" captured file.
- Frame 36,38,43,47,49, processed at core #0.
- Frame 14,27,30,42,45, processed at core #1.
- Frame 15,18,20,32,48, processed at core #2.
- Frame 11,29,34,37,46, processed at core #3.
- Frame 7,8,12,31,35, processed at core #4.
- Frame 21,25,39,41,50, processed at core #5.
- Frame 16,17,19,22,33, processed at core #6.
- Frame 6,10,13,23,26, processed at core #7.
- Frame 9,24,28,40,44, processed at core #8.
- Frame 1,2,3,4,5, processed at core #9.
You can use the controller GUI or CLI to upload the packet capture file from the controller. You can then use
Wireshark or another standard packet capture tool to view and analyze the contents of the file.
This figure shows a sample output of the packet capture in Wireshark.
Figure 27: Sample Output of Packet Capture File in Wireshark
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Restrictions for Uploading Packet Capture Files
• Only Cisco 5500 Series Controllers generate packet capture files. This feature is not available on other
controller platforms.
• Ensure that you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the file upload. Follow these guidelines when
setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
◦If you are uploading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet
as the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the
controller.
◦If you are uploading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be
on the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
◦A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure
because the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP
server require the same communication port.
Uploading Packet Capture Files (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Packet Capture.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in the 7.4 and later releases)
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the packet capture file.
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the packet capture file. These files have a .pcap extension.
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the upload occurs. The
default value is 21.
Step 8
Step 9
Click Upload to upload the packet capture file from the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the upload.
Use Wireshark or another standard packet capture tool to open the packet capture file and see the last 50 packets that
were received by the controller.
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Uploading Packet Capture Files (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log on to the controller CLI.
Enter the transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp} command.
Step 3
Enter the transfer upload datatype packet-capture command.
Step 4
Enter the transfer upload serverip server-ip-address command.
Step 5
Enter the transfer upload path server-path-to-file command.
Step 6
Enter the transfer upload filename last_received_pkts.pcap command.
Step 7
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
Step 8
The default value for the port parameter is
21.
Step 9
Enter the transfer upload start command to see the updated settings and then answer y when prompted to confirm the
current settings and start the upload process. This example shows the upload command output:
Use Wireshark or another standard packet capture tool to open the packet capture file and see the last 50 packets that
were received by the controller.
Monitoring Memory Leaks
This section provides instructions for troubleshooting hard-to-solve or hard-to-reproduce memory problems.
Caution
The commands in this section can be disruptive to your system and should be run only when you are
advised to do so by the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC).
Monitoring Memory Leaks (CLI)
Step 1
To enable or disable monitoring for memory errors and leaks, enter this command:
config memory monitor errors {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Note
Your changes are not saved across reboots. After the controller reboots, it uses the default setting for this feature.
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Step 2
If you suspect that a memory leak has occurred, enter this command to configure the controller to perform an auto-leak
analysis between two memory thresholds (in kilobytes):
config memory monitor leaks low_thresh high_thresh
If the free memory is lower than the low_thresh threshold, the system crashes, generating a crash file. The default value
for this parameter is 10000 kilobytes, and you cannot set it below this value.
Set the high_thresh threshold to the current free memory level or higher so that the system enters auto-leak-analysis
mode. After the free memory reaches a level lower than the specified high_thresh threshold, the process of tracking and
freeing memory allocation begins. As a result, the debug memory events enable command shows all allocations and
frees, and the show memory monitor detail command starts to detect any suspected memory leaks. The default value
for this parameter is 30000 kilobytes.
Step 3
To see a summary of any discovered memory issues, enter this command:
show memory monitor
Information similar to the following appears:
Memory Leak Monitor Status:
low_threshold(10000), high_threshold(30000), current status(disabled)
------------------------------------------Memory Error Monitor Status:
Crash-on-error flag currently set to (disabled)
No memory error detected.
Step 4
To see the details of any memory leaks or corruption, enter this command:
show memory monitor detail
Information similar to the following appears:
Memory error detected. Details:
------------------------------------------------ Corruption detected at pmalloc entry address:
(0x179a7ec0)
- Corrupt entry:headerMagic(0xdeadf00d),trailer(0xabcd),poison(0xreadceef),
entrysize(128),bytes(100),thread(Unknown task name, task id = (332096592)),
file(pmalloc.c),line(1736),time(1027)
Previous 1K memory dump from error location.
-----------------------------------------------(179a7ac0): 00000000 00000000 00000000 ceeff00d readf00d
(179a7ae0): 17958b20 00000000 1175608c 00000078 00000000
(179a7b00): 00000003 00000006 00000001 00000004 00000001
(179a7b20): 00000001 00000002 00000002 00000001 00000004
(179a7b40): cbddf004 192f465e 7791acc8 e5032242 5365788c
(179a7b60): 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
(179a7b80): 00000000 00000000 17958dc0 00000000 1175608c
(179a7ba0): 179a7ba4 00000001 00000003 00000006 00000001
(179a7bc0): 00000002 00000002 00000010 00000001 00000002
(179a7be0): 0000001a 00000089 00000000 00000000 000000d8
(179a7c00): 1722246c 1722246c 00000000 00000000 00000000
(179a7c20): readf00d 00000080 00000000 00000000 179a7b78
00000080
readceef
00000009
00000000
a1b7cee6
ceeff00d
00000078
00000004
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
00000000
179a7afc
00000009
00000000
00000000
readf00d
00000000
00000001
0000001e
00000000
00000000
1175608c
00000000
00000001
0000020d
5d7b9aba
00000000
00000080
readceef
00003763
00000013
17222194
ceeff00d
00000078
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Step 5
If a memory leak occurs, enter this command to enable debugging of errors or events during memory allocation:
debug memory {errors | events} {enable | disable}
Troubleshooting CCXv5 Client Devices
Information About Troubleshooting CCXv5 Client Devices
The controller supports three features designed to help troubleshoot communication problems with CCXv5
clients: diagnostic channel, client reporting, and roaming and real-time diagnostics.
Restrictions for CCXv5 Client Devices
Diagnostic channel, client reporting, and roaming and real-time diagnostics features are supported only on
CCXv5 clients. They are not supported for use with non-CCX clients or with clients running an earlier version
of CCX.
Configuring Diagnostic Channel
You can choose a diagnostic channel to troubleshoot why the client is having communication problems with
a WLAN. You can test the client and access points to identify the difficulties that the client is experiencing
and allow corrective measures to be taken to make the client operational on the network. You can use the
controller GUI or CLI to enable the diagnostic channel, and you can use the controller CLI to run the diagnostic
tests.
Note
We recommend that you enable the diagnostic channel feature only for nonanchored SSIDs that use the
management interface. CCX Diagnostic feature has been tested only with clients having Cisco ADU card
Configuring the Diagnostic Channel (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Create a new WLAN or click the ID number of an existing WLAN.
Note
We recommend that you create a new WLAN on which to run the diagnostic
tests.
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Step 3
When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page.
Figure 28: WLANs > Edit (Advanced) Page
Step 4
If you want to enable diagnostic channel troubleshooting on this WLAN, select the Diagnostic Channel check box.
Otherwise, leave this check box unselected, which is the default value.
Note
You can use the CLI to initiate diagnostic tests on the
client.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
Step 6
Configuring the Diagnostic Channel (CLI)
Step 1
To enable diagnostic channel troubleshooting on a particular WLAN, enter this command:
config wlan diag-channel {enable | disable} wlan_id
Step 2
To verify that your change has been made, enter this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Information similar to the following appears:
WLAN Identifier..................................
Profile Name.....................................
Network Name (SSID)..............................
Status...........................................
MAC Filtering....................................
Broadcast SSID...................................
AAA Policy Override..............................
Number of Active Clients.........................
Exclusionlist Timeout............................
1
employee1
employee
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
0
60 seconds
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Session Timeout..................................
Interface........................................
WLAN ACL.........................................
DHCP Server......................................
DHCP Address Assignment Required.................
Quality of Service...............................
WMM..............................................
CCX - AironetIe Support..........................
CCX - Gratuitous ProbeResponse (GPR).............
CCX - Diagnostics Channel Capability.............
...
Step 3
Infinity
virtual
unconfigured
Default
Disabled
Silver (best effort)
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
To send a request to the client to perform the DHCP test, enter this command:
config client ccx dhcp-test client_mac_address
This test does not require the client to use the diagnostic
channel.
To send a request to the client to perform the default gateway ping test, enter this command:
config client ccx default-gw-ping client_mac_address
Note
Step 4
This test does not require the client to use the diagnostic
channel.
To send a request to the client to perform the DNS server IP address ping test, enter this command:
config client ccx dns-ping client_mac_address
Note
Step 5
This test does not require the client to use the diagnostic
channel.
To send a request to the client to perform the DNS name resolution test to the specified host name, enter this command:
config client ccx dns-resolve client_mac_address host_name
Note
Step 6
This test does not require the client to use the diagnostic
channel.
To send a request to the client to perform the association test, enter this command:
config client ccx test-association client_mac_address ssid bssid {802.11a | 802.11b | 802.11g} channel
Note
Step 7
Step 8
To send a request to the client to perform the 802.1X test, enter this command:
config client ccx test-dot1x client_mac_address profile_id bssid {802.11a | 802.11b | 802.11g} channel
Step 9
To send a request to the client to perform the profile redirect test, enter this command:
config client ccx test-profile client_mac_address profile_id
The profile_id should be from one of the client profiles for which client reporting is enabled.
Users are redirected back to the parent WLAN, not to any other profile. The only profile shown is the user’s
parent profile. Note however that parent WLAN profiles can have one child diagnostic WLAN.
Use these commands if necessary to abort or clear a test:
Note
Step 10
• To send a request to the client to abort the current test, enter this command:
config client ccx test-abort client_mac_address
Only one test can be pending at a time, so this command aborts the current pending test.
• To clear the test results on the controller, enter this command:
config client ccx clear-results client_mac_address
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Step 11
To send a message to the client, enter this command:
Example:
config client ccx send-message client_mac_address message_id
where message_id is one of the following:
• 1 = The SSID is invalid.
• 2 = The network settings are invalid.
• 3 = There is a WLAN credibility mismatch.
• 4 = The user credentials are incorrect.
• 5 = Please call support.
• 6 = The problem is resolved.
• 7 = The problem has not been resolved.
• 8 = Please try again later.
• 9 = Please correct the indicated problem.
• 10 = Troubleshooting is refused by the network.
• 11 = Retrieving client reports.
• 12 = Retrieving client logs.
• 13 = Retrieval complete.
• 14 = Beginning association test.
• 15 = Beginning DHCP test.
• 16 = Beginning network connectivity test.
• 17 = Beginning DNS ping test.
• 18 = Beginning name resolution test.
• 19 = Beginning 802.1X authentication test.
• 20 = Redirecting client to a specific profile.
• 21 = Test complete.
• 22 = Test passed.
• 23 = Test failed.
• 24 = Cancel diagnostic channel operation or select a WLAN profile to resume normal operation.
• 25 = Log retrieval refused by the client.
• 26 = Client report retrieval refused by the client.
• 27 = Test request refused by the client.
• 28 = Invalid network (IP) setting.
• 29 = There is a known outage or problem with the network.
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• 30 = Scheduled maintenance period.
• 31 = The WLAN security method is not correct.
• 32 = The WLAN encryption method is not correct.
• 33 = The WLAN authentication method is not correct.
Step 12
To see the status of the last test, enter this command:
show client ccx last-test-status client_mac_address
Information similar to the following appears for the default gateway ping test:
Test Type........................................ Gateway Ping Test
Test Status...................................... Pending/Success/Timeout
Dialog Token..................................... 15
Timeout.......................................... 15000 ms
Request Time..................................... 1329 seconds since system boot
Step 13
To see the status of the last test response, enter this command:
show client ccx last-response-status client_mac_address
Information similar to the following appears for the 802.1X authentication test:
Test Status...................................... Success
Response
Response
Response
Response
Step 14
Dialog Token............................
Status..................................
Test Type...............................
Time....................................
87
Successful
802.1x Authentication Test
3476 seconds since system boot
To see the results from the last successful diagnostics test, enter this command:
show client ccx results client_mac_address
Information similar to the following appears for the 802.1X authentication test:
dot1x Complete................................... Success
EAP Method....................................... *1,Host OS Login Credentials
dot1x Status.................................. 255
Step 15
To see the relevant data frames captured by the client during the previous test, enter this command:
show client ccx frame-data client_mac_address
Information similar to the following appears:
LOG Frames:
Frame Number:....................................
Last Frame Number:...............................
Direction:.......................................
Timestamp:.......................................
Frame Length:....................................
Frame Data:
00000000: 80 00 00 00 ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 12 44
00000010: 00 12 44 bd bd b0 f0 af 43 70 00 f2 82
00000020: 64 00 11 08 00 01 00 01 08 8c 12 98 24
00000030: 6c 05 04 01 02 00 00 85 1e 00 00 89 00
00000040: 03 19 00 41 50 32 33 2d 31 30 00 00 00
00000050: 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 96 06 00 40 96 00
00000060: 18 00 50 f2 01 01 00 00 50 f2 05 01 00
00000070: 05 01 00 00 40 96 00 28 00 dd 06 00 40
00000080: 00 dd 05 00 40 96 03 04
00000090: 07 a4 00 00 23 a4 00 00
1
1120
1
0d 00h 50m 39s 863954us
197
bd
01
b0
0f
00
ff
00
96
bd
00
48
00
00
ff
50
01
b0
00
60
ff
00
dd
f2
01
............D...
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000000a0: dd 05 00 40 96 0b 01 dd
000000b0: 00 03 a4 00 00 27 a4 00
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Frame Number:....................................
Last Frame Number:...............................
Direction:.......................................
Timestamp:.......................................
Frame Length:....................................
Frame Data:
00000000: 80 00 00 00 ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 0d ed
00000010: 00 0d ed c3 a0 22 00 bd 4d 50 a5 f7 78
00000020: 64 00 01 00 00 01 00 01 08 8c 12 98 24
00000030: 6c 05 04 01 02 00 00 85 1e 00 00 84 00
00000040: 03 19 00 72 6f 67 75 65 2d 74 65 73 74
00000050: 00 00 00 00 00 00 23 96 06 00 40 96 00
00000060: 06 00 40 96 01 01 00 dd 05 00 40 96 03
00000070: 00 40 96 0b 01 dd 18 00 50 f2 02 01 01
00000080: a4 00 00 27 a4 00 00 42
00000090: b4 ab 84
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Frame Number:....................................
Last Frame Number:...............................
Direction:.......................................
Timestamp:.......................................
Frame Length:....................................
Frame Data:
00000000: 80 00 00 00 ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 12 44
00000010: 00 12 44 bd 80 30 60 f7 46 c0 8b 4b d1
00000020: 64 00 11 08 00 01 00 01 08 8c 12 98 24
00000030: 6c 05 04 00 02 00 00 85 1e 00 00 89 00
00000040: 03 19 00 41 50 34 30 2d 31 37 00 00 00
00000050: 00 00 00 00 00 00 26 dd 18 00 50 f2 01
00000060: 50 f2 05 01 00 00 50 f2 05 01 00 00 40
00000070: 00 dd 06 00 40 96 01 01 00 dd 05 00 40
00000080:
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Configuring Client Reporting
The client reporting protocol is used by the client and the access point to exchange client information. Client
reports are collected automatically when the client associates. You can use the controller GUI or CLI to send
a client report request to any CCXv5 client any time after the client associates. There are four types of client
reports:
• Client profile—Provides information about the configuration of the client.
• Operating parameters—Provides the details of the client’s current operational modes.
• Manufacturers’ information—Provides data about the wireless LAN client adapter in use.
• Client capabilities—Provides information about the client’s capabilities.
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Configuring Client Reporting (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Choose Monitor > Clients to open the Clients page.
Click the MAC address of the desired client. The Clients > Detail page appears.
To send a report request to the client, click Send CCXV5 Req.
Note
You must create a Trusted Profile using ACAU for Cisco CB21AG or equivalent software from your CCXv5
vendor.
To view the parameters from the client, click Display. The Client Reporting page appears.
Click the link for the desired client profile. The Profile Details page appears displaying the client profile details, including
the SSID, power save mode, radio channel, data rates, and 802.11 security settings.
Configuring Client Reporting (CLI)
Step 1
To send a request to the client to send its profiles, enter this command:
config client ccx get-profiles client_mac_address
Step 2
To send a request to the client to send its current operating parameters, enter this command:
config client ccx get-operating-parameters client_mac_address
Step 3
To send a request to the client to send the manufacturer’s information, enter this command:
config client ccx get-manufacturer-info client_mac_address
Step 4
To send a request to the client to send its capability information, enter this command:
config client ccx get-client-capability client_mac_address
Step 5
To clear the client reporting information, enter this command:
config client ccx clear-reports client_mac_address
Step 6
To see the client profiles, enter this command:
show client ccx profiles client_mac_address
Step 7
To see the client operating parameters, enter this command:
show client ccx operating-parameters client_mac_address
Step 8
To see the client manufacturer information, enter this command:
show client ccx manufacturer-info client_mac_address
Step 9
To see the client’s capability information, enter this command:
show client ccx client-capability client_mac_address
Note
This command displays the client’s available capabilities, not current settings for the capabilities.
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Configuring Roaming and Real-Time Diagnostics
You can use roaming and real-time logs and statistics to solve system problems. The event log enables you
to identify and track the behavior of a client device. It is especially useful when attempting to diagnose
difficulties that a user may be having on a WLAN. The event log provides a log of events and reports them
to the access point. There are three categories of event logs:
• Roaming log—This log provides a historical view of the roaming events for a given client. The client
maintains a minimum of five previous roaming events including failed attempts and successful roams.
• Robust Security Network Association ( RSNA) log—This log provides a historical view of the
authentication events for a given client. The client maintains a minimum of five previous authentication
attempts including failed attempts and successful ones.
• Syslog—This log provides internal system information from the client. For example, it may indicate
problems with 802.11 operation, system operation, and so on.
The statistics report provides 802.1X and security information for the client. You can use the controller CLI
to send the event log and statistics request to any CCXv5 client any time after the client associates.
Configuring Roaming and Real-Time Diagnostics (CLI)
Step 1
To send a log request, enter this command:
config client ccx log-request log_type client_mac_address
where log_type is roam, rsna, or syslog.
Step 2
To view a log response, enter this command:
show client ccx log-response log_type client_mac_address
where log_type is roam, rsna, or syslog.
Information similar to the following appears for a log response with a log_type of roam:
Tue Jun 26 18:28:48 2007
Roaming Response LogID=133: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 13s 322396us
Source BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Target BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Transition
Time=3125(ms)
Transition Reason: Normal roam, poor link
Transition Result: Success
Tue Jun 26 18:28:48 2007 Roaming Response LogID=133: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 16s 599006us
Source BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Target BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Transition
Time=3235(ms)
Transition Reason: Normal roam, poor link
Transition Result: Success
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 19s 882921us
Source BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Target BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Transition
Time=3234(ms)
Transition Reason: Normal roam, poor link
Transition Result: Success
Tue Jun 26 18:28:48 2007 Roaming Response LogID=133: Status=Successful
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Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 08s 815477us
Source BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Target BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:d2, Transition
Time=3281(ms)
Transition Reason: First association to WLAN
Transition Result: Success
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 26s 637084us
Source BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:d2, Target BSSID=00:0b:85:81:06:c2, Transition
Time=3313(ms)
Information similar to the following appears for a log response with a log_type of rsna:
Tue Jun 26 18:24:09 2007
RSNA Response LogID=132: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 00s 246578us
Target BSSID=00:14:1b:58:86:cd
RSNA Version=1
Group Cipher Suite=00-0f-ac-02
Pairwise Cipher Suite Count = 1
Pairwise Cipher Suite 0 = 00-0f-ac-04
AKM Suite Count = 1
AKM Suite 0 = 00-0f-ac-01
RSN Capability = 0x0
RSNA Result: Success
Tue Jun 26 18:24:09 2007 RSNA Response LogID=132: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 00s 246625us
Target BSSID=00:14:1b:58:86:cd
RSNA Version=1
Group Cipher Suite=00-0f-ac-02
Pairwise Cipher Suite Count = 1
Pairwise Cipher Suite 0 = 00-0f-ac-04
AKM Suite Count = 1
AKM Suite 0 = 00-0f-ac-01
RSN Capability = 0x0
RSNA Result: Success
Tue Jun 26 18:24:09 2007 RSNA Response LogID=132: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 00m 01s 624375us
Target BSSID=00:14:1b:58:86:cd
RSNA Version=1
Group Cipher Suite=00-0f-ac-02
Pairwise Cipher Suite Count = 1
Pairwise Cipher Suite 0 = 00-0f-ac-04
AKM Suite Count = 1
AKM Suite 0 = 00-0f-ac-01
RSN Capability = 0x0
RSNA Result: Success
Information similar to the following appears for a log response with a log_type of syslog:
Tue Jun 26 18:07:48 2007
SysLog Response LogID=131: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 278987us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:49:47 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 278990us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:49:50 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
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in the OID response'
Tue Jun 26 18:07:48 2007
SysLog Response LogID=131: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 278993us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:49:53 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 278996us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:49:56 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Tue Jun 26 18:07:48 2007
SysLog Response LogID=131: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 279000us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:50:00 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 279003us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:50:03 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Tue Jun 26 18:07:48 2007
SysLog Response LogID=131: Status=Successful
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 279009us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:50:09 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Event Timestamp=0d 00h 19m 42s 279012us
Client SysLog = '<11> Jun 19 11:50:12 uraval3777 Mandatory elements missing
in the OID response'
Step 3
To send a request for statistics, enter this command:
config client ccx stats-request measurement_duration stats_name client_mac_address
where stats_name is dot11 or security.
Step 4
To view the statistics response, enter this command:
show client ccx stats-report client_mac_address
Information similar to the following appears:
Measurement duration = 1
dot11TransmittedFragmentCount
dot11MulticastTransmittedFrameCount
dot11FailedCount
dot11RetryCount
dot11MultipleRetryCount
dot11FrameDuplicateCount
dot11RTSSuccessCount
dot11RTSFailureCount
dot11ACKFailureCount
dot11ReceivedFragmentCount
dot11MulticastReceivedFrameCount
dot11FCSErrorCount
dot11TransmittedFrameCount
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
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Using the Debug Facility
Information About Using the Debug Facility
The debug facility enables you to display all packets going to and from the controller CPU. You can enable
it for received packets, transmitted packets, or both. By default, all packets received by the debug facility are
displayed. However, you can define access control lists (ACLs) to filter packets before they are displayed.
Packets not passing the ACLs are discarded without being displayed.
Each ACL includes an action (permit, deny, or disable) and one or more fields that can be used to match the
packet. The debug facility provides ACLs that operate at the following levels and on the following values:
• Driver ACL
◦NPU encapsulation type
◦Port
• Ethernet header ACL
◦Destination address
◦Source address
◦Ethernet type
◦VLAN ID
• IP header ACL
◦Source address
◦Destination address
◦Protocol
◦Source port (if applicable)
◦Destination port (if applicable)
• EoIP payload Ethernet header ACL
◦Destination address
◦Source address
◦Ethernet type
◦VLAN ID
• EoIP payload IP header ACL
◦Source address
◦Destination address
◦Protocol
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◦Source port (if applicable)
◦Destination port (if applicable)
• CAPWAP payload 802.11 header ACL
◦Destination address
◦Source address
◦BSSID
◦SNAP header type
• CAPWAP payload IP header ACL
◦Source address
◦Destination address
◦Protocol
◦Source port (if applicable)
◦Destination port (if applicable)
At each level, you can define multiple ACLs. The first ACL that matches the packet is the one that is selected.
Configuring the Debug Facility (CLI)
Step 1
To enable the debug facility, enter this command:
• debug packet logging enable {rx | tx | all} packet_count display_size
where
◦rx displays all received packets, tx displays all transmitted packets, and all displays both transmitted and
received packets.
◦packet_count is the maximum number of packets to log. You can enter a value between 1 and 65535 packets,
and the default value is 25 packets.
◦display_size is the number of bytes to display when printing a packet. By default, the entire packet is displayed.
Note
To disable the debug facility, enter this command: debug packet logging disable.
• debug packet logging acl driver rule_index action npu_encap port
where
◦rule_index is a value between 1 and 6 (inclusive).
◦action is permit, deny, or disable.
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◦npu_encap specifies the NPU encapsulation type, which determines how packets are filtered. The possible
values include dhcp, dot11-mgmt, dot11-probe, dot1x, eoip-ping, iapp, ip, lwapp, multicast, orphan-from-sta,
orphan-to-sta, rbcp, wired-guest, or any.
◦port is the physical port for packet transmission or reception.
• Use these commands to configure packet-logging ACLs:
debug packet logging acl eth rule_index action dst src type vlan
where
◦rule_index is a value between 1 and 6 (inclusive).
◦action is permit, deny, or disable.
◦dst is the destination MAC address.
◦src is the source MAC address.
◦type is the two-byte type code (such as 0x800 for IP, 0x806 for ARP). This parameter also accepts a few
common string values such as “ip” (for 0x800) or “arp” (for 0x806).
◦vlan is the two-byte VLAN ID.
• debug packet logging acl ip rule_index action src dst proto src_port dst_port
where
◦proto is a numeric or any string recognized by getprotobyname(). The controller supports the following strings:
ip, icmp, igmp, ggp, ipencap, st, tcp, egp, pup, udp, hmp, xns-idp, rdp, iso-tp4, xtp, ddp, idpr-cmtp, rspf, vmtp,
ospf, ipip, and encap.
◦src_port is the UDP/TCP two-byte source port (for example, telnet, 23) or “any.” The controller accepts a
numeric or any string recognized by getservbyname(). The controller supports the following strings: tcpmux,
echo, discard, systat, daytime, netstat, qotd, msp, chargen, ftp-data, ftp, fsp, ssh, telnet, smtp, time, rlp,
nameserver, whois, re-mail-ck, domain, mtp, bootps, bootpc, tftp, gopher, rje, finger, www, link, kerberos,
supdup, hostnames, iso-tsap, csnet-ns, 3com-tsmux, rtelnet, pop-2, pop-3, sunrpc, auth, sftp, uucp-path, nntp,
ntp, netbios-ns, netbios-dgm, netbios-ssn, imap2, snmp, snmp-trap, cmip-man, cmip-agent, xdmcp, nextstep,
bgp, prospero, irc, smux, at-rtmp, at-nbp, at-echo, at-zis, qmtp, z3950, ipx, imap3, ulistserv, https, snpp, saft,
npmp-local, npmp-gui, and hmmp-ind.
◦dst_port is the UDP/TCP two-byte destination port (for example, telnet, 23) or “any.” The controller accepts
a numeric or any string recognized by getservbyname(). The controller supports the same strings as those for
the src_port.
• debug packet logging acl eoip-eth rule_index action dst src type vlan
• debug packet logging acl eoip-ip rule_index action src dst proto src_port dst_port
• debug packet logging acl lwapp-dot11 rule_index action dst src bssid snap_type
where
◦bssid is the Basic Service Set Identifier.
◦snap_type is the Ethernet type.
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• debug packet logging acl lwapp-ip rule_index action src dst proto src_port dst_port
Note
Step 2
To remove all configured ACLs, enter this command: debug packet logging acl clear-all.
To configure the format of the debug output, enter this command:
debug packet logging format {hex2pcap | text2pcap}
The debug facility supports two output formats: hex2pcap and text2pcap. The standard format used by IOS supports the
use of hex2pcap and can be decoded using an HTML front end. The text2pcap option is provided as an alternative so
that a sequence of packets can be decoded from the same console log file.
This figure shows an example of hex2pcap output.
Figure 29: Sample Hex2pcap Output
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This figure shows an example of text2pcap output.
Figure 30: Sample Text2pcap Output
Step 3
To determine why packets might not be displayed, enter this command:
debug packet error {enable | disable}
Step 4
To display the status of packet debugging, enter this command:
show debug packet
Information similar to the following appears:
Status...........................................
Number of packets to display.....................
Bytes/packet to display..........................
Packet display format............................
disabled
25
0
text2pcap
Driver ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled
Ethernet ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled
IP ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled
EoIP-Ethernet ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
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[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled
EoIP-IP ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled
LWAPP-Dot11 ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled
LWAPP-IP ACL:
[1]: disabled
[2]: disabled
[3]: disabled
[4]: disabled
[5]: disabled
[6]: disabled?
Configuring Wireless Sniffing
Information About Wireless Sniffing
The controller enables you to configure an access point as a network “sniffer,” which captures and forwards
all the packets on a particular channel to a remote machine that runs packet analyzer software. These packets
contain information on time stamps, signal strength, packet sizes, and so on. Sniffers allow you to monitor
and record network activity and to detect problems.
Prerequisites for Wireless Sniffing
To perform wireless sniffing, you need the following hardware and software:
• A dedicated access point—An access point configured as a sniffer cannot simultaneously provide wireless
access service on the network. To avoid disrupting coverage, use an access point that is not part of your
existing wireless network.
• A remote monitoring device—A computer capable of running the analyzer software.
• Windows XP or Linux operating system—The controller supports sniffing on both Windows XP and
Linux machines.
• Software and supporting files, plug-ins, or adapters—Your analyzer software may require specialized
files before you can successfully enable
Restrictions for Wireless Sniffing
• Supported third-party network analyzer software applications are as follows:
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◦Wildpackets Omnipeek or Airopeek
◦AirMagnet Enterprise Analyzer
◦Wireshark
• The latest version of Wireshark can decode the packets by going to the Analyze mode. Select decode
as, and switch UDP5555 to decode as AIROPEEK.
• You must disable IP-MAC address binding in order to use an access point in sniffer mode if the access
point is joined to a Cisco 5500 Series Controller. To disable IP-MAC address binding, enter the config
network ip-mac-binding disable command in the controller CLI.
• You must enable WLAN 1 in order to use an access point in sniffer mode if the access point is joined
to a Cisco 5500 Series Controller. If WLAN 1 is disabled, the access point cannot send packets.
Prerequisites for Wireless Sniffing
Configuring Sniffing on an Access Point (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Click the name of the access point that you want to configure as the sniffer. The All APs > Details for page appears.
From the AP Mode drop-down list, choose Sniffer.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Click Apply.
Click OK when prompted that the access point will be rebooted.
Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) to open the 802.11a/n (or 802.11b/g/n) Radios
page.
Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and choose Configure. The 802.11a/n
(or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Configure page appears.
Select the Sniff check box to enable sniffing on this access point, or leave it unselected to disable sniffing. The default
value is unchecked.
If you enabled sniffing in Step 8, follow these steps:
a) From the Channel drop-down list, choose the channel on which the access point sniffs for packets.
b) In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the remote machine running Omnipeek, Airopeek,
AirMagnet, or Wireshark.
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Sniffing on an Access Point (CLI)
Step 1
Configure the access point as a sniffer by entering this command:
config ap mode sniffer Cisco_AP
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where Cisco_AP is the access point configured as the sniffer.
Step 2
When warned that the access point will be rebooted and asked if you want to continue, enter Y. The access point reboots
in sniffer mode.
Enable sniffing on the access point by entering this command:
config ap sniff {802.11a | 802.11b} enable channel server_IP_address Cisco_AP
Step 3
where
• channel is the radio channel on which the access point sniffs for packets. The default values are 36 (802.11a/n)
and 1 (802.11b/g/n).
• server_IP_address is the IP address of the remote machine running Omnipeek, Airopeek, AirMagnet, or Wireshark.
• Cisco_AP is the access point configured as the sniffer.
Note
To disable sniffing on the access point, enter the config ap sniff {802.11a | 802.11b} disable Cisco_AP
command.
Step 4
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 5
See the sniffer configuration settings for an access point by entering this command:
show ap config {802.11a | 802.11b} Cisco_AP
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH_old
The controller supports the use of the Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) protocols to troubleshoot lightweight
access points. Using these protocols makes debugging easier, especially when the access point is unable to
connect to the controller.
• To avoid potential conflicts and security threats to the network, the following commands are unavailable
while a Telnet or SSH session is enabled: config terminal, telnet, ssh, rsh, ping, traceroute, clear,
clock, crypto, delete, fsck, lwapp, mkdir, radius, release, reload, rename, renew, rmdir, save, set,
test, upgrade.
• Commands available during a Telnet or SSH session include debug, disable, enable, help, led, login,
logout, more, no debug, show, systat, undebug and where.
Note
For instructions on configuring Telnet or SSH SSH sessions on the controller, see the
Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions section.
Information About Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH
The controller supports the use of the Telnet and Secure Shell (SSH) protocols to troubleshoot lightweight
access points. Using these protocols makes debugging easier, especially when the access point is unable to
connect to the controller.
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• To avoid potential conflicts and security threats to the network, the following commands are unavailable
while a Telnet or SSH session is enabled: config terminal, telnet, ssh, rsh, ping, traceroute, clear,
clock, crypto, delete, fsck, lwapp, mkdir, radius, release, reload, rename, renew, rmdir, save, set,
test, upgrade.
• Commands available during a Telnet or SSH session include debug, disable, enable, help, led, login,
logout, more, no debug, show, systat, undebug and where.
Note
For instructions on configuring Telnet or SSH sessions on the controller, see the
Configuring Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions section.
You can configure Telnet or SSH by using the controller CLI in software release 5.0 or later releases or using
the controller GUI in software release 6.0 or later releases.
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Click the name of the access point for which you want to enable Telnet or SSH.
Choose the Advanced tab to open the All APs > Details for (Advanced) page.
Select the Telnet check box to enable Telnet connectivity on this access point. The default value is unchecked.
Select the SSH check box to enable SSH connectivity on this access point. The default value is unchecked.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (CLI)
Step 1
Enable Telnet or SSH connectivity on an access point by entering this command:
config ap {telnet | ssh} enable Cisco_AP
The default value is disabled.
Note
Disable Telnet or SSH connectivity on an access point by entering this command: config ap {telnet | ssh}
disable Cisco_AP
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
See whether Telnet or SSH is enabled on an access point by entering this command:
show ap config general Cisco_AP
Information similar to the following appears:
Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 5
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Cisco AP Name....................................
Country code.....................................
Reg. Domain allowed by Country...................
AP Country code..................................
AP Regulatory Domain.............................
Switch Port Number ..............................
MAC Address......................................
IP Address Configuration.........................
IP Address.......................................
IP NetMask.......................................
Gateway IP Addr..................................
Domain...........................................
Name Server......................................
Telnet State.....................................
Ssh State........................................
...
AP33
Multiple Countries:US,AE,AR,AT,AU,BH
802.11bg:-ABCENR 802.11a:-ABCEN
US - United States
802.11bg:-A 802.11a:-A
2
00:19:2f:11:16:7a
Static IP assigned
10.22.8.133
255.255.248.0
10.22.8.1
Enabled
Enabled
Debugging the Access Point Monitor Service
Information About Debugging the Access Point Monitor Service
The controller sends access point status information to the Cisco 3300 Series Mobility Services Engine (MSE)
using the access point monitor service.
The MSE sends a service subscription and an access point monitor service request to get the status of all access
points currently known to the controller. When any change is made in the status of an access point, a notification
is sent to the MSE.
Debugging Access Point Monitor Service Issues (CLI)
If you experience any problems with the access point monitor service, enter this command:
debug service ap-monitor {all | error | event | nmsp | packet} {enable | disable}
where
• all configures debugging of all access point status messages.
• error configures debugging of access point monitor error events.
• event configures debugging of access point monitor events.
• nmsp configures debugging of access point monitor NMSP events.
• packet configures debugging of access point monitor packets.
• enable enables the debub service ap-monitor mode.
• disable disables the debug service ap-monitor mode.
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Troubleshooting OfficeExtend Access Points
Information About Troubleshooting OfficeExtend Access Points
This section provides troubleshooting information if you experience any problems with your OfficeExtend
access points.
