BEECHCRAFT DUCHESS 76
Pilot's Operatlhg Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A7 ............................................................... September, 1983
LOG OF REVISIONS
PAGE
Title Page
Page A (A7)
a
b
c and d
1-1
1-5
'1-6 and 1-6A
1-10
1-17
,
2-1
2C5
2'9
2-10
2:'11 thru 2-20
3·1
3-3
4-1
4-3
4'9
4·11
4-12
.
DESCRIPTION
Added Revision Date
Updated
Revised "Introduction"
Shifted Material and Revised
"Introduction"
Added
Revised: "Table of Contents"
Revised. "Use of the Handbook".
Shifted Material
Revised "Oil"
"Revised "Demonstrated Crosswind
Velocity"
Revised :'Table·of Contents"
Revised "Oil':
.Shifted Material
Revised ':Required Equipment for
Various Conditions of Flighf'
Shifted Material and Revised
"Required Equipment for Various
Conditions of Flight"
Revised: "Table of Contents"
Revisep "Emergency Airspeeds"
Revised: "Table of ·Contents"
Revised: "Speeds for Safe Operatio'
Added '''Hot Start" procedure
Revised: "Before Takeoff"
Revised: "Climb"
.
LOG OF REVISIONS
Page
4-13
4-14
4-14A
4-148
4-15
5-6 thru 5-6
5-21
5-26
5-29
5-31
8-16
Description
Revised: "Leaning Mixture Using
The Exhaust Gas Temperature
Indicator (EGT)"
Revised: "Descent"
Revised: "Shutdown"
Added
Revised: "Etectric Elevator Trim"
Revised: "Introduction to Performance
and Flight Planning"
Upgraded quality of chart
Revised: "Take-off Distance" Graph
Revised: "Accelerate-Go Distance"
Graph
Revised: "Take-off Climb Gradient One Engine Inoperative" Example
Revised: "Oil" and "Battery"
Page A
BEECH CRAFT DUCHESS 76
Pilot's Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A6 .................................................................... January, 1982
LOG OF REVISIONS
Description
Page
Deleted "Landing Gear" and
Revised "Power Plant"
Shifted Malerial and Revised,
"Fuel System", "Electrical System",
and "Utility System" ij-nd Deleted
"Instruments" and "Flaps' and Flight
Controls"
B-53
8-54
Added "Wing Structure Inspection
Schedule" and Shifted Material
8-55
.
2 of 2
l
A6
Page A
-
BEECHCRAFT DUCHESS 76
Pilot's Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A5 ...................................................................... August, 19BO
LOG OF REVISIONS
Page
Tille Page
Page A (AS)
1-1 and 1-2
1-4 and 1-5
1-6 thru 1-68
2-13
3-1
3-12B
4-1
4-9
4-10 and 4-10A
4-10B
4-11
5-23
5-42
5-46
5-47
6-1
6-8
6-11
7-1 thru 7-3
7-12
7-12A
7-19
7-20 and 7-21
Description
Added Revision Date
Updated
Revised "Table of Contents"
Revised "Use of Handbook"
Shifted Material
Added "Starter Engaged Warning Light"
Revised "Table of Contents"
Added "Starter Engaged Warning Light
Illuminated"
Revised "Table of Contenls"
Shifted Material
Revised "Starting"
Revised "After Starting and Taxi" ana
"Before T akeotr"
Shifted Material
Revised "Take-Off Weighl" Graph
Revised "Holding Time" Graph
Revised "Landing Distance - Flaps Up"
Revised "Landing Distance - Grass
Surface' - Flaps Down (ON)" Graph
Revised "Table of Contents"
Shifted Material
Revised "Loading Instructions"
Revised "Table of Contents"
Added "Warning Horn "0" Switch"
Added "Warning Horn Silence Butlon"
Shifted Material
Revised "Starters"
.-
o
'"
'""'
AS
~L-__________~________________________~__- '
"'
1 of 2
Page A
LOG OF REVISIONS
Page
7-29
7-30
7-31
8-8
8-18
8-36
8-42
8-46 and 8-47
8-54
Description
Shifted Material
Added "Starter Engaged Warning Light"
Shifted Material
Revised "Jacking"
Revised "Tires"
Revised "Lubricalion Diagrams"
Revised "Recommended Servicing
Schedule"
Revised "Consumable Materials"
Revised "Power Plant"
10·1 Thru 10-67
Revised Safety Section
Dated March 1981.
....
o
'"
<0
'"
mL-__________
'"2 of 2
~
__________
~
__________
A5
~----~
Page
A
BEECHCRAFT Duchess 76
Pilot's Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A4 ..........................................................................April, 1980
LOG OF REVISIONS
Page
Description
Title Page
Update
Page A (A4)
Update
7-16
7-16A
7-16B
7-17
Revised "'Control Lock"'
...o
'".,
'"en
'"
A4
Page A
-
BEECHCRAFT Duchess 76
Pilot's Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A3 ..................................................................... October 1979
LOG OF REVISIONS
Description
Page
Update
Update
Revise "Table of Contents"
Rearrange Material
Add "Fuel Additives"
Revise "Placards"
Revise "Placards"
Revise "Noise Characteristics"
Revise "Consumable Materials"
Title Page
"A" Page
2·1
2-4
2·5
2·21
2·26
4·19
8·47
-.
r;;
Page A
-
BEECHCRAFT Duchess 76
Pilots Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A2 .......................................................................... .April 1979
LOG OF REVISIONS
Description
Page
TItle Page
""A·· Page
1-1 & 1-2
1-3 thru 1-6
-
1-13
1-15
1-17
2-9
3-1 & 3-2
3-3
3·5
3-6 & 3-7
3-11
3-12A
3-12B
3-15
3-16
4·1
4·3
4-8 & 4·9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-14
4-16
4-17
4·18
4-19
Update
Update
Revise 'Table of Contents"
Rearrange Material and Revise
Introduction
Revise "Airspeed Terminology"
Revise "Meteorological Terminology"
Revise "Airplane Perfonnance and
Flight Planning Terminology"
Revise "Required Equipment"
Revise ·Table of Conlenls··
Revise Information
Revise Procedures
Revise "Air Start"
Revise "Warning"
Revise "Illumination of Alternator-out
Light""
Rearrange Material
Remove "Practice Demonstration of
VMCA ··
Rearrange Material
Revise "Table of Contents"
Revise "Airspeeds"
Revise ··Slarting Engines Using APU··
Revise "Starting" and "Caution"
Revise "Before Takeoff"
Revise "Takeon"
Revise "Balked Landing"
Revise "Warning"
Rearrange Material
Add ··Praeliee Demonslralion of VMCA··
Revise "Noise Characteristics"
[A2
Page A
1012
LOG OF REVISIONS
Page
5-14
5-44
5-47
6-17
7-1 thru 7-3
7-9
7-11
7-12
7-20 & 7-21
7-22
7-24 & 7-25
7-26
7-27
7-28 & 7-29
7-30
7-31 thru 7-33
7-39
7-40
7-41
8-3
8-4
8-8 thru 8-10
8-11
8-16
8-18
8-20
8-26
8-46
8-51
8-53
&8-12
& 8-17
& 8-27
& 8-47
Description
Revise "Comments"
Revise "Climb Speed"
Revise "Associated Conditions"
Revise "Table"
Revise 'Table of Conlents"
Revise "Engine Instrumentation"
Add "TIme-Delay Relay"
Rearrange Material
Rearrange Material
Add "Fuel Seleclor Valves"
Rearrange Material
Revise "Battery"
Revise "Power Distribution Schematic"
Revise "Allemators"
Revise "Elcternal Power"
Delete "Charts"
Revise "Pitot System"
Revise "Static System"
Revise "Stall Warning"
Revise "Introduction"
Revise "Publications"
Revise "Prolonged Out-of-Service
Care"
Revise "External Power"
Revise ''Battery''
Revise "Shock Siruls"
Revise "Brakes"
Revise "Cleaning"
Revise "Consumable Materials"
Revise "Bulb Replacement Guide"
-
Revise "Overhaul and Replacement
Guide"
I A2
20f2
Page A
BEECHCRAFT Duchess 76
Pilot's Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual
A1 Revision ..........................................................March 1979
LOG
OF REVISIONS
Description
Page
Title Page
Update
"A" Page
Update
2-12 & 2-13
Revise "Electrical Power"
3-1
Revise "Table of Contents"
3-12
Add "Complete Loss of
Electrical Power"
3-12A & 3-12B
Rearrange Material
4-1
Revise "Table of Contents"
4·9 & 4-10
Revise "Starting" Procedures
4·10A & 4-10B
Rearrange Material
A1
Page A
-
BEECHCRAFT Duchess 76
Pilot's Operating Handbook
and
FAA Approved Airplane flight Manual
. January 1978
A-Original Issue
LOG OF REVISIONS
Description
Page
Title Page
-
"A" Page
-
a and b
-
1-1 Ihru 1-20
-
2-1 Ihru 2-28
-
3-1 Ihru 3-17
-
4-1 thru 4-18
-
5-1 thru 5-47
-
6-1thru6-18
-
7-1 thru 7-41
-
8-1 thru 8-56
-
9-1 and 9-2
-
Supplements
See Log of Supplements
10-1 thru 10-37
-
1A
Page A
-
BI.
01
INTRODUCTION
The format and contents of this Pilot's Operating Handbook
and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual conform to GAMA
(General Aviation Manufacturers Association) Handbook
Specification Number 1. Use of this specification by all.manufacturers will provide the pilot with the same type of data in
the same 'place in all handbooks.
Attention is called to Section X (SAFETY INFORMATION).
BEECHCRAFT feels that it is very important to have Safety
Information in a condensed form in the hands of the pilots.
The Safety Information should be read and studied. Periodic
review will serve as a reminder of good piloting techniques.
I
WARNING
Use only genuine BEECHCRAFT or
BEECHCRAFT approved parts obtained from
BEECHCRAFT approved sources, in connection
with the maintenance and repair of Beech
airplanes.
Genuine BEECHCRAFT parts are produced and
inspected under rigorous procedures to insure
airworthiness and suitability for use in Beech
airplane applications. Parts purchased from
sources other than BEECHCRAFT, even though
outwardly identical in appearance, may not have
had the required tests and inspections
performed, may be different in fabrication
September,1983
a,
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
techniques and materials, and may be
dangerous when installed in an airplane.
Salvaged airplane parts, reworked parts
obtained from non-BEECHCRAFT approved
sources, or parts, components, or structural
assemblies, the service history of which is
unknown or cannot be authenticated, may have
been subjected to unacceptable stresses or
temperatures or have other hidden damage, not
discernible through routine visual or usual
nondestructive testing techniques. This may
render the part, component or structural
assembly, even though originally manufactured
by BEECHCRAFT, unsuitable and unsafe for
airplane use.
BEECHCRAFT expressly disclaims any
responsibility for malfunctions, failures, damage
or injury caused by use of non-BEECHCRAFT
approved parts ..
b
September, 1983
(
DUCHESS 76
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
AND
FAA APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL
. TABLE OF DIVISIONS
SECTION I ............................................................ GENERAL
SECTION II.·..................................................... LIMITATIONS
SECTION III .......................... EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
SECTION IV ................................. NORMAL PROCEDURES
SECTION V ................................................PERFORMANCE
SECTION Vi ................................. WEIGHT AND BALANCE!
EQUIPMENT LIST
SECTION VII ............................... SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION
SECTION VIII ................................ HANDLING, SERVICING
AND MAINTENANCE
SECTION IX ................................................ SUPPLEMENTS
SECTiON X ...................................SAFETY INFORMATION
September, 1983
c
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALL V LEFT BLANK
d
September, 1983
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION I
GENERAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
-
PAGE
Important Notice .: ............................................................. 1·3
Use of the Handbook ........................................................ 1-4
Revising the Handbook ..................................................... 1-6
Airplane Flight Manual Supplements
Revision Record .......................................................... 1-6A
Vendor-Issued STC Supplements .................................. 1-6A
Airplane Three View .......................................................... 1-7
Ground Turning Clearance ............................................... 1-8
DESCRIPTIVE DATA ....................................................... 1-9
Engines ......................................................................... 1-9
Propellers ...................................................................... 1-9
Fuel ............................................................................. 1-10
OiL ............................................................................... 1-10
Maximum Certificated Weights .................................... 1-10
Standard Airplane Weights .......................................... 1-11
Cabin and Entry Dimensions ....................................... 1-11
Baggage Space and Entry Dimensions ....................... 1-11
Specific Loadings ......................................................... 1-11
SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND TERMINOLOGY... 1-11
Airspeed Terminology ................................................. 1-12
Meteorological Terminology ........................................ 1-14
Power Terminology .......................................... ,.......... 1-15
Engine Controls and Instruments Terminology ............ 1-16
Airplane Performance and Flight
Planning Terminology .............................................. 1-17
Weight and Balance Terminology ................................ 1-18
September, 1983
1-1
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
. Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
1-2
August, 1980
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
THANK YOU __ _
for displaying confidence in us by selecting a BEECHCRAFT
airplane. Our design engineers, assemblers, and inspectors
have utilized their skills and years of experience to ensure
that the new BEECHCRAFT meets the high standards of
quality and performance for which BEECHCRAFT airplanes
have become famous throughout the world.
IMPORTANT NOTICE
This handbook should be read carefully by the owner and the
operator in order to become familiar with the operation of the
airplane. Suggestions and recommendations have been
made within it to aid in obtaining maximum performance
without sacrificing economy. Be familiar with, and operate the
airplane in accordance with, the Pilot's Operating Handbook
and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual, and/or placards
which are located in the airplane.
As a further reminder, the owner and the operator should
also be familiar with the Federal Aviation Regulations applicable to the operation and maintenance of the airplane, and
FAR Part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules. Further,
the airplane must be operated and maintained in accordance
with FAA Airworthiness Directives which may be issued
against it.
The Federal Aviation Regulations place the responsibility for
the maintenance of this airplane on the. owner and the
operator, who should ensure that ail maintenance is done by
qualified mechanics in conformity with all airworthiness requirements established for this airplane.
All limits, procedures, safety practices, time limits, servicing,
and maintenance requirements contained in this handbook
April .1979
1-3
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
are considered mandatory for continued airworthiness to
maintain the airplane in a condition equal to that of its original
manufacture.
Authorized BEECHCRAFT Aero or Aviation Centers or
International Distributors or Dealers can provide
recommended modification, service, and operating
procedures issued by both the FAA and Beech Aircraft
Corporation, which are designed to get maximum utility and
safety from the airplane.
USE OF THE HANDBOOK
The Pilot's Operating Handbook is designed to facilitate
maintaining the documents necessary for the safe and efficient operation of the airplane. The handbook has been
prepared in loose leaf form for ease in maintenance and in a
convenient size for storage. The handbook has been arranged with quick reference tabs imprinted with the title of
each section and contains ten basic divisions.
Seciion
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
1-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
General
Limitations.
Emergency Procedures
Normal Procedures
Periormance
Weight and Balance/Equipment List
Systems Descripti"on
Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance
Supplements
Safety Information
August, 1980
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
NOTE
The owner/operator should always refer to all
supplements, whether STC Supplements or
Beech Supplements, for possible placards,
limitations, normal, emergency and other
operational procedures for proper operation of
the airplane with optional equipment installed.
The following information may be provided to the
holder of this manual automatically:
-
1. Original issues and revisions of Class I and
Class " Service Instructions
2. Original issues and revisions of FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual Supplements
3. Reissues and revisions of FAA Approved
Airplane Flight Manuals, Flight Handbooks,
Owner's Manuals, Pilot's Operating Manuals,
and Pilot's Operating Handbooks
This service is free and will be provided only to
airplane owners who are listed on the FAA
A ircraft Registration Branch List or the
BEECHCRAFT International Owners Notification
Service List, and then only if listed by airplane
serial number for the model for which this
handbook is applicable. For detailed information
on how to obtain "Revision Service" applicable
to' this handbook or other BEECHCRAFT
Service Publications consult any BEECHCRAFT
Aero or Aviation Center, International Distributor,
or International Dealer, or refer to the latest
revision of BEECHCRAFT Service Instructions
No. 0250-010.
September, 1983
1-5
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Due to the large variety of airplane configurations available through optional equipment, it
should be noted that where information pertaining to optional equipment appears in the hand,
book, the optional equipment will not normally be
designated as such. Due to custom design variations, the illustrations in this handbook will not be
typical of every airplane.
Beech Aircraft Corporation expressly reserves
the right to supersede, cancel, and/or declare
obsolete, without prior notice, any part, part
number, kit, or publication that may be referenced in this handbook.
REVISING THE HANDBOOK
Immediately following the Title Page is the "Log of Revisions" page(s). The Log of Revisions pages are used for
maintaining a listing of all effective pages in the handbook
(except the SUPPLEMENTS section), and as a record of
revisions to these pages. In the lower right corner of the
outlined portion is a box containing a capital letter which
denotes the issue or reissue of the handbook. It will be
advanced one letter, alphabetically, per reissue. This letter
will be suffixed by a number whenever the handbook is
revised. When a revision to the handbook is made, a new
Log of Revisions will be issued. All Logs of Revisions must be
retained in the handbook to provide a complete record of
material status until a reissue is made.
September, 1983
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
WARNING
When this handbook is used for airplane operational purposes it is the pilot's responsibility to
maintain it in current status.
AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL SUPPLEMENTS
REVISION RECORD
-
Section IX contains the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual Supplements headed by a Log of Supplements page. On
the "Log" page is a listing of the FAA Approved Supplemental Equipment available for installation on the airplane. When
new supplements are received or existing supplements are
revised, a new "Log" page will replace the previous one,
since it contains a listing of all previous approvals, plus the
new approval. The supplemental material will be added to the
grouping in accordance with the descriptive iisting.
NOTE
Upon receipt of a new or revised supplement,
compare the "Log" page just received with the
existing "Log" page in the manual. Retain the
"Log" page with the latest date on the bottom of
the page and discard the other log.
VENDOR-ISSUED STC SUPPLEMENTS
When a new airplane is delivered from the factory, the
handbook delivered with it contains either an STC
(Supplemental Type Certificate) Supplement or a Beech
F!ight Manual Supplement 'for every instalied item requiring a
supplement. If a new handbook for operation of the airplane
is obtained at a later date, it is the responsibility of the
owner/operator to ensure that all required STC Supplements
(as well as weight and balance and other pertinent data) are
transferred into the new handbook.
September, 1983
1-6A
Section I
General
8EECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
-
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
1-68
August, 1980
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
o
o
..
J ..
WING AREA: 181 SQ. FT.
76" DIA.
=
~l
1-----J-85" APPROX.
76.607.4
THREE-VIEW
January 1978
1-7
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
-
GROUND TURNING CLEARANCE
@ Radius for Wing Tip ................... 27 feet 2 inches
@ Radius for Nose Wheel. ............. ' 9 feet 10 inches
©
Radius for Inside Gear ...-................. 3 feet 1 inch
@ Radius for Outside Gear ........... 13 feet 8 inches
TURNING RADII ARE PREDICATED ON THE USE OF PARTIAL
BRAKING ACTION AND DIFFERENTIAL POWER.
1·8
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
DESCRIPTIVE DATA
ENGINES
Two Avco Lycoming engines are installed; One 0-360A 1G6D (clockwise rotating) located on the 1E'1t wing, and one
LO-360-A 1G6D (counterclockwise rotating) located on the
right wing. The engines are four-cylinder, direct-drive, horizontally opposed, and each rated at 180 horsepower at 2700
rpm.
Take-off and Maximum
Continuous Power
-
. . . . . Full throttle, 2700 rpm
Recommended Maximum
Cruise Power. . . . . . . . . . . 24 in. Hg, 2700 rpm
PROPELLERS
The airplane is equipped with two Hartzell, constant-speed,
full-feathering, two-blade propellers: the left engine (clockwise rotating) has an HC-M2YR-2CEUF hub with FC 7666A
blades and a C2285-3P spinner; the right engine (cDunterclockwise rotating) incorporates an HC-M2YR-2CLEUF
hub with FJC l666A blades and a C2285-3LP spinner.
Pitch settings at the 30 inch station: Low, 12.1° ± .1°;
High, 17° to 20°; Feathered, 81° ± 1°.
Diameter is 76 inches, with cut-off permitted to 74.0 inches.
January 1978
1-9
Section I
General
. BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
FUEL
Aviation Gasoline, grade 100 (green) or grade 100 LL (blue).
Total Capacity
Total Usable .
·103 gallons
100 gallons
OIL
Engine oils must meet Aveo Lycoming Specification No.
301 F and be used in accordance with Avco Lycoming
Service Instructions No. 1014J or subsequent revisions.
Refer to HANDLING, SERVICING, AND MAINTENANCE
section for a list of oils meeting this specification.
I
Average Ambient MIL-L-6082
Air Temperature
Grades
I
Above 60 F
0
30 to 90°F
0
0 to 70°F
SAE 50
SAE 40
SAE 30
Below 10°F
SAE 20
MIL-L-22851
Ashless Dispersant
Grades
SAE 40. or SAE 50
SAE 40
SAE 40, SAE 30
or SAE 20W40
SAE 30 or SAE 20W30
Oil Capacity ........................................... 8 quarts each engine
MAXiMUM CERTIFICATED WEIGHTS
MaximumHamp Weight .
Maximum Take-off Weight
Maximum Landing Weight
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment
1-10
39161bs
3900lbs
3900lbs
3500lbs
. 200lbs
September, 1983
Section I
· General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
STANDARD AIRPLANE WEIGHTS
24461bs
1470lbs
Standard Empty Weight
Maximum Useful Load .
CABIN AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS
Cabin Width (maximum) .
Cabin Length (maximum)
Cabin Height (maximum) .
Cabin Door . .
Door Sill Height . . . .
· 3lt8in.
7 It 11 in.
· . . 4 It
36 in. x 38 in.
2in.
BAGGAGE SPACE AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS
,
Compartment Volume . . . .
Compartment Width (nominal)
Compartment Length (nominal)
Compartment Height (nominal)
Door Width (minimum) .
Door Height (minimum)
19.5cult
38in.
26 in.
37in.
22 in.
33 in.
SPECIFIC LOADINGS·
Wing Loading at Maximum Take-off Weight. . 21.5Ibs/sq It
Power Loading at Maximum Take-off Weight
10.8 Ibs/hp
SYMBOLS, ABBREViATiONS, AND TERMINOLOGY
The following Abbreviations and Terminologies have been
listed for convenience and ready interpretation where used
within this handbook. Whenever possible, they have been
categorized for ready reference.
January 1978
1-11
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY
lAS
I ndicated Airspeed is the speed of an
airplane as shown on its airspeed indicator. As used within this handbook lAS
assumes no instrument error.
CAS
Calibrated Airspeed is the indicated airspeed of an airplane, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated
airspeed is equal to true airspeed in
standard atmosphere at sea level.
TAS
True Airspeed is the airspeed of an airplane relative to undisturbed air which
is the CAS corrected for altitude, temperature, and compressibility.
GS
Ground Speed is the speed 01 an airplane relative to the ground.
Air Minimum Control Speed is the
minimum flight speed at which the airplane is directionally controllable as determined in accordance with Federal
Aviation Regulations. The airplane certification conditions include one engine
becoming inoperative and windmilling,
a 5-degree bank towards the operative
engine, take-off power on operative engine, landing gear up, flaps in take-off
position, and most rearward C.G .. For
some conditions of weight and altitude,
stall can be encountered at speeds
above YMCA as established by the certification procedure described above, in
which event stall speed must be regarded as the limit of effective directional control.
1-12
January 1978
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
The
Intentional
One-EngineInoperative Speed is a speed above
both YMCA and stall speed, selected to
provide a margin of lateral and direc. tional control when one engine is suddenly rendered inoperative. Intentional
failing of one engine below this speed is
not recommended.
I
Maneuvering Speed is the maximum
speed at which application of full available aerodynamic control will not overstress the airplane.
Design Flap Speed is the highest speed
perrnissible at which wing flaps may be
actuated.
Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the
highest speed permissible with wing
flaps in a prescribed extended position.
Maximum Landing Gear Extended
Speed is the maximum speed at which
an airplane can be safely flown with the
landing gear extended.
Maximum Landing Gear Operating
Speed is the maximum speed at which
the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted.
Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit
that may not be exceeded at any time.
April 1979
1-13
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is
the speed that should not be exceeded
except in smooth air and then only with
caution.
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady
flight speed at which the airplane is
controllable.
Vso
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady
flight speed at which the airplane is
controllable in the landing configuration.
Best Angle-of-Climb Speed is the airspeed which delivers the greatest gain
of altitude in the shortest possible horizontal distance.
Vy
Best Rate-Ot-Climb Speed is the airspeed which delivers the greatest gain
in altitude in the shortest possible time.
METEOROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY
ISA
1-14
International Standard Atmosphere in
which:
(1) The air is a dry perfect gas;
(2) The temperature at sea level is 15°
Celsius (59° Fahrenheit);
(3) The pressure at sea level is 29.92
in. Hg (1013.2 millibars);
(4) The temperature gradient from
sea level to the altitude at which
the temperature is - 56Se
( - 69. 7'F)
is
- 0.00198°e
( - 0.003566°F) per foot and zero
above that altitude.
January 1978
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
OAT
Outside Air Temperature is the free air
static temperature, obtained either from
inflight temperature indications adjusted for instrument error and compressibility
effects,
or
ground
meteorological sources.
Indicated
Pressure
Altitude
The number actually read from an
altimeter when the barometric
subscale has been set to 29.92 in. Hg
(1013.2 millibars).
Pressure
Altitude
Altitude measured from standard sea
level pressure (29.92 in. Hg) by a
pressure or barometric altimeter. It is
the indicated pressure altitude
corrected for position and instrument
error. In this handbook, altimeter
instrument errors are assumed to be
zero. Position errors may be obtained
from the Altimeter Correction graph.
Station
Pressure
Actual atmospheric pressure at field
elevation.
Wind
The wind velocities recorded as. variables on the charts of this handbook
are to be understood as the headwind
or tailwind components of the reported
winds.
POWER TERMINOLOGY
Take-off and
Maximum
Continuous
Highest power rating not limited by
time.
Cruise Climb
Power recommended for cruise climb.
April 1979
1-15
I
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
ENGINE CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS
TERMINOLOGY
Throttle
Control
The lever used to control power by introducing fuel-air mixture into the intake
passages of the engine. Settings are
reflected by readings on the manifold
pressure gage.
Propeller
Control
This lever requests the gave mar to
maintain rpm at a selected value and, in
the maximum decrease rpm position,
feathers the propeller.
Mixture
Control
This lever is used to set fuel flow in all
modes of operation and cuts off fuel
completely for engine shutdown.
Tachometer
Indicates the rotational speed of the engine/propeller in revolutions per minute
(rpm).
Propeller
Regulates the rpm of the engine/propeller by increasing or decreasing the propeller pitch through a pitch change
rnechanisrn in the propeller hub.
Governor
Manifold
Pressure
An instrument that measures the absolute pressure in the intake manifold of
an engine, expressed in inches of rnercury (in. Hg).
EGT
The Exhaust Gas Temperature I ndicator is used to identify the lean and
best-power fuel flow mixtures for various power settings during cruise.
1-16
January 1978
-
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT
PLANNING TERMINOLOGY
Climb
Gradient
The ratio of the change in height during
a portion of a climb, to the horizontal
distance traversed, in the same time
interval.
Demonstrated
Crosswind
Velocity
The demonstrated crosswind velocity is
the velocity of the crosswind
component for which adequate control
of the airplane during takeoff and
landing was actually demonstrated
during certification tests. The value
shown is not limiting.
AccelerateStop Distance
The distance required to accelerate an
airplane to a specified speed and, assuming failure of an engine at the instant that speed is attained, to bring the
airplane to a stop.
AccelerateGo Distance
The distance required to accelerate an
airplane to a specified speed and, assuming failure of an engine at the instant that speed is attained, feather inoperative propeller and continue takeoff
on the remaining engine to a height of
50 feet.
MEA
Minimum Enroute IFR Altitude.
Route
Segment
A part of a route. Each end of that part
is identified by:
(1) A geographical location; or
(2) .A point at which a definite radio fix
can be established.
September, 19B3
1-17
I
Section I
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
WEIGHT AND BALANCE TERMINOLOGY
Standard
Empty Weight
Weight of a standard airplane including
unusable fuel, full operating fluids, and
full oil.
.
Basic
Empty Weight
Standard empty weight plus optional
equipment.
Usable Fuel
Fuel available for flight planning.
Unusable
Fuel
Fuel remaining after a runout test has
been completed in accordance with
governmental regulations.
Payload
Weight of
baggage.
Useful Load
Difference between ramp weight and
basic empty weight.
Maximum
Ramp Weight
•
occupants,
cargo,
and
Maximum weight approved for ground
maneuvering. (It includes weight of
start, taxi, and run-up fueL)
Maximum
Take-Off
Weight
Maximum weight approved for the start
of the take-off run.
Maximum
Landing
Weighi
Maximum weight approved for the landing touchdown.
Maximum
Zero Fuel
Weight
Maximum weight exclusive of usable
fuel.
1-18
January 1978
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section I
General
Loading
Condition
That combination of airplane weight
and corresponding moment applicable
to the various loadings computed for
weight and balance purposes.
Reference
Datum
An imaginary vertical plane from which
all· horizontal distances are measured
for balance purposes.
Station
A location along the airplane fuselage
usually given in terms of distance from
the reference datum.
Arm
The horizontal distance from the reference datum to the center 01 gravity
(CG) of an item.
Moment
The product of the weight of an item
multiplied by its arm. (Moment divided
by a constant is used to simplify balance calculations by reducing the
number of digits.)
Airplane
Center of
Gravity (CG)
The point at which an airplane would
balance if suspended. Its distance from
the reference datum is found by dividing the total moment by the total weight
of the airplane.
CG Arm
The arm obtained. by adding the airplane's individual moments and dividing the sum by the total weight.
CG Limits
The extreme center of gravity locations
within which the airplane must be operated al a given weight.
January 1978
1-19
Sectionl
General
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Tare
The apparent weight which may be indicated by a scales before any load is
applied.
Leveling
Points
Those points which are used during the
weighing process to level the airplane.
Jack Points
Points on the airplane identified by the
manufacturer as suitable for supporting
the airplane for weighing or other purposes.
1-20
January 1978
Section"
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
The limitations included in this section have been approved
by the Federal Aviation Administration.
The following limitations in this section must be observed in
the operation of this airplane'.
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
SPEED
CAS
KTS
lAS
KTS
REMARKS
Never Exceed
194
194
Do Not Exceed This Speed in
Any Operation.
154
154
VNE
Maximum
Structural
Cruising
Do Not Exceed This Speed Except in Smooth Air and Then
Only With Caution.
VNO
Maneuvering
132
132
Do Not Make Full or Abrupt
Control Movements Above
This Speed.
110
110
Do Not Extend Raps or Oper-
VA
Maximum Flap
Extension/Extended
VF and VFE
(Full Down 35°)
Maximum
ate With Flaps
Above This Speed.
140
140
Landing Gear
Extended
Do Not Exceed This Speed
With Landing Gear Extended.
Extended
VLE
Maximum
Landing Gear
Operating VLO
Extension
Retraction
Air Minimum
Control
VMCA
January 1978
Do Not Extend or Retract
Landing Gear Above This
Speed.
140
113
140
112
67
65
Minimum Speed for Directional
Controllability AHer Sudden
Loss of Engine.
2-3
Section 1\
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
'AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS
MARKING
CAS VALUE
OR RANGE
KTS
lAS VALUE
OR RANGE
KTS
White
Arc
58-110
60-110
Blue
Radial
86
85
Single-Engine
Best Rateof-Climb
Red
Radial
67
65
Minimul]l
Single-Engine
Control (VMCA)
Green
Arc
68-154
70-154
AIe
154-194
154·194
Operate With
Caution, Only In
Smooth Air
Red
Radial
194
194
Maximum Speed
For All Operations
(Never Exceed)
Yellow
SIGNIFICANCE
Full Flap
Operating Range
Normal Operating Range
"The airspeed indicator is marked in lAS values.
POWER PLANT liMiTATIONS
ENGINES
Two Avco Lycoming engines installed; one 0-360-A1G60
(clockwise rotating) located on the left wing, and one LO-360A 1G6D (counterclockwise rotating) located on the right wing.
The engines are four-cylinder, direct-drive, horizontally
opposed, and each rated at 180 horsepower at 2700 rpm.
Take-off and Maximum
Continuous Power ......................... Full Throttle, 2700 RPM
Maximum Oil Temperature ........................................... 245°F
Maximum Cylinder Head Temperature ......................... 500°F
2-4
October 1979
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations
Minimum" Oil Pressure (Idle) .......................................... 25 psi
Maximum Oil Pressure ................................................ 100 psi
Minimum Fuel Pressure ............................................... 0'.5 psi
Maximum Fuel Pressure .............................................. 8.0 psi
FUEL
Aviation Gasoline, grade 100 (green) or grade 100 LL (blue).
FUEL ADDITIVES
ALCOR TCP Concentrate, mixed
instructions provided by Alcor, Inc.
according to
the
OIL
Engine oils must meet Avco Lycoming Specification No.
301 F and be used in accordance with Avco Lycoming
Service Instruction No.1 014J or subsequent revisions. Refer
to the Approved Engine Oils, Section VIII, SERVICING.
PROPELLERS
Two Hartzell, constant-speed, full-feathering, two-blade propellers: the left engine (clockwise rotating) has an HC-M2YR2CEUF hub with FC 7666A blades and C2285-3P spinner;
the right engine (counterclockwise rotating) incorporates an
HC-M2YR-2CLEUF hub with FJC 7666A blades and a
C22B5-3LP spinner.
Pitch settings at the 3D-inch station: Low, 12.1° :t .1°;
High, 1r to 20°; Feathered, B1 ° :t 10.
Diameter is 76 inches, with cut-off permitted to 74.0 inches.
September, 1983
2-5
I
Section II
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
POWER PLANT INSTRUMENT MARKINGS
Oil Temperature
Caution Range (Yellow Arcl ..................................60to 120'F
Normal Operating Range (Green Arc) ................. 120 to 245'F
Maximum (Red Radial) ................................................. 245'F
Oil Pressure
Minimum Idle (Red Radial) ............................................ 25 psi·
Caution Range (Yellow Arc) .................................. 25 to 60 psi
Normal Operating Range (Green Arc) ................. 60 to 100 psi
Maximum (Red Radial) ............................................... 100 psi
Manifold Pressure
Normal Operating Range (Green Arc) ........... 15 to 29.6 in. Hg
Tachometer
Normal Operating Range
(Green Arc) ............ :................................ 2000 to 2700 rpm
Maximum (Red Radial) ............................................ 2700 rpm
Fuel Pressure
Minimum (Red Radial) ................................................. 0.5 psi
Normal Operating Range (Green Arc) ................. 0.5 to 8.0 psi
Maximum (Red Radial) ................................................ 8.0 psi
Cylinder Head Temperature
Normai Operating Range (Green Arc) ................ .200 to 500°F
Maximum (Red Radial) ................................................. 500°F
MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENT MARKINGS
Instrument Pressure
Normal Operating Range (Green Arc) ............ 4.3 to 5.9 in. Hg
Red Button Source Failure Indicators
2-6
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations
Fuel Quantity
Yellow Arc ......................................................... E to 9 Gallons
WEIGHT LIMITS
Maximum Ramp Weigh!... ........................... : ............. 39161bs
Maximum Take-off Weight ........................................ 3900 Ibs
Maximum Landing Weight ........................................ 3900 Ibs
Zero Fuel Weight ...................................................... 3500 Ibs
Maximum Baggage Compartment Load ..................... 200 Ibs
CENTER OF GRAVITY (Landing Gear Extended)
Forward Limits: 106.6 inches aft of datum at 3250 Ibs and
under, then straight line variation to 110.6 inches aft of datum
at a weight of 3900 Ibs.
Aft Limit: 117.5 inches aft of datum a,I all weights.
Reference Datum: 129.37 inches forward of the center of
wing spar jack points.
MAC Leading Edge: 99.08 inches aft of datum.
MAC Length: 57.65 inches.
MAt-JEUVEAS
This is a normal category airplane. Acrobatic maneuvers,
including spins, are prohibited.
Maximum slip duration ......................................... 30 seconds
January 1978
2-7
Section II
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
FLIGHT LOAD FACTORS (3900 POUNDS)
Positive maneuvering load factors:
Flaps Up .................................................................... 3.8G
Flaps Down (ON) ........................................................ 2.0G
Negative maneuvering load factor:
Flaps Up ................................................................ -1 .52G
MINIMUM FLIGHT CREW ....................................... One pilot
KINDS OF OPERA nON
This airplane is approved for the following type operations
when the required equipment is installed and operationill as
defined herein:
1. VFR day and night
2. IFR day and night
3. FAR 91 operations when all pertinent limitations and
performance considerations arF' "nmnlied with.
WARNING
FLIGHT IN ICiNG CONDITIONS PROHIBITEU.
2-8
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section Ii
limitations
FUEL
TOTAL FUEL with left and right wing fuel systems full:
Capacity.............................................................. 103 gallons·
Usable ................................................................. 100 gallons
'Value given is nominal. Tank capacity will vary with temperature, and manufacturing tolerances.
FUEL MANAGEMENT
Do not take off when Fuel Quantity indicators indicate in the
yellow band on either indicator.
Maximum slip duration is 30 seconds.
The fuel crossfeed system to be used during emergency
conditions in level flight only.
SEATING
All occupied seats must be in the upright position for takeoff
and landing.
STRUCTURAL LIFE
The basic wing structure has a substantiated life of 20,000
flight hours provided the mandatory inspection
requirements of chapter four of the BEECHCRAFT
DUCHESS 76 MAINTENANCE MANUAL are complied
with.
September, 1983
2-9
Section II
limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
REQUIRED EQUIPMENT FOR VARIOUS CONDITIONS Or:
FLIGHT
Part 91 of the Federal Aviation Regulations specifies
minimum numbers and types of airplane instruments and
equipment which must be installed and operated for various
kinds of flight conditions. This includes VFR day, VFR night,
IFR day and IFR night.
Regulations also require that all airplanes be certified by the
manufacturer for operations under various flight conditions.
At certification, all required equipment must be in operating
condition and should be maintained to assure continued airworthiness: If deviations from the installed equipment were
not permitted, or if the operating rules did not provide for
various flight conditions, the airplane could not be flown
unless all equipment were operable. With appropriate limitations, the operation of every system or component installed in
the airplane is not necessary when the remaining operative
instruments and equipment provide for continued safe operation. Operation in accordance with limitations established to
maintain airworthiness can permit continued or uninterrupted
operation of the airplane.
For the sake of brevity, the Required Equipment Listing does
not include obviously required items such as wings, rudder,
flaps, engines, landing gear, etc. Also the list does not
include items which do not affect the airworthiness of the
airplan'e such' as entertainment systems, passenger
convenience items, etc. However, it is important to note that
ALL ITEMS WHICH ARE RELATED TO THE
AIRWORTHINESS OF THE AIRPLANE AND NOT'
INCLUDED ON THE LIST ARE AUTOMATICALLY
REQUIRED TO BE OPERATIVE.
2-10
September, 1983
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations
To enable the pilot to rapidly determine the FAA equipment
requirements necessary for a flight into specific conditions,
the following equipment requirements and exceptions are
presented. It is the final responsibility of the pilot to determine
whether the lack of, or inoperative status of a piece of equip'ment on the airplane, will limit the conditions under which the
pilot may operate the airplane.
LEGEND
Numbers refer to quantities required to be operative for a
specified condition,
(-)
Indicates that the item may be inoperative for the
specified condition.
(*)
Refers to the REMARKS AND/OR EXCEPTIONS column for explicit information or reference,
September, 1983
2-11
,
I\)
SYSTEM
and/or
COMPONENT
~
I\)
I
I
GENERAL
OVERWATER FLIGHT
•
. . ..
•
. .
• - 'Per FAR 91
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
I
III 0
0_
:I (II
'Per FAR 91
l1J
IV
Battery system
DC alternator
DC loadmeter
3
l5
-.,
'"0>w
...- ...-
::':1
ELECTRICAL POWER
"'C
...
C&'
3 0
COMMUNICATIONS
VHF communications system
r.n
~
VFRDay
VFRNight
IFRDay
IFRN!JLhl
Remarks and/or Exceptions
I
I
1
2
2
-
I
1
m
om
c 0
o ::t
::TO
~
'"
,.
:u
~:!l
I
U'J
<P
Alternator-out overvoltage
indicator light
Alternator-out undervoltage
indicator light
Starter Engaged Warning Light
(ME-333, ME-346 and after)
-
-c
<P
3
i
-~
~
<l)
Ct>
'"
I
II
2
2
2
2
1
om
2
2
2
2
g:
1
1 - May be inoperative provided
loadmeters are operative
and monitored.
OIl>
em
om
:To
<P
::t
0
--Ill
~
EQUIPMENT AND FUFlNISHINGS
Seat belts and
shoulder harnesses
Emergency locator transmitter
1
~
1
1
1
1
1-
1
1 -
Per Person or Per FAR 91
Per FAR 91
I
FIRE PROTECTION
Portable fire extinguisher
N,
~
'"
•
I"
I" I
.
r
I
c:
3
U'J
-0
'Optional
-ID
III _
I
- _.
o- 0~
~
.. =
,
I\)
""--
SYSTEM
and/or
COMPONENT
I
en
i3
ay
IFRNi ht
Remarks and/or Exceptions
1
1
Flap position indicator
1
1
1
1
1
1
-"
co
~::J
o
::J
en
1
1
1
May be inoperative provided
that tabs are visually checked
in the neutral position prior
to each takeoff and checked
for full range of operation.
-
g
='
---
FLIGHT CONTROLS
Trim tab indicators - Rudder
Elevator
(II
Cff
3 0
-.
1110
VFRDay
VFRNight
Stall warning system
1
1
1
CD
-
May be inoperative provided
flap travel is visually
inspected prior ·to takeoff.
III
m
om
co
o :I:
~o
1D::u
Ill,.
01:!1
Co>
I
I
Ul
-
<1>
"C
OtD
I
em
om
~n
FUEL EQUiPMENT
<1>
3
f{
-""
<1>
2
2
2
Engine driven fuel pump
Electrically driven aux fuel pump
Fuel quantity indicator
~
co
(XI
c..>
Fuel pressure indicator
I
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
::J:
l:l n
"-Ill
Ql):.
:!I
One may be inoperative provided
other side is operational and
amount of fuel on board can be
established to be adequate for
the intended flight.
12 12 1 2 1 21-
I liCE AND RAIN PROTl;CTION
Alternate static air
source
Pitot heater
'",
~
'"
)
1
~
1
~
1
~
r
1 11 1 -
3
Ul
-" =-
-CD
DI
_
-0
-·0
1
1 1 1 1
o "
en
'"....•
SYSTEM
0)
and/or
COMPONENT
I
en
<D
VFRDay
VFRNight
/FRDay
IFRNight
Remarks and/or Exceptions
cg>
3
;,
en
3
g-
I
Landing gear motor
1
1
1
1
Landing gear position lights
Landing gear warning horn
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
IJ]
m
c:: 0
om
LIGHTS
o :J:
:To
o'"
....
<0
co
Col
-
LANDING GEAR
"C
it
0
;::;~
III C
C _
='::1
Cockpit and instrument lights
Taxi Light (2)
-
,
-
-
-
,
-
-
'Lights must be operative
m lJ
en
»
Ql:!l
I
(fl
.." I
"3e.:'
"....
Landing lig~lt (1)
Strobe light
Position light
CD
NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTS
"C
<0
I
'"
II
2
3
•
'Per FAR 91
'Optional
2
3
o
III
c: m
om
::TO
~ :t
'"
0
....,:0
"'l>
"TJ
Altimeter
Airspeed indicator
Vertical speed
Magnetic compass
Attitude indicator
Turn and slip indicator
Directional gyro
Clock
Transponder
Navigation equipment
-I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
•
•
•
'Per FAR 91
'Per FAR 91
r
3"cn
-"
..g -
"0
III
..
