Spring Integration Reference Manual

Spring Integration Reference Manual
Mark Fisher
Marius Bogoevici
Iwein Fuld
Jonas Partner
Oleg Zhurakousky
Gary Russell
Dave Syer
Josh Long
David Turanski
Gunnar Hillert
Artem Bilan
Amol Nayak
Spring Integration Reference Manual
by Mark Fisher, Marius Bogoevici, Iwein Fuld, Jonas Partner, Oleg Zhurakousky, Gary Russell, Dave Syer, Josh
Long, David Turanski, Gunnar Hillert, Artem Bilan, and Amol Nayak
2.2.0.RC3
Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. VMware is a registered trademark or
trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned
herein may be trademarks of their respective companies.
Spring Integration
Table of Contents
Preface ..................................................................................................................................... xv
1. Code Conventions ........................................................................................................ xv
I. What's new? ........................................................................................................................... 1
1. What's new in Spring Integration 2.2? ............................................................................. 2
1.1. General ............................................................................................................... 2
Spring 3.1 .......................................................................................................... 2
Outbound Gateways ........................................................................................... 2
Spring-AMQP 1.1 .............................................................................................. 2
RedisStore Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters ........................................... 2
MongoDB Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters ........................................... 2
JDBC Support - Stored Procedures Components .................................................. 3
JDBC Support - Outbound Gateway .................................................................... 3
JDBC Support - Channel-specific Message Store Implementation .......................... 3
File Adapter - Improved File Overwrite/Append Handling .................................... 3
Orderly Shutdown .............................................................................................. 4
Adding Behavior to Endpoints ............................................................................ 4
Transaction Synchronization and Pseudo Transactions .......................................... 4
JMS Oubound Gateway Improvements ................................................................ 4
object-to-json-transformer ................................................................................... 4
1.2. New Components ................................................................................................ 4
JPA Endpoints ................................................................................................... 4
1.3. Framework Refactoring ....................................................................................... 5
II. Overview of Spring Integration Framework ............................................................................ 6
2. Spring Integration Overview ........................................................................................... 7
2.1. Background ......................................................................................................... 7
2.2. Goals and Principles ............................................................................................ 7
2.3. Main Components ............................................................................................... 8
Message ............................................................................................................. 8
Message Channel ............................................................................................... 9
Message Endpoint .............................................................................................. 9
2.4. Message Endpoints ............................................................................................ 10
Transformer ..................................................................................................... 10
Filter ................................................................................................................ 10
Router .............................................................................................................. 10
Splitter ............................................................................................................. 11
Aggregator ....................................................................................................... 11
Service Activator .............................................................................................. 11
Channel Adapter .............................................................................................. 12
III. Core Messaging .................................................................................................................. 13
3. Messaging Channels ..................................................................................................... 14
3.1. Message Channels ............................................................................................. 14
The MessageChannel Interface .......................................................................... 14
PollableChannel ....................................................................................... 14
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SubscribableChannel .................................................................................
Message Channel Implementations ....................................................................
PublishSubscribeChannel ..........................................................................
QueueChannel ..........................................................................................
PriorityChannel ........................................................................................
RendezvousChannel ..................................................................................
DirectChannel ..........................................................................................
ExecutorChannel ......................................................................................
Scoped Channel .......................................................................................
Channel Interceptors .........................................................................................
MessagingTemplate ..........................................................................................
Configuring Message Channels .........................................................................
DirectChannel Configuration .....................................................................
Datatype Channel Configuration ................................................................
QueueChannel Configuration ....................................................................
PublishSubscribeChannel Configuration .....................................................
ExecutorChannel ......................................................................................
PriorityChannel Configuration ...................................................................
RendezvousChannel Configuration ............................................................
Scoped Channel Configuration ..................................................................
Channel Interceptor Configuration .............................................................
Global Channel Interceptor .......................................................................
Wire Tap .................................................................................................
Global Wire Tap Configuration .................................................................
Special Channels ..............................................................................................
3.2. Poller (Polling Consumer) ..................................................................................
3.3. Channel Adapter ................................................................................................
Configuring An Inbound Channel Adapter .........................................................
Configuring Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................
3.4. Messaging Bridge ..............................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Configuring Bridge ...........................................................................................
4. Message Construction ...................................................................................................
4.1. Message ............................................................................................................
The Message Interface ......................................................................................
Message Headers ..............................................................................................
Message Implementations .................................................................................
The MessageBuilder Helper Class .....................................................................
5. Message Routing ..........................................................................................................
5.1. Routers .............................................................................................................
Overview .........................................................................................................
Common Router Parameters .............................................................................
Inside and Outside of a Chain ...................................................................
Top-Level (Outside of a Chain) ................................................................
Router Implementations ....................................................................................
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PayloadTypeRouter ..................................................................................
HeaderValueRouter ..................................................................................
RecipientListRouter ..................................................................................
XPath Router ...........................................................................................
Routing and Error handling .......................................................................
Configuring (Generic) Router ...........................................................................
Configuring a Content Based Router with XML .........................................
Configuring a Router with Annotations .....................................................
Dynamic Routers ..............................................................................................
Manage Router Mappings using the Control Bus ........................................
Manage Router Mappings using JMX ........................................................
5.2. Filter .................................................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Configuring Filter .............................................................................................
Configuring a Filter with XML .................................................................
Configuring a Filter with Annotations .......................................................
5.3. Splitter ..............................................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Programming model .........................................................................................
Configuring Splitter ..........................................................................................
Configuring a Splitter using XML .............................................................
Configuring a Splitter with Annotations .....................................................
5.4. Aggregator ........................................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Functionality ....................................................................................................
Programming model .........................................................................................
CorrelatingMessageHandler .......................................................................
ReleaseStrategy ........................................................................................
CorrelationStrategy ...................................................................................
Configuring Aggregator ....................................................................................
Configuring an Aggregator with XML .......................................................
Configuring an Aggregator with Annotations .............................................
Managing State in an Aggregator: MessageGroupStore .......................................
5.5. Resequencer ......................................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Functionality ....................................................................................................
Configuring a Resequencer ...............................................................................
5.6. Message Handler Chain .....................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Configuring Chain ............................................................................................
6. Message Transformation ...............................................................................................
6.1. Transformer .......................................................................................................
Introduction ......................................................................................................
Configuring Transformer ..................................................................................
Configuring Transformer with XML ..........................................................
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Configuring a Transformer with Annotations ............................................. 75
Header Filter .................................................................................................... 75
6.2. Content Enricher ............................................................................................... 75
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 75
Header Enricher ............................................................................................... 76
Payload Enricher .............................................................................................. 77
Configuration ........................................................................................... 78
Examples ................................................................................................. 79
6.3. Claim Check ..................................................................................................... 81
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 81
Incoming Claim Check Transformer .................................................................. 81
Outgoing Claim Check Transformer .................................................................. 82
A word on Message Store ................................................................................ 84
7. Messaging Endpoints .................................................................................................... 85
7.1. Message Endpoints ............................................................................................ 85
Message Handler .............................................................................................. 85
Event Driven Consumer ................................................................................... 86
Polling Consumer ............................................................................................. 86
Namespace Support .......................................................................................... 88
Change Polling Rate at Runtime ....................................................................... 92
Payload Type Conversion ................................................................................. 93
Asynchronous polling ....................................................................................... 93
7.2. Messaging Gateways ......................................................................................... 94
Enter the GatewayProxyFactoryBean ................................................................. 94
Gateway XML Namespace Support ................................................................... 94
Setting the Default Reply Channel .................................................................... 95
Gateway Configuration with Annotations and/or XML ....................................... 95
Invoking No-Argument Methods ....................................................................... 96
Error Handling ................................................................................................ 97
Asynchronous Gateway .................................................................................... 98
Gateway behavior when no response arrives ...................................................... 99
7.3. Service Activator ............................................................................................. 101
Introduction .................................................................................................... 101
Configuring Service Activator ......................................................................... 101
7.4. Delayer ........................................................................................................... 103
Introduction .................................................................................................... 103
Configuring Delayer ....................................................................................... 103
Delayer and Message Store ............................................................................. 104
7.5. Scripting support ............................................................................................. 105
Script configuration ........................................................................................ 106
7.6. Groovy support ................................................................................................ 108
Groovy configuration ...................................................................................... 108
Control Bus .................................................................................................... 109
7.7. Adding Behavior to Endpoints .......................................................................... 109
Provided Advice Classes ................................................................................. 110
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Retry Advice ..........................................................................................
Circuit Breaker Advice ...........................................................................
Expression Evaluating Advice .................................................................
Custom Advice Classes ..................................................................................
8. System Management ...................................................................................................
8.1. JMX Support ...................................................................................................
Notification Listening Channel Adapter ...........................................................
Notification Publishing Channel Adapter .........................................................
Attribute Polling Channel Adapter ...................................................................
Operation Invoking Channel Adapter ...............................................................
Operation Invoking Outbound Gateway ...........................................................
MBean Exporter .............................................................................................
MBean ObjectNames ..............................................................................
MessageChannel MBean Features ............................................................
Orderly Shutdown Managed Operation ....................................................
8.2. Message History ..............................................................................................
Message History Configuration .......................................................................
8.3. Message Store .................................................................................................
8.4. Control Bus .....................................................................................................
8.5. Orderly Shutdown ............................................................................................
IV. Integration Adapters .........................................................................................................
9. AMQP Support ..........................................................................................................
9.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................
9.2. Inbound Channel Adapter .................................................................................
9.3. Outbound Channel Adapter ..............................................................................
9.4. Inbound Gateway .............................................................................................
9.5. Outbound Gateway ..........................................................................................
9.6. AMQP Backed Message Channels ....................................................................
9.7. AMQP Message Headers .................................................................................
9.8. AMQP Samples ...............................................................................................
10. Spring ApplicationEvent Support ...............................................................................
10.1. Receiving Spring ApplicationEvents ...............................................................
10.2. Sending Spring ApplicationEvents ..................................................................
11. Feed Adapter ............................................................................................................
11.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
11.2. Feed Inbound Channel Adapter .......................................................................
12. File Support .............................................................................................................
12.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
12.2. Reading Files .................................................................................................
12.3. Writing files ..................................................................................................
Specifying the Output Directory ......................................................................
Dealing with Existing Destination Files ...........................................................
File Outbound Channel Adapter ......................................................................
Outbound Gateway .........................................................................................
12.4. File Transformers ...........................................................................................
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13. FTP/FTPS Adapters ..................................................................................................
13.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
13.2. FTP Session Factory ......................................................................................
13.3. FTP Inbound Channel Adapter .......................................................................
13.4. FTP Outbound Channel Adapter .....................................................................
13.5. FTP Outbound Gateway .................................................................................
13.6. FTP Session Caching .....................................................................................
14. GemFire Support ......................................................................................................
14.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
14.2. Inbound Channel Adapter ...............................................................................
14.3. Continuous Query Inbound Channel Adapter ...................................................
14.4. Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................................
14.5. Gemfire Message Store ..................................................................................
15. HTTP Support ..........................................................................................................
15.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
15.2. Http Inbound Gateway ...................................................................................
15.3. Http Outbound Gateway .................................................................................
15.4. HTTP Namespace Support .............................................................................
15.5. Timeout Handling ..........................................................................................
15.6. HTTP Proxy configuration .............................................................................
15.7. HTTP Header Mappings .................................................................................
15.8. HTTP Samples ..............................................................................................
Multipart HTTP request - RestTemplate (client) and Http Inbound Gateway
(server) ..........................................................................................................
16. TCP and UDP Support .............................................................................................
16.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
16.2. UDP Adapters ...............................................................................................
16.3. TCP Connection Factories ..............................................................................
TCP Caching Client Connection Factory ..........................................................
TCP Failover Client Connection Factory ..........................................................
16.4. TCP Connection Interceptors ..........................................................................
16.5. TCP Adapters ................................................................................................
16.6. TCP Gateways ...............................................................................................
16.7. TCP Message Correlation ...............................................................................
Overview .......................................................................................................
Gateways .......................................................................................................
Collaborating Outbound and Inbound Channel Adapters ...................................
16.8. A Note About NIO ........................................................................................
16.9. SSL/TLS Support ...........................................................................................
Overview .......................................................................................................
Getting Started ...............................................................................................
Advanced Techniques .....................................................................................
16.10. IP Configuration Attributes ...........................................................................
17. JDBC Support ..........................................................................................................
17.1. Inbound Channel Adapter ...............................................................................
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Polling and Transactions .................................................................................
Max-rows-per-poll versus Max-messages-per-poll ............................................
17.2. Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................................
17.3. Outbound Gateway ........................................................................................
17.4. JDBC Message Store .....................................................................................
The Generic JDBC Message Store ...................................................................
Backing Message Channels .............................................................................
Initializing the Database .................................................................................
Partitioning a Message Store ...........................................................................
17.5. Stored Procedures ..........................................................................................
Supported Databases .......................................................................................
Configuration .................................................................................................
Common Configuration Attributes ...................................................................
Common Configuration Sub-Elements .............................................................
Defining Parameter Sources ............................................................................
Stored Procedure Inbound Channel Adapter .....................................................
Stored Procedure Outbound Channel Adapter ...................................................
Stored Procedure Outbound Gateway ...............................................................
Examples .......................................................................................................
18. JPA Support .............................................................................................................
18.1. Supported Persistence Providers ......................................................................
18.2. Java Implementation ......................................................................................
18.3. Namespace Support ........................................................................................
Common XML Namespace Configuration Attributes ........................................
Providing JPA Query Parameters .....................................................................
Transaction Handling ......................................................................................
18.4. Inbound Channel Adapter ...............................................................................
Configuration Parameter Reference .................................................................
18.5. Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................................
Using an Entity Class .....................................................................................
Using JPA Query Language (JPA QL) ............................................................
Using Native Queries ......................................................................................
Using Named Queries .....................................................................................
Configuration Parameter Reference .................................................................
18.6. Outbound Gateways .......................................................................................
Common Configuration Parameters .................................................................
Updating Outbound Gateway ..........................................................................
Retrieving Outbound Gateway ........................................................................
JPA Outbound Gateway Samples ....................................................................
19. JMS Support ............................................................................................................
19.1. Inbound Channel Adapter ...............................................................................
19.2. Message-Driven Channel Adapter ...................................................................
19.3. Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................................
19.4. Inbound Gateway ...........................................................................................
19.5. Outbound Gateway ........................................................................................
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19.6. Mapping Message Headers to/from JMS Message ............................................
19.7. Message Conversion, Marshalling and Unmarshalling ......................................
19.8. JMS Backed Message Channels ......................................................................
19.9. Using JMS Message Selectors ........................................................................
19.10. JMS Samples ...............................................................................................
Mail Support ............................................................................................................
20.1. Mail-Sending Channel Adapter .......................................................................
20.2. Mail-Receiving Channel Adapter ....................................................................
20.3. Mail Namespace Support ................................................................................
20.4. Email Message Filtering .................................................................................
20.5. Transaction Synchronization ...........................................................................
MongoDb Support ....................................................................................................
21.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
21.2. Connecting to MongoDb ................................................................................
21.3. MongoDB Message Store ...............................................................................
21.4. MongoDB Inbound Channel Adapter ..............................................................
21.5. MongoDB Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................
Redis Support ...........................................................................................................
22.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
22.2. Connecting to Redis .......................................................................................
22.3. Messaging with Redis ....................................................................................
Redis Publish/Subscribe channel .....................................................................
Redis Inbound Channel Adapter ......................................................................
Redis Outbound Channel Adapter ....................................................................
22.4. Redis Message Store ......................................................................................
22.5. RedisStore Inbound Channel Adapter ..............................................................
22.6. RedisStore Outbound Channel Adapter ............................................................
Resource Support ......................................................................................................
23.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
23.2. Resource Inbound Channel Adapter ................................................................
RMI Support ............................................................................................................
24.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
24.2. Outbound RMI ..............................................................................................
24.3. Inbound RMI .................................................................................................
24.4. RMI namespace support .................................................................................
SFTP Adapters .........................................................................................................
25.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
25.2. SFTP Session Factory ....................................................................................
Configuration Properties .................................................................................
25.3. SFTP Session Caching ...................................................................................
25.4. SFTP Inbound Channel Adapter ......................................................................
25.5. SFTP Outbound Channel Adapter ...................................................................
25.6. SFTP Outbound Gateway ...............................................................................
25.7. SFTP/JSCH Logging ......................................................................................
Stream Support .........................................................................................................
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26.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
26.2. Reading from streams ....................................................................................
26.3. Writing to streams .........................................................................................
26.4. Stream namespace support ..............................................................................
Twitter Adapter ........................................................................................................
27.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
27.2. Twitter OAuth Configuration ..........................................................................
27.3. Twitter Template ...........................................................................................
27.4. Twitter Inbound Adapters ...............................................................................
Inbound Message Channel Adapter ..................................................................
Direct Inbound Message Channel Adapter .......................................................
Mentions Inbound Message Channel Adapter ...................................................
Search Inbound Message Channel Adapter .......................................................
27.5. Twitter Outbound Adapter ..............................................................................
Twitter Outbound Update Channel Adapter ......................................................
Twitter Outbound Direct Message Channel Adapter .........................................
Web Services Support ...............................................................................................
28.1. Outbound Web Service Gateways ...................................................................
28.2. Inbound Web Service Gateways ......................................................................
28.3. Web Service Namespace Support ....................................................................
28.4. Outbound URI Configuration ..........................................................................
XML Support - Dealing with XML Payloads .............................................................
29.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
29.2. Namespace Support ........................................................................................
XPath Expressions ..........................................................................................
Providing Namespaces (Optional) to XPath Expressions ...........................
Using XPath Expressions with Default Namespaces ..................................
29.3. Transforming XML Payloads ..........................................................................
Configuring Transformers as Beans .................................................................
UnmarshallingTransformer ......................................................................
MarshallingTransformer ..........................................................................
XsltPayloadTransformer ..........................................................................
ResultTransformers .................................................................................
Namespace Support for XML Transformers .....................................................
Namespace Configuration and ResultTransformers ...........................................
29.4. Transforming XML Messages Using XPath .....................................................
29.5. Splitting XML Messages ................................................................................
29.6. Routing XML Messages Using XPath .............................................................
XML Payload Converter .................................................................................
29.7. XPath Header Enricher ...................................................................................
29.8. Using the XPath Filter ...................................................................................
29.9. XML Validating Filter ...................................................................................
XMPP Support .........................................................................................................
30.1. Introduction ...................................................................................................
30.2. XMPP Connection .........................................................................................
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30.3. XMPP Messages ............................................................................................
Inbound Message Channel Adapter ..................................................................
Outbound Message Channel Adapter ...............................................................
30.4. XMPP Presence .............................................................................................
Inbound Presence Message Channel Adapter ....................................................
Outbound Presence Message Channel Adapter .................................................
30.5. Appendices ....................................................................................................
V. Appendices ........................................................................................................................
A. Message Publishing ...................................................................................................
A.1. Message Publishing Configuration ...................................................................
Annotation-driven approach via @Publisher annotation ....................................
XML-based approach via the <publishing-interceptor> element .........................
Producing and publishing messages based on a scheduled trigger .......................
B. Transaction Support ...................................................................................................
B.1. Understanding Transactions in Message flows ...................................................
Poller Transaction Support ..............................................................................
B.2. Transaction Boundaries ...................................................................................
B.3. Transaction Synchronization ............................................................................
B.4. Pseudo Transactions ........................................................................................
C. Security in Spring Integration .....................................................................................
C.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................
C.2. Securing channels ...........................................................................................
D. Spring Integration Samples ........................................................................................
D.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................
D.2. Where to get Samples .....................................................................................
D.3. Submitting Samples or Sample Requests ..........................................................
D.4. Samples Structure ...........................................................................................
D.5. Samples ..........................................................................................................
Loan Broker ...................................................................................................
The Cafe Sample ............................................................................................
The XML Messaging Sample ..........................................................................
E. Configuration .............................................................................................................
E.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................
E.2. Namespace Support .........................................................................................
E.3. Configuring the Task Scheduler .......................................................................
E.4. Error Handling ................................................................................................
E.5. Annotation Support .........................................................................................
E.6. Message Mapping rules and conventions ..........................................................
Simple Scenarios ............................................................................................
Complex Scenarios .........................................................................................
F. Additional Resources ..................................................................................................
F.1. Spring Integration Home ..................................................................................
G. Change History ..........................................................................................................
G.1. Changes between 1.0 and 2.0 ...........................................................................
Spring 3 support .............................................................................................
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Support for the Spring Expression Language (SpEL) ................................
ConversionService and Converter ............................................................
TaskScheduler and Trigger ......................................................................
RestTemplate and HttpMessageConverter ................................................
Enterprise Integration Pattern Additions ...........................................................
Message History .....................................................................................
Message Store ........................................................................................
Claim Check ..........................................................................................
Control Bus ............................................................................................
New Channel Adapters and Gateways .............................................................
TCP/UDP Adapters ................................................................................
Twitter Adapters .....................................................................................
XMPP Adapters .....................................................................................
FTP/FTPS Adapters ................................................................................
SFTP Adapters .......................................................................................
Feed Adapters ........................................................................................
Other Additions ..............................................................................................
Groovy Support ......................................................................................
Map Transformers ..................................................................................
JSON Transformers ................................................................................
Serialization Transformers .......................................................................
Framework Refactoring ...................................................................................
New Source Control Management and Build Infrastructure ...............................
New Spring Integration Samples .....................................................................
SpringSource Tool Suite Visual Editor for Spring Integration ............................
G.2. Changes between 2.0 and 2.1 ...........................................................................
New Components ...........................................................................................
JSR-223 Scripting Support ......................................................................
GemFire Support ....................................................................................
AMQP Support ......................................................................................
MongoDB Support .................................................................................
Redis Support .........................................................................................
Support for Spring's Resource abstraction ................................................
Stored Procedure Components .................................................................
XPath and XML Validating Filter ...........................................................
Payload Enricher ....................................................................................
FTP and SFTP Outbound Gateways ........................................................
FTP Session Caching ..............................................................................
Framework Refactoring ...................................................................................
Standardizing Router Configuration .........................................................
XML Schemas updated to 2.1 .................................................................
Source Control Management and Build Infrastructure .......................................
Source Code now hosted on Github .........................................................
Improved Source Code Visibility with Sonar ............................................
New Samples .................................................................................................
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Preface
1 Code Conventions
The Spring Framework 2.0 introduced support for namespaces, which simplifies the Xml configuration
of the application context, and consequently Spring Integration provides broad namespace support. This
reference guide applies the following conventions for all code examples that use namespace support:
The int namespace prefix will be used for Spring Integration's core namespace support. Each Spring
Integration adapter type (module) will provide its own namespace, which is configured using the
following convention:
int- followed by the name of the module, e.g. int-twitter, int-stream, …
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:int-twitter="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/twitter"
xmlns:int-stream="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream"
xsi:schemaLocation="
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/twitter
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/twitter/spring-integration-twitter.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream/spring-integration-stream.xsd">
…
</beans>
For a detailed explanation regarding Spring Integration's namespace support see Section E.2,
“Namespace Support”.
Note
Please note that the namespace prefix can be freely chosen. You may even choose not to
use any namespace prefixes at all. Therefore, apply the convention that suits your application
needs best. Be aware, though, that SpringSource Tool Suite™ (STS) uses the same namespace
conventions for Spring Integration as used in this reference guide.
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Part I. What's new?
For those who are already familiar with Spring Integration, this chapter provides a brief overview of the
new features of version 2.2. If you are interested in the changes and features, that were introduced in
earlier versions, please take a look at chapter: Appendix G, Change History
Spring Integration
1. What's new in Spring Integration 2.2?
This chapter provides an overview of the new features and improvements that have been introduced with
Spring Integration 2.2 If you are interested in even more detail, please take a look at the Issue Tracker
tickets that were resolved as part of the 2.2 development process:
1.1 General
Spring 3.1
Spring Integration now uses Spring 3.1.
Outbound Gateways
The XML Namespace support adds the reply-timeout attribute to the following Outbound Gateways:
• Amqp Outbound Gateway
• File Outbound Gateway
• Ftp Outbound Gateway
• Sftp Outbound Gateway
• Ws Outbound Gateway
Spring-AMQP 1.1
Spring Integration now uses Spring AMQP 1.1. This enables several features to be used within a Spring
Integration application, including...
• A fixed reply queue for the outbound gateway
• HA (mirrored) queues
• Publisher Confirms
• Returned Messages
• Support for Dead Letter Exchanges/Dead Letter Queues
RedisStore Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters
Spring Integration now has RedisStore Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters allowing you to write
and read Message payloads to/from Redis collection(s). For more information please see Section 22.6,
“RedisStore Outbound Channel Adapter” and Section 22.5, “RedisStore Inbound Channel Adapter”.
MongoDB Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters
Spring Integration now has MongoDB Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters allowing you to write
and read Message payloads to/from a MongoDB document store. For more information please see
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Section 21.5, “MongoDB Outbound Channel Adapter” and Section 21.4, “MongoDB Inbound Channel
Adapter”.
JDBC Support - Stored Procedures Components
SpEL Support
When using the Stored Procedure components of the Spring Integration JDBC Adapter, you can now
provide Stored Procedure Names or Stored Function Names using Spring Expression Language (SpEL).
This allows you to specify the Stored Procedures to be invoked at runtime. For example, you can provide
Stored Procedure names that you would like to execute via Message Headers. For more information
please see Section 17.5, “Stored Procedures”.
JMX Support
The Stored Procedure components now provide basic JMX support, exposing some of their properties
as MBeans:
• Stored Procedure Name
• Stored Procedure Name Expression
• JdbcCallOperations Cache Statistics
JDBC Support - Outbound Gateway
When using the JDBC Outbound Gateway, the update query is no longer mandatory. You can now
provide solely a select query using the request message as a source of parameters.
JDBC Support - Channel-specific Message Store Implementation
A new Message Channel-specific Message Store Implementation has been added, providing a more
scalable solution using database-specific SQL queries. For more information please see: the section
called “Backing Message Channels”.
File Adapter - Improved File Overwrite/Append Handling
When using the File Oubound Channel Adapter or the File Outbound Gateway, a new mode property
was added. Prior to Spring Integration 2.2, target files were replaced when they existed. Now you can
specify the following options:
• REPLACE (Default)
• APPEND
• FAIL
• IGNORE
For more information please see the section called “Dealing with Existing Destination Files”.
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Orderly Shutdown
A method stopActiveComponents() has been added to the IntegrationMBeanExporter. This
allows a Spring Integration application to be shut down in an orderly manner, disallowing new inbound
messages to certain adapters and waiting for some time to allow in-flight messages to complete.
Adding Behavior to Endpoints
The ability to add an <advice-chain/> to a poller has been available for some time. However, the behavior
added by this affects the entire integration flow. It did not address the ability to add, say, retry, to an
individual endpoint. The 2.2. release introduces the <request-handler-advice-chain/> to many endpoints.
In addition, 3 standard Advice classes have been provided for this purpose:
• MessageHandlerRetryAdvice
• MessageHandlerCircuitBreakerAdvice
• ExpressionEvaluatingMessageHandlerAdvice
For more information, see Section 7.7, “Adding Behavior to Endpoints”.
Transaction Synchronization and Pseudo Transactions
Pollers can now participate in Spring's Transaction Synchronization feature. This allows for
synchronizing such operations as renaming files by an inbound channel adapter depending on whether
the transaction commits, or rolls back.
In addition, these features can be enabled when there is not a 'real' transaction present, by means of a
PseudoTransactionManager.
For more information see Section B.3, “Transaction Synchronization”.
JMS Oubound Gateway Improvements
The JMS Outbound Gateway can now be configured to use a MessageListener container to receive
replies. This can improve performance of the gateway.
object-to-json-transformer
The ObjectToJsonTransformer now sets the content-type header to application/json by default.
For more information see Section 6.1, “Transformer”.
1.2 New Components
JPA Endpoints
Spring Integration now includes components for the Java Persistence API (JPA) for retrieving and
persisting JPA entity objects. The JPA Adapter includes the following components:
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• Inbound Channel Adapter
• Outbound Channel Adapter
• Updating Outbound Gateway
• Retrieving Outbound Gateway
For more information please see Chapter 18, JPA Support
1.3 Framework Refactoring
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Part II. Overview of Spring
Integration Framework
Spring Integration provides an extension of the Spring programming model to support the well-known
Enterprise Integration Patterns. It enables lightweight messaging within Spring-based applications and
supports integration with external systems via declarative adapters. Those adapters provide a higherlevel of abstraction over Spring's support for remoting, messaging, and scheduling. Spring Integration's
primary goal is to provide a simple model for building enterprise integration solutions while maintaining
the separation of concerns that is essential for producing maintainable, testable code.
Spring Integration
2. Spring Integration Overview
2.1 Background
One of the key themes of the Spring Framework is inversion of control. In its broadest sense, this means
that the framework handles responsibilities on behalf of the components that are managed within its
context. The components themselves are simplified since they are relieved of those responsibilities. For
example, dependency injection relieves the components of the responsibility of locating or creating their
dependencies. Likewise, aspect-oriented programming relieves business components of generic crosscutting concerns by modularizing them into reusable aspects. In each case, the end result is a system
that is easier to test, understand, maintain, and extend.
Furthermore, the Spring framework and portfolio provide a comprehensive programming model for
building enterprise applications. Developers benefit from the consistency of this model and especially
the fact that it is based upon well-established best practices such as programming to interfaces and
favoring composition over inheritance. Spring's simplified abstractions and powerful support libraries
boost developer productivity while simultaneously increasing the level of testability and portability.
Spring Integration is motivated by these same goals and principles. It extends the Spring programming
model into the messaging domain and builds upon Spring's existing enterprise integration support to
provide an even higher level of abstraction. It supports message-driven architectures where inversion of
control applies to runtime concerns, such as when certain business logic should execute and where the
response should be sent. It supports routing and transformation of messages so that different transports
and different data formats can be integrated without impacting testability. In other words, the messaging
and integration concerns are handled by the framework, so business components are further isolated
from the infrastructure and developers are relieved of complex integration responsibilities.
As an extension of the Spring programming model, Spring Integration provides a wide variety of
configuration options including annotations, XML with namespace support, XML with generic "bean"
elements, and of course direct usage of the underlying API. That API is based upon well-defined
strategy interfaces and non-invasive, delegating adapters. Spring Integration's design is inspired by the
recognition of a strong affinity between common patterns within Spring and the well-known Enterprise
Integration Patterns as described in the book of the same name by Gregor Hohpe and Bobby Woolf
(Addison Wesley, 2004). Developers who have read that book should be immediately comfortable with
the Spring Integration concepts and terminology.
2.2 Goals and Principles
Spring Integration is motivated by the following goals:
• Provide a simple model for implementing complex enterprise integration solutions.
• Facilitate asynchronous, message-driven behavior within a Spring-based application.
• Promote intuitive, incremental adoption for existing Spring users.
Spring Integration is guided by the following principles:
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• Components should be loosely coupled for modularity and testability.
• The framework should enforce separation of concerns between business logic and integration logic.
• Extension points should be abstract in nature but within well-defined boundaries to promote reuse
and portability.
2.3 Main Components
From the vertical perspective, a layered architecture facilitates separation of concerns, and interfacebased contracts between layers promote loose coupling. Spring-based applications are typically designed
this way, and the Spring framework and portfolio provide a strong foundation for following this best
practice for the full-stack of an enterprise application. Message-driven architectures add a horizontal
perspective, yet these same goals are still relevant. Just as "layered architecture" is an extremely generic
and abstract paradigm, messaging systems typically follow the similarly abstract "pipes-and-filters"
model. The "filters" represent any component that is capable of producing and/or consuming messages,
and the "pipes" transport the messages between filters so that the components themselves remain
loosely-coupled. It is important to note that these two high-level paradigms are not mutually exclusive.
The underlying messaging infrastructure that supports the "pipes" should still be encapsulated in a layer
whose contracts are defined as interfaces. Likewise, the "filters" themselves would typically be managed
within a layer that is logically above the application's service layer, interacting with those services
through interfaces much in the same way that a web-tier would.
Message
In Spring Integration, a Message is a generic wrapper for any Java object combined with metadata used
by the framework while handling that object. It consists of a payload and headers. The payload can
be of any type and the headers hold commonly required information such as id, timestamp, correlation
id, and return address. Headers are also used for passing values to and from connected transports. For
example, when creating a Message from a received File, the file name may be stored in a header to be
accessed by downstream components. Likewise, if a Message's content is ultimately going to be sent
by an outbound Mail adapter, the various properties (to, from, cc, subject, etc.) may be configured as
Message header values by an upstream component. Developers can also store any arbitrary key-value
pairs in the headers.
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Message Channel
A Message Channel represents the "pipe" of a pipes-and-filters architecture. Producers send Messages to
a channel, and consumers receive Messages from a channel. The Message Channel therefore decouples
the messaging components, and also provides a convenient point for interception and monitoring of
Messages.
A Message Channel may follow either Point-to-Point or Publish/Subscribe semantics. With a Point-toPoint channel, at most one consumer can receive each Message sent to the channel. Publish/Subscribe
channels, on the other hand, will attempt to broadcast each Message to all of its subscribers. Spring
Integration supports both of these.
Whereas "Point-to-Point" and "Publish/Subscribe" define the two options for how many consumers
will ultimately receive each Message, there is another important consideration: should the channel
buffer messages? In Spring Integration, Pollable Channels are capable of buffering Messages within
a queue. The advantage of buffering is that it allows for throttling the inbound Messages and thereby
prevents overloading a consumer. However, as the name suggests, this also adds some complexity,
since a consumer can only receive the Messages from such a channel if a poller is configured. On the
other hand, a consumer connected to a Subscribable Channel is simply Message-driven. The variety of
channel implementations available in Spring Integration will be discussed in detail in the section called
“Message Channel Implementations”.
Message Endpoint
One of the primary goals of Spring Integration is to simplify the development of enterprise integration
solutions through inversion of control. This means that you should not have to implement consumers
and producers directly, and you should not even have to build Messages and invoke send or receive
operations on a Message Channel. Instead, you should be able to focus on your specific domain model
with an implementation based on plain Objects. Then, by providing declarative configuration, you can
"connect" your domain-specific code to the messaging infrastructure provided by Spring Integration.
The components responsible for these connections are Message Endpoints. This does not mean that you
will necessarily connect your existing application code directly. Any real-world enterprise integration
solution will require some amount of code focused upon integration concerns such as routing and
transformation. The important thing is to achieve separation of concerns between such integration logic
and business logic. In other words, as with the Model-View-Controller paradigm for web applications,
the goal should be to provide a thin but dedicated layer that translates inbound requests into service layer
invocations, and then translates service layer return values into outbound replies. The next section will
provide an overview of the Message Endpoint types that handle these responsibilities, and in upcoming
chapters, you will see how Spring Integration's declarative configuration options provide a non-invasive
way to use each of these.
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2.4 Message Endpoints
A Message Endpoint represents the "filter" of a pipes-and-filters architecture. As mentioned above, the
endpoint's primary role is to connect application code to the messaging framework and to do so in a noninvasive manner. In other words, the application code should ideally have no awareness of the Message
objects or the Message Channels. This is similar to the role of a Controller in the MVC paradigm. Just
as a Controller handles HTTP requests, the Message Endpoint handles Messages. Just as Controllers are
mapped to URL patterns, Message Endpoints are mapped to Message Channels. The goal is the same
in both cases: isolate application code from the infrastructure. These concepts are discussed at length
along with all of the patterns that follow in the Enterprise Integration Patterns book. Here, we provide
only a high-level description of the main endpoint types supported by Spring Integration and their roles.
The chapters that follow will elaborate and provide sample code as well as configuration examples.
Transformer
A Message Transformer is responsible for converting a Message's content or structure and returning the
modified Message. Probably the most common type of transformer is one that converts the payload of
the Message from one format to another (e.g. from XML Document to java.lang.String). Similarly, a
transformer may be used to add, remove, or modify the Message's header values.
Filter
A Message Filter determines whether a Message should be passed to an output channel at all. This
simply requires a boolean test method that may check for a particular payload content type, a property
value, the presence of a header, etc. If the Message is accepted, it is sent to the output channel, but if
not it will be dropped (or for a more severe implementation, an Exception could be thrown). Message
Filters are often used in conjunction with a Publish Subscribe channel, where multiple consumers may
receive the same Message and use the filter to narrow down the set of Messages to be processed based
on some criteria.
Note
Be careful not to confuse the generic use of "filter" within the Pipes-and-Filters architectural
pattern with this specific endpoint type that selectively narrows down the Messages flowing
between two channels. The Pipes-and-Filters concept of "filter" matches more closely with
Spring Integration's Message Endpoint: any component that can be connected to Message
Channel(s) in order to send and/or receive Messages.
Router
A Message Router is responsible for deciding what channel or channels should receive the Message
next (if any). Typically the decision is based upon the Message's content and/or metadata available in
the Message Headers. A Message Router is often used as a dynamic alternative to a statically configured
output channel on a Service Activator or other endpoint capable of sending reply Messages. Likewise,
a Message Router provides a proactive alternative to the reactive Message Filters used by multiple
subscribers as described above.
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Splitter
A Splitter is another type of Message Endpoint whose responsibility is to accept a Message from its input
channel, split that Message into multiple Messages, and then send each of those to its output channel.
This is typically used for dividing a "composite" payload object into a group of Messages containing
the sub-divided payloads.
Aggregator
Basically a mirror-image of the Splitter, the Aggregator is a type of Message Endpoint that receives
multiple Messages and combines them into a single Message. In fact, Aggregators are often downstream
consumers in a pipeline that includes a Splitter. Technically, the Aggregator is more complex than a
Splitter, because it is required to maintain state (the Messages to-be-aggregated), to decide when the
complete group of Messages is available, and to timeout if necessary. Furthermore, in case of a timeout,
the Aggregator needs to know whether to send the partial results or to discard them to a separate channel.
Spring Integration provides a CompletionStrategy as well as configurable settings for timeout,
whether to send partial results upon timeout, and the discard channel.
Service Activator
A Service Activator is a generic endpoint for connecting a service instance to the messaging system.
The input Message Channel must be configured, and if the service method to be invoked is capable of
returning a value, an output Message Channel may also be provided.
Note
The output channel is optional, since each Message may also provide its own 'Return Address'
header. This same rule applies for all consumer endpoints.
The Service Activator invokes an operation on some service object to process the request Message,
extracting the request Message's payload and converting if necessary (if the method does not expect a
Message-typed parameter). Whenever the service object's method returns a value, that return value will
likewise be converted to a reply Message if necessary (if it's not already a Message). That reply Message
is sent to the output channel. If no output channel has been configured, then the reply will be sent to the
channel specified in the Message's "return address" if available.
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A request-reply "Service Activator" endpoint connects a
target object's method to input and output Message Channels.
Channel Adapter
A Channel Adapter is an endpoint that connects a Message Channel to some other system or transport.
Channel Adapters may be either inbound or outbound. Typically, the Channel Adapter will do some
mapping between the Message and whatever object or resource is received-from or sent-to the other
system (File, HTTP Request, JMS Message, etc). Depending on the transport, the Channel Adapter
may also populate or extract Message header values. Spring Integration provides a number of Channel
Adapters, and they will be described in upcoming chapters.
An inbound "Channel Adapter" endpoint connects a source system to a MessageChannel.
An outbound "Channel Adapter" endpoint connects a MessageChannel to a target system.
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Part III. Core Messaging
This section covers all aspects of the core messaging API in Spring Integration. Here you will learn about
Messages, Message Channels, and Message Endpoints. Many of the Enterprise Integration Patterns
are covered here as well, such as Filters, Routers, Transformers, Service-Activators, Splitters, and
Aggregators. The section also contains material about System Management, including the Control Bus
and Message History support.
Spring Integration
3. Messaging Channels
3.1 Message Channels
While the Message plays the crucial role of encapsulating data, it is the MessageChannel that
decouples message producers from message consumers.
The MessageChannel Interface
Spring Integration's top-level MessageChannel interface is defined as follows.
public interface MessageChannel {
boolean send(Message message);
boolean send(Message message, long timeout);
}
When sending a message, the return value will be true if the message is sent successfully. If the send
call times out or is interrupted, then it will return false.
PollableChannel
Since Message Channels may or may not buffer Messages (as discussed in the overview), there are
two sub-interfaces defining the buffering (pollable) and non-buffering (subscribable) channel behavior.
Here is the definition of PollableChannel.
public interface PollableChannel extends MessageChannel {
Message<?> receive();
Message<?> receive(long timeout);
}
Similar to the send methods, when receiving a message, the return value will be null in the case of a
timeout or interrupt.
SubscribableChannel
The SubscribableChannel base interface is implemented by channels that send Messages directly
to their subscribed MessageHandlers. Therefore, they do not provide receive methods for polling,
but instead define methods for managing those subscribers:
public interface SubscribableChannel extends MessageChannel {
boolean subscribe(MessageHandler handler);
boolean unsubscribe(MessageHandler handler);
}
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Message Channel Implementations
Spring Integration provides several different Message Channel implementations. Each is briefly
described in the sections below.
PublishSubscribeChannel
The PublishSubscribeChannel implementation broadcasts any Message sent to it to all of
its subscribed handlers. This is most often used for sending Event Messages whose primary role
is notification as opposed to Document Messages which are generally intended to be processed
by a single handler. Note that the PublishSubscribeChannel is intended for sending only.
Since it broadcasts to its subscribers directly when its send(Message) method is invoked,
consumers cannot poll for Messages (it does not implement PollableChannel and therefore has no
receive() method). Instead, any subscriber must be a MessageHandler itself, and the subscriber's
handleMessage(Message) method will be invoked in turn.
QueueChannel
The QueueChannel implementation wraps a queue. Unlike the PublishSubscribeChannel,
the QueueChannel has point-to-point semantics. In other words, even if the channel has multiple
consumers, only one of them should receive any Message sent to that channel. It provides a default
no-argument constructor (providing an essentially unbounded capacity of Integer.MAX_VALUE) as
well as a constructor that accepts the queue capacity:
public QueueChannel(int capacity)
A channel that has not reached its capacity limit will store messages in its internal queue, and the
send() method will return immediately even if no receiver is ready to handle the message. If the
queue has reached capacity, then the sender will block until room is available. Or, if using the send
call that accepts a timeout, it will block until either room is available or the timeout period elapses,
whichever occurs first. Likewise, a receive call will return immediately if a message is available on the
queue, but if the queue is empty, then a receive call may block until either a message is available or
the timeout elapses. In either case, it is possible to force an immediate return regardless of the queue's
state by passing a timeout value of 0. Note however, that calls to the no-arg versions of send() and
receive() will block indefinitely.
PriorityChannel
Whereas the QueueChannel enforces first-in/first-out (FIFO) ordering, the PriorityChannel is
an alternative implementation that allows for messages to be ordered within the channel based upon a
priority. By default the priority is determined by the 'priority' header within each message. However,
for custom priority determination logic, a comparator of type Comparator<Message<?>> can be
provided to the PriorityChannel's constructor.
RendezvousChannel
The RendezvousChannel enables a "direct-handoff" scenario where a sender will block until
another party invokes the channel's receive() method or vice-versa. Internally, this implementation
is quite similar to the QueueChannel except that it uses a SynchronousQueue (a zero-capacity
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implementation of BlockingQueue). This works well in situations where the sender and receiver
are operating in different threads but simply dropping the message in a queue asynchronously is not
appropriate. In other words, with a RendezvousChannel at least the sender knows that some receiver
has accepted the message, whereas with a QueueChannel, the message would have been stored to
the internal queue and potentially never received.
Tip
Keep in mind that all of these queue-based channels are storing messages in-memory only by
default. When persistence is required, you can either provide a 'message-store' attribute within
the 'queue' element to reference a persistent MessageStore implementation, or you can replace
the local channel with one that is backed by a persistent broker, such as a JMS-backed channel
or Channel Adapter. The latter option allows you to take advantage of any JMS provider's
implementation for message persistence, and it will be discussed in Chapter 19, JMS Support.
However, when buffering in a queue is not necessary, the simplest approach is to rely upon
the DirectChannel discussed next.
The RendezvousChannel is also useful for implementing request-reply operations. The sender
can create a temporary, anonymous instance of RendezvousChannel which it then sets as the
'replyChannel' header when building a Message. After sending that Message, the sender can immediately
call receive (optionally providing a timeout value) in order to block while waiting for a reply Message.
This is very similar to the implementation used internally by many of Spring Integration's request-reply
components.
DirectChannel
The DirectChannel has point-to-point semantics but otherwise is more similar to the
PublishSubscribeChannel than any of the queue-based channel implementations described
above. It implements the SubscribableChannel interface instead of the PollableChannel
interface, so it dispatches Messages directly to a subscriber. As a point-to-point channel, however, it
differs from the PublishSubscribeChannel in that it will only send each Message to a single
subscribed MessageHandler.
In addition to being the simplest point-to-point channel option, one of its most important features is
that it enables a single thread to perform the operations on "both sides" of the channel. For example,
if a handler is subscribed to a DirectChannel, then sending a Message to that channel will trigger
invocation of that handler's handleMessage(Message) method directly in the sender's thread,
before the send() method invocation can return.
The key motivation for providing a channel implementation with this behavior is to support transactions
that must span across the channel while still benefiting from the abstraction and loose coupling that the
channel provides. If the send call is invoked within the scope of a transaction, then the outcome of the
handler's invocation (e.g. updating a database record) will play a role in determining the ultimate result
of that transaction (commit or rollback).
Note
Since the DirectChannel is the simplest option and does not add any additional overhead
that would be required for scheduling and managing the threads of a poller, it is the default
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channel type within Spring Integration. The general idea is to define the channels for an
application and then to consider which of those need to provide buffering or to throttle
input, and then modify those to be queue-based PollableChannels. Likewise, if a
channel needs to broadcast messages, it should not be a DirectChannel but rather a
PublishSubscribeChannel. Below you will see how each of these can be configured.
The DirectChannel internally delegates to a Message Dispatcher to invoke its subscribed Message
Handlers, and that dispatcher can have a load-balancing strategy. The load-balancer determines how
invocations will be ordered in the case that there are multiple handlers subscribed to the same channel.
When using the namespace support described below, the default strategy is "round-robin" which
essentially load-balances across the handlers in rotation.
Note
The "round-robin" strategy is currently the only implementation available out-of-the-box in
Spring Integration. Other strategy implementations may be added in future versions.
The load-balancer also works in combination with a boolean failover property. If the "failover" value
is true (the default), then the dispatcher will fall back to any subsequent handlers as necessary when
preceding handlers throw Exceptions. The order is determined by an optional order value defined on
the handlers themselves or, if no such value exists, the order in which the handlers are subscribed.
If a certain situation requires that the dispatcher always try to invoke the first handler, then fallback in the
same fixed order sequence every time an error occurs, no load-balancing strategy should be provided.
In other words, the dispatcher still supports the failover boolean property even when no load-balancing
is enabled. Without load-balancing, however, the invocation of handlers will always begin with the
first according to their order. For example, this approach works well when there is a clear definition
of primary, secondary, tertiary, and so on. When using the namespace support, the "order" attribute on
any endpoint will determine that order.
Note
Keep in mind that load-balancing and failover only apply when a channel has more than one
subscribed Message Handler. When using the namespace support, this means that more than
one endpoint shares the same channel reference in the "input-channel" attribute.
ExecutorChannel
The ExecutorChannel is a point-to-point channel that supports the same dispatcher configuration
as DirectChannel (load-balancing strategy and the failover boolean property). The key difference
between these two dispatching channel types is that the ExecutorChannel delegates to an instance
of TaskExecutor to perform the dispatch. This means that the send method typically will not block,
but it also means that the handler invocation may not occur in the sender's thread. It therefore does not
support transactions spanning the sender and receiving handler.
Tip
Note that there are occasions where the sender may block. For example, when using
a TaskExecutor with a rejection-policy that throttles back on the client (such as the
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ThreadPoolExecutor.CallerRunsPolicy), the sender's thread will execute the
method directly anytime the thread pool is at its maximum capacity and the executor's work
queue is full. Since that situation would only occur in a non-predictable way, that obviously
cannot be relied upon for transactions.
Scoped Channel
Spring Integration 1.0 provided a ThreadLocalChannel implementation, but that has been removed
as of 2.0. Now, there is a more general way for handling the same requirement by simply adding a
"scope" attribute to a channel. The value of the attribute can be any name of a Scope that is available
within the context. For example, in a web environment, certain Scopes are available, and any custom
Scope implementations can be registered with the context. Here's an example of a ThreadLocal-based
scope being applied to a channel, including the registration of the Scope itself.
<int:channel id="threadScopedChannel" scope="thread">
<int:queue />
</int:channel>
<bean class="org.springframework.beans.factory.config.CustomScopeConfigurer">
<property name="scopes">
<map>
<entry key="thread" value="org.springframework.context.support.SimpleThreadScope" />
</map>
</property>
</bean>
The channel above also delegates to a queue internally, but the channel is bound to the current thread,
so the contents of the queue are as well. That way the thread that sends to the channel will later be able
to receive those same Messages, but no other thread would be able to access them. While thread-scoped
channels are rarely needed, they can be useful in situations where DirectChannels are being used
to enforce a single thread of operation but any reply Messages should be sent to a "terminal" channel.
If that terminal channel is thread-scoped, the original sending thread can collect its replies from it.
Now, since any channel can be scoped, you can define your own scopes in addition to Thread Local.
Channel Interceptors
One of the advantages of a messaging architecture is the ability to provide common behavior and capture
meaningful information about the messages passing through the system in a non-invasive way. Since
the Messages are being sent to and received from MessageChannels, those channels provide an
opportunity for intercepting the send and receive operations. The ChannelInterceptor strategy
interface provides methods for each of those operations:
public interface ChannelInterceptor {
Message<?> preSend(Message<?> message, MessageChannel channel);
void postSend(Message<?> message, MessageChannel channel, boolean sent);
boolean preReceive(MessageChannel channel);
Message<?> postReceive(Message<?> message, MessageChannel channel);
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}
After implementing the interface, registering the interceptor with a channel is just a matter of calling:
channel.addInterceptor(someChannelInterceptor);
The methods that return a Message instance can be used for transforming the Message or can return
'null' to prevent further processing (of course, any of the methods can throw a RuntimeException). Also,
the preReceive method can return 'false' to prevent the receive operation from proceeding.
Note
Keep in mind that receive() calls are only relevant for PollableChannels. In
fact the SubscribableChannel interface does not even define a receive() method.
The reason for this is that when a Message is sent to a SubscribableChannel it
will be sent directly to one or more subscribers depending on the type of channel (e.g. a
PublishSubscribeChannel sends to all of its subscribers). Therefore, the preReceive(..)
and postReceive(..) interceptor methods are only invoked when the interceptor is
applied to a PollableChannel.
Spring Integration also provides an implementation of the Wire Tap pattern. It is a simple interceptor
that sends the Message to another channel without otherwise altering the existing flow. It can be very
useful for debugging and monitoring. An example is shown in the section called “Wire Tap”.
Because it is rarely necessary to implement all of the interceptor methods, a
ChannelInterceptorAdapter class is also available for sub-classing. It provides no-op methods
(the void method is empty, the Message returning methods return the Message as-is, and the
boolean method returns true). Therefore, it is often easiest to extend that class and just implement
the method(s) that you need as in the following example.
public class CountingChannelInterceptor extends ChannelInterceptorAdapter {
private final AtomicInteger sendCount = new AtomicInteger();
@Override
public Message<?> preSend(Message<?> message, MessageChannel channel) {
sendCount.incrementAndGet();
return message;
}
}
Tip
The order of invocation for the interceptor methods depends on the type of channel. As
described above, the queue-based channels are the only ones where the receive method
is intercepted in the first place. Additionally, the relationship between send and receive
interception depends on the timing of separate sender and receiver threads. For example,
if a receiver is already blocked while waiting for a message the order could be: preSend,
preReceive, postReceive, postSend. However, if a receiver polls after the sender has placed a
message on the channel and already returned, the order would be: preSend, postSend, (sometime-elapses) preReceive, postReceive. The time that elapses in such a case depends on a
number of factors and is therefore generally unpredictable (in fact, the receive may never
happen!). Obviously, the type of queue also plays a role (e.g. rendezvous vs. priority). The
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bottom line is that you cannot rely on the order beyond the fact that preSend will precede
postSend and preReceive will precede postReceive.
MessagingTemplate
As you will see when the endpoints and their various configuration options are introduced, Spring
Integration provides a foundation for messaging components that enables non-invasive invocation of
your application code from the messaging system. However, sometimes it is necessary to invoke the
messaging system from your application code. For convenience when implementing such use-cases,
Spring Integration provides a MessagingTemplate that supports a variety of operations across the
Message Channels, including request/reply scenarios. For example, it is possible to send a request and
wait for a reply.
MessagingTemplate template = new MessagingTemplate();
Message reply = template.sendAndReceive(someChannel, new GenericMessage("test"));
In that example, a temporary anonymous channel would be created internally by the template. The
'sendTimeout' and 'receiveTimeout' properties may also be set on the template, and other exchange types
are also supported.
public boolean send(final MessageChannel channel, final Message<?> message) { ... }
public Message<?> sendAndReceive(final MessageChannel channel, final Message<?> request) { .. }
public Message<?> receive(final PollableChannel<?> channel) { ... }
Note
A less invasive approach that allows you to invoke simple interfaces with payload and/or
header values instead of Message instances is described in the section called “Enter the
GatewayProxyFactoryBean”.
Configuring Message Channels
To create a Message Channel instance, you can use the <channel/> element:
<int:channel id="exampleChannel"/>
The default channel type is Point to Point. To create a Publish Subscribe channel, use the <publishsubscribe-channel/> element:
<int:publish-subscribe-channel id="exampleChannel"/>
When using the <channel/> element without any sub-elements, it will create a DirectChannel
instance (a SubscribableChannel).
However, you can alternatively provide a variety of <queue/> sub-elements to create any of the pollable
channel types (as described in the section called “Message Channel Implementations”). Examples of
each are shown below.
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DirectChannel Configuration
As mentioned above, DirectChannel is the default type.
<int:channel id="directChannel"/>
A default channel will have a round-robin load-balancer and will also have failover enabled (See the
discussion in the section called “DirectChannel” for more detail). To disable one or both of these, add
a <dispatcher/> sub-element and configure the attributes:
<int:channel id="failFastChannel">
<int:dispatcher failover="false"/>
</channel>
<int:channel id="channelWithFixedOrderSequenceFailover">
<int:dispatcher load-balancer="none"/>
</int:channel>
Datatype Channel Configuration
There are times when a consumer can only process a particular type of payload and you need to therefore
ensure the payload type of input Messages. Of course the first thing that comes to mind is Message
Filter. However all that Message Filter will do is filter out Messages that are not compliant with the
requirements of the consumer. Another way would be to use a Content Based Router and route Messages
with non-compliant data-types to specific Transformers to enforce transformation/conversion to the
required data-type. This of course would work, but a simpler way of accomplishing the same thing is to
apply the Datatype Channel pattern. You can use separate Datatype Channels for each specific payload
data-type.
To create a Datatype Channel that only accepts messages containing a certain payload type, provide the
fully-qualified class name in the channel element's datatype attribute:
<int:channel id="numberChannel" datatype="java.lang.Number"/>
Note that the type check passes for any type that is assignable to the channel's datatype. In other words,
the "numberChannel" above would accept messages whose payload is java.lang.Integer or
java.lang.Double. Multiple types can be provided as a comma-delimited list:
<int:channel id="stringOrNumberChannel" datatype="java.lang.String,java.lang.Number"/>
So the 'numberChannel' above will only accept Messages with a data-type of java.lang.Number.
But what happens if the payload of the Message is not of the required type? It depends on whether
you have defined a bean named "integrationConversionService" that is an instance of Spring's
Conversion Service. If not, then an Exception would be thrown immediately, but if you do have an
"integrationConversionService" bean defined, it will be used in an attempt to convert the Message's
payload to the acceptable type.
You can even register custom converters. For example, let's say you are sending a Message with a String
payload to the 'numberChannel' we configured above.
MessageChannel inChannel = context.getBean("numberChannel", MessageChannel.class);
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inChannel.send(new GenericMessage<String>("5"));
Typically this would be a perfectly legal operation, however since we are using Datatype Channel the
result of such operation would generate an exception:
Exception in thread "main" org.springframework.integration.MessageDeliveryException:
Channel 'numberChannel'
expected one of the following datataypes [class java.lang.Number],
but received [class java.lang.String]
…
And rightfully so since we are requiring the payload type to be a Number while sending a String. So we
need something to convert String to a Number. All we need to do is implement a Converter.
public static class StringToIntegerConverter implements Converter<String, Integer> {
public Integer convert(String source) {
return Integer.parseInt(source);
}
}
Then, register it as a Converter with the Integration Conversion Service:
<int:converter ref="strToInt"/>
<bean id="strToInt" class="org.springframework.integration.util.Demo.StringToIntegerConverter"/>
When the 'converter' element is parsed, it will create the "integrationConversionService" bean ondemand if one is not already defined. With that Converter in place, the send operation would now be
successful since the Datatype Channel will use that Converter to convert the String payload to an Integer.
QueueChannel Configuration
To create a QueueChannel, use the <queue/> sub-element. You may specify the channel's capacity:
<int:channel id="queueChannel">
<queue capacity="25"/>
</int:channel>
Note
If you do not provide a value for the 'capacity' attribute on this <queue/> sub-element, the
resulting queue will be unbounded. To avoid issues such as OutOfMemoryErrors, it is highly
recommended to set an explicit value for a bounded queue.
Persistent QueueChannel Configuration
Since a QueueChannel provides the capability to buffer Messages, but does so in-memory only
by default, it also introduces a possibility that Messages could be lost in the event of a system
failure. To mitigate this risk, a QueueChannel may be backed by a persistent implementation of
the MessageGroupStore strategy interface. For more details on MessageGroupStore and
MessageStore see Section 8.3, “Message Store”.
When a QueueChannel receives a Message, it will add it to the Message Store, and when a Message
is polled from a QueueChannel, it is removed from the Message Store.
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By default any QueueChannel only stores its Messages in an in-memory Queue and can
therefore lead to the lost message scenario mentioned above. However Spring Integration provides a
JdbcMessageStore to allow a QueueChannel to be backed by an RDBMS.
You can configure a Message Store for any QueueChannel by adding the message-store
attribute as shown in the next example.
<int:channel id="dbBackedChannel">
<int:queue message-store="messageStore">
<int:channel id="myChannel">
<int-jdbc:message-store id="messageStore" data-source="someDataSource"/>
The above example also shows that JdbcMessageStore can be configured with the
namespace support provided by the Spring Integration JDBC module. All you need to do
is inject any javax.sql.DataSource instance. The Spring Integration JDBC module
also provides schema DDL for most popular databases. These schemas are located in the
org.springframework.integration.jdbc package of that module (spring-integration-jdbc).
Important
One important feature is that with any transactional persistent store (e.g., JdbcMessageStore),
as long as the poller has a transaction configured, a Message removed from the store will only
be permanently removed if the transaction completes successfully, otherwise the transaction
will roll back and the Message will not be lost.
Many other implementations of the Message Store will be available as the growing number of Spring
projects related to "NoSQL" data stores provide the underlying support. Of course, you can always
provide your own implementation of the MessageGroupStore interface if you cannot find one that meets
your particular needs.
PublishSubscribeChannel Configuration
To create a PublishSubscribeChannel, use the <publish-subscribe-channel/> element. When
using this element, you can also specify the task-executor used for publishing Messages (if none
is specified it simply publishes in the sender's thread):
<int:publish-subscribe-channel id="pubsubChannel" task-executor="someExecutor"/>
If
you
are
providing
a
Resequencer
or
Aggregator
downstream
from
a
PublishSubscribeChannel, then you can set the 'apply-sequence' property on the channel to
true. That will indicate that the channel should set the sequence-size and sequence-number Message
headers as well as the correlation id prior to passing the Messages along. For example, if there are 5
subscribers, the sequence-size would be set to 5, and the Messages would have sequence-number header
values ranging from 1 to 5.
<int:publish-subscribe-channel id="pubsubChannel" apply-sequence="true"/>
Note
The apply-sequence value is false by default so that a Publish Subscribe Channel
can send the exact same Message instances to multiple outbound channels. Since Spring
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Integration enforces immutability of the payload and header references, the channel creates
new Message instances with the same payload reference but different header values when the
flag is set to true.
ExecutorChannel
To create an ExecutorChannel, add the <dispatcher> sub-element along with a task-executor
attribute. Its value can reference any TaskExecutor within the context. For example, this enables
configuration of a thread-pool for dispatching messages to subscribed handlers. As mentioned above,
this does break the "single-threaded" execution context between sender and receiver so that any active
transaction context will not be shared by the invocation of the handler (i.e. the handler may throw an
Exception, but the send invocation has already returned successfully).
<int:channel id="executorChannel">
<int:dispatcher task-executor="someExecutor"/>
</int:channel>
Note
The load-balancer and failover options are also both available on the <dispatcher/>
sub-element as described above in the section called “DirectChannel Configuration”. The same
defaults apply as well. So, the channel will have a round-robin load-balancing strategy with
failover enabled unless explicit configuration is provided for one or both of those attributes.
<int:channel id="executorChannelWithoutFailover">
<int:dispatcher task-executor="someExecutor" failover="false"/>
</int:channel>
PriorityChannel Configuration
To create a PriorityChannel, use the <priority-queue/> sub-element:
<int:channel id="priorityChannel">
<int:priority-queue capacity="20"/>
</int:channel>
By default, the channel will consult the priority header of the message. However, a custom
Comparator reference may be provided instead. Also, note that the PriorityChannel (like the
other types) does support the datatype attribute. As with the QueueChannel, it also supports a
capacity attribute. The following example demonstrates all of these:
<int:channel id="priorityChannel" datatype="example.Widget">
<int:priority-queue comparator="widgetComparator"
capacity="10"/>
</int:channel>
RendezvousChannel Configuration
A RendezvousChannel is created when the queue sub-element is a <rendezvous-queue>. It does
not provide any additional configuration options to those described above, and its queue does not accept
any capacity value since it is a 0-capacity direct handoff queue.
<int:channel id="rendezvousChannel"/>
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<int:rendezvous-queue/>
</int:channel>
Scoped Channel Configuration
Any channel can be configured with a "scope" attribute.
<int:channel id="threadLocalChannel" scope="thread"/>
Channel Interceptor Configuration
Message channels may also have interceptors as described in the section called “Channel Interceptors”.
The <interceptors/> sub-element can be added within <channel/> (or the more specific element
types). Provide the ref attribute to reference any Spring-managed object that implements the
ChannelInterceptor interface:
<int:channel id="exampleChannel">
<int:interceptors>
<ref bean="trafficMonitoringInterceptor"/>
</int:interceptors>
</int:channel>
In general, it is a good idea to define the interceptor implementations in a separate location since they
usually provide common behavior that can be reused across multiple channels.
Global Channel Interceptor Configuration
Channel Interceptors provide a clean and concise way of applying cross-cutting behavior per individual
channel. If the same behavior should be applied on multiple channels, configuring the same set of
interceptors for each channel would not be the most efficient way. To avoid repeated configuration
while also enabling interceptors to apply to multiple channels, Spring Integration provides Global
Interceptors. Look at the example below:
<int:channel-interceptor pattern="input*, bar*, foo" order="3">
<bean class="foo.barSampleInterceptor"/>
</int:channel-interceptor>
or
<int:channel-interceptor ref="myInterceptor" pattern="input*, bar*, foo" order="3"/>
<bean id="myInterceptor" class="foo.barSampleInterceptor"/>
Each <channel-interceptor/> element allows you to define a global interceptor which will be applied on
all channels that match any patterns defined via the pattern attribute. In the above case the global
interceptor will be applied on the 'foo' channel and all other channels that begin with 'bar' or 'input'.
The order attribute allows you to manage where this interceptor will be injected if there are multiple
interceptors on a given channel. For example, channel 'inputChannel' could have individual interceptors
configured locally (see below):
<int:channel id="inputChannel">
<int:interceptors>
<int:wire-tap channel="logger"/>
</int:interceptors>
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</int:channel>
A reasonable question is how will a global interceptor be injected in relation to other interceptors
configured locally or through other global interceptor definitions? The current implementation provides
a very simple mechanism for defining the order of interceptor execution. A positive number in the
order attribute will ensure interceptor injection after any existing interceptors and a negative number
will ensure that the interceptor is injected before existing interceptors. This means that in the above
example, the global interceptor will be injected AFTER (since its order is greater than 0) the 'wire-tap'
interceptor configured locally. If there were another global interceptor with a matching pattern, its
order would be determined by comparing the values of the order attribute. To inject a global interceptor
BEFORE the existing interceptors, use a negative value for the order attribute.
Note
Note that both the order and pattern attributes are optional. The default value for order
will be 0 and for pattern, the default is '*' (to match all channels).
Wire Tap
As mentioned above, Spring Integration provides a simple Wire Tap interceptor out of the box. You
can configure a Wire Tap on any channel within an <interceptors/> element. This is especially useful
for debugging, and can be used in conjunction with Spring Integration's logging Channel Adapter as
follows:
<int:channel id="in">
<int:interceptors>
<int:wire-tap channel="logger"/>
</int:interceptors>
</int:channel>
<int:logging-channel-adapter id="logger" level="DEBUG"/>
Tip
The 'logging-channel-adapter' also accepts an 'expression' attribute so that you can evaluate a
SpEL expression against 'payload' and/or 'headers' variables. Alternatively, to simply log the
full Message toString() result, provide a value of "true" for the 'log-full-message' attribute.
That is false by default so that only the payload is logged. Setting that to true enables
logging of all headers in addition to the payload. The 'expression' option does provide the most
flexibility, however (e.g. expression="payload.user.name").
A little more on Wire Tap
One of the common misconceptions about the wire tap and other similar components (Section A.1,
“Message Publishing Configuration”) is that they are automatically asynchronous in nature. Wire-tap as
a component is not invoked asynchronously be default. Instead, Spring Integration focuses on a single
unified approach to configuring asynchronous behavior: the Message Channel. What makes certain parts
of the message flow sync or async is the type of Message Channel that has been configured within that
flow. That is one of the primary benefits of the Message Channel abstraction. From the inception of
the framework, we have always emphasized the need and the value of the Message Channel as a firstclass citizen of the framework. It is not just an internal, implicit realization of the EIP pattern, it is fully
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exposed as a configurable component to the end user. So, the Wire-tap component is ONLY responsible
for performing the following 3 tasks:
• intercept a message flow by tapping into a channel (e.g., channelA)
• grab each message
• send the message to another channel (e.g., channelB)
It is essentially a variation of the Bridge, but it is encapsulated within a channel definition (and
hence easier to enable and disable without disrupting a flow). Also, unlike the bridge, it basically
forks another message flow. Is that flow synchronous or asynchronous? The answer simply depends
on the type of Message Channel that 'channelB' is. And, now you know that we have: Direct Channel,
Pollable Channel, and Executor Channel as options. The last two do break the thread boundary making
communication via such channels asynchronous simply because the dispatching of the message from
that channel to its subscribed handlers happens on a different thread than the one used to send the
message to that channel. That is what is going to make your wire-tap flow sync or async. It is consistent
with other components within the framework (e.g., Message Publisher) and actually brings a level of
consistency and simplicity by sparing you from worrying in advance (other than writing thread safe
code) whether a particular piece of code should be implemented as sync or async. The actual wiring
of two pieces of code (component A and component B) via Message Channel is what makes their
collaboration sync or async. You may even want to change from sync to async in the future and Message
Channel is what's going to allow you to do it swiftly without ever touching the code.
One final point regarding the Wire Tap is that, despite the rationale provided above for not being async
be default, one should keep in mind it is usually desirable to hand off the Message as soon as possible.
Therefore, it would be quite common to use an asynchronous channel option as the wire-tap's outbound
channel. Nonetheless, another reason that we do not enforce asynchronous behavior by default is that
you might not want to break a transactional boundary. Perhaps you are using the Wire Tap for auditing
purposes, and you DO want the audit Messages to be sent within the original transaction. As an example,
you might connect the wire-tap to a JMS outbound-channel-adapter. That way, you get the best of both
worlds: 1) the sending of a JMS Message can occur within the transaction while 2) it is still a "fire-andforget" action thereby preventing any noticeable delay in the main message flow.
Global Wire Tap Configuration
It is possible to configure a global wire tap as a special case of the Global Channel Interceptor. Simply
configure a top level wire-tap element. Now, in addition to the normal wire-tap namespace
support, the pattern and order attributes are supported and work in exactly the same way as with
the channel-interceptor
<int:wire-tap pattern="input*, bar*, foo" order="3" channel="wiretapChannel"/>
Tip
A global wire tap provides a convenient way to configure a single channel wire tap externally
without modifying the existing channel configuration. Simply set the pattern attribute to
the target channel name. For example, This technique may be used to configure a test case to
verify messages on a channel.
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Special Channels
If namespace support is enabled, there are two special channels defined within the application context
by default: errorChannel and nullChannel. The 'nullChannel' acts like /dev/null, simply
logging any Message sent to it at DEBUG level and returning immediately. Any time you face channel
resolution errors for a reply that you don't care about, you can set the affected component's outputchannel attribute to 'nullChannel' (the name 'nullChannel' is reserved within the application context).
The 'errorChannel' is used internally for sending error messages and may be overridden with a custom
configuration. This is discussed in greater detail in Section E.4, “Error Handling”.
3.2 Poller (Polling Consumer)
When Message Endpoints (Channel Adapters) are connected to channels and instantiated, they produce
one of the following 2 instances:
• PollingConsumer
• EventDrivenConsumer
The actual implementation depends on which type of channel these Endpoints
are
connected
to.
A
channel
adapter
connected
to
a
channel
that
implements the org.springframework.integration.core.SubscribableChannel
interface will produce an instance of EventDrivenConsumer. On the other
hand,
a
channel
adapter
connected
to
a
channel
that
implements
the
org.springframework.integration.core.PollableChannel interface (e.g. a
QueueChannel) will produce an instance of PollingConsumer.
Polling Consumers allow Spring Integration components to actively poll for Messages, rather than to
process Messages in an event-driven manner.
They represent a critical cross cutting concern in many messaging scenarios. In Spring Integration,
Polling Consumers are based on the pattern with the same name, which is described in the book
"Enterprise Integration Patterns" by Gregor Hohpe and Bobby Woolf. You can find a description of the
pattern on the book's website at:
• http://www.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.com/PollingConsumer.html
Furthermore, in Spring Integration a second variation of the Polling Consumer pattern exists.
When Inbound Channel Adapters are being used, these adapters are often wrapped by a
SourcePollingChannelAdapter. For example, when retrieving messages from a remote FTP
Server location, the adapter described in Section 13.3, “FTP Inbound Channel Adapter” is configured
with a poller to retrieve messages periodically. So, when components are configured with Pollers, the
resulting instances are of one of the following types:
• PollingConsumer
• SourcePollingChannelAdapter
This means, Pollers are used in both inbound and outbound messaging scenarios. Here are some usecases that illustrate the scenarios in which Pollers are used:
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• Polling certain external systems such as FTP Servers, Databases, Web Services
• Polling internal (pollable) Message Channels
• Polling internal services (E.g. repeatedly execute methods on a Java class)
This chapter is meant to only give a high-level overview regarding Polling Consumers and how they
fit into the concept of message channels - Section 3.1, “Message Channels” and channel adapters Section 3.3, “Channel Adapter”. For more in-depth information regarding Messaging Endpoints in
general and Polling Consumers in particular, please see Section 7.1, “Message Endpoints”.
3.3 Channel Adapter
A Channel Adapter is a Message Endpoint that enables connecting a single sender or receiver to a
Message Channel. Spring Integration provides a number of adapters out of the box to support various
transports, such as JMS, File, HTTP, Web Services, Mail, and more. Those will be discussed in
upcoming chapters of this reference guide. However, this chapter focuses on the simple but flexible
Method-invoking Channel Adapter support. There are both inbound and outbound adapters, and each
may be configured with XML elements provided in the core namespace. These provide an easy way
to extend Spring Integration as long as you have a method that can be invoked as either a source or
destination.
Configuring An Inbound Channel Adapter
An "inbound-channel-adapter" element can invoke any method on a Spring-managed Object and send
a non-null return value to a MessageChannel after converting it to a Message. When the adapter's
subscription is activated, a poller will attempt to receive messages from the source. The poller will
be scheduled with the TaskScheduler according to the provided configuration. To configure the
polling interval or cron expression for an individual channel-adapter, provide a 'poller' element with one
of the scheduling attributes, such as 'fixed-rate' or 'cron'.
<int:inbound-channel-adapter ref="source1" method="method1" channel="channel1">
<int:poller fixed-rate="5000"/>
</int:inbound-channel-adapter>
<int:inbound-channel-adapter ref="source2" method="method2" channel="channel2">
<int:poller cron="30 * 9-17 * * MON-FRI"/>
</int:channel-adapter>
Note
If no poller is provided, then a single default poller must be registered within the context. See
the section called “Namespace Support” for more detail.
Important
Poller Configuration
Some
inbound-channel-adapter
types
are
backed
by
a
SourcePollingChannelAdapter which means they contain Poller configuration
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which will poll the MessageSource (invoke a custom method which produces the value
that becomes a Message payload) based on the configuration specified in the Poller.
For example:
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" fixed-rate="1000"/>
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="10" fixed-rate="1000"/>
In the the first configuration the polling task will be invoked once per poll and during such
task (poll) the method (which results in the production of the Message) will be invoked once
based on the max-messages-per-poll attribute value. In the second configuration the
polling task will be invoked 10 times per poll or until it returns 'null' thus possibly producing
10 Messages per poll while each poll happens at 1 second intervals. However what if the
configuration looks like this:
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
Note there is no max-messages-per-poll specified. As you'll learn later the identical
poller configuration in the PollingConsumer (e.g., service-activator, filter, router etc.)
would have a default value of -1 for max-messages-per-poll which means "execute
poling task non-stop unless polling method returns null (e.g., no more Messages in the
QueueChannel)" and then sleep for 1 second.
However in the SourcePollingChannelAdapter it is a bit different. The default value for maxmessages-per-poll will be set to 1 by default unless you explicitly set it to a negative
value (e.g., -1). It is done so to make sure that poller can react to a LifeCycle events (e.g., start/
stop) and prevent it from potentially spinning in the infinite loop if the implementation of the
custom method of the MessageSource has a potential to never return null and happened
to be non-interruptible.
However if you are sure that your method can return null and you need the behavior where
you want to poll for as many sources as available per each poll, then you should explicitly set
max-messages-per-poll to negative value.
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="-1" fixed-rate="1000"/>
Configuring Outbound Channel Adapter
An "outbound-channel-adapter" element can also connect a MessageChannel to any POJO consumer
method that should be invoked with the payload of Messages sent to that channel.
<int:outbound-channel-adapter channel="channel1" ref="target" method="handle"/>
<beans:bean id="target" class="org.Foo"/>
If the channel being adapted is a PollableChannel, provide a poller sub-element:
<int:outbound-channel-adapter channel="channel2" ref="target" method="handle">
<int:poller fixed-rate="3000"/>
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</int:outbound-channel-adapter>
<beans:bean id="target" class="org.Foo"/>
Using a "ref" attribute is generally recommended if the POJO consumer implementation can be reused
in other <outbound-channel-adapter> definitions. However if the consumer implementation
is only referenced by a single definition of the <outbound-channel-adapter>, you can define
it as inner bean:
<int:outbound-channel-adapter channel="channel" method="handle">
<beans:bean class="org.Foo"/>
</int:outbound-channel-adapter>
Note
Using both the "ref" attribute and an inner handler definition in the same <outboundchannel-adapter> configuration is not allowed as it creates an ambiguous condition.
Such a configuration will result in an Exception being thrown.
Any Channel Adapter can be created without a "channel" reference in which case it will implicitly
create an instance of DirectChannel. The created channel's name will match the "id" attribute of the
<inbound-channel-adapter> or <outbound-channel-adapter> element. Therefore, if
the "channel" is not provided, the "id" is required.
Like many other Spring Integration components, the <inbound-channel-adapter> and
<outbound-channel-adapter> also provide support for SpEL expression evaluation. To use
SpEL, provide the expression string via the 'expression' attribute instead of providing the 'ref' and
'method' attributes that are used for method-invocation on a bean. When an Expression is evaluated, it
follows the same contract as method-invocation where: the expression for an <inbound-channeladapter> will generate a message anytime the evaluation result is a non-null value, while the
expression for an <outbound-channel-adapter> must be the equivalent of a void returning
method invocation.
3.4 Messaging Bridge
Introduction
A Messaging Bridge is a relatively trivial endpoint that simply connects two Message Channels
or Channel Adapters. For example, you may want to connect a PollableChannel to a
SubscribableChannel so that the subscribing endpoints do not have to worry about any polling
configuration. Instead, the Messaging Bridge provides the polling configuration.
By providing an intermediary poller between two channels, a Messaging Bridge can be used to throttle
inbound Messages. The poller's trigger will determine the rate at which messages arrive on the second
channel, and the poller's "maxMessagesPerPoll" property will enforce a limit on the throughput.
Another valid use for a Messaging Bridge is to connect two different systems. In such a scenario, Spring
Integration's role would be limited to making the connection between these systems and managing a
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poller if necessary. It is probably more common to have at least a Transformer between the two systems
to translate between their formats, and in that case, the channels would be provided as the 'input-channel'
and 'output-channel' of a Transformer endpoint. If data format translation is not required, the Messaging
Bridge may indeed be sufficient.
Configuring Bridge
The <bridge> element is used to create a Messaging Bridge between two Message Channels or Channel
Adapters. Simply provide the "input-channel" and "output-channel" attributes:
<int:bridge input-channel="input" output-channel="output"/>
As mentioned above, a common use case for the Messaging Bridge is to connect a PollableChannel
to a SubscribableChannel, and when performing this role, the Messaging Bridge may also serve
as a throttler:
<int:bridge input-channel="pollable" output-channel="subscribable">
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="10" fixed-rate="5000"/>
</int:bridge>
Connecting Channel Adapters is just as easy. Here is a simple echo example between the "stdin" and
"stdout" adapters from Spring Integration's "stream" namespace.
<int-stream:stdin-channel-adapter id="stdin"/>
<int-stream:stdout-channel-adapter id="stdout"/>
<int:bridge id="echo" input-channel="stdin" output-channel="stdout"/>
Of course, the configuration would be similar for other (potentially more useful) Channel Adapter
bridges, such as File to JMS, or Mail to File. The various Channel Adapters will be discussed in
upcoming chapters.
Note
If no 'output-channel' is defined on a bridge, the reply channel provided by the inbound
Message will be used, if available. If neither output or reply channel is available, an Exception
will be thrown.
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4. Message Construction
4.1 Message
The Spring Integration Message is a generic container for data. Any object can be provided as the
payload, and each Message also includes headers containing user-extensible properties as key-value
pairs.
The Message Interface
Here is the definition of the Message interface:
public interface Message<T> {
T getPayload();
MessageHeaders getHeaders();
}
The Message is obviously a very important part of the API. By encapsulating the data in a generic
wrapper, the messaging system can pass it around without any knowledge of the data's type. As an
application evolves to support new types, or when the types themselves are modified and/or extended,
the messaging system will not be affected by such changes. On the other hand, when some component
in the messaging system does require access to information about the Message, such metadata can
typically be stored to and retrieved from the metadata in the Message Headers.
Message Headers
Just as Spring Integration allows any Object to be used as the payload of a Message, it also supports
any Object types as header values. In fact, the MessageHeaders class implements the java.util.Map
interface:
public final class MessageHeaders implements Map<String, Object>, Serializable {
...
}
Note
Even though the MessageHeaders implements Map, it is effectively a read-only
implementation. Any attempt to put a value in the Map will result in an
UnsupportedOperationException. The same applies for remove and clear. Since
Messages may be passed to multiple consumers, the structure of the Map cannot be modified.
Likewise, the Message's payload Object can not be set after the initial creation. However, the
mutability of the header values themselves (or the payload Object) is intentionally left as a
decision for the framework user.
As an implementation of Map, the headers can obviously be retrieved by calling get(..) with the
name of the header. Alternatively, you can provide the expected Class as an additional parameter.
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Even better, when retrieving one of the pre-defined values, convenient getters are available. Here is an
example of each of these three options:
Object someValue = message.getHeaders().get("someKey");
CustomerId customerId = message.getHeaders().get("customerId", CustomerId.class);
Long timestamp = message.getHeaders().getTimestamp();
The following Message headers are pre-defined:
Table 4.1. Pre-defined Message Headers
Header Name
Header Type
ID
java.util.UUID
TIMESTAMP
java.lang.Long
CORRELATION_ID
java.lang.Object
REPLY_CHANNEL
java.lang.Object (can
MessageChannel)
be
a
String
or
ERROR_CHANNEL
java.lang.Object (can
MessageChannel)
be
a
String
or
SEQUENCE_NUMBER
java.lang.Integer
SEQUENCE_SIZE
java.lang.Integer
EXPIRATION_DATE
java.lang.Long
PRIORITY
java.lang.Integer
Many inbound and outbound adapter implementations will also provide and/or expect certain headers,
and additional user-defined headers can also be configured.
Message Implementations
The base implementation of the Message interface is GenericMessage<T>, and it provides two
constructors:
new GenericMessage<T>(T payload);
new GenericMessage<T>(T payload, Map<String, Object> headers)
When a Message is created, a random unique id will be generated. The constructor that accepts a Map
of headers will copy the provided headers to the newly created Message.
There is also a convenient implementation of Message designed to communicate error conditions. This
implementation takes Throwable object as its payload:
ErrorMessage message = new ErrorMessage(someThrowable);
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Throwable t = message.getPayload();
Notice that this implementation takes advantage of the fact that the GenericMessage base class
is parameterized. Therefore, as shown in both examples, no casting is necessary when retrieving the
Message payload Object.