Interpreting OfficeExtend LEDs
The LED patterns are different for 1130 series and 1140 series OfficeExtend access points. See the Cisco
OfficeExtend Access Point Quick Start Guide for a description of the LED patterns. You can find this guide
at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/index.html
Positioning OfficeExtend Access Points for Optimal RF Coverage
When positioning your OfficeExtend access point, consider that its RF signals are emitted in a cone shape
spreading outward from the LED side of the access point. Ensure to mount the access point so that air can
flow behind the metal back plate and prevent the access point from overheating.
Figure 31: OfficeExtend Access Point Radiation Patterns
Troubleshooting Common Problems
Most of the problems experienced with OfficeExtend access points are one of the following:
• The access point cannot join the controller because of network or firewall issues.
Resolution: Follow the instructions in the Viewing Access Point Join Information section to see join
statistics for the OfficeExtend access point, or find the access point’s public IP address and perform
pings of different packet sizes from inside the company.
• The access point joins but keeps dropping off. This behavior usually occurs because of network problems
or when the network address translation (NAT) or firewall ports close because of short timeouts.
Resolution: Ask the teleworker for the LED status.
• Clients cannot associate because of NAT issues.
Resolution: Ask the teleworker to perform a speed test and a ping test. Some servers do not return big
packet pings.
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• Clients keep dropping data. This behavior usually occurs because the home router closes the port because
of short timeouts.
Resolution: Perform client troubleshooting in Cisco Prime Infrastructure to determine if the problem is
related to the OfficeExtend access point or the client.
• The access point is not broadcasting the enterprise WLAN.
Resolution: Ask the teleworker to check the cables, power supply, and LED status. If you still cannot
identify the problem, ask the teleworker to try the following:
◦Connect to the home router directly and see if the PC is able to connect to an Internet website such
as http://www.cisco.com/. If the PC cannot connect to the Internet, check the router or modem. If
the PC can connect to the Internet, check the home router configuration to see if a firewall or
MAC-based filter is enabled that is blocking the access point from reaching the Internet.
◦Log on to the home router and check to see if the access point has obtained an IP address. If it has,
the access point’s LED normally blinks orange.
• The access point cannot join the controller, and you cannot identify the problem.
Resolution: A problem could exist with the home router. Ask the teleworker to check the router manual
and try the following:
◦Assign the access point a static IP address based on the access point’s MAC address.
◦Put the access point in a demilitarized zone (DMZ), which is a small network inserted as a neutral
zone between a company’s private network and the outside public network. It prevents outside
users from getting direct access to a server that has company data.
◦If problems still occur, contact your company’s IT department for assistance.
• The teleworker experiences problems while configuring a personal SSID on the access point.
Resolution: Clear the access point configuration and return it to factory default settings by clicking
Clear Config on the access point GUI or by entering the clear ap config Cisco_AP command and then
configuring a personal SSID on an OfficeExtend Access Point. If problems still occur, contact your
company’s IT department for assistance.
• The home network needs to be rebooted.
Resolution: Ask the teleworker to follow these steps:
Leave all devices networked and connected, and then power down all the devices.
Turn on the cable or DSL modem, and then wait for 2 minutes. (Check the LED status.)
Turn on the home router, and then wait for 2 minutes. (Check the LED status.)
Turn on the access point, and then wait for 5 minutes. (Check the LED status.)
Turn on the client.
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II
Configuring Ports and Interfaces
• Overview of Ports and Interfaces, page 291
• Configuring the Management Interface, page 297
• Configuring the AP-Manager Interface, page 301
• Configuring Virtual Interfaces, page 307
• Configuring Service-Port Interfaces, page 309
• Configuring Dynamic Interfaces, page 311
• Configuring Ports, page 317
• Information About Using Cisco 5500 Series Controller USB Console Port, page 319
• Configuring Link Aggregation, page 321
• Configuring Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces, page 327
• Configuring VLAN Select, page 331
• Configuring Interface Groups, page 335
• Configuring Multicast Optimization, page 339
CHAPTER
26
Overview of Ports and Interfaces
Three concepts are key to understanding how controllers connect to a wireless network: ports, interfaces,
and WLANs.
• Information About Ports, page 291
• Information About Distribution System Ports, page 292
• Information About Interfaces, page 293
• Information About Dynamic AP Management, page 294
• Information About WLANs, page 295
Information About Ports
A port is a physical entity that is used for connections on the controller platform. Controllers have two types
of ports: distribution system ports and a service port.
Figure 32: Ports on the Cisco 5500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers
1
Redundant port (RJ-45)
6
SFP distribution system ports 1–8
2
Service port (RJ-45)
7
Management port LEDs
3
Console port (RJ-45)
8
SFP distribution port Link and Activity LEDs
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4
USB ports 0 and 1 (Type A)
9
5
Console port (Mini USB Type B)
10 Expansion module slot
Note
Power supply (PS1 and PS2), System (SYS), and
Alarm (ALM) LEDs
You can use only one console port
(either RJ-45 or mini USB). When
you connect to one console port, the
other is disabled.
Information About Distribution System Ports
A distribution system port connects the controller to a neighbor switch and serves as the data path between
these two devices.
Restrictions for Configuring Distribution System Ports
• Cisco 5508 Controllers have eight Gigabit Ethernet distribution system ports, through which the Controller
can manage multiple access points. The 5508-12, 5508-25, 5508-50, 5508-100, and 5508-250 models
allow a total of 12, 25, 50, 100, or 250 access points to join the controller. Cisco 5508 controllers have
no restrictions on the number of access points per port. However, we recommend using link aggregation
(LAG) or configuring dynamic AP-manager interfaces on each Gigabit Ethernet port to automatically
balance the load. If more than 100 access points are connected to the Cisco 5500 Series Controller, make
sure that more than one Gigabit Ethernet interface is connected to the upstream switch.
Note
The Gigabit Ethernet ports on the Cisco 5508 Controllers accept these SX/LC/T small
form-factor plug-in (SFP) modules: - 1000BASE-SX SFP modules, which provide a
1000-Mbps wired connection to a network through an 850nM (SX) fiber-optic link
using an LC physical connector - 1000BASE-LX SFP modules, which provide a
1000-Mbps wired connection to a network through a 1300nM (LX/LH) fiber-optic link
using an LC physical connector - 1000BASE-T SFP modules, which provide a
1000-Mbps wired connection to a network through a copper link using an RJ-45 physical
connector
• GLC-SX-MM, a 1000BASE-SX connector should be in auto-negotiation mode to function as desired
because all SFP modules using LC physical connecters must ideally be in auto-negotiation mode on
Cisco 5508 Series Controllers to function properly. However, when Cisco ASR is connected using the
fiber port, GLC-SX-MM does not come up between Cisco ASR and Cisco 5508 as Cisco ASR requires
the connector to be in fixed mode to function properly.
• Each distribution system port is, by default, an 802.1Q VLAN trunk port. The VLAN trunking
characteristics of the port are not configurable.
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Note
Some controllers support link aggregation (LAG), which bundles all of the controller’s
distribution system ports into a single 802.3ad port channel. Cisco 5500 Series Controllers
support LAG, and LAG is enabled automatically on the controllers within the Cisco
WiSM2.
• Cisco WLC configuration in access mode is not supported. We recommend that you configure Cisco
WLC in trunk mode when you configure Cisco WLC ports on a switch.
• In Cisco Flex 7500 and 8500 Series Controllers:
• If a port is unresponsive after a soaking period of 5 seconds, all the interfaces for which the port
is the primary and the active port, fail over to the backup port, if a backup is configured and is
operational. Similarly, if the unresponsive port is the backup port, then all the interfaces fail over
to the primary port if it is operational.
• After the unresponsive port is restored, there is a soaking period of 60 seconds after which if the
port is still operational, then all the interfaces fall back to this port, which was the primary port. If
the port was the backup port, then no change is done.
Information About Service Port
Cisco 5500 Series Controllers also have a 10/100/1000 copper Ethernet service port. The service port is
controlled by the service-port interface and is reserved for out-of-band management of the controller and
system recovery and maintenance in the event of a network failure. It is also the only port that is active when
the controller is in boot mode. The service port is not capable of carrying 802.1Q tags, so it must be connected
to an access port on the neighbor switch. Use of the service port is optional.
Note
The service port is not autosensing. You must use the correct straight-through or crossover Ethernet cable
to communicate with the service port.
Caution
Do not configure wired clients in the same VLAN or subnet of the service port of the controller on the
network. If you configure wired clients on the same subnet or VLAN as the service port, it is not possible
to access the management interface of the controller.
Information About Interfaces
An interface is a logical entity on the controller. An interface has multiple parameters associated with it,
including an IP address, default gateway (for the IP subnet), primary physical port, secondary physical port,
VLAN identifier, and DHCP server.
These five types of interfaces are available on the controller. Four of these are static and are configured at
setup time:
• Management interface (static and configured at setup time; mandatory)
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• AP-manager interface (static and configured at setup time; mandatory)
Note
You are not required to configure an AP-manager interface on Cisco 5500 Series
Controllers.
• Virtual interface (static and configured at setup time; mandatory)
• Service-port interface (static and configured at setup time; optional)
• Dynamic interface (user-defined)
Note
Typically, you define the management, AP-manager, virtual, and service-port interface parameters using
the Startup Wizard. However, you can display and configure interface parameters through either the GUI
or CLI after the controller is running.
When LAG is disabled, each interface is mapped to at least one primary port, and some interfaces (management
and dynamic) can be mapped to an optional secondary (or backup) port. If the primary port for an interface
fails, the interface automatically moves to the backup port. In addition, multiple interfaces can be mapped to
a single controller port.
Note
Interfaces that are quarantined are not displayed on the Controller > Interfaces page. For example, if there
are 6 interfaces and one of them is quarantined, the quarantined interface is not displayed and the details
of the other 5 interfaces are displayed on the GUI. You can get the total number of interfaces that is
inclusive of quarantined interfaces through the count displayed on the top-right corner of the GUI.
Restrictions for Configuring Interfaces
• Each physical port on the wireless controller can have only one AP-manager configured with it. For the
Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, the management interface with AP-management enabled cannot fail over
to the backup port, which is primary for the AP-manager on the management or dynamic VLAN interface.
• Cisco 5500 Series Controllers do not support fragmented pings on any interface.
• When the port comes up in VMware ESXi with configuration for NIC teaming, the vWLC may lose
connectivity. However, the virtual wireless LAN controller (vWLC) resumes connectivity after a while.
Information About Dynamic AP Management
A dynamic interface is created as a WLAN interface by default. However, any dynamic interface can be
configured as an AP-manager interface, with one AP-manager interface allowed per physical port. A dynamic
interface with the Dynamic AP Management option enabled is used as the tunnel source for packets from the
controller to the access point and as the destination for CAPWAP packets from the access point to the controller.
The dynamic interfaces for AP management must have a unique IP address and are usually configured on the
same subnet as the management interface.
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Note
If link aggregation (LAG) is enabled, there can be only one AP-manager interface.
We recommend having a separate dynamic AP-manager interface per controller port.
Information About WLANs
A WLAN associates a service set identifier (SSID) to an interface or an interface group. It is configured with
security, quality of service (QoS), radio policies, and other wireless network parameters. Up to 512 WLANs
can be configured per controller.
Figure 33: Relationship between Ports, Interfaces, and WLANs
Each controller port connection is an 802.1Q trunk and should be configured as such on the neighbor switch.
On Cisco switches, the native VLAN of an 802.1Q trunk is an untagged VLAN. If you configure an interface
to use the native VLAN on a neighboring Cisco switch, make sure you configure the interface on the controller
to be untagged.
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Note
A zero value for the VLAN identifier (on the Controller > Interfaces page) means that the interface is
untagged.
The default (untagged) native VLAN on Cisco switches is VLAN 1. When controller interfaces are configured
as tagged (meaning that the VLAN identifier is set to a nonzero value), the VLAN must be allowed on the
802.1Q trunk configuration on the neighbor switch and not be the native untagged VLAN.
We recommend that tagged VLANs be used on the controller. You should also allow only relevant VLANs
on the neighbor switch’s 802.1Q trunk connections to controller ports. All other VLANs should be disallowed
or pruned in the switch port trunk configuration. This practice is extremely important for optimal performance
of the controller.
Note
We recommend that you assign one set of VLANs for WLANs and a different set of VLANs for
management interfaces to ensure that controllers properly route VLAN traffic.
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Configuring the Management Interface
• Information About the Management Interface, page 297
• Configuring the Management Interface (GUI), page 298
• Configuring the Management Interface (CLI), page 299
Information About the Management Interface
The management interface is the default interface for in-band management of the controller and connectivity
to enterprise services such as AAA servers. It is also used for communications between the controller and
access points. The management interface has the only consistently “pingable” in-band interface IP address on
the controller. You can access the GUI of the controller by entering the management interface IP address of
the controller in the address field of either Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox browser.
For CAPWAP, the controller requires one management interface to control all inter-controller communications
and one AP-manager interface to control all controller-to-access point communications, regardless of the
number of ports.
Note
To prevent or block a wired or wireless client from accessing the management network on a controller
(from the wireless client dynamic interface or VLAN), the network administrator must ensure that only
authorized clients gain access to the management network through proper CPU ACLs, or use a firewall
between the client dynamic interface and the management network.
Caution
Do not map a guest WLAN to the management interface. If the EoIP tunnel breaks, the client could obtain
an IP and be placed on the management subnet.
Caution
Do not configure wired clients in the same VLAN or subnet of the service port of the controller on the
network. If you configure wired clients on the same subnet or VLAN as the service port, it is not possible
to access the management interface of the controller.
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Configuring the Management Interface (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Click the management link.
The Interfaces > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Set the management interface parameters:
Note
The management interface uses the controller’s factory-set distribution system MAC address.
• Quarantine and quarantine VLAN ID, if applicable
Note
Select the Quarantine check box if you want to configure this VLAN as unhealthy or you want to configure
network access control (NAC) out-of-band integration. Doing so causes the data traffic of any client that
is assigned to this VLAN to pass through the controller.
• NAT address (only Cisco 2500 Series Controllers and Cisco 5500 Series Controllers are configured for dynamic
AP management.)
Note
Select the Enable NAT Address check box and enter the external NAT IP address if you want to be able
to deploy your Cisco 2500 Series Controllers or Cisco 5500 Series Controller behind a router or other
gateway device that is using one-to-one mapping network address translation (NAT). NAT allows a device,
such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public) and a local network (private). In this case,
it maps the controller’s intranet IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The controller’s dynamic
AP-manager interface must be configured with the external NAT IP address so that the controller can send
the correct IP address in the Discovery Response.
Note
If a Cisco 2500 Series Controllers or Cisco 5500 Series Controller is configured with an external NAT IP
address under the management interface, the APs in local mode cannot associate with the controller. The
workaround is to either ensure that the management interface has a globally valid IP address or ensure
that external NAT IP address is valid internally for the local APs.
The NAT parameters are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, where each private client
has a direct and fixed mapping to a global address. The NAT parameters do not support one-to-many NAT,
which uses source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be represented by a single IP address.
Note
• VLAN identifier
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend using tagged
VLANs for the management interface.
• Fixed IP address, IP netmask, and default gateway
• Dynamic AP management (for Cisco 2500 Series Controllers or Cisco 5500 Series Controller only)
Note
For Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, the management interface acts like an AP-manager interface by default.
If desired, you can disable the management interface as an AP-manager interface and create another
dynamic interface as an AP manager.
• Physical port assignment (for all controllers except the Cisco 2500 Series Controllers or Cisco 5500 Series Controller)
• Primary and secondary DHCP servers
• Access control list (ACL) setting, if required
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Step 4
Step 5
Click Save Configuration.
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes take effect.
Configuring the Management Interface (CLI)
Step 1
Enter the show interface detailed management command to view the current management interface settings.
Note
The management interface uses the controller’s factory-set distribution system MAC address.
Step 2
Enter the config wlan disable wlan-number command to disable each WLAN that uses the management interface for
distribution system communication.
Enter these commands to define the management interface:
Step 3
• config interface address management ip-addr ip-netmask gateway
• config interface quarantine vlan management vlan_id
Note
Use the config interface quarantine vlan management vlan_id command to configure a quarantine
VLAN on the management interface.
• config interface vlan management {vlan-id | 0}
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend using tagged
VLANs for the management interface.
• config interface ap-manager management {enable | disable} (for Cisco 5500 Series Controllers only)
Note
Use the config interface ap-manager management {enable | disable} command to enable or disable
dynamic AP management for the management interface. For Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, the management
interface acts like an AP-manager interface by default. If desired, you can disable the management interface
as an AP-manager interface and create another dynamic interface as an AP manager.
• config interface port management physical-ds-port-number (for all controllers except the 5500 series)
• config interface dhcp management ip-address-of-primary-dhcp-server [ip-address-of-secondary-dhcp-server]
• config interface acl management access-control-list-name
Step 4
Enter these commands if you want to be able to deploy your Cisco 5500 Series Controller behind a router or other gateway
device that is using one-to-one mapping network address translation (NAT):
• config interface nat-address management {enable | disable}
• config interface nat-address management set public_IP_address
NAT allows a device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public) and a local network (private). In
this case, it maps the controller’s intranet IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The controller’s dynamic
AP-manager interface must be configured with the external NAT IP address so that the controller can send the correct
IP address in the Discovery Response.
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Note
These commands are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, where each private client has a
direct and fixed mapping to a global address. These commands do not support one-to-many NAT, which uses
source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be represented by a single IP address.
Step 5
Enter the save config command.
Step 6
Enter the show interface detailed management command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Step 7
If you made any changes to the management interface, enter the reset system command to reboot the controller in order
for the changes to take effect.
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Configuring the AP-Manager Interface
• Information the About AP-Manager Interface, page 301
• Restrictions for Configuring AP Manager Interfaces, page 301
• Configuring the AP-Manager Interface (GUI), page 302
• Configuring the AP Manager Interface (CLI), page 302
• Configuration Example: Configuring AP-Manager on a Cisco 5500 Series Controller, page 303
Information the About AP-Manager Interface
A controller has one or more AP-manager interfaces, which are used for all Layer 3 communications between
the controller and lightweight access points after the access points have joined the controller. The AP-manager
IP address is used as the tunnel source for CAPWAP packets from the controller to the access point and as
the destination for CAPWAP packets from the access point to the controller.
Note
The controller does not support transmitting the jumbo frames. To avoid having the controller transmit
CAPWAP packets to the AP that will necessitate fragmentation and reassembly, reduce MTU/MSS on
the client side.
The AP-manager interface communicates through any distribution system port by listening across the Layer
3 network for access point CAPWAP or LWAPP join messages to associate and communicate with as many
lightweight access points as possible.
Restrictions for Configuring AP Manager Interfaces
• The MAC address of the management interface and the AP-manager interface is the same as the base
LAG MAC address.
• If only one distribution system port can be used, you should use distribution system port 1.
•
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• An AP-manager interface is not required to be configured. The management interface acts like an
AP-manager interface by default, and the access points can join on this interface.
• If link aggregation (LAG) is enabled, there can be only one AP-manager interface. But when LAG is
disabled, one or more AP-manager interfaces can be created, generally one per physical port.
• Port redundancy for the AP-manager interface is not supported. You cannot map the AP-manager
interface to a backup port.
Configuring the AP-Manager Interface (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click AP-Manager Interface.
The Interface > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Set the AP-Manager Interface parameters:
Note
For Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, you are not required to configure an AP-manager interface. The management
interface acts like an AP-manager interface by default.
• Physical port assignment
• VLAN identifier
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend using tagged
VLANs for the AP-manager interface.
• Fixed IP address, IP netmask, and default gateway
• Primary and secondary DHCP servers
• Access control list (ACL) name, if required
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes take effect.
Configuring the AP Manager Interface (CLI)
Before You Begin
For Cisco 5500 Series Controllers, you are not required to configure an AP-manager interface. The management
interface acts like an AP-manager interface by default.
Step 1
Enter the show interface summary command to view the current interfaces.
Note
If the system is operating in Layer 2 mode, the AP-manager interface is not
listed.
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Step 2
Enter the show interface detailed ap-manager command to view the current AP-manager interface settings.
Step 3
Enter the config wlan disable wlan-number command to disable each WLAN that uses the AP-manager interface for
distribution system communication.
Enter these commands to define the AP-manager interface:
Step 4
• config interface address ap-manager ip-addr ip-netmask gateway
• config interface vlan ap-manager {vlan-id | 0}
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend using tagged
VLANs for the AP-manager interface.
• config interface port ap-manager physical-ds-port-number
• config interface dhcp ap-manager ip-address-of-primary-dhcp-server [ip-address-of-secondary-dhcp-server]
• config interface acl ap-manager access-control-list-name
Step 5
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 6
Enter the show interface detailed ap-manager command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Configuration Example: Configuring AP-Manager on a Cisco 5500 Series
Controller
For a Cisco 5500 Series Controller, we recommend that you have eight dynamic AP-manager interfaces and
associate them to the eight Gigabit ports of the controller when LAG is not used. If you are using the
management interface, which acts like an AP-manager interface by default, you must create only seven more
dynamic AP-manager interfaces and associate them to the remaining seven Gigabit ports.
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This figure shows a dynamic interface that is enabled as a dynamic AP-manager interface and associated to
port number 2.
Figure 34: Dynamic Interface Example with Dynamic AP Management
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This figure shows a Cisco 5500 Series Controller with LAG disabled, the management interface used as one
dynamic AP-manager interface, and seven additional dynamic AP-manager interfaces, each mapped to a
different Gigabit port.
Figure 35: Cisco 5500 Series Controller Interface Configuration Example
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Configuring Virtual Interfaces
• Information About the Virtual Interface, page 307
• Configuring Virtual Interfaces (GUI), page 308
• Configuring Virtual Interfaces (CLI), page 308
Information About the Virtual Interface
The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
relay, and embedded Layer 3 security such as guest web authentication and VPN termination. It also maintains
the DNS gateway host name used by Layer 3 security and mobility managers to verify the source of certificates
when Layer 3 web authorization is enabled.
Specifically, the virtual interface plays these two primary roles:
• Acts as the DHCP server placeholder for wireless clients that obtain their IP address from a DHCP
server.
• Serves as the redirect address for the web authentication login page.
The virtual interface IP address is used only in communications between the controller and wireless clients.
It never appears as the source or destination address of a packet that goes out a distribution system port and
onto the switched network. For the system to operate correctly, the virtual interface IP address must be set (it
cannot be 0.0.0.0), and no other device on the network can have the same address as the virtual interface.
Therefore, the virtual interface must be configured with an unassigned and unused gateway IP address. The
virtual interface IP address is not pingable and should not exist in any routing table in your network. In addition,
the virtual interface cannot be mapped to a physical port.
Note
All controllers within a mobility group must be configured with the same virtual interface IP address.
Otherwise, inter-controller roaming may appear to work, but the handoff does not complete, and the client
loses connectivity for a period of time.
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Configuring Virtual Interfaces (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Click Virtual.
The Interfaces > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Enter the following parameters:
• Any fictitious, unassigned, and unused gateway IP address
• DNS gateway hostname
Note
Step 4
Step 5
To ensure connectivity and web authentication, the DNS server should always point to the virtual interface.
If a DNS hostname is configured for the virtual interface, then the same DNS host name must be configured
on the DNS server(s) used by the client.
Click Save Configuration.
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes take effect.
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (CLI)
Step 1
Enter the show interface detailed virtual command to view the current virtual interface settings.
Step 2
Enter the config wlan disable wlan-number command to disable each WLAN that uses the virtual interface for distribution
system communication.
Enter these commands to define the virtual interface:
Step 3
• config interface address virtual ip-address
Note
For ip-address, enter any fictitious, unassigned, and unused gateway IP address.
• config interface hostname virtual dns-host-name
Step 4
Step 5
Enter the reset system command. At the confirmation prompt, enter Y to save your configuration changes to NVRAM.
The controller reboots.
Enter the show interface detailed virtual command to verify that your changes have been saved.
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Configuring Service-Port Interfaces
• Information About Service-Port Interfaces, page 309
• Restrictions for Configuring Service-Port Interfaces, page 309
• Configuring Service-Port Interfaces (GUI), page 309
• Configuring Service-Port Interfaces (CLI), page 310
Information About Service-Port Interfaces
The service-port interface controls communications through and is statically mapped by the system to the
service port. The service port can obtain an IP address using DHCP, or it can be assigned a static IP address,
but a default gateway cannot be assigned to the service-port interface. Static routes can be defined through
the controller for remote network access to the service port.
Note
Restrictions for Configuring Service-Port Interfaces
• Only Cisco 7500 Series Controllers and Cisco 5500 Series Controllers have a physical service-port
interface that is reachable from the external network.
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Step 3
Click the service-port link to open the Interfaces > Edit page.
Enter the Service-Port Interface parameters:
Note
The service-port interface uses the controller’s factory-set service-port MAC address.
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• DHCP protocol (enabled)
• DHCP protocol (disabled) and IP address and IP netmask
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes take effect.
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces (CLI)
Step 1
To view the current service-port interface settings, enter this command:
show interface detailed service-port
Note
The service-port interface uses the controller’s factory-set service-port MAC address.
Step 2
Enter these commands to define the service-port interface:
• To configure the DHCP server, enter this command:
config interface dhcp service-port enable
• To disable the DHCP server, enter this command:
config interface dhcp service-port disable
• To configure the IP address, enter this command:
config interface address service-port ip-addr ip-netmask
Step 3
The service port is used for out-of-band management of the controller. If the management workstation is in a remote
subnet, you may need to add a route on the controller in order to manage the controller from that remote workstation.
To do so, enter this command:
config route add network-ip-addr ip-netmask gateway
Step 4
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 5
Enter the show interface detailed service-port command to verify that your changes have been saved.
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Configuring Dynamic Interfaces
• Information About Dynamic Interface, page 311
• Pre - requisites for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces, page 312
• Restrictions for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces, page 312
• Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (GUI), page 312
• Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI), page 314
Information About Dynamic Interface
Dynamic interfaces, also known as VLAN interfaces, are created by users and designed to be analogous to
VLANs for wireless LAN clients. A controller can support up to 512 dynamic interfaces (VLANs). Each
dynamic interface is individually configured and allows separate communication streams to exist on any or
all of a controller’s distribution system ports. Each dynamic interface controls VLANs and other communications
between controllers and all other network devices, and each acts as a DHCP relay for wireless clients associated
to WLANs mapped to the interface. You can assign dynamic interfaces to distribution system ports, WLANs,
the Layer 2 management interface, and the Layer 3 AP-manager interface, and you can map the dynamic
interface to a backup port.
You can configure zero, one, or multiple dynamic interfaces on a distribution system port. However, all
dynamic interfaces must be on a different VLAN or IP subnet from all other interfaces configured on the port.
If the port is untagged, all dynamic interfaces must be on a different IP subnet from any other interface
configured on the port.
This table lists the maximum number of VLANs supported on the various controller platforms.
Table 7: Maximum number of VLANs supported on Cisco Wireless Controllers
Wireless Controllers
Maximum VLANs
Cisco Virtual Wireless Controller
512
Cisco Wireless Controller Module for ISR G2
16
Cisco 2500 Series Wireless Controllers
16
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Wireless Controllers
Maximum VLANs
Cisco 5500 Series Wireless Controller
512
Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Wireless Services
Module2 (WiSM2)
512
Cisco Flex 7500 Series Cloud Controller
4,096
Cisco 8500 Series Controller
4,096
Pre - requisites for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces
While configuring on the dynamic interface of the controller, you must ensure the following:
•
• You must use tagged VLANs for dynamic interfaces.
Restrictions for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces
The following restrictions apply for configuring the dynamic interfaces on the controller:
• You must not configure a dynamic interface in the same subnetwork as a server that is reachable by the
controller CPU, such as a RADIUS server, as it might cause asymmetric routing issues.
• Wired clients cannot access management interface of the Cisco WLC 2500 series using the IP address
of the AP Manager interface – when Dynamic AP Management is enabled on a dynamic VLAN.
•
• For SNMP requests that come from a subnet that is configured as a dynamic interface, the controller
responds but the response does not reach the device that initiated the conversation.
• If you are using DHCP proxy and/or a RADIUS source interface, ensure that the dynamic interface has
a valid routable address. Duplicate or overlapping addresses across controller interfaces are not supported.
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Perform one of the following:
• To create a new dynamic interface, click New. The Interfaces > New page appears. Go to Step 3.
• To modify the settings of an existing dynamic interface, click the name of the interface. The Interfaces > Edit
page for that interface appears. Go to Step 5.
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• To delete an existing dynamic interface, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired interface
and choose Remove.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Enter an interface name and a VLAN identifier, as shown in the figure above.
Click Apply to commit your changes. The Interfaces > Edit page appears.
Configure the following parameters:
• Guest LAN, if applicable
• Quarantine and quarantine VLAN ID, if applicable
Note
Select the Quarantine check box if you want to configure this VLAN as unhealthy or you want to configure
network access control (NAC) out-of-band integration. Doing so causes the data traffic of any client that
is assigned to this VLAN to pass through the controller.
• Physical port assignment (for all controllers except the 5500 series)
• NAT address (only for Cisco 5500 Series Controllers configured for dynamic AP management)
Note
Note
Select the Enable NAT Address check box and enter the external NAT IP address if you want to be able
to deploy your Cisco 5500 Series Controller behind a router or other gateway device that is using one-to-one
mapping network address translation (NAT). NAT allows a device, such as a router, to act as an agent
between the Internet (public) and a local network (private). In this case, it maps the controller’s intranet
IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The controller’s dynamic AP-manager interface must
be configured with the external NAT IP address so that the controller can send the correct IP address in
the Discovery Response.
The NAT parameters are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, where each private client
has a direct and fixed mapping to a global address. The NAT parameters do not support one-to-many NAT,
which uses source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be represented by a single IP address.
• Dynamic AP management
Note
Note
When you enable this feature, this dynamic interface is configured as an AP-manager interface (only one
AP-manager interface is allowed per physical port). A dynamic interface that is marked as an AP-manager
interface cannot be used as a WLAN interface.
Set the APs in a VLAN that is different than the dynamic interface configured on the controller. If the APs
are in the same VLAN as the dynamic interface, the APs are not registered on the controller and the
“LWAPP discovery rejected” and “Layer 3 discovery request not received on management VLAN” errors
are logged on the controller.
• VLAN identifier
• Fixed IP address, IP netmask, and default gateway
• Primary and secondary DHCP servers
• Access control list (ACL) name, if required
Note
Step 6
Step 7
To ensure proper operation, you must set the Port Number and Primary DHCP Server parameters.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Repeat this procedure for each dynamic interface that you want to create or edit.
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Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
Step 1
Enter the show interface summary command to view the current dynamic interfaces.
Step 2
View the details of a specific dynamic interface by entering this command:
show interface detailed operator_defined_interface_name.
Note
Interface names that contain spaces must be enclosed in double quotes. For example: config interface create
"vlan 25"
Step 3
Enter the config wlan disable wlan_id command to disable each WLAN that uses the dynamic interface for distribution
system communication.
Enter these commands to configure dynamic interfaces:
Step 4
• config interface create operator_defined_interface_name {vlan_id | x}
• config interface address interface ip_addr ip_netmask [gateway]
• config interface vlan operator_defined_interface_name {vlan_id | o}
• config interface port operator_defined_interface_name physical_ds_port_number
• config interface ap-manager operator_defined_interface_name {enable | disable}
Note
Use the config interface ap-manager operator_defined_interface_name {enable | disable} command
to enable or disable dynamic AP management. When you enable this feature, this dynamic interface is
configured as an AP-manager interface (only one AP-manager interface is allowed per physical port). A
dynamic interface that is marked as an AP-manager interface cannot be used as a WLAN interface.
• config interface dhcp operator_defined_interface_name ip_address_of_primary_dhcp_server
[ip_address_of_secondary_dhcp_server]
• config interface quarantine vlan interface_name vlan_id
Note
Use the config interface quarantine vlan interface_name vlan_id command to configure a quarantine
VLAN on any interface.
• config interface acl operator_defined_interface_name access_control_list_name
Step 5
Enter these commands if you want to be able to deploy your Cisco 5500 Series Controller behind a router or other gateway
device that is using one-to-one mapping network address translation (NAT):
• config interface nat-address dynamic-interface operator_defined_interface_name {enable | disable}
• config interface nat-address dynamic-interface operator_defined_interface_name set public_IP_address
NAT allows a device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public) and a local network (private). In
this case, it maps the controller’s intranet IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The controller’s dynamic
AP-manager interface must be configured with the external NAT IP address so that the controller can send the correct
IP address in the Discovery Response.
Note
These commands are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, whereby each private client has a
direct and fixed mapping to a global address. These commands do not support one-to-many NAT, which uses
source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be represented by a single IP address.
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Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Enter the config wlan enable wlan_id command to reenable each WLAN that uses the dynamic interface for distribution
system communication.
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Enter the show interface detailed operator_defined_interface_name command and show interface summary command
to verify that your changes have been saved.
Note
If desired, you can enter the config interface delete operator_defined_interface_name command to delete a
dynamic interface.
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Configuring Ports
• Configuring Ports (GUI), page 317
Configuring Ports (GUI)
The controller’s ports are configured with factory-default settings designed to make the controllers’ ports
operational without additional configuration. However, you can view the status of the controller’s ports and
edit their configuration parameters at any time.
Step 1
Choose Controller > Ports to open the Ports page.
This page shows the current configuration for each of the controller’s ports.
If you want to change the settings of any port, click the number for that specific port. The Port > Configure page appears.
Note
If the management and AP-manager interfaces are mapped to the same port and are members of the same VLAN,
you must disable the WLAN before making a port-mapping change to either interface. If the management and
AP-manager interfaces are assigned to different VLANs, you do not need to disable the WLAN.
Note
The number of parameters available on the Port > Configure page depends on your controller
type.
The following show the current status of the port:
• Port Number—Number of the current port.
• Admin Status—Current state of the port. Values: Enable or Disable
• Physical Mode—Configuration of the port physical interface. The mode varies by the controller type.
• Physical Status—The data rate being used by the port. The available data rates vary based on controller type.
◦2500 series - 1 Gbps full duplex
◦WiSM2 - 10 Gbps full duplex
◦7500 series - 10 Gbps full duplex
• Link Status—Link status of the port. Values: Link Up or Link Down
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• Link Trap—Whether the port is set to send a trap when the link status changes. Values: Enable or Disable
• Power over Ethernet (PoE)—If the connecting device is equipped to receive power through the Ethernet cable and
if so, provides –48 VDC. Values: Enable or Disable
Some older Cisco access points do not draw PoE even if it is enabled on the controller port. In such cases,
contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC).
Note
The following is a list of the port’s configurable parameters.
1 Admin Status—Enables or disables the flow of traffic through the port. Options: Enable or Disable Default: Enable.
Note
When a primary port link goes down, messages may get logged internally only and not be posted to a syslog
server. It may take up to 40 seconds to restore logging to the syslog server.
2 Physical Mode—Determines whether the port’s data rate is set automatically or specified by the user. The supported
data rates vary based on the controller type. Default: Auto.
3 Link Trap—Causes the port to send a trap when the port’s link status changes. Options: Enable or Disable Default:
Enable.
Step 2
Click Apply.
Step 3
Click Save Configuration.
Step 4
Click Back to return to the Ports page and review your changes.
Step 5
Repeat this procedure for each additional port that you want to configure.
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Information About Using Cisco 5500 Series
Controller USB Console Port
The USB console port on the Cisco 5500 Series Controllers connects directly to the USB connector of a PC
using a USB Type A-to-5-pin mini Type B cable.
Note
The 4-pin mini Type B connector is easily confused with the 5-pin mini Type B connector. They are not
compatible. Only the 5-pin mini Type B connector can be used.
For operation with Microsoft Windows, the Cisco Windows USB console driver must be installed on any
PC connected to the console port. With this driver, you can plug and unplug the USB cable into and from
the console port without affecting Windows HyperTerminal operations.
Note
Only one console port can be active at a time. When a cable is plugged into the USB console port, the
RJ-45 port becomes inactive. Conversely, when the USB cable is removed from the USB port, the RJ-45
port becomes active.