........,r->,
-0
::I
"'=
....0:>'",
SYSTEM
and/or
COMPONENT
VFROay
VFRNight
/FROay
/FRNight
Remarks and/or Exceptions
II PNEUMATIC
Pressure system for
instrument air
Pressure gage
Vl
CD
"t:l
3
.,
....
ID
co
W
-II> 0
!::J
0-
1
:J (/)
I
I
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
II ENGINE INDICATING
INSTRUMENTS
til
m
CD
g-
cg>
3_. 0
Engine tachometer indicator
Exhaust gas temperature
indicator
I
2
2
2
.
. . .
2 -
- 'Optional
em
<:(")
o :r
:7()
~lJ
(/) J>
~2/
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section 1/
Limitations
NN
NN
N N
NN
NN
NN
NN
NN
(f)
IZ
w
~
o
:E
~
c:
o
ro
.~
I-
--0
Z
'5
c
(f)
~
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w
September, 19$~
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ro
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0.-
66
2-19
Section II
limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
2-20
September, 1983
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section"
Limitations
PLACARDS
On Left Cabin Door (ME-/ thru ME-282, ME-284 thru
ME-286J or On Left Cabin Sidewall (ME-283, ME-287
.
and after):
rr:
- - - OPERATION LIMITATIONS - - THIS AIRPLANE MUST BE OPERATED AS A NORMAL CATEGORY
AIRPLANE IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE OPERATING LIMITATION
SlATED IN THE FORM Of PLACARDS, MARKINGS AND MANUALS.
MAXIMUM WEIGHT IS 3900 las.
THIS AIRPLANE APPROVED FOR
VFR. IFR, DA Y AND NIGHT NON-ICING HIGHT WHEN EOUIPPED IN
ACCORDANCE WITH FAR 91 OR FAR 135.
NO ACROBATIC MANEUVERS INCLUDING SPINS APPROVED,
WARNING - TURN oFF STROBE LIGHTS WHEN TAXIING IN
VICINITY OF OTHER AIRCRAFT OR DURING fLIGHT THROUGH
CLOUD, FOG DR HAZE.
- - - - - - AIRSPEEDS - - - - - NEVER EXCEED - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 194 KNOTS
-
MAX. STRUCTURAL CRUISE - - - - - - - - - - - - - 154 KNOTS
MAX. MANEUVERING - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 132 KNOTS
MAX. FLAPS 20° - __________________ 120 KNOTS
MAX. FUll DOWN FLAPS
J5
c
-----------
110 KNOTS
MAX. lANDING GEAR EXTENSION - - - - - - - - - 1 4 0 KNOTS
MAX. lANDING GEAR RETRACTION - - - - - - - - IlJ KNOTS
ALTITUDE LOST IN ONE ENGINE ]NOP STAll - ____ 150 FEET
& 10° PITCH DOWN
Lower Sidewall Adjacent to Pilot:
WARNiNG
ALTERNATE STATIC AIR SOURCE
ON
ALTERNATE
SEE PERFORMANCE
SECTION OF P!LOTS
OPERATING HANDBOOK
FOR AIRSPEED & ALTIMETER
CALIBRATION ERROR
OFF
(i)
NORMAL ~
L!
October 1979
I
2-21
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations·
PLACARDS (Cont'd)
On Left Cabin Door:
____________________
~
__________
~t
. EMERGENCY GEAR
j)__E_X_T_EN_SI_O_N_H_A_N_D_l_E_
'
C7l
<
,
On Floorboard in Front of Pilot's Seat:
II~
~
EMERGENCY
GEAR EXTENSION
-ACCESS DOOR-
dl
~
On Inside of Emergency Gear Extension Access Door:
II
EMERGENCY LANDING GEAR EXTENSION
~
L Landing Gear Molar Circuit Breaker - OFF (Pull)
2. Gear Position Switch - DOWN
3. ·Moximum· Indicated Airspeed - 100 KNOTS
L.
4. Em"ergency Extension Valve - OPEN
2-22·
(Use Handle - Turn Counterclockwise)
~
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations
On Lower Left Sidewall Panel:
Iro
LEVE~
COMPARTMENT FLOOR I
LEVEL AIRCRAFT -
I BAGGAGE
On Left Side Panel:
IoEFROs0
~Ull ON I
I
CABIN AIR
PULL OFF
IeLINCR~
PI~~BIN H~~~J
On Aft Cabin Bulkhead:
HAT SHELF
L
NO HEAVY OBJECTS
January 1978
2-23
Section"
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
PLACARDS (ConI'd)
On Fuel Selector Panel:
+
+
ON
-
CROSS
CROSS
FEED
FEED
lEVEL FliGHT
ONLY
OFF
LEFT
ENGINE
RIGHT
ENGINE
50 GALS
USABLE
50 GALS
USABLE
. FUEL SELECTOR
L
2-24
+
+
January 1976
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations
On Pedestal:
OFF
CARB
HEAT
ON
r
en
l
o
II
S
E
H
A
l
F
MIC
+
0
P
E
PHONE
+
L
January 1978
L
NU u
COWL
FLAP
2-25
Section II
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
PLACARDS (Cont'd)
On Pedestal Between Front Seats:
I
f/wIN~
DOWN
,
IT
RT
ir-
)l
L
L
-
R
"---
~
RUDDER TAB
-
N
o
5
E
~
[T.]
~
- -
LUP -
--.J
ELEVATOR TAB
I
2-26
October 1979
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section II
Limitations
Adjacent to Each Seat:
~NSTRUCTION-SHOULDER STRA;l
1. OCCUPANTS SHORTER THAN
4 FT. 7 IN. DO NOT USE
SHOULDER STRAP.
-
I
2. PLACE SEAT BACK IN THE
UPRIGHT POSITION DURING
TAKEOFF AND LANDING.
L_
On Baggage Door Adjacent to Handle:
I"
I
PULL PIN
ROTATE
HANDLE
TO OPEN
L
January 1978
2-27
Section \I
Limitations
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
On Baggage Compartment Door:
IsAGGAGE COMPARTMENJl
LOAD IN ACCORDANCE
WITH WEIGHT AND BALANCE
INSTRUCTION
MAXIMUM STRUCTURAL
CAPACITY - 200 POUNDS
L
-.J
-
I
I
iI
. )
2-28
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION III
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
-
PAGE
Emergency Airspeeds (3900 Ibs) ...................................... 3-3
One-engine Operation ................................................... 3-3
Determining Inoperative Engine ........................................ 3-4
One-engine-inoperative Procedures ................................. 3-4
Engine Failure During Ground Roll ................................ 3-4
Engine Failure After Lift-off and in Flight. ....................... 3-5
Air Star!... .......................................................................... 3-6
Engine Fire (Ground) ........................................................ 3-8
Engine Fire in Flight .......................................................... 3-8
Emergency Descent ......................................................... 3-8
Maximum Glide Configuration ........................................... 3-8
Landing Emergencies ....................................................... 3-9
Gear-up Landing .... '" .................................................... 3-9
One-engine-inoperalive Landing ................................... 3-9
One-engine-inoperative Go·Around ............................ 3- to
Systems Emergencies .................................................... 3·10
Operation on Crossfeed .............................................. 3·10
Electrical Smoke or Fire .. '" ......................................... 3·11Complete Loss of Electrical Power .............................. 3-12
Illumination of Alternator-Out Light... ......................... 3-12A
Starter Engaged Warning Light Illuminated ............... 3-128
Unscheduled Electric Elevator Trim .......................... 3-128
Landing Gear Manual Extension ................................. 3-13
Landing Gear Retraction After
Practice Manual Extension ...................................... 3·13
Alternate Static Air Source .......................................... 3-14
Emergency Exit ..................................................... :..... 3-15
September, 1983
3-1
Section III
Emergency Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SUBJECT
Simulated One-Engine Inoperative
Unlatched Door in Flight
Spins . .
. ...... .
PAGE
3-15
3-15
3-16
-
3-2
April 1979
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
All airspeeds quoted in this section are indicated
airspeeds (lAS) and assume zero instrument error.
EMERGENCY AIRSPEEDS (3900 LeS)
I
One-Engine-Inoperative Best
Angle-ol-Climb (VX) .................................................. 85 kts
One-Engine-Inoperative Best .
Rate-ol-Climb (Vy) .................................................... 85 kts
Air Minimum Control Speed (VMCA) .................. ·.......... 65 kts
One-Engine-Inoperative
Enroute Climb ........................................................... 85 kts
Emergency Descent ................................................... 140 kts
One-Engine-Inoperative Landing:
Maneuvering to Final Approach ................................. 90 kts
Final Approach (Flaps Down) .................................... 85 kts
Intentional One-Engine-Inoperative
Speed (VSSE) ................................................ · .......... 71 kts
Maximum Glide Range ................................................. 95 kts I
Stal/ warning horn is inoperative when the Batlery and
Alternator Switches are turned off.
The following information is presented to enable the pilot to
form, in advance, a definite plan 01 action for coping with
the most probable emergency situations which could occur
in the operation of the airplane. Where practicable, the
emergencies requiring immediate corrective action are
treated in check list form for easy reference and
familiarization. Other situations, in which more time is
usually permitted to decide on and execute a plan of
action, are discussed at some length.
ONE-ENGINE OPERATION
Two major factors govern one engine operat"lons; airspeed
and directional· control. The airplane can be safely
maneuvered or trimmed for normal hands-off operation and
sustained in this configuration by the operative engine AS
LONG AS SUFFICIENT AIRSPEED IS MAINTAINED
September, 1983
'3-3
Section III
Emergency Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
DETERMINING INOPERATIVE ENGINE
The following checks will help determine which engine has
faifed:
1. DEAD FOOT - DEAD ENGINE. The rudder pressure
required to maintain directional control will be on the
side of the operative engine.
.
2.
THROTILE. Partially retard the throttle for the engine
that is believed to be inoperative; there should be no
change in control pressures or in the sound of the engine if the correct throttle has been selected. AT LOW
ALTITUDE AND AIRSPEED THIS CHECK MUST BE
ACCOMPLISHED WITH EXTREME CAUTION.
Do not attempt to determine the inoperative engine by means
of the tachometers or the manifold pressure gages. These
':instruments often indicate near normal readings.
ONE-ENGINE-INOPERATlVE PROCEDURES
ENGINE FAILURE DURING GROUND ROLL
1.
2.
3.
4.
Throttles - IDLE
Braking - MAXIMUM
Fuel Selectors - OFF
Battery, Alternator, and Magneto/Start Switches - OFF
NOTE
Braking effectiveness is improved if the brakes
are not locked.
3-4
January 1982
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER LIFT-OFF AND IN FLIGHT
An immediate landing is advisable regardless of take-off
weight. Continued flight can not be assured if take-off weight
exceeds the weight determined from the TAKE-OFF
WEIGHT graph. Higher take-off weights will result in a loss of
altitude while retracting the landing gear and feathering the
propeller. Continued flight requires immediate pilot response
to the following procedures:
1.
2..
3.
4.
5.
Landing Gear and Flaps - UP
Throttle (inoperative engine) - IDLE
Propeller (inoperative engine) - FEATHER
Power (operative engine) - AS REQUIRED
Airspeed - AT OR ABOVE THE 50-FT·TAKE-OFF
SPEED (80 KNOTS)
After positive control of the airplane is established: .
6.
Secure inoperative engine:
a.
Mixture Control - IDLE CUT-OFF
b.
Fuel Selector - OFF
c.
Aux Fuel Pump - OFF
d.
Magneto/Start Switch - OFF
e.
Alternator Switch - OFF
f.
Cowl Flap - CLOSE
7. Airspeed - ESTABLISH 85 KTS
8. Electrical Load - MONITOR (Maximum load of 100% on
remaining engine)
NOTE
The most important aspect of engine failure is
the necessity to maintain lateral and directional
control. If airspeed is below 65 knots, reduce
power on operative engine as required to
maintain control. Refer to the SAFETY
INFORMATION section for additional
information regarding pilot technique.
January 1982
3-5
Section III
Emergency Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
AIR START
CAUTION
The pilot should determine the reason for
engine failure before attempting an air start.
NOTE
Airspeed should be maintained at or above 100
KIAS to ensure the engine will windmill.
WITH UNFEA THERING ACCUMULA TORS:
-~-------~
Fuel Selector - ON
Throttle - SET approximately % travel
Aux Fuel Pump - ON
Magneto/Start Switch - BOTH
5. Propeller Control - MOVE FULL FORWARD UNTIL
ENGINE WINDMILLS, THEN BACK TO MIDRANGE.
USE STARTER MOMENTARILY IF AIRSPEED IS
BELOW 100 KTS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
If propeller does not unfeather or engine does not turn,
proceed to WITHOUT UNFEATHERING
ACCUMULATORS procedure.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
iy,
3-6
Mixture - FULL RICH'
If engine fails to run, clear engine by allowing it to
windmill with mixture in the FULL LEAN position. When
engine fires, advance mixture to FULL RICH.
When Engine Starts - ADJUST THROTTLE,
PROPELLER, AND MIXTURE CONTROLS
Aux Fuel Pump - OFF (when reliable power has been
regained)
Alternator Switch - ON
Oil Pressure and Oil Temperature - CHECK
Warm Up Engine (approximately 2000 rpm and 15 in.
HG)
Set power as required and trim.
C0WL FLltf';;---
o,dju,f
January 1982
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
WITHOUT UNFEA THERING ACCUMULA TORS:
I
CAUTION
Numerous air starts without unfeathering
accumulators can shorten engine-mount life.
1. Fuel Selector - ON
2. Throttle - SET approximately V4 travel
3. Aux Fuel Pump - ON
4. MagnetolStart Switch - BOTH
5. Mixture - FULL RICH
6. Propeller Control - MOVE FORWARD OF
FEATHERING DETENT TO MIDRANGE
7. MagnetolStart Switch - START and PUSH TO PRIME
(hold on START until windmilling begins and continue
to prime as required)
NOTE
If air start is unsuccessful, return propeller
control to the FEATHER position and secure
engine.
8.
9.
i o.
j 1.
12.
13,
When Engine Starts - ADJUST THROTTLE,
PROPELLER, AND MIXTURE CONTROLS
Aux Fuel Pump - OFF (when reliable power has been
regained)
Alteinatoi Switch - ON
Oil Pressure and Oil Temperature - CHECK
Warm Up Engine (approximately 2000 rpm and 15 in.'
Hg)
Set power as required and trim.
January 1982
3-7
I
Section III
Emergency Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
ENGINE FIRE (GROUND)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mixture Controls - IDLE CUT-OFF
Continue to crank affected engine
Fuel Selectors - OFF
Battery and Alternator Switches - OFF
Extinguish fire with extinguisher
ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT
Shut down the affected engine according to the following
procedure and land immediately. Follow the applicable
single-engine procedures in this section.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Fuel Selector - OFF
Mixture Control - IDLE CUT-OFF
Propeller - FEATHER
Aux Fuel Pump - OFF
Magneto/Start Switch - OFF
Alternator Switch - OFF
EMERGENCY DESCENT
1. Propellers - 2700 RPM
2. Throttles - IDLE
3. ,Jl.,irspeed - 140 KTS
4. Landing Gear- DOWN
MAXIMUM GLIDE CONFIGURATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3-8
Propellers - FEATHER
Wing Flaps - UP
Landing Gear - UP
Cowl Flaps - CLOSE
Airspeed - 95 KTS
January 1978
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
The glide ratio in this configuration is approximately 2 nautical miles of gliding distance for each 1000 feet of altitude
above the terrain.
LANDING EMERGENCIES
GEAR-UP LANDING
If possible, choose firm sad or foamed runway. When assured of reaching the landing site.'
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
S.
Cowl Flaps - CLOSE
Wing Flaps - FULL DOWN (DN)
Throttles - IDLE
Mixture Controls - IDLE CUT-OFF
Battery, Altemator, and MagnetolStart Switches - OFF
Fuel Selectors - OFF
Keep wirigs level during touchdown.
Get clear of the airplane as soon as possible after it
stops.
NOTE
The gear-up landing procedures are based on
the best available information and no actual tests
have been conducted.
ONE-ENGINE-INOPERATIVE LANDING
On final approach and when it is certain that the field can be
reached:
1.
2.
3.
Landing Gear - DOWN
Airspeed - S5 KTS
Power - AS REQUIRED
January 1978
3-9
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section 1/1
Emergency Procedures
When it is certain there is no possibility of go-around:
4. Wing Flaps - FULL DOWN (ON)
5. Execute normal landing.
ONE-ENGINE-INOPERATIVE GO-AROUND
WARNING
Level flight may not be possible for certain combinations 01 weight, 'temperature and altitude. In
any event, DO NOT attempt a one-engine inc
operative go-around after flaps have been fully
extended.
-
1. Power - MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
2. Landing Gear - UP
3, Wing Flaps - UP
4. Airspeed - MAINTAIN 85 KTS MINIMUM
SYSTEMS EMERGENCIES
OPERATION ON CROSSFEED
i
i
NOTE
The fuel crossfeed system is to be used during
emergency conditions in level flight only.
I
i
I
I
!
i,
j
3-10
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures.
Left Engine InoperatiVe:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Right Aux Fuel Pump - ON
Left Fuel Selector - OFF
Right Fuel Selector - CROSS FEED
Right Aux Fuel Pump - ON or OFF as required
Right Engine Inoperative:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Left Aux Fuel Pump - ON
Right Fuel Selector - OFF
Left Fuel Selector - CROSSFEED
Left Aux Fuel Pump - ON or OFF as required
ELECTRICAL SMOKE OR FIRE
Action to be taken must consider existing conditions and
equipment installed:
1. Battery and Alternator Switches - OFF
WARNING
Electrically driven instruments and stall warning
horn will become inoperative.
I
2. All Electrical Switches - OFF
3. Battery and Alternator Switches - ON
4. ES$ential Electrical Equipment - ON (Isolate defective
equipment)
NOTE
Ensure fire is out and will not be aggravated by
draft. Turn off CABIN HEAT switch and push in
the CABIN AIR control. To aid in smoke evacua:
lion, open pilot's storm window if required.
April 1979
3-11
Section III
Emergency Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
COMPLETE LOSS OF ELECTRICAL POWER
INDICA TlONS
1. Dimming of lights, with load meters showing 100% or
much greater than normal, or load meters showing 0%
accompanied by no ALTERNATOR-OUT Lights.
ACTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Both Alternator Swilches - OFF
8att@ry Switch - OFF
Both BUS-ISO Circuit Breakers - PULL
Remove all electrical loads.
Both Alternator Switches - ON.
Minimize all electrical loads. Select only that electrical
equipment which is essential for safe flight.
Extend landing gear with emergency system.
LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICAL; HAVE THE
COMPLETE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CHECKED
BEFORE THE NEXT FLIGHT.
CAUTION
Since the battery is off line when this procedure
is used, large changes in electrical load should
be minimized in order to reduce the possibility
of damage to electrical components.
3-12
March 1979
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
ILLUMINATION OF ALTERNATOR-OUT LIGHT
In th e e vent of the illumination of a single
AL TERNA TOR-OUT UNDERVOL TAGE light or a single
AL TERNA TOR-OUT OVER VOL TAGE light:
Check the respective loadmeter for load indication:
a.
No Load - Turn off affected alternator.
b.
Reduce load. to single alternator capability.
c.
Reset the affected alternator with the alternator
switch. Monitor overvoltage and undervoltage
lights and loadrneter for proper operation.
CAUTION
If proper operation is not restored, turn
alternator switch OFF.
In the event of the illumination of both AL TERNA TOR-OUT
UNDER VOL TAGE lights or both AL TERNATOR-OUT
OVER VOL TAGE lights:
Check loadmeters for load indication. If condition
indicates malfunction of both alternator circuits:
a.
Both ALT Switches - OFF
b.
Minimize 'electrical load since only battery po';ver
will be available.
c.
Reset the alternators with the alternator sWitches.,
Monitor overvoltage and undervoltage lights and
ioadmeters for proper operation.
CAUTION
If proper operation is not restored, turn
alternator switches OFF.
April 1979
3-12A
6EECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
STARTER ENGAGED WARNING LIGHT ILLUMINA.TED
(If installed)
After engine start, should the starter relay remain engaged,
the starter will remain energized and the starter engaged
warning light will remain illuminated. Continuing to supply
power to the starter will result in eventual loss of electrical
power.
Ilfuminated On the Ground:
1.
2.
Battery and Alternator Switches - OFF
Do not take off
-
Illuminated In Flight After Air Start:
1. Perform action for COMPLETE LOSS OF
ELECTRICAL POWER (see this section)
2. Land as soon as practical
UNSCHEDULED ELECTRIC ELEVATOR TRIM
1.
2.
3.
4.
Airplane Attitude - MAINTAIN using elevator control.
Elevator Trim Thumb Switch (on control wheel)
DEPRESS AND MOVE IN DIRECTION OPPOSITE
UNSCHEDULED PITCH TRIM.
Elevator Trim ON-OFF Switch (on instrument panel) OFF
Manual Elevator Trim Control Wheel - RETRIM AS
DESIRED
NOTE
Do not attempt to operate the electric trim system until the cause of the malfunction has been
determined and corrected.
3-126
August, 1980
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
LANDING GEAR MANUAL EXTENSION
Reduce airspeed before attempting manual extension of the
landing gear.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Landing GEAR MOTOR Circuit Breaker - OFF (pull out)
Landing Gear .Switch Handle - DOWN position
Airspeed: 100' KTS MAXIMUM
Emergency Extension Valve - OPEN (Use Emergency
Extension Wrench - Turn Counterclockwise)
5. If electrical system is operative, check landing gear
position lights and warning horn. (Check Landing GEAR
CONTROL circuit breaker engaged.)
WARNING
After emergency landing gear extension, do not
move any landing gear controls or reset any
switches or circuit breakers until airplane is on
jacks, as failure may have been in the gear-up
circuit and gear might retract with the airplane on
the ground.
LANDING GEAR RETRACTION AFTER PRACTICE MANUAL EXTENSION
After practice manual extension of the landing gear, the gear
can only be retracted electrically, as fOllows:
CAUTION
Do not operate landing gear electrically, or turn
on landing light or taxi light, if battery is off the
line.
January 1978
3-13
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergency Procedures
1.
2.
3.
Emergency Extension Valve - CLOSE (Use Emergency
Extension Wrench - Turn Clockwise)
Landing GEAR MOTOR Circuit Breaker - ON (push in)
Landing Gear Switch Handle - UP
ALTERNATE STATIC AIR SOURCE
THE ALTERNATE STATIC AIR SOURCE SHOULD BE
USED FOR CONDITIONS WHERE THE NORMAL STATIC
SOURCE HAS BEEN OBSTRUCTED. When the airplane
has been exposed to moisture and/or icing conditions (especially on the ground), the possibility of obstructed static ports
should be considered. Partial obstruction will result in the
rate-ot-climb indication being sluggish during a climb or descent. Verification of suspected obstruction is possible by
switching to the alternate system and noting a sudden sustained change in rate of climb. This may be accompanied by
abnormal indicated airspeed and altitude changes beyond
normal calibration differences.
Whenever any obstruction exists in the Normal Static Air
System, or the Alternate Static Air System is desired for use:
1.
Pilot's Alternate Static Air Source - Switch to ON ALTERNATE (lower sidewall adjacent to pilot)
2. For Airspeed Calibration and Altimeter Correction, refer
to PERFORMANCE section.
NOTE
The alternate static air valve should remain in the
OFF NORMAL position when system is not
needed.
3-14
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section 11/
Emergency Procedures
EMERGENCY EXIT
The forward cabin doors andlor the aft utility door may be
used for egress if required.
SIMULATED ONE-ENGINE INOPERATIVE
ZERO THRUST (Simulated Feather)
Use the following power setting (only on one engine at a
time) to establish zero thrust. Use of this power setting avoids
the difficulties of restarting an engine and preserves the
availabiliy of power to counter potential hazards.
1.
2.
Throttle" Lever - SET 8.0 in. Hg MANIFOLD PRESSURE
Propeller Lever - RETARD"~ FEATHER DETENT
/Jo,
IN
NOTE
This setting will approximate Zero Thmst using
recommended one-engine-inoperat'lve climb
speeds.
UNLATCHED DOOR IN FLIGHT
I
If the cabin door is not secured it may come unlatched in
flight. This usually occurs during" or just "after takeoff. The
door will trail in a position approximately 3 inches open. A
buffet may be encountered with the door open in flight. Return to the field in a normal manner. If practicable, during the
landing flare-out have a passenger hold the door to prevent it
from swinging open.
April 1979
3-15
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section III
Emergericy Procedures
SPINS
. If a Spin is Entered Inadvertently:
Immediately move the control column full forward, apply full
rudder opposite to the direction of the spin and reduce power
on both engines to idle. These three actions should be done
as nearly simultaneously as possible; then continue to hold
this control position until rotation stops and then neutralize all
controls and execute a smooth pullout. Ailerons should be
neutral during recovery.
-
NOTE
Federal Aviation Administration Regulations do
not require spin demonstration of airplanes of
this class; therefore, no spin tests have been
conducted. The recovery technique is based on
the best available information.
3-16
April 1979
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION IV
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
-
PAGE
Speeds for safe Operation (3900 Ibs) ............................... 4·3
Preflight Inspection ........................................................... 4·3
Before Starting .................................... ,............................. 4·7
External Power ................................................................. 4·7
Starting Engines Using Auxiliary
Power Unit ................................................................. 4·8
Starting ............................................................................. 4·9
After Starting. and Taxi ................................................. 4·1 OA
Before Takeoff .............................................................. 4·10B
Takeoff ............................................................................ 4·11
Climb .............................................................................. 4·12
Cruise ............................................................................. 4·12
Leaning Mixture Using EGT Indicator ............................. 4·13
Descent ......................................... " ............................... 4·13
Before Landing ............................................................... 4·13
Balked Landing ............................................................... 4·14
After Landing ................................................................... 4~ 14
Shutdown ........................................................................ 4·15
Environmental Systems .................................................. 4·15
Heating and Ventilation ............................................... 4-15
Electric Elevator Trim .............................. ' ....................... 4-15
Cold Weather Operation ................................................. 4·16
Preflight Inspection ...................................................... 4-16
Engines .......... :............................................................ 4·16
Taxiing ........................................................................ 4·17
Practice Demonstration of VMCA ..................................... 4-18
Noise Characteristics ...................................................... 4-19·
Septe!1l ber. 1983
4·1
Section IV
Normal Procedures
. BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
4-2
January 1978
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
All airspeeds quoted in this section are indicated airspeeds
(lAS) and assume zero instrument error.
I
SPEEDS FOR SAFE OPERATION (39DO LBS)
Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Component... ....... 25 kts
Ta~i~~~il
................. : ...................................................... 71 kts
. 50-It Speed ................................................................ 80 kts
Two-Engine Best Angle-ol-Climb (VX) .......................... 71 kts
Two-Engine Best Rate-ol-Climb (Vy) ........................... 85 kts
Cruise Climb ............................................................... 100 kts
Turbulent Air Penetration ....................................... : .... 132 kts
Landing Approach:
Flaps UP ...........................................:,....·.................... 87 kts
Flaps DOWN (ON) ..................................................... 76 kts
Balked Landing Climb ................................................... 71 kts
Intentional One-Engine-Inoperative
Speed (V SSE) ........................................................... 71 kts.
Air Minimum Control Speed (VMCA) .. ·.......................... 65 kts
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
o
@
/
®
1
I
®
September, 1983
,.
®
(If
.,
76·60'1.1
4-3
I
I
I;
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
1. COCKPIT
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Control Lock - REMOVE AND STOW
Parking Brake - SET
All Switches - OFF
Trim Tabs - SET TO ZERO
Flush-type Fuel Drain/Emergency Gear Extension
Tool - OBTAIN (refer to SYSTEMS section for information pertaining to flush-type fuel drains). This
tool can also beiused for opening the oil and fuel
filler caps.
-
2.>Ft,EFT WING TRAILING EDGE
·:L",:.
·a~~"'(f'"lap - CHECK GENERAL CONDITION
b. Fuel Vent - CHECK, UNOBSTRUCTED
c. Aileron - CHECK GENERAL CONDITION AND
FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT
d.· Wing Tip - CHECK
e.
Position and Strobe Light - CHECK
3.
LEFT WING LEADING EDGE
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
4-4
Pitot - REMOVE COVER, EXAMINE FOR OBSTRUCTIONS
Landing and Taxi Light - CHECK
Stall Warning Vane· - CHECK FREEDOM OF
MOVEMENT
Fuel Tank - CHECK QUANTITY; Cap - SECURE
nedown and Chocks - REMOVE
Flush-type Fuel Sump - DRAIN (use fuel-drain
tool)
Fuel Selector - DRAIN
Engine Cowling· - CHECK CONDITION AND
SECURITY
January 1978
(
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section IV
Normal Procedures
Air Intakes - CLEAR
!Propeller - EXAMINE FOR NICKS, SECURITY"
_~ND OIL LEAKS
'.
k.
Engine Oil - CHECK QUANTITY; Cap and Door SECURE
I. i Cowl Flap - CHECK
m. . Wheel Well, Door, Tire, Brake Line, and Strut '<;:HECK
n.
Flush-type Crossfeed Fuel Drains (2) - DRAIN (use
fuel"drain tool)
i.
j.
4.' NOSE SECTION
a.
b.
c.
d.
Nose Cowling and Nose Cone - CHECK CONDITION AND SECURITY
Heater Air Intake - CLEAR
Heater Exhaust and Vents - CLEAR
Wheel Well, Doors, Tire, a'nd Strut - CHECK
5. - RIGHT WING LEADING EDGE
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
I.
Flush-type Crossfeed Fuel Drains (2) - DRAIN (use
fuel-drain tool)
Wheel Well, Door, Tire, Brake Line, and Strut CHECK
Engine Cowling - CHECK CONDITION AND
SECURITY
Air Intakes'- OLEAR
Propeller - EXAMINE FOR NICKS, SECURITY,
AND OIL LEAKS
Engine Oil - CHECK QUANTITY; Cap and Door SECURE
January 1978
4-5
Section IV
Normal Procedures
g.
h.
i..
j.
k.
I.
m.
n.
o.
6.
b.
c.
Aileron - CHECK CONDITION AND FREEDOM
OF MOVEMENT
Fuel Vent - CHECK, UNOBSTRUCTED
Flap - CHECK GENERAL CONDITION
Battery Vents - CHECK, UNOBSTRUCTED
Static Port - CLEAR OF OBSTRUCTIONS
Emergency Locator Transmitter - ARMED
EMPENNAGE
a.·
b.
c.
d.
4-6
-
FUSELAGE RIGHT SIDE
a.
b.
c.
8.
Cowl Flap - CHECK
Fuel Selector - DRAIN
Flush-type Fuel Sump - DRAIN
Tiedown and Chocks - REMOVE
Fuel Tank - CHECK QUANTITY; Cap - SECURE
Stall Warning Vane - CHECK FREEDOM OF
MOVEMENT
Taxi Light - CHECK
Wing Tip - CHECK
Position and Strobe Light - CHECK
Fi"fiHT WING TRAILING EDGE
a.
7.
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Control Suriaces and Trim Tabs - CHECK
Tail Cone and Position Light - CHECK
Tiedown - REMOVE
Cabin Air Inlet - CHECK
January 1978
Section IV
BEECHCRAn
Duchess 76
9
Nonnal Procedure.
FUSELAGE LEFT SIDE
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Static Port - CLEAR OF ,"OBSTRUCTIONS
,
Cabin Air Outlet - CHECK
A 1 Antenn'ls - CHECK
Load Distnbution - CHECK AND SECURE
Aft Utility Door - CHECK SECURE
NOTE
Check operation of lights,if night flight is anticipated.
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
6.
7.
6.
9
10
,"
14.
Fue; Drain/Emergency Extension Too! - STOW
Seals - POSITION AND LOCK; Seat BaCKS - UPRIGHT
'3eal Belts and Shoulder Harnesses - FASTEN
Parking Brake - SET
All I;'vionics - OFF
CtrcuH Breakers - IN
Landing Gear Handle - DOWN
Carburetor Heat - OFF (up position)
Cowl Flap Controls - OPEN (down position)
~ue! Seiectors - CHECK OPERATION, THEN ON
Light S\NHches - OFF
GaHery and Aiiernato, Switches - ON
I-uei Quantity indicators - CHECK QUANTITY (See
LlM!T p,TIONS fOt take-off fuel}
Landing Gear Position Lights - CHECK
EXTERNAL POWER
The lallowing precautions shall be observed while using external power:
January 1978
4-7
Section IV
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Normal Procedures
CAUTION
I
Exercise caution when connecting the external
.,.
power cable to prevent shorting the battery to
the air1rame or arcing the clamps of the cable
together.
I
1.
Make certain Ihe battery switch is ON and all aVionics.
and electrical switches are OFF. and a.ballery is in the
system before connecting an external power unit. ThiS
protects the voltage regulators and associated
electrical equipment from voltage transients (power
flucluaiions) .
2.
The airplane has a negative ground system. Be sure to
connect the positive lead of the auxiliary power Unit to
the poSitive terminal of the airptane's external power
receptacle and the negative lead of the auxiliary power
unit 10 Ihe negative terminal of the external power
receptacle.
3.
to prevent arcing. make certain no power IS being
supplied when the connection is made
STARTING ENGINES USING AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
I
1.
2.
3.
4.
4-8
Battery Switch - ON
Alternators. Electrical and Avionics Equipment· OFF
Auxiliary Power Unit - CONNECT
Auxiliary Power Unit - SET OUTPUT 13.5 to 14.25
volts (If 28-voll system - SET OUTPUT 27 0 to 285
volts)
April 1979
-
Section IV
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Normal Procedures
5. Auxiliary Power Unit - ON
6. Left Engine - START (use normal start procedures)
7. Auxiliary Power Unit - OFF (after engine has been
started)
8. Auxiliary Power Unit - DISCONNECT (before starting
right engine)
9. Alternator Switches - ON
STARTING
1. Battery Switch - ON; Both ALTERNATOR-OUT
UNDERVOLTAGE Lights - ILLUMINATED
2. Mixture - FULL RICH
3. Propeller - HIGH RPM (Low Pitch)
4. Throttle - FAST IDLE (114 Travel)
5. Aux Fuel Pump - ON
6. Magneto/Start Switch - Engage starter - PUSH TO
PRIME as engine is cranking - Release to BOTH
position when engine starts.
WARNING
Do not pump throttles during starting
procedures.
Hot Start (Engine Hot)
a.
b.
c.
d.
Mixture - FULL RICH
Throttle - FAST IDLE (1/4 Travel)
Fuel Boost Pump - OFF
Starter - ENGAGE (Do Not Prime)
Flooded Engine.'
a.
b.
Mixture' IDLE CUT-OFF
Throttle. - FAST IDLE (1/4 Travel)
September, 1983
4-9
Section IV
Normal Procedures
c.
d.
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Starter - ENGAGE (After 2 to 3 seconds prime
briefly, intermittently)
Mixture - ADVANCE TO FULL RICH when engine
starts.
CAUTION
Maximum starter engage duty cycle is 30
seconds ON, followed by a minimum of two
minutes OFF.
7.
8.
9.
r
10.
1
.
12.
13.
I
1.4.
15.
I
16.
4-10
Engine Warm-up - 1000 to 1200 RPM
Oil Pressure - ABOVE RED RADIAL WITHIN 30
SECONDS
External Power (if used).- DISCONNECT
Alternator Switch - ON; CHECK FOR CHARGING
Starter Engaged Warning Light (il installed) - CHECK:
should be illuminated during start and extinguished
after start.
Using same procedure, start other engine.
Left Alternator Switch and Battery Switch . OFF.
Check lor Left ALTERNATOR-OUT UNDERVOLTAGE
Light illuminated, and an indication of less than 75%
(14-volt system) or 40% (28-volt system) on the right
loadmeter.
'
Left ~lternator Switch and Battery Switch - ON.
Right ,lI.!!emalor Switch and Battery Switch -. OFF.
Check for Right ALTERNATOR-OUT UNDERVOLTAGE Light illuminated, and an indication 01 less
than 75% (14-volt system) or 40% (28-volt system) on
the left load meter.
Right Alternator Switch and Battery Switch - ON.
August, 1980
BEECHCRAFT
.,
Section IV
Normal Procedures
Duchess 76
CAUTION
If the starter engaged warning light remains
illuminated after starting, or the loadmeters
and/or ALTERNATOR-OUT UNDERVOLTAGE
lights do not indicate/illuminate properly, an
electrical malfunction is indicated. The battery
switch and both alternator switches should be
placed in the OFF position. Do not take off.
If the starter engaged warning light is not
installed or is inoperative, and the ·Ioadmeters
and/or ALTERNATOR-OUT UNDERVOLTAGE
lights do not indicate/illuminate properly, an
electrical malfunction is indicated, The battery
switch and both alternator sW\~Ch~~ should be
placed In the OFF position. Db nor take off.
AFTER STARTING, AND TAXI
CAUTION
Never taxi with a flat tire or flat shock strut.
During taxi operations, particular attention
should be given to propeller tip clearance.
Extreme !?aution is required when operating ·on
unimproved or irregular surfaces or when high
winds exist.
1. Avionics - ON, AS REQUIRED
2. Lights - AS REQUIRED
August, 1980
4-10A
, .
Section IV
Normal Procedures
. BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
NOTE
Turn strobe lights off when taxiing in the vicinity
: of other aircraft or when flying in fog or clouds.
Standard position lights are to be used for all
night operations ..
3. Annunciator Warning Lights - PRESS-TO-TEST
4.. Aux Fuel Pumps - OFF, THEN ON (check fuel pressure
. • indicators· to verify operation of engine-driven pumps)
5. All Engine Instruments - CHECK
6. Brakes - RELEASE AND CHECK
CAUTION
Detuning the counterweight system of the
engine can occur by rapid throttle operation,
high rpm (low pitch) and low manifold pressure,
or propeller feathering. (See latest revision of
Lycoming Service Bulletin No. 245.)
BEFORE TAKEOFF
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses - CHECK
Parking Brake. - SET
Radios - CHECK
Flight Instruments - CHECK AND SET
Engine Instruments· CHECK
Starter Engaged Warning Light (if installed) - CH ECK
(should not be .Iit). If light is not installed or is
inoperative, monitor loadmeters for proper indications.
7.' . Fuel Selectors - ON
8. Flighl Controls - CHECK PROPER DIRECTION AND
FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT
August, 1980
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
9.
10.
11:
12.
13.
14.
Section IV
Normal Procedures
Wing Flaps - CHECK OPERATION
Electric Trim - CHECK OPERATION
Trim - SET TO TAKE-OFF RANGE
Throttles - 2200 RPM
Propellers - EXERCISE (100-200 rpm drop)
Magnetos - CHECK (175 rpm maximum drop, within
50 rpm of each 'Other)
NOTE
Avoid operation on one magneto for more than
5 to 10 seconds. If rpm drop is excessive, lean
to smooth operation and recheck.
15. Carburetor Heat - CHECK and set OFF (cold) for
takeoff
16. Throttles - 1500 RPM
17. Propellers - FEATHER CHECK (Do not exceed 500
rpm drop.) Repeat 3 or 4 times in cold weather.
18. Gyro Pressure and Loadmeters - CHECK
19. Throttles - IDLE
20. Aux Fuel Pumps - CHECK ON
21. Doors and Window - SECURE
22. Parking Brake - RELEASE
23. Engine Instruments - CHECK
TAKEOFF
Take-off Power
1.
2.
3.
Full Throttle, 2700 rpm
Power - SET TAKE-OFF POWER (before brake
release)
Mixtures - FULL RICH or lean to smooth operation as
required by field elevation
Airspeed - ACCELERATE TO AND·.:- MAINTAIN
TAKE-OFF SPEED
September, 1983
4-11
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section IV
Normal Procedures
4.
Landing Gear - RETRACT when airplane is positively
airborne
NOTE
If red in-transit light remains illuminated after.30
seconds. place landing gear switch handle in
the down position. make a normal landing and
have the landing gear system checked.
5. Airspeed - ESTABLISH DESIRED CLIMB SPEED when
clear of obstacles
CLIMB
Maximum Climb ................................ Full Throttle. 2700 RPM
ECruise Climb ..................................... Full Throttle. 2600 RPM
1. Engine Temperatures - MONITOR
2. Power - SET
3. Mixtures - LEAN AS REQUIRED
4. Cowl Flaps - AS REQUIRED
5. Aux Fuel Pumps - OFF
CRUISE
Maximum Cruise Power
Recommended Cruise Power.
Recommended Cruise Power.
Economy Cruise Power
. ..
. . . . . 24.0 in. Hg or
full throttle. at 2700 rpm
. . . . . 24.0 in. Hg or
full throttle. at 2500 rpm
. . . . . 24.0 in. Hg or
full throttle. at 2300 rpm
. . . . 20.0 in. Hg or
full throttle. at 2300 rpm
1. Power - SET AS DESIRED (Use Tables in PERFORMANCE section)
2. Mixtures - LEAN AS REQUIRED
3. Cowl Flaps - AS REQUIRED
4-12
September, 1983
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section IV
Normal Procedures
; EANING MIXTURE USING THE EXHAUST GAS
';'EMPERATURE INDICATOR (EGT)
For level flight at 75% power or less, the EGT unit should be
used in the following manner:
1. Lean the mixture and note the point on the indicator at
which the temperature peaks and starts to fall.
a.
CRUISE (LEAN) MIXTURE - Enrich mixture (push
mixture control forward) until EGT indicator shows
a drop of 25°F to 50°F on rich side of peak.
b,
BEST POWER MIXTURE - Enrich mixture (push
mixture control forward) until EGT indicator shows
a drop of 75°F to 100°F on rich side of peak.
CAUTION
Do not continue to lean mixture beyond the
pOint necessary to establish peak temperature.
Continuous 'operation is recommended at 25°F
or below peak EGT only on rich side of peak.
2.
Changes in altitude and power setting require EGT to
be rechecked and mixture reset.
3.
A mixture resulting in an EGT 25°F on the rich side of
peak should also result in luel flow and TAS values
approximately equal to those presented in the Cruise
Power Settings tables in the PERFORMANCE Section.
If not, the values derived from the Range, Endurance,
and Cruise Speeds charts must be revised accordingly.
In very cold weather, EGT's 25°F rich of peak may not
be obtainable,
.
September, 1983
I
4-13
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
DESCENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Altimeter - SET
Cowl Flaps - CLOSE
Windshield Defroster - AS REQUIRED
Carburetor Heat - FULL ON or FULL OFF, AS
REQUIRED
Power - AS REQUIRED (avoid prolonged idle settings
and low cylinder head temperatures)
Mixtures - ENRICH AS REQUIRED
BEFORE LANDING
1. Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses - FASTENED.
SEAT BACKS UPRIGHT
2. Fuel Selectors - CHECK ON
3. Aux Fuel Pumps - ON
4. Mixture Controls - FULL RICH (or as required by field
elevation)
5. Carburetor Heat - FULL ON or FULL OFF AS
REQUIRED
NOTE
In the event of a go-around, Carburetor Heat
shall be in the full OFF (cold) position after full
throttle application.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
4-14
Cowl Flaps - AS REQUIRED
Landing Gear - DOWN (140 KTS Maximum)
Landing and Taxi Lights.- AS REQUIRED
Wing Flaps - FULL DOWN (DN) (110 KTS Maximum)
Airspeed - ESTABLISH LANDING APPROACH SPEED
Propellers - HIGH RPM
September, 1983
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
BALKED LANDING
1.
2.
3.
4.
Propellers - HIGH RPM
Throttles - FULL FORWARD
Airspeed - 71 KTS
Wing Flaps - UP
5. Landing Gear - UP
6. Cowl Flaps - AS REQUIRED
AFTER LANDING
1.. Landing and Taxi Lights - AS REQUIRED ..r
2. Wing Flaps - UP , C."'"' I r/~f's
O?'"
3. Trim Tabs _ SET TO TAKE-OFF RANGE _£/et/&for -D°''''
4. Cowl Flaps - OPEN
SHUTDOWN
1 . Parking Brake - SET
Aux Fuel Pumps - OFF
Electrical and Avionics Equipment - OFF'
Propellers - HIGH RPM
Throttles - 1000 RPM
Mixtures - IDLE CUT-OFF
Magneto/Start Switches - OFF, after engines stop
Battery and Alternaior Switches - OFF
Controls - LOCKED
10: Install wheel chocks and release brakes if the airplane is
to be left unattended.