The MessageBuilder Helper Class
You may notice that the Message interface defines retrieval methods for its payload and headers but
no setters. The reason for this is that a Message cannot be modified after its initial creation. Therefore,
when a Message instance is sent to multiple consumers (e.g. through a Publish Subscribe Channel), if
one of those consumers needs to send a reply with a different payload type, it will need to create a new
Message. As a result, the other consumers are not affected by those changes. Keep in mind, that multiple
consumers may access the same payload instance or header value, and whether such an instance is itself
immutable is a decision left to the developer. In other words, the contract for Messages is similar to
that of an unmodifiable Collection, and the MessageHeaders' map further exemplifies that; even though
the MessageHeaders class implements java.util.Map, any attempt to invoke a put operation (or
'remove' or 'clear') on the MessageHeaders will result in an UnsupportedOperationException.
Rather than requiring the creation and population of a Map to pass into the GenericMessage constructor,
Spring Integration does provide a far more convenient way to construct Messages: MessageBuilder.
The MessageBuilder provides two factory methods for creating Messages from either an existing
Message or with a payload Object. When building from an existing Message, the headers and payload
of that Message will be copied to the new Message:
Message<String> message1 = MessageBuilder.withPayload("test")
.setHeader("foo", "bar")
.build();
Message<String> message2 = MessageBuilder.fromMessage(message1).build();
assertEquals("test", message2.getPayload());
assertEquals("bar", message2.getHeaders().get("foo"));
If you need to create a Message with a new payload but still want to copy the headers from an existing
Message, you can use one of the 'copy' methods.
Message<String> message3 = MessageBuilder.withPayload("test3")
.copyHeaders(message1.getHeaders())
.build();
Message<String> message4 = MessageBuilder.withPayload("test4")
.setHeader("foo", 123)
.copyHeadersIfAbsent(message1.getHeaders())
.build();
assertEquals("bar", message3.getHeaders().get("foo"));
assertEquals(123, message4.getHeaders().get("foo"));
Notice that the copyHeadersIfAbsent does not overwrite existing values. Also, in the second
example above, you can see how to set any user-defined header with setHeader. Finally, there are set
methods available for the predefined headers as well as a non-destructive method for setting any header
(MessageHeaders also defines constants for the pre-defined header names).
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Message<Integer> importantMessage = MessageBuilder.withPayload(99)
.setPriority(5)
.build();
assertEquals(5, importantMessage.getHeaders().getPriority());
Message<Integer> lessImportantMessage = MessageBuilder.fromMessage(importantMessage)
.setHeaderIfAbsent(MessageHeaders.PRIORITY, 2)
.build();
assertEquals(2, lessImportantMessage.getHeaders().getPriority());
The priority header is only considered when using a PriorityChannel (as described in the next
chapter). It is defined as java.lang.Integer.
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5. Message Routing
5.1 Routers
Overview
Routers are a crucial element in many messaging architectures. They consume Messages from a Message
Channel and forward each consumed message to one or more different Message Channel depending on
a set of conditions.
Spring Integration provides the following routers out-of-the-box:
• Payload Type Router
• Header Value Router
• Recipient List Router
• XPath Router (Part of the XML Module)
• Error Message Exception Type Router
• (Generic) Router
Router implementations share many configuration parameters. Yet, certain differences exist between
routers. Furthermore, the availability of configuration parameters depends on whether Routers are used
inside or outside of a chain. In order to provide a quick overview, all available attributes are listed in
the 2 tables below.
Table 5.1. Routers Outside of a Chain
Attribute
router
header
value
router
xpath
router
payload recipient exception
type
list
type
router
router
router
apply-sequence
default-output-channel
resolution-required
ignore-send-failures
timeout
id
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Attribute
router
header
value
router
xpath
router
payload recipient exception
type
list
type
router
router
router
router
header
value
router
xpath
router
payload recipient exception
type
list
type
router
router
router
auto-startup
input-channel
order
method
ref
expression
header-name
evaluate-as-string
xpath-expression-ref
converter
Table 5.2. Routers Inside of a Chain
Attribute
apply-sequence
default-output-channel
resolution-required
ignore-send-failures
timeout
id
auto-startup
input-channel
order
method
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Attribute
router
header
value
router
xpath
router
payload recipient exception
type
list
type
router
router
router
ref
expression
header-name
evaluate-as-string
xpath-expression-ref
converter
Important
Router parameters have been more standardized across all router implementations with Spring
Integration 2.1. Consequently, there are a few minor changes that leave the possibility of
breaking older Spring Integration based applications.
Since Spring Integration 2.1 the ignore-channel-name-resolution-failures
attribute is removed in favor of consolidating its behavior with the resolutionrequired attribute. Also, the resolution-required attribute now defaults to true.
Prior to these changes, the resolution-required attribute defaulted to false causing
messages to be silently dropped when no channel was resolved and no default-outputchannel was set. The new behavior will require at least one resolved channel and by default
will throw an MessageDeliveryException if no channel was determined (or an attempt
to send was not successful).
If you do desire to drop messages silently simply set default-outputchannel="nullChannel".
Common Router Parameters
Inside and Outside of a Chain
The following parameters are valid for all routers inside and outside of chains.
apply-sequence
This attribute specifies whether sequence number and size headers should be added to each Message.
This optional attribute defaults to false.
default-output-channel
If set, this attribute provides a reference to the channel, where Messages should be sent, if channel
resolution fails to return any channels. If no default output channel is provided, the router will throw
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an Exception. If you would like to silently drop those messages instead, add the nullChannel
as the default output channel attribute value.
resolution-required
If true this attribute specifies that channel names must always be successfully resolved to channel
instances that exist. If set to true, a MessagingException will be raised, in case the channel
cannot be resolved. Setting this attribute to false, will cause any unresovable channels to be ignored.
This optional attribute will, if not explicitly set, default to true.
ignore-send-failures
If set to true, failures to send to a message channel will be ignored. If set to false, a
MessageDeliveryException will be thrown instead, and if the router resolves more than one
channel, any subsequent channels will not receive the message.
The exact behavior of this attribute depends on the type of the Channel messages are sent to. For
example, when using direct channels (single threaded), send-failures can be caused by exceptions
thrown by components much further down-stream. However, when sending messages to a simple
queue channel (asynchronous) the likelihood of an exception to be thrown is rather remote.
Note
While most routers will route to a single channel, they are allowed to return more than
one channel name. The recipient-list-router, for instance, does exactly that. If
you set this attribute to true on a router that only routes to a single channel, any caused
exception is simply swallowed, which usually makes little sense to do. In that case it would
be better to catch the exception in an error flow at the flow entry point. Therefore, setting
the ignore-send-failures attribute to true usually makes more sense when the
router implementation returns more than one channel name, because the other channel(s)
following the one that fails would still receive the Message.
This attribute defaults to false.
timeout
The timeout attribute specifies the maximum amount of time in milliseconds to wait, when
sending Messages to the target Message Channels. By default the send operation will block
indefinitely.
Top-Level (Outside of a Chain)
The following parameters are valid only across all top-level routers that are ourside of chains.
id
Identifies the underlying Spring bean definition which in case of Routers is an instance of
EventDrivenConsumer or PollingConsumer depending on whether the Router's input-channel is a
SubscribableChannel or PollableChannel, respectively. This is an optional attribute.
auto-startup
This Lifecycle attribute signaled if this component should be started during startup of the
Application Context. This optional attribute defaults to true.
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input-channel
The receiving Message channel of this endpoint.
order
This attribute defines the order for invocation when this endpoint is connected as a subscriber to a
channel. This is particularly relevant when that channel is using a failover dispatching strategy. It
has no effect when this endpoint itself is a Polling Consumer for a channel with a queue.
Router Implementations
Since content-based routing often requires some domain-specific logic, most use-cases will require
Spring Integration's options for delegating to POJOs using the XML namespace support and/or
Annotations. Both of these are discussed below, but first we present a couple implementations that are
available out-of-the-box since they fulfill common requirements.
PayloadTypeRouter
A PayloadTypeRouter will send Messages to the channel as defined by payload-type mappings.
<bean id="payloadTypeRouter"
class="org.springframework.integration.router.PayloadTypeRouter">
<property name="channelIdentifierMap">
<map>
<entry key="java.lang.String" value-ref="stringChannel"/>
<entry key="java.lang.Integer" value-ref="integerChannel"/>
</map>
</property>
</bean>
Configuration of the PayloadTypeRouter is also supported via the namespace provided by
Spring Integration (see Section E.2, “Namespace Support”), which essentially simplifies configuration
by combining the <router/> configuration and its corresponding implementation defined using
a <bean/> element into a single and more concise configuration element. The example below
demonstrates a PayloadTypeRouter configuration which is equivalent to the one above using the
namespace support:
<int:payload-type-router input-channel="routingChannel">
<int:mapping type="java.lang.String" channel="stringChannel" />
<int:mapping type="java.lang.Integer" channel="integerChannel" />
</int:payload-type-router>
HeaderValueRouter
A HeaderValueRouter will send Messages to the channel based on the individual header value
mappings. When a HeaderValueRouter is created it is initialized with the name of the header to
be evaluated. The value of the header could be one of two things:
1. Arbitrary value
2. Channel name
If arbitrary then additional mappings for these header values to channel names is required, otherwise
no additional configuration is needed.
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Spring Integration provides a simple namespace-based XML configuration to configure a
HeaderValueRouter. The example below demonstrates two types of namespace-based
configuration for the HeaderValueRouter.
1. Configuration where mapping of header values to channels is required
<int:header-value-router input-channel="routingChannel" header-name="testHeader">
<int:mapping value="someHeaderValue" channel="channelA" />
<int:mapping value="someOtherHeaderValue" channel="channelB" />
</int:header-value-router>
During the resolution process this router may encounter channel resolution failures, causing an
exception. If you want to suppress such exceptions and send unresolved messages to the default output
channel (identified with the default-output-channel attribute) set resolution-required
to false.
Normally, messages for which the header value is not explicitly mapped to a channel will be sent to
the default-output-channel. However, in cases where the header value is mapped to a channel
name but the channel cannot be resolved, setting the resolution-required attribute to false
will result in routing such messages to the default-output-channel.
Important
With Spring Integration 2.1 the attribute was changed from ignore-channel-nameresolution-failures to resolution-required. Attribute resolutionrequired will default to true.
2. Configuration where mapping of header values to channel names is not required since header values
themselves represent channel names
<int:header-value-router input-channel="routingChannel" header-name="testHeader"/>
Note
Since Spring Integration 2.1 the behavior of resolving channels is more explicit. For example,
if you ommit the default-output-channel attribute and the Router was unable to
resolve at least one valid channel, and any channel name resolution failures were ignored by
setting resolution-required to false, then a MessageDeliveryException is
thrown.
Basically, by default the Router must be able to route messages successfully to at least one
channel. If you really want to drop messages, you must also have default-outputchannel set to nullChannel.
RecipientListRouter
A RecipientListRouter will send each received Message to a statically defined list of Message
Channels:
<bean id="recipientListRouter"
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class="org.springframework.integration.router.RecipientListRouter">
<property name="channels">
<list>
<ref bean="channel1"/>
<ref bean="channel2"/>
<ref bean="channel3"/>
</list>
</property>
</bean>
Spring Integration also provides namespace support for the RecipientListRouter configuration
(see Section E.2, “Namespace Support”) as the example below demonstrates.
<int:recipient-list-router id="customRouter" input-channel="routingChannel"
timeout="1234"
ignore-send-failures="true"
apply-sequence="true">
<int:recipient channel="channel1"/>
<int:recipient channel="channel2"/>
</int:recipient-list-router>
Note
The 'apply-sequence' flag here has the same effect as it does for a publish-subscribe-channel,
and like a publish-subscribe-channel, it is disabled by default on the recipient-list-router. Refer
to the section called “PublishSubscribeChannel Configuration” for more information.
Another convenient option when configuring a RecipientListRouter is to use Spring Expression
Language (SpEL) support as selectors for individual recipient channels. This is similar to using a Filter
at the beginning of 'chain' to act as a "Selective Consumer". However, in this case, it's all combined
rather concisely into the router's configuration.
<int:recipient-list-router id="customRouter" input-channel="routingChannel">
<int:recipient channel="channel1" selector-expression="payload.equals('foo')"/>
<int:recipient channel="channel2" selector-expression="headers.containsKey('bar')"/>
</int:recipient-list-router>
In the above configuration a SpEL expression identified by the selector-expression attribute
will be evaluated to determine if this recipient should be included in the recipient list for a given input
Message. The evaluation result of the expression must be a boolean. If this attribute is not defined, the
channel will always be among the list of recipients.
XPath Router
The XPath Router is part of the XML Module. As such, please read chapter Routing XML Messages
Using XPath
Routing and Error handling
Spring
Integration
also
provides
a
special
type-based
router
called
ErrorMessageExceptionTypeRouter for routing Error Messages (Messages whose payload
is a Throwable instance). ErrorMessageExceptionTypeRouter is very similar to
the PayloadTypeRouter. In fact they are almost identical. The only difference is that
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while PayloadTypeRouter navigates the instance hierarchy of a payload instance (e.g.,
payload.getClass().getSuperclass()) to find the most specific type/channel mappings,
the ErrorMessageExceptionTypeRouter navigates the hierarchy of 'exception causes' (e.g.,
payload.getCause()) to find the most specific Throwable type/channel mappings.
Below is a sample configuration for ErrorMessageExceptionTypeRouter.
<int:exception-type-router input-channel="inputChannel"
default-output-channel="defaultChannel">
<int:mapping exception-type="java.lang.IllegalArgumentException"
channel="illegalChannel"/>
<int:mapping exception-type="java.lang.NullPointerException"
channel="npeChannel"/>
</int:exception-type-router>
<int:channel id="illegalChannel" />
<int:channel id="npeChannel" />
Configuring (Generic) Router
Configuring a Content Based Router with XML
The "router" element provides a simple way to connect a router to an input channel and also accepts
the optional default-output-channel attribute. The ref attribute references the bean name of
a custom Router implementation (extending AbstractMessageRouter):
<int:router ref="payloadTypeRouter" input-channel="input1"
default-output-channel="defaultOutput1"/>
<int:router ref="recipientListRouter" input-channel="input2"
default-output-channel="defaultOutput2"/>
<int:router ref="customRouter" input-channel="input3"
default-output-channel="defaultOutput3"/>
<beans:bean id="customRouterBean class="org.foo.MyCustomRouter"/>
Alternatively, ref may point to a simple POJO that contains the @Router annotation (see below), or
the ref may be combined with an explicit method name. Specifying a method applies the same
behavior described in the @Router annotation section below.
<int:router input-channel="input" ref="somePojo" method="someMethod"/>
Using a ref attribute is generally recommended if the custom router implementation is referenced in
other <router> definitions. However if the custom router implementation should be scoped to a single
definition of the <router>, you may provide an inner bean definition:
<int:router method="someMethod" input-channel="input3"
default-output-channel="defaultOutput3">
<beans:bean class="org.foo.MyCustomRouter"/>
</int:router>
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Note
Using both the ref attribute and an inner handler definition in the same <router>
configuration is not allowed, as it creates an ambiguous condition, and an Exception will be
thrown.
Routers and the Spring Expression Language (SpEL)
Sometimes the routing logic may be simple and writing a separate class for it and configuring it as a
bean may seem like overkill. As of Spring Integration 2.0 we offer an alternative where you can now
use SpEL to implement simple computations that previously required a custom POJO router.
Note
For more information about the Spring Expression Language, please refer to the respective
chapter in the Spring Framework Reference Documentation at:
http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/current/spring-framework-reference/html/
expressions.html
Generally a SpEL expression is evaluated and the result is mapped to a channel:
<int:router input-channel="inChannel" expression="payload.paymentType">
<int:mapping value="CASH" channel="cashPaymentChannel"/>
<int:mapping value="CREDIT" channel="authorizePaymentChannel"/>
<int:mapping value="DEBIT" channel="authorizePaymentChannel"/>
</int:router>
To simplify things even more, the SpEL expression may evaluate to a channel name:
<int:router input-channel="inChannel" expression="payload + 'Channel'"/>
In the above configuration the result channel will be computed by the SpEL expression which simply
concatenates the value of the payload with the literal String 'Channel'.
Another value of SpEL for configuring routers is that an expression can actually return a Collection,
effectively making every <router> a Recipient List Router. Whenever the expression returns multiple
channel values the Message will be forwarded to each channel.
<int:router input-channel="inChannel" expression="headers.channels"/>
In the above configuration, if the Message includes a header with the name 'channels' the value of which
is a List of channel names then the Message will be sent to each channel in the list. You may also
find Collection Projection and Collection Selection expressions useful to select multiple channels. For
further information, please see:
• http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/current/spring-framework-reference/html/
expressions.html#d0e12084
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Configuring a Router with Annotations
When using @Router to annotate a method, the method may return either a MessageChannel or
String type. In the latter case, the endpoint will resolve the channel name as it does for the default
output channel. Additionally, the method may return either a single value or a collection. If a collection
is returned, the reply message will be sent to multiple channels. To summarize, the following method
signatures are all valid.
@Router
public MessageChannel route(Message message) {...}
@Router
public List<MessageChannel> route(Message message) {...}
@Router
public String route(Foo payload) {...}
@Router
public List<String> route(Foo payload) {...}
In addition to payload-based routing, a Message may be routed based on metadata available within the
message header as either a property or attribute. In this case, a method annotated with @Router may
include a parameter annotated with @Header which is mapped to a header value as illustrated below
and documented in Section E.5, “Annotation Support”.
@Router
public List<String> route(@Header("orderStatus") OrderStatus status)
Note
For routing of XML-based Messages, including XPath support, see Chapter 29, XML Support
- Dealing with XML Payloads.
Dynamic Routers
So as you can see, Spring Integration provides quite a few different router configurations for common
content-based routing use cases as well as the option of implementing custom routers as POJOs.
For example PayloadTypeRouter provides a simple way to configure a router which computes
channels based on the payload type of the incoming Message while HeaderValueRouter
provides the same convenience in configuring a router which computes channels by evaluating
the value of a particular Message Header. There are also expression-based (SpEL) routers where the
channel is determined based on evaluating an expression. Thus, these type of routers exhibit some
dynamic characteristics.
However these routers all require static configuration. Even in the case of expression-based routers, the
expression itself is defined as part of the router configuration which means that the same expression
operating on the same value will always result in the computation of the same channel. This is acceptable
in most cases since such routes are well defined and therefore predictable. But there are times when we
need to change router configurations dynamically so message flows may be routed to a different channel.
Example:
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You might want to bring down some part of your system for maintenance and temporarily re-reroute
messages to a different message flow. Or you may want to introduce more granularity to your message
flow by adding another route to handle a more concrete type of java.lang.Number (in the case of
PayloadTypeRouter).
Unfortunately with static router configuration to accomplish this, you would have to bring down your
entire application, change the configuration of the router (change routes) and bring it back up. This is
obviously not the solution.
The Dynamic Router pattern describes the mechanisms by which one can change/configure routers
dynamically without bringing down the system or individual routers.
Before we get into the specifics of how this is accomplished in Spring Integration, let's quickly
summarize the typical flow of the router, which consists of 3 simple steps:
• Step 1 - Compute channel identifier which is a value calculated by the router once it receives
the Message. Typically it is a String or and instance of the actual MessageChannel.
• Step 2 - Resolve channel identifier to channel name. We'll describe specifics of this
process in a moment.
• Step 3 - Resolve channel name to the actual MessageChannel
There is not much that can be done with regard to dynamic routing if Step 1 results in the actual
instance of the MessageChannel, simply because the MessageChannel is the final product of
any router's job. However, if Step 1 results in a channel identifier that is not an instance of
MessageChannel, then there are quite a few possibilities to influence the process of deriving the
Message Channel. Lets look at couple of the examples in the context of the 3 steps mentioned
above:
Payload Type Router
<int:payload-type-router input-channel="routingChannel">
<int:mapping type="java.lang.String" channel="channel1" />
<int:mapping type="java.lang.Integer" channel="channel2" />
</int:payload-type-router>
Within the context of the Payload Type Router the 3 steps mentioned above would be realized as:
• Step 1 - Compute channel identifier which is the fully qualified name of the payload type
(e.g., java.lang.String).
• Step 2 - Resolve channel identifier to channel name where the result of the previous step
is used to select the appropriate value from the payload type mapping defined via mapping element.
• Step 3 - Resolve channel name to the actual instance of the MessageChannel as a reference
to a bean within the Application Context (which is hopefully a MessageChannel) identified by
the result of the previous step.
In other words, each step feeds the next step until the process completes.
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Header Value Router
<int:header-value-router input-channel="inputChannel" header-name="testHeader">
<int:mapping value="foo" channel="fooChannel" />
<int:mapping value="bar" channel="barChannel" />
</int:header-value-router>
Similar to the PayloadTypeRouter:
• Step 1 - Compute channel identifier which is the value of the header identified by the
header-name attribute.
• Step 2 - Resolve channel identifier to channel name where the result of the previous
step is used to select the appropriate value from the general mapping defined via mapping element.
• Step 3 - Resolve channel name to the actual instance of the MessageChannel as a reference
to a bean within the Application Context (which is hopefully a MessageChannel) identified by
the result of the previous step.
The above two configurations of two different router types look almost identical. However if we look
at the alternate configuration of the HeaderValueRouter we clearly see that there is no mapping
sub element:
<int:header-value-router input-channel="inputChannel" header-name="testHeader">
But the configuration is still perfectly valid. So the natural question is what about the mapping in the
Step 2?
What this means is that Step 2 is now an optional step. If mapping is not defined then the channel
identifier value computed in Step 1 will automatically be treated as the channel name, which
will now be resolved to the actual MessageChannel as in Step 3. What it also means is that Step 2 is
one of the key steps to provide dynamic characteristics to the routers, since it introduces a process which
allows you to change the way 'channel identifier' resolves to 'channel name', thus influencing the process
of determining the final instance of the MessageChannel from the initial channel identifier.
For Example:
In the above configuration let's assume that the testHeader value is 'kermit' which is now a
channel identifier (Step 1). Since there is no mapping in this router, resolving this channel
identifier to a channel name (Step 2) is impossible and this channel identifier is now
treated as channel name. However what if there was a mapping but for a different value? The end
result would still be the same and that is: if a new value cannot be determined through the process of
resolving the 'channel identifier' to a 'channel name', such 'channel identifier' becomes 'channel name'.
So all that is left is for Step 3 to resolve the channel name ('kermit') to an actual instance of
the MessageChannel identified by this name. That basically involves a bean lookup for the name
provided. So now all messages which contain the header/value pair as testHeader=kermit are
going to be routed to a MessageChannel whose bean name (id) is 'kermit'.
But what if you want to route these messages to the 'simpson' channel? Obviously changing a static
configuration will work, but will also require bringing your system down. However if you had access to
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the channel identifier map, then you could just introduce a new mapping where the header/value
pair is now kermit=simpson, thus allowing Step 2 to treat 'kermit' as a channel identifier
while resolving it to 'simpson' as the channel name .
The same obviously applies for PayloadTypeRouter, where you can now remap or remove a
particular payload type mapping. In fact, it applies to every other router, including expression-based
routers, since their computed values will now have a chance to go through Step 2 to be additionally
resolved to the actual channel name.
In Spring Integration 2.0 the router hierarchy underwent significant refactoring, so that now any
router that is a subclass of the AbstractMessageRouter (which includes all framework defined
routers) is a Dynamic Router simply because the channelIdentiferMap is defined at the
AbstractMessageRouter level. That map's setter method is exposed as a public method along with
'setChannelMapping' and 'removeChannelMapping' methods. These allow you to change/add/remove
router mappings at runtime as long as you have a reference to the router itself. It also means that you
could expose these same configuration options via JMX (see Section 8.1, “JMX Support”) or the Spring
Integration ControlBus (see Section 8.4, “Control Bus”) functionality.
Manage Router Mappings using the Control Bus
One way to manage the router mappings is through the Control Bus pattern which exposes a Control
Channel where you can send control messages to manage and monitor Spring Integration components,
including routers.
Note
For more information about the Control Bus, please see chapter Section 8.4, “Control Bus”.
Typically you would send a control message asking to invoke a particular operation on a particular
managed component (e.g. router). The two managed operations (methods) that are specific to changing
the router resolution process are:
• public void setChannelMapping(String channelIdentifier, String
channelName) - will allow you to add a new or modify an existing mapping between channel
identifier and channel name
• public void removeChannelMapping(String channelIdentifier) - will allow
you to remove a particular channel mapping, thus disconnecting the relationship between channel
identifier and channel name
Manage Router Mappings using JMX
You can also expose a router instance with Spring's JMX support, and then use your favorite JMX client
(e.g., JConsole) to manage those operations (methods) for changing the router's configuration.
Note
For more information about Spring Integration's JMX suppor, please see chapter JMX Support.
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5.2 Filter
Introduction
Message Filters are used to decide whether a Message should be passed along or dropped based on some
criteria such as a Message Header value or Message content itself. Therefore, a Message Filter is similar
to a router, except that for each Message received from the filter's input channel, that same Message
may or may not be sent to the filter's output channel. Unlike the router, it makes no decision regarding
which Message Channel to send the Message to but only decides whether to send.
Note
As you will see momentarily, the Filter also supports a discard channel, so in certain cases it
can play the role of a very simple router (or "switch") based on a boolean condition.
In Spring Integration, a Message Filter may be configured as a Message Endpoint that delegates to an
implementation of the MessageSelector interface. That interface is itself quite simple:
public interface MessageSelector {
boolean accept(Message<?> message);
}
The MessageFilter constructor accepts a selector instance:
MessageFilter filter = new MessageFilter(someSelector);
In combination with the namespace and SpEL, very powerful filters can be configured with very little
java code.
Configuring Filter
Configuring a Filter with XML
The <filter> element is used to create a Message-selecting endpoint. In addition to "input-channel
and output-channel attributes, it requires a ref. The ref may point to a MessageSelector
implementation:
<int:filter input-channel="input" ref="selector" output-channel="output"/>
<bean id="selector" class="example.MessageSelectorImpl"/>
Alternatively, the method attribute can be added at which point the ref may refer to any object. The
referenced method may expect either the Message type or the payload type of inbound Messages. The
method must return a boolean value. If the method returns 'true', the Message will be sent to the outputchannel.
<int:filter input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
ref="exampleObject" method="someBooleanReturningMethod"/>
<bean id="exampleObject" class="example.SomeObject"/>
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If the selector or adapted POJO method returns false, there are a few settings that control the handling
of the rejected Message. By default (if configured like the example above), rejected Messages will
be silently dropped. If rejection should instead result in an error condition, then set the throwexception-on-rejection attribute to true:
<int:filter input-channel="input" ref="selector"
output-channel="output" throw-exception-on-rejection="true"/>
If you want rejected messages to be routed to a specific channel, provide that reference as the discardchannel:
<int:filter input-channel="input" ref="selector"
output-channel="output" discard-channel="rejectedMessages"/>
Note
Message Filters are commonly used in conjunction with a Publish Subscribe Channel. Many
filter endpoints may be subscribed to the same channel, and they decide whether or not to
pass the Message to the next endpoint which could be any of the supported types (e.g. Service
Activator). This provides a reactive alternative to the more proactive approach of using a
Message Router with a single Point-to-Point input channel and multiple output channels.
Using a ref attribute is generally recommended if the custom filter implementation is referenced
in other <filter> definitions. However if the custom filter implementation is scoped to a single
<filter> element, provide an inner bean definition:
<int:filter method="someMethod" input-channel="inChannel" output-channel="outChannel">
<beans:bean class="org.foo.MyCustomFilter"/>
</filter>
Note
Using both the ref attribute and an inner handler definition in the same <filter>
configuration is not allowed, as it creates an ambiguous condition, and an Exception will be
thrown.
With the introduction of SpEL support, Spring Integration added the expression attribute to the filter
element. It can be used to avoid Java entirely for simple filters.
<int:filter input-channel="input" expression="payload.equals('nonsense')"/>
The string passed as the expression attribute will be evaluated as a SpEL expression with the Message
available in the evaluation context. If it is necessary to include the result of an expression in the scope of
the application context you can use the #{} notation as defined in the SpEL reference documentation .
<int:filter input-channel="input"
expression="payload.matches(#{filterPatterns.nonsensePattern})"/>
If the Expression itself needs to be dynamic, then an 'expression' sub-element may be used. That provides
a level of indirection for resolving the Expression by its key from an ExpressionSource. That is a strategy
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interface that you can implement directly, or you can rely upon a version available in Spring Integration
that loads Expressions from a "resource bundle" and can check for modifications after a given number of
seconds. All of this is demonstrated in the following configuration sample where the Expression could
be reloaded within one minute if the underlying file had been modified. If the ExpressionSource bean is
named "expressionSource", then it is not necessary to provide the source attribute on the <expression>
element, but in this case it's shown for completeness.
<int:filter input-channel="input" output-channel="output">
<int:expression key="filterPatterns.example" source="myExpressions"/>
</int:filter>
<beans:bean id="myExpressions" id="myExpressions"
class="org.springframework.integration.expression.ReloadableResourceBundleExpressionSource">
<beans:property name="basename" value="config/integration/expressions"/>
<beans:property name="cacheSeconds" value="60"/>
</beans:bean>
Then, the 'config/integration/expressions.properties' file (or any more specific version with a locale
extension to be resolved in the typical way that resource-bundles are loaded) would contain a key/value
pair:
filterPatterns.example=payload > 100
Note
All of these examples that use expression as an attribute or sub-element can also be
applied within transformer, router, splitter, service-activator, and header-enricher elements.
Of course, the semantics/role of the given component type would affect the interpretation of
the evaluation result in the same way that the return value of a method-invocation would be
interpreted. For example, an expression can return Strings that are to be treated as Message
Channel names by a router component. However, the underlying functionality of evaluating
the expression against the Message as the root object, and resolving bean names if prefixed
with '@' is consistent across all of the core EIP components within Spring Integration.
Configuring a Filter with Annotations
A filter configured using annotations would look like this.
public class PetFilter {
...
@Filter ❶
public boolean dogsOnly(String input) {
...
}
}
❶
An annotation indicating that this method shall be used as a filter. Must be specified if this class
will be used as a filter.
All of the configuration options provided by the xml element are also available for the @Filter
annotation.
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The filter can be either referenced explicitly from XML or, if the @MessageEndpoint annotation is
defined on the class, detected automatically through classpath scanning.
5.3 Splitter
Introduction
The Splitter is a component whose role is to partition a message in several parts, and send the resulting
messages to be processed independently. Very often, they are upstream producers in a pipeline that
includes an Aggregator.
Programming model
The API for performing splitting consists of one base class, AbstractMessageSplitter, which
is a MessageHandler implementation, encapsulating features which are common to splitters,
such as filling in the appropriate message headers CORRELATION_ID, SEQUENCE_SIZE, and
SEQUENCE_NUMBER on the messages that are produced. This enables tracking down the messages
and the results of their processing (in a typical scenario, these headers would be copied over to the
messages that are produced by the various transforming endpoints), and use them, for example, in a
Composed Message Processor scenario.
An excerpt from AbstractMessageSplitter can be seen below:
public abstract class AbstractMessageSplitter
extends AbstractReplyProducingMessageConsumer {
...
protected abstract Object splitMessage(Message<?> message);
}
To implement a specific Splitter in an application, extend AbstractMessageSplitter and
implement the splitMessage method, which contains logic for splitting the messages. The return
value may be one of the following:
• a Collection (or subclass thereof) or an array of Message objects - in this case the messages will
be sent as such (after the CORRELATION_ID, SEQUENCE_SIZE and SEQUENCE_NUMBER
are populated). Using this approach gives more control to the developer, for example for populating
custom message headers as part of the splitting process.
• a Collection (or subclass thereof) or an array of non-Message objects - works like the prior case,
except that each collection element will be used as a Message payload. Using this approach allows
developers to focus on the domain objects without having to consider the Messaging system and
produces code that is easier to test.
• a Message or non-Message object (but not a Collection or an Array) - it works like the previous
cases, except a single message will be sent out.
In Spring Integration, any POJO can implement the splitting algorithm, provided that it defines a method
that accepts a single argument and has a return value. In this case, the return value of the method will be
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interpreted as described above. The input argument might either be a Message or a simple POJO. In the
latter case, the splitter will receive the payload of the incoming message. Since this decouples the code
from the Spring Integration API and will typically be easier to test, it is the recommended approach.
Configuring Splitter
Configuring a Splitter using XML
A splitter can be configured through XML as follows:
<int:channel id="inputChannel"/>
<int:splitter id="splitter" ❶
ref="splitterBean" ❷
method="split" ❸
input-channel="inputChannel" ❹
output-channel="outputChannel" ❺/>
<int:channel id="outputChannel"/>
<beans:bean id="splitterBean" class="sample.PojoSplitter"/>
❶
The id of the splitter is optional.
❷
❸
A reference to a bean defined in the application context. The bean must implement the splitting
logic as described in the section above .Optional. If reference to a bean is not provided, then
it is assumed that the payload of the Message that arrived on the input-channel is an
implementation of java.util.Collection and the default splitting logic will be applied
to the Collection, incorporating each individual element into a Message and sending it to the
output-channel.
The method (defined on the bean specified above) that implements the splitting logic. Optional.
❹
The input channel of the splitter. Required.
❺
The channel to which the splitter will send the results of splitting the incoming message. Optional
(because incoming messages can specify a reply channel themselves).
Using a ref attribute is generally recommended if the custom splitter implementation may be referenced
in other <splitter> definitions. However if the custom splitter handler implementation should be
scoped to a single definition of the <splitter>, configure an inner bean definition:
<int:splitter id="testSplitter" input-channel="inChannel" method="split"
output-channel="outChannel">
<beans:bean class="org.foo.TestSplitter"/>
</int:spliter>
Note
Using both a ref attribute and an inner handler definition in the same <int:splitter>
configuration is not allowed, as it creates an ambiguous condition and will result in an
Exception being thrown.
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Configuring a Splitter with Annotations
The @Splitter annotation is applicable to methods that expect either the Message type or the
message payload type, and the return values of the method should be a Collection of any type. If
the returned values are not actual Message objects, then each item will be wrapped in a Message as
its payload. Each message will be sent to the designated output channel for the endpoint on which the
@Splitter is defined.
@Splitter
List<LineItem> extractItems(Order order) {
return order.getItems()
}
5.4 Aggregator
Introduction
Basically a mirror-image of the Splitter, the Aggregator is a type of Message Handler that receives
multiple Messages and combines them into a single Message. In fact, an Aggregator is often a
downstream consumer in a pipeline that includes a Splitter.
Technically, the Aggregator is more complex than a Splitter, because it is stateful as it must hold
the Messages to be aggregated and determine when the complete group of Messages is ready to be
aggregated. In order to do this it requires a MessageStore.
Functionality
The Aggregator combines a group of related messages, by correlating and storing them, until the group
is deemed complete. At that point, the Aggregator will create a single message by processing the whole
group, and will send the aggregated message as output.
Implementing an Aggregator requires providing the logic to perform the aggregation (i.e., the creation
of a single message from many). Two related concepts are correlation and release.
Correlation determines how messages are grouped for aggregation. In Spring Integration correlation
is done by default based on the CORRELATION_ID message header. Messages with the same
CORRELATION_ID will be grouped together. However, the correlation strategy may be customized
to allow other ways of specifying how the messages should be grouped together by implementing a
CorrelationStrategy (see below).
To determine the point at which a group of messages is ready to be processed, a ReleaseStrategy
is consulted. The default release strategy for the Aggregator will release a group when all messages
included in a sequence are present, based on the SEQUENCE_SIZE header. This default strategy may
be overridden by providing a reference to a custom ReleaseStrategy implementation.
Programming model
The Aggregation API consists of a number of classes:
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• The
interface
MessageGroupProcessor,
and
MethodInvokingAggregatingMessageGroupProcessor
ExpressionEvaluatingMessageGroupProcessor
• The
ReleaseStrategy
interface
SequenceSizeReleaseStrategy
• The
CorrelationStrategy
interface
HeaderAttributeCorrelationStrategy
and
and
its
its
its
default
default
subclasses:
and
implementation
implementation
CorrelatingMessageHandler
The CorrelatingMessageHandler is a MessageHandler implementation, encapsulating the
common functionalities of an Aggregator (and other correlating use cases), which are:
• correlating messages into a group to be aggregated
• maintaining those messages in a MessageStore until the group can be released
• deciding when the group can be released
• aggregating the released group into a single message
• recognizing and responding to an expired group
The responsibility of deciding how the messages should be grouped together is delegated to a
CorrelationStrategy instance. The responsibility of deciding whether the message group can be
released is delegated to a ReleaseStrategy instance.
Here is a brief highlight of the base AbstractAggregatingMessageGroupProcessor (the
responsibility of implementing the aggregatePayloads method is left to the developer):
public abstract class AbstractAggregatingMessageGroupProcessor
implements MessageGroupProcessor {
protected Map<String, Object> aggregateHeaders(MessageGroup group) {
// default implementation exists
}
protected abstract Object aggregatePayloads(MessageGroup group, Map<String, Object> defaultHeaders);
}
The CorrelationStrategy is owned by the CorrelatingMessageHandler and it has a
default value based on the CORRELATION_ID message header:
public CorrelatingMessageHandler(MessageGroupProcessor processor, MessageGroupStore store,
CorrelationStrategy correlationStrategy, ReleaseStrategy releaseStrategy) {
...
this.correlationStrategy = correlationStrategy == null ?
new HeaderAttributeCorrelationStrategy(MessageHeaders.CORRELATION_ID) : correlationStrategy;
this.releaseStrategy = releaseStrategy == null ? new SequenceSizeReleaseStrategy() : releaseStrategy;
...
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}
As for actual processing of the message group, the default implementation is the
DefaultAggregatingMessageGroupProcessor. It creates a single Message whose payload
is a List of the payloads received for a given group. This works well for simple Scatter Gather
implementations with either a Splitter, Publish Subscribe Channel, or Recipient List Router upstream.
Note
When using a Publish Subscribe Channel or Recipient List Router in this type of scenario,
be sure to enable the flag to apply-sequence. That will add the necessary headers
(CORRELATION_ID, SEQUENCE_NUMBER and SEQUENCE_SIZE). That behavior is
enabled by default for Splitters in Spring Integration, but it is not enabled for the Publish
Subscribe Channel or Recipient List Router because those components may be used in a variety
of contexts in which these headers are not necessary.
When implementing a specific aggregator strategy for an application, a developer
can extend AbstractAggregatingMessageGroupProcessor and implement the
aggregatePayloads method. However, there are better solutions, less coupled to the API, for
implementing the aggregation logic which can be configured easily either through XML or through
annotations.
In general, any POJO can implement the aggregation algorithm if it provides a method that accepts a
single java.util.List as an argument (parameterized lists are supported as well). This method
will be invoked for aggregating messages as follows:
• if the argument is a java.util.List<T>, and the parameter type T is assignable to Message,
then the whole list of messages accumulated for aggregation will be sent to the aggregator
• if the argument is a non-parameterized java.util.List or the parameter type is not assignable
to Message, then the method will receive the payloads of the accumulated messages
• if the return type is not assignable to Message, then it will be treated as the payload for a Message
that will be created automatically by the framework.
Note
In the interest of code simplicity, and promoting best practices such as low coupling, testability,
etc., the preferred way of implementing the aggregation logic is through a POJO, and using
the XML or annotation support for configuring it in the application.
ReleaseStrategy
The ReleaseStrategy interface is defined as follows:
public interface ReleaseStrategy {
boolean canRelease(MessageGroup group);
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}
In general, any POJO can implement the completion decision logic if it provides a method that accepts
a single java.util.List as an argument (parameterized lists are supported as well), and returns a
boolean value. This method will be invoked after the arrival of each new message, to decide whether
the group is complete or not, as follows:
• if the argument is a java.util.List<T>, and the parameter type T is assignable to Message,
then the whole list of messages accumulated in the group will be sent to the method
• if the argument is a non-parametrized java.util.List or the parameter type is not assignable to
Message, then the method will receive the payloads of the accumulated messages
• the method must return true if the message group is ready for aggregation, and false otherwise.
For example:
public class MyReleaseStrategy {
@ReleaseStrategy
public boolean canMessagesBeReleased(List<Message<?>>) {...}
}
public class MyReleaseStrategy {
@ReleaseStrategy
public boolean canMessagesBeReleased(List<String>) {...}
}
As you can see based on the above signatures, the POJO-based Release Strategy will be passed a
Collection of unmarked Messages if you need access to the whole Message or Collection of
payload objects if the type parameter is anything other than Message. Typically this would satisfy the
majority of use cases. However if for some reason you need to access the full MessageGroup - which
contains unmarked and marked Messages - then you should simply provide an implementation of
the ReleaseStrategy interface.
When the group is released for aggregation, all its unmarked messages are processed and then marked
so they will not be processed again. If the group is also complete (i.e. if all messages from a sequence
have arrived or if there is no sequence defined), then the group is removed from the message store.
Partial sequences can be released, in which case the next time the ReleaseStrategy is called it will
be presented with a group containing marked messages (already processed) and unmarked messages
(potentially a new partial sequence).
Spring Integration provides an out-of-the box implementation for ReleaseStrategy, the
SequenceSizeReleaseStrategy. This implementation consults the SEQUENCE_NUMBER
and SEQUENCE_SIZE headers of each arriving message to decide when a message group is complete
and ready to be aggregated. As shown above, it is also the default strategy.
CorrelationStrategy
The CorrelationStrategy interface is defined as follows:
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public interface CorrelationStrategy {
Object getCorrelationKey(Message<?> message);
}
The method returns an Object which represents the correlation key used for associating the message
with a message group. The key must satisfy the criteria used for a key in a Map with respect to the
implementation of equals() and hashCode().
In general, any POJO can implement the correlation logic, and the rules for mapping a message to a
method's argument (or arguments) are the same as for a ServiceActivator (including support for
@Header annotations). The method must return a value, and the value must not be null.
Spring Integration provides an out-of-the box implementation for CorrelationStrategy, the
HeaderAttributeCorrelationStrategy. This implementation returns the value of one
of the message headers (whose name is specified by a constructor argument) as the correlation
key. By default, the correlation strategy is a HeaderAttributeCorrelationStrategy
returning the value of the CORRELATION_ID header attribute. If you have a custom header
name you would like to use for correlation, then simply configure that on an instance of
HeaderAttributeCorrelationStrategy and provide that as a reference for the Aggregator's
correlation-strategy.
Configuring Aggregator
Configuring an Aggregator with XML
Spring Integration supports the configuration of an aggregator via XML through the <aggregator/>
element. Below you can see an example of an aggregator.
<channel id="inputChannel"/>
<int:aggregator id="myAggregator" ❶
auto-startup="true" ❷
input-channel="inputChannel" ❸
output-channel="outputChannel" ❹
discard-channel="throwAwayChannel" ❺
message-store="persistentMessageStore" ❻
order="1" ❼
send-partial-result-on-expiry="false" ❽
send-timeout="1000" ❾
correlation-strategy="correlationStrategyBean" ❿
correlation-strategy-method="correlate" 11
ref="aggregatorBean"
method="aggregate" 13
12
release-strategy="releaseStrategyBean"
release-strategy-method="release"/> 15
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<int:channel id="outputChannel"/>
<int:channel id="throwAwayChannel"/>
<bean id="persistentMessageStore" class="org.springframework.integration.jdbc.JdbcMessageStore">
<constructor-arg ref="dataSource"/>
</bean>
<bean id="aggregatorBean" class="sample.PojoAggregator"/>
<bean id="releaseStrategyBean" class="sample.PojoReleaseStrategy"/>
<bean id="correlationStrategyBean" class="sample.PojoCorrelationStrategy"/>
❶
The id of the aggregator is 0ptional.
❷
Lifecycle attribute signaling if aggregator should be started during Application Context startup.
Optional (default is 'true').
The channel from which where aggregator will receive messages. Required.
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
❿
11
12
The channel to which the aggregator will send the aggregation results. Optional (because incoming
messages can specify a reply channel themselves via 'replyChannel' Message Header).
The channel to which the aggregator will send the messages that timed out (if send-partialresult-on-expiry is false). Optional.
A reference to a MessageGroupStore used to store groups of messages under their correlation
key until they are complete. Optional, by default a volatile in-memory store.
Order of this aggregator when more than one handle is subscribed to the same DirectChannel (use
for load balancing purposes). Optional.
Indicates that expired messages should be aggregated and sent to the
'output-channel' or 'replyChannel' once their containing MessageGroup is
expired (see MessageGroupStore.expireMessageGroups(long)). One way
of expiring MessageGroups is by configuring a MessageGroupStoreReaper.
However MessageGroups can alternatively be expired by simply calling
MessageGroupStore.expireMessageGroup(groupId). That could be accomplished
via a Control Bus operation or by simply invoking that method if you have a reference to the
MessageGroupStore instance. Otherwise by itself this attribute has no behavior. It only serves
as an indicator of what to do (discard or send to the output/reply channel) with Messages that are
still in the MessageGroup that is about to be expired. Optional.
Default - 'false'.
The timeout interval for sending the aggregated messages to the output or reply channel. Optional.
A reference to a bean that implements the message correlation (grouping) algorithm. The bean
can be an implementation of the CorrelationStrategy interface or a POJO. In the latter
case the correlation-strategy-method attribute must be defined as well. Optional (by default, the
aggregator will use the CORRELATION_ID header) .
A method defined on the bean referenced by correlation-strategy, that implements the
correlation decision algorithm. Optional, with restrictions (requires correlation-strategy
to be present).
A reference to a bean defined in the application context. The bean must implement the aggregation
logic as described above. Optional (by default the list of aggregated Messages will become a
payload of the output message).
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15
A method defined on the bean referenced by ref, that implements the message aggregation
algorithm. Optional, depends on ref attribute being defined.
A reference to a bean that implements the release strategy. The bean can be an implementation
of the ReleaseStrategy interface or a POJO. In the latter case the release-strategymethod attribute must be defined as well. Optional (by default, the aggregator will use the
SEQUENCE_SIZE header attribute).
A method defined on the bean referenced by release-strategy, that implements the
completion decision algorithm. Optional, with restrictions (requires release-strategy to
be present).
Using a ref attribute is generally recommended if a custom aggregator handler implementation may
be referenced in other <aggregator> definitions. However if a custom aggregator implementation
is only being used by a single definition of the <aggregator>, you can use an inner bean definition
(starting with version 1.0.3) to configure the aggregation POJO within the <aggregator> element:
<aggregator input-channel="input" method="sum" output-channel="output">
<beans:bean class="org.foo.PojoAggregator"/>
</aggregator>
Note
Using both a ref attribute and an inner bean definition in the same <aggregator>
configuration is not allowed, as it creates an ambiguous condition. In such cases, an Exception
will be thrown.
An example implementation of the aggregator bean looks as follows:
public class PojoAggregator {
public Long add(List<Long> results) {
long total = 0l;
for (long partialResult: results) {
total += partialResult;
}
return total;
}
}
An implementation of the completion strategy bean for the example above may be as follows:
public class PojoReleaseStrategy {
...
public boolean canRelease(List<Long> numbers) {
int sum = 0;
for (long number: numbers) {
sum += number;
}
return sum >= maxValue;
}
}
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Note
Wherever it makes sense, the release strategy method and the aggregator method can be
combined in a single bean.
An implementation of the correlation strategy bean for the example above may be as follows:
public class PojoCorrelationStrategy {
...
public Long groupNumbersByLastDigit(Long number) {
return number % 10;
}
}
For example, this aggregator would group numbers by some criterion (in our case the remainder after
dividing by 10) and will hold the group until the sum of the numbers provided by the payloads exceeds
a certain value.
Note
Wherever it makes sense, the release strategy method, correlation strategy method and the
aggregator method can be combined in a single bean (all of them or any two).
Aggregators and Spring Expression Language (SpEL)
Since Spring Integration 2.0, the various strategies (correlation, release, and aggregation) may be
handled with SpEL which is recommended if the logic behind such release strategy is relatively simple.
Let's say you have a legacy component that was designed to receive an array of objects. We know that
the default release strategy will assemble all aggregated messages in the List. So now we have two
problems. First we need to extract individual messages from the list, and then we need to extract the
payload of each message and assemble the array of objects (see code below).
public String[] processRelease(List<Message<String>> messages){
List<String> stringList = new ArrayList<String>();
for (Message<String> message : messages) {
stringList.add(message.getPayload());
}
return stringList.toArray(new String[]{});
}
However, with SpEL such a requirement could actually be handled relatively easily with a one-line
expression, thus sparing you from writing a custom class and configuring it as a bean.
<int:aggregator input-channel="aggChannel"
output-channel="replyChannel"
expression="#this.![payload].toArray()"/>
In the above configuration we are using a Collection Projection expression to assemble a new collection
from the payloads of all messages in the list and then transforming it to an Array, thus achieving the
same result as the java code above.
The same expression-based approach can be applied when dealing with custom Release and Correlation
strategies.
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Instead of defining a bean for a custom CorrelationStrategy via the correlationstrategy attribute, you can implement your simple correlation logic via a SpEL expression and
configure it via the correlation-strategy-expression attribute.
For example:
correlation-strategy-expression="payload.person.id"
In the above example it is assumed that the payload has an attribute person with an id which is going
to be used to correlate messages.
Likewise, for the ReleaseStrategy you can implement your release logic as a SpEL expression
and configure it via the release-strategy-expression attribute. The only difference is that
since ReleaseStrategy is passed the List of Messages, the root object in the SpEL evaluation context is
the List itself. That List can be referenced as #this within the expression.
For example:
release-strategy-expression="#this.size() gt 5"
In this example the root object of the SpEL Evaluation Context is the MessageGroup itself, and you
are simply stating that as soon as there are more than 5 messages in this group, it should be released.
Configuring an Aggregator with Annotations
An aggregator configured using annotations would look like this.
public class Waiter {
...
@Aggregator ❶
public Delivery aggregatingMethod(List<OrderItem> items) {
...
}
@ReleaseStrategy ❷
public boolean releaseChecker(List<Message<?>> messages) {
...
}
@CorrelationStrategy ❸
public String correlateBy(OrderItem item) {
...
}
}
❶
❷
❸
An annotation indicating that this method shall be used as an aggregator. Must be specified if this
class will be used as an aggregator.
An annotation indicating that this method shall be used as the release strategy of an aggregator. If
not present on any method, the aggregator will use the SequenceSizeReleaseStrategy.
An annotation indicating that this method shall be used as the correlation strategy
of an aggregator. If no correlation strategy is indicated, the aggregator will use the
HeaderAttributeCorrelationStrategy based on CORRELATION_ID.
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All of the configuration options provided by the xml element are also available for the @Aggregator
annotation.
The aggregator can be either referenced explicitly from XML or, if the @MessageEndpoint is defined
on the class, detected automatically through classpath scanning.
Managing State in an Aggregator: MessageGroupStore
Aggregator (and some other patterns in Spring Integration) is a stateful pattern that requires decisions
to be made based on a group of messages that have arrived over a period of time, all with the same
correlation key. The design of the interfaces in the stateful patterns (e.g. ReleaseStrategy) is driven
by the principle that the components (whether defined by the framework or a user) should be able to
remain stateless. All state is carried by the MessageGroup and its management is delegated to the
MessageGroupStore.
public interface MessageGroupStore {
int getMessageCountForAllMessageGroups();
int getMarkedMessageCountForAllMessageGroups();
int getMessageGroupCount();
MessageGroup getMessageGroup(Object groupId);
MessageGroup addMessageToGroup(Object groupId, Message<?> message);
MessageGroup markMessageGroup(MessageGroup group);
MessageGroup removeMessageFromGroup(Object key, Message<?> messageToRemove);
MessageGroup markMessageFromGroup(Object key, Message<?> messageToMark);
void removeMessageGroup(Object groupId);
void registerMessageGroupExpiryCallback(MessageGroupCallback callback);
int expireMessageGroups(long timeout);
}
For more information please refer to the JavaDoc.
The MessageGroupStore accumulates state information in MessageGroups while waiting for a
release strategy to be triggered, and that event might not ever happen. So to prevent stale messages from
lingering, and for volatile stores to provide a hook for cleaning up when the application shuts down, the
MessageGroupStore allows the user to register callbacks to apply to its MessageGroups when
they expire. The interface is very straightforward:
public interface MessageGroupCallback {
void execute(MessageGroupStore messageGroupStore, MessageGroup group);
}
The callback has direct access to the store and the message group so it can manage the persistent state
(e.g. by removing the group from the store entirely).
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The MessageGroupStore maintains a list of these callbacks which it applies, on demand,
to all messages whose timestamp is earlier than a time supplied as a parameter (see
the registerMessageGroupExpiryCallback(..) and expireMessageGroups(..)
methods above).
The expireMessageGroups method can be called with a timeout value. Any message older than
the current time minus this value will be expired, and have the callbacks applied. Thus it is the user of
the store that defines what is meant by message group "expiry".
As a convenience for users, Spring Integration provides a wrapper for the message expiry in the form
of a MessageGroupStoreReaper:
<bean id="reaper" class="org...MessageGroupStoreReaper">
<property name="messageGroupStore" ref="messageStore"/>
<property name="timeout" value="30000"/>
</bean>
<task:scheduled-tasks scheduler="scheduler">
<task:scheduled ref="reaper" method="run" fixed-rate="10000"/>
</task:scheduled-tasks>
The reaper is a Runnable, and all that is happening in the example above is that the message group
store's expire method is being called once every 10 seconds. The timeout itself is 30 seconds.
Note
It
is
important
to
understand
that
the
'timeout'
property
of
the
MessageGroupStoreReaper is an approximate value and is impacted by the the rate of
the task scheduler since this property will only be checked on the next scheduled execution
of the MessageGroupStoreReaper task. For example if the timeout is set for 10 min,
but the MessageGroupStoreReaper task is scheduled to run every 60 min and the last
execution of the MessageGroupStoreReaper task happened 1 min before the timeout,
the MessageGroup will not expire for the next 59 min. So it is recommended to set the rate
at least equal to the value of the timeout or shorter.
In addition to the reaper, the expiry callbacks are invoked when the application shuts down via a lifecycle
callback in the CorrelatingMessageHandler.
The CorrelatingMessageHandler registers its own expiry callback, and this is the link with the
boolean flag send-partial-result-on-expiry in the XML configuration of the aggregator.
If the flag is set to true, then when the expiry callback is invoked, any unmarked messages in groups
that are not yet released can be sent on to the output channel.
5.5 Resequencer
Introduction
Related to the Aggregator, albeit different from a functional standpoint, is the Resequencer.
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Functionality
The Resequencer works in a similar way to the Aggregator, in the sense that it uses the
CORRELATION_ID to store messages in groups, the difference being that the Resequencer does not
process the messages in any way. It simply releases them in the order of their SEQUENCE_NUMBER
header values.
With respect to that, the user might opt to release all messages at once (after the whole sequence,
according to the SEQUENCE_SIZE, has been released), or as soon as a valid sequence is available.
Configuring a Resequencer
Configuring a resequencer requires only including the appropriate element in XML.
A sample resequencer configuration is shown below.
<int:channel id="inputChannel"/>
<int:channel id="outputChannel"/>
<int:resequencer id="completelyDefinedResequencer" ❶
input-channel="inputChannel" ❷
output-channel="outputChannel" ❸
discard-channel="discardChannel" ❹
release-partial-sequences="true" ❺
message-store="messageStore" ❻
send-partial-result-on-expiry="true" ❼
send-timeout="86420000" ❽ />
❶
The id of the resequencer is optional.
❷
The input channel of the resequencer. Required.
❸
The channel to which the resequencer will send the reordered messages. Optional.
❹
The channel to which the resequencer will send the messages that timed out (if send-partialresult-on-timeout is false). Optional.
Whether to send out ordered sequences as soon as they are available, or only after the whole
message group arrives. Optional (false by default).
If this flag is not specified (so a complete sequence is defined by the sequence headers) then it may
make sense to provide a custom Comparator to be used to order the messages when sending
(use the XML attribute comparator to point to a bean definition). If release-partialsequences is true then there is no way with a custom comparator to define a partial sequence.
To do that you would have to provide a release-strategy (also a reference to another bean
definition, either a POJO or a ReleaseStrategy ).
A reference to a MessageGroupStore that can be used to store groups of messages under their
correlation key until they are complete. Optional with default a volatile in-memory store.
Whether, upon the expiration of the group, the ordered group should be sent out (even if some of
the messages are missing). Optional (false by default). See the section called “Managing State in
an Aggregator: MessageGroupStore”.
The timeout for sending out messages. Optional.
❺
❻
❼
❽
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Note
Since there is no custom behavior to be implemented in Java classes for resequencers, there
is no annotation support for it.
5.6 Message Handler Chain
Introduction
The MessageHandlerChain is an implementation of MessageHandler that can be configured
as a single Message Endpoint while actually delegating to a chain of other handlers, such as Filters,
Transformers, Splitters, and so on. This can lead to a much simpler configuration when several handlers
need to be connected in a fixed, linear progression. For example, it is fairly common to provide a
Transformer before other components. Similarly, when providing a Filter before some other component
in a chain, you are essentially creating a Selective Consumer. In either case, the chain only requires a
single input-channel and a single output-channel eliminating the need to define channels for
each individual component.
Tip
Spring
Integration's
Filter
provides
a
boolean
property
throwExceptionOnRejection. When providing multiple Selective Consumers on the
same point-to-point channel with different acceptance criteria, this value should be set to
'true' (the default is false) so that the dispatcher will know that the Message was rejected and
as a result will attempt to pass the Message on to other subscribers. If the Exception were
not thrown, then it would appear to the dispatcher as if the Message had been passed on
successfully even though the Filter had dropped the Message to prevent further processing. If
you do indeed want to "drop" the Messages, then the Filter's 'discard-channel' might be useful
since it does give you a chance to perform some operation with the dropped message (e.g. send
to a JMS queue or simply write to a log).
The handler chain simplifies configuration while internally maintaining the same degree of loose
coupling between components, and it is trivial to modify the configuration if at some point a non-linear
arrangement is required.
Internally, the chain will be expanded into a linear setup of the listed endpoints, separated by anonymous
channels. The reply channel header will not be taken into account within the chain: only after the last
handler is invoked will the resulting message be forwarded on to the reply channel or the chain's output
channel. Because of this setup all handlers except the last required to implement the MessageProducer
interface (which provides a 'setOutputChannel()' method). The last handler only needs an output channel
if the outputChannel on the MessageHandlerChain is set.
Note
As with other endpoints, the output-channel is optional. If there is a reply Message at the
end of the chain, the output-channel takes precedence, but if not available, the chain handler
will check for a reply channel header on the inbound Message as a fallback.
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In most cases there is no need to implement MessageHandlers yourself. The next section will focus on
namespace support for the chain element. Most Spring Integration endpoints, like Service Activators
and Transformers, are suitable for use within a MessageHandlerChain.
Configuring Chain
The <chain> element provides an input-channel attribute, and if the last element in the chain is
capable of producing reply messages (optional), it also supports an output-channel attribute. The
sub-elements are then filters, transformers, splitters, and service-activators. The last element may also
be a router or an outbound-channel-adapter.
<int:chain input-channel="input" output-channel="output">
<int:filter ref="someSelector" throw-exception-on-rejection="true"/>
<int:header-enricher>
<int:header name="foo" value="bar"/>
</int:header-enricher>
<int:service-activator ref="someService" method="someMethod"/>
</int:chain>
The <header-enricher> element used in the above example will set a message header named "foo" with
a value of "bar" on the message. A header enricher is a specialization of Transformer that touches
only header values. You could obtain the same result by implementing a MessageHandler that did the
header modifications and wiring that as a bean, but the header-enricher is obviously a simpler option.
The <chain> can be configured as the last 'black-box' consumer of the message flow. For this solution
it is enough to put at the end of the <chain> some <outbound-channel-adapter>:
<int:chain input-channel="input">
<si-xml:marshalling-transformer marshaller="marshaller" result-type="StringResult" />
<int:service-activator ref="someService" method="someMethod"/>
<int:header-enricher>
<int:header name="foo" value="bar"/>
</int:header-enricher>
<int:logging-channel-adapter level="INFO" log-full-message="true"/>
</int:chain>
Disallowed Attributes and Elements
It is important to note that certain attributes, such as order and input-channel are not allowed to be
specified on components used within a chain. The same is true for the poller sub-element.
Important
For the Spring Integration core components, the XML Schema itself will enforce some of
these constraints. However, for non-core components or your own custom components, these
constraints are enforced by the XML namespace parser, not by the XML Schema.
These XML namespace parser constraints were added with Spring Integration 2.2. The XML
namespace parser will throw an BeanDefinitionParsingException if you try to use
disallowed attributes and elements.
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The id attribute, however, is allowed to be specified. In fact, the Delayer component actually requires
the id attribute to be present.
In most other cases, the id will generally be ignored but may still add value for documentation purposes,
and may also be used for providing more meaningful log messages.
Note
Currently, the XML Schema of the Spring Integration Core module prevents you from setting
the id attribute for Core components within a Message Handler Chain. This may be relaxed
in future, to provide the benefits described above.
Calling a Chain from within a Chain
Sometimes you need to make a nested call to another chain from within a chain and then come back and
continue execution within the original chain. To accomplish this you can utilize a Messaging Gateway
by including a <gateway> element. For example:
<int:chain id="main-chain" input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:header-enricher>
<int:header name="name" value="Many" />
</int:header-enricher>
<int:service-activator>
<bean class="org.foo.SampleService" />
</int:service-activator>
<int:gateway request-channel="inputA"/>
</int:chain>
<int:chain id="nested-chain-a" input-channel="inputA">
<int:header-enricher>
<int:header name="name" value="Moe" />
</int:header-enricher>
<int:gateway request-channel="inputB"/>
<int:service-activator>
<bean class="org.foo.SampleService" />
</int:service-activator>
</int:chain>
<int:chain id="nested-chain-b" input-channel="inputB">
<int:header-enricher>
<int:header name="name" value="Jack" />
</int:header-enricher>
<int:service-activator>
<bean class="org.foo.SampleService" />
</int:service-activator>
</int:chain>
In the above example the nested-chain-a will be called at the end of main-chain processing by the
'gateway' element configured there. While in nested-chain-a a call to a nested-chain-b will be made
after header enrichment and then it will come back to finish execution in nested-chain-b. Finally the
flow returns to the main-chain. When the nested version of a <gateway> element is defined in the chain,
it does not require the service-interface attribute. Instead, it simple takes the message in its
current state and places it on the channel defined via the request-channel attribute. When the
downstream flow initiated by that gateway completes, a Message will be returned to the gateway and
continue its journey within the current chain.
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6. Message Transformation
6.1 Transformer
Introduction
Message Transformers play a very important role in enabling the loose-coupling of Message Producers
and Message Consumers. Rather than requiring every Message-producing component to know what
type is expected by the next consumer, Transformers can be added between those components. Generic
transformers, such as one that converts a String to an XML Document, are also highly reusable.
For some systems, it may be best to provide a Canonical Data Model, but Spring Integration's general
philosophy is not to require any particular format. Rather, for maximum flexibility, Spring Integration
aims to provide the simplest possible model for extension. As with the other endpoint types, the use of
declarative configuration in XML and/or Annotations enables simple POJOs to be adapted for the role
of Message Transformers. These configuration options will be described below.
Note
For the same reason of maximizing flexibility, Spring does not require XML-based Message
payloads. Nevertheless, the framework does provide some convenient Transformers for
dealing with XML-based payloads if that is indeed the right choice for your application. For
more information on those transformers, see Chapter 29, XML Support - Dealing with XML
Payloads.
Configuring Transformer
Configuring Transformer with XML
The <transformer> element is used to create a Message-transforming endpoint. In addition to "inputchannel" and "output-channel" attributes, it requires a "ref". The "ref" may either point to an Object that
contains the @Transformer annotation on a single method (see below) or it may be combined with an
explicit method name value provided via the "method" attribute.
<int:transformer id="testTransformer" ref="testTransformerBean" input-channel="inChannel"
method="transform" output-channel="outChannel"/>
<beans:bean id="testTransformerBean" class="org.foo.TestTransformer" />
Using a "ref" attribute is generally recommended if the custom transformer handler implementation
can be reused in other <transformer> definitions. However if the custom transformer handler
implementation should be scoped to a single definition of the <transformer>, you can define an
inner bean definition:
<int:transformer id="testTransformer" input-channel="inChannel" method="transform"
output-channel="outChannel">
<beans:bean class="org.foo.TestTransformer"/>
</transformer>
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Note
Using both the "ref" attribute and an inner handler definition in the same <transformer>
configuration is not allowed, as it creates an ambiguous condition and will result in an
Exception being thrown.
The method that is used for transformation may expect either the Message type or the payload type
of inbound Messages. It may also accept Message header values either individually or as a full map by
using the @Header and @Headers parameter annotations respectively. The return value of the method
can be any type. If the return value is itself a Message, that will be passed along to the transformer's
output channel.
As of Spring Integration 2.0, a Message Transformer's transformation method can no longer return
null. Returning null will result in an exception since a Message Transformer should always be
expected to transform each source Message into a valid target Message. In other words, a Message
Transformer should not be used as a Message Filter since there is a dedicated <filter> option for that.
However, if you do need this type of behavior (where a component might return NULL and that should
not be considered an error), a service-activator could be used. Its requires-reply value is FALSE
by default, but that can be set to TRUE in order to have Exceptions thrown for NULL return values
as with the transformer.
Transformers and Spring Expression Language (SpEL)
Just like Routers, Aggregators and other components, as of Spring Integration 2.0 Transformers
can also benefit from SpEL support (http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.0.x/spring-frameworkreference/html/expressions.html) whenever transformation logic is relatively simple.
<int:transformer input-channel="inChannel"
output-channel="outChannel"
expression="payload.toUpperCase() + '- [' + T(java.lang.System).currentTimeMillis() + ']'"/>
In the above configuration we are achieving a simple transformation of the payload with a simple SpEL
expression and without writing a custom transformer. Our payload (assuming String) will be uppercased and concatenated with the current timestamp with some simple formatting.
Common Transformers
There are also a few Transformer implementations available out of the box. Because, it is fairly
common to use the toString() representation of an Object, Spring Integration provides an
ObjectToStringTransformer whose output is a Message with a String payload. That String is
the result of invoking the toString() operation on the inbound Message's payload.
<int:object-to-string-transformer input-channel="in" output-channel="out"/>
A potential example for this would be sending some arbitrary object to the 'outbound-channel-adapter' in
the file namespace. Whereas that Channel Adapter only supports String, byte-array, or java.io.File
payloads by default, adding this transformer immediately before the adapter will handle the necessary
conversion. Of course, that works fine as long as the result of the toString() call is what you want
to be written to the File. Otherwise, you can just provide a custom POJO-based Transformer via the
generic 'transformer' element shown previously.
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Tip
When debugging, this transformer is not typically necessary since the 'logging-channeladapter' is capable of logging the Message payload. Refer to the section called “Wire Tap”
for more detail.
If you need to serialize an Object to a byte array or deserialize a byte array back into an Object, Spring
Integration provides symmetrical serialization transformers. These will use standard Java serialization
by default, but you can provide an implementation of Spring 3.0's Serializer or Deserializer strategies
via the 'serializer' and 'deserializer' attributes, respectively.
<int:payload-serializing-transformer input-channel="objectsIn" output-channel="bytesOut"/>
<int:payload-deserializing-transformer input-channel="bytesIn" output-channel="objectsOut"/>
Object-to-Map Transformer
Spring Integration also provides Object-to-Map and Map-to-Object transformers which utilize the
Spring Expression Language (SpEL) to serialize and de-serialize the object graphs. The object hierarchy
is introspected to the most primitive types (String, int, etc.). The path to this type is described via SpEL,
which becomes the key in the transformed Map. The primitive type becomes the value.
For example:
public class Parent{
private Child child;
private String name;
// setters and getters are omitted
}
public class Child{
private String name;
private List<String> nickNames;
// setters and getters are omitted
}
... will be transformed to a Map which looks like this: {person.name=George,
person.child.name=Jenna, person.child.nickNames[0]=Bimbo . . . etc}
The SpEL-based Map allows you to describe the object structure without sharing the actual types
allowing you to restore/rebuild the object graph into a differently typed Object graph as long as you
maintain the structure.
For example: The above structure could be easily restored back to the following Object graph via the
Map-to-Object transformer:
public class Father {
private Kid child;
private String name;
// setters and getters are omitted
}
public class Kid {
private String name;
private List<String> nickNames;
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// setters and getters are omitted
}
To configure these transformers, Spring Integration provides namespace support Object-to-Map:
<int:object-to-map-transformer input-channel="directInput" output-channel="output"/>
Map-to-Object
<int:map-to-object-transformer input-channel="input"
output-channel="output"
type="org.foo.Person"/>
or
<int:map-to-object-transformer input-channel="inputA"
output-channel="outputA"
ref="person"/>
<bean id="person" class="org.foo.Person" scope="prototype"/>
Note
NOTE: 'ref' and 'type' attributes are mutually exclusive. You can only use one. Also, if using the
'ref' attribute, you must point to a 'prototype' scoped bean, otherwise a BeanCreationException
will be thrown.
JSON Transformers
Object to JSON and JSON to Object transformers are provided.
<int:object-to-json-transformer input-channel="objectMapperInput"/>
<int:json-to-object-transformer input-channel="objectMapperInput"
type="foo.MyDomainObject"/>
These use a vanilla Jackson ObjectMapper by default. If you wish to customize the ObjectMapper
(for example, to configure the 'ALLOW_COMMENTS' feature when parsing JSON), you can supply a
reference to your custom ObjectMapper bean using the object-mapper attribute.
<int:json-to-object-transformer input-channel="objectMapperInput"
type="foo.MyDomainObject" object-mapper="customObjectMapper"/>
You may wish to consider using a FactoryBean or simple factory method to create the ObjectMapper
with the required characteristics.
public class ObjectMapperFactory {
public static ObjectMapper getMapper() {
ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
mapper.configure(JsonParser.Feature.ALLOW_COMMENTS, true);
return mapper;
}
}
<bean id="customObjectMapper" class="foo.ObjectMapperFactory"
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factory-method="getMapper"/>
Important
Beginning with version 2.2, the object-to-json-transformer sets the content-type
header to application/json, by default. It can be overridden using the content-type
attribute. The default behavior has a side affect - causing applications with the following
sequence to fail:
->object-to-json-transformer->amqp-outbound-adapter---->
---->amqp-inbound-adapter->json-to-object-transformer->
This is because the default SimpleMessageConverter used by the inbound adapter
doesn't recognize this content type and the adapter emits a message with a byte[] payload
instead of String, which was the case with earlier versions.
If you are using this pattern, there are a number of ways to configure the environment so that
JSON conversion will be performed correctly.
One solution is to set the content type to a text type, so the inbound converter will convert the
JSON to String. This solution requires a change to just the outbound application.
<object-to-json-transformer ... content-type="text/x-json"/>
The second solution is to eliminate the json transformers altogether and use an
org.springframework.amqp.support.converter.JsonMessageConverter
on both the outbound and inbound adapters. This configures the adapters to perform the JSON
conversion and the transformers are not necessary. The converter on the outbound adapter adds
type information to the message properties; the inbound converter uses this type information
for the conversion. The converter is provided to the adapters using the message-converter
attribute. This solution requires a change to both the inbound and outbound applications.
The
third
solution
is
to
eliminate
the
json-to-objecttransformer
in
just
the
inbound
application
and
use
an
org.springframework.amqp.support.converter.JsonMessageConverter
on the inbound adapter. The converter is provided to the adapter using the message-converter
attribute. However, because there will be no type information in the message properties,
this also requires adding the defaultType to the converter, using the same type as currently
configured on the json-to-object-transformer. This solution requires a change to just the
inbound application. The configuration below shows how to configure the message converter;
it requires spring-amqp 1.1.3 or above.
<bean id="jsonConverterWithPOType" class="org.springframework.amqp.support.converter.JsonMessageCon
<property name="classMapper">
<bean class="org.springframework.amqp.support.converter.DefaultClassMapper">
<property name="defaultType"
value="foo.PurchaseOrder" />
</bean>
</property>
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</bean>
<int-amqp:inbound-channel-adapter ... message-converter="jsonConverterWithPOType" ... />
Configuring a Transformer with Annotations
The @Transformer annotation can also be added to methods that expect either the Message type or
the message payload type. The return value will be handled in the exact same way as described above
in the section describing the <transformer> element.
@Transformer
Order generateOrder(String productId) {
return new Order(productId);
}
Transformer methods may also accept the @Header and @Headers annotations that is documented in
Section E.5, “Annotation Support”
@Transformer
Order generateOrder(String productId, @Header("customerName") String customer) {
return new Order(productId, customer);
}
Header Filter
Some times your transformation use case might be as simple as removing a few headers. For such a use
case, Spring Integration provides a Header Filter which allows you to specify certain header names that
should be removed from the output Message (e.g. for security reasons or a value that was only needed
temporarily). Basically the Header Filter is the opposite of the Header Enricher. The latter is discussed
in the section called “Header Enricher”
<int:header-filter input-channel="inputChannel"
output-channel="outputChannel" header-names="lastName, state"/>
As you can see, configuration of a Header Filter is quite simple. It is a typical endpoint with input/output
channels and a header-names attribute. That attribute accepts the names of the header(s) (delimited
by commas if there are multiple) that need to be removed. So, in the above example the headers named
'lastName' and 'state' will not be present on the outbound Message.
6.2 Content Enricher
Introduction
At times you may have a requirement to enhance a request with more information than was provided by
the target system. The Content Enricher pattern describes various scenarios as well as the component
(Enricher), which allows you to address such requirements.
The Spring Integration Core module includes 2 enrichers:
• Header Enricher
• Payload Enricher
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Furthermore, several Adapter specific Header Enrichers are included as well:
• XPath Header Enricher (XML Module)
• Mail Header Enricher (Mail Module)
• XMPP Header Enricher (XMPP Module)
Please go to the adapter specific sections of this reference manual to learn more about those adapters.
Header Enricher
If you only need to add headers to a Message, and they are not dynamically determined by the Message
content, then referencing a custom implementation of a Transformer may be overkill. For that reason,
Spring Integration provides support for the Header Enricher pattern. It is exposed via the <headerenricher> element.
<int:header-enricher input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:header name="foo" value="123"/>
<int:header name="bar" ref="someBean"/>
</int:header-enricher>
The Header Enricher also provides helpful sub-elements to set well-known header names.
<int:header-enricher input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:error-channel ref="applicationErrorChannel"/>
<int:reply-channel ref="quoteReplyChannel"/>
<int:correlation-id value="123"/>
<int:priority value="HIGHEST"/>
<int:header name="bar" ref="someBean"/>
</int:header-enricher>
In the above configuration you can clearly see that for well-known headers such as errorChannel,
correlationId, priority, replyChanneletc., instead of using generic <header> subelements where you would have to provide both header 'name' and 'value', you can use convenient subelements to set those values directly.
POJO Support
Often a header value cannot be defined statically and has to be determined dynamically based on some
content in the Message. That is why Header Enricher allows you to also specify a bean reference using
the ref and method attribute. The specified method will calculate the header value. Let's look at the
following configuration:
<int:header-enricher input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:header name="foo" method="computeValue" ref="myBean"/>
</int:header-enricher>
<bean id="myBean" class="foo.bar.MyBean"/>
public class MyBean {
public String computeValue(String payload){
return payload.toUpperCase() + "_US";
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}
}
You can also configure your POJO as inner bean:
<int:header-enricher input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel">
<int:header name="some_header">
<bean class="org.MyEnricher"/>
</int:header>
</int:header-enricher>
as well as point to a Groovy script:
<int:header-enricher input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel">
<int:header name="some_header">
<int-groovy:script location="org/SampleGroovyHeaderEnricher.groovy"/>
</int:header>
</int:header-enricher>
SpEL Support
In Spring Integration 2.0 we have introduced the convenience of the Spring Expression Language
(SpEL) to help configure many different components. The Header Enricher is one of them. Looking
again at the POJO example above, you can see that the computation logic to determine the header value
is actually pretty simple. A natural question would be: "is there a simpler way to accomplish this?".
That is where SpEL shows its true power.
<int:header-enricher input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:header name="foo" expression="payload.toUpperCase() + '_US'"/>
</int:header-enricher>
As you can see, by using SpEL for such simple cases, we no longer have to provide a separate class
and configure it in the application context. All we need is the expression attribute configured with a
valid SpEL expression. The 'payload' and 'headers' variables are bound to the SpEL Evaluation Context,
giving you full access to the incoming Message.
Payload Enricher
In certain situations the Header Enricher, as discussed above, may not be sufficient and payloads
themselves may have to be enriched with additional information. For example, order messages that enter
the Spring Integration messaging system have to look up the order's customer based on the provided
customer number and then enrich the original payload with that information.
Since Spring Integration 2.1, the Payload Enricher is provided. A Payload Enricher defines an endpoint
that passes a Message to the exposed request channel and then expects a reply message. The reply
message then becomes the root object for evaluation of expressions to enrich the target payload.
The Payload Enricher provides full XML namespace support via the enricher element. In order to
send request messages, the payload enricher has a request-channel attribute that allows you to
dispatch messages to a request channel.
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Basically by defining the request channel, the Payload Enricher acts as a Gateway, waiting for the
message that were sent to the request channel to return, and the Enricher then augments the message's
payload with the data provided by the reply message.
When sending messages to the request channel you also have the option to only send a subset of the
original payload using the request-payload-expression attribute.
The enriching of payloads is configured through SpEL expressions, providing users with a maximum
degree of flexibility. Therefore, users are not only able to enrich payloads with direct values from the
reply channel's Message, but they can use SpEL expressions to extract a subset from that Message,
only, or to apply addtional inline transformations, allowing them to further manipulate the data.
If you only need to enrich payloads with static values, you don't have to provide the requestchannel attribute.
Note
Enrichers are a variant of Transformers and in many cases you could use a Payload Enricher
or a generic Transformer implementation to add additional data to your messages payloads.
Thus, familiarize yourself with all transformation-capable components that are provided by
Spring Integration and carefully select the implementation that semantically fits your business
case best.
Configuration
Below, please find an overview of all available configuration options that are available for the payload
enricher:
❶
<int:enricher request-channel=""
auto-startup="true"
❷
id=""
❸
order=""
❹
output-channel=""
❺
request-payload-expression=""
❻
reply-channel=""
❼
send-timeout=""
❽
should-clone-payload="false">
❾
<int:poller></int:poller>
<int:property name="" expression=""/>
<int:property name="" value=""/>
</int:enricher>
❿
11
❶
Channel to which a Message will be sent to get the data to use for enrichment. Optional.
❷
Lifecycle attribute signaling if this component should be started during Application Context
startup. Defaults to true. Optional.
Id of the underlying bean definition, which is either an EventDrivenConsumer or a
PollingConsumer. Optional.
Specifies the order for invocation when this endpoint is connected as a subscriber to a channel.
This is particularly relevant when that channel is using a "failover" dispatching strategy. It has no
effect when this endpoint itself is a Polling Consumer for a channel with a queue. Optional.
❸
❹
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❺
❻
Identifies the Message channel where a Message will be sent after it is being processed by this
endpoint. Optional.
By default the original message's payload will be used as payload that will be send to the
request-channel. By specifying a SpEL expression as value for the request-payloadexpression attribute, a subset of the original payload, a header value or any other resolvable
SpEL expression can be used as the basis for the payload, that will be sent to the request-channel.
For the Expression evaluation the full message is available as the 'root object'.
For instance the following SpEL expressions (among others) are possible:
• payload.foo
• headers.foobar
• new java.util.Date()
• 'foo' + 'bar'
❼
❽
If more sophisticated logic is required (e.g. changing the message headers etc.) please use
additional downstream transformers. Optional.
Channel where a reply Message is expected. This is optional; typically the auto-generated
temporary reply channel is sufficient. Optional.
Maximum amount of time in milliseconds to wait when sending a message to the channel, if such
channel may block.
For example, a Queue Channel can block until space is available, if its maximum capacity has
been reached. Internally the send timeout is set on the MessagingTemplate and ultimately
applied when invoking the send operation on the MessageChannel.
❾
❿
11
By default the send timeout is set to '-1', which may cause the send operation on the
MessageChannel, depending on the implementation, to block indefinitely. Optional.
Boolean value indicating whether any payload that implements Cloneable should be cloned
prior to sending the Message to the request chanenl for acquiring the enriching data. The cloned
version would be used as the target payload for the ultimate reply. Default is false. Optional.
Allows you to configure a Message Poller if this endpoint is a Polling Consumer. Optional.
Each property sub-element provides the name of a property (via the mandatory name attribute).
That property should be settable on the target payload instance. Exactly one of the value or
expression attributes must be provided as well. The former for a literal value to set, and the
latter for a SpEL expression to be evaluated. The root object of the evaluation context is the
Message that was returned from the flow initiated by this enricher, the input Message if there is
no request channel, or the application context (using the '@<beanName>.<beanProperty>' SpEL
syntax).
Examples
Below, please find several examples of using a Payload Enricher in various situations.
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In the following example, a User object is passed as the payload of the Message. The User has
several properties but only the username is set initially. The Enricher's request-channel attribute
below is configured to pass the User on to the findUserServiceChannel.
Through the implicitly set reply-channel a User object is returned and using the property subelement, properties from the reply are extracted and used to enrich the original payload.
<int:enricher id="findUserEnricher"
input-channel="findUserEnricherChannel"
request-channel="findUserServiceChannel">
<int:property name="email"
expression="payload.email"/>
<int:property name="password" expression="payload.password"/>
</int:enricher>
Note
The code samples shown here, are part of the Spring Integration Samples project. Please feel
free to check it out at: https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples
How do I pass only a subset of data to the request channel?
Using a request-payload-expression attribute a single property of the payload can be passed
on to the request channel instead of the full message. In the example below on the username property
is passed on to the request channel. Keep in mind, that alwhough only the username is passed on, the
resulting message send to the request channel will contain the full set of MessageHeaders.
<int:enricher id="findUserByUsernameEnricher"
input-channel="findUserByUsernameEnricherChannel"
request-channel="findUserByUsernameServiceChannel"
request-payload-expression="payload.username">
<int:property name="email"
expression="payload.email"/>
<int:property name="password" expression="payload.password"/>
</int:enricher>
How can I enrich payloads that consist of Collection data?
In the following example, instead of a User object, a Map is passed in. The Map contains the username
under the map key username. Only the username is passed on to the request channel. The reply
contains a full User object, which is ultimately added to the Map under the user key.