• USB Console OS Compatibility, page 319
• Changing the Cisco USB Systems Management Console COM Port to an Unused Port, page 320
USB Console OS Compatibility
Before You Begin
These operating systems are compatible with the USB console:
• Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 (Cisco Windows USB console
driver required)
• Apple Mac OS X 10.5.2 (no driver required)
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• Linux (no driver required)
Step 1
Download the USB_Console.inf driver file as follows:
a) Click this URL to go to the Software Center: http://tools.cisco.com/support/downloads/go/Redirect.x?mdfid=278875243
b) Click Wireless LAN Controllers.
c) Click Standalone Controllers.
d) Click Cisco 5500 Series Wireless LAN Controllers.
e) Click Cisco 5508 Wireless LAN Controller.
f) Choose the USB driver file.
g) Save the file to your hard drive.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Connect the Type A connector to a USB port on your PC.
Connect the mini Type B connector to the USB console port on the controller.
When prompted for a driver, browse to the USB_Console.inf file on your PC. Follow the prompts to install the USB
driver.
Note
Some systems might also require an additional system file. You can download the Usbser.sys file from http://
support.microsoft.com/kb/918365.
Changing the Cisco USB Systems Management Console COM Port to an Unused
Port
Before You Begin
The USB driver is mapped to COM port 6. Some terminal emulation programs do not recognize a port higher
than COM 4. If necessary, you must change the Cisco USB systems management console COM port to an
unused port of COM 4 or lower.
Step 1
From your Windows desktop, right-click My Computer and choose Manage.
Step 2
From the list on the left side, choose Device Manager.
Step 3
From the device list on the right side, double-click Ports (COM & LPT).
Step 4
Right-click Cisco USB System Management Console 0108 and choose Properties.
Step 5
Click the Port Settings tab and click the Advanced button.
Step 6
Step 7
From the COM Port Number drop-down list, choose an unused COM port of 4 or lower.
Click OK to save and then close the Advanced Settings dialog box.
Step 8
Click OK to save and then close the Communications Port Properties dialog box.
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Configuring Link Aggregation
• Information About Link Aggregation, page 321
• Restrictions for Link Aggregation, page 321
• Enabling Link Aggregation (GUI), page 323
• Enabling Link Aggregation (CLI), page 324
• Verifying Link Aggregation Settings (CLI), page 324
• Configuring Neighbor Devices to Support Link Aggregation, page 324
• Choosing Between Link Aggregation and Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces, page 324
Information About Link Aggregation
Link aggregation (LAG) is a partial implementation of the 802.3ad port aggregation standard. It bundles all
of the controller’s distribution system ports into a single 802.3ad port channel, thereby reducing the number
of IP addresses needed to configure the ports on your controller. When LAG is enabled, the system dynamically
manages port redundancy and load balances access points transparently to the user.
LAG simplifies controller configuration because you no longer need to configure primary and secondary ports
for each interface. If any of the controller ports fail, traffic is automatically migrated to one of the other ports.
As long as at least one controller port is functioning, the system continues to operate, access points remain
connected to the network, and wireless clients continue to send and receive data.
Cisco WLC does not send CDP advertisements on a LAG interface.
Note
LAG is supported across switches.
Restrictions for Link Aggregation
• You can bundle all eight ports on a Cisco 5508 Controller into a single link.
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• Terminating on two different modules within a single Catalyst 6500 series switch provides redundancy
and ensures that connectivity between the switch and the controller is maintained when one module
fails. The controller’s port 1 is connected to Gigabit interface 3/1, and the controller’s port 2 is connected
to Gigabit interface 2/1 on the Catalyst 6500 series switch. Both switch ports are assigned to the same
channel group.
• LAG requires the EtherChannel to be configured for 'mode on' on both the controller and the Catalyst
switch.
• Once the EtherChannel is configured as on at both ends of the link, the Catalyst switch should not be
configured for either Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) or Cisco proprietary Port Aggregation
Protocol (PAgP) but be set unconditionally to LAG. Because no channel negotiation is done between
the controller and the switch, the controller does not answer to negotiation frames and the LAG is not
formed if a dynamic form of LAG is set on the switch. Additionally, LACP and PAgP are not supported
on the controller.
• If the recommended load-balancing method cannot be configured on the Catalyst switch, then configure
the LAG connection as a single member link or disable LAG on the controller.
Figure 36: Link Aggregation with the Catalyst 6500 Series Neighbor Switch
• You cannot configure the controller’s ports into separate LAG groups. Only one LAG group is supported
per controller. Therefore, you can connect a controller in LAG mode to only one neighbor device.
• When you enable LAG or make any changes to the LAG configuration, you must immediately reboot
the controller.
• When you enable LAG, you can configure only one AP-manager interface because only one logical port
is needed. LAG removes the requirement for supporting multiple AP-manager interfaces.
• When you enable LAG, all dynamic AP-manager interfaces and untagged interfaces are deleted, and all
WLANs are disabled and mapped to the management interface. Also, the management, static AP-manager,
and VLAN-tagged dynamic interfaces are moved to the LAG port.
• Multiple untagged interfaces to the same port are not allowed.
• When you enable LAG, you cannot create interfaces with a primary port other than 29.
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• When you enable LAG, all ports participate in LAG by default. You must configure LAG for all of the
connected ports in the neighbor switch.
• When you enable LAG, if any single link goes down, traffic migrates to the other links.
• When you enable LAG, only one functional physical port is needed for the controller to pass client
traffic.
• When you enable LAG, access points remain connected to the controller until you reboot the controller,
which is needed to activate the LAG mode change, and data service for users continues uninterrupted.
• When you enable LAG, you eliminate the need to configure primary and secondary ports for each
interface.
• When you enable LAG, the controller sends packets out on the same port on which it received them. If
a CAPWAP packet from an access point enters the controller on physical port 1, the controller removes
the CAPWAP wrapper, processes the packet, and forwards it to the network on physical port 1. This
may not be the case if you disable LAG.
• When you disable LAG, the management, static AP-manager, and dynamic interfaces are moved to port
1.
• When you disable LAG, you must configure primary and secondary ports for all interfaces.
• When you disable LAG, you must assign an AP-manager interface to each port on the controller.
Otherwise, access points are unable to join.
• Cisco 5500 Series Controllers support a single static link aggregation bundle.
• LAG is typically configured using the Startup Wizard, but you can enable or disable it at any time through
either the GUI or CLI.
• When you enable LAG on Cisco 2500 Series Controller to which the direct-connect access point is
associated, the direct connect access point is disconnected since LAG enabling is still in the transition
state. You must reboot the controller immediately after enabling LAG.
Enabling Link Aggregation (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Controller > General to open the General page.
Set the LAG Mode on Next Reboot parameter to Enabled.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
Step 6
Reboot the controller.
Assign the WLAN to the appropriate VLAN.
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Enabling Link Aggregation (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Enter the config lag enable command to enable LAG.
Note
Enter the config lag disable command if you want to disable
LAG.
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Step 3
Reboot the controller.
Verifying Link Aggregation Settings (CLI)
To verify your LAG settings, enter this command:
show lag summary
Information similar to the following appears:
LAG Enabled
Configuring Neighbor Devices to Support Link Aggregation
The controller’s neighbor devices must also be properly configured to support LAG.
• Each neighbor port to which the controller is connected should be configured as follows:
interface GigabitEthernet <interface id>
switchport
channel-group <id> mode on
no shutdown
• The port channel on the neighbor switch should be configured as follows:
interface port-channel <id>
switchport
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk native vlan <native vlan id>
switchport trunk allowed vlan <allowed vlans>
switchport mode trunk
no shutdown
Choosing Between Link Aggregation and Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces
Cisco 5500 Series Controllers have no restrictions on the number of access points per port, but we recommend
using LAG or multiple AP-manager interfaces on each Gigabit Ethernet port to automatically balance the
load.
The following factors should help you decide which method to use if your controller is set for Layer 3 operation:
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• With LAG, all of the controller ports need to connect to the same neighbor switch. If the neighbor switch
goes down, the controller loses connectivity.
• With multiple AP-manager interfaces, you can connect your ports to different neighbor devices. If one
of the neighbor switches goes down, the controller still has connectivity. However, using multiple
AP-manager interfaces presents certain challenges when port redundancy is a concern.
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Configuring Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces
• Information About Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces, page 327
• Restrictions for Configuring Multiple AP Manager Interfaces, page 327
• Creating Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces (GUI), page 328
• Creating Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces (CLI), page 328
Information About Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces
When you create two or more AP-manager interfaces, each one is mapped to a different port. The ports should
be configured in sequential order so that AP-manager interface 2 is on port 2, AP-manager interface 3 is on
port 3, and AP-manager interface 4 is on port 4.
Before an access point joins a controller, it sends out a discovery request. From the discovery response that
it receives, the access point can tell the number of AP-manager interfaces on the controller and the number
of access points on each AP-manager interface. The access point generally joins the AP-manager with the
least number of access points. In this way, the access point load is dynamically distributed across the multiple
AP-manager interfaces.
Note
Access points may not be distributed completely evenly across all of the AP-manager interfaces, but a
certain level of load balancing occurs.
Restrictions for Configuring Multiple AP Manager Interfaces
The following restrictions apply while configuring the multiple AP manager interfaces in the controller:
• You must assign an AP-manager interface to each port on the controller.
• Before implementing multiple AP-manager interfaces, you should consider how they would impact your
controller’s port redundancy.
• Only Cisco 5500 Series Controllers support the use of multiple AP-manager interfaces.
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• AP-manager interfaces do not need to be on the same VLAN or IP subnet, and they may or may not be
on the same VLAN or IP subnet as the management interface. However, we recommend that you configure
all AP-manager interfaces on the same VLAN or IP subnet.
• If the port of one of the AP-manager interfaces fails, the controller clears the state of the access points,
and the access points must reboot to reestablish communication with the controller using the normal
controller join process. The controller no longer includes the failed AP-manager interface in the CAPWAP
or LWAPP discovery responses. The access points then rejoin the controller and are load balanced among
the available AP-manager interfaces.
Creating Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click New.
The Interfaces > New page appears.
Step 3
Step 4
Enter an AP-manager interface name and a VLAN identifier.
Click Apply to commit your changes. The Interfaces > Edit page appears.
Step 5
Enter the appropriate interface parameters.
Note
Every interface supports primary and backup port with the following exceptions
• Dynamic interface is converted to AP manager which does not support backup of port configuration.
• If AP manager is enabled on management interface and when management interface moves to backup port
because of primary port failure, the AP manager will be disabled.
Step 6
Step 7
To make this interface an AP-manager interface, select the Enable Dynamic AP Management check box.
Note
Only one AP-manager interface is allowed per physical port. A dynamic interface that is marked as an AP-manager
interface cannot be used as a WLAN interface.
Click Save Configuration to save your settings.
Step 8
Repeat this procedure for each additional AP-manager interface that you want to create.
Creating Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces (CLI)
Step 1
Enter these commands to create a new interface:
• config interface create operator_defined_interface_name {vlan_id | x}
• config interface address operator_defined_interface_name ip_addr ip_netmask [gateway]
• config interface vlan operator_defined_interface_name {vlan_id | o}
• config interface port operator_defined_interface_name physical_ds_port_number
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• config interface dhcp operator_defined_interface_name ip_address_of_primary_dhcp_server
[ip_address_of_secondary_dhcp_server]
• config interface quarantine vlan interface_name vlan_id
Note
Use this command to configure a quarantine VLAN on any
interface.
• config interface acl operator_defined_interface_name access_control_list_name
Step 2
Step 3
To make this interface an AP-manager interface, enter this command:
{config interface ap-manager operator_defined_interface_name enable | disable}
Note
Only one AP-manager interface is allowed per physical port. A dynamic interface that is marked as an AP-manager
interface cannot be used as a WLAN interface.
Enter save config command to save your changes.
Step 4
Repeat this procedure for each additional AP-manager interface that you want to create.
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Configuring VLAN Select
• Information About VLAN Select, page 331
• Restrictions for Configuring VLAN Select, page 332
• Configuring Interface Groups, page 332
Information About VLAN Select
Whenever a wireless client connects to a wireless network (WLAN), the client is placed in a VLAN that is
associated with the WLAN. In a large venue such as an auditorium, a stadium, or a conference where there
may be numerous wireless clients, having only a single WLAN to accommodate many clients might be a
challenge.
The VLAN select feature enables you to use a single WLAN that can support multiple VLANs. Clients can
get assigned to one of the configured VLANs. This feature enables you to map a WLAN to a single or multiple
interface VLANs using interface groups. Wireless clients that associate to the WLAN get an IP address from
a pool of subnets identified by the interfaces. The IP address is derived by an algorithm based on the MAC
address of the wireless client. This feature also extends the current AP group architecture where AP groups
can override an interface or interface group to which the WLAN is mapped to, with multiple interfaces using
the interface groups. This feature also provides the solution to auto anchor restrictions where a wireless guest
user on a foreign location can get an IP address from multiple subnets based on their foreign locations or
foreign controllers from the same anchor controller.
When a client roams from one controller to another, the foreign controller sends the VLAN information as
part of the mobility announce message. Based on the VLAN information received, the anchor decides whether
the tunnel should be created between the anchor controller and the foreign controller. If the same VLAN is
available on the foreign controller, the client context is completely deleted from the anchor and the foreign
controller becomes the new anchor controller for the client.
If an interface (int-1) in a subnet is untagged in one controller (Vlan ID 0) and the interface (int-2) in the same
subnet is tagged to another controller (Vlan ID 1), then with the VLAN select, client joining the first controller
over this interface may not undergo an L2 roam while it moves to the second controller. Hence, for L2 roaming
to happen between two controllers with VLAN select, all the interfaces in the same subnet should be either
tagged or untagged.
As part of the VLAN select feature, the mobility announce message carries an additional vendor payload that
contains the list of VLAN interfaces in an interface group mapped to a foreign controller’s WLAN. This
VLAN list enables the anchor to differentiate from a local to local or local to foreign handoff.
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Restrictions for Configuring VLAN Select
• The VLAN select feature enables you to use a single WLAN that can support multiple VLANs.
Configuring Interface Groups
Information About Interface Groups
Interface groups are logical groups of interfaces. Interface groups facilitate user configuration where the same
interface group can be configured on multiple WLANs or while overriding a WLAN interface per AP group.
An interface group can exclusively contain either quarantine or nonquarantine interfaces. An interface can be
part of multiple interface groups.
A WLAN can be associated with an interface or interface group. The interface group name and the interface
name cannot be the same.
This feature also enables you to associate a client to specific subnets based on the foreign controller that they
are connected to. The anchor controller WLAN can be configured to maintain a mapping between foreign
controller MAC and a specific interface or interface group (Foreign maps) as needed. If this mapping is not
configured, clients on that foreign controller gets VLANs associated in a round robin fashion from interface
group configured on WLAN.
You can also configure AAA override for interface groups. This feature extends the current access point group
and AAA override architecture where access point groups and AAA override can be configured to override
the interface group WLAN that the interface is mapped to. This is done with multiple interfaces using interface
groups.
This feature enables network administrators to configure guest anchor restrictions where a wireless guest user
at a foreign location can obtain an IP address from multiple subnets on the foreign location and controllers
from within the same anchor controller.
Restrictions for Configuring Interface Groups
• The priority order for configuring VLAN interface select for WLAN is:
◦AAA override
◦AP group
◦DHCP server override
◦Interface group
Creating Interface Groups (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
The Interface Groups page appears with the list of interface groups already created.
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Note
To remove an interface group, hover your mouse pointer over the blue drop-down icon and choose Remove.
Step 2
Click Add Group.
The Add New Interface Group page appears.
Step 3
Enter the details of the interface group:
• Interface Group Name—Specify the name of the interface group.
• Description—Add a brief description of the interface group.
Step 4
Click Add.
Creating Interface Groups (CLI)
• config interface group {create | delete} interface_group_name—Creates or deletes an interface group
• config interface group description interface_group_name description—Adds a description to the
interface group
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
The Interface Groups page appears with a list of all interface groups.
Step 2
Click the name of the interface group to which you want to add interfaces.
The Interface Groups > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Step 4
Choose the interface name that you want to add to this interface group from the Interface Name drop-down list.
Click Add Interface to add the interface to the Interface group.
Step 5
Repeat Steps 2 and 3 if you want to add multiple interfaces to this interface group.
Note
To remove an interface from the interface group, hover your mouse pointer over the blue drop-down arrow and
choose Remove.
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI)
To add interfaces to interface groups, use the config interface group interface add interface_group
interface_name command.
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Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI)
To view a list of VLANs in the interface groups, use the show interface group detailed interface-group-name
command.
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI)
Step 1
Choose the WLAN tab.
The WLANs page appears listing the available WLANs.
Step 2
Step 3
Click the WLAN ID of the WLAN to which you want to add the interface group.
In the General tab, choose the interface group from the Interface/Interface Group (G) drop-down list.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Note
Suppose that the interface group that you add to a WLAN has RADIUS Server Overwrite interface enabled. In
this case, when a client requests for authentication, the controller selects the first IP address from the interface
group as the RADIUS server.
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI)
To add an interface group to a WLAN, enter the config wlan interface wlan_id interface_group_name
command.
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Configuring Interface Groups
• Information About Interface Groups, page 335
• Restrictions for Configuring Interface Groups, page 336
• Creating Interface Groups (GUI), page 336
• Creating Interface Groups (CLI), page 336
• Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI), page 337
• Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI), page 337
• Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI), page 337
• Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI), page 337
• Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI), page 338
Information About Interface Groups
Interface groups are logical groups of interfaces. Interface groups facilitate user configuration where the same
interface group can be configured on multiple WLANs or while overriding a WLAN interface per AP group.
An interface group can exclusively contain either quarantine or nonquarantine interfaces. An interface can be
part of multiple interface groups.
A WLAN can be associated with an interface or interface group. The interface group name and the interface
name cannot be the same.
This feature also enables you to associate a client to specific subnets based on the foreign controller that they
are connected to. The anchor controller WLAN can be configured to maintain a mapping between foreign
controller MAC and a specific interface or interface group (Foreign maps) as needed. If this mapping is not
configured, clients on that foreign controller gets VLANs associated in a round robin fashion from interface
group configured on WLAN.
You can also configure AAA override for interface groups. This feature extends the current access point group
and AAA override architecture where access point groups and AAA override can be configured to override
the interface group WLAN that the interface is mapped to. This is done with multiple interfaces using interface
groups.
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Restrictions for Configuring Interface Groups
This feature enables network administrators to configure guest anchor restrictions where a wireless guest user
at a foreign location can obtain an IP address from multiple subnets on the foreign location and controllers
from within the same anchor controller.
Restrictions for Configuring Interface Groups
• The priority order for configuring VLAN interface select for WLAN is:
◦AAA override
◦AP group
◦DHCP server override
◦Interface group
Creating Interface Groups (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
The Interface Groups page appears with the list of interface groups already created.
Note
To remove an interface group, hover your mouse pointer over the blue drop-down icon and choose Remove.
Step 2
Click Add Group.
The Add New Interface Group page appears.
Step 3
Enter the details of the interface group:
• Interface Group Name—Specify the name of the interface group.
• Description—Add a brief description of the interface group.
Step 4
Click Add.
Creating Interface Groups (CLI)
• config interface group {create | delete} interface_group_name—Creates or deletes an interface group
• config interface group description interface_group_name description—Adds a description to the
interface group
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Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
The Interface Groups page appears with a list of all interface groups.
Step 2
Click the name of the interface group to which you want to add interfaces.
The Interface Groups > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Step 4
Choose the interface name that you want to add to this interface group from the Interface Name drop-down list.
Click Add Interface to add the interface to the Interface group.
Step 5
Repeat Steps 2 and 3 if you want to add multiple interfaces to this interface group.
Note
To remove an interface from the interface group, hover your mouse pointer over the blue drop-down arrow and
choose Remove.
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI)
To add interfaces to interface groups, use the config interface group interface add interface_group
interface_name command.
Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI)
To view a list of VLANs in the interface groups, use the show interface group detailed interface-group-name
command.
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI)
Step 1
Choose the WLAN tab.
The WLANs page appears listing the available WLANs.
Step 2
Step 3
Click the WLAN ID of the WLAN to which you want to add the interface group.
In the General tab, choose the interface group from the Interface/Interface Group (G) drop-down list.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Note
Suppose that the interface group that you add to a WLAN has RADIUS Server Overwrite interface enabled. In
this case, when a client requests for authentication, the controller selects the first IP address from the interface
group as the RADIUS server.
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Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI)
To add an interface group to a WLAN, enter the config wlan interface wlan_id interface_group_name
command.
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Configuring Multicast Optimization
• Information About Multicast Optimization, page 339
• Configuring a Multicast VLAN (GUI), page 339
• Configuring a Multicast VLAN (CLI), page 340
Information About Multicast Optimization
Prior to the 7.0.116.0 release, multicast was based on the grouping of the multicast address and the VLAN as
one entity, MGID. With VLAN select and VLAN pooling, there is a possibility that you might increase
duplicate packets. With the VLAN select feature, every client listens to the multicast stream on a different
VLAN. As a result, the controller creates different MGIDs for each multicast address and VLAN. Therefore,
the upstream router sends one copy for each VLAN, which results, in the worst case, in as many copies as
there are VLANs in the pool. Since the WLAN is still the same for all clients, multiple copies of the multicast
packet are sent over the air. To suppress the duplication of a multicast stream on the wireless medium and
between the controller and access points, you can use the multicast optimization feature.
Multicast optimization enables you to create a multicast VLAN which you can use for multicast traffic. You
can configure one of the VLANs of the WLAN as a multicast VLAN where multicast groups are registered.
Clients are allowed to listen to a multicast stream on the multicast VLAN. The MGID is generated using
mulicast VLAN and multicast IP addresses. If multiple clients on the VLAN pool of the same WLAN are
listening to a single multicast IP address, a single MGID is generated. The controller makes sure that all
multicast streams from the clients on this VLAN pool always go out on the multicast VLAN to ensure that
the upstream router has one entry for all the VLANs of the VLAN pool. Only one multicast stream hits the
VLAN pool even if the clients are on different VLANs. Therefore, the multicast packets that are sent out over
the air is just one stream.
Configuring a Multicast VLAN (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose WLANs > WLAN ID. The WLAN > Edit page appears.
In the General tab, select the Multicast VLAN feature check box to enable multicast VLAN for the WLAN.
The Multicast Interface drop-down list appears.
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Step 3
Step 4
Choose the VLAN from the Multicast Interface drop-down list.
Click Apply.
Configuring a Multicast VLAN (CLI)
Use the config wlan multicast interface wlan_id enable interface_name command to configure the multicast
VLAN feature.
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Configuring VideoStream
• Configuring VideoStream, page 343
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Configuring VideoStream
• Information about VideoStream, page 343
• Prerequisites for VideoStream, page 343
• Restrictions for Configuring VideoStream, page 343
• Configuring VideoStream (GUI), page 344
• Configuring VideoStream (CLI), page 347
• Viewing and Debugging Media Streams, page 348
Information about VideoStream
The IEEE 802.11 wireless multicast delivery mechanism does not provide a reliable way to acknowledge lost
or corrupted packets. As a result, if any multicast packet is lost in the air, it is not sent again which may cause
an IP multicast stream unviewable.
The VideoStream feature makes the IP multicast stream delivery reliable over the air, by converting the
multicast frame to a unicast frame over the air. Each VideoStream client acknowledges receiving a video IP
multicast stream.
Prerequisites for VideoStream
Make sure that the multicast feature is enabled. We recommend configuring IP multicast on the controller
with multicast-multicast mode.
Check for the IP address on the client machine. The machine should have an IP address from the respective
VLAN.
Verify that the access points have joined the controllers.
Make sure that the clients are able to associate to the configured WLAN at 802.11n speed.
Restrictions for Configuring VideoStream
VideoStream is supported in the 7.0.98.0 and later controller software releases.
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VideoStream is supported on the following access points: Cisco Aironet 3600, 3500, 1260, 1250, 1240, 1140,
1130, and 1040.
Configuring VideoStream (GUI)
Step 1
Configure the multicast feature by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > MediaStream > General.
b) Select or unselect the Multicast Direct feature check box. The default value is disabled.
Note
Enabling the multicast direct feature does not automatically reset the existing client state. The wireless clients
must rejoin the multicast stream after enabling the multicast direct feature on the controller.
c) In the Session Message Config area, select Session announcement State check box to enable the session
announcement mechanism. If the session announcement state is enabled, clients are informed each time a controller
is not able to serve the multicast direct data to the client.
d) In the Session announcement URL text box, enter the URL where the client can find more information when an
error occurs during the multicast media stream transmission.
e) In the Session announcement e-mail text box, enter the e-mail address of the person who can be contacted.
f) In the Session announcement Phone text box, enter the phone number of the person who can be contacted.
g) In the Session announcement Note text box, enter a reason as to why a particular client cannot be served with a
multicast media.
h) Click Apply.
Step 2
Add a media stream by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > Media Stream > Streams to open the Media Stream page.
b) Click Add New to configure a new media stream. The Media Stream > New page appears.
Note
The Stream Name, Multicast Destination Start IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6), and Multicast Destination End IP
Address (IPv4 or IPv6) text boxes are mandatory. You must enter information in these text boxes.
c) In the Stream Name text box, enter the media stream name. The stream name can be up to 64 characters.
d) In the Multicast Destination Start IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) text box, enter the start (IPv4 or IPv6) address of
the multicast media stream.
e) In the Multicast Destination End IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) text box, enter the end (IPv4 or IPv6) address of the
multicast media stream.
Note
Ensure that the Multicast Destination Start and End IP addresses are of the same type, that is both addresses
should be of either IPv4 or IPv6 type.
f) In the Maximum Expected Bandwidth text box, enter the maximum expected bandwidth that you want to assign
to the media stream. The values can range between 1 to 35000 kbps.
Note
We recommend that you use a template to add a media stream to the controller.
g) From the Select from Predefined Templates drop-down list under Resource Reservation Control (RRC) Parameters,
choose one of the following options to specify the details about the resource reservation control:
• Very Coarse (below 300 kbps)
• Coarse (below 500 kbps)
• Ordinary (below 750 kbps)
• Low (below 1 Mbps)
• Medium (below 3 Mbps)
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• High (below 5 Mbps)
Note
When you select a predefined template from the drop-down list, the following text boxes under the
Resource Reservation Control (RRC) Parameters list their default values that are assigned with the
template.
• Average Packet Size (100-1500 bytes)—Specifies the average packet size. The value can be in the range of 100
to 1500 bytes. The default value is 1200.
• RRC Periodic update—Enables the RRC (Resource Reservation Control Check) Periodic update. By default,
this option is enabled. RRC periodically updates the admission decision on the admitted stream according to
the correct channel load. As a result, it may deny certain low priority admitted stream requests.
• RRC Priority (1-8)—Specifies the priority bit set in the media stream. The priority can be any number between
1 and 8. The larger the value means the higher the priority is. For example, a priority of 1 is the lowest value
and a value of 8 is the highest value. The default priority is 4. The low priority stream may be denied in the
RRC periodic update.
• Traffic Profile Violation—Specifies the action to perform in case of a violation after a re-RRC. Choose an
action from the drop-down list. The possible values are as follows:
Drop—Specifies that a stream is dropped on periodic revaluation.
Fallback—Specifies that a stream is demoted to Best Effort class on periodic reevaluation.
The default value is drop.
h) Click Apply.
Step 3
Enable the media stream for multicast-direct by following these steps:
a) Choose WLANs > WLAN ID to open the WLANs > Edit page.
b) Click the QoS tab and select Gold (Video) from the Quality of Service (QoS) drop-down list.
c) Click Apply.
Step 4
Set the EDCA parameters to voice and video optimized (optional) by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > EDCA Parameters.
b) From the EDCA Profile drop-down list, choose the Voice and Video Optimized option.
c) Click Apply.
Step 5
Enable the admission control on a band for video (optional) by following these steps:
Note
Keep the voice bandwidth allocation to a minimum for better
performance.
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Media to open the 802.11a/n (5 GHZ) or 802.11b/g/n > Media page.
b) Click the Video tab.
c) Select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable bandwidth-based CAC for this radio band. The default
value is disabled.
d) Click Apply.
Step 6
Configure the video bandwidth by following these steps:
Note
The template bandwidth that is configured for a media stream should be more than the bandwidth for the source
media stream.
Note
The voice configuration is optional. Keep the voice bandwidth allocation to a minimum for better performance.
a) Disable all WMM WLANs.
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b) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Media to open the 802.11a/n (5 GHZ) or 802.11b/g/n > Media page.
c) Click the Video tab.
d) Select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable the video CAC for this radio band. The default value is
disabled.
e) In the Max RF Bandwidth field, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for video
applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new requests on
this radio band.
f) The range is 5 to 85%.
g) The default value is 9%.
h) Click Apply.
i) Reenable all WMM WLANs and click Apply.
Step 7
Configure the media bandwidth by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Media to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media > Parameters page.
b) Click the Media tab to open the Media page.
c) Select the Unicast Video Redirect check box to enable Unicast Video Redirect. The default value is disabled.
d) In the Maximum Media Bandwidth (0-85%) text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth to be
allocated for media applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches a specified value, the access point rejects
new calls on this radio band.
e) The default value is 85%; valid values are from 0% to 85%.
f) In the Client Minimum Phy Rate text box, enter the minimum transmission data rate to the client. If the transmission
data rate is below the phy rate, either the video will not start or the client may be classified as a bad client. The bad
client video can be demoted for better effort QoS or subject to denial.
g) In the Maximum Retry Percent (0-100%) text box, enter the percentage of maximum retries that are allowed. The
default value is 80. If it exceeds 80, either the video will not start or the client might be classified as a bad client. The
bad client video can be demoted for better effort QoS or subject to denial.
h) Select the Multicast Direct Enable check box to enable the Multicast Direct Enable field. The default value is
enabled.
i) From the Max Streams per Radio drop-down list, choose the maximum number of streams allowed per radio from
the range 0 to 20. The default value is set to No-limit. If you choose No-limit, there is no limit set for the number of
client subscriptions.
j) From the Max Streams per Client drop-down list, choose the maximum number of streams allowed per client from
the range 0 to 20. The default value is set to No-limit. If you choose No-limit, there is no limit set for the number of
client subscriptions.
k) Select the Best Effort QoS Admission check box to enable best-effort QoS admission.
l) Click Apply.
Step 8
Enable a WLAN by following these steps:
a) Choose WLANS > WLAN ID. The WLANs > Edit page appears.
b) Select the Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 9
Enable the 802.11 a/n or 802.11 b/g/n network by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network.
b) Select the 802.11a or 802.11b/g Network Status check box to enable the network status.
c) Click Apply.
Step 10
Verify that the clients are associated with the multicast groups and group IDs by following these steps:
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a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Choose Monitor > Clients. The Clients page appears.
Check if the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n network clients have the associated access points.
Choose Monitor > Multicast. The Multicast Groups page appears.
Select the MGID check box for the VideoStream to the clients.
Click MGID. The Multicast Group Detail page appears. Check the Multicast Status details.
Configuring VideoStream (CLI)
Step 1
Configure the multicast-direct feature on WLANs media stream by entering this command:
config wlan media-stream multicast-direct {wlan_id | all} {enable | disable}
Step 2
Enable or disable the multicast feature by entering this command:
config media-stream multicast-direct {enable | disable}
Step 3
Configure various message configuration parameters by entering this command:
config media-stream message {state [enable | disable] | url url | email email | phone phone _number | note note}
Step 4
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 5
Configure various global media-stream configurations by entering this command:
config media-stream add multicast-direct stream-name media_stream_name start_IP end_IP [template {very-coarse
| coarse | ordinary | low-resolution | med-resolution | high-resolution} | detail {Max_bandwidth bandwidth | packet
size packet_size | Re-evaluation re-evaluation {periodic | initial}} video video priority {drop | fallback}
• The Resource Reservation Control (RRC) parameters are assigned with the predefined values based on the values
assigned to the template.
• The following templates are used to assign RRC parameters to the media stream:
◦Very Coarse (below 3000 kbps)
◦Coarse (below 500 kbps)
◦Ordinary (below 750 kbps)
◦Low Resolution (below 1 mbps)
◦Medium Resolution (below 3 mbps)
◦High Resolution (below 5 mbps)
Step 6
Delete a media stream by entering this command:
config media-stream delete media_stream_name
Step 7
Enable a specific enhanced distributed channel access (EDC) profile by entering this command:
config advanced{ 801.11a | 802.11b} edca-parameters optimized-video-voice
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Step 8
Enable the admission control on the desired bandwidth by entering the following commands:
• Enable bandwidth-based voice CAC for 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice acm enable
• Set the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for voice applications on the 802.11a or 802.11b/g
network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice max-bandwidth bandwidth
• Configure the percentage of the maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming voice clients on the 802.11a
or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice roam-bandwidth bandwidth
Note
Step 9
For TSpec and SIP based CAC for video calls, only Static method is supported.
Set the maximum number of streams per radio and/or per client by entering these commands:
• Set the maximum limit to the number multicast streams per radio by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} media-stream multicast-direct radio-maximum [value | no-limit]
• Set the maximum number of multicast streams per client by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} media-stream multicast-direct client-maximum [value | no-limit]
Step 10
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Viewing and Debugging Media Streams
• See the configured media streams by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
• See the details of the media stream name by entering this command:
show 802.11{a | b | h} media-stream media-stream_name
• See the clients for a media stream by entering this command:
show 802.11a media-stream client media-stream-name
• See a summary of the media stream and client information by entering this command:
show media-stream group summary
• See details about a particular media stream group by entering this command:
show media-stream group detail media_stream_name
• See details of the 802.11a or 802.11b media resource reservation configuration by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} media-stream rrc
• Enable debugging of the media stream history by entering this command:
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debug media-stream history {enable | disable}
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IV
Configuring Security Solutions
• Cisco Unified Wireless Network Solution Security, page 353
• Configuring RADIUS, page 355
• Configuring TACACS+, page 377
• Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries, page 387
• Configuring Local Network Users on the Controller, page 389
• Configuring Password Policies, page 393
• Configuring LDAP, page 397
• Configuring Local EAP, page 403
• Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink Telephones, page 413
• Configuring RADIUS NAC Support, page 417
• Using Management Over Wireless, page 421
• Using Dynamic Interfaces for Management, page 423
• Configuring DHCP Option 82, page 425
• Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists, page 429
• Configuring Management Frame Protection, page 437
• Configuring Client Exclusion Policies, page 443
• Configuring Identity Networking, page 447
• Configuring AAA Override, page 453
• Managing Rogue Devices, page 457
• Classifying Rogue Access Points, page 465
• Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP, page 479
• Configuring Cisco Intrusion Detection System, page 485
• Configuring IDS Signatures, page 491
• Configuring wIPS, page 501
• Configuring the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy, page 511
• Configuring Web Auth Proxy, page 513
• Detecting Active Exploits, page 517
CHAPTER
40
Cisco Unified Wireless Network Solution
Security
• Security Overview, page 353
• Layer 1 Solutions, page 353
• Layer 2 Solutions, page 353
• Layer 3 Solutions, page 354
• Integrated Security Solutions, page 354
Security Overview
The Cisco Unified Wireless Network (UWN) security solution bundles potentially complicated Layer 1,
Layer 2, and Layer 3 802.11 Access Point security components into a simple policy manager that customizes
system-wide security policies on a per-WLAN basis. The Cisco UWN security solution provides simple,
unified, and systematic security management tools.
One of the biggest hurdles to WLAN deployment in the enterprise is WEP encryption, which is a weak
standalone encryption method. A newer problem is the availability of low-cost access points, which can be
connected to the enterprise network and used to mount man-in-the-middle and denial-of-service attacks.
Layer 1 Solutions
The Cisco UWN security solution ensures that all clients gain access within a user-set number of attempts. If
a client fails to gain access within that limit, it is automatically excluded (blocked from access) until the
user-set timer expires. The operating system can also disable SSID broadcasts on a per-WLAN basis.
Layer 2 Solutions
If a higher level of security and encryption is required, you can also implement industry-standard security
solutions such as Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and WPA2. The
Cisco UWN solution WPA implementation includes AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), TKIP and Michael
(temporal key integrity protocol and message integrity code checksum) dynamic keys, or WEP (Wired
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Equivalent Privacy) static keys. Disabling is also used to automatically block Layer 2 access after a user-set
number of failed authentication attempts.