.
. 2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
fN()j£
- Tt2! itl jVZZS E
I
I.
.
[){)aJ)71
TorPP;5tJ.£.A!1 ~()D[)E~
.~ sePtem£'x~iiPl~)
A-MntJ/ 'Co~J.-
01}/11 ffGE
.
4-14A
Section IV
.Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALL Y LEFT BLANK
4-14B
September, 1983
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section IV
Normal Procedures
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
HEATING AND VENTILATION
Refer to the SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION section for operation
of heating and ventilation controls.
ELECTRIC ELEVATOR TRIM
1. On/Off SWitch - ON
2. Control Wheel Trim Switch - Depress and move forward
for nose down, aft for nose up, and when released, the
switch returns to the center (OFF) position.
-
Procedure for UNSCHEDULED ELECTRIC ELEVATORI
TRIM is given in EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Section.
September, 1983
4-15
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
COLD WEATHER OPERATION
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
All accumulations of ice, snow and frost must be removed
from the wings, tail, control surfaces and hinges, propellers,
windshield, fuel cell filler caps, crankcase vents, and fuel
vents. If such accumulations are not removed completely, the
airplane shall not be flown. The deposits will not blow off in
flight. While an adverse weight factor is clearly involved in the
case of heavy deposits, it is less obvious that even slight
accumulations will disturb or completely destroy the designed aerodynamic properties of the airfoils.
The normal preflight procedures should then be completed,
with particular attention given to check of flight controls for
complete freedom of movement.
ENGINES
Use engine oil in accordance with Consumable Materials in
the HANDLING, SERVICING AND MAINTENANCE section.
WARNING
I
Ascertain that magneto/start switches and
battery master switch are OFF before moving
propeller by hand.
Alviays pull the propeller through by hand, opposite the direction of rotation, several times to clear the engine and "limber
up" the cold, heavy oil before using the starter. This will also
lessen the load on the battery if external power is not used.
Under very cold conditions, it may be necessary to preheat
the engines· prior to a start. Particular attention should be
given to the oil cooler, engine sump and propeller hub to
4-16
April 1979
(
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
ensure proper preheat. A start with congealed oil in the
system may produce an indication of normal pressure immediately after the start, but then the oil pressure may decrease when residual oil in the engine is pumped back with
the congealed oil in the sump. If an engine heater capable of
heating both the engine sump and cooler is not available, the
oil should be drained while the engine is hot and stored in a
warm area until the next flight.
If there is no oil pressure within the first 30 seconds of
running, or if oil pressure drops after a few minutes of ground
operation, shut down and check for broken oil lines, oil cooler
leaks or the possibility of congealed oil.
NOTE
It is advisable to use external power for starting
in cold weather.
During warm-up, monitor engine temperatures closely, since
it is quite possible to exceed the cylinder head temperature
limit in trying to bring up the oil temperature. Exercise the
propellers several times to remove cold oil from the pitch
change mechanism. The propellers Should also be cycled
occasionally in 'flight.
During letdown and landing, give special attention to engine
temperatures, since the engines will have a tendency toward
overcooling.
TAXIING
Avoid taxiing through water, slush, or muddy surfaces if
possible. In cold weather, water, slush, or mud, when
splashed onto landing gear mechanisms or control surface
hinges may freeze, preventing free movement and resulting
in structural damage.
April 1979
4-17
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
PRACTICE DEMONSTRATION OF YMCA
YMCA demonstration may be required for mUlti-engine pilot
certification. The following procedure shall be used at a safe
altitude of at least 5000 feet above the ground in clear air
only.
WARNING
INFLJGHT ENGINE CUTS BELOW VSSE
SPEED OF 71 KTS ARE PROHIBITED.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Landing Gear - UP
Wing Flaps - UP
Airspeed - ABOVE 71 KTS (VSSE)
Propeller Levers - HIGH RPM·
Throttle (simulated inoperative engine) - IDLE
Throttle (other engine) - FULL FORWARD
Airspeed - REDUCE approximately 1 knot per second
until either YMCA or stall warning is obtained.
CAUTION
Use rudder to maintain directional control
(heading) and ailerons to maintain 50 bank
towards the operative engine (lateral attitude). At
the first sign of either YMCA or stall warning
(which may be evidenced by: inability to maintain
heading or lateral attitude, aerodynamic stall
buffet, or stall warning horn sound) immediately
initiate recovery: reduce power to idle on the
operative engine and immediately lower the
nose to regain VSSE.
4-18
April 1979
-
Section IV
Normal Procedures
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
NOISE CHARACTERISTICS
Approach to and departure from an airport should be made
so as· to avoid prolonged flight at low altitude near noisesensitive areas. Avoidance of· noise-sensitive areas, if
practical, is preferable to overflight at relatively low altitudes.
For VFR operations over outdoor assemblies of persons,
recreational and park areas, and other noise-sensitive
areas, pilots should make every effort to fly not less than
2000 feet above the surface, weather permitting, even
though flight at a lower· level may be consistent with the
provisions of government r.egulations.
NOTE
The preceding recommended procedures do
not apply where they would conflict with Air
Traffic Control clearances or instructions, or
where, in the pilot's judgement, an altitude of
less than 2000 feet is necessary to adequately
exercise his duty to see and avoid other
airplanes.
Flyover noise level established in compliance with FAR 36
is:
78.7 dB(A)
No determination has been made by the Federal Aviation
Administration that the noise level of this airplane is or
should be acceptable or unacceptable for operation at, into,
or out of any airport.
October 1979
4·19
-
i
-I
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION V
PERFORMANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
PAGE
Introduction to Performance and
Flight Planning ............................................................... 5-3
Conditions ..................................................... 5-3 - 5-13
Comments Pertinent to the Use of
Performance Graphs ................................................... 5-14
Airspeed Calibration - Normal System .......................... 5-16
Altimeter Correction - Normal System .......................... 5-17
Airspeed Calibration - Alternate System .... ' .................. 5-18
Altimeter Correction - Alternate System ........................ 5-19
Fahrenheit to Celsius Temperature Conversion .............. 5-20
ISA Conversion ............................................................... 5-21
Manifold Pressure vs RPM .............................................. 5-22
Take-OffWeight.. ............................................................ 5-23
Stall Speeds - Power Idle .............................................. 5-24
Wind Components .......................................................... 5-25
Take-Off Distance ........................................................... 5-26
Take-Off Distarice - Grass Surface ............................... 5-27
Accelerate-Stop Distance ............................................... 5-28
Accelerate-Go Distance .................................................. 5-29
Climb - Two Engine ...................................................... 5-30
Take~Off Climb Gradient, One
Engine Inoperative ...................................................... 5-31
Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb ................................. :5-32
Climb - One Engine Inoperative .................................... 5-33
Service Ceiling - One Engine Inoperative ..................... 5-34
January 1978
5-1
I
Section V
Performance
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SUBJECT
PAGE
Cruise Speeds ................................................................ 5-35
Cruise Power Settings .......................................... 5-36 - 5-40
Maximum Cruise Power .............................................. 5-36
Recommended Cruise Power ..................................... 5-37
Recommended Cruise Power ..................................... 5-38
Recommended Cruise Power ..................................... 5-39
Economy Cruise Power .............................................. 5-40
Range Profile - 100 Gallons ........................................ 5-40B
Endurance Profile - 100 Gallons .................................... 5-41
Holding Time ................................................................... 5-42
Time. Fuel. and Distance to Descend ............................. 5-43
Climb - Balked Landing ................................................. 5-44
Landing Distance - Flaps Down (ON) ............................ 5-45
Landing Distance - Flaps Up ......................................... 5-46
Landing Distance - Grass Suriace Flaps Down (ON) ......................................................... 5-47
5-2
January 1982
i.
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
STALL WARNING
The stall warning system consists of a sensing vane installed ·on the leading edge of each wing, a circuit
. breaker located on the right subpanel placarded STALL &
GEAR WARN, and a stall warning horn in the overhead
speaker console. The stall warning horn will sound a warning signal while there is time for the pilot to correct the
attitude. The horn is triggered by the sensi ng vane on the
left wing anytime the flaps are above approximately 16'.
When the flaps are extended beyond approximately 16', the
vane on the right wing will activate the warning horn.
NOTE
I
With the BATT and ALT switches in the OFF
pOSition, the stall warning horn is inoperative.
April 1979
7-41
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
INTRODUCTION TO PERFORMANCE
AND FLIGHT PLANNING
All airspeeds quoted in this section are indicated airspeeds
(lAS) except as noted and assume zero instrument error.
The graphs and tables in this section present performance
information for takeoff, climb, landing and flight planning at
various parameters of weight, power, altitude, and temperature. FAA approved performance' information is included in
this section. Examples are presented on all performance
graphs. In addition, the calculations for flight time, block
speed, and fuel required are presented using the conditions
listed.
CONDITIONS
At Denver:
Outside Air Temperature .............................. 15°C (59°F)
Field Elevation ...................................................... 5330 It
Altimeter Setting ...........................................29.60 in. Hg
Wind .......................................................... 270° at 10 kts
Runway 26L length ............................................ 10,01 0 It
Route of Trip
DEN-VB1-AMA
For VFR Cruise at 11,500 feet
January 1978
5-3
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
STATIC SYSTEM
Static air is taken from a flush static port located on each side
of the aft fuselage. The static air is routed to the rate-of-climb
indicator, altimeter, and airspeed indicator.
The alternate static air source is designed to provide a
source of static pressure to the instruments from inside the
fuselage should the outside static air ports become blocked.
An abnormal reading of the instruments supplied with static
air could indicate a restriction in the outside static air ports. A
lever on the lower sidewall adjacent to the pilot, is placarded
OFF NORMAL - ON ALTERNATE. When it is desired or
required to use this alternate source of static air, select the
ON ALTERNA TE position. To recognize the need and procedures for the use of alternate statiC air, refer to the EMERGENCY PROCEDURES section. Airspeed Calibration and
Altimeter Correction graphs are in the PERFORMANCE
section.
The static air plumbing is drained by placing the lever in the
ON ALTERNATE position momentarily and then returning it
to the OFF NORMAL position.
I
PRESSURE SYSTEM
Pressure for the flight instruments and autopilot (if installed)
is supplied by two, engine-driven, dry, pressure pumps interconnected to form a single system. If either pump fails, check
valves automatically close and the remaining pump continues to operate all gyro instruments. A pressure gage on the
piioi's subpanel indicates pressure in inches of mercury. Two
red buttons on the pressure gage serve as source failure
indicators, each for its respective side of the system. The
pressure system incorporates a central filter which protects
the instruments. This disposable filter is installed in the nose
compartment and must be replaced in accordance with the
recommendations in the SERVICING section.
7-40
April 1979
/
i
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
WIND
OAT
11,500 11,500 ALT
ROUTE MAGNETIC OIST FEET FEET SETTING
IN. HG
SEGMENT COURSE NM DIR/KTS °C
DEN-COS
161 0
55
010/30
-5
29.60
COS-PUB
153
0
40
010/30
-5
29.60
PUB-TBE
134
0
74
100/20
0
. 29.56
TBE-DHT
132
0
87
200/20
9
29.56
DHT-AMA
1250
65
200/20
10
29.56
REFERENCE: Enroute Low Altitude Chart L-6
At Amarillo:
Outside Air Temperature .............................. 25°C (77°F)
Field Elevation ...................................................... 3605 It
Altimeter Setting ...........................................29.56 in. Hg
Wind .......................................................... 1800 at 10 kts
Runway 21 Length ............................................. 10,000 It
To determine pressure altitude at origin and destination airPDrtS, add 1DO feet to field elevation fDr each .1 in. Hg below
29.92, and subtract 100 feet from field elevation for each .1
in. Hg above 29.92.
Pressure Altitude at DEN:
29.92 - 29.60 = .32 in. Hg
The pressure a,ltitude at DEN is 320 feet "bove the field
elevation.
5330 + 320 = 5650 ft
5-4
January 1978
(
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
circuit breaker switch on the pilot's subpanel placarded
CABIN AIR BLOWER. The blower is designed for ground
operation and climb-out and should be turned off during
cruise.
EXHAUST VENT
A fixed cabin exhaust vent is located on the left side of the aft
fuselage and provides for flow-through ventilation.
PITOT AND STATIC SYSTEMS
The pitot and static systems provide a source of impact and
static air for the operation of the flight instruments.
PITOT SYSTEM
A standard pitot tube for the pilot's flight instruments is
located on the outboard portion of the left wing leading
edge. The optional pitot tube (ME-44 and after) for the
copilot's flight instruments is located on the outboard portion
of the right wing leading edge.
PITOTHEAT
A heating element is installed in the pitotmast and is controlled by the rocker-type switch located on the pilot's subpanel.
The switch is placarded PITOT HEAT - ON, and should
remain off during ground operations except for testing or for
short intervals of time to remove ice or snow from the mast.
One switch controls the heating elements in both pitot masts. I
April 1979
7-39
BEECHCRAFT
Section V
Performance
Duchess 76
Pressure Altitude at AMA:
29.92 - 29.56
= .36 in. Hg
The pressure altitude at AMA is 360 feet above the field
elevation.
3605 + 360 = 3965 ft
NOTE
For flight planning, the difference between cruise
altitude and cruise pressure altitude has been
ignored.
Maximum Allowable Take-off Weight = 3900 Ibs
Ramp Weight
= 3900 + 16 = 3916 Ibs
NOTE
Fuel for start, taxi, and takeoff is normally 16
pounds.
Enter the Take-Off Weight graph at 5650 feet pressure altitude and 15°C.
The take-off weight to achieve a positive rate-at-climb at
lift-off for one engine inoperative is:
Take-off Weight = 2925 pounds
January 1978
5-5
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
4. The push-pull knob, located below the cabin air control,
placarded CABIN TEMP - PULL TO INCREASE, controls the
temperature of the air entering the cabin. Pulling aft on the
knob increases the temperature at which the duct thermostat
switch opens (controlling the heater).
CABIN VENTILATION
In flight, to provide unheated air through the same outlets
used for heating, push the CABIN AIR and CABIN TEMP
controls forward. The air intake for this system is located on
the right side of the nose compartment.
For ventilation through these same outlets during ground
operation, push the CABIN AIR control forward and place the
three-position switch, on the pilot's subpanel, in the BLOWER ONLY position. The BLOWER ONLY position is for
ground operatbn only and will shut off the blower when the
landing gear is retracted.
Fresh ram air is also provided through an outlet located on
each side of the instrument panel. Fresh air for these outlets
enters the two vents located immediately forward of the windshield. Rotation of the outlets controls the flow of air.
OVERHEAD FRESH AIR OUTLETS
Fresh air from the intake on the left side of the dorsal fin is
ducted to the individual outlets located above each seat. The
volume of air at each outlet can be regulated by rotating the
outlet. Each outlet can be positioned to direct the flow of air
as desired. An optional fresh air blower for this system is
located in the aft fuselage. The blower is controlled by the
7-38
January 1978
Section V
Performance
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Enter the Take-Off Distance graph at 15°C, 5650 feet pressure altitude, 3900 pounds, and 9.5 knots headwind component.
.
I
Ground Roll.. ........................................................ 1680 ft
Total Distance over 50-It Obstacle ....................... 3670 ft
Enter the Accelerate-Stop graph at 15'C, 5650 feet pressure
altitude, 3900 pounds, and 9.5 knots headwind component:
Accelerate-Stop Distance ..................................... 3250 It
I
NOTE
Since 3250 feet is less than the available field
length (10,010 It), the accelerate-stop procedure
can be performed at any weight.
Takeoff at 3900 Ibs can be accomplished. However, if an engine failure occurs prior to retraction
of landing gear, the accelerate-stop procedure
must be performed (even if airborne, unless sufficient altitude is available for retraction of landin" ncar
'''h;'e
d~~~e
....J:ng) •
=:I......
"II
C;:'v I. . .lUll
"'~
I
The following example assumes 15'C, SL pressure altitude,
and a take-off weight of 3350 pounds.
5-6
September, 1983
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
The manual reset limit (overheat) switch (inaccessible during
flight), located on the heater, shuts off the heat system in
case the discharge temperature reaches 3000 F.
CAUTION
The entire system should be inspected and the
malfunction determined and corrected before resetting the overheat switch.
HEATER OPERATION
1. The three-position switch on the pilot's subpanel,
placarded HEATER - ON, BLOWER ONLY, -OFF, must be in
the ON position tei place the heating system in operation.
2. The push-pull knob on the left sidewall, placarded DEFROST - PULL ON, controls the amount of air required for
windshield defrosting.
3. The push-pull knob, located below the defrost knob,
placarded CABIN AIR - PULL OFF, controls the amount of air
entering the cabin from the heater. Pulling the knob more
than approximately one-half closed deactivates the heater in
order to prevent heater overtemp.
NOTE
For maximum heat, the CABIN AIR control can
be pulled partially out to reduce the volume of
incoming cold air and permitting the heater to
raise the temperatllre of the admitted air. However, if the CABIN AIR control is pulled out more
than halfway, the heater will not operate ..
January 1978
7-37
-
BEECH CRAFT
Section V
Performance
Duchess 76
Although not required by regulations, information has been
presented to determine the take-off weight, field requirements and take-off flight path assuming an engine failure
occurs during the take-off procedure. The following illustrates
the use of these charts.
Enter the Accelerate-Go graph at lSoC, SL pressure altitude,
33S0 pounds, and 10 knots headwind component
Total Distance Over SO-It Obstacle .................... ..4700 It
Ground Roll ............................................................ 940 It
-
Enter the graph for Take-off Climb Gradient - One Engine
Inoperative at 1SoC, SL pressure altitUde, and 33S0 pounds:
Climb Gradient ....................................................... 4.6%
A 4.6% climb gradient is 46 feet of vertical height per 1000
feet of horizontal distance.
NOTE
The Take-off Climb Gradient - One Engine
Inoperative graph assumes zero wind
conditions. Climbing into a headwind will result in
higher angles of climb, and hence, better
obstacle clearance capabilities.
September, 1963
5-7
BEECHCRAFT
Section VII
Systems Description
Duchess 76
AIR
BLOWER
.l--FWD VENT AIR
BLOWER
DEFROST
........
~=
FRESH AIR
INLET
HEATER
-~ ..--FRE'SH AIR
INLET
"'-,F""''',", AIR OUTLETS
(INSTRUMENT PANEL)
AFT CABIN
HEAT OUTLET
FRESH AIR OUTLETS
FIXED EXI-iALJST - - - t f
FRESH AIR
BLOWER (OPTIONAL)
AIR INTAKE --+--Jl1
DORSAL FIN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCHEMATIC
7-36
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Section V
Performance
Duchess 76
Calculation of horizontal distance to clear an obstacle 90 feet
above the runway surface:
I
Horizontal distance used to climb from 50 feet t6 90 feet
= (90 - 50) (1000 +. 46) = @eet
qo .. '!.-1,J.-
I
Total Distance
= 4700
+ 870
=
5570 feet
The above results are illustrated below:
w
>
l)
wet
Ill>
etet
!t:~
0::1
I
ENGINE
FAILURE HERE
III
________L______ --------
0 01
I:
a:
t>:!:
~~
~<a:
L
_-"'r
_~4:?
1000
1
I.
FT,
FT
~
V'I.
I CD Accelerate-go take-{)ff distance
CD
t.;i
I•
LV
=
4700 feet
Distance to climb from 50 ft. to 90 ft. above
runway = 870 feet
_'( 'fo
The following calculations provide information for the flight
planning procedure. All examples are presented on the performance graphs. A take-off weight of 3900 pounds has been
assumed.
September, 1983
(,
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Syst!!ms Description
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
CABIN HEATING
A 45,000 Btu-per-hour combustion air heater, located on the
right side in the nose compartment, provides heated air for
cabin warming and windshield defrosting. The heater system
consists of a combustion air heater, three-position control
switch, three push-pull control knobs, heater circuit breaker,
manual reset limit (overheat) switch, combustion air blower,
ventilation air blower, and a duct thermostat.
Fuel for the combustion healer is routed from the right wing
fuel system, through a solenoid valve, to the heater fuel
pump located under the heater, and into the combustion
chamber of the heater: Fuel consumption of the heater is
approximately 2/3 ga/lons per hour and should be considered
during flight planning.
NOTE
The fuel solenoid is energized only if the duct
thermostat, which controls the heater, requires a
higher temperature.
Three outlets are located in the cabin to distribute the heated
air into the cabin. One outlet is located on the lower forward
cabin bulkhead and provides heated air for the pilot and
copilot compartment. The second outlet is located between
the pilot and copilot seats and faces aft, to provide heated air
to the aft cabin area. The defrost duct is routed from the
heater to the windshield outlet for windshield defrosting.
January 1978
7-35
BEECHCRAFT
Section V
Performance
Duchess 76
Enter the Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb graph at 15°C to
5650 feet and to 3900 pounds. Also enter at - 5°C to 11,500
feet and to 3900 pounds. Read:
Time to Climb = 14 - 6 = 8 min
Fuel Used to Climb = 6.1 - 2.8 = 3.3 gal
Distance Traveled = 24 - 10 = 14 NM
The temperatures for cruise are presented for a standard day
(ISA); 20°C (36°F) above a standard day (ISA + 20°C); and
20°C (36°F) below a standard day (ISA - 20°C). These
should be used for flight planning. The IOAT values are true
temperature values which have been adjusted for the compressibility effects. IOAT should be used for setting cruise
power while enroute.
Enter the graph for ISA conversion at 11,500 feet and the
temperature for the route segment:
DEN-PUB
OAT
ISA Condition
=
=
-5°C
ISA + 3°C
PUB-TBE
OAT
ISA Condition
=
DOC
ISA
OAT
(SA Condition
=
=
goC
OAT
ISA Condition
=
=
10°C
ISA + 18°C
TBE-DHT
DHT-AMA
ISA
+ BOC
+
17°C
Enter the table for Recommended Cruise Power - 24 in. Hg,
2500 RPM at 11,000 ft, 12,000 ft, ISA and ISA + 20°C.
January 1978
5-9
BEECHCRAF(
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
LIGHTING SYSTEMS
INTERIOR LIGHTING
-
Lighting for the instrument panel is controlled by two rheostat
switches located on the copilot's subpanel to the right of the
control console. One switch, placarded INSTR FLOOD, controls the intensity of the overhead instrument flood light and
the overhead map light. The other switch, placarded POST
LIGHTS, adjusts the intensity of all post lights installed, magnetic compass light, and the internally lit engine instruments.
The cabin dome light is controlled by the switch located
adjacent to the light.
EXTERIOR LIGHTING
The switches for all exterior lights are located on the lower
portion of the pilot's subpanel. Each circuit is protected by a
circuit-breaker-type switch.
The exterior lights consist of a landing light on the outboard
leading-edge portion of the left wing, a taxi light on the
outboard leading-edge portion of each wing, navigation lights
on the wing tips and empennage, and a strobe light located
on each wing tip. For longer battery and lamp life, use the
landing light and the taxi lights sparingly; avoid prolonged
operation which could cause overheating during ground maneuvering.
NOTE
Particularly at night, reflections from anticollision lights on clouds, dense haze, or dust
can produce optical illusions and intense vertigo.
Such lights, when installed, should be turned off
before entering an overcast; their use may not be
advisable under instrument or limited VFR conditions.
7-34
January 1978
(
BEECHCRAFT
Section V
Performance
Duchess 76
TEMPERATURE
ISA
ISA
+
20·C
FUEL
FUEL
MAN. FLOW
ALTI- MAN. FLOW
TAS
TUDE PRESS. GPHI
TAS PRESS. GPHI
FEET IN. HG ENG KNOTS IN. HG ENG KNOTS
11,000
19.4
8.8
157
19.4
8.5
158
12,000
18.7
8.5
156
18.7
8.2
156
Interpolate for 11 ,500 feet and the temperature for the appropriate route segment. Results of the interpolations are:
ROUTE
SEGMENT
MAN.
PRESS.
IN. HG
FUEL
FLOW
GPH/ENG
TAS
KNOTS
DEN-PUB
19.1
8.7
157
PUB-TBE
19.1
8.6
157
TBE-DHT
19.1
8.5
157
DHT-AMA
19.1
8.4
157
NOTE
The above are exact values for the assumed
conditions.
5-10
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
-
-
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
April 1979
7-33
BEECHCRAFT
SectionV·
Performance
Duchess 76
Enter the graph for Descent at 11,500 feet to the descent
line, and enter again at 3965 feet to the descent line, and
read:
Time to Descend = 10 - 4 = 6 min
Fuel Used to Descend = 3.35 - 1.28 = 2.07 gal
Distance to Descend = 32 - 11 = 21 NM
Time and fuel used were calculated at Recommended Cruise
Power - 24 in. Hg 2500 RPM as follows:
.
T Ime =
Distance
Ground Speed
Fuel Used = (Time) (Total Fuel Flow)
Results are:
FUEL
EST
TIME AT
USED
GROUND
CRUISE
FOR
ROUTE DISTANCE SPEED ALTITUDE CRUISE
SEGMENT
KNOTS
GAL
NM
HRS: MIN
DEN-COS
*41
184
: 13
3.8
COS-PUB
40
183
: 13
3.7
PUB-TBE
74
143
: 31
8.9
TBE-DHT
87
146
: 36
10.2
DHT-AMA
*44
148
: 18
5.1
"Distance required to climb or descend has been subtracted
from segment distance.
January 1978
5-11
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
(
-
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
(
7-32
April 1979
Section V
Performance
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
TIME - FUEL - DISTANCE
.ITEM
TIME
HRS: MINS
FUEL
GAL
Start, Runup,
Taxi, and Takeoff
0:00
2.7
0
:08
3.3
14 .
1:51
31.7
260
:06
2.1
21
2:05
39.8
321
Climb
Cruise
Descent
Total
DISTANCE
NM
Total Flight Time: 2 hours, 5 minutes
Block Speed: 321 NM .;- 2 hours, 5 minutes = 154 knots
Reserve Fuel: (45 minutes at Economy Cruise Power):
Enter the cruise power settings table for Economy
Cruise Power at 11,500 feet for ISA (assume IS)I. Fuel
Flow Rate).
Fuel Flow Per Engine
Totar Fue"[ Flov'.'
=
=
8.0 gal/hr
16.0 gal/hi (96 Ibs/hr)
Reserve Fuel = (45 min) (96 Ibs/hr) = 72 Ibs (12 gal)
Total Fuel = 39.8 + 12.0 = 51.8 gallons
5-12
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
CAUTION
On 28-volt airplanes, a reverse polarity diode
protection system is between the external
power receptacle and the main bus. With
external power applied, the bus is powered.
Turn on the battery switch only with all other
switches including avionics switches off before
connecting the auxiliary power unit. Assure
correct polarity before connecting external
power.
When auxiliary power is desired, connect the clamps of the .
power cable to the remote power source, ensuring proper
polarity. Turn OFF the ALT switches and ensure that all
avionics equipment is OFF, and then turn ON the BATT
switch. Insert the power cable plug into the receptacle, turn
on auxiliary power unit, and start engine using the normal
starting procedures.
January 1982
7-31
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
The estimated landing weight is determined by subtracting
the fuel required for the flight from the ramp weight:
Assumed ramp weight = 3916 Ibs
Estimated fuel from DEN to AMA
= 39.8 gal
Estimated landing weight = 3916 - 239
=
(239 Ibs)
3677 Ibs
Examples have been provided on the performance graphs.
The above conditions have been used throughout. Rate of
climb was determined for the initial cruise altitude conditions.
Enter the graph for Landing Distance - Flaps Down (DN) at
25°C, 3965 feet pressure altitude, 3677 pounds and 9.5 kts
headwind component:
Ground Roll .......................................................... 1050 I!
Total Distance over 50-I! Obstacle ........................ 1970 I!
Approach Speed .................................................... 76 kts
Enter the graph for Climb - Balked Landing at 25°C, 3965
feet pressure altitude and 3677 pounds:
Rate-of-Climb .................. : ............................... 610 fIImin
Climb Gradient.. ...................................................... 8.0%
JanuarY 1978
5-13
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
STARTER ENGAGED WARNING LIGHT (ME-333, ME346 AND AFTER)
The warning light placarded STARTER ENGAGED will
illuminate whenever electrical power is being supplied to
the starter. If the light remains illuminated after starting, the
starter relay has remained engaged and loss of electrical
power may result. The battery and alternator switches
should be turned off if the light remains illuminated after
starting. If the light does not illuminate during starting, the
indicator system is inoperative and the load meters should
be monitored to ensure that the starter does not remain
energized after starting.
EXTERNAL POWER
The external power receptacle is located either on the right
(ME-1 through ME-440) or on the left (ME-441 and after)
side of the fuselage, just aft of the cabin area. A negatively
grounded external power source may be used for engine
starting or for ground electrical system checks. Airplanes
equipped with 14-volt systems (ME-1 through ME-182)
require a power unit setting of 14 volts, ± .2 volts. 'Aj~pla/les
equipped with 28cv(jlt,systerrr':(MEiit63':an:d,aftet)fe'qufreja"
power unit setting 6(28voli§~"'~",2"volts:
CAUTION
On 14-volt airplanes, the power pin for external
power is connected directly to the battery and
continually energized. Turn off alternator
switches, all electrical and avionics switches,
and turn on battery switch before connecting the
auxiliary power unit plug. Assure correct polarity
(negative ground) before connecting auxiliary
power unit.
7-30
January 1982
Section V
Performance
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
COMMENTS PERTINENT TO THE USE OF
PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
1.
Th~ ~xample,
in addition to presenting an answer for a
particular set of conditions, also presents the order in
which the graphs should normally be used, i.e., if the
first item in the example is OAT, then enter the graph at
th~ known OAT.
2. The reference lines indicate where to begin following
guide lines, always project to the reference line first,
then follow the guide lines to the nex1 known item.
3.
I
Indicated airspeeds (lAS) were obtained by using the
Airspeed Calibration - Normal System.
4. The associated conditions define the specific
conditions from which performance parameters have
been determined. They are not intended to be used as
instructions; however, performance values determined
from charts can only be achieved if specified conditions
exist.
5. The full amount of usable fuel is available for all
approved flight conditions.
5-14
April 1979
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
Individual alternator output is indicated by the two
loadmeters (as opposed to the charge/discharge-type
ammeter) located on the instrument panel. The loadmeters
give a percentage reaaing- of the load on the system.
-
There are two pairs of alternator-out warning lights, each
pair placarded ALTERNATOR OUT - UNDERIOVER
VOLTAGE. Each pair is adjacent to its corresponding
load meter, located on the instrument panel. Anytime either
alternator voltage is 4 ± .1 volts (28-volt system) or 2 ± .1
volts (14-volt system) below the bus voltage, the
corresponding undervoltage alternator-out light will
illuminate_ When the battery is turned on with both
alternators off, both alternator-out undervoltage lights will
illuminate_ The alternator-out overvoltage light (one for each
alternator) will illuminate when the corresponding
overvoltage relay is actuated. The overvoltage relay opens
the affected alternator field, and the affected alternator
voltage will drop to zero. The alternator-out lamps can be
tested by pressing the TEST switch located adjacent to the
lamps.
STARTERS
The starters are relay-controlled and are actuated by rotarytype, momentary-on switches, incorporated in the magneto/start/prime switches located on the pilot's subpanel. To
energize the starter circuit, hold the magneto/start/prime
switch in the START position.
August, 1980
7-29
-
BeeCHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
INTeNTION ALL Y LEFT BLANK
January 1978
5-15
BEECHCRAFr
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
ALTERNATORS
.
Two 55-am pere. '. 28-volt, b.elt-driven alter~ators (ME-183
and after) ortwo-6e-ampere,--14-VGlt~-belM:Jnven-attemators­
(ME· 1 -thruMF182) are installed in the airplane_
I
The output of each alternator is controlled by a separate
voltage regulator. The alternator systems are completely
separate, except for the BUS TIE FUSE (on airplanes ME103 and after), 'the mutual tie to the battery bus through two
bus isolation circuit breakers, and the paralleling circuit
between the regulators. The bus-isolation circuit breakers
are used to isolate Bus 1 and Bus 2 from the battery bus
circuit. The regulators automatically maintain the bus
voltage at a set value for all loads up to the alternator rating.
The voltage regulators also maintain approximately equal
load sharing between the two alternators.
The self-excitation load capability of the alternators is
directly related to engine RPM. The / self-excitation feature
.
will not come on untfl approximately 1200 to 1400 RPM,
with a load capability of approximately 50%. However, it will
remain on as engine speed is reduced to approxirnately 850
to 1000 RPM. A maximum load capability of approximately
80% should be obtainable at approxirnately 2300 RPM
engine speed.
~
CAUTION
During an in-flight emergency, under no
condition, shall more load be applied than is
absolutely necessary for safe flight condition.
-,~, initiation of any flight using the self-excitation
·feature is strictly prohibited.
7-28
April 1979
i
....'f'
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION· NORMAL SYSTEM
en
EXAMPLE:
NOTE: INDICATED AIRSPEED ASSUMES ZERO INSTRUMENT ERAOA
. ...•.. 75KTS
lAS ..
FLAPS.
160
. .... DOWN (DN)
CAS ..
150
. ...•. 75KTS
~!f
::I.~
o _.
.. 0
3 !:I
I» <
!:I
!il
~ 140
0
~
130
120
I
0
ttl
120
"'OC<C
110
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60
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80
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100
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lAS· INDICATED AIRSPEED - KNOTS
I
120
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al:!!
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
EXTERNAL POWER
p4·VOLT SYSTEM)
.--(0),
"--~---iO"" EXTERNAL POWER
(2B·VOLT SYSTEM)
CURRENT
UMrTEA
CURRENT
LIMITER
RELAY
L LOADM.ETER
POWER DISTRIBUTION SCHEMATIC
April 1979
1-21
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INDICATED PRESSUAE ALTITUDE. , .......... 4000FT
10
ALTIMETEI3 CORRECTION •.....•.••.•.•.... +2 FT
ACTUAL PRESSURE ALTITUDE ................. 4002 FT
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Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
{
that the fuel quantity indicators are functioning and maintaining a reasonable degree of accuracy, and be certain of ample
fuel for each flight. A minimum of 9 gallons of fuel is required
in each wing system before takeoff.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The system circuitry is the single-wire, ground-return type,
with the airplane structure used as the ground return. The
alternator switches, battery switch, magneto/start/prime
switches, and auxiliary fuel pump switches are located on the
pilot's subpaneL This panel contains most of the electrical
system switches and switch-type circuit breakers. Each is
placarded as to its function. The right subpanel contains the
protective circuit breakers for the various electrical systems,
and all avionics circuit breakers.
(
BATIERY
/....
Me>;)5
~~-'.,/
On~vol
1S.S-ampere-hour, lead-acid battery (ME-183
and after) or one-:/.2cv6ff, 3S-ampere-hour, lead-acid battery
(ME-1 thru ME-182) is installed in a battery box in the aft
fuselage compartment. An oj;itional'instaliationi (ME-183 and!,
after) .(PfOvides, tw~12-vo~2~-amp,?r,e"ho~r(':I~~P;:~cld
battenes"eleclrlcally'connected'ln::serles',and'lnstalled'ln"the
batter"irbOx. Battery servicing procedures are described in
the HANDLING, SERViCiNG, and MAINTENANCE section.
The battery box is fitted with a lid for access to the battery or
batteries. The lid is held in place with two lift-to-release
latches.
Battery fumes and gases are vented to the outside through
two vents in the lower fuselage skin below the battery box.
The vents are so designed that there is a flow of air from the
vent to the fop of the box and out through the vent at the
bottom of ihe box.
7-26
April 1979
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION - ALTERNATE SYSTEM
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ill
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EXAMPLE:
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BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
priming, starting, taxiing, takeoff, and landing. Also, the auxiliary fuel pump provides sufficient pressure for continued
engine operation in case the engine-driven fuel pump becomes inoperative.
ENGINE PRIMING
Each engine is equipped with a three-point (no. 1, 2, and 4
cylinders) fuel priming""syslem. The magneto/start switches
incorporate a PUSH TO PRIME function to aid in engine
starting. The BATTERY MASTER and the AUX FUEL PUMP
(L or R) switches must be turned on prior to activating the fuel
priming system. The PUSH TO PRIME switch may be actuated in either the BOTH or START position. Pushing in on
the magneto/start switch activates a solenoid, located behind
the firewall in each nacelle, and supplies fuel directly into the
no. 1, 2, and 4 cylinders for engine priming. Engine priming
should be used in accordance with the recommendations in
the NORMAL PROCEDURES section.
FUEL CROSSFEED
The fuel lines for the engines are interconnected by crossfeed lines. During normal operation each engine uses its own
fuel pumps to draw fuel from its respective wing fuel system.
However, on emergency crossfeed operations, either engine
can consume all the available fuel from the opposite side.
The fuel crossfeed system is provided for use during level
flight, emergency conditions only. The system cannot transfer fuel from one wing system to the other. The procedure for
using the crossfeed system is described in the EMERGENCY PROCEDURES section.
FUEL REQUIRED FOR FLIGHT
Flight planning and fuel loading are facilitated by the use of
fuel quantity indicators that have been coordinated with the
usable fuel supply. It is the pilot's responsibility to ascertain
April 1979
7-25
I
Al.TIMETER CORRECTION - ALTERNATE SYSTEM
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INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE .•.......... 4000 FT
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ACTUAL PRESSURE ALTITUDE. ...... , ....... 3975 FT
FLAPS UP
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Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
FUEL DRAINS
The fuel system is drained at eight locations, four on each
wing. A flush sump drain valve is located outboard of each
nacelle on the underside of each wing tank. A drain is also
provided for the fuel selector valve, located in the outboard
underside of each nacelle aft of the firewall. Two flush drains
are located inboard of each main gear wheel well for draining
the crossfeed fuel lines.
The fuel selector valve drains are actuated manually by
pushing up, approximately one-quarter inch, on the lower
portion of the drain valve. All other fuel drains are flush-type
valves and are actuated by using the combination fuel
drain/emergency landing gear tool provided with the loose
tools and equipment. Flush-type fuel drains are actuated by
pushing in on the valve and then releasing when the desired
amount of fuel has been drained. These drain valves can be
locked open for the purpose of fuel off -loading or for totally
draining the fuel system. Pushing in and turning counterclockwise will lock the drains in the open position. To
close, turn clockwise and release.
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATORS
Fuel quantity is measured by two float-operated sensors
located in each wing tank system. The sensors transmit
electrical signals to the individual indicators, located on the
instrument panel, which indicate the amount of fuel remaining in each tank.
AUXILIARY FUEL PUMPS
The electric auxiliary fuel pumps, one for each engine, are
located in the nacelle just aft of the firewall. They are controlled by separate rocker-type ON-OFF switches, placarded
AUX FUEL PUMP - L ON - R ON, located on the pilot's
subpanel. The auxiliary fuel pumps provide pressure for
7-24
April 1979
I
I
I
I
BEECHCRAFT
Section V
Performance
Duchess 76
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5-20
January 1978
I
FUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
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ENGINE PRIMING
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FUEL SUPPLY
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ENGINE PRiMING
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DAAINS
FUEL OU.AN1.1I Y
SENSOR
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Section V
Peiiormance
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
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September, 1983
5-21
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
FUEL TANKS
The fuel system consists of a bonded leading-edge fuel tank
located outboard of the nacelle in each wing. The fuel tank in
each wing has a capacity of 51.5 gallons for a total fuel
capacity of t03 gallons (100 gallons usable). Each wing is
serviced through a single filler located in the outboard portion
of each wing. The filler neck of each tank contains a visual
measuring tab which facilitates partial filling of the fuel system. When the fuel level reaches the bottom of the tab, it
indicates 30 (28.5 usable) gallons of fuel in that tank. The
center marl< on the tab indicates 40 (38.5 usable) gallons of
fuel and the mark at the top indicates a full tank of 51.5 (50
usable) gallons of fuel.
FUEL SELECTOR VALVES
The fuel selector valves are located in each nacelle on the
outboard side just forward of the 'wing leading edge. The
valve is of the rotary type and is operated by push-pull cable
from the floor console between the front seats. The valve
has three positions, ON - CROSS FEED - OFF, which are
determined by detents in the valve. The floor console has a
slot for each selector valve lever, with notches which
correspond to the valve detents.
NOTE
During operation, make certain fuel· selector
valves are in detent in the ON position. This can
be determined by moving the levers slightly
within the detent notch. Operation with the valve
slightly out of detent could result in fuel
transferring from one wing tank to the other.
The fuel selector valves also function as a preflight drain
paint and firewall fuel shutoff. The lower portion of the valve
serves as a sediment bowl and contains the fuel strainer
screen.
7-22
April 1979
-
MANIFOLD PRESSURE vs RPM
,
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CD CD
EXAMPLE:
30
a- ~l
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ENGINE SPEED. . ..... .2500 RPM
MANIFOLD PRESSURE, . .19.1 IN. HG
3
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2
29
28
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MP AND RPM FOR CRUISE
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1900
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ENGINE SPEED - RPM
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2400
2500
2600
2700
1/1 )-
~:!I
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
333, ME-346 and after) is located between the Left
Magneto/Start and Right Magneto/Start switches on the
pilot's left subpanel. The starter engaged warning light will
illuminate whenever electrical power is being supplied to
the starter. If the light remains illuminated after starting, the
starter relay has remained engaged and loss of electrical
power may result.
PROPELLERS
The airplane is equipped with two Hartzell, 76-inch diameter,
constant-speed, full-feathering, two-blade propellers. Propeller rpm is controlled by the engine-driven propeller governor
which regulates hydraulic oil pressure to the hub. The propeller controls, 6n the control console, allow the pilot to select
the governor's rpm range. Springs and dome air pressure,
aided by counterweights, move the blades to high pitch.
Engine oil under governor-boosted pressure moves the
blades to the high rpm (low pitch) position.
The propellers should be cycled occasionally during cold
weather operation. This will help maintain warm oil in the
propeller hubs so that the oil will not congeal.
FUEL
SYSTEM
The airplane is designed for operation on grade 100 (green)
or 100LL (blue) aviation gasoline. The fuel system is an ONCROSSFEED - OFF arrangement. The fuel selector panel,
located on the lower portion of the center pedestal, contains
the fuel selector levers for each engine.
The fuel is drawn from the respective tank through. the fuel
strainer and to the fuel selector valve, located aft of the
firewall in each nacelle. From the fuel selector valve, the fuel
passes through a check valve and then through the enginedriven fuel pump and delivered to the carburetor. The cabin
heater, located in the nose compartment, uses fuel (approximately 2/3 gallon per hour) from the right wing tank fuel
system only.
August, 1980
7-21
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
TAKE-OFF WEIGHT
TO ACHIEVE POSITIVE SINGLE ENGINE
RATE OF CLIMB AT LIFT-OFF
ASSOCIAT,ED CQNOrrtONS:
EXAMPLE:
AIRPLANE .•..•........ , ... AIRBORNE
POWER.............
. TAKE-OFF AT
2700 RPM
FLAPS ...... :......
. .•.. UP
LANDING GEAR. . .
. .. DOWN
INOPERATIVE PROPELLER .. FEATHERED
PRESSURE ALTITUDE,
OAT.•.....•.......
.... 15°C
TAKE-OFF WEIGHT
.... /1925 LBS
... 5650 FT
10,000
9000
l'.
,<0/
BODO
"
III
w
"I
6000
5000
5<:
w
cc
::>
4000
w
:3000
Ul
Ul
cc
..;
,
~+' :"''l
7000
w
0
::>
>-
..
"",'=
',;
"-
2000
,
1000
I.
SL
2800, 2900
3000
3100 3200
3300 3400
3500
3600 3700
3800
3900
WEIGHT - POUNDS
z:
{.'2,L'
Jlfl.)
'3l: <.•
August, 1980
5-23
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
CARBURETOR HEAT
The carburetor heat control levers are located just below the
control console on the pedestal. The levers have two
placarded positions: OFF - ON. When the levers are in the
OFF (up) position, cold and filtered air enters the induction
system. Placing the levers in the ON (down) position allows
heated and unfiltered air to enter the induction system to
alleviate the possibility of carburetor ice. Carburetor air heat
should be used in accordance with the recommendations in
the NORMAL PROCEDURES section.