<int:enricher id="findUserWithMapEnricher"
input-channel="findUserWithMapEnricherChannel"
request-channel="findUserByUsernameServiceChannel"
request-payload-expression="payload.username">
<int:property name="user"
expression="payload"/>
</int:enricher>
How can I enrich payloads with static information without using a request channel?
Here is an example that does not use a request channel at all, but solely enriches the message's payload
with static values. But please be aware that the word 'static' is used loosly here. You can still use SpEL
expressions for setting those values.
<int:enricher id="userEnricher"
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input-channel="input">
<int:property name="user.updateDate" expression="new java.util.Date()"/>
<int:property name="user.firstName" value="foo"/>
<int:property name="user.lastName" value="bar"/>
<int:property name="user.age"
value="42"/>
</int:enricher>
6.3 Claim Check
Introduction
In the earlier sections we've covered several Content Enricher type components that help you deal with
situations where a message is missing a piece of data. We also discussed Content Filtering which lets you
remove data items from a message. However there are times when we want to hide data temporarily. For
example, in a distributed system we may receive a Message with a very large payload. Some intermittent
message processing steps may not need access to this payload and some may only need to access certain
headers, so carrying the large Message payload through each processing step may cause performance
degradation, may produce a security risk, and may make debugging more difficult.
The Claim Check pattern describes a mechanism that allows you to store data in a well known place
while only maintaining a pointer (Claim Check) to where that data is located. You can pass that pointer
around as a payload of a new Message thereby allowing any component within the message flow to get
the actual data as soon as it needs it. This approach is very similar to the Certified Mail process where
you'll get a Claim Check in your mailbox and would have to go to the Post Office to claim your actual
package. Of course it's also the same idea as baggage-claim on a flight or in a hotel.
Spring Integration provides two types of Claim Check transformers:
• Incoming Claim Check Transformer
• Outgoing Claim Check Transformer
Convenient namespace-based mechanisms are available to configure them.
Incoming Claim Check Transformer
An Incoming Claim Check Transformer will transform an incoming Message by storing it in the Message
Store identified by its message-store attribute.
<int:claim-check-in id="checkin"
input-channel="checkinChannel"
message-store="testMessageStore"
output-channel="output"/>
In the above configuration the Message that is received on the input-channel will be persisted to
the Message Store identified with the message-store attribute and indexed with generated ID. That
ID is the Claim Check for that Message. The Claim Check will also become the payload of the new
(transformed) Message that will be sent to the output-channel.
Now, lets assume that at some point you do need access to the actual Message. You can of course access
the Message Store manually and get the contents of the Message, or you can use the same approach
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as before except now you will be transforming the Claim Check to the actual Message by using an
Outgoing Claim Check Transformer.
Here is an overview of all available parameters of an Incoming Claim Check Transformer:
<int:claim-check-in auto-startup="true" ❶
id=""
❷
input-channel=""
❸
message-store="messageStore"
❹
order=""
❺
output-channel=""
❻
send-timeout="">
❼
❽
<int:poller></int:poller>
</int:claim-check-in>
❶
❷
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
Lifecycle attribute signaling if this component should be started during Application Context
startup. Defaults to true. Attribute is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Id identifying the underlying bean definition (MessageTransformingHandler). Attribute
is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
The receiving Message channel of this endpoint. Attribute is not available inside a Chain element.
Optional.
Reference to the MessageStore to be used by this Claim Check transformer. If not specified, the
default reference will be to a bean named messageStore. Optional.
Specifies the order for invocation when this endpoint is connected as a subscriber to a channel.
This is particularly relevant when that channel is using a failover dispatching strategy. It has no
effect when this endpoint itself is a Polling Consumer for a channel with a queue. Attribute is not
available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Identifies the Message channel where Message will be sent after its being processed by this
endpoint. Attribute is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Specify the maximum amount of time in milliseconds to wait when sending a reply Message to
the output channel. By default the send will block for one second. Attribute is not available inside
a Chain element. Optional.
Defines a poller. Element is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Outgoing Claim Check Transformer
An Outgoing Claim Check Transformer allows you to transform a Message with a Claim Check payload
into a Message with the original content as its payload.
<int:claim-check-out id="checkout"
input-channel="checkoutChannel"
message-store="testMessageStore"
output-channel="output"/>
In the above configuration, the Message that is received on the input-channel should have a Claim
Check as its payload and the Outgoing Claim Check Transformer will transform it into a Message with
the original payload by simply querying the Message store for a Message identified by the provided
Claim Check. It then sends the newly checked-out Message to the output-channel.
Here is an overview of all available parameters of an Outgoing Claim Check Transformer:
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<int:claim-check-out auto-startup="true" ❶
id=""
❷
input-channel=""
❸
message-store="messageStore"
❹
order=""
❺
output-channel=""
❻
remove-message="false"
❼
send-timeout="">
❽
<int:poller></int:poller>
</int:claim-check-out>
❶
❷
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
❾
Lifecycle attribute signaling if this component should be started during Application Context
startup. Defaults to true. Attribute is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Id identifying the underlying bean definition (MessageTransformingHandler). Attribute
is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
The receiving Message channel of this endpoint. Attribute is not available inside a Chain element.
Optional.
Reference to the MessageStore to be used by this Claim Check transformer. If not specified, the
default reference will be to a bean named messageStore. Optional.
Specifies the order for invocation when this endpoint is connected as a subscriber to a channel.
This is particularly relevant when that channel is using a failover dispatching strategy. It has no
effect when this endpoint itself is a Polling Consumer for a channel with a queue. Attribute is not
available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Identifies the Message channel where Message will be sent after its being processed by this
endpoint. Attribute is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
If set to true the Message will be removed from the MessageStore by this transformer. Useful
when Message can be "claimed" only once. Defaults to false. Optional.
Specify the maximum amount of time in milliseconds to wait when sending a reply Message to
the output channel. By default the send will block for one second. Attribute is not available inside
a Chain element. Optional.
Defines a poller. Element is not available inside a Chain element. Optional.
Claim Once
There are scenarios when a particular message must be claimed only once. As an analogy, consider the
airplane luggage check-in/out process. Checking-in your luggage on departure and and then claiming
it on arrival is a classic example of such a scenario. Once the luggage has been claimed, it can not be
claimed again without first checking it back in. To accommodate such cases, we introduced a removemessage boolean attribute on the claim-check-out transformer. This attribute is set to false
by default. However, if set to true, the claimed Message will be removed from the MessageStore, so
that it can no longer be claimed again.
This is also something to consider in terms of storage space, especially in the case of the in-memory
Map-based SimpleMessageStore, where failing to remove the Messages could ultimately lead
to an OutOfMemoryException. Therefore, if you don't expect multiple claims to be made, it's
recommended that you set the remove-message attribute's value to true.
<int:claim-check-out id="checkout"
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input-channel="checkoutChannel"
message-store="testMessageStore"
output-channel="output"
remove-message="true"/>
A word on Message Store
Although we rarely care about the details of the claim checks as long as they work, it is still worth
knowing that the current implementation of the actual Claim Check (the pointer) in Spring Integration
is a UUID to ensure uniqueness.
org.springframework.integration.store.MessageStore is a strategy interface for
storing and retrieving messages. Spring Integration provides two convenient implementations of it.
SimpleMessageStore: an in-memory, Map-based implementation (the default, good for testing)
and JdbcMessageStore: an implementation that uses a relational database via JDBC.
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7. Messaging Endpoints
7.1 Message Endpoints
The first part of this chapter covers some background theory and reveals quite a bit about the underlying
API that drives Spring Integration's various messaging components. This information can be helpful if
you want to really understand what's going on behind the scenes. However, if you want to get up and
running with the simplified namespace-based configuration of the various elements, feel free to skip
ahead to the section called “Namespace Support” for now.
As mentioned in the overview, Message Endpoints are responsible for connecting the various messaging
components to channels. Over the next several chapters, you will see a number of different components
that consume Messages. Some of these are also capable of sending reply Messages. Sending Messages is
quite straightforward. As shown above in Section 3.1, “Message Channels”, it's easy to send a Message
to a Message Channel. However, receiving is a bit more complicated. The main reason is that there are
two types of consumers: Polling Consumers and Event Driven Consumers.
Of the two, Event Driven Consumers are much simpler. Without any need to manage and schedule a
separate poller thread, they are essentially just listeners with a callback method. When connecting to one
of Spring Integration's subscribable Message Channels, this simple option works great. However, when
connecting to a buffering, pollable Message Channel, some component has to schedule and manage the
polling thread(s). Spring Integration provides two different endpoint implementations to accommodate
these two types of consumers. Therefore, the consumers themselves can simply implement the callback
interface. When polling is required, the endpoint acts as a container for the consumer instance. The
benefit is similar to that of using a container for hosting Message Driven Beans, but since these
consumers are simply Spring-managed Objects running within an ApplicationContext, it more closely
resembles Spring's own MessageListener containers.
Message Handler
Spring Integration's MessageHandler interface is implemented by many of the components within
the framework. In other words, this is not part of the public API, and a developer would not typically
implement MessageHandler directly. Nevertheless, it is used by a Message Consumer for actually
handling the consumed Messages, and so being aware of this strategy interface does help in terms of
understanding the overall role of a consumer. The interface is defined as follows:
public interface MessageHandler {
void handleMessage(Message<?> message);
}
Despite its simplicity, this provides the foundation for most of the components that will be covered
in the following chapters (Routers, Transformers, Splitters, Aggregators, Service Activators, etc).
Those components each perform very different functionality with the Messages they handle, but the
requirements for actually receiving a Message are the same, and the choice between polling and eventdriven behavior is also the same. Spring Integration provides two endpoint implementations that host
these callback-based handlers and allow them to be connected to Message Channels.
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Event Driven Consumer
Because it is the simpler of the two, we will cover the Event Driven Consumer endpoint first.
You may recall that the SubscribableChannel interface provides a subscribe() method
and that the method accepts a MessageHandler parameter (as shown in the section called
“SubscribableChannel”):
subscribableChannel.subscribe(messageHandler);
Since a handler that is subscribed to a channel does not have to actively poll that channel, this
is an Event Driven Consumer, and the implementation provided by Spring Integration accepts a a
SubscribableChannel and a MessageHandler:
SubscribableChannel channel = context.getBean("subscribableChannel", SubscribableChannel.class);
EventDrivenConsumer consumer = new EventDrivenConsumer(channel, exampleHandler);
Polling Consumer
Spring Integration also provides a PollingConsumer, and it can be instantiated in the same way
except that the channel must implement PollableChannel:
PollableChannel channel = context.getBean("pollableChannel", PollableChannel.class);
PollingConsumer consumer = new PollingConsumer(channel, exampleHandler);
Note
For more information regarding Polling Consumers, please also read Section 3.2, “Poller
(Polling Consumer)” as well as Section 3.3, “Channel Adapter”.
There are many other configuration options for the Polling Consumer. For example, the trigger is a
required property:
PollingConsumer consumer = new PollingConsumer(channel, handler);
consumer.setTrigger(new IntervalTrigger(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS));
Spring Integration currently provides two implementations of the Trigger interface:
IntervalTrigger and CronTrigger. The IntervalTrigger is typically defined with a
simple interval (in milliseconds), but also supports an initialDelay property and a boolean fixedRate
property (the default is false, i.e. fixed delay):
IntervalTrigger trigger = new IntervalTrigger(1000);
trigger.setInitialDelay(5000);
trigger.setFixedRate(true);
The CronTrigger simply requires a valid cron expression (see the Javadoc for details):
CronTrigger trigger = new CronTrigger("*/10 * * * * MON-FRI");
In addition to the trigger, several other polling-related configuration properties may be specified:
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PollingConsumer consumer = new PollingConsumer(channel, handler);
consumer.setMaxMessagesPerPoll(10);
consumer.setReceiveTimeout(5000);
The maxMessagesPerPoll property specifies the maximum number of messages to receive within a
given poll operation. This means that the poller will continue calling receive() without waiting until
either null is returned or that max is reached. For example, if a poller has a 10 second interval trigger
and a maxMessagesPerPoll setting of 25, and it is polling a channel that has 100 messages in its queue,
all 100 messages can be retrieved within 40 seconds. It grabs 25, waits 10 seconds, grabs the next 25,
and so on.
The receiveTimeout property specifies the amount of time the poller should wait if no messages are
available when it invokes the receive operation. For example, consider two options that seem similar
on the surface but are actually quite different: the first has an interval trigger of 5 seconds and a receive
timeout of 50 milliseconds while the second has an interval trigger of 50 milliseconds and a receive
timeout of 5 seconds. The first one may receive a message up to 4950 milliseconds later than it arrived on
the channel (if that message arrived immediately after one of its poll calls returned). On the other hand,
the second configuration will never miss a message by more than 50 milliseconds. The difference is that
the second option requires a thread to wait, but as a result it is able to respond much more quickly to
arriving messages. This technique, known as long polling, can be used to emulate event-driven behavior
on a polled source.
A Polling Consumer may also delegate to a Spring TaskExecutor, as illustrated in the following
example:
PollingConsumer consumer = new PollingConsumer(channel, handler);
TaskExecutor taskExecutor = context.getBean("exampleExecutor", TaskExecutor.class);
consumer.setTaskExecutor(taskExecutor);
Furthermore, a PollingConsumer has a property called adviceChain. This property allows you to
specify a List of AOP Advices for handling additional cross cutting concerns including transactions.
These advices are applied around the doPoll() method. For more in-depth information, please see the
sections AOP Advice chains and Transaction Support under the section called “Namespace Support”.
The examples above show dependency lookups, but keep in mind that these consumers will most often be
configured as Spring bean definitions. In fact, Spring Integration also provides a FactoryBean called
ConsumerEndpointFactoryBean that creates the appropriate consumer type based on the type
of channel, and there is full XML namespace support to even further hide those details. The namespacebased configuration will be featured as each component type is introduced.
Note
Many of the MessageHandler implementations are also capable of generating reply
Messages. As mentioned above, sending Messages is trivial when compared to the Message
reception. Nevertheless, when and how many reply Messages are sent depends on the handler
type. For example, an Aggregator waits for a number of Messages to arrive and is often
configured as a downstream consumer for a Splitter which may generate multiple replies for
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each Message it handles. When using the namespace configuration, you do not strictly need
to know all of the details, but it still might be worth knowing that several of these components
share a common base class, the AbstractReplyProducingMessageHandler, and it
provides a setOutputChannel(..) method.
Namespace Support
Throughout the reference manual, you will see specific configuration examples for endpoint
elements, such as router, transformer, service-activator, and so on. Most of these will support
an input-channel attribute and many will support an output-channel attribute. After being
parsed, these endpoint elements produce an instance of either the PollingConsumer or
the EventDrivenConsumer depending on the type of the input-channel that is referenced:
PollableChannel or SubscribableChannel respectively. When the channel is pollable, then
the polling behavior is determined based on the endpoint element's poller sub-element and its attributes.
Configuration
Below you find a poller with all available configuration options:
<int:poller cron=""
❷
error-channel=""
❸
fixed-delay=""
❹
fixed-rate=""
❺
id=""
❻
max-messages-per-poll=""
❼
receive-timeout=""
❽
ref=""
❾
task-executor=""
time-unit="MILLISECONDS"
trigger="">
<int:advice-chain />
<int:transactional />
</int:poller>
❶
❷
❸
❹
❶
default="false"
❿
11
12
13
14
Provides the ability to configure Pollers using Cron expressions. The underlying implementation
uses a org.springframework.scheduling.support.CronTrigger. If this attribute
is set, none of the following attributes must be specified: fixed-delay, trigger, fixedrate, ref.
By setting this attribute to true, it is possible to define exactly one (1) global default
poller. An exception is raised if more than one default poller is defined in the
application context. Any endpoints connected to a PollableChannel (PollingConsumer) or any
SourcePollingChannelAdapter that does not have any explicitly configured poller will then use
the global default Poller. Optional. Defaults to false.
Identifies the channel which error messages will be sent to if a failure occurs in this poller's
invocation. To completely suppress Exceptions, provide a reference to the nullChannel.
Optional.
The fixed delay trigger uses a PeriodicTrigger under the covers. If the time-unit attribute
is not used, the specified value is represented in milliseconds. If this attribute is set, none of the
following attributes must be specified: fixed-rate, trigger, cron, ref.
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❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
❿
11
The fixed rate trigger uses a PeriodicTrigger under the covers. If the time-unit attribute
is not used the specified value is represented in milliseconds. If this attribute is set, none of the
following attributes must be specified: fixed-delay, trigger, cron, ref.
The Id referring to the Poller's underlying bean-definition, which is of type
org.springframework.integration.scheduling.PollerMetadata. The id
attribute is required for a top-level poller element unless it is the default poller
(default="true").
Please see the section called “Configuring An Inbound Channel Adapter” for more
information. Optional. If not specified the default values used depends on the context.
If a PollingConsumer is used, this atribute will default to -1. However, if a
SourcePollingChannelAdapter is used, then the max-messages-per-poll
attribute defaults to 1.
Value is set on the underlying class PollerMetadata Optional. If not specified it defaults to
1000 (milliseconds).
Bean reference to another top-level poller. The ref attribute must not be present on the toplevel poller element. However, if this attribute is set, none of the following attributes must be
specified: fixed-rate, trigger, cron, fixed-deleay.
Provides the ability to reference a custom task executor. Please see the section below titled
TaskExecutor Support for further information. Optional.
This attribute specifies the java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit enum value on
the underlying org.springframework.scheduling.support.PeriodicTrigger.
Therefore, this attribute can ONLY be used in combination with the fixed-delay or fixedrate attributes. If combined with either cron or a trigger reference attribute, it will cause
a failure.
The minimal supported granularity for a PeriodicTrigger is MILLISECONDS. Therefore,
the only available options are MILLISECONDS and SECONDS. If this value is not provided, then
any fixed-delay or fixed-rate value will be interpreted as MILLISECONDS by default.
12
13
14
Basically this enum provides a convenience for SECONDS-based interval trigger values. For
hourly, daily, and monthly settings, consider using a cron trigger instead.
Reference
to
any
spring
configured
bean
which
implements
the
org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger interface. Optional. However, if this
attribute is set, none of the following attributes must be specified: fixed-delay, fixedrate, cron, ref.
Allows to specify extra AOP Advices to handle additional cross cutting concerns. Please see the
section below titled Transaction Support for further information. Optional.
Pollers can be made transactional. Please see the section below titled AOP Advice chains for further
information. Optional.
Examples
For example, a simple interval-based poller with a 1-second interval would be configured like this:
<int:transformer input-channel="pollable"
ref="transformer"
output-channel="output">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
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</int:transformer>
As an alternative to fixed-rate you can also use the fixed-delay attribute.
For a poller based on a Cron expression, use the cron attribute instead:
<int:transformer input-channel="pollable"
ref="transformer"
output-channel="output">
<int:poller cron="*/10 * * * * MON-FRI"/>
</int:transformer>
If the input channel is a PollableChannel, then the poller configuration is required. Specifically, as
mentioned above, the trigger is a required property of the PollingConsumer class. Therefore, if you omit
the poller sub-element for a Polling Consumer endpoint's configuration, an Exception may be thrown.
The exception will also be thrown if you attempt to configure a poller on the element that is connected
to a non-pollable channel.
It is also possible to create top-level pollers in which case only a ref is required:
<int:poller id="weekdayPoller" cron="*/10 * * * * MON-FRI"/>
<int:transformer input-channel="pollable"
ref="transformer"
output-channel="output">
<int:poller ref="weekdayPoller"/>
</int:transformer>
Note
The ref attribute is only allowed on the inner-poller definitions. Defining this attribute on
a top-level poller will result in a configuration exception thrown during initialization of the
Application Context.
Global Default Pollers
In fact, to simplify the configuration even further, you can define a global default poller. A single toplevel poller within an ApplicationContext may have the default attribute with a value of true. In
that case, any endpoint with a PollableChannel for its input-channel that is defined within the same
ApplicationContext and has no explicitly configured poller sub-element will use that default.
<int:poller id="defaultPoller" default="true" max-messages-per-poll="5" fixed-rate="3000"/>
<!-- No <poller/> sub-element is necessary since there is a default -->
<int:transformer input-channel="pollable"
ref="transformer"
output-channel="output"/>
Transaction Support
Spring Integration also provides transaction support for the pollers so that each receive-and-forward
operation can be performed as an atomic unit-of-work. To configure transactions for a poller, simply
add the <transactional/> sub-element. The attributes for this element should be familiar to anyone who
has experience with Spring's Transaction management:
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<int:poller fixed-delay="1000">
<int:transactional transaction-manager="txManager"
propagation="REQUIRED"
isolation="REPEATABLE_READ"
timeout="10000"
read-only="false"/>
</int:poller>
For more information please refer to the section called “Poller Transaction Support”.
AOP Advice chains
Since Spring transaction support depends on the Proxy mechanism
with
TransactionInterceptor (AOP Advice) handling transactional behavior of the message flow
initiated by the poller, some times there is a need to provide extra Advice(s) to handle other cross cutting
behavior associated with the poller. For that poller defines an advice-chain element allowing you to add
more advices - class that implements MethodInterceptor interface..
<int:service-activator id="advicedSa" input-channel="goodInputWithAdvice" ref="testBean"
method="good" output-channel="output">
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" fixed-rate="10000">
<int:transactional transaction-manager="txManager" />
<int:advice-chain>
<ref bean="adviceA" />
<beans:bean class="org.bar.SampleAdvice"/>
</int:advice-chain>
</int:poller>
</int:service-activator>
For more information on how to implement MethodInterceptor please refer to AOP sections of Spring
reference manual (section 8 and 9). Advice chain can also be applied on the poller that does not have
any transaction configuration essentially allowing you to enhance the behavior of the message flow
initiated by the poller.
TaskExecutor Support
The polling threads may be executed by any instance of Spring's TaskExecutor abstraction. This
enables concurrency for an endpoint or group of endpoints. As of Spring 3.0, there is a task namespace
in the core Spring Framework, and its <executor/> element supports the creation of a simple thread pool
executor. That element accepts attributes for common concurrency settings such as pool-size and queuecapacity. Configuring a thread-pooling executor can make a substantial difference in how the endpoint
performs under load. These settings are available per-endpoint since the performance of an endpoint is
one of the major factors to consider (the other major factor being the expected volume on the channel to
which the endpoint subscribes). To enable concurrency for a polling endpoint that is configured with the
XML namespace support, provide the task-executor reference on its <poller/> element and then provide
one or more of the properties shown below:
<int:poller task-executor="pool" fixed-rate="1000"/>
<task:executor id="pool"
pool-size="5-25"
queue-capacity="20"
keep-alive="120"/>
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If no task-executor is provided, the consumer's handler will be invoked in the caller's thread. Note that
the caller is usually the default TaskScheduler (see Section E.3, “Configuring the Task Scheduler”).
Also, keep in mind that the task-executor attribute can provide a reference to any implementation of
Spring's TaskExecutor interface by specifying the bean name. The executor element above is simply
provided for convenience.
As mentioned in the background section for Polling Consumers above, you can also configure a Polling
Consumer in such a way as to emulate event-driven behavior. With a long receive-timeout and a short
interval-trigger, you can ensure a very timely reaction to arriving messages even on a polled message
source. Note that this will only apply to sources that have a blocking wait call with a timeout. For
example, the File poller does not block, each receive() call returns immediately and either contains new
files or not. Therefore, even if a poller contains a long receive-timeout, that value would never be usable
in such a scenario. On the other hand when using Spring Integration's own queue-based channels, the
timeout value does have a chance to participate. The following example demonstrates how a Polling
Consumer will receive Messages nearly instantaneously.
<int:service-activator input-channel="someQueueChannel"
output-channel="output">
<int:poller receive-timeout="30000" fixed-rate="10"/>
</int:service-activator>
Using this approach does not carry much overhead since internally it is nothing more then a timed-wait
thread which does not require nearly as much CPU resource usage as a thrashing, infinite while loop
for example.
Change Polling Rate at Runtime
When configuring Pollers with a fixed-delay or fixed-rate attribute, the default
implementation will use a PeriodicTrigger instance. The PeriodicTrigger is part of the Core
Spring Framework and it accepts the interval as a constructor argument, only. Therefore it cannot be
changed at runtime.
However,
you
can
define
your
own
implementation
of
the
org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger interface. You could even use the
PeriodicTrigger as a starting point. Then, you can add a setter for the interval (period), or you could even
embed your own throttling logic within the trigger itself if desired. The period property will be used
with each call to nextExecutionTime to schedule the next poll. To use this custom trigger within pollers,
declare the bean defintion of the custom Trigger in your application context and inject the dependency
into your Poller configuration using the trigger attribute, which references the custom Trigger bean
instance. You can now obtain a reference to the Trigger bean and the polling interval can be changed
between polls.
For an example, please see the Spring Integration Samples project. It contains a sample called dynamicpoller, which uses a custom Trigger and demonstrates the ability to change the polling interval at
runtime.
• https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples/tree/master/intermediate
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The sample provides a custom Trigger which implements the org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger
interface. The sample's Trigger is based on Spring's PeriodicTrigger implementation. However, the
fields of the custom trigger are not final and the properties have explicit getters and setters, allowing to
dynamically change the polling period at runtime.
Note
It is important to note, though, that because the Trigger method is nextExecutionTime(), any
changes to a dynamic trigger will not take effect until the next poll, based on the existing
configuration. It is not possible to force a trigger to fire before it's currently configured next
execution time.
Payload Type Conversion
Throughout the reference manual, you will also see specific configuration and implementation examples
of various endpoints which can accept a Message or any arbitrary Object as an input parameter. In the
case of an Object, such a parameter will be mapped to a Message payload or part of the payload or
header (when using the Spring Expression Language). However there are times when the type of input
parameter of the endpoint method does not match the type of the payload or its part. In this scenario
we need to perform type conversion. Spring Integration provides a convenient way for registering type
converters (using the Spring 3.x ConversionService) within its own instance of a conversion service bean
named integrationConversionService. That bean is automatically created as soon as the first converter
is defined using the Spring Integration namespace support. To register a Converter all you need is to
implement org.springframework.core.convert.converter.Converter and define it
via convenient namespace support:
<int:converter ref="sampleConverter"/>
<bean id="sampleConverter" class="foo.bar.TestConverter"/>
or as an inner bean:
<int:converter>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.config.xml.ConverterParserTests$TestConverter3"/>
</int:converter>
Asynchronous polling
If you want the polling to be asynchronous, a Poller can optionally specify a task-executor attribute
pointing to an existing instance of any TaskExecutor bean (Spring 3.0 provides a convenient
namespace configuration via the task namespace). However, there are certain things you must
understand when configuring a Poller with a TaskExecutor.
The problem is that there are two configurations in place. The Poller and the TaskExecutor, and they
both have to be in tune with each other otherwise you might end up creating an artificial memory leak.
Let's look at the following configuration provided by one of the users on the Spring Integration forum
(http://forum.springsource.org/showthread.php?t=94519):
<int:service-activator input-channel="publishChannel" ref="myService">
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<int:poller receive-timeout="5000" task-executor="taskExecutor" fixed-rate="50"/>
</int:service-activator>
<task:executor id="taskExecutor" pool-size="20" queue-capacity="20"/>
The above configuration demonstrates one of those out of tune configurations.
The poller keeps scheduling new tasks even though all the threads are blocked waiting for either a new
message to arrive, or the timeout to expire. Given that there are 20 threads executing tasks with a 5
second timeout, they will be executed at a rate of 4 per second (5000/20 = 250ms). But, new tasks are
being scheduled at a rate of 20 per second, so the internal queue in the task executor will grow at a rate
of 16 per second (while the process is idle), so we essentially have a memory leak.
One of the ways to handle this is to set the queue-capacity attribute of the Task Executor to 0.
You can also manage it by specifying what to do with messages that can not be queued by setting the
rejection-policy attribute of the Task Executor (e.g., DISCARD). In other words there are certain
details you must understand with regard to configuring the TaskExecutor. Please refer to - Section 25 Task Execution and Scheduling of the Spring reference manual for more detail on the subject.
7.2 Messaging Gateways
The primary purpose of a Gateway is to hide the messaging API provided by Spring Integration. It
allows your application's business logic to be completely unaware of the Spring Integration API and
using a generic Gateway, your code interacts instead with a simple interface, only.
Enter the GatewayProxyFactoryBean
As mentioned above, it would be great to have no dependency on the Spring Integration
API at all - including the gateway class. For that reason, Spring Integration provides the
GatewayProxyFactoryBean that generates a proxy for any interface and internally invokes the
gateway methods shown below. Using dependency injection you can then expose the interface to your
business methods.
Here is an example of an interface that can be used to interact with Spring Integration:
package org.cafeteria;
public interface Cafe {
void placeOrder(Order order);
}
Gateway XML Namespace Support
Namespace support is also provided which allows you to configure such an interface as a service as
demonstrated by the following example.
<int:gateway id="cafeService"
service-interface="org.cafeteria.Cafe"
default-request-channel="requestChannel"
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default-reply-channel="replyChannel"/>
With this configuration defined, the "cafeService" can now be injected into other beans, and the code
that invokes the methods on that proxied instance of the Cafe interface has no awareness of the Spring
Integration API. The general approach is similar to that of Spring Remoting (RMI, HttpInvoker, etc.).
See the "Samples" Appendix for an example that uses this "gateway" element (in the Cafe demo).
Setting the Default Reply Channel
Typically you don't have to specify the default-reply-channel, since a Gateway will auto-create
a temporary, anonymous reply channel, where it will listen for the reply. However, there are some cases
which may prompt you to define a default-reply-channel (or reply-channel with adapter
gateways such as HTTP, JMS, etc.).
For some background, we'll quickly discuss some of the inner-workings of the Gateway. A Gateway
will create a temporary point-to-point reply channel which is anonymous and is added to the Message
Headers with the name replyChannel. When providing an explicit default-reply-channel
(reply-channel with remote adapter gateways), you have the option to point to a publish-subscribe
channel, which is so named because you can add more than one subscriber to it. Internally Spring
Integration will create a Bridge between the temporary replyChannel and the explicitly defined
default-reply-channel.
So let's say you want your reply to go not only to the gateway, but also to some other consumer. In
this case you would want two things: a) a named channel you can subscribe to and b) that channel
is a publish-subscribe-channel. The default strategy used by the gateway will not satisfy those needs,
because the reply channel added to the header is anonymous and point-to-point. This means that no
other subscriber can get a handle to it and even if it could, the channel has point-to-point behavior
such that only one subscriber would get the Message. So by defining a default-reply-channel
you can point to a channel of your choosing, which in this case would be a publish-subscribechannel. The Gateway would create a bridge from it to the temporary, anonymous reply channel that
is stored in the header.
Another case where you might want to provide a reply channel explicitly is for monitoring or auditing
via an interceptor (e.g., wiretap). You need a named channel in order to configure a Channel Interceptor.
Gateway Configuration with Annotations and/or XML
The reason that the attributes on the 'gateway' element are named 'default-request-channel' and 'defaultreply-channel' is that you may also provide per-method channel references by using the @Gateway
annotation.
public interface Cafe {
@Gateway(requestChannel="orders")
void placeOrder(Order order);
}
You may alternatively provide such content in method sub-elements if you prefer XML configuration
(see the next paragraph).
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It is also possible to pass values to be interpreted as Message headers on the Message that is created and
sent to the request channel by using the @Header annotation:
public interface FileWriter {
@Gateway(requestChannel="filesOut")
void write(byte[] content, @Header(FileHeaders.FILENAME) String filename);
}
If you prefer the XML approach of configuring Gateway methods, you can provide method sub-elements
to the gateway configuration.
<int:gateway id="myGateway" service-interface="org.foo.bar.TestGateway"
default-request-channel="inputC">
<int:method name="echo" request-channel="inputA" reply-timeout="2" request-timeout="200"/>
<int:method name="echoUpperCase" request-channel="inputB"/>
<int:method name="echoViaDefault"/>
</int:gateway>
You can also provide individual headers per method invocation via XML. This could be very useful
if the headers you want to set are static in nature and you don't want to embed them in the gateway's
method signature via @Header annotations. For example, in the Loan Broker example we want to
influence how aggregation of the Loan quotes will be done based on what type of request was initiated
(single quote or all quotes). Determining the type of the request by evaluating what gateway method
was invoked, although possible, would violate the separation of concerns paradigm (the method is a
java artifact), but expressing your intention (meta information) via Message headers is natural in a
Messaging architecture.
<int:gateway id="loanBrokerGateway"
service-interface="org.springframework.integration.loanbroker.LoanBrokerGateway">
<int:method name="getLoanQuote" request-channel="loanBrokerPreProcessingChannel">
<int:header name="RESPONSE_TYPE" value="BEST"/>
</int:method>
<int:method name="getAllLoanQuotes" request-channel="loanBrokerPreProcessingChannel">
<int:header name="RESPONSE_TYPE" value="ALL"/>
</int:method>
</int:gateway>
In the above case you can clearly see how a different value will be set for the 'RESPONSE_TYPE'
header based on the gateway's method.
Invoking No-Argument Methods
When invoking methods on a Gateway interface that do not have any arguments, the default behavior
is to receive a Message from a PollableChannel.
At times however, you may want to trigger no-argument methods so that you can in fact interact with
other components downstream that do not require user-provided parameters, e.g. triggering no-argument
SQL calls or Stored Procedures.
In order to achieve send-and-receive semantics, you must provide a payload. In order to generate a
payload, method parameters on the interface are not necessary. You can either use the @Payload
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annotation or the payload-expression attribute in XML on the method sub-element. Below
please find a few examples of what the payloads could be:
• a literal string
• #method (for the method name)
• new java.util.Date()
• @someBean.someMethod()'s return value
Here is an example using the @Payload annotation:
public interface Cafe {
@Payload("new java.util.Date()")
List<Order> retrieveOpenOrders();
}
If a method has no argument and no return value, but does contain a payload expression, it will be treated
as a send-only operation.
Error Handling
Of course, the Gateway invocation might result in errors. By default any error that has occurred
downstream will be re-thrown as a MessagingException (RuntimeException) upon the Gateway's
method invocation. However there are times when you may want to simply log the error rather than
propagating it, or you may want to treat an Exception as a valid reply, by mapping it to a Message
that will conform to some "error message" contract that the caller understands. To accomplish this,
our Gateway provides support for a Message Channel dedicated to the errors via the error-channel
attribute. In the example below, you can see that a 'transformer' is used to create a reply Message from
the Exception.
<int:gateway id="sampleGateway"
default-request-channel="gatewayChannel"
service-interface="foo.bar.SimpleGateway"
error-channel="exceptionTransformationChannel"/>
<int:transformer input-channel="exceptionTransformationChannel"
ref="exceptionTransformer" method="createErrorResponse"/>
The exceptionTransformer could be a simple POJO that knows how to create the expected error response
objects. That would then be the payload that is sent back to the caller. Obviously, you could do
many more elaborate things in such an "error flow" if necessary. It might involve routers (including
Spring Integration's ErrorMessageExceptionTypeRouter), filters, and so on. Most of the time, a simple
'transformer' should be sufficient, however.
Alternatively, you might want to only log the Exception (or send it somewhere asynchronously). If you
provide a one-way flow, then nothing would be sent back to the caller. In the case that you want to
completely suppress Exceptions, you can provide a reference to the global "nullChannel" (essentially
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a /dev/null approach). Finally, as mentioned above, if no "error-channel" is defined at all, then the
Exceptions will propagate as usual.
Important
Exposing the messaging system via simple POJI Gateways obviously provides benefits, but
"hiding" the reality of the underlying messaging system does come at a price so there are
certain things you should consider. We want our Java method to return as quickly as possible
and not hang for an indefinite amount of time while the caller is waiting on it to return (void,
return value, or a thrown Exception). When regular methods are used as a proxies in front
of the Messaging system, we have to take into account the potentially asynchronous nature
of the underlying messaging. This means that there might be a chance that a Message that
was initiated by a Gateway could be dropped by a Filter, thus never reaching a component
that is responsible for producing a reply. Some Service Activator method might result in
an Exception, thus providing no reply (as we don't generate Null messages). So as you
can see there are multiple scenarios where a reply message might not be coming. That is
perfectly natural in messaging systems. However think about the implication on the gateway
method. The Gateway's method input arguments were incorporated into a Message and
sent downstream. The reply Message would be converted to a return value of the Gateway's
method. So you might want to ensure that for each Gateway call there will always be a reply
Message. Otherwise, your Gateway method might never return and will hang indefinitely. One
of the ways of handling this situation is via an Asynchronous Gateway (explained later in this
section). Another way of handling it is to explicitly set the reply-timeout attribute. That way,
the gateway will not hang any longer than the time specified by the reply-timeout and will
return 'null' if that timeout does elapse. Finally, you might want to consider setting downstream
flags such as 'requires-reply' on a service-activator or 'throw-exceptions-on-rejection' on a
filter. These options will be discussed in more detail in the final section of this chapter.
Asynchronous Gateway
As a pattern the Messaging Gateway is a very nice way to hide messaging-specific code
while still exposing the full capabilities of the messaging system. As you've seen, the
GatewayProxyFactoryBean provides a convenient way to expose a Proxy over a service-interface
thus giving you POJO-based access to a messaging system (based on objects in your own domain, or
primitives/Strings, etc). But when a gateway is exposed via simple POJO methods which return values
it does imply that for each Request message (generated when the method is invoked) there must be
a Reply message (generated when the method has returned). Since Messaging systems naturally are
asynchronous you may not always be able to guarantee the contract where "for each request there will
always be be a reply". With Spring Integration 2.0 we are introducing support for an Asynchronous
Gateway which is a convenient way to initiate flows where you may not know if a reply is expected or
how long will it take for replies to arrive.
A natural way to handle these types of scenarios in Java would be relying upon
java.util.concurrent.Future instances, and that is exactly what Spring Integration uses to support an
Asynchronous Gateway.
From the XML configuration, there is nothing different and you still define Asynchronous Gateway the
same way as a regular Gateway.
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<int:gateway id="mathService"
service-interface="org.springframework.integration.sample.gateway.futures.MathServiceGateway"
default-request-channel="requestChannel"/>
However the Gateway Interface (service-interface) is a bit different.
public interface MathServiceGateway {
Future<Integer> multiplyByTwo(int i);
}
As you can see from the example above the return type for the gateway method is a Future. When
GatewayProxyFactoryBean sees that the return type of the gateway method is a Future, it
immediately switches to the async mode by utilizing an AsyncTaskExecutor. That is all. The call
to such a method always returns immediately with a Future instance. Then, you can interact with the
Future at your own pace to get the result, cancel, etc. And, as with any other use of Future instances,
calling get() may reveal a timeout, an execution exception, and so on.
MathServiceGateway mathService = ac.getBean("mathService", MathServiceGateway.class);
Future<Integer> result = mathService.multiplyByTwo(number);
// do something else here since the reply might take a moment
int finalResult = result.get(1000, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
For a more detailed example, please refer to the async-gateway sample distributed within the Spring
Integration samples.
Asynchronous Gateway and AsyncTaskExecutor
By
default
GatewayProxyFactoryBean
uses
org.springframework.core.task.SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor when submitting
internal AsyncInvocationTask instances for any gateway method whose return type
is Future.class. However the async-executor attribute in the <gateway/>
element's configuration allows you to provide a reference to any implementation of
java.util.concurrent.Executor available within the Spring application context.
Gateway behavior when no response arrives
As it was explained earlier, the Gateway provides a convenient way of interacting with a Messaging
system via POJO method invocations, but realizing that a typical method invocation, which is generally
expected to always return (even with an Exception), might not always map one-to-one to message
exchanges (e.g., a reply message might not arrive - which is equivalent to a method not returning). It is
important to go over several scenarios especially in the Sync Gateway case and understand the default
behavior of the Gateway and how to deal with these scenarios to make the Sync Gateway behavior more
predictable regardless of the outcome of the message flow that was initialed from such Gateway.
There are certain attributes that could be configured to make Sync Gateway behavior more predictable,
but some of them might not always work as you might have expected. One of them is reply-timeout.
So, lets look at the reply-timeout attribute and see how it can/can't influence the behavior of the Sync
Gateway in various scenarios. We will look at single-threaded scenario (all components downstream
are connected via Direct Channel) and multi-threaded scenarios (e.g., somewhere downstream you may
have Pollable or Executor Channel which breaks single-thread boundary)
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Long running process downstream
Sync Gateway - single-threaded. If a component downstream is still running (e.g., infinite loop or a very
slow service), then setting a reply-timeout has no effect and the Gateway method call will not return until
such downstream service exits (via return or exception). Sync Gateway - multi-threaded. If a component
downstream is still running (e.g., infinite loop or a very slow service), in a multi-threaded message flow
setting the reply-timeout will have an effect by allowing gateway method invocation to return once the
timeout has been reached, since the GatewayProxyFactoryBean will simply poll on the reply
channel waiting for a message until the timeout expires. However it could result in a 'null' return from
the Gateway method if the timeout has been reached before the actual reply was produced. It is also
important to understand that the reply message (if produced) will be sent to a reply channel after the
Gateway method invocation might have returned, so you must be aware of that and design your flow
with this in mind.
Downstream component returns 'null'
Sync Gateway - single-threaded. If a component downstream returns 'null' and no reply-timeout has
been configured, the Gateway method call will hang indefinitely unless: a) a reply-timeout has been
configured or b) the requires-reply attribute has been set on the downstream component (e.g., serviceactivator) that might return 'null'. In this case, an Exception would be thrown and propagated to the
Gateway. Sync Gateway - multi-threaded. Behavior is the same as above.
Downstream component return signature is 'void' while Gateway method signature is non-void
Sync Gateway - single-threaded. If a component downstream returns 'void' and no reply-timeout has
been configured, the Gateway method call will hang indefinitely unless a reply-timeout has been
configured Sync Gateway - multi-threaded Behavior is the same as above.
Downstream component results in Runtime Exception (regardless of the method signature)
Sync Gateway - single-threaded. If a component downstream throws a Runtime Exception, such
exception will be propagated via an Error Message back to the gateway and re-thrown. Sync Gateway
- multi-threaded Behavior is the same as above.
Important
It is also important to understand that by default reply-timeout is unbounded* which means
that if not explicitly set there are several scenarios (described above) where your Gateway
method invocation might hang indefinitely. So, make sure you analyze your flow and if there
is even a remote possibility of one of these scenarios to occur, set the reply-timeout attribute
to a 'safe' value or, even better, set the requires-reply attribute of the downstream component
to 'true' to ensure a timely response as produced by the throwing of an Exception as soon as
that downstream component does return null internally. But also, realize that there are some
scenarios (see the very first one) where reply-timeout will not help. That means it is also
important to analyze your message flow and decide when to use a Sync Gateway vs an Async
Gateway. As you've seen the latter case is simply a matter of defining Gateway methods that
return Future instances. Then, you are guaranteed to receive that return value, and you will
have more granular control over the results of the invocation.
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Also, when dealing with a Router you should remember that setting the resolution-required
attribute to 'true' will result in an Exception thrown by the router if it can not resolve a particular
channel. Likewise, when dealing with a Filter, you can set the throw-exception-on-rejection
attribute. In both of these cases, the resulting flow will behave like that containing a serviceactivator with the 'requires-reply' attribute. In other words, it will help to ensure a timely
response from the Gateway method invocation.
Note
* reply-timeout is unbounded for <gateway/> elements (created by the
GatewayProxyFactoryBean). Inbound gateways for external integration (ws, http,
etc.) share many characteristics and attributes with these gateways. However, for
those inbound gateways, the default reply-timeout is 1000 milliseconds (1 second). If
a downstream async handoff is made to another thread, you may need to increase this
attribute to allow enough time for the flow to complete before the gateway times out.
7.3 Service Activator
Introduction
The Service Activator is the endpoint type for connecting any Spring-managed Object to an input
channel so that it may play the role of a service. If the service produces output, it may also be connected
to an output channel. Alternatively, an output producing service may be located at the end of a processing
pipeline or message flow in which case, the inbound Message's "replyChannel" header can be used. This
is the default behavior if no output channel is defined, and as with most of the configuration options
you'll see here, the same behavior actually applies for most of the other components we have seen.
Configuring Service Activator
To create a Service Activator, use the 'service-activator' element with the 'input-channel' and 'ref'
attributes:
<int:service-activator input-channel="exampleChannel" ref="exampleHandler"/>
The configuration above assumes that "exampleHandler" either contains a single method annotated with
the @ServiceActivator annotation or that it contains only one public method at all. To delegate to an
explicitly defined method of any object, simply add the "method" attribute.
<int:service-activator input-channel="exampleChannel" ref="somePojo" method="someMethod"/>
In either case, when the service method returns a non-null value, the endpoint will attempt to send the
reply message to an appropriate reply channel. To determine the reply channel, it will first check if an
"output-channel" was provided in the endpoint configuration:
<int:service-activator input-channel="exampleChannel" output-channel="replyChannel"
ref="somePojo" method="someMethod"/>
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If no "output-channel" is available, it will then check the Message's replyChannel header value. If
that value is available, it will then check its type. If it is a MessageChannel, the reply message will
be sent to that channel. If it is a String, then the endpoint will attempt to resolve the channel name to a
channel instance. If the channel cannot be resolved, then a ChannelResolutionException will
be thrown. It it can be resolved, the Message will be sent there. This is the technique used for Request
Reply messaging in Spring Integration, and it is also an example of the Return Address pattern.
The argument in the service method could be either a Message or an arbitrary type. If the latter, then
it will be assumed that it is a Message payload, which will be extracted from the message and injected
into such service method. This is generally the recommended approach as it follows and promotes a
POJO model when working with Spring Integration. Arguments may also have @Header or @Headers
annotations as described in Section E.5, “Annotation Support”
Note
The service method is not required to have any arguments at all, which means you can
implement event-style Service Activators, where all you care about is an invocation of the
service method, not worrying about the contents of the message. Think of it as a NULL JMS
message. An example use-case for such an implementation could be a simple counter/monitor
of messages deposited on the input channel.
Using a "ref" attribute is generally recommended if the custom Service Activator handler
implementation can be reused in other <service-activator> definitions. However if the custom
Service Activator handler implementation is only used within a single definition of the <serviceactivator>, you can provide an inner bean definition:
<int:service-activator id="exampleServiceActivator" input-channel="inChannel"
output-channel = "outChannel" method="foo">
<beans:bean class="org.foo.ExampleServiceActivator"/>
</int:service-activator>
Note
Using both the "ref" attribute and an inner handler definition in the same <serviceactivator> configuration is not allowed, as it creates an ambiguous condition and will
result in an Exception being thrown.
Service Activators and the Spring Expression Language (SpEL)
Since Spring Integration 2.0, Service Activators can also benefit from SpEL (http://
static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.0.x/spring-framework-reference/html/expressions.html).
For example, you may now invoke any bean method without pointing to the bean via a ref attribute
or including it as an inner bean definition. For example:
<int:service-activator input-channel="in" output-channel="out"
expression="@accountService.processAccount(payload, headers.accountId)"/>
<bean id="accountService" class="foo.bar.Account"/>
In the above configuration instead of injecting 'accountService' using a ref or as an inner bean, we are
simply using SpEL's @beanId notation and invoking a method which takes a type compatible with
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Message payload. We are also passing a header value. As you can see, any valid SpEL expression can
be evaluated against any content in the Message. For simple scenarios your Service Activators do not
even have to reference a bean if all logic can be encapsulated by such an expression.
<int:service-activator input-channel="in" output-channel="out" expression="payload * 2"/>
In the above configuration our service logic is to simply multiply the payload value by 2, and SpEL
lets us handle it relatively easy.
7.4 Delayer
Introduction
A Delayer is a simple endpoint that allows a Message flow to be delayed by a certain interval. When a
Message is delayed, the original sender will not block. Instead, the delayed Messages will be scheduled
with an instance of org.springframework.scheduling.TaskScheduler to be sent to the
output channel after the delay has passed. This approach is scalable even for rather long delays, since
it does not result in a large number of blocked sender Threads. On the contrary, in the typical case a
thread pool will be used for the actual execution of releasing the Messages. Below you will find several
examples of configuring a Delayer.
Configuring Delayer
The <delayer> element is used to delay the Message flow between two Message Channels. As with
the other endpoints, you can provide the 'input-channel' and 'output-channel' attributes, but the delayer
also has 'default-delay' and 'delay-header-name' attributes that are used to determine the number of
milliseconds that each Message should be delayed. The following delays all messages by 3 seconds:
<int:delayer id="delayer" input-channel="input" default-delay="3000" output-channel="output"/>
If you need per-Message determination of the delay, then you can also provide the name of a header
using the 'delay-header-name' attribute:
<int:delayer id="delayer" input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
default-delay="3000" delay-header-name="delay"/>
In the example above the 3 second delay would only apply in the case that the header value is not present
for a given inbound Message. If you only want to apply a delay to Messages that have an explicit header
value, then you can set the 'default-delay' to 0 or don't use it at all (by default it is 0). For any Message
that has a delay of 0 (or less), the Message will be sent directly. In fact, if there is not a positive delay
value for a Message, it will be sent to the output channel on the calling Thread.
Tip
The delay handler supports header values that represent an interval in milliseconds (any Object
whose toString() method produces a value that can be parsed into a Long) as well as
java.util.Date instances representing an absolute time. In the first case, the milliseconds
will be counted from the current time (e.g. a value of 5000 would delay the Message for at
least 5 seconds from the time it is received by the Delayer). With a Date instance, the Message
will not be released until that Date occurs. In either case, a value that equates to a non-positive
delay, or a Date in the past, will not result in any delay. Instead, it will be sent directly to
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the output channel on the original sender's Thread. If the header is not a Date, and can not be
parsed as a Long, the default delay (if any) will be applied.
The delayer delegates to an instance of Spring's TaskScheduler abstraction. The default scheduler
used by the delayer is the ThreadPoolTaskScheduler instance provided by Spring Integration on
startup: Section E.3, “Configuring the Task Scheduler”. If you want to delegate to a different scheduler,
you can provide a reference through the delayer element's 'scheduler' attribute:
<int:delayer id="delayer" input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
delay-header-name="delay"
scheduler="exampleTaskScheduler"/>
<task:scheduler id="exampleTaskScheduler" pool-size="3"/>
Tip
If you configure an external ThreadPoolTaskScheduler you can set on this scheduler
property waitForTasksToCompleteOnShutdown = true. It allows successful
completion of 'delay' tasks, which already in the execution state (releasing the Message),
when the application is shutdown. Before Spring Integration 2.2 this property was
available on the <delayer> element, because DelayHandler could create its own
scheduler on the background. Since 2.2 delayer requires an external scheduler instance and
waitForTasksToCompleteOnShutdown was deleted; you should use the scheduler's
own configuration.
Tip
Also
keep
in
mind
ThreadPoolTaskScheduler
has
a
property
errorHandler which can be injected with some implementation of
org.springframework.util.ErrorHandler. This handler allows to process an
Exception from the thread of the scheduled task sending the delayed message. By
default it uses an org.springframework.scheduling.support.TaskUtils
$LoggingErrorHandler
and
you
will
see
a
stack
trace
in
the
logs.
You
might
want
to
consider
using
an
org.springframework.integration.channel.MessagePublishingErrorHandler,
which sends an ErrorMessage into an error-channel, either from the failed Message's
header or into the default error-channel.
Delayer and Message Store
The DelayHandler persists delayed Messages into the Message Group in the provided
MessageStore. (The 'groupId' is based on required 'id' attribute of <delayer> element.) A delayed
message is removed from the MessageStore by the scheduled task just before the DelayHandler
sends the Message to the output-channel. If the provided MessageStore is persistent (e.g.
JdbcMessageStore) it provides the ability to not lose Messages on the application shutdown.
After application startup, the DelayHandler reads Messages from its Message Group in the
MessageStore and reschedules them with a delay based on the original arrival time of the Message (if
the delay is numeric). For messages where the delay header was a Date, that is used when rescheduling.
If a delayed Message remained in the MessageStore more than its 'delay', it will be sent immediately
after startup.
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The <delayer> can be enriched with mutually exclusive sub-elements <transactional>
or <advice-chain>. The List of these AOP Advices is applied to the proxied internal
DelayHandler.ReleaseMessageHandler, which has the responsibility to release the Message,
after the delay, on a Thread of the scheduled task. It might be used, for example, when the downstream
message flow throws an Exception and the ReleaseMessageHandler's transaction will be rolled
back. In this case the delayed Message will remain in the persistent MessageStore. You can use
any custom org.aopalliance.aop.Advice implementation within the <advice-chain>. A
sample configuration of the <delayer> may look like this:
<int:delayer id="delayer" input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
delay-header-name="delay"
message-store="jdbcMessageStore">
<int:advice-chain>
<beans:ref bean="customAdviceBean"/>
<tx:advice>
<tx:attributes>
<tx:method name="*" read-only="true"/>
</tx:attributes>
</tx:advice>
</int:advice-chain>
</int:delayer>
The DelayHandler can be exported as a JMX MBean with managed operations
getDelayedMessageCount and reschedulePersistedMessages, which allows the
rescheduling of delayed persisted Messages at runtime, for example, if the TaskScheduler has
previously been stopped. These operations can be invoked via a Control Bus command:
Message<String> delayerReschedulingMessage =
MessageBuilder.withPayload("@'delayer.handler'.reschedulePersistedMessages()").build();
controlBusChannel.send(delayerReschedulingMessage);
Note
For more information regarding the Message Store, JMX and the Control Bus, please read
Chapter 8, System Management.
7.5 Scripting support
With Spring Integration 2.1 we've added support for the JSR223 Scripting for Java specification,
introduced in Java version 6. This allows you to use scripts written in any supported language including
Ruby/JRuby, Javascript and Groovy to provide the logic for various integration components similar to
the way the Spring Expression Language (SpEL) is used in Spring Integration. For more information
about JSR223 please refer to the documentation
Important
Note that this feature requires Java 6 or higher. Sun developed a JSR223 reference
implementation which works with Java 5 but it is not officially supported and we have not
tested it with Spring Integration.
In order to use a JVM scripting language, a JSR223 implementation for that language must be included
in your class path. Java 6 natively supports Javascript. The Groovy and JRuby projects provide JSR233
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support in their standard distribution. Other language implementations may be available or under
development. Please refer to the appropriate project website for more information.
Important
Various JSR223 language implementations have been developed by third parties. A particular
implementation's compatibility with Spring Integration depends on how well it conforms to
the specification and/or the implementer's interpretation of the specification.
Tip
If you plan to use Groovy as your scripting language, we recommended you use Section 7.6,
“Groovy support” as it offers additional features specific to Groovy. However you will find
this section relevant as well.
Script configuration
Depending on the complexity of your integration requirements scripts may be provided inline as
CDATA in XML configuration or as a reference to a Spring resource containing the script. To enable
scripting support Spring Integration defines a ScriptExecutingMessageProcessor which will
bind the Message Payload to a variable named payload and the Message Headers to a headers
variable, both accessible within the script execution context. All that is left for you to do is write a script
that uses these variables. Below are a couple of sample configurations:
Filter
<int:filter input-channel="referencedScriptInput">
<int-script:script lang="ruby" location="some/path/to/ruby/script/RubyFilterTests.rb"/>
</int:filter>
<int:filter input-channel="inlineScriptInput">
<int-script:script lang="groovy"><![CDATA[
return payload == 'good'
]]></int-script:script>
</int:filter>
Here, you see that the script can be included inline or can reference a resource location via the
location attribute. Additionally the lang attribute corresponds to the language name (or JSR223
alias)
Other Spring Integration endpoint elements which support scripting include router, service-activator,
transformer, and splitter. The scripting configuration in each case would be identical to the above
(besides the endpoint element).
Another useful feature of Scripting support is the ability to update (reload) scripts without having to
restart the Application Context. To accomplish this, specify the refresh-check-delay attribute
on the script element:
<int-script:script location="..." refresh-check-delay="5000"/>
In the above example, the script location will be checked for updates every 5 seconds. If the script is
updated, any invocation that occurs later than 5 seconds since the update will result in execution of the
new script.
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<int-script:script location="..." refresh-check-delay="0"/>
In the above example the context will be updated with any script modifications as soon as such
modification occurs, providing a simple mechanism for 'real-time' configuration. Any negative number
value means the script will not be reloaded after initialization of the application context. This is the
default behavior.
Important
Inline scripts can not be reloaded.
<int-script:script location="..." refresh-check-delay="-1"/>
Script variable bindings
Variable bindings are required to enable the script to reference variables externally provided to the
script's execution context. As we have seen, payload and headers are used as binding variables by
default. You can bind additional variables to a script via <variable> sub-elements:
<script:script lang="js" location="foo/bar/MyScript.js">
<script:variable name="foo" value="foo"/>
<script:variable name="bar" value="bar"/>
<script:variable name="date" ref="date"/>
</script:script>
As shown in the above example, you can bind a script variable either to a scalar value or a Spring bean
reference. Note that payload and headers will still be included as binding variables.
If you need more control over how variables are generated, you can implement your own Java class
using the ScriptVariableGenerator strategy:
public interface ScriptVariableGenerator {
Map<String, Object> generateScriptVariables(Message<?> message);
}
This interface requires you to implement the method generateScriptVariables(Message).
The Message argument allows you to access any data available in the Message payload and
headers and the return value is the Map of bound variables. This method will be called every
time the script is executed for a Message. All you need to do is provide an implementation
of ScriptVariableGenerator and reference it with the script-variable-generator
attribute:
<int-script:script location="foo/bar/MyScript.groovy"
script-variable-generator="variableGenerator"/>
<bean id="variableGenerator" class="foo.bar.MyScriptVariableGenerator"/>
Important
You cannot provide both the script-variable-generator attribute and
<variable> sub-element(s) as they are mutually exclusive. Also, custom variable bindings
cannot be used with an inline script.
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7.6 Groovy support
In Spring Integration 2.0 we added Groovy support allowing you to use the Groovy scripting language to
provide the logic for various integration components similar to the way the Spring Expression Language
(SpEL) is supported for routing, transformation and other integration concerns. For more information
about Groovy please refer to the Groovy documentation which you can find on the project website
Groovy configuration
With Spring Integration 2.1, Groovy Support's configuration namespace is an extension
of Spring Integration's Scripting Support and shares the core configuration and
behavior described in detail in the Section 7.5, “Scripting support” section. Even
though Groovy scripts are well supported by generic Scripting Support, Groovy
Support provides the Groovy configuration namespace which is backed by the Spring
Framework's org.springframework.scripting.groovy.GroovyScriptFactory and
related components, offering extended capabilities for using Groovy. Below are a couple of sample
configurations:
Filter
<int:filter input-channel="referencedScriptInput">
<int-groovy:script location="some/path/to/groovy/file/GroovyFilterTests.groovy"/>
</int:filter>
<int:filter input-channel="inlineScriptInput">
<int-groovy:script><![CDATA[
return payload == 'good'
]]></int-groovy:script>
</int:filter>
As the above examples show, the configuration looks identical to the general Scripting Support
configuration. The only difference is the use of the Groovy namespace as indicated in the examples by
the int-groovy namespace prefix. Also note that the lang attribute on the <script> tag is not valid
in this namespace.
Groovy object customization
If you need to customize the Groovy object itself, beyond setting variables, you can reference a bean that
implements org.springframework.scripting.groovy.GroovyObjectCustomizer
via the customizer attribute. For example, this might be useful if you want to implement a domainspecific language (DSL) by modifying the MetaClass and registering functions to be available within
the script:
<int:service-activator input-channel="groovyChannel">
<int-groovy:script location="foo/SomeScript.groovy" customizer="groovyCustomizer"/>
</int:service-activator>
<beans:bean id="groovyCustomizer" class="org.foo.MyGroovyObjectCustomizer"/>
Setting a custom GroovyObjectCustomizer is not mutually exclusive with <variable> sub-elements
or the script-variable-generator attribute. It can also be provided when defining an inline
script.
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Control Bus
As described in (EIP), the idea behind the Control Bus is that the same messaging system can be used
for monitoring and managing the components within the framework as is used for "application-level"
messaging. In Spring Integration we build upon the adapters described above so that it's possible to send
Messages as a means of invoking exposed operations. One option for those operations is Groovy scripts.
<int-groovy:control-bus input-channel="operationChannel"/>
The Control Bus has an input channel that can be accessed for invoking operations on the beans in the
application context.
The Groovy Control Bus executes messages on the input channel as Groovy scripts. It takes a
message, compiles the body to a Script, customizes it with a GroovyObjectCustomizer, and
then executes it. The Control Bus' MessageProcessor exposes all beans in the application context
that are annotated with @ManagedResource, implement Spring's Lifecycle interface or extend
Spring's CustomizableThreadCreator base class (e.g. several of the TaskExecutor and
TaskScheduler implementations).
Important
Be careful about using managed beans with custom scopes (e.g. 'request') in the Control
Bus' command scripts, especially inside an async message flow. If The Control Bus'
MessageProcessor can't expose a bean from the application context, you may end up
with some BeansException during command script's executing. For example, if a custom
scope's context is not established, the attempt to get a bean within that scope will trigger a
BeanCreationException.
If you need to further customize the Groovy objects, you can also provide a reference to a bean that
implements org.springframework.scripting.groovy.GroovyObjectCustomizer
via the customizer attribute.
<int-groovy:control-bus input-channel="input"
output-channel="output"
customizer="groovyCustomizer"/>
<beans:bean id="groovyCustomizer" class="org.foo.MyGroovyObjectCustomizer"/>
7.7 Adding Behavior to Endpoints
Prior to Spring Integration 2.2, you could add behavior to an entire Integration flow by adding an AOP
Advice to a poller's <advice-chain /> element. However, let's say you want to retry, say, just a ReST
Web Service call, and not any downstream endpoints.
For example, consider the following flow:
inbound-adapter->poller->http-gateway1->http-gateway2->jdbc-outbound-adapter
If you configure some retry-logic into an advice chain on the poller, and, the call to http-gateway2 failed
because of a network glitch, the retry would cause both http-gateway1 and http-gateway2 to be called a
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second time. Similarly, after a transient failure in the jdbc-outbound-adapter, both http-gateways would
be called a second time before again calling the jdbc-outbound-adapter.
Spring Integration 2.2 adds the ability to add behavior to individual endpoints. This is achieved by the
addition of the <request-handler-advice-chain /> element to many endpoints. For example:
<int-http:outbound-gateway id="withAdvice"
url-expression="'http://localhost/test1'"
request-channel="requests"
reply-channel="nextChannel">
<int:request-handler-advice-chain>
<ref bean="myRetryAdvice" />
</request-handler-advice-chain>
</int-http:outbound-gateway>
In this case, myRetryAdvice will only be applied locally to this gateway and will not apply to further
actions taken downstream after the reply is sent to the nextChannel. The scope of the advice is limited
to the endpoint itself.
Important
At this time, you cannot advise an entire <chain/> of endpoints. The schema does not allow a
<request-handler-advice-chain/> as a child element of the chain itself.
However, a <request-handler-advice-chain/> can be added to individual reply-producing
endpoints within a <chain/> element. An exception is that, in a chain that produces no reply,
because the last element in the chain is an outbound-channel-adapter, that last element cannot
be advised. If you need to advise such an element, it must be moved outside of the chain (with
the output-channel of the chain being the input-channel of the adapter. The adapter can then
be advised as normal. For chains that produce a reply, every child element can be advised.
Provided Advice Classes
In addition to providing the general mechanism to apply AOP Advice classes in this way, three standard
Advices are provided:
• MessageHandlerRetryAdvice
• MessageHandlerCircuitBreakerAdvice
• ExpressionEvaluatingMessageHandlerAdvice
These are each described in detail in the following sections.
Retry Advice
The
retry
advice
(org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerRetryAdvice)
leverages the rich retry mechanisms provided by the spring-retry project. The core component of springretry is the RetryTemplate, which allows configuration of sophisticated retry scenarios, including
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RetryPolicy and BackoffPolicy strategies, with a number of implementations, as well as a
RecoveryCallback strategy to determine the action to take when retries are exhausted.
Stateless Retry
Stateless retry is the case where the retry activity is handled entirely within the advice, where the thread
pauses (if so configured) and retries the action.
Stateful Retry
Stateful retry is the case where the retry state is managed within the advice, but where an exception is
thrown and the caller resubmits the request. An example for stateful retry is when we want the message
originator (e.g. JMS) to be responsible for resubmitting, rather than performing it on the current thread.
Stateful retry needs some mechanism to detect a retried submission.
Further Information
For more information on spring-retry, refer to the project's javadocs, as well as the reference
documentation for Spring Batch, where spring-retry originated.
Caution
The default back off behavior is no back off - retries are attempted immediately. Using a
back off policy that causes threads to pause between attempts may cause performance issues,
including excessive memory use and thread starvation. In high volume environments, back off
policies should be used with caution.
Configuring the Retry Advice
The following examples use a simple <service-activator />> that always throws an exception:
public class FailingService {
public void service(String message) {
throw new RuntimeException("foo");
}
}
Simple Stateless Retry
This example uses the default RetryTemplate which has a SimpleRetryPolicy which tries 3 times. There
is no BackoffPolicy so the 3 attempts are made back-to-back-to-back with no delay between attempts.
There is no RecoveryCallback so, the result is to throw the exception to the caller after the final failed
retry occurs. In a Spring Integration environment, this final exception might be handled using an errorchannel on the inbound endpoint.
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" ref="failer" method="service">
<int:request-handler-advice-chain>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerRetryAdvice" />
</request-handler-advice-chain>
</int:service-activator>
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DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
[task-scheduler-2]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
[task-scheduler-2]Retry: count=0
[task-scheduler-2]Checking for rethrow: count=1
[task-scheduler-2]Retry: count=1
[task-scheduler-2]Checking for rethrow: count=2
[task-scheduler-2]Retry: count=2
[task-scheduler-2]Checking for rethrow: count=3
[task-scheduler-2]Retry failed last attempt: count=3
Simple Stateless Retry with Recovery
This example adds a RecoveryCallback to the above example; it uses a to send an ErrorMessage
to a channel.
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" ref="failer" method="service">
<int:request-handler-advice-chain>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerRetryAdvice">
<property name="recoveryCallback">
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.ErrorMessageSendingRecoverer">
<constructor-arg ref="myErrorChannel" />
</bean>
</property>
</bean>
</request-handler-advice-chain>
</int:int:service-activator>
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
[task-scheduler-2]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
[task-scheduler-2]Retry: count=0
[task-scheduler-2]Checking for rethrow: count=1
[task-scheduler-2]Retry: count=1
[task-scheduler-2]Checking for rethrow: count=2
[task-scheduler-2]Retry: count=2
[task-scheduler-2]Checking for rethrow: count=3
[task-scheduler-2]Retry failed last attempt: count=3
[task-scheduler-2]Sending ErrorMessage :failedMessage:[Payload=...]
Stateless Retry with Customized Policies, and Recovery
For more sophistication, we can provide the advice with a customized RetryTemplate. This example
continues to use the SimpleRetryPolicy but it increases the attempts to 4. It also adds an
ExponentialBackoffPolicy where the first retry waits 1 second, the second waits 5 seconds and
the third waits 25 (for 4 attempts in all).
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" ref="failer" method="service">
<int:request-handler-advice-chain>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerRetryAdvice">
<property name="recoveryCallback">
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.ErrorMessageSendingRecoverer">
<constructor-arg ref="myErrorChannel" />
</bean>
</property>
<property name="retryTemplate" ref="retryTemplate" />
</bean>
</request-handler-advice-chain>
</int:service-activator>
<bean id="retryTemplate" class="org.springframework.retry.support.RetryTemplate">
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<property name="retryPolicy">
<bean class="org.springframework.retry.policy.SimpleRetryPolicy">
<property name="maxAttempts" value="4" />
</bean>
</property>
<property name="backOffPolicy">
<bean class="org.springframework.retry.backoff.ExponentialBackOffPolicy">
<property name="initialInterval" value="1000" />
<property name="multiplier" value="5" />
</bean>
</property>
</bean>
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DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
DEBUG
[task-scheduler-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
[task-scheduler-1]Retry: count=0
[task-scheduler-1]Sleeping for 1000
[task-scheduler-1]Checking for rethrow: count=1
[task-scheduler-1]Retry: count=1
[task-scheduler-1]Sleeping for 5000
[task-scheduler-1]Checking for rethrow: count=2
[task-scheduler-1]Retry: count=2
[task-scheduler-1]Sleeping for 25000
[task-scheduler-1]Checking for rethrow: count=3
[task-scheduler-1]Retry: count=3
[task-scheduler-1]Checking for rethrow: count=4
[task-scheduler-1]Retry failed last attempt: count=4
[task-scheduler-1]Sending ErrorMessage :failedMessage:[Payload=...]
Simple Stateful Retry with Recovery
To make retry stateful, we need to provide the Advice with a RetryStateGenerator implementation.
This class is used to identify a message as being a resubmission so that the RetryTemplate
can determine the current state of retry for this message. The framework provides a
SpelExpressionRetryStateGenerator which determines the message identifier using a
SpEL expression. This is shown below; this example again uses the default policies (3 attempts with no
back off); of course, as with stateless retry, these policies can be customized.
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" ref="failer" method="service">
<int:request-handler-advice-chain>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerRetryAdvice">
<property name="retryStateGenerator">
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.SpelExpressionRetryStateGenerator">
<constructor-arg value="headers['jms_messageId']" />
</bean>
</property>
<property name="recoveryCallback">
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.ErrorMessageSendingRecoverer">
<constructor-arg ref="myErrorChannel" />
</bean>
</property>
</bean>
</int:request-handler-advice-chain>
</int:service-activator>
24.351 DEBUG [Container#0-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
24.368 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Retry: count=0
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24.387 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Checking for rethrow: count=1
24.387 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Rethrow in retry for policy: count=1
24.387 WARN [Container#0-1]failure occurred in gateway sendAndReceive
org.springframework.integration.MessagingException: Failed to invoke handler
...
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: foo
...
24.391 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Initiating transaction rollback on application exception
...
25.412 DEBUG [Container#0-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
25.412 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Retry: count=1
25.413 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Checking for rethrow: count=2
25.413 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Rethrow in retry for policy: count=2
25.413 WARN [Container#0-1]failure occurred in gateway sendAndReceive
org.springframework.integration.MessagingException: Failed to invoke handler
...
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: foo
...
25.414 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Initiating transaction rollback on application exception
...
26.418 DEBUG [Container#0-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
26.418 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Retry: count=2
26.419 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Checking for rethrow: count=3
26.419 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Rethrow in retry for policy: count=3
26.419 WARN [Container#0-1]failure occurred in gateway sendAndReceive
org.springframework.integration.MessagingException: Failed to invoke handler
...
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException: foo
...
26.420 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Initiating transaction rollback on application exception
...
27.425 DEBUG [Container#0-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
27.426 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Retry failed last attempt: count=3
27.426 DEBUG [Container#0-1]Sending ErrorMessage :failedMessage:[Payload=...]
Comparing with the stateless examples, you can see that with stateful retry, the exception is thrown to
the caller on each failure.
Circuit Breaker Advice
The general idea of the Circuit Breaker Pattern is that, if a service is not
currently available, then don't waste time (and resources) trying to use it. The
org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerCircuitBreakerAdvic
implements this pattern. When the circuit breaker is in the closed state, the endpoint will attempt to
invoke the service. The circuit breaker goes to the open state if a certain number of consecutive attempts
fail; when it is in the open state, new requests will "fail fast" and no attempt will be made to invoke the
service until some time has expired.
When that time has expired, the circuit breaker is set to the half-open state. When in this state, if even
a single attempt fails, the breaker will immediately go to the open state; if the attempt succeeds, the
breaker will go to the closed state, in which case, it won't go to the open state again until the configured
number of consecutive failures again occur. Any successful attempt resets the state to zero failures for
the purpose of determining when the breaker might go to the open state again.
Typically, this Advice might be used for external services, where it might take some time to fail (such
as a timeout attempting to make a network connection).
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The RequestHandlerCircuitBreakerAdvice has two properties: threshold and
halfOpenAfter. The threshold property represents the number of consecutive failures that need to
occur before the breaker goes open. It defaults to 5. The halfOpenAfter property represents the time after
the last failure that the breaker will wait before attempting another request. Default is 1000 milliseconds.
Example:
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" ref="failer" method="service">
<int:request-handler-advice-chain>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.RequestHandlerCircuitBreakerAdvice">
<property name="threshold" value="2" />
<property name="halfOpenAfter" value="12000" />
</bean>
</int:request-handler-advice-chain>
</int:service-activator>
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...
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DEBUG [task-scheduler-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
ERROR [task-scheduler-1]org.springframework.integration.MessageHandlingException: java.lang.RuntimeEx
DEBUG [task-scheduler-2]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
ERROR [task-scheduler-2]org.springframework.integration.MessageHandlingException: java.lang.RuntimeEx
DEBUG [task-scheduler-3]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
ERROR [task-scheduler-3]org.springframework.integration.MessagingException: Circuit Breaker is Open f
DEBUG [task-scheduler-2]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
ERROR [task-scheduler-2]org.springframework.integration.MessagingException: Circuit Breaker is Open f
DEBUG [task-scheduler-5]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=...]
ERROR [task-scheduler-5]org.springframework.integration.MessageHandlingException: java.lang.RuntimeEx
DEBUG [task-scheduler-1]preSend on channel 'input', message: [Payload=foo...]
ERROR [task-scheduler-1]org.springframework.integration.MessagingException: Circuit Breaker is Open f
In the above example, the threshold is set to 2 and halfOpenAfter is set to 12 seconds; a new request
arrives every 5 seconds. You can see that the first two attempts invoked the service; the third and fourth
failed with an exception indicating the circuit breaker is open. The fifth request was attempted because
the request was 15 seconds after the last failure; the sixth attempt fails immediately because the breaker
immediately went to open.
Expression Evaluating Advice
The
final
supplied
advice
class
is
the
org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.ExpressionEvaluatingRequestHandle
This advice is more general than the other two advices. It provides a mechanism to evaluate an expression
on the original inbound message sent to the endpoint. Separate expressions are available to be evaluated,
either after success, or failure. Optionally, a message containing the evaluation result, together with the
input message, can be sent to a message channel.
A typical use case for this advice might be with an <ftp:outbound-channel-adapter />, perhaps to move
the file to one directory if the transfer was successful, or to another directory if it fails:
The Advice has properties to set an expression when successful, an expression for failures, and
corresponding channels for each. For the successful case, the message sent to the successChannel
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is an AdviceMessage, with the payload being the result of the expression evaluation, and an
additional property inputMessage which contains the original message sent to the handler. A
message sent to the failureChannel (when the handler throws an excecption) is an ErrorMessage
with a payload of MessageHandlingExpressionEvaluatingAdviceException. Like all
MessagingExceptions, this payload has failedMessage and cause properties, as well as an
additional property evaluationResult, containing the result of the expression evaluation.
Custom Advice Classes
In
addition
to
the
provided
Advice
classes
above,
you
can
implement
your own Adivce classes. While you can provide any implementation of
org.aopalliance.aop.Advice, it is generally recommended that you subclass
org.springframework.integration.handler.advice.AbstractRequestHandlerAdvice.
This has the benefit of avoiding writing low-level Aspect Oriented Programming code as well as
providing a starting point that is specifically tailored for use in this environment.
Subclasses need to implement the doInvoke() method:
/**
* Subclasses implement this method to apply behavior to the {@link MessageHandler} callback.execute()
* invokes the handler method and returns its result, or null).
* @param callback Subclasses invoke the execute() method on this interface to invoke the handler method.
* @param target The target handler.
* @param message The message that will be sent to the handler.
* @return the result after invoking the {@link MessageHandler}.
* @throws Exception
*/
protected abstract Object doInvoke(ExecutionCallback callback, Object target, Message<?> message) throws Ex
The callback parameter is simply a convenience to avoid subclasses dealing with AOP directly; invoking
the callback.execute() method invokes the message handler.
The target parameter is provided for those subclasses that need to maintain state for a specific handler,
perhaps by maintaining that state in a Map, keyed by the target. This allows the same advice to be
applied to multiple handlers. The RequestHandlerCircuitBreakerAdvice uses this to keep
circuit breaker state for each handler.
The message parameter is the message that will be sent to the handler. While the advice cannot modify
the message before invoking the handler, it can modify the payload (if it has mutable properties).
Typically, an advice would use the message for logging and/or to send a copy of the message somewhere
before or after invoking the handler.
The return value would normally be the value returned by callback.execute();
but the advice does have the ability to modify the return value. Note that only
AbstractReplyProducingMessageHandlers return a value.
public class MyAdvice extends AbstractRequestHandlerAdvice {
@Override
protected Object doInvoke(ExecutionCallback callback, Object target, Message<?> message) throws Exception {
// add code before the invocation
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Object result = callback.execute();
// add code after the invocation
return result;
}
}
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8. System Management
8.1 JMX Support
Spring Integration provides Channel Adapters for receiving and publishing JMX Notifications. There is
also an Inbound Channel Adapter for polling JMX MBean attribute values, and an Outbound Channel
Adapter for invoking JMX MBean operations.
Notification Listening Channel Adapter
The Notification-listening Channel Adapter requires a JMX ObjectName for the MBean that publishes
notifications to which this listener should be registered. A very simple configuration might look like this:
<int-jmx:notification-listening-channel-adapter id="adapter"
channel="channel"
object-name="example.domain:name=publisher"/>
Tip
The notification-listening-channel-adapter registers with an MBeanServer at startup, and
the default bean name is mbeanServer which happens to be the same bean name generated
when using Spring's <context:mbean-server/> element. If you need to use a different name,
be sure to include the mbean-server attribute.
The adapter can also accept a reference to a NotificationFilter and a handback Object to provide
some context that is passed back with each Notification. Both of those attributes are optional. Extending
the above example to include those attributes as well as an explicit MBeanServer bean name would
produce the following:
<int-jmx:notification-listening-channel-adapter id="adapter"
channel="channel"
mbean-server="someServer"
object-name="example.domain:name=somePublisher"
notification-filter="notificationFilter"
handback="myHandback"/>
The Notification-listening Channel Adapter is event-driven and registered with the MBeanServer
directly. It does not require any poller configuration.
Note
For this component only, the object-name attribute can contain an ObjectName pattern (e.g.
"org.foo:type=Bar,name=*") and the adapter will receive notifications from all MBeans with
ObjectNames that match the pattern. In addition, the object-name attribute can contain a SpEL
reference to a <util:list/> of ObjectName patterns:
<jmx:notification-listening-channel-adapter id="manyNotificationsAdapter"
channel="manyNotificationsChannel"
object-name="#{patterns}"/>
<util:list id="patterns">
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<value>org.foo:type=Foo,name=*</value>
<value>org.foo:type=Bar,name=*</value>
</util:list>
The names of the located MBean(s) will be logged when DEBUG level logging is enabled.
Notification Publishing Channel Adapter
The Notification-publishing Channel Adapter is relatively simple. It only requires a JMX ObjectName
in its configuration as shown below.
<context:mbean:export/>
<int-jmx:notification-publishing-channel-adapter id="adapter"
channel="channel"
object-name="example.domain:name=publisher"/>
It does also require that an MBeanExporter be present in the context. That is why the
<context:mbean-export/> element is shown above as well.
When Messages are sent to the channel for this adapter, the Notification is created from the Message
content. If the payload is a String it will be passed as the message text for the Notification. Any other
payload type will be passed as the userData of the Notification.
JMX Notifications also have a type, and it should be a dot-delimited String. There are two ways to
provide the type. Precedence will always be given to a Message header value associated with the
JmxHeaders.NOTIFICATION_TYPE key. On the other hand, you can rely on a fallback defaultnotification-type attribute provided in the configuration.
<context:mbean:export/>
<int-jmx:notification-publishing-channel-adapter id="adapter"
channel="channel"
object-name="example.domain:name=publisher"
default-notification-type="some.default.type"/>
Attribute Polling Channel Adapter
The Attribute Polling Channel Adapter is useful when you have a requirement, to periodically check on
some value that is available through an MBean as a managed attribute. The poller can be configured in
the same way as any other polling adapter in Spring Integration (or it's possible to rely on the default
poller). The object-name and attribute-name are required. An MBeanServer reference is also required,
but it will automatically check for a bean named mbeanServer by default, just like the Notificationlistening Channel Adapter described above.
<int-jmx:attribute-polling-channel-adapter id="adapter"
channel="channel"
object-name="example.domain:name=someService"
attribute-name="InvocationCount">
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" fixed-rate="5000"/>
</int-jmx:attribute-polling-channel-adapter>
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Operation Invoking Channel Adapter
The operation-invoking-channel-adapter enables Message-driven invocation of any managed operation
exposed by an MBean. Each invocation requires the operation name to be invoked and the ObjectName
of the target MBean. Both of these must be explicitly provided via adapter configuration:
<int-jmx:operation-invoking-channel-adapter id="adapter"
object-name="example.domain:name=TestBean"
operation-name="ping"/>
Then the adapter only needs to be able to discover the mbeanServer bean. If a different bean name is
required, then provide the mbean-server attribute with a reference.
The payload of the Message will be mapped to the parameters of the operation, if any. A Map-typed
payload with String keys is treated as name/value pairs, whereas a List or array would be passed as a
simple argument list (with no explicit parameter names). If the operation requires a single parameter
value, then the payload can represent that single value, and if the operation requires no parameters, then
the payload would be ignored.
If you want to expose a channel for a single common operation to be invoked by Messages that need
not contain headers, then that option works well.
Operation Invoking Outbound Gateway
Similar to the operation-invoking-channel-adapter Spring Integration also provides a operationinvoking-outbound-gateway, which could be used when dealing with non-void operations and a return
value is required. Such return value will be sent as message payload to the reply-channel specified by
this Gateway.
<int-jmx:operation-invoking-outbound-gateway request-channel="requestChannel"
reply-channel="replyChannel"
object-name="o.s.i.jmx.config:type=TestBean,name=testBeanGateway"
operation-name="testWithReturn"/>
If the reply-channel attribute is not provided, the reply message will be sent to the channel that is
identified by the MessageHeaders.REPLY_CHANNEL header. That header is typically auto-created
by the entry point into a message flow, such as any Gateway component. However, if the message flow
was started by manually creating a Spring Integration Message and sending it directly to a Channel,
then you must specify the message header explicitly or use the provided reply-channel attribute.
