Technical White Paper
HUAWEI SAN Storage Host
Connectivity Guide for SUSE Linux
OceanStor Storage
SUSE Linux
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
2017-08-15
Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2017. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior
written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
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The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Address:
Huawei Industrial Base
Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China
Website:
http://e.huawei.com
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About This Document
About This Document
Overview
This document details the configuration methods and precautions for connecting Huawei
SAN storage devices to SUSE Linux hosts.
Intended Audience
This document is intended for:

Huawei technical support engineers

Technical engineers of Huawei's partners
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About This Document
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Italic
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Contents
Contents
About This Document .................................................................................................................... ii
1 SUSE Operating System .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Introduction to SUSE .................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 File Systems in SUSE ................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.1 Supported File Systems ............................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2.2 Checking the Mounted File Systems ......................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Directory Structures in SUSE ....................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Common Management Commands ............................................................................................................................... 3
1.5 Version .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.6 Interoperability Between SUSE Linux and Storage Systems ....................................................................................... 3
1.7 Specifications ................................................................................................................................................................ 4
2 Network Planning ......................................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Non-HyperMetro Network ........................................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.1 Fibre Channel Networking Diagram .......................................................................................................................... 6
2.2.2 iSCSI Network Diagram ............................................................................................................................................ 9
2.3 HyperMetro Network .................................................................................................................................................. 11
2.3.1 Fibre Channel Networking Diagram ........................................................................................................................ 11
3 Preparations Before Configuration (on a Host)..................................................................... 14
3.1 Identifying HBAs........................................................................................................................................................ 14
3.1.1 SUSE 9.0 ................................................................................................................................................................. 14
3.1.2 SUSE 10 and Later Versions .................................................................................................................................... 15
3.2 Querying HBA Properties ........................................................................................................................................... 15
4 Preparations Before Configuration (on a Storage System) ................................................. 16
5 Configuring Switches................................................................................................................. 17
5.1 Fibre Channel Switch ................................................................................................................................................. 17
5.1.1 Querying the Switch Model and Version ................................................................................................................. 17
5.1.2 Configuring Zones ................................................................................................................................................... 20
5.1.3 Precautions............................................................................................................................................................... 23
5.2 Ethernet Switch ........................................................................................................................................................... 24
5.2.1 Configuring VLANs ................................................................................................................................................ 24
5.2.2 Binding Ports ........................................................................................................................................................... 25
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5.3 FCoE Switch ............................................................................................................................................................... 27
5.3.2 Command Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 27
5.3.3 Creating a VSAN ..................................................................................................................................................... 30
5.3.4 Creating a VLAN ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
5.3.5 Configuring a Port and Adding It to the VLAN ....................................................................................................... 32
5.3.6 Creating a Zone and Adding the Port to It ............................................................................................................... 33
5.3.7 Creating a Zoneset and Adding the Created Zone to It ............................................................................................ 34
6 Establishing Fibre Channel Connections ............................................................................... 36
6.1 Checking Topology Modes ......................................................................................................................................... 36
6.1.1 DeviceManager OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series Enterprise Storage System.................................... 36
6.1.2 OceanStor T V1 Storage System .............................................................................................................................. 37
6.2 Adding Initiators ......................................................................................................................................................... 37
6.3 Establishing Connections ............................................................................................................................................ 38
7 Establishing iSCSI Connections .............................................................................................. 39
7.1 Checking iSCSI Software on the Host ........................................................................................................................ 39
7.2 Configuring Service IP Addresses .............................................................................................................................. 42
7.2.1 Configuring IP Addresses on the Storage System .................................................................................................... 42
7.2.2 Configuring IP Addresses on Hosts ......................................................................................................................... 44
7.3 Configuring Initiators on a Host ................................................................................................................................. 47
7.4 Configuring Initiators on a Storage System ................................................................................................................ 48
7.4.1 OceanStor T Series Storage System ......................................................................................................................... 48
7.4.2 OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series Enterprise Storage System .............................................................. 53
7.4.3 Adding an Initiator to a Host .................................................................................................................................... 56
7.5 Scanning for LUNs on a Host ..................................................................................................................................... 57
7.6 Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................................................... 58
7.6.1 Failed to Restart the Host After iSCSI Connections Are Established ...................................................................... 58
8 Mapping and Using LUNs ........................................................................................................ 60
8.1 Mapping LUNs to a Host ............................................................................................................................................ 60
8.1.1 OceanStor T Series Storage System ......................................................................................................................... 60
8.1.2 OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series Enterprise Storage System .............................................................. 61
8.2 Scanning for LUNs on a Host ..................................................................................................................................... 62
8.3 Using the Mapped LUNs ............................................................................................................................................ 63
8.4 Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................................................... 63
8.4.1 LUN Information Failed to Be Updated After LUN Replacement .......................................................................... 64
8.4.2 LUN Capacity Failed to Be Updated After Being Changed .................................................................................... 64
8.4.3 Drive Letter Changes After Link Down for a Long Time ........................................................................................ 64
9 Multipathing Management ....................................................................................................... 66
9.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................................................... 66
9.2 Software Functions ..................................................................................................................................................... 66
9.2.1 Redundancy ............................................................................................................................................................. 66
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9.2.2 Performance Enhancement ...................................................................................................................................... 66
9.3 Supported Storage Systems......................................................................................................................................... 67
9.4 Software Components ................................................................................................................................................. 67
9.5 Installation and Startup ............................................................................................................................................... 67
9.5.1 Installing the Software Package ............................................................................................................................... 67
9.5.2 Configuring the Configuration File ......................................................................................................................... 67
9.5.3 Enabling DM-Multipath .......................................................................................................................................... 68
9.5.4 Setting DM-Multipath to Start with the System ...................................................................................................... 68
9.6 Configuring the Multipathing Function ...................................................................................................................... 68
9.6.1 Multipathing Configuration for New-Version HUAWEI Storage ............................................................................ 69
9.6.2 Multipathing Configuration for Old-Version HUAWEI Storage ............................................................................. 80
9.7 Common Maintenance Commands ............................................................................................................................. 82
9.7.1 Viewing the Multipath Status ................................................................................................................................... 82
9.7.2 Deleting Multipath Information ............................................................................................................................... 82
9.7.3 Displaying Detailed Multipath Information ............................................................................................................. 82
9.7.4 Interactive Command ............................................................................................................................................... 86
10 Volume Management ............................................................................................................... 87
10.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................................................. 87
10.2 LVM Installation ....................................................................................................................................................... 87
10.3 Common Configuration Commands ......................................................................................................................... 87
10.3.1 Creating a Physical Volume ................................................................................................................................... 87
10.3.2 Changing the Size of a Physical Volume ............................................................................................................... 90
10.3.3 Creating a Volume Group ...................................................................................................................................... 91
10.3.4 Expanding a Volume Group ................................................................................................................................... 91
10.3.5 Creating a Logical Volume .................................................................................................................................... 92
10.3.6 Creating a File System ........................................................................................................................................... 94
10.3.7 Expanding a Logical Volume ................................................................................................................................. 95
10.3.8 Compressing a Logical Volume ............................................................................................................................. 96
10.3.9 Activating a Volume Group.................................................................................................................................... 96
10.3.10 Deactivating a Volume Group .............................................................................................................................. 97
10.3.11 Exporting a Volume Group .................................................................................................................................. 97
10.3.12 Importing a Volume Group .................................................................................................................................. 97
10.3.13 Deleting a Logical Volume .................................................................................................................................. 97
10.3.14 Deleting a Volume Group .................................................................................................................................... 98
10.3.15 Deleting a Physical Volume ................................................................................................................................. 99
11 Host High-Availability .......................................................................................................... 100
11.1 Overview................................................................................................................................................................. 100
11.2 Working Principle ................................................................................................................................................... 100
11.3 Installation and Configuration ................................................................................................................................ 101
11.4 Cluster Maintenance ............................................................................................................................................... 101
11.4.1 Starting a Cluster .................................................................................................................................................. 101
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11.4.2 Stopping a Cluster ................................................................................................................................................ 101
11.4.3 Checking Cluster Status ....................................................................................................................................... 101
11.4.4 Packet Service Switchover ................................................................................................................................... 102
A Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................................ 103
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Figures
Figures
Figure 1-1 Interoperability query page .................................................................................................................. 4
Figure 1-2 OceanStor Interoperability Navigator ............................................................................................. 4
Figure 2-2 Fibre Channel multi-path directly connected network diagram (dual-controller)................................ 7
Figure 2-3 Fibre Channel multi-path directly connected network diagram (four-controller) ................................ 7
Figure 2-4 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected network diagram (dual-controller) ................................. 8
Figure 2-5 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected network diagram (four-controller) ................................. 8
Figure 2-6 iSCSI multi-path directly connected network diagram (dual-controller) ............................................. 9
Figure 2-7 iSCSI multi-path directly connected network diagram (four-controller) ............................................. 9
Figure 2-8 iSCSI multi-path switch-connected network diagram (dual-controller) ............................................ 10
Figure 2-9 iSCSI multi-path switch-connected network diagram (four-controller) ............................................ 11
Figure 2-10 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected networking diagram (dual-controller) ........................ 12
Figure 2-11 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected networking diagram (four-controller) ........................ 13
Figure 5-1 Switch information ............................................................................................................................ 18
Figure 5-2 Switch port indicator status................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 5-3 Zone tab page ..................................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 5-4 Zone configuration............................................................................................................................. 22
Figure 5-5 Zone Config tab page ......................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 5-6 Name Server page .............................................................................................................................. 23
Figure 5-7 DeviceManager Provisioning page ................................................................................................... 26
Figure 5-8 Bond Ports page................................................................................................................................ 26
Figure 5-9 Process for configuring an FCoE switch ........................................................................................... 27
Figure 6-1 Fibre Channel port details .................................................................................................................. 37
Figure 6-2 Fibre Channel port details .................................................................................................................. 37
Figure 7-1 YaST tool interface ............................................................................................................................ 40
Figure 7-2 Software management ....................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 7-3 Querying the iscsi software................................................................................................................ 40
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Figures
Figure 7-4 ISCSI software package ..................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 7-5 Installing the software ........................................................................................................................ 41
Figure 7-6 Installing the software ........................................................................................................................ 41
Figure 7-7 Exiting from the YaST tool ................................................................................................................ 42
Figure 7-8 Modifying IPv4 addresses ................................................................................................................. 43
Figure 7-9 Choosing network devices ................................................................................................................. 44
Figure 7-10 Configuring network settings ........................................................................................................... 45
Figure 7-11 Choosing a network adapter ............................................................................................................. 45
Figure 7-12 Configuring the network adapter ..................................................................................................... 45
Figure 7-13 Configuring the IP address and subnet mask ................................................................................... 46
Figure 7-14 Activating the configuration ............................................................................................................ 46
Figure 7-15 Selecting an initiator ........................................................................................................................ 49
Figure 7-16 Adding an initiator to the host .......................................................................................................... 49
Figure 7-17 Initiator CHAP configuration........................................................................................................... 50
Figure 7-18 CHAP Configuration dialog box...................................................................................................... 50
Figure 7-19 Create CHAP dialog box ................................................................................................................. 51
Figure 7-20 Assigning the CHAP account to the initiator ................................................................................... 51
Figure 7-21 Setting CHAP status ........................................................................................................................ 52
Figure 7-22 Enabling CHAP ............................................................................................................................... 52
Figure 7-23 Initiator status after CHAP is enabled .............................................................................................. 52
Figure 9-1 Going to the host configuration page ................................................................................................. 74
Figure 9-2 Selecting an initiator of which information you want to modify ....................................................... 75
Figure 9-3 Modifying initiator information ......................................................................................................... 75
Figure 9-4 ALUA-enabled multipathing configuration (1) ................................................................................. 78
Figure 9-5 ALUA-enabled multipathing configuration (2) ................................................................................. 78
Figure 9-6 ALUA-disabled multipathing configuration (1) ................................................................................ 79
Figure 9-7 ALUA-disabled multipathing configuration (2) ................................................................................ 79
Figure 9-8 ALUA-disabled multipathing configuration (3) ................................................................................ 80
Figure 9-9 Enabling ALUA for T series V100R005/Dorado2100/Dorado5100/Dorado2100 G2 ....................... 80
Figure 9-10 Enabling ALUA for T Series V200R002/18000 Series/V3 Series ................................................... 81
Figure 9-11 Multipathing configuration for HUAWEI T series storage .............................................................. 81
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Tables
Tables
Table 1-1 Commonly used directories in SUSE Linux .......................................................................................... 2
Table 1-2 Common SUSE Linux commands ......................................................................................................... 3
Table 1-3 Major specifications of SUSE Linux ..................................................................................................... 5
Table 2-1 Networking modes ................................................................................................................................. 6
Table 5-1 Mapping between switch types and names .......................................................................................... 18
Table 5-2 Comparison of link aggregation modes ............................................................................................... 25
Table 7-1 Initiator parameters .............................................................................................................................. 54
Table 7-2 Initiator parameters .............................................................................................................................. 56
Table 9-1 DM-Multipath components ................................................................................................................. 67
Table 9-2 HUAWEI storage's support for ALUA ................................................................................................ 71
Table 9-3 Initiator parameter description ............................................................................................................. 72
Table 9-4 Multipathing configuration on non-HyperMetro Huawei storage interconnected with SUSE ............ 76
Table 9-5 Multipathing configuration on HyperMetro Huawei storage interconnected with SUSE ................... 77
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1
1 SUSE Operating System
SUSE Operating System
1.1 Introduction to SUSE
SUSE Linux is a computer operating system developed by Novell. This operating system
mainly applies to x86 and x86-64 platforms.
1.2 File Systems in SUSE
1.2.1 Supported File Systems
SUSE Linux supports the following file systems:

ext4
The fourth extended file system (ext4) is a journaled file system for Linux, developed as
the successor to ext3. This file system is the fourth edition of ext or extfs for Linux. ext 4
is supported since Linux kernel 2.6.28. As an optimized version of ext3, ext4 modifies
some major data structures in ext3. The size of ext4 is up to 1 EB and the maximum file
size is 16 TB.

ext3
The third extended file system (ext3) a journaled file system developed by the
open-source community. This file system supports multiple log types and is highly
available. As an extension of ext2, ext3 is compatible with ext2. The size of ext3 is up to
16 TB and the maximum file size is 2 TB.

ext2
The second extended file system (ext2) is a standard file system for Linux. ext2 is an
extension of the Minix file system. ext2 has outstanding file access capability,
particularly in processing small and medium-sized files. This file system is gradually
replaced by ext3.

tmpfs
tmpfs is a memory-based file system similar to a virtual disk. Like a virtual disk, tmpfs
can use RAM and swap space for storage. Virtual disks are block devices available only
after being formatted by mkfs. Differently, tmpfs is a file system available immediately
being installed. tmpfs is the best RAM-based file system.