INDUCTION AIR
Induction air is available from filtered ram air or unfiltered
carburetor heat air. Filtered ram air enters from above the
engine inside the nacelle area.
COWL FLAPS
The manual cowl flaps are controlled by separate levers
located just below the carburetor heat controls on the pedestal. Each control lever has three placarded positions: CLOSE
(up) - HALF - OPEN (down). The control levers allow the cowl
flaps to be positioned so that the desired cylinder head temperatures can be maintained.
STARTERS
The magneto/start switches are located on the subpanel to
the left of the pilot"s control column and incorporate R (right),
L (left), and BOTH magneto positions in addition to the OFF
and START positions. After activation of the starter, the
spring-loaded switch returns to the BOTH position when released. Also, the switches include a PUSH TO PRIME position that activates the electric fuel priming function for the
purpose of supplying additional fuel to the engine during
starting.
I The
warning light placarded STARTER ENGAGED (ME-
7-20
August, 1980
STALL SPEEDS - POWER IDLE
'{'
~
\I(J)
s-g
CD CD
NOTES:
1.
THE MAXIMUM ALTITUDE LOSS eXPERIENCED WHILE CONDUCTING STAllS IN ACCORDANCE WITH FAR 23.201 WAS 400 FEET.
2.
MAXIMUM NOSe DOWN PITCH AITIrUDe AND ALTITUDE lOSS DURING RECOVERY
FROM ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE STAllS PER FAR 23.205 ARE 5" AND 100 FEET RE·
SPECTIVELY.
3.
EXAMPLE:
. ••.•••• 3677 LBS
WeiGHT.
. .DOWN(ONJ
FLAPS ..
ANGLE OF BAN/<;,.
. •.••. 30"
STALL speeo ..
A NORMAL STALL RECOVERY TECHNIQUE MAY BE USED.
. .64KTS lAS
a2I<TS CAS
... 0
3
::::I
'"::::I <
!a
"
aD
~,
@
w
•
~
"
:J
~
III
c..
60
'"c:
-<'"
::::I
m
em
c: 0
n:r
':1'0
~
~
3BOO
3600
3400
3.200
3000
o
2900
WEIGI-fT - POUNDS
10
20
30
40
50
ANGLE OF BANK - DEGREES
60
"
lX:u
1/1»
Qf::!l
-'.
,-,
''-'',
,
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
ENGINE BREAK-IN INFORMATION
New engines have been carefully run-in by the engine manufacturer. However, the engines should be opeiated on
straight mineral oil for a minimum of 50 hours or until oil
consumption stabilizes. After the first 25 hours of operation,
drain and replace the mineral oil. A change to an approved
engine oil should be made after the break-in period. Refer to
Lycoming Engine Operator's Manual.
NOTE
In order to promote proper ring seating, cruise
power settings of 65% to 75% should be used
until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or until
oil consumption has stabilized. This recomniendation is applicable to in-service engines following cylinder replacement or top-overhaul of one
or more cylinders, as well as to new engines.
ENGINE LUBRICATION
The engines are equipped with a wet-sump, pressure-type oil
system. Each engine sump has a capacity of 8 quarts. The oil
level may be checked through the access door in each engine cowling. A calibrated dipstick attached to the filler cap
indicates the oil level. Due to the canted position of the
~ngines, the dipsticks are calibrated for either right or left
engines and are not interchangeable.
Oil operating temperatures are controlled by an automatic
thermostat bypass control. The bypass control will limit the oil
flow through the oil cooler when operating temperatures are
below normal, and will permit the oil to bypass the cooler if it
should become blocked.
ENGINE ICE PROTECTION
The possibility of induction system icing is reduced by the
carburetor air heat system.
August, 1980
7-19
Section V
Performance
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
WIND COMPONENTS
Demonstrated Crosswind is 25 Ids
EXAMPLE:
WIND SPEED
ANGLE BETWEEN WIND DIRECTION AND FLIGHT PATH
HEADWI NO COMPONENT
CROSSWIND COMPONENT
FLIGHT PATH
10 KNOTS
20"
9.5 KNOTS
3.5 KNOTS
+
40
o·
30
-
~
20
z
?
'"
-
fZ
w
z
.~
,
~.
0
10
::;
W
-/
0
CJ
"
0
-fin.
z
§:
0
..:
w
.
"0
-
0
J:
160·
-20
I
o
'
....
January 1978
do
120·
f
, I'
.
10
I
CROSSWIND COMPONENT "v KNOTS
i,
40
5-25
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
on the levers are shaped to standard government configuration so they can be identified by touch. The controls are
centrally located for ease of operation from either the pilot's
or the copilot's seat. A controllable friction knob, located to
the right of the control levers, is provided to prevent creeping
of the control levers.
ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION
Most of the engine instruments are located in the center of
the instrument panel. This group includes left and right instruments for fuel quantity, fuel pressure, oil pressure, oil temperature, cylinder head temperature, and loadmeters. The alternator-out annunciator lights for each alternator, and the test
switch for 'the lights, are located adjacent to the loadmeters.
The balance of the engine instruments, located above the left
subpanel, include a dual-indicating manifold pressure gage,
tachometers, and a dual-indicating exhaust gas temperature
indicator.
MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAGE
The dual-indicating manifold pressure gage indicates the
pressure of the fuel/air mixture entering the engine cylinders
,of each engine, and is calibrated in inches of mercury.
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE INDICATOR (EGT)
This installation provides for a sensitive and rapid indication
of exhaust gas temperature to assist in adjusting the fuel/air
mixtures during cruise. Procedures pertaining to leaning the
mixture using the EGT indicator are contained in the NORMAL PROCEDURES section.
7-18
January 1978
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
POWER .'
MIXTURE
TAKE·OFF POWER AT 2700 RPM SET
BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
FUl~ RICJ::! (ABOVE 5000 FT LEAN TO
75 -100 F ON RICH SIDE OF PEAK EGT)
OAT
..• ....•.......
PRESSURE ALTITUDE. . . . . . ..
TAKE-oFFWEIGHT ...........
HEADWIND COMPONENT. . . ..
LIFT-OFF 71 KNOTS
50 FEET ao KNOTS
UP
FLAPS
LANDING GEAR ..
RUNWAY ...
COWL FLAPS
~f
EXAMPLE:
TAKE·OFF ·SPEEDS
(ALL WEIGHTS)
RETRACT AFTER POSITIVE CLIMB ESTABLISHED'
PAVED, LEVEL. DRY SURFACE
OPEN
1SDC
5650 FT
3900 LBS
9.5 KTS
GROUND ROLL .............•. 1BaO FT
TOTAL DISTANCE OVER
5O-FT OBSTACLE......
3579 FT
o::J.g
_.
... 0
3 :I
III
:I
<
g
4000
I.
-40 -30 -20 -10
0
10·20
30
40
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE _ DC
50
3800
r
~~
3000 '"
!;I
iO
'c"
I
ID
m
om
co
n ::r:
:To
.=¥
:s
.~
CD
3400
3200
"EIGHT - POUNDS
I
. J.
10 20 30
0
50
WIND COMPONENT OBSTACLE HEIGHT
-KNOTS
-FEET
o
:u
:~
at:!!
BEECHCRAFT
Section VII
Systems Description
Duchess 76
underside of the control column tube assembly. Ensure
positive retention of the lock pin by positioning the
hook over the control column.
NOTE
Tension on the cable between the rudder lock
and the control column lock holds the rudder
lock in place.
WARNING
-
Before starting the engines, remove the control
lock by reversing the above procedure.
ENGINES
Two direct-drive, four-cylinder, horizontally opposed, Avco
Lycoming engines are installed. An 0-360-A1G6D (clockwise rotating as viewed from the pilot's seat) engine is
mounted on the left wing, and an LO-360-A 1G6D (counterclockwise rotating) engine is mounted on the right wing.
Each engine is rated at i 80 horsepower at 2700 rpm.
ENGINE CONTROLS
THROTTLE, PROPELLER, AND MIXTURE
The control levers are grouped along the upper portion of the
control console. Pushing forward on a control lever increases
its appropriate function, pulling back decreases it. The knobs
April,1980
7-17
,
<III
~
C
III
...
~
CO
~
TAKE-OFF DISTANCEGRASS SURFACE
ASSOCIATED CONOmONS:
POWER .•..•..
FLAPS ..•..
" TAKE-OFF AT 2700 RPM SeT
BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
.UP
RUNWAy ••.•.
COWL FLAPS
,
.. RETRACT AFTER POSITIVE CUMB ESTAilUSHED
. .SHOAT, DAY GRASS,lEVEl SURFAce
. .. OPEN
MIXTURe •.•..•.
.• ,FULLRICHI
LANDING GEAR
,~-
EXAMPle:
OAT...
. •..• 5650 FT
TAKE.QFFWEIGHT.............
. .. ,. 3900 LSS
..95 KTS
om
::1'0
:g
1/1
GROUND ROlL :, •.••.•.••....•...•..•... IB50 FT
TOTAlOrSTANceOVERSOFTOBSTAQ,E •••. 3850 F1
TAKE·OFFS?EEO:ATLIFT-01''F .•..••••••.• 71 KTS
AT'SO FT ..•••..•.• " so KTS
71 KNOTS
80 KNOTS
~~cr~
"')10
21
5000
4000
m
"00
"'00
o
- 10
0
10
20
30
QUTslqe AlA TEMPERATURE - 'C
40
50
60
3800
3600
3400
WEIGHT - POUNDS
3200
0
10
,
3000 ~
m
-20
!ii•
~
iii!
:>.:1
~~~
-30
0
~.
'u"'~ r
ft
'" ...1'
-40
~
...,:u
6000
~f<,~,
:c...,
em
PRESSUREALTlTUOE •••. , ••.••.
HEADWIr-jDCOMPONeNT..
rAKE-OFF SPEEDS
(All. WEIGHTS)
UFT.OFF
50 FE!;J"
OlD
.., .•••..••••••..•..•...• _. ,_. ISOC
20
WINO COr.f'ONENT
30
~
KNOTS
so
0
OSSTACLE HelGHT-
FE<r
"i
:J.IJ)
o-.
CD
0
3 e
III 0
~
~
Il<
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
7-16B
April,1980
U1
"tI(f)
ACCELERATE - STOP DISTANCE
N
0>
." ."
~~
.,
0
DECISION SPEED 71 KNOTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
~
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
OAT
1. TAKE-OFF POWER AT 2700 RPM
POWER.
:::J
UP
,. _. __ . _10 STOP DISTANCE.
.. 3250 FT
INSPEED.
OPEN
FUll RICH (ABOVE 5000 FT L~~ ,TO,
:::J
<
l;l
.. 9.5 KTS
. PAVED, LEVEL, DRY SURFACE
COWLF\..APS..•
MIXTURE •••••.
III
"00
.3900 LBS •
2. ENGINE IDLE AT DECISION SPEED
FLAPS ..•.
RUNWAy .••.•..
3
1S'C
•• 56SOFT
SET BEFORE BRAKE RELEASE
. .• 71 KTS
~
5000 ~
~.o
Si5,
~.j,~
i,..1"
c
~
~
-:::-«
~
400Q
m
"
00
§
3000
""",'
"III
g
w
:::J
u
C
III
-<...
~
I
g
~5~~iii'
.:"",-:":::C;,';j ;;;;i>A: ;.,...
tj
1000
-40 -30
-20
-10
-0
10
20
30
40
OUTSIDE AIA'TeMPERATURE - 'C
i
50
3BOO
60
Ji
3500
3400
3200
WEIGHT - pOUNDS
'-',
I
3000
2800
0
10
20
30
WIND COMPONENT KNOTS
~~
Q
ID
m
om
co
n :J:
:To
m
:D
1/1 l>
at:!!
BEECHCRAFT
Du.chess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
switches. On Serials ME-339 and after, and airplco.nes prior
to ME-339 complying with BEECHCRAFT Service
Instructions No. 1136 , the control iock prevents movement
of the control c·olumn, impairs .access to the
magneto/switches, and also prevents movement of the
throttles and rudder pedals.
To Install the Control Lock (Serials ME-1 thru ME-338):
1. Rotate control wheel and move control column so the
holes in the control column hanger and the conlml
column will align. to accept the pin.
2. Push the control column lock pin through the hole
provided in the control column hanger and into the hole
in the underside of the control column tube assembly.
3. Ensure positive retention of the lock pin by positioning
the hook over the control column.
WARNING
Before starting the engines, remove the control
lock by reversing the above procedure.
To Install the Control Lock (ME-339 and after, and
airplanes prior to ME-339 complying with BEECHCRAFT
Service Instructions No. 1136):
1.
Install throttle control lock on the engine control
quadrant.
2. Install rudder lock by inserting the upright tabs of the
rudder lock between the bottom of the rudder pedals
and the rudder bars.
3. Rotate the control wheel and move control column so
the holes in the control column hanger and the control
column will align to accept the pin. Push the control
column lock pin through the hole provided in the
control column hanger and into the hole in the
April,1980
7-16A
I
ACCELERATE-GO DISTANCE
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
~OWER, .• _........
TAKE·OFF SPEEDS
(ALL WEIGHTS)
LIFT-OFF 7t..KNOTS
rAKE-OFF POWER AT 2700 RPM.
SSLBEFOAE BRAKE RE;lEASE.
,FlAPS ........... " .' ~~TRACT AFTER LIFT-OFF.
~~~ ~~~ . : : :: :: b~~~DI LEVEL, DRY SURFACe,
COWL FLAPS ........• FULL RICH
MIXTURE .... ,........ 75::;-OO°F O~'jlI""'~l'E
50 FT
EXAMPLE:
OAT •...................... ; ...•. !SoC
PRESSURE AlTrrUDE ..........•. SL
TAKE·OFFWEIGHT .....•...•••.. 3350 lBS
. HEADWII'iIO COMPONENT ........ 10 KTS
80 KNOTS
TOTAL DISTANCE OVER
,So-FTOBSTA9lE ..... ~: ...... ~
GFlOt?NI;rROlC ..•.-: .. _..•..... ~;
8000
I;;
~
7000 I
w
tl
~
~
60001l
~
5000
ffi
i5
w
U
4000
g
"
~
~
.3a-
3000~
2000
-~-~-10
0
10
ro 30 40
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE -
~
°c
00
3000
3200
3400
380Cr .
3600
WEIGHT - POUNDS
.
o
10
20
30
WIND COMPONENT
- KNOTS
~[f
:::I
0
<II
<
n
:::I
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT .
Duchess 76
(
in the door. The door can be locked with a key. To open the
door from the outside, lift the handle from its recess and pull
until the door opens. To close the cabin door from the inside,
grasp the armrest' attached to the door and firmly pull the .
door closed. Opening the storm window will alleviate pres·
sure inside the cabin as the door is being closed. Press firmly
outward at the upper aft edge of the door. If any movement of
the door is detected, completely open the door and close
again following the above instructions. To open the door from
the inside, grasp the door release handle and pull until door
latch releases.
AFT UTILITY DOOR
The aft utility door on the left side of the fuselage is provided
for loading baggage into the aft cabin area. This door can be
opened from outside the airplane. or from the inside. To open
the door from the outside, lift the handle from its recess and
pull until the door opens. To open the door from the inside,
pull out on the locking. pin adjacent to the door handle, then
rotate the handle counterclockwise (approximately % turn)
until the door opens. The door handle is equipped with a
keyhole and can be locked, as desired.
EMERGENCY EXITS
An emergency exit can be accomplished through either of the
forward cabin doors, or the aft utility door.
CONTROL LOCK
A control lock is provided with the loose tools. When
installed on ME-1 thru ME·338 it prevents movement of the
control column and impairs access to the magneto/start
I
7-16
April,1980
CLIMB - TWO ENGINE
en
•
Col
o
~~
CLIMB SPEED 85 KNOTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
POWER... .
FlAPS..
LANCING GEAR. .
COWL FLAPS.
MIXTURE
OAT.
PRESSURE ALTITU~E... •.
. .. MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS AT 2;00 RPM
UP
. .. UP
. .. OPEN
.. FUll RrCH (ABOVE 5000 FT LEAN TO
75"· l00"F ON RICH SIDE OF PEAK EGTj
.• 10·C
..11,5OOFT
.•• _ 3860LBS
WEIGHT .
=lSl.
o...
-.
0
3 ::l
..
<
::l
o
CD
.. ,500 FTIMIN
RATE OF CLIMB.
CLrtol8 GRADIENT •.
. ..• 4.8%
2000
~:
20
18
1500
16
1000
•
~
m
~
~
soa
~
.~
"~
8
,
c
~
~
,a
m
OJ
DI
0
::l
C
0
-,
DI
-<...
Qj
!!!
4
~
CD
.
"" ,
-4
-60
-50
-4(1
-30
-20
-10
0
10
2IJ
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE-'C
30
40
so
60
",00
",00
I
","00
3200
WEIGHT - POUNDS
'--',
I
3000
'"''
m
em
c
n
in
0ll
n ::t
0l>
Of:!!
BEECHCRAFT
.Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description .
SHOULDER HARNESSES
The shoulder harness is a standard installation for all seats
and should be used with the seats in the upright position. The
.spring loading at the inertia reel keeps the harness snug, but·
will allow normal movement during flight operations. The
inertia reel is designed wnh a locking device that will secure
the harness in the event of sudden forward movement or an
impact action. The strap is worn over the shoulder and down
across the body, where it is fastened by a metal loop to the
seat belt buckle, The inertia reels for the front and middle
seats are attached to the lower cabin sidewall structure at the
aft edge of the respective seat. The inertia reel is covered
with an escutcheon, and the strap runs up from the reel to a
looped fitting attached to the window frame just aft of the
seat. For stowing these shoulder harness straps, stowage
attach points are provided adjacent to the inertia reel on the
cabin sidewall.
WARNING
The seat belt is independent of the shoulder
harness; however, the shoulder harness may be
used only when the seat belt is fastened.
Occupants shorter than 4 '7" are not to use
shoulder harness.
DOORS AND EXITS
FORWARD CABIN DOORS
The airplane has a conventional cabin door on each side of
the fuselage adjacent to the forward seats. When closed, the
outside cabin door handle is spring-loaded to fit into a recess
January 1978
7-15
TAKE~OfF CLIMB GRADIENT -
ONE ENGINE INbpERATIVE
OIJl
em
CLIMB SPEED 80 KNOTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
...
!
nm
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
POWER...........
. ..... _ TAKE-OFF AT 2700 RPM
LANDING GEAR. . . .
UP
FLAPS.........
. ..... UP
INOPEAATIVEPAOPElLER
.. FEATHERED
OAT ........................•.... 1S"C
:g:TO
:I:
PRESSURE ALTITUDE . _•......... SL
WEIGHT. . . .
COWL FLAPS.. .
. ..... OPEN
MIXTURE.. .
. : ............... FU7~~_rn~Jt
. ......... 3350 lBS
GRADIENT OF CUMB .
.4.6%
•
5
4
'~"
3
w
5
<I'
'"
"
o ."
1
<D
:::;
.-:.1..
2
-3
-4
-40 -30 -20 -10
0
10 20 30
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE _
40
·c
50
3800
3600
3400
3200
WEIGHT - POUNDS
3000
2800
en>
:!l
,
7
t...
III 0
...,:0
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
The hat shelf, located near the top of the aft cabin enclosure,
provides an area for light miscellaneous articles. Both the
baggage compartment and the hat shelf are accessible in
flight.
WARNING
Do not carry hazardous material anywhere in the
airplane.
Do not carry children in the baggage compartment.
SEATS, SEAT BELTS, AND SHOULDER HARNESSES
SEATS
To adjust either of the front seats, pull the release knob
located below the left forward seat corner (pull to the right,
then up) and slide the seat forward or aft to the desired
position. Make certain each seat is locked securely in place
after adjustment. The backs of all individual seats can be
placed in any of three positions by means of a release lever
located on the side of each seat. Headrests are available for
each of the individual seats. Outboard armrests for the front
seats are attached to the cabin doors.
SEAT BELTS
All seats are provided with seat belts having a lever-action,
quick-release, metal buckle. The seat belt length can be
shortened or lengthened by allowing the excess belt to pull
through the end of the buckle. Holding the buckle at a right
angle to the belt releases the binding action, allowing the belt
to slip.
.
7-14
January 1978
-
U1
•
W
II)
TIME, FUEL, AND DISTANCE TO CLIMB
ASSOCiAn;:O CONDITIONS:
QAT AT TAKe-OFF ..•
. FULL THAom!: AT
2600 APM
. 6.0 LBS/GAl
OPEN
POWER.
FUEL DENSITY •.
CQWLFLAPS..
MIXTURE.
"lllll
ID ID
~
CLIMB SPEED 100 KNOTS
.:. ,IS'C
QAT ATCAUlse
" .-5"C
AIRPORT PRESSURE ALTITUDE.. . .•. 5650 FT
CRUISE PRESSURE ALTIT\JOE.
" 11.500 FT
INITIAL CLIMB WEIGIiT .
. .••..• 3900 Las
FUU RTCH (AIIOVE 5000 FT LEAN TO
75' _ 100'F ON RICH SIDE OF PEAl< EGTJ
TIME TO CLIMB ..••.
FUEL TO CLIMB .•..
DISTAIIICE
.14 -13 .. aMINUTES
".6.1 -2.B-3.3GAL
::I
C
III
-<...
U>
Ci!
.., 0
3 :>
III
::I
<
o
ID
OJ
<III
::s.S1
0-·
m
-so
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
SO
20
t
OUTSIDE AlR TEMPERATURE - "c
I I III I
:2
t
30
<110
TIMe+TO CLIMB - MINUTES
4
I
r
6
1.1
II
10
12
14
r:vELt TO CLIMB - GALLONS
,~T~T'TI~jl---'
102030
" ' I '--,
40
5!l
60
r I' I
7080
DISTANCE TO CliMB - NAUTICAL MILES
50
em
c (")
o
:J:
IR
lJ
~o
In
-.
/----
,
l>
aI:!I
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
BRAKES
The brakes on the main landing gear wheels are operated by
applying toe pressure to the top of the rudder pedals. The
parking brakes push-pull control is located on the right subpanel just left of the flap switch. To set the parking brakes;
pull the control out and pump both toe pedals until solid
resistance is felt. Push the control in to release the brakes.
-
The hydraulic brake fluid reservoir is located on the left side
of the forward cabin bulkhead and is accessible through the
nose compartment. Fluid level is checked with the dipstick
attached to the reservoir cap. The brakes require no adjustment, since the pisto'ns move outward to compensate for
lining wear.
CAUTION
I nstall wheel chocks and release the parking
brake if the airplane is to be left unattended.
Changes in ambient temperatures can cause the
brakes to release or exert excessive pressures.'
BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
The aft baggage compartmenl is accessible through the utility door on the left side of the fuselage. This area extends aft
of the rear seats to the rear bulkhead. Loading within ihe
baggage compartment must be in accordance with the data
in the WEIGHT AND BALANCE section. All baggage must be
secured with the nylon straps, which are provided in the
baggage compartment.
January 1978
7-13
<-
CLIMB - ONE ENGINE IN9PERATIVE
III
:::I
CLIMB SPEED
c::
8~
KNOTS (ALL WE!GHTS)
III
-<.....
<D
-..j
0>
EXAMPLE:
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
POWER....
LANCING GEAR....
FLAPS.
.•.
OAT •.•.••.•••.•..••••••••• _•••••••..•.••• 2S'C
PRESSURE AL nruOE............... .. . .... .3965FT .
WEIGHT ••••.•...•.•.•. _•••.•••• , • •• • .••. .3677 LBS
TAJ<E.QFF AT 2700 RPM
UP
UP
INOPERATIVE PROPELLER· FEATHERED
CO'M.. FlAPS..
. •.••• OPEN
MIXTURE..... .
. ..•••• FUlL RICH (ABOVE SOW FTLEAN TO
7S o ·IOO"FON RICH SIDE OF PEAKEGi)
RATE OF CliMB ..•••.•.•.•.••••••.• _ •••••.• 140 FfIMJN
ClIMBGRA01ENT .•••••••••••.••••••.•..••• 1.5%
CUMB SPEeD. _.......
..85 KTS
,
5
200,
~
,
".- Ii:
.
,,
'ffio
o ~
~
'r!
-,
-.
_5
,
..,
o... 0<D
3 =:
III 0
U1
I"r
"tI
<D
::1.1/)
-so
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
OuTSIDE AIR TEMPERAruRE -"C
30
40
50
""
""
3400.
3200
WEIGHt"': Y-OUNI?S
"'"
""
:::I :::I
g <
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
I
7-12B
August, 1980
i
I
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
SERVICE CEILING - ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE
CLIMB SPEED - 85 KNOTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
POWER.....
OAT AT MEA ••..•..•....•... , .-SoC
. ..•. MAXIMUM
ROUTE SEGMENT MEA .......•. 9700 FT
CONTINUOUS
AT 2700 RPM
WEIGIiT FOR sERVICE CEILING
AT ROUTE SeGMENT MEA .. " .3480 lBS
FLAPS •.• , .•...••••.•.••... UP
LANDING GEAR ..........•.. UP
INOPERATIVE PROPELLER ... FEATHERED
NOTE: S'ERVICE CEILING IS ALTITUDE wHERE AIRPlANE HAS CAPABJUlY
OF CLIMBING 50 FTIMIN WITH ONE PROPELlER FEATHERED.
20,000
15,000
(
~
w
w
,
~
"::;z
10,000
ill
0
w
0
'>
~
w
w
5000
SL
-~
-~
-40
-M
-w
-10
0
10
~
30
~
~
00
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE - ·C
5-34
January 1978
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
WARNING HORN SILENCE BUTTON
An optional gear warning horn silence button allows the
pilot to manually silence the warning horn with either
throttle retarded, the landing gear retracted, and the flaps
retracted above approximately 16°. The push-to-silence
button is located next to the landing gear control switch
and is placarded "GEAR HORN SILENCE". A red light in
the button illuminates when the gear horn silence system is
activated.
When either throttle is retarded sufficiently to activate the
gear warning horn, the horn may be silenced with the
button. If the other throttle is then retarded, the warning
horn will again sound and cannot be silenced. After a
single throttle has been retarded and the resulting warning
horn silenced with the button, readvancing the throttle
resets the warning horn and it will again sound when either
throttle is retarded. The warning horn is also reset when
the landing gear are lowered. When the flaps are extended
beyond approximately 16°, the button will not silence the
warning horn.
CIRCUIT BREAKER
The landing GEAR MOTOR circuit breaker and the landing
GEAR CONTROL circuit breaker are located on the right
subpanel. The circuit breakers are the pull-and-reset type
and will pop out under overload conditicns.
EMERGENCY EXTENSION
The landing gear can be manually extended by turning the
hydraulic pressure bypass valve 90° counterclockwise. The
valve is located under the access door on the floor in front of
the pilot's seat. When the system pressure is released, the
gear will fall into the down-and-Iocked position. The ·emergency extension procedure is outlined in the EMERGENCY
PROCEDURES section.
August, 1980
7-12A
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76 ,
Section V
Performance
CRUISE SPEEDS
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
AVERAGE CRurSE WEIGHT .. 3600 LES
TEMPERATURE ............. STD DAY (ISA)
PRESSURE ALTITUDE .. 6000 Fr
PQWERSETTING ...... 20 IN.HGI2300 RPM
TRUE AIRSPEED ...... 139.5 KTS
1·1
I
aooo
, c ti
,
:.,.
::,:
6000
.'
..d
,
4000
2000 -
,~
, r{!
.iflll ,i [~i i
S.L.
I
100
110
120
130
140
TRUE AIRSPEED -
January 1982
I~
I
150
160
170
KNOTS
5-35
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
SAFETY RETRACTION SWITCH
To prevent inadvertent retraction of the landing gear on the
ground, a safety pressure switch is installed in the pitot
system to deactivate the hydraulic pressure pump circuit
when the impact air pressure is below 59 to 63 knots.
WARNING
Never rely on the safety switch to keep the gear
down during taxi, take-off roll, or landing roll.
Always make certain that the landing gE'ar switch
handle is in the down position during these operations.
WARNING HORN
If either or both throttles are retarded below '3n engine setting
sufficient to sustain flight and the landing gear is retracted;"
the landing gear warning horn will sound intermittently. Also,
when the flaps are extended beyond approximately 16", the
warning horn will sound, regardless of throttle position, if the
landing gear is not down and locked.
IWARNING HORN "Q" SWITCH
An optional "Q" switch is available to prevent the gear
warning horn from sounding with the throttle(s) retarded
and the landing gear retracted. In order for the "Q" switch
to interrupt the gear warning horn, the airspeed must be
above 99 to 1'06 KIAS and ,the flaps must be retracted
above approximately 16".
7-12
August, 1980
-
MAXIMUM CRUISE POWER - 24.0 IN. HG @ 2700 RPM (OR FULL THROTTLE) .
ISA
PRESS
ALT
FEET
SL
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10.000
11.000
12.000
13.000
14.000
15.000
16.000
....
CO
~
IOAT
°C of
-3 27
,·5 23
-7 19
-9 16
·11 12
·12 10
7
·14
-16
3
-18
0
·20 -4
-22 -8
·24 -11
-26 -15
-28 -18
-31 -24
-33 -27
-35 -31
NOTES: 1.
2.
3.
4.
20°C ( 36°F)
FUEL
MAN.
FLOW!
PRESS ENGINE lAS
IN.HG PPH GPH KTS
24.0
67 11.1 156
24.0
68 11.3 156
24.0
68 11.3 156
24.0
69 11.5 156
24.0
69 11.5 157
24.0
70 11.7 157
23.5
70 11.7 156
22.6 . 68 11.3 153
21.8
65 10.8 150
20.9
63 10.5 147
20.2
61 10.2 144
19.4
59 9.8 141
56 9.3 138
18.6
17.9
54 9.0 134
172
52
8.7 131
16.6
50
B.3 127
15.9
48 8.0 124
TAS
KTS
151
153
155
158
160
163
164
164
163
162
161
160
159
157
156
154
152
STANDARD DAY (ISA)
FUEL
MAN. FLOW!
IOAT PRESS ENGINE lAS
°C of IN.HG PPH GPH KTS
17 63 24.0
65 10.8 152
15 59 24.0
65 10.8 152
13 55 24.0
66 11.0 152
11 52 24.0
66 11.0 152
9 48
24.0
67 11.2 153
8 46 24.0
68 11.3 153
6 43 23.5
68 11.3 152
4 39 22.6
65 10.8 149
2 36 21.8
63 10.5 146
0 32 20.9
61 10.2 143
-2 28 20.2
59 9.8 140
-4 25 19.4
57 9.5 136
-6 21
18.6
54 9.0 133
-8 18 17.9
52 8.7 130
-10 14 17.2
50 8.3 127
-12 10 16.6
48 8.0 123
-15
5 15.9
46 7.7 120
Fulllhrottle manifold pressure settings are approximate.
Shaded area repmsenls 9peration with full throttle.
Lean to 25° - 50°F on rich side of peak EGT.
Cruise speeds a,~e presented at an average weight of 3600 Ibs.
TAS
KTS
152
155
157
159
162
164
166
165
164
163
162
161
160
158
157
155
153
IOAT
°C of
37 99
35 95
33 91
31 88
30 86
28 82
26 79
24 75
22 72
20 68
18 64
16 61
14 57
12 54
10 60
8 46
6· 43
ISA + 20°C (+3SOF)
FUEL
MAN.
FLOW! .
PRESS ENGINE lAS
IN.HG PPH GPH KTS
24.0
62 10.3 148
24.0
63 10.5 148
24.0
63 10.5 148
24.0
64 10.7 148
24.0
65 10.8 149
24.0
65 10.8 148
23.5· 65 10.8 148
22.6
63 10.5 145
21.8
61 10.2 142
20.9
59 9;8 139
57
9_5 135
20.2
19.4
55 9.2 132
18.6
53 B.8 129
17.9
50 B.3 126
17.2
48 8.0 122
16.6
47 7.8 119
15.9· 45 7.5 115
TAS
KTS
153
156
158
161
163
165
167
166
165
164
163
162
161
159
157
155
153
ID
m·
em
co
n :J:
;'-0
111
:D
IS>
Of:!!
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
CONTROL SWITCH
The landing gear is controlled by a two-position switch located on the left subpanel. The switch handle must be pulled
out of the safety detent before it can be moved to the opposite position.
POSITION INDICATORS
-
The landing gear position indicator lights are located above
the landing gear switch handle. Three green lights, one for
each gear, are illuminated whenever the landing gear is
down and locked. The red light illuminates any time the
landing gear is in transit or in any intermediate position. All of
the lights will be extinguished when the gear is up.
Pressing the face of each landing gear position indicator light
will verify the landing gear lights are functional. The intensity
of the lamps can be controlled by turning the lens holder on
each lamp.
TIME-DELAY RELAY (ME-183 and after)
Landing gear retraction operation is protected by a timedelay relay which will disengage electrical power to the
hydraulic pump motor after 30 seconds of continuous pump
operation. If the landing gear in-transit light remains
illuminated, it indicates improper response of the landing
gear. The time-delay relay can be reset by moving the
landing gear switch handle to the down position. The
landing gear and retract system should be checked before
the next flight.
April 1979
7-11
o
Rt:COMMENDED CRUISE POWER - 24.0 IN. HG @ 2500 RPM (OR FULL THROTTLE)
ISA 20°C ( 36°F)
STANDARD DAY (ISA)
ISA + 20°C ( + 36°F)
PRESS
IOAT
ALT
°C OF
FEET
Sl ·3 27
1000 ·5 23
2000 -7 19
3000 -9 16
4000 -11 12
9
5000 -13
soOo -15 5
1
7000 -17
8000 -19 -2
-6
9000 -21
10,090 '-23 -9
11.000 '25 -13
12.000 -27 -17
13,000 -29 -20
14,000 -31 -24
15,000 -33 -27
16000 -35 -31
NOTES. 1.
2.
3.
4.
FUEL
MAN. FLOW!
PRESS ENGINE
IN.HG PPH GPH
24.0 . 61 10.2
24.0
62 10.3
24.0
63 10.5
64 10.7
24.0
24.0
64 10.7
24.0
65 10.8
,
66 11.0
23.6
2.2.7
63 10.5
61 10.2
21.9
21.0
59 9.8
57 9.5
20.2
19.4
55
9.2
18.7
53 8.8
'18.0
51
8.5
17.3
49 8.2
47 7.8
16.6
45
7.5
16.0
,
lAS
KTS
152
152
153
153
153
153
153
150
146
143
140
137
134
131
127
124
121
"('AS
KTS
147
149
152
154
156
159
161
150
159
158
157
156
155
153
152
150
148
MAN.
IOAT PRESS
°C OF IN.HG
17 63 24.0
15 59 24.0
13 55 24.0
11 52 24.0
9 48 24.0
7 45 24.0
6 ·43 23.6
"4 39 2.2.7
2 36 . 21.9
0 32 21.0
-3 27 20.2
-5 23 19.4
-7 19 1,8.7
-9 16 18.0
-11 12 . 17.3
-13
9 16.6
-15
5
16.0
FUEL
FLOW!
ENGINE
PPH GPH
59 9.8
60 10.0
61 10.2
61 10.2
62 10.3
63 10.5
~3 10.5
61 10."2
59 9.8
57 . 9.5
. 55 9.2
53 8.8
51
8.5
49
8.2
47 7.8
45 7.5
43 7.2
Full throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.
Shaded area represents operation with full throttle.
Lean to 25° • 50°F on rich side of peak EGT.
Cruise speeds are presented at an average weight of 3600 Ibs.
FUEL
MAN. FLOW!
PRESS ENGINE
IN.HG PPH GPH
57 9.5
24.0
24.0
58 9.7
24.0
58 9.7
59 9.8
24.0
24.0
60 10.0
61 10.;?
24.0
23.'s· .61 :10:2'
59 .. 9;S'
22.7
21.9 :5'1:' 9.5
21;0'-- 55 ~
53;; !.~8
20:2
lAS TAS
IOAT
KTS KTS °C OF
148 148 37 99
148 151 35 95
148 153 33 91
149 155 31 88
149 158' 29 64
149 160 2~ 82
148 lSi 26 "79
145 161 24 75
142 150 . 2.2 72
139 '.159 20' 68
136 158 18' 64
133 157 16 61
1~:~;"
130 .156 .14 .57 ,,18]:
126' 154 11 52 ·18.0.
123 152
9 48 17:.. 3
."
7 45 • 16.6 .
120 151
116 148
5 41 .'16.0
til
c: m
(1m
:To
CD::t
lAS
KTS
144
144
144
144
144
144
TAS
KTS
149
151
'54
156
159
161
1M' '163
141 ',62
1'38" :)61
135. '.160
132'
'r59
'~f. ~y 129· "l'SS
·"49 :-1.l.2· c12S )56
47 '7.8 122 155
'45' 7.5 118 153
44 '7.3 1.15 151
42 7.0 111 148
I:...,;0
0
0I;r>
:!I
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
(
WING FLAPS
The wing flaps are controlled by a three-position switch, UP,
OFF, and DOWN, located on the subpanel, to the right of the
control console. The switch must be pulled out of detent
before it can be repositioned. A dial-type indicator, located
adjacent to the flap switch, has position markings for UP, 1Do,
20 0 , ·and ON.
Limit switches automatically interrupt power to the electric
motor when the flaps reach the extremes of travel. Intermediate flap positions can be obtained by placing the threeposition switch in the OFF position during flap extension or
retraction.
Lowering the flaps in flight will produce the following effects:
Attitude - Nose Down
Airspeed - Reduced
Stall Speed - Lowered
When the. flaps. are..extended.beyond approximately. 160 , the
landing gear warning horn will sound (regardless of throttle
position) if the landing gear is not down and locked.
LANDING GEAR SYSTEM
The retractable tricycle landing gear is fabricated from magnesium castings and aluminum forgings. Retraction and extension of the gear is accomplished through the use of an
electrically driven Ilydraulic pump and hydraulic system terminating in a hydraulic actuator assembly mounted in each
wheel well. The landing gear may be hydraulically extended
or retracted, and may be lowered manually.
7-10
January 1978
-
RECOMMENDED CRUISE POWER - 24.0 IN.
@ 2300 RPM (OR FULL
TUD(1,TTI
<
9
7·
J
5
3
55
·52
48
45
41
37
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
23.7
'22.8
c:
III
to
aI
9.0
9.2
9:3
139
om
::l
..
84
81
53
54
55
56
Ill·
i;
~
29
27
24.0
24.0
24.0
24.0
NOTES: 1. Full throttle manifold pressure settings are approximate.
2. Shaded area represents operation with full throttle.
3. Lean to 25' - 50'F on rich side of peak EGT.
-!.'. Cruise speeds are presented at an average weight of 3600 Ibs.
CO
n :I:
:rO
CD:u
ilL
~/\',
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
The flight instruments are located on the instrument panel
directly in front of the piloi's seal. Available flight
instrumentation includes attitude and directional gyros,
airspeed, altimeter, turn coordinator, vert,ical speed, and
gyro pressure. The magnetic compass is mounted above
the instrument panel and the outside air temperature
indicator is located in the lower left corner of the windshield
(ME-1 through ME-440) or in the center of the windshieldl
above the compass (ME-441 and after). The clock is
mounted in ,the upper left portion of the instrument 'panel.
ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION
Most of the engine instruments are located in the center of
the instrument panel. This. group includes left and right
instruments for fuel quantity, fuel pressure, oil pressure, oil
temperature, cylinder head temperature, and load meters.
The alternator-out annunciator lights for' each alternator and
the test switch are located adjacent to the loadmeters. The
balance of the engine instruments, located above the left
subpanel, include a dual indicating manifold pressure gage,
tachometers, and a dual indicating exhaust gas temperature'
indicator. A dual indicating tachometer (ME-140 and after) is
offered as optional equipment in lieu of the two (left and
right) standard tachometer indicators.
GROUND CONTROL
The spring-loaded linkage from the nose gear to the rudder
pedals allows for nose wheel steering. Smooth turning is
accomplished by allowing the airplane to roll while depressing the appropriate rudder pedal. Sharper turns require light
brake pedal pressure on the depressed rudder pedal.
The minimum wing-tip turning radius of 27 feet 2 inches is
accomplished by using full steering, one brake, and differen·
tial power.
January 1982
7-9
I
<-
RECOMMENDED CRUISE POWER - 20.0 IN. HG @ 2300 RPM (OR FULL THROTTLE)
OlD
em
om
III
:l
e
::TO
(D;x
III
-<....
CD
00
N
MAN.
MAN.
IOAT
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
7.2
7.3
7.5
7.7
7.8
129
130
131
131
132
B.O 133
B.2 133
128
131
134
136
139
142
145
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
59
52
48
45
41
37
34
30
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
~o.o
FLOWI
ENGINE
lAS
40 6.7
41 6.B
42 7.0
42 7.0
43 7.2
44 7.3
45 7.5
46 7.7
47 7.B
48
123
124
125
126
127
127
12B
12B
129
NOTES: 1. Full throttle manifold pressure seHings are approximate.
2. Shaded area represents operation with full throHle.
3. Lean to 25° - 50°F on rich side 01 peak EGT.
4. Cruise speeds are presented at an average weight of 3600 Ibs.
::: 0
..... :0
0»
123
126
129 33
132 31
135 29
137 27
140 25
143 23
145 21
148
:!l
91
88
84
81
77
73
70
66
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
123
7.3 124
7.5 124
7.7 125
7.B
137
140
143
146
149
Section VII
Systems ~~~~~J
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
...z
-'
«
c...
I-
...
Z
::
::I
c.::
I."
Z
-'
«
u
c...
>I-
7-8
January 1978
,
I.
ECONOMY CRUISE POWER - 18.0 IN. HG @ 2100 RPM (OR FULL THROTTLE)
(II
J.
o
FUEL
IOAT
MAN.
FUEL
FLOWI
IOAT
MAN.
FLOWI
rOAT
ENG
14
11
8
4
1
·3
-6
·10
16.0
1a.O
16.0
16.0
16.0
16.0
18.0
18.0
16.0
16.0
18.0
32
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
'41
41
5.3
5.7
5.6
6.0
6.2
6.3
107
109
111
112
113
115
116
108
112
115
119
121
125
126
12
10
8
6
5
3
1
·1
·3
·5
54
50
47
43
40
37
33
30
26
23
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
30
31
32
33
35
38
37
38
39
39
40
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.8
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.5
6.5
6.7
110
111
112
113
124
127
130
134
23
21
19
17
15
90
86
83
79
76
73
69
66
62
59
55
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
1B.0
16.0
16.0
18.0
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
36
t-
III
I»
:J
0
I:
I»
...
I:
(")
o ::J:
'< NOTES: 1. Full throHle manifold pressure settings are approximate .
2. Shaded area represents operation with full throttle .
3.
Lean to 25° . 50°F on rich side or peak EGT.
CD
:l'(")
:II
....
'"II>
m
m
lJ:
VI
4. Cruise speeds are presented al an average weight of 3600 Ibs.
.-
-~.
»
;;l~
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
An emergency release button, incorporated in the system, is
located on the. left handle grip of the pilot's control wheel.
This button can be quickly depressed to deactivate the system in case of a malfunction in the system. The system will
remain deactivated only while the button is being held in the
depressed pOSition.
AILERON TRIM
The aileron trim control, located on the lower center console,
is provided to displace the ailerons for trimming purposes.
Displacement is maintained by cable loads imoosed. by the
trimmer.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
The stang~r.d..in?tj:i1.l11.~(i\,.pal]el consists of flight, navigation,
and, engine iristrti&1Ei.~'!s};:Jn the left, 'and an avioniCs section
on toe right.
The lower left subpanel contains the switches for control of
the battery and alternators, magneto/start and prime, lights,
environmental, and optional equipment. Also contained on
the left subpanel are the auxiliary fuel pump switches, instrument air gage, landing gear control switch and gear indicator
lights.
Located on the lower right subpanel are the rheostat
switches for the instrument flood and post lights, parking
brake control knob, flap switch, and flap position indicator. All
of the circuit breakers, that are associated with the various
placarded systems, are also located on the lower right subpanel.