MBean Exporter
Spring Integration components themselves may be exposed as MBeans when
the IntegrationMBeanExporter is configured. To create an instance of the
IntegrationMBeanExporter, define a bean and provide a reference to an MBeanServer
and a domain name (if desired). The domain can be left out, in which case the default domain is
org.springframework.integration.
<int-jmx:mbean-export default-domain="my.company.domain" server="mbeanServer"/>
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<bean id="mbeanServer" class="org.springframework.jmx.support.MBeanServerFactoryBean">
<property name="locateExistingServerIfPossible" value="true"/>
</bean>
Once the exporter is defined, start up your application with:
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=6969
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
-Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false
Then start JConsole (free with the JDK), and connect to the local process on localhost:6969 to
get a look at the management endpoints exposed. (The port and client are just examples to get you
started quickly, there are other JMX clients available and some offer more sophisticated features than
JConsole.)
The MBean exporter is orthogonal to the one provided in Spring core - it registers message channels
and message handlers, but not itself. You can expose the exporter itself, and certain other components in
Spring Integration, using the standard <context:mbean-export/> tag. The exporter has a couple
of useful metrics attached to it, for instance a count of the number of active handlers and the number of
queued messages (these would both be important if you wanted to shutdown the context without losing
any messages).
MBean ObjectNames
All the MessageChannel, MessageHandler and MessageSource instances in the application
are wrapped by the MBean exporter to provide management and monitoring features. The generated
JMX object names for each component type are listed in the table below:
Table 8.1.
Component Type
ObjectName
MessageChannel
o.s.i:type=MessageChannel,name=<channelName>
MessageSource
o.s.i:type=MessageSource,name=<channelName>,bean=<source>
MessageHandler
o.s.i:type=MessageSource,name=<channelName>,bean=<source>
The bean attribute in the object names for sources and handlers takes one of the values in the table below:
Table 8.2.
Bean Value
Description
endpoint
The bean name of the enclosing endpoint (e.g. <service-activator>) if there
is one
anonymous
An indication that the enclosing endpoint didn't have a user-specified bean
name, so the JMX name is the input channel name
internal
For well-known Spring Integration default components
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Bean Value
Description
handler
None of the above: fallback to the toString() of the object being
monitored (handler or source)
MessageChannel MBean Features
Message channels report metrics according to their concrete type. If you are looking at a
DirectChannel, you will see statistics for the send operation. If it is a QueueChannel, you will
also see statistics for the receive operation, as well as the count of messages that are currently buffered
by this QueueChannel. In both cases there are some metrics that are simple counters (message count
and error count), and some that are estimates of averages of interesting quantities. The algorithms used
to calculate these estimates are described briefly in the table below:
Table 8.3.
Metric Type
Example
Algorithm
Count
Send Count
Simple incrementer. Increase by one when an event
occurs.
Duration
Send Duration (method Exponential Moving Average with decay factor 10.
execution
time
in Average of the method execution time over roughly the
milliseconds)
last 10 measurements.
Rate
Send Rate (number of Inverse of Exponential Moving Average of the interval
operations per second)
between events with decay in time (lapsing over 60
seconds) and per measurement (last 10 events).
Ratio
Send Error Ratio (ratio of Estimate the success ratio as the Exponential Moving
errors to total sends)
Average of the series composed of values 1 for success
and 0 for failure (decaying as per the rate measurement
over time and events). Error ratio is 1 - success ratio.
A feature of the time-based average estimates is that they decay with time if no new measurements
arrive. To help interpret the behaviour over time, the time (in seconds) since the last measurement is
also exposed as a metric.
There are two basic exponential models: decay per measurement (appropriate for duration and anything
where the number of measurements is part of the metric), and decay per time unit (more suitable for
rate measurements where the time in between measurements is part of the metric). Both models depend
on the fact that
S(n) = sum(i=0,i=n) w(i) x(i)
has a special form when w(i) = r^i, with r=constant:
S(n) = x(n) + r S(n-1)
(so you only have to store S(n-1), not the whole series x(i), to generate a new metric estimate from
the last measurement). The algorithms used in the duration metrics use r=exp(-1/M) with M=10. The
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net effect is that the estimate S(n) is more heavily weighted to recent measurements and is composed
roughly of the last M measurements. So M is the "window" or lapse rate of the estimate In the case of
the vanilla moving average, i is a counter over the number of measurements. In the case of the rate we
interpret i as the elapsed time, or a combination of elapsed time and a counter (so the metric estimate
contains contributions roughly from the last M measurements and the last T seconds).
Orderly Shutdown Managed Operation
The MBean exporter provides a JMX operation to shut down the application in an orderly manner,
intended for use before terminating the JVM.
public void stopActiveComponents(boolean force, long howLong)
Its use and operation are described in Section 8.5, “Orderly Shutdown”.
8.2 Message History
The key benefit of a messaging architecture is loose coupling where participating components do not
maintain any awareness about one another. This fact alone makes your application extremely flexible,
allowing you to change components without affecting the rest of the flow, change messaging routes,
message consuming styles (polling vs event driven), and so on. However, this unassuming style of
architecture could prove to be difficult when things go wrong. When debugging, you would probably
like to get as much information about the message as you can (its origin, channels it has traversed, etc.)
Message History is one of those patterns that helps by giving you an option to maintain some level
of awareness of a message path either for debugging purposes or to maintain an audit trail. Spring
integration provides a simple way to configure your message flows to maintain the Message History
by adding a header to the Message and updating that header every time a message passes through a
tracked component.
Message History Configuration
To enable Message History all you need is to define the message-history element in your
configuration.
<int:message-history/>
Now every named component (component that has an 'id' defined) will be tracked. The framework will
set the 'history' header in your Message. Its value is very simple - List<Properties>.
<int:gateway id="sampleGateway"
service-interface="org.springframework.integration.history.sample.SampleGateway"
default-request-channel="bridgeInChannel"/>
<int:chain id="sampleChain" input-channel="chainChannel" output-channel="filterChannel">
<int:header-enricher>
<int:header name="baz" value="baz"/>
</int:header-enricher>
</int:chain>
The above configuration will produce a very simple Message History structure:
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[{name=sampleGateway, type=gateway, timestamp=1283281668091},
{name=sampleChain, type=chain, timestamp=1283281668094}]
To get access to Message History all you need is access the MessageHistory header. For example:
Iterator<Properties> historyIterator =
message.getHeaders().get(MessageHistory.HEADER_NAME, MessageHistory.class).iterator();
assertTrue(historyIterator.hasNext());
Properties gatewayHistory = historyIterator.next();
assertEquals("sampleGateway", gatewayHistory.get("name"));
assertTrue(historyIterator.hasNext());
Properties chainHistory = historyIterator.next();
assertEquals("sampleChain", chainHistory.get("name"));
You might not want to track all of the components. To limit the history to certain components based
on their names, all you need is provide the tracked-components attribute and specify a commadelimited list of component names and/or patterns that match the components you want to track.
<int:message-history tracked-components="*Gateway, sample*, foo"/>
In the above example, Message History will only be maintained for all of the components that end with
'Gateway', start with 'sample', or match the name 'foo' exactly.
Note
Remember that by definition the Message History header is immutable (you can't re-write
history, although some try). Therefore, when writing Message History values, the components
are either creating brand new Messages (when the component is an origin), or they are copying
the history from a request Message, modifying it and setting the new list on a reply Message. In
either case, the values can be appended even if the Message itself is crossing thread boundaries.
That means that the history values can greatly simplify debugging in an asynchronous message
flow.
8.3 Message Store
Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP) identifies several patterns that have the capability to buffer
messages. For example, an Aggregator buffers messages until they can be released and a QueueChannel
buffers messages until consumers explicitly receive those messages from that channel. Because of the
failures that can occur at any point within your message flow, EIP components that buffer messages
also introduce a point where messages could be lost.
To mitigate the risk of losing Messages, EIP defines the Message Store pattern which allows EIP
components to store Messages typically in some type of persistent store (e.g. RDBMS).
Spring Integration provides support for the Message Store pattern by a) defining
a org.springframework.integration.store.MessageStore strategy interface, b)
providing several implementations of this interface, and c) exposing a message-store attribute on
all components that have the capability to buffer messages so that you can inject any instance that
implements the MessageStore interface.
Details on how to configure a specific Message Store implementation and/or how to inject a
MessageStore implementation into a specific buffering component are described throughout the
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manual (see the specific component, such as QueueChannel, Aggregator, Resequencer etc.), but here
are a couple of samples to give you an idea:
QueueChannel
<int:channel id="myQueueChannel">
<int:queue message-store="refToMessageStore"/>
<int:channel>
Aggregator
<int:aggregator . . . message-store="refToMessageStore"/>
By
default
Messages
are
stored
in-memory
using
org.springframework.integration.store.SimpleMessageStore,
an
implementation of MessageStore. That might be fine for development or simple low-volume
environments where the potential loss of non-persistent messages is not a concern. However, the typical
production application will need a more robust option, not only to mitigate the risk of message loss but
also to avoid potential out-of-memory errors. Therefore, we also provide MessageStore implementations
for a variety of data-stores. Below is a complete list of supported implementations:
• Section 17.4, “JDBC Message Store” - uses RDBMS to store Messages
• Section 22.4, “Redis Message Store” - uses Redis key/value datastore to store Messages
• Section 21.3, “MongoDB Message Store” - uses MongoDB document store to store Messages
• Section 14.5, “Gemfire Message Store” - uses Gemfire distributed cache to store Messages
Important
However be aware of some limitations while using persistent implementations of the
MessageStore.
The Message data (payload and headers) is serialized and deserialized using different
serialization strategies depending on the implementation of the MessageStore. For
example, when using JdbcMessageStore, only Serializable data is persisted by
default. In this case non-Serializable headers are removed before serialization occurs. Also
be aware of the protocol specific headers that are injected by transport adapters (e.g., FTP,
HTTP, JMS etc.). For example, <http:inbound-channel-adapter/> maps HTTPheaders into Message Headers and one of them is an ArrayList of non-Serializable
org.springframework.http.MediaType instances. However you are able to inject
your own implementation of the Serializer and/or Deserializer strategy interfaces
into some MessageStore implementations (such as JdbcMessageStore) to change the
behaviour of serialization and deserialization.
Special attention must be paid to the headers that represent certain types of data. For example,
if one of the headers contains an instance of some Spring Bean, upon deserialization you may
end up with a different instance of that bean, which directly affects some of the implicit headers
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created by the framework (e.g., REPLY_CHANNEL or ERROR_CHANNEL). Currently they
are not serializable, but even if they were the deserialized channel would not represent the
expected instance. As a workaround we suggest to remove bean-ref headers via a <headerfilter/> before sending a message to an endpoint backed by a persistent MessageStore.
Also, we recommend using channel names instead of channel instances when setting those
types of headers, thus allowing it to be resolved in real time by the ChannelResolver.
Also avoid configuration of a message-flow like this: gateway -> queue-channel (backed by
a persistent Message Store) -> service-activator That gateway creates a Temporary Reply
Channel in the background, and it will be lost by the time the service-activator's poller reads
from the queue, because it has been deserialized by another thread on the sending side.
Nevertheless we are constantly thinking about potential improvements to the framework, such
as a way to provide some robust default serialization strategy for messages in these cases.
8.4 Control Bus
As described in (EIP), the idea behind the Control Bus is that the same messaging system can be used
for monitoring and managing the components within the framework as is used for "application-level"
messaging. In Spring Integration we build upon the adapters described above so that it's possible to send
Messages as a means of invoking exposed operations.
<int:control-bus input-channel="operationChannel"/>
The Control Bus has an input channel that can be accessed for invoking operations on the beans in the
application context. It also has all the common properties of a service activating endpoint, e.g. you can
specify an output channel if the result of the operation has a return value that you want to send on to
a downstream channel.
The Control Bus executes messages on the input channel as Spring Expression Language expressions. It
takes a message, compiles the body to an expression, adds some context, and then executes it. The default
context supports any method that has been annotated with @ManagedAttribute or @ManagedOperation.
It also supports the methods on Spring's Lifecycle interface, and it supports methods that are used to
configure several of Spring's TaskExecutor and TaskScheduler implementations. The simplest way to
ensure that your own methods are available to the Control Bus is to use the @ManagedAttribute and/
or @ManagedOperation annotations. Since those are also used for exposing methods to a JMX MBean
registry, it's a convenient by-product (often the same types of operations you want to expose to the
Control Bus would be reasonable for exposing via JMS). Resolution of any particular instance within
the application context is achieved in the typical SpEL syntax. Simply provide the bean name with the
SpEL prefix for beans (@). For example, to execute a method on a Spring Bean a client could send a
message to the operation channel as follows:
Message operation = MessageBuilder.withPayload("@myServiceBean.shutdown()").build();
operationChannel.send(operation)
The root of the context for the expression is the Message itself, so you also have access to the 'payload'
and 'headers' as variables within your expression. This is consistent with all the other expression support
in Spring Integration endpoints.
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8.5 Orderly Shutdown
As described in the section called “MBean Exporter”, the MBean exporter provides a JMX operation
stopActiveComponents, which is used to stop the application in an orderly manner. The operation has
two parameters, a boolean and a long. The boolean indicates whether attempts will be made to stop
(interrupt) active threads; in most cases this will be set to false for orderly shutdown. The long parameter
indicates how long (in milliseconds) the operation will wait to allow in-flight messages to complete.
The operation works as follows:
The
first
step
calls
beforeShutdown()
on
all
beans
that
implement
OrderlyShutdownCapable. This allows such components to prepare for shutdown. Examples of
components that implement this interface, and what they do with this call include: JMS and AMQP
message-driven adapters stop their listener containers; TCP server connection factories stop accepting
new connections (while keeping existing connections open); TCP inbound endpoints drop (log) any new
messages received; http inbound endpoints return 503 - Service Unavailable for any new requests.
The second step stops any active channels, such as JMS- or AMQP-backed channels.
The third step stops all TaskSchedulers, preventing any new scheduled operations (polling etc).
The fourth step stops all TaskExecutors, preventing any new tasks from running.
Note
If the shutdown is running from a Spring-managed TaskExecutor, shutting down that
executor would cause all the timeout time to be consumed by this step, because the thread won't
terminate). For this reason, either use a dedicated executor (via the shutdownExecutor property
on the MBean exporter), or do not use a Spring-managed executor to invoke this operation.
The fifth step stops all MessageSources.
The sixth step waits for any remaining time left, as defined by the value of the long parameter passed
in to the operation. This is intended to allow any in-flight messages to complete their journeys. It is
therefore important to select an appropriate timeout when invoking this operation.
The seventh step calls afterShutdown() on all OrderlyShutdownCapable components. This allows
such components to perform final shutdown tasks (closing all open sockets, for example).
Note
If no time is left when we get to step 6, it probably means some thread is hung; in which case,
the operation attempts a forced shutdown on all schedulers and executors before exiting.
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Part IV. Integration Adapters
This section covers the various Channel Adapters and Messaging Gateways provided by Spring
Integration to support Message-based communication with external systems.
Spring Integration
9. AMQP Support
9.1 Introduction
Spring Integration provides Channel Adapters for receiving and sending messages using the Advanced
Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP). The following adapters are available:
• Inbound Channel Adapter
• Outbound Channel Adapter
• Inbound Gateway
• Outbound Gateway
Spring Integration also provides a point-to-point Message Channel as well as a publish/subscribe
Message Channel backed by AMQP Exchanges and Queues.
In order to provide AMQP support, Spring Integration relies on Spring AMQP (http://
www.springsource.org/spring-amqp) which "applies core Spring concepts to the development of
AMQP-based messaging solutions". Spring AMQP provides similar semantics as Spring JMS (http://.../
spring-framework-reference.html#jms).
Whereas the provided AMQP Channel Adapters are intended for unidirectional Messaging (send or
receive) only, Spring Integration also provides inbound and outbound AMQP Gateways for request/
reply operations.
Tip
Please familiarize yourself with the reference documentation of the Spring AMQP project as
well. It provides much more in-depth information regarding Spring's integration with AMQP
in general and RabbitMQ in particular.
You can find the documentation at: http://static.springsource.org/spring-amqp/reference/
html/
9.2 Inbound Channel Adapter
A configuration sample for an AMQP Inbound Channel Adapter is shown below with all available
parameters.
<int-amqp:inbound-channel-adapter id="inboundAmqp"❶
channel="inboundChannel"❷
queue-names="si.test.queue"❸
acknowledge-mode="AUTO"❹
advice-chain=""❺
channel-transacted=""❻
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concurrent-consumers=""❼
connection-factory=""❽
error-channel=""❾
expose-listener-channel=""❿
header-mapper="" 11
mapped-request-headers="" 12
mapped-reply-headers="" 13
listener-container="" 14
message-converter="" 15
message-properties-converter="" 16
phase="" 17
prefetch-count="" 18
receive-timeout="" 19
recovery-interval="" 20
shutdown-timeout="" 21
task-executor="" 22
transaction-attribute="" 23
transaction-manager="" 24
tx-size="" 25 />
❶
Unique ID for this adapter. Optional.
❷
Message Channel to which converted Messages should be sent. Required.
❸
Names of the AMQP Queues from which Messages should be consumed (comma-separated list).
Required.
Acknowledge Mode for the MessageListenerContainer. Optional (Defaults to AUTO).
❹
❽
Extra AOP Advice(s) to handle cross cutting behavior associated with this Inbound Channel
Adapter. Optional.
Flag to indicate that channels created by this component will be transactional. Ff true, tells the
framework to use a transactional channel and to end all operations (send or receive) with a commit
or rollback depending on the outcome, with an exception signalling a rollback. Optional (Defaults
to false).
Specify the number of concurrent consumers to create. Default is 1. Raising the number of
concurrent consumers is recommended in order to scale the consumption of messages coming in
from a queue. However, note that any ordering guarantees are lost once multiple consumers are
registered. In general, stick with 1 consumer for low-volume queues. Optional.
Bean reference to the RabbitMQ ConnectionFactory. Optional (Defaults to 'connectionFactory').
❾
Message Channel to which error Messages should be sent. Optional.
❿
Shall the listener channel (com.rabbitmq.client.Channel) be exposed to a registered
ChannelAwareMessageListener. Optional (Defaults to true).
HeaderMapper to use when receiving AMQP Messages. Optional. By default only
standard AMQP properties (e.g. contentType) will be copied to and from Spring Integration
MessageHeaders. Any user-defined headers within the AMQP MessageProperties will NOT be
copied to or from an AMQP Message unless explicitly identified via 'requestHeaderNames' and/
or 'replyHeaderNames' properties of this HeaderMapper. If you need to copy all user-defined
headers simply use wild-card character '*'.
Comma-separated list of names of AMQP Headers to be mapped from the AMQP request into
the MessageHeaders. This can only be provided if the 'header-mapper' reference is not being set
directly. The values in this list can also be simple patterns to be matched against the header names
(e.g. "*" or "foo*, bar" or "*foo").
❺
❻
❼
11
12
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13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Comma-separated list of names of MessageHeaders to be mapped into the AMQP Message
Properties of the AMQP reply message. All standard Headers (e.g., contentType) will be mapped
to AMQP Message Properties while user-defined headers will be mapped to 'headers' property
which itself is a Map. This can only be provided if the 'header-mapper' reference is not being set
directly. The values in this list can also be simple patterns to be matched against the header names
(e.g. "*" or "foo*, bar" or "*foo").
Reference to the SimpleMessageListenerContainer to use for receiving AMQP Messages. If this
attribute is provided, then no other attribute related to the listener container configuration should be
provided. In other words, by setting this reference, you must take full responsibility of the listener
container configuration. The only exception is the MessageListener itself. Since that is actually
the core responsibility of this Channel Adapter implementation, the referenced listener container
must NOT already have its own MessageListener configured. Optional.
The MessageConverter to use when receiving AMQP Messages. Optional.
The MessagePropertiesConverter to use when receiving AMQP Messages. Optional.
Specify the phase in which the underlying SimpleMessageListenerContainer should be started and
stopped. The startup order proceeds from lowest to highest, and the shutdown order is the reverse
of that. By default this value is Integer.MAX_VALUE meaning that this container starts as late as
possible and stops as soon as possible. Optional.
Tells the AMQP broker how many messages to send to each consumer in a single request. Often
this can be set quite high to improve throughput. It should be greater than or equal to the transaction
size (see attribute "tx-size"). Optional (Defaults to 1).
Receive timeout in milliseconds. Optional (Defaults to 1000).
Specifies
the
interval
between
recovery
attempts
of
the
underlying
SimpleMessageListenerContainer (in milliseconds). Optional (Defaults to 5000).
The
time
to
wait
for
workers
in
milliseconds
after
the
underlying
SimpleMessageListenerContainer is stopped, and before the AMQP connection is forced closed. If
any workers are active when the shutdown signal comes they will be allowed to finish processing
as long as they can finish within this timeout. Otherwise the connection is closed and messages
remain unacked (if the channel is transactional). Defaults to 5000 milliseconds. Optional (Defaults
to 5000).
By default, the underlying SimpleMessageListenerContainer uses a SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor
implementation, that fires up a new Thread for each task, executing it asynchronously. By default,
the number of concurrent threads is unlimited. NOTE: This implementation does not reuse threads.
Consider a thread-pooling TaskExecutor implementation as an alternative. Optional (Defaults to
SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor).
By default the underlying SimpleMessageListenerContainer creates a new instance of the
DefaultTransactionAttribute (takes the EJB approach to rolling back on runtime, but not checked
exceptions. Optional (Defaults to DefaultTransactionAttribute).
Sets a Bean reference to an external PlatformTransactionManager on the underlying
SimpleMessageListenerContainer. The transaction manager works in conjunction with the
"channel-transacted" attribute. If there is already a transaction in progress when the framework
is sending or receiving a message, and the channelTransacted flag is true, then the commit or
rollback of the messaging transaction will be deferred until the end of the current transaction. If the
channelTransacted flag is false, then no transaction semantics apply to the messaging operation
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25
(it is auto-acked). For further information see chapter 1.9 of the Spring AMQP reference guide:
http://static.springsource.org/spring-amqp/docs/1.0.x/reference/html/#d0e525 Optional.
Tells the SimpleMessageListenerContainer how many messages to process in a single transaction
(if the channel is transactional). For best results it should be less than or equal to the set "prefetchcount". Optional (Defaults to 1).
Important
Even though the Spring Integration JMS and AMQP support is very similar, important
differences exist. The JMS Inbound Channel Adapter is using a JmsDestinationPollingSource
under the covers and expects a configured Poller. The AMQP Inbound Channel Adapter on
the other side uses a SimpleMessageListenerContainer and is message driven. In that regard
it is more similar to the JMS Message Driven Channel Adapter.
9.3 Outbound Channel Adapter
A configuration sample for an AMQP Outbound Channel Adapter is shown below with all available
parameters.
<int-amqp:outbound-channel-adapter id="outboundAmqp"❶
channel="outboundChannel"❷
amqp-template="myAmqpTemplate"❸
exchange-name=""❹
order="1"❺
routing-key=""❻
routing-key-expression=""❼
confirm-correlation-expression=""❽
confirm-ack-channel=""❾
confirm-nack-channel=""❿
return-channel="" 11 />
❶
Unique ID for this adapter. Optional.
❷
Message Channel to which Messages should be sent in order to have them converted and published
to an AMQP Exchange. Required.
Bean Reference to the configured AMQP Template Optional (Defaults to "amqpTemplate").
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
The name of the AMQP Exchange to which Messages should be sent. If not provided, Messages
will be sent to the default, no-name Exchange. Optional.
The order for this consumer when multiple consumers are registered thereby enabling
load- balancing and/or failover. Optional (Defaults to Ordered.LOWEST_PRECEDENCE
[=Integer.MAX_VALUE]).
The fixed routing-key to use when sending Messages. By default, this will be an empty String.
Optional.
The routing-key to use when sending Messages evaluated as an expression on the message (e.g.
'payload.key'). By default, this will be an empty String. Optional.
An expression defining correlation data. When provided, this configures the underlying
amqp template to receive publisher confirms. Requires a RabbitTemplate and a
CachingConnectionFactory with the publisherConfirms property set to true.
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❾
❿
11
When a publisher confirm is received, it is written to either the confirm-ack-channel,
or the confirm-nack-channel, depending on the confirmation type. The payload of the
confirm is the correlation data as defined by this expression and the message will
have a header 'amqp_publishConfirm' set to true (ack) or false (nack). Examples:
"headers['myCorrelationData']", "payload". Optional.
The channel to which positive (ack) publisher confirms are sent; payload is the correlation data
defined by the confirm-correlation-expression. Optional, default=nullChannel.
The channel to which negative (nack) publisher confirms are sent; payload is the correlation data
defined by the confirm-correlation-expression. Optional, default=nullChannel.
The channel to which returned messages are sent. When provided, the underlying amqp template
is configured to return undeliverable messages to the adapter. The message will be constructed
from the data received from amqp, with the following additional headers: amqp_returnReplyCode,
amqp_returnReplyText, amqp_returnExchange, amqp_returnRoutingKey. Optional.
Important
Using a return-channel requires a RabbitTemplate with either
the mandatory or immediate properties set to true, and a
CachingConnectionFactory with the publisherReturns property set
to true. When using multiple outbound endpoints with returns, a separate
RabbitTemplate is needed for each endpoint.
9.4 Inbound Gateway
A configuration sample for an AMQP Inbound Gateway is shown below with all available parameters.
<int-amqp:inbound-gateway id="inboundGateway"❶
request-channel="myRequestChannel"❷
queue-names="si.test.queue"❸
advice-chain=""❹
concurrent-consumers="1"❺
connection-factory="connectionFactory"❻
reply-channel="myReplyChannel"❼/>
❶
Unique ID for this adapter. Optional.
❷
Message Channel to which converted Messages should be sent. Required.
❸
❻
Names of the AMQP Queues from which Messages should be consumed (comma-separated list).
Required.
Extra AOP Advice(s) to handle cross cutting behavior associated with this Inbound Gateway.
Optional.
Specify the number of concurrent consumers to create. Default is 1. Raising the number of
concurrent consumers is recommended in order to scale the consumption of messages coming in
from a queue. However, note that any ordering guarantees are lost once multiple consumers are
registered. In general, stick with 1 consumer for low-volume queues. Optional (Defaults to 1).
Bean reference to the RabbitMQ ConnectionFactory. Optional (Defaults to 'connectionFactory').
❼
Message Channel where reply Messages will be expected. Optional.
❹
❺
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9.5 Outbound Gateway
A configuration sample for an AMQP Outbound Gateway is shown below with all available parameters.
<int-amqp:outbound-gateway id="inboundGateway"❶
request-channel="myRequestChannel"❷
amqp-template=""❸
exchange-name=""❹
order="1"❺
reply-channel=""❻
routing-key=""❼
routing-key-expression=""❽
return-channel=""❾/>
❶
Unique ID for this adapter. Optional.
❷
Message Channel to which Messages should be sent in order to have them converted and published
to an AMQP Exchange. Required.
Bean Reference to the configured AMQP Template Optional (Defaults to "amqpTemplate").
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
The name of the AMQP Exchange to which Messages should be sent. If not provided, Messages
will be sent to the default, no-name Exchange. Optional.
The order for this consumer when multiple consumers are registered thereby enabling
load- balancing and/or failover. Optional (Defaults to Ordered.LOWEST_PRECEDENCE
[=Integer.MAX_VALUE]).
Message Channel to which replies should be sent after being received from an AQMP Queue and
converted. Optional.
The routing-key to use when sending Messages. By default, this will be an empty String. Optional.
The routing-key to use when sending Messages evealuated as an expression on the message (e.g.
'payload.key'). By default, this will be an empty String. Optional.
The channel to which returned messages are sent. When provided, the underlying amqp template
is configured to return undeliverable messages to the gateway. The message will be constructed
from the data received from amqp, with the following additional headers: amqp_returnReplyCode,
amqp_returnReplyText, amqp_returnExchange, amqp_returnRoutingKey. Optional.
Important
Using a return-channel requires a RabbitTemplate with either
the mandatory or immediate properties set to true, and a
CachingConnectionFactory with the publisherReturns property set
to true. When using multiple outbound endpoints with returns, a separate
RabbitTemplate is needed for each endpoint.
Note
Prior to Spring Integration 2.2, and Spring AMQP 1.1, the outbound gateway used a
new, temporary, reply queue for each request. This is still the default, but now the
RabbitTemplate can be configured with a specific queue for replies; headers are added to the
outbound message for request/reply correlation. It is important that the consuming application
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returns these headers unchanged. The headers are spring_reply_correlation and
spring_reply_to. If the consuming application is a Spring Integration application, these
headers will be managed automatically, including the case where that application might send
a request/reply to a third application using an outbound gateway.
9.6 AMQP Backed Message Channels
There are two Message Channel implementations available. One is point-to-point, and the other is
publish/subscribe. Both of these channels provide a wide range of configuration attributes for the
underlying AmqpTemplate and SimpleMessageListenerContainer as you have seen on the Channel
Adapters and Gateways. However, the examples we'll show here are going to have minimal
configuration. Explore the XML schema to view the available attributes.
A point-to-point channel would look like this:
<int-amqp:channel id="p2pChannel"/>
Under the covers a Queue named "si.p2pChannel" would be declared, and this channel will send to that
Queue (technically by sending to the no-name Direct Exchange with a routing key that matches this
Queue's name). This channel will also register a consumer on that Queue. If for some reason, you want
the Queue to be "pollable" instead of message-driven, then simply provide the "message-driven" flag
with a value of false:
<int-amqp:channel id="p2pPollableChannel"
message-driven="false"/>
A publish/subscribe channel would look like this:
<int-amqp:publish-subscribe-channel id="pubSubChannel"/>
Under the covers a Fanout Exchange named "si.fanout.pubSubChannel" would be declared, and this
channel will send to that Fanout Exchange. This channel will also declare a server-named exclusive,
autodelete, non-durable Queue and bind that to the Fanout Exchange while registering a consumer on
that Queue to receive Messages. There is no "pollable" option for a publish-subscribe-channel; it must
be message-driven.
9.7 AMQP Message Headers
The Spring Integration AMPQ Adapters will map standard AMQP properties automatically. These
properties will be copied by default to and from Spring Integration MessageHeaders using the
DefaultAmqpHeaderMapper.
Of course, you can pass in your own implementation of AMQP specific header mappers, as the adapters
have respective properties to support that.
Any user-defined headers within the AMQP MessageProperties will NOT be copied to or from
an AMQP Message, unless explicitly specified by the requestHeaderNames and/or replyHeaderNames
properties of the HeaderMapper.
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Tip
When mapping user-defined headers, the values can also contain simple wildcard patterns (e.g.
"foo*" or "*foo") to be matched. For example, if you need to copy all user-defined headers
simply use the wild-card character '*'.
Class AmqpHeaders identifies
DefaultAmqpHeaderMapper:
the
default
headers
that
will
be
used
by
the
• amqp_appId
• amqp_clusterId
• amqp_contentEncoding
• amqp_contentLength
• content-type
• amqp_correlationId
• amqp_deliveryMode
• amqp_deliveryTag
• amqp_expiration
• amqp_messageCount
• amqp_messageId
• amqp_receivedExchange
• amqp_receivedRoutingKey
• amqp_redelivered
• amqp_replyTo
• amqp_timestamp
• amqp_type
• amqp_userId
• amqp_springReplyCorrelation
• amqp_springReplyToStack
• amqp_publishConfirm
• amqp_returnReplyCode
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• amqp_returnReplyText
• amqp_returnExchange
• amqp_returnRoutingKey
9.8 AMQP Samples
To experiment with the AMQP adapters, check out the samples available in the Spring Integration
Samples Git repository at:
• https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples
Currently there is one sample available that demonstrates the basic functionality of the Spring Integration
AMQP Adapter using an Outbound Channel Adapter and an Inbound Channel Adapter. As AMQP
Broker implementation the sample uses RabbitMQ (http://www.rabbitmq.com/).
Note
In order to run the example you will need a running instance of RabbitMQ. A local installation
with just the basic defaults will be sufficient. For detailed RabbitMQ installation procedures
please visit: http://www.rabbitmq.com/install.html
Once the sample application is started, you enter some text on the command prompt and a message
containing that entered text is dispatched to the AMQP queue. In return that message is retrieved via
Spring Integration and then printed to the console.
The image belows illustrates the basic set of Spring Integration components used in this sample.
The Spring Integration graph of the AMQP sample
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10. Spring ApplicationEvent Support
Spring Integration provides support for inbound and outbound ApplicationEvents as defined by
the underlying Spring Framework. For more information about Spring's support for events and listeners,
refer to the Spring Reference Manual.
10.1 Receiving Spring ApplicationEvents
To receive events and send them to a channel, simply define an instance of Spring Integration's
ApplicationEventListeningMessageProducer. This class is an implementation of
Spring's ApplicationListener interface. By default it will pass all received events as Spring
Integration Messages. To limit based on the type of event, configure the list of event types that you want
to receive with the 'eventTypes' property. If a received event has a Message instance as its 'source', then
that will be passed as-is. Otherwise, if a SpEL-based "payloadExpression" has been provided, that will
be evaluated against the ApplicationEvent instance. If the event's source is not a Message instance and no
"payloadExpression" has been provided, then the ApplicationEvent itself will be passed as the payload.
For
convenience
namespace
support
is
provided
to
configure
an
ApplicationEventListeningMessageProducer via the inbound-channel-adapter element.
<int-event:inbound-channel-adapter channel="eventChannel"
error-channel="eventErrorChannel"
event-types="example.FooEvent, example.BarEvent"/>
<int:publish-subscribe-channel id="eventChannel"/>
In the above example, all Application Context events that match one of the types specified by the
'event-types' (optional) attribute will be delivered as Spring Integration Messages to the Message
Channel named 'eventChannel'. If a downstream component throws an exception, a MessagingException
containing the failed message and exception will be sent to the channel named 'eventErrorChannel'. If
no "error-channel" is specified and the downstream channels are synchronous, the Exception will be
propagated to the caller.
10.2 Sending Spring ApplicationEvents
To
send
Spring
ApplicationEvents,
create
an
instance
of
the
ApplicationEventPublishingMessageHandler and register it within an endpoint.
This implementation of the MessageHandler interface also implements Spring's
ApplicationEventPublisherAware interface and thus acts as a bridge between Spring
Integration Messages and ApplicationEvents.
For
convenience
namespace
support
is
ApplicationEventPublishingMessageHandler
element.
provided
via the
to
configure
an
outbound-channel-adapter
<int:channel id="eventChannel"/>
<int-event:outbound-channel-adapter channel="eventChannel"/>
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If you are using a PollableChannel (e.g., Queue), you can also provide poller as a sub-element of the
outbound-channel-adapter element. You can also optionally provide a task-executor reference for that
poller. The following example demonstrates both.
<int:channel id="eventChannel">
<int:queue/>
</int:channel>
<int-event:outbound-channel-adapter channel="eventChannel">
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" task-executor="executor" fixed-rate="100"/>
</int-event:outbound-channel-adapter>
<task:executor id="executor" pool-size="5"/>
In the above example, all messages sent to the 'eventChannel' channel will be published as
ApplicationEvents to any relevant ApplicationListener instances that are registered within the same
Spring ApplicationContext. If the payload of the Message is an ApplicationEvent, it will be passed asis. Otherwise the Message itself will be wrapped in a MessagingEvent instance.
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11. Feed Adapter
Spring Integration provides support for Syndication via Feed Adapters
11.1 Introduction
Web syndication is a form of publishing material such as news stories, press releases, blog posts, and
other items typically available on a website but also made available in a feed format such as RSS or
ATOM.
Spring integration provides support for Web Syndication via its 'feed' adapter and provides convenient
namespace-based configuration for it. To configure the 'feed' namespace, include the following elements
within the headers of your XML configuration file:
xmlns:int-feed="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/feed"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/feed
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/feed/spring-integration-feed.xsd"
11.2 Feed Inbound Channel Adapter
The only adapter that is really needed to provide support for retrieving feeds is an inbound channel
adapter. This allows you to subscribe to a particular URL. Below is an example configuration:
<int-feed:inbound-channel-adapter id="feedAdapter"
channel="feedChannel"
url="http://feeds.bbci.co.uk/news/rss.xml">
<int:poller fixed-rate="10000" max-messages-per-poll="100" />
</int-feed:inbound-channel-adapter>
In the above configuration, we are subscribing to a URL identified by the url attribute.
As news items are retrieved they will be converted to Messages and sent to a
channel identified by the channel attribute. The payload of each message will be a
com.sun.syndication.feed.synd.SyndEntry instance. That encapsulates various data
about a news item (content, dates, authors, etc.).
You can also see that the Inbound Feed Channel Adapter is a Polling Consumer. That means
you have to provide a poller configuration. However, one important thing you must understand
with regard to Feeds is that its inner-workings are slightly different then most other poling
consumers. When an Inbound Feed adapter is started, it does the first poll and receives
a com.sun.syndication.feed.synd.SyndEntryFeed instance. That is an object that
contains multiple SyndEntry objects. Each entry is stored in the local entry queue and is released
based on the value in the max-messages-per-poll attribute such that each Message will contain
a single entry. If during retrieval of the entries from the entry queue the queue had become empty, the
adapter will attempt to update the Feed thereby populating the queue with more entries (SyndEntry
instances) if available. Otherwise the next attempt to poll for a feed will be determined by the trigger
of the poller (e.g., every 10 seconds in the above configuration).
Duplicate Entries
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Polling for a Feed might result in entries that have already been processed ("I already read that news item,
why are you showing it to me again?"). Spring Integration provides a convenient mechanism to eliminate
the need to worry about duplicate entries. Each feed entry will have a published date field. Every time
a new Message is generated and sent, Spring Integration will store the value of the latest published
date in an instance of the org.springframework.integration.store.MetadataStore
strategy. The MetadataStore interface is designed to store various types of generic meta-data (e.g.,
published date of the last feed entry that has been processed) to help components such as this Feed
adapter deal with duplicates.
The default rule for locating this metadata store is as follows: Spring Integration will look for
a bean of type org.springframework.integration.store.MetadataStore in the
ApplicationContext. If one is found then it will be used, otherwise it will create a new instance of
SimpleMetadataStore which is an in-memory implementation that will only persist metadata
within the lifecycle of the currently running Application Context. This means that upon restart you may
end up with duplicate entries. If you need to persist metadata between Application Context restarts,
you may use the PropertiesPersistingMetadataStore which is backed by a properties
file and a properties-persister. Alternatively, you could provide your own implementation of the
MetadataStore interface (e.g. JdbcMetadataStore) and configure it as bean in the Application
Context.
<bean id="metadataStore"
class="org.springframework.integration.store.PropertiesPersistingMetadataStore"/>
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12. File Support
12.1 Introduction
Spring Integration's File support extends the Spring Integration Core with a dedicated vocabulary to deal
with reading, writing, and transforming files. It provides a namespace that enables elements defining
Channel Adapters dedicated to files and support for Transformers that can read file contents into strings
or byte arrays.
This section will explain the workings of FileReadingMessageSource and
FileWritingMessageHandler and how to configure them as beans. Also the support for dealing
with files through file specific implementations of Transformer will be discussed. Finally the file
specific namespace will be explained.
12.2 Reading Files
A FileReadingMessageSource can be used to consume files from the filesystem. This is an
implementation of MessageSource that creates messages from a file system directory.
<bean id="pollableFileSource"
class="org.springframework.integration.file.FileReadingMessageSource"
p:inputDirectory="${input.directory}"/>
To prevent creating messages for certain files, you may supply a FileListFilter. By default, an
AcceptOnceFileListFilter is used. This filter ensures files are picked up only once from the
directory.
<bean id="pollableFileSource"
class="org.springframework.integration.file.FileReadingMessageSource"
p:inputDirectory="${input.directory}"
p:filter-ref="customFilterBean"/>
A common problem with reading files is that a file may be detected before it is ready. The default
AcceptOnceFileListFilter does not prevent this. In most cases, this can be prevented if the filewriting process renames each file as soon as it is ready for reading. A filename-pattern or filename-regex
filter that accepts only files that are ready (e.g. based on a known suffix), composed with the default
AcceptOnceFileListFilter allows for this. The CompositeFileListFilter enables the
composition.
<bean id="pollableFileSource"
class="org.springframework.integration.file.FileReadingMessageSource"
p:inputDirectory="${input.directory}"
p:filter-ref="compositeFilter"/>
<bean id="compositeFilter"
class="org.springframework.integration.file.filters.CompositeFileListFilter">
<constructor-arg>
<list>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.file.filters.AcceptOnceFileListFilter"/>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.file.filters.RegexPatternFileListFilter">
<constructor-arg value="^test.*$"/>
</bean>
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</list>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
The configuration can be simplified using the file specific namespace. To do this use the following
template.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:int-file="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/file"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/file
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/file/spring-integration-file.xsd">
</beans>
Within this namespace you can reduce the FileReadingMessageSource and wrap it in an inbound
Channel Adapter like this:
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn1"
directory="file:${input.directory}" prevent-duplicates="true"/>
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn2"
directory="file:${input.directory}"
filter="customFilterBean" />
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn3"
directory="file:${input.directory}"
filename-pattern="test*" />
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn4"
directory="file:${input.directory}"
filename-regex="test[0-9]+\.txt" />
The first channel adapter is relying on the default filter that just prevents duplication, the second is
using a custom filter, the third is using the filename-pattern attribute to add an AntPathMatcher
based filter, and the fourth is using the filename-regex attribute to add a regular expression Pattern based
filter to the FileReadingMessageSource. The filename-pattern and filename-regex attributes
are each mutually exclusive with the regular filter reference attribute. However, you can use the filter
attribute to reference an instance of CompositeFileListFilter that combines any number of
filters, including one or more pattern based filters to fit your particular needs.
When multiple processes are reading from the same directory it can be desirable to lock files to prevent
them from being picked up concurrently. To do this you can use a FileLocker. There is a java.nio
based implementation available out of the box, but it is also possible to implement your own locking
scheme. The nio locker can be injected as follows
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn"
directory="file:${input.directory}" prevent-duplicates="true">
<int-file:nio-locker/>
</int-file:inbound-channel-adapter>
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A custom locker you can configure like this:
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn"
directory="file:${input.directory}" prevent-duplicates="true">
<int-file:locker ref="customLocker"/>
</int-file:inbound-channel-adapter>
Note
When a file inbound adapter is configured with a locker, it will take the responsibility to acquire
a lock before the file is allowed to be received. It will not assume the responsibility to unlock
the file. If you have processed the file and keeping the locks hanging around you have a
memory leak. If this is a problem in your case you should call FileLocker.unlock(File file)
yourself at the appropriate time.
When filtering and locking files is not enough it might be needed to control the way files
are listed entirely. To implement this type of requirement you can use an implementation of
DirectoryScanner. This scanner allows you to determine entirely what files are listed each poll.
This is also the interface that Spring Integration uses internally to wire FileListFilters FileLocker to
the FileReadingMessageSource. A custom DirectoryScanner can be injected into the <int-file:inboundchannel-adapter/> on the scanner attribute.
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="filesIn" directory="file:${input.directory}"
prevent-duplicates="true" scanner="customDirectoryScanner"/>
This gives you full freedom to choose the ordering, listing and locking strategies.
12.3 Writing files
To write messages to the file system you can use a FileWritingMessageHandler.
This class can deal with File, String, or byte array payloads. In its simplest form the
FileWritingMessageHandler only requires a destination directory for writing the files.
The name of the file to be written is determined by the handler's FileNameGenerator. The
default implementation looks for a Message header whose key matches the constant defined as
FileHeaders.FILENAME.
Additionally, you can configure the encoding and the charset that will be used in case of a String payload.
To make things easier, you can configure the FileWritingMessageHandler as part of an
Outbound Channel Adapter or Outbound Gateway using the provided XML namespace support.
Specifying the Output Directory
Both, the File Oubound Channel Adapter and the File Outbound Gateway provide two configuration
attributes for specifying the output directory:
• directory
• directory-expression
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Note
The directory-expression attribute is available since Spring Integration 2.2.
Using the directory attribute
When using the directory attribute, the output directory will be set to a fixed value, that is set at
intialization time of the FileWritingMessageHandler. If you don't specify this attribute, then
you must use the directory-expression attribute.
Using the directory-expression attribute
If you want to have full SpEL support you would choose the directory-expression attribute. This attribute
accepts a SpEL expression that is evaluated for each message being processed. Thus, you have full
access to a Message's payload and its headers to dynamically specify the output file directory.
The SpEL expression must resolve to either a String or to java.io.File. Furthermore the
resulting String or File must point to a directory. If you don't specify the directory-expression
attribute, then you must set the directory attribute.
Using the auto-create-directory attribute
If the destination directory does not exists, yet, by default the respective destination directory and any
non-existing parent directories are being created automatically. You can set the auto-create-directory
attribute to false in order to prevent that. This attribute applies to both, the directory and the directoryexpression attribute.
Note
When using the directory attribute and auto-create-directory is false, the following change
was made starting with Spring Integration 2.2:
Instead of checking for the existence of the destination directory at initialization time of the
adapter, this check is now performed for each message being processed.
Furthermore, if auto-create-directory is true and the directory was deleted between the
processing of messages, the directory will be re-created for each message being processed.
Dealing with Existing Destination Files
When writing files and the destination file already exists, the default behavior is to overwrite that target
file. This behavior, though, can be changed by setting the mode attribute on the respective File Outbound
components. The following options exist:
• REPLACE (Default)
• APPEND
• FAIL
• IGNORE
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Note
The mode attribute and the options APPEND, FAIL and IGNORE, are available since Spring
Integration 2.2.
REPLACE
If the target file already exists, it will be overwritten. If the mode attribute is not specified, then this is
the default behavior when writing files.
APPEND
This mode allows you to append Message content to the existing file instead of creating a new file
each time. Note that this attribute is mutually exclusive with temporary-file-suffix attribute since when
appending content to the existing file, the adapter no longer uses a temporary file.
FAIL
If the target file exists, a MessageHandlingException is thrown.
IGNORE
If the target file exists, the message payload is silently ignored.
File Outbound Channel Adapter
<int-file:outbound-channel-adapter id="filesOut" directory="${input.directory.property}"/>
The namespace based configuration also supports a delete-source-files attribute. If set to
true, it will trigger the deletion of the original source files after writing to a destination. The default
value for that flag is false.
<int-file:outbound-channel-adapter id="filesOut"
directory="${output.directory}"
delete-source-files="true"/>
Note
The delete-source-files attribute will only have an effect if the inbound Message has
a File payload or if the FileHeaders.ORIGINAL_FILE header value contains either the
source File instance or a String representing the original file path.
Outbound Gateway
In cases where you want to continue processing messages based on the written file, you can use the
outbound-gateway instead. It plays a very similar role as the outbound-channel-adapter.
However, after writing the file, it will also send it to the reply channel as the payload of a Message.
<int-file:outbound-gateway id="mover" request-channel="moveInput"
reply-channel="output"
directory="${output.directory}"
mode="REPLACE" delete-source-files="true"/>
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As mentioned earlier, you can also specify the mode attribute, which defines the behavior of how to
deal with situations where the destination file already exists. Please see the section called “Dealing with
Existing Destination Files” for further details. Generally, when using the File Outbound Gateway, the
result file is returned as the Message payload on the reply channel.
This also applies when specifying the IGNORE mode. In that case the pre-existing destination file is
returned. If the payload of the request message was a file, you still have access to that original file
through the Message Header FileHeaders.ORIGINAL_FILE.
Note
The 'outbound-gateway' works well in cases where you want to first move a file and then
send it through a processing pipeline. In such cases, you may connect the file namespace's
'inbound-channel-adapter' element to the 'outbound-gateway' and then connect that gateway's
reply-channel to the beginning of the pipeline.
If you have more elaborate requirements or need to support additional payload types as input to be
converted to file content you could extend the FileWritingMessageHandler, but a much better option
is to rely on a Transformer.
12.4 File Transformers
To transform data read from the file system to objects and the other way around you
need to do some work. Contrary to FileReadingMessageSource and to a lesser extent
FileWritingMessageHandler, it is very likely that you will need your own mechanism
to get the job done. For this you can implement the Transformer interface. Or extend the
AbstractFilePayloadTransformer for inbound messages. Some obvious implementations
have been provided.
FileToByteArrayTransformer transforms Files into byte[]s using Spring's FileCopyUtils.
It is often better to use a sequence of transformers than to put all transformations in a single class. In
that case the File to byte[] conversion might be a logical first step.
FileToStringTransformer will convert Files to Strings as the name suggests. If nothing else,
this can be useful for debugging (consider using with a Wire Tap).
To configure File specific transformers you can use the appropriate elements from the file namespace.
<int-file:file-to-bytes-transformer
delete-files="true"/>
input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
<int-file:file-to-string-transformer input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
delete-files="true" charset="UTF-8"/>
The delete-files option signals to the transformer that it should delete the inbound File
after the transformation is complete. This is in no way a replacement for using the
AcceptOnceFileListFilter when the FileReadingMessageSource is being used in a multithreaded environment (e.g. Spring Integration in general).
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13. FTP/FTPS Adapters
Spring Integration provides support for file transfer operations via FTP and FTPS.
13.1 Introduction
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a simple network protocol which allows you to transfer files between
two computers on the Internet.
There are two actors when it comes to FTP communication: client and server. To transfer files with
FTP/FTPS, you use a client which initiates a connection to a remote computer that is running an FTP
server. After the connection is established, the client can choose to send and/or receive copies of files.
Spring Integration supports sending and receiving files over FTP/FTPS by providing three client side
endpoints: Inbound Channel Adapter, Outbound Channel Adapter, and Outbound Gateway. It also
provides convenient namespace-based configuration options for defining these client components.
To use the FTP namespace, add the following to the header of your XML file:
xmlns:int-ftp="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/ftp"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/ftp
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/ftp/spring-integration-ftp.xsd"
13.2 FTP Session Factory
Before configuring FTP adapters you must configure an FTP Session Factory. You can configure
the FTP Session Factory with a regular bean definition where the implementation class is
org.springframework.integration.ftp.session.DefaultFtpSessionFactory:
Below is a basic configuration:
<bean id="ftpClientFactory"
class="org.springframework.integration.ftp.session.DefaultFtpSessionFactory">
<property name="host" value="localhost"/>
<property name="port" value="22"/>
<property name="username" value="kermit"/>
<property name="password" value="frog"/>
<property name="clientMode" value="0"/>
<property name="fileType" value="2"/>
<property name="bufferSize" value="100000"/>
</bean>
For
FTPS
connections
all
you
need
to
do
is
use
org.springframework.integration.ftp.session.DefaultFtpsSessionFactory
instead. Below is the complete configuration sample:
<bean id="ftpClientFactory"
class="org.springframework.integration.ftp.client.DefaultFtpsClientFactory">
<property name="host" value="localhost"/>
<property name="port" value="22"/>
<property name="username" value="oleg"/>
<property name="password" value="password"/>
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<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
<property
</bean>
name="clientMode" value="1"/>
name="fileType" value="2"/>
name="useClientMode" value="true"/>
name="cipherSuites" value="a,b.c"/>
name="keyManager" ref="keyManager"/>
name="protocol" value="SSL"/>
name="trustManager" ref="trustManager"/>
name="prot" value="P"/>
name="needClientAuth" value="true"/>
name="authValue" value="oleg"/>
name="sessionCreation" value="true"/>
name="protocols" value="SSL, TLS"/>
name="implicit" value="true"/>
Every time an adapter requests a session object from its SessionFactory the session is returned
from a session pool maintained by a caching wrapper around the factory. A Session in the session pool
might go stale (if it has been disconnected by the server due to inactivity) so the SessionFactory
will perform validation to make sure that it never returns a stale session to the adapter. If a stale session
was encountered, it will be removed from the pool, and a new one will be created.
Note
If you experience connectivity problems and would like to trace Session creation as well as
see which Sessions are polled you may enable it by setting the logger to TRACE level (e.g.,
log4j.category.org.springframework.integration.file=TRACE)
Now all you need to do is inject these session factories into your adapters. Obviously the protocol (FTP
or FTPS) that an adapter will use depends on the type of session factory that has been injected into
the adapter.
Note
A more practical way to provide values for FTP/FTPS Session Factories is by using
Spring's property placeholder support (See: http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.0.x/
spring-framework-reference/html/beans.html#beans-factory-placeholderconfigurer).
Advanced Configuration
DefaultFtpSessionFactory provides an abstraction over the underlying client API which,
in the current release of Spring Integration, is Apache Commons Net. This spares you from
the low level configuration details of the org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient.
However there are times when access to lower level FTPClient details is necessary to achieve
more advanced configuration (e.g., setting data timeout, default timeout etc.). For that purpose,
AbstractFtpSessionFactory (the base class for all FTP Session Factories) exposes hooks, in
the form of the two post-processing methods below.
/**
* Will handle additional initialization after client.connect() method was invoked,
* but before any action on the client has been taken
*/
protected void postProcessClientAfterConnect(T t) throws IOException {
// NOOP
}
/**
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* Will handle additional initialization before client.connect() method was invoked.
*/
protected void postProcessClientBeforeConnect(T client) throws IOException {
// NOOP
}
As you can see, there is no default implementation for these two methods. However, by extending
DefaultFtpSessionFactory you can override these methods to provide more advanced
configuration of the FTPClient. For example:
public class AdvancedFtpSessionFactory extends DefaultFtpSessionFactory {
protected void postProcessClientBeforeConnect(FTPClient ftpClient) throws IOException {
ftpClient.setDataTimeout(5000);
ftpClient.setDefaultTimeout(5000);
}
}
13.3 FTP Inbound Channel Adapter
The FTP Inbound Channel Adapter is a special listener that will connect to the FTP server and will
listen for the remote directory events (e.g., new file created) at which point it will initiate a file transfer.
<int-ftp:inbound-channel-adapter id="ftpInbound"
channel="ftpChannel"
session-factory="ftpSessionFactory"
charset="UTF-8"
auto-create-local-directory="true"
delete-remote-files="true"
filename-pattern="*.txt"
remote-directory="some/remote/path"
remote-file-separator="/"
local-filename-generator-expression="#this.toUpperCase() + '.a'"
local-directory=".">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int-ftp:inbound-channel-adapter>
As you can see from the configuration above you can configure an FTP Inbound Channel Adapter via
the inbound-channel-adapter element while also providing values for various attributes such as
local-directory, filename-pattern (which is based on simple pattern matching, not regular
expressions), and of course the reference to a session-factory.
By default the transferred file will carry the same name as the original file. If you want to override this
behavior you can set the local-filename-generator-expression attribute which allows
you to provide a SpEL Expression to generate the name of the local file. Unlike outbound gateways
and adapters where the root object of the SpEL Evaluation Context is a Message, this inbound adapter
does not yet have the Message at the time of evaluation since that's what it ultimately generates with
the transferred file as its payload. So, the root object of the SpEL Evaluation Context is the original
name of the remote file (String).
Sometimes file filtering based on the simple pattern specified via filename-pattern attribute
might not be sufficient. If this is the case, you can use the filename-regex attribute to specify a
Regular Expression (e.g. filename-regex=".*\.test$"). And of course if you need complete
control you can use filter attribute and provide a reference to any custom implementation of
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the org.springframework.integration.file.filters.FileListFilter, a strategy
interface for filtering a list of files.
Note
As of Spring Integration 2.0.2, we have added a 'remote-file-separator' attribute. That allows
you to configure a file separator character to use if the default '/' is not applicable for your
particular environment.
Please refer to the schema for more details on these attributes.
It is also important to understand that the FTP Inbound Channel Adapter is a Polling Consumer and
therefore you must configure a poller (either via a global default or a local sub-element). Once a file
has been transferred, a Message with a java.io.File as its payload will be generated and sent to
the channel identified by the channel attribute.
More on File Filtering and Large Files
Sometimes the file that just appeared in the monitored (remote) directory is not complete. Typically
such a file will be written with temporary extension (e.g., foo.txt.writing) and then renamed after the
writing process finished. As a user in most cases you are only interested in files that are complete and
would like to filter only files that are complete. To handle these scenarios you can use the filtering
support provided by the filename-pattern, filename-regex and filter attributes. Here is
an example that uses a custom Filter implementation.
<int-ftp:inbound-channel-adapter
channel="ftpChannel"
session-factory="ftpSessionFactory"
filter="customFilter"
local-directory="file:/my_transfers">
remote-directory="some/remote/path"
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int-ftp:inbound-channel-adapter>
<bean id="customFilter" class="org.example.CustomFilter"/>
Poller configuration notes for the inbound FTP adapter
The job of the inbound FTP adapter consists of two tasks: 1) Communicate with a remote server in order
to transfer files from a remote directory to a local directory. 2) For each transferred file, generate a
Message with that file as a payload and send it to the channel identified by the 'channel' attribute. That
is why they are called 'channel-adapters' rather than just 'adapters'. The main job of such an adapter is
to generate a Message to be sent to a Message Channel. Essentially, the second task mentioned above
takes precedence in such a way that *IF* your local directory already has one or more files it will first
generate Messages from those, and *ONLY* when all local files have been processed, will it initiate
the remote communication to retrieve more files.
Also, when configuring a trigger on the poller you should pay close attention to the max-messagesper-poll attribute. Its default value is 1 for all SourcePollingChannelAdapter instances
(including FTP). This means that as soon as one file is processed, it will wait for the next execution
time as determined by your trigger configuration. If you happened to have one or more files sitting in
the local-directory, it would process those files before it would initiate communication with the
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remote FTP server. And, if the max-messages-per-poll were set to 1 (default), then it would
be processing only one file at a time with intervals as defined by your trigger, essentially working as
one-poll = one-file.
For typical file-transfer use cases, you most likely want the opposite behavior: to process all the files
you can for each poll and only then wait for the next poll. If that is the case, set max-messages-perpoll to -1. Then, on each poll, the adapter will attempt to generate as many Messages as it possibly
can. In other words, it will process everything in the local directory, and then it will connect to the
remote directory to transfer everything that is available there to be processed locally. Only then is the
poll operation considered complete, and the poller will wait for the next execution time.
You can alternatively set the 'max-messages-per-poll' value to a positive value indicating the upward
limit of Messages to be created from files with each poll. For example, a value of 10 means that on each
poll it will attempt to process no more than 10 files.
13.4 FTP Outbound Channel Adapter
The FTP Outbound Channel Adapter relies upon a MessageHandler implementation that will
connect to the FTP server and initiate an FTP transfer for every file it receives in the payload of
incoming Messages. It also supports several representations of the File so you are not limited only to
java.io.File typed payloads. The FTP Outbound Channel Adapter supports the following payloads: 1)
java.io.File - the actual file object; 2) byte[] - a byte array that represents the file contents; and
3) java.lang.String - text that represents the file contents.
<int-ftp:outbound-channel-adapter id="ftpOutbound"
channel="ftpChannel"
session-factory="ftpSessionFactory"
charset="UTF-8"
remote-file-separator="/"
auto-create-directory="true"
remote-directory-expression="headers.['remote_dir']"
temporary-remote-directory-expression="headers.['temp_remote_dir']"
filename-generator="fileNameGenerator"/>
As you can see from the configuration above you can configure an FTP Outbound
Channel Adapter via the outbound-channel-adapter element while also providing
values for various attributes such as filename-generator (an implementation of the
org.springframework.integration.file.FileNameGenerator strategy interface), a
reference to a session-factory, as well as other attributes. You can also see some examples
of *expression attributes which allow you to use SpEL to configure things like remotedirectory-expression, temporary-remote-directory-expression and remotefilename-generator-expression (a SpEL alternative to filename-generator shown
above). As with any component that allows the usage of SpEL, access to Payload and Message Headers
is available via 'payload' and 'headers' variables. Please refer to the schema for more details on the
available attributes.
Note
By
default
Spring
Integration
will
use
org.springframework.integration.file.DefaultFileNameGenerator
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if none is specified. DefaultFileNameGenerator will determine the file name based
on the value of the file_name header (if it exists) in the MessageHeaders, or if the payload
of the Message is already a java.io.File, then it will use the original name of that file.
Important
Defining certain values (e.g., remote-directory) might be platform/ftp server dependent. For
example as it was reported on this forum http://forum.springsource.org/showthread.php?
p=333478&posted=1#post333478 on some platforms you must add slash to the end of the
directory definition (e.g., remote-directory="/foo/bar/" instead of remote-directory="/foo/
bar")
Avoiding Partially Written Files
One of the common problems, when dealing with file transfers, is the possibility of processing a partial
file - a file might appear in the file system before its transfer is actually complete.
To deal with this issue, Spring Integration FTP adapters use a very common algorithm where files are
transferred under a temporary name and then renamed once they are fully transferred.
By default, every file that is in the process of being transferred will appear in the file system with an
additional suffix which, by default, is .writing; this can be changed using the temporary-filesuffix attribute.
However, there may be situations where you don't want to use this technique (for example, if the server
does not permit renaming files). For situations like this, you can disable this feature by setting usetemporary-file-name to false (default is true). When this attribute is false, the file is
written with its final name and the consuming application will need some other mechanism to detect
that the file is completely uploaded before accessing it.
13.5 FTP Outbound Gateway
The FTP Outbound Gateway provides a limited set of commands to interact with a remote FTP/FTPS
server.
Commands supported are:
• ls (list files)
• get (retrieve file)
• mget (retrieve file(s))
• rm (remove file(s))
ls
ls lists remote file(s) and supports the following options:
• -1 - just retrieve a list of filenames, default is to retrieve a list of FileInfo objects.
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• -a - include all files (including those starting with '.')
• -f - do not sort the list
• -dirs - include directories (excluded by default)
• -links - include symbolic links (excluded by default)
In addition, filename filtering is provided, in the same manner as the inbound-channel-adapter.
The message payload resulting from an ls operation is a list of file names, or a list of FileInfo objects.
These objects provide information such as modified time, permissions etc.
The remote directory that the ls command acted on is provided in the file_remoteDirectory
header.
get
get retrieves a remote file and supports the following option:
• -P - preserve the timestamp of the remote file
The message payload resulting from a get operation is a File object representing the retrieved file.
The remote directory is provided in the file_remoteDirectory header, and the filename is
provided in the file_remoteFile header.
mget
mget retrieves multiple remote files based on a pattern and supports the following option:
• -x - Throw an exception if no files match the pattern (otherwise an empty list is returned)
The message payload resulting from an mget operation is a List<File> object - a List of File objects,
each representing a retrieved file.
The remote directory is provided in the file_remoteDirectory header, and the pattern for the
filenames is provided in the file_remoteFile header.
rm
The rm command has no options.
The message payload resulting from an rm operation is Boolean.TRUE if the remove was successful,
Boolean.FALSE otherwise. The remote directory is provided in the file_remoteDirectory
header, and the filename is provided in the file_remoteFile header.
In each case, the PATH that these commands act on is provided by the 'expression' property of the
gateway. For the mget command, the expression might evaluate to '*', meaning retrieve all files, or
'somedirectory/*' etc.
Here is an example of a gateway configured for an ls command...
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<int-ftp:outbound-gateway id="gateway1"
session-factory="ftpSessionFactory"
request-channel="inbound1"
command="ls"
command-options="-1"
expression="payload"
reply-channel="toSplitter"/>
The payload of the message sent to the toSplitter channel is a list of String objects containing the filename
of each file. If the command-options was omitted, it would be a list of FileInfo objects. Options
are provided space-delimited, e.g. command-options="-1 -dirs -links".
13.6 FTP Session Caching
As of version 2.1 we've exposed more flexibility with regard to session management for remote file
adapters (e.g., FTP, SFTP etc). In previous versions the sessions were cached automatically by default.
We did expose a cache-sessions attribute for disabling the auto caching, but that solution did
not provide a way to configure other session caching attributes. For example, one of the requested
features was to support a limit on the number of sessions created since a remote server may impose
a limit on the number of client connections. To support that requirement and other configuration
options, we decided to promote explicit definition of the CachingSessionFactory instance. That
provides the sessionCacheSize and sessionWaitTimeout properties. As its name suggests,
the sessionCacheSize property controls how many active sessions this adapter will maintain in its
cache (the DEFAULT is unbounded). If the sessionCacheSize threshold has been reached, any
attempt to acquire another session will block until either one of the cached sessions becomes available
or until the wait time for a Session expires (the DEFAULT wait time is Integer.MAX_VALUE). The
sessionWaitTimeout property enables configuration of that value.
If you want your Sessions to be cached, simply configure your default Session Factory as described
above and then wrap it in an instance of CachingSessionFactory where you may provide those
additional properties.
<bean id="ftpSessionFactory" class="org.springframework.integration.ftp.session.DefaultFtpSessionFactory">
<property name="host" value="localhost"/>
</bean>
<bean id="cachingSessionFactory" class="org.springframework.integration.file.remote.session.CachingSessionF
<constructor-arg ref="ftpSessionFactory"/>
<constructor-arg value="10"/>
<property name="sessionWaitTimeout" value="1000"/>
</bean>
In the above example you see a CachingSessionFactory created with the sessionCacheSize
set to 10 and the sessionWaitTimeout set to 1 second (its value is in millliseconds).
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14. GemFire Support
Spring Integration provides support for VMWare vFabric GemFire
14.1 Introduction
VMWare vFabric GemFire (GemFire) is a distributed data management platform providing a key-value
data grid along with advanced distributed system features such as event processing, continuous querying,
and remote function execution. This guide assumes some familiarity with GemFire and its API.
Spring integration provides support for GemFire by providing inbound adapters for entry and
continuous query events, an outbound adapter to write entries to the cache, and MessageStore and
MessageGroupStore implementations. Spring integration leverages the Spring Gemfire project,
providing a thin wrapper over its components.
To configure the 'int-gfe' namespace, include the following elements within the headers of your XML
configuration file:
xmlns:int-gfe="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/gemfire"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/gemfire
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/gemfire/spring-integration-gemfire.xsd"
14.2 Inbound Channel Adapter
The inbound-channel-adapter produces messages on a channel triggered by a GemFire EntryEvent.
GemFire generates events whenever an entry is CREATED, UPDATED, DESTROYED, or
INVALIDATED in the associated region. The inbound channel adapter allows you to filter on a subset
of these events. For example, you may want to only produce messages in response to an entry being
CREATED. In addition, the inbound channel adapter can evaluate a SpEL expression if, for example,
you want your message payload to contain an event property such as the new entry value.
<gfe:cache/>
<gfe:replicated-region id="region"/>
<int-gfe:inbound-channel-adapter id="inputChannel" region="region"
cache-events="CREATED" expression="newValue"/>
In the above configuration, we are creating a GemFire Cache and Region using Spring GemFire's
'gfe' namespace. The inbound-channel-adapter requires a reference to the GemFire region for which the
adapter will be listening for events. Optional attributes include cache-events which can contain a
comma separated list of event types for which a message will be produced on the input channel. By
default CREATED and UPDATED are enabled. Note that this adapter conforms to Spring integration
conventions. If no channel attribute is provided, the channel will be created from the id attribute.
This adapter also supports an error-channel. If expression is not provided the message payload
will be a GemFire EntryEvent
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14.3 Continuous Query Inbound Channel Adapter
The cq-inbound-channel-adapter produces messages a channel triggered by a GemFire continuous
query or CqEvent event. Spring GemFire introduced continuous query support in release 1.1, including
a ContinuousQueryListenerContainer which provides a nice abstraction over the GemFire
native API. This adapter requires a reference to a ContinuousQueryListenerContainer, and creates a
listener for a given query and executes the query. The continuous query acts as an event source that
will fire whenever its result set changes state.
Note
GemFire queries are written in OQL and are scoped to the entire cache (not just one region).
Additionally, continuous queries require a remote (i.e., running in a separate process or
remote host) cache server. Please consult the GemFire documentation for more information
on implementing continuous queries.
<gfe:client-cache id="client-cache" pool-name="client-pool"/>
<gfe:pool id="client-pool" subscription-enabled="true" >
<!--configure server or locator here required to address the cache server -->
</gfe:pool>
<gfe:client-region id="test" cache-ref="client-cache" pool-name="client-pool"/>
<gfe:cq-listener-container id="queryListenerContainer" cache="client-cache"
pool-name="client-pool"/>
<int-gfe:cq-inbound-channel-adapter id="inputChannel"
cq-listener-container="queryListenerContainer"
query="select * from /test"/>
In the above configuration, we are creating a GemFire client cache (recall a remote cache server
is required for this implementation and its address is configured as a sub-element of the pool),
a client region and a ContinuousQueryListenerContainer using Spring GemFire. The
continuous query inbound channel adapter requires a cq-listener-container attribute which
contains a reference to the ContinuousQueryListenerContainer. Optionally, it accepts
an expression attribute which uses SpEL to transform the CqEvent or extract an individual
property as needed. The cq-inbound-channel-adapter provides a query-events attribute, containing
a comma separated list of event types for which a message will be produced on the input
channel. Available event types are CREATED, UPDATED, DESTROYED, REGION_DESTROYED,
REGION_INVALIDATED. CREATED and UPDATED are enabled by default. Additional optional
attributes include, query-name which provides an optional query name, and expression which
works as described in the above section, and durable - a boolean value indicating if the query is
durable (false by default). Note that this adapter conforms to Spring integration conventions. If no
channel attribute is provided, the channel will be created from the id attribute. This adapter also
supports an error-channel
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14.4 Outbound Channel Adapter
The outbound-channel-adapter writes cache entries mapped from the message payload. In its simplest
form, it expects a payload of type java.util.Map and puts the map entries into its configured region.
<int-gfe:outbound-channel-adapter id="cacheChannel" region="region"/>
Given the above configuration, an exception will be thrown if the payload is not a Map. Additionally,
the outbound channel adapter can be configured to create a map of cache entries using SpEL of course.
<int-gfe:outbound-channel-adapter id="cacheChannel" region="region">
<int-gfe:cache-entries>
<entry key="payload.toUpperCase()" value="payload.toLowerCase()"/>
<entry key="'foo'" value="'bar'"/>
</int-gfe:cache-entries>
</int-gfe:outbound-channel-adapter>
In the above configuration, the inner element cache-entries is semantically equivalent to Spring
'map' element. The adapter interprets the key and value attributes as SpEL expressions with the
message as the evaluation context. Note that this contain arbitrary cache entries (not only those derived
from the message) and that literal values must be enclosed in single quotes. In the above example,
if the message sent to cacheChannel has a String payload with a value "Hello", two entries
[HELLO:hello, foo:bar] will be written (created or updated) in the cache region. This adapter
also supports the order attribute which may be useful if it is bound to a PublishSubscribeChannel.
14.5 Gemfire Message Store
As described in EIP, a Message Store allows you to persist Messages. This can be very useful
when dealing with components that have a capability to buffer messages (QueueChannel, Aggregator,
Resequencer, etc.) if reliability is a concern. In Spring Integration, the MessageStore strategy also
provides the foundation for the ClaimCheck pattern, which is described in EIP as well.
Spring Integration's Gemfire module provides the GemfireMessageStore which is an
implementation of both the the MessageStore strategy (mainly used by the QueueChannel and
ClaimCheck patterns) and the MessageGroupStore strategy (mainly used by the Aggregator and
Resequencer patterns).
<bean id="gemfireMessageStore" class="org.springframework.integration.gemfire.store.GemfireMessageStore">
<constructor-arg ref="myCache"/>
</bean>
<bean id="myCache" class="org.springframework.data.gemfire.CacheFactoryBean"/>
<int:channel id="somePersistentQueueChannel">
<int:queue message-store="gemfireMessageStore"/>
<int:channel>
<int:aggregator input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel"
message-store="gemfireMessageStore"/>
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Above is a sample GemfireMessageStore configuration that shows its usage by a QueueChannel
and an Aggregator. As you can see it is a normal Spring bean configuration. The simplest configuration
requires a reference to a GemFireCache (created by CacheFactoryBean) as a constructor
argument. If the cache is standalone, i.e., embedded in the same JVM, the MessageStore will create a
message store region named "messageStoreRegion". If your application requires customization of the
messageStore region, for example, multiple Gemfire message stores each with its own region, you can
configure a region for each message store instance and use the Region as the constructor argument:
<bean id="gemfireMessageStore" class="org.springframework.integration.gemfire.store.GemfireMessageStore">
<constructor-arg ref="myRegion"/>
</bean>
<gfe:cache/>
<gfe:replicated-region id="myRegion"/>
In the above examle, the cache and region are configured using the spring-gemfire namespace (not to
be confused with the spring-integration-gemfire namespace). Often it is desirable for the message store
to be maintained in one or more remote cache servers in a client-server configuration (See the GemFire
product documentation for more details). In this case, you configure a client cache, client region, and
client pool and inject the region into the MessageStore. Here is an example:
<bean id="gemfireMessageStore"
class="org.springframework.integration.gemfire.store.GemfireMessageStore">
<constructor-arg ref="myRegion"/>
</bean>
<gfe:client-cache/>
<gfe:client-region id="myRegion" shortcut="PROXY" pool-name="messageStorePool"/>
<gfe:pool id="messageStorePool">
<gfe:server host="localhost" port="40404" />
</gfe:pool>
Note the pool element is configured with the address of a cache server (a locator may be substituted
here). The region is configured as a 'PROXY' so that no data will be stored locally. The region's id
corresponds to a region with the same name configured in the cache server.
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15. HTTP Support
15.1 Introduction
The HTTP support allows for the execution of HTTP requests and the processing of inbound HTTP
requests. Because interaction over HTTP is always synchronous, even if all that is returned is a 200
status code, the HTTP support consists of two gateway implementations: HttpInboundEndpoint
and HttpRequestExecutingMessageHandler.
15.2 Http Inbound Gateway
To receive messages over HTTP, you need to use an HTTP Inbound Channel Adapter or Gateway. To
support the HTTP Inbound Adapters, they need to be deployed within a servlet container such as Apache
Tomcat or Jetty. The easiest way to do this is to use Spring's HttpRequestHandlerServlet, by
providing the following servlet definition in the web.xml file:
<servlet>
<servlet-name>inboundGateway</servlet-name>
<servlet-class>o.s.web.context.support.HttpRequestHandlerServlet</servlet-class>
</servlet>
Notice that the servlet name matches the bean name. For more information on using the
HttpRequestHandlerServlet, see chapter "Remoting and web services using Spring", which is
part of the Spring Framework Reference documentation.
If you are running within a Spring MVC application, then the aforementioned explicit servlet definition
is not necessary. In that case, the bean name for your gateway can be matched against the URL path
just like a Spring MVC Controller bean. For more information, please see the chapter "Web MVC
framework", which is part of the Spring Framework Reference documentation.
Tip
For a sample application and the corresponding configuration, please see the Spring Integration
Samples repository. It contains the Http Sample application demonstrating Spring Integration's
HTTP support.
Below is an example bean definition for a simple HTTP inbound endpoint.
<bean id="httpInbound"
class="org.springframework.integration.http.inbound.HttpRequestHandlingMessagingGateway">
<property name="requestChannel" ref="httpRequestChannel" />
<property name="replyChannel" ref="httpReplyChannel" />
</bean>
The HttpRequestHandlingMessagingGateway accepts a list of HttpMessageConverter
instances or else relies on a default list. The converters allow customization of the mapping from
HttpServletRequest to Message. The default converters encapsulate simple strategies, which
for example will create a String message for a POST request where the content type starts with "text",
see the Javadoc for full details.
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Starting with this release MultiPart File support was implemented. If the request has been wrapped
as a MultipartHttpServletRequest, when using the default converters, that request will be converted
to a Message payload that is a MultiValueMap containing values that may be byte arrays, Strings, or
instances of Spring's MultipartFile depending on the content type of the individual parts.
Note
The HTTP inbound Endpoint will locate a MultipartResolver in the context if one exists with
the bean name "multipartResolver" (the same name expected by Spring's DispatcherServlet).
If it does in fact locate that bean, then the support for MultipartFiles will be enabled on the
inbound request mapper. Otherwise, it will fail when trying to map a multipart-file request to
a Spring Integration Message. For more on Spring's support for MultipartResolvers, refer to
the Spring Reference Manual.
In sending a response to the client there are a number of ways to customize the behavior of the gateway.
By default the gateway will simply acknowledge that the request was received by sending a 200 status
code back. It is possible to customize this response by providing a 'viewName' to be resolved by the
Spring MVC ViewResolver. In the case that the gateway should expect a reply to the Message then
setting the expectReply flag (constructor argument) will cause the gateway to wait for a reply Message
before creating an HTTP response. Below is an example of a gateway configured to serve as a Spring
MVC Controller with a view name. Because of the constructor arg value of TRUE, it wait for a reply.
This also shows how to customize the HTTP methods accepted by the gateway, which are POST and
GET by default.
<bean id="httpInbound"
class="org.springframework.integration.http.inbound.HttpRequestHandlingController">
<constructor-arg value="true" /> <!-- indicates that a reply is expected -->
<property name="requestChannel" ref="httpRequestChannel" />
<property name="replyChannel" ref="httpReplyChannel" />
<property name="viewName" value="jsonView" />
<property name="supportedMethodNames" >
<list>
<value>GET</value>
<value>DELETE</value>
</list>
</property>
</bean>
The reply message will be available in the Model map. The key that is used for that map entry by default
is 'reply', but this can be overridden by setting the 'replyKey' property on the endpoint's configuration.
15.3 Http Outbound Gateway
To configure the HttpRequestExecutingMessageHandler write a bean definition like this:
<bean id="httpOutbound"
class="org.springframework.integration.http.outbound.HttpRequestExecutingMessageHandler">
<constructor-arg value="http://localhost:8080/example" />
<property name="outputChannel" ref="responseChannel" />
</bean>
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This bean definition will execute HTTP requests by delegating to a RestTemplate. That template in
turn delegates to a list of HttpMessageConverters to generate the HTTP request body from the Message
payload. You can configure those converters as well as the ClientHttpRequestFactory instance to use:
<bean id="httpOutbound"
class="org.springframework.integration.http.outbound.HttpRequestExecutingMessageHandler">
<constructor-arg value="http://localhost:8080/example" />
<property name="outputChannel" ref="responseChannel" />
<property name="messageConverters" ref="messageConverterList" />
<property name="requestFactory" ref="customRequestFactory" />
</bean>
By
default
the
HTTP
request
will
be
generated
using
an
instance
of
SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory which uses the JDK HttpURLConnection.
Use of the Apache Commons HTTP Client is also supported through the provided
CommonsClientHttpRequestFactory which can be injected as shown above.
Note
In the case of the Outbound Gateway, the reply message produced by the gateway will contain
all Message Headers present in the request message.
Cookies
Basic cookie support is provided by the transfer-cookies attribute on the outbound gateway. When set
to true (default is false), a Set-Cookie header received from the server in a response will be converted
to Cookie in the reply message. This header will then be used on subsequent sends. This enables simple
stateful interactions, such as...
...->logonGateway->...->doWorkGateway->...->logoffGateway->...
If transfer-cookies is false, any Set-Cookie header received will remain as Set-Cookie in the reply
message, and will be dropped on subsequent sends.
15.4 HTTP Namespace Support
Spring Integration provides an http namespace and the corresponding schema definition. To include it
in your configuration, simply provide the following namespace declaration in your application context
configuration file:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:int-http="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/http"
xsi:schemaLocation="
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/http
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/http/spring-integration-http.xsd">
...
</beans>
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Inbound
The XML Namespace provides two components for handling HTTP Inbound requests. In order to
process requests without returning a dedicated response, use the inbound-channel-adapter:
<int-http:inbound-channel-adapter id="httpChannelAdapter" channel="requests"
supported-methods="PUT, DELETE"/>
To process requests that do expect a response, use an inbound-gateway:
<int-http:inbound-gateway id="inboundGateway"
request-channel="requests"
reply-channel="responses"/>
Important
Beginning with Spring Integration 2.1 the HTTP Inbound Gateway and the HTTP Inbound
Channel Adapter should use the path attribute instead of the name attribute for specifying the
request path. The name attribute for those 2 components has been deprecated.
If you simply want to identify component itself within your application context, please use
the id attribute.
Defining the UriPathHandlerMapping
In order to use the HTTP Inbound Gateway or the HTTP Inbound Channel Adapter you must define
a UriPathHandlerMapping. This particular implementation of the HandlerMapping matches
against the value of the path attribute.
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.http.inbound.UriPathHandlerMapping"/>
For more information regarding Handler Mappings, please see:
• http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/current/spring-framework-reference/html/mvc.html#mvchandlermapping
URI Template Variables and Expressions
By Using the path attribute in conjunction with the payload-expression attribute as well as the header
sub-element, you have a high degree of flexiblity for mapping inbound request data.
In the following example configuration, an Inbound Channel Adapter is configured to accept requests
using the following URI: /first-name/{firstName}/last-name/{lastName}
Using the payload-expression attribute, the URI template variable {firstName} is mapped to be the
Message payload, while the {lastName} URI template variable will map to the lname Message header.
<int-http:inbound-channel-adapter id="inboundAdapterWithExpressions"
path="/first-name/{firstName}/last-name/{lastName}"
channel="requests"
payload-expression="#pathVariables.firstName">
<int-http:header name="lname" expression="#pathVariables.lastName"/>
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</int-http:inbound-channel-adapter>
For more information about URI template variables, please see the Spring Reference Manual:
• http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/current/spring-framework-reference/htmlsingle/springframework-reference.html#mvc-ann-requestmapping
Outbound
To configure the outbound gateway you can use the namespace support as well. The following code
snippet shows the different configuration options for an outbound Http gateway. Most importantly,
notice that the 'http-method' and 'expected-response-type' are provided. Those are two of the most
commonly configured values. The default http-method is POST, and the default response type is null.
With a null response type, the payload of the reply Message would contain the ResponseEntity as long
as it's http status is a success (non-successful status codes will throw Exceptions). If you are expecting
a different type, such as a String, then provide that fully-qualified class name as shown below.
<int-http:outbound-gateway id="example"
request-channel="requests"
url="http://localhost/test"
http-method="POST"
extract-request-payload="false"
expected-response-type="java.lang.String"
charset="UTF-8"
request-factory="requestFactory"
reply-timeout="1234"
reply-channel="replies"/>
Important
Beginning with Spring Integration 2.1 the request-timeout attribute of the HTTP Outbound
Gateway was renamed to reply-timeout to better reflect the intent.