Regardless of the wireless security solution selected, all Layer 2 wired communications between controllers
and lightweight access points are secured by passing data through CAPWAP tunnels.
Restrictions for Layer 2 Solutions
Cisco Aironet client adapter version 4.2 does not authenticate if WPA/WPA2 is used with CCKM as auth key
management and a 2 second latency between the controller and AP.
Layer 3 Solutions
The WEP problem can be further solved using industry-standard Layer 3 security solutions such as passthrough
VPNs (virtual private networks).
The Cisco UWN solution supports local and RADIUS MAC (media access control) filtering. This filtering
is best suited to smaller client groups with a known list of 802.11 access card MAC addresses.
The Cisco UWN solution supports local and RADIUS user/password authentication. This authentication is
best suited to small to medium client groups.
Integrated Security Solutions
The integrated security solutions are as follows:
• Cisco Unified Wireless Network (UWN) solution operating system security is built around a 802.1X
AAA (authorization, authentication and accounting) engine, which allows users to rapidly configure
and enforce a variety of security policies across the Cisco UWN solution.
• The controllers and lightweight access points are equipped with system-wide authentication and
authorization protocols across all ports and interfaces, maximizing system security.
• Operating system security policies are assigned to individual WLANs, and lightweight access points
simultaneously broadcast all (up to 16) configured WLANs, which can eliminate the need for additional
access points, which can increase interference and degrade system throughput.
• Operating system security uses the RRM function to continually monitor the air space for interference
and security breaches and to notify the user when they are detected.
• Operating system security works with industry-standard authorization, authentication, and accounting
(AAA) servers.
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Configuring RADIUS
• Information About RADIUS, page 355
• Configuring RADIUS on the ACS, page 357
• Configuring RADIUS (GUI), page 358
• Configuring RADIUS (CLI), page 362
• RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller, page 365
• Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace), page 368
• RADIUS Accounting Attributes, page 373
Information About RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a client/server protocol that provides centralized
security for users attempting to gain management access to a network. It serves as a backend database similar
to local and TACACS+ and provides authentication and accounting services:
• Authentication—The process of verifying users when they attempt to log into the controller.
Users must enter a valid username and password in order for the controller to authenticate users to the
RADIUS server. If multiple databases are configured, you can specify the sequence in which the backend
database must be tired.
• Accounting—The process of recording user actions and changes.
Whenever a user successfully executes an action, the RADIUS accounting server logs the changed
attributes, the user ID of the person who made the change, the remote host where the user is logged in,
the date and time when the command was executed, the authorization level of the user, and a description
of the action performed and the values provided. If the RADIUS accounting server becomes unreachable,
users are able to continue their sessions uninterrupted.
RADIUS uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for its transport. It maintains a database and listens on UDP
port 1812 for incoming authentication requests and UDP port 1813 for incoming accounting requests. The
controller, which requires access control, acts as the client and requests AAA services from the server. The
traffic between the controller and the server is encrypted by an algorithm defined in the protocol and a shared
secret key configured on both devices.
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You can configure multiple RADIUS accounting and authentication servers. For example, you may want to
have one central RADIUS authentication server but several RADIUS accounting servers in different regions.
If you configure multiple servers of the same type and the first one fails or becomes unreachable, the controller
automatically tries the second one, then the third one if necessary, and so on.
When a management user is authenticated using a RADIUS server, only the PAP protocol is used. For web
authentication users, PAP, MSCHAPv2 and MD5 security mechanisms are supported.
RADIUS Server Support
• You can configure up to 17 RADIUS authentication and accounting servers each.
• If multiple RADIUS servers are configured for redundancy, the user database must be identical in all
the servers for the backup to work properly.
• One Time Passwords (OTPs) are supported on the controller using RADIUS. In this configuration, the
controller acts as a transparent passthrough device. The controller forwards all client requests to the
RADIUS server without inspecting the client behavior. When using OTP, the client must establish a
single connection to the controller to function properly. The controller currently does not have any
intelligence or checks to correct a client that is trying to establish multiple connections.
• To create a read-only controller user on the RADIUS sever, you must set the service type to NAS prompt
instead of Callback NAS prompt. If you set the service type to Callback NAS Prompt, the user
authentication fails while setting it to NAS prompt gives the user read-only access to the controller.
Also, the Callback Administrative service type gives the user the lobby ambassador privileges to the
controller.
Radius ACS Support
• You must configure RADIUS on both your CiscoSecure Access Control Server (ACS) and your controller.
• RADIUS is supported on CiscoSecure ACS version 3.2 and later releases. See the CiscoSecure ACS
documentation for the version that you are running.
Primary and Fallback RADIUS Servers
The primary RADIUS server (the server with the lowest server index) is assumed to be the most preferable
server for the controller. If the primary server becomes unresponsive, the controller switches to the next active
backup server (the server with the next lowest server index). The controller continues to use this backup server,
unless you configure the controller to fall back to the primary RADIUS server when it recovers and becomes
responsive or to a more preferable server from the available backup servers.
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Configuring RADIUS on the ACS
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Network Configuration on the ACS main page.
Choose Add Entry under AAA Clients to add your controller to the server. The Add AAA Client page appears.
Figure 37: Add AAA Client Page on CiscoSecure ACS
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
In the AAA Client Hostname text box, enter the name of your controller.
In the AAA Client IP Address text box, enter the IP address of your controller.
In the Shared Secret text box, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication between the server and the
controller.
Note
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the
controller.
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Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
Step 17
Step 18
Step 19
Step 20
From the Authenticate Using drop-down list, choose RADIUS (Cisco Airespace).
Click Submit + Apply to save your changes.
Choose Interface Configuration on the ACS main page.
Choose RADIUS (Cisco Aironet). The RADIUS (Cisco Aironet) page appears.
Under User Group, select the Cisco-Aironet-Session-Timeout check box.
Click Submit to save your changes.
On the ACS main page, from the left navigation pane, choose System Configuration.
Choose Logging.
When the Logging Configuration page appears, enable all of the events that you want to be logged and save your changes.
On the ACS main page, from the left navigation pane, choose Group Setup.
Choose a previously created group from the Group drop-down list.
Note
This step assumes that you have already assigned users to groups on the ACS according to the roles to which
they will be assigned.
Click Edit Settings. The Group Setup page appears.
Under Cisco Aironet Attributes, select the Cisco-Aironet-Session-Timeout check box and enter a session timeout
value in the edit box.
Specify read-only or read-write access to controllers through RADIUS authentication, by setting the Service-Type
attribute (006) to Callback NAS Prompt for read-only access or to Administrative for read-write privileges. If you do
not set this attribute, the authentication process completes successfully (without an authorization error on the controller),
but you might be prompted to authenticate again.
Note
If you set the Service-Type attribute on the ACS, make sure to select the Management check box on the RADIUS
Authentication Servers page of the controller GUI.
Click Submit to save your changes.
Configuring RADIUS (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Security > AAA > RADIUS.
Perform one of the following:
• If you want to configure a RADIUS server for authentication, choose Authentication.
• If you want to configure a RADIUS server for accounting, choose Accounting.
The pages used to configure authentication and accounting contain mostly the same text boxes. Therefore, these
instructions walk through the configuration only once, using the Authentication pages as examples. You would
follow the same steps to configure multiple services and/or multiple servers.
The RADIUS Authentication (or Accounting) Servers page appears.
This page lists any RADIUS servers that have already been configured.
Note
• If you want to delete an existing server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server and choose
Remove.
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• If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow for that server and choose Ping.
Step 3
From the Call Station ID Type drop-down list, choose the option that is sent to the RADIUS server in the Access-Request
message. The following options are available:
• IP Address
• System MAC Address
• AP MAC Address
• AP MAC Address:SSID
• AP Name:SSID
• AP Name
• AP Group
• Flex Group
• AP Location
• VLAN ID
The AP Name:SSID, AP Name, AP Group, Flex Group, AP Location, and VLAN ID options are added in the
7.4 release.
Enable RADIUS-to-controller key transport using AES key wrap protection by selecting the Use AES Key Wrap check
box. The default value is unselected. This feature is required for FIPS customers.
Click Apply. Perform one of the following:
Note
Step 4
Step 5
• To edit an existing RADIUS server, click the server index number for that server. The RADIUS Authentication
(or Accounting) Servers > Edit page appears.
• To add a RADIUS server, click New. The RADIUS Authentication (or Accounting) Servers > New page appears.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list to specify the priority
order of this server in relation to any other configured RADIUS servers providing the same service.
If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the RADIUS server in the Server IP Address text box.
Note
Auto IPv6 is not supported on RADIUS server. The RADIUS server must not be configured with Auto IPv6
address. Use fixed IPv6 address instead.
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared secret key
to be used between the controller and the RADIUS server. The default value is ASCII.
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication
between the controller and the server.
Note
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.
If you are configuring a new RADIUS authentication server and want to enable AES key wrap, which makes the shared
secret between the controller and the RADIUS server more secure, follow these steps:
Note
AES key wrap is designed for Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) customers and requires a
key-wrap compliant RADIUS authentication server.
a) Select the Key Wrap check box.
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b) From the Key Wrap Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or HEX to specify the format of the AES key wrap
keys: Key Encryption Key (KEK) and Message Authentication Code Key (MACK).
c) In the Key Encryption Key (KEK) text box, enter the 16-byte KEK.
d) In the Message Authentication Code Key (MACK) text box, enter the 20-byte KEK.
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
If you are adding a new server, enter the RADIUS server’s UDP port number for the interface protocols in the Port
Number text box. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 1812 for authentication and 1813 for accounting.
From the Server Status text box, choose Enabled to enable this RADIUS server or choose Disabled to disable it. The
default value is enabled.
If you are configuring a new RADIUS authentication server, choose Enabled from the Support for RFC 3576 drop-down
list to enable RFC 3576, which is an extension to the RADIUS protocol that allows dynamic changes to a user session,
or choose Disabled to disable this feature. The default value is Enabled. RFC 3576 includes support for disconnecting
users and changing authorizations applicable to a user session and supports disconnect and change-of-authorization
(CoA) messages. Disconnect messages cause a user session to be terminated immediately where CoA messages modify
session authorization attributes such as data filters.
In the Server Timeout text box, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 2 to 30 seconds,
and the default value is 2 seconds.
Select the Key Wrap check box.
Note
Step 15
Step 16
Step 17
Step 18
We recommend that you increase the timeout value if you experience repeated reauthentication attempts or the
controller falls back to the backup server when the primary server is active and reachable.
Select the Network User check box to enable network user authentication (or accounting), or unselect it to disable this
feature. The default value is selected. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication (or
accounting) server for network users. If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable
this option for network users.
If you are configuring a RADIUS authentication server, select the Management check box to enable management
authentication, or unselect it to disable this feature. The default value is selected. If you enable this feature, this entry is
considered the RADIUS authentication server for management users, and authentication requests go to the RADIUS
server.
Select the IPSec check box to enable the IP security mechanism, or unselect it to disable this feature. The default value
is unselected.
If you enabled IPsec in Step 17, follow these steps to configure additional IPsec parameters:
a) From the IPSec drop-down list, choose one of the following options as the authentication protocol to be used for IP
security: HMAC MD5 or HMAC SHA1. The default value is HMAC SHA1.
A message authentication code (MAC) is used between two parties that share a secret key to validate information
transmitted between them. HMAC (Hash MAC) is based on cryptographic hash functions. It can be used in combination
with any iterated cryptographic hash function. HMAC MD5 and HMAC SHA1 are two constructs of the HMAC
using the MD5 hash function and the SHA1 hash function. HMAC also uses a secret key for calculation and verification
of the message authentication values.
b) From the IPSec Encryption drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the IP security encryption
mechanism:
• DES—Data Encryption Standard that is a method of data encryption using a private (secret) key. DES applies
a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
• 3DES—Data Encryption Standard that applies three keys in succession. This is the default value.
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• AES CBC—Advanced Encryption Standard that uses keys with a length of 128, 192, or 256 bits to encrypt
data blocks with a length of 128, 192, or 256 bits. AES 128 CBC uses a 128-bit data path in Cipher Block
Chaining (CBC) mode.
• 256-AES—Advanced Encryption Standard that uses keys with a length of 256 bits.
c) From the IKE Phase 1 drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the Internet Key Exchange
(IKE) protocol: Aggressive or Main. The default value is Aggressive.
IKE Phase 1 is used to negotiate how IKE should be protected. Aggressive mode passes more information in fewer
packets with the benefit of slightly faster connection establishment at the cost of transmitting the identities of the
security gateways in the clear.
d) In the Lifetime text box, enter a value (in seconds) to specify the timeout interval for the session. The valid range is
1800 to 57600 seconds, and the default value is 1800 seconds.
e) From the IKE Diffie Hellman Group drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the IKE Diffie
Hellman group: Group 1 (768 bits), Group 2 (1024 bits), or Group 5 (1536 bits). The default value is Group 1
(768 bits).
Diffie-Hellman techniques are used by two devices to generate a symmetric key through which they can publicly
exchange values and generate the same symmetric key. Although all three groups provide security from conventional
attacks, Group 5 is considered more secure because of its larger key size. However, computations involving Group
1 and Group 2 based keys might occur slightly faster because of their smaller prime number size.
If the shared secret for IPSec is not configured, the default radius shared secret is used. If the authentication
method is PSK, WLANCC should be enabled to use the IPSec shared secret, default value is used otherwise.
You can view the status for the WLANCC and UCAPL prerequisite modes in Controller > Inventory.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Repeat the previous steps if you want to configure any additional services on the same server or any additional RADIUS
servers.
Specify the RADIUS server fallback behavior, as follows:
a) Choose Security > AAA > RADIUS > Fallback to open the RADIUS > Fallback Parameters to open the fallback
parameters page.
b) From the Fallback Mode drop-down list, choose one of the following options:
Note
Step 19
Step 20
Step 21
Step 22
• Off—Disables RADIUS server fallback. This is the default value.
• Passive—Causes the controller to revert to a server with a lower priority from the available backup servers
without using extraneous probe messages. The controller ignores all inactive servers for a time period and retries
later when a RADIUS message needs to be sent.
• Active—Causes the controller to revert to a server with a lower priority from the available backup servers by
using RADIUS probe messages to proactively determine whether a server that has been marked inactive is back
online. The controller ignores all inactive servers for all active RADIUS requests. Once the primary server
receives a response from the recovered ACS server, the active fallback RADIUS server no longer sends probe
messages to the server requesting the active probe authentication.
c) If you enabled Active fallback mode in Step b, enter the name to be sent in the inactive server probes in the Username
text box. You can enter up to 16 alphanumeric characters. The default value is “cisco-probe.”
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d) If you enabled Active fallback mode in Step b, enter the probe interval value (in seconds) in the Interval in Sec text
box. The interval serves as inactive time in passive mode and probe interval in active mode. The valid range is 180
to 3600 seconds, and the default value is 300 seconds.
Step 23
Step 24
Step 25
Step 26
Specify the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by choosing Security > Priority Order >
Management User. The Priority Order > Management User page appears.
In the Order Used for Authentication text box, specify which servers have priority when the controller attempts to
authenticate management users. Use the > and < buttons to move servers between the Not Used and Order Used for
Authentication text boxes. After the desired servers appear in the Order Used for Authentication text box, use the Up
and Down buttons to move the priority server to the top of the list.
By default, the local database is always queried first. If the username is not found, the controller switches to the RADIUS
server if configured for RADIUS or to the TACACS+ server if configured for TACACS+. The default setting is local
and then RADIUS.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
• Specify whether the IP address, system MAC address, AP MAC address, AP Ethernet MAC address of
the originator will be sent to the RADIUS server in the Access-Request message by entering this
command:
config radius callStationIdType {ipaddr | macaddr | ap-macaddr-only | ap-macaddr-ssid | | |
ap-group-name | ap-location | ap-name | ap-name-ssid | flex-group-name | vlan-id}
Note
Caution
The default is System MAC Address.
Do not use Call Station ID Type for IPv6-only clients.
• Specify the delimiter to be used in the MAC addresses that are sent to the RADIUS authentication or
accounting server in Access-Request messages by entering this command:
config radius {auth | acct} mac-delimiter {colon | hyphen | single-hyphen | none}
where
• colon sets the delimiter to a colon (the format is xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx).
• hyphen sets the delimiter to a hyphen (the format is xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx). This is the default value.
• single-hyphen sets the delimiter to a single hyphen (the format is xxxxxx-xxxxxx).
• none disables delimiters (the format is xxxxxxxxxxxx).
• Configure a RADIUS authentication server by entering these commands:
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• config radius auth add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth keywrap {enable | disable}—Enables AES key wrap, which makes the shared
secret between the controller and the RADIUS server more secure. AES key wrap is designed for
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) customers and requires a key-wrap compliant
RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth keywrap add {ascii | hex} kek mack index—Configures the AES key wrap
attributes
where
◦kek specifies the 16-byte Key Encryption Key (KEK).
◦mack specifies the 20-byte Message Authentication Code Key (MACK).
◦index specifies the index of the RADIUS authentication server on which to configure the
AES key wrap.
• config radius auth rfc3576 {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables RFC 3576, which is
an extension to the RADIUS protocol that allows dynamic changes to a user session. RFC 3576
includes support for disconnecting users and changing authorizations applicable to a user session
and supports disconnect and change-of-authorization (CoA) messages. Disconnect messages cause
a user session to be terminated immediately where CoA messages modify session authorization
attributes such as data filters.
• config radius auth retransmit-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout
value for a RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth network index {enable | disable}—Enables or disables network user
authentication. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication server
for network users. If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable
this option for network users.
• config radius auth management index {enable | disable}—Enables or disables management
authentication. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication server
for management users, and authentication requests go to the RADIUS server.
• config radius auth ipsec {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables the IP security mechanism.
• config radius auth ipsec authentication {hmac-md5 | hmac-sha1} index—Configures the
authentication protocol to be used for IP security.
• config radius auth ipsec encryption {3des | aes | des | none} index—Configures the IP security
encryption mechanism.
• config radius auth ipsec ike dh-group {group-1 | group-2 | group-5} index—Configures the
IKE Diffie-Hellman group.
• config radius auth ipsec ike lifetime interval index—Configures the timeout interval for the
session.
• config radius auth ipsec ike phase1{aggressive | main} index—Configures the Internet Key
Exchange (IKE) protocol.
• config radius auth {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth delete index—Deletes a previously added RADIUS authentication server.
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• Configure a RADIUS accounting server by entering these commands:
• config radius acct add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius acct server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius acct network index {enable | disable}—Enables or disables network user accounting.
If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS accounting server for network
users. If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable this option
for network users.
• config radius acct ipsec {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables the IP security mechanism.
• config radius acct ipsec authentication {hmac-md5 | hmac-sha1} index—Configures the
authentication protocol to be used for IP security.
• config radius acct ipsec encryption {3des | aes | des | none} index—Configures the IP security
encryption mechanism.
• config radius acct ipsec ike dh-group {group-1 | group-2 | group-5} index—Configures the IKE
Diffie Hellman group.
• config radius acct ipsec ike lifetime interval index—Configures the timeout interval for the
session.
• config radius acct ipsec ike phase1{aggressive | main} index—Configures the Internet Key
Exchange (IKE) protocol.
• config radius acct {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius acct delete index—Deletes a previously added RADIUS accounting server.
• Configure the RADIUS server fallback behavior by entering this command:
config radius fallback-test mode {off | passive | active}
where
• off disables RADIUS server fallback.
• passive causes the controller to revert to a server with a lower priority from the available backup
servers without using extraneous probe messages. The controller simply ignores all inactive servers
for a time period and retries later when a RADIUS message needs to be sent.
• active causes the controller to revert to a server with a lower priority from the available backup
servers by using RADIUS probe messages to proactively determine whether a server that has been
marked inactive is back online. The controller simply ignores all inactive servers for all active
RADIUS requests. Once the primary server receives a response from the recovered ACS server,
the active fallback RADIUS server no longer sends probe messages to the server requesting the
active probe authentication.
• If you enabled Active mode in Step 5, enter these commands to configure additional fallback parameters:
• config radius fallback-test username username—Specifies the name to be sent in the inactive
server probes. You can enter up to 16 alphanumeric characters for the username parameter.
• config radius fallback-test interval interval—Specifies the probe interval value (in seconds).
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• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
• Configure the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by entering this command:
config aaa auth mgmt AAA_server_type AAA_server_type
where AAA_server_type is local, radius, or tacacs.
To see the current management authentication server order, enter the show aaa auth command.
• See RADIUS statistics by entering these commands:
• show radius summary—Shows a summary of RADIUS servers and statistics with AP Ethernet
MAC configurations.
• show radius auth statistics—Shows the RADIUS authentication server statistics.
• show radius acct statistics—Shows the RADIUS accounting server statistics.
• show radius rfc3576 statistics—Shows a summary of the RADIUS RFC-3576 server.
• See active security associations by entering these commands:
• show ike {brief | detailed} ip_or_mac_addr—Shows a brief or detailed summary of active IKE
security associations.
• show ipsec {brief | detailed} ip_or_mac_addr—Shows a brief or detailed summary of active
IPSec security associations.
• Clear the statistics for one or more RADIUS servers by entering this command:
clear stats radius {auth | acct} {index | all}
• Make sure that the controller can reach the RADIUS server by entering this command:
ping server_ip_address
RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller
The following tables identify the RADIUS authentication attributes sent between the controller and the
RADIUS server in access-request and access-accept packets.
Table 8: Authentication Attributes Sent in Access-Request Packets
Attribute ID
Description
1
User-Name
2
Password
3
CHAP-Password
4
NAS-IP-Address
5
NAS-Port
6
Service-Type4
12
Framed-MTU
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Attribute ID
Description
30
Called-Station-ID (MAC address)
31
Calling-Station-ID (MAC address)
32
NAS-Identifier
33
Proxy-State
60
CHAP-Challenge
61
NAS-Port-Type
79
EAP-Message
243
TPLUS-Role
4 To specify read-only or read-write access to controllers through RADIUS authentication, you must set the Service-Type attribute (6) on the RADIUS server
to Callback NAS Prompt for read-only access or to Administrative for read-write privileges.
Table 9: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Cisco)
Note
Attribute ID
Description
1
Cisco-LEAP-Session-Key
2
Cisco-Keywrap-Msg-Auth-Code
3
Cisco-Keywrap-NonCE
4
Cisco-Keywrap-Key
5
Cisco-URL-Redirect
6
Cisco-URL-Redirect-ACL
These Cisco-specific attributes are not supported: Auth-Algo-Type and SSID.
Table 10: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Standard)
Attribute ID
Description
6
Service-Type. To specify read-only or read-write access to controllers
through RADIUS authentication, you must set the Service-Type attribute
(6) on the RADIUS server to Callback NAS Prompt for read-only access
or to Administrative for read-write privileges.
8
Framed-IP-Address
25
Class
26
Vendor-Specific
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Note
27
Timeout
29
Termination-Action
40
Acct-Status-Type
64
Tunnel-Type
79
EAP-Message
81
Tunnel-Group-ID
Message authentication is not supported.
Table 11: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Microsoft)
Attribute ID
Description
11
MS-CHAP-Challenge
16
MS-MPPE-Send-Key
17
MS-MPPE-Receive-Key
25
MS-MSCHAP2-Response
26
MS-MSCHAP2-Success
Table 12: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
Attribute ID
Description
1
VAP-ID
3
DSCP
4
8021P-Type
5
VLAN-Interface-Name
6
ACL-Name
7
Data-Bandwidth-Average-Contract
8
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Average-Contract
9
Data-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract
10
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract
11
Guest-Role-Name
13
Data-Bandwidth-Average-Contract-US
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Attribute ID
Description
14
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Average-Contract-US
15
Data-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract-US
16
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract-US
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
This section lists the RADIUS authentication Airespace attributes currently supported on the Cisco WLC.
VAP ID
This attribute indicates the WLAN ID of the WLAN to which the client should belong. When the WLAN-ID
attribute is present in the RADIUS Access Accept, the system applies the WLAN-ID (SSID) to the client
station after it authenticates. The WLAN ID is sent by the Cisco WLC in all instances of authentication except
IPsec. In case of web authentication, if the Cisco WLC receives a WLAN-ID attribute in the authentication
response from the AAA server, and it does not match the ID of the WLAN, authentication is rejected. The
DotIX/ Mac filtering is also rejected. The rejection, based on the response from the AAA server, is because
of the SSID Cisco AVPair support. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
WLAN ID (VALUE)
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 1
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – ID of the WLAN to which the client should belong.
QoS-Level
This attribute indicates the QoS level to be applied to the mobile client's traffic within the switching fabric,
as well as over the air. This example shows a summary of the QoS-Level Attribute format. The fields are
transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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|
QoS Level
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 2
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – Three octets:
◦3 – Bronze (Background)
◦0 – Silver (Best Effort)
◦1 – Gold (Video)
◦2 – Platinum (Voice)
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
DSCP is a packet header code that can be used to provide differentiated services based on the QoS levels.
This attribute defines the DSCP value to be applied to a client. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept,
the DSCP value overrides the DSCP value specified in the WLAN profile. The fields are transmitted from
left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
DSCP (VALUE)
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 3
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – DSCP value to be applied for the client.
802.1p Tag Type
802.1p VLAN tag received from the client, defining the access priority. This tag maps to the QoS Level for
client-to-network packets. This attribute defines the 802.1p priority to be applied to the client. When present
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in a RADIUS Access Accept, the 802.1p value overrides the default specified in the WLAN profile. The fields
are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
802.1p (VALUE)
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 4
• Vendor length – 3
• Value – 802.1p priority to be applied to a client.
VLAN Interface Name
This attribute indicates the VLAN interface a client is to be associated to. A summary of the Interface-Name
Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Interface Name...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – >7
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 5
• Vendor length – >0
• Value – A string that includes the name of the interface the client is to be assigned to.
Note
This attribute only works when MAC filtering is enabled or if 802.1X or WPA is used
as the security policy.
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ACL-Name
This attribute indicates the ACL name to be applied to the client. A summary of the ACL-Name Attribute
format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
ACL Name...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – >7
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 6
• Vendor length – >0
• Value – A string that includes the name of the ACL to use for the client
Data Bandwidth Average Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Average Contract that will be applied
for a client for non-realtime traffic such as TCP. This value is specific for downstream direction from wired
to wireless. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Data Bandwidth Average Contract value overrides
the Average Data Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to
right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Data Bandwidth Average Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 7
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Average Contract that will be applied
to a client for realtime traffic such as UDP. This value is specific for downstream direction from wired to
wireless. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract value
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overrides the Average Real-Time Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted
from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 8
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Data Bandwidth Burst Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract that will be applied to
a client for non-realtime traffic such as TCP. This value is specific to downstream direction from wired to
wireless. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract value overrides the
Burst Data Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Data Bandwidth Burst Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 9
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract that will be applied to
a client for realtime traffic such as UDP. This value is specific to downstream direction from wired to wireless.
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When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract value overrides the
Burst Real-Time Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 10
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Guest Role Name
This attribute provides the bandwidth contract values to be applied for an authenticating user. When present
in a RADIUS Access Accept, the bandwidth contract values defined for the Guest Role overrides the bandwidth
contract values (based on QOS value) specified for the WLAN. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
GuestRoleName ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 11
• Vendor length – Variable based on the Guest Role Name length
• Value – A string of alphanumeric characters
RADIUS Accounting Attributes
This table identifies the RADIUS accounting attributes for accounting requests sent from a controller to the
RADIUS server.
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Table 13: Accounting Attributes for Accounting Requests
Attribute ID
Description
1
User-Name
4
NAS-IP-Address
5
NAS-Port
8
Framed-IP-Address
25
Class
30
Called-Station-ID (MAC address)
31
Calling-Station-ID (MAC address)
32
NAS-Identifier
40
Accounting-Status-Type
41
Accounting-Delay-Time (Stop and interim messages only)
42
Accounting-Input-Octets (Stop and interim messages only)
43
Accounting-Output-Octets (Stop and interim messages only)
44
Accounting-Session-ID
45
Accounting-Authentic
46
Accounting-Session-Time (Stop and interim messages only)
47
Accounting-Input-Packets (Stop and interim messages only)
48
Accounting-Output-Packets (Stop and interim messages only)
49
Accounting-Terminate-Cause (Stop messages only)
52
Accounting-Input-Gigawords
53
Accounting-Output-Gigawords
55
Event-Timestamp
64
Tunnel-Type
65
Tunnel-Medium-Type
81
Tunnel-Group-ID
This table lists the different values for the Accounting-Status-Type attribute (40).
Table 14: Accounting-Status-Type Attribute Values
Attribute ID
Description
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Start
2
Stop
3
Interim-Update
7
Accounting-On
8
Accounting-Off
9-14
Reserved for Tunneling Accounting
15
Reserved for Failed
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Configuring TACACS+
• Information About TACACS+, page 377
• Configuring TACACS+ on the ACS, page 380
• Configuring TACACS+ (GUI), page 382
• Configuring TACACS+ (CLI), page 383
• Viewing the TACACS+ Administration Server Logs, page 384
Information About TACACS+
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+) is a client/server protocol that provides
centralized security for users attempting to gain management access to a controller. It serves as a backend
database similar to local and RADIUS. However, local and RADIUS provide only authentication support and
limited authorization support while TACACS+ provides three services:
• Authentication—The process of verifying users when they attempt to log into the controller.
Users must enter a valid username and password in order for the controller to authenticate users to the
TACACS+ server. The authentication and authorization services are tied to one another. For example,
if authentication is performed using the local or RADIUS database, then authorization would use the
permissions associated with the user in the local or RADIUS database (which are read-only, read-write,
and lobby-admin) and not use TACACS+. Similarly, when authentication is performed using TACACS+,
authorization is tied to TACACS+.
Note
When multiple databases are configured, you can use the controller GUI or CLI to
specify the sequence in which the backend databases should be tried.
• Authorization—The process of determining the actions that users are allowed to take on the controller
based on their level of access.
For TACACS+, authorization is based on privilege (or role) rather than specific actions. The available
roles correspond to the seven menu options on the controller GUI: MONITOR, WLAN, CONTROLLER,
WIRELESS, SECURITY, MANAGEMENT, and COMMANDS. An additional role, LOBBY, is available
for users who require only lobby ambassador privileges. The roles to which users are assigned are
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configured on the TACACS+ server. Users can be authorized for one or more roles. The minimum
authorization is MONITOR only, and the maximum is ALL, which authorizes the user to execute the
functionality associated with all seven menu options. For example, a user who is assigned the role of
SECURITY can make changes to any items appearing on the Security menu (or designated as security
commands in the case of the CLI). If users are not authorized for a particular role (such as WLAN), they
can still access that menu option in read-only mode (or the associated CLI show commands). If the
TACACS+ authorization server becomes unreachable or unable to authorize, users are unable to log
into the controller.
Note
If users attempt to make changes on a controller GUI page that are not permitted for
their assigned role, a message appears indicating that they do not have sufficient privilege.
If users enter a controller CLI command that is not permitted for their assigned role, a
message may appear indicating that the command was successfully executed although
it was not. In this case, the following additional message appears to inform users that
they lack sufficient privileges to successfully execute the command: “Insufficient
Privilege! Cannot execute command!”
• Accounting—The process of recording user actions and changes.
Whenever a user successfully executes an action, the TACACS+ accounting server logs the changed
attributes, the user ID of the person who made the change, the remote host where the user is logged in,
the date and time when the command was executed, the authorization level of the user, and a description
of the action performed and the values provided. If the TACACS+ accounting server becomes unreachable,
users are able to continue their sessions uninterrupted.
TACACS+ uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for its transport, unlike RADIUS which uses User
Datagram Protocol (UDP). It maintains a database and listens on TCP port 49 for incoming requests. The
controller, which requires access control, acts as the client and requests AAA services from the server. The
traffic between the controller and the server is encrypted by an algorithm defined in the protocol and a shared
secret key configured on both devices.
You can configure up to three TACACS+ authentication, authorization, and accounting servers each. For
example, you may want to have one central TACACS+ authentication server but several TACACS+
authorization servers in different regions. If you configure multiple servers of the same type and the first one
fails or becomes unreachable, the controller automatically tries the second one and then the third one if
necessary.
Note
If multiple TACACS+ servers are configured for redundancy, the user database must be identical in all
the servers for the backup to work properly.
The following are some guidelines about TACACS+:
• You must configure TACACS+ on both your CiscoSecure Access Control Server (ACS) and your
controller. You can configure the controller through either the GUI or the CLI.
• TACACS+ is supported on CiscoSecure ACS version 3.2 and later releases. See the CiscoSecure ACS
documentation for the version that you are running.
• One Time Passwords (OTPs) are supported on the controller using TACACS. In this configuration, the
controller acts as a transparent passthrough device. The controller forwards all client requests to the
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TACACS server without inspecting the client behavior. When using OTP, the client must establish a
single connection to the controller to function properly. The controller currently does not have any
intelligence or checks to correct a client that is trying to establish multiple connections.
• We recommend that you increase the retransmit timeout value for TACACS+ authentication, authorization,
and accounting servers if you experience repeated reauthentication attempts or the controller falls back
to the backup server when the primary server is active and reachable. The default retransmit timeout
value is 2 seconds and you can increase the retransmit timeout value to a maximum of 30 seconds.
TACACS+ VSA
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft standard specifies a method for communicating
vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) between the network access server and the TACACS+ server. The IETF
uses attribute 26. VSAs allow vendors to support their own extended attributes that are not suitable for general
use.
The Cisco TACACS+ implementation supports one vendor-specific option using the format recommended
in the IETF specification. The Cisco vendor ID is 9, and the supported option is vendor type 1, which is named
cisco-av-pair. The value is a string with the following format:
protocol : attribute separator value *
The protocol is a Cisco attribute for a particular type of authorization, the separator is = (equal sign) for
mandatory attributes, and * (asterisk) indicates optional attributes.
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Configuring TACACS+ on the ACS
Step 1
Choose Network Configuration on the ACS main page.
Step 2
Choose Add Entry under AAA Clients to add your controller to the server. The Add AAA Client page appears.
Figure 38: Add AAA Client Page on CiscoSecure ACS
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
In the AAA Client Hostname text box, enter the name of your controller.
In the AAA Client IP Address text box, enter the IP address of your controller.
In the Shared Secret text box, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication between the server and the controller.
Note
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the
controller.
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Step 6
From the Authenticate Using drop-down list, choose TACACS+ (Cisco IOS).
Step 7
Click Submit + Apply to save your changes.
Step 8
On the ACS main page, in the left navigation pane, choose Interface Configuration.
Step 9
Choose TACACS+ (Cisco IOS). The TACACS+ (Cisco) page appears.
Step 10
Under TACACS+ Services, select the Shell (exec) check box.
Step 11
Step 12
Under New Services, select the first check box and enter ciscowlc in the Service text box and common in the Protocol
text box.
Under Advanced Configuration Options, select the Advanced TACACS+ Features check box.
Step 13
Click Submit to save your changes.
Step 14
On the ACS main page, in the left navigation pane, choose System Configuration.
Step 15
Choose Logging.
Step 16
Step 17
When the Logging Configuration page appears, enable all of the events that you want to be logged and save your changes.
Step 18
From the Group drop-down list, choose a previously created group.
Note
This step assumes that you have already assigned users to groups on the ACS according to the roles to which
they will be assigned.
Step 19
Click Edit Settings. The Group Setup page appears.
Step 20
Under TACACS+ Settings, select the ciscowlc common check box.
Step 21
Select the Custom Attributes check box.
Step 22
In the text box below Custom Attributes, specify the roles that you want to assign to this group. The available roles are
MONITOR, WLAN, CONTROLLER, WIRELESS, SECURITY, MANAGEMENT, COMMANDS, ALL, and LOBBY.