January 1978
7-7:
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
-
Section V
Performance
INTENTiONALLY LEFT BLANK
January 1982
5-40A
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
RUDDER PEDALS
The standard installation provides a set of rudder pedals for
both the pilot and copilot. The main landing gear wheel
brakes are operated by applying toe pressure to either set of
rudder pedals.
TRIM CONTROLS
Trim tabs on the rudder and elevator are adjustable with the
controls that are mounted on the lower center console. The
trim tabs and controls are connected through closed cable
systems. Mechanical position indicators for each of the trim
tabs are integrated with their respective controls. Elevator
trim is accomplished through either the electric or manual
pitch trim system.
MANUAL ELEVA TOR TRIM
The manual elevator trim is actuated by a handwheellocated
between the pilot seats. An elevator tab position indicator is
located adjacent to the trim control handwheel. Forward rotation of wheel trims the airplane nose down, aft rotation trims
nose up.
ELECTRIC ELEVATOR TRIM
The electric elevator trim system is controlled by the ON-OFF
circuit-breaker-type switch located on the left subpane! and a
thumb switch located on the pilot's control wheel. The
ON-OFF switch must be in the ON position to operate the
system. The thumb switch is depressed and moved forward
for nose down, aft for nose up, and when released, returns to
the center OFF position. When the system is not being electrically actuated, the manual trim control wheel may be used.
7-6
January 1978
<.n
RANGE PROFILE -
,I,.
o
-cen
."
100 GALLONS
."
a- a.
STANDARD DAY (IS A)
OJ
., 0
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
WEIGHT,
_. _ 3916 LBS BEFORE ENGINE START
FUEL
.. AVIATION GASOLINE
FUEL DENSITY.
6,0 LBSfGAL
INITIAL FUEL LOADING., ..... , ... 100 US GAL (600 L8S)
COWL FLAPS.
" .. ,' CLOSED
MIXTURE,
. .. LEANED TO 2So-S0°F ON RICH
SIDE OF PEAK EGT
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.
POWER SeTIING
11,500 FT
FT/2500 RPM
RANGE.
737 NM
tu
3
::1
'"
::1
<
(')
."
20,000
w
~
~ 15,000
"5"
~ 10,000
::>
en
en
OJ
w
m
<r
0.
.....
CD
CO
N
om
1: (")
5000
(') :::t:
j'(")
lJ: :D
SL
In
SOD
550
600
6S0
700
750
800
850
RANGE - NAUTICAL MILES (ZERO WIND)
I
900
950
1000
~
0l:!1
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
AIRFRAME
The BEECHCRAFr Duchess 76 is an all-metal, low-wing,
twin-engine airplane with retractable tricycle landing gear.
The T-taiJ empennage assembly consists of a vertical
stabilizer and a top-mounted horizontal stabilizer.
SEATING ARRANGEMENTS
In the standard configuration the airplane is equipped with
two adjustable pilot seats and one rear fixed-bench seat. In
the optional configuration: split third and fourth seats are
installed to replace the fixed-bench seat. To adjust either of
the front seats, pull the release knob located below the left
forward seat corner (pull to the right, then up) and slide the
seat forward or aft, to the desired position. Each seat should
be locked securely in place, after adjustment. The backs of
all individual seats can be placed in any of three positions by
means of a lever located on the side of each seat. Headrests
are available for each of the individual seats. Outboard armrests, for the front seats, are attached to the cabin doors.
FLIGHT CONTROLS
CONTROL SURFACES
The control surfaces are bearing supported and operated
through conventional cable systems and push-pull rods terminating in bell cranks.
CONTROL COLUMN
The airplane is equipped with dual control columns for the
pilot and copilot. The control wheels are interconnected and
provide aileron and elevator control.
January 1978
7-5
I
ENDURANCE PROFILE - 100 GALLONS
<III
:l
C
III
~
...
~
OlD
c m
m
STANDARD DAY (ISA)
C)
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
WEIGHT ..
FUEL ........... .
FUEL DENSITY ... .
INITIAL FUEL lOADING .
COWL FLAPS .
.. ' 3916 LaS BEFORE ENGINE START
. AVIATION GASOLJNE
PRESSURE ALTITUDE ..
POWER SEITING
6.0 lBS/GAL
100 US GAL (600 LBS)
11,500 FT
FT/250a
ENDURANCE
.' ~~~~~g TO 2S '50'F ON
. 4.8 HAS
::T(')
<D :r
!:l (')
-...Ill
a»
"11
-f
o
MIXTURE,
RICH SIDE OF PEAK EGT
_:+~j.
,l~·;'
C"
DE
...... 20,000
I
I
~
'I
"
:--"_
=
--_I-!..-.......
.~'t"'-'~""-'
_- ,"'_
.:","
,---, ,.;,
"'. - -- !... ,.'-
w
il'
~ 15,000
:':
fl~31'-,
---'"'""'"';"
.::~:'':
.:~ :':.~:
",
_ _ _ _ _ '0- _,.,..._
~¥%;
a ---l'-" .' ·-4-"··
..• ..
~
p:!'& ,,~
~
i:
5
'" 10.000
•. -,
F;o"F'
::>
~
'"'"w
I
".. , . "
"
"KNOTS:!
::::H?,
~-
~
~1
,~
5000
~"",
----..,r=',
t"_
~
if
--,-'-r ---,-
"ANCE INCLUDES START, TAXI, CLIMB. AND
ENT, WITH 45 MINUTES RESERVE FUEL AT-+
... -"'-'0 ,CRUISE 20/2300.
_..
;v
:l.(J)
48"'"
o·
~
.~;
SL
'...
C.
o
1,0
2.0
3.0
4.0
,:r:': l§
-.. . -,:;;;.:t;:.~~"
5.0
6.0
ENDURANCE - HOURS
-10_0.:.:):e
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
o
3-.
<D
"
::0.
III 0
:l :l
Ii! <
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
(
(
7-4
January 1978
HOLDING TIME
APPLICABLE FOR ALL TEMPERATURES
EXAMPLE:
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
POWER SETIING .
. ...... 20 IN. HG OR FULL THROTILE
2300 RPM
MIXTURE"
...... ,FULL RICH IABOVE 5000 FT LEAN
TO 75° - 100'F ON AICH SIDE
OF PEAK EGTJ
10
,
9
B
,
"
,
,
"
w
5
'"15z
4
-'
0
»>
c:
..
J:
.j.
6
"
........ 3.3 HOURS
1.
0
;=
HOLDING TIME, ,
. 6000 FEET
I '
a: 7
::>
J:
, 50 GALLONS
FOR HOLDING . ..
PRESSURE ALTITUDE.
I
I,
"'
FUEL AVAILABLE
III
3
m
em
2
c: 0
IQ
n ::E:
c:
:To
C1I :u
I:l »>
r
o
10
20
30
40
50
60
FUEL REQUIREMENT - GALLONS
70
80
90
100
iil::!l
BEECHCRAFT .
Duchess 76
Section VII
Systems Description
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
SUBJECT
(
PAGE
Electrical System ............................................................ 7-26
Battery ......................................................................... 7-26
Schematic ................................................................... 7-27
Alternators ................................................................... 7-28
Starters ....................................................................... 7·29
Starter Engaged Warning Light ................................... 7-30
External Power ............................................................ 7-30
Lighting Systems
Interior Lighting ........................................................... 7-34
Exterior Lighting .......................................................... 7-34
Environmental Systems
Cabin Heating ............................................................. 7-35
Illustration .................................................................... 7-36
Heater Operation ......................................................... 7-37
Cabin Ventilation ......................................................... 7·38
Overhead Fresh Air Outlets ......................................... 7-38
Exhaust Vent. .............................................................. 7-39
Pitot and Static Systems ................................................. 7-39
Pitot System ......................................................., ........ 7-39
Pitot Heat... .............................................................. 7-39
Static System .............................................................. 7-40
Pressure System ............................................................ 7-40
Stall Warning System ...................................................... 7-41
August, 1980
7-3
Section V
Performance
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
TIME, FUEL, AND DISTANCE TO DESCEND
DESCENT SPEED - 170 KNOTS
ASSOCIATED CotmmONS:
~
POWER •••.••••• "
INmALAl.TrTUOE .....•..•.. 11.500FT
FINALALTlTUoe. .
. ..... 3965 FT
AS RECUIRED TO MAINTAIN
1000 FrIMIN RATE OF OESCENT
J..ANDING GEAR •••• UP
FlAPs....
UP
MIXTURE. • .
FUlL RICH (ABOVe SOOO FT LEAN TO
75' • l00"F ON RICH SIDE OF PEAl< EGT)
TIME TO DESCEND •••.••.•. ID - ... 8 MtNUTES
FUEL TO DESCEND .••••... 3.• - 1.3 .. 2.1 GAL
orSTANCETODESCEND •••. 32 - II .. 21NM
18,000
.
15,000
, '"
13,000
12,000
11,000
t:
10.000
• ""'"
0
E
:t ""
,"
•• "'"
•
w
[
'"""
'"'"
"""
'"'"
,"00
"'"
o
o
o
January 1978
5-43
Section VII
Systems Description
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
(
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
PAGE
SUBJECT
Baggage Compartment... ................................................ 7-13
Seats, Seat Belts, and Shoulder Harnesses
Seats ........................................................................... 7-14
Seat Belts .................................................................... 7-14
.Shoulder Harnesses.................................................... 7-15
Doors and Exits
Forward Cabin Doors .................................................. 7-15
Aft Utility Door ............................................................. 7-16
Emergency Exits ......................................................... 7-16
Control Lock ........................ ,........................................... 7-16
Engines ........................................................................... 7-17
Engine Controls .............................................................. 7-17
Throttle, Propeller, and Mixture ................................... 7-17
Engine Instrumentation ................................................... 7-18
Manifold Pressure Gage .............................................. 7-18
Exhaust Gas Temperature Indicator (EGT) ................. 7-18
Engine Break-in Information ........................................... 7-19
Engine Lubrication .......................................................... 7-19
Engine Ice Protection ...................................................... 7-19
Carburetor Heat .......................................................... 7-20
Induction Air .................................................................... 7-20
Cowl Flaps ...................................................................... 7-20
Starters ........................................................................... 7-20
Propellers ....................................................................... 7-21
Fuel System ............................................................., ...... 7-21
Fuel Tanks .................................................................. 7-22
Fuel Selector Valves ................... : ............................... 7-22
Schematic ................................................................... 7-23
Fuel Drains .................................................................. 7-24
Fuel Quantity Indicators .............................................. 7-24
Auxiliary Fuel Pumps ................................................... 7-24
Engine Priming ............................................................ 7-25
Fuel Crossfeed ........................................_........... :....... 7-25
Fuel Required for Flight..... ....................:................ 7-25
7-2
August, 1980
-
ASSOCLATEO CONOmoNS:
CLIMB - BALKED LANDING
.....TAKE-OFF AT 2100 APM
POWER ..
FLAPS.
CLIMB SPEED 71 KNOTS {ALL WEIGHTS}
...... DOWH(DN)
LAND.NG GEAR ...
......... DO\'{N
:.FULl RICH (ABOVE 5OC(I FT
LEAN TO 75·· 1000F ON RICH
SIDE OF PEAl( EGT)
MIXTURE.
E;XAMPLE;:
OAT.
PRESSUAE AI. T1TUOE .
WEIGHT ..
. .36nl6S.
RATEOFCUMB .•.
CLIMB GRADIENT ..
. 610FT/MIN
..e~
"
•
~
"
".,
~
.:l
>ow
~0
~
ID
3>0
_30
-20
-10
0
'0'
20
OUTSIQE AlA TEMPERATUAE -"C
30
«I
so
..
2
'00
"'"
-'~.
3400
"'"
WEIGHT - POUNDS
3000
"'"
2
"
."
-40
<
'"
"" ~,
"" a&
"'" ~
""
"'"
::I
III
"
''''''
soo
a-... [0
3
::I
"'"
'''''
"'"
"'"
-eo -so
~
.....
.25"C
.............. .•3965FT
m
em
co
g.x
CDo
fII::D
111)0
0
QI~
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION VII
SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
PAGE
Airframe ............................................................................ 7-5
Seating Arrangements .................................. ~.L .......... 7-5
FlightControls .. :.......................................... :..................... 7-5
Control Surfaces ........................................................... 7-5
Control Column .............................................................. 7-5
Rudder Pedals ............................................................... 7-6
Trim Controls ........................ ,........................................ 7-6
Manual ElevatorTrim ................................................. 7-6
Electric Elevator Trim ................................................. 7-6
Aileron Trim ............................................................... 7-7
Instrument PaneL ............................................................. 7-7
Illustration ................................................................. :.... 7'8·
Flight Instruments.. ,....................................................... 7-9
Engine Instrumentation ................................................. 7-9
Ground Control ................................................................. 7-9
Wing Flaps ............... ,...................................................... 7-10
Landing Gear System ..................... '" ............................. 7-10
Control Switch ............................................................. 7-10
Position Indicators ....................................................... 7-11
Time-delay Relay ........................................................ 7-11
Safety Retraction Switch ............................................. 7-11
~Jllilir)9 ~9r_~:.:: .. :: ...................................................... 7-~ 2
Warmng Horn Q Switch ........................................... 7· .2
Warning Horn Silence Button ..................................... 7·12A
Circuit Breaker .......................................................... 7 ·12A
Emergency Extension ............................................... 7-12A
Brakes ....................................... :................................ 7-13
August, 1980
7-1
c..
LANDING DISTANCE - FLAPS DOWN (ON)
eQI
APPROACH SPEED 76 KNOTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
QI
::::I
<
-,---
ASSOCIATEO CONDITIONS:
POWER...
. • RETARD TO MAINTAIN 600 fTlMIN
ON FINAL AI'PAQACH
FLAPS. •.. ••.
. DOWN (ON)
LANDING GEAR.
. DOWN
RUNWAY..
. ..• .pAVED, LEVEl., DAY SURFAce
APPROACH SPEED .. 76 KNOTS lAS
BRAKING..
. MAXIMUM
elD
em
n::T(')
m
EXAMPLE:
OAT .•.•••....•.
PRESSuREALnruoE
..•••..••.•••• 25·C
• ••••••••• _ •••••• 39S5FT
.•••..•• 9.5KTS
HEADWIND COMPONENT.
QFtQUNDROLL......
. •...••.•••••••••.••• 10SOFT
TOTALDVER50FT08STACLE..
. 1970FT
APPROACH SPEED.
. ...... _....••.•.. 16 KTS
CD
:t
!: (')
-01:0
"'>
:!I
""
m
,
"" w
I
'"
~
5-lC
... !l.
3 _
en
J:.
en
-~
-20
-~
-10
0
10
~
~
OlJTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE -"C
~
~
'"
Jl02030
WIND COMPONENT -KNOTS
OBSTAClE HEIGHT
- FEET
QI
0
:::I :::I
16 <
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section V
Performance
(
LANDING DISTANCE - FLAPS UP
APPROACH SPEED 8.7 KNOTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
EXAMPLE:
POWER ................. RETARD TO MAINTAIN
600 FT/MIN ON FINAL
APPROACH
FLAPS........
. ...... UP
LANDING GEAR. . .. . .... DOWN
RUNWAY. . .. .
. . PAVED. LEVEL
DRY SURFACE
APPROACH SPEED
B7 KNOTS lAS
BRAKING. .
. MAXIMUM
FLAPS ON LANDING
DISTANCE OVER
50FTOBSTAClE ............ 1970FT
FLAPS UP LANDING
DISTANCE OVER
50FTOBSTACLE............. 2700 FT
APPROACH SPEED ........... 87 KTS
NOTE: 1.LANDING WITH FLAPS FULL DOWN IS NORMAL PROCEDURE. USE THIS GRAPH
WHEN IT IS NECESSARY TO LAND WITH FLAPS UP.
2. TO DETERMINE FLAPS UP LA:.tP.'NG DISTANCE, READ FROM THE LANDING
DISTANCE - .
Gr.!':.. '.i. -:-HE LANDING DISTANCE APPROPRIATE TO
OAT. AL
50 FT OBSTACLE.: ENTER THIS GRAPH WITH
FLAPS UP LANDING DISTANCE.
c;
k.
(
1'1
I
w
d
4000
;0
§
Ii:
g
3000
a:
w
o>
w
~
2000
~
5
'"z
~
.::5
tO'OO
"-
:>
~
~
o
o
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
FLAPS ON LANDING DISTANCE OVER 50 FT OBSTACLE - FEET
5-46
August, 1980
(
',',
CIXYiFhYING SERVI"CE,'
;,.
I
DIIIVE ..... MUNICIPAL ,:A'tAPORT _
'. ,',
''''
K'ANSAS.ClTt, MISSOURI ("(116.,-, AII,EA
.'
WEIGHL&,!MLAI1JCF,;::'" ,'I
.,-'.
Beech 7q. ",:?r ~:.) :::r,ul
N-6712P .'.r· ..• J,.~ ~'i\2
Aircraft
fuel
3280,
- 600 1,:,0,',;,•. :
2680,
",
..
.
.'::.,.
-358832. 0 0~:':S
- 70200.0 .O~:.
6",plr
288632.0 /'II1/iM.
"
.. - '.'
.. ,
:.".,
"
"
: ..
\,'
~
.
Repair Station #1376
",I!"
~
.:':::;:::;, -~-~."'-::"''::''''';''';'- ~:::..:",·,,·.,'ky~~;·:i~{~.\ :);" -.'
- ....... :,
.
,.'.';. '.'
I........ ,';";. T .... ·
.---:-~-"-":--';
.i .
.,,,.....
"
,
,
,
',:.
~.~'.:f-.-.~.~ .. '
'.,' .
,'J';
II
·~,.\,'··I
.",
I
LANDING DISTANCE - GRASS SURFACE - FLAPS DOWN (ON)
:1"0
EXAMPLE:
POWER..
FlAPS.
. .• RETARD TO MAINTAIN 600 FTIMIN
ON FINAL APPROACH
OAT ' •.
PRESSURE ALTITUDE .
HEADWIND COMPONeNT
. .. OOWN (ON)
LANDING GEAR .. DOWN
RUNWAY,.
. .• SHORT, DRY, GRASS
APPROACH
SPEED .
BRAKING
. •. 76 KTS
.MAXIMUM
GROUND ROll.......
II :I:
. ..•.•••.•..•••• 2S"C
• ..•.•.••.•••• 3965 FT
.9.5 KTS
. ........•... '" .1250 FT
TOTALOVEA 50 FrOBSTACLE ••..•••••••••. 2150 FT
APPROACH SPEED
76 KTS
2500
2000
m
I
~
1500 !Q
c
1000
500
-40
_~
-20
_'0
0
10
W
E
OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE - 'C
~o
~
o
TO
~
em
c:: m
() m
APPROACH SPEED 76 KTS (ALL WEIGHTS)
ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS:
m
WINO COMF'ONENT
- KNOTS
0
~
OBSTACLE HEIGHT
- FEET
g:
0
-..I:I!
"'»
:!I
AIRPLANE WEIGHING FORM
Wheel
--_.--,.----.'
LeI!
/1. $-'1
Righi
/37-(
----, - .--
Sub-Tolal
7..lo)~
12,_7
Nose~
''1'i-
'-I'i-
------_..
_- ... -
------.--
... ---.-
-., 7- i3
Total
11I,1ot
---'.,--.'.
MEASUREMENTS:
.
: ... i
(Cross out words not applicable.)
A.
/7-7
inches.
Distance from datum to C/l main wheels_
B.
'-IT
inches.
Distance from datum to ell nose
•
'. ~C":
w~eel,
C.
iI /, 2.~
gr
R8S§l
WRQpt '9
(.'II~.'
~
.~.
ulll.
Center of gravity of aircraft as weighed.
inches.
Adjustment For Empty WeiglJ1;
Description
(as weighed)
Total
Weight
ARM
;, 2.0
11/,7-(
Moment
,<::/'13'1
USEABLE ONL Y
Main Fuel
Aux Fuel
_ .__
ItJ(j
.•.
Other Fuel
Total
NC Basic Weight
gal.
gal.
gal.
too
--------
-
J.Ci3
117
-
--
J (j
zoo
--'2.'1 1 737
3ft'
I
"'lrcr~T1
Weight & Balance
2372 Pepper Drive
:zs
WILLIAMP. LUDWIG
, P 545506798
Concord, CA 94520
(510) 798-3296
C.G.
WEIGHT REPORT
,-1-()-
Date
Name
Address
'711.
N
Datum is:
!lu:",f;",...
Telephone no- '-/'1-'1- 723'1
Po J3~x 1.:rO'; t i S.. ., f"'''h<'''~'''' ~cdi£ q'1/2.'i-
K:rv
P
/D3"
fwd o~ Ld""'7
8"frJ"r"'"
D
D
Fuel full
Empty
'I'r
0
Full
~
Full
J~
50010
Poml
RlNdlng
Loft
12. 'j-'I
,,.,+
,,,,q~f...
3
" .. _
+ Model _'"l:..oh~__
8u,~ ~ ... F
f/""..
Gal.
@SIbJGal.
Gal.
@S.7IbJGaI.
015.
@ 1.875 Ib.lOt.
Ibs. - unuseable fuel _~3L.._ Gal.!
Scale Weigh!
Neighing
Make
le'tJ .....1 ",,1;;c.
LaJ ...
Empty ~ Full
Turbin Fuel: . [] Empty
......:lil:
t1 E- 36"
SN
Leveling means:
Gas:
-
·T...
.~
Weighl
/1..'¥"1
.....
WL
·F....
L<i-
32.0
~
00
U_1e
""",.
No_
To"'l
9"(
1'3.'1-/
Vir
-£if:
IJ 2..1
-&
'3~n
Remarks:
t'-l'r
Em.... WL
.. "' ,(3
C, l'r
Ibs.
Ibs.
'2"
Ibs. =
Ibs.
,(10
Ale
.... WL
--
EnopIrWL
""'.
'H·}?
f/G~ -<--
Weight readings inJst be transferred to aircrllft manufacturefs approved weight and balance form to find
new empty weight C.G.
<f1fJ5:~
.1h
Ibs.
3'100
:2
,5'3
.1
1- '-/ 7
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION VI
WEIGHT AND BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
PAGE
Airplane Weighing Procedure ......................................... 6-3
Basic Empty Weight and Balance Form ........................ 6-7
Loading Instructions ........................................................ 6-8
Weight and Balance Record ................ :......................... 6-9
Moment Limits vs Weight Graph .............. :... :.............. 6-12
Moment Limits vs Weight Table ................................... 6-13
Computing Procedure .................................................. 6-14
Sample Weight and Balance Loading Form ............ 6-15
Weight and Balance Loading Form ......................... 6-16
Useful Load Data
Occu pants .................................................................. 6-17
Baggage .................................................................... 6-18
Usable Fuel ................................................................ 6-19
Airplane Papers (furnished with individual airplane)
August. 1980
6-1
,
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
6-2
January 1978
(
Equipment List
Model: 76
Serial No. ME-liS
REG NO. N6712P
Status Of Equipment X: Installed in Airphme
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
DATE: May 20, 1999
0: Nol installed in Airplane
Item
Miscellaneous Equipment
Weight
King KR-86 ADF System
6.l
1.7
King KMA-24 Audiol Marker Panel
King KX-155 NAVI COMM with Glidslope
King KX-155 NAV! COMM without Glideslope
King IIT-76A Transponder
King KI 209 ILSNOR Indicator
King KI 208 LOCI VOR Indicator
King KN -6l DME System
5.50
4.95
l.1
1.2
1.0
l.6
Trans-Callndustries SSD 120 Eucoder
1.0
NAT AA80~01lnte=m System
King KA l3 Cooling Fan
1.0
1.25
NOTE: Aircraft was weighed en 5-20-1999 with the above equi.pment installed. new empty weight
aod EWCG determinud.
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VI
Wt and 8al/Equip List
AIRPLANE WEIGHING PROCEDURE
Periodic weighing of the airplane may be required to keep·
the basic empty weight current. Frequency of weighing is to
be determined by the operator. All changes to the airplane.
affecting weight and/or balance are the responsibility of the
airplane operator.
1. The airplane may be weighed on wheels oron weighing
points. Two weighing points are provided on the wing main
spar at F.S. 129.37, and one on the lower aft fuselage tail
skid aft attach point at F.S. 278.61.
2. Fuel is normally drained preparator} to a weighing
from the regular drain ports while th'e airplane is in static
ground attitude. When tanks are drained, 1.6 pounds of
undrainable fuel remain in the airplane at F.S. 124.8. The
remainder of the unusable fuel to be added to a drained
system is 18.0 pounds at F.S. 123.0. If the airplane is
weighed with fuel tanks topped off full, the fuel specific
weight (pounds/gallon) should be determined by using a
hydrometer. Compute total fuel weight by multiplying measured specific weight by 100 gallons. Fuel moment is determined by interpolation from fuel table.
3. Engine oil is to be at the full level as indicated by the
dipstick. Total engine oil aboard when engines and systems
are full is 37 pounds at F.S. 75.4
4. To determine airplane configuration at time of weighing, installed equipment is checked against the airplane
equiprrrent list or superseding forms. All equipment must
be in its proper place during weighing.
5. The airplane weighing is performed with landing gear
down, control surfaces in neutral position and doors
closed.
January 1978
6-3
,
Section VI
Wt & Sal/Equip list
SEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
6. The airplane is placed on the scales in level attitude.
Leveling is accomplished with a spirit level on the aft baggage compartment floor. Leveling while on weighing
points may require the nose gearshock strut to be secured
in the static position to prevent its extension. Wheel weighings can be leveled by deflating the nose gear shock strut
and/or tire.
7. Measurement of the reaction arms for a wheel weighing
is made using the wing jack point at F.S. 129.37forajig point.
While the airplane is level on the scales, linear measurements
are taken from the reference (a plumb bob hanging from the
center of either wing jack point) to the axle centerline of the
main gear and then from the main wheel axle centerline to
the nose gear axle centerline. The main wheel axle centerline
is best located by stretching a string from one wheel to the
other. All measurements are to be taken with the tape level
with the floor and parallel to fuselage water lines. The location of the wheel reactions will be approximately at F.S. 132
for the main wheels and F.S. 47 for the nose wheel.
8. The wing and fuselage weighing points are used by
placing scales on the points as specified in Step 1. Since the
center of gravity of the airplane will be forward of the weighing points at F.S. 129.37, the tail reaction of the rear weighing
point at F.S. 278.61 will be in an up direction. This can be
measured on regular scales by placing ballast of approximately 400 pounds on the scale to which the rear weighing
point adapter is attached by cable or adjustable chain (may
be used for leveling). The up reaction will be the total ballast
weight minus the scale reading and is entered in the weighing form as a negative quantity.
9. The basic empty weight and moment are determined on
the basic empty weight and balance form. Items weighed
6-4
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section. VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
USEFUL LOAD WEIGHTS AND MOMENTS
USABLE FUEL
ARM 117;0
GALLONS
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
January 1978
WEIGHT
LBS
MOMENT
60
120
180
240
300
360
420
480
540.
600
70
140
211
281
351
421
491
562
632
702
100
6-19
Section VI
Wt & Sal/Equip List
SEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
which are not part of the basic empty weight are subtracted.
i.e. usable fuel. Engine oil and unusable fuel are added if not
already in the airplane.
10. Weighing should be made in an enclosed area which is
free from air currents. The scales used should be properly
calibrated and certified.
-
F
--r-S7.GS"l
F.S~!
l.E. MAC
F.S.
J4BS
,MAC
99.0a~
F.S.
~
126.0
•
/7~
l~~.O
I
.y: .. -_. .
GB,O:
-0.75
--i
.
114.0-
.
t.J====;::r:=~~2~::!::S;l;'EV;;;E;':UNG LOCATION
(BAGGAGE FLOOR)
WING JACK
POINTS
F.S. 129.37
(JIG POINT)
January 1978 .
AFT AEACTION
POINT
F.S.276.61
6-5
. BEECH CRAFT
Section VI
WI & Bal/Equip List
Duchess 76
USEFUL LOAD WEIGHTS AND MOMENTS
BAGGAGE
ARMhs7
WEIGHT
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
6-18
MOMENT
100
17
33
50
67
84.
100
117
134
150
167
184
200
217
234
251
267
284
301
317
334
-
January 1978
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
6-6
January 1978
/
I
(
..
nl"1'"
IE," "ITS
• SEATS
'AFT POS.
"FWD POS.
WEIGHT
t~"~~
-;
tARM
u105
ARM
""'112
COl
3RD AND' TH SEATS
STD.
ARM
ARM
-*142
""144
em
I') m
c:
rn
m
."
c:
MOMENT/l00
120
'25
130
135
140
146
150
156
160
'66
177
170
'87
180
198
190
208
200
218'
210
228
220
239
230
240
250
260
250
t Effective ME-I thru ME-20
126
137
147
'58
168
'7~
189
200
210·
220
23~
241
252
262
134
146
157
'66
'79
'90
202
213
224
235
246
258
269
280
fIl
'70
185
'99
213
227
241
256
270
284
298
312
327
341
35S
173
'87
202
216
230
245
259
274
288
302
317
331
346
360
.
Values computed from a C.G. criterion based on a 170 pound male. Differences in physical characteristics can cause
variation In center of gravity location.
0
.... :D
"':1>
~
r
tt Effective ME-21 and after
Reclining seat with back in full-up position
..
16°
CII. ::I:
-r
0
:I>
C
::em
G5
::I:
-i
rn
»
z
C
==
0
==
m
~
en
§
II<>
IXI
III
""men
_.....0
.aID
e
"C
0·
<
.r.... r~
Co.
~
C
III
-<
DUCHESS
76
STRUT POSITION
EXTENDED
COMPRESSED
AIRCRAFT BASIC E.MPTY WEIGHT AND BALANCE
SER. NO.
REG. NO.
DATE _ _ _ __
NOSE
46.4
479
REACTION
WHEEL - JACK POINTS·
LEFT MAIN
RIGHT MAIN
NOSE OR TAIL
TOTAL (AS WEIGHED)
MAIN
126.8
1335
JACK POINT LOCATION
FORWARD
12937
AFT
27861
SCALE
READING
TARE
PREPARED BY
Company _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
S·Ignature
NET WEIGHT
001
c m
o m
::r()
.,m()J:
-..j:IJ
all>
ARM
~
MOMENT
Space below provided for additions and subtractions to as weighed condition.
~
Qo
01
III
EMPTY WEIGHT
ENGINE OIL
UNUSABLE FUEL
BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT
37
20
75.4
123.2
2790
2464
.::::
mfll
.a CD
E!l
o·
"0
r:::l
...iir <-
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
(
WEIGHT AND BALANCE LOADING FORM
MODEL DUCHESS 76
SERIAL NO. _ _ _ __
ITEM
DATE _ _ _ _ __
REG. NO. _ _,---_
WEIGHT
MOM/l00
1. BASIC EMPTY CONDITION
2. FRONT SEAT OCCUPANTS
3. 3rd & 4th SEAT OCCUPANTS
OR BENCH SEAT OCCUPANTS
4.
5. AFT BAGGAGE
6. SUB TOTAL ZERO FUEL
CONDITION (3500 LBS MAX.)
7. FUEL LOADING (
gaL)
8. SUB TOTAL
RAMP CONDITION
9. 'LESS FUEL FOR START.
TAXI, AND TAKEOFF
10. SUB TOTAL
TAKE-OFF CONDITION
11. LESS FUEL TO
DESTINATION
12. LANDING CONDITION
(
'Fuel for start, taxi, and takeoff is normally 16 Ibs at an average
mom/100 of 19.
6-16
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
(.
NOTE
Each new airplane is delivered with a completed
sample loading, basic empty w~ight and center
of gravity, and equipment list, all pertinent to that
specific airplane. It is the owner's responsibility
to ensure that changes in equipment are reflected in a new weight and balance and in an
addendum to the equipment list. There are many
ways of doing this; it is suggested that a running
tally of equipment changes and their effect on
basic empty weight and c.g. is a suitable means
for meeting both requirements.
The current equipment list and basic empty
weight and c.g. information must be retained
with the airplane when it changes ownership.
Beech Aircraft Corporation cannot maintain this
information; the current status is known only to
the owner. If these papers become lost, the FAA
will require that the airplane be re-weighed to
establish the basic empty weight and c.g. and
that an inventory of installed equipment be conducted to create a new equipment list.
(
It is recommended that duplicate copies of the
Basic Empty Weight and Balance sheet and the
Equipment List be made and kept in an alternate
location in the event the original handbook is
misplaced.
LOADING INSTRUCTIONS
It is the responsibility of the airplane operator to assure that
the airplane is properly loaded. At the time of delivery, Beech
Aircraft Corporation provides the necessary weight and balance data to compute individual loadings. All subsequent
changes in airplane weight and balance are the responsibility of the airplane owner and/or operator.
6-8
August, 1980
(
'.
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
The 'following Sample Loading chart is presented to depict the
sample method of computing a load, Weights used DO NOT reflect
an actual airplane loading.
'
WEIGHT AND BALANCE LOADING FORM
MODEL DUCHESS 76
SERIAL NO. ME-DO
ITEM
DATE 0/0/00 '
REG. NO. NXXXXX
WEIGHT
MOM/100
2543
340
2775
380
340
93
490
155
1. BASIC EMPTY CONDITION
2. FRONT SEAT OCCUPANTS
3. 3rd & 4th SEAT OCCUPANTS
OR BENCH SEAT OCCUPANTS
4.
5. AFT BAGGAGE
6. SUB TOTAL ZERO FUEL
CONDITION (3500 LBS MAX.)
7. FUEL LOADING (100 gaL)
B. SUBTOTAL
RAMP CONDITION
9. 'LESS FUEL FOR START.
TAXI. AND TAKEOFF
10. SUB TOTAL
TAKE-OFF CONDITION
11. LESS FUEL TO
DESTINATION (BO gaL)
12. LANDING CONDITION
=~
-
3316,
600
'3800
702
3916
4502
-16
-19
3900
4483
-480
3420 '
-562
3921
'Fuel for start. taxi, and takeoff is normally 16 Ibs at an average
mom/100 of 19.
January 1978
6-15
WEIGHT AND BALANCE RECORD
c..
D>
j
C
SERIALNO
OlD
REGISTRATION NO
D>
PAGE NO
WEIGHT CHANGE
..c!
DATE
ITEM NO.
OUT
.IN
DESCR IPTION OF ARTICLE
OR CHANGE
RUNNING BASIC
ADO ED (+1 OR REMOVEO (·1
EMPTY WEIGHT
WT
ARM
WT
(LBSI
(IN.I
-100
MOM
(LBSI
-100
MOM
c: m
om
';j(")
(1) ::t
III (")
"-1:0
OIl>
:!l
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76 "
COMPUTING
PROCEDURE
,
1. Record the Basic Empty Weight and Moment from the
Basic Empty Weight and Balance form (or from the "latest
superseding form) under the Basic IOmpty Condition block. "
The moment must be divided by 100 to correspond to Useful
Load Weights and Moments tables.
2. Record the weight and corresponding moment from the
appropriate table of each of the useful load items (except
fuel) to be carried in the airplane.
3. Total the weight column and moment column. The
SUB-TOTALS are the ZERO FUEL CONDITION.
4. Determine the weight and corresponding moment for
the total fuel loading to be used. Add the Total Fuel Loading
Condition to Zero Fuel Condition to obtain the SUB-TOTAL
Ramp Condition.
5. Subtract the fuel to be used for start and taxi to arrive at
the SUB-TOTAL Take.-off Condition.
6. Subtract the weight and moment of the FUEL TO DESTINATION from the take-off weight and moment. (Determine
the weight and moment of this fuel by subtracting the
amount on board at landing from the amount on board at
takeoff.) The Zero Fuel Condition, the Take-off Condition and
the Landing Condition moment must all be within the
minimum and maximum moments shown on the Moment
Limits vs Weight graph or table for that weight. If the total
moment is less than the minimum moment allowed, useful
load items must be shifted aft or forward load items reduced.
If the total moment is greater than the maximum moment
allowed, useful load items must be shifted forward or aft load
items reduced. If the quantity or location of load items is
changed,the calculations must be revised and the moments
rechecked.
6-14
January 1978
(
WEIGHT AND BALANCE RECORD
m
•
o
SERIAL NO
REGISTRATION NO
PAGE NO
WEIGHT CHANGE
DATE
ITEM NO.
DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLE
ADDED (+} OR REMOVED (.}
RUNNING BASIC
EMPTY WEIGHT
IN
OR CHANGE
WT
(LBS}
WT
(LBS}
OUT
ARM
(IN.}
.- ......,
I
MOM
100
MOM
100
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
MOMENT LIMITS vs WEIGHT
WEIGHT
POUNDS
-
MOMENT/l00
FWD
AFT
LIMIT
LIMIT
WEIGHT
POUNDS
MOMENT/l00
FWD
AFT
LIMIT
LIMIT
2300
2325
2350
2375
2400
2452
2479
2505
2532
2558
2703
2732
2761
2791
2820
3125
3150
3175
3200
3331
3358
3385
3411
3672
3701
3731
3760
2425
2450
2475
2500
2585
2612
2638
2665
2849
2879
2908
2938
3225
3250
3275
3300
3438
3465
3496
3528
3789
3819
3848
3878
2525
2550
2575
2600
2692
2745
2772
2967
2996
3026
3055
3325
3350
3375
3400
3560
3592
3624
3656
3901
3936
3966
3995
2625
2650
2675
2700
2798
2825
2852
2878
3084
3114
3143
3173
3425
3450
3475
3500
3688
3720
3753
3785
4024
4054
4083
4113
2725
2750
2775
2800
2905
2932
2958
2985
3202
3231
3261
3290
3525
3550
3575
3600
3817
3850
3882
3915
4142
4171
4201
4230
2825
2850
2875
2900
3012
3038
3065
3091
3319
3349
3378
3408
3625
3650
3675'
3700
394_8
3981
4014
4047
4259
4289
4318
4348
2925
2950
2975
3000
3118
3145
3171
3198
3437
3466
3496
3525
3725
3750
3775
3800
4080
4113
4146
4179
4377
4406
4436
4465
3025
3050
3075
3100
3225
3251
3278
3305
3554
3584
3613
3643
3825
385 9
3875
3900
4213
42,f6
4280
4313
4494
4524
4553
4583
271~,
January 1978
-,
-
6-13
Section VI
Wt & Sal/Equip List
SEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
The basic empty weight and moment of the airplane at the
time of delivery are shown on the airplane Basic Empty
Weight and Balance form. Useful load item~ which may be
loaded into the airplane are shown on the Useful Load
Weight and Moment tables. The minimum and maximum
·moments are shown on the Moment Limits vs Weight graph
or table. These moments correspond to the forward and aft
center of gravity flight limits for a particylar weight. All moments are divided by 100 to simplify computations.
F.S.
-
PILOT &
F.PASS
FWD pas
AFT POS
105
112
3RD & 4TH
SEAT PASS-Hi
OR
BENCH SEAT 142
I
NOTE
THE FLOOR STRUCTURE LOAD LIMIT IS
100 POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT.
ALL BAGGAGE/CARGO MUST BE SECURED.
IT=> EQUIPMENT
MAXIMUM WEIGHT 200 POUNDS INCLUDING
AND BAGGAGE
76·603·8
August, 1980
6-11
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VI
Wt & Bal/Equip List
MOMENT LIMITS VS WEIGHT
3900
"0
1-:1--.;c;:,,~,;:;;i''''··l--'4'''';c··-'::::\'-r+±:;-,-r-:t--<-r-----+'''"1=I-'''---f''"-1I:::f.·t··;-'-··-7--'600
o
P-C'-
'"'.: J'
~MAXi'''fuM iERO 3500
fUEL WEIGHT
"
'
0
0
;)soo
<:
~
~
0
~
J
,',
"'00'
"
1-
"."
'.
-:...
00
.",
.
',....
:----..
,-,
;]1°0
"'-
r-...
.",,)<'00
"00
'C
'-
"'-
"'-
1.
,<
'"''-
'-
'---L,-;';-,f-'\'-----T.'c;-!-;fn'---'i\;;-'-----b'LN,fZ-'--M"'J'--"
106 108
110 112
114
116 118
00
CENTER OF GRAVITY INCHES AFT OF DATUM
ENVELOPE BASED ON THE FOLLOWING WEIGHT AND
CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMIT DATA (LANDING GEAR DOWN)
WEIGHT CONDITION
::1900 POUNDS IMAX. TAKE-OFF/LANDING)
325D P DUNOS OR LESS
6·12
FWD C. G. LIMIT
AFT C. G. LIMIT
110.6
106.6
117.5
117.5
January 1978
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION VIII
HANDLING, SERVICING
AND MAINTENANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
PAGE
Introduction to Servicing ................................................... 8-3
Publications ...................................................................... 8-4
Airplane Inspection Periods ............................................... 8-4
Preventive Maintenance That May Be Accomplished
By a Certificated Pilot .................................................... 8-5
Alterations or Repairs to Airplane ...................................... 8-5
GROUND HANDLING ...................................................... 8-6
Towing .............................................................................. 8-6
Parking ............................................................................. 8-6
Tie-Down .......................................................................... 8-7
Jacking ............................................................................. 8-8
Prolonged Out of Service Care ......................................... 8-8
Flyaple Storage - 7 to 30 Days .................................... 8-8
External Power ............................................................... 8-11
SERViCiNG .................................................................... 8-13
Fuel System ................................................................... 8-13
Fuel Tanks .................................................................. 8-13
Fuel Drains .................................................................. 8-13
Fuel Strainers .............................................................. 8-14
Oil System ...................................................................... 8-14
Battery ............................................................................ 8-16
Tires ................................................................................ 8-17
Shock Struts ................................................................... 8-18
January 1978
8-1
Duchess BE-76
Multi Engine Air Start
A. Fuel Selector .................................. ON
B. Throttle .......................................... Set
C. Aux Fuel pump ................................ ON
D. Magneto .............. ' ......................... Both
E. Airspeed ....................................... 1OOKTS
F. Prop control ................................ ' .. FULL
forward until engine windmills, then back to Mid
range.
G. Oil pressure .................................... Above red
radial
H. Mixture .......................................... FULL rich
L Throttle ........................................ 15"MAP
J. Propeller ....................................... 2300
K. Aux fuel pump ................................ Off
l. Alternator switch ............................. ON
M. Oil temp and oil pressure .................. Check
N. Cylinder Head Temp ........................ 200'F
O. Carburetor Heat ............................... OFF
P. Power ..... ' .....................................As required
and trim.
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
SUBJECT
PAGE
Brakes ................................................. '"'''''''''''''''''''''''' 8-20
Induction Air Fillers ......................................................... 8-20
'Instrument Air Filter ......................................................... 8-21
Propellers ....................................................................... 8-22
Propeller Dome Air Pressure Setting ........................... 8-22
Propeller Blade Bearing Lubrication ............................ 8-23
MINOR MAINTENANCE ................................................. 8-23
Cabin Heater. .................................................................. 8-23
Alternators ...................................................................... 8-24
Magnetos ........................................................................ 8-25
Cleaning ....................................... ""."" ... "."" .. """"." .. 8-26
Exterior Painted Suriaces ............................................ 8-26
Windshield and Windows ............................................ 8-27
Engine ......................................................................... 8-28
Interior ............................................................. " .......... 8-28
Lubrication Points .............................. "'"'''''''''''''''''''''''' 8-30
Recommended Servicing Schedule ................................ 8-38
Consumable Material s .................................................... 8-46
Approved Engine Oils ..................................................... 8-48
Lamp Bulb Replacement Guide ...................................... 8-51
Overhaul and Replacement Guide .................................. 8-52
Wing Structure Inspection Schedule ............................... 8-55
8-2
January 1982
(
Duchess BE-76
MULTI-ENGINE MANEUVERS
VMC DEMONSTRATION
1. Breakers .............................. visually check
2. Trim .................................... set
3. Fuel selectors ........................ on
4. Cowl flaps ..... , ........................ Ieft closed, right open
5. CARB heats .. , ........................ Ieft on, right off
6. Throttles ................................. both 15"
7. Landing gear. ................... ' ..... up
8. AUX pumps ............................ on
9. MAGS and masters .................. both on
10. Flaps ..................................... up
11. Mixtures ................................. both rich
12. Props .................................... both full forward
13. Throttles ................................. Ieft idle, right full open
while maintaining directional control using rudder pressure
with maximum 5 degrees of bank towards the good
engine
14. Establish 85 knots
15. Right hand on the good throttle
16. Start increasing back pressure slowly at about one knot
per second
17.At first sign of loss of directional control, good throttle back
to idle, simultaneously relax back pressure to a negative
angle of attack
18.As airplane recovers from VMC, advance good throttle
half way until reaching 71 knots (Vsse), then full forward
as you recover to straight and level flight, remember to
increase rudder pressure as throttle is advanced.