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cramfs
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1 SUSE Operating System
The compressed ROM file system (cramfs) does not compress all contents in it to the
memory at a time. During data access, this file system first locates the requested data and
then decompresses the data to the memory in real time. The data is accessed in the
memory instead of in the file system.
1.2.2 Checking the Mounted File Systems
You can run the following command to view the types of the mounted file systems:
linux-epl0:~ # df -Th
Filesystem
Type
Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1
ext4
272G
34G 224G 13% /
tmpfs
tmpfs
7.8G
96K 7.8G 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sdd
ext3
20G 173M 19G 1% /mnt/file_sdd
/dev/sdf
ext3
20G 173M 19G 1% /mnt/file_sdf
linux-epl0:~ #
The preceding output shows that all mounted file systems are ext4 and ext3.
1.3 Directory Structures in SUSE
Directory structures vary with the Linux version. However, directory structures of all Linux
operating systems comply with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (HFS). All Linux systems
use a layered-directory structure, which is called a file tree. In a file tree, directories are root
nodes, which orderly organize data and programs in groups. Files are leaf nodes owned by
directories.
Table 1-1 describes the commonly used directories in SUSE Linux.
Table 1-1 Commonly used directories in SUSE Linux
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Directory
Description
/dev
Device file
/etc
System configuration file, excluding executable files
/home
User directory
/mnt
Local installation directory
/opt
Application directory
/sbin
Directory that stores commands used in system startup and file system
installation
/tmp
Directory that stores temporary files of the operating system
/usr
Directory that stores shared operating system commands, library files, and
documents
/var
Directory that stores dynamic information such as log files and buffer files
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1.4 Common Management Commands
Table 1-2 lists the management commands used for connecting a SUSE Linux host to a
Huawei storage system.
Table 1-2 Common SUSE Linux commands
Command
Function
df
Views the file system size and usage.
fdisk /dev/sd#
Partitions sd# disks.
cat
/sys/class/scsi_host/host*/modelname
Views the Fibre Channel HBA model.
cat /sys/class/scsi_host/host*/fwrev
Views the Fibre Channel HBA firmware.
ifconfig
Configures network port parameters.
lvdisplay -v /dev/vgname/lvname
Views details about lvname.
mount
Mounts a logical volume.
shutdown -h now
Shuts down the host.
shutdown -ry 0
Restarts the host.
vgdisplay -v vgname
Views details about vgname.
vgscan
Scans for volume groups in the system.
The pound (#) in the table indicates a number that can be specified based on actual conditions.
1.5 Version
Run the following command to query the operating system version:
linux-epl0:~ # cat /etc/SuSE-release
SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 (x86_64)
VERSION = 11
PATCHLEVEL = 2
The output indicates that the operating system version is SUSE 11 SP2.
1.6 Interoperability Between SUSE Linux and Storage
Systems
When connecting a storage system to a SUSE Linux host, consider the interoperability of
upper-layer applications and components (such as storage systems, SUSE Linux systems,
HBAs, and switches) in the environment.
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1 SUSE Operating System
You can query the latest compatibility information by performing the following steps:
Step 1 Log in to the website support-open.huawei.com.
Step 2 On the home page, choose Interoperability Center > Storage Interoperability.
Figure 1-1 Interoperability query page
Then, the OceanStor Interoperability Navigator is displayed.
Figure 1-2 OceanStor Interoperability Navigator
----End
1.7 Specifications
SUSE Linux has different specifications for LUNs and LUN paths. Specifications vary with
the SUSE Linux version. Table 1-3 lists the major specifications of SUSE Linux.
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1 SUSE Operating System
Table 1-3 Major specifications of SUSE Linux
Category
Number of
LUNs
Operating
System
Layer
HBA (per Initiator)
Kernel
SLES9
256 – Default, 32768 - Max
(Emulex)
-
256 (QLogic)
256 (Brocade)
SLES10
256 – Default, 32768 - Max
(Emulex)
SLES 10 SP3:8192
65536 (QLogic)
256 (Brocade)
SLES11
256 – Default, 32768 - Max
(Emulex)
65536 (QLogic)
SLES 11 SP3:
16,384 LUNs per
target
256 (Brocade)
SLES12
256 – Default, 32768 - Max
(Emulex)
65536 (QLogic)
SLES 12 SP2:
16,384 LUNs per
target
256 (Brocade)
File system
(SLES11SP3 is
used as an
example)
Type
Max. File System Size
Max. File Size
Ext3
16 TB
2 TB
OCFS2
164 TB
1 EB
ReiserFS v3.6
16 TB
1 EB
XFS
8 EB
8 EB
NFSv2
8 EB
2 GB
NFSv3
8 EB
8 EB
The table lists only part of specifications. Specifications vary with the SUSE Linux version.
For details, see:
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
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Storage Administration Guide

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Storage Administration Guide
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2 Network Planning
2
Network Planning
SUSE Linux hosts and storage systems can be networked based on different criteria. Table 2-1
describes the typical networking modes.
Table 2-1 Networking modes
Criteria
Networking Mode
Interface module type
Fibre Channel network or iSCSI network
Whether switches are used
Directly connected network (with no switches used) or
switch-connected network (with switches used)
Whether multiple paths exist
Single-path network or multi-path network
Whether HyperMetro is used
HyperMetro network, or non-HyperMetro network
The Fibre Channel network is the most widely used network for SUSE Linux operating
systems. To ensure service data security, both directly connected network and
switch-connected network are multi-path networks.
The following details commonly used Fibre Channel and iSCSI networks.
2.2 Non-HyperMetro Network
2.2.1 Fibre Channel Networking Diagram
2.2.1.1 Multi-Path Directly Connected Network
Huawei provides dual-controller and multi-controller storage systems, whose network
diagrams differ. The following describes network diagrams of dual-controller and
multi-controller storage systems respectively.
2.2.1.1.1 Dual-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor S5500T as an example to explain how to connect a
SUSE Linux host to a storage system over a Fibre Channel multi-path directly connected
network, as shown in Figure 2-2.
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2 Network Planning
Figure 2-1 Fibre Channel multi-path directly connected network diagram (dual-controller)
On this network, both controllers of the storage system are connected to the host's HBAs through optical
fibers.
2.2.1.1.2 Multi-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor 18800 (four-controller) as an example to explain
how to connect a SUSE Linux host to a storage system over a Fibre Channel multi-path
directly connected network, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2 Fibre Channel multi-path directly connected network diagram (four-controller)
On this network, the four controllers of the storage system are connected to the host's HBAs through
optical fibers.
2.2.1.2 Multi-Path Switch-connected Network
Huawei provides dual-controller and multi-controller storage systems, whose network
diagrams differ. The following describes network diagrams of dual-controller and
multi-controller storage systems respectively.
2.2.1.2.1 Dual-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor S5500T as an example to explain how to connect a
SUSE Linux host to a storage system over a Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected
network, as shown in Figure 2-3.
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2 Network Planning
Figure 2-3 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected network diagram (dual-controller)
On this network, the storage system is connected to the host via two switches. Both controllers of the
storage system are connected to the switches through optical fibers and both switches are connected to
the host through optical fibers. To ensure the connectivity between the host and the storage system, each
zone contains only one storage port and its corresponding host port.
2.2.1.2.2 Multi-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor 18800 (four-controller) as an example to explain
how to connect a SUSE Linux host to a storage system over a Fibre Channel multi-path
switch-connected network, as shown in Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected network diagram (four-controller)
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On this network, the storage system is connected to the host via two switches. All controllers of the
storage system are connected to the switches through optical fibers and both switches are connected to
the host through optical fibers. To ensure the connectivity between the host and the storage system, each
zone contains only one storage port and its corresponding host port.
2.2.2 iSCSI Network Diagram
2.2.2.1 Multi-Path Directly Connected Network
Huawei provides dual-controller and multi-controller storage systems, whose network
diagrams differ. The following describes network diagrams of dual-controller and
multi-controller storage systems respectively.
2.2.2.1.1 Dual-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor S5500T as an example to explain how to connect a
SUSE Linux host to a storage system over an iSCSI multi-path directly connected network, as
shown in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5 iSCSI multi-path directly connected network diagram (dual-controller)
On this network, both controllers of the storage system are connected to the host's network adapter
through Ethernet cables.
2.2.2.1.2 Multi-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor 18800 (four-controller) as an example to explain
how to connect a SUSE Linux host to a storage system over an iSCSI multi-path directly
connected network, as shown in Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-6 iSCSI multi-path directly connected network diagram (four-controller)
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On this network, the four controllers of the storage system are connected to the host's network adapter
through Ethernet cables.
2.2.2.2 Multi-Path Switch-connected Network
Huawei provides dual-controller and multi-controller storage systems, whose network
diagrams differ. The following describes network diagrams of dual-controller and
multi-controller storage systems respectively.
2.2.2.2.1 Dual-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor S5500T as an example to explain how to connect a
SUSE Linux host to a storage system over an iSCSI multi-path switch-connected network, as
shown in Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7 iSCSI multi-path switch-connected network diagram (dual-controller)
On this network, the storage system is connected to the host via two Ethernet switches. Both controllers
of the storage system are connected to the switches through Ethernet cables and both switches are
connected to the host's network adapter through Ethernet cables. To ensure the connectivity between the
host and the storage system, each VLAN contains only one storage port and its corresponding host port.
2.2.2.2.2 Multi-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor 18800 (four-controller) as an example to explain
how to connect a SUSE Linux host to a storage system over an iSCSI multi-path
switch-connected network, as shown in Figure 2-8.
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Figure 2-8 iSCSI multi-path switch-connected network diagram (four-controller)
On this network, the storage system is connected to the host via two Ethernet switches. All controllers of
the storage system are connected to the switches through Ethernet cables and both switches are
connected to the host's network adapter through Ethernet cables. To ensure the connectivity between the
host and the storage system, each VLAN contains only one storage port and its corresponding host port.
2.3 HyperMetro Network
HyperMetro using the OS native multipathing function has the following networking
requirements:

Uses the multi-path switch-connected networking by default.

In the switches' zone configuration, allows a zone to only contain one initiator and one
target.
You are advised to use dual-switch networking to prevent single points of failure.
2.3.1 Fibre Channel Networking Diagram
2.3.1.1 Multi-Path Switch-Connected Network
Huawei provides dual-controller and multi-controller storage systems, whose network
diagrams differ. The following describes network diagrams of dual-controller and
multi-controller storage systems respectively.
2.3.1.1.1 Dual-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor 6800 V3 (dual-controller) as an example to explain
how to connect a SuSE Linux host to a storage system over a Fibre Channel multi-path
switch-connected network, as shown in Figure 2-9.
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Figure 2-9 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected networking diagram (dual-controller)
On this network, the storage system is connected to the host via two switches. The two storage systems'
two controllers are connected to the switches through optical fibers and both switches are connected to
the host through optical fibers. To ensure the connectivity between the host and the storage system, each
zone contains only one storage port and its corresponding host port. In this example, the two storage
systems' two controllers are interconnected through optical cables to form replication links. Alternatively,
you can also connect the two controllers through a switch to form replication links.
2.3.1.1.2 Multi-Controller
The following uses HUAWEI OceanStor 6800 V3 (four-controller) as an example to explain
how to connect a SuSE Linux host to a storage system over a Fibre Channel multi-path
switch-connected network, as shown in Figure 2-10.
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Figure 2-10 Fibre Channel multi-path switch-connected networking diagram (four-controller)
On this network, the storage system is connected to the host via two switches. All the two storage
systems' four controllers are connected to the switches through optical fibers and both switches are
connected to the host through optical fibers. To ensure the connectivity between the host and the storage
system, each zone contains only one storage port and its corresponding host port. In this example, the
two storage systems' four controllers are interconnected through optical cables to form replication links.
Alternatively, you can also connect the four controllers through two switches to form replication links.
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3
3 Preparations Before Configuration (on a Host)
Preparations Before Configuration (on a
Host)
Before connecting a host to a storage system, make sure that the host HBAs are identified and
working correctly. You also need to obtain the WWNs of HBA ports. The WWNs will be used
in subsequent configuration on the storage system.
This chapter details how to check the HBA status and query WWNs of HBA ports.
3.1 Identifying HBAs
After an HBA is installed on a host, run the following command on the host to check whether
the HBA is identified by the host.
linux-epl0:~ # lspci|grep Fibre
03:00.0 Fibre Channel: Emulex Corporation Saturn-X: LightPulse Fibre Channel Host
Adapter (rev 03)
03:00.1 Fibre Channel: Emulex Corporation Saturn-X: LightPulse Fibre Channel Host
Adapter (rev 03)
linux-epl0:~ #
linux-epl0:~ # cat /sys/class/scsi_host/host*/model*name
LPe12002
LPe12002
The output indicates that the host has identified two Fibre Channel host ports and that the
HBA model is Emulex LPe12002.
The method for viewing the HBA WWN varies according to the operating system type. The
following describes the methods on different operating systems.
3.1.1 SUSE 9.0
View /proc/scsi/qla2xxx/* and filter information using adapter-port as the keyword:
# cat /proc/scsi/qla2xxx/* | grep adapter-port
scsi-qla0-adapter-port=21000018822c8a2c;
scsi-qla1-adapter-port=21000018822c8a2d;
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3.1.2 SUSE 10 and Later Versions
View the content of the /sys/class/fc_host/host*/port_name file. The WWN information of
the Fibre Channel HBA is in the file.
# cat /sys/class/fc_host/host*/port_name
0x210000e08b907955
0x210000e08b902856
3.2 Querying HBA Properties
After the host identifies a newly installed HBA, you can view properties of the HBA on the
host. Use the management software provided by the HBA vendor to view the properties. For
details about how to view the properties, see the configuration guide provided by the vendor.
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4
4 Preparations Before Configuration (on a Storage System)
Preparations Before Configuration (on a
Storage System)
Make sure that RAID groups, LUNs, and hosts are correctly created on the storage systems.
These configurations are common and therefore not detailed here.
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5
5 Configuring Switches
Configuring Switches
SUSE Linux hosts and storage systems can be connected over a Fibre Channel
switch-connected network, an iSCSI switch-connected network, or Fibre Channel over
Ethernet (FCoE) network. This chapter describes how to configure a Fibre Channel switch, an
Ethernet switch, and an FCoE switch.
5.1 Fibre Channel Switch
The commonly used Fibre Channel switches are mainly from Brocade and QLogic. The
following uses a Brocade switch as an example to explain how to configure switches.
5.1.1 Querying the Switch Model and Version
Perform the following steps to query the switch model and version:
Step 1 Log in to the Brocade switch from a web page.
On the web page, enter the IP address of the Brocade switch. The Web Tools switch login
dialog box is displayed. Enter the account and password. The default account and password
are admin and password. The switch management page is displayed.
CAUTION
Web Tools works correctly only when Java 1.6 or later is installed on the host.
Step 2 View the switch information.
On the switch management page that is displayed, click Switch Information. The switch
information is displayed, as shown in Figure 5-1.
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Figure 5-1 Switch information
Note the following parameters:

Fabric OS version: indicates the switch version information. The interoperability
between switches and storage systems varies with the switch version. Only switches of
authenticated versions can interconnect correctly with storage systems.

Type: This parameter is a decimal consists of an integer and a decimal fraction. The
integer indicates the switch model and the decimal fraction indicates the switch template
version. You only need to pay attention to the switch model. Table 5-1 describes switch
model mapping.
Table 5-1 Mapping between switch types and names
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Switch
Type
Switch Name
Switch
Type
Switch Name
1
Brocade 1000 Switch
58
Brocade 5000 Switch
2,6
Brocade 2800 Switch
61
Brocade 4424 Embedded
Switch
3
Brocade 2100, 2400 Switches
62
Brocade DCX Backbone
4
Brocade 20x0, 2010, 2040,
2050 Switches
64
Brocade 5300 Switch
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Switch
Type
Switch Name
Switch
Type
Switch Name
5
Brocade 22x0, 2210, 2240,
2250 Switches
66
Brocade 5100 Switch
7
Brocade 2000 Switch
67
Brocade Encryption Switch
9
Brocade 3800 Switch
69
Brocade 5410 Blade
10
Brocade 12000 Director
70
Brocade 5410 Embedded
Switch
12
Brocade 3900 Switch
71
Brocade 300 Switch
16
Brocade 3200 Switch
72
Brocade 5480 Embedded
Switch
17
Brocade 3800VL
73
Brocade 5470 Embedded
Switch
18
Brocade 3000 Switch
75
Brocade M5424 Embedded
Switch
21
Brocade 24000 Director
76
Brocade 8000 Switch
22
Brocade 3016 Switch
77
Brocade DCX-4S
Backbone
26
Brocade 3850 Switch
83
Brocade 7800 Extension
Switch
27
Brocade 3250 Switch
86
Brocade 5450 Embedded
Switch
29
Brocade 4012 Embedded
Switch
87
Brocade 5460 Embedded
Switch
32
Brocade 4100 Switch
90
Brocade 8470 Embedded
Switch
33
Brocade 3014 Switch
92
Brocade VA-40FC Switch
34
Brocade 200E Switch
95
Brocade VDX 6720-24
Data Center Switch
37
Brocade 4020 Embedded
Switch
96
Brocade VDX 6730-32
Data Center Switch
38
Brocade 7420 SAN Router
97
Brocade VDX 6720-60
Data Center Switch
40
Fibre Channel Routing (FCR)
Front Domain
98
Brocade VDX 6730-76
Data Center Switch
41
Fibre Channel Routing,
(FCR) Xlate Domain
108
Dell M8428-k FCoE
Embedded Switch
42
Brocade 48000 Director
109
Brocade 6510 Switch
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Switch
Type
Switch Name
Switch
Type
Switch Name
43
Brocade 4024 Embedded
Switch
116
Brocade VDX 6710 Data
Center Switch
44
Brocade 4900 Switch
117
Brocade 6547 Embedded
Switch
45
Brocade 4016 Embedded
Switch
118
Brocade 6505 Switch
46
Brocade 7500 Switch
120
Brocade DCX 8510-8
Backbone
51
Brocade 4018 Embedded
Switch
121
Brocade DCX 8510-4
Backbone
55.2
Brocade 7600 Switch

Ethernet IPv4: indicates the switch IP address.

