Determination of the Effect of Activated Carbon in Water

Determination of the Effect of Activated Carbon in
Water Treatment Processes
Prof. Selvin Peter, University College of the North( UCN)
Danielle Garrioch, Undergraduate Student, UCN
Rakesh Patel, Science Technician, UCN
1
Introduction:
Potable water quality is an important determinant factor for human
health. If water is contaminated with diesel, it needs to be removed
to avoid health effects. One of the methods involves using
activated carbon due its porosity and surface properties- large
surface area for adsorption per gram( Activated Carbon, n.d)
2
Normal Parameters Measured:
residual chlorine, pH, turbidity, Coliform/E-coli
concentrations, Dissolved Oxygen content
3
Parameters not routinely measured:
trihalomethane, pharmaceuticals and other organics such
as diesel
Toluene C6H5CH3, ethylbenzene C6H5CH2CH3, and
xylenes, C6H4(CH3)2 (along with benzene, C6H6) are part
of the aromatic fraction in gasoline and diesel fuel.
4
Health effects:
Maximum allowable limit 1 mg/L in water and in air 0.1
mg/L. Health effects: neurological, renal, hepatic and other
tissues, reproductive and developmental disorders (
Health Canada, 2014),
5
Sources of Organics/Diesel:
soil/ground or surface water contamination from the past
diesel spill or an accidental leak from the diesel engines or
tanks.
Pukatawagon ( Mathias Colomb): Diesel spill
North Saskatchewan River- husky oil spill
Shamattawa First Nation- fuel spill
Sayisi Dene First Nation- fuel spill
PHC= petroleum hydrocarbons-oil, gas, diesel and other petroleum based
products
6
Removal of Diesel:
• remove the organic/diesel particles using activated carbon.
• Removing organic matters before disinfection is recommended(
Health Canada, September 2014)
• Controlled experiments will be done by preparing emulsions of
diesel -water mixture and the removal of diesel using activated
carbon as a filter medium.
7
Procedure: eight samples were prepared with the
following concentrations:
0.011 ml of diesel in 1L water( 11 ppm)
0.033 ml of diesel in 1L water
0.066 ml drops of diesel in 1L water
100 µl (0.1 ml ) of diesel in 1L water( 100 ppm)
0.5 ml of diesel in 1L water
1.0 ml of diesel in 1L water
5.0 ml of diesel in 1L water
10.0 ml of diesel in 1L water
8
Procedure continued:
• Samples were stirred for 7 mins to make the
emulsion.
• 70 ml of these samples were taken to pass
through a 70 g of activated carbon filter
bed/medium.
• the vacuum pump was started and the filtrate
collected
9
Procedure continued:
• A drop of filtrate was placed on a microscopic
slide and examined.
• The corresponding untreated drop of sample
was placed on a slide and examined
10
Filtration Setup
Vacuum pump on the left
Filter unit with activated carbon on
the right.
Results:
Qualitative
There is no smell of gasoline in the activated carbon
treated samples except for the 10 ml in IL.
Semi- Quantitative:
Under microscope before and after treatment were
compared.
12
Experimental Results:
13
14
15
:
16
Particle Analyzer:
• Comparison of Obscuration of untreated versus
activated carbon treated
• For example, 5% obscuration means 5% of the incident
laser beam has been lost through scattering or
absorption.