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICING
The purpose of this section is to outline the requirements for
maintaining the airplane in a condition equal to that of its
original manufacture. This information sets the time
frequency intervals at which the airplane should be taken to
a BEECHCRAFT Aero or Aviation Center or International
Distributor or Dealer for periodic servicing or preventive
maintenance.
I
The Federal Aviation Regulations place the responsibility for
the maintenance of this airplane on the owner and the
operator, who must ensure that all maintenance is done by
qualified mechanics in conformity with all airworthiness requirements established for this airplane.
All limits, procedures, safety practices, time limits, servicing
and maintenance requirements contained in this handbook
are considered mandatory.
Authorized BEECHCRAFT Aero or Aviation Centers or
International Distributors or Dealers can provide
recommended modification, service, and operating
procedures issued by both the FAA and Beech Aircraft
Corporation, which are designed to get maximum utility and
safety from the airplane.
If a question should arise concerning the care of the airplane,
it is important to include the airplane s·erial number in any
correspondence. The serial number appears on the model
designation placard, attached to the right side of the fuselage
adjacent to the inboard end of the flap. The placard is visible
when the flaps are lowered.
April 1979
8-3
I
Duchess BE-76
MULTI-ENGINE MANEUVERS
FLOW CHECKLIST
Power Off Stall
1. Breakers ................................ Visually Checked
2. Trim .............................................................. Set
3. Fuel Selectors ...................................... Both On
4. Cowl Flaps ..................................... Both Closed
5. Carb Heat ............................................ Both Off
6. Throttles ................................................. 15" MP
7. Landing Gear ................ Down Below 140 KIAS
8. Aux Pumps .......................................... Both On
9. Mags & Masters ................................. Both/Both
10. Flaps ........................... Down in 10* Increments
11. Mix .............................................. Both Full Rich
12. Props ............. Both High RPM Below 100 KIAS
13. Throttles .............................................. Both Idle
14. Yoke ................................ Relax Back Pressure
15. Throttles ........... Both Slow Advance to 71 KIAS
16. Throttles ........................ Both Full After 71 KIAS
PowISr 011 StaB!
1. Breakers ................................ Visually Checked
2. Trim .............................................................. Set
3. Fuel Selectors ...................................... Both On
4. Cowl Flaps ....................................... Both Open
5. Carb Heat ............................................ Both Off
6. Throttles ................................................. 12" MP
7. Landing Gear ................................................ Up
8. Aux Pumps .......................................... Both On
9. Mags & Masters ................................. Both/Both
10. Flaps .............................................................. 0*
11. Mix .............................................. Both Full Rich
12. Props ............. Both High RPM Below 100 KIAS
13. Throttles ..................... Hold Power Til -75 KIAS
14.Yoke .................................................... Pitch Up
15.Throttles ................................................. 21" MP
16. Yoke ................................. Pitch Down at Buffet
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
(
PUBLICATIONS
I
The following publications are available through
BEECH CRAFT Aero or Aviation Centers or International
Distributors or Dealers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
-
I
Maintenance Manual
Parts Catalog
Wiring Diagram Manual
Continuous Care Inspection Guide
1DO-Hour Inspection Guide
Service Instructions
-
Neither Service Publications, Reissues, nor
Revisions are automatically provided to the
holder of this handbook. For information on how
to obtain "Revision Service" applicable to this
handbook, consult a BEECHCRAFT Aero or
Aviation Center or International DistriblJtor or
Dealer or refer to the latest revision of
BEECHCRAFT Service Instructions No. 0250010.
AIRPLANE INSPECTION PERIODS
1. FAA Required 1DO-Hour and/or Annual Inspections.
2. ContinuolJs Care Inspection Guide.
3. See "Recommended Servicing Schedule" and "Overhaul or Replacement Schedule" for further inspection
schedules.
4. Check the wing bolts for proper torque at the first 100
hour inspection and at the first 100 hour inspection after each
reinstallation of th!3 wing attach bolts.
8-4
April 1979
,/"
(
.
Duchess BE-76
MULTI-ENGINE MANEUVERS
FLOW CHECKLIST
Steep Turns
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Breakers ................................ Visually Checked
Trim .............................................................. Set
Fuel Selectors ...................................... Both On
Cowl Flaps .......................................... Both Half
Carb Heat ............................................ Both Off
Throttles ................................................. 15" MP
Props ............................................... 2300 RPM
7. Landing Gear ................................................ Up
8. Aux Pumps .......................................... Both On
9. Mags & Masters ................................. Both/Both
10. Flaps .............................................................. O'
11. Mix .............................................. Both Full Rich
12.Throttles .............. As Req to Maintain 120 KIJI,S
Slow Flight
1. Breakers ................................ Visually Checked
2. Trim .............................................................. Set
3. Fuel Selectors ...................................... Both On
4. Cowl Flaps ....................................... Both Open
5. Carb Heat ............................................ Both Off
6. Throttles ................................................. 15" MP
7. Landing Gear ................ Down Below 140 KIAS
8. Aux Pumps .......................................... Both On
9. Mags & Masters ................................. Both/Both
10.Flaps ........................... Down in 10' Increments
11. Mix .............................................. Both Full Rich
12. Props ............. Both High RPM Below 100 KIAS
13. Throttles ................ As Req to Maintain 80 KIAS
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE THAT MAY BE ACCOMPLISHED BY A CERTIFICATED PILOT
1. A certificated pilot may perform limited maintenance.
Refer to FAR Part 43 for the items which may be accomplished. To ensure proper procedures are followed, obtain a
BEECHCRAFT Duchess 76 Maintenance Manual before
performing preventive maintenance.
2. All other maintenance must be performed by licensed
personnel.
NOTE
Pilots operating airplanes of other than U. S.
registry should refer to the regulations of the
country of certification for information on preventive maintenance that may be performed by
pilots.
ALTERATIONS OR REPAIRS TO AIRPLANE
The FAA should be contacted prior to any alterations on the
airplane to ensure that the airworthiness of the airplane is not
violated.
NOTE
Alterations or repairs to the airplane must be
accomplished by licensed personnel.
January 1978
8-5
Instructors General operating
guidelines
Pre-flight
•
•
•
The instructor must be present during the pre-flight to supervise
and to assure that the pre-flight is properly conducted by the
student.
Student must be able to identify all pre-flight items on the
airplane.
Minimum fuel level for take-off on thee BE-76 is 30 GAL. Since
it is impossible to determine the quantity below that level.
Pattern Work
•
•
•
•
•
All landings at runways shorter than 4000' feet are restricted to
full stop only.
All landings following a single engine approach must be to a full
stop.
All engine failures are simulated in the pattern by reducing the
throttle.
Up wind engine cuts are allowed at or above 500' feet AGL.
Turns in the pattern during single engine operations should be
restricted to a maximum of 15 degrees.
En route operations
•
For the purpose of training all engine failures below 3000' feet
should be considel'ed altitude critical and therefore must be
Simulated by retarding the throttle, accordingly the student
should react to this situation by feathering the inoperative
engine rather than trying to trouble shoot.
®
Complete shut down of one engine must be performed at
altitudes no lower than 5000' feet AGL and Within reach of a
suitable runway.
®
VMC demonstration must only be performed with simulated
engine failure and at an altitude of 5000' feet.
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Main!
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
GROUND HANDLING
The three-view drawing shows the minimum hangar clearances for a standard airplane. Allowances must be made for
any special radio antennas.
CAUTION
To ensure adequate propeller clearance, always
observe recommended shock strut servicing procedures and tire inflation pressures.
TOWING
One person can move the airplane on a smooth and level
surface with the hand tow bar. Attach the tow bar to the nose
landing gear tow bar fitting. It is recommended to have someone in the airplane to operate the brakes.
CAUTION
Do not exert force on the propellers or control
surfaces. When towing with a tug, limit turns to
prevent damage to the nose gear. Do not tow
when the main gear is obstructed by mud, or
snow.
PARKING
The parking brake push-pull control is located to .the right of
the control console on the copilot's sub pane/. To set the
8-6
January 1978
I
\
BE-76 Multi Engine General operating
guidelines and procedures cont.
Cruise:
Refer to pilot operating handbook for appropriate power settings
and complete the cruise checklist.
Descent:
• Plan your descent well in advance as to avoid extended flights at
power settings below 20", this would be a good setting for en
route descents.
• Generally if you plan five miles for every 1000' of altitude to be
lost you should have no problem maintaining safe engine
temperatures while descending.
Traffic pattern entry and landing:
• You should plan as to enter the traffic pattern at or below 120
KTS and the airplane stage cooled
• Down Wind leg abeam the mid field extend the landing gear and
verify three greens and no red, abeam your aim point reduce
power to 15", extend 10' of flaps and pitch for 100 KTS, extend
to 20'
• Turn base and pitch for 90 KTS, turn final extend full flaps and
maintain 85 KTS until short final
• Reduce power gradually as to cross threshold at your reference
speed and power to idle as you begin your flare to landing.
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
parking brakes, pull the control out and depress each toe
pedal until firm. Push the control in to release the brakes.
NOTE
The parking brake should be left off and wheel
chocks installed if the airplane is to remain unattended. Changes in ambient temperature can
cause the brakes to release or to exert excessive
pressures.
TIE-DOWN
It is advisable to nose the airplane into the wind. Three
tie-down lugs are provided; one on the lower side of each
wing, and a third at the rear of the fuselage.
1. Install the control lock assembly.
2. Chock the main wheels fore and aft.
3. Using nylon line or chain of sufficient strength, secure
the airplane at the three pOints provided. DO NOT OVER
TIGHTEN; if the line at the rear of the fuselage is excessively
tight, the nose may rise and produce lift due to the angle of
attack of the wings.
4. Release the parking brake.
If high winds are anticipated, a vertical tail post should be
installed at the rear tie-down lug, and a tie-down line attached
. to the nose gear.
January 1978
8-7
Multi Engine General operating guidelines
and procedures cont.
Pre-Flight
• Inspect the tail section and the static port on the right side,
visually inspect the cabin air intake on dorsal fin and cabin
exhaust outlet
• Verify that the baggage compartment door is closed and
secured.
• After verifying with your checklist, at this point your exterior
inspection is complete.
Pre Start
• Verify that the gear extension tool is available, seatbelts, doors
are secure, avionics are off and circuit breakers are in and again
verify that the gear selector handle is in down position
• Exercise the fuel selector valves for proper operation
• Verify cowl flaps open, Carburetor heats off, electrical switches
off and turn the battery master and alternator switches on
• Verify the gear position lights and under voltage lights are
illuminated.
• Proceed with engine start, taxi and run up check list.
Taxi:
• Mixture must be leaned for ground operations and minimal
power should be used for taxi as to avoid excessive use of
brakes.
• Use of differential power for turns while the airplane is at full
stop will impose unnecessary side loads on the nose gear
assembly so therefore should be avoided.
Take-off:
• All available runway should be used for take-offs, hold the
brakes until approximately 75% power is achieved
• Check the engine gauges for normal indications before releasing
the brakes and applying full power as to detect a possible engine
failure before take-off run has started.
Climb out:
The blue line airspeed must be maintained until reaching pattern
altitude or if departing until reaching 1000' AGL, at this point
complete the climb check-list (1000' check-list), this should consist
of:
• Pitch for 100 KTS
• Reduce power to 25" and 2500 RPM
• Aux. Fuel pumps off one at the time and check for fuel pressure
• Landing/taxi lights off
Throughout climb monitor the engine gauges for any unusual
indications
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
(
JACKING
Place a scissors jack under the axle to raise the individual
gear for wheel· and tire removal.
Jack pads are installed inboard of the main gears to facilitate
landing gear retraction checks. Use of a tail stand, and the
tail anchored to a ground tie-down or a weight of 450 Ibs
secured to the airplane tail tie-down ring, is required when
jacking.
-
CAUTION
-
Never raise the airplane higher than necessary
and use extreme caution when entering or leaving the airplane while it is on jacks.
(
The landing gear circuit breaker should be
pulled and the emergency gear extension valve
should be open to relieve pressure in the
hydraulic system. in order to prevent
inadvertent retraction of the landing gear when
airplane is jacked.
PROLONGED OUT OF SERVICE CARE
The storage procedures are intended to protect the airplane
from deterioration while it is not in use. The primary objectives of these measures are to prevent corrosion and damage from exposure to the elements.
FLYABLE STORAGE - 7 to 30 DAYS
MOORING
(
'.
Place the airplane in a hangar. If the airplane cannot be
placed in a hangar, tie down securely at the three tie-down
8-8
August, 1980
Duchess Be-76 Multi Engine Procedures
Discussion
General Information
The information contained in this document should be studied by all
applicants undergoing initial or recurrent training to insure that they
are familiar with all WVFC procedures and is to be used in addition
to appropriate check list.
Pre-flight
OBJECTIVE: To develop the trainee's ability to conduct a thorough,
systematic walk around inspection.
DESCRIPTION:
• Prior to entering the cockpit, visually check the fuel tanks for
fuel level and to determine if there is a need to order fuel.
• Enter the cockpit and check for required documents
• Verify that the gear selector handle is down and avionics master
is in the OFF position, turn the battery master, all light switches
and PITOT heat switches on
• Perform a walk around to check the lights, don't forget the stall
warning vanes
• Check the left one at this point and after turning off all lights
and extending flaps you can quickly check the right stall
warning vane before turning the battery master off. (The
right stall warning is only activated when flap is extended to
at least (16)degrees).
• Verify the master switch in OFF position, exit the cockpit from
the pilot side and start the walk around in a counter clockwise
direction beginning with checking the flap and flap actuating
arm, hinges and p·InS, check the Aileron for free and correct
movement and check the hinges, pins and actuating rod
• Inspect the wing tip, wing leading edge and wing under side
should for any possible damage
• Check the fuel tank vent and drain the sump, PITOT heat
• Check the cowling for proper security and drain the fuel selector
valve sump
• Check the props, air intake, accessory belt, check the engine oil
for proper level (6-8 quarts)
• Inspect the cowl flaps and under side of the engine
• Inspect the landing gear and drain the cross feed line sumps
• Inspect the nose gear assembly, gear door and the nose cone
• Check the heater fresh air intake, combustion air intake fuel
drains and exhaust
• Perform the same inspection on the right wing
• Check the empennage, the battery drain and vent
• Inspect the static port
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
pOints provided on the airplane. Do not use hemp or manila
rope. It is recommended a tail support be used to lightly
compress the nose strut, which will reduce the wing angle of
attack. Attach a line to the nose gear.
I
FUEL TANKS
Fill fuel tanks to capacity to minimize fuel vapor.
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES
Lock flight control surfaces with internal and external locks.
GROUNDING
Static ground airplane securely and effectively.
PITOTTUBE
Install pitot tube cover.
WINDSHIELD AND WINDOWS
Close all windows. It is recomrnended that covers be installed over the windshield and windows.
April 1979
8-9
Section X
Safety Information
1?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
(
(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)
10-68
October, 1990
(
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
DURING FL YABLE STORAGE
In a favorable atmospheric environment the engine of an
airplane that is flown intermittently can be adequately
protected from corrosion by turning the engine over five
revolutions by means of the propeller. This will dispel any
beads of moisture that may have accumulated and spread
the residual lubricating oil around the cylinder walls. Unless
the airplane is flown, repeat this procedure every five days.
WARNING
-
Be sure the magneto/start switch is OFF, the
throttle CLOSED, and mixture control in the
IDLE CUT -OFF position before turning the
propeller. Do not stand in the path of propeller
blades. Also, ground running the engine for brief
periods of time is not a substitute for turning the
engine over by hand; in fact, the practice of
ground running will tend to aggravate rather
than minimize corrosion formation in the engine.
After 30 days, the airplane should be flown for 30 minutes or
a ground runup should be made long enough to produce an
oil temperature within the lower green arc range. Excessive
ground runup should be avoided.
PREPARA TlON FOR SERVICE
Remove all covers, clean the airplane, and give it a
thorough inspection, particularly landing gear, wheel wells,
flaps, control surfaces, and pitot and static pressure
openings.
I
8-10
April 1979
(
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine, (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
autopilots and other devices which, just a few years ago,
were too large and prohibitively expensive for general
aviation size airplanes, are becoming increasingly
commonplace in even the smallest airplanes.
It is thus that this Safety Information is directed to the
pilot, for it is in the area of the skill and proficiency of
you, the pilot, that the greatest gains in safe flying are to
be made over the years to come. Intimate knowledge of
your aircraft, its capabilities and its limitations, and
disciplined adherence to the procedures for your
aircraft's operation, will enable you to transform potential
tragedy into an interesting hangar story when - as it
inevitably will - the abnormal situation is presented.
Know your aircraft's limitations, and your own. Never
exceed either.
Safe flying,
. . . . . . . . . . . . BEECH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
October, 1990
10-67
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling. Serv and Maint
Preflight the airplane.
If the airplane is to be stored longer than 30 days, refer to
the appropriate airplane shop manual and Avco Lycoming
Service Letter L180.
EXTERNAL POWER
To supply power for ground checks or to assist in starting,
use only an external power source that is negatively
grounded. The receptacle is located on the right side (ME1 through ME-440), or on the left side (ME-441 and after),
of the aft fuselage.
CAUTION
On 14-volt airplanes, the power pin for external
power is connected directly to the battery and
continually energized. Turn off alternato r
switches, all electrical and avionics switches,
and turn on battery switch before connecting the
auxiliary power unit plug. Assure correct polarity
(negative ground) before connecting auxiliary
power unit.
On 2B-volt airplanes, a reverse polarity diode
protection system is between the external
power receptacle and the main bus. With
external power applied, the bus is powered.
Turn on the battery switch only with all other
switches including avionics switches off before
connecting the auxiliary power unit. Assure
correct polarity before connecting external
power..
Observe the following precautions when connecting an
external power source:
1. Remove the protective cover from the external power
receptacle of the airplane.
January 1982
8-11
Section X
Safety Information
9deechcraft
Tw'in Engine (Piston)
(
"
SCUBA DIVING
Flying shortly after any prolonged scuba diving could be
dangerous. Under the increased pressure of the water,
excess nitrogen is absorbed into your system. If sufficient
time has not elapsed prior to takeoff for your system to
rid itself of this excess gas, you may experience the
bends at altitudes even under 10,000 feet, where most
light planes fly.
CARBON MONOXIDE AND NIGHT VISION
The presence of carbon monoxide results in hypoxia
which will affect night vision in the same manner and
extent as hypoxia from high altitudes, Even small levels
of carbon monoxide have the same effect as an altitude
increase of 8,000 to 10,000 feet. Smoking several
cigarettes can result in a carbon monoxide saturation
sufficient to affect visual sensitivity equal to an increase
of 8,000 feet altitude.
A FINAL WORD
Airplanes are truly remarkable machines. They enable us
to shrink distance and time, and to expand our business
and personal horizons in ways that, not too many years
ago, were virtually inconceivable. For many businesses,
the general aviation airplane has become the
indispensable tool of efficiency.
Advances in the mechanical reliability of the airplane we
fly have been equally impressive, as attested by the
steadily declining statistics of accidents attributed to
mechanical causes, at a time when the airframe, systems
and power plants have grown infinitely more complex.
The explosion in capability of avionics systems is even
more remarkable. Radar, RNAV, LORAN, sophisticated
10-66
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Use only an auxiliary power source that is negatively
grounded which has a voltage of 28.0 ± .2 vdc (ME183 and after). For ME-1 through ME-182 voltage:
14.0 ± .2 vdc. If the polarity of the power source is
unkn.own, determine the polarity with a voltmeter
before connecting the unit to the airplane.
3. Before connecting an auxiliary power source, turn OFF
all radio equipment, the alternator switches, and turn
ON the battery switch.
4. Turn the auxiliary power source OFF prior to
connecting the 'external power cable to the auxiliary
power source. Connect the positive clarnp of the cable
to the positive terminal of the powE'r source and the
negative clamp to the negative terminal of the power
source. (If a battery is used as the power source,
connect the positive terminal of the cable to the
positive terminal of the power source or battery. Isolate
the negative cable clamp.)
5. Connect the external power cable into the external
power receptacle. Turn the auxiliary power source ON.
(If a battery is used as the power source, connect the
negative cable clamp to the negative terminal of the
power source or to a suitable ground point.)
On 14-volt airplanes only, the battery switch must be
ON to connect the auxiliary power source to the
airplane bus.
2.
I
I
Observe the following precautions when disconnecting an
external power source:
1. Turn the auxiliary power source OFF. (If a battery has
been used for a power source, disconnect the negative
clamp of the external power cable and isolate it.)
2. Remove the external power cable from the airplane
receptacle. Replace the protective cover in the external
power receptacle.
3. Disconnect the external power cable from: the auxiliary
power source.
8-12
April 1979
tQeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
Within 8 hours after the consumption of any
alcoholic beverage;
While under the influence of alcohol;
While using any drug that affects the person's
faculties in any way contrary to safety; or
While having .04 percent by weight or more alcohol
in the blood.
(b) Except in an emergency, no pilot of a civil aircraft may
allow a person who appears to be intoxicated or who
demonstrates by manner or physical indications that the
individual is under the influence of drugs (except a
medical patient under proper care) to be carried in that
aircraft."
Because of the slow destruction of alcohol by the body,
a pilot may still be under influence eight hours after
drinking a moderate amount of alcohol. Therefore, an.
excellent rule is to allow at least 12 to 24 hours between
"bottle and throttle," depending on the amount of
alcoholic beverage consumed.
DRUGS
Self-medication or taking medicine in any form when you
are flying can be extremely hazardous. Even simple home
or over-the-counter remedies and drugs such as aspirin,
antihistamines, cold tablets, cough mixtures, laxatives,
tranquilizers, and appetite suppressors, may seriously
impair the judgment and coordination needed while flying.
The safest rule is to take no medicine before or while
flying, except after consultation with your Aviation
Medical Examiner.
October, 1990
10-65
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
SERVICING
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL TANKS
See CONSUMABLE MATERIALS for recommended fuel
grades. The fuel system has a total capacity of 103 gallons.
The fuel filler caps, one in each wing, are located outboard of
each nacelle. Refer to the LIMITATIONS section for usable
fuel.
-
CAUTION
Connect a grounding cable from the fuel service
unit to the airframe, and connect grounding
cables from both the fuel service unit and the airplane to ground during fueling operations. This
procedure reduces fire hazard.
To prevent damage to the fuel tanks, do not insert the fuel
nozzle more than three inches into the filler neck. Secure the
filler caps immediately after filling.
FUEL DRAINS
The fuel system is equipped with a total of 8 drains, 4 drains
per wing. A drain valve is located outboard of each nacelle on
the underside of each wing tank. A drain is also provided for
the selector valve, located in the outboard underside of each
nacelle, behind the1irewall. Two drains are located inboard of
each main gear wheel well for draining crossfeed fuel lines.
January 1978
8-13
Section X
Safety Information
'i)eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
of alcohol. Alcohol, even' in small amounts, produces,
among other things, a dulling of critical judgment; a
decreased sense of responsibility; diminished skill
reactions and coordination; decreased speed and
strength of muscular reflexes (even after one ounce of
alcohol); decreases in efficiency of eye movements during
reading (after one ounce of alcohol); increased frequency
of errors (after one ounce of alcohol); constriction of
visual fields; decreased ability to see under dim
illuminations; .loss of efficiency of sense of touch;
decrease of memory and reasoning ability; increased
susceptibility to fatigue and decreased attention span;
decreased relevance of response; increased self
confidence with increased insight into immediate
capabilities.
Tests have shown that pilots commit major errors of
judgment and procedure at blood alcohol levels
substantially less than the minimum legal levels of.
intoxication for most states. These tests further show a
continuation of impairment from alcohol up to as many as
14 hours after consumption, with no appreciable
diminution of impairment. The body metabolizes ingested
alcohol at a rate of about one-third of an ou~ce per hour.
Even after the body completely destroys a moderate
amount of alcohol, a pilot can still be severely impaired
for many hours by hangover. The effects of alcohol on
the body are magnified at altitudes, as 2 oz. of alcohol at
18,000 feet produce the same adverse effects as 6
at
sea level.
oz:
Federal Aviation Regulations have been amended to
reflect the FAA's growing concern with the effects of
alcohol impairment. FAR 91 states:
"(a) No person may act or attempt to
crewmember of a civil aircraft:
10-64
act as
a
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Main!
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
The fuel selector valve drains are actuated by a manual "up"
movement of .1 to .25 inch. All other fuel drains are flush
valves and are opened by using the combination fuel drain/
landing gear emergency extension tool.
Open each of the eight fuel drains daily to allow condensed
moisture to drain from the system.
FUEL STRAINERS
-
To preclude the possibility of contaminated fuel, always cap
any disconnected fuel lines or fittings. Most fuel system malfunctions can be attributed to contaminated fuel. Inspecting
and cleaning the fuel strainers should be considered to be of
the utmost importance as a regular part of preventive maintenace.
Normally, the fuel selector valve strainer should be cleaned
and inspected every 100 hours of operation. However, the
strainer should be inspected and cleaned at more frequent
intervals depending on service conditions, fuel handling
equipment, and when operating in localities where there is an
excessive amount of sand or dust.
Ordinarily, the fuel strainers in the fuel tank outlets should not
require cleaning unless there is a definite indication of solid
foreign material in the tanks, or the airplane has been stored'
for an extended period.
OIL SYSTEM
The engines are equipped with a wet sump, pressure-type oil
system. Each engine sump has a capacity of 8 quarts. Ser-
8-14
January 1978
-
'Deechcraft
TWin Engine (Piston)
oxygen at lower altitudes than
regulations.
Section X
Safety Information
specified by these
Pilots of pressurized aircraft should receive physiological
training with emphasis on hypoxia and the use of oxygen
and oxygen systems. Pilots of aircraft with pressure
demand oxygen systems should undergo training,
experience altitude chamber decompression, and be
familiar with pressure breathing before flying at high
altitude. This training is available throughout the United
States at nominal cost. Information regarding this training
may be obtained by request from the Chief, Civil
Aeromedical Institute, Attention: Aeromedical Education
Branch, AAC-140, Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center,
P. O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73125
HYPER VENTI LATION
Hyperventilation, or overbreathing, is a disturbance of
respiration that may occur in individuals as a result of
emotional tension or anxiety. Under conditions of
emotional stress, fright, or pain, breathing r-ate may
increase, causing increased lung ventilation, although the
carbon dioxide output of the body cells does not
increase. As a result, carbon dioxide is '·washed out"' of
the
blood.
The
most common
symptoms of
hyperventilation are: dizziness, nausea, sleepiness, and
finally, unconsciousness. If the symptoms persist
discontinue use of oxygen and consciously slow your
breathing rate until symptoms clear, and then resume
normal breathing rate. Normal breathing can be aided by
talking aloud.
ALCOHOL
Common sense and scientific evidence dictate that you
must not fly as a crew member while under the influence
October, 1990
10-63
SEeCHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
vicing the oil system is provided through access doors in the
engine cowling.
NOTE
Due to the canted position of the engines, the
dipsticks are calibrated for either right or left engines and are not interchangeable.
-
The oil should be changed every 100 hours and the oil filter
should be changed every 50 hours, under normal operating
conditions. The engines should be warmed to operating temperature to assure complete draining of the oil. The cowling
should be removed from the engines for changing the oil and
the oil filter. Check the used oil filter for metal particles. (Refer
to the Duchess 76 Maintenance ManuaL)
The engine manufacturer recommends the use of ash less
dispersant oil after the oil consumption has stabilized, or after
the first 50 hours of operation. In order to promote faster ring
seating and oil control, a straight mineral type oil conforming
to MIL-L-6082 may be used until the oil consumption has
stabilizt:1d, not to exceed 50 hours of operation. Oil of seasonal viscosity, added to maintain the proper oil level during this
period, must comply with MIL-L-6082. After the oil consumption has stabilized or after the first 50 hours of operation,
aViation grade ashless dispersant oil complying with
MIL-L-22851 should be used.
January 1978
8-15
Section X
Safety Information
tjdeechcraft
·Twin Engine (Piston)
amount of time to get an oxygen mask on before they
exceed their time of useful consciousness. The time of
useful consciousness is approximately 3-5 minutes at 25,
000 feet of altitude for the average individual and
diminishes markedly as altitude increases. At 30,000 feet
altitude, for example, the time of useful consciousness is
approximately 1 to 2 minutes. Therefore, in the event of
depressurization, oxygen masks should be used
immediately.
Should symptoms occur that cannot definitely be
identified as either hypoxia or hyperventilation, try three
or four deep breaths of oxygen. The symptoms should
improve markedly if the condition was hypoxia (recovery
from hypoxia is rapid).
Pilots who fly to altitudes that require or may require the
use of supplemental oxygen should be thoroughly familiar
with the operation of the aircraft oxygen systems. A
preflight inspection of the system should be performed,
including proper fit of the mask. The passengers should
be briefed on the proper use of their oxygen system
before flight.
Pilots who wear beards should be careful to ensure that
their beard is carefully trimmed so that it will not interfere
with proper sealing of the oxygen masks. If you wear a
beard or moustache, test the fit of your oxygen mask on
the ground for proper sealing. Studies conducted by the
military and oxygen equipment manufacturers conclude
that oxygen masks do not seal over beards or heavy
facial hair.
Federal Aviation Regulations related to the use of
supplemental oxygen by flight crew and passengers must
be adhered to if flight to higher altitudes is to be
accomplished safely. Passengers with significant
circulatory or lung disease may need to use supplemental
10-62
October, 1990
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
RECOMMENDED OIL GRADES FOR ENGINES
AVERAGE
AMBIENT AIR
TEMPERATURE
MIL-L-6082
Grades
MIL-L-22851
Ashless Dispersant
Grades
,l
Above 60° F
SAE 50
SAE 40 or
SAE 50
30° F to 90° F
SAE 40
SAE 40
I
0° F to 70 F
SAE 30
SAE 40, SAE 30
or 8AE 20W40
I
Below 10° F
SAE 20
SAE 30 or
SAE 2OW30
I
Refer to Avco Lycoming Service Instruction 1014J or later
revision for additional information.
0
BAITERY
Access to the lead acid battery or batteries is obtained by
removing the rear baggage compartment panel and the
battery box lid, located aft of the panel. Check the electrolyte
level after each 25 hours of operation and add only distilled
water as required.
NOTE
Do not fill the battery or batteries over one-half
inch above the separators. Only lead-acid
equipment should be used when servicing leadacid type batteri~s. Use electrolyte of 1.285
Specific Gravity Only.
I
8-16
September, 1983
-
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
insufficient oxygen at higher altitudes, anything interfering
with the blood's ability to carry oxygen can contribute to
hypoxia (anemias, carbon monoxide, and certain drugs).
Also, alcohol and various drugs decrease the brain's
tolerance to hypoxia.
I
Your body has no built-in alarm system to let you know
when you are not getting enough oxygen. It is impossible
to predict when or where hypoxia will occur during a
given flight, or how it will manifest itself. Some of the
common symptoms of hypoxia are increased breathing
rate, a light-headed or dizzy sensation, tingling or warm
sensation, sweating, reduced visual field, sleepiness, blue
coloring of skin, fingernails, and lips, and behavior
changes. A particularly dangerous feature of hypoxia is
an increased sense of well-being, called euphoria. It
obscures a person's ability and desire to be critical of
himself, slows reaction time, and impairs thinking ability.
Consequently, an hypoxic individual commonly believes
things are getting progressively better while he nears
total collapse.
The symptoms are slow but progressive, insidious in
onset, and are most marked at altitudes starting above
ten thousand feet. Night vision, however, can be impaired
starting at an altitude of 5,000 feet. Persons who have
recently overindulged in alcohol, who are moderate to
heavy smokers, or who take certain drugs, may be more
susceptible to hypoxia. Susceptibility may also vary in the
same individual from day to day or even morning to
evening. Use oxygen on flights above 10,000 feet and at
any time when symptoms appear.
Depending upon altitude, an hypoxic individual has a
limited time to make decisions and perform useful acts,
even though he may remain conscious for a longer
period. If pressurization equipment fails at certain
altitudes the pilot and passengers have only a certain
October, 1990
10-61
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
A systematic battery maintenance program should be established and carefully followed and a log maintained of services
performed. The battery must be kept clean and dry for peak
performance. If foreign materials are present in sufficient
quantities, the resultant deposits may form conductive paths
that permit a rapid discharge of the battery. The battery
should be serviced and cleaned after each 100 hours of
service or 30 days, whichever occurs first, as outlined in the
Duchess 76 Maintenance Manual. Clean, tight connections
should be maintained at all times.
Battery vents should be checked periodically for
obstructions and for proper protrusion (one to three inches)
from the skin line. Since either vent may serve as the intake,
one vent chamfer should face forward, the other aft (ME-11
thru ME-182). Airplanes ME-183 and after have no
protruding tubes. These vents are designed to produce a
venturi effect.
TIRES
The main wheel tires are 6.00x6, 6-ply rating, type III tube
type. The nose wheel tire is a 5.00x5, 6-ply rating, type III
tube type.
Inflate the tires to 38 psi. When installing a new nose wheel
tire, ensure that ~heie is .15 to .25 inch clearance betv'{een
the fork and the inflated new tire. Maintaining the recommended tire inflation will help to avoid damage from landing
shock and contact with sharp stones and ruts, and will
minimize tread wear. When inflating tires, inspect them visually for cracks, breaks, wear, or evidence of internal damage.
April 1979
8-17
Section X
Safety Information
'ideechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Use caution when taking off or landing during gusty wind
conditions. Also be aware of the special wind conditions
caused by buildings or other obstructions located near
the runway.
MEDICAL FACTS FOR PILOTS
GENERAL
When the pilot enters the airplane, he becomes an
integral part of the man-machine system. He is just as
essential to a successful flight as the control surfaces. To
ignDre the piiDt in preflight planning would be as
senseless as failing tD inspect the integrity of the control
surfaces or any other vital part of the machine. The pilot
has the respDnsibility for determining his reliability prior
tD entering the airplane fDr flight. When piloting an
airplane, an individual should be free of conditions which
are harmful to alertness, ability to make correct
decisions, and rapid reaction time.
FATIGUE
Fatigue generally slDws reaction time and causes errors
due to inattention. In addition to the most common cause
of fatigue; insufficient rest and loss of sleep, the
pressures of business, financial worries, and family
problems can be impDrtant contributing factors. If you are
tired, don·! fly.
HYPOXIA
Hypoxia, in simple terms, is a lack of sufficient oxygen to
keep the brain and other body tissues functioning
properly. There is a wide individual variation in
susceptibility to hypoxia .. In addition to progressively
10-60
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
I
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
CAUTION
Beech Aircraft Corporation cannot recommend
the use of recapped tires. Recapped tires have a
tendency to swell as a result of the increased
temperature generated during takeoff. Increased
tire size can jeopardize proper function of the
landing gear retract system, with the possibility
of damage to the landing gear doors and retract
mechanism.
SHOCK STRUTS
The shock struts are filled with compressed air and MIL-H5606 hydraulic fluid. The same procedure is used for
servicing both the main and nose shock struts. The shock
strut may be served as follows:
1. Remove the air valve cap and depress the valve core to
release the air pressure.
WARNING
Do not unscrew the air valve assembly until the
air pressure has been released. Otherwise, it
may be blown off with considerable force, causing injury to personnel or property damage.
2. Remove the air valve assembly.
3. With the strut in the vertical position and approximately
one-fourth inch from fully compressed, fill with MIL-H-5606
hydraulic fluid until the fluid overilows.
8-18
August, 1980
,
(
'iJeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
and distance. These are rolling in nature, from each wing
tip. In tests, vortex velocities of 133 knots have been
recorded. Encountering the rolling effect of wing tip
vortices within two minutes after passage of large
airplanes is most hazardous to light airplanes. This roll
effect can exceed the maximum counter-roll obtainable in
a light airplane. The turbulent areas may remain for as
long as three minutes or more, depending on wind
conditions, and may extend several miles behind the
airplane. Plan to fly slightly above and to the windward
side of the other airplanes. Because of the wide variety
of conditions that can be encountered, there is no set rule
to follow to avoid wake turbulence in ali situations.
However, the Airman·s Information Manual, and to a
greater extent Advisory Circular 90-23, Aircraft Wake
Turbulence, provide a thorough discussion of the factors
you should be aware of when wake turbulence may be
encountered.
TAKEOFF AND LANDING CONDITIONS
When taking off on runways covered with water or
freezing slush, the landing gear should remain extended
for approximately ten seconds longer than normal,
allowing the wheels to spin and dissipate the freezing
moisture. The landing gear should then be cycled up,
then down, wait approximately five seconds and then
retracted again. Caution must be exercised to insure that
the entire operation is performed below Maximum
Landing Gear Operating Airspeed.
Use caution when landing on runways that are covered
by water or slush which
cause hydroplaning
(aquaplaning), a phenomenon that renders braking and
steering ineffective because of the lack of sufficient
surface friction. Snow and ice covered runways are also
hazardous. The pilot should also be alert to the possibility
of the brakes freezing.
October, 1990
10-59
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
4. Cycle the strut (full extension to compressed) and refill
as described in step "3". Repeat until fluid cannot be added
to the strut in the compressed position.
NOTE
Cycling of the shock strut is necessary to expel
any trapped air within the strut housing.
-
5. Install the air valve assembly.
6. With the airplane on jacks, inflate the nose gear strut
with dry air or nitrogen to 250 psi and the main gear strut to
300 psi; or, with the airplane resting on the ground and the
fuel tanks full, inflate the nose gear strut until four and onefourth inches of the piston is exposed, and main gear strut
until two inches of the piston is exposed. Rock the airplane
gently to prevent possible binding of the piston in the barrel
while inflating with the airplane on the ground.
NOTE
The preferred method of inflation is with the airplane on jacks and set the pressure rather than
trying to set the strut extension. It is recommend- .
ed that the nose strut inflation dimension and the
tire inflation pressure be careiuliy adhered to.
Properly inflated tires and struts reduce the pos-·
sibility of ground damage occuring to the propellers. Excercise caution when taxiing over rough
surfaces.
January 1978
8-19
-
Section X
Safety Information
tDeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Finally, never forget that stall avoidance is your best
protection against an inadvertent spin. MAINTAIN YOUR
AIRSPEED.
DESCENT
In twin engine piston-powered airplanes, supercharged or
normally aspirated, it is necessary to avoid prolonged
descents with low power, as this produces two problems:
(1) excessively cool cylinder head temperatures which
cause premature engine wear, and (2) excessively rich
mixtures due to idle enrichment (and altitude) which
causes soot and lead deposits on the spark plugs
(fouling). The second of these is the more serious
consideration; the engine may not respond to the throttle
when it is desired to discontinue the descent. Both
problems are amenable to one solution: maintain
adequate power to keep cylinder head temperatures in
the "green" range during descent, and lean to best power
mixture (that is, progressively enrich the mixture from
cruise only slightly as altitude decreases). This procedure
will lengthen the descent, of course, and requires some
advance planning. If it is necessary to make a prolonged
descent at or near idle, as in practicing forced landings,
at least avoid the problem of fouled spark plugs by
frequently advancing the throttle until the engine runs
smoothly, and maintain an appropriate mixture setting
with altitude. (R efer to pre-landing check list.)
VORTICES - WAKE TURBULENCE
Every airplane generates wakes of turbulence while in
flight. Part of this is from the propeller or jet engine, and
part from the wingtip vortices. The larger and heavier the
airplane, the more pronounced and turbulent the wakes
will be. Wing tip vortices from large, heavy airplanes are
very severe at close range, degenerating with time, wind
10-58
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
7. The shock strut piston must be clean. Remove foreign
material by wiping the strut with a cloth dampened in hydraulic fluid.
WARNING
NEVER FILL SHOCK STRUTS WITH OXYGEN.
I
Brake system servicing is limited primarily to maintaining the
hydraulic fluid level in the reservoir. The brake fluid reservoir
is located on the left forward side of the forward cabin
bulkhead, and is accessible through the small access door
on the large access door on the left side of the nose
compartment. Fill the reservoir with the MIL-H-5606
hydraulic fluid to the FULL mark on the dipstick. Maintain
the fluid level between the FULL and ADD marks. Do not
overfill.
The brake disc should be replaced when its thickness measures 0.450 inch.
INDUCT/ON AIR FILTERS
The induction air filters should be removed, cleaned, and
inspected each 50 hours of service. Replacement is recommended at 300 hours for normal operation, and more frequently should conditions warrant. The filter should be
cleaned in accordance with the instructions printed on the
filter.
1. Remove the upper engine cowling to gain access to the
induction air filter, located at the rear of each engine.
8-20
April 1979
tQeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
Be certain that the center of gravity of the airplane is as
far forward as possible. Forward C.G. aids stall recovery,
spin avoidance and spin recovery. An aft C.G. can create
a tendency for a spin to stabilize, which delays recovery.
Whenever a student pilot will be required to practice slow
flight or single-engine maneuvers, be certain that the
qualified instructor pilot has a full set of operable controls
available. FAA regulations prohibit flight instruction
without full dual controls.
Conduct any maneuvers Which could possibly result in a
spin at altitudes in excess of five thousand (5,000) feet
above ground level in clear air only.
Remember that an airplane, at or near traffic pattern and
approach altitudes, cannot recover from a spin, or
perhaps even a stall, before impact with the ground. For
twin engine aircraft, when descending to traffic altitude
and during pattern entry and all other flight operations,
maintain speed no lower than VSSE. On final final
approach maintain at least the airspeed shown in the
flight manual. Should a go-around be required, do not
apply more power than necessary until the airplane has
accelerated to VSSE. Recognize that under some
conditions of weight, density altitude, and aircraft
configuration, a twin engine aircraft cannot climb or
accelerate on a single engine. Hence a single engine goaround is impossible and the aircraft is committed to a
landing. Plan your approach accordingly.
Remember that if an airplane flown under instrument
conditions is permitted to stall or enter a spin, the pilot,
without reference to the horizon, is certain to become
disoriented. He may be unable to recognize a stall, spin
entry, or the spin condition and he may be unable to
determine even the direction of the rotation.
October, 1990
10-57
BEECHCRAFT
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
Duchess 76
2. Remove the screws which secure the filter to the inlet
and outlet ducts.
3. Remove the filter from the airplane.
NOTE
When reinstalling the induction air filter, observe
the direction of the air flow as marked on the
filter.
4. Position the fifter and install the screws to secure the
filter to the inlet and outlet ducts.
5. Install the upper engine cowling.
INSTRUMENT AIR FILTER
A central filter for the instrument air system is a disposable
unit and must be discarded and replaced at 300 to 500 hour
intervals, or more often if conditions warrant.
1. Remove the nose compartment access panel and ac·
cess plates on the nose compartment floor to gain access to
the filter located below the floor on the left side, forward of the
cabin bulkhead.
2. Remove the clamps at the inlet and outlet of the filter.
3. Remove the filter from the airplane.
4. Position the new filter (note direction of air flow), install
the inle! and outlet hoses, and secure in place with clamps at
the inlet and outlet of the filter.
5. Install access plates on the nose compartment floor and
nose compartment access panel.
January 1978
8·21
-
Section X
Safety Information
'Ueechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
as the aircraft is stalled. Inadvertent spins result from the
same combination - stall plus yaw. That is why it is
important to use coordinated controls and to recover at
the first indication of a stall when practicing stalls.