Beginning with Spring Integration 2.2 you can also determine the HTTP Method dynamically using
SpEL and the http-method-expression attribute. Note that this attribute is obviously murually exclusive
with http-method You can also use expected-response-type-expression attribute instead
of expected-response-type and provide any valid SpEL expression that determines the type of
the response.
<int-http:outbound-gateway id="example"
request-channel="requests"
url="http://localhost/test"
http-method-expression="headers.httpMethod"
extract-request-payload="false"
expected-response-type-expression="payload"
charset="UTF-8"
request-factory="requestFactory"
reply-timeout="1234"
reply-channel="replies"/>
If your outbound adapter is to be used in a unidirectional way, then you can use an outboundchannel-adapter instead. This means that a successful response will simply execute without sending any
Messages to a reply channel. In the case of any non-successful response status code, it will throw an
exception. The configuration looks very similar to the gateway:
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<int-http:outbound-channel-adapter id="example"
url="http://localhost/example"
http-method="GET"
channel="requests"
charset="UTF-8"
extract-payload="false"
expected-response-type="java.lang.String"
request-factory="someRequestFactory"
order="3"
auto-startup="false"/>
Note
To specify the URL; you can use either the 'url' attribute or the 'url-expression' attribute. The
'url' is a simple string (with placedholders for URI variables, as described below); the 'urlexpression' is a SpEL expression, with the Message as the root object, enabling dynamic urls.
The url resulting from the expression evaluation can still have placeholders for URI variables.
In previous releases, some users used the place holders to replace the entire URL with a URI
variable. Changes in Spring 3.1 can cause some issues with escaped characters, such as '?'.
For this reason, it is recommended that if you wish to generate the URL entirely at runtime,
you use the 'url-expression' attribute.
Mapping URI variables
If your URL contains URI variables, you can map them using the uri-variable sub-element. This
sub-element is available for the Http Outbound Gateway and the Http Outbound Channel Adapter.
<int-http:outbound-gateway id="trafficGateway"
url="http://local.yahooapis.com/trafficData?appid=YdnDemo&amp;zip={zipCode}"
request-channel="trafficChannel"
http-method="GET"
expected-response-type="java.lang.String">
<int-http:uri-variable name="zipCode" expression="payload.getZip()"/>
</int-http:outbound-gateway>
The uri-variable sub-element defines two attributes: name and expression. The name
attribute identifies the name of the URI variable, while the expression attribute is used to set
the actual value. Using the expression attribute, you can leverage the full power of the Spring
Expression Language (SpEL) which gives you full dynamic access to the message payload and the
message headers. For example, in the above configuration the getZip() method will be invoked on
the payload object of the Message and the result of that method will be used as the value for the URI
variable named 'zipCode'.
15.5 Timeout Handling
In the context of HTTP components, there are two timing areas that have to be considered.
• Timeouts when interacting with Spring Integration Channels
• Timeouts when interacting with a remote HTTP server
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First, the components interact with Message Channels, for which timeouts can be specified. For example,
an HTTP Inbound Gateway will forward messages received from connected HTTP Clients to a Message
Channel (Request Timeout) and consequently the HTTP Inbound Gateway will receive a reply Message
from the Reply Channel (Reply Timeout) that will be used to generate the HTTP Response. Please see
the figure below for an illustration.
How timeout settings apply to an HTTP Inbound Gateway
For outbound endpoints, the second thing to consider is timing while interacting with the remote server.
How timeout settings apply to an HTTP Outbound Gateway
You may want to configure the HTTP related timeout behavior, when making active HTTP requests
using the HTTP Oubound Gateway or the HTTP Outbound Channel Adapter. In those instances, these
two components use Spring's RestTemplate support to execute HTTP requests.
In order to configure timeouts for the HTTP Oubound Gateway and the HTTP Outbound Channel
Adapter, you can either reference a RestTemplate bean directly, using the rest-template attribute,
or you can provide a reference to a ClientHttpRequestFactory bean using the request-factory attribute.
Spring provides the following implementations of the ClientHttpRequestFactory interface:
SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory - Uses standard J2SE facilities for making HTTP Requests
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HttpComponentsClientHttpRequestFactory - Uses Apache HttpComponents HttpClient
(Since Spring 3.1)
ClientHttpRequestFactory - Uses Jakarta Commons HttpClient (Deprecated as of Spring 3.1)
If you don't explicitly configure the request-factory or rest-template attribute respectively, then a default
RestTemplate which uses a SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory will be instantiated.
Note
With some JVM implementations, the handling of timeouts using the URLConnection class
may not be consistent.
E.g. from the Java™ Platform, Standard Edition 6 API Specification on setConnectTimeout:
“Some non-standard implmentation of this method may ignore the specified timeout. To see
the connect timeout set, please call getConnectTimeout().”
Please test your timeouts if you have specific needs. Consider using the
HttpComponentsClientHttpRequestFactory which, in turn, uses Apache
HttpComponents HttpClient instead.
Here is an example of how to configure an HTTP Outbound Gateway using a
SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory, configured with connect and read timeouts of 5 seconds
respectively:
<int-http:outbound-gateway url="http://www.google.com/ig/api?weather={city}"
http-method="GET"
expected-response-type="java.lang.String"
request-factory="requestFactory"
request-channel="requestChannel"
reply-channel="replyChannel">
<int-http:uri-variable name="city" expression="payload"/>
</int-http:outbound-gateway>
<bean id="requestFactory"
class="org.springframework.http.client.SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory">
<property name="connectTimeout" value="5000"/>
<property name="readTimeout"
value="5000"/>
</bean>
HTTP Outbound Gateway
For
the
HTTP
Outbound
Gateway,
the
XML
Schema
defines
only
the
reply-timeout.
The
reply-timeout
maps
to
the
sendTimeout
property
of
the
org.springframework.integration.http.outbound.HttpRequestExecutingMessageHandler class. More
precisely, the property is set on the extended AbstractReplyProducingMessageHandler
class, which ultimatelly sets the property on the MessagingTemplate.
The value of the sendTimeout property defaults to "-1" and will be applied to the connected
MessageChannel. This means, that depending on the implementation, the Message Channel's send
method may block indefinitely. Furthermore, the sendTimeout property is only used, when the actual
MessageChannel implementation has a blocking send (such as 'full' bounded QueueChannel).
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HTTP Inbound Gateway
For the HTTP Inbound Gateway, the XML Schema defines the request-timeout attribute, which will
be used to set the requestTimeout property on the HttpRequestHandlingMessagingGateway
class (on the extended MessagingGatewaySupport class). Secondly, the reply-timeout attribute exists
and it maps to the replyTimeout property on the same class.
The default for both timeout properties is "1000ms". Ultimately, the request-timeout property will be
used to set the sendTimeout on the used MessagingTemplate instance. The replyTimeout property
on the other hand, will be used to set the receiveTimeout property on the used MessagingTemplate
instance.
Tip
In order to simulate connection timeouts, connect to a non-routable IP address, for example
10.255.255.10.
15.6 HTTP Proxy configuration
If you are behind a proxy and need to configure proxy settings for HTTP outbound adapters and/or
gateways, you can apply one of two approaches. In most cases, you can rely on the standard Java System
Properties that control the proxy settings. Otherwise, you can explicitly configure a Spring bean for the
HTTP client request factory instance.
Standard Java Proxy configuration
There are 3 System Properties you can set to configure the proxy settings that will be used by the HTTP
protocol handler:
• http.proxyHost - the host name of the proxy server.
• http.proxyPort - the port number, the default value being 80.
• http.nonProxyHosts - a list of hosts that should be reached directly, bypassing the proxy. This is a list
of patterns separated by '|'. The patterns may start or end with a '*' for wildcards. Any host matching
one of these patterns will be reached through a direct connection instead of through a proxy.
And for HTTPS:
• https.proxyHost - the host name of the proxy server.
• https.proxyPort - the port number, the default value being 80.
For more information please refer to this document: http://download.oracle.com/javase/6/docs/
technotes/guides/net/proxies.html
Spring's SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory
If for any reason, you need more explicit control over the proxy configuration, you can use Spring's
SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory and configure its 'proxy' property as such:
<bean id="requestFactory"
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class="org.springframework.http.client.SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory">
<property name="proxy">
<bean id="proxy" class="java.net.Proxy">
<constructor-arg>
<util:constant static-field="java.net.Proxy.Type.HTTP"/>
</constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="java.net.InetSocketAddress">
<constructor-arg value="123.0.0.1"/>
<constructor-arg value="8080"/>
</bean>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
</property>
</bean>
15.7 HTTP Header Mappings
Spring Integration provides support for Http Header mapping for both HTTP Request and HTTP
Responses.
By default all standard Http Headers as defined here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
List_of_HTTP_header_fields will be mapped from the message to HTTP request/response headers
without further configuration. However if you do need further customization you may provide additional
configuration via convenient namespace support. You can provide a comma-separated list of header
names, and you can also include simple patterns with the '*' character acting as a wildcard. If you do
provide such values, it will override the default behavior. Basically, it assumes you are in complete
control at that point. However, if you do want to include all of the standard HTTP headers, you can
use the shortcut patterns: HTTP_REQUEST_HEADERS and HTTP_RESPONSE_HEADERS. Here
are some examples:
<int-http:outbound-gateway id="httpGateway"
url="http://localhost/test2"
mapped-request-headers="foo, bar"
mapped-response-headers="X-*, HTTP_RESPONSE_HEADERS"
channel="someChannel"/>
<int-http:outbound-channel-adapter id="httpAdapter"
url="http://localhost/test2"
mapped-request-headers="foo, bar, HTTP_REQUEST_HEADERS"
channel="someChannel"/>
The adapters and gateways will use the DefaultHttpHeaderMapper which now provides two
static factory methods for "inbound" and "outbound" adapters so that the proper direction can be applied
(mapping HTTP requests/responses IN/OUT as appropriate).
If further customization is required you can also configure a DefaultHttpHeaderMapper
independently and inject it into the adapter via the header-mapper attribute.
<int-http:outbound-gateway id="httpGateway"
url="http://localhost/test2"
header-mapper="headerMapper"
channel="someChannel"/>
<bean id="headerMapper" class="org.springframework.integration.http.support.DefaultHttpHeaderMapper">
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<property name="inboundHeaderNames" value="foo*, *bar, baz"/>
<property name="outboundHeaderNames" value="a*b, d"/>
</bean>
Of course, you can even implement the HeaderMapper strategy interface directly and provide a reference
to that if you need to do something other than what the DefaultHttpHeaderMapper supports.
15.8 HTTP Samples
Multipart HTTP request - RestTemplate (client) and Http Inbound
Gateway (server)
This example demonstrates how simple it is to send a Multipart HTTP request via Spring's RestTemplate
and receive it with a Spring Integration HTTP Inbound Adapter. All we are doing is creating a
MultiValueMap and populating it with multi-part data. The RestTemplate will take care of the
rest (no pun intended) by converting it to a MultipartHttpServletRequest . This particular
client will send a multipart HTTP Request which contains the name of the company as well as an image
file with the company logo.
RestTemplate template = new RestTemplate();
String uri = "http://localhost:8080/multipart-http/inboundAdapter.htm";
Resource s2logo =
new ClassPathResource("org/springframework/samples/multipart/spring09_logo.png");
MultiValueMap map = new LinkedMultiValueMap();
map.add("company", "SpringSource");
map.add("company-logo", s2logo);
HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
headers.setContentType(new MediaType("multipart", "form-data"));
HttpEntity request = new HttpEntity(map, headers);
ResponseEntity<?> httpResponse = template.exchange(uri, HttpMethod.POST, request, null);
That is all for the client.
On the server side we have the following configuration:
<int-http:inbound-channel-adapter id="httpInboundAdapter"
channel="receiveChannel"
name="/inboundAdapter.htm"
supported-methods="GET, POST" />
<int:channel id="receiveChannel"/>
<int:service-activator input-channel="receiveChannel">
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.samples.multipart.MultipartReceiver"/>
</int:service-activator>
<bean id="multipartResolver"
class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver"/>
The 'httpInboundAdapter' will receive the request, convert it to a Message with a payload that is
a LinkedMultiValueMap. We then are parsing that in the 'multipartReceiver' service-activator;
public void receive(LinkedMultiValueMap<String, Object> multipartRequest){
System.out.println("### Successfully received multipart request ###");
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for (String elementName : multipartRequest.keySet()) {
if (elementName.equals("company")){
System.out.println("\t" + elementName + " - " +
((String[]) multipartRequest.getFirst("company"))[0]);
}
else if (elementName.equals("company-logo")){
System.out.println("\t" + elementName + " - as UploadedMultipartFile: " +
((UploadedMultipartFile) multipartRequest.getFirst("company-logo")).
getOriginalFilename());
}
}
}
You should see the following output:
### Successfully received multipart request ###
company - SpringSource
company-logo - as UploadedMultipartFile: spring09_logo.png
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16. TCP and UDP Support
Spring Integration provides Channel Adapters for receiving and sending messages over internet
protocols. Both UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) adapters are
provided. Each adapter provides for one-way communication over the underlying protocol. In addition,
simple inbound and outbound tcp gateways are provided. These are used when two-way communication
is needed.
16.1 Introduction
Two
flavors
each
of
UDP
inbound
and
outbound
channel
adapters
are
provided UnicastSendingMessageHandler sends a datagram packet to a single
destination. UnicastReceivingChannelAdapter receives incoming datagram packets.
MulticastSendingMessageHandler sends (broadcasts) datagram packets to a multicast
address. MulticastReceivingChannelAdapter receives incoming datagram packets by
joining to a multicast address.
TCP inbound and outbound channel adapters are provided TcpSendingMessageHandler sends
messages over TCP. TcpReceivingChannelAdapter receives messages over TCP.
An inbound TCP gateway is provided; this allows for simple request/response processing. While the
gateway can support any number of connections, each connection can only process serially. The thread
that reads from the socket waits for, and sends, the response before reading again. If the connection
factory is configured for single use connections, the connection is closed after the socket times out.
An outbound TCP gateway is provided; this allows for simple request/response processing. If the
associated connection factory is configured for single use connections, a new connection is immediately
created for each new request. Otherwise, if the connection is in use, the calling thread blocks on the
connection until either a response is received or a timeout or I/O error occurs.
The TCP and UDP inbound channel adapters, and the TCP inbound gateway, support the "errorchannel" attribute. This provides the same basic functionality as described in the section called “Enter
the GatewayProxyFactoryBean”.
16.2 UDP Adapters
<int-ip:udp-outbound-channel-adapter id="udpOut"
host="somehost"
port="11111"
multicast="false"
channel="exampleChannel" />
A simple UDP outbound channel adapter.
Tip
When setting multicast to true, provide the multicast address in the host attribute.
UDP is an efficient, but unreliable protocol. Two attributes are added to improve reliability. When
check-length is set to true, the adapter precedes the message data with a length field (4 bytes in network
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byte order). This enables the receiving side to verify the length of the packet received. If a receiving
system uses a buffer that is too short the contain the packet, the packet can be truncated. The length
header provides a mechanism to detect this.
<int-ip:udp-outbound-channel-adapter id="udpOut"
host="somehost"
port="11111"
multicast="false"
check-length="true"
channel="exampleChannel" />
An outbound channel adapter that adds length checking to the datagram packets.
Tip
The recipient of the packet must also be configured to expect a length to precede the actual data.
For a Spring Integration UDP inbound channel adapter, set its check-length attribute.
The second reliability improvement allows an application-level acknowledgment protocol to be used.
The receiver must send an acknowledgment to the sender within a specified time.
<int-ip:udp-outbound-channel-adapter id="udpOut"
host="somehost"
port="11111"
multicast="false"
check-length="true"
acknowledge="true"
ack-host="thishost"
ack-port="22222"
ack-timeout="10000"
channel="exampleChannel" />
An outbound channel adapter that adds length checking to the datagram packets and waits for an
acknowledgment.
Tip
Setting acknowledge to true implies the recipient of the packet can interpret the header added
to the packet containing acknowledgment data (host and port). Most likely, the recipient will
be a Spring Integration inbound channel adapter.
Tip
When multicast is true, an additional attribute min-acks-for-success specifies how many
acknowledgments must be received within the ack-timeout.
For even more reliable networking, TCP can be used.
<int-ip:udp-inbound-channel-adapter id="udpReceiver"
channel="udpOutChannel"
port="11111"
receive-buffer-size="500"
multicast="false"
check-length="true" />
A basic unicast inbound udp channel adapter.
<int-ip:udp-inbound-channel-adapter id="udpReceiver"
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channel="udpOutChannel"
port="11111"
receive-buffer-size="500"
multicast="true"
multicast-address="225.6.7.8"
check-length="true" />
A basic multicast inbound udp channel adapter.
By default, reverse DNS lookups are done on inbound packets to convert IP addresses to hostnames
for use in message headers. In environments where DNS is not configured, this can cause delays. This
default behavior can be overridden by setting the lookup-host attribute to "false".
16.3 TCP Connection Factories
For TCP, the configuration of the underlying connection is provided using a Connection Factory. Two
types of connection factory are provided; a client connection factory and a server connection factory.
Client connection factories are used to establish outgoing connections; Server connection factories listen
for incoming connections.
A client connection factory is used by an outbound channel adapter but a reference to a client connection
factory can also be provided to an inbound channel adapter and that adapter will receive any incoming
messages received on connections created by the outbound adapter.
A server connection factory is used by an inbound channel adapter or gateway (in fact the connection
factory will not function without one). A reference to a server connection factory can also be provided
to an outbound adapter; that adapter can then be used to send replies to incoming messages to the same
connection.
Tip
Reply messages will only be routed to the connection if the reply contains the header
ip_connection_id that was inserted into the original message by the connection factory.
Tip
This is the extent of message correlation performed when sharing connection factories
between inbound and outbound adapters. Such sharing allows for asynchronous two-way
communication over TCP. Only payload information is transferred using TCP; therefore any
message correlation must be performed by downstream components such as aggregators or
other endpoints. For more information refer to Section 16.7, “TCP Message Correlation”.
A maximum of one adapter of each type may be given a reference to a connection factory.
Connection factories using java.net.Socket and java.nio.channel.SocketChannel are
provided.
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="server"
type="server"
port="1234"
/>
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A simple server connection factory that uses java.net.Socket connections.
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="server"
type="server"
port="1234"
using-nio="true"
/>
A simple server connection factory that uses java.nio.channel.SocketChannel connections.
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="client"
type="client"
host="localhost"
port="1234"
single-use="true"
so-timeout="10000"
/>
A client connection factory that uses java.net.Socket connections and creates a new connection
for each message.
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="client"
type="client"
host="localhost"
port="1234"
single-use="true"
so-timeout="10000"
using-nio=true
/>
A client connection factory that uses java.nio.channel.Socket connections and creates a new
connection for each message.
TCP is a streaming protocol; this means that some structure has to be provided to data transported over
TCP, so the receiver can demarcate the data into discrete messages. Connection factories are configured
to use (de)serializers to convert between the message payload and the bits that are sent over TCP.
This is accomplished by providing a deserializer and serializer for inbound and outbound messages
respectively. A number of standard (de)serializers are provided.
The ByteArrayCrlfSerializer, converts a byte array to a stream of bytes followed by carriage
return and linefeed characters (\r\n). This is the default (de)serializer and can be used with telnet as a
client, for example.
The ByteArrayStxEtxSerializer, converts a byte array to a stream of bytes preceded by an
STX (0x02) and followed by an ETX (0x03).
The ByteArrayLengthHeaderSerializer, converts a byte array to a stream of bytes preceded
by a binary length in network byte order (big endian). This a very efficient deserializer because it does
not have to parse every byte looking for a termination character sequence. It can also be used for payloads
containing binary data; the above serializers only support text in the payload. The default size of the
length header is 4 bytes (Integer), allowing for messages up to 2**31-1 bytes. However, the length
header can be a single byte (unsigned) for messages up to 255 bytes, or an unsigned short (2 bytes) for
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messages up to 2**16 bytes. If you need any other format for the header, you can subclass this class and
provide implementations for the readHeader and writeHeader methods. The absolute maximum data
size supported is 2**31-1 bytes.
The ByteArrayRawSerializer, converts a byte array to a stream of bytes and adds no additional
message demarcation data; with this (de)serializer, the end of a message is indicated by the client closing
the socket in an orderly fashion. When using this serializer, message reception will hang until the client
closes the socket, or a timeout occurs; a timeout will NOT result in a message. When this serializer is
being used, and the client is a Spring Integration application, the client must use a connection factory
that is configured with single-use=true - this causes the adapter to close the socket after sending the
message; the serializer will not, itself, close the connection. This serializer should only be used with
connection factories used by channel adapters (not gateways), and the connection factories should be
used by either an inbound or outbound adapter, and not both.
Each
of
these
is
a
subclass
of
AbstractByteArraySerializer
which
implements
both
org.springframework.core.serializer.Serializer
and
org.springframework.core.serializer.Deserializer. For backwards compatibility,
connections using any subclass of AbstractByteArraySerializer for serialization will also
accept a String which will be converted to a byte array first. Each of these (de)serializers converts an
input stream containing the corresponding format to a byte array payload.
To avoid memory exhaustion due to a badly behaved client (one that does not adhere to the protocol
of the configured serializer), these serializers impose a maximum message size. If the size is exceeded
by an incoming message, an exception will be thrown. The default maximum message size is 2048
bytes, and can be increased by setting the maxMessageSize property. If you are using the default
(de)serializer and wish to increase the maximum message size, you must declare it as an explicit bean
with the property set and configure the connection factory to use that bean.
The
final
standard
serializer
is
org.springframework.core.serializer.DefaultSerializer which can be
used
to
convert
Serializable
objects
using
java
serialization.
org.springframework.core.serializer.DefaultDeserializer is provided for
inbound deserialization of streams containing Serializable objects.
To
implement
a
custom
(de)serializer
pair,
implement
org.springframework.core.serializer.Deserializer
org.springframework.core.serializer.Serializer interfaces.
the
and
If you do not wish to use the default (de)serializer (ByteArrayCrLfSerializer), you must supply
serializer and deserializer attributes on the connection factory (example below).
<bean id="javaSerializer"
class="org.springframework.core.serializer.DefaultSerializer" />
<bean id="javaDeserializer"
class="org.springframework.core.serializer.DefaultDeserializer" />
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="server"
type="server"
port="1234"
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deserializer="javaDeserializer"
serializer="javaSerializer"
/>
A server connection factory that uses java.net.Socket connections and uses Java serialization on
the wire.
For full details of the attributes available on connection factories, see the reference at the end of this
section.
By default, reverse DNS lookups are done on inbound packets to convert IP addresses to hostnames
for use in message headers. In environments where DNS is not configured, this can cause connection
delays. This default behavior can be overridden by setting the lookup-host attribute to "false".
Note
It is possible to modify the creation of and/or attributes of sockets - see Section 16.9, “SSL/TLS
Support”. As is noted there, such modifications are possible whether or not SSL is being used.
TCP Caching Client Connection Factory
As noted above, TCP sockets cam be 'single-use' (one request/response) or shared. Shared sockets do
not perform well with outbound gateways, in high-volume environments, because the socket can only
process one request/response at a time.
To improve performance, users could use collaborating channel adapters instead of gateways, but that
requires application-level message correlation. See Section 16.7, “TCP Message Correlation”for more
information.
Spring Integration 2.2 introduced a caching client connection factory, where a pool of shared sockets is
used, allowing a gateway to process multiple concurrent requests with a pool of shared connections.
TCP Failover Client Connection Factory
It is now possible to configure a TCP connection factory that supports failover to one or more other
servers. When sending a message, the factory will iterate over all its configured factories until either the
message can be sent, or no connection can be found. Initially, the first factory in the configured list is
used; if a connection subsequently fails the next factory will become the current factory.
<bean id="failCF" class="o.s.i.ip.tcp.connection.FailoverClientConnectionFactory">
<constructor-arg>
<list>
<ref bean="clientFactory1"/>
<ref bean="clientFactory2"/>
</list>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
Note
When using the failover connection factory, the singleUse property must be consistent between
the factory itself and the list of factories it is configured to use.
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16.4 TCP Connection Interceptors
Connection
factories
can
be
configured
with
a
reference
to
a
TcpConnectionInterceptorFactoryChain. Interceptors can be used to add behavior to
connections, such as negotiation, security, and other setup. No interceptors are currently provided by the
framework but, for an example, see the InterceptedSharedConnectionTests in the source
repository.
The HelloWorldInterceptor used in the test case works as follows:
When configured with a client connection factory, when the first message is sent over a connection that
is intercepted, the interceptor sends 'Hello' over the connection, and expects to receive 'world!'. When
that occurs, the negotiation is complete and the original message is sent; further messages that use the
same connection are sent without any additional negotiation.
When configured with a server connection factory, the interceptor requires the first message to be 'Hello'
and, if it is, returns 'world!'. Otherwise it throws an exception causing the connection to be closed.
All TcpConnection methods are intercepted. Interceptor instances are created for each connection
by an interceptor factory. If an interceptor is stateful, the factory should create a new instance
for each connection. Interceptor factories are added to the configuration of an interceptor
factory chain, which is provided to a connection factory using the interceptor-factory
attribute. Interceptors must implement the TcpConnectionInterceptor interface; factories
must implement the TcpConnectionInterceptorFactory interface. A convenience class
AbstractTcpConnectionInterceptor is provided with passthrough methods; by extending
this class, you only need to implement those methods you wish to intercept.
<bean id="helloWorldInterceptorFactory"
class="org.springframework.integration.ip.tcp.connection.TcpConnectionInterceptorFactoryChain">
<property name="interceptors">
<array>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.ip.tcp.connection.HelloWorldInterceptorFactory"/>
</array>
</property>
</bean>
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="server"
type="server"
port="12345"
using-nio="true"
single-use="true"
interceptor-factory-chain="helloWorldInterceptorFactory"
/>
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="client"
type="client"
host="localhost"
port="12345"
single-use="true"
so-timeout="100000"
using-nio="true"
interceptor-factory-chain="helloWorldInterceptorFactory"
/>
Configuring a connection interceptor factory chain.
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16.5 TCP Adapters
TCP inbound and outbound channel adapters that utilize the above connection factories are provided.
These adapters have attributes connection-factory and channel. The channel attribute
specifies the channel on which messages arrive at an outbound adapter and on which messages are
placed by an inbound adapter. The connection-factory attribute indicates which connection factory is
to be used to manage connections for the adapter. While both inbound and outbound adapters can
share a connection factory, server connection factories are always 'owned' by an inbound adapter; client
connection factories are always 'owned' by an outbound adapter. One, and only one, adapter of each
type may get a reference to a connection factory.
<bean id="javaSerializer"
class="org.springframework.core.serializer.DefaultSerializer" />
<bean id="javaDeserializer"
class="org.springframework.core.serializer.DefaultDeserializer" />
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="server"
type="server"
port="1234"
deserializer="javaDeserializer"
serializer="javaSerializer"
using-nio="true"
single-use="true"
/>
<int-ip:tcp-connection-factory id="client"
type="client"
host="localhost"
port="#{server.port}"
single-use="true"
so-timeout="10000"
deserializer="javaDeserializer"
serializer="javaSerializer"
/>
<int:channel id="input" />
<int:channel id="replies">
<int:queue/>
</int:channel>
<int-ip:tcp-outbound-channel-adapter id="outboundClient"
channel="input"
connection-factory="client"/>
<int-ip:tcp-inbound-channel-adapter id="inboundClient"
channel="replies"
connection-factory="client"/>
<int-ip:tcp-inbound-channel-adapter id="inboundServer"
channel="loop"
connection-factory="server"/>
<int-ip:tcp-outbound-channel-adapter id="outboundServer"
channel="loop"
connection-factory="server"/>
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<int:channel id="loop" />
In this configuration, messages arriving in channel 'input' are serialized over connections created
by 'client' received at the server and placed on channel 'loop'. Since 'loop' is the input channel
for 'outboundServer' the message is simply looped back over the same connection and received by
'inboundClient' and deposited in channel 'replies'. Java serialization is used on the wire.
Normally, inbound adapters use a type="server" connection factory, which listens for incoming
connection requests. In some cases, it is desireable to establish the connection in reverse, whereby the
inbound adapter connects to an external server and then waits for inbound messages on that connection.
This topology is supported by using client-mode="true" on the inbound adapter. In this case, the
connection factory must be of type 'client' and must have single-use set to false.
Two additional attributes are used to support this mechanism: retry-interval specifies (in milliseconds)
how often the framework will attempt to reconnect after a connection failure. scheduler is used to supply
a TaskScheduler used to schedule the connection attempts, and to test that the connection is still
active.
For an outbound adapter, the connection is normally established when the first message is sent. clientmode="true" on an outbound adapter will cause the connection to be established when the adapter is
started. Adapters are automatically started by default. Again, the connection factory must be of type
client and have single-use set to false and retry-interval and scheduler are also supported. If a connection
fails, it will be re-established either by the scheduler or when the next message is sent.
For both inbound and outbound, if the adapter is started, you may force the adapter to establish a
connection by sending a <control-bus /> command: @adapter_id.retryConnection() and
examine the current state with @adapter_id.isConnected().
16.6 TCP Gateways
The inbound TCP gateway TcpInboundGateway and outbound TCP gateway
TcpOutboundGateway use a server and client connection factory respectively. Each connection can
process a single request/response at a time.
The inbound gateway, after constructing a message with the incoming payload and sending it to the
requestChannel, waits for a response and sends the payload from the response message by writing it
to the connection.
Note
For the inbound gateway, care must be taken to retain, or populate, the ip_connnection_id
header because it is used to correlate the message to a connection. Messages that originate at
the gateway will automatically have the header set. If the reply is constructed as a new message,
you will need to set the header. The header value can be captured from the incoming message.
As with inbound adapters, inbound gateways normally use a type="server" connection factory, which
listens for incoming connection requests. In some cases, it is desireable to establish the connection in
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reverse, whereby the inbound gateway connects to an external server and then waits for, and replies to,
inbound messages on that connection.
This topology is supported by using client-mode="true" on the inbound gateway. In this case, the
connection factory must be of type 'client' and must have single-use set to false.
Two additional attributes are used to support this mechanism: retry-interval specifies (in milliseconds)
how often the framework will attempt to reconnect after a connection failure. scheduler is used to supply
a TaskScheduler used to schedule the connection attempts, and to test that the connection is still
active.
If the gateway is started, you may force the gateway to establish a connection by sending a <controlbus /> command: @adapter_id.retryConnection() and examine the current state with
@adapter_id.isConnected().
The outbound gateway, after sending a message over the connection, waits for a response and constructs
a response message and puts in on the reply channel. Communications over the connections are singlethreaded. Users should be aware that only one message can be handled at a time and, if another thread
attempts to send a message before the current response has been received, it will block until any previous
requests are complete (or time out). If, however, the client connection factory is configured for singleuse connections each new request gets its own connection and is processed immediately.
<int-ip:tcp-inbound-gateway id="inGateway"
request-channel="tcpChannel"
reply-channel="replyChannel"
connection-factory="cfServer"
reply-timeout="10000"
/>
A simple inbound TCP gateway; if a connection factory configured with the default (de)serializer is
used, messages will be \r\n delimited data and the gateway can be used by a simple client such as telnet.
<int-ip:tcp-outbound-gateway id="outGateway"
request-channel="tcpChannel"
reply-channel="replyChannel"
connection-factory="cfClient"
request-timeout="10000"
remote-timeout="10000"
/>
A simple outbound TCP gateway.
16.7 TCP Message Correlation
Overview
One goal of the IP Endpoints is to provide communication with systems other than another Spring
Integration application. For this reason, only message payloads are sent and received. No message
correlation is provided by the framework, except when using the gateways, or collaborating channel
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adapters on the server side. In the paragraphs below we discuss the various correlation techniques
available to applications. In most cases, this requires specific application-level correlation of messages,
even when message payloads contain some natural correlation data (such as an order number).
Gateways
The gateways will automatically correlate messages. However, an outbound gateway should only be
used for relatively low-volume use. When the connection factory is configured for a single shared
connection to be used for all message pairs ('single-use="false"'), only one message can be processed at
a time. A new message will have to wait until the reply to the previous message has been received. When
a connection factory is configured for each new message to use a new connection ('single-use="true"'),
the above restriction does not apply. While this may give higher throughput than a shared connection
environment, it comes with the overhead of opening and closing a new connection for each message pair.
Therefore, for high-volume messages, consider using a collaborating pair of channel adapters. However,
you will need to provide collaboration logic.
Another
solution,
introduced
in
Spring
Integration
2.2,
is
to
use
a
CachingClientConnectionFactory, which allows the use of a pool of shared connections.
Collaborating Outbound and Inbound Channel Adapters
To achieve high-volume throughput (avoiding the pitfalls of using gateways as mentioned above) you
may consider configuring a pair of collaborating outbound and inbound channel adapters. Collaborating
adapters can also be used (server-side or client-side) for totally asynchronous communication (rather
than with request/reply semantics). On the server side, message correlation is automatically handled by
the adapters because the inbound adapter adds a header allowing the outbound adapter to determine
which connection to use to send the reply message.
Note
On the server side, care must be taken to populate the ip_connnection_id header because it is
used to correlate the message to a connection. Messages that originate at the inbound adapter
will automatically have the header set. If you wish to construct other messages to send, you
will need to set the header. The header value can be captured from an incoming message.
On the client side, the application will have to provide its own correlation logic, if needed. This can be
done in a number of ways.
If the message payload has some natural correlation data, such as a transaction id or an order number,
AND there is no need to retain any information (such as a reply channel header) from the original
outbound message, the correlation is simple and would done at the application level in any case.
If the message payload has some natural correlation data, such as a transaction id or an order number, but
there is a need to retain some information (such as a reply channel header) from the original outbound
message, you may need to retain a copy of the original outbound message (perhaps by using a publishsubscribe channel) and use an aggregator to recombine the necessary data.
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For either of the previous two paragraphs, if the payload has no natural correlation data, you may need
to provide a transformer upstream of the outbound channel adapter to enhance the payload with such
data. Such a transformer may transform the original payload to a new object containing both the original
payload and some subset of the message headers. Of course, live objects (such as reply channels) from
the headers can not be included in the transformed payload.
If such a strategy is chosen you will need to ensure the connection factory has an appropriate
serializer/deserializer pair to handle such a payload, such as the DefaultSerializer/
Deserializer which use java serialization, or a custom serializer and deserializer. The
ByteArray*Serializer options mentioned in Section 16.3, “TCP Connection Factories”,
including the default ByteArrayCrLfSerializer, do not support such payloads, unless the
transformed payload is a String or byte[],
Note
Before the 2.2 release, when a client connection factory was used by collaborating channel
adapters, the so-timeout attribute defaulted to the default reply timeout (10 seconds). This
meant that if no data were received by the inbound adapter for this period of time, the socket
was closed.
This default behavior was not appropriate in a truly asynchronous environment, so it now
defaults to an infinite timeout. You can reinstate the previous default behavior by setting the
so-timeout attribute on the client connection factory to 10000 milliseconds.
16.8 A Note About NIO
Using NIO (see using-nio in Section 16.10, “IP Configuration Attributes”) avoids dedicating a
thread to read from each socket. For a small number of sockets, you will likely find that not using NIO,
together with an async handoff (e.g. to a QueueChannel), will perform as well as, or better than,
using NIO.
Consider using NIO when handling a large number of connections. However, the use of NIO has
some other ramifications. A pool of threads (in the task executor) is shared across all the sockets;
each incoming message is assembled and sent to the configured channel as a separate unit of work
on a thread selected from that pool. Two sequential messages arriving on the same socket might be
processed by different threads. This means that the order in which the messages are sent to the channel
is indeterminate; the strict ordering of the messages arriving on the socket is not maintained.
For some applications, this is not an issue; for others it is. If strict ordering is required, consider setting
using-nio to false and using async handoff.
Alternatively, you may choose to insert a resequencer downstream of the inbound endpoint to return the
messages to their proper sequence. Set apply-sequence to true on the connection factory, and messages
arriving on a TCP connection will have sequenceNumber and correlationId headers set. The resequencer
uses these headers to return the messages to their proper sequence.
Pool Size
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The pool size attribute is no longer used; previously, it specified the size of the default thread pool when
a task-executor was not specified. It was also used to set the connection backlog on server sockets. The
first function is no longer needed (see below); the second function is replaced by the backlog attribute.
Previously, when using a fixed thread pool task executor (which was the default), with NIO, it was
possible to get a deadlock and processing would stop. The problem occurred when a buffer was full,
a thread reading from the socket was trying to add more data to the buffer, and there were no threads
available to make space in the buffer. This only occurred with a very small pool size, but it could
be possible under extreme conditions. Since 2.2, two changes have eliminated this problem. First, the
default task executor is a cached thread pool executor. Second, deadlock detection logic has been added
such that if thread starvation occurs, instead of deadlocking, an exception is thrown, thus releasing the
deadlocked resources.
Note
Now that the default task executor is unbounded, it is possible that an out of memory condition
might occur with high rates of incoming messages, if message processing takes extended time.
If your application exhibits this type of behavior, you are advised to use a pooled task executor
with an appropriate pool size.
16.9 SSL/TLS Support
Overview
Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security is supported. When using NIO, the JDK 5+
SSLEngine feature is used to handle handshaking after the connection is established. When not
using NIO, standard SSLSocketFactory and SSLServerSocketFactory objects are used to
create connections. A number of strategy interfaces are provided to allow significant customization;
default implementations of these interfaces provide for the simplest way to get started with secure
communications.
Getting Started
Regardless of whether NIO is being used, you need to configure the ssl-context-support
attribute on the connection factory. This attribute references a <bean/> definition that describes the
location and passwords for the required key stores.
SSL/TLS peers require two keystores each; a keystore containing private/public key pairs identifying
the peer; a truststore, containing the public keys for peers that are trusted. See the documentation for
the keytool utility provided with the JDK. The essential steps are
1. Create a new key pair and store in a keystore.
2. Export the public key.
3. Import the public key into the peer's truststore.
Repeat for the other peer.
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Note
It is common in test cases to use the same key stores on both peers, but this should be avoided
for production.
After establishing the key stores, the next step is to indicate their locations to the
TcpSSLContextSupport bean, and provide a reference to that bean to the connection factory.
<bean id="sslContextSupport"
class="o.sf.integration.ip.tcp.connection.support.DefaultTcpSSLContextSupport">
<constructor-arg value="client.ks"/>
<constructor-arg value="client.truststore.ks"/>
<constructor-arg value="secret"/>
<constructor-arg value="secret"/>
</bean>
<ip:tcp-connection-factory id="clientFactory"
type="client"
host="localhost"
port="1234"
ssl-context-support="sslContextSupport"
The DefaulTcpSSLContextSupport class also has an optional 'protocol' property, which can be
'SSL' or 'TLS' (default).
The keystore file names (first two constructor arguments) use the Spring Resource abstraction; by
default the files will be located on the classpath, but this can be overridden by using the file: prefix,
to find the files on the filesystem instead.
Advanced Techniques
In many cases, the configuration described above is all that is needed to enable secure communication
over TCP/IP. However, a number of strategy interfaces are provided to allow customization and
modification of socket factories and sockets.
• TcpSSLContextSupport
• TcpSocketFactorySupport
• TcpSocketSupport
public interface TcpSSLContextSupport {
SSLContext getSSLContext() throws Exception;
}
Implementations of this interface are responsible for creating an SSLContext. The sole implementation
provided by the framework is the DefaultTcpSSLContextSupport described above. If you
require different behavior, implement this interface and provide the connection factory with a reference
to a bean of your class' implementation.
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public interface TcpSocketFactorySupport {
ServerSocketFactory getServerSocketFactory();
SocketFactory getSocketFactory();
}
Implementations of this interface are responsible for obtaining references to
ServerSocketFactory and SocketFactory. Two implementations are provided; the first is
DefaultTcpNetSocketFactorySupport for non-SSL sockets (when no 'ssl-context-support'
attribute is defined); this simply uses the JDK's default factories. The second implementation is
DefaultTcpNetSSLSocketFactorySupport; this is used, by default, when an 'ssl-contextsupport' attribute is defined; it uses the SSLContext created by that bean to create the socket factories.
Note
This interface only applies if using-nio is "false"; socket factories are not used by NIO.
public interface TcpSocketSupport {
void postProcessServerSocket(ServerSocket serverSocket);
void postProcessSocket(Socket socket);
Implementations of this interface can modify sockets after they are created, and after all configured
attributes have been applied, but before the sockets are used. This applies whether or not NIO is being
used. For example, you could use an implementation of this interface to modify the supported cipher
suites on an SSL socket, or you could add a listener that gets notified after SSL handshaking is complete.
The sole implementation provided by the framework is the DefaultTcpSocketSupport which
does not modify the sockets in any way
To supply your own implementation of TcpSocketFactorySupport or TcpSocketSupport,
provide the connection factory with references to beans of your custom type using the socketfactory-support and socket-support attributes, respectively.
16.10 IP Configuration Attributes
Table 16.1. Connection Factory Attributes
Attribute Name
Client? Server? Allowed Values
type
Y
Y
host
Y
N
The host name or ip address of the
destination.
port
Y
Y
The port.
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Determines whether the connection
factory is a client or server.
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Attribute Name
Client? Server? Allowed Values
Attribute Description
serializer
Y
Y
An implementation of Serializer
used to serialize the payload. Defaults to
ByteArrayCrLfSerializer
deserializer
Y
Y
An implementation of Deserializer
used to deserialize the payload. Defaults
to ByteArrayCrLfSerializer
using-nio
Y
Y
true, false
Whether or not connection uses NIO.
Refer to the java.nio package for more
information. See Section 16.8, “A Note
About NIO”. Default false.
using-directbuffers
Y
N
true, false
When using NIO, whether or not
the connection uses direct buffers.
Refer to java.nio.ByteBuffer
documentation for more information.
Must be false if using-nio is false.
apply-sequence
Y
Y
true, false
When using NIO, it may be necessary
to resequence messages. When this
attribute is set to true, correlationId and
sequenceNumber headers will be added
to received messages. See Section 16.8,
“A Note About NIO”. Default false.
so-timeout
Y
Y
Defaults to 0 (infinity), except for
server connection factories with singleuse="true". In that case, it defaults to the
default reply timeout (10 seconds).
so-send-buffer-size
Y
Y
See
java.net.Socket.
setSendBufferSize().
so-receive-buffersize
Y
Y
See
java.net.Socket.
setReceiveBufferSize().
so-keep-alive
Y
Y
so-linger
Y
Y
so-tcp-no-delay
Y
Y
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true, false
See
java.net.Socket.
setKeepAlive().
Sets linger to true with supplied
value. See java.net.Socket.
setSoLinger().
true, false
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See
java.net.Socket.
setTcpNoDelay().
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Attribute Name
Client? Server? Allowed Values
Attribute Description
so-traffic-class
Y
Y
See
java.net.Socket.
setTrafficClass().
local-address
N
Y
On a multi-homed system, specifies an
IP address for the interface to which the
socket will be bound.
task-executor
Y
Y
Specifies a specific Executor to be used
for socket handling. If not supplied, an
internal cached thread executor will be
used. Needed on some platforms that
require the use of specific task executors
such as a WorkManagerTaskExecutor.
single-use
Y
Y
pool-size
N
N
This attribute is no longer used. For
backward compatibility, it sets the
backlog but users should use backlog to
specify the connection backlog in server
factories
backlog
N
Y
Sets the connection backlog for server
factories.
lookup-host
Y
Y
interceptorfactory-chain
Y
Y
See Section 16.4, “TCP Connection
Interceptors”
ssl-context-support
Y
Y
See Section 16.9, “SSL/TLS Support”
socket-factorysupport
Y
Y
See Section 16.9, “SSL/TLS Support”
socket-support
Y
Y
See Section 16.9, “SSL/TLS Support”
true, false
Specifies whether a connection can be
used for multiple messages. If true, a
new connection will be used for each
message.
true, false
Specifies whether reverse lookups are
done on IP addresses to convert to host
names for use in message headers. If
false, the IP address is used instead.
Defaults to true.
Table 16.2. UDP Inbound Channel Adapter Attributes
Attribute Name
port
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Attribute Description
The port on which the adapter listens.
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Attribute Name
multicast
Allowed Values
true, false
Attribute Description
Whether or not the udp adapter uses multicast.
multicast-address
When multicast is true, the multicast address to
which the adapter joins.
pool-size
Specifies the concurrency. Specifies how many
packets can be handled concurrently. It only
applies if task-executor is not configured. Defaults
to 5.
task-executor
Specifies a specific Executor to be used for socket
handling. If not supplied, an internal pooled
executor will be used. Needed on some platforms
that require the use of specific task executors such
as a WorkManagerTaskExecutor. See pool-size
for thread requirements.
receive-buffer-size
The size of the buffer used to receive
DatagramPackets. Usually set to the MTU size. If
a smaller buffer is used than the size of the sent
packet, truncation can occur. This can be detected
by means of the check-length attribute..
check-length
true, false
Whether or not a udp adapter expects a data length
field in the packet received. Used to detect packet
truncation.
so-timeout
See
java.net.DatagramSocket
setSoTimeout() methods for more information.
so-send-buffer-size
Used
for
udp
acknowledgment
packets. See java.net.DatagramSocket
setSendBufferSize()
methods
for
more
information.
so-receive-buffer- size
See
java.net.DatagramSocket
setReceiveBufferSize() for more information.
local-address
On a multi-homed system, specifies an IP address
for the interface to which the socket will be bound.
error-channel
If an Exception is thrown by a downstream
component, the MessagingException message
containing the exception and failed message is
sent to this channel.
lookup-host
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true, false
Specifies whether reverse lookups are done on
IP addresses to convert to host names for use in
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Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
message headers. If false, the IP address is used
instead. Defaults to true.
Table 16.3. UDP Outbound Channel Adapter Attributes
Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
host
The host name or ip address of the destination. For
multicast udp adapters, the multicast address.
port
The port on the destination.
multicast
true, false
Whether or not the udp adapter uses multicast.
acknowledge
true, false
Whether or not a udp adapter requires an
acknowledgment from the destination. when
enabled, requires setting the following 4
attributes.
ack-host
When acknowledge is true, indicates the host or
ip address to which the acknowledgment should
be sent. Usually the current host, but may be
different, for example when Network Address
Transaction (NAT) is being used.
ack-port
When acknowledge is true, indicates the port to
which the acknowledgment should be sent. The
adapter listens on this port for acknowledgments.
ack-timeout
When acknowledge is true, indicates the time
in milliseconds that the adapter will wait for
an acknowledgment. If an acknowledgment is
not received in time, the adapter will throw an
exception.
min-acks-for- success
Defaults to 1. For multicast adapters, you can set
this to a larger value, requiring acknowledgments
from multiple destinations.
check-length
true, false
Whether or not a udp adapter includes a data
length field in the packet sent to the destination.
time-to-live
For multicast adapters, specifies the time to live
attribute for the MulticastSocket; controls
the scope of the multicasts. Refer to the Java API
documentation for more information.
so-timeout
See
java.net.DatagramSocket
setSoTimeout() methods for more information.
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Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
so-send-buffer-size
See
java.net.DatagramSocket
setSendBufferSize()
methods
for
more
information.
so-receive-buffer- size
Used
for
udp
acknowledgment
packets. See java.net.DatagramSocket
setReceiveBufferSize() methods for more
information.
local-address
On a multi-homed system, for the UDP adapter,
specifies an IP address for the interface to which
the socket will be bound for reply messages. For
a multicast adapter it is also used to determine
which interface the multicast packets will be sent
over.
task-executor
Specifies a specific Executor to be used for
acknowledgment handling. If not supplied, an
internal single threaded executor will be used.
Needed on some platforms that require the
use of specific task executors such as a
WorkManagerTaskExecutor. One thread will be
dedicated to handling acknowledgments (if the
acknowledge option is true).
Table 16.4. TCP Inbound Channel Adapter Attributes
Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
channel
The channel to which inbound messages will be sent.
connectionfactory
If the connection factory has a type 'server', the factory is
'owned' by this adapter. If it has a type 'client', it is 'owned'
by an outbound channel adapter and this adapter will receive
any incoming messages on the connection created by the
outbound adapter.
error-channel
If an Exception is thrown by a downstream component, the
MessagingException message containing the exception and
failed message is sent to this channel.
client-mode
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true, false
When true, the inbound adapter will act as a client, with
respect to establishing the connection and then receive
incoming messages on that connection. Default = false. Also
see retry-interval and scheduler. The connection factory
must be of type 'client' and have single-use set to false.
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Attribute Name
Allowed Values
retry-interval
scheduler
Attribute Description
When in client-mode, specifies the number of milliseconds
to wait between connection attempts, or after a connection
failure. Default 60,000 (60 seconds).
true, false
Specifies a TaskScheduler to use for managing
the
client-mode
connection.
Defaults
to
a
ThreadPoolTaskScheduler with a pool size of `.
Table 16.5. TCP Outbound Channel Adapter Attributes
Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
channel
The channel on which outbound messages arrive.
connectionfactory
If the connection factory has a type 'client', the factory is
'owned' by this adapter. If it has a type 'server', it is 'owned'
by an inbound channel adapter and this adapter will attempt
to correlate messages to the connection on which an original
inbound message was received.
client-mode
true, false
retry-interval
scheduler
When true, the outbound adapter will attempt to establish
the connection as soon as it is started. When false, the
connection is established when the first message is sent.
Default = false. Also see retry-interval and scheduler. The
connection factory must be of type 'client' and have singleuse set to false.
When in client-mode, specifies the number of milliseconds
to wait between connection attempts, or after a connection
failure. Default 60,000 (60 seconds).
true, false
Specifies a TaskScheduler to use for managing
the
client-mode
connection.
Defaults
to
a
ThreadPoolTaskScheduler with a pool size of `.
Table 16.6. TCP Inbound Gateway Attributes
Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
connectionfactory
The connection factory must be of type server.
request-channel
The channel to which incoming messages will be sent.
reply-channel
The channel on which reply messages may arrive. Usually
replies will arrive on a temporary reply channel added to the
inbound message header
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Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
reply-timeout
The time in milliseconds for which the gateway will wait for
a reply. Default 1000 (1 second).
error-channel
If an Exception is thrown by a downstream component, the
MessagingException message containing the exception and
failed message is sent to this channel; any reply from that
flow will then be returned as a response by the gateway.
client-mode
true, false
retry-interval
scheduler
When true, the inbound gateway will act as a client, with
respect to establishing the connection and then receive (and
reply to) incoming messages on that connection. Default =
false. Also see retry-interval and scheduler. The connection
factory must be of type 'client' and have single-use set to
false.
When in client-mode, specifies the number of milliseconds
to wait between connection attempts, or after a connection
failure. Default 60,000 (60 seconds).
true, false
Specifies a TaskScheduler to use for managing
the
client-mode
connection.
Defaults
to
a
ThreadPoolTaskScheduler with a pool size of `.
Table 16.7. TCP Outbound Gateway Attributes
Attribute Name
Allowed Values
Attribute Description
connectionfactory
The connection factory must be of type client.
request-channel
The channel on which outgoing messages will arrive.
reply-channel
Optional. The channel to which reply messages may be sent
if the original outbound message did not contain a reply
channel header.
remote-timeout
The time in milliseconds for which the gateway will wait
for a reply from the remote system. Default: Same value as
reply-timeout, if specified, or 10000 (10 seconds) otherwise.
request-timeout
If a single-use connection factory is not being used, The time
in milliseconds for which the gateway will wait to get access
to the shared connection.
reply-timeout
The time in milliseconds for which the gateway will
wait when sending the reply to the reply-channel. Only
applies if the reply-channel might block, such as a bounded
QueueChannel that is currently full.
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17. JDBC Support
Spring Integration provides Channel Adapters for receiving and sending messages via database queries.
Through those adapters Spring Integration supports not only plain JDBC SQL Queries, but also Stored
Procedure and Stored Function calls.
The following JDBC components are available by default:
• Inbound Channel Adapter
• Outbound Channel Adapter
• Outbound Gateway
• Stored Procedure Inbound Channel Adapter
• Stored Procedure Outbound Channel Adapter
• Stored Procedure Outbound Gateway
Furthermore, the Spring Integration JDBC Module also provides a JDBC Message Store
17.1 Inbound Channel Adapter
The main function of an inbound Channel Adapter is to execute a SQL SELECT query and turn the
result set as a message. The message payload is the whole result set, expressed as a List, and the types
of the items in the list depend on the row-mapping strategy that is used. The default strategy is a generic
mapper that just returns a Map for each row in the query result. Optionally, this can be changed by
adding a reference to a RowMapper instance (see the Spring JDBC documentation for more detailed
information about row mapping).
Note
If you want to convert rows in the SELECT query result to individual messages you can use
a downstream splitter.
The inbound adapter also requires a reference to either a JdbcTemplate instance or a DataSource.
As well as the SELECT statement to generate the messages, the adapter above also has an UPDATE
statement that is being used to mark the records as processed so that they don't show up in the next
poll. The update can be parameterized by the list of ids from the original select. This is done through a
naming convention by default (a column in the input result set called "id" is translated into a list in the
parameter map for the update called "id"). The following example defines an inbound Channel Adapter
with an update query and a DataSource reference.
<int-jdbc:inbound-channel-adapter query="select * from item where status=2"
channel="target" data-source="dataSource"
update="update item set status=10 where id in (:id)" />
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Note
The parameters in the update query are specified with a colon (:) prefix to the name of
a parameter (which in this case is an expression to be applied to each of the rows in the
polled result set). This is a standard feature of the named parameter JDBC support in Spring
JDBC combined with a convention (projection onto the polled result list) adopted in Spring
Integration. The underlying Spring JDBC features limit the available expressions (e.g. most
special characters other than period are disallowed), but since the target is usually a list of or
an individual object addressable by simple bean paths this isn't unduly restrictive.
To change the parameter generation strategy you can inject a SqlParameterSourceFactory into
the adapter to override the default behavior (the adapter has a sql-parameter-source-factory
attribute).
Polling and Transactions
The inbound adapter accepts a regular Spring Integration poller as a sub element, so for instance the
frequency of the polling can be controlled. A very important feature of the poller for JDBC usage is the
option to wrap the poll operation in a transaction, for example:
<int-jdbc:inbound-channel-adapter query="..."
channel="target" data-source="dataSource" update="...">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000">
<int:transactional/>
</int:poller>
</int-jdbc:inbound-channel-adapter>
Note
If a poller is not explicitly specified, a default value will be used (and as per normal with
Spring Integration can be defined as a top level bean).
In this example the database is polled every 1000 milliseconds, and the update and select queries are
both executed in the same transaction. The transaction manager configuration is not shown, but as long
as it is aware of the data source then the poll is transactional. A common use case is for the downstream
channels to be direct channels (the default), so that the endpoints are invoked in the same thread, and
hence the same transaction. Then if any of them fail, the transaction rolls back and the input data is
reverted to its original state.
Max-rows-per-poll versus Max-messages-per-poll
The JDBC Inbound Channel Adapter defines an attribute max-rows-per-poll. When you specify the
adapter's Poller, you can also define a property called max-messages-per-poll. While these two attributes
look similar, their meaning is quite different.
max-messages-per-poll specifies the number of times the query is executed per polling interval, whereas
max-rows-per-poll specifies the number of rows returned for each execution.
Under normal circumstances, you would likely not want to set the Poller's max-messages-per-poll
property when using the JDBC Inbound Channel Adapter. Its default value is 1, which means that the
JDBC Inbound Channel Adapter's receive() method is executed exactly once for each poll interval.
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Setting the max-messages-per-poll attribute to a larger value means that the query is executed that many
times back to back. For more information regarding the max-messages-per-poll attribute, please see the
section called “Configuring An Inbound Channel Adapter”.
In contrast, the max-rows-per-poll attribute, if greater than 0, specifies the maximum number of rows
that will be used from the query result set, per execution of the receive() method. If the attribute is set to
0, then all rows will be included in the resulting message. If not explicitly set, the attribute defaults to 0.
17.2 Outbound Channel Adapter
The outbound Channel Adapter is the inverse of the inbound: its role is to handle a message and use it
to execute a SQL query. The message payload and headers are available by default as input parameters
to the query, for instance:
<int-jdbc:outbound-channel-adapter
query="insert into foos (id, status, name) values (:headers[id], 0, :payload[foo])"
data-source="dataSource"
channel="input"/>
In the example above, messages arriving on the channel labelled input have a payload of a map with key
foo, so the [] operator dereferences that value from the map. The headers are also accessed as a map.
Note
The parameters in the query above are bean property expressions on the incoming message
(not Spring EL expressions). This behavior is part of the SqlParameterSource which is
the default source created by the outbound adapter. Other behavior is possible in the adapter,
and requires the user to inject a different SqlParameterSourceFactory.
The outbound adapter requires a reference to either a DataSource or a JdbcTemplate. It can also
have a SqlParameterSourceFactory injected to control the binding of each incoming message
to a query.
If the input channel is a direct channel, then the outbound adapter runs its query in the same thread, and
therefore the same transaction (if there is one) as the sender of the message.
Passing Parameters using SpEL Expressions
A common requirement for most JDBC Channel Adapters is to pass parameters as part of Sql queries
or Stored Procedures/Functions. As mentioned above, these parameters are by default bean property
expressions, not SpEL expressions. However, if you need to pass SpEL expression as parameters, you
must inject a SqlParameterSourceFactory explicitly.
The following example uses a ExpressionEvaluatingSqlParameterSourceFactory to
achieve that requirement.
<jdbc:outbound-channel-adapter data-source="dataSource" channel="input"
query="insert into MESSAGES (MESSAGE_ID,PAYLOAD,CREATED_DATE)
\
values (:id, :payload, :createdDate)"
sql-parameter-source-factory="spelSource"/>
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<bean id="spelSource"
class="o.s.integration.jdbc.ExpressionEvaluatingSqlParameterSourceFactory">
<property name="parameterExpressions">
<map>
<entry key="id"
value="headers['id'].toString()"/>
<entry key="createdDate" value="new java.util.Date()"/>
<entry key="payload"
value="payload"/>
</map>
</property>
</bean>
For further information, please also see the section called “Defining Parameter Sources”
17.3 Outbound Gateway
The outbound Gateway is like a combination of the outbound and inbound adapters: its role is to handle a
message and use it to execute a SQL query and then respond with the result sending it to a reply channel.
The message payload and headers are available by default as input parameters to the query, for instance:
<int-jdbc:outbound-gateway
update="insert into foos (id, status, name) values (:headers[id], 0, :payload[foo])"
request-channel="input" reply-channel="output" data-source="dataSource" />
The result of the above would be to insert a record into the "foos" table and return a message to the
output channel indicating the number of rows affected (the payload is a map: {UPDATED=1}).
If the update query is an insert with auto-generated keys, the reply message can be populated with the
generated keys by adding keys-generated="true" to the above example (this is not the default
because it is not supported by some database platforms). For example:
<int-jdbc:outbound-gateway
update="insert into foos (status, name) values (0, :payload[foo])"
request-channel="input" reply-channel="output" data-source="dataSource"
keys-generated="true"/>
Instead of the update count or the generated keys, you can also provide a select query to execute and
generate a reply message from the result (like the inbound adapter), e.g:
<int-jdbc:outbound-gateway
update="insert into foos (id, status, name) values (:headers[id], 0, :payload[foo])"
query="select * from foos where id=:headers[$id]"
request-channel="input" reply-channel="output" data-source="dataSource"/>
Since Spring Integration 2.2 the update SQL query is no longer mandatory. You can now solely provide
a select query, using either the query attribute or the query sub-element. This is extremely useful if you
need to actively retrieve data using e.g. a generic Gateway or a Payload Enricher. The reply message is
then generated from the result, like the inbound adapter, and passed to the reply channel.
<int-jdbc:outbound-gateway
query="select * from foos where id=:headers[id]"
request-channel="input"
reply-channel="output"
data-source="dataSource"/>
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As with the channel adapters, there is also the option to provide SqlParameterSourceFactory
instances for request and reply. The default is the same as for the outbound adapter, so the request
message is available as the root of an expression. If keys-generated="true" then the root of the expression
is the generated keys (a map if there is only one or a list of maps if multi-valued).
The outbound gateway requires a reference to either a DataSource or a JdbcTemplate. It can also have
a SqlParameterSourceFactory injected to control the binding of the incoming message to the
query.
17.4 JDBC Message Store
Spring Integration provides 2 JDBC specifc Message Store implementations. The first one, is
the JdbcMessageStore which is suitable to be used in conjunction with Aggregators and the
Claimcheck pattern. While it can be used for backing Message Channels as well, you may want to
consider using the JdbcChannelMessageStore implementation instead, as it provides a more
targeted and scalable implementation.
The Generic JDBC Message Store
The JDBC module provides an implementation of the Spring Integration MessageStore (important in
the Claim Check pattern) and MessageGroupStore (important in stateful patterns like Aggregator)
backed by a database. Both interfaces are implemented by the JdbcMessageStore, and there is also
support for configuring store instances in XML. For example:
<int-jdbc:message-store id="messageStore" data-source="dataSource"/>
A JdbcTemplate can be specified instead of a DataSource.
Other optional attributes are show in the next example:
<int-jdbc:message-store id="messageStore" data-source="dataSource"
lob-handler="lobHandler" table-prefix="MY_INT_"/>
Here we have specified a LobHandler for dealing with messages as large objects (e.g. often necessary
if using Oracle) and a prefix for the table names in the queries generated by the store. The table name
prefix defaults to "INT_".
Backing Message Channels
If you intent backing Message Channels using JDBC, it is recommended to use the provided
JdbcChannelMessageStore implementation instead. It can only be used in conjuntion with
Message Channels.
Note
The provided JdbcChannelMessageStore implementation is available since Spring
Integration 2.2..
Supported Database
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The JdbcChannelMessageStore uses database specific SQL queries to retrieve messages from
the database. Therefore, users must set the ChannelMessageStoreQueryProvider property on
the JdbcChannelMessageStore. This channelMessageStoreQueryProvider provides
the SQL queries and Spring Integration provides support for the following relational databases:
• PostgreSQL
• HSQLDB
• MySQL
• Oracle
• Derby
If
your
database
is
not
listed,
you
can
easily
extend
the
AbstractChannelMessageStoreQueryProvider class and provide your own custom
queries.
Important
Generally it is not recommened to use a relational database for the purpose of queuing. Instead,
if possible, consider using either JMS or AMQP, for which message store implementation are
provided as well. For further reference please see the following resources:
• 5 subtle ways you’re using MySQL as a queue, and why it’ll bite you
• The Database As Queue Anti-Pattern
Concurrent Polling
When polling a Message Channel, you have the option to configure the associated Poller with a
TaskExecutor reference.
Keep in mind, though, that if you use a JDBC backed Message Channel and you are planning on polling
the channel and consequently the message store transactionally with multiple threads, you should ensure
that you use a relational database that supports Multiversion Concurrency Control (MVCC). Otherwise,
locking may be an issue and the performance, when using multiple threads, may not materialize as
expected. For example Apache Derby is problematic in that regard.
…
<bean id="queryProvider"
class="o.s.i.jdbc.store.channel.PostgresChannelMessageStoreQueryProvider"/>
<int:transaction-synchronization-factory id="syncFactory">
<int:after-commit expression="@store.removeFromIdCache(headers.id.toString())" />
<int:after-rollback expression="@store.removeFromIdCache(headers.id.toString())"/>
</int:transaction-synchronization-factory>
<task:executor id="pool" pool-size="10"
queue-capacity="10" rejection-policy="CALLER_RUNS" />
<bean id="store" class="o.s.i.jdbc.store.JdbcChannelMessageStore">
<property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource"/>
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<property name="channelMessageStoreQueryProvider" ref="queryProvider"/>
<property name="region" value="TX_TIMEOUT"/>
<property name="usingIdCache" value="true"/>
</bean>
<int:channel id="inputChannel">
<int:queue message-store="store"/>
</int:channel>
<int:bridge input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel">
<int:poller fixed-delay="500" receive-timeout="500"
max-messages-per-poll="1" task-executor="pool">
<int:transactional propagation="REQUIRED" synchronization-factory="syncFactory"
isolation="READ_COMMITTED" transaction-manager="transactionManager" />
</int:poller>
</int:bridge>
<int:channel id="outputChannel" />
…
Initializing the Database
Spring
Integration
ships
with
some
sample
scripts
that
can
be
used
to
initialize
a
database.
In
the
spring-integration-jdbc
JAR
file
you
will
find scripts in the org.springframework.integration.jdbc and in the
org.springframework.integration.jdbc.store.channel package: there is a create
and a drop script example for a range of common database platforms. A common way to use these
scripts is to reference them in a Spring JDBC data source initializer. Note that the scripts are provided
as samples or specifications of the the required table and column names. You may find that you need
to enhance them for production use (e.g. with index declarations).
Partitioning a Message Store
It is common to use a JdbcMessageStore as a global store for a group of applications, or nodes
in the same application. To provide some protection against name clashes, and to give control over the
database meta-data configuration, the message store allows the tables to be partitioned in two ways. One
is to use separate table names, by changing the prefix as described above, and the other is to specify
a "region" name for partitioning data within a single table. An important use case for this is when
the MessageStore is managing persistent queues backing a Spring Integration Message Channel. The
message data for a persistent channel is keyed in the store on the channel name, so if the channel names
are not globally unique then there is the danger of channels picking up data that was not intended for
them. To avoid this, the message store region can be used to keep data separate for different physical
channels that happen to have the same logical name.
17.5 Stored Procedures
In certain situations plain JDBC support is not sufficient. Maybe you deal with legacy relational database
schemas or you have complex data processing needs, but ultimately you have to use Stored Procedures
or Stored Functions. Since Spring Integration 2.1, we provide three components in order to execute
Stored Procedures or Stored Functions:
• Stored Procedures Inbound Channel Adapter
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• Stored Procedures Outbound Channel Adapter
• Stored Procedures Outbound Gateway
Supported Databases
In order to enable calls to Stored Procedures and Stored Functions, the Stored Procedure components use
the org.springframework.jdbc.core.simple.SimpleJdbcCall class. Consequently,
the following databases are fully supported for executing Stored Procedures:
• Apache Derby
• DB2
• MySQL
• Microsoft SQL Server
• Oracle
• PostgreSQL
• Sybase
If you want to exute Stored Functions instead, the following databases are fully supported:
• MySQL
• Microsoft SQL Server
• Oracle
• PostgreSQL
Note
Even though your particular database may not be fully supported, chances are, that you can
use the Stored Procedure Spring Integration components quite successfully anyway, provided
your RDBMS supports Stored Procedures or Functions.
As a matter of fact, some of the provided integration tests use the H2 database. Nevertheless,
it is very important to thoroughly test those usage scenarios.
Configuration
The Stored Procedure components provide full XML Namespace support and configuring the
components is similar as for the general purpose JDBC components discussed earlier.
Common Configuration Attributes
Certain configuration parameters are shared among all Stored Procedure components and are described
below:
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auto-startup
Lifecycle attribute signaling if this component should be started during Application Context startup.
Defaults to true. Optional.
data-source
Reference to a javax.sql.DataSource, which is used to access the database. Required.
id
Identifies the underlying Spring bean definition, which is an instance of either
EventDrivenConsumer or PollingConsumer, depending on whether the Outbound Channel
Adapter's channel attribute references a SubscribableChannel or a PollableChannel.
Optional.
ignore-column-meta-data
For fully supported databases, the underlying SimpleJdbcCall class can automatically retrieve the
parameter information for the to be invoked Stored Procedure or Function from the JDBC Meta-data.
However, if the used database does not support meta data lookups or if you like to provide customized
parameter definitions, this flag can be set to true. It defaults to false. Optional.
is-function
If true, a SQL Function is called. In that case the stored-procedure-name or storedprocedure-name-expression attributes define the name of the called function. Defaults to
false. Optional.
stored-procedure-name
The attribute specifies the name of the stored procedure. If the is-function attribute is set to
true, this attribute specifies the function name instead. Either this property or stored-procedure-nameexpression must be specified.
stored-procedure-name-expression
This attribute specifies the name of the stored procedure using a SpEL expression. Using SpEL you have
access to the full message (if available), including its headers and payload. You can use this attribute to
invoke different Stored Procedures at runtime. For example, you can provide Stored Procedure names
that you would like to execute as a Message Header. The expression must resolve to a String.
If the is-function attribute is set to true, this attribute specifies a Stored Function. Either this
property or stored-procedure-name must be specified.
jdbc-call-operations-cache-size
Defines the maximum number of cached SimpleJdbcCallOperations instances. Basically, for
each Stored Procedure Name a new SimpleJdbcCallOperations instance is created that in return
is being cached.
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Note
The stored-procedure-name-expression attribute and the jdbc-call-operations-cache-size
were added with Spring Integration 2.2.
The default cache size is 10. A value of 0 disables caching. Negative values are not permitted.
If you enable JMX, statistical information about the jdbc-call-operations-cache is exposed as MBean.
Please see the section called “MBean Exporter” for more information.
sql-parameter-source-factory (Not available for the Stored Procedure Inbound Channel Adapter.)
Reference to a SqlParameterSourceFactory. By default bean properties of the passed in
Message payload will be used as a source for the Stored Procedure's input parameters using a
BeanPropertySqlParameterSourceFactory.
This may be sufficient for basic use cases. For more sophisticated options, consider passing in one or
more ProcedureParameter. Please also refer to the section called “Defining Parameter Sources”.
Optional.
use-payload-as-parameter-source (Not available for the Stored Procedure Inbound Channel Adapter.)
If set to true, the payload of the Message will be used as a source for providing parameters. If false,
however, the entire Message will be available as a source for parameters.
If no Procedure Parameters are passed in, this property will default to true. This means that using a
default BeanPropertySqlParameterSourceFactory the bean properties of the payload will
be used as a source for parameter values for the to-be-executed Stored Procedure or Stored Function.
However, if Procedure Parameters are passed in, then this property will by default evaluate to
false. ProcedureParameter allow for SpEL Expressions to be provided and therefore it
is highly beneficial to have access to the entire Message. The property is set on the underlying
StoredProcExecutor. Optional.
Common Configuration Sub-Elements
The Stored Procedure components share a common set of sub-elements to define and pass parameters
to Stored Procedures or Functions. The following elements are available:
• parameter
• returning-resultset
• sql-parameter-definition
• poller
parameter
Provides a mechanism to provide Stored Procedure parameters. Parameters can be either static or
provided using a SpEL Expressions. Optional.
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<int-jdbc:parameter name=""
❶
type=""
❷
value=""/> ❸
<int-jdbc:parameter name=""
expression=""/>❹
❶
The name of the parameter to be passed into the Stored Procedure or Stored Function. Required.
❷
This attribute specifies the type of the value. If nothing is provided this attribute will default to
java.lang.String. This attribute is only used when the value attribute is used. Optional.
The value of the parameter. You have to provider either this attribute or the expression attribute
must be provided instead. Optional.
Instead of the value attribute, you can also specify a SpEL expression for passing the value of
the parameter. If you specify the expression the value attribute is not allowed. Optional.
❸
❹
returning-resultset
Stored Procedures may return multiple resultsets. By setting one or more returning-resultset
elements, you can specify RowMappers in order to convert each returned ResultSet to meaningful
objects. Optional.
<int-jdbc:returning-resultset name="" row-mapper="" />
sql-parameter-definition
If you are using a database that is fully supported, you typically don't have to specify the Stored
Procedure parameter definitions. Instead, those parameters can be automatically derived from the
JDBC Meta-data. However, if you are using databases that are not fully supported, you must set those
parameters explicitly using the sql-parameter-definition sub-element.
You can also choose to turn off any processing of parameter meta data information obtained via JDBC
using the ignore-column-meta-data attribute.
<int-jdbc:sql-parameter-definition name=""
❶
direction="IN"
❷
type="STRING"
❸
scale=""/>
❹
❶
Specifies the name of the SQL parameter. Required.
❷
Specifies the direction of the SQL parameter definition. Defaults to IN. Valid values are: IN, OUT
and INOUT. If your procedure is returning ResultSets, please use the returning-resultset
element. Optional.
The SQL type used for this SQL parameter definition. Will translate into the integer value as
defined by java.sql.Types. Alternatively you can provide the integer value as well. If this attribute
is not explicitly set, then it will default to 'VARCHAR'. Optional.
The scale of the SQL parameter. Only used for numeric and decimal parameters. Optional.
❸
❹
poller
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Allows you to configure a Message Poller if this endpoint is a PollingConsumer. Optional.
Defining Parameter Sources
Parameter Sources govern the techniques of retrieving and mapping the Spring Integration Message
properties to the relevant Stored Procedure input parameters. The Stored Procedure components follow
certain rules.
By default bean properties of the passed in Message payload will be used as a source for the Stored
Procedure's input parameters. In that case a BeanPropertySqlParameterSourceFactory will
be used. This may be sufficient for basic use cases. The following example illustrates that default
behavior.
Important
Please be aware that for the "automatic" lookup of bean properties
using the BeanPropertySqlParameterSourceFactory to work, your bean
properties must be defined in lower case. This is due to the fact that
in
org.springframework.jdbc.core.metadata.CallMetaDataContext
(method matchInParameterValuesWithCallParameters()), the retrieved Stored Procedure
parameter declarations are converted to lower case. As a result, if you have camel-case bean
properties such as "lastName", the lookup will fail. In that case, please provide an explicit
ProcedureParameter.
Let's assume we have a payload that consists of a simple bean with the following three properties: id,
name and description. Furthermore, we have a simplistic Stored Procedure called INSERT_COFFEE
that accepts three input parameters: id, name and description. We also use a fully supported database.
In that case the following configuration for a Stored Procedure Oubound Adapter will be sufficient:
<int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-channel-adapter data-source="dataSource"
channel="insertCoffeeProcedureRequestChannel"
stored-procedure-name="INSERT_COFFEE"/>
For more sophisticated options consider passing in one or more ProcedureParameter.
If
you
do
provide
ProcedureParameter
explicitly,
then
as
default
an
ExpressionEvaluatingSqlParameterSourceFactory will be used for parameter
processing in order to enable the full power of SpEL expressions.
Furthermore, if you need even more control over how parameters are retrieved, consider passing in
a custom implementation of a SqlParameterSourceFactory using the sql-parametersource-factory attribute.
Stored Procedure Inbound Channel Adapter
<int-jdbc:stored-proc-inbound-channel-adapter
channel=""
stored-procedure-name=""
data-source=""
auto-startup="true"
id=""
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ignore-column-meta-data="false"
is-function="false"
max-rows-per-poll=""
❷
skip-undeclared-results=""
❸
<int:poller/>
<int-jdbc:sql-parameter-definition name="" direction="IN"
type="STRING"
scale=""/>
<int-jdbc:parameter name="" type="" value=""/>
<int-jdbc:parameter name="" expression=""/>
<int-jdbc:returning-resultset name="" row-mapper="" />
</int-jdbc:stored-proc-inbound-channel-adapter>
❶
❷
❸
Channel to which polled messages will be sent. If the stored procedure or function does not return
any data, the payload of the Message will be Null. Required.
Limits the number of rows extracted per query. Otherwise all rows are extracted into the outgoing
message. Optional.
If this attribute is set to true, then all results from a stored procedure call that don't have a
corresponding SqlOutParameter declaration will be bypassed.
E.g. Stored Procedures may return an update count value, even though your Stored Procedure only
declared a single result parameter. The exact behavior depends on the used database. The value
is set on the underlying JdbcTemplate.
Few developers will probably ever want to process update counts, thus the value defaults to true.
Optional.
Note
When you declare a Poller, you may notice the Poller's max-messages-per-poll attribute. For
information about how it relates to the max-rows-per-poll attribute of the Stored Procedure
Inbound Channel Adapter, please see the section called “Max-rows-per-poll versus Maxmessages-per-poll” for a thourough discussion. The meaning of the attributes is the same as
for the JDBC Inbound Channel Adapter.
Stored Procedure Outbound Channel Adapter
<int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-channel-adapter channel=""
stored-procedure-name=""
data-source=""
auto-startup="true"
id=""
ignore-column-meta-data="false"
order=""
❶
❷
return-value-required="false"
❸
sql-parameter-source-factory=""
use-payload-as-parameter-source="">
<int:poller fixed-rate=""/>
<int-jdbc:sql-parameter-definition name=""/>
<int-jdbc:parameter name=""/>
</int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-channel-adapter>
❶
The receiving Message Channel of this endpoint. Required.
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❷
❸
Specifies the order for invocation when this endpoint is connected as a subscriber to a channel.
This is particularly relevant when that channel is using a failover dispatching strategy. It has no
effect when this endpoint itself is a Polling Consumer for a channel with a queue. Optional.
Indicates whether this procedure's return value should be included. Optional.
Stored Procedure Outbound Gateway
<int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-gateway request-channel=""
stored-procedure-name=""
data-source=""
auto-startup="true"
id=""
ignore-column-meta-data="false"
is-function="false"
order=""
❶
reply-channel=""
❷
reply-timeout=""
❸
return-value-required="false"
❹
skip-undeclared-results=""
sql-parameter-source-factory=""
use-payload-as-parameter-source="">
<int-jdbc:sql-parameter-definition name="" direction="IN"
type=""
scale="10"/>
<int-jdbc:sql-parameter-definition name=""/>
<int-jdbc:parameter name="" type="" value=""/>
<int-jdbc:parameter name="" expression=""/>
<int-jdbc:returning-resultset name="" row-mapper="" />
❺
❶
The receiving Message Channel of this endpoint. Required.
❷
Message Channel to which replies should be sent, after receiving the database response. Optional.
❸
Allows you to specify how long this gateway will wait for the reply message to be sent successfully
before throwing an exception. Keep in mind that when sending to a DirectChannel, the
invocation will occur in the sender's thread so the failing of the send operation may be caused by
other components further downstream. By default the Gateway will wait indefinitely. The value
is specified in milliseconds. Optional.
Indicates whether this procedure's return value should be included. Optional.
❹
❺
If the skip-undeclared-results attribute is set to true, then all results from a stored
procedure call that don't have a corresponding SqlOutParameter declaration will be bypassed.
E.g. Stored Procedures may return an update count value, even though your Stored Procedure only
declared a single result parameter. The exact behavior depends on the used database. The value
is set on the underlying JdbcTemplate.
Few developers will probably ever want to process update counts, thus the value defaults to true.
Optional.
Examples
In the following two examples we call Apache Derby Stored Procedures. The first procedure will call
a Stored Procedure that returns a ResultSet, and using a RowMapper the data is converted into a
domain object, which then becomes the Spring Integration message payload.
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In the second sample we call a Stored Procedure that uses Output Parameters instead, in order to return
data.
Note
Please have a look at the Spring Integration Samples project, located at https://github.com/
SpringSource/spring-integration-samples
The project contains the Apache Derby example referenced here, as well as instruction on
how to run it. The Spring Integration Samples project also provides an example using Oracle
Stored Procedures.
In the first example, we call a Stored Procedure named FIND_ALL_COFFEE_BEVERAGES that does
not define any input parameters but which returns a ResultSet.
In Apache Derby, Stored Procedures are implemented using Java. Here is the method signature followed
by the corresponding Sql:
public static void findAllCoffeeBeverages(ResultSet[] coffeeBeverages)
throws SQLException {
...
}
CREATE PROCEDURE FIND_ALL_COFFEE_BEVERAGES() \
PARAMETER STYLE JAVA LANGUAGE JAVA MODIFIES SQL DATA DYNAMIC RESULT SETS 1 \
EXTERNAL NAME 'org.springframework.integration.jdbc.storedproc.derby.DerbyStoredProcedures.findAllCoffeeBeve
In Spring Integration, you can now call this Stored Procedure using e.g. a stored-procoutbound-gateway
<int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-gateway id="outbound-gateway-storedproc-find-all"
data-source="dataSource"
request-channel="findAllProcedureRequestChannel"
expect-single-result="true"
stored-procedure-name="FIND_ALL_COFFEE_BEVERAGES">
<int-jdbc:returning-resultset name="coffeeBeverages"
row-mapper="org.springframework.integration.support.CoffeBeverageMapper"/>
</int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-gateway>
In the second example, we call a Stored Procedure named FIND_COFFEE that has one input parameter.
Instead of returning a ResultSet, an output parameter is used:
public static void findCoffee(int coffeeId, String[] coffeeDescription)
throws SQLException {
...
}
CREATE PROCEDURE FIND_COFFEE(IN ID INTEGER, OUT COFFEE_DESCRIPTION VARCHAR(200)) \
PARAMETER STYLE JAVA LANGUAGE JAVA EXTERNAL NAME \
'org.springframework.integration.jdbc.storedproc.derby.DerbyStoredProcedures.findCoffee';
In Spring Integration, you can now call this Stored Procedure using e.g. a stored-procoutbound-gateway
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<int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-gateway id="outbound-gateway-storedproc-find-coffee"
data-source="dataSource"
request-channel="findCoffeeProcedureRequestChannel"
skip-undeclared-results="true"
stored-procedure-name="FIND_COFFEE"
expect-single-result="true">
<int-jdbc:parameter name="ID" expression="payload" />
</int-jdbc:stored-proc-outbound-gateway>
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18. JPA Support
Spring Integration's JPA (Java Persistence API) module provides components for performing various
database operations using JPA. The following components are provided:
• Inbound Channel Adapter
• Outbound Channel Adapter
• Updating Outbound Gateway
• Retrieving Outbound Gateway
These components can be used to perform select, create, update and delete operations on the targeted
databases by sending/receiving messages to them.
The JPA Inbound Channel Adapter lets you poll and retrieve (select) data from the database using JPA
whereas the JPA Outbound Channel Adapter lets you create, update and delete entities.
Outbound Gateways for JPA can be used to persist entities to the database, yet allowing you to
continue with the flow and execute further components downstream. Similarly, you can use an Outbound
Gateway to retrieve entities from the database.
For example, you may use the Outbound Gateway, which receives a Message with a user Id as payload
on its request channel, to query the database and retrieve the User entity and pass it downstream for
further processing.
Recognizing these semantic differences, Spring Integration provides 2 separate JPA Outbound
Gateways:
• Retrieving Outbound Gateway
• Updating Outbound Gateway
Functionality
All JPA components perform their respective JPA operations by using either one of the following:
• Entity classes
• Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) for update, select and delete (inserts are not supported
by JPQL)
• Native Query
• Named Query
In the following sections we will describe each of these components in more detail.