The first seven correspond to the menu options on the controller GUI and allow access to those particular controller
features. If a user is not entitled for a particular task, the user is still allowed to access that task in read-only mode. You
can enter one or multiple roles, depending on the group's needs. Use ALL to specify all seven roles or LOBBY to specify
the lobby ambassador role. Enter the roles using this format:
rolex=ROLE
On the ACS main page, in the left navigation pane, choose Group Setup.
For example, to specify the WLAN, CONTROLLER, and SECURITY roles for a particular user group, you would enter
the following text:
role1=WLAN
role2=CONTROLLER
role3=SECURITY?
To give a user group access to all seven roles, you would enter the following text:
role1=ALL?
Step 23
Note
Make sure to enter the roles using the format shown above. The roles must be in all uppercase letters, and there
can be no spaces within the text.
Note
You should not combine the MONITOR role or the LOBBY role with any other roles. If you specify one of
these two roles in the Custom Attributes text box, users will have MONITOR or LOBBY privileges only, even
if additional roles are specified.
Click Submit to save your changes.
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Configuring TACACS+ (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Security > AAA > TACACS+.
Perform one of the following:
• If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for authentication, choose Authentication.
• If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for authorization, choose Authorization.
• If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for accounting, choose Accounting.
Note
The pages used to configure authentication, authorization, and accounting all contain the same text boxes.
Therefore, these instructions walk through the configuration only once, using the Authentication pages as
examples. You would follow the same steps to configure multiple services and/or multiple servers.
Note
For basic management authentication via TACACS+ to succeed, it is required to configure authentication and
authorization servers on the WLC. Accounting configuration is optional.
The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers page appears. This page lists any TACACS+
servers that have already been configured.
• If you want to delete an existing server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server and choose
Remove.
• If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow for that server and choose Ping.
Step 3
Perform one of the following:
• To edit an existing TACACS+ server, click the server index number for that server. The TACACS+ (Authentication,
Authorization, or Accounting) Servers > Edit page appears.
• To add a TACACS+ server, click New. The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers
> New page appears.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list to specify the priority
order of this server in relation to any other configured TACACS+ servers providing the same service. You can configure
up to three servers. If the controller cannot reach the first server, it tries the second one in the list and then the third if
necessary.
If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the TACACS+ server in the Server IP Address text box.
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared secret key
to be used between the controller and the TACACS+ server. The default value is ASCII.
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for authentication
between the controller and the server.
Note
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the
controller.
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Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
Step 15
Step 16
Step 17
If you are adding a new server, enter the TACACS+ server’s TCP port number for the interface protocols in the Port
Number text box. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 49.
In the Server Status text box, choose Enabled to enable this TACACS+ server or choose Disabled to disable it. The
default value is Enabled.
In the Server Timeout text box, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 5 to 30 seconds,
and the default value is 5 seconds.
Note
We recommend that you increase the timeout value if you experience repeated reauthentication attempts or the
controller falls back to the backup server when the primary server is active and reachable.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Repeat the previous steps if you want to configure any additional services on the same server or any additional TACACS+
servers.
Specify the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by choosing Security > Priority Order >
Management User. The Priority Order > Management User page appears.
In the Order Used for Authentication text box, specify which servers have priority when the controller attempts to
authenticate management users.
Use the > and < buttons to move servers between the Not Used and Order Used for Authentication text boxes. After
the desired servers appear in the Order Used for Authentication text box, use the Up and Down buttons to move the
priority server to the top of the list. By default, the local database is always queried first. If the username is not found,
the controller switches to the RADIUS server if configured for RADIUS or to the TACACS+ server if configured for
TACACS+. The default setting is local and then RADIUS.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring TACACS+ (CLI)
• Configure a TACACS+ authentication server by entering these commands:
• config tacacs auth add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
TACACS+ authentication server.
• config tacacs auth delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ authentication server.
• config tacacs auth (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ authentication
server.
• config tacacs auth server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a TACACS+ authentication server.
• Configure a TACACS+ authorization server by entering these commands:
◦config tacacs athr add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
TACACS+ authorization server.
◦config tacacs athr delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ authorization server.
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◦config tacacs athr (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ authorization
server.
◦config tacacs athr server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a TACACS+ authorization server.
• Configure a TACACS+ accounting server by entering these commands:
◦config tacacs acct add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
TACACS+ accounting server.
◦config tacacs acct delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ accounting server.
◦config tacacs acct (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ accounting server.
◦config tacacs acct server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a TACACS+ accounting server.
• See TACACS+ statistics by entering these commands:
◦show tacacs summary—Shows a summary of TACACS+ servers and statistics.
◦show tacacs auth stats—Shows the TACACS+ authentication server statistics.
◦show tacacs athr stats—Shows the TACACS+ authorization server statistics.
◦show tacacs acct stats—Shows the TACACS+ accounting server statistics.
• Clear the statistics for one or more TACACS+ servers by entering this command:
clear stats tacacs [auth | athr | acct] {index | all}
• Configure the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by entering this command.
The default setting is local and then radius.
config aaa auth mgmt [radius | tacacs]
See the current management authentication server order by entering the show aaa auth command.
• Make sure the controller can reach the TACACS+ server by entering this command:
ping server_ip_address
• Enable or disable TACACS+ debugging by entering this command:
debug aaa tacacs {enable | disable}
• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Viewing the TACACS+ Administration Server Logs
Step 1
Step 2
On the ACS main page, in the left navigation pane, choose Reports and Activity.
Under Reports, choose TACACS+ Administration.
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Click the .csv file corresponding to the date of the logs you want to view. The TACACS+ Administration .csv page
appears.
Figure 39: TACACS+ Administration .csv Page on CiscoSecure ACS
This page displays the following information:
• Date and time the action was taken
• Name and assigned role of the user who took the action
• Group to which the user belongs
• Specific action that the user took
• Privilege level of the user who executed the action
• IP address of the controller
• IP address of the laptop or workstation from which the action was executed
Sometimes a single action (or command) is logged multiple times, once for each parameter in the command. For example,
if you enter the snmp community ipaddr ip_address subnet_mask community_name command, the IP address may be
logged on one line while the subnet mask and community name are logged as “E.” On another line, the subnet mask
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maybe logged while the IP address and community name are logged as “E.” See the first and third lines in the example
in this figure.
Figure 40: TACACS+ Administration .csv Page on CiscoSecure ACS
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Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries
• Information About Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries, page 387
• Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (GUI), page 387
• Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI), page 388
Information About Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries
You can configure the controller to specify the maximum number of local database entries used for storing
user authentication information. The database entries include local management users (including lobby
ambassadors), local network users (including guest users), MAC filter entries, exclusion list entries, and access
point authorization list entries. Together they cannot exceed the configured maximum value.
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Security > AAA > General to open the General page.
In the Maximum Local Database Entries text box, enter a value for the maximum number of entries that can be added
to the local database the next time the controller reboots. The currently configured value appears in parentheses to the
right of the text box. The valid range is 512 to 2048, and the default setting is 2048.
The Number of Entries, Already Used text box shows the number of entries currently in the database.
Step 3
Step 4
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your settings.
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Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI)
Step 1
Specify the maximum number of entries that can be added to the local database the next time the controller reboots by
entering this command:
config database size max_entries
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
View the maximum number of database entries and the current database contents by entering this command:
show database summary
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Configuring Local Network Users on the
Controller
• Information About Local Network Users on Controller, page 389
• Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (GUI), page 389
• Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (CLI), page 390
Information About Local Network Users on Controller
You can add local network users to the local user database on the controller. The local user database stores
the credentials (username and password) of all the local network users. These credentials are then used to
authenticate the users. For example, local EAP may use the local user database as its backend database to
retrieve user credentials.
Note
The controller passes client information to the RADIUS authentication server first. If the client information
does not match a RADIUS database entry, the RADIUS authentication server replies with an authentication
failure message. If the RADIUS authentication server does not reply, then the local user database is queried.
Clients located in this database are granted access to network services if the RADIUS authentication fails
or does not exist.
Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > Local Net Users to open the Local Net Users page.
Note
If you want to delete an existing user, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that user and choose
Remove.
Step 2
Perform one of the following:
• To edit an existing local network user, click the username for that user. The Local Net Users > Edit page appears.
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• To add a local network user, click New. The Local Net Users > New page appears.
Step 3
If you are adding a new user, enter a username for the local user in the User Name text box. You can enter up to 24
alphanumeric characters.
Note
Local network usernames must be unique because they are all stored in the same database.
Step 4
In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter a password for the local user. You can enter up to 24
alphanumeric characters.
If you are adding a new user, select the Guest User check box if you want to limit the amount of time that the user has
access to the local network. The default setting is unselected.
If you are adding a new user and you selected the Guest User check box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the
guest user account is to remain active in the Lifetime text box. The valid range is 60 to 2,592,000 seconds (30 days)
inclusive, and the default setting is 86,400 seconds.
If you are adding a new user, you selected the Guest User check box, and you want to assign a QoS role to this guest
user, select the Guest User Role check box. The default setting is unselected.
Note
If you do not assign a QoS role to a guest user, the bandwidth contracts for this user are defined in the QoS
profile for the WLAN.
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
If you are adding a new user and you selected the Guest User Role check box, choose the QoS role that you want to
assign to this guest user from the Role drop-down list.
From the WLAN Profile drop-down list, choose the name of the WLAN that is to be accessed by the local user. If you
choose Any WLAN, which is the default setting, the user can access any of the configured WLANs.
In the Description text box, enter a descriptive title for the local user (such as “User 1”).
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (CLI)
• Configure a local network user by entering these commands:
◦config netuser add username password wlan wlan_id userType permanent description
description—Adds a permanent user to the local user database on the controller.
◦config netuser add username password {wlan | guestlan} {wlan_id | guest_lan_id} userType
guestlifetime seconds description description—Adds a guest user on a WLAN or wired guest
LAN to the local user database on the controller.
Note
Instead of adding a permanent user or a guest user to the local user database from the controller, you can
choose to create an entry on the RADIUS server for the user and enable RADIUS authentication for the
WLAN on which web authentication is performed.
◦config netuser delete username
◦username—Deletes a user from the local user database on the controller.
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Note
Local network usernames must be unique because they are all stored in the same database.
• See information related to the local network users configured on the controller by entering these
commands:
◦show netuser detail username—Shows the configuration of a particular user in the local user
database.
◦show netuser summary—Lists all the users in the local user database.
• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
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Configuring Password Policies
• Information About Password Policies, page 393
• Configuring Password Policies (GUI), page 394
• Configuring Password Policies (CLI), page 394
Information About Password Policies
The password policies allows you to enforce strong password checks on newly created passwords for additional
management users of controller and access point. The following are the requirements enforced on the new
password:
• When the controller is upgraded from old version, all the old passwords are maintained as it is, even
though the passwords are weak. After the system upgrade, if strong password checks are enabled, the
same is enforced from that time and the strength of previously added passwords will not be checked or
altered.
• Depending on the settings done in the Password Policy page, the local management and access point
user configuration is affected.
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Configuring Password Policies (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > Password Policies to open the Password Policies page.
Step 2
Select the Password must contain characters from at least 3 different classes check box if you want your password
to contain characters from at least three of the following classes: lower case letters, upper case letters, digits, and special
characters.
Select the No character can be repeated more than 3 times consecutively check box if you do not want character in
the new password to repeat more than three times consecutively.
Select the Password cannot be the default words like cisco, admin check box if you do not want the password to
contain words such as Cisco, ocsic, admin, nimda, or any variant obtained by changing the capitalization of letters or by
substituting 1, |, or! or substituting 0 for o or substituting $ for s.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Select the Password cannot contain username or reverse of username check box if you do not want the password to
contain a username or the reverse letters of a username.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring Password Policies (CLI)
• Enable or disable strong password check for AP and WLC by entering this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd {case-check | consecutive-check | default-check | username-check
| all-checks} {enable | disable}
where
◦case-check—Checks the occurrence of same character thrice consecutively
◦consecutive-check—Checks the default values or its variants are being used.
◦default-check—Checks either username or its reverse is being used.
◦all-checks—Enables/disables all the strong password checks.
• See the configured options for strong password check by entering this command:
show switchconfig
Information similar to the following appears:
802.3x Flow Control Mode......................... Disabled
FIPS prerequisite features....................... Disabled
secret obfuscation............................... Enabled
Strong Password Check Features:
case-check ...........Enabled
consecutive-check ....Enabled
default-check .......Enabled
username-check ......Enabled
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Configuring LDAP
• Information About LDAP, page 397
• Configuring LDAP (GUI), page 398
• Configuring LDAP (CLI), page 400
Information About LDAP
An LDAP backend database allows the controller to query an LDAP server for the credentials (username and
password) of a particular user. These credentials are then used to authenticate the user. For example, local
EAP may use an LDAP server as its backend database to retrieve user credentials.
Fallback LDAP Servers
The LDAP servers are configured on a WLAN for authentication. You require at least two LDAP servers to
configure them for fallback behavior. A maximum of three LDAP servers can be configured for the fallback
behavior per WLAN. The servers are listed in the priority order for authentication. If the first LDAP server
becomes irresponsive, then the controller switches to the next LDAP server. If the second LDAP server
becomes irresponsive, then the controller switches again to the third LDAP server.
Note
The LDAP backend database supports these local EAP methods: EAP-TLS, EAP-FAST/GTC, and
PEAPv1/GTC. LEAP, EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 are also supported but only
if the LDAP server is set up to return a clear-text password.
Note
Cisco wireless LAN controllers support Local EAP authentication against external LDAP databases such
as Microsoft Active Directory and Novell’s eDirectory. For more information about configuring the
controller for Local EAP authentication against Novell’s eDirectory, see the Configure Unified Wireless
Network for Authentication Against Novell's eDirectory Database whitepaper at http://www.cisco.com/
en/US/products/ps6366/products_white_paper09186a0080b4cd24.shtml.
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Configuring LDAP (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > LDAP to open the LDAP Servers page.
• If you want to delete an existing LDAP server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server
and choose Remove.
• If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow for that server and choose Ping.
Step 2
Perform one of the following:
• To edit an existing LDAP server, click the index number for that server. The LDAP Servers > Edit page appears.
• To add an LDAP server, click New. The LDAP Servers > New page appears. If you are adding a new server,
choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list to specify the priority order of this server in
relation to any other configured LDAP servers. You can configure up to 17 servers. If the controller cannot reach
the first server, it tries the second one in the list and so on.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the LDAP server in the Server IP Address text box.
If you are adding a new server, enter the LDAP server’s TCP port number in the Port Number text box. The valid range
is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 389.
From the Server Mode drop-down list, choose None.
Select the Enable Server Status check box to enable this LDAP server or unselect it to disable it. The default value is
disabled.
From the Simple Bind drop-down list, choose Anonymous or Authenticated to specify the local authentication bind
method for the LDAP server. The Anonymous method allows anonymous access to the LDAP server. The Authenticated
method requires that a username and password be entered to secure access. The default value is Anonymous.
If you chose Authenticated in the previous step, follow these steps:
a) In the Bind Username text box, enter a username to be used for local authentication to the LDAP server. The username
can contain up to 80 characters.
Note
If the username starts with “cn=” (in lowercase letters), the controller assumes that the username includes
the entire LDAP database path and does not append the user base DN. This designation allows the
authenticated bind user to be outside the user base DN.
b) In the Bind Username text box, enter a username to be used for local authentication to the LDAP server. The username
can contain up to 80 characters.
Step 9
In the User Base DN text box, enter the distinguished name (DN) of the subtree in the LDAP server that contains a list
of all the users. For example, ou=organizational unit, .ou=next organizational unit, and o=corporation.com. If the tree
containing users is the base DN, type.
o=corporation.com
or
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dc=corporation,dc=com
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
Step 15
In the User Attribute text box, enter the name of the attribute in the user record that contains the username. You can
obtain this attribute from your directory server.
In the User Object Type text box, enter the value of the LDAP objectType attribute that identifies the record as a user.
Often, user records have several values for the objectType attribute, some of which are unique to the user and some of
which are shared with other object types.
In the Server Timeout text box, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 2 to 30 seconds,
and the default value is 2 seconds.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Specify LDAP as the priority backend database server for local EAP authentication as follows:
a) Choose Security > Local EAP > Authentication Priority to open the Priority Order > Local-Auth page.
b) Highlight LOCAL and click < to move it to the left User Credentials box.
c) Highlight LDAP and click > to move it to the right User Credentials box. The database that appears at the top of the
right User Credentials box is used when retrieving user credentials.
Note
If both LDAP and LOCAL appear in the right User Credentials box with LDAP on the top and LOCAL on
the bottom, local EAP attempts to authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to
the local user database if the LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication
attempt is rejected. If LOCAL is on the top, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user
database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.
d) Click Apply to commit your changes.
e) Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 16
(Optional) Assign specific LDAP servers to a WLAN as follows:
a) Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
b) Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
c) When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the Security > AAA Servers tabs to open the WLANs > Edit (Security
> AAA Servers) page.
d) From the LDAP Servers drop-down lists, choose the LDAP server(s) that you want to use with this WLAN. You can
choose up to three LDAP servers, which are tried in priority order.
Note
These LDAP servers apply only to WLANs with web authentication enabled. They are not used by local
EAP.
e) Click Apply to commit your changes.
f) Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 17
Specify the LDAP server fallback behavior, as follows:
a) Choose WLAN > AAA Server to open the Fallback Parameters page.
b) From the LDAP Servers drop-down list, choose the LDAP server in the order of priority when the controller attempts
to authenticate management users. The order of authentication is from server.
c) Choose Security > AAA > LDAP to view the list of global LDAP servers configured for the controller.
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Configuring LDAP (CLI)
• Configure an LDAP server by entering these commands:
◦config ldap add index server_ip_address port# user_base user_attr user_type — Adds an LDAP
server.
◦config ldap delete index—Deletes a previously added LDAP server.
◦config ldap {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables an LDAP server.
◦config ldap simple-bind {anonymous index | authenticated index username username password
password}—Specifies the local authentication bind method for the LDAP server. The anonymous
method allows anonymous access to the LDAP server whereas the authenticated method requires
that a username and password be entered to secure access. The default value is anonymous. The
username can contain up to 80 characters.
If the username starts with “cn=” (in lowercase letters), the controller assumes that the username
includes the entire LDAP database path and does not append the user base DN. This designation
allows the authenticated bind user to be outside the user base DN.
◦config ldap retransmit-timeout index timeout—Configures the number of seconds between
retransmissions for an LDAP server.
• Specify LDAP as the priority backend database server by entering this command:
config local-auth user-credentials ldap
If you enter the config local-auth user-credentials ldap local command, local EAP attempts to
authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to the local user database if the
LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication attempt is rejected. If you
enter the config local-auth user-credentials local ldap command, local EAP attempts to authenticate
using only the local user database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.
• (Optional) Assign specific LDAP servers to a WLAN by entering these commands:
◦config wlan ldap add wlan_id server_index—Links a configured LDAP server to a WLAN.
The LDAP servers specified in this command apply only to WLANs with web authentication
enabled. They are not used by local EAP.
◦config wlan ldap delete wlan_id {all | index}—Deletes a specific or all configured LDAP server(s)
from a WLAN.
• View information pertaining to configured LDAP servers by entering these commands:
◦show ldap summary—Shows a summary of the configured LDAP servers.
Idx
--1
2
Server Address
--------------2.3.1.4
10.10.20.22
Port
---389
389
Enabled
------No
Yes
◦show ldap index—Shows detailed LDAP server information. Information like the following
appears:
Server Index..................................... 2
Address.......................................... 10.10.20.22
Port............................................. 389
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Enabled.......................................... Yes
User DN.......................................... ou=active,ou=employees,ou=people,
o=cisco.com
User Attribute................................... uid
User Type........................................ Person
Retransmit Timeout............................... 2 seconds
Bind Method ..................................... Authenticated
Bind Username................................. user1
◦show ldap statistics—Shows LDAP server statistics.
Server Index.....................................
Server statistics:
Initialized OK.................................
Initialization failed..........................
Initialization retries.........................
Closed OK......................................
Request statistics:
Received.......................................
Sent...........................................
OK.............................................
Success........................................
Authentication failed..........................
Server not found...............................
No received attributes.........................
No passed username.............................
Not connected to server........................
Internal error.................................
Retries........................................
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Server Index..................................... 2
..
◦show wlan wlan_id—Shows the LDAP servers that are applied to a WLAN.
• Make sure the controller can reach the LDAP server by entering this command:
ping server_ip_address
• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
• Enable or disable debugging for LDAP by entering this command:
debug aaa ldap {enable | disable}
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Configuring Local EAP
• Information About Local EAP, page 403
• Restrictions for Local EAP, page 404
• Configuring Local EAP (GUI), page 405
• Configuring Local EAP (CLI), page 408
Information About Local EAP
Local EAP is an authentication method that allows users and wireless clients to be authenticated locally. It is
designed for use in remote offices that want to maintain connectivity to wireless clients when the backend
system becomes disrupted or the external authentication server goes down. When you enable local EAP, the
controller serves as the authentication server and the local user database, which removes dependence on an
external authentication server. Local EAP retrieves user credentials from the local user database or the LDAP
backend database to authenticate users. Local EAP supports LEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, P
EAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC authentication between the controller and wireless clients.
Note
The LDAP backend database supports these local EAP methods: EAP-TLS, EAP-FAST/GTC, and
PEAPv1/GTC. LEAP, EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 are also supported but only
if the LDAP server is set up to return a clear-text password.
Note
Cisco wireless LAN controllers support Local EAP authentication against external LDAP databases such
as Microsoft Active Directory and Novell’s eDirectory. For more information about configuring the
controller for Local EAP authentication against Novell’s eDirectory, see the Configure Unified Wireless
Network for Authentication Against Novell's eDirectory Database whitepaper at http://www.cisco.com/
en/US/products/ps6366/products_white_paper09186a0080b4cd24.shtml.
If any RADIUS servers are configured on the controller, the controller tries to authenticate the wireless clients
using the RADIUS servers first. Local EAP is attempted only if no RADIUS servers are found, either because
the RADIUS servers timed out or no RADIUS servers were configured. If four RADIUS servers are configured,
the controller attempts to authenticate the client with the first RADIUS server, then the second RADIUS
server, and then local EAP. If the client attempts to then reauthenticate manually, the controller tries the third
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RADIUS server, then the fourth RADIUS server, and then local EAP. If you never want the controller to try
to authenticate clients using an external RADIUS server, enter these CLI commands in this order:
• config wlan disable wlan_id
• config wlan radius_server auth disable wlan_id
• config wlan enable wlan_id
Figure 41: Local EAP Example
Restrictions for Local EAP
Local EAP profiles are not supported on Cisco 600 Series OfficeExtend access points.
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Configuring Local EAP (GUI)
Before You Begin
Note
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
EAP-TLS, P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC use certificates for authentication, and EAP-FAST
uses either certificates or PACs. The controller is shipped with Cisco-installed device and Certificate
Authority (CA) certificates. However, if you want to use your own vendor-specific certificates, they must
be imported on the controller.
If you are configuring local EAP to use one of the EAP types listed in the note above, make sure that the appropriate
certificates and PACs (if you will use manual PAC provisioning) have been imported on the controller.
If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from the local user database, make sure that you have properly
configured the local network users on the controller.
If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from an LDAP backend database, make sure that you have properly
configured an LDAP server on the controller.
Specify the order in which user credentials are retrieved from the backend database servers as follows:
a) Choose Security > Local EAP > Authentication Priority to open the Priority Order > Local-Auth page.
b) Determine the priority order in which user credentials are to be retrieved from the local and/or LDAP databases. For
example, you may want the LDAP database to be given priority over the local user database, or you may not want
the LDAP database to be considered at all.
c) When you have decided on a priority order, highlight the desired database. Then use the left and right arrows and
the Up and Down buttons to move the desired database to the top of the right User Credentials box.
Note
If both LDAP and LOCAL appear in the right User Credentials box with LDAP on the top and LOCAL on
the bottom, local EAP attempts to authenticate clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to
the local user database if the LDAP servers are not reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication
attempt is rejected. If LOCAL is on the top, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user
database. It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.
d) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 5
Specify values for the local EAP timers as follows:
a) Choose Security > Local EAP > General to open the General page.
b) In the Local Auth Active Timeout text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller attempts
to authenticate wireless clients using local EAP after any pair of configured RADIUS servers fails. The valid range
is 1 to 3600 seconds, and the default setting is 100 seconds.
Step 6
Specify values for the Advanced EAP parameters as follows:
a) Choose Security> Advanced EAP.
b) In the Identity Request Timeout text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller attempts to
send an EAP identity request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 120 seconds, and the default
setting is 30 seconds.
c) In the Identity Request Max Retries text box, enter the maximum number of times that the controller attempts to
retransmit the EAP identity request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 20 retries, and the
default setting is 20 retries.
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d) In the Dynamic WEP Key Index text box, enter the key index used for dynamic wired equivalent privacy (WEP).
The default value is 0, which corresponds to a key index of 1; the valid values are 0 to 3 (key index of 1 to 4).
e) In the Request Timeout text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller attempts to send an
EAP request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 120 seconds, and the default setting is 30
seconds.
f) In the Request Max Retries text box, enter the maximum number of times that the controller attempts to retransmit
the EAP request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 120 retries, and the default setting is 20
retries.
g) From the Max-Login Ignore Identity Response drop-down list, choose Enable to limit the number of devices that
can be connected to the controller with the same username. You can log in up to eight times from different devices
(PDA, laptop, IP phone, and so on) on the same controller. The default value is enabled.
h) In the EAPOL-Key Timeout text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller attempts to send
an EAP key over the LAN to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 5 seconds, and the default
setting is 1 second.
Note
If the controller and access point are separated by a WAN link, the default timeout of 1 second may not be
sufficient.
i) In the EAPOL-Key Max Retries text box, enter the maximum number of times that the controller attempts to send
an EAP key over the LAN to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 0 to 4 retries, and the default setting
is 2 retries.
j) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Create a local EAP profile, which specifies the EAP authentication types that are supported on the wireless clients as
follows:
a) Choose Security > Local EAP > Profiles to open the Local EAP Profiles page.
This page lists any local EAP profiles that have already been configured and specifies their EAP types. You can
create up to 16 local EAP profiles.
Note
If you want to delete an existing profile, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that profile
and choose Remove.
b) Click New to open the Local EAP Profiles > New page.
c) In the Profile Name text box, enter a name for your new profile and then click Apply.
Note
You can enter up to 63 alphanumeric characters for the profile name. Make sure not to include spaces.
d) When the Local EAP Profiles page reappears, click the name of your new profile. The Local EAP Profiles > Edit
page appears.
e) Select the LEAP, EAP-FAST, EAP-TLS, and/or PEAP check boxes to specify the EAP type that can be used for
local authentication.
Note
You can specify more than one EAP type per profile. However, if you choose multiple EAP types that use
certificates (such as EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC), all
of the EAP types must use the same certificate (from either Cisco or another vendor).
Note
If you select the PEAP check box, both PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2 or PEAPv1/GTC are enabled on the controller.
f) If you chose EAP-FAST and want the device certificate on the controller to be used for authentication, select the
Local Certificate Required check box. If you want to use EAP-FAST with PACs instead of certificates, leave this
check box unselected, which is the default setting.
Note
This option applies only to EAP-FAST because device certificates are not used with LEAP and are mandatory
for EAP-TLS and PEAP.
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g) If you chose EAP-FAST and want the wireless clients to send their device certificates to the controller in order to
authenticate, select the Client Certificate Required check box. If you want to use EAP-FAST with PACs instead
of certificates, leave this check box unselected, which is the default setting.
Note
This option applies only to EAP-FAST because client certificates are not used with LEAP or PEAP and are
mandatory for EAP-TLS.
h) If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, or PEAP, choose which certificates will be sent to the client,
the ones from Cisco or the ones from another Vendor, from the Certificate Issuer drop-down list. The default setting
is Cisco.
i) If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS and want the incoming certificate from the client to be validated
against the CA certificates on the controller, select the Check against CA certificates check box. The default setting
is enabled.
j) If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS and want the common name (CN) in the incoming certificate
to be validated against the CA certificates’ CN on the controller, select the Verify Certificate CN Identity check
box. The default setting is disabled.
k) If you chose EAP-FAST with certificates or EAP-TLS and want the controller to verify that the incoming device
certificate is still valid and has not expired, select the Check Certificate Date Validity check box. The default setting
is enabled.
Note
Certificate date validity is checked against the current UTC (GMT) time that is configured on the controller.
Timezone offset will be ignored.
l) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 8
If you created an EAP-FAST profile, follow these steps to configure the EAP-FAST parameters:
a) Choose Security > Local EAP > EAP-FAST Parameters to open the EAP-FAST Method Parameters page.
b) In the Server Key and Confirm Server Key text boxes, enter the key (in hexadecimal characters) used to encrypt and
decrypt PACs.
c) In the Time to Live for the PAC text box, enter the number of days for the PAC to remain viable. The valid range is
1 to 1000 days, and the default setting is 10 days.
d) In the Authority ID text box, enter the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server in hexadecimal characters.
You can enter up to 32 hexadecimal characters, but you must enter an even number of characters.
e) In the Authority ID Information text box, enter the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server in text format.
f) If you want to enable anonymous provisioning, select the Anonymous Provision check box. This feature allows
PACs to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning. If you disable this feature,
PACS must be manually provisioned. The default setting is enabled.
Note
If the local and/or client certificates are required and you want to force all EAP-FAST clients to use
certificates, unselect the Anonymous Provision check box.
g) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 9
Enable local EAP on a WLAN as follows:
a) Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
b) Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
c) When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the Security > AAA Servers tabs to open the WLANs > Edit
(Security > AAA Servers) page.
d) Unselect the Enabled check boxes for Radius Authentication Servers and Accounting Server to disable RADIUS
accounting and authentication for this WLAN.
e) Select the Local EAP Authentication check box to enable local EAP for this WLAN.
f) From the EAP Profile Name drop-down list, choose the EAP profile that you want to use for this WLAN.
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g) If desired, choose the LDAP server that you want to use with local EAP on this WLAN from the LDAP Servers
drop-down lists.
h) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 10
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring Local EAP (CLI)
Before You Begin
Note
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
If you are configuring local EAP to use one of the EAP types listed in the note above, make sure that the appropriate
certificates and PACs (if you will use manual PAC provisioning) have been imported on the controller.
If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from the local user database, make sure that you have properly
configured the local network users on the controller.
If you want the controller to retrieve user credentials from an LDAP backend database, make sure that you have properly
configured an LDAP server on the controller.
Specify the order in which user credentials are retrieved from the local and/or LDAP databases by entering this command:
config local-auth user-credentials {local | ldap}
Note
Step 5
EAP-TLS, P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC use certificates for authentication, and EAP-FAST
uses either certificates or PACbs. The controller is shipped with Cisco-installed device and Certificate
Authority (CA) certificates. However, if you want to use your own vendor-specific certificates, they must
be imported on the controller.
If you enter the config local-auth user-credentials ldap local command, local EAP attempts to authenticate
clients using the LDAP backend database and fails over to the local user database if the LDAP servers are not
reachable. If the user is not found, the authentication attempt is rejected. If you enter the config local-auth
user-credentials local ldap command, local EAP attempts to authenticate using only the local user database.
It does not fail over to the LDAP backend database.
Specify values for the local EAP timers by entering these commands:
• config local-auth active-timeout timeout—Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller
attempts to authenticate wireless clients using local EAP after any pair of configured RADIUS servers fails. The
valid range is 1 to 3600 seconds, and the default setting is 100 seconds.
• config advanced eap identity-request-timeout timeout—Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) in which the
controller attempts to send an EAP identity request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 120
seconds, and the default setting is 30 seconds.
• config advanced eap identity-request-retries retries—Specifies the maximum number of times that the controller
attempts to retransmit the EAP identity request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 20 retries,
and the default setting is 20 retries.
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• config advanced eap key-index index—Specifies the key index used for dynamic wired equivalent privacy (WEP).
The default value is 0, which corresponds to a key index of 1; the valid values are 0 to 3 (key index of 1 to 4).
• config advanced eap request-timeout timeout—Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller
attempts to send an EAP request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 120 seconds, and the
default setting is 30 seconds.
• config advanced eap request-retries retries—Specifies the maximum number of times that the controller attempts
to retransmit the EAP request to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 120 retries, and the default
setting is 20 retries.
• config advanced eap eapol-key-timeout timeout—Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) in which the controller
attempts to send an EAP key over the LAN to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 1 to 5 seconds,
and the default setting is 1 second.
Note
If the controller and access point are separated by a WAN link, the default timeout of 1 second may not
be sufficient.
• config advanced eap eapol-key-retries retries—Specifies the maximum number of times that the controller
attempts to send an EAP key over the LAN to wireless clients using local EAP. The valid range is 0 to 4 retries,
and the default setting is 2 retries.
• config advanced eap max-login-ignore-identity-response {enable | disable}—When enabled, this command
limits the number of devices that can be connected to the controller with the same username. You can log in up to
eight times from different devices (PDA, laptop, IP phone, and so on) on the same controller. The default value is
enabled.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Create a local EAP profile by entering this command:
config local-auth eap-profile add profile_name
Note
Do not include spaces within the profile
name.
Note
To delete a local EAP profile, enter the config local-auth eap-profile delete profile_name command.
Add an EAP method to a local EAP profile by entering this command:
config local-auth eap-profile method add method profile_name
The supported methods are leap, fast, tls, and peap.
Note
If you choose peap, both P EAPv0/MSCHAPv2 or PEAPv1/GTC are enabled on the controller.
Note
You can specify more than one EAP type per profile. However, if you create a profile with multiple EAP types
that use certificates (such as EAP-FAST with certificates, EAP-TLS, PEAPv0/MSCHAPv2, and PEAPv1/GTC),
all of the EAP types must use the same certificate (from either Cisco or another vendor).
Note
To delete an EAP method from a local EAP profile, enter the config local-auth eap-profile method delete
method profile_name command:
Configure EAP-FAST parameters if you created an EAP-FAST profile by entering this command:
config local-auth method fast ?
where ? is one of the following:
• anon-prov {enable | disable}—Configures the controller to allow anonymous provisioning, which allows PACs
to be sent automatically to clients that do not have one during PAC provisioning.
• authority-id auth_id—Specifies the authority identifier of the local EAP-FAST server.
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• pac-ttl days—Specifies the number of days for the PAC to remain viable.
• server-key key—Specifies the server key used to encrypt and decrypt PACs.
Step 9
Configure certificate parameters per profile by entering these commands:
• config local-auth eap-profile method fast local-cert {enable | disable} profile_name— Specifies whether the
device certificate on the controller is required for authentication.
Note
This command applies only to EAP-FAST because device certificates are not used with LEAP and are
mandatory for EAP-TLS and PEAP.
• config local-auth eap-profile method fast client-cert {enable | disable} profile_name— Specifies whether
wireless clients are required to send their device certificates to the controller in order to authenticate.
Note
This command applies only to EAP-FAST because client certificates are not used with LEAP or PEAP
and are mandatory for EAP-TLS.
• config local-auth eap-profile cert-issuer {cisco | vendor} profile_name—If you specified EAP-FAST with
certificates, EAP-TLS, or PEAP, specifies whether the certificates that will be sent to the client are from Cisco or
another vendor.
• config local-auth eap-profile cert-verify ca-issuer {enable | disable} profile_name—If you chose EAP-FAST
with certificates or EAP-TLS, specifies whether the incoming certificate from the client is to be validated against
the CA certificates on the controller.
• config local-auth eap-profile cert-verify cn-verify {enable | disable} profile_name—If you chose EAP-FAST
with certificates or EAP-TLS, specifies whether the common name (CN) in the incoming certificate is to be validated
against the CA certificates’ CN on the controller.
• config local-auth eap-profile cert-verify date-valid {enable | disable} profile_name—If you chose EAP-FAST
with certificates or EAP-TLS, specifies whether the controller is to verify that the incoming device certificate is
still valid and has not expired.
Step 10
Enable local EAP and attach an EAP profile to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan local-auth enable profile_name wlan_id
Note
To disable local EAP for a WLAN, enter the config wlan local-auth disable wlan_id command.
Step 11
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 12
View information pertaining to local EAP by entering these commands:
• show local-auth config—Shows the local EAP configuration on the controller.