In any twin engine airplane, fundamental aerodynamics
dictate that if the airplane is allowed to become fully
stalled while one engine is providing lift-producing thrust,
the yawing moment which can induce a spin will be
present. Consequently, it is important to immediately
reduce power on the operating engine, lower the nose to
reduce the angle of attack, and increase the airspeed to
recover from the stall. In any twin engine aircraft, if
application of stall recovery controls is delayed, a rapid
rolling and yawing motion may develop, even against full
aileron and rudder, resulting in the airplane becoming
inverted during the onset of a spinning motion. Once the
airplane has been permitted to progress beyond the stail
and is allowed to reach the rapid rolling and' yawing
condition, the pilot must then immediately initiate the
generally accepted spin recovery procedure for multiengine airplanes, which is as follows:
Immediately move the control column full forward, apply
full rudder opposite to the direction of the spin and
reduce power on both engines to idle. These three
actions should be done as near simultaneously as
possible; then continue to hold this control position until
rotation stops, then neutralize all controls and execute a
smooth pullout. Ailerons should be neutral during
recovery. THE LONGER THE PILOT DELAYS BEFORE
TAKING CORRECTIVE ACTION, THE MORE DIFFICULT
RECOVERY WILL BECOME.
Always remember that extra alertness and pilot
techniques are required for slow flight maneuvers,
including the practice or demonstration of stalls or VMCA.
In addition to the foregoing mandatory procedure, ~Iways:
10-56
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
PROPELLERS
Propeller Owners Manual and Log Book, and Overhaul Instructions are fumished with the airplane. Maintenance ins.tructions are provided in the Duchess 76 Maintenance
Manual.
WARNING
When servicing a propeller, always make certain
the MAGNETO/START switches are OFF and
the engines have cooled completely. STAND IN
THE CLEAR WHEN MOVING A PROPELLER.
THERE IS ALWAYS SOME DANGER OF A
CYLINDER FIRING WHEN A PROPELLER IS
MOVED.
PROPELLER DOME AIR PRESSURE SETTING
1. Remove the propeller spinner dome cap retaining
screws and remove the propeller spinner dome cap.
2. Service the propeller air dome cylinder with dry air or
nitrogen to a correct pressure as follows:
70 0 F to 1000
40 F to 70
0 F to 40
-30 F to 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F -41
F -38
F -36
F -33
±
±
±
±
1 psi
1 psi
1 psi
1 psi
3. Position the propeller spinner dome cap and secure with
the retaining screws.
8-22
January 1978
'Heechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
longitudinal, lateral or directional control, aerodynamic
stall buffet, or stall warning horn sound), recovery must
be initiated immediately by reducing power to idle on
operative engine and lowering the nose to regain VSSE.
Resume normal flight. This entire procedure should be
used at a safe altitude of at least 5,000 feet above the
ground in clear air only.
If stall warning is detected prior to the first sign of YMCA,
an engine-out minimum control speed demonstration
cannot be accomplished under the existing gross weight
conditions and should not be attempted.
SPINS
A major cause of fatal accidents in general aviation
aircraft is a spin. Stall demonstrations and practice are a
means for a pilot to acquire the skills to recognize when
a stall is about to occur and to recover as soon as the
first signs of a stall are evident. If a stall does not occur
- A spin cannot occur. It is important to remember
however, that a stall can occur in any flight attitude, at
any airspeed, if controls are misused.
Unless your aircraft has been specifically certificated in
the aerobatic category and specifically tested for spin
recovery characteristics, it is placarded against
intentional spins. The pilot of an airplane placarded
against intentional spins should assume that the airplane
may become uncontrollable in a spin, since its
performance characteristics beyond certain limits
specified in the FAA regulations may not have been
tested and are unknown. This is why aircraft are
placarded against intentional spins, and this is why stall
avoidance is your protection against an inadvertent spin.
Pilots are taught that intentional spins are entered by
deliberately inducing a yawing moment with the controls
October, 1990
10-55
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
PROPELLER BLADE BEARING LUBRICATION
1. Remove the spinner dome cap retaining screws and
remove the spinner dome cap.
2. Remove the spinner dome retaining screws and remove
the spinner dome.
3. Remove the safety wire and covers from the grease
fittings.
4. Remove one grease fitting from each blade.
5. Lubricate the blade bearings with MIL-G-23B27 grease
by placing the grease gun fitting on the remaining fittings· on
each blade. Fill until the grease is visible in the hole where
the opposite fitting was removed.
6. Clean the excess grease from the propeller, reinstall the
grease fittings, covers, and safety wire on each blade.
7. Position the spinner dome and install the retaining
screws.
B. Position the spinner dome cap and install the retaining
screws.
WARNING
The propellers are not interchangeable between
left and right engines.
MINOR MAINTENANCE
CABIN HEATER
The heater fuel pump is located on the right side of the nose
compartment below the heater, and is accessible through the
right side nose compartment access panel.
The manual reset limit (overheat) switch, located on the
heater, shuts off the system until reset in case the discharge
temperature reaches 3000 F.
January 1978
8-23
Section X
Safety Information
'ldeechcraft
Twin En gine (Piston)
should not be conducted in mUlti-engine airplanes by
other than qualified engineering test pilots.
Engine-out minimum control speed generally decreases
with altitude, while the single engine stall speed remains
approximately constant for normally aspirated engines.
No such demonstration should be attempted when the
altitude and temperature are such that the engine-out
minimum control speed is known, or discovered to be,
close to the stalling speed. Loss of directional or lateral
control, just as a stall occurs, is potentially hazardous.
VSSE, the airspeed below which an engine should not be
intentionally rendered inoperative for practice purposes,
was established because of the apparent practice of
some pilots, instructors, and examiners, of intentionally
rendering an engine inoperative at a time when the
airplane is being operated at a speed close to, or below
the power-idle stall speed. Unless the pilot takes
immediate and proper corrective action under such
circumstances, it is possible to enter an inadvertent spin.
It is recognized that flight below VSSE with one engine
inoperative, or simulated inoperative, may be required for
conditions such as practice demonstration of VMCA for
multi-engine pilot certification. Refer to the procedure set
forth in the Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual for your aircraft. This
procedure calls for simulating one engine inoperative by
reducing the power level (throttle) on one engine to idle
while operating at an airspeed above VSSE. Power on the
other engine is set at maximum, then airspeed is reduced
at approximately one knot per second until either VMCA or
stall warning. is obtained. During this transition, rudder
should be used to maintain directional control, and
ailerons should be used to maintain a 5° bank toward the
operative engine. At the first sign of either VMCA or stall
warning (which may be evidenced by inability to maintain
10-54
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
CAUTION
The entire system should be inspected and the
malfunction determined and corrected before resetting the overheat switch.
Every 500 hours of heater operation, the heater should be
removed from the airplane and disassembled. All parts
should be thoroughly inspected, necessary repairs made and
parts replaced. (Refer to the Duchess 76 Maintenance
ManuaL)
ALTERNATORS
Since the alternators and electronic voltage regulators are
designed for use on only one polarity system, the following
precautionary measures must be observed when working on
the charging circuit or serious damage to the electrical equipment will result:
1. When installing a battery, make certain that the ground
polarity of the battery and the ground polarity of the alternator
are the same.
2. When connecting a booster battery, be sure to connect
the negative battery terminals together and the positive battery terminals together.
3. When using a battery charger, connect the positive lead
of the charger to the positive battery terminal and the negative lead of the charger to the negative battery terminal.
4. Do not operate an alternator on open circuit. Be sure all
circuit connections are secure.
5. Do not short across or ground any of the terminals on
the alternator or electronic voltage regulator.
6. Do not atternpt to polarize an alternator.
8-24
January 1978
!Veechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
w
o
::>
I-
5
<{
-
w
a:
::>
(f)
(f)
w
a:
n.
INDICATED AIRSPEED-------'"-'--+
STD-601-38
Relationship Between Stall Speed and YMCA for
Aircraft with Normally Aspirated Engines
Training should be accomplished under the supervision of
a qualified instructor-pilot, with careful reference to the
applicable sections of the FAA Practical Test Standards
and FAA Pilot TranSition Courses for Complex Single
Engine and Light Twin Engine Airplanes (AC61-9B). In
particular, observe carefu!!y the warnings in the Practical
Test Standards.
The single-engine stall speed of a twin-engine aircraft is
generally slightly below the power off (engines idle) stall
speed, for a given weight condition. Single-engine stalls
October, 1990
10-53
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
MAGNETOS
CAUTION
Before installing a new magneto, it is vitally important to check the identification plate for the
proper part number to ensure the correct magneto is installed on the proper engine. The magnetos are not interchangeable between left and
right engines.
The magneto ignition system should be checked after the
first 50 hours of operation and every 100 hours thereafter.
Contact point clearance for the magneto right main breaker is
.016 ± .004, left main breaker is .016 ± .002. Points with
deep pits or with exceSSively burned areas should be
discarded. Inspect the cam follower felt pad for proper
lubrication and clean the breaker compartment with a clean
dry cloth.
WARNING
To be safe, treat all magnetos as hot whenever
the ground lead is disconnected. To ground the
magneto, disconnect the ignition switch iead wire
at the capayitor and ground the capacitor pole. If
this is impractical, remove the ignition harness
on the magneto or disconnect the spark plug
leads.
January 1978
8-25
Section X
Safety Information
1)eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
WHEN TO FLY Vx, Vy, VXSE AND VYSE
During normal two-engine operations, always fly Vy (Vx if
necessary for obstacle clearance) on initial climb out.
Then, accelerate to your cruise climb airspeed, which
may be Vy plus 10 or 15 knots after you have obtained
a safe altitude. Use of cruise climb airspeed will give you
better engine cooling, increased in flight visibility and
better fuel economy. However, at first indication of an
engine failure during climb out, or while on approach,
establish VYSE or VXSE, whichever is appropriate.
(Consult your Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual for specifics.)
STALLS, SLOW FLIGHT AND TRAINING
The stall warning system must be kept operational at all
times and must not be deactivated by interruption of
circuits, circuit breakers, or fuses. Compliance with this
requirement is especially important in all high
performance mUlti-engine airplanes during engine-out
practice or stall demonstrations, because the stall speed
is critical in all low speed operations of high-performance
airplanes.
10-52
October, 199('
-
BEECHCRAFT
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
Duchess 76
CLEANING
EXTERIOR PAINTED SURFACES
NOTE
Acrylic urethane paint finishes are fully cured at
the time of delivery.
-
Because wax seals the paint from the outside air, a new
acrylic urethane or lacquer paint job should not be waxed
for a period of 90 days to allow the paint to cure. Wash
uncured painted surfaces with only cold or lukewarm (never
hot) water and a mild non-detergent soap. Any rubbing of
the painted surface should be done gently and held to a
minimum.
CAUTION
When washing the airplane with mild soap and
water, use special care to avoid washing away
grease from any lubricated area. After washing
with solvent in the wheel well areas, lubrica.te all
lubrication points. Premature wear of lubricated
surfaces may result if the above precautions are .
not taken.
Prior to cleaning, cover the wheels, making certain the brake
discs are covered. Attach the pitot cover securely, and plug
:or mask off all other openings. Be particularly careful to mask
off all static air buttons before washing or waxing.
8-26
April 1979
'ideechcrafi
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
operating engine, with the "slip/skid" baH slightly out of
center toward the operating engine, to achieve rated
performance.
Another note of caution: Be sure to identify the dead
engine, positively, before securing it. Remember: First
identify the suspected engine (i.e., "Dead foot means
dead engine"), second, verify with cautious throttle
movement, then secure.
ENGINE FAILURE ON TAKEOFF
If an engine fa'lls before attaining lift-off speed or below
VMCA, the only proper action is to discontinue the takeoff.
If the engine fails after lift-off with the landing gear still
down, the takeoff should still be discontinued if
touchdown and roll-out on the remaining runway is still
possible.
If you do find yourself in a pOSition of not being able to
climb, it is much better to reduce the power on the good
engine and land straight ahead than try to force a climb
and lose control.
Your Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA Approved
Airplane Flight Manual contains charts that are used in
calculating the runway length required to stop if the
engine fails before reaching lift-off speed and also has
charts showing the single-engine performance after liftoff.
Study. your charts carefully. No airplane is capable of
climbing out on one engine under all weight, pressure
altitude, and temperature conditions. Know, before you
take the actual runway, whether you can maintain control
and climb out if you lose an engine while the gear is still
down. It may be necessary to ofHoad some weight, or
wait for more favorable temperatures.
October, 1990
10-51
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
After the paint cures, a thorough waxing will profect painted
and unpainted metal surfaces from a variety of highly
corrosive elements. Flush loose dirt away first with clear
water, then wash the airplane with a mild soap and water.
Harsh, abrasive, or alkaline soaps or detergents should
never be used. Use a soft cleaning cloth or chamois to
prevent scratches when cleaning. Any good grade of non-I
abrasive and non-silicone wax may be used to preserve
painted surfaces. To remove stubborn oil and grease, use a
soft cloth dampened with aliphatic naphtha. After cleaning
with naphtha, the surface should be rewaxed.
-
WINDSHIELD AND WINDOWS
CAUTION
Do not scratch windows when cleaning. Do not
use an ice scraper to remove ice from windows.
A commercial cleaning compound made specifically for acrylic plastiC windows may be used. When using a commercial
cleaner, follow the instructions on the container.
If a commercial cleaner is not available, the following instructions should be followed:
Cleaning of the acrylic plastic windows should never be attempted when dry. Use only clean water (an open bucket of
water can collect sand/debris which could scratch windshields) and a mild soap for cleaning. Wash the windows with
plenty of soap and water, using the palm of the hand to
dislodge dirt and mud. Follow up with soapy water to remove
grease or stains. Flush the surface with rinse water and rul;>
April 1979
8-27
Section X
Safety Information
'ideechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
SINGLE ENGINE SERVICE CEILING
The single engine service ceiling is the maximum altitude
at which an airplane will climb at a rate of at least 50 feet
per minute 'in smooth air, with one engine inoperative.
The single engine service ceiling chart should be used
during flight planning to determine whether the airplane,
as loaded, can maintain the Minimum En Route Altitude
(MEA) if IFR, or terrain clearance if VFR, following an
engine failure.
BASIC SINGLE ENGINE PROCEDURES
Know and follow, to the letter, the single-engine
emergency procedures specified in your Pilot's Operating
Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual for
your specific make and model airplane. However, the
basic fundamentals of all the procedures are as follows:
Maintain aircraft control and airspeed at all times. This is
cardinal rule No.1.
Usually, apply maximum power to the operating engine.
However, if the engine failure occurs at a speed below
YMCA, during cruise or in a steep turn, you may elect to
use only enough power to maintain a safe speed and
altitude. If the failure occurs on final approach, use power
only as necessary to complete the landing .
. Reduce drag to an absolute minimum.
Secure the failed engine and reiated sub-systems.
The first three steps should be done promptly and from
memory. The check list should then be consulted to be
sure that the inoperative engine is secured properly and
that the appropriate switches are placed ih the correct
position. The airplane must be banked about 50 into the
10-50
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
slightly with a grit-free soft cloth, chamois or sponge. Stubborn grease or oil deposits are readily removed with aliphatic
naphtha or hexane. Rinse with clear water.
CAUTION
Do not use thinner or aromatic abrasive cleaners
to clean the windows as they will damage the
surface of the plastic. Aliphatic naphtha and similar solvents are highly inflammable, and extreme
care must be exercised when used.
-
ENGINE
Clean the engine with kerosene, solvent, or any standard
engine cleaning fluid. Spray or brush the fluid over the engine, then wash off with water and allow to dry.
INTERIOR
The seats, rugs, upholstery panels, and headliner should be
vacuum-cleaned frequently. Do not use water to clean fabric
surfaces. Commercial foam-type cleaners or shampoos can
be used to clean carpets, fabrics, and upholstery; however,
the instructions on the container should be followed carefully.
Proper care and cleaning of the interior cabin trim (Noryl and
Kydex plastics) is of primary importance to maintain a desirable apperance. Washing the interior cabin trim with a detergent soap and water, and brush scrubbing with a soft bristle
brush, will dislodge most dirt. Rinse with clean water and
8-28
January 1978
-
'Th:echcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
BEST SINGLE ENGINE RATE-OF-CLIMB SPEED
(VYSE)
VYSE is designated by the blue radial on the airspeed
indicator. VYSE delivers the greatest gain in altitude in the
shortest possible time, and is based on the following
criteria:
Critical engine inoperative, and its propeller in the
minimum drag position.
Operating engine set at not more than
maximum continuous power.
the
Landing gear retracted.
Wing flaps up.
Cowl flaps as required for engine cooling.
Aircraft flown at recommended bank angle (up to 5°
into operating engine).
Drag caused by a windmilling propeller, extending landing
gear, or flaps in the landing position, will severely
degrade or destroy single engine climb performance.
Since climb performance varies widely with type of
airplane, weight, temperature, altitude, and airplane
configuration, the climb gradient (altitude ·gain or loss per
mile) may be marginal - or even negative - under some
conditions. Study the Pilot's Operating Handbook and
FAA Approved Flight Manual for your airplane and know
what performance to expect with one engine out.
BEST SINGLE ENGINE ANGLE-OF-CLlM8 SPEED
(VXSE)
VXSE is used only to clear obstructions during initial
climb-out as it gives the greatest altitude gain per unit of
horizontal distance. It provides less engine cooling and
requires more rudder control input than VYSE.
October, 1990
10-49
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
wipe dry. Alcohol may be used to remove foreign material
that is alcohol soluble.
CAUTION
The interior cabin trim can be easily damaged if
cleaned with methyl ethyl ketone, naphtha, Mufti
standard solvent, gasoline, lacquer thinner and
other types of thinners. Sharp edges or cuts on
the edge of the interior cabin trim material may
cause it to crack.
January 1978
8·29
Section X
Safety Information
<ideechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Takeoff power on both engines
Rearmost allowable center of gravity
Flaps in takeoff position
Propeller wind milling in takeoff pitch configuration
However, sudden engine failures rarely occur with ali
factors listed above, -and therefore, the actual VMCA under
any particular situation may be a little slower than the red
radial on the airspeed indicator. Most airplanes with an
inoperative engine will not maintain level flight at
maximum power at speeds at or near VMCA.
Consequently, it is not advisable to fly at speeds
approaching VMCA, except in training situations or during
flight tests. Adhering to the practice of never flying at or
below the published VMCA speed for your aircraft does
not eliminate loss of directional control as a problem in
the event of an engine failure. The pilot must be prepared
to to use ass~rtive control input to maintain aircraft
control following an engine failure.
INTENTIONAL ONE-ENGINE INOPERATIVE
SPEED (VSSE)
VSSE is specified by the airplane manufacturer and is the
minimum speed at which to perform intentional engine
cuts. Use of VSSE is intended to reduce ·the accident
potential from loss of control after engine cuts at or near
minimum control speed. VMCA demonstrations are
necessary in training but should only be made at safe
altitude above the terrain and with power reduction on
one engine made at or above VSSE.
10-48
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76 .
"if.'r---Z
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Z
0
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Z
0
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....
8-30
January 1978
tl?eechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
In the event of an engine failure with the
main tanks less than one-quarter fUl/,
corrective
action
must
be
taken
immediately to prevent large yaw angles
from developing and causing stoppage of
the remaining engine.
Airspeed is the key to safe single engine operations. For
most twin-engine airplanes there is:
Symbol
Description
YMCA
Airspeed
below
which
directional control cannot be
maintained
VSSE
an
Airspeed
below which
intentional engine cut should
never be made
VYSE
Airspeed that will give the best
single engine rate-of-climb (or
the slowest loss of altitude)
VXSE
Airspeed that wil/ give the
steepest angle-of-climb with one
engine out
MINIMUM CONTROL SPEED AIRBORNE (VMCA)
is designated by the red radial on the airspeed
indicator and indicates the minimum control speed,
airborne at sea level. VMCA is determined by FAA
regulations as the minimum airspeed at which it is
. possible to recover directional control of the airplane
within 20 degrees heading change, and thereafter
maintain straight flight, with not more than 5 degrees of
bank if one engine fails suddenly with:
VMCA
October, 1990
10-47
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
A
APPLICABLE TO BOTH
INBOARD AND OUTBOARD HINGE
-.. -I
)
AILERON BELL CRANK AND PUSHROD
B
-
\---
L-
ELEVA TOR BELL CRANK, PUSHROD AND HORN
c
CONTROL COLUMN
January 1978
76-604-11
8-31
Section X
Safety Information
9deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Climb performance depends on an excess of power over
that required for level flight. Loss of power from one
engine obviously represents a 50% loss of horsepower
but, in virtually all twin-engine airplanes, climb
performance is reduced by at least 80%. A study of the
charts in your Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual will confirm this fact.
Single-engine climb performance depends on four
factors:
Airspeed
too little, or too much, will
decrease climb performance
Drag
gear, flaps, cowl flaps, prop,
and speed
Power
amount available in excess of
that needed for level flight
Weight
passengers, baggage, and fuel
affect
climb
load
greatly
performance
Loss of power on one engine creates yaw due to
asymmetric thrust. Yaw forces must be balanced with the
rudder. Loss of power on one engine also reduces airflow
over the wing causing a roll toward the "dead" engine
which must be balanced with the aileron. The net result
of these forces cause the airplane to sideslip slightly
toward the dead engine. This sideslip may be balanced
by banking slightly (up to 50) into the operating engine.
10-46
October, 1990
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECH CRAFT
Duchess 76
,,
o
RUDDER PEDAL ASSEMBLY AND
BRAKE MASTER CYLINDERS
-
E
ELECTRIC FLAP ACTUATOR ASSEMBLY
F
CABIN DOOR
8-32
76·604·12
January 1978
tQeechcrnft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
the landing gear should be extended in any circumstance
in which the pilot encounters IFR conditions which
approach the limits of his capability or his ratings.
Lowering the gear in IFR conditions or flight into heavy or
severe turbulence, tends to stabilize the aircraft, assists
in maintaining proper airspeed, and will substantially
reduce the possibility of reaching excessive airspeeds
with catastrophic consequences, even where loss of
control is experienced.
-
Excessive speed accidents occur at airspeeds greatly in
excess of two operating limitations which are specified in
the manuals: Maximum maneuvering speed and the "red
line" or maximum operating speed. Such speed limits are
set to protect the structure of an airplane. For example,
flight controls are designed to be used to their fullest
extent only below the airplane's maximum maneuvering
speed. As a result, the .control surfaces should never be
suddenly or fully deflected above maximum maneuvering
speed. Turbulence penetration should not be performed
above that speed. The accidents we are discussing here
occur at airspeeds greatly in excess of these limitations.
No airplane should ever be flown beyond its FAA
approved operating limitations.
FLIGHT OF MULTI-ENGINE AIRPLANES WITH
ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE
The major difference between flying a twin-engine and
single-engine airplane is knowing how to manage the
flight if one engine loses power for any reason. Safe flight'
with one engine inoperative requires an understanding of
the basic aerodynamics involved - as wei' as proficiency
in engine out procedures.
Loss of power from one engine affects both climb
performance and controllability of twin-engine airplanes.
October, 1990
10-45
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Himdling, Serv and Maint
G
BAGGAGE DOOR
-
H
BRAKE RESERVOIR AND PARKING BRAKE VALVE
~
~
I It"
.
... .1...,
'.- ~
::....
LANDING GEAR'HYDRAULIC PUMP AND RESERVOIR
76-604-13
January 1978
8-33
Section X
Safety Information
9Jeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
on can contribute to vertigo. They should be turned off in
these conditions, particularly at night.
All pilot's should check the weather and use good
judgment in planning flights. The VFR pilot should use
extra caution in avoiding low visibility conditions.
Motion sickness often precedes or accompanies
disorientation and may further jeopardize the flight.
Disorientation in low visibility conditions is not limited to
VFR pilots. Although IFR pilots are trained to look at their
instruments to gain an artificial visual reference as a
replacement for the loss of a visual horizon: they do not
always do so. This can happen when the pilot's physical
condition will not permit him to concentrate on his
instruments; when the pilot is not proficient in flying
instrument conditions in the airplane he is flying; or, when
the pilot's work load of flying by reference to his
instruments is augmented by such factors as turbulence.
Even an instrument rated pilot encountering instrument
conditions, intentional or unintentional, should ask himself
whether or not he is sufficiently alert and proficient in the
airplane he is flying, to fly under low visibility conditions
and the turbulence anticipated or encountered.
If any doubt exists, the flight should not be made or it
should be discontinued as soon as possible.
The result of vertigo is loss of control of the airplane. If
the loss of control is sustained, it will result in an
excessive speed accident. Excessive speed accidents
occur in one of two manners, either as an inflight airframe
separation or as a high speed ground impact; and they
are fatal accidents in either case. All airplanes are subject
to this form of accident.
For years, Beech Pilot's Operating Handbooks and FAA
Approved Flight Manuals have contained instructions that
10-44
October, 1990
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
J
NOSE GEAR INSTALLATION AND DOORS
K
ELEVATOR STABILIZER HINGE
l
FLAP INSTALLATION
, 76-604-14
8-34
January 1978
'iJeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)·
Section X
Safety Information
instrument equipped airplane. Then proceed with caution
and with planned alternates.
VFR AT NIGHT
-
When flying VFR at night, in addition to the altitude
appropriate fbr the direction of flight, pilots should
maintain a safe minimum altitude as dictated by terrain,
obstacles such as TV towers, or communities in the area
flown. This is especially true in mountainous terrain,
where there is usually very little ground reference.
Minimum clearance is 2,000 feet above the highest
obstacle en route. Do not depend on your ability to see
obstacles in time to miss them. Flight on dark nights over
sparsely populated country can be the same as IFR, and
must be avoided by inexperienced or non-IFR rated
pilots.
VERTIGO - DISORIENTATION
Disorientation can occur in a variety of ways. During
flight, inner ear balancing mechanisms are subjected to
varied forces not normally experienced on the ground.
This, combined with loss of outside visual reference, can
cause vertigo. False interpretations (illusions) result, and
may confuse the pilot's conception of the attitude and
position of his airplane.
Under VFR conditions, the visual sense, using the horizon
as a reference, can override the illusions. Under low
visibility coriditions (night, fog, clouds, haze, etc.) the
illusions predominate. Only through awareness of these
illusions, and proficiency in instrument flight procedures,
can an airplane be operated safely in a low visibility
environment.
Flying in fog, dense haze or dust, cloud banks, or very
low visibility, with strobe lights or rotating beacons turned
October, 1990
10-43
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
M
RUDDER AND ELEVATOR TAB ACTUATOR
N
-
MAIN LANDING GEAR
o
COWL FLAP
76-604-15
January 1978
8-35
Section X
Safety Information
Ij)eechcmft
Twin Engine (Piston)
of mountain flying operations is included in the FAA
Airman's Information Manual, Part 1.
Avoid flight at low altitudes over mountainous terrain,
particularly near the lee slopes. If the wind velocity near
the level of the ridge is in excess of 25 knotS and
approximately perpendicular to the ridge, mountain wave
conditions are likely over and near the lee slopes. If the
wind velocity at the level of the ridge exceeds 50 knots,
a strong mountain wave is probable with extreme up and
down drafts and severe turbulence. The worst turbulence
will be encountered in and below the rotor zone, which is
usually 8 to 10 miles downwind from the ridge. This zone
is sometimes characterized by the presence of "roll
clouds" if sufficient moisture is present; altocumulus
standing lenticular clouds are also visible signs that a
mountain wave exists, but their presence is likewise
dependent on moisture. Mountain walie turbulence can,
of course, occur in dry air and the absence of such
clouds should not be taken as assurance that mountain
wave turbulence will not be encountered. A mountain
wave downdraft may exceed the climb capability of your
airplane. Avoid mountain wave downdrafts ..
VFR - LOW CEILINGS
If you are not instrument rated, do not attempt "VFR on
Top" or "Special VFR" flight or clearances. Being caught
above a solid cloud layer when an emergency descent is
required (or at destination) is an extremely hazardous
position for the VFR pilot. Accepting a clearance out of
airport control zones with no minimum ceiling and onemile visibility as permitted with "SpeCial VFR" is a foolish
practice for the VFR pilot.
Avoid areas of low ceilings and restricted visibility unless
you are instrument rated and proficient and have an
10-42
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT.
Duchess 76
p
\
UPPER AND LOWER RUDDER INSTALLATION
R
I
ELEVATOR AND RUDDER TAB HINGE
s
HEATER
8-36
76-604-16
August, 1980
-
'L?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
4.
5.
6.
7.
S.
Section X
Safety Information
Embedded thunderstorms usually can not be
visually circumnavigated.
Don't trust visual appearance to be a reliable
indicator of the turbulence inside a thunderstorm.
Do avoid by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm
identified as severe or giving an intense radar echo.
This is especially true under the anvil of a large
cumulonimbus.
Do circumnavigate the entire area if the area has
6/10 or greater thunderstorm coverage.
Do remember that vivid and frequent lightning
indicates the probability of a severe thunderstorm.
Do
regard
as
extremely hazardous
any
thunderstorm with tops 35,000 feet or higher,
whether the top is visually sighted or determined by
radar.
If you cannot avoid penetrating a thunderstorm, the
following are some do's BEFORE entering the storm:
9.
10.
11.
12.
Tighten your safety belt, put on your shoulder
harness, and secure all loose objects.
Plan and hold your course to take you through the
storm in minimum time.
To avoid the most critical icing, establish a
penetration altitude below the freezing level or
above the level of -15°C.
Verify that pitot heat is on and turn on carburetor
heat or engine anti-ice. Icing can be rapid at any
altitude and cause almost instantaneous power
failure and/or loss of. airspeed indication.
iitiOUNTAIN FLYiNG
Pilots flying in mountainous areas should inform
themselves of all aspects of mountain flying, including the
effects of topographic features on weather conditions.
Many good articles have been published, and a synopsis
October, 1990
10-41
BEECH CRAFT
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
Duchess 76
~
r
,,-
ZERK FITTING
SQUIRT CAN
SPRAY
I
FLUID CONTAINER
f
HAND OR
,
PACK
BRUSH
76·604·17
Letters are keyed to the Recommended Servicing Schedule.
Numbers refer to items in Consumable Materials chart. Symbols, as shown above, indicate the method bf lubrication.
Lubricate all plain bearing bushings, all push-pull control
housings and all flight control pulley bushings, as required, or
every 500 hours with SAE 10W30 oiL
Exercise care when using MIL-G-23827 greases as they
contain a rust preventative which will discolor painted surfaces.
January 1978
8-37
-
Section X
Safety Information
9deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Thunderstorms build and dissipate rapidly. Therefore, do
not attempt to plan a course between echoes using
ground based radar. The best use of ground radar
information is to isolate general areas and coverage of
echoes. You must avoid individual storms from in-flight
observations either by visual sighting or by airborne
radar. It is better to avoid the whole thunderstorm area
than to detour around individual storms unless they are
scattered.
Remember that while hail always gives a radar echo, it
may fall several miles from the nearest visible cloud and
hazardous turbulence may extend to as much as 20 miles
from the echo edge. The intensity of the radar echo from
hail varies with the size and nature of the hailstone. A
hailstone with a wet surface gives a strong radar return
while a dry hailstone gives a relatively weak return. Avoid
intense or extreme level echoes by at least 20 miles; that
is, such echoes should be separated by at least 40 miles
before you fly between them. With weaker echoes you
can reduce the distance by which you avoid them.
Above all, remember this: never regard any thunderstorm
lightly. Even when radar observers report the echoes are
of light intensity, avoiding thunderstorms is the best
policy. The following are some do's and don·ts of
thunderstorm avoidance:
1.
2.
3.
10-40
Don't land or take off in the face of an approaching
thunderstorm. A sudden gust front of low level
turbulence could cause loss of control.
Don't attempt to fly under a thunderstorm even if
you can see through to the other side. Turbulence
and wind shear under the storm could be
disastrous.
Don't fly without airborne radar into a cloud mass
containing scattered embedded thunderstorms.
October, 1990
-
I
RECOMMENDED SERVICING SCHEDULE
LOCATION
(Letters refer to Lubrication Points Diagram)
MATERIALS
(Numbers refer to Items in
Consumable Materials)
INTERVAL
ITEM
25 Hrs
Check Battery Electrolyte Aft of aft cabin bulkhead
Level
Distilled water only
Lube Nose Landing
Linkage (13 places)
Gear Nose landing gear (J)
(4)
Lube Lower Fork Attach Point Main landing gear (N)
(2 places)
(4)
50 Hrs
Change Engine Oil Filters
Remove engine cowl
Refer to Maintenance Manual
til
Clean Engine Induction Air Remove upper engine cowling Clean per instructions on filter
Filters
m
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tDeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
Finally, the most important ingredients to safe flight in
icing conditions - regardless of the aircraft or the
combination of deicing/anti-icing equipment - are a
complete and current weather briefing, sound pilot
judgement, close. attention to the rate and type of ice
accumulations, and the knowledge that "severe icing" as
defined by the National Weather Service is beyond the
capability of modern aircraft and immediate diversion
must be made. It is the inexperienced or uneducated pilot
who presses on "regardless", hoping that steadily
worsening conditions will improve, only to find himself
flying an airplane which has become so loaded with ice
that he can no longer maintain altitude. At this pOint he
has lost most, if not all, of his safety options, including
perhaps a 180 degree turn to return along the course
already trav!,led.
The responsible and well-informed pilot recognizes the
limitations of weather conditions, his airplane and its
systems and reacts promptly.
WEATHER RADAR
Airborne weather avoidance radar is, as its name implies,
for avoiding severe weather--not for 'penetrating it.
Whether to fly into an area of radar echoes depends on
echo intensity and shape, spacing between the echoes,
and the capabilities of you and your aircraft. Remember
that weather radar detects only precipitation drops.
Therefore, the radar scope provides no assurance of
avoiding turbulence. The radar scope also does not
provide assurance of avoiding instrument weather from
clouds and fog. Your scope may be clear between
intense echoes; this clear area does not necessarily
mean you can fly between the storms and maintain visual
sighting of them.
October, 1990
10-39
I
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e
100 Hrs
Change Engine Oil
Remove engine cowl
(8) Refer to Maintenance
Manual
III
~
Clean Fuel Selector Valve Remove the access cover on Clean with clean solvent (10)
Fuel Strainers
the bottom of each nacelle (0)
OlD
em
('1m
=0
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~ 0
III
....,:II
en»
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Clean, Test and Regap Spark Remove engine cowl, both Plugs
sides of each engine
Checi( Magneto Timing
Remove engine cowl
Refer to Maintenance Manual
Check Emergency Locator Right side of aft fuselage
Transmitter
~
W
Lube Aileron Bell Crank and Left and right ailerons (A)
Push Rod Linkage (12 places)
~
____- L________
~
__________
~
______________________
J
Tune radio to 121.5 MHz on
VHF or 243 MHz on UHF, then
turn ELT switch to ON and
monitor for one signal. Turn
ELT switch OFF, then place in
ARM position.
__________________
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Section X
Safety Information
'b'eechcratt
(
Twin Engine (Piston)
tab hinges should be maintained and lubricated as
specified in the Aircraft Maintenance Manual.
In icing conditions the autopilot should be disengaged at
an altitude sufficient to permit the pilot to gain the feel of
the aircraft prior to landing. In no case should this be less
than the minimum altitude specified in the Autopilot
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement.
Observe the procedures set forth in your Pilofs
Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual during operation in icing conditions.
Activate your deice and anti-icing systems before
entering an area of moisture where you are likely to go
through a freezing level, to make sure all necessary
equipment is operative.
Rapid cycling of deice boots or cycling before at least
one-half inch (1/2") of ice hal' accumulated (measured in
the chordwise direction or forward from the leading
edge), may cause the ice to grow outside the contour of
the inflated boots and prevent ice removal.
For any owner or pilot whose use pattern for an aircraft
exposes it to icing encounters, the following references
are required reading for safe flying:
The aircraft's Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual, especially the
sections on Normal Procedures, Emergency
Procedures, Abnormal Procedures, Systems, and
Safety Information.
FAA Advisory Circulars 91-51 Airplane Deice and
Anti-ice Systems
FA.A Advisory Circulars 135-9 - Icing Limitations
Weather Flying by Robert N. Buck.
10-38
October, 1990
-
INTERVAL
ITEM
LOCATION
(Letters refer to Lubrication Points Diagram)
100 Hrs Lube Elevator Bell Crank Link- Elevator (B)
(Cont'd) age (6 places)
Lube Electric Flap Actuator
Torque Shaft (3 places)
MATERIALS
(Numbers refer to Items In
Consumable Materials)
(1 )
Under aft cabin floorboards (3)
under rear passenger seats
(E)
Lube Electric Flap Actuator Flap (E)
Rod Assembly (4 places)
(1 )
Lube Cabin Door Hinges and Left and right cabin doors (F) (1 )
Latch Mechanisms
(12 places)
Lube Baggage Door Hinge Baggage door (G)
and Latch Mechanisms
(3 places)
(1 )
CQeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
the airplane. For the same reasons, stall warning devices
are not accurate and cannot be relied upon in icing
conditions.
Even though the pilot maintains the prescribed minimum
speeds for operating in icing conditions, ice is still likely
to build up on the unprotected areas (the fuselage and
unprotected wing leading edge inboard of the engine
nacelle). Under some atmospheric conditions, it may even
build up aft of the boots despite the maintenance of the
prescribed minimum speed. The effect of ice
accumulation on any unprotected surface is aggravated
by length of exposure to the icing conditions. Ice buildup
on unprotected surfaces will increase drag, add weight,
reduce lift, and generally, adversely affect the
aerodynamic characteristics and performance of the
airplane. It can progress to the point where the airplane
is no longer capable of flying. Therefore, the pilot
operating even a fully-equipped airplane in sustained
icing conditions must remain sensitive to any indication,
such as observed ice accumulation, loss ·of airspeed, the
need for increased power, reduced rate of climb, or
sluggish response, that ice is accumulating on
unprotected surfaces and that continued flight in these
conditions is extremely hazardous, regardless of the
performance of the deicing/anti-icing equipment.
Since flight in icing conditions is not an everyday
occurrence, it is important that pilots maintain a proper
proficiency and awareness of the operating procedures
necessary for safe operation of the airplane and that the
airplane is in a condition for safe operation.
Ensure moisture drains in the aircraft structure are
maintained open as specified in the Aircraft Maintenance
Manual, so that moisture will not collect and cause
freezing in the control cable area. Also, control surfaces
October, 1990
10-37
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03
100 Hrs Lube Nose
(Cont'd) Door Hinges
Landing
Gear Nose landing gear doors (J)
(1 )
OIlJ
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::1"0
CD
Lube Nose Landing Gear
Wheel Bearing
Nose landing gear (J)
(5)
:J:
1:10
"-I:U
01»
:!I
Lube ElevatorStabilizer Hinge Elevator (K)
(2 places)
(1 )
Lube' Flap Installation Hinge
(6 places)
(1 )
Flap (L)
Lube F1udder and Elevator Tab Empennage (M)
Actuator Rod Hinges
(2 places)
(1 )
:J:
II)
::I
eoS·
<fl
Lube Main Landing
Wheel Bearings
Gear Main landing gear (N)
(5)
(J)
CD
~ lC
::I 0
.......
,
CXI
Lube Cowl Flap Hinge and At- Left and right nacelles (0)
tach Points (4 places)
(1 )
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Section X
Safety Information
tOeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
airplanes, however designed or equipped for IFR flight,
cannot be flown safely into conditions such as
thunderstorms,
tornadoes,
hurricanes
or
other
phenomena likely to produce severe turbulence, airplanes
equipped for flight in icing conditions cannot be expected
to cope with "Severe" icing conditions as defined by the
National Weather Service. The prudent pilot must remain
alert to the possibility that icing conditions may become
"severe" and that his equipment will not cope with them.
At the first indication that such condition may have been
. encountered or may lie ahead, he should immediately
react by selecting the most expeditious and safe course
for diversion.
Every pilot of a properly fully-equipped Beech airplane
who ventures into icing conditions must maintain the
minimum speed (KIAS) for operation in icing conditions,
which is set forth in the Normal Procedures section, and
in the Limitations section, of his Pilot's Operating
Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual. a
minimum speed for flight in iCing conditions is not
specified in the manual, the following minimum indicated
airspeeds must be maintained:
All Baron and Travel Air Models - 130 KIAS
All other BEECHCRAFT twin-engine models - 140
KIAS
The pilot must remain aware of the fact that if he allows
his airspeed to deteriorate below this minimum speed, he
will increase the angle of attack of his airplane to the
point where ice may build up on the under side of the
wings aft of the area protected by the boots.
The fact or extent of ice build-up in unprotected areas will
not be directly observable from the cockpit. Due to
distortion of the wing airfoil, increased drag and, reduced
lift, stalling speeds will increase as ice accumulates on
10-36
October, 1990
I
INTERVAL
ITEM
LOCATION
(Letters refer to Lubrication Points Diagram)
100 Hrs Lube Upper and Lower Rudder Rudder (P)
(Cont'd) Installation Attach POints
(4 places)
I
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10
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(0
CX>
MATERIALS
(Numbers refer to Items In
Consumable Materials)
(1 )
::t(J)
D> ID
::l n
a.e.
::0
:J :J
-(J):
10<
ID
~
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Co
Lube Elevator Tab and Rudder Elevator tab and rudder tab (7)
Tab Hinges
(R)
Clean Static Air Buttons
Aft fuselage
Clean with solvent (10) and
wipe dry with a dean rag
Drain Static Ai r Lines
Flight compartment left side
panel, forward of door frame
-
~
5'
m
Check Scupper Drains - Drain Rear fuselage and empen- Guards Open, Facing Aft and nage
Drain Holes are Free from Obstructions
o
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I.
'1?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
supported by the full complement of required IFR and
deicing/anti-icing equipment.
Remember that regardless of its combination of deicing/
anti-icing equipment, any aircraft not fully equipped and
functional for IFR flight is not properly equipped for flight
in icing conditions. An airplane which is not approved or
certificated for flight in iCing conditions, or which does not
have all critical areas protected in the required manner by
fully operational anti-icing equipment must not be
exposed to icing encounters of any intensity. When icing
is detected, the pilot of such an aircraft must make an
immediate diversion by flying out of the area of visible
moisture or going to an altitude where icing is not
encountered. .
Some models of Beech airplanes were approved for flight
in certain limited icing conditions under the FAA's Bureau
of Flight Standards Release No. 434. Under this release,
properly equipped airplanes are approved for flight in
light to moderate icing conditions only. See Sections 2
and 4 of this manual for icing limitations. These aircraft
are not approved for extended flight in moderate icing
conditions or flights in any severe icing conditions. Flight
in these conditions must be avoided.
Even airplanes fully equipped and certified for flight in the
icing conditions described in Appendix C to FAR Part 25
must avoid flights into those conditions defined by the
National Weather Service as "Severe". The National
Weather Service definition of "Severe Icing" describes
that conditions as: '·the rate of accumulation is such that
deicing/anti-icing equipment faiisto reduce or control the
hazard." No airplane equipped with any combination of
deiCing/anti-icing equipment can be expected to cope
with such conditions. As competent pilots know, there
appears to be no predictable limits for the severest
, weather conditions. For essentially the same reasons that
October, 1990
10-35
r
OlD
--
300 Hrs
Replace Induction Air Filters
Remove upper engine cowling Refer to Maintenance Manual
300 to
500 Hrs
Replace Instrument Air Filter
Under nose compartment Refer to Maintenance Manual
floor. left side
500 Hrs
Lube Rudder Pedals and Link- Flight Compartment (0)
age (18 places)
em
:To
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!II
0
""'1::0
01)0-
::!l
(1 )
1000 Hrs Lube Control Column Linkage Forward of instrument panel (1 )
(5 places)
(C)
1200 Hrs Lube Rudder Tab and Elevator Empennage
Tab Actuator
(4) Refer to Maintenance
Manual
J:
III
::J
5!:
5'
As Req,
Lube Magneto Cam Follower
Felt (2 places)
Remove engine cowl
Service Brake Reservoir
Through small access door on (2)
large access door - left side of
nose compartment (H)
(9)
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Section X
Safety Information
'Ueechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
become potentially hazardous
and use of deicing/anti-icing
equipment or
diversion
is
necessary.
Severe
The rate of accumulation is such
that deicing/anti-icing equipment
fails to reduce or control the
hazard. Immediate diversion is
necessary.
It is no longer unusual to find deicing and anti-icing
equipment on a wide range of airplane sizes and types.