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18.1 Supported Persistence Providers
The Spring Integration JPA support has been tested using the following persistence providers:
• Hibernate
• OpenJPA
• EclipseLink
When using a persistence provider, please ensure that the provider is compatible with JPA 2.0.
18.2 Java Implementation
Each of the provided components will use the o.s.i.jpa.core.JpaExecutor class which
in turn will use an implementation of the o.s.i.jpa.core.JpaOperations interface.
JpaOperations operates like a typical Data Access Object (DAO) and provides methods
such as find, persist, executeUpdate etc. For most use cases the provided default implementation
o.s.i.jpa.core.DefaultJpaOperations should be sufficient. Nevertheless, you have the
option to optionally specify your own implementation in case you require custom behavior.
For initializing a JpaExecutor you have to use one of 3 available constructors that accept one of:
• EntityManagerFactory
• EntityManager or
• JpaOperations
Note
The XML Namespace Support described further below is also very flexible and provides
configuration attributes for each JPA component to pass in an EntityManagerFactory,
EntityManager or JpaOperations reference.
Java Configuration Example
The following example of a JPA Retrieving Outbound Gateway is configured purely through Java.
In typical usage scenarios you will most likely prefer the XML Namespace Support described further
below. However, the example illustrates how the classes are wired up. Understanding the inner workings
can also be very helpful for debugging or customizing the individual JPA components.
First, we instantiate a JpaExecutor using an EntityManager as constructor
argument. The JpaExecutor is then in return used as constructor argument for the
o.s.i.jpa.outbound.JpaOutboundGateway and the JpaOutboundGateway will be
passed as constructor argument into the EventDrivenConsumer.
<bean id="jpaExecutor" class="o.s.i.jpa.core.JpaExecutor">
<constructor-arg name="entityManager" ref="entityManager"/>
<property name="entityClass"
value="o.s.i.jpa.test.entity.StudentDomain"/>
<property name="jpaQuery"
value="select s from Student s where s.id = :id"/>
<property name="expectSingleResult" value="true"/>
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<property name="jpaParameters" >
<util:list>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.jpa.support.JpaParameter">
<property name="name"
value="id"/>
<property name="expression" value="payload"/>
</bean>
</util:list>
</property>
</bean>
<bean id="jpaOutboundGateway" class="o.s.i.jpa.outbound.JpaOutboundGateway">
<constructor-arg ref="jpaExecutor"/>
<property
name="gatewayType"
value="RETRIEVING"/>
<property
name="outputChannel" ref="studentReplyChannel"/>
</bean>
<bean id="getStudentEndpoint"
class="org.springframework.integration.endpoint.EventDrivenConsumer">
<constructor-arg name="inputChannel" ref="getStudentChannel"/>
<constructor-arg name="handler"
ref="jpaOutboundGateway"/>
</bean>
Note
For more examples of constructing JPA components purely through Java, see the JUnit testcases for the JPA Adapters.
18.3 Namespace Support
When using XML namespace support, the underlying parser classes will instantiate the relevant Java
classes for you. Thus, you typically don't have to deal with the inner workings of the JPA adapter. This
section will document the XML Namespace Support provided by the Spring Integration and will show
you how to use the XML Namespace Support to configure the Jpa components.
Common XML Namespace Configuration Attributes
Certain configuration parameters are shared amongst all JPA components and are described below:
auto-startup
Lifecycle attribute signaling if this component should be started during Application Context startup.
Defaults to true. Optional.
id
Identifies the underlying Spring bean definition, which
EventDrivenConsumer or PollingConsumer. Optional.
is
an
instance
of
either
entity-manager-factory
The reference to the JPA Entity Manager Factory that will be used by the adapter to create the
EntityManager. Either this attribute or the entity-manager attribute or the jpa-operations attribute
must be provided.
entity-manager
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The reference to the JPA Entity Manager that will be used by the component. Either this attribute or the
enity-manager-factory attribute or the jpa-operations attribute must be provided.
Note
Usually your Spring Application Context only defines a JPA Entity Manager Factory and
the EntityManager is injected using the @PersistenceContext annotation. This, however, is
not applicable for the Spring Integration JPA components. Usually, injecting the JPA Entity
Manager Factory will be best but in case you want to inject an EntityManager explicitly,
you have to define a SharedEntityManagerBean. For more information, please see the
relevant JavaDoc.
<bean id="entityManager"
class="org.springframework.orm.jpa.support.SharedEntityManagerBean">
<property name="entityManagerFactory" ref="entityManagerFactoryBean" />
</bean>
jpa-operations
Reference to a bean implementing the JpaOperations interface. In rare
cases it might be advisable to provide your own implementation of the
JpaOperations interface, instead of relying on the default implementation
org.springframework.integration.jpa.core.DefaultJpaOperations.
As
JpaOperations wraps the necessary datasource; the JPA Entity Manager or JPA Entity Manager
Factory must not be provided, if the jpa-operations attribute is used.
entity-class
The fully qualified name of the entity class. The exact semantics of this attribute vary, depending on
whether we are performing a persist/update operation or whether we are retrieving objects from the
database.
When retrieving data, you can specify the entity-class attribute to indicate that you would like to retrieve
objects of this type from the database. In that case you must not define any of the query attributes ( jpaquery, native-query or named-query )
When persisting data, the entity-class attribute will indicate the type of object to persist. If not specified
(for persist operations) the entity class will be automatically retrieved from the Message's payload.
jpa-query
Defines the JPA query (Java Persistence Query Language) to be used.
native-query
Defines the native SQL query to be used.
named-query
This attribute refers to a named query. A named query can either be defined in Native SQL or JPAQL
but the underlying JPA persistence provider handles that distinction internally.
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Providing JPA Query Parameters
For providing parameters, the parameter XML sub-element can be used. It provides a mechanism to
provide parameters for the queries that are either based on the Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL)
or native SQL queries. Parameters can also be provided for Named Queries.
Expression based Parameters
<int-jpa:parameter expression="payload.name" name="firstName"/>
Value based Parameters
<int-jpa:parameter name="name" type="java.lang.String" value="myName"/>
Positional Parameters
<int-jpa:parameter expression="payload.name"/>
<int-jpa:parameter type="java.lang.Integer" value="21"/>
Transaction Handling
All JPA operations like Insert, Update and Delete require a transaction to be active whenever they are
performed. For Inbound Channel Adapters there is nothing special to be done, it is similar to the way we
configure transaction managers with pollers used with other inbound channel adapters.The xml snippet
below shows a sample where a transaction manager is configured with the poller used with an Inbound
Channel Adapter.
<int-jpa:inbound-channel-adapter
channel="inboundChannelAdapterOne"
entity-manager="em"
auto-startup="true"
jpa-query="select s from Student s"
expect-single-result="true"
delete-after-poll="true">
<int:poller fixed-rate="2000" >
<int:transactional propagation="REQUIRED" transaction-manager="transactionManager"/>
</int:poller>
</int-jpa:inbound-channel-adapter>
However, it may be necessary to specifically start a transaction when using an Outbound Channel
Adapter/Gateway. If a DirectChannel is an input channel for the outbound adapter/gateway, and if
transaction is active in the current thread of execution, the JPA operation will be performed in the same
transaction context. We can also configure to execute this JPA operation in a new transaction as below.
<int-jpa:outbound-gateway
request-channel="namedQueryRequestChannel"
reply-channel="namedQueryResponseChannel"
named-query="updateStudentByRollNumber"
entity-manager="em"
gateway-type="UPDATING">
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastName" expression="payload"/>
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<int-jpa:parameter name="rollNumber" expression="headers['rollNumber']"/>
<int-jpa:transactional propagation="REQUIRES_NEW" transaction-manager="transactionManager"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-gateway>
As we can see above, the transactional sub element of the outbound gateway/adapter will be used to
specify the transaction attributes. It is optional to define this child element if you have DirectChannel
as an input channel to the adapter and you want the adapter to execute the operations in the same
transaction context as the caller. If, however, you are using an ExecutorChannel, it is required to have
the transactional sub element as the invoking client's transaction context is not propagated.
Note
Unlike the transactional sub element of the poller which is defined in the spring integration's
namespace, the transactional sub element for the outbound gateway/adapter is defined in the
jpa namespace.
18.4 Inbound Channel Adapter
An Inbound Channel Adapter is used to execute a select query over the database using JPA QL and
return the result. The message payload will be either a single entity or a List of entities. Below is a
sample xml snippet that shows a sample usage of inbound-channel-adapter.
<int-jpa:inbound-channel-adapter channel="inboundChannelAdapterOne" ❶
entity-manager="em" ❷
auto-startup="true" ❸
query="select s from Student s" ❹
expect-single-result="true" ❺
delete-after-poll="true"> ❻
<int:poller fixed-rate="2000" >
<int:transactional propagation="REQUIRED" transaction-manager="transactionManager"/>
</int:poller>
</int-jpa:inbound-channel-adapter>
❶
❷
❸
❹
❺
❻
The channel over which the inbound-channel-adapter will put the messages with the payload
received after executing the provided JPA QL in the query attribute.
The EntityManager instance that will be used to perform the required JPA operations.
Attribute signalling if the component should be automatically started on startup of the Application
Context. The value defaults to true
The JPA QL that needs to be executed and whose result needs to be sent out as the payload of
the message
The attribute that tells if the executed JPQL query gives a single entity in the result or a List of
entities. If the value is set to true, the single entity retrieved is sent as the payload of the message.
If, however, multiple results are returned after setting this to true, a MessagingException
is thrown. The value defaults to false.
Set this value to true if you want to delete the rows received after execution of the query. Please
ensure that the component is operating as part of a transaction. Otherwise, you may encounter an
Exception such as: java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Removing a detached instance ...
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Configuration Parameter Reference
<int-jpa:inbound-channel-adapter
auto-startup="true" ❶
channel="" ❷
delete-after-poll="false"
delete-per-row="false"
entity-class=""
❸
❹
❺
entity-manager="" ❻
entity-manager-factory="" ❼
expect-single-result="false" ❽
id=""
jpa-operations="" ❾
jpa-query="" ❿
named-query="" 11
native-query="" 12
parameter-source="" 13
send-timeout="" 14 >
<int:poller ref="myPoller"/>
</int-jpa:inbound-channel-adapter>
❶
❷
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
This Lifecycle attribute signaled if this component should be started during startup of the
Application Context. This attribute defaults to true.Optional.
The channel to which the adapter will send a message with the payload that was received after
performing the desired JPA operation.
A boolean flag that indicates whether the records selected are to be deleted after they are
being polled by the adapter. By default the value is false, that is, the records will not be
deleted. Please ensure that the component is operating as part of a transaction. Otherwise, you
may encounter an Exception such as: java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Removing a detached
instance ....Optional.
A boolean flag that indicates whether the records can be deleted in bulk or are deleted one record
at a time. By default the value is false, that is, the records are bulk deleted.Optional.
The fully qualified name of the entity class that would be queried from the database. The
adapter will automatically build a JPA Query to be executed based on the entity class name
provided.Optional.
An instance of javax.persistence.EntityManager that will be used to perform the JPA
operations. Optional.
An instance of javax.persistence.EntityManagerFactory that will be used to obtain
an instance of javax.persistence.EntityManager that will perform the JPA operations.
Optional.
A boolean flag indicating whether the select operation is expected to return a single result or a
List of results. If this flag is set to true, the single entity selected is sent as the payload of the
message. If multiple entities are returned, an exception is thrown. If false, the List of entities
is being sent as the payload of the message. By default the value is false.Optional.
An
implementation
of
org.springframework.integration.jpa.core.JpaOperations that would
be
used
to
perform
the
JPA
operations.
It
is
recommended
not
to
provide
an
implementation
of
your
own
but
use
the
default
org.springframework.integration.jpa.core.DefaultJpaOperations
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❿
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12
13
14
implementation. Either of the entity-manager, entity-manager-factory or jpa-operations attributes
is to be used. Optional.
The JPA QL that needs to be executed by this adapter.Optional.
The named query that needs to be executed by this adapter.Optional.
The native query that will be executed by this adapter. Either of the jpa-query, named-query,entityclass or native-query attributes are to be used. Optional.
An implementation of o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource.ParameterSource
which will be used to resolve the values of the parameters provided in the query. Ignored if entityclass attribute is provided.Optional.
Maximum amount of time in milliseconds to wait when sending a message to the channel.Optional.
18.5 Outbound Channel Adapter
The JPA Outbound channel adapter allows you to accept messages over a request channel. The payload
can either be used as the entity to be persisted, or used along with the headers in parameter expressions
for a defined JPQL query to be executed. In the following sub sections we shall see what those possible
ways of performing these operations are.
Using an Entity Class
The XML snippet below shows how we can use the Outbound Channel Adapter to persist an entity to
the database.
<int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter channel="entityTypeChannel" ❶
entity-class="org.springframework.integration.jpa.test.entity.Student" ❷
persist-mode="PERSIST" ❸
entity-manager="em"/ >❹
❶
The channel over which a valid JPA entity will be sent to the JPA Outbound Channel Adapter.
❷
The fully qualified name of the entity class that would be accepted by the adapter to be persisted
in the database. You can actually leave off this attribute in most cases as the adapter can determine
the entity class automatically from the Spring Integration Message payload.
The operation that needs to be done by the adapter, valid values are PERSIST, MERGE and
DELETE. The default value is MERGE.
The JPA entity manager to be used.
❸
❹
As we can see above these 4 attributes of the outbound-channel-adapter are all we need to configure
it to accept entities over the input channel and process them to PERSIST,MERGE or DELETE it from
the underlying data source.
Using JPA Query Language (JPA QL)
We have seen in the above sub section how to perform a PERSIST action using an entity We will now see
how to use the outbound channel adapter which uses JPA QL (Java Persistence API Query Language)
<int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter channel="jpaQlChannel" ❶
jpa-query="update Student s set s.firstName = :firstName where s.rollNumber = :rollNumber" ❷
entity-manager="em"> ❸
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<int-jpa:parameter name="firstName" expression="payload['firstName']"/> ❹
<int-jpa:parameter name="rollNumber" expression="payload['rollNumber']"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter>
❶
The input channel over which the message is being sent to the outbound channel adapter
❷
The JPA QL that needs to be executed.This query may contain parameters that will be evaluated
using the parameter child tag.
The entity manager used by the adapter to perform the JPA operations
❸
❹
This sub element, one for each parameter will be used to evaluate the value of the parameter names
specified in the JPA QL specified in the query attribute
The parameter sub element accepts an attribute name which corresponds to the named parameter
specified in the provided JPA QL (point 2 in the above mentioned sample). The value of the parameter
can either be static or can be derived using an expression. The static value and the expression to derive
the value is specified using the value and the expression attributes respectively. These attributes are
mutually exclusive.
If the value attribute is specified we can provide an optional type attribute. The value of this attribute
is the fully qualified name of the class whose value is represented by the value attribute. By default the
type is assumed to be a java.lang.String.
<int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter ... >
<int-jpa:parameter name="level" value="2" type="java.lang.Integer"/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="name" expression="payload['name']"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter>
As seen in the above snippet, it is perfectly valid to use multiple parameter sub elements within an
outbound channel adapter tag and derive some parameters using expressions and some with static
value. However, care should be taken not to specify the same parameter name multiple times, and,
provide one parameter sub element for each named parameter specified in the JPA query. For example,
we are specifying two parameters level and name where level attribute is a static value of type
java.lang.Integer, where as the name attribute is derived from the payload of the message
Note
Though specifying select is valid for JPA QL, it makes no sense as outbound channel adapters
will not be returning any result. If you want to select some values, consider using the outbound
gateway instead.
Using Native Queries
In this section we will see how to use native queries to perform the operations using JPA outbound
channel adapter. Using native queries is similar to using JPA QL, except that the query specified here is
a native database query. By choosing native queries we lose the database vendor independence which
we get using JPA QL.
One of the things we can achieve using native queries is to perform database inserts, which is not possible
using JPA QL (To perform inserts we send JPA entities to the channel adapter as we have seen earlier).
Below is a small xml fragment that demonstrates the use of native query to insert values in a table.
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Please note that we have only mentioned the important attributes below. All other attributes like channel,
entity-manager and the parameter sub element has the same semantics as when we use JPA QL.
Important
Please be aware that named parameters may not be supported by your JPA provider in
conjunction with native SQL queries. While they work fine using Hibernate, OpenJPA
and EclipseLink do NOT support them: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/OPENJPA-111
Section 3.8.12 of the JPA 2.0 spec states: "Only positional parameter binding and positional
access to result items may be portably used for native queries."
<int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter channel="nativeQlChannel"
native-query="insert into STUDENT_TABLE(FIRST_NAME,LAST_UPDATED) values (:lastName,:lastUpdated)" ❶
entity-manager="em">
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastName" expression="payload['updatedLastName']"/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastUpdated" expression="new java.util.Date()"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter>
❶
The native query that will be executed by this outbound channel adapter
Using Named Queries
We will now see how to use named queries after seeing using entity, JPA QL and native query in
previous sub sections. Using named query is also very similar to using JPA QL or a native query, except
that we specify a named query instead of a query. Before we go further and see the xml fragment for the
declaration of the outbound-channel-adapter, we will see how named JPA named queries are defined.
In our case, if we have an entity called Student, then we have the following in the class to define
two named queries selectStudent and updateStudent. Below is a way to define named queries using
annotations
@Entity
@Table(name="Student")
@NamedQueries({
@NamedQuery(name="selectStudent",
query="select s from Student s where s.lastName = 'Last One'"),
@NamedQuery(name="updateStudent",
query="update Student s set s.lastName = :lastName,
lastUpdated = :lastUpdated where s.id in (select max(a.id) from Student a)")
})
public class Student {
...
You can alternatively use the orm.xml to define named queries as seen below
<entity-mappings ...>
...
<named-query name="selectStudent">
<query>select s from Student s where s.lastName = 'Last One'</query>
</named-query>
</entity-mappings>
Now that we have seen how we can define named queries using annotations or using orm.xml, we will
now see a small xml fragment for defining an outbound-channel-adapter using named query
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<int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter channel="namedQueryChannel"
named-query="updateStudent" ❶
entity-manager="em">
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastName" expression="payload['updatedLastName']"/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastUpdated" expression="new java.util.Date()"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter>
❶
The named query that we want the adapter to execute when it receives a message over the channel
Configuration Parameter Reference
<int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter
auto-startup="true" ❶
channel="" ❷
entity-class="" ❸
entity-manager="" ❹
entity-manager-factory="" ❺
id=""
jpa-operations="" ❻
jpa-query="" ❼
named-query="" ❽
native-query="" ❾
order="" ❿
parameter-source-factory="" 11
persist-mode="MERGE" 12
use-payload-as-parameter-source="true"
<int:poller/>
14 >
<int-jpa:transactional/>
15 >
<int-jpa:parameter/>
</int-jpa:outbound-channel-adapter>
13 >
❼
Lifecycle attribute signaling if this component should be started during Application Context
startup. Defaults to true. Optional.
The channel from which the outbound adapter will receive messages for performing the desired
operation.
The fully qualified name of the entity class for the JPA Operation. The attributes entity-class, query
and named-query are mutually exclusive. Optional.
An instance of javax.persistence.EntityManager that will be used to perform the JPA
operations. Optional.
An instance of javax.persistence.EntityManagerFactory that will be used to obtain
an instance of javax.persistence.EntityManager that will perform the JPA operations.
Optional.
An
implementation
of
org.springframework.integration.jpa.core.JpaOperations that would
be
used
to
perform
the
JPA
operations.
It
is
recommended
not
to
provide
an
implementation
of
your
own
but
use
the
default
org.springframework.integration.jpa.core.DefaultJpaOperations
implementation. Either of the entity-manager, entity-manager-factory or jpa-operations attributes
is to be used. Optional.
The JPA QL that needs to be executed by this adapter.Optional.
❽
The named query that needs to be executed by this adapter.Optional.
❶
❷
❸
❹
❺
❻
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15
The native query that will be executed by this adapter. Either of the jpa-query, named-query or
native-query attributes are to be used. Optional.
The order for this consumer when multiple consumers are registered thereby managing loadbalancing and/or failover. Optional (Defaults to Ordered.LOWEST_PRECEDENCE).
An
instance
of
o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource.ParameterSourceFactory that will be
used
to
get
an
instance
of
o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource.ParameterSource which will be used to
resolve the values of the parameters provided in the query. Ignored if operations are
performed using a JPA entity. If a parameter sub element is used, the factory must
be of type ExpressionEvaluatingParameterSourceFactory located in package
o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource. Optional.
Accepts one of the PERSIST,MERGE or DELETE. Indicates the operation that the adapter needs
to perform. Relevant only if an entity is being used for JPA operations. Ignored if JPA QL, named
query or native query is provided. Defaults to MERGE. Optional.
If set to true, the payload of the Message will be used as a source for providing parameters. If false,
however, the entire Message will be available as a source for parameters.Optional.
Defines the transaction management attributes and the reference to transaction manager to be used
by the JPA adapter.Optional.
One or more parameter attributes, one for each parameter used in the query. The value or
expression provided will be evaluated to compute the value of the parameter.Optional.
18.6 Outbound Gateways
The JPA Inbound Channel Adapter allows you to poll a database in order to retrieve one or more JPA
entities and the retrieved data is consequently used to start a Spring Integration flow using the retrieved
data as message payload.
Additionally, you may use JPA Outbound Channel Adapters at the end of your flow in order to persist
data, essentially terminating the flow at the end of the persistence operation.
However, how can you execute JPA persistence operation in the middle of a flow? For example, you
may have business data that you are processing in your Spring Integration message flow, that you would
like to persist, yet you still need to execute other components further downstream. Or instead of polling
the database using a poller, you rather have the need to execute JPQL queries and retrieve data actively
which then is used to being processed in subsequent components within your flow.
This is where JPA Outbound Gateways come into play. They give you the ability to persist data as
well as retrieving data. To facilitate these uses, Spring Integration provides two types of JPA Outbound
Gateways:
• Updating Outbound Gateway
• Retrieving Outbound Gateway
Whenever the Outbound Gateway is used to perform an action that saves, updates or soley deletes some
records in the database, you need to use an Updating Outbound Gateway gateway. If for example an
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entity is used to persist it, then a merged/persisted entity is returned as a result. In other cases the number
of records affected (updated or deleted) is returned instead.
When retrieving (selecting) data from the database, we use a Retrieving Outbound Gateway. With a
Retrieving Outbound Gateway gateway, we can use either JPQL, Named Queries (native or JPQLbased) or Native Queries (SQL) for selecting the data and retrieving the results.
An Updating Outbound Gateway is functionally very similar to an Outbound Channel Adapter, except
that an Updating Outbound Gateway is used to send a result to the Gateway's reply channel after
performing the given JPA operation.
A Retrieving Outbound Gateway is quite similar to an Inbound Channel Adapter.
Note
We recommend you to first refer to the JPA Outbound Channel Adapter section and the JPA
Inbound Channel Adapter sections above, as most of the common concepts are being explained
there.
This similarity was the main factor to use the central JpaExecutor class to unify common
functionality as much as possible.
Common for all JPA Outbound Gateways and simlar to the outbound-channel-adapter, we can use
• Entity classes
• JPA Query Language (JPQL)
• Native query
• Named query
for performing various JPA operations. For configuration examples please see the section called “JPA
Outbound Gateway Samples”.
Common Configuration Parameters
JPA Outbound Gateways always have access to the Spring Integration Message as input. As such the
following parameters are available:
parameter-source-factory
An instance of o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource.ParameterSourceFactory
that
will
be
used
to
get
an
instance
of
o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource.ParameterSource. The ParameterSource is
used to resolve the values of the parameters provided in the query. The parameter-source-factory
attribute is ignored, if operations are performed using a JPA entity. If a parameter sub-element is used,
the factory must be of type ExpressionEvaluatingParameterSourceFactory, located in
package o.s.i.jpa.support.parametersource. Optional.
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use-payload-as-parameter-source
If set to true, the payload of the Message will be used as a source for providing parameters.
If set to false, the entire Message will be available as a source for parameters. If no JPA
Parameters are passed in, this property will default to true. This means that using a default
BeanPropertyParameterSourceFactory, the bean properties of the payload will be used as a
source for parameter values for the to-be-executed JPA query. However, if JPA Parameters are passed
in, then this property will by default evaluate to false. The reason is that JPA Parameters allow for SpEL
Expressions to be provided and therefore it is highly beneficial to have access to the entire Message,
including the Headers.
Updating Outbound Gateway
<int-jpa:updating-outbound-gateway request-channel="" ❶
auto-startup="true"
entity-class=""
entity-manager=""
entity-manager-factory=""
id=""
jpa-operations=""
jpa-query=""
named-query=""
native-query=""
order=""
parameter-source-factory=""
persist-mode="MERGE"
reply-channel="" ❷
reply-timeout="" ❸
use-payload-as-parameter-source="true">
<int:poller/>
<int-jpa:transactional/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="" type="" value=""/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="" expression=""/>
</int-jpa:updating-outbound-gateway>
❶
❷
❸
The channel from which the outbound gateway will receive messages for performing the desired
operation. This attribute is similar to channel attribute of the outbound-channel-adapter.Optional.
The channel to which the gateway will send the response after performing the required JPA
operation. If this attribute is not defined, the request message must have a replyChannel header.
Optional.
Specifies the time the gateway will wait to send the result to the reply channel. Only applies
when the reply channel itself might block the send (for example a bounded QueueChannel
that is currently full). By default the Gateway will wait indefinitely. The value is specified in
milliseconds. Optional.
Retrieving Outbound Gateway
<int-jpa:retrieving-outbound-gateway request-channel=""
auto-startup="true"
delete-after-poll="false"
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delete-in-batch="false"
entity-class=""
entity-manager=""
entity-manager-factory=""
expect-single-result="false" ❶
id=""
jpa-operations=""
jpa-query=""
max-number-of-results="" ❷
named-query=""
native-query=""
order=""
parameter-source-factory=""
reply-channel=""
reply-timeout=""
use-payload-as-parameter-source="true">
<int:poller></int:poller>
<int-jpa:transactional/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="" type="" value=""/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="" expression=""/>
</int-jpa:retrieving-outbound-gateway>
❶
❷
A boolean flag indicating whether the select operation is expected to return a single result or a
List of results. If this flag is set to true, the single entity selected is sent as the payload of the
message. If multiple entities are returned, an exception is thrown. If false, the List of entities
is being sent as the payload of the message. By default the value is false.Optional.
This non zero, non negative integer value tells the adapter not to select more than given number
of rows on execution of the select operation. By default, if this attribute is not set, all the possible
records are selected by given query.Optional.
Important
When choosing to delete entities upon retrieval and you have retrieved a collection of entities,
please be aware that by default entities are deleted on a per entity basis. This may cause
performance issues.
Alternatively, you can set attribute deleteInBatch to true, which will perform a batch delete.
However, please be aware of the limitation that in that case cascading deletes are not supported.
JSR 317: Java™ Persistence 2.0 states in chapter Chapter 4.10, Bulk Update and Delete
Operations that:
"A delete operation only applies to entities of the specified class and its subclasses. It does
not cascade to related entities."
For more information please see JSR 317: Java™ Persistence 2.0
JPA Outbound Gateway Samples
This section contains various examples of the Updating Outbound Gateway and Retrieving Outbound
Gateway
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Update using an Entity Class
In this example an Updating Outbound Gateway is persisted using solely the entity class
org.springframework.integration.jpa.test.entity.Student as JPA defining
parameter.
<int-jpa:updating-outbound-gateway request-channel="entityRequestChannel" ❶
reply-channel="entityResponseChannel" ❷
entity-class="org.springframework.integration.jpa.test.entity.Student"
entity-manager="em"/>
❶
❷
This is the request channel for the outbound gateway, this is similar to the channel attribute of the
outbound-channel-adapter
This is where a gateway differs from an outbound adapter, this is the channel over which the
reply of the performed JPA operation is received. If,however, you are not interested in the reply
received and just want to perform the operation, then using a JPA outbound-channel-adapter is
the appropriate choice. In above case, where we are using entity class, the reply will be the entity
object that was created/merged as a result of the JPA operation.
Update using JPQL
In this example, we will see how we can update an entity using the Java Persistence Query Language
(JPQL). For this we use an Updating Outbound Gateway.
<int-jpa:updating-outbound-gateway request-channel="jpaqlRequestChannel"
reply-channel="jpaqlResponseChannel"
jpa-query="update Student s set s.lastName = :lastName where s.rollNumber = :rollNumber" ❶
entity-manager="em">
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastName" expression="payload"/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="rollNumber" expression="headers['rollNumber']"/>
</int-jpa:updating-outbound-gateway>
❶
The JPQL query that will be executed by the gateway. Since an Updating Outbound Gateway is
used, only update and delete JPQL queries would be sensible choices.
When sending a message with a String payload and containing a header rollNumber with a long value,
the last name of the student with the provided roll number is updated to the value provided in the message
payload. When using an UPDATING gateway, the return value is always an integer value which denotes
the number of records affected by execution of the JPA QL.
Retrieving an Entity using JPQL
The following examples uses a Retrieving Outbound Gateway together with JPQL to retrieve (select)
one or more entities from the database.
<int-jpa:retrieving-outbound-gateway request-channel="retrievingGatewayReqChannel"
reply-channel="retrievingGatewayReplyChannel"
jpa-query="select s from Student s where s.firstName = :firstName and s.lastName = :lastName"
entity-manager="em">
<int-jpa:parameter name="firstName" expression="payload"/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastName" expression="headers['lastName']"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-gateway>
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Update using a Named Query
Using a Named Query is basically the same as using a JPQL query directly. The difference is that the
named-query attribute is used instead, as seen in the xml snippet below.
<int-jpa:updating-outbound-gateway request-channel="namedQueryRequestChannel"
reply-channel="namedQueryResponseChannel"
named-query="updateStudentByRollNumber"
entity-manager="em">
<int-jpa:parameter name="lastName" expression="payload"/>
<int-jpa:parameter name="rollNumber" expression="headers['rollNumber']"/>
</int-jpa:outbound-gateway>
Note
You can find a complete Sample application for using Spring Integration's JPA adapter at:
https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples/tree/master/basic/jpa
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19. JMS Support
Spring Integration provides Channel Adapters for receiving and sending JMS messages. There are
actually two JMS-based inbound Channel Adapters. The first uses Spring's JmsTemplate to receive
based on a polling period. The second is "message-driven" and relies upon a Spring MessageListener
container. There is also an outbound Channel Adapter which uses the JmsTemplate to convert and
send a JMS Message on demand.
As you can see from above by using JmsTemplate and MessageListener container Spring
Integration relies on Spring's JMS support. This is important to understand since most of the
attributes exposed on these adapters will configure the underlying Spring's JmsTemplate and/or
MessageListener container. For more details about JmsTemplate and MessageListener
container please refer to Spring JMS documentation.
Whereas the JMS Channel Adapters are intended for unidirectional Messaging (send-only or receiveonly), Spring Integration also provides inbound and outbound JMS Gateways for request/reply
operations. The inbound gateway relies on one of Spring's MessageListener container implementations
for Message-driven reception that is also capable of sending a return value to the "reply-to" Destination
as provided by the received Message. The outbound Gateway sends a JMS Message to a "requestdestination" and then receives a reply Message. The "reply-destination" reference (or "reply-destinationname") can be configured explicitly or else the outbound gateway will use a JMS TemporaryQueue.
Prior to Spring Integration 2.2, if necessary, a TemporaryQueue was created (and removed) for
each request/reply. Beginning with Spring Integration 2.2, the outbound gateway can be configured
to use a MessageListener container to receive replies instead of directly using a new (or cached)
Consumer to receive the reply for each request. When so configured, and no explicit reply destination
is provided, a single TemporaryQueue is used for each gateway instead of one for each request.
19.1 Inbound Channel Adapter
The inbound Channel Adapter requires a reference to either a single JmsTemplate instance or
both ConnectionFactory and Destination (a 'destinationName' can be provided in place
of the 'destination' reference). The following example defines an inbound Channel Adapter with a
Destination reference.
<int-jms:inbound-channel-adapter id="jmsIn" destination="inQueue" channel="exampleChannel">
<int:poller fixed-rate="30000"/>
</int-jms:inbound-channel-adapter>
Tip
Notice from the configuration that the inbound-channel-adapter is a Polling Consumer. That
means that it invokes receive() when triggered. This should only be used in situations where
polling is done relatively infrequently and timeliness is not important. For all other situations (a
vast majority of JMS-based use-cases), the message-driven-channel-adapter described below
is a better option.
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Note
All of the JMS adapters that require a reference to the ConnectionFactory will automatically
look for a bean named "connectionFactory" by default. That is why you don't see
a "connection-factory" attribute in many of the examples. However, if your JMS
ConnectionFactory has a different bean name, then you will need to provide that attribute.
If 'extract-payload' is set to true (which is the default), the received JMS Message will be passed
through the MessageConverter. When relying on the default SimpleMessageConverter, this means that
the resulting Spring Integration Message will have the JMS Message's body as its payload. A JMS
TextMessage will produce a String-based payload, a JMS BytesMessage will produce a byte array
payload, and a JMS ObjectMessage's Serializable instance will become the Spring Integration Message's
payload. If instead you prefer to have the raw JMS Message as the Spring Integration Message's payload,
then set 'extract-payload' to false.
<int-jms:inbound-channel-adapter id="jmsIn"
destination="inQueue"
channel="exampleChannel"
extract-payload="false"/>
<int:poller fixed-rate="30000"/>
</int-jms:inbound-channel-adapter>
19.2 Message-Driven Channel Adapter
The "message-driven-channel-adapter" requires a reference to either an instance of a Spring
MessageListener container (any subclass of AbstractMessageListenerContainer) or both
ConnectionFactory and Destination (a 'destinationName' can be provided in place of the
'destination' reference). The following example defines a message-driven Channel Adapter with a
Destination reference.
<int-jms:message-driven-channel-adapter id="jmsIn" destination="inQueue" channel="exampleChannel"/>
Note
The Message-Driven adapter also accepts several properties that pertain to the
MessageListener container. These values are only considered if you do not provide an
actual 'container' reference. In that case, an instance of DefaultMessageListenerContainer
will be created and configured based on these properties. For example, you can specify
the "transaction-manager" reference, the "concurrent-consumers" value, and several other
property references and values. Refer to the JavaDoc and Spring Integration's JMS Schema
(spring-integration-jms.xsd) for more detail.
The 'extract-payload' property has the same effect as described above, and once again its default value
is 'true'. The poller sub-element is not applicable for a message-driven Channel Adapter, as it will be
actively invoked. For most usage scenarios, the message-driven approach is better since the Messages
will be passed along to the MessageChannel as soon as they are received from the underlying JMS
consumer.
Finally, the <message-driven-channel-adapter> also accepts the 'error-channel' attribute. This provides
the same basic functionality as described in the section called “Enter the GatewayProxyFactoryBean”.
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<int-jms:message-driven-channel-adapter id="jmsIn" destination="inQueue"
channel="exampleChannel"
error-channel="exampleErrorChannel"/>
When comparing this to the generic gateway configuration, or the JMS 'inbound-gateway' that will
be discussed below, the key difference here is that we are in a one-way flow since this is a 'channeladapter', not a gateway. Therefore, the flow downstream from the 'error-channel' should also be oneway. For example, it could simply send to a logging handler, or it could be connected to a different JMS
<outbound-channel-adapter> element.
19.3 Outbound Channel Adapter
The JmsSendingMessageHandler implements the MessageHandler interface and is capable
of converting Spring Integration Messages to JMS messages and then sending to a JMS destination.
It requires either a 'jmsTemplate' reference or both 'connectionFactory' and 'destination' references
(again, the 'destinationName' may be provided in place of the 'destination'). As with the inbound
Channel Adapter, the easiest way to configure this adapter is with the namespace support. The
following configuration will produce an adapter that receives Spring Integration Messages from the
"exampleChannel" and then converts those into JMS Messages and sends them to the JMS Destination
reference whose bean name is "outQueue".
<int-jms:outbound-channel-adapter id="jmsOut" destination="outQueue" channel="exampleChannel"/>
As with the inbound Channel Adapters, there is an 'extract-payload' property. However, the meaning
is reversed for the outbound adapter. Rather than applying to the JMS Message, the boolean property
applies to the Spring Integration Message payload. In other words, the decision is whether to pass the
Spring Integration Message itself as the JMS Message body or whether to pass the Spring Integration
Message's payload as the JMS Message body. The default value is once again 'true'. Therefore, if you
pass a Spring Integration Message whose payload is a String, a JMS TextMessage will be created. If
on the other hand you want to send the actual Spring Integration Message to another system via JMS,
then simply set this to 'false'.
Note
Regardless of the boolean value for payload extraction, the Spring Integration
MessageHeaders will map to JMS properties as long as you are relying on the default converter
or provide a reference to another instance of HeaderMappingMessageConverter (the same
holds true for 'inbound' adapters except that in those cases, it's the JMS properties mapping
to Spring Integration MessageHeaders).
19.4 Inbound Gateway
Spring Integration's message-driven JMS inbound-gateway delegates to a MessageListener
container, supports dynamically adjusting concurrent consumers, and can also handle replies. The
inbound gateway requires references to a ConnectionFactory, and a request Destination (or
'requestDestinationName'). The following example defines a JMS "inbound-gateway" that receives from
the JMS queue referenced by the bean id "inQueue" and sends to the Spring Integration channel named
"exampleChannel".
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<int-jms:inbound-gateway id="jmsInGateway"
request-destination="inQueue"
request-channel="exampleChannel"/>
Since the gateways provide request/reply behavior instead of unidirectional send or receive, they also
have two distinct properties for the "payload extraction" (as discussed above for the Channel Adapters'
'extract-payload' setting). For an inbound-gateway, the 'extract-request-payload' property determines
whether the received JMS Message body will be extracted. If 'false', the JMS Message itself will become
the Spring Integration Message payload. The default is 'true'.
Similarly, for an inbound-gateway the 'extract-reply-payload' property applies to the Spring Integration
Message that is going to be converted into a reply JMS Message. If you want to pass the whole Spring
Integration Message (as the body of a JMS ObjectMessage) then set this to 'false'. By default, it is also
'true' such that the Spring Integration Message payload will be converted into a JMS Message (e.g.
String payload becomes a JMS TextMessage).
As with anything else, Gateway invocation might result in error. By default Producer will not be notified
of the errors that might have occurred on the consumer side and will time out waiting for the reply.
However there might be times when you want to communicate an error condition back to the consumer,
in other words treat the Exception as a valid reply by mapping it to a Message. To accomplish this JMS
Inbound Gateway provides support for a Message Channel to which errors can be sent for processing,
potentially resulting in a reply Message payload that conforms to some contract defining what a caller
may expect as an "error" reply. Such a channel can be configured via the error-channel attribute.
<int-jms:inbound-gateway request-destination="requestQueue"
request-channel="jmsinputchannel"
error-channel="errorTransformationChannel"/>
<int:transformer input-channel="exceptionTransformationChannel"
ref="exceptionTransformer" method="createErrorResponse"/>
You might notice that this example looks very similar to that included within the section called “Enter
the GatewayProxyFactoryBean”. The same idea applies here: The exceptionTransformer could be a
simple POJO that creates error response objects, you could reference the "nullChannel" to suppress the
errors, or you could leave 'error-channel' out to let the Exception propagate.
19.5 Outbound Gateway
The outbound Gateway creates JMS Messages from Spring Integration Messages and then sends to a
'request-destination'. It will then handle the JMS reply Message either by using a selector to receive
from the 'reply-destination' that you configure, or if no 'reply-destination' is provided, it will create JMS
TemporaryQueues.
Caution
Using
a
reply-destination
(or
reply-destination-name),
together
with
a
CachingConnectionFactory with cacheConsumers set to true, can cause Out of
Memory conditions. This is because each request gets a new consumer with a new selector
(selecting on the correlation-key value, or on the sent JMSMessageID when there is no
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correlation-key). Given that these selectors are unique, they will remain in the cache unused
after the current request completes.
If you specify a reply destination, you are advised to NOT use cached consumers.
Alternatively, consider using a <reply-listener/> as described below.
<int-jms:outbound-gateway id="jmsOutGateway"
request-destination="outQueue"
request-channel="outboundJmsRequests"
reply-channel="jmsReplies"/>
The 'outbound-gateway' payload extraction properties are inversely related to those of the 'inboundgateway' (see the discussion above). That means that the 'extract-request-payload' property value applies
to the Spring Integration Message that is being converted into a JMS Message to be sent as a request,
and the 'extract-reply-payload' property value applies to the JMS Message that is received as a reply
and then converted into a Spring Integration Message to be subsequently sent to the 'reply-channel' as
shown in the example configuration above.
<reply-listener/>
Spring Integration 2.2 introduced an alternative technique for handling replies. If you add a <replylistener/> child element to the gateway, instead of creating a consumer for each reply, a
MessageListener container is used to receive the replies and hand them over to the requesting
thread. This provides a number of performance benefits as well as alleviating the cached consumer
memory utilization problem described in the caution above.
When using a <reply-listener/>, instead of creating a TemporaryQueue for each request, a single
TemporaryQueue is used (the gateway will create an additional TemporaryQueue, as necessary,
if the connection to the broker is lost and recovered).
When using a correlation-key, multiple gateways can share the same reply destination because the
listener container uses a selector that is unique to each gateway.
Caution
If you specify a reply listener, and specify a reply destination (or reply destination name), but
provide NO correlation key, the gateway will log a warning and fall back to pre-2.2 behavior.
This is because there is no way to configure a selector in this case, thus there is no way to avoid
a reply going to a different gateway that might be configured with the same reply destination.
Note that, in this situation, a new consumer is used for each request, and consumers can build
up in memory as described in the caution above; therefore cached consumers should not be
used in this case.
<int-jms:outbound-gateway id="jmsOutGateway"
request-destination="outQueue"
request-channel="outboundJmsRequests"
reply-channel="jmsReplies">
<int-jms:reply-listener />
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</int-jms-outbound-gateway>
In the above example, a reply listener with default attributes is used. The listener is very lightweight
and it is anticipated that, in most cases, only a single consumer will be needed. However, attributes
such as concurrent-consumers, max-concurrent-consumers etc., can be added. Refer to the schema for
a complete list of supported attributes, together with the Spring JMS documentation for their meanings.
19.6 Mapping Message Headers to/from JMS Message
JMS Message can contain meta-information such as JMS API headers as well as simple properties. You
can map those to/from Spring Integration Message Headers using JmsHeaderMapper. The JMS API
headers are passed to the appropriate setter methods (e.g. setJMSReplyTo) whereas other headers will
be copied to the general properties of the JMS Message. JMS Outbound Gateway is bootstrapped with
the default implementation of JmsHeaderMapper which will map standard JMS API Headers as well
as primitive/String Message Headers. Custom header mapper could also be provided via headermapper attribute of inbound and outbound gateways.
19.7 Message Conversion, Marshalling and
Unmarshalling
If you need to convert the message, all JMS adapters and gateways, allow you to provide
a MessageConverter via message-converter attribute. Simply provide the bean name of
an instance of MessageConverter that is available within the same ApplicationContext.
Also, to provide some consistency with Marshaller and Unmarshaller interfaces Spring provides
MarshallingMessageConverter which you can configure with your own custom Marshallers
and Unmarshallers
<int-jms:inbound-gateway request-destination="requestQueue"
request-channel="inbound-gateway-channel"
message-converter="marshallingMessageConverter"/>
<bean id="marshallingMessageConverter"
class="org.springframework.jms.support.converter.MarshallingMessageConverter">
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="org.bar.SampleMarshaller"/>
</constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="org.bar.SampleUnmarshaller"/>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
Note
Note, however, that when you provide your own MessageConverter instance, it will still
be wrapped within the HeaderMappingMessageConverter. This means that the 'extractrequest-payload' and 'extract-reply-payload' properties may affect what actual objects are
passed to your converter. The HeaderMappingMessageConverter itself simply delegates to a
target MessageConverter while also mapping the Spring Integration MessageHeaders to JMS
Message properties and vice-versa.
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19.8 JMS Backed Message Channels
The Channel Adapters and Gateways featured above are all intended for applications that are integrating
with other external systems. The inbound options assume that some other system is sending JMS
Messages to the JMS Destination and the outbound options assume that some other system is receiving
from the Destination. The other system may or may not be a Spring Integration application. Of course,
when sending the Spring Integration Message instance as the body of the JMS Message itself (with the
'extract-payload' value set to false), it is assumed that the other system is based on Spring Integration.
However, that is by no means a requirement. That flexibility is one of the benefits of using a Messagebased integration option with the abstraction of "channels" or Destinations in the case of JMS.
There are cases where both the producer and consumer for a given JMS Destination are intended to be
part of the same application, running within the same process. This could be accomplished by using a
pair of inbound and outbound Channel Adapters. The problem with that approach is that two adapters
are required even though conceptually the goal is to have a single Message Channel. A better option
is supported as of Spring Integration version 2.0. Now it is possible to define a single "channel" when
using the JMS namespace.
<int-jms:channel id="jmsChannel" queue="exampleQueue"/>
The channel in the above example will behave much like a normal <channel/> element from the
main Spring Integration namespace. It can be referenced by both "input-channel" and "output-channel"
attributes of any endpoint. The difference is that this channel is backed by a JMS Queue instance
named "exampleQueue". This means that asynchronous messaging is possible between the producing
and consuming endpoints, but unlike the simpler asynchronous Message Channels created by adding
a <queue/> sub-element within a non-JMS <channel/> element, the Messages are not just stored in an
in-memory queue. Instead those Messages are passed within a JMS Message body, and the full power
of the underlying JMS provider is then available for that channel. Probably the most common rationale
for using this alternative would be to take advantage of the persistence made available by the store
and forward approach of JMS messaging. If configured properly, the JMS-backed Message Channel
also supports transactions. In other words, a producer would not actually write to a transactional JMSbacked channel if its send operation is part of a transaction that rolls back. Likewise, a consumer would
not physically remove a JMS Message from the channel if the reception of that Message is part of a
transaction that rolls back. Note that the producer and consumer transactions are separate in such a
scenario. This is significantly different than the propagation of a transactional context across the simple,
synchronous <channel/> element that has no <queue/> sub-element.
Since the example above is referencing a JMS Queue instance, it will act as a point-to-point channel.
If on the other hand, publish/subscribe behavior is needed, then a separate element can be used, and a
JMS Topic can be referenced instead.
<int-jms:publish-subscribe-channel id="jmsChannel" topic="exampleTopic"/>
For either type of JMS-backed channel, the name of the destination may be provided instead of a
reference.
<int-jms:channel id="jmsQueueChannel" queue-name="exampleQueueName"/>
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<jms:publish-subscribe-channel id="jmsTopicChannel" topic-name="exampleTopicName"/>
In the examples above, the Destination names would be resolved by Spring's
default DynamicDestinationResolver implementation, but any implementation of the
DestinationResolver interface could be provided. Also, the JMS ConnectionFactory is a
required property of the channel, but by default the expected bean name would be "connectionFactory".
The example below provides both a custom instance for resolution of the JMS Destination names and
a different name for the ConnectionFactory.
<int-jms:channel id="jmsChannel" queue-name="exampleQueueName"
destination-resolver="customDestinationResolver"
connection-factory="customConnectionFactory"/>
19.9 Using JMS Message Selectors
With JMS message selectors you can filter JMS Messages based on JMS headers as well as JMS
properties. For example, if you want to listen to messages whose custom JMS header property
fooHeaderProperty equals bar, you can specify the following expression:
fooHeaderProperty = 'bar'
Message selector expressions are a subset of the SQL-92 conditional expression syntax, and are defined
as part of the Java Message Service specification (Version 1.1 April 12, 2002). Specifically, please see
chapter "3.8 Message Selection". It contains a detailed explanation of the expressions syntax.
You can specify the JMS message selector attribute using XML Namespace configuration for the
following Spring Integration JMS components:
• JMS Channel
• JMS Publish Subscribe Channel
• JMS Inbound Channel Adapter
• JMS Inbound Gateway
• JMS Message-driven Channel Adapter
Important
It is important to remember that you cannot reference message body values using JMS Message
selectors.
19.10 JMS Samples
To experiment with these JMS adapters, check out the JMS samples available in the Spring Integration
Samples Git repository:
• https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples/tree/master/basic/jms
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There are two samples included. One provides Inbound and Outbound Channel Adapters, and the other
provides Inbound and Outbound Gateways. They are configured to run with an embedded ActiveMQ
process, but the samples' common.xml Spring Application Context file can easily be modified to support
either a different JMS provider or a standalone ActiveMQ process.
In other words, you can split the configuration, so that the Inbound and Outbound Adapters are running
in separate JVMs. If you have ActiveMQ installed, simply modify the brokerURL property within the
common.xml file to use tcp://localhost:61616 (instead of vm://localhost). Both of the samples accept
input via stdin and then echo back to stdout. Look at the configuration to see how these messages are
routed over JMS.
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20. Mail Support
20.1 Mail-Sending Channel Adapter
Spring Integration provides support for outbound email with the MailSendingMessageHandler.
It delegates to a configured instance of Spring's JavaMailSender:
JavaMailSender mailSender = context.getBean("mailSender", JavaMailSender.class);
MailSendingMessageHandler mailSendingHandler = new MailSendingMessageHandler(mailSender);
MailSendingMessageHandler has various mapping strategies that use Spring's MailMessage
abstraction. If the received Message's payload is already a MailMessage instance, it will be sent
directly. Therefore, it is generally recommended to precede this consumer with a Transformer for nontrivial MailMessage construction requirements. However, a few simple Message mapping strategies are
supported out-of-the-box. For example, if the message payload is a byte array, then that will be mapped
to an attachment. For simple text-based emails, you can provide a String-based Message payload. In
that case, a MailMessage will be created with that String as the text content. If you are working with
a Message payload type whose toString() method returns appropriate mail text content, then consider
adding Spring Integration's ObjectToStringTransformer prior to the outbound Mail adapter (see the
example within the section called “Configuring Transformer with XML” for more detail).
The outbound MailMessage may also be configured with certain values from the MessageHeaders.
If available, values will be mapped to the outbound mail's properties, such as the recipients (TO, CC,
and BCC), the from/reply-to, and the subject. The header names are defined by the following constants:
MailHeaders.SUBJECT
MailHeaders.TO
MailHeaders.CC
MailHeaders.BCC
MailHeaders.FROM
MailHeaders.REPLY_TO
Note
MailHeaders also allows you to override corresponding MailMessage values. For
example: If MailMessage.to is set to 'foo@bar.com' and MailHeaders.TO Message
header is provided it will take precedence and override the corresponding value in
MailMessage
20.2 Mail-Receiving Channel Adapter
Spring
Integration
also
provides
support
for
inbound
email
with
the
MailReceivingMessageSource. It delegates to a configured instance of Spring Integration's
own MailReceiver interface, and there are two implementations: Pop3MailReceiver and
ImapMailReceiver. The easiest way to instantiate either of these is by passing the 'uri' for a Mail
store to the receiver's constructor. For example:
MailReceiver receiver = new Pop3MailReceiver("pop3://usr:pwd@localhost/INBOX");
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Another option for receiving mail is the IMAP "idle" command (if supported by the mail server you
are using). Spring Integration provides the ImapIdleChannelAdapter which is itself a Messageproducing endpoint. It delegates to an instance of the ImapMailReceiver but enables asynchronous
reception of Mail Messages. There are examples in the next section of configuring both types of inbound
Channel Adapter with Spring Integration's namespace support in the 'mail' schema.
20.3 Mail Namespace Support
Spring Integration provides a namespace for mail-related configuration. To use it, configure the
following schema locations.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int-mail="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/mail"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/mail
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/mail/spring-integration-mail.xsd">
To configure an outbound Channel Adapter, provide the channel to receive from, and the MailSender:
<int-mail:outbound-channel-adapter channel="outboundMail"
mail-sender="mailSender"/>
Alternatively, provide the host, username, and password:
<int-mail:outbound-channel-adapter channel="outboundMail"
host="somehost" username="someuser" password="somepassword"/>
Note
Keep in mind, as with any outbound Channel Adapter, if the referenced channel is a
PollableChannel, a <poller> sub-element should be provided with either an interval-trigger or
cron-trigger.
To configure an Inbound Channel Adapter, you have the choice between polling or event-driven
(assuming your mail server supports IMAP IDLE - if not, then polling is the only option). A polling
Channel Adapter simply requires the store URI and the channel to send inbound Messages to. The URI
may begin with "pop3" or "imap":
<int-mail:inbound-channel-adapter id="imapAdapter"
store-uri="imaps://[username]:[password]@imap.gmail.com/INBOX"
java-mail-properties="javaMailProperties"
channel="recieveChannel"
should-delete-messages="true"
should-mark-messages-as-read="true"
auto-startup="true">
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" fixed-rate="5000"/>
</int-mail:inbound-channel-adapter>
If you do have IMAP idle support, then you may want to configure the "imap-idle-channel-adapter"
element instead. Since the "idle" command enables event-driven notifications, no poller is necessary
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for this adapter. It will send a Message to the specified channel as soon as it receives the notification
that new mail is available:
<int-mail:imap-idle-channel-adapter id="customAdapter"
store-uri="imaps://[username]:[password]@imap.gmail.com/INBOX"
channel="recieveChannel"
auto-startup="true"
should-delete-messages="false"
should-mark-messages-as-read="true"
java-mail-properties="javaMailProperties"/>
... where javaMailProperties could be provided by creating and populating a regular
java.utils.Properties object. For example via util namespace provided by Spring.
Important
If your username contains the '@' character use '%40' instead of '@' to avoid parsing errors
from the underlying JavaMail API.
<util:properties id="javaMailProperties">
<prop key="mail.imap.socketFactory.class">javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory</prop>
<prop key="mail.imap.socketFactory.fallback">false</prop>
<prop key="mail.store.protocol">imaps</prop>
<prop key="mail.debug">false</prop>
</util:properties>
By default, the ImapMailReceiver will search for Messages based on the default SearchTerm
which is All mails that are RECENT (if supported), that are NOT ANSWERED, that are NOT DELETED,
that are NOT SEEN and have not been processed by this mail receiver (enabled by the use of the custom
USER flag or simply NOT FLAGGED if not supported). Since version 2.2, the SearchTerm used
by the ImapMailReceiver is fully configurable via the SearchTermStrategy which you can
inject via the search-term-strategy attribute. SearchTermStrategy is a simple strategy
interface with a single method that allows you to create an instance of the SearchTerm that will be
used by the ImapMailReceiver.
public interface SearchTermStrategy {
SearchTerm generateSearchTerm(Flags supportedFlags, Folder folder);
}
For example:
<mail:imap-idle-channel-adapter id="customAdapter"
store-uri="imap:foo"
. . .
search-term-strategy="searchTermStrategy"/>
<bean id="searchTermStrategy" class="org.springframework.integration.mail.config.ImapIdleChannelAdapterParse
In the above example instead of relying on the default SearchTermStrategy the
TestSearchTermStrategy will be used instead
IMAP IDLE and lost connection
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When using IMAP IDLE channel adapter there might be situations where connection to the server may
be lost (e.g., network failure) and since Java Mail documentation explicitly states that the actual IMAP
API is EXPERIMENTAL it is important to understand the differences in the API and how to deal with
them when configuring IMAP IDLE adapters. Currently Spring Integration Mail adapters was tested
with Java Mail 1.4.1 and Java Mail 1.4.3 and depending on which one is used special attention must be
payed to some of the java mail properties that needs to be set with regard to auto-reconnect.
The following behavior was observed with GMAIL but should provide you with some tips on how to
solve re-connect issue with other providers, however feedback is always welcome. Again, below notes
are based on GMAIL.
With Java Mail 1.4.1 if mail.imaps.timeout property is set for a relatively short period of
time (e.g., ~ 5 min) then IMAPFolder.idle() will throw FolderClosedException after this
timeout. However if this property is not set (should be indefinite) the behavior that was observed is that
IMAPFolder.idle() method never returns nor it throws an exception. It will however reconnect
automatically if connection was lost for a short period of time (e.g., under 10 min), but if connection
was lost for a long period of time (e.g., over 10 min), then IMAPFolder.idle() will not throw
FolderClosedException nor it will re-establish connection and will remain in the blocked state
indefinitely, thus leaving you no possibility to reconnect without restarting the adapter. So the only way
to make re-connect to work with Java Mail 1.4.1 is to set mail.imaps.timeout property explicitly
to some value, but it also means that such value shoudl be relatively short (under 10 min) and the
connection should be re-estabished relatively quickly. Again, it may be different with other providers.
With Java Mail 1.4.3 there was significant improvements to the API ensuring that there will always be a
condition which will force IMAPFolder.idle() method to return via StoreClosedException
or FolderClosedException or simply return, thus allowing us to proceed with auto-reconnect.
Currently auto-reconnect will run infinitely making attempts to reconnect every 10 sec.
Important
In both configurations channel and should-delete-messages are the REQUIRED
attributes. The important thing to understand is why should-delete-messages is
required.
The issue is with the POP3 protocol, which does NOT have any knowledge of
messages that were READ. It can only know what's been read
within a single session.
This means that when your POP3 mail adapter is running, emails are successfully consumed
as as they become available during each poll and no single email message will be delivered
more then once. However, as soon as you restart your adapter and begin a new session all
the email messages that might have been retrieved in the previous session will be retrieved
again. That is the nature of POP3. Some might argue that should-delete-messages
should be TRUE by default. In other words, there are two valid and mutually exclusive use
cases
which make it very hard to pick a single "best" default. You may want to configure
your adapter as the only email receiver in which case you want to be able to restart such
adapter without fear that messages that were delivered before will not be redelivered again.
In this case setting should-delete-messages to TRUE would make most sense.
However, you may have another use case where
you may want to have multiple adapters
that simply monitor email servers and their content. In other words you just want to 'peek
but not touch'.
Then setting should-delete-messages to FALSE would be much
more appropriate. So since it is hard to choose what should be the right default value for
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the should-delete-messages attribute, we simply made it a required attribute, to be
set by the user. Leaving it up to the user also means, you will be less likely to end up with
unintended behavior.
Note
When configuring a polling email adapter's should-mark-messages-as-read attribute, be aware
of the protocol you are configuring to retrieve messages. For example POP3 does not support
this flag which means setting it to either value will have no effect as messages will NOT be
marked as read.
Important
It is important to understand that that these actions (marking messages read, and deleting
messages) are performed after the messages are received, but before they are processed. This
can cause messages to be lost.
You may wish to consider using transaction synchronization instead - see Section 20.5,
“Transaction Synchronization”
When using the namespace support, a header-enricher Message Transformer is also available. This
simplifies the application of the headers mentioned above to any Message prior to sending to the Mailsending Channel Adapter.
<int-mail:header-enricher subject="Example Mail"
to="to@example.org"
cc="cc@example.org"
bcc="bcc@example.org"
from="from@example.org"
reply-to="replyTo@example.org"
overwrite="false"/>
Finally, the <imap-idle-channel-adapter/> also accepts the 'error-channel' attribute. If a downstream
exception is thrown and an 'error-channel' is specified, a MessagingException message containing
the failed message and original exception, will be sent to this channel. Otherwise, if the downstream
channels are synchronous, any such exception will simply be logged as a warning by the channel adapter.
20.4 Email Message Filtering
Very often you may encounter a requirement to filter incoming messages (e.g., You want to only
read emails that have 'Spring Integration' in the Subject line). This could be easily accomplished by
connecting Inbound Mail adapter with an expression-based Filter. Although it would work, there is a
downside to this approach. Since messages would be filtered after going through inbound mail adapter
all such messages would be marked as read (SEEN) or Un-read (depending on the value of shouldmark-messages-as-read attribute). However in reality what would be more useful is to mark
messages as SEEN only if they passed the filtering criteria. This is very similar to looking at your email
client while scrolling through all the messages in the preview pane, but only flagging messages as SEEN
that were actually opened and read.
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In Spring Integration 2.0.4 we've introduced mail-filter-expression attribute on inboundchannel-adapter and imap-idle-channel-adapter. This attribute allows you to provide
an expression which is a combination of SpEL and Regular Expression. For example if you would
like to read only emails that contain 'Spring Integration' in the Subject line, you would configure
mail-filter-expression attribute like this this: mail-filter-expression="subject
matches '(?i).*Spring Integration.*"
Since javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage is the root context of SpEL Evaluation Context,
you can filter on any value available through MimeMessage including the actual body of the message.
This one is particularly important since reading the body of the message would typically result in such
message to be marked as SEEN by default, but since we now setting PEAK flag of every incomming
message to 'true', only messages that were explicitly marked as SEEN will be seen as read.
So in the below example only messages that match the filter expression will be output by this adapter and
only those messages will be marked as SEEN. In this case based on the mail-filter-expression
only messages that contain 'Spring Integration' in the subject line will be produced by this adapter.
<int-mail:imap-idle-channel-adapter id="customAdapter"
store-uri="imaps://some_google_address:${password}@imap.gmail.com/INBOX"
channel="receiveChannel"
should-mark-messages-as-read="true"
java-mail-properties="javaMailProperties"
mail-filter-expression="subject matches '(?i).*Spring Integration.*'"/>
Another reasonable question is what happens on the next poll, or idle event, or what happens when such
adapter is restarted. Will there be a potential duplication of massages to be filtered? In other words if
on the last retrieval where you had 5 new messages and only 1 passed the filter what would happen
with the other 4. Would they go through the filtering logic again on the next poll or idle? After all they
were not marked as SEEN. The actual answer is no. They would not be subject of duplicate processing
due to another flag (RECENT) that is set by the Email server and is used by Spring Integration mail
search filter. Folder implementations set this flag to indicate that this message is new to this folder, that
is, it has arrived since the last time this folder was opened. In other while our adapter may peek at the
email it also lets the email server know that such email was touched and therefore will be marked as
RECENT by the email server.
20.5 Transaction Synchronization
Transaction synchronization for inbound adapters allows you to take different actions after a
transaction commits, or rolls back. Transaction synchronization is enabled by adding a <transactional/
> element to the poller for the polled <inbound-adapter/>, or to the <imap-idle-inbound-adapter/
>. Even if there is no 'real' transaction involved, you can still enable this feature by using a
PseudoTransactionManager with the <transactional/> element. For more information, see
Section B.3, “Transaction Synchronization”.
Because of the many different mail servers, and specifically the limitations that some have, at this time
we only provide a strategy for these transaction synchronizations. You can send the messages to some
other Spring Integration components, or invoke a custom bean to perform some action. For example, to
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move an IMAP message to a different folder after the transaction commits, you might use something
similar to the following:
<int-mail:imap-idle-channel-adapter id="customAdapter"
store-uri="imaps://foo.com:password@imap.foo.com/INBOX"
channel="receiveChannel"
auto-startup="true"
should-delete-messages="false"
java-mail-properties="javaMailProperties">
<int:transactional synchronization-factory="syncFactory"/>
</int-mail:imap-idle-channel-adapter>
<int:transaction-synchronization-factory id="syncFactory">
<int:after-commit expression="@syncProcessor.process(payload)"/>
</int:transaction-synchronization-factory>
<bean id="syncProcessor" class="foo.bar.Mover"/>
public class Mover {
public void process(MimeMessage message) throws Exception{
Folder folder = message.getFolder();
folder.open(Folder.READ_WRITE);
String messageId = message.getMessageID();
Message[] messages = folder.getMessages();
FetchProfile contentsProfile = new FetchProfile();
contentsProfile.add(FetchProfile.Item.ENVELOPE);
contentsProfile.add(FetchProfile.Item.CONTENT_INFO);
contentsProfile.add(FetchProfile.Item.FLAGS);
folder.fetch(messages, contentsProfile);
// find this message and mark for deletion
for (int i = 0; i < messages.length; i++) {
if (((MimeMessage) messages[i]).getMessageID().equals(messageId)) {
messages[i].setFlag(Flags.Flag.DELETED, true);
break;
}
}
Folder fooFolder = store.getFolder("FOO"));
fooFolder.appendMessages(new MimeMessage[]{message});
folder.expunge();
folder.close(true);
fooFolder.close(false);
}
}
Important
For the message to be still available for manipulation after the transaction, should-deletemessages must be set to 'false'.
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21. MongoDb Support
As of version 2.1 Spring Integration introduces support for MongoDB: a "high-performance,
open source, document-oriented database". This support comes in the form of a MongoDB-based
MessageStore.
21.1 Introduction
To download, install, and run MongoDB please refer to the MongoDB documentation.
21.2 Connecting to MongoDb
To begin interacting with MongoDB you first need to connect to it. Spring Integration builds on the
support provided by another Spring project, Spring Data MongoDB, which provides a factory class
called MongoDbFactory that simplifies integration with the MongoDB Client API.
MongoDbFactory
To connect to MongoDB you can use an implementation of the MongoDbFactory interface:
public interface MongoDbFactory {
/**
* Creates
*
* @return
* @throws
*/
DB getDb()
a default {@link DB} instance.
the DB instance
DataAccessException
throws DataAccessException;
/**
* Creates a {@link DB} instance to access the database with the given name.
*
* @param dbName must not be {@literal null} or empty.
*
* @return the DB instance
* @throws DataAccessException
*/
DB getDb(String dbName) throws DataAccessException;
}
The example below shows SimpleMongoDbFactory, the out-of-the-box implementation:
In Java:
MongoDbFactory mongoDbFactory = new SimpleMongoDbFactory(new Mongo(), "test");
Or in Spring's XML configuration:
<bean id="mongoDbFactory" class="org.springframework.data.mongodb.core.SimpleMongoDbFactory">
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="com.mongodb.Mongo"/>
</constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg value="test"/>
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</bean>
As you can see SimpleMongoDbFactory takes two arguments: 1) a Mongo instance and 2) a String
specifying the name of the database. If you need to configure properties such as host, port, etc,
you can pass those using one of the constructors provided by the underlying Mongo class. For more
information on how to configure MongoDB, please refer to the Spring-Data-Document reference.
21.3 MongoDB Message Store
As described in EIP, a Message Store allows you to persist Messages. This can be very useful
when dealing with components that have a capability to buffer messages (QueueChannel, Aggregator,
Resequencer, etc.) if reliability is a concern. In Spring Integration, the MessageStore strategy also
provides the foundation for the ClaimCheck pattern, which is described in EIP as well.
Spring Integration's MongoDB module provides the MongoDbMessageStore which is an
implementation of both the MessageStore strategy (mainly used by the QueueChannel and
ClaimCheck patterns) and the MessageGroupStore strategy (mainly used by the Aggregator and
Resequencer patterns).
<bean id="mongoDbMessageStore" class="org.springframework.integration.mongodb.store.MongoDbMessageStore">
<constructor-arg ref="mongoDbFactory"/>
</bean>
<int:channel id="somePersistentQueueChannel">
<int:queue message-store="mongoDbMessageStore"/>
<int:channel>
<int:aggregator input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel"
message-store="mongoDbMessageStore"/>
Above is a sample MongoDbMessageStore configuration that shows its usage by a QueueChannel
and an Aggregator. As you can see it is a simple bean configuration, and it expects a
MongoDbFactory as a constructor argument.
21.4 MongoDB Inbound Channel Adapter
The MongoDb Inbound Channel Adapter is a polling consumer that reads data from MongoDb and
sends it as a Message payload.
<int-mongodb:inbound-channel-adapter id="mongoInboundAdapter"
channel="replyChannel"
query="{'name' : 'Bob'}"
entity-class="java.lang.Object"
auto-startup="false">
<int:poller fixed-rate="100"/>
</int-mongodb:inbound-channel-adapter>
As you can see from the configuration above, you configure a MongoDb Inbound Channel Adapter
using the inbound-channel-adapter element, providing values for various attributes such as:
• query or query-expression - a JSON query (see MongoDb Querying)
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• entity-class - the type of the payload object; if not supplied, a com.mongodb.DBObject
will be returned.
• collection-name or collection-name-expression - Identifies the name of the
MongoDb collection to use.
• mongodb-factory
reference
to
an
org.springframework.data.mongodb.MongoDbFactory
instance
of
• mongo-template
reference
to
an
instance
org.springframework.data.mongodb.core.MongoTemplate
and other attributes that are common across all other inbound adapters (e.g., 'channel').
of
Note
You cannot set both mongo-template and mongodb-factory.
The example above is relatively simple and static since it has a literal value for the query and uses the
default name for a collection. Sometimes you may need to change those values at runtime, based
on some condition. To do that, simply use their -expression equivalents (query-expression
and collection-name-expression) where the provided expression can be any valid SpEL
expression.
Also, you may wish to do some post-processing to the successfully processed data that was read from
the MongoDb. For example; you may want to move or remove a document after its been processed.
You can do this using Transaction Synchronization feature that was added with Spring Integration 2.2.
<int-mongodb:inbound-channel-adapter id="mongoInboundAdapter"
channel="replyChannel"
query="{'name' : 'Bob'}"
entity-class="java.lang.Object"
auto-startup="false">
<int:poller fixed-rate="200" max-messages-per-poll="1">
<int:transactional synchronization-factory="syncFactory"/>
</int:poller>
</int-mongodb:inbound-channel-adapter>
<int:transaction-synchronization-factory id="syncFactory">
<int:after-commit expression="@documentCleaner.remove(#mongoTemplate, payload, headers.mongo_collectionName
</int:transaction-synchronization-factory>
<bean id="documentCleaner" class="foo.bar.DocumentCleaner"/>
<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.integration.transaction.PseudoTransactionManager"/>
public class DocumentCleaner {
public void remove(MongoOperations mongoOperations, Object target, String collectionName) {
if (target instanceof List<?>){
List<?> documents = (List<?>) target;
for (Object document : documents) {
mongoOperations.remove(new BasicQuery(JSON.serialize(document)), collectionName);
}
}
}
}
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As you can see from the above, all you need to do is declare your poller to be transactional with a
transactional element. This element can reference a real transaction manager (for example if
some other part of your flow invokes JDBC). If you don't have a 'real' transaction, you can use a
org.springframework.integration.transaction.PseudoTransactionManager
which is an implementation of Spring's PlatformTransactionManager and enables the use of
the transaction synchronization features of the mongo adapter when there is no actual transaction.
Important
This does NOT make MongoDB itself transactional, it simply allows the synchronization of
actions to be taken before/after success (commit) or after failure (rollback).
Once your poller is transactional all you need to do is set an instance of the
org.springframework.integration.transaction.TransactionSynchronizationFactory
on the transactional element. TransactionSynchronizationFactory will create an
instance of the TransactioinSynchronization. For your convenience, we've exposed a default
SpEL-based TransactionSynchronizationFactory which allows you to configure SpEL
expressions, with their execution being coordinated (synchronized) with a transaction. Expressions for
before-commit, after-commit, and after-rollback are supported, together with a channel for each where
the evaluation result (if any) will be sent. For each sub-element you can specify expression and/
or channel attributes. If only the channel attribute is present the received Message will be sent
there as part of the particular synchronization scenario. If only the expression attribute is present
and the result of an expression is a non-Null value, a Message with the result as the payload will be
generated and sent to a default channel (NullChannel) and will appear in the logs (DEBUG). If you want
the evaluation result to go to a specific channel add a channel attribute. If the result of an expression
is null or void, no Message will be generated.
For more information about transaction synchronization, see Section B.3, “Transaction
Synchronization”.
21.5 MongoDB Outbound Channel Adapter
The MongoDb Outbound Channel Adapter allows you to write the Message payload to a MongoDb
document store
<int-mongodb:outbound-channel-adapter id="fullConfigWithCollectionExpression"
collection-name="myCollection"
mongo-converter="mongoConverter"
mongodb-factory="mongoDbFactory" />
As you can see from the configuration above, you configure a MongoDb Outbound Channel Adapter
using the outbound-channel-adapter element, providing values for various attributes such as:
• collection-name or collection-name-expression - Identifies the name of the
MongoDb collection to use.
• mongo-converter
reference
to
an
instance
of
org.springframework.data.mongodb.core.convert.MongoConverter to assist
with converting a raw java object to a JSON document representation
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• mongodb-factory
reference
to
an
org.springframework.data.mongodb.MongoDbFactory
instance
of
• mongo-template
reference
to
an
instance
of
org.springframework.data.mongodb.core.MongoTemplate (NOTE: you can not
have both mongo-template and mongodb-factory set)
and other attributes that are common across all other inbound adapters (e.g., 'channel').
The example above is relatively simple and static since it has a literal value for the collectionname. Sometimes you may need to change this value at runtime based on some condition. To do
that, simply use collection-name-expression where the provided expression can be any valid
SpEL expression.
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22. Redis Support
Since version 2.1 Spring Integration introduces support for Redis: "an open source advanced key-value
store". This support comes in the form of a Redis-based MessageStore as well as Publish-Subscribe
Messaging adapters that are supported by Redis via its PUBLISH, SUBSCRIBE and UNSUBSCRIBE
commands.
22.1 Introduction
To download, install and run Redis please refer to the Redis documentation.
22.2 Connecting to Redis
To begin interacting with Redis you first need to connect to it. Spring Integration uses support
provided by another Spring project, Spring Data Redis, which provides typical Spring constructs:
ConnectionFactory and Template. Those abstractions simplify integration with several Redisclient Java APIs. Currently Spring-Data-Redis supports jedis, jredis and rjc
RedisConnectionFactory
To connect to Redis you would use one of the implementations of the RedisConnectionFactory
interface:
public interface RedisConnectionFactory extends PersistenceExceptionTranslator {
/**
* Provides a suitable connection for interacting with Redis.
*
* @return connection for interacting with Redis.
*/
RedisConnection getConnection();
}
The example below shows how to create a JedisConnectionFactory.
In Java:
JedisConnectionFactory jcf = new JedisConnectionFactory();
jcf.afterPropertiesSet();
Or in Spring's XML configuration:
<bean id="redisConnectionFactory" class="org.springframework.data.redis.connection.jedis.JedisConnectionFact
<property name="port" value="7379" />
</bean>
The implementations of RedisConnectionFactory provide a set of properties such as port and host that
can be set if needed. Once an instance of RedisConnectionFactory is created, you can create an instance
of RedisTemplate and inject it with the RedisConnectionFactory.
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RedisTemplate
As with other template classes in Spring (e.g., JdbcTemplate, JmsTemplate) RedisTemplate
is a helper class that simplifies Redis data access code. For more information about RedisTemplate
and its variations (e.g., StringRedisTemplate) please refer to the Spring-Data-Redis
documentation
The code below shows how to create an instance of RedisTemplate:
In Java:
RedisTemplate rt = new RedisTemplate<String, Object>();
rt.setConnectionFactory(redisConnectionFactory);
Or in Spring's XML configuration::
<bean id="redisTemplate" class="org.springframework.data.redis.core.RedisTemplate">
<property name="connectionFactory" ref="redisConnectionFactory"/>
</bean>
22.3 Messaging with Redis
As mentioned in the introduction Redis provides support for Publish-Subscribe messaging via its
PUBLISH, SUBSCRIBE and UNSUBSCRIBE commands. As with JMS and AMQP, Spring Integration
provides Message Channels and adapters for sending and receiving messages via Redis.
Redis Publish/Subscribe channel
Similar to the JMS there are cases where both the producer and consumer are intended to be part of
the same application, running within the same process. This could be accomplished by using a pair of
inbound and outbound Channel Adapters, however just like with Spring Integration's JMS support, there
is a simpler approach to address this use case.
<int-redis:publish-subscribe-channel id="redisChannel" topic-name="si.test.topic"/>
The publish-subscribe-channel (above) will behave much like a normal <publish-subscribechannel/> element from the main Spring Integration namespace. It can be referenced by both
input-channel and output-channel attributes of any endpoint. The difference is that this
channel is backed by a Redis topic name - a String value specified by the topic-name attribute.
However unlike JMS this topic doesn't have to be created in advance or even auto-created by Redis. In
Redis topics are simple String values that play the role of an address, and all the producer and consumer
need to do to communicate is use the same String value as their topic name. A simple subscription
to this channel means that asynchronous pub-sub messaging is possible between the producing and
consuming endpoints, but unlike the asynchronous Message Channels created by adding a <queue/
> sub-element within a simple Spring Integration <channel/> element, the Messages are not just
stored in an in-memory queue. Instead those Messages are passed through Redis allowing you to rely
on its support for persistence and clustering as well as its interoperability with other non-java platforms.
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Redis Inbound Channel Adapter
The Redis-based Inbound Channel Adapter adapts incoming Redis messages into Spring Integration
Messages in the same way as other inbound adapters. It receives platform-specific messages (Redis in
this case) and converts them to Spring Integration Messages using a MessageConverter strategy.
<int-redis:inbound-channel-adapter id="redisAdapter"
topics="foo, bar"
channel="receiveChannel"
error-channel="testErrorChannel"
message-converter="testConverter" />
<bean id="redisConnectionFactory" class="org.springframework.data.redis.connection.jedis.JedisConnectionFact
<property name="port" value="7379" />
</bean>
<bean id="testConverter" class="foo.bar.SampleMessageConverter" />
Above is a simple but complete configuration of a Redis Inbound Channel Adapter. Note that the above
configuration relies on the familiar Spring paradigm of auto-discovering certain beans. In this case the
redisConnectionFactory is implicitly injected into the adapter. You can of course specify it
explicitly using the connection-factory attribute instead.
Also, note that the above configuration injects the adapter with a custom MessageConverter. The
approach is similar to JMS where MessageConverters are used to convert between Redis Messages
and the Spring Integration Message payloads. The default is a SimpleMessageConverter.
Inbound adapters can subscribe to multiple topic names hence the comma-delimited set of values in the
topics attribute.
Redis Outbound Channel Adapter
The Redis-based Outbound Channel Adapter adapts outgoing Spring Integration messages into Redis
messages in the same way as other outbound adapters. It receives Spring Integration messages and
converts them to platform-specific messages (Redis in this case) using a MessageConverter
strategy.
<int-redis:outbound-channel-adapter id="outboundAdapter"
channel="sendChannel"
topic="foo"
message-converter="testConverter"/>
<bean id="redisConnectionFactory" class="org.springframework.data.redis.connection.jedis.JedisConnectionFact
<property name="port" value="7379"/>
</bean>
<bean id="testConverter" class="foo.bar.SampleMessageConverter" />
As you can see the configuration is similar to the Redis Inbound Channel Adapter. The
adapter is implicitly injected with a RedisConnectionFactory which was defined with
'redisConnectionFactory' as its bean name. This example also includes the optional, custom
MessageConverter (the 'testConverter' bean).
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22.4 Redis Message Store
As described in EIP, a Message Store allows you to persist Messages. This can be very useful
when dealing with components that have a capability to buffer messages (QueueChannel, Aggregator,
Resequencer, etc.) if reliability is a concern. In Spring Integration, the MessageStore strategy also
provides the foundation for the ClaimCheck pattern, which is described in EIP as well.
Spring Integration's Redis module provides the RedisMessageStore which is an implementation
of both the the MessageStore strategy (mainly used by the QueueChannel and ClaimCheck patterns)
and the MessageGroupStore strategy (mainly used by the Aggregator and Resequencer patterns).
<bean id="redisMessageStore" class="org.springframework.integration.redis.store.RedisMessageStore">
<constructor-arg ref="redisConnectionFactory"/>
</bean>
<int:channel id="somePersistentQueueChannel">
<int:queue message-store="redisMessageStore"/>
<int:channel>
<int:aggregator input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel"
message-store="redisMessageStore"/>
Above is a sample RedisMessageStore configuration that shows its usage by a QueueChannel
and an Aggregator. As you can see it is a simple bean configuration, and it expects a
RedisConnectionFactory as a constructor argument.
By default the RedisMessageStore will use Java serialization to serialize the Message. However
if you want to use a different serialization technique (e.g., JSON), you can provide your own serializer
via the valueSerializer property of the RedisMessageStore.
22.5 RedisStore Inbound Channel Adapter
The RedisStore Inbound Channel Adapter is a polling consumer that reads data from a Redis collection
and sends it as a Message payload.
<int-redis:store-inbound-channel-adapter id="listAdapter"
connection-factory="redisConnectionFactory"
key="myCollection"
channel="redisChannel"
collection-type="LIST" >
<int:poller fixed-rate="2000" max-messages-per-poll="10"/>
</int-redis:store-inbound-channel-adapter>
As you can see from the configuration above you configure a Redis Store Inbound Channel Adapter
using the store-inbound-channel-adapter element, providing values for various attributes
such as:
• key or key-expression - The name of the key for the collection being used.
• collection-type - enumeration of the Collection types supported by this adapter. Supported
Collections are: LIST, SET, ZSET, PROPERTIES, MAP
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• connection-factory
reference
to
an
instance
of
org.springframework.data.redis.connection.RedisConnectionFactory
• redis-template
reference
to
an
instance
org.springframework.data.redis.core.RedisTemplate
and other attributes that are common across all other inbound adapters (e.g., 'channel').
of
Note
You cannot set both redis-template and connection-factory.
Important
By default, the adapter uses a StringRedisTemplate; this uses
StringRedisSerializers for keys, values, hash keys and hash values. If your
Redis store contains objects that are serialized with other techniques, you must supply a
RedisTemplate configured with appropriate serializers. For example, if the store is written
to using a RedisStore Outbound Adapter that has its extract-payload-elements set
to false, you must provide a RedisTemplate configured thus:
<bean id="redisTemplate" class="org.springframework.data.redis.core.RedisTemplate">
<property name="connectionFactory" ref="redisConnectionFactory"/>
<property name="keySerializer">
<bean class="org.springframework.data.redis.serializer.StringRedisSerializer"/>
</property>
<property name="hashKeySerializer">
<bean class="org.springframework.data.redis.serializer.StringRedisSerializer"/>
</property>
</bean>
This uses String serializers for keys and hash keys and the default JDK Serialization serializers
for values and hash values.
The example above is relatively simple and static since it has a literal value for the key. Sometimes,
you may need to change the value of the key at runtime based on some condition. To do that, simply
use key-expression instead, where the provided expression can be any valid SpEL expression.
Also, you may wish to perform some post-processing to the successfully processed data that was read
from the Redis collection. For example; you may want to move or remove the value after its been
processed. You can do this using the Transaction Synchronization feature that was added with Spring
Integration 2.2.