Effective Configuration: indicates the currently effective configurations. This parameter
is important and is related to zone configurations. In this example, the currently effective
configuration is ss.
----End
5.1.2 Configuring Zones
Zone configuration is important for Fibre Channel switches. The zone configurations differ
with the switch vendor, model, and version. For details, refer to the specific switch's
Configuration Guide. With the Brocade 300 switch as an example, the zone configuration
steps are as follows:
Step 1 Log in to the Brocade switch from a web page. This step is the same as that in section 5.1.1
"Querying the Switch Model and Version."
Step 2 Check the switch port status.
Normally, the switch port indicators are steady green, as shown in Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2 Switch port indicator status
If the port indicators are abnormal, check the topology mode and rate. Proceed with the next
step after all indicators are normal.
Step 3 Go to the Zone Admin page.
On the menu bar of the switch, choose Configure > Zone Admin.
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Step 4 Check whether the switch identifies hosts and storage systems.
On the Zone Admin page, click the Zone tab. In Member Selection List, check whether all
related ports are identified, as shown in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3 Zone tab page
The preceding figure shows that ports 1,16 and 1,17 in use are correctly identified by the
switch.
Step 5 Create a zone.
When configuring a zone, you can add a switch to a zone by the switch port or the switch
ports' connected device WWN. This section describes zone configuration by WWN.
On the Zone tab page, click New Zone to create a new zone and name it R910_2. Select the
device WWN numbers of ports 1,3 (connecting the storage system) and 1,17 (connecting the
host), and click Add Member to add them to the new zone, as shown in Figure 5-4.
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Figure 5-4 Zone configuration
Step 6 Add the new zone to the configuration file and activate the new zone.
On the Zone Admin page, click the Zone Config tab. In the Name drop-down list, choose the
currently effective configuration Dell_R910.
In Member Selection List, select zone R910_2 and click Add Member to add it to the
configuration file.
Click Save Config to save the configuration and click Enable Config to make the
configuration effective.
Figure 5-5 shows the Zone Config page.
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Figure 5-5 Zone Config tab page
Step 7 Verify that the configuration takes effect.
In the navigation tree of Web Tools, choose Task > Monitor > Name Server to go to the
Name Server page. You can also choose Monitor > Name Server in the navigation bar.
Figure 5-6 shows the Name Server page.
Figure 5-6 Name Server page
The preceding figure shows that the WWNs have been added to the zone that is now effective.
An effective zone is marked by an asterisk (*).
----End
5.1.3 Precautions
Note the following when connecting a Brocade switch to a storage system at a rate of 8
Gbit/s:

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The topology mode of the storage system must be set to switch.
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
5 Configuring Switches
fill word of ports through which the switch is connected to the storage system must be
set to 0. To configure this parameter, run the portcfgfillword <port number> 0
command on the switch.
Note the following when connecting a Brocade switch to a storage system at a rate of 8
Gbit/s:

When the switch is connected to module HP VC 8Gb 20-port FC or HP VC
FlexFabric 10Gb/24-port, change the switch configuration. For details, refer to the HP
Virtual Connect FlexFabric Cookbook:
http://h20564.www2.hpe.com/hpsc/doc/public/display?docId=c02616817
5.2 Ethernet Switch
This section describes how to configure Ethernet switches, including VLAN configuration
and port binding.
5.2.1 Configuring VLANs
On an Ethernet network to which many hosts are connected, a large number of broadcast
packets are generated during the host communication. Broadcast packets sent from one host
will be received by all other hosts on the network, consuming more bandwidth. Moreover, all
hosts on the network can access each other, resulting data security risks.
To save bandwidth and prevent security risks, hosts on an Ethernet network are divided into
multiple logical groups. Each logical group is a VLAN. The following uses HUAWEI
Quidway 2700 Ethernet switch as an example to explain how to configure VLANs.
In the following example, two VLANs (VLAN 1000 and VLAN 2000) are created. VLAN
1000 contains ports GE 1/0/1 to 1/0/16. VLAN 2000 contains ports GE 1/0/20 to 1/0/24.
Step 1 Go to the system view.
<Quidway>system-view
System View: return to User View with Ctrl+Z.
Step 2 Create VLAN 1000 and add ports to it.
[Quidway]VLAN 1000
[Quidway-vlan1000]port GigabitEthernet 1/0/1 to GigabitEthernet 1/0/16
Step 3 Configure the IP address of VLAN 1000.
[Quidway-vlan1000]interface VLAN 1000
[Quidway-Vlan-interface1000]ip address 1.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
Step 4 Create VLAN 2000, add ports, and configure the IP address.
[Quidway]VLAN 2000
[Quidway-vlan2000]port GigabitEthernet 1/0/20 to GigabitEthernet 1/0/24
[Quidway-vlan2000]interface VLAN 2000
[Quidway-Vlan-interface2000]ip address 2.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
----End
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5.2.2 Binding Ports
When storage systems and hosts are connected in point-to-point mode, existing bandwidth
may be insufficient for storage data transmission. Moreover, devices cannot be redundantly
connected in point-to-point mode. To address these problems, ports are bound (link
aggregation). Port binding can improve bandwidth and balance load among multiple links.
5.2.2.1 Link Aggregation Modes
Three Ethernet link aggregation modes are available:

Manual aggregation
Manually run a command to add ports to an aggregation group. Ports added to the
aggregation group must have the same link type.

Static aggregation
Manually run a command to add ports to an aggregation group. Ports added to the
aggregation group must have the same link type and LACP enabled.

Dynamic aggregation
The protocol dynamically adds ports to an aggregation group. Ports added in this way
must have LACP enabled and the same speed, duplex mode, and link type.
Table 5-2 compares the three link aggregation modes.
Table 5-2 Comparison of link aggregation modes
Link Aggregation
Mode
Packet Exchange
Port Detection
CPU Usage
Manual aggregation
No
No
Low
Static aggregation
Yes
Yes
High
Dynamic
aggregation
Yes
Yes
High
5.2.2.2 Procedure
HUAWEI OceanStor storage devices support 802.3ad link aggregation (dynamic aggregation).
In this link aggregation mode, multiple network ports are in an active aggregation group and
work in duplex mode and at the same speed. After binding iSCSI host ports on a storage
device, enable aggregation for their peer ports on a switch. Otherwise, links are unavailable
between the storage device and the switch.
This section uses switch ports GE 1/0/1 and GE 1/0/2 and IOM1 module's ports P0 and P1 as
examples to explain how to bind ports. The two ports on the storage system are
CTE0.A.IOM1.P0 and CTE0.A.IOM1.P1.
The port binding method differs with the OceanStor system version. For details, refer to the
specific storage product documentation. The following steps show how to bind ports (with
OceanStor V3 V300R003 as an example).
Step 1 Log in to the DeviceManager and go to the page for binding ports.
In the DeviceManager navigation tree, choose Provisioning > Port.
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Figure 5-7 DeviceManager Provisioning page
Step 2 Bind ports.
Select the ports that you want to bind and choose Bind Ports > Create in the menu bar.
The Create Bound Port dialog box is displayed. In Name, enter the name for the port to be
bound, select the Controller housing the port, select the target ports, and click OK.
Figure 5-8 Bond Ports page
After the storage system ports are bound, configure link aggregation on the switch. Run the
following command on the switch:
<Quidway>system-view
System View: return to User View with Ctrl+Z.
[Quidway-Switch]interface GigabitEthernet 1/0/1
[Quidway-Switch-GigabitEthernet1/0/19]lacp enable
LACP is already enabled on the port!
[Quidway-Switch-GigabitEthernet1/0/19]quit
[Quidway-Switch]interface GigabitEthernet 1/0/2
[Quidway-Switch-GigabitEthernet1/0/20]lacp enable
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LACP is already enabled on the port!
[Quidway-Switch-GigabitEthernet1/0/20]quit
After the command is executed, LACP is enabled for ports GE 1/0/1 and GE 1/0/2. Then the
ports can be automatically detected and added to an aggregation group.
----End
5.3 FCoE Switch
The configurations of FCoE switches are different from those of FC switches and Ethernet
switches. For details, see the specific switch vendor-provided configuration guide.
Taking Cisco Nexus5548 as an example, Figure 5-9 shows an FCoE configuration process.
Figure 5-9 Process for configuring an FCoE switch
5.3.2 Command Introduction
When using SSH to log in to and manage an FCoE switch, you can have all supported
commands displayed by inputting "?":
switch# ?
callhome
cd
cfs
checkpoint
clear
cli
clock
configure
copy
debug
debug-filter
delete
diff-clean
dir
discover
dos2nxos
echo
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Callhome commands
Change current directory
CFS parameters
Create configuration rollback checkpoint
Reset functions
CLI commands
Manage the system clock
Enter configuration mode
Copy from one file to another
Debugging functions
Enable filtering for debugging functions
Delete a file or directory
Remove temp files created by '| diff' filters
List files in a directory
Discover information
DOS to NXOS text file format converter
Echo argument back to screen (useful for scripts)
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ethanalyzer
Configure cisco packet analyzer
event
Event Manager commands
fcdomain
Fcdomain internal command
fcping
Ping an N-Port
fctrace
Trace the route for an N-Port.
find
Find a file below the current directory
fips
Enable/Disable FIPS mode
gunzip
Uncompresses LZ77 coded files
gzip
Compresses file using LZ77 coding
hardware
Change hardware usage settings
install
Upgrade software
ip
Configure IP features
ipv6
Configure IPv6 features
load
Load system image
locator-led
Turn on locator beacon
mkdir
Create new directory
modem
Modem commands
move
Move files
mping
Run mping
mtrace
Trace multicast path from receiver to source
no
Negate a command or set its defaults
ntp
NTP configuration
ping
Test network reachability
ping6
Test IPv6 network reachability
pktmgr
Display Packet Manager information
purge
Deletes unused data
pwd
View current directory
reload
Reboot the entire box
restart
Manually restart a component
rmdir
Delete a directory
rollback
Rollback configuration
routing-context Set the routing context
run-script
Run shell scripts
san-port-channel Port-Channel related commands
scripting
Configure scripting parameters
send
Send message to open sessions
setup
Run the basic SETUP command facility
show
Show running system information
sleep
Sleep for the specified number of seconds
sockets
Display sockets status and configuration
ssh
SSH to another system
system
System management commands
system
System configuration commands
tac-pac
Save tac info in a compressed .gz file at specific location
tail
Display the last part of a file
tar
Archiving operations
tclsh
Source tclsh script
telnet
Telnet to another system
telnet6
Telnet6 to another system using IPv6 addressing
terminal
Set terminal line parameters
test
Test command
traceroute
Traceroute to destination
traceroute6
Traceroute6 to destination
undebug
Disable Debugging functions (See also debug)
write
Write current configuration
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xml
xml
zone
zoneset
end
exit
pop
push
where
5 Configuring Switches
Xml agent
Module XML agent
Execute Zone Server commands
Execute zoneset commands
Go to exec mode
Exit from command interpreter
Pop mode from stack or restore from name
Push current mode to stack or save it under name
Shows the cli context you are in
switch#
For example, to query the model and version, run the following command:
switch# show version
Cisco Nexus Operating System (NX-OS) Software
TAC support: http://www.cisco.com/tac
Documents:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps9372/tsd_products_support_series_home.html
Copyright (c) 2002-2012, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
The copyrights to certain works contained herein are owned by
other third parties and are used and distributed under license.
Some parts of this software are covered under the GNU Public
License. A copy of the license is available at
http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html.
Software
BIOS:
version 3.5.0
loader:
version N/A
kickstart: version 5.1(3)N1(1a)
system:
version 5.1(3)N1(1a)
power-seq: Module 1: version v1.0
Module 3: version v2.0
uC:
version v1.2.0.1
SFP uC:
Module 1: v1.0.0.0
BIOS compile time:
02/03/2011
kickstart image file is: bootflash:///n5000-uk9-kickstart.5.1.3.N1.1a.bin
kickstart compile time: 2/7/2012 23:00:00 [02/08/2012 07:49:30]
system image file is:
bootflash:///n5000-uk9.5.1.3.N1.1a.bin
system compile time:
2/7/2012 23:00:00 [02/08/2012 12:44:33]
Hardware
cisco Nexus5548 Chassis ("O2 32X10GE/Modular Universal Platform Supervisor")
Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU
with 8263880 kB of memory.
Processor Board ID FOC16256KUW
Device name: switch
bootflash:
2007040 KB
Kernel uptime is 15 day(s), 1 hour(s), 59 minute(s), 8 second(s)
Last reset at 299763 usecs after Wed Feb 18 05:48:07 2009
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Reason: Reset Requested by CLI command reload
System version: 5.1(3)N1(1a)
Service:
plugin
Core Plugin, Ethernet Plugin, Fc Plugin
5.3.3 Creating a VSAN
To create a VSAN on a Cisco Nexus5548 VSAN, do as follows:
Step 1 Activate FCoE.
switch# conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
switch(config)# feature fcoe
fcoe
fcoe-npv
switch(config)# feature fcoe
switch(config)# show fcoe
Global FCF details
FCF-MAC is 54:7f:ee:b4:f8:20
FC-MAP is 0e:fc:00
FCF Priority is 128
FKA Advertisement period for FCF is 8 seconds
Step 2 Create a VSAN.
In the following display, the switch(config-vsan-db)# vsan 200 command in red is the VSAN
create command. Additionally, you can run show vsan command to check whether the VSAN
is created successfully.
switch(config)# show vsan
vsan 1 information
name:VSAN0001 state:active
interoperability mode:default
loadbalancing:src-id/dst-id/oxid
operational state:down
vsan 100 information
name:VSAN0100 state:active
interoperability mode:default
loadbalancing:src-id/dst-id/oxid
operational state:up
vsan 4079:evfp_isolated_vsan
vsan 4094:isolated_vsan
switch(config)# vsan database
switch(config-vsan-db)# vsan 200
switch(config-vsan-db)# exit
switch(config)# show vsan
vsan 1 information
name:VSAN0001 state:active
interoperability mode:default
loadbalancing:src-id/dst-id/oxid
operational state:down
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vsan 100 information
name:VSAN0100 state:active
interoperability mode:default
loadbalancing:src-id/dst-id/oxid
operational state:up
vsan 200 information
name:VSAN0200 state:active
interoperability mode:default
loadbalancing:src-id/dst-id/oxid
operational state:down
vsan 4079:evfp_isolated_vsan
vsan 4094:isolated_vsan
----End
5.3.4 Creating a VLAN
To create a VLAN on a CISCO Nexus5548, do as follows:
Step 1 Check for existing VLANs.
switch(config)# show vlan
VLAN Name
Status
Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1
default
active
Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/4, Eth1/5
Eth1/6, Eth1/7, Eth1/8, Eth1/15
Eth1/21, Eth1/22, Eth1/23
Eth1/24, Eth1/25, Eth1/26
Eth1/27, Eth1/28
100 VLAN0100
active
Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3, Eth1/4
Eth1/5, Eth1/6, Eth1/7, Eth1/8
Eth1/9, Eth1/10, Eth1/11
Eth1/12, Eth1/13, Eth1/14
Eth1/15, Eth1/16, Eth1/17
Eth1/18, Eth1/19, Eth1/20
VLAN Type Vlan-mode
---- ----- ---------1
enet CE
100 enet CE
Remote SPAN VLANs
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Primary Secondary Type
Ports
------- --------- --------------- -------------------------------------------
Step 2 Create a VLAN and check whether the creation is successful.
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switch(config)# vlan 200
switch(config-vlan)# show vlan
VLAN Name
Status
Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1
default
active
Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/4, Eth1/5
Eth1/6, Eth1/7, Eth1/8, Eth1/15
Eth1/21, Eth1/22, Eth1/23
Eth1/24, Eth1/25, Eth1/26
Eth1/27, Eth1/28
100 VLAN0100
active
Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3, Eth1/4
Eth1/5, Eth1/6, Eth1/7, Eth1/8
Eth1/9, Eth1/10, Eth1/11
Eth1/12, Eth1/13, Eth1/14
Eth1/15, Eth1/16, Eth1/17
Eth1/18, Eth1/19, Eth1/20
200 VLAN0200
active
Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/4, Eth1/5
Eth1/6, Eth1/7, Eth1/8, Eth1/15
VLAN Type Vlan-mode
---- ----- ---------1
enet CE
100 enet CE
200 enet CE
Remote SPAN VLANs
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Primary Secondary Type
Ports
------- --------- --------------- -------------------------------------------
----End
5.3.5 Configuring a Port and Adding It to the VLAN
To configure and add a port to a created VLAN, do as follows:
Step 1 Configure the port running mode and add it to the VLAN.
switch (config)# interface ethernet 1/1
switch (config-if)# switchport mode trunk
switch (config-if)# spanning-tree port type edge trunk
Step 2 Create a VFC and bind it to the physical port.
switch (config)# interface vfc 1
switch (config-if)# bind interface ethernet 1/1
switch (config-if)# no shutdown
Step 3 Add the new VFC to the VSAN.
NEXUS(config)# vsan database
NEXUS(config-vsan-db)# vsan 2 interface vfc 1
----End
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5.3.6 Creating a Zone and Adding the Port to It
To create a zone and add a port to it on a CISCO Nexus5548, do as follows:
Step 1 Check the WWN of the FCoE device connected to the CISCO Nexus5548 switch:
switch# show flogi database
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------INTERFACE
VSAN
FCID
PORT NAME
NODE NAME
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------vfc1
100 0x2b0002 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab 20:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
vfc4
100 0x2b0008 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1 20:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1
[lzh1]
vfc5
100 0x2b0007 20:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07 10:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
vfc6
100 0x2b0009 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3 20:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3
[lzh2]
Total number of flogi = 4.
Step 2 On the switch, register a device name for the FCoE device. Then, either the device name or
the WWN can be used during later operations such as zone division.
switch(config)# device-alias database
switch(config-device-alias-db)# device-alias name test1 pwwn 20:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
switch(config-device-alias-db)# device-alias name test2 pwwn 10:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
switch(config-device-alias-db)# device-alias commit
switch(config-device-alias-db)# show device-alias database
device-alias
device-alias
device-alias
device-alias
device-alias
device-alias
name
name
name
name
name
name
lzh1 pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1
lzh2 pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3
lzh3 pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ef
lzh4 pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7
test1 pwwn 20:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
test2 pwwn 10:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
Step 3 Add the device name to the zone.
switch# show zone
zone name zonexzh vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
pwwn 00:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
zone name zonexzh02 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:af
zone name zonexz vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:12:06:03
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ff
zone name lzhzone1 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1 [lzh1]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ef [lzh3]
zone name lzhzone2 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3 [lzh2]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7 [lzh4]
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zone name lzhzone3 vsan 100
switch(config)# zone name lzhzone3 vsan 100
switch(config-zone)# member device-alias test1
switch(config-zone)# member device-alias test2
switch(config-zone)# show zone
zone name zonexzh vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
pwwn 00:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
zone name zonexzh02 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:af
zone name zonexz vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:12:06:03
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ff
zone name lzhzone1 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1 [lzh1]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ef [lzh3]
zone name lzhzone2 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3 [lzh2]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7 [lzh4]
zone name lzhzone3 vsan 100
pwwn 20:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab [test1]
pwwn 10:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07 [test2]
----End
5.3.7 Creating a Zoneset and Adding the Created Zone to It
To create a zoneset and add a zone to it, do as follows:
Step 1 Create a zoneset in the VSAN.
switch(config)# zoneset name lzhzoneset5 vsan 100
switch(config-zoneset)# show zoneset
zoneset name zoneset100 vsan 100
zone name zonexzh vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
pwwn 00:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
zone name zonexzh02 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:af
zone name zonexz vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:12:06:03
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ff
zone name lzhzone1 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1 [lzh1]
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pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ef [lzh3]
zone name lzhzone2 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3 [lzh2]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7 [lzh4]
zoneset name lzhzoneset5 vsan 100
Step 2 Add the zone to the created zoneset.
switch(config-zoneset)# member lzhzone3
switch(config-zoneset)# show zoneset
zoneset name zoneset100 vsan 100
zone name zonexzh vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab
pwwn 00:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07
zone name zonexzh02 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:af
zone name zonexz vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:12:06:03
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ff
zone name lzhzone1 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a1 [lzh1]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:ef [lzh3]
zone name lzhzone2 vsan 100
pwwn 21:00:00:c0:dd:13:e2:a3 [lzh2]
pwwn 20:00:00:07:43:ab:cd:f7 [lzh4]
zoneset name lzhzoneset5 vsan 100
zone name lzhzone3 vsan 100
pwwn 20:00:00:0e:1e:0a:6b:ab [test1]
pwwn 10:00:00:07:43:ab:ce:07 [test2]\
Step 3 Activate the zoneset.
switch (config)# zoneset activate name zoneset_1 vsan 2
zoneset activation initiated. check zone status
WARNING
Generally, for an FCoE switch, only one zoneset can be activated. Therefore, it is advisable to
keep all the zones in a same zoneset, preventing impacts on other services.
----End
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6
6 Establishing Fibre Channel Connections
Establishing Fibre Channel Connections
After connecting a host to a storage system, check the topology modes of the host and the
storage system. Fibre Channel connections are established between the host and the storage
system after host initiators are identified by the storage system. The following describes how
to check topology modes and add initiators.
6.1 Checking Topology Modes
On direct-connection networks, HBAs support specific topology modes. The topology mode
of a storage system must be consistent with that of supported by host HBAs.
You can use the DeviceManager storage management software to manually change the
topology mode of a storage system to that supported by host HBAs. If the storage ports
connected to host HBAs are adaptive, there is no need to manually change the storage system
topology mode.
The method for checking topology modes varies with storage systems. The following
describes how to check the topology mode of the OceanStor T series storage system and the
OceanStor 18000 series enterprise storage system.
6.1.1 DeviceManager OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series
Enterprise Storage System
In the DeviceManager navigation tree, choose System. Then click the device view icon in the
upper right corner. Choose Controller Enclosure ENG0 > Controller > Interface Module >
FC Port and click the port whose details that you want to view, as shown in Figure 6-1.
In the navigation tree, you can see controller A and controller B, each of which has different interface
modules. Choose a controller and an interface module based on actual conditions.
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Figure 6-1 Fibre Channel port details
As shown in Figure 6-1, the port working mode of the OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3
storage system is P2P.
6.1.2 OceanStor T V1 Storage System
Figure 6-2 shows the details about a Fibre Channel port.
Figure 6-2 Fibre Channel port details
As shown in the preceding figure, the topology mode of the OceanStor T series storage
system is Public Loop.
6.2 Adding Initiators
This section describes how to add host HBA initiators on a storage system. Perform the
following steps to add initiators:
Step 1 Check HBA WWNs on the host.
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Step 2 Check host WWNs on the storage system and add the identified WWNs to the host.
The method for checking host WWNs varies with storage systems. The following describes
how to check WWNs on the OceanStor T series storage system and the OceanStor 18000
storage system.