User credentials database search order:
Primary ..................................... Local DB
Timer:
Active timeout .............................. 300
Configured EAP profiles:
Name ........................................
Certificate issuer ........................
Peer verification options:
Check against CA certificates ...........
Verify certificate CN identity ..........
Check certificate date validity .........
EAP-FAST configuration:
fast-cert
vendor
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
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Local certificate required ..............
Client certificate required .............
Enabled methods ...........................
Configured on WLANs .......................
Name ........................................
Certificate issuer ........................
Peer verification options:
Check against CA certificates ...........
Verify certificate CN identity ..........
Check certificate date validity .........
EAP-FAST configuration:
Local certificate required ..............
Client certificate required .............
Enabled methods ...........................
Configured on WLANs .......................
EAP Method configuration:
EAP-FAST:
Server key ................................
TTL for the PAC ...........................
Anonymous provision allowed ...............
Accept client on auth prov ................
Authority ID ..............................
Authority Information .....................
Yes
Yes
fast
1
tls
vendor
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
No
No
tls
2
<hidden>
10
Yes
No
436973636f0000000000000000000000
Cisco A-ID
• show local-auth statistics—Shows the local EAP statistics.
• show local-auth certificates—Shows the certificates available for local EAP.
• show local-auth user-credentials—Shows the priority order that the controller uses when retrieving user credentials
from the local and/or LDAP databases.
• show advanced eap—Shows the timer values for local EAP.
EAP-Identity-Request Timeout (seconds)...........
EAP-Identity-Request Max Retries.................
EAP Key-Index for Dynamic WEP....................
EAP Max-Login Ignore Identity Response...........
EAP-Request Timeout (seconds)....................
EAP-Request Max Retries..........................
EAPOL-Key Timeout (seconds)......................
EAPOL-Key Max Retries......................... 2
1
20
0
enable
20
20
1
• show ap stats wlan Cisco_AP—Shows the EAP timeout and failure counters for a specific access point for each
WLAN.
• show client detail client_mac—Shows the EAP timeout and failure counters for a specific associated client. These
statistics are useful in troubleshooting client association issues.
...
Client Statistics:
Number of Bytes Received...................
Number of Bytes Sent.......................
Number of Packets Received.................
Number of Packets Sent.....................
Number of EAP Id Request Msg Timeouts......
Number of EAP Id Request Msg Failures......
Number of EAP Request Msg Timeouts.........
Number of EAP Request Msg Failures.........
Number of EAP Key Msg Timeouts.............
Number of EAP Key Msg Failures.............
Number of Policy Errors....................
Radio Signal Strength Indicator............
Signal to Noise Ratio......................
10
10
2
2
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
Unavailable
Unavailable
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• show wlan wlan_id—Shows the status of local EAP on a particular WLAN.
Step 13
(Optional) Troubleshoot local EAP sessions by entering these commands:
• debug aaa local-auth eap method {all | errors | events | packets | sm} {enable | disable}— Enables or disables
debugging of local EAP methods.
• debug aaa local-auth eap framework {all | errors | events | packets | sm} {enable | disable}— Enables or
disables debugging of the local EAP framework.
Note
In these two debug commands, sm is the state
machine.
• clear stats local-auth—Clears the local EAP counters.
• clear stats ap wlan Cisco_AP—Clears the EAP timeout and failure counters for a specific access point for each
WLAN.
WLAN
1
EAP Id Request Msg Timeouts...................
EAP Id Request Msg Timeouts Failures..........
EAP Request Msg Timeouts......................
EAP Request Msg Timeouts Failures.............
EAP Key Msg Timeouts..........................
EAP Key Msg Timeouts Failures.................
WLAN
2
EAP Id Request Msg Timeouts...................
EAP Id Request Msg Timeouts Failures..........
EAP Request Msg Timeouts......................
EAP Request Msg Timeouts Failures.............
EAP Key Msg Timeouts..........................
EAP Key Msg Timeouts Failures.............. 1
0
0
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
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Configuring the System for SpectraLink NetLink
Telephones
• Information About SpectraLink NetLink Telephones, page 413
• Configuring SpectraLink NetLink Phones, page 413
Information About SpectraLink NetLink Telephones
For the best integration with the Cisco UWN solution, SpectraLink NetLink Telephones require an extra
operating system configuration step: enable long preambles. The radio preamble (sometimes called a header)
is a section of data at the head of a packet that contains information that wireless devices need when sending
and receiving packets. Short preambles improve throughput performance, so they are enabled by default.
However, some wireless devices, such as SpectraLink NetLink phones, require long preambles.
Configuring SpectraLink NetLink Phones
Enabling Long Preambles (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Choose Wireless > 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11b/g Global Parameters page.
If the Short Preamble check box is selected, continue with this procedure. However, if the Short Preamble check box
is unselected (which means that long preambles are enabled), the controller is already optimized for SpectraLink NetLink
phones and you do not need to continue this procedure.
Unselect the Short Preamble check box to enable long preambles.
Click Apply to update the controller configuration.
Note
If you do not already have an active CLI session to the controller, we recommend that you start a CLI session
to reboot the controller and watch the reboot process. A CLI session is also useful because the GUI loses its
connection when the controller reboots.
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Step 5
Choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot > Save and Reboot to reboot the controller. Click OK in response to this
prompt:
Configuration will be saved and the controller will be rebooted. Click ok to confirm.
The controller reboots.
Step 6
Step 7
Log back onto the controller GUI to verify that the controller is properly configured.
Choose Wireless > 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11b/g Global Parameters page. If the Short Preamble check
box is unselected, the controller is optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones.
Enabling Long Preambles (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Log on to the controller CLI.
Enter the show 802.11b command and select the Short preamble mandatory parameter. If the parameter indicates that
short preambles are enabled, continue with this procedure. This example shows that short preambles are enabled:
Short Preamble mandatory....................... Enabled
However, if the parameter shows that short preambles are disabled (which means that long preambles are enabled), the
controller is already optimized for SpectraLink NetLink phones and you do not need to continue this procedure.
Step 3
Disable the 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config 802.11b disable network
Step 4
You cannot enable long preambles on the 802.11a network.
Enable long preambles by entering this command:
config 802.11b preamble long
Step 5
Reenable the 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config 802.11b enable network
Step 6
Enter the reset system command to reboot the controller. Enter y when the prompt to save the system changes is displayed.
The controller reboots.
Verify that the controller is properly configured by logging back into the CLI and entering the show 802.11b command
to view these parameters:
Step 7
802.11b Network................................ Enabled
Short Preamble mandatory....................... Disabled
These parameters show that the 802.11b/g network is enabled and that short preambles are disabled.
Configuring Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (CLI)
To configure 802.11 enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) parameters to support SpectraLink phones,
use the following CLI commands:
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config advanced edca-parameter {custom-voice | optimized-video-voice | optimized-voice | svp-voice |
wmm-default}
where
• custom-voice enables custom voice EDCA parameters
• optimized-video-voice enables combined video-voice-optimized parameters
• optimized-voice enables non-SpectraLink voice-optimized parameters
• svp-voice enables SpectraLink voice priority (SVP) parameters
• wmm-default enables wireless multimedia (WMM) default parameters
Note
To propagate this command to all access points connected to the controller, make sure to disable and then
reenable the 802.11b/g network after entering this command.
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Configuring RADIUS NAC Support
• Information About RADIUS NAC Support, page 417
• Restrictions for RADIUS NAC Support, page 418
• Configuring RADIUS NAC Support (GUI), page 419
• Configuring RADIUS NAC Support (CLI), page 420
Information About RADIUS NAC Support
The Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) is a next-generation, context-based access control solution that
provides the functions of Cisco Secure Access Control System (ACS) and Cisco Network Admission Control
(NAC) in one integrated platform.
ISE has been introduced in the 7.0.116.0 release of the Cisco Unified Wireless Network. ISE can be used to
provide advanced security for your deployed network. It is an authentication server that you can configure
on your controller. When a client associates to the controller on a RADIUS NAC–enabled WLAN, the controller
forwards the request to the ISE server.
The ISE server validates the user in the database and on successful authentication, the URL and pre-AUTH
ACL are sent to the client. The client then moves to the Posture Required state and is redirected to the URL
returned by the ISE server.
Note
The client moves to the Central Web Authentication state, if the URL returned by the ISE server has the
keyword 'cwa'.
The NAC agent in the client triggers the posture validation process. On successful posture validation by the
ISE server, the client is moved to the run state.
Note
Flex local switching with Radius NAC support is added in Release 7.2.110.0. It is not supported in 7.0
Releases and 7.2 Releases. Downgrading 7.2.110.0 and later releases to either 7.2 or 7.0 releases will
require you to reconfigure the WLAN for Radius NAC feature to work.
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Device Registration
Device registration enables you to authenticate and provision new devices on the WLAN with RADIUS NAC
enabled. When the device is registered on the WLAN, it can use the network based on the configured ACL.
Central Web Authentication
In the case of Central Web Authentication (CWA), the web-authentication occurs on the ISE server. The web
portal in the ISE server provides a login page to the client. Once the credentials are verified on the ISE server,
the client is provisioned. The client remains in the POSTURE_REQD state until a CoA is reached. The
credentials and ACLs are received from the ISE server.
Local Web Authentication
Local web authentication is not supported for RADIUS NAC.
This table describes the possible combinations in a typical ISE deployment with Device Registration, CWA
and LWA enabled:
Table 15: ISE Network Authentication Flow
WLAN Configuration
CWA
LWA
Device Registration
RADIUS NAC Enabled
Yes
No
Yes
L2 None
No
PSK, Static WEP, CKIP
No
L3 None
N/A
Internal/External
N/A
MAC Filtering Enabled
Yes
No
Yes
Restrictions for RADIUS NAC Support
• A RADIUS NAC-enabled WLAN supports Open Authentication and MAC filtering.
• Radius NAC functionality does not work if the configured accounting server is different from
authentication (ISE) server. You should configure the same server as the authentication and accounting
server in case ISE functionalities are used. If ISE is used only for ACS functionality, the accounting
server can be flexible.
• When clients move from one WLAN to another, the controller retains the client’s audit session ID if it
returns to the WLAN before the idle timeout occurs. As a result, when clients join the controller before
the idle timeout session expires, they are immediately moved to RUN state. The clients are validated if
they reassociate with the controller after the session timeout.
• Suppose you have two WLANs, where WLAN 1 is configured on a controller (WLC1) and WLAN2 is
configured on another controller (WLC2) and both are RADIUS NAC enabled. The client first connects
to WLC1 and moves to the RUN state after posture validation. Assume that the client now moved to
WLC2. If the client connects back to WLC1 before the PMK expires for this client in WLC1, the posture
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validation is skipped for the client. The client directly moves to RUN state by passing posture validation
as the controller retains the old audit session ID for the client that is already known to ISE.
• When deploying RADIUS NAC in your wireless network, do not configure a primary and secondary
ISE server. Instead, we recommend that you configure HA between the two ISE servers. Having a
primary and secondary ISE setup will require a posture validation to happen before the clients move to
RUN state. If HA is configured, the client is automatically moved to RUN state in the fallback ISE
server.
• The controller software configured with RADIUS NAC does not support a change of authorization
(CoA) on the service port.
• Do not swap AAA server indexes in a live network because clients might get disconnected and have to
reconnect to the RADIUS server, which might result in log messages to be appended to the ISE server
logs.
• You must enable AAA override on the WLAN to use RADIUS NAC.
• WPA and WPA2 or dot1X must be enabled on the WLAN.
• During slow roaming, the client goes through posture validation.
• Guest tunneling mobility is supported for ISE NAC–enabled WLANs.
• VLAN select is not supported
• Workgroup bridges are not supported.
• The AP Group over NAC is not supported over RADIUS NAC.
• FlexConnect local switching is not supported.
• With RADIUS NAC enabled, the RADIUS server overwrite interface is not supported.
• Any DHCP communication between client and server. We parse the DHCP profiling only once. This is
sent to the ISE server only once.
• If the AAA url-redirect-acl and url-redirect attributes are expected from the AAA server, the
AAA override feature must be enabled on the controller.
Configuring RADIUS NAC Support (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose the WLANs tab.
Click the WLAN ID of the WLAN for which you want to enable ISE.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Step 4
Click the Advanced tab.
From the NAC State drop-down list, choose Radius NAC:
• SNMP NAC—Uses SNMP NAC for the WLAN.
• Radius NAC—Uses Radius NAC for the WLAN.
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AAA override is automatically enabled when you use RADIUS NAC on a WLAN.
Note
Step 5
Click Apply.
Configuring RADIUS NAC Support (CLI)
Enter the following command:
config wlan nac radius { enable | disable} wlan_id
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Using Management Over Wireless
• Information About Management over Wireless, page 421
• Enabling Management over Wireless (GUI), page 421
• Enabling Management over Wireless (CLI), page 421
Information About Management over Wireless
The management over wireless feature allows you to monitor and configure local controllers using a wireless
client. This feature is supported for all management tasks except uploads to and downloads from (transfers
to and from) the controller.
Enabling Management over Wireless (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Choose Management > Mgmt Via Wireless to open the Management Via Wireless page.
Select the Enable Controller Management to be accessible from Wireless Clients check box to enable management
over wireless for the WLAN or unselect it to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Enabling Management over Wireless (CLI)
Step 1
Verify whether the management over wireless interface is enabled or disabled by entering this command:
show network summary
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• If disabled: Enable management over wireless by entering this command:config network mgmt-via-wireless
enable
• Otherwise, use a wireless client to associate with an access point connected to the controller that you want to
manage.
Step 2
Log into the CLI to verify that you can manage the WLAN using a wireless client by entering this command:
telnet controller-ip-address command
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Using Dynamic Interfaces for Management
• Information About Using Dynamic Interfaces for Management, page 423
• Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI), page 424
Information About Using Dynamic Interfaces for Management
You can access the controller with one of its dynamic interface IP addresses. While wired computers can have
only CLI access with the dynamic interface of the WLC, wireless clients have both CLI and GUI access with
the dynamic interface.
A device, when the management using dynamic interfaces is disabled, can open an SSH connection, if the
protocol is enabled. However, you are not prompted to log on. Additionally, the management address remains
accessible from a dynamic interface VLAN, unless a CPU ACL is in place. When management using dynamic
interface is enabled along with CPU ACL, the CPU ACL has more priority.
The following are some examples of management access and management access using dynamic interfaces,
here the management VLAN IP address of the Cisco WLC is 209.165. 201.1 and dynamic VLAN IP address
of the Cisco WLC is 209.165. 202.129:
• Source wired client from Cisco WLC's dynamic interface VLAN accesses the management interface
VLAN and tries for management access. This is an example of management access.
• Source wired client from Cisco WLC's management interface VLAN accesses the dynamic interface
VLAN and tries for management access. This is an example of management using dynamic interface.
• Source wired client from Cisco WLC's dynamic interface VLAN accesses the dynamic interface VLAN
tries and tries for management access. This is an example of management using dynamic interface.
• Source wired client from Layer 3 VLAN interface accesses the dynamic interface or the management
interface and tries for management access. This is an example of management using dynamic interface.
Here, management is not the management interface but the configuration access. If the Cisco WLC configuration
is accessed from any other IP address on the Cisco WLC other than the management IP, it is management
using dynamic interface.
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Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
Enable or disable management using dynamic interfaces by entering this command:
config network mgmt-via-dynamic-interface {enable | disable}
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Configuring DHCP Option 82
• Information About DHCP Option 82, page 425
• Restrictions for DHCP Option 82, page 426
• Configuring DHCP Option 82 (GUI), page 426
• Configuring DHCP Option 82 (CLI), page 426
Information About DHCP Option 82
DHCP option 82 provides additional security when DHCP is used to allocate network addresses. It enables
the controller to act as a DHCP relay agent to prevent DHCP client requests from untrusted sources. You can
configure the controller to add option 82 information to DHCP requests from clients before forwarding the
requests to the DHCP server.
Figure 42: DHCP Option 82
The access point forwards all DHCP requests from a client to the controller. The controller adds the DHCP
option 82 payload and forwards the request to the DHCP server. The payload can contain the MAC address
or the MAC address and SSID of the access point, depending on how you configure this option.
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Note
Any DHCP packets that already include a relay agent option are dropped at the controller.
For DHCP option 82 to operate correctly, DHCP proxy must be enabled.
Restrictions for DHCP Option 82
• DHCP option 82 is not supported for use with auto-anchor mobility.
Configuring DHCP Option 82 (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Controller > Advanced > DHCP to open the DHCP Parameters page.
Select the Enable DHCP Proxy check box to enable DHCP proxy.
Choose a DHCP Option 82 Remote ID field format from the drop-down list to specify the format of the DHCP option
82 payload.
For more information about the options available, see the Controller Online Help.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Enter the DHCP Timeout. The timeout value is globally applicable.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration .
What to Do Next
On the controller CLI, you can enable DHCP option 82 on the dynamic interface to which the WLAN is
associated by entering this command:
config interface dhcp dynamic-interface interface-name option-82 enable
Configuring DHCP Option 82 (CLI)
• Configure the format of the DHCP option 82 payload by entering one of these commands:
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap_mac—Adds the MAC address of the access point to the DHCP
option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap_mac:ssid—Adds the MAC address and SSID of the access
point to the DHCP option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap-ethmac—Adds the Ethernet MAC address of the access point
to the DHCP option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id apname:ssid—Adds the AP name and SSID of the access point
to the DHCP option 82 payload.
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◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap-group-name—Adds the AP group name to the DHCP option
82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id flex-group-name—Adds the FlexConnect group name to the DHCP
option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap-location—Adds the AP location to the DHCP option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id apmac-vlan-id—Adds the MAC address of the access point and
the VLAN ID to the DHCP option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id apname-vlan-id—Adds the AP name and its VLAN ID to the
DHCP option 82 payload.
◦config dhcp opt-82 remote-id ap-ethmac-ssid—Adds the Ethernet MAC address of the access
point and the SSID to the DHCP option 82 payload.
• Enable DHCP Option 82 on the dynamic interface to which the WLAN is associated by entering this
command:
config interface dhcp dynamic-interface interface-name option-82 enable
• See the status of DHCP option 82 on the dynamic interface by entering the show interface detailed
dynamic-interface-namecommand.
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Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists
• Information About Access Control Lists, page 429
• Restrictions for Access Control Lists, page 429
• Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists (GUI), page 430
• Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists (CLI), page 434
Information About Access Control Lists
An Access Control List (ACL) is a set of rules used to limit access to a particular interface (for example, if
you want to restrict a wireless client from pinging the management interface of the controller). After ACLs
are configured on the controller, they can be applied to the management interface, the AP-manager interface,
any of the dynamic interfaces, or a WLAN to control data traffic to and from wireless clients or to the controller
central processing unit (CPU) to control all traffic destined for the CPU.
You may also want to create a preauthentication ACL for web authentication. Such an ACL could be used to
allow certain types of traffic before authentication is complete.
Both IPv4 and IPv6 ACL are supported. IPv6 ACLs support the same options as IPv4 ACLs including source,
destination, source and destination ports.
Note
You can enable only IPv4 traffic in your network by blocking IPv6 traffic. That is, you can configure an
IPv6 ACL to deny all IPv6 traffic and apply it on specific or all WLANs.
Restrictions for Access Control Lists
• You can define up to 64 ACLs, each with up to 64 rules (or filters) for both IPv4 and IPv6. Each rule
has parameters that affect its action. When a packet matches all of the parameters for a rule, the action
set for that rule is applied to the packet.
• When you apply CPU ACLs on a Cisco 5500 Series Controller or a Cisco WiSM2, you must permit
traffic towards the virtual interface IP address for web authentication.
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• All ACLs have an implicit “deny all rule” as the last rule. If a packet does not match any of the rules, it
is dropped by the controller.
• If you are using an external web server with a Cisco 5500 Series Controller or a controller network
module, you must configure a preauthentication ACL on the WLAN for the external web server.
• If you apply an ACL to an interface or a WLAN, wireless throughput is degraded when downloading
from a 1-GBps file server. To improve throughput, remove the ACL from the interface or WLAN, move
the ACL to a neighboring wired device with a policy rate-limiting restriction, or connect the file server
using 100 Mbps rather than 1 Gbps.
• Multicast traffic received from wired networks that is destined to wireless clients is not processed by
WLC ACLs. Multicast traffic initiated from wireless clients, destined to wired networks or other wireless
clients on the same controller, is processed by WLC ACLs.
• ACLs are configured on the controller directly or configured through templates. The ACL name must
be unique.
• You can configure ACL per client (AAA overridden ACL) or on either an interface or a WLAN. The
AAA overridden ACL has the highest priority. However, each interface, WLAN, or per client ACL
configuration that you apply can override one another.
• If peer-to-peer blocking is enabled, traffic is blocked between peers even if the ACL allows traffic
between them.
• Authentication traffic has to go through the Cisco WLC for this feature to be supported, even if DNS-based
ACL is local to the AP.
• When you create an ACL, it is recommended to perform the two actions (create an ACL or ACL rule
and apply the ACL or ACL rule) continuously either from CLI or GUI.
Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists (GUI)
Configuring Access Control Lists
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > Access Control Lists to open the Access Control Lists page.
If you want to see if packets are hitting any of the ACLs configured on your controller, select the Enable Counters
check box and click Apply. Otherwise, leave the check box unselected, which is the default value. This feature is useful
when troubleshooting your system.
Note
If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that ACL
and choose Clear Counters.
Add a new ACL by clicking New. The Access Control Lists > New page appears.
In the Access Control List Name text box, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
Choose the ACL type. There are two types of ACL supported, IPv4 and IPv6.
Click Apply. When the Access Control Lists page reappears, click the name of the new ACL.
When the Access Control Lists > Edit page appears, click Add New Rule. The Access Control Lists > Rules > New
page appears.
Configure a rule for this ACL as follows:
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a) The controller supports up to 64 rules for each ACL. These rules are listed in order from 1 to 64. In the Sequence
text box, enter a value (between 1 and 64) to determine the order of this rule in relation to any other rules defined for
this ACL.
Note
If rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 29, it is added as rule 5. If you add or change a
sequence number for a rule, the sequence numbers for other rules adjust to maintain a continuous sequence.
For instance, if you change a rule’s sequence number from 7 to 5, the rules with sequence numbers 5 and 6
are automatically reassigned as 6 and 7, respectively.
b) From the Source drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the source of the packets to which this ACL
applies:
• Any—Any source (this is the default value).
• IP Address—A specific source. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the source in
the text boxes. If you are configuring IPv6 ACL, enter the IPv6 address and prefix length of the destination in
the text boxes.
c) From the Destination drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the destination of the packets to which
this ACL applies:
• Any—Any destination (this is the default value).
• IP Address—A specific destination. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the destination
in the text boxes. If you are configuring IPv6 ACL, enter the IPv6 address and prefix length of the destination
in the text boxes.
d) From the Protocol drop-down list, choose the protocol ID of the IP packets to be used for this ACL. These are the
protocol options:
• Any—Any protocol (this is the default value)
• TCP—Transmission Control Protocol
• UDP—User Datagram Protocol
• ICMP/ICMPv6—Internet Control Message Protocol
ICMPv6 is only available for IPv6
ACL.
• ESP—IP Encapsulating Security Payload
Note
• AH—Authentication Header
• GRE—Generic Routing Encapsulation
• IP in IP—Internet Protocol (IP) in IP (permits or denies IP-in-IP packets)
• Eth Over IP—Ethernet-over-Internet Protocol
• OSPF—Open Shortest Path First
• Other—Any other Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) protocol
Note
If you choose Other, enter the number of the desired protocol in the Protocol text box. You can find
the list of available protocols in the INAI website.
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The controller can permit or deny only IP packets in an ACL. Other types of packets (such as ARP packets) cannot
be specified.
e) If you chose TCP or UDP in the previous step, two additional parameters appear: Source Port and Destination Port.
These parameters enable you to choose a specific source port and destination port or port ranges. The port options
are used by applications that send and receive data to and from the networking stack. Some ports are designated for
certain applications such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, and so on.
Note
Source and Destination ports based on the ACL
type.
f) From the DSCP drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the differentiated services code point (DSCP)
value of this ACL. DSCP is an IP header text box that can be used to define the quality of service across the Internet.
• Any—Any DSCP (this is the default value)
• Specific—A specific DSCP from 0 to 63, which you enter in the DSCP edit box
g) From the Direction drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the direction of the traffic to which this
ACL applies:
• Any—Any direction (this is the default value)
• Inbound—From the client
• Outbound—To the client
Note
If you are planning to apply this ACL to the controller CPU, the packet direction does not have any
significance, it is always ‘Any’.
h) From the Action drop-down list, choose Deny to cause this ACL to block packets or Permit to cause this ACL to
allow packets. The default value is Deny.
i) Click Apply to commit your changes. The Access Control Lists > Edit page reappears, showing the rules for this
ACL.
The Deny Counters fields shows the number of times that packets have matched the explicit deny ACL rule. The
Number of Hits field shows the number of times that packets have matched an ACL rule. You must enable ACL
counters on the Access Control Lists page to enable these fields.
Note
If you want to edit a rule, click the sequence number of the desired rule to open the Access Control Lists >
Rules > Edit page. If you want to delete a rule, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the
desired rule and choose Remove.
j) Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules for this ACL.
Step 9
Step 10
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Repeat this procedure to add any additional ACLs.
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Applying an Access Control List to an Interface
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose Controller > Interfaces.
Click the name of the desired interface. The Interfaces > Edit page for that interface appears.
Choose the desired ACL from the ACL Name drop-down list and click Apply. The default is None.
Note
Only IPv4 ACL are supported as interface
ACL.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 4
Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > CPU Access Control Lists to open the CPU Access Control Lists page.
Select the Enable CPU ACL check box to enable a designated ACL to control the traffic to the controller CPU or
unselect the check box to disable the CPU ACL feature and remove any ACL that had been applied to the CPU. The
default value is unselected.
From the ACL Name drop-down list, choose the ACL that will control the traffic to the controller CPU. None is the
default value when the CPU ACL feature is disabled. If you choose None while the CPU ACL Enable check box is
selected, an error message appears indicating that you must choose an ACL.
Note
This parameter is available only if you have selected the CPU ACL Enable check
box.
Note
When CPU ACL is enabled, it is applicable to both wireless and wired traffic. Only IPv4 ACL are supported
as CPU ACL.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.
Choose the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page.
From the Override Interface ACL drop-down list, choose the IPv4 or IPv6 ACL that you want to apply to this WLAN.
The ACL that you choose overrides any ACL that is configured for the interface. None is the default value.
Note
To support centralized access control through AAA server such as ISE or ACS, IPv6 ACL must be configured
on the controller and the WLAN must be configured with AAA override enabled feature.
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Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.
Choose the Security and Layer 3 tabs to open the WLANs > Edit (Security > Layer 3) page.
Select the Web Policy check box.
From the Preauthentication ACL drop-down list, choose the desired ACL and click Apply. None is the default value.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring and Applying Access Control Lists (CLI)
Configuring Access Control Lists
Step 1
See all of the ACLs that are configured on the controller by entering this command:
show [ipv6] acl summary
Step 2
See detailed information for a particular ACL by entering this command:
show [ipv6] acl detailed acl_name
The Counter text box increments each time a packet matches an ACL rule, and the DenyCounter text box increments
each time a packet does not match any of the rules.
Note
Step 3
Enable or disable ACL counters for your controller by entering this command:
config acl counter {start | stop}
Note
Step 4
If a traffic/request is allowed from the controller by a permit rule, then the response to the traffic/request in the
opposite direction also is allowed and cannot be blocked by a deny rule in the ACL.
If you want to clear the current counters for an ACL, enter the clear acl counters acl_name command.
Add a new ACL by entering this command:
config [ipv6] acl create acl_name.
You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the acl_name parameter.
Note
When you try to create an interface name with space, the controller CLI does not create an interface. For example,
if you want to create an interface name int 3, the CLI will not create this since there is a space between int and
3. If you want to use int 3 as the interface name, you need to enclose within single quotes like ‘int 3’.
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Step 5
Add a rule for an ACL by entering this command:
config [ipv6] acl rule add acl_name rule_index
Step 6
Configure an ACL rule by entering config [ipv6] acl rule command:
Step 7
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Note
To delete an ACL, enter the config [ipv6] acl delete acl_name command. To delete an ACL rule, enter the
config [ipv6] acl rule delete acl_name rule_index command.
Applying Access Control Lists
Step 1
Perform any of the following:
• To apply an ACL to the data path, enter this command:
config acl apply acl_name
• To apply an ACL to the controller CPU to restrict the type of traffic (wired, wireless, or both) reaching the CPU,
enter this command:
config acl cpu acl_name {wired | wireless | both}
To see the ACL that is applied to the controller CPU, enter the show acl cpu command. To remove the
ACL that is applied to the controller CPU, enter the config acl cpu none command.
Note
For 2504 and 4400 series WLC, the CPU ACL cannot be used to control the CAPWAP traffic. Use the
access-list on the network to control CAPWAP traffic.
• To apply an ACL to a WLAN, enter this command:
config wlan acl wlan_id acl_name
Note
Note
To see the ACL that is applied to a WLAN, enter the show wlan wlan_id command. To remove the ACL
that is applied to a WLAN, enter the config wlan acl wlan_id none command.
• To apply a preauthentication ACL to a WLAN, enter this command:
config wlan security web-auth acl wlan_id acl_name
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
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Configuring Management Frame Protection
• Information About Management Frame Protection, page 437
• Restrictions for Management Frame Protection, page 439
• Configuring Management Frame Protection (GUI), page 439
• Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (GUI), page 439
• Configuring Management Frame Protection (CLI), page 440
• Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (CLI), page 440
• Debugging Management Frame Protection Issues (CLI), page 440
Information About Management Frame Protection
Management frame protection (MFP) provides security for the otherwise unprotected and unencrypted 802.11
management messages passed between access points and clients. MFP provides both infrastructure and client
support.
• Infrastructure MFP—Protects management frames by detecting adversaries that are invoking
denial-of-service attacks, flooding the network with associations and probes, interjecting as rogue access
points, and affecting network performance by attacking the QoS and radio measurement frames.
Infrastructure MFP is a global setting that provides a quick and effective means to detect and report
phishing incidents.
Specifically, infrastructure MFP protects 802.11 session management functions by adding message
integrity check information elements (MIC IEs) to the management frames emitted by access points
(and not those emitted by clients), which are then validated by other access points in the network.
Infrastructure MFP is passive. It can detect and report intrusions but has no means to stop them.
• Client MFP—Shields authenticated clients from spoofed frames, preventing many of the common attacks
against wireless LANs from becoming effective. Most attacks, such as deauthentication attacks, revert
to simply degrading performance by contending with valid clients.
Specifically, client MFP encrypts management frames are sent between access points and CCXv5 clients
so that both the access points and clients can take preventative action by dropping spoofed class 3
management frames (that is, management frames passed between an access point and a client that is
authenticated and associated). Client MFP leverages the security mechanisms defined by IEEE 802.11i
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to protect the following types of class 3 unicast management frames: disassociation, deauthentication,
and QoS (WMM) action. Client MFP protects a client-access point session from the most common type
of denial-of-service attack. It protects class 3 management frames by using the same encryption method
used for the session’s data frames. If a frame received by the access point or client fails decryption, it is
dropped, and the event is reported to the controller.
To use client MFP, clients must support CCXv5 MFP and must negotiate WPA2 using either TKIP or
AES-CCMP. EAP or PSK may be used to obtain the PMK. CCKM and controller mobility management
are used to distribute session keys between access points for Layer 2 and Layer 3 fast roaming.
Note
To prevent attacks using broadcast frames, access points supporting CCXv5 will not
emit any broadcast class 3 management frames (such as disassociation, deauthentication,
or action). CCXv5 clients and access points must discard broadcast class 3 management
frames.
Client MFP supplements infrastructure MFP rather than replaces it because infrastructure
MFP continues to detect and report invalid unicast frames sent to clients that are not
client-MFP capable as well as invalid class 1 and 2 management frames. Infrastructure
MFP is applied only to management frames that are not protected by client MFP.
Infrastructure MFP consists of three main components:
• Management frame protection—The access point protects the management frames it transmits by adding
a MIC IE to each frame. Any attempt to copy, alter, or replay the frame invalidates the MIC, causing
any receiving access point configured to detect MFP frames to report the discrepancy. MFP is supported
for use with Cisco Aironet lightweight access points.
• Management frame validation—In infrastructure MFP, the access point validates every management
frame that it receives from other access points in the network. It ensures that the MIC IE is present (when
the originator is configured to transmit MFP frames) and matches the content of the management frame.
If it receives any frame that does not contain a valid MIC IE from a BSSID belonging to an access point
that is configured to transmit MFP frames, it reports the discrepancy to the network management system.
In order for the timestamps to operate properly, all controllers must be Network Time Protocol (NTP)
synchronized.
• Event reporting—The access point notifies the controller when it detects an anomaly, and the controller
aggregates the received anomaly events and can report the results through SNMP traps to the network
management system.
Note
Client MFP uses the same event reporting mechanisms as infrastructure MFP.
Infrastructure MFP is enabled by default and can be disabled globally. When you upgrade from a previous
software release, infrastructure MFP is disabled globally if access point authentication is enabled because the
two features are mutually exclusive. Once infrastructure MFP is enabled globally, signature generation (adding
MICs to outbound frames) can be disabled for selected WLANs, and validation can be disabled for selected
access points.
Client MFP is enabled by default on WLANs that are configured for WPA2. It can be disabled, or it can be
made mandatory (in which case, only clients that negotiate MFP are allowed to associate) on selected WLANs.
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Restrictions for Management Frame Protection
• Lightweight access points support infrastructure MFP in local and monitor modes and in FlexConnect
mode when the access point is connected to a controller. They support client MFP in local, FlexConnect,
and bridge modes.
• OEAP 600 Series Access points do not support MFP.
• Client MFP is supported for use only with CCXv5 clients using WPA2 with TKIP or AES-CCMP.
• Non-CCXv5 clients may associate to a WLAN if client MFP is disabled or optional.
• Error reports generated on a FlexConnect access point in standalone mode cannot be forwarded to the
controller and are dropped.
Configuring Management Frame Protection (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Choose Security> Wireless Protection Policies > AP Authentication/MFP to open the AP Authentication Policy page.
Enable infrastructure MFP globally for the controller by choosing Management Frame Protection from the Protection
Type drop-down list.
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Note
If more than one controller is included in the mobility group, you must configure a Network Time Protocol
(NTP) server on all controllers in the mobility group that are configured for infrastructure MFP.
Configure client MFP for a particular WLAN after infrastructure MFP has been enabled globally for the controller as
follows:
a) Choose WLANs.
b) Click the profile name of the desired WLAN. The WLANs > Edit page appears.
c) Choose Advanced. The WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page appears.
d) Choose Disabled, Optional, or Required from the MFP Client Protection drop-down list. The default value is
Optional. If you choose Required, clients are allowed to associate only if MFP is negotiated (that is, if WPA2 is
configured on the controller and the client supports CCXv5 MFP and is also configured for WPA2).
Note
For Cisco OEAP 600, MFP is not supported. It should either be Disabled or Optional.
e) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 5
Click Save Configuration to save your settings.
Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (GUI)
To see the controller’s current global MFP settings, choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies >
Management Frame Protection. The Management Frame Protection Settings page appears.
On this page, you can see the following MFP settings:
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• The Management Frame Protection field shows if infrastructure MFP is enabled globally for the
controller.
• The Controller Time Source Valid field indicates whether the controller time is set locally (by manually
entering the time) or through an external source (such as the NTP server). If the time is set by an external
source, the value of this field is “True.” If the time is set locally, the value is “False.” The time source is
used for validating the timestamp on management frames between access points of different controllers
within a mobility group.
• The Client Protection field shows if client MFP is enabled for individual WLANs and whether it is
optional or required.