<int-redis:store-inbound-channel-adapter id="zsetAdapterWithSingleScoreAndSynchronization"
connection-factory="redisConnectionFactory"
key-expression="'presidents'"
channel="otherRedisChannel"
auto-startup="false"
collection-type="ZSET">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000" max-messages-per-poll="2">
<int:transactional synchronization-factory="syncFactory"/>
</int:poller>
</int-redis:store-inbound-channel-adapter>
<int:transaction-synchronization-factory id="syncFactory">
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<int:after-commit expression="payload.removeByScore(18, 18)"/>
</int:transaction-synchronization-factory>
<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.integration.transaction.PseudoTransactionManager"/>
As you can see from the above all, you need to do is declare your poller to be transactional with a
transactional element. This element can reference a real transaction manager (for example if
some other part of your flow invokes JDBC). If you don't have a 'real' transaction, you can use a
org.springframework.integration.transaction.PseudoTransactionManager
which is an implementation of Spring's PlatformTransactionManager and enables the use of
the transaction synchronization features of the redis adapter when there is no actual transaction.
Important
This does NOT make the Redis activities themselves transactional, it simply allows the
synchronization of actions to be taken before/after success (commit) or after failure (rollback).
Once your poller is transactional all you need to do is set an instance of the
org.springframework.integration.transaction.TransactionSynchronizationFactory
on the transactional element. TransactionSynchronizationFactory will create an
instance of the TransactionSynchronization. For your convenience we've exposed a default
SpEL-based TransactionSynchronizationFactory which allows you to configure SpEL
expressions, with their execution being coordinated (synchronized) with a transaction. Expressions for
before-commit, after-commit, and after-rollback are supported, together with a channel for each where
the evaluation result (if any) will be sent. For each sub-element you can specify expression and/
or channel attributes. If only the channel attribute is present the received Message will be sent
there as part of the particular synchronization scenario. If only the expression attribute is present
and the result of an expression is a non-Null value, a Message with the result as the payload will be
generated and sent to a default channel (NullChannel) and will appear in the logs (DEBUG). If you want
the evaluation result to go to a specific channel add a channel attribute. If the result of an expression
is null or void, no Message will be generated.
For more information about transaction synchronization, see Section B.3, “Transaction
Synchronization”.
22.6 RedisStore Outbound Channel Adapter
The RedisStore Outbound Channel Adapter allows you to write a Message payload to a Redis collection
<int-redis:store-outbound-channel-adapter id="redisListAdapter"
collection-type="LIST"
channel="requestChannel"
key="myCollection" />
As you can see from the configuration above, you configure a Redis Store Outbound Channel Adapter
using the store-inbound-channel-adapter element, providing values for various attributes
such as:
• key or key-expression - The name of the key for the collection being used.
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• extract-payload-elements - If set to true (Default) and the payload is an instance of
a "multi- value" object (i.e., Collection or Map) it will be stored using addAll/ putAll semantics.
Otherwise, if set to false the payload will be stored as a single entry regardless of its type. If the
payload is not an instance of a "multi-value" object, the value of this attribute is ignored and the
payload will always be stored as a single entry.
• collection-type - enumeration of the Collection types supported by this adapter. Supported
Collections are: LIST, SET, ZSET, PROPERTIES, MAP
• map-key-expression - SpEL expression that returns the name of the key for entry being stored.
Only applies if the collection-type is MAP or PROPERTIES and 'extract-payload-elements'
is false.
• connection-factory
reference
to
an
instance
of
org.springframework.data.redis.connection.RedisConnectionFactory
• redis-template
reference
to
an
instance
org.springframework.data.redis.core.RedisTemplate
and other attributes that are common across all other inbound adapters (e.g., 'channel').
of
Note
You cannot set both redis-template and connection-factory.
Important
By default, the adapter uses a StringRedisTemplate; this uses
StringRedisSerializers
for
keys,
values,
hash
keys
and
hash
values. However, if extract-payload-elements is set to false, a
RedisTemplate using StringRedisSerializers for keys and hash keys, and
JdkSerializationRedisSerializers for values and hash values will be used. With
the JDK serializer, it is important to understand that java serialization is used for all values,
regardless of whether the value is actually a collection or not. If you need more control over
the serialization of values, you may want to consider providing your own RedisTemplate
rather than relying upon these defaults.
The example above is relatively simple and static since it has a literal values for the key and other
attributes. Sometimes you may need to change the values dynamically at runtime based on some
condition. To do that simply use their -expression equivalents (key-expression, map-keyexpression etc.) where the provided expression can be any valid SpEL expression.
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23. Resource Support
23.1 Introduction
The Resource Inbound Channel Adapter builds upon Spring's Resource abstraction to support greater
flexibility across a variety of actual types of underlying resources, such as a file, a URL, or a class path
resource. Therefore, it's similar to but more generic than the File Inbound Channel Adapter.
23.2 Resource Inbound Channel Adapter
The Resource Inbound Channel Adapter is a polling adapter that creates a Message whose payload
is a collection of Resource objects.
Resource objects are resolved based on the pattern specified using the pattern attribute. The
collection of resolved Resource objects is then sent as a payload within a Message to the adapter's
channel. That is one major difference between Resource Inbound Channel Adapter and File Inbound
Channel Adapter; the latter buffers File objects and sends a single File object per Message.
Below is an example of a very simple configuration which will find all files ending with the 'properties'
extension in the foo.bar package available on the classpath and will send them as the payload of a
Message to the channel named 'resultChannel':
<int:resource-inbound-channel-adapter id="resourceAdapter"
channel="resultChannel"
pattern="classpath:foo/bar/*.properties">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int:resource-inbound-channel-adapter>
The
Resource
Inbound
Channel
Adapter
relies
on
the
org.springframework.core.io.support.ResourcePatternResolver
strategy
interface to resolve the provided pattern. It defaults to an instance of the current
ApplicationContext. However you may provide a reference to an instance of your own
implementation of ResourcePatternResolver using the pattern-resolver attribute:
<int:resource-inbound-channel-adapter id="resourceAdapter"
channel="resultChannel"
pattern="classpath:foo/bar/*.properties"
pattern-resolver="myPatternResolver">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int:resource-inbound-channel-adapter>
<bean id="myPatternResolver" class="org.example.MyPatternResolver"/>
You may have a use case where you need to further filter the collection of resources resolved
by the ResourcePatternResolver. For example, you may want to prevent resources that
were resolved already from appearing in a collection of resolved resources ever again. On
the other hand your resources might be updated rather often and you do want them to be
picked up again. In other words there is a valid use case for defining an additional filter
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as well as disabling filtering altogether. You can provide your own implementation of the
org.springframework.integration.util.CollectionFilter strategy interface:
public interface CollectionFilter<T> {
Collection<T> filter(Collection<T> unfilteredElements);
}
As you can see the CollectionFilter receives a collection of un-filtered elements (which would
be Resource objects in this case), and it returns a collection of filtered elements of that same type.
If you are defining the adapter via XML but you do not specify a filter
reference, a default implementation of CollectionFilter will be used by the
Resource Inbound Channel Adapter. The implementation class of that default filter
is org.springframework.integration.util.AcceptOnceCollectionFilter. It
remembers the elements passed in the previous invocation in order to avoid returning those elements
more than once.
To inject your own implementation of CollectionFilter instead, use the filter attribute.
<int:resource-inbound-channel-adapter id="resourceAdapter"
channel="resultChannel"
pattern="classpath:foo/bar/*.properties"
filter="myFilter">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int:resource-inbound-channel-adapter>
<bean id="myFilter" class="org.example.MyFilter"/>
If you don't need any filtering and want to disable even the default CollectionFilter strategy,
simply provide an empty value for the filter attribute (e.g., filter="")
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24. RMI Support
24.1 Introduction
This Chapter explains how to use RMI specific channel adapters to distribute a system over multiple
JVMs. The first section will deal with sending messages over RMI. The second section shows how to
receive messages over RMI. The last section shows how to define rmi channel adapters through the
namespace support.
24.2 Outbound RMI
To send messages from a channel over RMI, simply define an RmiOutboundGateway. This gateway
will use Spring's RmiProxyFactoryBean internally to create a proxy for a remote gateway. Note that
to invoke a remote interface that doesn't use Spring Integration you should use a service activator in
combination with Spring's RmiProxyFactoryBean.
To configure the outbound gateway write a bean definition like this:
<bean id="rmiOutGateway" class=org.spf.integration.rmi.RmiOutboundGateway>
<constructor-arg value="rmi://host"/>
<property name="replyChannel" value="replies"/>
</bean>
24.3 Inbound RMI
To receive messages over RMI you need to use a RmiInboundGateway. This gateway can be
configured like this
<bean id="rmiOutGateway" class=org.spf.integration.rmi.RmiInboundGateway>
<property name="requestChannel" value="requests"/>
</bean>
24.4 RMI namespace support
To configure the inbound gateway you can choose to use the namespace support for it. The following
code snippet shows the different configuration options that are supported.
<int-rmi:inbound-gateway id="gatewayWithDefaults" request-channel="testChannel"/>
<int-rmi:inbound-gateway id="gatewayWithCustomProperties" request-channel="testChannel"
expect-reply="false" request-timeout="123" reply-timeout="456"/>
<int-rmi:inbound-gateway id="gatewayWithHost" request-channel="testChannel"
registry-host="localhost"/>
<int-rmi:inbound-gateway id="gatewayWithPort" request-channel="testChannel"
registry-port="1234"/>
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<int-rmi:inbound-gateway id="gatewayWithExecutorRef" request-channel="testChannel"
remote-invocation-executor="invocationExecutor"/>
To configure the outbound gateway you can use the namespace support as well. The following code
snippet shows the different configuration for an outbound rmi gateway.
<int-rmi:outbound-gateway id="gateway"
request-channel="localChannel"
remote-channel="testChannel"
host="localhost"/>
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25. SFTP Adapters
Spring Integration provides support for file transfer operations via SFTP.
25.1 Introduction
The Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) is a network protocol which allows you to transfer files
between two computers on the Internet over any reliable stream.
The SFTP protocol requires a secure channel, such as SSH, as well as visibility to a client's identity
throughout the SFTP session.
Spring Integration supports sending and receiving files over SFTP by providing three client side
endpoints: Inbound Channel Adapter, Outbound Channel Adapter, and Outbound Gateway It also
provides convenient namespace configuration to define these client components.
xmlns:int-sftp="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/sftp"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/sftp
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/sftp/spring-integration-sftp.xsd"
25.2 SFTP Session Factory
Before configuring SFTP adapters, you must configure an SFTP Session Factory. You can configure
the SFTP Session Factory via a regular bean definition:
<beans:bean id="sftpSessionFactory"
class="org.springframework.integration.sftp.session.DefaultSftpSessionFactory">
<beans:property name="host" value="localhost"/>
<beans:property name="privateKey" value="classpath:META-INF/keys/sftpTest"/>
<beans:property name="privateKeyPassphrase" value="springIntegration"/>
<beans:property name="port" value="22"/>
<beans:property name="user" value="kermit"/>
</beans:bean>
Every time an adapter requests a session object from its SessionFactory, a new SFTP session is
being created. Under the covers, the SFTP Session Factory relies on the JSch library to provide the
SFTP capabilities.
However, Spring Integration also supports the caching of SFTP sessions, please see Section 25.3, “SFTP
Session Caching” for more information.
Note
If you experience connectivity problems and would like to trace Session creation as well as
see which Sessions are polled you may enable it by setting the logger to TRACE level (e.g.,
log4j.category.org.springframework.integration.file=TRACE). Please also see Section 25.7,
“SFTP/JSCH Logging”.
Now all you need to do is inject this SFTP Session Factory into your adapters.
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Note
A more practical way to provide values for the SFTP Session Factory would be via Spring's
property placeholder support.
Configuration Properties
Below you will find all properties that are exposed by the DefaultSftpSessionFactory.
clientVersion
Allows you to set the client version property. It's default depends on the underlying JSch version but
it will look like: SSH-2.0-JSCH-0.1.45
enableDaemonThread
If true, all threads will be daemon threads. If set to false, normal non-daemon threads will be used
instead. This property will be set on the underlying JSch Session. There, this property will default
to false, if not explicitly set.
host
The url of the host you want connect to. Mandatory.
hostKeyAlias
Sets the host key alias, used when comparing the host key to the known hosts list.
knownHosts
Specifies the filename that will be used to create a host key repository. The resulting file has the same
format as OpenSSH's known_hosts file.
password
The password to authenticate against the remote host. If a password is not provided, then the privateKey
property is mandatory.
port
The port over which the SFTP connection shall be established. If not specified, this value defaults to
22. If specified, this properties must be a positive number.
privateKey
Allows you to set a Resource, which represents the location of the private key used for authenticating
against the remote host. If the privateKey is not provided, then the password property is mandatory.
privateKeyPassphrase
The password for the private key. Optional.
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proxy
Allows for specifying a JSch-based Proxy. If set, then the proxy object is used to create the connection
to the remote host.
serverAliveCountMax
Specifies the number of server-alive messages, which will be sent without any reply from the server
before disconnecting. If not set, this property defaults to 1.
serverAliveInterval
Sets the timeout interval (milliseconds) before a server alive message is sent, in case no message is
received from the server.
sessionConfig
Using Properties, you can set additional configuration setting on the underlying JSch Session.
socketFactory
Allows you to pass in a SocketFactory. The socket factory is used to create a socket to the target
host. When a proxy is used, the socket factory is passed to the proxy. By default plain TCP sockets
are used.
timeout
The timeout property is used as the socket timeout parameter, as well as the default connection timeout.
Defaults to 0, which means, that no timeout will occur.
user
The remote user to use. Mandatory.
25.3 SFTP Session Caching
As of version 2.1 we've exposed more flexibility with regard to session management for remote file
adapters (e.g., FTP, SFTP etc). In previous versions the sessions were cached automatically by default.
We did expose a cache-sessions attribute for disabling the auto caching, but that solution did
not provide a way to configure other session caching attributes. For example, one of the requested
features was to support a limit on the number of sessions created since a remote server may impose
a limit on the number of client connections. To support that requirement and other configuration
options, we decided to promote explicit definition of the CachingSessionFactory instance. That
provides the sessionCacheSize and sessionWaitTimeout properties. As its name suggests,
the sessionCacheSize property controls how many active sessions this adapter will maintain in its
cache (the DEFAULT is unbounded). If the sessionCacheSize threshold has been reached, any
attempt to acquire another session will block until either one of the cached sessions becomes available
or until the wait time for a Session expires (the DEFAULT wait time is Integer.MAX_VALUE). The
sessionWaitTimeout property enables configuration of that value.
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If you want your Sessions to be cached, simply configure your default Session Factory as described
above and then wrap it in an instance of CachingSessionFactory where you may provide those
additional properties.
<bean id="sftpSessionFactory"
class="org.springframework.integration.sftp.session.DefaultSftpSessionFactory">
<property name="host" value="localhost"/>
</bean>
<bean id="cachingSessionFactory"
class="org.springframework.integration.file.remote.session.CachingSessionFactory">
<constructor-arg ref="sftpSessionFactory"/>
<property name="sessionCacheSize" value="10"/>
<property name="sessionWaitTimeout" value="1000"/>
</bean>
In the above example you see a CachingSessionFactory created with the sessionCacheSize
set to 10 and the sessionWaitTimeout set to 1 second (its value is in millliseconds).
25.4 SFTP Inbound Channel Adapter
The SFTP Inbound Channel Adapter is a special listener that will connect to the server and listen for
the remote directory events (e.g., new file created) at which point it will initiate a file transfer.
<int-sftp:inbound-channel-adapter id="sftpAdapterAutoCreate"
session-factory="sftpSessionFactory"
channel="requestChannel"
filename-pattern="*.txt"
remote-directory="/foo/bar"
local-directory="file:target/foo"
auto-create-local-directory="true"
local-filename-generator-expression="#this.toUpperCase() + '.a'"
delete-remote-files="false">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int-sftp:inbound-channel-adapter>
As you can see from the configuration above you can configure the SFTP Inbound Channel Adapter via
the inbound-channel-adapter element while also providing values for various attributes such
as local-directory - where files are going to be transferred TO and remote-directory the remote source directory where files are going to be transferred FROM - as well as other attributes
including a session-factory reference to the bean we configured earlier.
By default the transferred file will carry the same name as the original file. If you want to override this
behavior you can set the local-filename-generator-expression attribute which allows
you to provide a SpEL Expression to generate the name of the local file. Unlike outbound gateways
and adapters where the root object of the SpEL Evaluation Context is a Message, this inbound adapter
does not yet have the Message at the time of evaluation since that's what it ultimately generates with
the transferred file as its payload. So, the root object of the SpEL Evaluation Context is the original
name of the remote file (String).
Sometimes file filtering based on the simple pattern specified via filename-pattern attribute
might not be sufficient. If this is the case, you can use the filename-regex attribute to specify a
Regular Expression (e.g. filename-regex=".*\.test$"). And of course if you need complete
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control you can use the filter attribute to provide a reference to a custom implementation of the
org.springframework.integration.file.filters.FileListFilter - a strategy
interface for filtering a list of files.
Please refer to the schema for more detail on these attributes.
It is also important to understand that SFTP Inbound Channel Adapter is a Polling Consumer and
therefore you must configure a poller (either a global default or a local sub-element). Once the file
has been transferred to a local directory, a Message with java.io.File as its payload type will be
generated and sent to the channel identified by the channel attribute.
More on File Filtering and Large Files
Sometimes a file that just appeared in the monitored (remote) directory is not complete. Typically such
a file will be written with some temporary extension (e.g., foo.txt.writing) and then renamed after the
writing process completes. As a user in most cases you are only interested in files that are complete
and would like to filter only those files. To handle these scenarios, use filtering support provided via
the filename-pattern, filename-regex and filter attributes. If you need a custom filter
implementation simply include a reference in your adapter via the filter attribute.
<int-sftp:inbound-channel-adapter id="sftpInbondAdapter"
channel="receiveChannel"
session-factory="sftpSessionFactory"
filter="customFilter"
local-directory="file:/local-test-dir"
remote-directory="/remote-test-dir">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000" max-messages-per-poll="10" task-executor="executor"/>
</int-sftp:inbound-channel-adapter>
<bean id="customFilter" class="org.foo.CustomFilter"/>
25.5 SFTP Outbound Channel Adapter
The SFTP Outbound Channel Adapteris a special MessageHandler that will connect to the remote
directory and will initiate a file transfer for every file it will receive as the payload of an incoming
Message. It also supports several representations of the File so you are not limited to the File object.
Similar to the FTP outbound adapter, the SFTP Outbound Channel Adapter supports the following
payloads: 1) java.io.File - the actual file object; 2) byte[] - byte array that represents the file
contents; 3) java.lang.String - text that represents the file contents.
<int-sftp:outbound-channel-adapter id="sftpOutboundAdapter"
session-factory="sftpSessionFactory"
channel="inputChannel"
charset="UTF-8"
remote-directory="foo/bar"
remote-filename-generator-expression="payload.getName() + '-foo'"/>
As you can see from the configuration above you can configure the SFTP Outbound Channel Adapter
via the outbound-channel-adapter element. Please refer to the schema for more detail on these
attributes.
SpEL and the SFTP Outbound Adapter
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As with many other components in Spring Integration, you can benefit from the Spring Expression
Language (SpEL) support when configuring an SFTP Outbound Channel Adapter, by specifying
two attributes remote-directory-expression and remote-filename-generatorexpression (see above). The expression evaluation context will have the Message as its root object,
thus allowing you to provide expressions which can dynamically compute the file name or the existing
directory path based on the data in the Message (either from 'payload' or 'headers'). In the example above
we are defining the remote-filename-generator-expression attribute with an expression
value that computes the file name based on its original name while also appending a suffix: '-foo'.
Avoiding Partially Written Files
One of the common problems, when dealing with file transfers, is the possibility of processing a partial
file - a file might appear in the file system before its transfer is actually complete.
To deal with this issue, Spring Integration SFTP adapters use a very common algorithm where files are
transferred under a temporary name and than renamed once they are fully transferred.
By default, every file that is in the process of being transferred will appear in the file system with an
additional suffix which, by default, is .writing; this can be changed using the temporary-filesuffix attribute.
However, there may be situations where you don't want to use this technique (for example, if the server
does not permit renaming files). For situations like this, you can disable this feature by setting usetemporary-file-name to false (default is true). When this attribute is false, the file is
written with its final name and the consuming application will need some other mechanism to detect
that the file is completely uploaded before accessing it.
25.6 SFTP Outbound Gateway
The SFTP Outbound Gateway provides a limited set of commands to interact with a remote SFTP server.
Commands supported are:
• ls (list files)
• get (retrieve file)
• mget (retrieve file(s))
• rm (remove file(s))
ls
ls lists remote file(s) and supports the following options:
• -1 - just retrieve a list of filenames, default is to retrieve a list of FileInfo objects.
• -a - include all files (including those starting with '.')
• -f - do not sort the list
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• -dirs - include directories (excluded by default)
• -links - include symbolic links (excluded by default)
In addition, filename filtering is provided, in the same manner as the inbound-channel-adapter.
The message payload resulting from an ls operation is a list of file names, or a list of FileInfo objects.
These objects provide information such as modified time, permissions etc.
The remote directory that the ls command acted on is provided in the file_remoteDirectory
header.
get
get retrieves a remote file and supports the following option:
• -P - preserve the timestamp of the remote file
The message payload resulting from a get operation is a File object representing the retrieved file.
The remote directory is provided in the file_remoteDirectory header, and the filename is
provided in the file_remoteFile header.
mget
mget retrieves multiple remote files based on a pattern and supports the following option:
• -x - Throw an exception if no files match the pattern (otherwise an empty list is returned)
The message payload resulting from an mget operation is a List<File> object - a List of File objects,
each representing a retrieved file.
The remote directory is provided in the file_remoteDirectory header, and the pattern for the
filenames is provided in the file_remoteFile header.
rm
The rm command has no options.
The message payload resulting from an rm operation is Boolean.TRUE if the remove was successful,
Boolean.FALSE otherwise. The remote directory is provided in the file_remoteDirectory
header, and the filename is provided in the file_remoteFile header.
In each case, the PATH that these commands act on is provided by the 'expression' property of the
gateway. For the mget command, the expression might evaluate to '*', meaning retrieve all files, or
'somedirectory/*' etc.
Here is an example of a gateway configured for an ls command...
<int-ftp:outbound-gateway id="gateway1"
session-factory="ftpSessionFactory"
request-channel="inbound1"
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command="ls"
command-options="-1"
expression="payload"
reply-channel="toSplitter"/>
The payload of the message sent to the toSplitter channel is a list of String objects containing the filename
of each file. If the command-options was omitted, it would be a list of FileInfo objects. Options
are provided space-delimited, e.g. command-options="-1 -dirs -links".
25.7 SFTP/JSCH Logging
Since we use JSch libraries (http://www.jcraft.com/jsch/) to provide SFTP support, at times you may
require more information from the JSch API itself, especially if something is not working properly (e.g.,
Authentication exceptions). Unfortunately JSch does not use commons-logging but instead relies on
custom implementations of their com.jcraft.jsch.Logger interface. As of Spring Integration
2.0.1, we have implemented this interface. So, now all you need to do to enable JSch logging is to
configure your logger the way you usually do. For example, here is valid configuration of a logger using
Log4J.
log4j.category.com.jcraft.jsch=DEBUG
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26. Stream Support
26.1 Introduction
In many cases application data is obtained from a stream. It is not recommended to send a reference to
a Stream as a message payload to a consumer. Instead messages are created from data that is read from
an input stream and message payloads are written to an output stream one by one.
26.2 Reading from streams
Spring
Integration
provides
two
adapters
for
streams.
Both
ByteStreamReadingMessageSource and CharacterStreamReadingMessageSource
implement MessageSource. By configuring one of these within a channel-adapter element, the
polling period can be configured, and the Message Bus can automatically detect and schedule them. The
byte stream version requires an InputStream, and the character stream version requires a Reader
as the single constructor argument. The ByteStreamReadingMessageSource also accepts the
'bytesPerMessage' property to determine how many bytes it will attempt to read into each Message.
The default value is 1024
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.stream.ByteStreamReadingMessageSource">
<constructor-arg ref="someInputStream"/>
<property name="bytesPerMessage" value="2048"/>
</bean>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.stream.CharacterStreamReadingMessageSource">
<constructor-arg ref="someReader"/>
</bean>
26.3 Writing to streams
For target streams, there are also two implementations: ByteStreamWritingMessageHandler
and CharacterStreamWritingMessageHandler. Each requires a single constructor argument
- OutputStream for byte streams or Writer for character streams, and each provides a
second constructor that adds the optional 'bufferSize'. Since both of these ultimately implement
the MessageHandler interface, they can be referenced from a channel-adapter configuration as
described in more detail in Section 3.3, “Channel Adapter”.
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.stream.ByteStreamWritingMessageHandler">
<constructor-arg ref="someOutputStream"/>
<constructor-arg value="1024"/>
</bean>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.stream.CharacterStreamWritingMessageHandler">
<constructor-arg ref="someWriter"/>
</bean>
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26.4 Stream namespace support
To reduce the configuration needed for stream related channel adapters there is a namespace defined.
The following schema locations are needed to use it.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans:beans xmlns:int-stream="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:beans="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream/spring-integration-stream.xsd">
To configure the inbound channel adapter the following code snippet shows the different configuration
options that are supported.
<int-stream:stdin-channel-adapter id="adapterWithDefaultCharset"/>
<int-stream:stdin-channel-adapter id="adapterWithProvidedCharset" charset="UTF-8"/>
To configure the outbound channel adapter you can use the namespace support as well. The following
code snippet shows the different configuration for an outbound channel adapters.
<int-stream:stdout-channel-adapter id="stdoutAdapterWithDefaultCharset" channel="testChannel"/>
<int-stream:stdout-channel-adapter id="stdoutAdapterWithProvidedCharset" charset="UTF-8" channel="testChanne
<int-stream:stderr-channel-adapter id="stderrAdapter" channel="testChannel"/>
<int-stream:stdout-channel-adapter id="newlineAdapter" append-newline="true" channel="testChannel"/>
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27. Twitter Adapter
Spring Integration provides support for interacting with Twitter. With the Twitter adapters you can both
receive and send Twitter messages. You can also perform a Twitter search based on a schedule and
publish the search results within Messages.
27.1 Introduction
Twitter is a social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read
messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the author's
profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers who are known as followers.
Important
Previous versions of Spring Integration were dependent upon the Twitter4J API, but with the
release of Spring Social 1.0 GA, Spring Integration, as of version 2.1, now builds directly upon
Spring Social's Twitter support, instead of Twitter4J.
Spring Integration provides a convenient namespace configuration to define Twitter artifacts. You can
enable it by adding the following within your XML header.
xmlns:int-twitter="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/twitter"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/twitter
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/twitter/spring-integration-twitter.xsd"
27.2 Twitter OAuth Configuration
The Twitter API allows for both authenticated and anonymous operations. For authenticated operations
Twitter uses OAuth - an authentication protocol that allows users to approve an application to act on
their behalf without sharing their password. More information can be found at http://oauth.net/ or in this
article http://hueniverse.com/oauth/ from Hueniverse. Please also see OAuth FAQ for more information
about OAuth and Twitter.
In order to use OAuth authentication/authorization with Twitter you must create a new Application on
the Twitter Developers site. Follow the directions below to create a new application and obtain consumer
keys and an access token:
• Go to http://dev.twitter.com/
• Click on the Register an app link and fill out all required fields on the form provided; set
Application Type to Client and depending on the nature of your application select Default
Access Type as Read & Write or Read-only and Submit the form. If everything is successful you'll
be presented with the Consumer Key and Consumer Secret. Copy both values in a safe place.
• On the same page you should see a My Access Token button on the side bar (right). Click on it
and you'll be presented with two more values: Access Token and Access Token Secret.
Copy these values in a safe place as well.
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27.3 Twitter Template
As
mentioned
above,
Spring
Integration
relies
upon
Spring
Social,
and
that
library
provides
an
implementation
of
the
template
pattern,
org.springframework.social.twitter.api.impl.TwitterTemplate to interact
with Twitter. For anonymous operations (e.g., search), you don't have to define an instance of
TwitterTemplate explicitly, since a default instance will be created and injected into the endpoint.
However, for authenticated operations (update status, send direct message, etc.), you must configure
a TwitterTemplate as a bean and inject it explicitly into the endpoint, because the authentication
configuration is required. Below is a sample configuration of TwitterTemplate:
<bean id="twitterTemplate" class="org.springframework.social.twitter.api.impl.TwitterTemplate">
<constructor-arg value="4XzBPacJQxyBzzzH"/>
<constructor-arg value="AbRxUAvyCtqQtvxFK8w5ZMtMj20KFhB6o"/>
<constructor-arg value="21691649-4YZY5iJEOfz2A9qCFd9SjBRGb3HLmIm4HNE"/>
<constructor-arg value="AbRxUAvyNCtqQtxFK8w5ZMtMj20KFhB6o"/>
</bean>
Note
The values above are not real.
As you can see from the configuration above, all we need to do is to provide OAuth attributes
as constructor arguments. The values would be those you obtained in the previous step. The order
of constructor arguments is: 1) consumerKey, 2) consumerSecret, 3) accessToken, and 4)
accessTokenSecret.
A more practical way to manage OAuth connection attributes would be via Spring's property placeholder
support by simply creating a property file (e.g., oauth.properties):
twitter.oauth.consumerKey=4XzBPacJQxyBzzzH
twitter.oauth.consumerSecret=AbRxUAvyCtqQtvxFK8w5ZMtMj20KFhB6o
twitter.oauth.accessToken=21691649-4YZY5iJEOfz2A9qCFd9SjBRGb3HLmIm4HNE
twitter.oauth.accessTokenSecret=AbRxUAvyNCtqQtxFK8w5ZMtMj20KFhB6o
Then, you can configure a property-placeholder to point to the above property file:
<context:property-placeholder
location="classpath:oauth.properties"/>
<bean id="twitterTemplate" class="org.springframework.social.twitter.api.impl.TwitterTemplate">
<constructor-arg value="${twitter.oauth.consumerKey}"/>
<constructor-arg value="${twitter.oauth.consumerSecret}"/>
<constructor-arg value="${twitter.oauth.accessToken}"/>
<constructor-arg value="${twitter.oauth.accessTokenSecret}"/>
</bean>
27.4 Twitter Inbound Adapters
Twitter inbound adapters allow you to receive Twitter Messages. There are several types of twitter
messages, or tweets
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The current release of Spring Integration provides support for receiving tweets as Timeline Updates,
Direct Messages, Mention Messages as well as Search Results.
Every Inbound Twitter Channel Adapter is a Polling Consumer which means you have to provide a
poller configuration. However, there is one important thing you must understand about Twitter since
its inner-workings are slightly different than other polling consumers. Twitter defines a concept of Rate
Limiting. You can read more about it here: Rate Limiting. In a nutshell, Rate Limiting is the way Twitter
manages how often an application can poll for updates. You should consider this when setting your
poller intervals, but we are also doing a few things to limit excessively aggressive polling within our
adapters.
Another issue that we need to worry about is handling duplicate Tweets. The same adapter (e.g.,
Search or Timeline Update) while polling on Twitter may receive the same values more than
once. For example if you keep searching on Twitter with the same search criteria you'll end up
with the same set of tweets unless some other new tweet that matches your search criteria was
posted in between your searches. In that situation you'll get all the tweets you had before plus
the new one. But what you really want is only the new tweet(s). Spring Integration provides
an elegant mechanism for handling these situations. The latest Tweet timestamp will be stored
in an instance of the org.springframework.integration.store.MetadataStore
which is a strategy interface designed for storing various types of metadata (e.g.,
last retrieved tweet in this case). That strategy helps components such as these
Twitter adapters avoid duplicates. By default, Spring Integration will look for a
bean of type org.springframework.integration.store.MetadataStore in the
ApplicationContext. If one is found then it will be used, otherwise it will create a new instance
of SimpleMetadataStore which is a simple in-memory implementation that will only persist
metadata within the lifecycle of the currently running application context. That means upon restart
you may end up with duplicate entries. If you need to persist metadata between Application Context
restarts, you may use the PropertiesPersistingMetadataStore (which is backed by a
properties file, and a persister strategy), or you may create your own custom implementation of the
MetadataStore interface (e.g., JdbcMetadatStore) and configure it as a bean named 'metadataStore'
within the Application Context.
<bean id="metadataStore" class="org.springframework.integration.store.PropertiesPersistingMetadataStore"/>
The Poller that is configured as part of any Inbound Twitter Adapter (see below) will simply poll from
this MetadataStore to determine the latest tweet received.
Inbound Message Channel Adapter
This adapter allows you to receive updates from everyone you follow. It's essentially the "Timeline
Update" adapter.
<int-twitter:inbound-channel-adapter
twitter-template="twitterTemplate"
channel="inChannel">
<int:poller fixed-rate="5000" max-messages-per-poll="3"/>
</int-twitter:inbound-channel-adapter>
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Direct Inbound Message Channel Adapter
This adapter allows you to receive Direct Messages that were sent to you from other Twitter users.
<int-twitter:dm-inbound-channel-adapter
twitter-template="twiterTemplate"
channel="inboundDmChannel">
<int-poller fixed-rate="5000" max-messages-per-poll="3"/>
</int-twitter:dm-inbound-channel-adapter>
Mentions Inbound Message Channel Adapter
This adapter allows you to receive Twitter Messages that Mention you via @user syntax.
<int-twitter:mentions-inbound-channel-adapter
twitter-template="twiterTemplate"
channel="inboundMentionsChannel">
<int:poller fixed-rate="5000" max-messages-per-poll="3"/>
</int-twitter:mentions-inbound-channel-adapter>
Search Inbound Message Channel Adapter
This adapter allows you to perform searches. As you can see it is not necessary to define twitter-template
since a search can be performed anonymously, however you must define a search query.
<int-twitter:search-inbound-channel-adapter
query="#springintegration"
channel="inboundMentionsChannel">
<int:poller fixed-rate="5000" max-messages-per-poll="3"/>
</int-twitter:search-inbound-channel-adapter>
Here is a link that will help you learn more about Twitter queries: http://search.twitter.com/operators
As you can see the configuration of all of these adapters is very similar to other inbound
adapters with one exception. Some may need to be injected with the twitter-template. Once
received each Twitter Message would be encapsulated in a Spring Integration Message and sent
to the channel specified by the channel attribute. Currently the Payload type of any Message is
org.springframework.integration.twitter.core.Tweet which is very similar to the
object with the same name in Spring Social. As we migrate to Spring Social we'll be depending on their
API and some of the artifacts that are currently in use will be obsolete, however we've already made
sure that the impact of such migration is minimal by aligning our API with the current state (at the time
of writing) of Spring Social.
To get the text from the org.springframework.social.twitter.api.Tweet simply
invoke the getText() method.
27.5 Twitter Outbound Adapter
Twitter outbound channel adapters allow you to send Twitter Messages, or tweets.
The current release of Spring Integration supports sending Status Update Messages and Direct
Messages. Twitter outbound channel adapters will take the Message payload and send it as a Twitter
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message. Currently the only supported payload type is String, so consider adding a transformer if
the payload of the incoming message is not a String.
Twitter Outbound Update Channel Adapter
This adapter allows you to send regular status updates by simply sending a Message to the channel
identified by the channel attribute.
<int-twitter:outbound-channel-adapter
twitter-template="twitterTemplate"
channel="twitterChannel"/>
The only extra configuration that is required for this adapter is the twitter-template reference.
Twitter Outbound Direct Message Channel Adapter
This adapter allows you to send Direct Twitter Messages (i.e., @user) by simply sending a Message to
the channel identified by the channel attribute.
<int-twitter:dm-outbound-channel-adapter
twitter-template="twitterTemplate"
channel="twitterChannel"/>
The only extra configuration that is required for this adapter is the twitter-template reference.
When it comes to Twitter Direct Messages, you must specify who you are sending the message to - the
target userid. The Twitter Outbound Direct Message Channel Adapter will look for a target userid in
the Message headers under the name twitter_dmTargetUserId which is also identified by the
following constant: TwitterHeaders.DM_TARGET_USER_ID. So when creating a Message all
you need to do is add a value for that header.
Message message = MessageBuilder.withPayload("hello")
.setHeader(TwitterHeaders.DM_TARGET_USER_ID, "z_oleg").build();
The above approach works well if you are creating the Message programmatically. However it's more
common to provide the header value within a messaging flow. The value can be provided by an upstream
<header-enricher>.
<int:header-enricher input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:header name="twitter_dmTargetUserId" value="z_oleg"/>
</int:header-enricher>
It's quite common that the value must be determined dynamically. For those cases you can take
advantage of SpEL support within the <header-enricher>.
<int:header-enricher input-channel="in" output-channel="out">
<int:header name="twitter_dmTargetUserId" expression="@twitterIdService.lookup(headers.username)"/>
</int:header-enricher>
Important
Twitter does not allow you to post duplicate Messages. This is a common problem during
testing when the same code works the first time but does not work the second time. So, make
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sure to change the content of the Message each time. Another thing that works well for testing
is to append a timestamp to the end of each message.
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28. Web Services Support
28.1 Outbound Web Service Gateways
To invoke a Web Service upon sending a message to a channel, there are two options - both of
which build upon the Spring Web Services project: SimpleWebServiceOutboundGateway and
MarshallingWebServiceOutboundGateway. The former will accept either a String or
javax.xml.transform.Source as the message payload. The latter provides support for any
implementation of the Marshaller and Unmarshaller interfaces. Both require a Spring Web
Services DestinationProvider for determining the URI of the Web Service to be called.
simpleGateway = new SimpleWebServiceOutboundGateway(destinationProvider);
marshallingGateway = new MarshallingWebServiceOutboundGateway(destinationProvider, marshaller);
Note
When using the namespace support described below, you will only need to set a URI.
Internally, the parser will configure a fixed URI DestinationProvider implementation. If you
do need dynamic resolution of the URI at runtime, however, then the DestinationProvider can
provide such behavior as looking up the URI from a registry. See the Spring Web Services
javadoc for more information about the DestinationProvider strategy.
For more detail on the inner workings, see the Spring Web Services reference guide's chapter covering
client access as well as the chapter covering Object/XML mapping.
28.2 Inbound Web Service Gateways
To
send
a
message
to
a
channel
upon
receiving
a
Web
Service
invocation, there are two options again: SimpleWebServiceInboundGateway
and
MarshallingWebServiceInboundGateway.
The
former
will
extract
a
javax.xml.transform.Source from the WebServiceMessage and set it as the message
payload. The latter provides support for implementation of the Marshaller and Unmarshaller
interfaces. If the incoming web service message is a SOAP message the SOAP Action header will be
added to the headers of the Message that is forwarded onto the request channel.
simpleGateway = new SimpleWebServiceInboundGateway();
simpleGateway.setRequestChannel(forwardOntoThisChannel);
simpleGateway.setReplyChannel(listenForResponseHere); //Optional
marshallingGateway = new MarshallingWebServiceInboundGateway(marshaller);
//set request and optionally reply channel
Both gateways implement the Spring Web Services MessageEndpoint interface, so they can
be configured with a MessageDispatcherServlet as per standard Spring Web Services
configuration.
For more detail on how to use these components, see the Spring Web Services reference guide's chapter
covering creating a Web Service. The chapter covering Object/XML mapping is also applicable again.
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28.3 Web Service Namespace Support
To configure an outbound Web Service Gateway, use the "outbound-gateway" element from the "ws"
namespace:
<int-ws:outbound-gateway id="simpleGateway"
request-channel="inputChannel"
uri="http://example.org"/>
Note
Notice that this example does not provide a 'reply-channel'. If the Web Service were to return a
non-empty response, the Message containing that response would be sent to the reply channel
provided in the request Message's REPLY_CHANNEL header, and if that were not available
a channel resolution Exception would be thrown. If you want to send the reply to another
channel instead, then provide a 'reply-channel' attribute on the 'outbound-gateway' element.
Tip
When invoking a Web Service that returns an empty response after using a String payload
for the request Message, no reply Message will be sent by default. Therefore you don't need
to set a 'reply-channel' or have a REPLY_CHANNEL header in the request Message. If for
any reason you actually do want to receive the empty response as a Message, then provide the
'ignore-empty-responses' attribute with a value of false (this only applies for Strings, because
using a Source or Document object simply leads to a NULL response and will therefore never
generate a reply Message).
To set up an inbound Web Service Gateway, use the "inbound-gateway":
<int-ws:inbound-gateway id="simpleGateway"
request-channel="inputChannel"/>
To use Spring OXM Marshallers and/or Unmarshallers, provide bean references. For outbound:
<int-ws:outbound-gateway id="marshallingGateway"
request-channel="requestChannel"
uri="http://example.org"
marshaller="someMarshaller"
unmarshaller="someUnmarshaller"/>
And for inbound:
<int-ws:inbound-gateway id="marshallingGateway"
request-channel="requestChannel"
marshaller="someMarshaller"
unmarshaller="someUnmarshaller"/>
Note
Most Marshaller implementations also implement the Unmarshaller interface. When
using such a Marshaller, only the "marshaller" attribute is necessary. Even when using a
Marshaller, you may also provide a reference for the "request-callback" on the outbound
gateways.
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For either outbound gateway type, a "destination-provider" attribute can be specified instead of
the "uri" (exactly one of them is required). You can then reference any Spring Web Services
DestinationProvider implementation (e.g. to lookup the URI at runtime from a registry).
For either outbound gateway type, the "message-factory" attribute can also be configured with a
reference to any Spring Web Services WebServiceMessageFactory implementation.
For the simple inbound gateway type, the "extract-payload" attribute can be set to false to forward the
entire WebServiceMessage instead of just its payload as a Message to the request channel. This
might be useful, for example, when a custom Transformer works against the WebServiceMessage
directly.
28.4 Outbound URI Configuration
For URIs with an http: (or https:) scheme, <uri-variable/> substitution is supported:
<ws:outbound-gateway id="gateway" request-channel="input" uri="http://springsource.org/{foo}-{bar}">
<ws:uri-variable name="foo" expression="payload.substring(1,7)"/>
<ws:uri-variable name="bar" expression="headers.x"/>
</ws:outbound-gateway>
For other schemes, such as jms:, or if a DestinationProvider is supplied, variable substitution is
not supported and a configuration error will result if variables are provided.
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29. XML Support - Dealing with XML Payloads
29.1 Introduction
Spring Integration's XML support extends the core of Spring Integration with the following components:
• Marshalling Transformer
• Unmarshalling Transformer
• Xslt Transformer
• XPath Transformer
• XPath Splitter
• XPath Router
• XPath Header Enricher
• XPath Filter
• Validating Filter
These components are designed to make working with XML messages in Spring Integration
simple. The provided messaging components are designed to work with XML represented in a
range of formats including instances of java.lang.String, org.w3c.dom.Document and
javax.xml.transform.Source. It should be noted however that where a DOM representation is
required, for example in order to evaluate an XPath expression, the String payload will be converted
into the required type and then converted back again to String. Components that require an instance of
DocumentBuilder will create a namespace-aware instance if one is not provided. In cases where you
require greater control over document creation, you can provide an appropriately configured instance
of DocumentBuilder.
29.2 Namespace Support
All components within the Spring Integration XML module provide namespace support. In order to
enable namespace support, you need to import the respective schema for the Spring Integration XML
Module. A typical setup is shown below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:int-xml="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/xml"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/xml
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/xml/spring-integration-xml.xsd">
</beans>
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XPath Expressions
Many of the components within the Spring Integration XML module work with XPath Expressions.
Each of those components will either reference an XPath Expression that has been defined as top-level
element or via a nested <xpath-expression/> element.
All forms of XPath expressions result in the creation of an XPathExpression using the Spring
org.springframework.xml.xpath.XPathExpressionFactory. When creating XPath
expressions, the best XPath implementation that is available on the classpath is being used, either JAXP
1.3+ or Jaxen, whereby JAXP is preferred.
Note
Spring Integration under the covers uses the XPath functionality as provided by the Spring
Web Services project (http://www.springsource.org/spring-web-services). Specifically, Spring
Web Services' XML module (spring-xml-x.x.x.jar) is being used. Therefore, for a deeper
understanding, please refer to the respective documentation as well at:
• http://static.springsource.org/spring-ws/sites/2.0/reference/html/common.html#xpath
Here is an overview of all available configuration parameters of the xpath-expression element:
❶
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression=""
id=""
❷
namespace-map=""
❸
ns-prefix=""
❹
ns-uri="">
❺
❻
<map></map>
</int-xml:xpath-expression>
❶
Defines an XPath xpression. Required.
❷
The Identifier of the underlying bean definition. Will be an instance of
org.springframework.xml.xpath.XPathExpression Optional.
Reference to a map containing namespaces. The key of the map defines the namespace prefix and
the value of the map sets the namespace URI. It is not valid to specify both this attribute and the
map sub element, or setting the ns-prefix and ns-uri attribute. Optional.
Allows you to set the namspace prefix directly as and attribute on the XPath expression element.
If you set ns-prefix, you must also set the ns-uri attribute. Optional.
Allows you to set the namspace URI directly as an attribute on the XPath expression element. If
you set ns-uri, you must also set the ns-prefix attribute. Optional.
Defines a map containing namespaces. Only one map child element is allowed. The key of the
map defines the namespace prefix and the value of the map sets the namespace URI.
❸
❹
❺
❻
It is not valid to specify both this sub-element and the map attribute, or setting the ns-prefix
and ns-uri attributes. Optional.
Providing Namespaces (Optional) to XPath Expressions
For the XPath Expression Element, namespace information can be optionally provided as configuration
parameters. As such, namespaces can be defined using one of the following 3 choices:
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• Reference a map using the namespace-map attribute
• Provide a map of namespaces using the map sub-element
• Specifying the ns-prefix and the ns-uri attribute
All three options are mutially exlusive. Only one option can be set.
Below, please find several different usage examples on how to use XPath expressions using the XML
namespace support including the various option for setting the XML namespaces as discussed above.
<int-xml:xpath-filter id="filterReferencingXPathExpression"
xpath-expression-ref="refToXpathExpression"/>
<int-xml:xpath-expression id="refToXpathExpression" expression="/name"/>
<int-xml:xpath-filter id="filterWithoutNamespace">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/name"/>
</int-xml:xpath-filter>
<int-xml:xpath-filter id="filterWithOneNamespace">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/ns1:name"
ns-prefix="ns1" ns-uri="www.example.org"/>
</int-xml:xpath-filter>
<int-xml:xpath-filter id="filterWithTwoNamespaces">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/ns1:name/ns2:type">
<map>
<entry key="ns1" value="www.example.org/one"/>
<entry key="ns2" value="www.example.org/two"/>
</map>
</int-xml:xpath-expression>
</int-xml:xpath-filter>
<int-xml:xpath-filter id="filterWithNamespaceMapReference">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/ns1:name/ns2:type"
namespace-map="defaultNamespaces"/>
</int-xml:xpath-filter>
<util:map id="defaultNamespaces">
<util:entry key="ns1" value="www.example.org/one"/>
<util:entry key="ns2" value="www.example.org/two"/>
</util:map>
Using XPath Expressions with Default Namespaces
When working with default nanmespaces, you may run into situations that behave differently than
originally expected. Let's assume we have the following XML document:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<order>
<orderItem>
<isbn>0321200683</isbn>
<quantity>2</quantity>
</orderItem>
<orderItem>
<isbn>1590596439</isbn>
<quantity>1</quantity>
</orderItem>
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</order>
This document is not declaring any namespace. Therefore, applying the following XPath Expression
will work as expected:
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/order/orderItem" />
You might expect that the same expression will also work for the following XML file. It looks exactly
the same as the previous example but in addition it also declares a default namespace:
http://www.example.org/orders
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<order xmlns="http://www.example.org/orders">
<orderItem>
<isbn>0321200683</isbn>
<quantity>2</quantity>
</orderItem>
<orderItem>
<isbn>1590596439</isbn>
<quantity>1</quantity>
</orderItem>
</order>
However, the XPath Expression used previously will fail in this case.
In order to solve this issue, you must provide a namespace prefix and a namespace URI using either
the ns-prefix and ns-uri attibute or by providing a namespace-map attribute instead. The namespace
URI must match the namespace declared in your XML document, which in this example is http://
www.example.org/orders.
The namespace prefix, however, can be arbitrarily chosen. In fact, just providing an empty String will
actually work (Null is not allowed). In the case of a namespace prefix consisting of an empty String,
your Xpath Expression will use a colon (":") to indicate the default namespace. If you leave the colon
off, the XPath expression will not match. The following XPath Expression will match agains the XML
document above:
<si-xml:xpath-expression expression="/:order/:orderItem"
ns-prefix="" ns-uri="http://www.example.org/prodcuts"/>
Of course you can also provide any other arbitrarily chosen namespace prefix. The following XPath
expression using the myorder namespace prefix will match also:
<si-xml:xpath-expression expression="/myorder:order/myorder:orderItem"
ns-prefix="myorder" ns-uri="http://www.example.org/prodcuts"/>
It is important to remember that the namespace URI is the really important piece of information to
declare, not the prefix itself. The Jaxen FAQ summarizes the point very well:
“ In XPath 1.0, all unprefixed names are unqualified. There is no requirement that the prefixes used
in the XPath expression are the same as the prefixes used in the document being queried. Only the
namespace URIs need to match, not the prefixes. ”
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29.3 Transforming XML Payloads
Configuring Transformers as Beans
This section will explain the workings of the following transformers and how to configure them as beans:
• UnmarshallingTransformer
• MarshallingTransformer
• XsltPayloadTransformer
All of the provided XML transformers extend AbstractTransformer or
AbstractPayloadTransformer and therefore implement Transformer. When configuring
XML transformers as beans in Spring Integration, you would normally configure the
Transformer in conjunction with either a MessageTransformingChannelInterceptor or a
MessageTransformingHandler. This allows the transformer to be used as either an interceptor,
which transforms the message as it is sent or received to the Channel, or as an Endpoint. Finally, the
namespace support will be discussed, which allows for the simple configuration of the transformers as
elements in XML.
UnmarshallingTransformer
An UnmarshallingTransformer allows an XML Source to be unmarshalled using
implementations of the Spring OXM Unmarshaller. Spring's Object/XML Mapping support
provides several implementations supporting marshalling and unmarshalling using JAXB, Castor
and JiBX amongst others. The unmarshaller requires an instance of Source. If the message
payload is not an instance of Source, conversion will be attempted. Currently String, File
and org.w3c.dom.Document payloads are supported. Custom conversion to a Source is also
supported by injecting an implementation of a SourceFactory.
Note
If a SourceFactory is not set explicitly, the property on
UnmarshallingTransformer will by default be set to a DomSourceFactory.
the
<bean id="unmarshallingTransformer" class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.UnmarshallingTransformer">
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="org.springframework.oxm.jaxb.Jaxb2Marshaller">
<property name="contextPath" value="org.example" />
</bean>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
MarshallingTransformer
The MarshallingTransformer allows an object graph to be converted into XML using a Spring
OXM Marshaller. By default the MarshallingTransformer will return a DomResult.
However, the type of result can be controlled by configuring an alternative ResultFactory such as
StringResultFactory. In many cases it will be more convenient to transform the payload into an
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alternative XML format. To achieve this, configure a ResultTransformer. Two implementations
are provided, one which converts to String and another which converts to Document.
<bean id="marshallingTransformer" class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.MarshallingTransformer">
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="org.springframework.oxm.jaxb.Jaxb2Marshaller">
<property name="contextPath" value="org.example"/>
</bean>
</constructor-arg>
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.ResultToDocumentTransformer"/>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
By default, the MarshallingTransformer will pass the payload Object to the Marshaller,
but if its boolean extractPayload property is set to false, the entire Message instance will be
passed to the Marshaller instead. That may be useful for certain custom implementations of the
Marshaller interface, but typically the payload is the appropriate source Object for marshalling when
delegating to any of the various out-of-the-box Marshaller implementations.
XsltPayloadTransformer
XsltPayloadTransformer transforms XML payloads using Extensible Stylesheet Language
Transformations (XSLT). The transformer's constructor requires an instance of either Resource or
Templates to be passed in. Passing in a Templates instance allows for greater configuration of the
TransformerFactory used to create the template instance.
As with the UnmarshallingTransformer, the XsltPayloadTransformer will do the actual
XSLT transformation using instances of Source. Therefore, if the message payload is not an instance
of Source, conversion will be attempted. String and Document payloads are supported directly.
Custom conversion to a Source is also supported by injecting an implementation of a
SourceFactory.
Note
If a SourceFactory is not set explicitly, the property on
XsltPayloadTransformer will by default be set to a DomSourceFactory.
the
By default, the XsltPayloadTransformer will create a message with a Result payload,
similar to the XmlPayloadMarshallingTransformer. This can be customised by providing a
ResultFactory and/or a ResultTransformer.
<bean id="xsltPayloadTransformer" class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.XsltPayloadTransformer">
<constructor-arg value="classpath:org/example/xsl/transform.xsl"/>
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.ResultToDocumentTransformer"/>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
ResultTransformers
Both the MarshallingTransformer and the XsltPayloadTransformer allow you to
specify a ResultTransformer. Thus, if the Marshalling or XSLT transformation returns a Result,
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than you have the option to also use a ResultTransformer to transform the Result into another
format. Spring Integration provides 2 concrete ResultTransformer implementations:
• ResultToDocumentTransformer
• ResultToStringTransformer
Using ResultTransformers with the MarshallingTransformer
By default, the MarshallingTransformer will always return a Result. By specifying a
ResultTransformer, you can customize the type of payload returned.
Using ResultTransformers with the XsltPayloadTransformer
The behavior is slighly more complex for the XsltPayloadTransformer. By default, if the input payload
is an instance of String or Document the resultTransformer property is ignored.
However, if the input payload is a Source or any other type, then the resultTransformer property is
applied. Additionally, you can set the property alwaysUseResultFactory to true, which will also cause
the specified resultTransformer to being used.
For more information and examples, please see the section called “Namespace Configuration and
ResultTransformers”
Namespace Support for XML Transformers
Namespace support for all XML transformers is provided in the Spring Integration XML namespace, a
template for which can be seen below. The namespace support for transformers creates an instance of
either EventDrivenConsumer or PollingConsumer according to the type of the provided input
channel. The namespace support is designed to reduce the amount of XML configuration by allowing
the creation of an endpoint and transformer using one element.
UnmarshallingTransformer
The namespace support for the UnmarshallingTransformer is shown below. Since the
namespace is now creating an endpoint instance rather than a transformer, a poller can also be nested
within the element to control the polling of the input channel.
<int-xml:unmarshalling-transformer id="defaultUnmarshaller"
input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
unmarshaller="unmarshaller"/>
<int-xml:unmarshalling-transformer id="unmarshallerWithPoller"
input-channel="input" output-channel="output"
unmarshaller="unmarshaller">
<int:poller fixed-rate="2000"/>
<int-xml:unmarshalling-transformer/>
MarshallingTransformer
The namespace support for the marshalling transformer requires an input-channel, outputchannel and a reference to a marshaller. The optional result-type attribute can be used to
control the type of result created. Valid values are StringResult or DomResult (the default).
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<int-xml:marshalling-transformer
input-channel="marshallingTransformerStringResultFactory"
output-channel="output"
marshaller="marshaller"
result-type="StringResult" />
<int-xml:marshalling-transformer
input-channel="marshallingTransformerWithResultTransformer"
output-channel="output"
marshaller="marshaller"
result-transformer="resultTransformer" />
<bean id="resultTransformer" class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.ResultToStringTransformer"/>
Where the provided result types are not sufficient, a reference to a custom implementation of
ResultFactory can be provided as an alternative to setting the result-type attribute, using the
result-factory attribute. The attributes result-type and result-factory are mutually exclusive.
Note
Internally, the result types StringResult and DomResult are represented by the
ResultFactorys StringResultFactory and DomResultFactory respectively.
XsltPayloadTransformer
Namespace support for the XsltPayloadTransformer allows you to either pass in a Resource,
in order to create the Templates instance, or alternatively, you can pass in a precreated Templates
instance as a reference. In common with the marshalling transformer, the type of the result output can
be controlled by specifying either the result-factory or result-type attribute. A resulttransfomer attribute can also be used to reference an implementation of ResultTransfomer
where conversion of the result is required before sending.
Important
If you specify the result-factory or the result-type attribute, then the
alwaysUseResultFactory property on the underlying XsltPayloadTransformer
will be set to true by the XsltPayloadTransformerParser.
<int-xml:xslt-transformer id="xsltTransformerWithResource"
input-channel="withResourceIn" output-channel="output"
xsl-resource="org/springframework/integration/xml/config/test.xsl"/>
<int-xml:xslt-transformer id="xsltTransformerWithTemplatesAndResultTransformer"
input-channel="withTemplatesAndResultTransformerIn" output-channel="output"
xsl-templates="templates"
result-transformer="resultTransformer"/>
Often you may need to have access to Message data, such as the Message Headers, in order to assist
with transformation. For example, you may need to get access to certain Message Headers and pass
them on as parameters to a transformer (e.g., transformer.setParameter(..)). Spring Integration provides
two convenient ways to accomplish this, as illustrated in following example:
<int-xml:xslt-transformer id="paramHeadersCombo"
input-channel="paramHeadersComboChannel" output-channel="output"
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xsl-resource="classpath:transformer.xslt"
xslt-param-headers="testP*, *foo, bar, baz">
<int-xml:xslt-param name="helloParameter" value="hello"/>
<int-xml:xslt-param name="firstName" expression="headers.fname"/>
</int-xml:xslt-transformer>
If message header names match 1:1 to parameter names, you can simply use xslt-paramheaders attribute. There you can also use wildcards for simple pattern matching, which supports the
following simple pattern styles: "xxx*", "*xxx", "*xxx*" and "xxx*yyy".
You can also configure individual Xslt parameters via the <xslt-param/> sub element. There you can
use either the expression or value attribute. The expression attribute should be any valid
SpEL expression with Message being the root object of the expression evaluation context. The value
attribute, just like any value in Spring beans, allows you to specify simple scalar values. You can
also use property placeholders (e.g., ${some.value}). So as you can see, with the expression and
value attribute, Xslt parameters could now be mapped to any accessible part of the Message as well
as any literal value.
Namespace Configuration and ResultTransformers
The usage of ResultTransformers was previously introduced in the section called
“ResultTransformers”. The following example illustrates several special use-cases using XML
namespace configuration. First, we define the ResultTransformer:
<beans:bean id="resultToDoc" class="o.s.i.xml.transformer.ResultToDocumentTransformer"/>
This ResultTransformer will accept either a StringResult or a DOMResult as input and
converts the input into a Document.
Now, let's declare the transformer:
<int-xml:xslt-transformer input-channel="in" output-channel="fahrenheitChannel"
xsl-resource="classpath:noop.xslt" result-transformer="resultToDoc"/>
If the incoming message's payload is of type Source, then as first step the Result is determined using
the ResultFactory. As we did not specify a ResultFactory, the default DomResultFactory
is used, meaning that the transformation will yield a DomResult.
However, as we specified a ResultTransformer, it will be used and the resulting Message payload will
be of type Document.
Important
If the incoming message's payload is of type String, the payload after the Xslt transformation
will be a String. Similarly, if the incoming message's payload is of type Document, the
payload after the Xslt transformation will be a Document. The specified ResultTransformer
will be ignored with String or Document payloads.
If the message payload is neither a Source, String or Document, as a fallback option, it is attempted
to create a Source using the default SourceFactory. As we did not specify a SourceFactory
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explicitly using the source-factory attribute, the default DomSourceFactory is used. If successful,
the XSLT transformation is executed as if the payload was of type Source, which we described in
the previous paragraphs.
Note
The DomSourceFactory supports the creation of a DOMSource from a either
Document, File or String payloads.
The next transformer declaration adds a result-type attribute using StringResult as its value. First,
the result-type is internally represented by the StringResultFactory. Thus, you could have also
added a reference to a StringResultFactory, using the result-factory attribute, which would
haven been the same.
<int-xml:xslt-transformer input-channel="in" output-channel="fahrenheitChannel"
xsl-resource="classpath:noop.xslt" result-transformer="resultToDoc"
result-type="StringResult"/>
Because we are using a ResultFactory, the alwaysUseResultFactory property of the
XsltPayloadTransformer class will be implicitly set to true. Consequently, the referenced
ResultToDocumentTransformer will be used.
Therefore, if you transform a payload of type String, the resulting payload will be of type Document.
29.4 Transforming XML Messages Using XPath
When it comes to message transformation XPath is a great way to transform Messages that have XML
payloads by defining XPath transformers via <xpath-transformer/> element.
Simple XPath transformation
Let's look at the following transformer configuration:
<int-xml:xpath-transformer input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel"
xpath-expression="/person/@name" />
. . . and Message
Message<?> message =
MessageBuilder.withPayload("<person name='John Doe' age='42' married='true'/>").build();
After sending this message to the 'inputChannel' the XPath transformer configured above will transform
this XML Message to a simple Message with payload of 'John Doe' all based on the simple XPath
Expression specified in the xpath-expression attribute.
XPath also has the capability to perform simple conversion of extracted elements to a desired type. Valid
return types are defined in javax.xml.xpath.XPathConstants and follows the conversion
rules specified by the javax.xml.xpath.XPath interface.
The following constants are defined by the XPathConstants
DOM_OBJECT_MODEL, NODE, NODESET, NUMBER, STRING
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You can configure the desired type by simply using the evaluation-type attribute of the <xpathtransformer/> element.
<int-xml:xpath-transformer input-channel="numberInput" xpath-expression="/person/@age"
evaluation-type="NUMBER_RESULT" output-channel="output"/>
<int-xml:xpath-transformer input-channel="booleanInput"
xpath-expression="/person/@married = 'true'"
evaluation-type="BOOLEAN_RESULT" output-channel="output"/>
Node Mappers
If you need to provide custom mapping for the node extracted by the XPath expression simply provide
a reference to the implementation of the org.springframework.xml.xpath.NodeMapper an interface used by XPathOperations implementations for mapping Node objects on a per-node
basis. To provide a reference to a NodeMapper simply use node-mapper attribute:
<int-xml:xpath-transformer input-channel="nodeMapperInput" xpath-expression="/person/@age"
node-mapper="testNodeMapper" output-channel="output"/>
. . . and Sample NodeMapper implementation:
class TestNodeMapper implements NodeMapper {
public Object mapNode(Node node, int nodeNum) throws DOMException {
return node.getTextContent() + "-mapped";
}
}
XML Payload Converter
You
can
also
use
an
implementation
of
the
org.springframework.integration.xml.XmlPayloadConverter to provide more
granular transformation:
<int-xml:xpath-transformer input-channel="customConverterInput"
output-channel="output" xpath-expression="/test/@type"
converter="testXmlPayloadConverter" />
. . . and Sample XmlPayloadConverter implementation:
class TestXmlPayloadConverter implements XmlPayloadConverter {
public Source convertToSource(Object object) {
throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
}
//
public Node convertToNode(Object object) {
try {
return DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance().newDocumentBuilder().parse(
new InputSource(new StringReader("<test type='custom'/>")));
}
catch (Exception e) {
throw new IllegalStateException(e);
}
}
//
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public Document convertToDocument(Object object) {
throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
}
}
The DefaultXmlPayloadConverter is used if this reference is not provided, and it should be sufficient in
most cases since it can convert from Node, Document, Source, File, and String typed payloads. If you
need to extend beyond the capabilities of that default implementation, then an upstream Transformer is
probably a better option than providing a reference to a custom implementation of this strategy here.
29.5 Splitting XML Messages
XPathMessageSplitter supports messages with either String or Document payloads. The
splitter uses the provided XPath expression to split the payload into a number of nodes. By default this
will result in each Node instance becoming the payload of a new message. Where it is preferred that
each message be a Document the createDocuments flag can be set. Where a String payload is
passed in the payload will be converted then split before being converted back to a number of String
messages. The XPath splitter implements MessageHandler and should therefore be configured in
conjunction with an appropriate endpoint (see the namespace support below for a simpler configuration
alternative).
<bean id="splittingEndpoint"
class="org.springframework.integration.endpoint.EventDrivenConsumer">
<constructor-arg ref="orderChannel" />
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.xml.splitter.XPathMessageSplitter">
<constructor-arg value="/order/items" />
<property name="documentBuilder" ref="customisedDocumentBuilder" />
<property name="outputChannel" ref="orderItemsChannel" />
</bean>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
XPath splitter namespace support allows the creation of a Message Endpoint with an input channel and
output channel.
<!-- Split the order into items creating a new message for each item node -->
<int-xml:xpath-splitter id="orderItemSplitter"
input-channel="orderChannel"
output-channel="orderItemsChannel">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/order/items"/>
</int-xml:xpath-splitter>
<!-- Split the order into items creating a new document for each item-->
<int-xml:xpath-splitter id="orderItemDocumentSplitter"
input-channel="orderChannel"
output-channel="orderItemsChannel"
create-documents="true">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/order/items"/>
<int:poller fixed-rate="2000"/>
</int-xml:xpath-splitter>
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29.6 Routing XML Messages Using XPath
Similar to SpEL-based routers, Spring Integration provides support for routing messages based on XPath
expressions, allowing you to create a Message Endpoint with an input channel but no output channel.
Instead, one or more output channels are determined dynamically.
<int-xml:xpath-router id="orderTypeRouter" input-channel="orderChannel">
<si-xml:xpath-expression expression="/order/type"/>
</int-xml:xpath-router>
Note
For an overview of attributes that are common among Routers, please see chapter: Common
Router Parameters
Internally XPath expressions will be evaluated as NODESET type and converted to a List<String>
representing channel names. Typically such a list will contain a single channel name. However, based
on the results of an XPath Expression, the XPath router can also take on the characteristics of a Recipient
List Router if the XPath Expression returns more then one value. In that case, the List<String> will
contain more then one channel name and consequently Messages will be sent to all channels in the list.
Thus, assuming that the XML file passed to the router configured below contains many responder
sub-elements representing channel names, the message will be sent to all of those channels.
<!-- route the order to all responders-->
<int-xml:xpath-router id="responderRouter" input-channel="orderChannel">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/request/responders"/>
</int-xml:xpath-router>
If the returned values do not represent the channel names directly, additional mapping parameters can be
specified, in order to map those returned values to actual channel names. For example if the /request/
responders expression results in two values responderA and responderB but you don't want
to couple the responder names to channel names, you may provide additional mapping configuration
such as the following:
<!-- route the order to all responders-->
<int-xml:xpath-router id="responderRouter" input-channel="orderChannel">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/request/responders"/>
<int-xml:mapping value="responderA" channel="channelA"/>
<int-xml:mapping value="responderB" channel="channelB"/>
</int-xml:xpath-router>
As already mentioned, the default evaluation type for XPath expressions is NODESET, which is
converted to a List<String> of channel names, therefore handling single channel scenarios as well
as multiple ones.
Nonetheless, certain XPath expressions may evaluate as String type from the very beginning. Take for
example the following XPath Expression:
name(./node())
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This expression will return the name of the root node. It will resulting in an exception, if the default
evaluation type NODESET is being used.
For these scenarious, you may use the evaluate-as-string attribute, which will allow you to
manage the evaluation type. It is FALSE by default, however if set to TRUE, the String evaluation type
will be used.
Note
To provide some background information: XPath 1.0 specifies 4 data types:
• Node-sets
• Strings
• Number
• Boolean
When the XPath Router evaluates expressions using the optional evaluate-as-string
attribute, the return value is determined per the string() function as defined in the XPath
specification. This means that if the expression selects multiple nodes, it will return the string
value of the first node.
For further information, please see:
• Specification: XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0: http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath/
• XPath specification - string() function: http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath/#function-string
For example if we want to route based on the name of the root node, we can use the following
configuration:
<int-xml:xpath-router id="xpathRouterAsString"
input-channel="xpathStringChannel"
evaluate-as-string="true">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="name(./node())"/>
</int-xml:xpath-router>
XML Payload Converter
For XPath Routers, you can also specify the Converter to use when converting payloads
prior to XPath evaluation. As such, the XPath Router supports custom implementations of the
XmlPayloadConverter strategy, and when configuring an xpath-router element in XML, a
reference to such an implementation may be provided via the converter attribute.
If this reference is not explicitly provided, the DefaultXmlPayloadConverter is used. It should
be sufficient in most cases, since it can convert from Node, Document, Source, File, and String typed
payloads. If you need to extend beyond the capabilities of that default implementation, then an upstream
Transformer is generally a better option in most cases, rather than providing a reference to a custom
implementation of this strategy here.
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29.7 XPath Header Enricher
The XPath Header Enricher defines a Header Enricher Message Transformer that evaluates XPath
expressions against the message payload and inserts the result of the evaluation into a messsage header.
Please see below for an overview of all available configuration parameters:
❶
<int-xml:xpath-header-enricher default-overwrite="true"
id=""
❷
input-channel=""
❸
output-channel=""
❹
should-skip-nulls="true">
❺
<int:poller></int:poller>
❻
<int-xml:header name=""
❼
evaluation-type="STRING_RESULT"
❽
overwrite="true"
❾
xpath-expression=""
xpath-expression-ref=""/>
</int-xml:xpath-header-enricher>
❶
❿
11
❷
Specify the default boolean value for whether to overwrite existing header values. This will only
take effect for sub-elements that do not provide their own 'overwrite' attribute. If the 'defaultoverwrite' attribute is not provided, then the specified header values will NOT overwrite any
existing ones with the same header names. Optional.
Id for the underlying bean definition. Optional.
❸
The receiving Message channel of this endpoint. Optional.
❹
Channel to which enriched messages shall be send to. Optional.
❺
❻
Specify whether null values, such as might be returned from an expression evaluation, should be
skipped. The default value is true. Set this to false if a null value should trigger removal of the
corresponding header instead. Optional.
Optional.
❼
The name of the header to be enriched. Mandatory.
❽
The result type expected from the XPath evaluation. This will be the type of the
header value. The following values are allowed: BOOLEAN_RESULT, STRING_RESULT,
NUMBER_RESULT, NODE_RESULT and NODE_LIST_RESULT. Defaults internally to
XPathEvaluationType.STRING_RESULT if not set. Optional.
Boolean value to indicate whether this header value should overwrite an existing header value for
the same name if already present on the input Message.
The XPath Expression as a String. Either this attribute or xpath-expression-ref must be
provided, but not both.
The XPath Expression reference. Either this attribute or xpath-expression must be provided,
but not both.
❾
❿
11
29.8 Using the XPath Filter
This component defines an XPath-based Message Filter. Under the covers this components uses a
MessageFilter that wraps an instance of AbstractXPathMessageSelector.
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Note
Please also refer to the chapter on Message Filters for further details.
In order to use the XPath Filter you must as a minimum provide an XPath Expression either by declaring
the xpath-expression sub-element or by referencing an XPath Expression using the xpathexpression-ref attribute.
If the provided XPath expression will evaluate to a boolean value, no further configuration parameters
are necessary. However, if the XPath expression will evaluate to a String, the match-value attribute
should be specified against which the evaluation result will be matched.
There are three options for the match-type:
• exact - correspond to equals on java.lang.String. The underlying implementation uses a
StringValueTestXPathMessageSelector
• case-insensitive - correspond to equals-ignore-case on java.lang.String. The
underlying implementation uses a StringValueTestXPathMessageSelector
• regex - matches operations one java.lang.String. The underlying implementation uses a
RegexTestXPathMessageSelector
When providing a 'match-type' value of 'regex', the value provided with thos match-value attribute
must be a valid Regular Expression.
Note
In prior versions of Spring Integration the functionality of the XPath Filter was configured
using the xpath-selector element. However, in order to provide a more consistent
behavior within the Spring Integration Framework, the xpath-selector element is
deprecated as of version 2.1. Please use <xpath-filter> instead. It provides the same
set of functionality. In fact it still uses the same MessageSelectors internally.
<int-xml:xpath-filter discard-channel=""
❶
id=""
❷
input-channel=""
❸
match-type="exact"
❹
match-value=""
❺
output-channel=""
❻
throw-exception-on-rejection="false"
❼
xpath-expression-ref="">
❽
❾
<int-xml:xpath-expression ... />
❿
<int:poller ... />
</int-xml:xpath-filter>
❶
Message Channel where you want rejected messages to be sent. Optional.
❷
Id for the underlying bean definition. Optional.
❸
The receiving Message channel of this endpoint. Optional.
❹
Type of match to apply between the XPath evaluation result and the match-value. Default is exact.
Optional.
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❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
❿
String value to be matched against the XPath evaluation result. If this attribute is not provided,
then the XPath evaluation MUST produce a boolean result directly. Optional.
The channel to which Messages that matched the filter criterias shall be dispatched to. Optional.
By default, this property is set to false and rejected Messages (Messages that did not match the
filter criteria) will be silently dropped. However, if set to true message rejection will result in an
error condition and the exception will be propagated upstream to the caller. Optional.
Reference to an XPath expression instance to evaluate.
This sub-element sets the XPath expression to be evaluated. If this is not defined you MUST define
the xpath-expression-ref attribute. Also, only one xpath-expression element can
be set.
Optional.
29.9 XML Validating Filter
The XML Validating Filter allows you to validate incoming messages against provided schema
instances. The following schema types are supported:
• xml-schema (http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema)
• relax-ng (http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0)
Messages that fail validation can either be silently dropped or they can be forwarded to a definable
discard-channel. Furthermore you can configure this filter to throw an Exception in case
validation fails.
Please see below for an overview of all available configuration parameters:
<int-xml:validating-filter discard-channel=""
❶
id=""
❷
input-channel=""
❸
output-channel=""
❹
schema-location=""
❺
schema-type="xml-schema"
❻
throw-exception-on-rejection="false" ❼
xml-validator="">
❽
❾
<int:poller .../>
</int-xml:validating-filter>
❶
Message Channel where you want rejected messages to be sent. Optional.
❷
Id for the underlying bean definition. Optional.
❸
The receiving Message channel of this endpoint. Optional.
❹
Message Channel where you want accepted messages to be sent. Optional.
❺
Sets the location of the schema to validate the Message's payload against. Internally uses the
org.springframework.core.io.Resource interface. You can set this attribute or the
xml-validator attribute but not both. Optional.
Sets the schema type. Can be either xml-schema or relax-ng. Optional.
If not set it defaults to xml-schema which internally translates to
org.springframework.xml.validation.XmlValidatorFactory#SCHEMA_W3C_XML
❻
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❼
❽
❾
If true a MessageRejectedException is thrown in case validation fails for the provided
Message's payload. Optional. Defaults to false if not set.
Reference to a custom sorg.springframework.xml.validation.XmlValidator
strategy. You can set this attribute or the schema-location attribute but not both. Optional.
Optional.
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30. XMPP Support
Spring Integration provides Channel Adapters for XMPP.
30.1 Introduction
XMPP describes a way for multiple agents to communicate with each other in a distributed system. The
canonical use case is to send and receive chat messages, though XMPP can be, and is, used for far more
applications. XMPP is used to describe a network of actors. Within that network, actors may address
each other directly, as well as broadcast status changes (e.g. "presence").
XMPP provides the messaging fabric that underlies some of the biggest Instant Messaging networks in
the world, including Google Talk (GTalk) - which is also available from within GMail - and Facebook
Chat. There are many good open-source XMPP servers available. Two popular implementations are
Openfire and ejabberd
Spring integration provides support for XMPP via XMPP adapters which support sending and receiving
both XMPP chat messages and presence changes from other entries in your roster. As with other
adapters, the XMPP adapters come with support for a convenient namespace-based configuration.
To configure the XMPP namespace, include the following elements in the headers of your XML
configuration file:
xmlns:int-xmpp="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/xmpp"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/xmpp
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/xmpp/spring-integration-xmpp.xsd"
30.2 XMPP Connection
Before using inbound or outbound XMPP adapters to participate in the XMPP network, an actor must
establish its XMPP connection. This connection object could be shared by all XMPP adapters connected
to a particular account. Typically this requires - at a minimum - user, password, and host. To
create a basic XMPP connection, you can utilize the convenience of the namespace.
<int-xmpp:xmpp-connection
id="myConnection"
user="user"
password="password"
host="host"
port="port"
resource="theNameOfTheResource"
subscription-mode="accept_all"/>
Note
For added convenience you can rely on the default naming convention and omit the id
attribute. The default name xmppConnection will be used for this connection bean.
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If the XMPP Connection goes stale, reconnection attempts will be made with an automatic
login as long as the previous connection state was logged (authenticated). We also register a
ConnectionListener which will log connection events if the DEBUG logging level is enabled.
30.3 XMPP Messages
Inbound Message Channel Adapter
The Spring Integration adapters support receiving chat messages from other users in the system.
To do this, the Inbound Message Channel Adapter "logs in" as a user on your behalf and
receives the messages sent to that user. Those messages are then forwarded to your Spring
Integration client. The payload of the inbound Spring Integration message may be of the raw type
org.jivesoftware.smack.packet.Message, or of the type java.lang.String if you
set the extract-payload attribute's value to 'true' when configuring an adapter. Configuration
support for the XMPP Inbound Message Channel Adapter is provided via the inbound-channeladapter element.
<int-xmpp:inbound-channel-adapter id="xmppInboundAdapter"
channel="xmppInbound"
xmpp-connection="testConnection"
extract-payload="false"
auto-startup="true"/>
As you can see amongst the usual attributes this adapter also requires a reference to an XMPP
Connection.
It is also important to mention that the XMPP inbound adapter is an event driven adapter and a
Lifecycle implementation. When started it will register a PacketListener that will listen for
incoming XMPP Chat Messages. It forwards any received messages to the underlying adapter which
will convert them to Spring Integration Messages and send them to the specified channel. It will
unregister the PacketListener when it is stopped.
Outbound Message Channel Adapter
You may also send chat messages to other users on XMPP using the Outbound Message Channel
Adapter. Configuration support for the XMPP Outbound Message Channel Adapter is provided via the
outbound-channel-adapter element.
<int-xmpp:outbound-channel-adapter id="outboundEventAdapter"
channel="outboundEventChannel"
xmpp-connection="testConnection"/>
The adapter expects as its input - at a minimum - a payload of type java.lang.String, and a header
value for XmppHeaders.CHAT_TO that specifies to which user the Message should be sent. To create
a message you might use the following Java code:
Message<String> xmppOutboundMsg = MessageBuilder.withPayload("Hello, XMPP!" )
.setHeader(XmppHeaders.CHAT_TO, "userhandle")
.build();
Another mechanism of setting the header is by using the XMPP header-enricher support. Here is an
example.
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<int-xmpp:header-enricher input-channel="input" output-channel="output">
<int-xmpp:chat-to value="test1@example.org"/>
</int-xmpp:header-enricher>
30.4 XMPP Presence
XMPP also supports broadcasting state. You can use this capability to let people who have you on their
roster see your state changes. This happens all the time with your IM clients; you change your away
status, and then set an away message, and everybody who has you on their roster sees your icon or
username change to reflect this new state, and additionally might see your new "away" message. If you
would like to receive notification, or notify others, of state changes, you can use Spring Integration's
"presence" adapters.
Inbound Presence Message Channel Adapter
Spring Integration provides an Inbound Presence Message Channel Adapter which supports receiving
Presence events from other users in the system who happen to be on your Roster. To do this,
the adapter "logs in" as a user on your behalf, registers a RosterListener and forwards
received Presence update events as Messages to the channel identified by the channel attribute.
The payload of the Message will be a org.jivesoftware.smack.packet.Presence
object (see http://www.igniterealtime.org/builds/smack/docs/3.1.0/javadoc/org/jivesoftware/smack/
packet/Presence.html).
Configuration support for the XMPP Inbound Presence Message Channel Adapter is provided via the
presence-inbound-channel-adapter element.
<int-xmpp:presence-inbound-channel-adapter channel="outChannel"
xmpp-connection="testConnection" auto-startup="false"/>
As you can see amongst the usual attributes this adapter also requires a reference to an XMPP
Connection. It is also important to mention that this adapter is an event driven adapter and a
Lifecycle implementation. It will register a RosterListener when started and will unregister
that RosterListener when stopped.
Outbound Presence Message Channel Adapter
Spring Integration also supports sending Presence events to be seen by other users in the
network who happen to have you on their Roster. When you send a Message to the
Outbound Presence Message Channel Adapter it extracts the payload, which is expected to be
of type org.jivesoftware.smack.packet.Presence (see http://www.igniterealtime.org/
builds/smack/docs/3.1.0/javadoc/org/jivesoftware/smack/packet/Presence.html) and sends it to the
XMPP Connection, thus advertising your presence events to the rest of the network.
Configuration support for the XMPP Outbound Presence Message Channel Adapter is provided via the
presence-outbound-channel-adapter element.
<int-xmpp:presence-outbound-channel-adapter id="eventOutboundPresenceChannel"
xmpp-connection="testConnection"/>
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It can also be a Polling Consumer (if it receives Messages from a Pollable Channel) in which case you
would need to register a Poller.
<int-xmpp:presence-outbound-channel-adapter id="pollingOutboundPresenceAdapter"
xmpp-connection="testConnection"
channel="pollingChannel">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000" max-messages-per-poll="1"/>
</int-xmpp:presence-outbound-channel-adapter>
Like its inbound counterpart, it requires a reference to an XMPP Connection.
Note
If you are relying on the default naming convention for an XMPP Connection bean (described
earlier), and you have only one XMPP Connection bean configured in your Application
Context, you may omit the xmpp-connection attribute. In that case, the bean with the
name xmppConnection will be located and injected into the adapter.
30.5 Appendices
Since Spring Integration XMPP support is based on the Smack 3.1 API (http://www.igniterealtime.org/
downloads/index.jsp), it is important to know a few details related to more complex configuration of
the XMPP Connection object.