OceanStor T series storage system (V100 and V200R001)
Log in to the DeviceManager and choose SAN Services > Mappings > Initiators in the
navigation tree. In the function pane, check the initiator information. Ensure that the
WWNs in step 1 are identified. If the WWNs are not identified, check the Fibre Channel
port status. Ensure that the port status is normal.

OceanStor 18000/V3 Series Enterprise Storage System
Log in to the DeviceManager and choose Host in the navigation tree. On the Initiator
tab page, click Add Initiator and check that the WWNs in step 1 are found. If the
WWNs are not identified, check the Fibre Channel port status. Ensure that the port status
is normal.
--End
6.3 Establishing Connections
Add the WWNs (initiators) to the host and ensure that the initiator connection status is
Online.
If the initiator status is Online, Fibre Channel connections are established correctly.
If the initiator status is Offline, check the physical links and topology mode.
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7
7 Establishing iSCSI Connections
Establishing iSCSI Connections
IP addresses and iSCSI services need to be configured before you establish iSCSI connections.
The procedure for establishing iSCSI connections is as follows:

Confirm that required software packages are installed on the host.

Configure service IP addresses on the host and the storage system.

Establish iSCSI connections.

Scan for LUNs on the host.

The following details each step in this procedure.
7.1 Checking iSCSI Software on the Host
After SUSE Linux is installed, run the rpm -qa |grep iscsi command to check the iSCSI
software installation.
linux-epl0:~/SPES_FOR_LINUX-2012.08.16 # rpm -qa |grep iscsi
yast2-iscsi-client-2.17.34-0.5.1
open-iscsi-2.0.872-0.35.1
yast2-iscsi-server-2.17.10-0.7.3
The output shows that iSCSI software is installed.
If iSCSI software is not installed or the installed iSCSI software is of an early version, use the
YaST tool to install or upgrade the software.
Step 1 On the command-line interface (CLI), enter yast to start the tool.
linux-epl0:~/open-iscsi-2.0-870.2 # yast
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Figure 7-1 YaST tool interface
In the menu on the left, choose Software, as shown in Figure 7-1.
Step 2 In the menu on the right, choose Software Management, as shown in Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2 Software management
Step 3 In Search, enter iscsi to query the iscsi software, as shown in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3 Querying the iscsi software
Step 4 In the output that is displayed, choose the iscsi software package that you want to install, as
shown in Figure 7-4.
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Figure 7-4 ISCSI software package
Step 5 Choose Action and press Enter. In the menu that is displayed, choose Install, as shown in
Figure 7-5.
Figure 7-5 Installing the software
Step 6 Choose Accept to start the software installation, as shown in Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6 Installing the software
Step 7 After the installation is complete, choose Quit to exit from the YaST tool, as shown in Figure
7-7.
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Figure 7-7 Exiting from the YaST tool
----End
7.2 Configuring Service IP Addresses
Storage systems and hosts use IP addresses to identify each other in iSCSI services. Therefore,
service IP addresses must be configured for storage systems and hosts. The following
describes how to configure service IP addresses for a storage system and a host.
7.2.1 Configuring IP Addresses on the Storage System
Different versions of storage systems support different IP protocols. Specify the IP protocols
for storage systems based on actual storage system versions and application scenarios.
Observe the following principles when configuring IP addresses of iSCSI ports on storage
systems:

The IP addresses of an iSCSI host port and a management network port must reside on
different network segments.

The IP addresses of an iSCSI host port and a heartbeat network port must reside on
different network segments.

The IP addresses of iSCSI host ports on the same controller must reside on different
network segments. In some storage systems of the latest versions, IP addresses of iSCSI
host ports on the same controller can reside on the same network segment. However, this
configuration is not recommended.
CAUTION
Read-only users are not allowed to modify the IP address of an iSCSI host port.
Modifying the IP address of an iSCSI host port will interrupt the services on the port.
The following explains how to configure IPv4 addresses on the OceanStor T series storage
system and the OceanStor 18000 series enterprise storage system.
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7.2.1.1 OceanStor T Series Storage System
In the ISM navigation tree, choose Device Info > Storage Unit > Ports. In the function pane,
click iSCSI Host Ports.
Select a port and choose IP Address > Modify IPv4 Address in the tool bar, as shown in
Figure 7-8.
Figure 7-8 Modifying IPv4 addresses
In the dialog box that is displayed, enter the new IP address and subnet mask and click OK.
7.2.1.2 OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series Enterprise Storage
System
After the network is changed, modify iSCSI host port parameters accordingly. Otherwise, the
communication may be abnormal between storage systems and hosts.
Note the following when modifying iSCSI host ports:

Changing the IP address of an iSCSI host port interrupts services. Therefore, ensure that
the storage system is redundantly connected. If the storage system is not redundantly
connected, stop services on the host. Do not change the IP address of an iSCSI host port
unless necessary.

The IP addresses of an iSCSI host port and a heartbeat network port must reside on
different network segments. The default IP address is 127.127.127.10 or 127.127.127.11
and the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 for the heartbeat network port of the storage
system.

The IP addresses of an iSCSI host port and a management network port must reside on
different network segments.

The IP addresses of an iSCSI host port and a maintenance network port must reside on
different network segments.

The IP address of an iSCSI host port must reside on the same network segment as that of
its connected service network port on the host or that of its connected iSCSI host port on
another storage system. If the network segment has no available IP address, add a route
between them.
Perform the following steps:
Step 1 Go to the iSCSI Host Port dialog box.
1.
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2.
In the basic information area of the function pane, click the device icon.
3.
In the middle function pane, click the cabinet whose iSCSI ports you want to view.
4.
Click the controller enclosure where the desired iSCSI host ports reside. The controller
enclosure view is displayed.
5.
Click
6.
Click the iSCSI host port whose information you want to modify.
7.
The iSCSI Host Port dialog box is displayed.
8.
Click Modify.
to switch to the rear view.
Step 2 Modify the iSCSI host port.
1.
In IPv4 Address or IPv6 Address, enter the IP address of the iSCSI host port.
2.
In Subnet Mask or Prefix, enter the subnet mask or prefix of the iSCSI host port.
3.
In MTU (Byte), enter the maximum size of data packet that can be transferred between
the iSCSI host port and the host. The value is an integer ranging from 1500 to 9216.
Step 3 Confirm the iSCSI host port modification.
1.
Click Apply. The Danger dialog box is displayed.
2.
Carefully read the contents of the dialog box. Then click the check box next to the
statement I have read the previous information and understood subsequences of the
operation to confirm the information.
3.
Click OK. The Success dialog box is displayed, indicating that the operation succeeded.
4.
Click OK.
----End
7.2.2 Configuring IP Addresses on Hosts
This section describes how to use the YaST tool to configure IP addresses. Perform the
following steps:
Step 1 Go to the YaST tool management interface and choose Network Devices, as shown in Figure
7-9.
Figure 7-9 Choosing network devices
Step 2 Choose Network Settings to configure the network, as shown in Figure 7-10.
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Figure 7-10 Configuring network settings
Step 3 Choose the network adapter that you want to configure, as shown in Figure 7-11.
Figure 7-11 Choosing a network adapter
Step 4 Press Tab to choose Edit, as shown in Figure 7-12.
Figure 7-12 Configuring the network adapter
Step 5 Enter the IP address and subnet mask, as shown in Figure 7-13.
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Figure 7-13 Configuring the IP address and subnet mask
Choose Next in the lower right corner.
Step 6 After configuring the network, choose OK on the Network Settings screen to activate the
configuration, as shown in Figure 7-14.
Figure 7-14 Activating the configuration
Step 7 After IP addresses are configured for hosts and storage systems, run the ping command to
check the link connectivity. If the link connectivity is poor, check the physical links and IP
address configurations.
[root@root ~]# ping 100.100.100.2
PING 100.100.100.2 (100.100.100.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 100.100.100.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.607 ms
64 bytes from 100.100.100.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.181 ms
64 bytes from 100.100.100.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.159 ms
^C
--- 100.100.100.2 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2399ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.159/0.315/0.607/0.207 ms
----End
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7.3 Configuring Initiators on a Host
Run the iscsiadm command to configure host initiators.
Step 1 Start the iSCSI service.
linux-epl0:~ # /etc/init.d/open-iscsi start
Loading iscsi modules:
Starting iSCSI initiator service:
Setting up iSCSI targets:
done
done
unused
Step 2 View the host initiator information.
[root@root ~]#cat /etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi
InitiatorName=iqn.2012-10.com.example:d0104b56adc6
The output shows that the name of the host initiator is
iqn.2012-10.com.example:d0104b56adc6.
An iSCSI initiator name must comply with the following format:
iqn.domaindate.reverse.domain.name:optional name
An iSCSI initiator name contains only:

Special characters: hyphens (-), periods (.), and semicolons (:)

Lower-case letters, for example, a to z

Digits, for example, 0 to 9
An iSCSI initiator name can contain a maximum of 223 characters.
CAUTION
In some operating systems, the host initiator name is left blank. You need to configure this
parameter by modifying a configuration file or using the YaST tool.
Step 3 Query targets.
For example, if the service IP address of the storage port is 100.100.100.2, run the following
command on the host to query targets:
linux-epl0:~ # iscsiadm -m discovery -t st -p 100.100.100.2
100.100.100.2:3260,260
iqn.2006-08.com.huawei:oceanstor:21000022a10b7bb2::20103:100.100.100.2
Step 4 Log in to the target.
linux-epl0:~ # iscsiadm -m node -p 100.100.100.2 -l
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.2006-08.com.huawei:oceanstor:21000022a10b7bb2::20103:100.100.100.2, portal:
100.100.100.2,3260] (multiple)
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.2006-08.com.huawei:oceanstor:21000022a10b7bb2::20103:100.100.100.2, portal:
100.100.100.2,3260] successful.
Step 5 Configure the open-iscsi service to run upon system startup.
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linux-epl0:~ # chkconfig open-iscsi on
Step 6 If CHAP authentication is not required between the storage system and host, the host initiator
configuration is completed. If CHAP authentication is required, run the iscsiadm command.
linux-epl0:~ #iscsiadm –m node -o update -p 100.100.100.2 –n
node.session.auth.authmethod -v CHAP
linux-epl0:~ # iscsiadm -m node -o update -p 100.100.100.2 -n node.session.auth.username
-v root
linux-epl0:~ # iscsiadm -m node -o update -p 100.100.100.2 -n node.session.auth.password
-v huawei123456
linux-epl0:~ # /etc/init.d/open-iscsi restart
Stopping iSCSI daemon:
iscsid dead but pid file exists
[ OK ]
Turning off network shutdown. Starting iSCSI daemon:
[ OK ]
[ OK ]
Setting up iSCSI targets: Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.2006-08.com.huawei:oceanstor:21000022a10b7bb2::100.100.100.2-20100, portal:
100.100.100.2,3260]
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.2006-08.com.huawei:oceanstor:21000022a10b7bb2::100.100.100.2-20100, portal:
100.100.100.2,3260]: successful
[ OK ]
When executing the iscsiadm command, the user name and password are required. The user name and
password are those of the initiator added to the storage system. If the user name and password are
inconsistent, connections will fail to be established between the storage system and the host.
The command syntax is as follows:
iscsiadm -m node -o update -p targetip -n node.session.auth.authmethod -v CHAP
iscsiadm -m node -o update -p targetip -n node.session.auth.username -v username
iscsiadm -m node -o update -p targetip -n node.session.auth.password -v password
This command is also applicable to adding CHAP authentication to multiple targets.
You are advised to run the iscsiadm command to modify related parameters. Do not modify the
parameters using the configuration file.
----End
7.4 Configuring Initiators on a Storage System
Initiators configured on a host are identified by the ISM. You need to manually add the
identified initiators to the host on the ISM.
7.4.1 OceanStor T Series Storage System
Perform the following steps to configure initiators on the OceanStor T series storage system:
Step 1 In the ISM navigation tree, choose SAN Services > Mappings > Initiators. In the function
pane, select the initiator that you want to add to the host and click Add to Host, as shown in
Figure 7-15.
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Figure 7-15 Selecting an initiator
Step 2 Select the host to which the initiator is added.
Figure 7-16 Adding an initiator to the host
Step 3 If CHAP authentication is not required between the storage system and host, the host initiator
configuration is completed. If CHAP authentication is required, proceed with the following
steps to configure CHAP authentication on the storage system.
Step 4 In the ISM navigation tree, choose SAN Services > Mappings > Initiators. In the function
pane, select the initiator whose CHAP authentication you want to configure and choose
CHAP > CHAP Configuration in the navigation bar, as shown in Figure 7-17.
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Figure 7-17 Initiator CHAP configuration
Step 5 In the CHAP Configuration dialog box that is displayed, click Create in the lower right
corner, as shown in Figure 7-18.
Figure 7-18 CHAP Configuration dialog box
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In the Create CHAP dialog box that is displayed, enter the CHAP user name and password,
as shown in Figure 7-19.
Figure 7-19 Create CHAP dialog box
The CHAP user name contains 4 to 25 characters and the password contains 12 to 16 characters. The
limitations to CHAP user name and password vary with storage systems. For details, see the help
documentation of corresponding storage systems.
Assign the CHAP user name and password to the initiator, as shown in Figure 7-20.
Figure 7-20 Assigning the CHAP account to the initiator
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Step 6 Enable the CHAP account that is assigned to the host.
In the ISM navigation tree, choose SAN Services > Mappings > Initiators. In the function
pane, select the initiator whose CHAP account is to be enabled and choose CHAP > Status
Settings in the navigation bar, as shown in Figure 7-21.
Figure 7-21 Setting CHAP status
In the Status Settings dialog box that is displayed, choose Enabled from the CHAP Status
drop-down list, as shown in Figure 7-22.
Figure 7-22 Enabling CHAP
On the ISM, view the initiator status, as shown in Figure 7-23.
Figure 7-23 Initiator status after CHAP is enabled
----End
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7.4.2 OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series Enterprise
Storage System
The procedure for configuring initiators on the OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 series
enterprise storage system is as follows:
1.
Create a host.
2.
Create an initiator.
3.
Modify an initiator.
4.
Add the initiator to the host.
The following details each step in this procedure.
7.4.2.1 Creating a Host
Step 1 Go to the Host Properties dialog box.
On the right navigation bar, click
.
1.
On the host management page, click Host. The Host page is displayed.
2.
Select the host that you want to modify and click Properties. The Host Properties
dialog box is displayed.
Step 2 Modify the general properties of the host.
1.
Click the General tab.
2.
In Name, enter a name for the host.
To ensure compatibility with the software running on the host, ensure that the host name complies with
the following rules:
1.
The name must be unique.
2.
The name can contain only letters, digits, periods (.), underscores (_), and hyphens (-).
3.
The name must contain 1 to 31 characters.
3.
(Optional) In Description, describe the host.
4.
From the OS drop-down list, select an operating system for the new host.
5.
(Optional) In IP address, enter the IP address of the host.
6.
(Optional) In Location, enter the location of the host.
Step 3 Click Owning Host Group to learn about the information about the host group to which the
host belongs.
Step 4 Confirm the modification of the host properties.
1.
Click OK. The Result dialog box is displayed, indicating that the operation succeeded.
2.
Click Close.
----End
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7.4.2.2 Creating an Initiator
This operation enables you to create an initiator for a storage device.
Step 1 Go to the Create Initiator dialog box.
On the right navigation bar, click
.
1.
On the host management page, click Host.
2.
Select the host to which an initiator is added, right-click the host, and choose Add
Initiator. The Add Initiator dialog box is displayed.
3.
Click Create. The Create Initiator dialog box is displayed.
Step 2 Set the properties of the initiator. Table 7-1 describes the related parameters.
Table 7-1 Initiator parameters
Parameter
Description
Value
Type
Type of an initiator.
Example:
Fibre Channel
WWN or IQN
Globally unique identifier of an initiator.
Example:
2000000743abcdff
Alias
Alias of an initiator.
Example:
FC1_ALIAS
Enable ALUA
Multipathing mode of an initiator.
Example:
ALUA
Enable CHAP
Authentication
To enable CHAP authentication for the selected
iSCSI initiator, select Enable CHAP
Authentication.
Example:
-
This parameter is available only when the initiator
type is iSCSI.
If you want to enable CHAP authentication for the selected iSCSI initiator, select the Enable CHAP
Authentication check box and set CHAP name, Password, and Confirm Password.
1.
The CHAP name contains 4 to 25 characters.
2.
The password contains 12 to 16 characters.
3.
The password must contain at least two of the following types of characters:

Uppercase letters

Lowercase letters

Digits

Special characters including spaces:
`~!@#$%^&*()-_=+\|[{}];:'",<.>/?
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The password cannot be the same as the CHAP user name or the mirror writing of the user name.
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Step 3 Click OK. You have finished creating an initiator.
----End
7.4.2.3 Modifying an Initiator
This operation enables you to modify the properties of an initiator.
Step 1 Go to the Modify Initiator dialog box.
On the right navigation bar, click
.
1.
On the host management page, click Host. The Host page is displayed.
2.
Select the host whose initiator you want to modify. In the Details area, click the
Initiator tab.
3.
Select the initiator to be modified and click Modify. The Modify Initiator dialog box is
displayed.
Step 2 Modify the properties of the initiator. Table 7-2 describes the related parameters.
Table 7-2 Initiator parameters
Parameter
Description
Value
Alias
Alias of an initiator.
Example:
Initiator01
Enable ALUA
Multipathing mode of an initiator.
Example:
ALUA
Enable CHAP
Authentication
To enable CHAP authentication for the selected
iSCSI initiator, select Enable CHAP
Authentication.
Example:
-
This parameter is available only when the initiator type is
iSCSI.
Step 3 Confirm the modification of the initiator's properties.
1.
Click OK. The Success dialog box is displayed, indicating that the operation succeeded.
2.
Click OK.
----End
7.4.3 Adding an Initiator to a Host
This operation enables you to add an initiator to a host.
Step 1 Go to the Add Initiator dialog box.
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On the right navigation bar, click
7 Establishing iSCSI Connections
.
1.
On the host management page, click Host. The Host page is displayed.
2.
Select the host to which an initiator is added and click Add Initiator. The Add Initiator
dialog box is displayed.
Step 2 Select the initiator that you want add to the host.
1.
In the Available Initiators area, select one or more initiators based on site requirements.
2.
Click
to add the selected initiators to the Selected Initiators area.
If there are no initiators available in the Available Initiators area, you need to create initiators. For
details, see the procedure for creating an initiator.
Step 3 Confirm the initiator adding.
1.
Click OK. The Danger dialog box is displayed.
2.
Carefully read the contents of the dialog box. Then click the check box next to the
statement I have read the warning message carefully to confirm the information.
3.
Click OK. The Result dialog box is displayed, indicating that the operation succeeded.
4.
Click Close.
----End
7.5 Scanning for LUNs on a Host
Run the rescan-scsi-bus.sh script on a SUSE host to scan for LUNs.
If rescan-scsi-bus.sh is not found, run the rpm -qa | grep sg3 command to check whether
sg3_utils-libs-xx-xx and sg3_utils-xx-xx are installed. If they are not installed, install them.
Perform the following steps to scan for LUNs:
Step 1 Add LUNs to the host on the storage system and then run the following command on the host
to scan for the LUNs.
[root@root ~]# rescan-scsi-bus.sh
Host adapter 0 (megaraid_sas) found.
Host adapter 1 (ata_piix) found.
Host adapter 10 (iscsi_tcp) found.
Host adapter 2 (ata_piix) found.
Host adapter 3 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 4 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 5 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 6 (bnx2i) found.
Scanning SCSI subsystem for new devices
Scanning host 0 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7, all LUNs
Scanning for device 0 2 0 0 ...
OLD: Host: scsi0 Channel: 02 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: DELL
Model: PERC H700
Rev: 2.10
Type: Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
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Scanning host 1 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7, all LUNs
Scanning for device 1 0 0 0 ...
OLD: Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: TSSTcorp Model: DVD-ROM SN-108BB Rev: D150
Type: CD-ROM
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Scanning host 2 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7, all LUNs
Scanning host 3 for all SCSI target IDs, all LUNs
Scanning host 4 for all SCSI target IDs, all LUNs
Scanning host 5 for all SCSI target IDs, all LUNs
Scanning host 6 for all SCSI target IDs, all LUNs
Scanning host 10 for all SCSI target IDs, all LUNs
Scanning for device 10 0 0 0 ...
OLD: Host: scsi10 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: HUAWEI Model: S2600T
Rev: 2105
Type: Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 04
0 new device(s) found.
0 device(s) removed.
Step 2 Query LUN information on the host.
linux-epl0:~ # fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 598.8 GB, 598879502336 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72809 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sda1 *
/dev/sda2
Start
1
14
End
13
72809
Blocks Id System
104391 83 Linux
584733870
8e Linux LVM
Disk /dev/sdb: 104 MB, 104857600 bytes
4 heads, 50 sectors/track, 1024 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 200 * 512 = 102400 bytes
If the newly added LUNs cannot be identified on the host, perform as follows:

Restart the open-iscsi service: Run the /etc/init.d/open-iscsi restart command to restart
the service.

Re-log in to the iSCSI initiator: Run the iscsiadm -m node –u and iscsiadm -m node –l
commands to log out of and log in to the iSCSI initiator.
----End
7.6 Troubleshooting
7.6.1 Failed to Restart the Host After iSCSI Connections Are
Established
7.6.1.1 Symptom
The host failed to restart after iSCSI connections are set up between the host and the storage
system.
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7.6.1.2 Root Cause
After the /etc/init.d/open-iscsi stop command is executed on the host, the session is not
closed.
7.6.1.3 Solution
Disconnect the iSCSI links before restarting the host.
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8 Mapping and Using LUNs
Mapping and Using LUNs
8.1 Mapping LUNs to a Host
After a storage system is connected to a SUSE Linux host, map the storage system LUNs to
the host.
Two methods are available for mapping LUNs:

Mapping LUNs to a host: This method is applicable to scenarios where only one
small-scale client is deployed.

Mapping LUNs to a host group: This method is applicable to cluster environments or
scenarios where multiple clients are deployed.
The method for mapping LUNs varies with storage systems. The following describes how to
map LUNs of the OceanStor T series storage system and the OceanStor 18000 series
enterprise storage system.
8.1.1 OceanStor T Series Storage System
8.1.1.1 Prerequisites
RAID groups have been created on the storage system. LUNs have been created on the RAID
groups.
8.1.1.2 Procedure
This document explains how to map LUNs to a host. Perform the following steps to map
LUNs to a host:
Step 1 In the ISM navigation tree, choose SAN Services > Mappings >Hosts.
Step 2 In the function pane, select the desired host. In the navigation bar, choose Mapping > Add
LUN Mapping. The Add LUN Mapping dialog box is displayed.
Step 3 Select LUNs that you want to map to the host and click OK.
----End
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8.1.2 OceanStor 18000/T V2/V3/Dorado V3 Series Enterprise
Storage System
8.1.2.1 Prerequisites
LUNs, LUN groups, hosts, and host groups have been created.
8.1.2.2 Procedure
Perform the following steps to map LUNs to a host:
Step 1 Go to the Create Mapping View dialog box.
On the right navigation bar, click
.
1.
On the host management page, click Mapping View.
2.
Click Create.
The Create Mapping View dialog box is displayed.
Step 2 Set basic properties for the mapping view.
1.
In the Name text box, enter a name for the mapping view.
2.
(Optional) In the Description text box, describe the mapping view.
Step 3 Add a LUN group to the mapping view.
1.
Click
.
2.
The Select LUN Group dialog box is displayed.
If your service requires a new LUN group, click Create to create one.
You can select Shows only the LUN groups that do not belong to any mapping view to quickly locate
LUN groups.
3.
From the LUN group list, select the LUN groups you want to add to the mapping view.
4.
Click OK.
Step 4 Add a host group to the mapping view.
1.
Click
.
If your service requires a new host group, click Create to create one.
The Select Host Group dialog box is displayed.
2.
From the host group list, select the host groups you want to add to the mapping view.
3.
Click OK.
Step 5 (Optional) Add a port group to the mapping view.
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1.
Select Port Group.
2.
Click
.
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The Select Port Group dialog box is displayed.
If your service requires a new port group, click Create to create one.
3.
From the port group list, select the port group you want to add to the mapping view.
4.
Click OK.
Step 6 Confirm the creation of the mapping view.
1.
Click OK.
The Result dialog box is displayed, indicating that the operation succeeded.
2.
Click Close.
----End
8.2 Scanning for LUNs on a Host
After LUNs are mapped on the storage system, scan for the mapped LUNs on the host.
Step 1 Run the LUN scanning command.
Run the following command to remove a disk from a disk group:
[root@root ~]# rescan-scsi-bus.sh
Host adapter 0 (megaraid_sas) found.
Host adapter 1 (ata_piix) found.
Host adapter 2 (ata_piix) found.
Host adapter 3 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 4 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 5 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 6 (bnx2i) found.
Host adapter 8 (iscsi_tcp) found.
Scanning SCSI subsystem for new devices
Scanning host 0 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7, all LUNs
Scanning for device 0 2 0 0 ...
OLD: Host: scsi0 Channel: 02 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: DELL
Model: PERC H700
Rev: 2.10
Type: Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Scanning host 1 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Report Luns command not supported (support mandatory in SPC-3)
Scanning for device 1 0 0 0 ...
OLD: Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: TSSTcorp Model: DVD-ROM SN-108BB Rev: D150
Type: CD-ROM
ANSI SCSI revision: 05
Scanning host 2 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scanning host 3 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scanning host 4 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scanning host 5 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scanning host 6 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scanning host 8 channels 0 2 for SCSI target IDs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Scanning for device 8 0 0 0 ...
OLD: Host: scsi8 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
Vendor: HUAWEI Model: S2600T
Rev: 2105
Type: Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 04
Scanning for device 8 0 0 1 ...
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7, all LUNs
7,
7,
7,
7,
7,
7,
all
all
all
all
all
all
LUNs
LUNs
LUNs
LUNs
LUNs
LUNs
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NEW: Host: scsi8 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 01
Vendor: HUAWEI Model: S2600T
Rev: 2105
Type: Direct-Access
ANSI SCSI revision: 04
1 new device(s) found.
0 device(s) removed.
Step 2 Display information about disks identified by the host.
[root@root ~]# lsscsi
[0:0:32:0] enclosu DP
BACKPLANE
1.09 [0:2:0:0]
disk
DELL
PERC H700
2.10 /dev/sda
[1:0:0:0]
cd/dvd TSSTcorp DVD-ROM SN-108BB D150 /dev/scd0
[8:0:0:0]
disk
HUAWEI S2600T
2105 /dev/sdb
[root@root ~]# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 598.8 GB, 598879502336 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 72809 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sda1 *
/dev/sda2
Start
1
14
End
13
72809
Blocks Id System
104391 83 Linux
584733870
8e Linux LVM
Disk /dev/sdb: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a valid partition table
The output indicates that the drive letter and capacity of the newly added LUN are /dev/sdb
and 100 GB.
----End
8.3 Using the Mapped LUNs
After the mapped LUNs are detected on a host, you can directly use the raw devices to
configure services or use the LUNs after creating a file system.
For details about how to create a file system, see creating a file system in section 10.3
"Common Configuration Commands."
If the host and the storage system are connected over a multi-path network, see chapter 9
"Multipathing Management" to configure the multipathing function.
8.4 Troubleshooting
This section describes how to troubleshoot the problems occurred during a SUSE Linux host's
LUN detection and usage.
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8.4.1 LUN Information Failed to Be Updated After LUN
Replacement
8.4.1.1 Symptom
After a LUN is replaced (the new LUN shares the same host ID as the original LUN), the
information about the new LUN cannot be updated.
8.4.1.2 Problem Analysis
LUN information is not updated on the host.
8.4.1.3 Solution
Run the echo 1 > /sys/block/sd*/device/rescan command to update the LUN and then
execute /usr/bin/rescan-scsi-bus.sh.
8.4.2 LUN Capacity Failed to Be Updated After Being Changed
8.4.2.1 Symptom
After the capacity of a LUN is changed, the new capacity of the LUN is not updated after
system script /usr/bin/rescan-scsi-bus.sh is executed.
8.4.2.2 Problem Analysis
The LUN capacity is not updated on the host.
8.4.2.3 Solution
Run the echo 1 > /sys/block/sd*/device/rescan command to update the LUN and then
execute /usr/bin/rescan-scsi-bus.sh.
8.4.3 Drive Letter Changes After Link Down for a Long Time
8.4.3.1 Symptom
After the link between the host and the storage system recovers from a long-time breakdown,
the previously mounted drive letters are no longer available. The output of lsscsi shows that
the drive letters change to new ones.
8.4.3.2 Problem Analysis
During the link recovery, the host deletes the original drive letters and generates new drive
letters for the identified LUNs under the DEV directory. However, an error occurs and the
original drive letters are not deleted. As a result, new drive letters are generated for the
identified LUNs following the original drive letters. Therefore, drive letters shift backwards.
8.4.3.3 Solution
This problem can be resolved by mounting disks by UUID. Perform the following steps:
Step 1 Run the fdisk -l command to discover all disks.
Step 2 Partition and format the detected disks and create file systems for them.
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Step 3 Run the following command to query the UUIDs of disks that you want to mount:
SMCDB-1:/# blkid
/dev/sdb1: UUID="894d76a6-b175-4eb1-89e5-3fd8d146eab7" SEC_TYPE="xfs" TYPE="ext2"
/dev/sdc1: UUID="ef285a94-2f34-4025-baa6-d35d8fbd0a86" SEC_TYPE="xfs" TYPE="ext2"
Step 4 Set files on disk partitions to be automatically mounted after the system restarts.
Modify the /etc/fstab file and add the following information to the end of this file (mount file
systems sdb1 and sdc1 to directories fs1 and fs2 respectively):
UUID=894d76a6-b175-4eb1-89e5-3fd8d146eab7
UUID=ef285a94-2f34-4025-baa6-d35d8fbd0a86
/fs1 ext3 defaults 0 0
/fs2 ext3 defaults 0 0
Step 5 Run the following command to mount the file system:
SMCDB-1:/# mount -a
Step 6 Modify the system startup file to ensure that the system mounts the file system after a restart
as described in the /etc/fstab file.
SMCDB-1:/# vi /etc/rc.d/rc ####Add /bin/ mount –a to the end of the file.
CAUTION
The /bin/mount -a command must be added in front of exit0.
After removing cables, unmount the directories and mount the disks.
----End
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9 Multipathing Management
Multipathing Management
9.1 Overview
SUSE Linux supports two pieces of multipathing software: UltraPath and Device
Mapper-Multipath (DM-Multipath).
UltraPath is a Huawei's self-developed software product. For details, see the UltraPath
product documentation.
DM-Multipath is built-in software in SUSE Linux.
DM-Multipath allows you to configure multiple I/O paths between a host and storage system
as one device. These I/O paths may contain independent physical devices such as cables,
switches, and controllers. DM-Multipath can combine multiple I/O paths into a new device
that contain the I/O paths.
The chapter details the functions and configuration of DM-Multipath.
9.2 Software Functions
DM-Multipath supports redundant paths and improves system performance.
9.2.1 Redundancy
DM-Multipath supports active/standby path configuration. This configuration creates a
redundant path for each active path. The redundant paths are not used when the active paths
work correctly. Once an element (such as a cable, switch, or controller) on an active I/O path
becomes faulty, DM-Multipath switches I/Os to a standby path.
9.2.2 Performance Enhancement
DM-Multipath supports active-active paths, that is, I/Os are distributed to all paths based on
the I/O scheduling algorithm. Besides, DM-Multipath can check I/O loads on paths and
dynamically balance I/Os among the paths.
DM-Multipath employs the round-robin algorithm to control I/Os on active-active paths and
can dynamically balance I/O load.
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9.3 Supported Storage Systems
By default, DM-Multipath is applicable to most commonly used storage systems. You can
find storage systems supported by DM-Multipath in the multipath.conf.defaults file. The
location of this file varies with operating systems. However, the file name is the same.
If a supported storage system is not included in this file, you need to manually add the storage
system to DM-Multipath configuration file multipath.conf.
9.4 Software Components
Table 9-1 lists the components of DM-Multipath.
Table 9-1 DM-Multipath components
Component
Description
Kernel module
Redirects I/Os on paths and path groups and provides redundant paths.
multipath
A management command that lists and configures multipathing devices.
multipathd
A daemon process that monitors paths. It initiates path switchover upon
a path fault. This process also interactively modifies multipathing
devices. This process is started before the /etc/multipath.conf file is
modified.
9.5 Installation and Startup
The process for installing and configuring DM-Multipath is as follows:
Step 1 Install the software package.
Step 2 Configure the configuration file.
Step 3 Enable DM-Multipath.
Step 4 Set DM-Multipath to start together with the system.
----End
9.5.1 Installing the Software Package
The software package name varies with operating systems. For example, the package name
can be device-mapper or multipath-tools.
You can run the rpm command to install the software package.
9.5.2 Configuring the Configuration File
An important configuration file of DM-Multipath is /etc/multipath.conf.
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By default, this configuration file is automatically created on operating systems. If it is not
automatically created, copy multipath.conf.synthetic to create one.
You can use /etc/multipath.conf to configure parameters related to storage systems, such as
the path priority and path failover mode. For details, see section 9.6 "Configuring the
Multipathing ".
9.5.3 Enabling DM-Multipath
After the configuring the configuration file, run the following command on the host to start
the DM-Multipath process:
/etc/init.d/multipathd start
For SUSE12 and later versions, run the following command to enable the multipathing
process:
systemctl start multipathd.service
Then run the following command:
multipath -l
If the output displays information about DM-Multipath, the software is enabled correctly.
Otherwise, configure the software again.
9.5.4 Setting DM-Multipath to Start with the System
After enabling the software, you can run the following command to configure the software to
start with the system:
chkconfig multipathd on
9.6 Configuring the Multipathing Function
This section describes the multipathing configurations on interconnected SUSE-running hosts
and HUAWEI storage systems.
HUAWEI storage firmwares' support for the OS-inherent multipathing HyperMetro solution
is as follows:
Old-version HUAWEI storage (namely, storage that does not support multi-controller
ALUA or ALUA HyperMetro): OceanStor T V1/T V2/18000
V1/V300R001/V300R002/V300R003C00/V300R003C10/V300R005/Dorado V300R001C00
New-version HUAWEI storage (namely, storage that supports multi-controller ALUA
and ALUA HyperMetro): V300R003C20 (only V300R003C20SPC200 and
later)/V300R006C00 (only V300R006C00SPC100 and later)/Dorado V300R001C01(only
V300R001C01SPC100 and later)
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9.6.1 Multipathing Configuration for New-Version HUAWEI
Storage
9.6.1.1 HyperMetro Working Modes
Typically, HyperMetro works in load balancing mode or local preferred mode. The typical
working modes are valid only when both the storage system and host use ALUA. It is advised
to set the host's path selection policy to round-robin. If HyperMetro works in load balancing
mode, the host's path selection policy must be round-robin. If the host does not use ALUA or
its path selection policy is not round-robin, the host's multipathing policy determines the
working mode of HyperMetro.
HyperMetro storage arrays can be classified into a local and a remote array by their distance
to the host. The one closer to the host is the local array and the other one is the remote array.
The following table describes the configuration methods and application scenarios of the
typical working modes.
Working
Mode
Configuration Method
Application Scenario
Load balancing
mode
Enable ALUA on the host and set the path
selection policy to round-robin.
The distance between
both HyperMetro
storage arrays is less
than 1 km. For example,
they are in the same
equipment room or on
the same floor.
Configure a switchover mode that supports
ALUA for both HyperMetro storage arrays'
initiators that are added to the host.
Set the path type for both storage arrays'
initiators to the optimal path.
Local preferred
mode
Enable ALUA on the host. It is advised to set
the path selection policy to round-robin.
Configure a switchover mode that supports
ALUA for both HyperMetro storage arrays'
initiators that are added to the host.
Set the path type for the local storage array's
initiators to the optimal path and that for the
remote storage array's initiators to the
non-optimal path.
Other modes
Set the initiator switchover mode for the
HyperMetro storage arrays by following
instructions in the follow-up chapters in this
guide. The path type does not require manual
configuration.
The distance between
both HyperMetro
storage arrays is greater
than 1 km. For example,
they are in different
locations or data centers.
User-defined
9.6.1.1.1 Working Principles and Failover
When ALUA works, the host multipathing software divides the physical paths to disks into
Active Optimized (AO) and Active Non-optimized (AN) paths. The host delivers services to
the storage system via the AO paths preferentially.