Configuring Management Frame Protection (CLI)
• Enable or disable infrastructure MFP globally for the controller by entering this command:
config wps mfp infrastructure {enable | disable}
• Enable or disable client MFP on a specific WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan mfp client {enable | disable} wlan_id [required ]
If you enable client MFP and use the optional required parameter, clients are allowed to associate only
if MFP is negotiated.
Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (CLI)
• See the controller’s current MFP settings by entering this command:
show wps mfp summary
• See the current MFP configuration for a particular WLAN by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
• See whether client MFP is enabled for a specific client by entering this command:
show client detail client_mac
• See MFP statistics for the controller by entering this command:
show wps mfp statistics
Note
This report contains no data unless an active attack is in progress. Examples of various error types are
shown for illustration only. This table is cleared every 5 minutes when the data is forwarded to any network
management stations.
Debugging Management Frame Protection Issues (CLI)
• Use this command if you experience any problems with MFP:
debug wps mfp ? {enable | disable}
where ? is one of the following:
client—Configures debugging for client MFP messages.
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capwap—Configures debugging for MFP messages between the controller and access points.
detail—Configures detailed debugging for MFP messages.
report—Configures debugging for MFP reporting.
mm—Configures debugging for MFP mobility (inter-controller) messages.
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Configuring Client Exclusion Policies
• Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (GUI), page 443
• Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (CLI), page 444
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Client Exclusion Policies to open the Client Exclusion Policies
page.
Select any of these check boxes if you want the controller to exclude clients for the condition specified. The default value
for each exclusion policy is enabled.
• Excessive 802.11 Association Failures—Clients are excluded on the sixth 802.11 association attempt, after five
consecutive failures.
• Excessive 802.11 Authentication Failures—Clients are excluded on the sixth 802.11 authentication attempt, after
five consecutive failures.
• Excessive 802.1X Authentication Failures—Clients are excluded on the fourth 802.1X authentication attempt,
after three consecutive failures.
• IP Theft or IP Reuse—Clients are excluded if the IP address is already assigned to another device.
• Excessive Web Authentication Failures—Clients are excluded on the fourth web authentication attempt, after
three consecutive failures.
Step 3
Step 4
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
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Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (CLI)
Step 1
Enable or disable the controller to exclude clients on the sixth 802.11 association attempt, after five consecutive failures
by entering this command:
config wps client-exclusion 802.11-assoc {enable | disable}
Step 2
Enable or disable the controller to exclude clients on the sixth 802.11 authentication attempt, after five consecutive
failures by entering this command:
config wps client-exclusion 802.11-auth {enable | disable}
Step 3
Enable or disable the controller to exclude clients on the fourth 802.1X authentication attempt, after three consecutive
failures by entering this command:
config wps client-exclusion 802.1x-auth {enable | disable}
Step 4
Configure the controller to exclude clients that reaches the maximum failure 802.1X authentication attempt with the
RADIUS server by entering this command:
config wps client-exclusion 802.1x-auth max-1x-aaa-fail-attempts
You can configure the maximum failure 802.1X authentication attempt from 1 to 3 and the default value is 3.
Step 5
Enable or disable the controller to exclude clients if the IP address is already assigned to another device by entering this
command:
config wps client-exclusion ip-theft {enable | disable}
Step 6
Enable or disable the controller to exclude clients on the fourth web authentication attempt, after three consecutive
failures by entering this command:
config wps client-exclusion web-auth {enable | disable}
Step 7
Enable or disable the controller to exclude clients for all of the above reasons by entering this command:
config wps client-exclusion all {enable | disable}
Step 8
Use the following command to add or delete client exclusion entries.
config exclusionlist {add MAC [description] | delete MAC | description MAC [description]}
Step 9
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 10
See a list of clients that have been dynamically excluded, by entering this command:
show exclusionlist
Information similar to the following appears:
Dynamically Disabled Clients
---------------------------MAC Address
Exclusion Reason
-------------------------00:40:96:b4:82:55
Step 11
802.1X Failure
Time Remaining (in secs)
-----------------------51
See the client exclusion policy configuration settings by entering this command:
show wps summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Auto-Immune
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Auto-Immune.................................... Disabled
Client Exclusion Policy
Excessive 802.11-association failures.......... Enabled
Excessive 802.11-authentication failures....... Enabled
Excessive 802.1x-authentication................ Enabled
IP-theft....................................... Enabled
Excessive Web authentication failure........... Enabled
Maximum 802.1x-AAA failure attempts............ 3
Signature Policy
Signature Processing........................ Enabled
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Configuring Identity Networking
• Information About Identity Networking, page 447
• RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking, page 448
Information About Identity Networking
In most wireless LAN systems, each WLAN has a static policy that applies to all clients associated with an
SSID. Although powerful, this method has limitations because it requires clients to associate with different
SSIDs to inherit different QoS and security policies.
However, the Cisco Wireless LAN solution supports identity networking, which allows the network to advertise
a single SSID but allows specific users to inherit different QoS or security policies based on their user profiles.
The specific policies that you can control using identity networking are as follows:
• ACL—When the ACL attribute is present in the RADIUS Access Accept, the system applies the ACL
name to the client station after it authenticates, which overrides any ACLs that are assigned to the
interface.
• VLAN—When a VLAN Interface-name or VLAN tag is present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the
system places the client on a specific interface.
Note
The VLAN feature only supports MAC filtering, 802.1X, and WPA. The VLAN feature
does not support web authentication or IPsec.
• Tunnel Attributes.
Note
When any of the other RADIUS attributes (QoS-Level, ACL-Name, Interface-Name,
or VLAN-Tag), which are described later in this section, are returned, the Tunnel
Attributes must also be returned.
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The operating system’s local MAC filter database has been extended to include the interface name, allowing
local MAC filters to specify to which interface the client should be assigned. A separate RADIUS server can
also be used, but the RADIUS server must be defined using the Security menus.
RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking
QoS-Level
This section explains the RADIUS attributes used in identity networking.
This attribute indicates the QoS level to be applied to the mobile client's traffic within the switching fabric,
as well as over the air. This example shows a summary of the QoS-Level Attribute format. The text boxes
are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
QoS Level
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 2
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – Three octets:
◦3 – Bronze (Background)
◦0 – Silver (Best Effort)
◦1 – Gold (Video)
◦2 – Platinum (Voice)
ACL-Name
This attribute indicates the ACL name to be applied to the client. A summary of the ACL-Name Attribute
format is shown below. The text boxes are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
ACL Name...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
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• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – >7
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 6
• Vendor length – >0
• Value – A string that includes the name of the ACL to use for the client
Interface Name
This attribute indicates the VLAN Interface a client is to be associated to. A summary of the Interface-Name
Attribute format is shown below. The text boxes are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Interface Name...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – >7
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 5
• Vendor length – >0
• Value – A string that includes the name of the interface the client is to be assigned to.
Note
This Attribute only works when MAC filtering is enabled or if 802.1X or WPA is used
as the security policy.
VLAN Tag
This attribute indicates the group ID for a particular tunneled session and is also known as the
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attribute.
This attribute might be included in the Access-Request packet if the tunnel initiator can predetermine the
group resulting from a particular connection and should be included in the Access-Accept packet if this tunnel
session is to be treated as belonging to a particular private group. Private groups may be used to associate a
tunneled session with a particular group of users. For example, it may be used to facilitate routing of unregistered
IP addresses through a particular interface. It should be included in Accounting-Request packets which contain
Acct-Status-Type attributes with values of either Start or Stop and which pertain to a tunneled session.
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A summary of the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID Attribute format is shown below. The text boxes are transmitted
from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
|
Length
|
Tag
|
String...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 81 for Tunnel-Private-Group-ID.
• Length – >= 3
• Tag – The Tag text box is one octet in length and is intended to provide a means of grouping attributes
in the same packet which refer to the same tunnel. If the value of the Tag text box is greater than 0x00
and less than or equal to 0x1F, it should be interpreted as indicating which tunnel (of several alternatives)
this attribute pertains. If the Tag text box is greater than 0x1F, it should be interpreted as the first byte
of the following String text box.
• String – This text box must be present. The group is represented by the String text box. There is no
restriction on the format of group IDs.
Note
When any of the other RADIUS attributes (QoS-Level, ACL-Name, Interface-Name,
or VLAN-Tag) are returned, the Tunnel Attributes must also be returned.
Tunnel Attributes
RFC 2868 defines RADIUS tunnel attributes used for authentication and authorization, and RFC2867 defines
tunnel attributes used for accounting. Where the IEEE 802.1X authenticator supports tunneling, a compulsory
tunnel may be set up for the Supplicant as a result of the authentication.
In particular, it may be desirable to allow a port to be placed into a particular VLAN, defined in IEEE 8021Q,
based on the result of the authentication. This configuration can be used, for example, to allow a wireless host
to remain on the same VLAN as it moves within a campus network.
The RADIUS server typically indicates the desired VLAN by including tunnel attributes within the
Access-Accept. However, the IEEE 802.1X authenticator may also provide a hint as to the VLAN to be
assigned to the Supplicant by including Tunnel attributes within the AccessRequest.
For use in VLAN assignment, the following tunnel attributes are used:
• Tunnel-Type=VLAN (13)
• Tunnel-Medium-Type=802
• Tunnel-Private-Group-ID=VLANID
The VLAN ID is 12 bits, with a value between 1 and 4094, inclusive. Because the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID
is of type String as defined in RFC 2868, for use with IEEE 802.1X, the VLANID integer value is encoded
as a string.
When Tunnel attributes are sent, it is necessary to fill in the Tag text box. As noted in RFC 2868, section 3.1:
• The Tag text box is one octet in length and is intended to provide a means of grouping attributes in the
same packet that refer to the same tunnel. Valid values for this text box are 0x01 through 0x1F, inclusive.
If the Tag text box is unused, it must be zero (0x00).
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• For use with Tunnel-Client-Endpoint, Tunnel-Server-Endpoint, Tunnel-Private-Group-ID,
Tunnel-Assignment-ID, Tunnel-Client-Auth-ID or Tunnel-Server-Auth-ID attributes (but not
Tunnel-Type, Tunnel-Medium-Type, Tunnel-Password, or Tunnel-Preference), a tag text box of greater
than 0x1F is interpreted as the first octet of the following text box.
• Unless alternative tunnel types are provided, (e.g. for IEEE 802.1X authenticators that may support
tunneling but not VLANs), it is only necessary for tunnel attributes to specify a single tunnel. As a result,
where it is only desired to specify the VLANID, the tag text box should be set to zero (0x00) in all tunnel
attributes. Where alternative tunnel types are to be provided, tag values between 0x01 and 0x1F should
be chosen.
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Configuring AAA Override
• Information About AAA Override, page 453
• Restrictions for AAA Override, page 453
• Updating the RADIUS Server Dictionary File for Proper QoS Values, page 454
• Configuring AAA Override (GUI), page 455
• Configuring AAA Override (CLI), page 455
Information About AAA Override
The AAA Override option of a WLAN enables you to configure the WLAN for identity networking. It enables
you to apply VLAN tagging, Quality of Service (QoS), and Access Control Lists (ACLs) to individual clients
based on the returned RADIUS attributes from the AAA server.
AAA Override for IPv6 ACLs
In order to support centralized access control through a centralized AAA server such as the Cisco Identity
Services Engine (ISE) or ACS, the IPv6 ACL can be provisioned on a per-client basis using AAA Override
attributes. In order to use this feature, the IPv6 ACL must be configured on the controller and the WLAN
must be configured with the AAA Override feature enabled. The actual named AAA attribute for an IPv6
ACL is Airespace-IPv6-ACL-Name, which is similar to the Airespace-ACL-Name attribute that is used for
provisioning an IPv4-based ACL. The AAA attribute returned contents should be a string equal to the name
of the IPv6 ACL as configured on the controller.
Note
From Release 7.5, the upstream AAA override rate limiting value is same as the downstream AAA override
rate limiting value.
Restrictions for AAA Override
• If a client moves to a new interface due to the AAA override and then you apply an ACL to that interface,
the ACL does not take effect until the client reauthenticates. To work around this issue, apply the ACL
and then enable the WLAN so that all clients connect to the ACL that is already configured on the
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interface, or disable and then reenable the WLAN after you apply the interface so that the clients can
reauthenticate.
• If the ACL returned from the AAA server does not exist on the controller or if the ACL is configured
with an incorrect name, then the clients are not allowed to be authenticated.
• With FlexConnect local switching, Multicast is forwarded only for the VLAN that the SSID is mapped
to and not to any overridden VLANs.
• When the interface group is mapped to a WLAN and clients connect to the WLAN, the client does not
get the IP address in a round robin fashion. The AAA override with interface group is supported.
• Most of the configuration for allowing AAA override is done at the RADIUS server, where you should
configure the Access Control Server (ACS) with the override properties you would like it to return to
the controller (for example, Interface-Name, QoS-Level, and VLAN-Tag).
• On the controller, enable the Allow AAA Override configuration parameter using the GUI or CLI.
Enabling this parameter allows the controller to accept the attributes returned by the RADIUS server.
The controller then applies these attributes to its clients.
Updating the RADIUS Server Dictionary File for Proper QoS Values
If you are using a Steel-Belted RADIUS (SBR), FreeRadius, or similar RADIUS server, clients may not obtain
the correct QoS values after the AAA override feature is enabled. For these servers, which allow you to edit
the dictionary file, you need to update the file to reflect the proper QoS values: Silver is 0, Gold is 1, Platinum
is 2, and Bronze is 3. To update the RADIUS server dictionary file, follow these steps:
Note
This issue does not apply to the Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS).
To update the RADIUS server dictionary file, follow these steps:
1 Stop the SBR service (or other RADIUS service).
2 Save the following text to the Radius_Install_Directory\Service folder as ciscowlan.dct:
################################################################################
# CiscoWLAN.dct- Cisco Wireless Lan Controllers
#
# (See README.DCT for more details on the format of this file)
################################################################################
# Dictionary - Cisco WLAN Controllers
#
# Start with the standard Radius specification attributes
#
@radius.dct
#
# Standard attributes supported by Airespace
#
# Define additional vendor specific attributes (VSAs)
#
MACRO Airespace-VSA(t,s) 26 [vid=14179 type1=%t% len1=+2 data=%s%]
ATTRIBUTE
WLAN-Id
ATTRIBUTE
Aire-QoS-Level
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Bronze
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Silver
VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Gold
Airespace-VSA(1, integer)
Airespace-VSA(2, integer)
cr
r
3
0
1
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VALUE Aire-QoS-Level Platinum
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
2
DSCP
802.1P-Tag
Interface-Name
ACL-Name
Airespace-VSA(3,
Airespace-VSA(4,
Airespace-VSA(5,
Airespace-VSA(6,
integer)
integer)
string)
string)
r
r
r
r
# This should be last.
################################################################################
# CiscoWLAN.dct - Cisco WLC dictionary
##############################################################################
3 Open the dictiona.dcm file (in the same directory) and add the line “@ciscowlan.dct.”
4 Save and close the dictiona.dcm file.
5 Open the vendor.ini file (in the same directory) and add the following text:
vendor-product
dictionary
ignore-ports
port-number-usage
help-id
=
=
=
=
=
Cisco WLAN Controller
ciscowlan
no
per-port-type
6 Save and close the vendor.ini file.
7 Start the SBR service (or other RADIUS service).
8 Launch the SBR Administrator (or other RADIUS Administrator).
9 Add a RADIUS client (if not already added). Choose Cisco WLAN Controller from the Make/Model
drop-down list.
Configuring AAA Override (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Click the ID number of the WLAN that you want to configure. The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Choose the Advanced tab.
Select the Allow AAA Override check box to enable AAA override or unselect it to disable this feature. The default
value is disabled.
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring AAA Override (CLI)
• Configure override of user policy through AAA on a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan aaa-override {enable | disable} wlan-id
For wlan-id, enter a value between 1 and 16.
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• Configure debugging of 802.1X AAA interactions by entering this command:
debug dot1x aaa {enable | disable}
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Managing Rogue Devices
• Information About Rogue Devices, page 457
• Configuring Rogue Detection (GUI), page 460
• Configuring Rogue Detection (CLI), page 461
Information About Rogue Devices
Rogue access points can disrupt wireless LAN operations by hijacking legitimate clients and using plain-text
or other denial-of-service or man-in-the-middle attacks. That is, a hacker can use a rogue access point to
capture sensitive information, such as usernames and passwords. The hacker can then transmit a series of
Clear to Send (CTS) frames. This action mimics an access point, informing a particular client to transmit, and
instructing all the other clients to wait, which results in legitimate clients being unable to access network
resources. Wireless LAN service providers have a strong interest in banning rogue access points from the air
space.
Because rogue access points are inexpensive and readily available, employees sometimes plug unauthorized
rogue access points into existing LANs and build ad hoc wireless networks without their IT department's
knowledge or consent. These rogue access points can be a serious breach of network security because they
can be plugged into a network port behind the corporate firewall. Because employees generally do not enable
any security settings on the rogue access point, it is easy for unauthorized users to use the access point to
intercept network traffic and hijack client sessions. Even more alarming, wireless users frequently publish
unsecure access point locations, increasing the odds of having enterprise security breached.
The following are some guidelines to manage rogue devices:
• The containment frames are sent immediately after the authorization and associations are detected. The
enhanced containment algorithm provides more effective containment of ad hoc clients.
• In a dense RF environment, where maximum rogue access points are suspected, the chances of detecting
rogue access points by a local mode access point and FlexConnect mode access point in channel 157 or
channel 161 are less when compared to other channels. To mitigate this problem, we recommend that
you use dedicated monitor mode access points.
• The local and FlexConnect mode access points are designed to serve associated clients. These access
points spend relatively less time performing off-channel scanning: about 50 milliseconds on each channel.
If you want to perform high rogue detection, a monitor mode access point must be used. Alternatively,
you can reduce the scan intervals from 180 seconds to a lesser value, for example, 120 or 60 seconds,
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ensuring that the radio goes off-channel more frequently, which improves the chances of rogue detection.
However, the access point will still spend about 50 milliseconds on each channel.
• Rogue detection is disabled by default for OfficeExtend access points because these access points, which
are deployed in a home environment, are likely to detect a large number of rogue devices.
• Client card implementations might mitigate the effectiveness of ad hoc containment.
• It is possible to classify and report rogue access points through the use of rogue states and user-defined
classification rules that enable rogues to automatically move between states.
• Each controller limits the number of rogue containments to three per radio (or six per radio for access
points in the monitor mode).
• Rogue Location Discovery Protocol (RLDP) detects rogue access points that are configured for open
authentication.
• RLDP detects rogue access points that use a broadcast Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID), that is, the
access point broadcasts its Service Set Identifier in beacons.
• RLDP detects only those rogue access points that are on the same network. If an access list in the network
prevents the sending of RLDP traffic from the rogue access point to the controller, RLDP does not work.
• RLDP does not work on 5-GHz dynamic frequency selection (DFS) channels. However, RLDP works
when the managed access point is in the monitor mode on a DFS channel.
• If RLDP is enabled on mesh APs, and the APs perform RLDP tasks, the mesh APs are dissociated from
the controller. The workaround is to disable RLDP on mesh APs.
• If RLDP is enabled on nonmonitor APs, client connectivity outages occur when RLDP is in process.
• If the rogue is manually contained, the rogue entry is retained even after the rogue expires.
• If the rogue is contained by any other means, such as auto, rule, and AwIPS preventions, the rogue entry
is deleted when it expires.
• The controller will request to AAA server for rogue client validation only once. As a result, if rogue
client validation fails on the first attempt then the rogue client will not be detected as a threat any more.
To avoid this, add the valid client entries in the authentication server before enabling Validate Rogue
Clients Against AAA.
• In the 7.4 and earlier releases, if a rogue that was already classified by a rule was not reclassified. In the
7.5 release, this behavior is enhanced to allow reclassification of rogues based on the priority of the
rogue rule. The priority is determined by using the rogue report that is received by the controller.
• The rogue detector AP fails to co-relate and contain the wired rogue AP on a 5Mhz channel because the
MAC address of the rogue AP for WLAN, LAN, 11a radio and 11bg radio are configured with a difference
of +/-1 of the rogue BSSID. In the 8.0 release, this behavior is enhanced by increasing the range of MAC
address, that the rogue detector AP co-relates the wired ARP MAC and rogue BSSID, by +/-3.
Detecting Rogue Devices
The controller continuously monitors all the nearby access points and automatically discovers and collects
information on rogue access points and clients. When the controller discovers a rogue access point, it uses
the Rogue Location Discovery Protocol (RLDP) and the rogue detector mode access point is connected to
determine if the rogue is attached to your network.
Controller initiates RLDP on rogue devices that have open authenticated and configured. If RLDP uses
Flexconnect or local mode access points, then clients are disconnected for that moment. After the RLDP cycle,
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the clients are reconnected to the access points. As and when rogue access points are seen (auto-configuration),
the RLDP process is initiated.
You can configure the controller to use RLDP on all the access points or only on the access points configured
for the monitor (listen-only) mode. The latter option facilitates automated rogue access point detection in a
crowded radio frequency (RF) space, allowing monitoring without creating unnecessary interference and
without affecting the regular data access point functionality. If you configure the controller to use RLDP on
all the access points, the controller always chooses the monitor access point for RLDP operation if a monitor
access point and a local (data) access point are both nearby. If RLDP determines that the rogue is on your
network, you can choose to contain the detected rogue either manually or automatically.
RLDP detects on wire presence of the rogue access points that are configured with open authentication only
once, which is the default retry configuration. Retries can be configured using the config rogue ap rldp
retries command.
You can initiate or trigger RLDP from controller in three ways:
1 Enter the RLDP initiation command manually from the controller CLI. The equivalent GUI option for
initiating RLDP is not supported.
config rogue ap rldp initiate mac-address
2 Schedule RLDP from the controller CLI. The equivalent GUI option for scheduling RLDP is not supported.
config rogue ap rldp schedule
3 Auto RLDP. You can configure auto RLDP on controller either from controller CLI or GUI but keep in
mind the following guidelines:
• The auto RLDP option can be configured only when the rogue detection security level is set to
custom.
• Either auto RLDP or schedule of RLDP can be enabled at a time.
A rogue access point is moved to a contained state either automatically or manually. The controller selects
the best available access point for containment and pushes the information to the access point. The access
point stores the list of containments per radio. For auto containment, you can configure the controller to use
only the monitor mode access point. The containment operation occurs in the following two ways:
• The container access point goes through the list of containments periodically and sends unicast
containment frames. For rogue access point containment, the frames are sent only if a rogue client is
associated.
• Whenever a contained rogue activity is detected, containment frames are transmitted.
Individual rogue containment involves sending a sequence of unicast disassociation and deauthentication
frames.
Cisco Prime Infrastructure Interaction and Rogue Detection
Cisco Prime Infrastructure supports rule-based classification and uses the classification rules configured on
the controller. The controller sends traps to Cisco Prime Infrastructure after the following events:
• If an unknown access point moves to the Friendly state for the first time, the controller sends a trap to
Cisco Prime Infrastructure only if the rogue state is Alert. It does not send a trap if the rogue state is
Internal or External.
• If a rogue entry is removed after the timeout expires, the controller sends a trap to Cisco Prime
Infrastructure for rogue access points categorized as Malicious (Alert, Threat) or Unclassified (Alert).
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The controller does not remove rogue entries with the following rogue states: Contained, Contained
Pending, Internal, and External.
Configuring Rogue Detection (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Make sure that rogue detection is enabled on the corresponding access points. Rogue detection is enabled by default for
all access points joined to the controller (except for OfficeExtend access points). However, you can enable or disable
rogue detection for individual access points by selecting or unselecting the Rogue Detection check box on the All APs
> Details for (Advanced) page.
Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Rogue Policies > General.
The Rogue Policies page is displayed.
Choose one of the following options from the Rogue Location Discovery Protocol drop-down list:
• Disable—Disables RLDP on all the access points. This is the default value.
• All APs—Enables RLDP on all the access points.
• Monitor Mode APs—Enables RLDP only on the access points in the monitor mode.
Step 4
In the Expiration Timeout for Rogue AP and Rogue Client Entries text box, enter the number of seconds after which
the rogue access point and client entries expire and are removed from the list. The valid range is 240 to 3600 seconds,
and the default value is 1200 seconds.
Note
If a rogue access point or client entry times out, it is removed from the controller only if its rogue state is Alert
or Threat for any classification type.
Step 5
To use the AAA server or local database to validate if rogue clients are valid clients, select the Validate Rogue Clients
Against AAA check box. By default, the check box is unselected.
If necessary, select the Detect and Report Ad-Hoc Networks check box to enable ad hoc rogue detection and reporting.
By default, the check box is selected.
In the Rogue Detection Report Interval text box, enter the time interval, in seconds, at which APs should send the
rogue detection report to the controller. The valid range is 10 seconds to 300 seconds, and the default value is 10 seconds.
In the Rogue Detection Minimum RSSI text box, enter the minimum Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value
that a rogue entry should have for APs to detect the rogue and for a rogue entry to be created in the controller. The valid
range is –128 dBm to –0 dBm, and the default value is 0 dBm.
Note
This feature is applicable to all the AP modes. There can be many rogues with very weak RSSI values that do
not provide any valuable information in rogue analysis. Therefore, you can use this option to filter rogues by
specifying the minimum RSSI value at which APs should detect rogues.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
In the Rogue Detection Transient Interval text box, enter the time interval at which a rogue should be scanned for by
the AP after the first time the rogue is scanned. After the rogue is scanned for consistently, updates are sent periodically
to the controller. Thus, the APs filter the transient rogues, which are active for a very short period and are then silent.
The valid range is between 120 seconds to 1800 seconds, and the default value is 0.
The rogue detection transient interval is applicable to the monitor mode APs only.
This feature has the following advantages:
• Rogue reports from APs to the controller are shorter.
• Transient rogue entries are avoided in the controller.
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• Unnecessary memory allocation for transient rogues are avoided.
Step 10
If you want the controller to automatically contain certain rogue devices, enable the following parameters. By default,
these parameters are in disabled state.
Caution
When you select any of the Auto Contain parameters and click Apply, the following message is displayed:
“Using this feature may have legal consequences. Do you want to continue?”
The 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz frequencies in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band are open to the
public and can be used without a license. As such, containing devices on another party’s network could have
legal consequences.
• Auto Containment Level—Set the auto containment level. By default, the auto containment level is set to 1.
• Auto Containment only for Monitor mode APs—Configure the monitor mode access points for auto-containment.
• Rogue on Wire—Configure the auto containment of rogues that are detected on the wired network.
• Using Our SSID—Configure the auto containment of rogues that are advertising your network’s SSID. If you
leave this parameter unselected, the controller only generates an alarm when such a rogue is detected.
• Valid Client on Rogue AP—Configure the auto containment of a rogue access point to which trusted clients are
associated. If you leave this parameter unselected, the controller only generates an alarm when such a rogue is
detected.
• AdHoc Rogue AP—Configure the auto containment of ad hoc networks detected by the controller. If you leave
this parameter unselected, the controller only generates an alarm when such a network is detected.
Step 11
Step 12
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Rogue Detection (CLI)
Step 1
Step 2
Ensure that rogue detection is enabled on the desired access points. Rogue detection is enabled by default for all the
access points that are associated with the controller. You can enable or disable rogue detection for individual access
points by entering this command:
config rogue detection {enable | disable} cisco-ap command.
Note
To see the current rogue detection configuration for a specific access point, enter the show ap config general
Cisco_AP command.
Note
Rogue detection is disabled by default for OfficeExtend access points because these access points, which are
deployed in a home environment, are likely to detect a large number of rogue devices.
Enable, disable, or initiate RLDP by entering these commands:
• config rogue ap rldp enable alarm-only—Enables RLDP on all the access points.
• config rogue ap rldp enable alarm-only monitor_ap_only—Enables RLDP only on the access points in the
monitor mode.
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• config rogue ap rldp initiate rogue_mac_address—Initiates RLDP on a specific rogue access point.
• config rogue ap rldp disable—Disables RLDP on all the access points.
• config rogue ap rldp retries—Specifies the number of times RLDP to be tried per rogue access point. The range
is from 1 to 5 and default is 1.
Step 3
Specify the number of seconds after which the rogue access point and client entries expire and are removed from the list
by entering this command:
config rogue ap timeout seconds
The valid range for the seconds parameter is 240 to 3600 seconds (inclusive). The default value is 1200 seconds.
If a rogue access point or client entry times out, it is removed from the controller only if its rogue state is Alert
or Threat for a classification type.
Enable or disable ad hoc rogue detection and reporting by entering this command:
config rogue adhoc {enable | disable}
Note
Step 4
Step 5
Enable or disable the AAA server or local database to validate if rogue clients are valid clients by entering this command:
config rogue client aaa {enable | disable}
Step 6
Specify the time interval, in seconds, at which APs should send the rogue detection report to the controller by entering
this command:
config rogue detection monitor-ap report-interval time in sec
The valid range for the time in sec parameter is 10 seconds to 300 seconds. The default value is 10 seconds.
This feature is applicable only to the monitor mode
APs.
Specify the minimum RSSI value that rogues should have for APs to detect them and for the rogue entries to be created
in the controller by entering this command:
config rogue detection min-rssi rssi in dBm
Note
Step 7
The valid range for the rssi in dBm parameter is –128 dBm to 0 dBm. The default value is 0 dBm.
This feature is applicable to all the AP modes. There can be many rogues with very weak RSSI values that do
not provide any valuable information in rogue analysis. Therefore, you can use this option to filter rogues by
specifying the minimum RSSI value at which APs should detect rogues.
Specify the time interval at which rogues have to be consistently scanned for by APs after the first time the rogues are
scanned for by entering this command:
config rogue detection monitor-ap transient-rogue-interval time in sec
Note
Step 8
The valid range for the time in sec parameter is 120 seconds to 1800 seconds. The default value is 0.
Note
This feature is applicable only to the monitor mode APs.
Using the transient interval values, you can control the time interval at which APs should scan for rogues. APs
can also filter rogues based on their transient interval values.
This feature has the following advantages:
• Rogue reports from APs to the controller are shorter.
• Transient rogue entries are avoided in the controller.
• Unnecessary memory allocation for transient rogues are avoided.
Step 9
If you want the controller to automatically contain certain rogue devices, enter these commands.
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Caution
When you enter any of these commands, the following message is displayed: Using this feature
may have legal consequences. Do you want to continue? The 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz
frequencies in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band are open to the public and can be used
without a license. As such, containing devices on another party’s network could have legal consequences.
• config rogue ap rldp enable auto-contain—Automatically contains the rogues that are detected on the wired
network.
• config rogue ap ssid auto-contain—Automatically contains the rogues that are advertising your network’s SSID.
Note
If you want the controller to only generate an alarm when such a rogue is detected, enter the config rogue
ap ssid alarm command.
• config rogue ap valid-client auto-contain—Automatically contains a rogue access point to which trusted clients
are associated.
Note
If you want the controller to only generate an alarm when such a rogue is detected, enter the config rogue
ap valid-client alarm command.
• config rogue adhoc auto-contain—Automatically contains ad hoc networks detected by the controller.
Note
If you want the controller to only generate an alarm when such a network is detected, enter the config
rogue adhoc alert command.
• config rogue auto-contain level level monitor_mode_ap_only—Sets the auto containment level for the monitor
mode access points. The default value is 1.
Step 10
Configure ad hoc rogue classification by entering these commands:
• config rogue adhoc classify friendly state {internal | external} mac-addr
• config rogue adhoc classify malicious state {alert | contain} mac-addr
• config rogue adhoc classify unclassified state {alert | contain} mac-addr
The following is a brief description of the parameters:
• internal—Trusts a foreign ad hoc rogue.
• external—Acknowledges the presence of an ad hoc rogue.
• alert—Generates a trap when an ad hoc rogue is detected.
• contain—Starts containing a rogue ad hoc.
Step 11
Configure RLDP scheduling by entering this command:
config rogue ap rldp schedule { add | delete | disable | enable }
• add—Enables you to schedule RLDP on a particular day of the week. You must enter the day of the week (for
example, mon, tue, wed, and so on) on which you want to schedule RLDP and the start time and end time in
HH:MM:SS format. For example: config rogue ap rldp schedule add mon 22:00:00 23:00:00.
• delete—Enables you to delete the RLDP schedule. You must enter the number of days.
• disable— Configure to disable RLDP scheduling.
• enable— Configure to enable RLDP scheduling.
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When you configure RLDP scheduling, it is assumed that the scheduling will occur in the future, that is, after
the configuration is saved.
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Note
Step 12
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Classifying Rogue Access Points
• Information About Classifying Rogue Access Points, page 465
• Restrictions for Classifying Rogue Access Points, page 467
• Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (GUI), page 468
• Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (GUI), page 470
• Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (CLI), page 473
• Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (CLI), page 475
Information About Classifying Rogue Access Points
The controller software enables you to create rules that can organize and display rogue access points as
Friendly, Malicious, Custom, or Unclassified. For the Custom type, you must specify a severity score and a
classification name.
Note
Manual classification and classification that is the result of auto-containment or rogue-on-wire overrides
the rogue rule. If you have manually changed the class and/or the state of a rogue AP, then to apply rogue
rules to the AP, you must change it to unclassified and alert condition.
By default, none of the classification rules are enabled. Therefore, all unknown access points are categorized
as Unclassified. When you create a rule, configure conditions for it, and enable the rule, the unclassified access
points are reclassified. Whenever you change a rule, it is applied to all access points (friendly, malicious,
custom, and unclassified) in the Alert state only.
You can configure up to 64 rogue classification rules per controller.
You can also apply rogue rules to ad hoc rogues except for client count condition.
The number of rogue clients that can be stored in the database table of a rogue access point is 256.
If a rogue AP or an ad hoc rogue is classified because of an RSSI rogue rule condition, the RSSI value that
caused the trigger is displayed on the controller GUI/CLI. The controller includes the classified RSSI, the
classified AP MAC address, and rule name in the trap. A new trap is generated for every new classification
or change of state due to rogue rule but³ is rate limited to every half hour for every rogue AP or ad hoc rogue.
However, if there is a change of state in containment by rogue rule, the trap is sent immediately. The ‘classified
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by,’ ‘classified at,’ and ‘classified by rule name’ are valid for the non-default classification types, which are
Friendly, Malicious, and Custom classifications. For the unclassified types, these fields are not displayed.
Note
For the RSSI condition of rogue rule, reclassification occurs only if the RSSI change is more than 2 dBm
of the configured RSSI value.
When the controller receives a rogue report from one of its managed access points, it responds as follows:
1 The controller verifies that the unknown access point is in the friendly MAC address list. If it is, the
controller classifies the access point as Friendly.
2 If the unknown access point is not in the friendly MAC address list, the controller starts applying rogue
classification rules.
3 If the rogue is already classified as Malicious, Alert or Friendly, Internal or External, the controller does
not reclassify it automatically. If the rogue is classified differently, the controller reclassifies it automatically
only if the rogue is in the Alert state.
4 The controller applies the first rule based on priority. If the rogue access point matches the criteria specified
by the rule, the controller classifies the rogue according to the classification type configured for the rule.
5 If the rogue access point does not match any of the configured rules, the controller classifies the rogue as
Unclassified.
6 The controller repeats the previous steps for all rogue access points.
7 If RLDP determines that the rogue access point is on the network, the controller marks the rogue state as
Threat and classifies it as Malicious automatically, even if no rules are configured. You can then manually
contain the rogue (unless you have configured RLDP to automatically contain the rogue), which would
change the rogue state to Contained. If the rogue access point is not on the network, the controller marks
the rogue state as Alert, and you can manually contain the rogue.
8 If desired, you can manually move the access point to a different classification type and rogue state.
Table 16: Classification Mapping
Rule-Based
Rogue States
Classification Type
Friendly
• Internal—If the unknown access point is inside the network and poses no threat
to WLAN security, you would manually configure it as Friendly, Internal. An
example is the access points in your lab network.
• External—If the unknown access point is outside the network and poses no threat
to WLAN security, you would manually configure it as Friendly, External. An
example is an access point that belongs to a neighboring coffee shop.
• Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor
list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.
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Rule-Based
Rogue States
Classification Type
Malicious
• Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor
list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.
• Contained—The unknown access point is contained.
Custom
• Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor
list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.