As stated earlier the xmpp-connection namespace support is designed to simplify basic
connection configuration and only supports a few common configuration attributes. However, the
org.jivesoftware.smack.ConnectionConfiguration object defines about 20 attributes,
and there is no real value of adding namespace support for all of them. So, for more complex
connection configurations, simply configure an instance of our XmppConnectionFactoryBean
as a regular bean, and inject a org.jivesoftware.smack.ConnectionConfiguration as
a constructor argument to that FactoryBean. Every property you need, can be specified directly on that
ConnectionConfiguration instance (a bean definition with the 'p' namespace would work well). This
way SSL, or any other attributes, could be set directly. Here's an example:
<bean id="xmppConnection" class="org.springframework.integration.xmpp.XmppConnectionFactoryBean">
<constructor-arg>
<bean class="org.jivesoftware.smack.ConnectionConfiguration">
<constructor-arg value="myServiceName"/>
<property name="truststorePath" value="..."/>
<property name="socketFactory" ref="..."/>
</bean>
</constructor-arg>
</bean>
<int:channel id="outboundEventChannel"/>
<int-xmpp:outbound-channel-adapter id="outboundEventAdapter"
channel="outboundEventChannel"
xmpp-connection="xmppConnection"/>
Another important aspect of the Smack API is static initializers. For more complex cases (e.g.,
registering a SASL Mechanism), you may need to execute certain static initializers. One of those static
initializers is SASLAuthentication, which allows you to register supported SASL mechanisms.
For that level of complexity, we would recommend Spring JavaConfig-style of the XMPP Connection
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configuration. Then, you can configure the entire component through Java code and execute all other
necessary Java code including static initializers at the appropriate time.
@Configuration
public class CustomConnectionConfiguration {
@Bean
public XMPPConnection xmppConnection() {
SASLAuthentication.supportSASLMechanism("EXTERNAL", 0); // static initializer
ConnectionConfiguration config = new ConnectionConfiguration("localhost", 5223);
config.setTrustorePath("path_to_truststore.jks");
config.setSecurityEnabled(true);
config.setSocketFactory(SSLSocketFactory.getDefault());
return new XMPPConnection(config);
}
}
For more information on the JavaConfig style of Application Context configuration, refer to the
following section in the Spring Reference Manual: http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/3.0.x/
spring-framework-reference/html/beans.html#beans-java
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Part V. Appendices
Advanced Topics and Additional Resources
Spring Integration
Appendix A. Message Publishing
The AOP Message Publishing feature allows you to construct and send a message as a by-product
of a method invocation. For example, imagine you have a component and every time the state of
this component changes you would like to be notified via a Message. The easiest way to send such
notifications would be to send a message to a dedicated channel, but how would you connect the
method invocation that changes the state of the object to a message sending process, and how should the
notification Message be structured? The AOP Message Publishing feature handles these responsibilities
with a configuration-driven approach.
A.1 Message Publishing Configuration
Spring Integration provides two approaches: XML and Annotation-driven.
Annotation-driven approach via @Publisher annotation
The annotation-driven approach allows you to annotate any method with the @Publisher annotation,
specifying a 'channel' attribute. The Message will be constructed from the return value of the method
invocation and sent to a channel specified by the 'channel' attribute. To further manage message
structure, you can also use a combination of both @Payload and @Header annotations.
Internally this message publishing feature of Spring Integration uses both Spring AOP by defining
PublisherAnnotationAdvisor and Spring 3.0's Expression Language (SpEL) support, giving
you considerable flexibility and control over the structure of the Message it will publish.
The PublisherAnnotationAdvisor defines and binds the following variables:
• #return - will bind to a return value allowing you to reference it or its attributes (e.g., #return.foo
where 'foo' is an attribute of the object bound to #return)
• #exception - will bind to an exception if one is thrown by the method invocation.
• #args - will bind to method arguments, so individual arguments could be extracted by name (e.g.,
#args.fname as in the above method)
Let's look at a couple of examples:
@Publisher
public String defaultPayload(String fname, String lname) {
return fname + " " + lname;
}
In the above example the Message will be constructed with the following structure:
• Message payload - will be the return type and value of the method. This is the default.
• A newly constructed message will be sent to a default publisher channel configured with an annotation
post processor (see the end of this section).
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@Publisher(channel="testChannel")
public String defaultPayload(String fname, @Header("last") String lname) {
return fname + " " + lname;
}
In this example everything is the same as above, except that we are not using a default publishing
channel. Instead we are specifying the publishing channel via the 'channel' attribute of the @Publisher
annotation. We are also adding a @Header annotation which results in the Message header named
'last' having the same value as the 'lname' method parameter. That header will be added to the newly
constructed Message.
@Publisher(channel="testChannel")
@Payload
public String defaultPayloadButExplicitAnnotation(String fname, @Header String lname) {
return fname + " " + lname;
}
The above example is almost identical to the previous one. The only difference here is that we are using
a @Payload annotation on the method, thus explicitly specifying that the return value of the method
should be used as the payload of the Message.
@Publisher(channel="testChannel")
@Payload("#return + #args.lname")
public String setName(String fname, String lname, @Header("x") int num) {
return fname + " " + lname;
}
Here we are expanding on the previous configuration by using the Spring Expression Language in the
@Payload annotation to further instruct the framework how the message should be constructed. In this
particular case the message will be a concatenation of the return value of the method invocation and the
'lname' input argument. The Message header named 'x' will have its value determined by the 'num' input
argument. That header will be added to the newly constructed Message.
@Publisher(channel="testChannel")
public String argumentAsPayload(@Payload String fname, @Header String lname) {
return fname + " " + lname;
}
In the above example you see another usage of the @Payload annotation. Here we are annotating a
method argument which will become the payload of the newly constructed message.
As with most other annotation-driven features in Spring, you will need to register a post-processor
(PublisherAnnotationBeanPostProcessor).
<bean class="org.springframework.integration.aop.PublisherAnnotationBeanPostProcessor"/>
You can instead use namespace support for a more concise configuration:
<int:annotation-config default-publisher-channel="defaultChannel"/>
Similar to other Spring annotations (@Component, @Scheduled, etc.), @Publisher can also be used
as a meta-annotation. That means you can define your own annotations that will be treated in the same
way as the @Publisher itself.
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@Target({ElementType.METHOD, ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Publisher(channel="auditChannel")
public @interface Audit {
}
Here we defined the @Audit annotation which itself is annotated with @Publisher. Also note that
you can define a channel attribute on the meta-annotation thus encapsulating the behavior of where
messages will be sent inside of this annotation. Now you can annotate any method:
@Audit
public String test() {
return "foo";
}
In the above example every invocation of the test() method will result in a Message with a payload
created from its return value. Each Message will be sent to the channel named auditChannel. One of the
benefits of this technique is that you can avoid the duplication of the same channel name across multiple
annotations. You also can provide a level of indirection between your own, potentially domain-specific
annotations and those provided by the framework.
You can also annotate the class which would mean that the properties of this annotation will be applied
on every public method of that class.
@Audit
static class BankingOperationsImpl implements BankingOperations {
public String debit(String amount) {
. . .
}
public String credit(String amount) {
. . .
}
}
XML-based approach via the <publishing-interceptor> element
The
XML-based
approach
allows
you
to
configure
the
same
AOP-based
Message Publishing functionality with simple namespace-based configuration of a
MessagePublishingInterceptor. It certainly has some benefits over the annotation-driven
approach since it allows you to use AOP pointcut expressions, thus possibly intercepting multiple
methods at once or intercepting and publishing methods to which you don't have the source code.
To configure Message Publishing via XML, you only need to do the following two things:
• Provide configuration for MessagePublishingInterceptor via the <publishinginterceptor> XML element.
• Provide AOP configuration to apply the MessagePublishingInterceptor to managed
objects.
<aop:config>
<aop:advisor advice-ref="interceptor" pointcut="bean(testBean)" />
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</aop:config>
<publishing-interceptor id="interceptor" default-channel="defaultChannel">
<method pattern="echo" payload="'Echoing: ' + #return" channel="echoChannel">
<header name="foo" value="bar"/>
</method>
<method pattern="repl*" payload="'Echoing: ' + #return" channel="echoChannel">
<header name="foo" expression="'bar'.toUpperCase()"/>
</method>
<method pattern="echoDef*" payload="#return"/>
</publishing-interceptor>
As you can see the <publishing-interceptor> configuration looks rather similar to the
Annotation-based approach, and it also utilizes the power of the Spring 3.0 Expression Language.
In the above example the execution of the echo method of a testBean will render a Message with
the following structure:
• The Message payload will be of type String with the content "Echoing: [value]" where value is the
value returned by an executed method.
• The Message will have a header with the name "foo" and value "bar".
• The Message will be sent to echoChannel.
The second method is very similar to the first. Here every method that begins with 'repl' will render a
Message with the following structure:
• The Message payload will be the same as in the above sample
• The Message will have a header named "foo" whose value is the result of the SpEL expression
'bar'.toUpperCase() .
• The Message will be sent to echoChannel.
The second method, mapping the execution of any method that begins with echoDef of testBean,
will produce a Message with the following structure.
• The Message payload will be the value returned by an executed method.
• Since the channel attribute is not provided explicitly, the Message will be sent to the
defaultChannel defined by the publisher.
For simple mapping rules you can rely on the publisher defaults. For example:
<publishing-interceptor id="anotherInterceptor"/>
This will map the return value of every method that matches the pointcut expression to a payload and
will be sent to a default-channel. If the defaultChannelis not specified (as above) the messages will be
sent to the global nullChannel.
Async Publishing
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One important thing to understand is that publishing occurs in the same thread as your component's
execution. So by default in is synchronous. This means that the entire message flow would have to wait
until the publisher's flow completes. However, quite often you want the complete opposite and that is to
use this Message publishing feature to initiate asynchronous sub-flows. For example, you might host a
service (HTTP, WS etc.) which receives a remote request.You may want to send this request internally
into a process that might take a while. However you may also want to reply to the user right away. So,
instead of sending inbound requests for processing via the output channel (the conventional way), you
can simply use 'output-channel' or a 'replyChannel' header to send a simple acknowledgment-like reply
back to the caller while using the Message publisher feature to initiate a complex flow.
EXAMPLE: Here is the simple service that receives a complex payload, which needs to be sent further
for processing, but it also needs to reply to the caller with a simple acknowledgment.
public String echo(Object complexPayload) {
return "ACK";
}
So instead of hooking up the complex flow to the output channel we use the Message publishing feature
instead. We configure it to create a new Message using the input argument of the service method (above)
and send that to the 'localProcessChannel'. And to make sure this sub-flow is asynchronous all we need
to do is send it to any type of asynchronous channel (ExecutorChannel in this example).
<int:service-activator
input-channel="inputChannel" output-channel="outputChannel" ref="sampleservice"/>
<bean id="sampleservice" class="test.SampleService"/>
<aop:config>
<aop:advisor advice-ref="interceptor" pointcut="bean(sampleservice)" />
</aop:config>
<int:publishing-interceptor id="interceptor" >
<int:method pattern="echo" payload="#args[0]" channel="localProcessChannel">
<int:header name="sample_header" expression="'some sample value'"/>
</int:method>
</int:publishing-interceptor>
<int:channel id="localProcessChannel">
<int:dispatcher task-executor="executor"/>
</int:channel>
<task:executor id="executor" pool-size="5"/>
Another way of handling this type of scenario is with a wire-tap.
Producing and publishing messages based on a scheduled trigger
In the above sections we looked at the Message publishing feature of Spring Integration which constructs
and publishes messages as by-products of Method invocations. However in those cases, you are still
responsible for invoking the method. In Spring Integration 2.0 we've added another related useful
feature: support for scheduled Message producers/publishers via the new "expression" attribute on the
'inbound-channel-adapter' element. Scheduling could be based on several triggers, any one of which
may be configured on the 'poller' sub-element. Currently we support cron, fixed-rate, fixeddelay as well as any custom trigger implemented by you and referenced by the 'trigger' attribute value.
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As mentioned above, support for scheduled producers/publishers is provided via the <inbound-channeladapter> xml element. Let's look at couple of examples:
<int:inbound-channel-adapter id="fixedDelayProducer"
expression="'fixedDelayTest'"
channel="fixedDelayChannel">
<int:poller fixed-delay="1000"/>
</int:inbound-channel-adapter>
In the above example an inbound Channel Adapter will be created which will construct a Message with
its payload being the result of the expression defined in the expression attribute. Such messages
will be created and sent every time the delay specified by the fixed-delay attribute occurs.
<int:inbound-channel-adapter id="fixedRateProducer"
expression="'fixedRateTest'"
channel="fixedRateChannel">
<int:poller fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int:inbound-channel-adapter>
This example is very similar to the previous one, except that we are using the fixed-rate attribute
which will allow us to send messages at a fixed rate (measuring from the start time of each task).
<int:inbound-channel-adapter id="cronProducer"
expression="'cronTest'"
channel="cronChannel">
<int:poller cron="7 6 5 4 3 ?"/>
</int:inbound-channel-adapter>
This example demonstrates how you can apply a Cron trigger with a value specified in the cron
attribute.
<int:inbound-channel-adapter id="headerExpressionsProducer"
expression="'headerExpressionsTest'"
channel="headerExpressionsChannel"
auto-startup="false">
<int:poller fixed-delay="5000"/>
<int:header name="foo" expression="6 * 7"/>
<int:header name="bar" value="x"/>
</int:inbound-channel-adapter>
Here you can see that in a way very similar to the Message publishing feature we are enriching a newly
constructed Message with extra Message headers which can take scalar values or the results of evaluating
Spring expressions.
If you need to implement your own custom trigger you can use the trigger
attribute to provide a reference to any spring configured bean which implements the
org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger interface.
<int:inbound-channel-adapter id="triggerRefProducer"
expression="'triggerRefTest'" channel="triggerRefChannel">
<int:poller trigger="customTrigger"/>
</int:inbound-channel-adapter>
<beans:bean id="customTrigger" class="org.springframework.scheduling.support.PeriodicTrigger">
<beans:constructor-arg value="9999"/>
</beans:bean>
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Appendix B. Transaction Support
B.1 Understanding Transactions in Message flows
Spring Integration exposes several hooks to address transactional needs of you message flows. But to
better understand these hooks and how you can benefit from them we must first revisit the 6 mechanisms
that could be used to initiate Message flows and see how transactional needs of these flows could be
addressed within each of these mechanisms.
Here are the 6 mechanisms to initiate a Message flow and their short summary (details for each are
provided throughout this manual):
• Gateway Proxy - Your basic Messaging Gateway
• MessageChannel - Direct interactions with MessageChannel methods (e.g., channel.send(message))
• Message Publisher - the way to initiate message flow as the by-product of method invocations on
Spring beans
• Inbound Channel Adapters/Gateways - the way to initiate message flow based on connecting
third-party system with Spring Integration messaging system(e.g., [JmsMessage] -> Jms Inbound
Adapter[SI Message] -> SI Channel)
• Scheduler - the way to initiate message flow based on scheduling events distributed by a preconfigured Scheduler
• Poller - similar to the Scheduler and is the way to initiate message flow based on scheduling or
interval-based events distributed by a pre-configured Poller
These 6 could be split in 2 general categories:
• Message flows initiated by a USER process - Example scenarios in this category would be invoking a
Gateway method or explicitly sending a Message to a MessageChannel. In other words, these message
flows depend on a third party process (e.g., some code that we wrote) to be initiated.
• Message flows initiated by a DAEMON process - Example scenarios in this category would be a
Poller polling a Message queue to initiate a new Message flow with the polled Message or a Scheduler
scheduling the process by creating a new Message and initiating a message flow at a predefined time.
Clearly the Gateway Proxy, MessageChannel.send(..) and MessagePublisher all belong to the 1st
category and Inbound Adapters/Gateways, Scheduler and Poller belong to the 2nd.
So, how do we address transactional needs in various scenarios within each category and is there a
need for Spring Integration to provide something explicitly with regard to transactions for a particular
scenario? Or, can Spring's Transaction Support be leveraged instead?.
The first and most obvious goal is NOT to re-invent something that has already been invented unless
you can provide a better solution. In our case Spring itself provides first class support for transaction
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management. So our goal here is not to provide something new but rather delegate/use Spring to benefit
from the existing support for transactions. In other words as a framework we must expose hooks to the
Transaction management functionality provided by Spring. But since Spring Integration configuration
is based on Spring Configuration it is not always necessary to expose these hooks as they are already
exposed via Spring natively. Remember every Spring Integration component is a Spring Bean after all.
With this goal in mind let's look at the two scenarios.
If you think about it, Message flows that are initiated by the USER process (Category 1) and obviously
configured in a Spring Application Context, are subject to transactional configuration of such processes
and therefore don't need to be explicitly configured by Spring Integration to support transactions.
The transaction could and should be initiated through standard Transaction support provided by
Spring. The Spring Integration message flow will honor the transactional semantics of the components
naturally because it is Spring configured. For example, a Gateway or ServiceActivator method could be
annotated with @Transactional or TransactionInterceptor could be defined in an XML
configuration with a point-cut expression pointing to specific methods that should be transactional. The
bottom line is that you have full control over transaction configuration and boundaries in these scenarios.
However, things are a bit different when it comes to Message flows initiated by the DAEMON process
(Category 2). Although configured by the developer these flows do not directly involve a human
or some other process to be initiated. These are trigger-based flows that are initiated by a trigger
process (DAEMON process) based on the configuration of such process. For example, we could have a
Scheduler initiating a message flow every Friday night of every week. We can also configure a trigger
that initiates a Message flow every second, etc. So, we obviously need a way to let these trigger-based
processes know of our intention to make the resulting Message flows transactional so that a Transaction
context could be created whenever a new Message flow is initiated. In other words we need to expose
some Transaction configuration, but ONLY enough to delegate to Transaction support already provided
by Spring (as we do in other scenarios).
Spring Integration provides transactional support for Pollers. Pollers are a special type of component
because we can call receive() within that poller task against a resource that is itself transactional thus
including receive() call in the the boundaries of the Transaction allowing it to be rolled back in case
of a task failure. If we were to add the same support for channels, the added transactions would affect
all downstream components starting with that send() call. That is providing a rather wide scope for
transaction demarcation without any strong reason especially when Spring already provides several
ways to address the transactional needs of any component downstream. However the receive() method
being included in a transaction boundary is the "strong reason" for pollers.
Poller Transaction Support
Any time you configure a Poller you can provide transactional configuration via the transactional subelement and its attributes:
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" fixed-rate="1000">
<transactional transaction-manager="txManager"
isolation="DEFAULT"
propagation="REQUIRED"
read-only="true"
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timeout="1000"/>
</poller>
As you can see this configuration looks very similar to native Spring transaction configuration. You
must still provide a reference to a Transaction manager and specify transaction attributes or rely on
defaults (e.g., if the 'transaction-manager' attribute is not specified, it will default to the bean with the
name 'transactionManager'). Internally the process would be wrapped in Spring's native Transaction
where TransactionInterceptor is responsible for handling transactions. For more information
on how to configure a Transaction Manager, the types of Transaction Managers (e.g., JTA, Datasource
etc.) and other details related to transaction configuration please refer to Spring's Reference manual
(Chapter 10 - Transaction Management).
With the above configuration all Message flows initiated by this poller will be transactional. For more
information and details on a Poller's transactional configuration please refer to section - 21.1.1. Polling
and Transactions.
Along with transactions, several more cross cutting concerns might need to be addressed when running
a Poller. To help with that, the Poller element accepts an <advice-chain> sub-element which allows
you to define a custom chain of Advice instances to be applied on the Poller. (see section 4.4 for more
details) In Spring Integration 2.0, the Poller went through the a refactoring effort and is now using
a proxy mechanism to address transactional concerns as well as other cross cutting concerns. One of
the significant changes evolving from this effort is that we made <transactional> and <advice-chain>
elements mutually exclusive. The rationale behind this is that if you need more than one advice, and
one of them is Transaction advice, then you can simply include it in the <advice-chain> with the same
convenience as before but with much more control since you now have an option to position any advice
in the desired order.
<int:poller max-messages-per-poll="1" fixed-rate="10000">
<advice-chain>
<ref bean="txAdvice"/>
<ref bean="someAotherAdviceBean" />
<beans:bean class="foo.bar.SampleAdvice"/>
</advice-chain>
</poller>
<tx:advice id="txAdvice" transaction-manager="txManager">
<tx:attributes>
<tx:method name="get*" read-only="true"/>
<tx:method name="*"/>
</tx:attributes>
</tx:advice>
As you can see from the example above, we have provided a very basic XML-based configuration
of Spring Transaction advice - "txAdvice" and included it within the <advice-chain> defined by the
Poller. If you only need to address transactional concerns of the Poller, then you can still use the
<transactional> element as a convinience.
B.2 Transaction Boundaries
Another important factor is the boundaries of Transactions within a Message flow. When a transaction is
started, the transaction context is bound to the current thread. So regardless of how many endpoints and
channels you have in your Message flow your transaction context will be preserved as long as you are
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ensuring that the flow continues on the same thread. As soon as you break it by introducing a Pollable
Channel or Executor Channel or initiate a new thread manually in some service, the Transactional
boundary will be broken as well. Essentially the Transaction will END right there, and if a successful
handoff has transpired between the threads, the flow would be considered a success and a COMMIT
signal would be sent even though the flow will continue and might still result in an Exception somewhere
downstream. If such a flow were synchronous, that Exception could be thrown back to the initiator of the
Message flow who is also the initiator of the transactional context and the transaction would result in a
ROLLBACK. The middle ground is to use transactional channels at any point where a thread boundary
is being broken. For example, you can use a Queue-backed Channel that delegates to a transactional
MessageStore strategy, or you could use a JMS-backed channel.
B.3 Transaction Synchronization
In some environments, it is advantageous to synchronize operations with a transaction that encompasses
the entire flow. For example, consider a <file:inbound-channel-adapter/> at the start of a flow, that
performs a number of database updates. If the transaction commits, we might want to move the file to
a success directory, while we might want to move it to a failures directory if the transaction rolls back.
Spring Integration 2.2 introduces the capability of synchronizing these operations with a transaction. In
addition, you can configure a PseudoTransactionManager if you don't have a 'real' transaction,
but still want to perform different actions on success, or failure. For more information, see Section B.4,
“Pseudo Transactions”.
Key strategy interfaces for this feature are
public interface TransactionSynchronizationFactory {
TransactionSynchronization create(Object key);
}
public interface TransactionSynchronizationProcessor {
void processBeforeCommit(IntegrationResourceHolder holder);
void processAfterCommit(IntegrationResourceHolder holder);
void processAfterRollback(IntegrationResourceHolder holder);
}
The
factory
is
responsible
for
creating
a
TransactionSynchronization
object.
You
can
implement
your
own,
or
use
the
one
provided
by
the
framework:
DefaultTransactionSynchronizationFactory.
This
implementation
returns
a
TransactionSynchronization
that
delegates
to
a
default
implementation
of
TransactionSynchronizationProcessor,
the
ExpressionEvaluatingTransactionSynchronizationProcessor. This processor
supports three SpEL expressions, beforeCommitExpression, afterCommitExpression, and
afterRollbackExpression.
These actions should be self-explanatory to those familiar with transactions. In each case, the #root
variable is the original Message; in some cases, other SpEL variables are made available, depending
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on the MessageSource being polled by the poller. For example, the MongoDbMessageSource
provides the #mongoTemplate variable which references the message source's MongoTemplate; the
RedisStoreMessageSource provides the #store variable which references the RedisStore
created by the poll.
To enable the feature for a particular poller, you provide a reference to the
TransactionSynchronizationFactory on the poller's <transactional/> element using the
synchronization-factory attribute.
To simplify configuration of these components, namespace support for the default factory has been
provided. Configuration is best described using an example:
<int-file:inbound-channel-adapter id="inputDirPoller"
channel="someChannel"
directory="/foo/bar"
filter="filter"
comparator="testComparator">
<int:poller fixed-rate="5000">
<int:transactional transaction-manager="transactionManager" synchronization-factory="syncFactory" />
</int:poller>
</int-file:inbound-channel-adapter>
<int:transaction-synchronization-factory id="syncFactory">
<int:after-commit expression="payload.renameTo('/success/' + payload.name)" channel="committedChannel" />
<int:after-rollback expression="payload.renameTo('/failed/' + payload.name)" channel="rolledBackChannel" />
</int:transaction-synchronization-factory>
The result of the SpEL evaluation is sent as the payload to either the committedChannel or
rolledBackChannel (in this case, this would be Boolean.TRUE or Boolean.FALSE - the result of
the java.io.File.renameTo() method call).
If you wish to send the entire payload for further Spring Integration processing, simply use the expression
'payload'.
Important
It is important to understand that this is simply synchronizing the actions with a transaction,
it does not make a resource that is not inherently transactional actually transactional. Instead,
the transaction (be it JDBC or otherwise) is started before the poll, and committed/rolled back
when the flow completes, followed by the synchronized action.
It is also important to understand that if you provide a custom
TransactionSynchronizationFactory, it is responsible for creating a resource
synchronization that will cause the bound resource to be unbound automatically, when
the transaction completes. The default TransactionSynchronizationFactory does
this by returning a subclass of ResourceHolderSynchronization, with the default
shouldUnbindAtCompletion() returning true.
In addition to the after-commit and after-rollback expressions, before-commit is also supported. In that
case, if the evaluation (or downstream processing) throws an exception, the transaction will be rolled
back instead of being committed.
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B.4 Pseudo Transactions
Referring to the above section, you may be thinking it would be useful to take these 'success' or
'failure' actions when a flow completes, even if there is no 'real' transactional resources (such as JDBC)
downstream of the poller. For example, consider a <file:inbound-channel-adapter/> followed by an
<ftp:outbout-channel-adapter/>. Neither of these components is transactional but we might want to
move the input file to different directories, based on the success or failure of the ftp transfer.
To provide this functionality, the framework provides a PseudoTransactionManager, enabling
the above configuration even when there is no real transactional resource involved. If the flow
completes normally, the beforeCommit and afterCommit synchronizations will be called, on failure the
afterRollback will be called. Of course, because it is not a real transaction there will be no actual commit
or rollback. The pseudo transaction is simply a vehicle used to enable the synchronization features.
To use a PseudoTransactionManager, simply define it as a <bean/>, in the same way you would
configure a real transaction manager:
<bean id="transactionManager" class="org.springframework.integration.transaction.PseudoTransactionManager" /
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Appendix C. Security in Spring
Integration
C.1 Introduction
Spring Integration builds upon the Spring Security project to enable role based security checks to be
applied to channel send and receive invocations.
C.2 Securing channels
Spring Integration provides the interceptor ChannelSecurityInterceptor, which extends
AbstractSecurityInterceptor and intercepts send and receive calls on the channel. Access
decisions are then made with reference to a ChannelSecurityMetadataSource which provides
the metadata describing the send and receive access policies for certain channels. The interceptor
requires that a valid SecurityContext has been established by authenticating with Spring Security.
See the Spring Security reference documentation for details.
Namespace support is provided to allow easy configuration of security constraints. This consists
of the secured channels tag which allows definition of one or more channel name patterns in
conjunction with a definition of the security configuration for send and receive. The pattern is a
java.util.regexp.Pattern.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans:beans xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:int-security="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/security"
xmlns:beans="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:security="http://www.springframework.org/schema/security"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/security
http://www.springframework.org/schema/security/spring-security.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/security
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/security/spring-integration-security.xsd">
<int-security:secured-channels>
<int-security:access-policy pattern="admin.*" send-access="ROLE_ADMIN"/>
<int-security:access-policy pattern="user.*" receive-access="ROLE_USER"/>
</int-security:secured-channels>
By default the secured-channels namespace element expects a bean named authenticationManager
which implements AuthenticationManager and a bean named accessDecisionManager which
implements AccessDecisionManager. Where this is not the case references to the appropriate
beans can be configured as attributes of the secured-channels element as below.
<int-security:secured-channels access-decision-manager="customAccessDecisionManager"
authentication-manager="customAuthenticationManager">
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<int-security:access-policy pattern="admin.*" send-access="ROLE_ADMIN"/>
<int-security:access-policy pattern="user.*" receive-access="ROLE_USER"/>
</int-security:secured-channels>
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Appendix D. Spring Integration
Samples
D.1 Introduction
As of Spring Integration 2.0, the samples are no longer included with the Spring Integration distribution.
Instead we have switched to a much simpler collaborative model that should promote better community
participation and, ideally, more contributions. Samples now have a dedicated Git repository and a
dedicated JIRA Issue Tracking system. Sample development will also have its own lifecycle which is
not dependent on the lifecycle of the framework releases, although the repository will still be tagged
with each major release for compatibility reasons.
The great benefit to the community is that we can now add more samples and make them available to
you right away without waiting for the next release. Having its own JIRA that is not tied to the the actual
framework is also a great benefit. You now have a dedicated place to suggest samples as well as report
issues with existing samples. Or, you may want to submit a sample to us as an attachment through the
JIRA or, better, through the collaborative model that Git promotes. If we believe your sample adds value,
we would be more then glad to add it to the 'samples' repository, properly crediting you as the author.
D.2 Where to get Samples
The Spring Integration Samples project is hosted on GitHub. You can find the repository at:
https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples
In order to check out or clone (Git parlance) the samples, please make sure you have a Git client installed
on your system. There are several GUI-based products available for many platforms, e.g. EGit for the
Eclipse IDE. A simple Google search will help you find them. Of course you can also just use the
command line interface for Git.
Note
If you need more information on how to install and/or use Git, please visit: http://git-scm.com/.
In order to checkout (clone in Git terms) the Spring Integration samples repository using the Git
command line tool, issue the following commands:
$ git clone https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples.git
That is all you need to do in order to clone the entire samples repository into a directory named springintegration-samples within the working directory where you issued that git command. Since the samples
repository is a live repository, you might want to perform periodic pulls (updates) to get new samples,
as well as updates to the existing samples. In order to do so issue the following git PULL command:
$ git pull
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D.3 Submitting Samples or Sample Requests
How can I contribute my own Samples?
Github is for social coding: if you want to submit your own code examples to the Spring Integration
Samples project, we encourage contributions through pull requests from forks of this repository. If you
want to contribute code this way, please reference, if possible, a JIRA Ticket that provides some details
regarding the provided sample.
Sign the contributor license agreement
Very important: before we can accept your Spring Integration sample, we will need you to sign
the SpringSource contributor license agreement (CLA). Signing the contributor's agreement
does not grant anyone commit rights to the main repository, but it does mean that we can
accept your contributions, and you will get an author credit if we do. In order to read and sign
the CLA, please go to:
https://support.springsource.com/spring_committer_signup
As Project, please select Spring Integration. The Project Lead is Mark Fisher.
Code Contribution Process
For the actual code contribution process, please read the the Contributor Guidelines for Spring
Integration, they apply for this project as well:
https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration/wiki/Contributor-Guidelines
This process ensures that every commit gets peer-reviewed. As a matter of fact, the core committers
follow the exact same rules. We are gratefully looking forward to your Spring Integration Samples!
Sample Requests
As mentioned earlier, the Spring Integration Samples project has a dedicated JIRA Issue tracking
system. To submit new sample requests, please visit our JIRA Issue Tracking system:
https://jira.springframework.org/browse/INTSAMPLES.
D.4 Samples Structure
Starting with Spring Integration 2.0, the structure of the samples changed as well. With plans for more
samples we realized that some samples have different goals than others. While they all share the common
goal of showing you how to apply and work with the Spring Integration framework, they also differ
in areas where some samples are meant to concentrate on a technical use case while others focus on a
business use case, and some samples are all about showcasing various techniques that could be applied
to address certain scenarios (both technical and business). The new categorization of samples will allow
us to better organize them based on the problem each sample addresses while giving you a simpler way
of finding the right sample for your needs.
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Currently there are 4 categories. Within the samples repository each category has its own directory
which is named after the category name:
BASIC (samples/basic)
This is a good place to get started. The samples here are technically motivated and demonstrate the
bare minimum with regard to configuration and code. These should help you to get started quickly by
introducing you to the basic concepts, API and configuration of Spring Integration as well as Enterprise
Integration Patterns (EIP). For example, if you are looking for an answer on how to implement and
wire a Service Activator to a Message Channel or how to use a Messaging Gateway as a facade to your
message exchange, or how to get started with using MAIL or TCP/UDP modules etc., this would be the
right place to find a good sample. The bottom line is this is a good place to get started.
INTERMEDIATE (samples/intermediate)
This category targets developers who are already familiar with the Spring Integration framework (past
getting started), but need some more guidance while resolving the more advanced technical problems
one might deal with after switching to a Messaging architecture. For example, if you are looking for an
answer on how to handle errors in various message exchange scenarios or how to properly configure
the Aggregator for the situations where some messages might not ever arrive for aggregation, or any
other issue that goes beyond a basic implementation and configuration of a particular component and
addresses what else types of problems, this would be the right place to find these type of samples.
ADVANCED (samples/advanced)
This category targets developers who are very familiar with the Spring Integration framework but
are looking to extend it to address a specific custom need by using Spring Integration's public API.
For example, if you are looking for samples showing you how to implement a custom Channel or
Consumer (event-based or polling-based), or you are trying to figure out what is the most appropriate
way to implement a custom Bean parser on top of the Spring Integration Bean parser hierarchy when
implementing your own namespace and schema for a custom component, this would be the right place
to look. Here you can also find samples that will help you with Adapter development. Spring Integration
comes with an extensive library of adapters to allow you to connect remote systems with the Spring
Integration messaging framework. However you might have a need to integrate with a system for which
the core framework does not provide an adapter. So, you may decide to implement your own (and
potentially contribute it). This category would include samples showing you how.
APPLICATIONS (samples/applications)
This category targets developers and architects who have a good understanding of Message-driven
architecture and EIP, and an above average understanding of Spring and Spring Integration who are
looking for samples that address a particular business problem. In other words the emphasis of samples
in this category is business use cases and how they can be solved with a Message-Driven Architecture
and Spring Integration in particular. For example, if you are interested to see how a Loan Broker or
Travel Agent process could be implemented and automated via Spring Integration, this would be the
right place to find these types of samples.
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Important
Remember: Spring Integration is a community driven framework, therefore community
participation is IMPORTANT. That includes Samples; so, if you can't find what you are looking
for, let us know!
D.5 Samples
Currently Spring Integration comes with quite a few samples and you can only expect more. To help
you better navigate through them, each sample comes with its own readme.txt file which covers
several details about the sample (e.g., what EIP patterns it addresses, what problem it is trying to solve,
how to run sample etc.). However, certain samples require a more detailed and sometimes graphical
explanation. In this section you'll find details on samples that we believe require special attention.
Loan Broker
In this section, we will review the Loan Broker sample application that is included in the Spring
Integration samples. This sample is inspired by one of the samples featured in Gregor Hohpe and Bobby
Woolf's book, Enterprise Integration Patterns.
The diagram below represents the entire process
Now lets look at this process in more detail
At the core of an EIP architecture are the very simple yet powerful concepts of Pipes and Filters, and
of course: Messages. Endpoints (Filters) are connected with one another via Channels (Pipes). The
producing endpoint sends Message to the Channel, and the Message is retrieved by the Consuming
endpoint. This architecture is meant to define various mechanisms that describe HOW information
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is exchanged between the endpoints, without any awareness of WHAT those endpoints are or what
information they are exchanging. Thus, it provides for a very loosely coupled and flexible collaboration
model while also decoupling Integration concerns from Business concerns. EIP extends this architecture
by further defining:
• The types of pipes (Point-to-Point Channel, Publish-Subscribe Channel, Channel Adapter, etc.)
• The core filters and patterns around how filters collaborate with pipes (Message Router, Splitters and
Aggregators, various Message Transformation patterns, etc.)
The details and variations of this use case are very nicely described in Chapter 9 of the EIP Book, but
here is the brief summary; A Consumer while shopping for the best Loan Quote(s) subscribes to the
services of a Loan Broker, which handles details such as:
• Consumer pre-screening (e.g., obtain and review the consumer's Credit history)
• Determine the most appropriate Banks (e.g., based on consumer's credit history/score)
• Send a Loan quote request to each selected Bank
• Collect responses from each Bank
• Filter responses and determine the best quote(s), based on consumer's requirements.
• Pass the Loan quote(s) back to the consumer.
Obviously the real process of obtaining a loan quote is a bit more complex, but since our goal here is to
demonstrate how Enterprise Integration Patterns are realized and implemented within SI, the use case
has been simplified to concentrate only on the Integration aspects of the process. It is not an attempt to
give you an advice in consumer finances.
As you can see, by hiring a Loan Broker, the consumer is isolated from the details of the Loan Broker's
operations, and each Loan Broker's operations may defer from one another to maintain competitive
advantage, so whatever we assemble/implement must be flexible so any changes could be introduced
quickly and painlessly. Speaking of change, the Loan Broker sample does not actually talk to any
'imaginary' Banks or Credit bureaus. Those services are stubbed out. Our goal here is to assemble,
orchestrate and test the integration aspect of the process as a whole. Only then can we start thinking
about wiring such process to the real services. At that time the assembled process and its configuration
will not change regardless of the number of Banks a particular Loan Broker is dealing with, or the type
of communication media (or protocols) used (JMS, WS, TCP, etc.) to communicate with these Banks.
DESIGN
As you analyze the 6 requirements above you'll quickly see that they all fall into the category of
Integration concerns. For example, in the consumer pre-screening step we need to gather additional
information about the consumer and the consumer's desires and enrich the loan request with additional
meta information. We then have to filter such information to select the most appropriate list of Banks,
and so on. Enrich, filter, select – these are all integration concerns for which EIP defines a solution in
the form of patterns. SI provides an implementation of these patterns.
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Messaging Gateway
The Messaging Gateway pattern provides a simple mechanism to access messaging systems, including
our Loan Broker. In SI you define the Gateway as a Plain Old Java Interface (no need to provide an
implementation), configure it via the XML <gateway> element or via annotation and use it as any
other Spring bean. SI will take care of delegating and mapping method invocations to the Messaging
infrastructure by generating a Message (payload is mapped to an input parameter of the method) and
sending it to the designated channel.
<int:gateway id="loanBrokerGateway"
default-request-channel="loanBrokerPreProcessingChannel"
service-interface="org.springframework.integration.samples.loanbroker.LoanBrokerGateway">
<int:method name="getBestLoanQuote">
<int:header name="RESPONSE_TYPE" value="BEST"/>
</int:method>
</int:gateway>
Our current Gateway provides two methods that could be invoked. One that will return the best single
quote and another one that will return all quotes. Somehow downstream we need to know what type
of reply the caller is looking for. The best way to achieve this in Messaging architecture is to enrich
the content of the message with some meta-data describing your intentions. Content Enricher is one of
the patterns that addresses this and although Spring Integration does provide a separate configuration
element to enrich Message Headers with arbitrary data (we'll see it later), as a convenience, since
Gateway element is responsible to construct the initial Message it provides embedded capability to
enrich the newly created Message with arbitrary Message Headers. In our example we are adding header
RESPONSE_TYPE with value 'BEST'' whenever the getBestQuote() method is invoked. For other
method we are not adding any header. Now we can check downstream for an existence of this header
and based on its presence and its value we can determine what type of reply the caller is looking for.
Based on the use case we also know there are some pre-screening steps that needs to be performed such
as getting and evaluating the consumer's credit score, simply because some premiere Banks will only
typically accept quote requests from consumers that meet a minimum credit score requirement. So it
would be nice if the Message would be enriched with such information before it is forwarded to the
Banks. It would also be nice if when several processes needs to be completed to provide such metainformation, those processes could be grouped in a single unit. In our use case we need to determine
credit score and based on the credit score and some rule select a list of Message Channels (Bank
Channels) we will sent quote request to.
Composed Message Processor
The Composed Message Processor pattern describes rules around building endpoints that maintain
control over message flow which consists of multiple message processors. In Spring Integration
Composed Message Processor pattern is implemented via <chain> element.
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As you can see from the above configuration we have a chain with inner header-enricher element which
will further enrich the content of the Message with the header CREDIT_SCORE and value that will be
determined by the call to a credit service (simple POJO spring bean identified by 'creditBureau' name)
and then it will delegate to the Message Router
Message Router
There are several implementations of the Message Routing pattern available in Spring Integration. Here
we are using a router that will determine a list of channels based on evaluating an expression (Spring
Expression Language) which will look at the credit score that was determined is the previous step and
will select the list of channels from the Map bean with id 'banks' whose values are 'premier' or 'secondary'
based o the value of credit score. Once the list of Channels is selected, the Message will be routed to
those Channels.
Now, one last thing the Loan Broker needs to to is to receive the loan quotes form the banks, aggregate
them by consumer (we don't want to show quotes from one consumer to another), assemble the response
based on the consumer's selection criteria (single best quote or all quotes) and reply back to the
consumer.
Message Aggregator
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An Aggregator pattern describes an endpoint which groups related Messages into a single Message.
Criteria and rules can be provided to determine an aggregation and correlation strategy. SI provides
several implementations of the Aggregator pattern as well as a convenient name-space based
configuration.
<int:aggregator id="quotesAggregator"
input-channel="quotesAggregationChannel"
method="aggregateQuotes">
<beans:bean class="org.springframework.integration.samples.loanbroker.LoanQuoteAggregator"/>
</int:aggregator>
Our Loan Broker defines a 'quotesAggregator' bean via the <aggregator> element which provides a
default aggregation and correlation strategy. The default correlation strategy correlates messages based
on the correlationId header (see Correlation Identifier pattern). What's interesting is that we never
provided the value for this header. It was set earlier by the router automatically, when it generated a
separate Message for each Bank channel.
Once the Messages are correlated they are released to the actual Aggregator implementation. Although
default Aggregator is provided by SI, its strategy (gather the list of payloads from all Messages and
construct a new Message with this List as payload) does not satisfy our requirement. The reason is that
our consumer might require a single best quote or all quotes. To communicate the consumer's intention,
earlier in the process we set the RESPONSE_TYPE header. Now we have to evaluate this header and
return either all the quotes (the default aggregation strategy would work) or the best quote (the default
aggregation strategy will not work because we have to determine which loan quote is the best).
Obviously selecting the best quote could be based on complex criteria and would influence the
complexity of the aggregator implementation and configuration, but for now we are making it simple.
If consumer wants the best quote we will select a quote with the lowest interest rate. To accomplish that
the LoanQuoteAggregator.java will sort all the quotes and return the first one. The LoanQuote.java
implements Comparable which compares quotes based on the rate attribute. Once the response
Message is created it is sent to the default-reply-channel of the Messaging Gateway (thus the consumer)
which started the process. Our consumer got the Loan Quote!
Conclusion
As you can see a rather complex process was assembled based on POJO (read existing, legacy), light
weight, embeddable messaging framework (Spring Integration) with a loosely coupled programming
model intended to simplify integration of heterogeneous systems without requiring a heavy-weight
ESB-like engine or proprietary development and deployment environment, because as a developer you
should not be porting your Swing or console-based application to an ESB-like server or implementing
proprietary interfaces just because you have an integration concern.
This and other samples in this section are built on top of Enterprise Integration Patterns and can
be considered "building blocks" for YOUR solution; they are not intended to be complete solutions.
Integration concerns exist in all types of application (whether server based or not). It should not require
change in design, testing and deployment strategy if such applications need to be integrated.
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The Cafe Sample
In this section, we will review a Cafe sample application that is included in the Spring Integration
samples. This sample is inspired by another sample featured in Gregor Hohpe's Ramblings.
The domain is that of a Cafe, and the basic flow is depicted in the following diagram:
The Order object may contain multiple OrderItems. Once the order is placed, a Splitter will break
the composite order message into a single message per drink. Each of these is then processed by a Router
that determines whether the drink is hot or cold (checking the OrderItem object's 'isIced' property).
The Barista prepares each drink, but hot and cold drink preparation are handled by two distinct
methods: 'prepareHotDrink' and 'prepareColdDrink'. The prepared drinks are then sent to the Waiter
where they are aggregated into a Delivery object.
Here is the XML configuration:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans:beans xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:beans="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:int-stream="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/stream/spring-integration-stream.xsd">
<int:gateway id="cafe" service-interface="org.springframework.integration.samples.cafe.Cafe"/>
<int:channel id="orders"/>
<int:splitter input-channel="orders" ref="orderSplitter" method="split" output-channel="drinks"/>
<int:channel id="drinks"/>
<int:router input-channel="drinks" ref="drinkRouter" method="resolveOrderItemChannel"/>
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<int:channel id="coldDrinks">
<int:queue capacity="10"/>
</int:channel>
<int:service-activator input-channel="coldDrinks" ref="barista"
method="prepareColdDrink" output-channel="preparedDrinks"/>
<int:channel id="hotDrinks">
<int:queue capacity="10"/>
</int:channel>
<int:service-activator input-channel="hotDrinks" ref="barista"
method="prepareHotDrink" output-channel="preparedDrinks"/>
<int:channel id="preparedDrinks"/>
<int:aggregator input-channel="preparedDrinks" ref="waiter"
method="prepareDelivery" output-channel="deliveries"/>
<int-stream:stdout-channel-adapter id="deliveries"/>
<beans:bean id="orderSplitter"
class="org.springframework.integration.samples.cafe.xml.OrderSplitter"/>
<beans:bean id="drinkRouter"
class="org.springframework.integration.samples.cafe.xml.DrinkRouter"/>
<beans:bean id="barista" class="org.springframework.integration.samples.cafe.xml.Barista"/>
<beans:bean id="waiter" class="org.springframework.integration.samples.cafe.xml.Waiter"/>
<int:poller id="poller" default="true" fixed-rate="1000"/>
</beans:beans>
As you can see, each Message Endpoint is connected to input and/or output channels. Each endpoint
will manage its own Lifecycle (by default endpoints start automatically upon initialization - to prevent
that add the "auto-startup" attribute with a value of "false"). Most importantly, notice that the objects
are simple POJOs with strongly typed method arguments. For example, here is the Splitter:
public class OrderSplitter {
public List<OrderItem> split(Order order) {
return order.getItems();
}
}
In the case of the Router, the return value does not have to be a MessageChannel instance (although
it can be). As you see in this example, a String-value representing the channel name is returned instead.
public class DrinkRouter {
public String resolveOrderItemChannel(OrderItem orderItem) {
return (orderItem.isIced()) ? "coldDrinks" : "hotDrinks";
}
}
Now turning back to the XML, you see that there are two <service-activator> elements. Each
of these is delegating to the same Barista instance but different methods: 'prepareHotDrink' or
'prepareColdDrink' corresponding to the two channels where order items have been routed.
public class Barista {
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private long hotDrinkDelay = 5000;
private long coldDrinkDelay = 1000;
private AtomicInteger hotDrinkCounter = new AtomicInteger();
private AtomicInteger coldDrinkCounter = new AtomicInteger();
public void setHotDrinkDelay(long hotDrinkDelay) {
this.hotDrinkDelay = hotDrinkDelay;
}
public void setColdDrinkDelay(long coldDrinkDelay) {
this.coldDrinkDelay = coldDrinkDelay;
}
public Drink prepareHotDrink(OrderItem orderItem) {
try {
Thread.sleep(this.hotDrinkDelay);
System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
+ " prepared hot drink #" + hotDrinkCounter.incrementAndGet()
+ " for order #" + orderItem.getOrder().getNumber() + ": " + orderItem);
return new Drink(orderItem.getOrder().getNumber(), orderItem.getDrinkType(),
orderItem.isIced(), orderItem.getShots());
}
catch (InterruptedException e) {
Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
return null;
}
}
public Drink prepareColdDrink(OrderItem orderItem) {
try {
Thread.sleep(this.coldDrinkDelay);
System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName()
+ " prepared cold drink #" + coldDrinkCounter.incrementAndGet()
+ " for order #" + orderItem.getOrder().getNumber() + ": " + orderItem);
return new Drink(orderItem.getOrder().getNumber(), orderItem.getDrinkType(),
orderItem.isIced(), orderItem.getShots());
}
catch (InterruptedException e) {
Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
return null;
}
}
}
As you can see from the code excerpt above, the barista methods have different delays (the hot drinks
take 5 times as long to prepare). This simulates work being completed at different rates. When the
CafeDemo 'main' method runs, it will loop 100 times sending a single hot drink and a single cold drink
each time. It actually sends the messages by invoking the 'placeOrder' method on the Cafe interface.
Above, you will see that the <gateway> element is specified in the configuration file. This triggers
the creation of a proxy that implements the given 'service-interface' and connects it to a channel. The
channel name is provided on the @Gateway annotation of the Cafe interface.
public interface Cafe {
@Gateway(requestChannel="orders")
void placeOrder(Order order);
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}
Finally, have a look at the main() method of the CafeDemo itself.
public static void main(String[] args) {
AbstractApplicationContext context = null;
if (args.length > 0) {
context = new FileSystemXmlApplicationContext(args);
}
else {
context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("cafeDemo.xml", CafeDemo.class);
}
Cafe cafe = context.getBean("cafe", Cafe.class);
for (int i = 1; i <= 100; i++) {
Order order = new Order(i);
order.addItem(DrinkType.LATTE, 2, false);
order.addItem(DrinkType.MOCHA, 3, true);
cafe.placeOrder(order);
}
}
Tip
To run this sample as well as 8 others, refer to the README.txt within the "samples"
directory of the main distribution as described at the beginning of this chapter.
When you run cafeDemo, you will see that the cold drinks are initially prepared more quickly than the
hot drinks. Because there is an aggregator, the cold drinks are effectively limited by the rate of the hot
drink preparation. This is to be expected based on their respective delays of 1000 and 5000 milliseconds.
However, by configuring a poller with a concurrent task executor, you can dramatically change the
results. For example, you could use a thread pool executor with 5 workers for the hot drink barista while
keeping the cold drink barista as it is:
<int:service-activator input-channel="hotDrinks"
ref="barista"
method="prepareHotDrink"
output-channel="preparedDrinks"/>
<int:service-activator input-channel="hotDrinks"
ref="barista"
method="prepareHotDrink"
output-channel="preparedDrinks">
<int:poller task-executor="pool" fixed-rate="1000"/>
</int:service-activator>
<task:executor id="pool" pool-size="5"/>
Also, notice that the worker thread name is displayed with each invocation. You will see that the hot
drinks are prepared by the task-executor threads. If you provide a much shorter poller interval (such
as 100 milliseconds), then you will notice that occasionally it throttles the input by forcing the taskscheduler (the caller) to invoke the operation.
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Note
In addition to experimenting with the poller's concurrency settings, you can also add the
'transactional' sub-element and then refer to any PlatformTransactionManager instance within
the context.
The XML Messaging Sample
The xml messaging sample in the org.springframework.integration.samples.xml illustrates how to use
some of the provided components which deal with xml payloads. The sample uses the idea of processing
an order for books represented as xml.
First the order is split into a number of messages, each one representing a single order item using the
XPath splitter component.
<int-xml:xpath-splitter id="orderItemSplitter" input-channel="ordersChannel"
output-channel="stockCheckerChannel" create-documents="true">
<int-xml:xpath-expression expression="/orderNs:order/orderNs:orderItem"
namespace-map="orderNamespaceMap" />
</int-xml:xpath-splitter>
A service activator is then used to pass the message into a stock checker POJO. The order item document
is enriched with information from the stock checker about order item stock level. This enriched order
item message is then used to route the message. In the case where the order item is in stock the message
is routed to the warehouse.
<si-xml:xpath-router id="instockRouter" input-channel="orderRoutingChannel" resolution-required="true">
<si-xml:xpath-expression expression="/orderNs:orderItem/@in-stock" namespace-map="orderNamespaceMap" />
<si-xml:mapping value="true" channel="warehouseDispatchChannel"/>
<si-xml:mapping value="false" channel="outOfStockChannel"/>
</si-xml:xpath-router>
Where the order item is not in stock the message is transformed using xslt into a format suitable for
sending to the supplier.
<int-xml:xslt-transformer input-channel="outOfStockChannel"
output-channel="resupplyOrderChannel"
xsl-resource="classpath:org/springframework/integration/samples/xml/bigBooksSupplierTransformer.xsl"/>
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Appendix E. Configuration
E.1 Introduction
Spring Integration offers a number of configuration options. Which option you choose depends upon
your particular needs and at what level you prefer to work. As with the Spring framework in general,
it is also possible to mix and match the various techniques according to the particular problem at hand.
For example, you may choose the XSD-based namespace for the majority of configuration combined
with a handful of objects that are configured with annotations. As much as possible, the two provide
consistent naming. XML elements defined by the XSD schema will match the names of annotations,
and the attributes of those XML elements will match the names of annotation properties. Direct usage
of the API is of course always an option, but we expect that most users will choose one of the higherlevel options, or a combination of the namespace-based and annotation-driven configuration.
E.2 Namespace Support
Spring Integration components can be configured with XML elements that map directly to the
terminology and concepts of enterprise integration. In many cases, the element names match those of
the Enterprise Integration Patterns.
To enable Spring Integration's core namespace support within your Spring configuration files, add the
following namespace reference and schema mapping in your top-level 'beans' element:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd">
You can choose any name after "xmlns:"; int is used here for clarity, but you might prefer a shorter
abbreviation. Of course if you are using an XML-editor or IDE support, then the availability of
auto-completion may convince you to keep the longer name for clarity. Alternatively, you can create
configuration files that use the Spring Integration schema as the primary namespace:
<beans:beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:beans="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd">
When using this alternative, no prefix is necessary for the Spring Integration elements. On the other hand,
if you want to define a generic Spring "bean" within the same configuration file, then a prefix would
be required for the bean element (<beans:bean ... />). Since it is generally a good idea to modularize
the configuration files themselves based on responsibility and/or architectural layer, you may find it
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appropriate to use the latter approach in the integration-focused configuration files, since generic beans
are seldom necessary within those same files. For purposes of this documentation, we will assume the
"integration" namespace is primary.
Many other namespaces are provided within the Spring Integration distribution. In fact, each adapter
type (JMS, File, etc.) that provides namespace support defines its elements within a separate schema.
In order to use these elements, simply add the necessary namespaces with an "xmlns" entry and the
corresponding "schemaLocation" mapping. For example, the following root element shows several of
these namespace declarations:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xmlns:int-file="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/file"
xmlns:int-jms="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/jms"
xmlns:int-mail="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/mail"
xmlns:int-rmi="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/rmi"
xmlns:int-ws="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/ws"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/file
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/file/spring-integration-file.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/jms
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/jms/spring-integration-jms.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/mail
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/mail/spring-integration-mail.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/rmi
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/rmi/spring-integration-rmi.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/ws
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/ws/spring-integration-ws.xsd">
...
</beans>
The reference manual provides specific examples of the various elements in their corresponding
chapters. Here, the main thing to recognize is the consistency of the naming for each namespace URI
and schema location.
E.3 Configuring the Task Scheduler
In Spring Integration, the ApplicationContext plays the central role of a Message Bus, and there are only
a couple configuration options to consider. First, you may want to control the central TaskScheduler
instance. You can do so by providing a single bean with the name "taskScheduler". This is also defined
as a constant:
IntegrationContextUtils.TASK_SCHEDULER_BEAN_NAME
By default Spring Integration relies on an instance of ThreadPoolTaskScheduler as described in the
Task Execution and Scheduling section of the Spring Framework reference manual. That default
TaskScheduler will startup automatically with a pool of 10 threads. If you provide your own
TaskScheduler instance instead, you can set the 'autoStartup' property to false, and/or you can provide
your own pool size value.
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When Polling Consumers provide an explicit task-executor reference in their configuration, the
invocation of the handler methods will happen within that executor's thread pool and not the main
scheduler pool. However, when no task-executor is provided for an endpoint's poller, it will be invoked
by one of the main scheduler's threads.
Note
An endpoint is a Polling Consumer if its input channel is one of the queue-based (i.e. pollable)
channels. On the other hand, Event Driven Consumers are those whose input channels have
dispatchers instead of queues (i.e. they are subscribable). Such endpoints have no poller
configuration since their handlers will be invoked directly.
Important
When running in a JEE container, you may need to use Spring's
TimerManagerTaskScheduler as described here, instead of the default taskScheduler.
To do that, simply define a bean with the appropriate JNDI name for your environment, for
example:
<bean id="taskScheduler" class="org.springframework.scheduling.commonj.TimerManagerTaskScheduler">
<property name="timerManagerName" value="tm/MyTimerManager" />
<property name="resourceRef" value="true" />
</bean>
The next section will describe what happens if Exceptions occur within the asynchronous invocations.
E.4 Error Handling
As described in the overview at the very beginning of this manual, one of the main motivations behind a
Message-oriented framework like Spring Integration is to promote loose-coupling between components.
The Message Channel plays an important role in that producers and consumers do not have to know
about each other. However, the advantages also have some drawbacks. Some things become more
complicated in a very loosely coupled environment, and one example is error handling.
When sending a Message to a channel, the component that ultimately handles that Message may or may
not be operating within the same thread as the sender. If using a simple default DirectChannel (with
the <channel> element that has no <queue> sub-element and no 'task-executor' attribute), the Messagehandling will occur in the same thread as the Message-sending. In that case, if an Exception is thrown, it
can be caught by the sender (or it may propagate past the sender if it is an uncaught RuntimeException).
So far, everything is fine. This is the same behavior as an Exception-throwing operation in a normal
call stack. However, when adding the asynchronous aspect, things become much more complicated. For
instance, if the 'channel' element does provide a 'queue' sub-element, then the component that handles
the Message will be operating in a different thread than the sender. The sender may have dropped the
Message into the channel and moved on to other things. There is no way for the Exception to be thrown
directly back to that sender using standard Exception throwing techniques. Instead, to handle errors for
asynchronous processes requires an asynchronous error-handling mechanism as well.
Spring Integration supports error handling for its components by publishing errors to a Message
Channel. Specifically, the Exception will become the payload of a Spring Integration Message.
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That Message will then be sent to a Message Channel that is resolved in a way that is similar
to the 'replyChannel' resolution. First, if the request Message being handled at the time the
Exception occurred contains an 'errorChannel' header (the header name is defined in the constant:
MessageHeaders.ERROR_CHANNEL), the ErrorMessage will be sent to that channel. Otherwise, the
error handler will send to a "global" channel whose bean name is "errorChannel" (this is also defined
as a constant: IntegrationContextUtils.ERROR_CHANNEL_BEAN_NAME).
Whenever relying on Spring Integration's XML namespace support, a default "errorChannel" bean will
be created behind the scenes. However, you can just as easily define your own if you want to control
the settings.
<int:channel id="errorChannel">
<int:queue capacity="500"/>
</int:channel>
Note
The default "errorChannel" is a PublishSubscribeChannel.
The most important thing to understand here is that the messaging-based error handling will only apply
to Exceptions that are thrown by a Spring Integration task that is executing within a TaskExecutor. This
does not apply to Exceptions thrown by a handler that is operating within the same thread as the sender
(e.g. through a DirectChannel as described above).
Note
When Exceptions occur in a scheduled poller task's execution, those exceptions will be
wrapped in ErrorMessages and sent to the 'errorChannel' as well.
To enable global error handling, simply register a handler on that channel. For example, you can
configure Spring Integration's ErrorMessageExceptionTypeRouter as the handler of an
endpoint that is subscribed to the 'errorChannel'. That router can then spread the error messages across
multiple channels based on Exception type.
E.5 Annotation Support
In addition to the XML namespace support for configuring Message Endpoints, it is also possible to use
annotations. First, Spring Integration provides the class-level @MessageEndpoint as a stereotype
annotation, meaning that it is itself annotated with Spring's @Component annotation and is therefore
recognized automatically as a bean definition when using Spring component-scanning.
Even more important are the various method-level annotations that indicate the annotated method is
capable of handling a message. The following example demonstrates both:
@MessageEndpoint
public class FooService {
@ServiceActivator
public void processMessage(Message message) {
...
}
}
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Exactly what it means for the method to "handle" the Message depends on the particular annotation.
Annotations available in Spring Integration include:
• @Aggregator
• @Filter
• @Router
• @ServiceActivator
• @Splitter
• @Transformer
The behavior of each is described in its own chapter or section within this reference.
Note
If you are using XML configuration in combination with annotations, the
@MessageEndpoint annotation is not required. If you want to configure a POJO reference
from the "ref" attribute of a <service-activator/> element, it is sufficient to provide the methodlevel annotations. In that case, the annotation prevents ambiguity even when no "method"
attribute exists on the <service-activator/> element.
In most cases, the annotated handler method should not require the Message type as its parameter.
Instead, the method parameter type can match the message's payload type.
public class FooService {
@ServiceActivator
public void bar(Foo foo) {
...
}
}
When the method parameter should be mapped from a value in the MessageHeaders, another option
is to use the parameter-level @Header annotation. In general, methods annotated with the Spring
Integration annotations can either accept the Message itself, the message payload, or a header value
(with @Header) as the parameter. In fact, the method can accept a combination, such as:
public class FooService {
@ServiceActivator
public void bar(String payload, @Header("x") int valueX, @Header("y") int valueY) {
...
}
}
There is also a @Headers annotation that provides all of the Message headers as a Map:
public class FooService {
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@ServiceActivator
public void bar(String payload, @Headers Map<String, Object> headerMap) {
...
}
}
Note
The value of the annotation can also be a SpEL expression (e.g., 'payload.getCustomerId()')
which is quite useful when the name of the header has to be dynamically computed. It also
provides an optional 'required' property which specifies whether the attribute value must be
available within the header. The default value for 'required' is true.
For several of these annotations, when a Message-handling method returns a non-null value, the
endpoint will attempt to send a reply. This is consistent across both configuration options (namespace
and annotations) in that such an endpoint's output channel will be used if available, and the
REPLY_CHANNEL message header value will be used as a fallback.
Tip
The combination of output channels on endpoints and the reply channel message header
enables a pipeline approach where multiple components have an output channel, and the final
component simply allows the reply message to be forwarded to the reply channel as specified in
the original request message. In other words, the final component depends on the information
provided by the original sender and can dynamically support any number of clients as a result.
This is an example of Return Address.
In addition to the examples shown here, these annotations also support inputChannel and outputChannel
properties.
public class FooService {
@ServiceActivator(inputChannel="input", outputChannel="output")
public void bar(String payload, @Headers Map<String, Object> headerMap) {
...
}
}
That provides a pure annotation-driven alternative to the XML configuration. However, it is generally
recommended to use XML for the endpoints, since it is easier to keep track of the overall configuration in
a single, external location (and besides the namespace-based XML configuration is not very verbose). If
you do prefer to provide channels with the annotations however, you just need to enable a SI Annotations
BeanPostProcessor. The following element should be added:
<int:annotation-config/>
Note
When configuring the "inputChannel" and "outputChannel" with annotations, the
"inputChannel" must be a reference to a SubscribableChannel instance. Otherwise, it
would be necessary to also provide the full poller configuration via annotations, and those
settings (e.g. the trigger for scheduling the poller) should be externalized rather than hard-
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coded within an annotation. If the input channel that you want to receive Messages from
is indeed a PollableChannel instance, one option to consider is the Messaging Bridge.
Spring Integration's "bridge" element can be used to connect a PollableChannel directly to a
SubscribableChannel. Then, the polling metadata is externally configured, but the annotation
option is still available. For more detail see Section 3.4, “Messaging Bridge”.
E.6 Message Mapping rules and conventions
Spring Integration implements a flexible facility to map Messages to Methods and their arguments
without providing extra configuration by relying on some default rules as well as defining certain
conventions.
Simple Scenarios
Single un-annotated parameter (object or primitive) which is not a Map/Properties with non-void return
type;
public String foo(Object o);
Details:
Input parameter is Message Payload. If parameter type is not compatible with Message Payload an
attempt will be made to convert it using Conversion Service provided by Spring 3.0. The return value
will be incorporated as a Payload of the returned Message
Single un-annotated parameter (object or primitive) which is not a Map/Properties with Message return
type;
public Message
foo(Object o);
Details:
Input parameter is Message Payload. If parameter type is not compatible with Message Payload an
attempt will be made to convert it using Conversion Service provided by Spring 3.0. The return value
is a newly constructed Message that will be sent to the next destination.
Single parameter which is a Message or its subclass with arbitrary object/primitive return type;
public int foo(Message
msg);
Details:
Input parameter is Message itself. The return value will become a payload of the Message that will be
sent to the next destination.
Single parameter which is a Message or its subclass with Message or its subclass as a return type;
public Message foo(Message msg);
Details:
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Input parameter is Message itself. The return value is a newly constructed Message that will be sent
to the next destination.
Single parameter which is of type Map or Properties with Message as a return type;
public Message foo(Map m);
Details:
This one is a bit interesting. Although at first it might seem like an easy mapping straight to Message
Headers, the preference is always given to a Message Payload. This means that if Message Payload is
of type Map, this input argument will represent Message Payload. However if Message Payload is not
of type Map, then no conversion via Conversion Service will be attempted and the input argument will
be mapped to Message Headers.
Two parameters where one of them is arbitrary non-Map/Properties type object/primitive and another
is Map/Properties type object (regardless of the return)
public Message foo(Map h, <T> t);
Details:
This combination contains two input parameters where one of them is of type Map. Naturally the nonMap parameters (regardless of the order) will be mapped to a Message Payload and the Map/Properties
(regardless of the order) will be mapped to Message Headers giving you a nice POJO way of interacting
with Message structure.
No parameters (regardless of the return)
public String foo();
Details:
This Message Handler method will be invoked based on the Message sent to the input channel this
handler is hooked up to, however no Message data will be mapped, thus making Message act as event/
trigger to invoke such handlerThe output will be mapped according to the rules above
No parameters, void return
public void foo();
Details:
Same as above, but no output
Annotation based mappings
Annotation based mapping is the safest and least ambiguous approach to map Messages to Methods.
There wil be many pointers to annotation based mapping throughout this manual, however here are
couple of examples:
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public String foo(@Payload String s, @Header("foo") String b)
Very simple and explicit way of mapping Messages to method. As you'll see later on, without an
annotation this signature would result in an ambiguous condition. However by explicitly mapping the
first argument to a Message Payload and the second argument to a value of the 'foo' Message Header,
we have avoided any ambiguity.
public String foo(@Payload String s, @RequestParam("foo") String b)
Looks almost identical to the previous example, however @RequestMapping or any other non-Spring
Integration mapping annotation is irrelevant and therefore will be ignored leaving the second parameter
unmapped. Although the second parameter could easily be mapped to a Payload, there can only be one
Payload. Therefore this method mapping is ambiguous.
public String foo(String s, @Header("foo") String b)
The same as above. The only difference is that the first argument will be mapped to the Message Payload
implicitly.
public String foo(@Headers Map m, @Header("foo")Map f, @Header("bar") String bar)
Yet another signature that would definitely be treated as ambiguous without annotations because it has
more than 2 arguments. Furthermore, two of them are Maps. However, with annotation-based mapping,
the ambiguity is easily avoided. In this example the first argument is mapped to all the Message Headers,
while the second and third argument map to the values of Message Headers 'foo' and 'bar'. The payload
is not being mapped to any argument.
Complex Scenarios
Multiple parameters:
Multiple parameters could create a lot of ambiguity with regards to determining the appropriate
mappings. The general advice is to annotate your method parameters with @Payload and/or @Header/
@Headers Below are some of the examples of ambiguous conditions which result in an Exception being
raised.
public String foo(String s, int i)
- the two parameters are equal in weight, therefore there is no way to determine which one is a payload.
public String foo(String s, Map m, String b)
- almost the same as above. Although the Map could be easily mapped to Message Headers, there is no
way to determine what to do with the two Strings.
public String foo(Map m, Map f)
- although one might argue that one Map could be mapped to Message Payload and another one to
Message Headers, it would be unreasonable to rely on the order (e.g., first is Payload, second Headers)
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Tip
Basically any method signature with more than one method argument which is not (Map, <T>),
and those parameters are not annotated, will result in an ambiguous condition thus triggering
an Exception.
Multiple methods:
Message Handlers with multiple methods are mapped based on the same rules that are described above,
however some scenarios might still look confusing.
Multiple methods (same or different name) with legal (mappable) signatures:
public class Foo {
public String foo(String str, Map m);
public String foo(Map m);
}
As you can see, the Message could be mapped to either method. The first method would be invoked
where Message Payload could be mapped to 'str' and Message Headers could be mapped to 'm'. The
second method could easily also be a candidate where only Message Headers are mapped to 'm'. To make
meters worse both methods have the same name which at first might look very ambiguous considering
the following configuration:
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" output-channel="output" method="foo">
<bean class="org.bar.Foo"/>
</int:service-activator>
At this point it would be important to understand Spring Integration mapping Conventions where at the
very core, mappings are based on Payload first and everything else next. In other words the method
whose argument could be mapped to a Payload will take precedence over all other methods.
On the other hand let's look at slightly different example:
public class Foo {
public String foo(String str, Map m);
public String foo(String str);
}
If you look at it you can probably see a truly ambiguous condition. In this example since both methods
have signatures that could be mapped to a Message Payload. They also have the same name. Such
handler methods will trigger an Exception. However if the method names were different you could
influence the mapping with a 'method' attribute (see below):
public class Foo {
public String foo(String str, Map m);
public String bar(String str);
}
<int:service-activator input-channel="input" output-channel="output" method="bar">
<bean class="org.bar.Foo"/>
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</int:service-activator>
Now there is no ambiguity since the configuration explicitly maps to the 'bar' method which has no
name conflicts.
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Appendix F. Additional Resources
F.1 Spring Integration Home
The definitive source of information about Spring Integration is the Spring Integration Home at http://
www.springsource.org. That site serves as a hub of information and is the best place to find up-to-date
announcements about the project as well as links to articles, blogs, and new sample applications.
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Appendix G. Change History
G.1 Changes between 1.0 and 2.0
For a detailed migration guide in regards to upgrading an existing application that uses Spring Integration
older than version 2.0, please see:
http://www.springsource.org/node/2976
Spring 3 support
Spring Integration 2.0 is built on top of Spring 3.0.5 and makes many of its features available to our
users.
Support for the Spring Expression Language (SpEL)
You can now use SpEL expressions within the transformer, router, filter, splitter, aggregator, serviceactivator, header-enricher, and many more elements of the Spring Integration core namespace as well
as various adapters. There are many samples provided throughout this manual.
ConversionService and Converter
You can now benefit from Conversion Service support provided with Spring while configuring many
Spring Integration components such as Datatype Channel. See the section called “Message Channel
Implementations” as well the section called “Introduction”. Also, the SpEL support mentioned in the
previous point also relies upon the ConversionService. Therefore, you can register Converters once, and
take advantage of them anywhere you are using SpEL expressions.
TaskScheduler and Trigger
Spring 3.0 defines two new strategies related to scheduling: TaskScheduler and Trigger Spring
Integration (which uses a lot of scheduling) now builds upon these. In fact, Spring Integration 1.0 had
originally defined some of the components (e.g. CronTrigger) that have now been migrated into Spring
3.0's core API. Now, you can benefit from reusing the same components within the entire Application
Context (not just Spring Integration configuration). Configuration of Spring Integration Pollers has been
greatly simplified as well by providing attributes for directly configuring rates, delays, cron expressions,
and trigger references. See Section 3.3, “Channel Adapter” for sample configurations.
RestTemplate and HttpMessageConverter
Our outbound HTTP adapters now delegate to Spring's RestTemplate for executing the HTTP request
and handling its response. This also means that you can reuse any custom HttpMessageConverter
implementations. See Section 15.3, “Http Outbound Gateway” for more details.
Enterprise Integration Pattern Additions
Also in 2.0 we have added support for even more of the patterns described in Hohpe and Woolf's
Enterprise Integration Patterns book.
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Message History
We now provide support for the Message History pattern allowing you to keep track of all traversed
components, including the name of each channel and endpoint as well as the timestamp of that traversal.
See Section 8.2, “Message History” for more details.
Message Store
We now provide support for the Message Store pattern. The Message Store provides a strategy for
persisting messages on behalf of any process whose scope extends beyond a single transaction, such
as the Aggregator and Resequencer. Many sections of this document provide samples on how to use
a Message Store as it affects several areas of Spring Integration. See Section 8.3, “Message Store”,
Section 6.3, “Claim Check”, Section 3.1, “Message Channels”, Section 5.4, “Aggregator”, Chapter 17,
JDBC Support, and Section 5.5, “Resequencer” for more details
Claim Check
We have added an implementation of the Claim Check pattern. The idea behind the Claim Check pattern
is that you can exchange a Message payload for a "claim ticket" and vice-versa. This allows you to
reduce bandwidth and/or avoid potential security issues when sending Messages across channels. See
Section 6.3, “Claim Check” for more details.
Control Bus
We have provided implementations of the Control Bus pattern which allows you to use messaging to
manage and monitor endpoints and channels. The implementations include both a SpEL-based approach
and one that executes Groovy scripts. See Section 8.4, “Control Bus” and the section called “Control
Bus” for more details.
New Channel Adapters and Gateways
We have added several new Channel Adapters and Messaging Gateways in Spring Integration 2.0.
TCP/UDP Adapters
We have added Channel Adapters for receiving and sending messages over the TCP and UDP internet
protocols. See Chapter 16, TCP and UDP Support for more details. Also, you can checkout the following
blog: TCP/UDP support
Twitter Adapters
Twitter adapters provides support for sending and receiving Twitter Status updates as well as Direct
Messages. You can also perform Twitter Searches with an inbound Channel Adapter. See Chapter 27,
Twitter Adapter for more details.
XMPP Adapters
The new XMPP adapters support both Chat Messages and Presence events. See Chapter 30, XMPP
Support for more details.
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FTP/FTPS Adapters
Inbound and outbound File transfer support over FTP/FTPS is now available. See Chapter 13, FTP/
FTPS Adapters for more details.
SFTP Adapters
Inbound and outbound File transfer support over SFTP is now available. See Chapter 25, SFTP Adapters
for more details.
Feed Adapters
We have also added Channel Adapters for receiving news feeds (ATOM/RSS). See Chapter 11, Feed
Adapter for more details.
Other Additions
Groovy Support
With Spring Integration 2.0 we've added Groovy support allowing you to use Groovy scripting language
to provide integration and/or business logic. See Section 7.6, “Groovy support” for more details.
Map Transformers
These symmetrical transformers convert payload objects to and from a Map. See Section 6.1,
“Transformer” for more details.
JSON Transformers
These symmetrical transformers convert payload objects to and from JSON. See Section 6.1,
“Transformer” for more details.
Serialization Transformers
These symmetrical transformers convert payload objects to and from byte arrays. They also support the
Serializer and Deserializer strategy interfaces that have been added as of Spring 3.0.5. See Section 6.1,
“Transformer” for more details.
Framework Refactoring
The core API went through some significant refactoring to make it simpler and more usable. Although
we anticipate that the impact to the end user should be minimal, please read through this document to
find what was changed. Especially, visit the section called “Dynamic Routers” , Section 7.2, “Messaging
Gateways”, Section 15.3, “Http Outbound Gateway”, Section 4.1, “Message”, and Section 5.4,
“Aggregator” for more details. If you are depending directly on some of the core components (Message,
MessageHeaders, MessageChannel, MessageBuilder, etc.), you will notice that you need to update any
import statements. We restructured some packaging to provide the flexibility we needed for extending
the domain model while avoiding any cyclical dependencies (it is a policy of the framework to avoid
such "tangles").
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New Source Control Management and Build Infrastructure
With Spring Integration 2.0 we have switched our build environment to use Git for source control. To
access our repository simply follow this URL: http://git.springsource.org/spring-integration. We have
also switched our build system to Gradle.
New Spring Integration Samples
With Spring Integration 2.0 we have decoupled the samples from our main release distribution. Please
read this blog to get more info New Spring Integration Samples We have also created many new samples,
including samples for every new Adapter.
SpringSource Tool Suite Visual Editor for Spring Integration
There is an amazing new visual editor for Spring Integration included within the latest version of
SpringSource Tool Suite. If you are not already using STS, please download it here:
http://www.springsource.com/landing/best-development-tool-enterprise-java
G.2 Changes between 2.0 and 2.1
New Components
JSR-223 Scripting Support
In Spring Integration 2.0, support for Groovy was added. With Spring Integration 2.1 we expanded
support for additional languages substantially by implementing support for JSR-223 (Scripting for
the Java™ Platform). Now you have the ability to use any scripting language that supports JSR-223
including:
• Javascript
• Ruby/JRuby
• Python/Jython
• Groovy
For further details please see Section 7.5, “Scripting support”.
GemFire Support
Spring Integration provides support for GemFire by providing inbound adapters for entry and
continuous query events, an outbound adapter to write entries to the cache, and MessageStore and
MessageGroupStore implementations. Spring integration leverages the Spring Gemfire project,
providing a thin wrapper over its components.
For further details please see Chapter 14, GemFire Support.
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AMQP Support
Spring Integration 2.1 adds several Channel Adapters for receiving and sending messages using the
Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP). Furthermore, Spring Integration also provides a pointto-point Message Channel, as well as a publish/subscribe Message Channel that are backed by AMQP
Exchanges and Queues.
For further details please see Chapter 9, AMQP Support.
MongoDB Support
As of version 2.1 Spring Integration provides support for MongoDB by providing a MongoDB-based
MessageStore.
For further details please see Chapter 21, MongoDb Support.
Redis Support
As of version 2.1 Spring Integration supports Redis, an advanced key-value store, by providing a Redisbased MessageStore as well as Publish-Subscribe Messaging adapters.
For further details please see Chapter 22, Redis Support.
Support for Spring's Resource abstraction
As of version 2.1, we've introduced a new Resource Inbound Channel Adapter that builds upon
Spring's Resource abstraction to support greater flexibility across a variety of actual types of underlying
resources, such as a file, a URL, or a class path resource. Therefore, it's similar to but more generic than
the File Inbound Channel Adapter.
For further details please see Section 23.2, “Resource Inbound Channel Adapter”.
Stored Procedure Components
With Spring Integration 2.1, the JDBC Module also provides Stored Procedure support by adding
several new components, including inbound/outbound channel adapters and an Outbound Gateway.
The Stored Procedure support leverages Spring's SimpleJdbcCall class and consequently supports
stored procedures for:
• Apache Derby
• DB2
• MySQL
• Microsoft SQL Server
• Oracle
• PostgreSQL
• Sybase
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The Stored Procedure components also support Sql Functions for the following databases:
• MySQL
• Microsoft SQL Server
• Oracle
• PostgreSQL
For further details please see Section 17.5, “Stored Procedures”.
XPath and XML Validating Filter
Spring Integration 2.1 provides a new XPath-based Message Filter, that is part of the XML module.
The XPath Filter allows you to filter messages using provided XPath Expressions. Furthermore,
documentation was added for the XML Validating Filter.
For more details please see Section 29.8, “Using the XPath Filter” and Section 29.9, “XML Validating
Filter”.
Payload Enricher
Since Spring Integration 2.1, the Payload Enricher is provided. A Payload Enricher defines an endpoint
that typically passes a Message to the exposed request channel and then expects a reply message. The
reply message then becomes the root object for evaluation of expressions to enrich the target payload.
For further details please see the section called “Payload Enricher”.
FTP and SFTP Outbound Gateways
Spring Integration 2.1 provides two new Outbound Gateways in order to interact with remote File
Transfer Protocol (FTP) or Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFT) servers. These two gateways allow you
to directly execute a limited set of remote commands.
For instance, you can use these Outbound Gateways to list, retrieve and delete remote files and have the
Spring Integration message flow continue with the remote server's response.
For further details please see Section 13.5, “FTP Outbound Gateway” and Section 25.6, “SFTP
Outbound Gateway”.
FTP Session Caching
As of version 2.1, we have exposed more flexibility with regards to session management for remote file
adapters (e.g., FTP, SFTP etc).
Specifically, the cache-sessions attribute, which is available via the XML namespace support, is
now deprecated. Alternatively, we added the sessionCacheSize and sessionWaitTimeout
attributes on the CachingSessionFactory.
For further details please see Section 13.6, “FTP Session Caching” and Section 25.3, “SFTP Session
Caching”.
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Framework Refactoring
Standardizing Router Configuration
Router parameters have been standardized across all router implementations with Spring Integration 2.1
providing a more consistent user experience.
With Spring Integration 2.1 the ignore-channel-name-resolution-failures attribute has
been removed in favor of consolidating its behavior with the resolution-required attribute.
Also, the resolution-required attribute now defaults to true.
Starting with Spring Integration 2.1, routers will no longer silently drop any messages, if no
default output channel was defined. This means, that by default routers now require at least one
resolved channel (if no default-output-channel was set) and by default will throw a
MessageDeliveryException if no channel was determined (or an attempt to send was not
successful).
If, however, you do desire to drop messages silently, simply set default-outputchannel="nullChannel".
Important
With the standardization of Router parameters and the consolidation of the parameters
described above, there is the possibility of breaking older Spring Integration based
applications.
For further details please see Section 5.1, “Routers”
XML Schemas updated to 2.1
Spring Integration 2.1 ships with an updated XML Schema (version 2.1), providing many improvements,
e.g. the Router standardizations discussed above.
From now on, users must always declare the latest XML schema (currently version 2.1). Alternatively,
they can use the version-less schema. Generally, the best option is to use version-less namespaces, as
these will automatically use the latest available version of Spring Integration.
Declaring a version-less Spring Integration namespace:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd">
...
</beans>
Declaring a Spring Integration namespace using an explicit version:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xmlns:int="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration
http://www.springframework.org/schema/integration/spring-integration-2.2.xsd
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd">
...
</beans>
The old 1.0 and 2.0 schemas are still there, but if an Application Context still references one of those
deprecated schemas, the validator will fail on initialization.
Source Control Management and Build Infrastructure
Source Code now hosted on Github
Since version 2.0, the Spring Integration project uses Git for version control. In order to increase
community visibility even further, the project was moved from SpringSource hosted Git repositories
to Github. The Spring Integration Git repository is located at: https://github.com/SpringSource/springintegration/
For the project we also improved the process of providing code contributions and we ensure that every
commit is peer-reviewed. In fact, core committers now follow the same process as contributors. For
more details please see:
https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration/wiki/Contributor-Guidelines
Improved Source Code Visibility with Sonar
In an effort to provide better source code visibility and consequently to monitor the quality of Spring
Integration's source code, an instance of Sonar was setup and metrics are gathered nightly and made
avaiblable at:
https://sonar.springsource.org/
New Samples
For the 2.1 release of Spring Integration we also expanded the Spring Integration Samples project and
added many new samples, e.g. samples covering AMQP support, the new payload enricher, a sample
illustrating techniques for testing Spring Integration flow fragments, as well as an example for executing
Stored Procedures against Oracle. For details please visit:
https://github.com/SpringSource/spring-integration-samples
G.3 Changes between 2.1 and 2.2
For an overview of the changes in Spring Integration 2.2 since version 2.1, please see Chapter 1, What's
new in Spring Integration 2.2?.
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