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An AO path is the optimal I/O access path and is between the host and a working
controller.
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An AN path is the suboptimal I/O access path and is between the host and a non-working
controller.
When HyperMetro works in load balancing mode, the host multipathing software selects the
paths to the working controllers on both HyperMetro storage arrays as the AO paths, and
those to the other controllers as the AN paths. The host accesses the storage arrays via the AO
paths. If an AO path fails, the host delivers I/Os to another AO path. If the working controller
of a storage array fails, the system switches the other controller to the working mode and
maintains load balancing.
Host
AO
AN
A
B
Host
AN
AO
A
Site A
B
Site B
AO
AO’
A
B
A
Site A
Path failure
AN
AO
B
Site B
SP failure
When HyperMetro works in local preferred mode, the host multipathing software selects the
paths to the working controller on the local storage array as the AO paths. This ensures that
the host delivers I/Os only to the working controller on the local storage array, reducing link
consumption. If all AO paths fail, the host delivers I/Os to the AN paths on the non-working
controller. If the working controller of the local storage array fails, the system switches the
other controller to the working mode and maintains the local preferred mode.
Host
Host
AO
AN
A
B
AN
AN
A
Site A
B
Site B
Path failure
AO
AO’
A
B
AN
AN
A
Site A
B
Site B
SP failure
9.6.1.2 Introduction to ALUA
9.6.1.2.1 ALUA Definition
Asymmetric Logical Unit Access (ALUA) is a multi-target port access model. In a
multipathing state, the ALUA model provides a way of presenting active/passive LUNs to a
host and offers a port status switching interface to switch over the working controller. For
example, when a host multipathing program that supports ALUA detects a port status change
(the port becomes unavailable) on a faulty controller, the program will automatically switch
subsequent I/Os to the other controller.
9.6.1.2.2 Support by HUAWEI Storage
Old-version HUAWEI storage supports ALUA only in dual-controller configuration, but not
in multi-controller or HyperMetro configuration.
New-version HUAWEI storage supports ALUA in dual-controller, multi-controller, and
HyperMetro configurations.
Table 9-2 describes the HUAWEI storage's support for ALUA.
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Table 9-2 HUAWEI storage's support for ALUA
Storage Type
Version
Remarks
Old-version HUAWEI
storage (namely,
storage that does not
support multi-controller
ALUA or ALUA
HyperMetro)
T V1/T V2/18000
V1/V300R001/V300R002/V300R
003C00/V300R003C10/V300R00
5/Dorado V300R001C00
-
New-version HUAWEI
storage (namely,
storage that supports
multi-controller ALUA
and ALUA
HyperMetro)
V300R003C20/V300R006C00/D
orado V300R001C01
V300R003C20: refers to
only
V300R003C20SPC200 and
later versions.
V300R006C00: refers to
only
V300R006C00SPC100 and
later versions.
Dorado V300R001C01:
refers to only
V300R001C01SPC100 and
later versions.
9.6.1.2.3 ALUA Impacts
ALUA is mainly applicable to a storage system that has one (only one) preferred LUN
controller. All host I/Os can be routed through different controllers to the working controller
for execution. The storage ALUA will instruct the hosts to deliver I/Os preferentially from the
LUN working controller, thereby reducing the I/O routing-consumed resources on the
non-working controllers.
Once the LUN working controller's all I/O paths are disconnected, the host I/Os will be
delivered only from a non-working controller and then routed to the working controller for
execution. This scenario must be avoided.

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Suggestions for Using ALUA on HUAWEI Storage
To prevent I/Os from being delivered to a non-working controller, you are advised to:
−
Ensure that the LUN home/working controllers are evenly distributed on storage
systems.
−
A change to the storage system (node fault or replacement) may cause an I/O path
switchover. Ensure that the host always tries the best to select the optimal path to
deliver I/Os.
−
Prevent all host service I/Os from being delivered only to one controller, thereby
preventing load unbalancing on the storage system.
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9.6.1.3 Initiator Mode
9.6.1.3.1 Initiator Parameter Description
Table 9-3 Initiator parameter description
Parameter
Description
Example
Uses
third-party
multipath
software
This parameter is displayed only after an initiator
has been added to the host.
Enabled
If LUNs have been mapped to the host before you
enable or disable this parameter, restart the host
after you configure this parameter.
You do not need to enable this parameter on a host
with UltraPath.
Switchover
Mode
Path switchover mode
The system supports the following modes:

early-version ALUA: default value of
Switchover Mode for an upgrade from an
earlier version to the current version. The
detailed requirements are as follows:
− The storage system is upgraded from
V300R003C10 and earlier to
V300R003C20 or V300R006C00SPC100
and later; from V300R005 to
V300R006C00SPC100 and later; from
Dorado V300R001C00 to Dorado
V300R001C01SPC100 and later.
− Before the upgrade, the storage system has a
single or dual controllers and has enabled
ALUA.

common ALUA: applies to V300R003C20 and
later, V300R006C00SPC100 and later, or
Dorado V300R001C01SPC100 and later. The
detailed requirements are as follows:
− The storage system version is V300R003C20,
V300R006C00SPC100, Dorado
V300R001C01SPC100, or later.
− The OS of the host that connects to the storage
system is SUSE, Red Hat 6.X, Windows
Server 2012 (using Emulex HBAs),
Windows Server 2008 (using Emulex
HBAs), or HP-UX 11i V3.
Issue (2017-07-19)

ALUA not used: does not support ALUA or
HyperMetro. This mode is used when a host
such as HP-UX 11i V2 does not support ALUA
or ALUA is not needed.

Special mode: supports ALUA and has multiple
values. It applies to V300R003C20 and later,
V300R006C00SPC100 and later, or Dorado
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V300R001C01SPC100 and later. It is used by
host operating systems that are not supported by
the common ALUA mode. The detailed
requirements are as follows:
− The storage system version V300R003C20,
V300R006C00SPC100, Dorado
V300R001C01SPC100, or later.
− The OS of the host that connects to the storage
system is VMware, AIX, Red Hat 7.X,
Windows Server 2012 (using QLogic
HBAs), or Windows Server 2008 (using
QLogic HBAs).
Special mode
type
Special modes support ALUA and apply to
V300R003C20 and later, V300R006C00SPC100
and later, or Dorado V300R001C01SPC100 and
later. The detailed requirements are as follows:

Mode 0
Mode 0:
− The host and storage system must be
connected using a Fibre Channel network.
− The OS of the host that connects to the storage
system is Red Hat 7.X, Windows Server
2012 (using QLogic HBAs), or Windows
Server 2008 (using QLogic HBAs).

Mode 1:
− The OS of the host that connects to the storage
system is AIX or VMware.
− HyperMetro works in load balancing mode.

Mode 2:
− The OS of the host that connects to the storage
system is AIX or VMware.
− HyperMetro works in local preferred mode.
Path Type
Issue (2017-07-19)
The value can be either Optimal Path or
Non-Optimal Path.

When HyperMetro works in load balancing
mode, set the Path Type for the initiators of
both the local and remote storage arrays to
Optimal Path. Enable ALUA on both the host
and storage arrays. If the host uses the
round-robin multipathing policy, it delivers I/Os
to both storage arrays in round-robin mode.