• 0% obscuration for the activated carbon treated water
indicating no diesel present
• Detector captures scattering
17
Result Analysis Report
Sample Name:
5 ml before treatment - Average
SOP Name:
RakeshD
Measured:
Wednesday, May 17, 2017 11:42:36 AM
Sample Source & type:
Factory = Paris
Measured by:
Mastersizer 2000
Analysed:
Wednesday, May 17, 2017 11:42:37 AM
Sample bulk lot ref:
123-ABC
Result Source:
Averaged
Particle Name:
Waterdroplets
Accessory Name:
Hydro 2000S (A)
Analysis model:
General purpose
Particle RI:
1.330
Dispersant Name:
Water
Absorption:
0.01
Dispersant RI:
1.330
Size range:
0.020
to 2000.000
Weighted Residual:
17.055
%
Concentration:
0.0139
%Vol
Span :
55.630
Uniformity:
13.5
Specific Surface Area:
5.02
m²/g
Surface Weighted Mean D[3,2]:
1.194
um
Vol. Weighted Mean D[4,3]:
22.511
um
d(0.1):
0.564
um
d(0.5):
1.600
um
Sensitivity:
Enhanced
um
Obscuration:
4.73
%
Result Emulation:
Off
Result units:
Volume
d(0.9):
89.569
um
Particle Size
7
D i st r i b u t i o n
6
Volume (%)
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.01
0.1
1
100
1000
3000
10
Particle Size (µm)
5 ml before treatment - Average, Wednesday, May 17, 2017 11:42:36 AM
Operator notes:
18
Malvern Instruments Ltd.
Malvern, UK
Mastersizer 2000 Ver. 5.22
Serial Number : MAL102060
File name: Rakesh
Record Number: 36
Result Analysis Report
Sample Name:
5ml after treatment - Average
SOP Name:
RakeshD
Measured:
Wednesday, May 17, 2017 11:30:09 AM
Sample Source & type:
Factory = Paris
Measured by:
Mastersizer 2000
Analysed:
Wednesday, May 17, 2017 11:30:10 AM
Sample bulk lot ref:
123-ABC
Result Source:
Averaged
Particle Name:
Waterdroplets
Accessory Name:
Hydro 2000S (A)
Analysis model:
General purpose
Particle RI:
1.330
Dispersant Name:
Water
Absorption:
0.01
Dispersant RI:
1.330
Size range:
0.020
to 2000.000
Weighted Residual:
22.158
%
Concentration:
0.0000
%Vol
Span :
11.368
Uniformity:
3.55
Specific Surface Area:
7.34
m²/g
Surface Weighted Mean D[3,2]:
0.818
um
Vol. Weighted Mean D[4,3]:
16.548
um
d(0.1):
0.300
um
d(0.5):
4.284
um
Sensitivity:
Enhanced
um
Obscuration:
0.00
%
Result Emulation:
Off
Result units:
Volume
d(0.9):
49.002
um
Particle Size D i st r i b u t i o n
3
Volume (%)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.01
0.1
100
1
1000
3000
1
0
Particle Size (µm)
5ml after treatment - Average, Wednesday, May 17, 2017 11:30:09 AM
Operator notes:
19
Malvern Instruments Ltd.
Malvern, UK
Mastersizer 2000 Ver. 5.22
Serial Number : MAL102060
File name: Rakesh
Record Number: 28
Further Work:
• Pilot scale activated carbon column for the study(
McCabe et al., 2005).
• Plant Data Analysis.
Pimicikamak First Nation- Uses Activated Carbon; however, the system is down.
Moose Lake (Mosakahiken) : No activated carbon bed as part of the treatment process
Pine Creek and Pukatawagon(Mathias Colomb) – no activated carbon bed
• Theoretical Analysis and Simulation
Effect of porosity of the particles, porosity of the bed and the bed height
20
References
Health Canada (2014). Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical
Document — Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes. Water and Air Quality Bureau, Healthy
Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. (Catalogue No
H144-20/2015E-PDF).
Activated Carbon- Properties of GAC( n.d) extracted from http://www.tigg.com/Library/ActivatedCarbon-Properties-of-GAC.pdf
Health Canada( September, 2014) Field Reference Manual: Non- Microbiological Drinking Water
Quality Parameters .Health Canada First Nations Inuit Health Branch
McCabe, W.L . Smith, J.C and Harriet, P ( 2005) Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering
, 7the
21
Edition, McGraw Hill, Toronto
Any questions? Please contact:
S. Peter UCN
speter@ucn.ca 627-8627 ext 5;
1-866-627-8500 ext 4070
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Acknowledgement:
Oscar Lathlin Research Library – faculty and staff, particularly
the librarian Heather Smith
Harvey Briggs, Dean, FABS
Richardson Center, University of Manitoba
CREATE H2O for funding an undergraduate student
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