• Contained—The unknown access point is contained.
Unclassified
• Pending—On first detection, the unknown access point is put in the Pending
state for 3 minutes. During this time, the managed access points determine if the
unknown access point is a neighbor access point.
• Alert—The unknown access point is moved to Alert if it is not in the neighbor
list or in the user-configured friendly MAC list.
• Contained—The unknown access point is contained.
• Contained Pending—The unknown access point is marked Contained, but the
action is delayed due to unavailable resources.
The classification and state of the rogue access points are configured as follows:
• From Known to Friendly, Internal
• From Acknowledged to Friendly, External
• From Contained to Malicious, Contained
If the rogue state is Contained, you have to uncontain the rogue access point before you can change the
classification type. If you want to move a rogue access point from Malicious to Unclassified, you must delete
the access point and allow the controller to reclassify it.
Restrictions for Classifying Rogue Access Points
There are some rogue rules. They are:
• Classifying Custom type rogues is tied to rogue rules. Therefore, it is not possible to manually classify
a rogue as Custom. Custom class change can occur only using rogue rules.
• There are traps that are sent for containment by rule and for every 30 minutes for rogue classification
change. For custom classification, the first trap does not contain the severity score because the trap has
existed before the custom classification. The severity score is obtained from the subsequent trap that is
generated after 30 minutes if the rogue is classified.
• Rogue rules are applied on every incoming new rogue report in the controller in the order of their priority.
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• Once a rogue satisfies a higher priority rule and classified, it does not move down the priority list for
the same report.
• Previously classified rogue gets re-classified on every new rogue report with the following restrictions:
• Rogues which are classified as friendly by rule and whose state is set to ALERT, go through
re-classification on receiving the new rogue report.
• If a rogue is classified as friendly by the administrator manually, then the state is INTERNAL and
it does not get re-classified on successive rogue reports.
• If rogue is classified as malicious, irrespective of the state it does not get re-classified on subsequent
rogue reports.
• Transition of the rogue's state from friendly to malicious is possible by multiple rogue rules if some
attribute is missing in new rogue report.
• Transition of the rogue's state from malicious to any other classification is not possible by any rogue
rule.
Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Rogue Policies > Rogue Rules to open the Rogue Rules page.
Any rules that have already been created are listed in priority order. The name, type, and status of each rule is provided.
Note
Step 2
If you ever want to delete a rule, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that rule and click Remove.
Create a new rule as follows:
a) Click Add Rule. An Add Rule section appears at the top of the page.
b) In the Rule Name text box, enter a name for the new rule. Ensure that the name does not contain any spaces.
c) From the Rule Type drop-down list, choose from the following options to classify rogue access points matching this
rule as friendly or malicious:
• Friendly
• Malicious
• Custom
d)
e)
f)
g)
Step 3
Configure the notification when the rule is matched from the Notify drop-down list to All, Global, Local, or None.
Configure the state of the rogue AP when the rule is matched from the State drop-down list.
If you choose the Rule Type as Custom, enter the Severity Score and the Classification Name.
Click Add to add this rule to the list of existing rules, or click Cancel to discard this new rule.
Edit a rule as follows:
a) Click the name of the rule that you want to edit. The Rogue Rule > Edit page appears.
b) From the Type drop-down list, choose from the following options to classify rogue access points matching this rule:
• Friendly
• Malicious
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• Custom
c) Configure the notification when the rule is matched from the Notify drop-down list to All, Global, Local, or None.
d) Configure the state of the rogue AP when the rule is matched from the State drop-down list.
e) From the Match Operation text box, choose one of the following:
Match All—If this rule is enabled, a detected rogue access point must meet all of the conditions specified by the rule
in order for the rule to be matched and the rogue to adopt the classification type of the rule.
Match Any—If this rule is enabled, a detected rogue access point must meet any of the conditions specified by the
rule in order for the rule to be matched and the rogue to adopt the classification type of the rule. This is the default
value.
f) To enable this rule, select the Enable Rule check box. The default value is unselected.
g) If you choose the Rule Type as Custom, enter the Severity Score and the Classification Name.
h) From the Add Condition drop-down list, choose one or more of the following conditions that the rogue access point
must meet and click Add Condition.
• SSID—Requires that the rogue access point have a specific user-configured SSID. If you choose this option,
enter the SSID in the User Configured SSID text box, and click Add SSID.
Note
To delete an SSID, highlight the SSID and click
Remove.
• RSSI—Requires that the rogue access point have a minimum received signal strength indication (RSSI) value.
For example, if the rogue access point has an RSSI that is greater than the configured value, then the access
point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum RSSI value in the Minimum
RSSI text box. The valid range is –95 to –50 dBm (inclusive), and the default value is 0 dBm.
• Duration—Requires that the rogue access point be detected for a minimum period of time. If you choose this
option, enter a value for the minimum detection period in the Time Duration text box. The valid range is 0 to
3600 seconds (inclusive), and the default value is 0 seconds.
• Client Count—Requires that a minimum number of clients be associated to the rogue access point. For example,
if the number of clients associated to the rogue access point is greater than or equal to the configured value,
then the access point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum number of
clients to be associated to the rogue access point in the Minimum Number of Rogue Clients text box. The valid
range is 1 to 10 (inclusive), and the default value is 0.
• No Encryption—Requires that the rogue access point’s advertised WLAN does not have encryption enabled.
If a rogue access point has encryption disabled, it is likely that more clients will try to associate to it. No further
configuration is required for this option.
Note
Cisco Prime Infrastructure refers to this option as “Open
Authentication.”
• Managed SSID—Requires that the rogue access point’s managed SSID (the SSID configured for the WLAN)
be known to the controller. No further configuration is required for this option.
Note
The SSID and Managed SSID conditions cannot be used with the Match All operation because these
two SSID lists are mutually exclusive. If you define a rule with Match All and have these two conditions
configured, the rogue access points are never classified as friendly or malicious because one of the
conditions can never be met.
You can add up to six conditions per rule. When you add a condition, it appears under the Conditions
section.
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Note
If you ever want to delete a condition from this rule, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow
for that condition and click Remove.
i) Click Apply.
Step 4
Step 5
Click Save Configuration.
If you want to change the order in which rogue classification rules are applied, follow these steps:
1 Click Back to return to the Rogue Rules page.
2 Click Change Priority to access the Rogue Rules > Priority page.
The rogue rules are listed in priority order in the Change Rules Priority text box.
3 Highlight the rule for which you want to change the priority, and click Up to raise its priority in the list or Down to
lower its priority in the list.
4 Continue to move the rules up or down until the rules are in the desired order.
5 Click Apply.
Step 6
Classify any rogue access points as friendly and add them to the friendly MAC address list as follows:
• Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > Rogue Policies > Friendly Rogue to open the Friendly Rogue
> Create page.
• In the MAC Address text box, enter the MAC address of the friendly rogue access point.
• Click Apply.
• Click Save Configuration. This access point is added to the controller’s list of friendly access points and should
now appear on the Friendly Rogue APs page.
Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (GUI)
Before You Begin
Caution
Step 1
Step 2
When you choose to contain a rogue device, the following warning appears: “There may be legal issues
following this containment. Are you sure you want to continue?” The 2.4- and 5-GHz frequencies in the
Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band are open to the public and can be used without a license.
As such, containing devices on another party’s network could have legal consequences.
Choose Monitor > Rogues.
Choose the following options to view the different types of rogue access points detected by the controller:
• Friendly APs
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• Malicious APs
• Unclassified APs
• Custom APs
The respective rogue APs pages provide the following information: the MAC address and SSID of the rogue access
point, channel number, the number of radios that detected the rogue access point, the number of clients connected to the
rogue access point, and the current status of the rogue access point.
To remove acknowledged rogues from the database, change the rogue state to Alert. If the rogue is no longer
present, the rogue data is deleted from the database in 20 minutes.
Note
If you ever want to delete a rogue access point from one of these pages, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow and click Remove. To delete multiple rogue access points, select the check box corresponding to the row
you want to delete and click Remove.
Note
You can move the Malicious or Unclassified rogue APs that are being contained or were contained back to Alert
state by clicking the Move to Alert button on the respective pages.
Get more details about a rogue access point by clicking the MAC address of the access point. The Rogue AP Detail page
appears.
This page provides the following information: the MAC address of the rogue device, the type of rogue device (such as
an access point), whether the rogue device is on the wired network, the dates and times when the rogue device was first
and last reported, and the current status of the device.
Note
Step 3
The Class Type text box shows the current classification for this rogue access point:
• Friendly—An unknown access point that matches the user-defined friendly rules or an existing known and
acknowledged rogue access point. Friendly access points cannot be contained.
• Malicious—An unknown access point that matches the user-defined malicious rules or is moved manually by the
user from the Friendly or Unclassified classification type.
Note
Once an access point is classified as Malicious, you cannot apply rules to it in the future, and it cannot be
moved to another classification type. If you want to move a malicious access point to the Unclassified
classification type, you must delete the access point and allow the controller to reclassify it.
• Unclassified—An unknown access point that does not match the user-defined friendly or malicious rules. An
unclassified access point can be contained. It can also be moved to the Friendly or Malicious classification type
automatically in accordance with user-defined rules or manually by the user.
• Custom—A user-defined classification type that is tied to rogue rules. It is not possible to manually classify a
rogue as Custom. Custom class change can occur only using rogue rules.
Step 4
If you want to change the classification of this device, choose a different classification from the Class Type drop-down
list.
Note
A rogue access point cannot be moved to another class if its current state is Contain.
Step 5
From the Update Status drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how the controller should respond
to this rogue access point:
• Internal—The controller trusts this rogue access point. This option is available if the Class Type is set to Friendly.
• External—The controller acknowledges the presence of this rogue access point. This option is available if the
Class Type is set to Friendly.
• Contain—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.
This option is available if the Class Type is set to Malicious or Unclassified.
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• Alert—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action. This option is
available if the Class Type is set to Malicious or Unclassified.
The bottom of the page provides information on both the access points that detected this rogue access point and any
clients that are associated to it. To see more details for any of the clients, click Edit to open the Rogue Client Detail
page.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
View any rogue clients that are connected to the controller by choosing Rogue Clients. The Rogue Clients page appears.
This page shows the following information: the MAC address of the rogue client, the MAC address of the access point
to which the rogue client is associated, the SSID of the rogue client, the number of radios that detected the rogue client,
the date and time when the rogue client was last reported, and the current status of the rogue client.
Obtain more details about a rogue client by clicking the MAC address of the client. The Rogue Client Detail page appears.
This page provides the following information: the MAC address of the rogue client, the MAC address of the rogue access
point to which this client is associated, the SSID and IP address of the rogue client, the dates and times when the rogue
client was first and last reported, and the current status of the rogue client.
From the Update Status drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how the controller should respond
to this rogue client:
• Contain—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.
• Alert—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.
The bottom of the page provides information on the access points that detected this rogue client.
Step 11
Step 12
Step 13
Step 14
Click Apply.
If desired, you can test the controller’s connection to this client by clicking Ping.
Click Save Configuration.
See any ad-hoc rogues detected by the controller by choosing Adhoc Rogues. The Adhoc Rogues page appears.
This page shows the following information: the MAC address, BSSID, and SSID of the ad-hoc rogue, the number of
radios that detected the ad-hoc rogue, and the current status of the ad-hoc rogue.
Step 15
Obtain more details about an ad-hoc rogue by clicking the MAC address of the rogue. The Adhoc Rogue Detail page
appears.
This page provides the following information: the MAC address and BSSID of the ad-hoc rogue, the dates and times
when the rogue was first and last reported, and the current status of the rogue.
Step 16
From the Update Status drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how the controller should respond
to this ad-hoc rogue:
• Contain—The controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.
• Alert—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.
• Internal—The controller trusts this rogue access point.
• External—The controller acknowledges the presence of this rogue access point.
Step 17
From the Maximum number of APs to contain the rogue drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify
the maximum number of access points used to contain this ad-hoc rogue: 1, 2, 3, or 4.
The bottom of the page provides information on the access points that detected this ad-hoc rogue.
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• 1—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by one access point. This is the lowest containment
level.
• 2—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by two access points.
• 3—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by three access points.
• 4—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by four access points. This is the highest containment
level.
Step 18
Step 19
Step 20
Click Apply.
Click Save Configuration.
View any access points that have been configured to be ignored by choosing Rogue AP Ignore-List. The Rogue AP
Ignore-List page appears.
This page shows the MAC addresses of any access points that are configured to be ignored. The rogue-ignore list contains
a list of any autonomous access points that have been manually added to Cisco Prime Infrastructure maps by the users.
The controller regards these autonomous access points as rogues even though the Prime Infrastructure is managing them.
The rogue-ignore list allows the controller to ignore these access points. The list is updated as follows:
• When the controller receives a rogue report, it checks to see if the unknown access point is in the rogue-ignore
access point list.
• If the unknown access point is in the rogue-ignore list, the controller ignores this access point and continues to
process other rogue access points.
• If the unknown access point is not in the rogue-ignore list, the controller sends a trap to the Prime Infrastructure.
If the Prime Infrastructure finds this access point in its autonomous access point list, the Prime Infrastructure sends
a command to the controller to add this access point to the rogue-ignore list. This access point is then ignored in
future rogue reports.
• If a user removes an autonomous access point from the Prime Infrastructure, the Prime Infrastructure sends a
command to the controller to remove this access point from the rogue-ignore list.
Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (CLI)
Step 1
Create a rule by entering this command:
config rogue rule add ap priority priority classify {friendly | malicious} rule-name
If you later want to change the priority of this rule and shift others in the list accordingly, enter the config rogue rule
priority priority rule-name command.
If you later want to change the classification of this rule, enter the config rogue rule classify {friendly | malicious}
rule-name command.
If you ever want to delete all of the rogue classification rules or a specific rule, enter the {config rogue rule delete {all
| rule-name} command.
Step 2
Create a rule by entering these commands:
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• Configure a rule for friendly rogues by entering this command:
config rogue rule add ap priority priority classify friendly notify {all | global | local | none} state {alert |
internal | external} rule-name
• Configure a rule for malicious rogues by entering this command:
config rogue rule add ap priority priority classify malicious notify {all | global | local | none} state {alert |
contain} rule-name
• Configure a rule for custom rogues by entering this command:
config rogue rule add ap priority priority classify custom severity-score classification-name notify {all | global
| local | none} state {alert | contain} rule-name
If you later want to change the priority of this rule and shift others in the list accordingly, enter the config rogue rule
priority priority rule-name command.
If you later want to change the classification of this rule, enter the config rogue rule classify {friendly | malicious |
custom severity-score classification-name} rule-name command.
If you ever want to delete all of the rogue classification rules or a specific rule, enter the {config rogue rule delete {all
| rule-name} command.
Step 3
Configure the state on the rogue AP upon rule match by entering this command:
config rogue rule state {alert | contain | internal | external} rule-name
Step 4
Configure the notification upon rule match by entering this command:
config rogue rule notify {all | global | local | none} rule-name
Step 5
Disable all rules or a specific rule by entering this command:
config rogue rule disable {all | rule_name}
A rule must be disabled before you can modify its
attributes.
Add conditions to a rule that the rogue access point must meet by entering this command:
config rogue rule condition ap set condition_type condition_value rule_name
Note
Step 6
The following condition types are available:
• ssid—Requires that the rogue access point have a specific SSID. You should add SSIDs that are not managed by
the controller. If you choose this option, enter the SSID for the condition_value parameter. The SSID is added to
the user-configured SSID list.
Note
If you ever want to delete all of the SSIDs or a specific SSID from the user-configured SSID list, enter
the config rogue rule condition ap delete ssid {all | ssid} rule_name command.
• rssi—Requires that the rogue access point have a minimum RSSI value. For example, if the rogue access point has
an RSSI that is greater than the configured value, then the access point could be classified as malicious. If you
choose this option, enter the minimum RSSI value for the condition_value parameter. The valid range is –95 to
–50 dBm (inclusive), and the default value is 0 dBm.
• duration—Requires that the rogue access point be detected for a minimum period of time. If you choose this
option, enter a value for the minimum detection period for the condition_value parameter. The valid range is 0 to
3600 seconds (inclusive), and the default value is 0 seconds.
• client-count—Requires that a minimum number of clients be associated to the rogue access point. For example,
if the number of clients associated to the rogue access point is greater than or equal to the configured value, then
the access point could be classified as malicious. If you choose this option, enter the minimum number of clients
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to be associated to the rogue access point for the condition_value parameter. The valid range is 1 to 10 (inclusive),
and the default value is 0.
• managed-ssid—Requires that the rogue access point’s SSID be known to the controller. A condition_value parameter
is not required for this option.
Note
You can add up to six conditions per rule. If you ever want to delete all of the conditions or a specific
condition from a rule, enter the config rogue rule condition ap delete all condition_type condition_value
rule_name command.
Step 7
Specify whether a detected rogue access point must meet all or any of the conditions specified by the rule in order for
the rule to be matched and the rogue access point to adopt the classification type of the rule by entering this command:
config rogue rule match {all | any} rule_name
Step 8
Enable all rules or a specific rule by entering this command:
config rogue rule enable {all | rule_name}
Note
For your changes to become effective, you must enable the
rule.
Add a new friendly access point entry to the friendly MAC address list or delete an existing friendly access point entry
from the list by entering this command:
config rogue ap friendly {add | delete} ap_mac_address
Step 9
Step 10
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 11
View the rogue classification rules that are configured on the controller by entering this command:
show rogue rule summary
Step 12
View detailed information for a specific rogue classification rule by entering this command:
show rogue rule detailed rule_name
Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (CLI)
• View a list of all rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:
show rogue ap summary
• See a list of the friendly rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:
show rogue ap friendly summary
• See a list of the malicious rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:
show rogue ap malicious summary
• See a list of the unclassified rogue access points detected by the controller by entering this command:
show rogue ap unclassified summary
• See detailed information for a specific rogue access point by entering this command:
show rogue ap detailed ap_mac_address
• See the rogue report (which shows the number of rogue devices detected on different channel widths)
for a specific 802.11a/n radio by entering this command:
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show ap auto-rf 802.11a Cisco_AP
• See a list of all rogue clients that are associated to a rogue access point by entering this command:
show rogue ap clients ap_mac_address
• See a list of all rogue clients detected by the controller by entering this command:
show rogue client summary
• See detailed information for a specific rogue client by entering this command:
show rogue client detailed client_mac_address
• See a list of all ad-hoc rogues detected by the controller by entering this command:
show rogue adhoc summary
• See detailed information for a specific ad-hoc rogue by entering this command:
show rogue adhoc detailed rogue_mac_address
• See a summary of ad hoc rogues based on their classification by entering this command:
show rogue adhoc {friendly | malicious | unclassified} summary
• See a list of rogue access points that are configured to be ignore by entering this command:
show rogue ignore-list
Note
See the Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (GUI) section for more information on the rogue-ignore
access point list.
• Classify a rogue access point as friendly by entering this command:
config rogue ap classify friendly state {internal | external} ap_mac_address
where
internal means that the controller trusts this rogue access point.
external means that the controller acknowledges the presence of this rogue access point.
Note
A rogue access point cannot be moved to the Friendly class if its current state is Contain.
• Mark a rogue access point as malicious by entering this command:
config rogue ap classify malicious state {alert | contain} ap_mac_address
where
alert means that the controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.
contain means that the controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere
with authorized clients.
Note
A rogue access point cannot be moved to the Malicious class if its current state is Contain.
• Mark a rogue access point as unclassified by entering this command:
config rogue ap classify unclassified state {alert | contain} ap_mac_address
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Note
A rogue access point cannot be moved to the Unclassified class if its current state is Contain.
alert means that the controller forwards an immediate alert to the system administrator for further action.
contain means that the controller contains the offending device so that its signals no longer interfere with
authorized clients.
• Choose the maximum number of access points used to contain the ad-hoc rogue by entering this command:
config rogue ap classify unclassified state contain rogue_ap_mac_address 1, 2, 3, or 4
• 1—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by one access point. This is the lowest
containment level.
• 2—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by two access points.
• 3—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by three access points.
• 4—Specifies targeted rogue access point will be contained by four access points. This is the highest
containment level.
• Specify how the controller should respond to a rogue client by entering one of these commands:
config rogue client alert client_mac_address—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the system
administrator for further action.
config rogue client contain client_mac_address—The controller contains the offending device so that
its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.
• Specify how the controller should respond to an ad-hoc rogue by entering one these commands:
config rogue adhoc alert rogue_mac_address—The controller forwards an immediate alert to the
system administrator for further action.
config rogue adhoc contain rogue_mac_address—The controller contains the offending device so that
its signals no longer interfere with authorized clients.
config rogue adhoc external rogue_mac_address—The controller acknowledges the presence of this
ad-hoc rogue.
• Configure the classification of ad hoc rogues by entering any one of these commands:
◦Friendly state—config rogue adhoc classify friendly state {internal | external} mac-addr
◦Malicious state—config rogue adhoc classify malicious state {alert | contain} mac-addr
◦Unclassified state—config rogue adhoc classify unclassified state {alert | contain} mac-addr
• View a summary of custom rogue AP information by entering this command:
show rogue ap custom summary
• See custom ad hoc rogue information by entering this command:
show rogue adhoc custom summary
• Delete the rogue APs by entering this command:
config rogue ap delete {class | all | mac-addr}
• Delete the rogue clients by entering this command:
config rogue client delete {state | all | mac-addr}
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• Delete the ad hoc rogues by entering this command:
config rogue adhoc delete {class | all | mac-addr}
• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
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60
Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP
• Information About Cisco TrustSec SXP, page 479
• Restrictions for Cisco TrustSec SXP, page 480
• Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP (GUI), page 481
• Creating a New SXP Connection (GUI), page 481
• Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP (CLI), page 482
Information About Cisco TrustSec SXP
Cisco TrustSec enables organizations to secure their networks and services through identity-based access
control to anyone, anywhere, anytime. The solution also offers data integrity and confidentiality services,
policy-based governance, and centralized monitoring, troubleshooting, and reporting services. TrustSec can
be combined with personalized, professional service offerings to simplify solution deployment and management,
and is a foundational security component to Cisco Borderless Networks.
The Cisco TrustSec security architecture builds secure networks by establishing domains of trusted network
devices. Each device in the domain is authenticated by its peers. Communication on the links between devices
in the domain is secured with a combination of encryption, message integrity check, and data-path replay
protection mechanisms. Cisco TrustSec uses the device and user credentials acquired during authentication
for classifying the packets by security groups (SGs) as they enter the network. This packet classification is
maintained by tagging packets on ingress to the Cisco TrustSec network so that they can be correctly identified
to apply security and other policy criteria along the data path. The tag, called the security group tag (SGT),
allows the network to enforce the access control policy by enabling the endpoint device to act upon the SGT
to filter traffic.
One of the components of Cisco TrustSec architecture is the security group-based access control. In the security
group-based access control component, access policies in the Cisco TrustSec domain are topology-independent,
based on the roles (as indicated by security group number) of source and destination devices rather than on
network addresses. Individual packets are tagged with the security group number of the source.
Cisco devices use the SGT Exchange Protocol (SXP) to propagate SGTs across network devices that do not
have hardware support for Cisco TrustSec. SXP is the software solution to avoid CTS hardware upgrade on
all switches. WLC will be supporting SXP as part of TrustSec Architecture. The SXP sends SGT information
to the CTS-enabled switches so that appropriate role-based access control lists (RBACLs) can be activated
depending on the role information represented by the SGT. By default, the controller always works in the
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Speaker mode. To implement the SXP on a network, only the egress distribution switch needs to be
CTS-enabled, and all the other switches can be non-CTS-capable switches.
The SXP runs between any access layer and distribution switch or between two distribution switches. The
SXP uses TCP as the transport layer. CTS authentication is performed for any host (client) joining the network
on the access layer switch similar to an access switch with CTS-enabled hardware. The access layer switch
is not CTS hardware enabled. Therefore, data traffic is not encrypted or cryptographically authenticated when
it passes through the access layer switch. The SXP is used to pass the IP address of the authenticated device,
that is a wireless client, and the corresponding SGT up to the distribution switch. If the distribution switch is
CTS hardware enabled, the switch inserts the SGT into the packet on behalf of the access layer switch. If the
distribution switch is not CTS hardware enabled, the SXP on the distribution switch passes the IP-SGT mapping
to all the distribution switches that have CTS hardware. On the egress side, the enforcement of the RBACL
occurs at the egress L3 interface on the distribution switch.
The following are some guidelines for Cisco TrustSec SXP:
• SXP is supported on the following security policies only:
◦WPA2-dot1x
◦WPA-dot1x
◦802.1x (Dynamic WEP)
◦MAC Filtering using RADIUS servers
◦Web authentication using RADIUS servers for user authentication
• SXP is supported for both IPv4 and IPv6 clients.
• Controller always operates in the Speaker mode.
For more information about Cisco TrustSec, see http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns1051/index.html.
Restrictions for Cisco TrustSec SXP
• SXP is not supported on FlexConnect access points.
• SXP is supported only in centrally switched networks that have central authentication.
• By default, SXP is supported for APs that work in local mode only.
• The configuration of the default password should be consistent for both controller and the switch.
• Fault tolerance is not supported because fault tolerance requires local switching on APs.
• Static IP-SGT mapping for local authentication of users is not supported.
• IP-SGT mapping requires authentication with external ACS servers.
• In auto-anchor mobility mode the controller does not update client IP-SGT information through mobility
messages. The connected switches of both the controllers must have an SXP connection established
between them for IP-SGT mapping updates.
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Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec SXP to open the SXP Configuration page. This page lists the following SXP configuration
details:
• Total SXP Connections—Number of SXP connections that are configured.
• SXP State—Status of SXP connections as either disabled or enabled.
• SXP Mode—SXP mode of the controller. The controller is always set to Speaker mode for SXP connections.
• Default Password—Password for MD5 authentication of SXP messages. We recommend that the password contain
a minimum of 6 characters.
• Default Source IP—IP address of the management interface. SXP uses the default source IP address for all new
TCP connections.
• Retry Period—SXP retry timer. The default value is 120 seconds (2 minutes). The valid range is 0 to 64000
seconds. The SXP retry period determines how often the controller retries for an SXP connection. When an SXP
connection is not successfully set up, the controller makes a new attempt to set up the connection after the SXP
retry period timer expires. Setting the SXP retry period to 0 seconds disables the timer and retries are not attempted.
This page also displays the following information about SXP connections:
• Peer IP Address—The IP address of the peer, that is the IP address of the next hop switch to which the controller
is connected. There is no effect on the existing TCP connections when you configure a new peer connection.
• Source IP Address—The IP address of the source, that is the management IP address of the controller.
• Connection Status—Status of the SXP connection.
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
From the SXP State drop-down list, choose Enabled to enable Cisco TrustSec SXP.
Enter the default password that should be used to make an SXP connection. We recommend that the password contain
a minimum of 6 characters.
In the Retry Period box, enter the time in seconds that determines how often the Cisco TrustSec software retries for an
SXP connection.
Click Apply.
Creating a New SXP Connection (GUI)
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Choose SECURITY > TrustSec SXP and click New to open the SXP Connection > New page.
In the Peer IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the next hop switch to which the controller is connected.
Click Apply.
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Configuring Cisco TrustSec SXP (CLI)
• Enable or disable the SXP on the controller by entering this command:
config cts sxp {enable | disable}
• Configure the default password for MD5 Authentication of SXP messages by entering this command:
config cts sxp default password password
• Configure the IP address of the next hop switch with which the controller is connected by entering this
command:
config cts sxp connection peer ip-address
• Configure the interval between connection attempts by entering this command:
config cts sxp retry period time-in-seconds
• Remove an SXP connection by entering this command:
config cts sxp connection delete ip-address
• See a summary of SXP configuration by entering this command:
show cts sxp summary
Information similar to the following appears:
SXP State........................................
SXP Mode.........................................
Default Password.................................
Default Source IP................................
Connection retry open period ....................
Enable
Speaker
****
209.165.200.224
120
• See the list of SXP connections that are configured by entering this command:
show cts sxp connections
Information similar to the following appears:
Total num of SXP Connections..................... 1
SXP State........................................ Enable
Peer IP
Source IP
Connection Status
--------------------------------------------209.165.200.229
209.165.200.224
On
• Establish connection between the controller and a Cisco Nexus 7000 Series switch by following either
of these steps:
◦Enter the following commands:
1 config cts sxp version sxp version 1 or 2 1
2 config cts sxp disable
3 config cts sxp enable
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◦If SXP version 2 is used on the controller and version 1 is used on the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series
switch, an amount of retry period is required to establish the connection. We recommend that you
initially have less interval between connection attempts. The default is 120 seconds.
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61
Configuring Cisco Intrusion Detection System
• Information About Cisco Intrusion Detection System, page 485
• Additional Information, page 486
• Configuring IDS Sensors (GUI), page 486
• Viewing Shunned Clients (GUI), page 487
• Configuring IDS Sensors (CLI), page 487
• Viewing Shunned Clients (CLI), page 488
Information About Cisco Intrusion Detection System
The Cisco Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System (CIDS/CIPS) instructs controllers to block
certain clients from accessing the wireless network when attacks involving these clients are detected at Layer
3 through Layer 7. This system offers significant network protection by helping to detect, classify, and stop
threats including worms, spyware/adware, network viruses, and application abuse. Two methods are available
to detect potential attacks:
• IDS sensors
• IDS signatures
You can configure IDS sensors to detect various types of IP-level attacks in your network. When the sensors
identify an attack, they can alert the controller to shun the offending client. When you add a new IDS sensor,
you register the controller with that IDS sensor so that the controller can query the sensor to get the list of
shunned clients.
Shunned Clients
When an IDS sensor detects a suspicious client, it alerts the controller to shun this client. The shun entry is
distributed to all controllers within the same mobility group. If the client to be shunned is currently joined to
a controller in this mobility group, the anchor controller adds this client to the dynamic exclusion list, and the
foreign controller removes the client. The next time that the client tries to connect to a controller, the anchor
controller rejects the handoff and informs the foreign controller that the client is being excluded.
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Additional Information
The Cisco wireless intrusion prevention system (wIPS) is also supported on the controller through Cisco Prime
Infrastructure. See the Configuring wIPS section for more information.
Configuring IDS Sensors (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > Advanced > CIDs > Sensors to open the CIDS Sensors List page.
Note
If you want to delete an existing sensor, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that sensor and
choose Remove.
Step 2
Step 3
Click New to add a new IDS sensor to the list. The CIDS Sensor Add page appears.
Step 4
Step 5
In the Server Address text box, enter the IP address of your IDS server.
In the Port text box, enter the number of the HTTPS port through which the controller has to communicate with the IDS
sensor.
We recommend that you set this parameter to 443 because the sensor uses this value to communicate by default. The
default value is 443 and the range is 1 to 65535.
Step 6
In the Username text box, enter the name that the controller uses to authenticate to the IDS sensor.
From the Index drop-down list, choose a number (between 1 and 5) to determine the sequence in which the controller
consults the IDS sensors. For example, if you choose 1, the controller consults this IDS sensor first.
The controller supports up to five IDS sensors.
Example:
Note
Step 7
Step 8
Step 9
Step 10
Step 11
Step 12
This username must be configured on the IDS sensor and have at least a read-only privilege.
In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter the password that the controller uses to authenticate to the
IDS sensor.
In the Query Interval text box, enter the time (in seconds) for how often the controller should query the IDS server for
IDS events.
The default is 60 seconds and the range is 10 to 3600 seconds.
Select the State check box to register the controller with this IDS sensor or unselected this check box to disable registration.
The default value is disabled.
Enter a 40-hexadecimal-character security key in the Fingerprint text box. This key is used to verify the validity of the
sensor and is used to prevent security attacks.
Note
Make sure you include colons that appear between every two bytes within the key. For example, enter
AA:BB:CC:DD.
Click Apply. Your new IDS sensor appears in the list of sensors on the CIDS Sensors List page.
Click Save Configuration.
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Viewing Shunned Clients (GUI)
Step 1
Choose Security > Advanced > CIDS > Shunned Clients to open the CIDS Shun List page.
This page shows the IP address and MAC address of each shunned client, the length of time that the client’s data packets
should be blocked by the controller as requested by the IDS sensor, and the IP address of the IDS sensor that discovered
the client.
Step 2
Click Re-sync to purge and reset the list as desired.
Note
The controller does not take any action on shun entries when the corresponding timers have expired. The shun
entry timers are maintained only for the display purpose. The shun entries are cleaned up whenever the controller
polls the IPS server. If the CIDS IPS server is not reachable, the shun entries are not removed even if they are
timed out on the controller. The shun entries are cleaned up only when the CIDS IPS server is operational again
and the controller polls the CIDS IPS server.
Configuring IDS Sensors (CLI)
Step 1
Add an IDS sensor by entering this command:
config wps cids-sensor add index ids_ip_address username password. The index parameter determines the sequence
in which the controller consults the IDS sensors. The controller supports up to five IDS sensors. Enter a number (between
1 and 5) to determine the priority of this sensor. For example, if you enter 1, the controller consults this IDS sensor first.
Note
The username must be configured on the IDS sensor and have at least a read-only privilege.
Step 2
(Optional) Specify the number of the HTTPS port through which the controller is to communicate with the IDS sensor
by entering this command:
config wps cids-sensor port index port
For the port-number parameter, you can enter a value between 1 and 65535. The default value is 443. This step is optional
because we recommend that you use the default value of 443. The sensor uses this value to communicate by default.
Step 3
Step 4
Specify how often the controller should query the IDS server for IDS events by entering this command:
config wps cids-sensor interval index interval
For the interval parameter, you can enter a value between 10 and 3600 seconds. The default value is 60 seconds.
Enter a 40-hexadecimal-character security key used to verify the validity of the sensor by entering this command:
config wps cids-sensor fingerprint index sha1 fingerprint
You can get the value of the fingerprint by entering show tls fingerprint on the sensor’s console.
Note
Make sure to include the colons that appear between every two bytes within the key (for example,
AA:BB:CC:DD).
Step 5
Enable or disable this controller’s registration with an IDS sensor by entering this command:
config wps cids-sensor {enable | disable} index
Step 6
Enable or disable protection from DoS attacks by entering this command:
The default value is disabled.
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A potential attacker can use specially crafted packets to mislead the IDS into treating a legitimate client as an
attacker. It causes the controller to wrongly disconnect this legitimate client and launches a DoS attack. The
auto-immune feature, when enabled, is designed to protect against such attacks. However, conversations using
Cisco 792x phones might be interrupted intermittently when the auto-immune feature is enabled. If you experience
frequent disruptions when using 792x phones, you might want to disable this feature.
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Note
Step 7
Step 8
See the IDS sensor configuration by entering one of these commands:
• show wps cids-sensor summary
• show wps cids-sensor detail index
Step 9
Step 10
The second command provides more information than the first.
See the auto-immune configuration setting by entering this command:
show wps summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Auto-Immune
Auto-Immune.................................... Disabled
Client Exclusion Policy
Excessive 802.11-association failures..........
Excessive 802.11-authentication failures.......
Excessive 802.1x-authentication................
IP-theft.......................................
Excessive Web authentication failure...........
Signature Policy
Signature Processing...........................
Step 11
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Obtain debug information regarding IDS sensor configuration by entering this command:
debug wps cids enable
Note
If you ever want to delete or change the configuration of a sensor, you must first disable it by entering the config
wps cids-sensor disable index command. To delete the sensor, enter the config wps cids-sensor delete index
command.
Viewing Shunned Clients (CLI)
Step 1
View the list of clients to be shunned by entering this command:
show wps shun-list
Step 2
Force the controller to synchronize with other controllers in the mobility group for the shun list by entering this command:
config wps shun-list re-sync
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Note
The controller does not take any action on shun entries when the corresponding timers have expired. The shun
entry timers are maintained only for the display purpose. The shun entries are cleaned up whenever the controller
polls the IPS server. If the CIDS IPS server is not reachable, the shun entries are not removed even if they are
timed out on the controller. The shun entries are cleaned up only when the CIDS IPS server is operational again
and the controller polls the CIDS IPS server.
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