When HyperMetro works in local preferred
mode, set the Path Type for the initiator of the
local storage array to Optimal Path, and that of
the remote storage array to Non-Optimal Path.
Enable ALUA on both the host and storage
arrays. The host delivers I/Os to the local
storage array preferentially.
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Configure the initiators according to the requirements of each OS. The initiators that are
added to the same host must be configured with the same switchover mode. Otherwise, host
services may be interrupted.
After the initiator mode is configured on a storage array, you must restart the host for the
configuration to take effect.
9.6.1.3.2 Configuring the Initiators
If you want to configure the initiator mode, perform the following operations.
Step 1 Go to the host configuration page.
Open OceanStor DeviceManager. In the right navigation tree, click Provisioning and then
click Host, as shown in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-1 Going to the host configuration page
Step 2 Select an initiator of which information you want to modify.
On the Host tab page, select a host you want to modify. Then select the initiator (on the host)
you want to modify. Click Modify.
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Figure 9-2 Selecting an initiator of which information you want to modify
Step 3 Modify the initiator information.
In the Modify Initiator dialog box that is displayed, modify the initiator information based on
the requirements of your operating system. Figure 9-3 shows the initiator information
modification page.
Figure 9-3 Modifying initiator information
Step 4 Repeat the preceding operations to modify the information about other initiators on the host.
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Step 5 Restart the host to enable the configuration to take effect.
----End
9.6.1.4 Storage Array Configuration
9.6.1.4.1 For Non-HyperMetro Storage
For non-HyperMetro storage, use the configuration listed in Table 9-4.
Table 9-4 Multipathing configuration on non-HyperMetro Huawei storage interconnected with
SUSE
Operating
System
SuSE 11
SuSE 12
Other SuSE
versions
Configuration on the Storage Array
Storage
Operating
System
Third-Party
Multipathing
Software
Switchover
Mode
Special
Mode
Path
Type
Dual-contr
oller,
multi-contr
oller
Linux
Enabled
common
ALUA
Optimal
Path
Dual-contr
oller,
multi-contr
oller
Linux
Enabled
ALUA not
used
Optimal
Path
To query compatible SUSE Linux versions, refer to:
http://support-open.huawei.com/ready/pages/user/compatibility/support-matrix.jsf
WARNING
After the initiator mode is configured on a storage array, you must restart the host to enable
the new configuration to take effect.
9.6.1.4.2 For HyperMetro Storage
For HyperMetro storage, use the configuration listed in Table 9-5.
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Table 9-5 Multipathing configuration on HyperMetro Huawei storage interconnected with SUSE
OS
SLES
Storage Array Configuration
HyperMetro
Working
Mode
Storage
OS
Third-Party
Multipathing
Software
Switchover
Mode
Load
balancing
Local
storage
array
Linux
Enabled
Common
ALUA
Optimal
path
Remote
storage
array
Linux
Enabled
Common
ALUA
Optimal
path
Local
storage
array
Linux
Enabled
Common
ALUA
Optimal
path
Remote
storage
array
Linux
Enabled
Common
ALUA
Non-optimal
path
Local
preferred
Special
Mode
Type
Path Type
To query compatible SUSE Linux versions, refer to:
http://support-open.huawei.com/ready/pages/user/compatibility/support-matrix.jsf
WARNING
After the initiator mode is configured on a storage array, you must restart the host to enable
the new configuration to take effect.
9.6.1.5 Host Configuration
9.6.1.5.1 ALUA Enabled on the Storage Arrays
If ALUA is enabled on the storage arrays, configure the multipathing software for different
operating systems as follows:
For SUSE11, you need to add the following content in the multipathing configuration file
(/etc/multipath.conf):
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Figure 9-4 ALUA-enabled multipathing configuration (1)
The WWIDs in the blacklist are local disk information on the server. Fill in the information according to
the local disks actually used on your site. For details, go to the following website:
https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/stor_admin/data/sec_multipath_trouble.html
WARNING
If the system enters the emergency mode after the multipathing software is enabled and the
host is restarted, isolate the local disks of the operating system to prevent DM-Multipath from
taking over the local disks. For details, go to the following website:
https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/stor_admin/data/sec_multipath_trouble.html
For SUSE12, you need to add the following contents in the multipathing configuration file
(/etc/multipath.conf):
Figure 9-5 ALUA-enabled multipathing configuration (2)
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The WWIDs in the blacklist are local disk information on the server. Fill in the information according to
the local disks actually used on your site. For details, go to the following website:
https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/stor_admin/data/sec_multipath_trouble.html
WARNING
If the system enters the emergency mode after the multipathing software is enabled and the
host is restarted, isolate the local disks of the operating system to prevent DM-Multipath from
taking over the local disks. For details, go to the following website:
https://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/stor_admin/data/sec_multipath_trouble.html
9.6.1.6 ALUA Disabled on the Storage Arrays
If ALUA is not enabled on the storage arrays, configure the multipathing software for
different operating systems as follows:
For SUSE10 SP0 to SUSE10 SP4, you need to add the following contents in the multipathing
configuration file (/etc/multipath.conf):
Figure 9-6 ALUA-disabled multipathing configuration (1)
For SUSE11 SP0 to SUSE11 SP3, you need to add the following contents in the multipathing
configuration file (/etc/multipath.conf):
Figure 9-7 ALUA-disabled multipathing configuration (2)
For SUSE11 SP4, SUSE12 SP0 to SUSE12 SP2, you need to add the following contents in
the multipathing configuration file (/etc/multipath.conf):
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Figure 9-8 ALUA-disabled multipathing configuration (3)
9.6.2 Multipathing Configuration for Old-Version HUAWEI
Storage
9.6.2.1 Storage Array Configuration
For old-version HUAWEI storage, it is advisable to retain the ALUA disabled state by default.
To enable the ALUA function, do as follows:
9.6.2.1.1 T Series V100R005/Dorado2100/Dorado5100/Dorado2100 G2
Use the Huawei OceanStor ISM system to enable ALUA for all the host initiators, as shown in
Figure 9-9.
Figure 9-9 Enabling ALUA for T series V100R005/Dorado2100/Dorado5100/Dorado2100 G2
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9.6.2.1.2 T Series V200R002/18000 Series/V3 Series
Use the Huawei OceanStor DeviceManager to enable ALUA for all the host initiators, as
shown in Figure 9-10.
Figure 9-10 Enabling ALUA for T Series V200R002/18000 Series/V3 Series
Multi-controller ALUA is not supported. When there are more than two controllers, ALUA is disabled
by default and the ALUA status cannot be changed.
9.6.2.2 Host Configuration
The host configurations are similar to those in section 9.6.1 "Multipathing Configuration for
New-Version HUAWEI Storage". Remember to change the vendor and product according to
your site information; for example, in a T series storage configuration file:
Figure 9-11 Multipathing configuration for HUAWEI T series storage
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9.7 Common Maintenance Commands
This section describes common maintenance commands for DM-Multipath.
9.7.1 Viewing the Multipath Status
Run the multipath –l or multipath –ll command to view the multipath status: The following
is an example:
try-dmp:~ # multipath -ll
360022a11000a0049000353c800000001 dm-1 HUAWEI,S2600T
size=15G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=150 status=active
| `- 1:0:0:1 sdd 8:48 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=10 status=enabled
`- 0:0:0:1 sdb 8:16 active ready running
360022a11000a00490003806b00000007 dm-0 HUAWEI,S2600T
size=30G features='0' hwhandler='0' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=150 status=active
| `- 0:0:0:0 sda 8:0 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=10 status=enabled
`- 1:0:0:0 sdc 8:32 active ready running
try-dmp:~ #
9.7.2 Deleting Multipath Information
Run the multipath -f devicename command to delete multipath information about a specified
device or run the multipath –F command to delete multipath information about all devices.
9.7.3 Displaying Detailed Multipath Information
Run the multipath -v3 command to display detailed multipath information. If multipath
information cannot be displayed correctly, you can run this command to troubleshoot faults.
The following is an example:
try-dmp:~ # multipath -v3
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: not found in pathvec
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: mask = 0x1f
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: dev_t = 8:0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: size = 20971520
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: subsystem = scsi
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: vendor = HUAWEI
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: product = S2600T
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: rev = 2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: h:b:t:l = 0:0:0:0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: tgt_node_name = 0x21000022a10a0049
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: serial = 210235G6TDZ0BC0000030000
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: get_state
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loading /lib64/multipath/libchecktur.so checker
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: path checker = tur (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: state = up
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: getuid = /lib/udev/scsi_id --whitelisted --device=/dev/%n
(controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: uid = 360022a11000a004900034c3300000000 (callout)
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Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: prio = alua (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | reported target port group is 1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | aas = 80 [active/optimized] [preferred]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sda: alua prio = 150
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: not found in pathvec
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: mask = 0x1f
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: dev_t = 8:16
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: size = 104857600
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: subsystem = scsi
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: vendor = HUAWEI
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: product = S2600T
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: rev = 2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: h:b:t:l = 0:0:0:1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: tgt_node_name = 0x21000022a10a0049
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: serial = 210235G6TDZ0BC0000030005
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: get_state
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: path checker = tur (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: state = up
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: getuid = /lib/udev/scsi_id --whitelisted --device=/dev/%n
(controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: uid = 360022a11000a004900036eaf00000005 (callout)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: prio = alua (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | reported target port group is 1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | aas = 01 [active/non-optimized]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdb: alua prio = 10
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: not found in pathvec
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: mask = 0x1f
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: dev_t = 8:32
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: size = 20971520
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: subsystem = scsi
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: vendor = HUAWEI
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: product = S2600T
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: rev = 2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: h:b:t:l = 1:0:0:0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: tgt_node_name = 0x21000022a10a0049
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: serial = 210235G6TDZ0BC0000030000
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: get_state
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: path checker = tur (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: state = up
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: getuid = /lib/udev/scsi_id --whitelisted --device=/dev/%n
(controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: uid = 360022a11000a004900034c3300000000 (callout)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: prio = alua (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | reported target port group is 2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | aas = 01 [active/non-optimized]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdc: alua prio = 10
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: not found in pathvec
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: mask = 0x1f
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: dev_t = 8:64
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: size = 285155328
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Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: subsystem = scsi
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: vendor = LSILOGIC
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: product = Logical Volume
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: rev = 3000
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: h:b:t:l = 2:1:0:0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: serial =
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: get_state
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: path checker = directio (config file default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | directio: starting new request
Apr 10 17:18:56 | directio: io finished 4096/0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: state = up
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: getuid = /lib/udev/scsi_id --whitelisted --replace-whitespace
--device=/dev/%n (config file default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: uid = 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305 (callout)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: prio = const (config file default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: const prio = 1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: not found in pathvec
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: mask = 0x1f
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: dev_t = 8:48
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: size = 104857600
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: subsystem = scsi
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: vendor = HUAWEI
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: product = S2600T
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: rev = 2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: h:b:t:l = 1:0:0:1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: tgt_node_name = 0x21000022a10a0049
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: serial = 210235G6TDZ0BC0000030005
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: get_state
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: path checker = tur (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: state = up
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: getuid = /lib/udev/scsi_id --whitelisted --device=/dev/%n
(controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: uid = 360022a11000a004900036eaf00000005 (callout)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: prio = alua (controller setting)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | reported target port group is 2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | aas = 80 [active/optimized] [preferred]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sdd: alua prio = 150
Apr 10 17:18:56 | dm-0: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | dm-1: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop0: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop1: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop2: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop3: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop4: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop5: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop6: device node name blacklisted
Apr 10 17:18:56 | loop7: device node name blacklisted
===== paths list =====
uuid
hcil
dev dev_t pri dm_st chk_st vend/prod
360022a11000a004900034c3300000000 0:0:0:0 sda 8:0 150 undef ready HUAWEI,S2
360022a11000a004900036eaf00000005 0:0:0:1 sdb 8:16 10 undef ready HUAWEI,S2
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360022a11000a004900034c3300000000 1:0:0:0 sdc 8:32 10 undef ready HUAWEI,S2
3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305 2:1:0:0 sde 8:64 1 undef ready LSILOGIC,
360022a11000a004900036eaf00000005 1:0:0:1 sdd 8:48 150 undef ready HUAWEI,S2
Apr 10 17:18:56 | params = 0 0 2 1 round-robin 0 1 1 8:48 1000 round-robin 0 1 1 8:16
1000
Apr 10 17:18:56 | status = 2 0 0 0 2 1 A 0 1 0 8:48 A 0 E 0 1 0 8:16 A 0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 360022a11000a004900036eaf00000005: disassemble map [0 0 2 1 round-robin
0 1 1 8:48 1000 round-robin 0 1 1 8:16 1000 ]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 360022a11000a004900036eaf00000005: disassemble status [2 0 0 0 2 1
A 0 1 0 8:48 A 0 E 0 1 0 8:16 A 0 ]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | params = 0 0 2 1 round-robin 0 1 1 8:0 1000 round-robin 0 1 1 8:32
1000
Apr 10 17:18:56 | status = 2 0 0 0 2 1 A 0 1 0 8:0 A 0 E 0 1 0 8:32 A 0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 360022a11000a004900034c3300000000: disassemble map [0 0 2 1 round-robin
0 1 1 8:0 1000 round-robin 0 1 1 8:32 1000 ]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 360022a11000a004900034c3300000000: disassemble status [2 0 0 0 2 1
A 0 1 0 8:0 A 0 E 0 1 0 8:32 A 0 ]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: ownership set to 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: not found in pathvec
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: mask = 0xc
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: get_state
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | directio: starting new request
Apr 10 17:18:56 | directio: io finished 4096/0
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: state = up
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: state = running
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: const prio = 1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: features = 0 (internal default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: no_path_retry = 0 (internal
default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | sde: Not a FC device
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: pgfailover = -1 (internal default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: pgpolicy = failover (internal
default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: selector = round-robin 0 (internal
default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: features = 0 (internal default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: hwhandler = 0 (internal default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: rr_weight = 1 (internal default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: minio = 1000 (config file default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: no_path_retry = 0 (internal
default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: pg_timeout = NONE (internal
default)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: remove queue_if_no_path from '0'
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: assembled map [0 0 1 1 round-robin
0 1 1 8:64 1000]
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: set ACT_CREATE (map does not exist)
Apr 10 17:18:56 | 3600508e000000000b573f30ad3068305: domap (0) failure for
create/reload map
Apr 10 17:18:56 | directio checker refcount 1
Apr 10 17:18:56 | tur checker refcount 4
Apr 10 17:18:56 | tur checker refcount 3
Apr 10 17:18:56 | tur checker refcount 2
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Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
10
10
10
10
10
17:18:56
17:18:56
17:18:56
17:18:56
17:18:56
|
|
|
|
|
9 Multipathing Management
tur checker refcount 1
unloading const prioritizer
unloading alua prioritizer
unloading tur checker
unloading directio checker
9.7.4 Interactive Command
Besides the preceding multipath commands, DM-Multipath provides an interactive command.
You can run the multipath –k command on the host to go to the interactive command-line
interface (CLI).
The functions of the interactive command are the same as those of common multipath
commands.
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10
10 Volume Management
Volume Management
The most widely applied volume management software in SUSE Linux hosts is the Logical
Volume Manager (LVM) built-in the operating systems.
This chapter details the LVM.
10.1 Overview
LVM can combine several disks (physical volumes) into a volume group and divide the
volume group into logical volumes (LVM partitions).
LVM provides the following functions:

Creating logical volumes across multiple disks

Creating logical volumes on one disk

Expanding and compressing logical volumes on demand
10.2 LVM Installation
By default, LVM is installed together with the host operating system. LVM requires no extra
configuration.
10.3 Common Configuration Commands
10.3.1 Creating a Physical Volume
Perform the following steps to create a physical volume:
Step 1 Create primary and logical partitions.
Run the fdisk –l command to scan for the mapped LUNs. Suppose that the identified LUN is
displayed as disk sdb. Run the fdisk /dev/sdb command to partition sdb.
[root@root ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
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content won't be recoverable.
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 13054.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
(e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)
Command (m for help):
Type n to create new partitions and type p to create the primary partition. Specify the primary
partition number to 1. Keep the default value of first cylinder and specify a value to last
cylinder.
Command (m for help): N/A
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-13054, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-13054, default 13054): 200
Type n to create new partitions and type e to create expansion partitions. Then type p to view
partitions.
Command (m for help): N/A
Command action
e extended
p primary partition (1-4)
e
Partition number (1-4): 4
First cylinder (201-13054, default 201):
Using default value 201
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (201-13054, default 13054): 1000
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sdb: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb4
Start
1
201
End
200
1000
Blocks Id System
1606468+ 83 Linux
6426000
5 Extended
Type n to create new partitions and type 1 to create logical partitions. Type p to view
partitions and type w to save partitions and exit from partition creation.
Command (m for help): N/A
Command action
l logical (5 or over)
p primary partition (1-4)
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l
First cylinder (201-1000, default 201):
Using default value 201
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (201-1000, default 1000): 400
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sdb: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb4
/dev/sdb5
Start
1
201
201
End
200
1000
400
Blocks Id System
1606468+ 83 Linux
6426000
5 Extended
1606468+ 83 Linux
Step 2 Create LVM partitions.
Perform the following operation to convert partitions 5 and 6 of sdb to LVM partitions.
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sdb: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb4
/dev/sdb5
/dev/sdb6
Start
1
201
201
401
End
200
1000
400
600
Blocks Id
1606468+ 83
6426000
5
1606468+ 8e
1606468+ 83
System
Linux
Extended
Linux
Linux
Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-6): 5
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 6 to 8e (Linux LVM)
Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-6): 6
Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e
Changed system type of partition 6 to 8e (Linux LVM)
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/sdb: 107.3 GB, 107374182400 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 13054 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Device Boot
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb4
/dev/sdb5
/dev/sdb6
Start
1
201
201
401
End
200
1000
400
600
Blocks Id
1606468+ 83
6426000
5
1606468+ 8e
1606468+ 8e
System
Linux
Extended
Linux LVM
Linux LVM
Step 3 Run the pvcreate command to create physical volumes.
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[root@root
Physical
[root@root
Physical
10 Volume Management
~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb5
volume "/dev/sdb5" successfully created
~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb6
volume "/dev/sdb6" successfully created
Step 4 Run the pvdisplay -v command to verify the physical volume creation.
[root@root ~]# pvdisplay -v
Scanning for physical volume names
Wiping cache of LVM-capable devices
--- Physical volume --PV Name
/dev/sda2
VG Name
VolGroup00
PV Size
557.65 GB / not usable 21.17 MB
Allocatable
yes (but full)
PE Size (KByte)
32768
Total PE
17844
Free PE
0
Allocated PE
17844
PV UUID
KyucjQ-9zte-1Zyr-0sZ0-Xxzt-HVjZ-2vQp8B
"/dev/sdb5" is a new physical volume of "1.53 GB"
--- NEW Physical volume --PV Name
/dev/sdb5
VG Name
PV Size
1.53 GB
Allocatable
NO
PE Size (KByte)
0
Total PE
0
Free PE
0
Allocated PE
0
PV UUID
g60zN0-3sYn-qPbd-7y0M-dGfZ-hVs7-763Ywo
"/dev/sdb6" is a new physical volume of "1.53 GB"
--- NEW Physical volume --PV Name
/dev/sdb6
VG Name
PV Size
1.53 GB
Allocatable
NO
PE Size (KByte)
0
Total PE
0
Free PE
0
Allocated PE
0
PV UUID
5UhmY2-fS4p-gdCo-OOgZ-nOa9-AV3H-LkvrNc
----End
10.3.2 Changing the Size of a Physical Volume
Run the pvresize command to change the size of a physical volume. The command syntax is
as follows:
pvresize –setphysicalvolumesize capacity size (unit: m or g) device name
In the following example, the size of a physical volume is changed from 1.53 GB to 300 MB.
[root@root ~]# pvscan
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PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00
lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
PV /dev/sdb5
lvm2 [1.53 GB]
PV /dev/sdb6
lvm2 [1.53 GB]
Total: 3 [560.69 GB] / in use: 1 [557.62 GB] / in no VG: 2 [3.06 GB]
[root@root ~]# pvresize --setphysicalvolumesize 300 /dev/sdb5
Physical volume "/dev/sdb5" changed
1 physical volume(s) resized / 0 physical volume(s) not resized
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00
lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
PV /dev/sdb5
lvm2 [300.00 MB]
PV /dev/sdb6
lvm2 [1.53 GB]
Total: 3 [559.45 GB] / in use: 1 [557.62 GB] / in no VG: 2 [1.83 GB]
10.3.3 Creating a Volume Group
Run the vgcreate command to create a logical volume.
[root@root ~]# vgcreate vg0 /dev/sdb5 /dev/sdb6
Volume group "vg0" successfully created
10.3.4 Expanding a Volume Group
Run the following command to expand a volume group:
vgextend vgname pvname
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# vgdisplay -v /dev/vg0
Using volume group(s) on command line
Finding volume group "vg0"
--- Volume group --VG Name
vg0
System ID
Format
lvm2
Metadata Areas
2
Metadata Sequence No 1
VG Access
read/write
VG Status
resizable
MAX LV
0
Cur LV
0
Open LV
0
Max PV
0
Cur PV
2
Act PV
2
VG Size
1.82 GB
PE Size
4.00 MB
Total PE
466
Alloc PE / Size
0 / 0
Free PE / Size
466 / 1.82 GB
VG UUID
ARkbdL-9ID6-5HCy-DSQG-Aj5z-dQap-9VkM5X
--- Physical volumes --PV Name
/dev/sdb5
PV UUID
g60zN0-3sYn-qPbd-7y0M-dGfZ-hVs7-763Ywo
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
74 / 74
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PV Name
/dev/sdb6
PV UUID
5UhmY2-fS4p-gdCo-OOgZ-nOa9-AV3H-LkvrNc
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 392
[root@root ~]# vgextend /dev/vg0 /dev/sdb7
Volume group "vg0" successfully extended
[root@root ~]# vgdisplay -v /dev/vg0
Using volume group(s) on command line
Finding volume group "vg0"
--- Volume group --VG Name
vg0
System ID
Format
lvm2
Metadata Areas
3
Metadata Sequence No 2
VG Access
read/write
VG Status
resizable
MAX LV
0
Cur LV
0
Open LV
0
Max PV
0
Cur PV
3
Act PV
3
VG Size
3.35 GB
PE Size
4.00 MB
Total PE
858
Alloc PE / Size
0 / 0
Free PE / Size
858 / 3.35 GB
VG UUID
ARkbdL-9ID6-5HCy-DSQG-Aj5z-dQap-9VkM5X
--- Physical volumes --PV Name
/dev/sdb5
PV UUID
g60zN0-3sYn-qPbd-7y0M-dGfZ-hVs7-763Ywo
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
74 / 74
PV Name
/dev/sdb6
PV UUID
5UhmY2-fS4p-gdCo-OOgZ-nOa9-AV3H-LkvrNc
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 392
PV Name
/dev/sdb7
PV UUID
iF5Att-fVIj-9dOy-5055-rJlq-pOrS-aW8g2P
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 392
In this example, volume group /dev/vg0 originally contains physical volume /dev/sdb5 and
/dev/sdb6. After the command is run, /dev/sdb7 is added to this volume group.
10.3.5 Creating a Logical Volume
Perform the following steps to create a logical volume:
Step 1 Run the lvcreate command to create a logical volume. The following is an example:
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[root@root ~]# lvcreate -L 10m -n lv0 vg0
Rounding up size to full physical extent 12.00 MB
Logical volume "lv0" created
The parameters in this output are describes as follows:

-L: indicates the size of a logical volume, expressed in MB. The logical volume size is
determined by the minimum size of a complete logical extent. By default, this parameter
is 0. In this output, the value of this parameter is 10 and the size of a logical extent is 4
MB. The physical extent consists of three logical extents. Therefore, the physical extent
is 12 MB.

-n: indicates the name of a logical volume.
Step 2 View and confirm that the information about the newly created logical volume is correct.
[root@root ~]# vgdisplay -v vg0
Using volume group(s) on command line
Finding volume group "vg0"
--- Volume group --VG Name
vg0
System ID
Format
lvm2
Metadata Areas
3
Metadata Sequence No 3
VG Access
read/write
VG Status
resizable
MAX LV
0
Cur LV
1
Open LV
0
Max PV
0
Cur PV
3
Act PV
3
VG Size
3.35 GB
PE Size
4.00 MB
Total PE
858
Alloc PE / Size
3 / 12.00 MB
Free PE / Size
855 / 3.34 GB
VG UUID
ARkbdL-9ID6-5HCy-DSQG-Aj5z-dQap-9VkM5X
--- Logical volume --LV Name
/dev/vg0/lv0
VG Name
vg0
LV UUID
H6uskM-6clf-NVh2-KMiO-1Gk2-0iBz-nXOav2
LV Write Access
read/write
LV Status
available
# open
0
LV Size
12.00 MB
Current LE
3
Segments
1
Allocation
inherit
Read ahead sectors
auto
- currently set to
256
Block device
253:2
--- Physical volumes --PV Name
/dev/sdb5
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PV UUID
g60zN0-3sYn-qPbd-7y0M-dGfZ-hVs7-763Ywo
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
74 / 74
PV Name
/dev/sdb6
PV UUID
5UhmY2-fS4p-gdCo-OOgZ-nOa9-AV3H-LkvrNc
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 389
PV Name
/dev/sdb7
PV UUID
iF5Att-fVIj-9dOy-5055-rJlq-pOrS-aW8g2P
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 392
[root@root ~]# lvdisplay -v /dev/vg0/lv0
Using logical volume(s) on command line
--- Logical volume --LV Name
/dev/vg0/lv0
VG Name
vg0
LV UUID
H6uskM-6clf-NVh2-KMiO-1Gk2-0iBz-nXOav2
LV Write Access
read/write
LV Status
available
# open
0
LV Size
12.00 MB
Current LE
3
Segments
1
Allocation
inherit
Read ahead sectors
auto
- currently set to
256
Block device
253:2
----End
10.3.6 Creating a File System
Perform the following steps to create a file system:
Step 1 Run the mkfs.xx command to create a file system. The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/vg0/rlv0
mke2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Operating system: Linux
Block size=1024 (log=0)
Fragment size=1024 (log=0)
3072 inodes, 12288 blocks
614 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=1
Maximum filesystem blocks=12582912
2 block groups
8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group
1536 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
8193
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (1024 blocks): done
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Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 20 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
Step 2 Create a mount point and mount the logical volume.
[root@root ~]# mkdir /test/mnt1
[root@root ~]# mount /dev/vg0/lv0 /test/mnt1/
Step 3 Display the mounting information.
[root@root ~]# df -l
Filesystem
1K-blocks
Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
548527904 3105828 517108888 1% /
/dev/sda1
101086
15667
80200 17% /boot
tmpfs
8137904
0 8137904 0% /dev/shm
/dev/mapper/vg0-lv0
11895
1138
10143 11% /test/mnt1
The output shows that the logical volume is mounted correctly and can be used for subsequent
data read and write.
Step 4 (Optional) You can run the following command to unmount the logical volume:
[root@root ~]# umount /dev/vg0/lv0
[root@root ~]# df -l
Filesystem
1K-blocks
Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
548527904 3105828 517108888 1% /
/dev/sda1
101086
15667
80200 17% /boot
tmpfs
8137904
0 8137904 0% /dev/shm
----End
10.3.7 Expanding a Logical Volume
Run the lvextend command to expand a logical volume. The command syntax is as follows:
lvextend -L +target capacity logical volume path
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# lvscan
ACTIVE
'/dev/vg0/lv0' [12.00 MB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00' [540.03 GB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01' [17.59 GB] inherit
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdb5 VG vg0
lvm2 [296.00 MB / 296.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdb6 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.52 GB free]
PV /dev/sdb7 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.53 GB free]
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00 lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
Total: 4 [560.98 GB] / in use: 4 [560.98 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
[root@root ~]# lvextend -L +100m /dev/vg0/lv0
Extending logical volume lv0 to 112.00 MB
Logical volume lv0 successfully resized
[root@root ~]# lvscan
ACTIVE
'/dev/vg0/lv0' [112.00 MB] inherit
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ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00' [540.03 GB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01' [17.59 GB] inherit
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdb5 VG vg0
lvm2 [296.00 MB / 296.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdb6 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.42 GB free]
PV /dev/sdb7 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.53 GB free]
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00 lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
Total: 4 [560.98 GB] / in use: 4 [560.98 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
The output shows that the logical volume capacity is expanded.
10.3.8 Compressing a Logical Volume
Run the lvreduce command to compress a logical volume. The command syntax is as
follows:
lvreduce -L +target capacity logical volume path
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# lvscan
ACTIVE
'/dev/vg0/lv0' [112.00 MB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00' [540.03 GB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01' [17.59 GB] inherit
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdb5 VG vg0
lvm2 [296.00 MB / 296.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdb6 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.42 GB free]
PV /dev/sdb7 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.53 GB free]
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00 lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
Total: 4 [560.98 GB] / in use: 4 [560.98 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
[root@root ~]# lvreduce -L -100m /dev/vg0/lv0
WARNING: Reducing active logical volume to 12.00 MB
THIS MAY DESTROY YOUR DATA (filesystem etc.)
Do you really want to reduce lv0? [y/n]: y
Reducing logical volume lv0 to 12.00 MB
Logical volume lv0 successfully resized
[root@root ~]# lvscan
ACTIVE
'/dev/vg0/lv0' [12.00 MB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00' [540.03 GB] inherit
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01' [17.59 GB] inherit
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdb5 VG vg0
lvm2 [296.00 MB / 296.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdb6 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.52 GB free]
PV /dev/sdb7 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.53 GB free]
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00 lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
Total: 4 [560.98 GB] / in use: 4 [560.98 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
The output shows that the logical volume capacity is compressed.
10.3.9 Activating a Volume Group
Run the following command to activate a volume group:
vgchange -a y volume group name
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# vgchange -a y /dev/vg0
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1 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg0" now active
10.3.10 Deactivating a Volume Group
Run the following command to deactivate a volume group:
vgchange –a n y volume group name
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# vgchange -a n /dev/vg0
0 logical volume(s) in volume group "vg0" now active
10.3.11 Exporting a Volume Group
A volume group needs to be imported or exported in clusters, data backup, or recovery.
Run the following command to export a volume group:
vgexport volume group name
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# vgexport vg0
Volume group "vg0" successfully exported
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdb5
is in exported VG vg0 [296.00 MB / 296.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdb6
is in exported VG vg0 [1.53 GB / 1.52 GB free]
PV /dev/sdb7
is in exported VG vg0 [1.53 GB / 1.53 GB free]
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00 lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
Total: 4 [560.98 GB] / in use: 4 [560.98 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
10.3.12 Importing a Volume Group
Run the following command to import a volume group:
vgimport volume group name
The following is an example (importing a volume group on a local computer):
[root@root ~]# vgimport vg0
Volume group "vg0" successfully imported
[root@root ~]# pvscan
PV /dev/sdb5 VG vg0
lvm2 [296.00 MB / 296.00 MB free]
PV /dev/sdb6 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.52 GB free]
PV /dev/sdb7 VG vg0
lvm2 [1.53 GB / 1.53 GB free]
PV /dev/sda2 VG VolGroup00 lvm2 [557.62 GB / 0
free]
Total: 4 [560.98 GB] / in use: 4 [560.98 GB] / in no VG: 0 [0 ]
10.3.13 Deleting a Logical Volume
Run the following command to delete a logical volume:
lvremove lvname
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# lvscan
inactive
'/dev/vg0/lv0' [12.00 MB] inherit
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ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00'
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01'
[root@root ~]# lvremove /dev/vg0/lv0
Logical volume "lv0" successfully removed
[root@root ~]# lvscan
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00'
ACTIVE
'/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01'
10 Volume Management
[540.03 GB] inherit
[17.59 GB] inherit
[540.03 GB] inherit
[17.59 GB] inherit
10.3.14 Deleting a Volume Group
Run the following command to delete a volume group:
vgremove vgname
Perform the following steps to delete a volume group:
Step 1 Ensure that all logical volumes are deleted from the volume group.
[root@root ~]# vgdisplay -v /dev/vg0
Using volume group(s) on command line
Finding volume group "vg0"
--- Volume group --VG Name
vg0
System ID
Format
lvm2
Metadata Areas
3
Metadata Sequence No 8
VG Access
read/write
VG Status
resizable
MAX LV
0
Cur LV
0
Open LV
0
Max PV
0
Cur PV
3
Act PV
3
VG Size
3.35 GB
PE Size
4.00 MB
Total PE
858
Alloc PE / Size
0 / 0
Free PE / Size
858 / 3.35 GB
VG UUID
ARkbdL-9ID6-5HCy-DSQG-Aj5z-dQap-9VkM5X
--- Physical volumes --PV Name
/dev/sdb5
PV UUID
g60zN0-3sYn-qPbd-7y0M-dGfZ-hVs7-763Ywo
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
74 / 74
PV Name
/dev/sdb6
PV UUID
5UhmY2-fS4p-gdCo-OOgZ-nOa9-AV3H-LkvrNc
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 392
PV Name
/dev/sdb7
PV UUID
iF5Att-fVIj-9dOy-5055-rJlq-pOrS-aW8g2P
PV Status
allocatable
Total PE / Free PE
392 / 392
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Step 2 Delete the volume group.
[root@root ~]# vgremove /dev/vg0
Volume group "vg0" successfully removed
[root@root ~]# vgdisplay -v /dev/vg0
Using volume group(s) on command line
Finding volume group "vg0"
Wiping cache of LVM-capable devices
Volume group "vg0" not found
----End
10.3.15 Deleting a Physical Volume
Run the following command to delete a physical volume:
Pvremove raw device name
The following is an example:
[root@root ~]# pvremove /dev/sdb5
Labels on physical volume "/dev/sdb5" successfully wiped
[root@root ~]# pvremove /dev/sdb6
Labels on physical volume "/dev/sdb6" successfully wiped
[root@root ~]# pvremove /dev/sdb7
Labels on physical volume "/dev/sdb7" successfully wiped
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11
11 Host High-Availability
Host High-Availability
As services grow, key applications must be available all the time and a system must have the
fault tolerance capability. However, the systems with fault tolerance capability are costly. To
lower the system costs, economical applications that provide the fault tolerance capacity are
required.
A high availability (HA) solution ensures the availability of applications and data in an event
of any system component fault. This solution aims at eliminating single points of failure and
minimizing the impact of expected or unexpected system downtimes.
The most widely applied cluster management software in SUSE Linux hosts is Heartbeat.
This chapter details the Heartbeat software.
11.1 Overview
Heartbeat is a core component of the Linux-HA (High-Availability Linux) project. This
component provides the high-availability clustering functions, such as inter-node internal
communication, collaborative cluster management, monitoring tools, and failover. Heartbeat
only provides high-availability functions such as heartbeat monitoring and resource takeover.
It does not monitor resources or applications. To use Heartbeat to monitor resource and
application status, third-party plug-ins must be installed. By the release of this document, the
latest Heartbeat version is 3.0.5.
11.2 Working Principle
Heartbeat consists of three components.

CCM
Cluster Consensus Membership (CCM) manages a cluster's member nodes, inter-node
relationship, and inter-node resource allocation. Heartbeat uses CCM to monitor the
running status of primary and secondary nodes in a cluster. ha-logd records the running
information about all modules and services in a cluster.

LRM
Local Resource Manager (LRM) starts, stops, and monitors local resources. This
component consists of LRM daemon process lrmd and node monitoring process
STONITH daemon. lrmd manages inter-node communication. STONITH daemon
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usually is a fence device used for monitoring node status. A normal node can use the
fence device to restart or shut down a faulty node to release resources like IP addresses
and disks. In this way, resources are always owned by one node, preventing resource
contention.

CRM
Cluster Resource Manager (CRM) manages inter-node dependencies and resources as
well as node resource usage. Normally, CRM consists of the daemon process crmd,
cluster policy engine, and cluster failover engine. The cluster policy engine manages
dependencies and resource usage. The cluster failover engine monitors the CRM status
and invokes process on nodes for necessary resource takeover.
The cores of a Heartbeat cluster are heartbeat monitoring and resource takeover. Heartbeat
monitoring is implemented through serial ports. Each two nodes send packets in between
through the serial cable to inform each other of the current status. If any one of the nodes does
not receive packets sent from the other, the node whose packets are not received is detected as
failed. Immediately, the resource takeover module takes over services or resources from the
failed node.
11.3 Installation and Configuration
For details, visit:
http://www.linux-ha.org/doc/users-guide/users-guide.html
Huawei also provides Heartbeat configuration guides. You can obtain the guides from the
Huawei customer service center.
11.4 Cluster Maintenance
11.4.1 Starting a Cluster
Run the following command to start a cluster:
# /etc/init.d/heartbeat start
Run the following command to restart a cluster:
# /etc/init.d/heartbeat restart
11.4.2 Stopping a Cluster
Run the following command to stop a cluster:
# /etc/init.d/heartbeat stop
11.4.3 Checking Cluster Status
Run the following command to check the cluster status:
# /etc/init.d/heartbeat status
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11.4.4 Packet Service Switchover
You can run this command to stop the packet service on the current node and switch the
service to another node.
# /etc/init.d/heartbeat stop
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A
A Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronyms and Abbreviations
C
CHAP
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CLI
Command Line Interface
CDFS
CD-ROM File System
D
DM-Multipath
Device Mapper-Multipath
E
Ext2
The Second Extended File System
Ext3
The Third Extended File System
Ext4
The Fourth Extended File System
F
FC
Fiber Channel
G
GE
Gigabit Ethernet
H
HBA
Host Bus Adapter
I
IP
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ISM
Integrated Storage Manager
iSCSI
Internet Small Computer Systems Interface
A Acronyms and Abbreviations
L
LACP
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
LE
Logical Extent
LUN
Logical Unit Number
LV
Logical Volume
LVM
Logical Volume Manager
M
MB
Megabyte
N
NFS
Network File System
R
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks
SUSE
Software and system development
S
SAN
Storage Area Network
P
PE
Physical Extent
PV
Physical Volume
V
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
VG
Volume Group
W
WWN
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