Since the capability of this equipment varies, it becomes
the pilot's primary responsibility to understand limitations
which restrict the use of his airplane in icing conditions
and the conditions which may exceed the systems
capacity.
Pilots and airplane owners must carefully review the
Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane
Flight Manual in order to ascertain the required operable
equipment needed for flight in icing conditions. In
addition, they must ascertain from the same sources the
limits of approval or certification of their airplane for flight
in icing conditions, and plan the flight accordingly, if icing
conditions are known or forecast along the route ..
Every owner and pilot of an airplane should understand
that it is not uncommon to find aircraft equipped with less
than the full complement of available systems and
equipment. For example, propellers and pitot tube may
be protected, but the aircraft may not have wing boots or
tail boots. The reverse might be true. Windshield, pitot
and airfoil surfaces might be protected, but the propellers
might not be. Before undertaking any flight into areas
where icing conditions might be suspected, inspect the
aircraft and review the Pilot's Operating Handbook and
FAA Approved Flight Mc.nual to be certain that you are
10-34
October, 1990
-
I
0>
t
INTERVAL
ITEM
LOCATION
(Letters refer to Lubrication Points Diagram)
MATERIALS
(Numbers refer to Items in
Consumable Materials)
:tm
III CD
:::I 0
a.e.
::0
:::I :::I
!P<
As Req. Service Hydraulic Pump Re- Aft of aft cabin bulkhead ( I)
(Conrd) servoir
(2)
m=
CD
<
DI
:::I
Service Nose Landing Gear Nose landing gear (J)
Shock Strut and Shimmy
Dampener
(2) Refer to Maintenance
Manual
Service Main Landing Gear Main landing gear (N)
Shock Struts
(2) Refer to Maintenance
Manual
Lube Heater Iris Valve
Co
==
III
a
Through access door, right (7)
lower nose compartment (S)
OJ
tt
..
..
Check Emergency Locator Right side of aft fuselage
Transmitter Batlery
-
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lSJJ
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~~
.-.
I
'Deechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
Microbursts
downdrafts.
are
intense,
highly
localized
severe
The prediction of wind shears is far from an exact
science. Monitor your airspeed carefully when flying near
storms, particularly on approach. Be mentally prepared to
add power and go around at the first indication that a
wind shear is being encountered.
FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS
Every pilot should be intimately acquainted with the FAA
Approved National Weather Service definitions for ice
intensity and accumulation which we have reprinted
below:
INTENSITY
ICE ACCUMULATION
Trace
Ice becomes perceptible. Rate
of accumulation slightly greater
than rate of sublimation. It is not
hazardous even though deicing/
anti-icing equipment is not
utilized, unless encountered for
an extended period of time (over
1 hour).
Light
The rate of accumulation may
create a problem if flight is
prolonged in this environment
(over 1 hour). Occasional use of
deicing/anti-icing
equipment
removes/prevents accumulation.
It does not present a problem if
the deicing/anti-icing equipment
is used.
Moderate
October, 1990
The rate of accumulation is such
.that even short encounters
10-33
COl
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NOTES:
1. Any time the control surfaces are repainted, or repaired, they must be rebalanced per
Maintenance Manual.
2. Check the wing bolts for proper torque at the first 100-hour inspection and at the first,
100-hour inspection after each reinstallation of the wing attach bolts.
tt
Rechargeable Batteries: Recharge after one cumulative hour of use or after 50% of the
useful charge life.
,
Non·Rechargeable Batteries: Replace after one cumulative hour or alter 50% of the useful ':r
DI
life.
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Section X
Safety Information
CQeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
hand, if you maintain an excessive airspeed, you run the
risk of structural damage or failure; on the other hand, if
your airspeed is too low, you may stall.
If turbulence is encountered, reduce speed to the
turbulent air penetration speed, if given, or to the
maneuvering speed, which is listed in the Limitations
section of the Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual. These speeds give the
best assurance of avoiding excessive stress loads, and at
the same time providing the proper margin against
inadvertent stalls due to gusts.
Beware of overcontrolling in an attempt to correct for
changes in attitude; applying control pressure abruptly
will build up G-forces rapidly and could cause structural
damage or even failure. You should watch particularly
your angle of bank, making turns as wide and shallow as
possible. Be equally cautious in applying forward or back
pressure to keep the airplane level. Maintain straight and
level attitude in either up or down drafts. Use trim
sparingly to avoid being grossly out of trim as the vertical
air columns change velocity and direction. If necessary to
avoid excessive airspeeds, lower the landing gear.
WIND SHEAR
Wind shears are rapid, localized changes in wind
direction, which can occur vertically as well as
horizontally. Wind shear can be very dangerous to all
aircraft, large and small, particularly on approach to
landing when airspeeds are slow.
A horizontal wind shear is a sudden change in wind
direction or speed that can, for example, transform a
headwind into a tailwind, producing a sudden decrease in
indicated airspeed because of the inertia pf the aircraft. A
vertical wind shear, is a sudden updraft or downdraft.
10-32
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
CONSUMABLE MATERIALS
Only the basic number of each Military Specification fs
included in the Consumable Materials Chart. No attempt
has been made to update the basic number with the letter
suffix that designates the current issues of the various
specifications.
Vendors listed as meeting Federal and Military
Specifications are provided as reference only and are not
specifically recommended by Beech Aircraft Corporation;
consequently, any product conforming to the specification
listed may be used. The products listed below have been
tested and approved for aviation usage by Beech Aircraft
Corporation, by the vendor, or by compliance with the
applicable specifications. Other products that are locally
procurable which conform to the requirements of the
applicable Military Specification may be used even though
not specifically included herein.
It is the responsibility of the operator/user to determine the
current revision of the applicable Military Specification prior
to usage of that item. This determination may be made by
contacting the vendor of a specific item.
ITEM MATERIAL
1. Lubricating Oil
2. Hydraulic Fluid
3. Lubricant Krylon Heavy
Duty
4. Lubricating Grease (Aircraft & Instrument, High
and Low Temperature)
"5. Grease (Hi-Temp)
6. Item deleted
8-46
SPECIFICATION
SAE 10W30
MIL-H-5606
Silicon Spray No. 1325,
No. 1329 or Equivalent
MIL-G-23827
MIL-G-81322
January 1982
tQeechcra ft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
Unsecured objects are tossed
about.
-
Moderate
Occupants require seat belts
and occasionally are thrown
.against the belt. Unsecured
objects move about.
Light
Occupants may be required to
use seat belts, but objects in the
aircraft remain at rest.
Thunderstorms, squall lines and violent turbulence should
be regarded as extremely dangerous and must be
avoided. Hail and tornadic wind velocities can be
encountered in thunderstorms that can destroy any
airplane, just as tornadoes destroy nearly everything in
their path on the ground.
Thunderstorms also pose the possibility of a lightning
strike on an aircraft. Any structure or .equipment which
shows evidence of a lightning strike, or of being
subjected to a high current flow due to a strike, or is a
suspected part of a lightning strike path through the
aircraft should be thoroughly inspected and any damage
repaired prior to additional flight.
A rol\ cloud ahead of a squall line or thunderstorm is
visible evidence of extreme turbulence; however, the
absence of a roll cloud should not be interpreted as
denoting that severe turbulence is not present.
Even though flight in severe turbulence must be avoided,
flight in turbulent air may be encountered unexpectedly
under certain conditions.
The following recommendations should be observed for
airplane operation in turbulent air:
Flying through turbulent air presents two basic problems,
the answer to both of which is proper airspeed. On one
October, 1990
10-31
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
.. ···7. Molybdenum Disulfide
"s. Engine Oil
9. Lubricant, Felt
10. Solvent
11. Engine Fuel
12. Corrosion Preventive
Compound
**"'13. Engine Fuel Additive
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
MIL-M-7866
MIL-L-22851
10-86527
Federal Specification
PO 680
100 (Green) or 100 LL
(Blue) Minimum Grade
Fuel
MIL-C-6529 (Anti-Corrode
No. 205)
ALCOA TCP Concentrate
• In extremely cold climates use MIL-G-23827 grease in
place of MIL-G-81322. (These greases are harmful to'
paint.)
•• Ashless dispersant oil complying with MIL-L-22851 is
recommended after the oil consumption has stabilized
or after the first 50 hours of operation. A straight
mineral oil conforming to MIL-L-6082 may be used
until the oil consumption has stabilized, not to exceed
50 hours of operation. Oil of seasonal viscosity, added
to maintain the proper oil level during this break-in
period, must comply with MIL-L-6082 .
••• Product of Alcor, Inc .• San Antonio, Texas 78284
.... For use on elevator and rudder tab hinge mix with
naphtha into a paste and apply with a brush.
January 1982
8-47
<Ueechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
Particular attention must be paid to the autopilot settings
prior to engagement. If you attempt to engage the
autopilot when the airplane is out of trim, a large attitude
change may occur.
IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE PROCEDURES SET FORTH
IN THE APPROVED AFM SUPPLEMENTS FOR YOUR
SPECIFIC INSTALLATION BE FOLLOWED BEFORE
ENGAGING THE AUTOPILOT.
TURBULENT WEATHER
A complete and current weather briefing is a requirement
for a safe trip.
Updating of weather information en route is also
essential. The wise pilot knows that weather conditions
can change quickly, and treats weather forecasting as
professional advice, rather than an absolute fact. He
obtains all the advice he can, but stays alert to any sign
or report of changing conditions.
Plan the flight to avoid areas of reported severe
turbulence. It is not always possible to detect individual
storm areas or find the in-between clear areas.
The National Weather Service classifies turbulence as
follows:
Class of Turbulence
Effect
Extreme
Aircraft is violently tossed about
and is practically impossible to
control. May cause structural
damage.
Severe
Aircraft may be momentarily out
of control. Occupants are
thrown violently against the
belts and back into the seat.
10-30
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Main!
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
APPROVED ENGINE OILS
COMPANY
BRAND NAME
Delta Petroleum Co., 'Global Concentrate A
Inc.
-
Enjay Chemical
Company
'Paranox 160 and 165
Mobil Oil Corporation
'RT-451. RM-173E, RM-1BOE
Shell Oil Company
'Shell Concentrate A - Code 60068
'Aeroshell W120
'Aeroshell W80
Texaco Incorporated
'TX-6309
'Aircraft Engine Oil Premium AD120
'Aircraft Engine Oil Premium AD80
American Oil and Sup- 'PO Aviation Lubricant 753
ply Co.
Chevron Oil Company 'Chevron Aero Oil Grade 120
Humble Oil and Refin- 'Esso Aviation
ing Co.
'Enco Aviation
'Esso Aviation
'Enco Aviation
'Esso Aviation
'Enco Aviation
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
E-120
E-120
A-l00
A-100
E-BO
E-80
Standard Oil Company 'Chevron Aero Oil Grade 120
of California
8-48
January 1978
;
(
'i'?eechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
Radios, including VHF COMM are also
disconnected when the radio master switch
is off.
4.
Turn off the ELECTRIC MASTER SWITCH.
I
WARNING
I
Most electrically powered systems will be
inoperative. Consult the AFM for further
information.
5.
6.
Push the GA switch on throttle grip, if installed,
depending upon the autopilot system.
Push TEST EACH FLT switch on the autopilot
controller, if installed.
NOTE
After the autopilot is positively disengaged,
it may be necessary to restore other
electrical functions. Be sure when the
master switches are turned on that the
autopilot does not re-engage.
The above ways mayor may not be available on your
autopilot. It is essential that you read your airplane's AFM
SUPPLEMENT for your autopilot system and check such
function and operation on your system.
The engagement of the autopilot must be done in
accordance with the instructions and procedures
contained in the AFM SUPPLEMENT.
October, 1990
10-29
BEECHCRAFT
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
Duchess 76
Castrol Oils, Canada "Castrolaero 113, Grade 1065
Ltd.
"Castrolaero 117, Grade 1100
Champlin Oil and Re- "Grade 1065
fining Co.
"Grade 1100
Chevron Oil Company ."Chevron Aviation Oil 65
"Grade 1100
Continental Oil
Company
"Conoco Aero Oil 1065
"Conoco Aero Oil 1100
Mobil Oil Corporation
"Avrex 10111065
'* 101/1100
Phil/ips Petroleum Co. "Phillips 66 Aviation Engine Oil,
Grade 1065
"Phillips 66 Aviation Engine Oil,
Grade 1100
Shell Oil Company
*'Aeroshell Oil 65
,. Aeroshell Oil 100
• Ashless Dispersant Oils Complying with MIL-L-22851
NOTE
Ashless dispersant oil complying with
MIL-L-22851 is recommended after the oil consumption has stabilized or after the first 50 hours
of operation.
January 1978
8-49
Section X
Safety Information
'ideechcraft
Twin. Engine (Piston)
!
Do not try to manually override the autopilot during flight.
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, YOU CAN OVERPOWER
THE AUTOPILOT TO CORRECT THE ADITUDE, BUT
THE AUTOPILOT AND ELECTRIC TRIM MUST THEN
IMMEDIATELY BE DISENGAGED.
It is often difficult to distinguish an autopilot malfunction
from an electric trim system malfunction. The safest
course is to deactivate both. Do not re-engage either
system until after you have safely landed. Then have the
systems checked by a qualified service facility prior to
further flight.
Depending upon the installation on your airplane, the
following additional methods may be available to
disengage the autopilot or electric trim in the event that
the autopilot or electric trim does not disengage utilizing
the disengage methods specified in the Supplements.
Transient control forces may occur when
the autopilot is disengaged.
1.
2.
3.
10-28
Turn off the autopilot master switch, if installed.
Pull the autopilot and trim circuit breaker(s) or turn
off the autopilot switch breaker, if installed.
Turn off the RADIO MASTER SWITCH, if installed,
and if the autopilot system and the trim system are
wired through this switch.
October, 1990
-
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
(
"
** Straight Mineral Oils Complying with MIL-L-6082
NOTE
A straight mineral oil conforming to MIL-L-6082
may be used until the oil consumption has
stabilized, not to exceed 50 hours of operation.
Oil of seasonal viscosity. added to maintain the
proper oil level during this break-in period. must
comply with MIL-L-6082.
(
Vendors listed as meeting Federal and Military Specifications
are provided as reference only and are not specifically recommended by Beech Aircraft Corporation. Any product conforming to the speCification may be used.
8-50
January 1978
'i?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
airplane. Each pilot, prior to flight, must be fully aware of
the proper procedures for operation, and particularly
disengagement, for the system as installed.
In addition to ensuring compliance with the autopilot
manufacturer's maintenance requirements, all owners/
operators should thoroughly familiarize themselves with
the operation, function and procedures described in the
Airplane Flight Manual Supplements. Ensure a full
understanding of the methods of engagement and
disengagement of the autopilot and trim systems.
Compare the descriptions and procedures contained in
the Supplements to the actual installation in the airplane
to ensure that the supplement accurately describes your
installation. Test that all buttons, switches and circuit
breakers function as described in the Supplements. If
they do not function as described, have the system
repaired by a qualified service agency. If field service
advice or assistance is necessary, contact Beech Aircraft
Corporation, Customer Support Department.
As stated in all AFM Supplements for autopilot systems
and trim systems installed on Beech airplanes, the
preflight check must be conducted before every flight.
The preflight check assures not only that the systems and
all of their features are operating properly, but also that
the pilot, before flight, is familiar with the proper means
of engagement and disengagement of the autopilot and
trim system .
. Autopilot Airplane Flight Manual Supplements caution
against trying to override the autopilot system during
fiight without disengaging the autopilot because the
autopilot will continue to trim the airplane and oppose the
pilafs actions. This could result in a severely out of trim
condition. This is a basic feature of all autopilots with
electric trim follow-up.
October, 1990
10-27
. LAMP BULB REPLACEMENT GUIDE
):0
"'C
OtD
C m
o m
:::!.
...
LOCATION
'"-01to
'14 VOLT
Post Lights
Compass Light
Cabin Dome Light
Taxi Lights
Landing Light
Tail Light
Landing Gear In-transit Lights
Overhead Instrument Panel Lights
Engine Instrument Cluster Light
Wing Tip lights
Strobe Light, Wing
Engine Instru ment Post Lights
Landing Gear Down and Locked Lights
,
0>
...
U1
330
330
89
4595
4313
1777
330
89
266
A7512-12
55-0221-3
(Flashtube)
330
330
NUMBER
"28 VOLT
327
327
303
4594
4596
1683
327
303
267
A7512-24
55-0221-3
(Flashtube)
327
327
*14-VOLT: ME-1 thru ME-182
**28-VOLT: ME-183 and after
;0
'"en . :r
0
-oil!
"'>
"
~
:r
'"c.
::l
:;'
(C
rJ)
..,<0
'"
rJ)
0.=
'" 0<0
::l
~g
!l!.
<
-=
::l
-
Section X
Safety Information
'l?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
performance compared to that shown in the Performance
section of the Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual. If loaded above
maximum takeoff weight, takeoff distance and the landing
distance will be longer than that shown in the
Performance section; the stalling speed will be higher,
rate of climb, the cruising speed, and the range of the
airplane at any level of fuel will all be lower than shown
in the Performance section.
If an airplane is loaded so that the C.G. is forward of the
forward limit it will require additional control movements
for maneuvering the airplane with correspondingly higher
control forces. The pilot may have difficulty during takeoff
and landing because of the elevator control limits.
If an airplane is loaded aft of the aft C.G. limitation, the
pilot will experience a lower level of stability. Airplane
characteristics that indicate a lower stability level are;
lower control forces, difficulty in trimming the airplane,
lower control forces for maneuvering with attendant
danger
of
structural
overload,
decayed
stall
characteristics, and a lower level of lateral-directional
damping.
Ensure that all cargo and baggage is properly secured
before takeoff. A sudden shift in balance at rotation can
cause controllability problems.
AUTOPILOTS AND ELECTRIC TRIM SYSTEMS
Because there are several different models of autopilots
and electric trim systems instailed in Beech airplanes and
different installations and switch positions are possible
from airplane to airplane, it is essential that every owner/
operator review his Airplane Flight Manual (AFM)
Supplements and ensure that the supplements properly
describe the autopilot and trim installations on his specific
10-26
October, 1990
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
(
OVERHAUL AND REPLACEMENT GUIDE
The first overhaul or replacement should be performed not
later than the required period. The condition of the item at the
end of the first period can be used as a criterion for determining subsequent periods applicable to the individual airplane
or fleet operation, providing the operator has an approved
monitoring system.
The time periods for inspections noted in this handbook are
based on average usage and average environmental conditions.
SPECIAL CONDITIONS CAUTIONARY NOTICE
Airplanes operated for Air Taxi or other than normal operation, and airplanes operated in humid tropics or cold and
damp climates, etc., may need more frequent inspections for
wear, corrosion and/or lack of lubrication. In these areas,
periodic inspections should be performed until the operator
can set his own inspection periods based on experience.
NOTE
The required periods do not constitute a guarantee that the item will reach the period without
malfunction as the aforementioned factors cannot be controlled by' the manufacturer.
NOTE
On- condition items are to be overhauled or rep/aced when inspection ·or performance of these
items reveal a potentially unsafe or unserviceable condition.
8-52
January 1978
tVeechcraft
l'win Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
feature is lost and severe spinal injuries can occur to
occupants.
Prior to flight, pilots should insure that articles are not
stowed. beneath seats that would restrict seat pan energy
absorption or penetrate the seat in event of a high
vertical velocity acci.dent.
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
GENERAL
-
The pilot MUST be thoroughly familiar with ALL
INFORMATION
published
by
the
manufacturer
concerning the airplane, and is required by law to operate
the airplane in accordance with the FAA Approved
Airplane Flight Manual and placards installed.
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
In addition to maintenance inspections and preflight
information required by FAR Part 91, a complete, careful
preflight inspection is imperative.
Each airplane has a checklist for the preflight inspection
which must be followed. USE THE CHECKLIST!
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
Maintaining center of gravity within the approved
envelope throughout the planned flight is an important
safety conSideration.
The airplane must be loaded so as not to exceed the
weight and center of gravity (C.G.) limitations. Airplanes
that are loaded above the maximum takeoff or landing
weight limitations will have an overall lower level of
October, 1990
10-25
BEECH CRAFT
Section VII
Handling, Serv and Maint
Duchess 76
COMPONENT
OVERHAUL OR REPLACE
POWER PLANT
NOTE
A TBO (time between overhaul) recommedation
is in no way to be construed as a warranty or
engine life proration basis. The TBO
recommendation is based on the projected time
for most advantageous initial overhaul. The
individual operator's experience may indicate a
departure in either direction from the
recommended TBO for the particular operation.
NOTE
When an engine has been overhauled, or a new
engine installed, it is recommended that low
power settings NOT be used until oil
consumption has stabilized. The average time
for piston ring seating is approximately 5,0
hours. Refer to Lycoming Engine Operator's
Manual.
Engines
Refer to latest edition AvcoLycoming 81 1009
Propellers
Refer to latest edition Hartzell
Bulletin 61
Magnetos
At engine overhaul
Dry air pressure pumps Every 1400 hours or on condition
All hoses
Hoses carrying flammable liquids;
at engine overhaul or every 5
years, whichever occurs first.
January 1982
8-53
Section X
Safety Information
'i?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Service Stations, even though the flight may be VFR.
Also, advise Flight Service Stations of changes or delays
of one hour or more and remember to close the flight
plan at destination.
The pilot must be completely familiar with the
performance of the airplane and performr.nce data in the
Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane
Flight Manual. The resultant effect of temperature and
pressure altitude must be taken into account in
performance if not accounted for on the charts. An
applicable FAA Approved Flight Manual must be aboard
the airplane at all times and include the weight and
balance forms and equipment list.
PASSENGER INFORMATION CARDS
Beech has available, for most current production
airplanes, passenger information cards which contain
important information on the proper use of restraint
systems, oxygen masks, emergency exits and emergency
bracing procedures. Passenger information cards may be
obtained at any BEECHCRAFT Aviation or Aero Center.
A pilot should not only be familiar with the information
contained in the cards, but should always, prior to flight,
inform the passengers of the information contained in the
information cards. The pi/ot should orally brief the
passengers on the proper use of restraint systems, doors
and emergency exits, and other emergency procedures,
as required by Part 91 of the FAR's.
STOWAGE OF ARTICLES
The space between the seat pan and the floor is utilized
to provide space for seat displacement. If hard, solid
objects are stored b~neath seats, the energy absorbing
10-24
October, 1990
-
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Maint
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
,i
OVERHAUL AND REPLACEMENT GUIDE (Cont'd)
COMPONENT
OVERHAUL OR REPLACE
FUEL SYSTEM
IAII
Hoses carrying flammable liquids:
at engine overhaul or every 5
years whichever occurs first.
hoses
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Starter
Alternator
Battery (Emergency
Locator Transmitter)
I
At engine overhaul
At engine overhaul
Per applicable regulations, or by
date stamped on battery,
whichever occurs first.
UTILITY SYSTEM
Cabin heater
8-54
Refer to latest edition Janitrol
Maintenance & Overhaul
Manual 11 D74 and applicable
Airworthiness Directives.
January 1982
'i?eechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information·
the original type design, it is possible for STC's to
interfere with each other when both are installed. Never
install an unapproved modification of any type, however
innocent the apparent modification may seem. Always
obtain proper FAA approval.
Aircraft owners and maintenance personnel are
particularly cautioned not to make attachments to, or
otherwise modify, seats from original certification without
approval from the FAA Engineering and Manufacturing
District Office having original certification responsibility
for that make and model.
-
Any unapproved attachment or modification to seat
structure may increase load factors and metal stress
which could cause failure of seat structure at a lesser "G"
force than exhibited for original certification.
Examples of unauthorized attachments found are drilling
holes in seat tubing to attach fire extinguishers and
drilling holes to attach approach plate book bins to seats.
FLIGHT PLANNING
FAR Part 91 requires that each pilot in command, before
beginning a flight, familiarize himself with all available
information concerning that flight.
Obtain a current and complete preflight briefing. This
should consist of local, enroute and destination weather
and en route navaid information. Enroute· terrain and
obstructions, alternate airports, airport runways active,
length of runways, and takeoff and landing distances for
the airplane for conditions expected should be known.
The prudent pilot will review his planned en route track
and stations and make a list for quick reference. It is
strongly recommended a flight plan be filed with Flight
October, 1990
10-23
Section VIII
Handling, Serv and Main!
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
WING STRUCTURE INSPECTION SCHEDULE
The basic wing structure has a substantiated life of 20,000
flight hours provided the mandatory inspection requirements
of chapter four of the BEECHCRAFT DUCHESS 76
MAINTENANCE MANUAL are complied with.
NOTE
Anytime the control surfaces are repaired or
repainted, they must be rebalanced as
described in the Maintenance Manual.
-
January 1982
8-55
9deechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
NOTE
(
The required periods do not constitute a
guarantee that the item will reach the
period without malfunction,
as the
aforementioned
factors
cannot
be
controlled by the manufacturer.
Corrosion and its effects must be treated at the earliest
possible opportunity. A clean, dry surface is virtually
immune to corrosion. Make sure that all drain holes
remain unobstructed. Protective films and sealants help
to keep corrosive agents from contacting metallic
surfaces. Corrosion inspections should be made most
frequently under high-corrosion-risk operating conditions,
such as in areas of excessive airborne salt
concentrations (e.g., near the sea) and in high-humidity
areas (e.g., tropical regions).
If you have purchased a used aircraft, have your
mechanic inspect the aircraft registration records,
logbooks and maintenance records carefully. AnB·'
unexplained period of time for which the aircraft has been
out of service, or unexplained significant repairs may well
indicate the aircraft has been seriously damaged in a
prior accident. Have your mechanics inspect a used
aircraft carefully. Take the time to ensure that you really
know what you are buying when you buy a used aircraft.
HAZARDS
OF
UNAPPROVED MODIFICATIONS
Many aircraft modifications are approved under
Supplemental Type Certificates (STC's). Before installing
an STC on your airplane, check to make sure that the
STC does not conflict with other STC·s that have already
been installed. Because approval of an STC is obtained
by the individual STC holder based upon modification Qf
10-22
October, 1990
(
'Ueechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
sources, in connection with the maintenance and repair of
Beech airplanes.
Genuine BEECHCRAFT parts are produced and
inspected under rigorous
procedures to insure
airworthiness and suitability for use in Beech airplane
applications. Parts purchased from sources other than
BEECHCRAFT, even though outwardly identical in
appearance, may not have had the required tests and
inspections performed, may be different in fabrication
techniques and materials, and may be dangerous when
installed in an airplane.
-
Salvaged airplane parts, reworked parts obtained from
non-BEECHCRAFT
approved
sources
or
parts,
components, or structural assemblies, the service history
of which is unknown or cannot be authenticated, may
have been subjected to unacceptable stresses or
temperatures or have other hidden damage not
discernible through routine visual or usual nondestructive
testing techniques. This may render the part, component
or structural
assembly,
even
though
originally
manufactured by BEECHCRAFT, unsuitable and unsafe
for airplane use.
BEECHCRAFT expressly disclaims any responsibility for
malfunctions, failures, damage or injury caused by use of
non-BEECHCRAFT parts.
Airplanes operated for Air Taxi or other than normal
operation, and airplanes operated in humid tropics, or
cold and damp climates, etc., may need more frequent
inspections for wear, corrosion and/or lack of lubrication.
In these areas, periodic inspections should be performed
until the operator can set his own inspection periods
based on experience.
October, 1990
10-21
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
SECTION IX
SUPPLEMENTS
NOTE
-
The supplemental data contained in this section
is for equipment that was delivered on the airplane including standard optional equipment that
was available. whether it was installed or not.
Airplane Flight Manual Supplements for equipment for which the vendor obtained a Supplemental Type Certificate were included as loose
equipment with the airplane at the time of delivery. These and other Airplane Flight' Manual
Supplements for other equipment that was installed after the airplane was delivered new from
the factory should be placed in this Supplemental Data Section IX, of this Pilot's Operating
Handbook and FAA Approved Aiiplane Flight
Manual.
January 1978
9-1
'i?eechcrafi
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
Tips on Mountain Flying
Tips on Desert Flying
Always Leave Yourself An Out
Safety Guide for Private Aircraft Owners
Tips on How to Use the Flight Planner
Tips on the Use of Ailerons and Rudder
Some Hard Facts About Soft Landings
Propeller Operation and Care
Torque "What it Means to the Pilot"
Weight and Balance.
Consideration for Pilots
An
Important
Safety
GENERAL INFORMATION ON SPECIFIC
TOPICS
MAINTENANCE
Safety of flight begins with a well maintained airplane.
Make it a habit to keep your aircraft and all of its
equipment in airworthy condition. Keep a "squawk list" on
board, and see that all discrepancies, however minor, are
noted and promptly corrected.
Schedule your maintenance regularly, and have your
aircraft serv'lced by a reputable organization. Be
suspicious of bargain prices for maintenance, repair and
inspections.
It is the responsibility of the owner and the operator to
assure that the airplane is maintained in an airworthy
condition and that proper maintenance records are kept.
Use only genuine BEECH CRAFT or BEECHCRAFT
approved parts obtained from BEECH CRAFT approved
10-20
October, 1990
Section IX
Supplements
BEECHCRAFT
Duchess 76
( ..
-
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
(
9-2
January 1978
9deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The National Transportation Safety Board and the
Federal Aviation Administration periodically issue, in
greater detail, general aviation pamphlets concerning
aviation safety. FAA Regional Offices also publish
material under the FAA General Aviation Accident
Prevention Program. These can be obtained at ·FAA
Offices, Weather Stations, Flight Service Stations or
Airport Facilities. Some of these are titled:
12 Golden Rules for Pilots
Weather or Not
Disorientation
Plane Sense
Weather Info Guide for Pilots
Wake Turbulence
Don't Trust to Luck, Trust to Safety
Rain, Fog, Snow
Thunderstorm - TRW
Icing
Pilot's Weather Briefing Guide
Thunderstorms Don't Flirt ... Skirt 'em
IFR-VFR - Either Way Disorientation Can Be Fatal
IFR Pilot Exam-a-Grams
VFR Pilot Exam-a-Grams
Flying Light Twins Safely
Tips on Engine Operation in Small General Aviation
Aircraft
Estimating Inflight Visibility
Is the Aircraft Ready for Flight
October, 1990
10-19
BEECH CRAFT
Section IX
Supplements
Duchess 76
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
and
FAA APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL
LOG OF SUPPLEMENTS
FAA Supplements must be in the airplane for flight operation
when subject equipment is installed:
No.
Part
Number
1
105-590000-25
Supp.
January 1980
Rev.
Subject
King KNS-aO Integrated
Navigation System
No.
Date
1/80
Section X
Safety Information
CQeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS
FAA General Aviation News is published by the FAA in
the interest of flight safety. The magazine is designed to
promote safety in the air by calling the attention of
general aviation airmen to current technical, regulatory
and procedural matters affecting the safe operation of
aircraft. FAA General Aviation News is sold on
subscription by the Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 20402.
FAA ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM
The FAA assigns accident prevention specialists to each
Flight Standards and General Aviation District Office to
organize accident prevention program activities. In
addition, there are over 3,000 volunteer airmen serving as
accident prevention counselors, sharing their technical
expertise and professional knowledge with the general
aviation community. The FAA conducts seminars and
workshops, and distributes invaluable safety information
under this program.
Usually the airport manager, the FAA Flight Service
Station (FSS), or Fixed Base Operator (FBO), will have a
list of accident prevention counselors and their phone
numbers available. All Flight Standards and General
Aviation District Offices have a list of the counselors
serving the District.
Before flying over unfamiliar territory, such as
mountainous terrain or desert areas, it is advisable for
transient pilots to consult with local counselors. They will
be familiar with the more desirable routes, the wind and
weather conditio·ns, and the service and emergency
landing areas that are available along the way. They can
also offer advice on the type of emergency equipment
. you should be carrying.
10-18
October, 1990
1?eechcrafi
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
91-33
Use of Alternate Grades of
Aviation Gasoline for Grade 80/.
87
91-35
Noise, Hearing Damage, and
Fatigue in General Aviation
Pilots
91-43
Unreliable Airspeed Indications
91-44
Operational and Maintenance
Practices
for
Emergency
Locator
Transmitters
and
Receivers
91-46
Gyroscopic Instruments - Good
Operating Practices
91-50
Importance
Operations
Reporting
91-51
Airplane
Systems
91-59
Inspection and Care of General
Aviation
Aircraft
Exhaust
Systems
91-65
Use of Shoulder Harness in
Passenger Seats
103-4
Hazards
Associated
with
SublimatiOn of Solid Carbon
Dioxide (Dry Ice) AboardAircraft
135-9
FAR Part 135 ICing Limitations
210-SA
Military Flying Activities
of
Transponder
and
Altitude
Deice
and
Anti-ice
NOTE:
• For Sale
October, 1990
10-17
eEECHCRAFT DUCHESS 76
LANDPLANE
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK AND FAA
APPROVED
AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL SUPPLEMENT
for the
KING KNS-SO INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM
GENERAL
The information in this supplement is FAA-approved
material and must be attached to the Pilot's Operating
Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual when
the airplane has been modified by installation of the King
KNS-80 Navigation System in accordance with Beechapproved data.
The information in this supplement supersedes or adds to
the basic Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA Approved
Airplane Flight Manual only as set forth within this
document. Users of the manual are advised always to refer
to the supplement for possibly superseding information and
placarding applicable to operation of the airplane.
LIMITATIONS
1. The Area Navigation mode may not be used as a
primary system under IFR conditions except on approved
approach procedures, approved airways, and random area
navigation routes when approved by Air TraffiC Control.
2. The Area Navigation mode can only be used with
colocated facilities (VOR and DME signals originate from
the same geographical location).
FAA Approved
Issued January, 19S0
PIN 105-590000-25
1 of 14
. Section X
Safety Information
'61-9
. '61-21
<Qeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Pilot Transition Courses for
Complex
Single-Engine
and
Light Twin-Engine Airplanes
Flight Training Handbook
'61-23
Pilot's
Handbook
Aeronautical Knowledge
'61-27
Instrument Flying Handbook
61-67
Hazards Associated with Spins
in Airplanes Prohibited from
Intentional Spinning.
61-84
Role of Preflight Preparation
'67-2
Medical Handbook for Pilots
90-23
Aircraft Wake Turbulence
90-42
Traffic Advisory Practices
Nontower Airports
90-48
Pilot's
Role
Avoidance
90-66
Recommended Standard Traffic
Patterns for Airplane Operations
at Uncontrolled Airports
90-85
Severe Weather Avoidance Plan
(SWAP)
91-6
Water, Slush and Snow on the
Runway
91-13
Cold Weather
Aircraft
Operation
'91-23
Pilot's Weight
Handbook
and
91-26
Maintenance and Handling of
Air
Driven
Gyroscopic
Instruments
10-16
October, 1990
in
of
at
Collision
of
Balance
3. VOR or VOR-PAR modes must be selected when
flying directly to or from a VORTAC facility.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CAUTION
DME may unlock due to loss of signal with
certain combinations of distance from station,
altitude and angle of bank.
1. If NAV flag appears while in the Area Navigation mode,
check for correct frequency.
2. If VOR or DME equipment is intermittent or lost, utilize
other navigation equipment as required.
3. If NAV flag appears during an approach, execute
published missed approach and utilize another approved
facility.
NORMAL PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT
AREA NA VIGA TlON FUNCTIONAL TEST
The following procedure applies only to airports equipped
with, or in range of, a colocated VOR/DME station.. .
1. Place the KNS-BO in VOR mode.
2. Find and record the angle to the VOR station by
centering the D-Bar with a TO indication.
20114
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
tQeechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
00-46
Aviation
Program
20-5
Plane Sense
20-32
Carbon
Monoxide
(CO)
Contamination in Aircraft
Detection and Prevention
20-35
Tie-Down Sense
20-43
Aircraft Fuel Control
20-105
Engine-Power
Prevention
20-113
Pilot
Precautions
and
Procedures to be Taken in
Preventing
Aircraft
Reciprocating Engine Induction
System and Fuel System Icing
Problems
20-125
Water in Aviation Fuels
21-4
Special
Flight Permits
for
Operation of Overweight Aircraft
43-9
Maintenance Records: General
Aviation Aircraft
43-12
Preventive Maintenance
60-4
Pilot's Spatial Disorientation
60-6
Airplane Flight Manuals (AFM),
Approved Manual Materials,
Markings
and
Placards
AirplaneS
60-12
Availability
of
IndustryDeveloped Guidelines for the
Conduct of the Biennial Flight
Review
60-13
The
Accident
Counselor Program
-
October, 1990
Safety
Reporting
Loss
Accident
Prevention
10-15
0
3. Program a waypoint radial angle 120 greater than the
indicated VOR radial.
4. Program a waypoint distance equal to the indicated
DME value.
5. Place the KNS-80 in RNAV ENR.
6. Rotate ·the OSS until the D-Sar centers with a TO
indication.
The KNS-80 distance-to-station should now read a value
equal to the DME distance (:!: .5NM), and the indicated
selected coiJrse should read 60 greater than the recorded
VOR angle to station.
0
PROGRAMMING
-
Pertinent information (waypoint number, station frequency,
waypoint bearing, and way point distance) for up to four
waypoints is entered into the memory from the control unit.
Programming may be completed prior to takeoff or during
the flight. Any combination of navigational facilities (RNA V
waypoint, VORIDME, ILS) may be loaded into the computer;
however, it is desirable that each facility be numbered and
loaded in the sequence it is to be used.
RNA V WA YPOINTS
1. Turn the system on by rotating the ON/OFF switch
clockwise.
2. Put waypoint 1 in the DSP window by depressing the
DSP button. Push button as many times as necessary to go
through the 1-2-3-4-1 sequence to reach '"1".
3. Select the way point 1 frequency using the data input
controls, which are the two concentric knobs on the right.
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
30f14
'Qeechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
Arrival - IFR
All pilots must be thoroughly familiar with and use the
information in the AIM.
ADVISORY INFORMATION
NOTAMS (Notices to Airmen) are documents that have
information of a time-critical nature that would affect a
pilot's decision to make a flight; for example, an airport
closed, terminal radar out of service, or en route
navigational aids out of service.
FAA ADVISORY CIRCULARS
The FAA issues Advisory Circulars to inform the aviation
public in a systematic way of nonregulatory material of
interest. Advisory Circulars contain a wealth of
information with which the prudent pilot should be
familiar. A complete list of current FAA Advisory Circulars
is published in AC 00-2, which lists Advisory Circulars
that are for sale, as well as those distributed free of
charge by the FAA, and provides ordering information.
Many Advisory Circulars which are for 'sale can be
purchased locally in aviation bookstores or at FBO's.
These documents are subject to periodic revision: Be
certain the Advisory Circular you are using is the latest
revision available. Some of the Advisory Circulars of
interest to pilots are:
'00-6
Aviation Weather
00-24
Thunderstorms
00-30
Rules of Thumb for Avoiding or
Minimizing
Encounters
with
Clear Air Turbulence
'00-45
Aviation Weather Services
10-14
October, 1990
4. Select the waypoint 1 radial by depressing the DATA
button. This will cause the radial for the previous waypoint 1
to appear over the annunciation RAD. Select the new radial
with the data input controls.
5. Select the waypiont 1 distance by again depressing the
DATA button. This will cause the distance for the previous
waypoint 1 to appear over the annunciation DST. Select the
new distance with the data input controls.
6. This completes the programming for the first waypoint.
Follow these procedures for all selected waypoints up to a
maximum of four.
CONVENTIONAL VOR
The programming technique for conventional navigation
directly toward or away from a VOR facility without a
colocated DME is similar to that for RNAV waypoints.
Inputting the waypoint number and frequency into th e
memory is accomplished in the same manner. Since the
station has no DME, it cannot be electronically "moved" to a
new location (waypoint). Therefore, no values are
programmed in the RAD or DST displays.
ILS APPROACH (Front course and Back course)
Programming an ILS approach is accomplished in the same
manner as programming conventional VOR.
MISSED APPROACH
If the published missed approach utilizes an RNAV waypoint
or VOR facility, it may be entered into the memory any time
prior to the approach. This is accomplished in the same
manner set forth in CONVENTIONAL VOR and RNA V
WAYPOINTS in this section.
40114
FAA Approved
tssued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
-
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety .Information
AIRMAN'S INFORMATION MANUAL
The Airman's Information Manual (AIM) is designed to
provide airmen with basic flight information and ATC
procedures for use in the national airspace system of the
United States. It also contains items of interest to pilots
concerning health and medical facts, factors affecting
flight safety, a pilot/controller glossary of terms in the Air
Traffic Control system, information on safety, and
accident/hazard reporting. It is revised at six-month
intervals and can be purchased from the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
This document contains a wealth of pilot information.
Among the subjects are:
Controlled Airspace
Emergency Procedures
Services Available to Pilots
Weather and Icing
Radio Phraseology and Technique
Mountain Flying
Airport Operations
Wake Turbulence - Vortices
Clearances and Separations
Medical Facts for Pilots
Preflight
Bird Hazards
Departures - IFR.
Good Operating Practices
En route - IFR
Airport Location D'lrector
October, 1990
10-13
INFLIGHT
Preset waypoints may be recalled from memory and put into
active use as required.
1. Press the DSP button as required to select the desired
waypoinl. The preset waypoint frequency will replace the
active waypoint frequency on the display. The selected
waypoint number will appear (blinking) over the DSP
annunciation. This blinking display is to indicate that the
frequency displayed is other than the active waypoinl. The
waypoint radial and distance may also be checked at this
time by pressing the DSP button for each.
2. Verify that the data is correct.
NOTE
Revisions to the waypoint data can be
. programmed at this time by entering the new
waypoint parameters.
3. When navigation to the displayed waypoint is desired,
press the USE button. The waypoint number will appear
above the USE annunciation on the display board and the
number above the DSP annunciation will cease blinking.
The new waypoint frequency will automatically appear.
NOTE
When "Time To Station" indicates "0," actual
time may be anything from 0 to 59 seconds.
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000·25
50f14
'i1eechcraft
Section X
Safety Information
Twin Engine (Piston)
including airplane model and serial number, to the
Supervisor, Special Services, at the address listed above.
Airworthiness directives (AD's) are not issued by the
manufacturer. They are issued and available from the
FAA.
FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS
FAR Part 91, General Operating and Flight Rules, is a
document of law governing operation of aircraft and the
owner's and pilot's responsibilities. Some of the subjects
covered are:
Responsibilities
command
and
authority
of
the
pilot-in-
Certificates required
Liquor and Drugs
Flight plans
Preflight action
Fuel requirements
Flight Rules
Maintenance,
preventive
maintenance,
inspection and maintenance records
alterations,
You, as a pilot, have responsibilities under government
regulations. The regulations are designed for your
protection and the protection of your passengers and the
public. Compliance 'is mandatory.
AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES
FAR Part 39 specifies that no person may operate a
product to which an airworthiness directive issued by the
FAA applies, except in accordance with the requirements
of that airworthiness directive.
10-12
October, 1990
RNA V OPERA TION
If the system is receiving valid signals from a coloeated
VOR-LOC facility, it will supply linear deviation information
to the Horizontal Situation Indicator (or Course Deviation
Indicator). Enroute (RNV ENR) sensitivity, available by
pressing the RNAV button, provides a constant course width
of :!: 5NM. Approach (I'INV APR) sensitivity, available by
pushing the RNAV button again, provides a constant course
width of :!: 11/4 NM. Approach sensitivity should be used
when within 10 miles of the terminal waypoinl. Time and
distance to the waypoint, and computed groundspeed are
displayed at the top of the display panel.
CONVENTIONAL VOR OPERA TlON
VOR or VOR-PAR modes are selected by pressing the VOR
button; once for VOR and a second time for VOR-PAR. In
VOR mode DME is automatically tuned, and distance,
groundspeed and time-to-station to the VORTAC station will
be displayed upon lock-on. The HSI (COl) will display
conventional angular crosstrack deviation from the selected
course (:!: 10' full scale). In VOR-PAR mode operation is
identical to VOR except the HSI (COl) will display crosstrack
deviation of :!: 5NM full scale from the selected course.
Course width will be constant irrespective of distance from
the VORTAC.
ILS OPERA TlON
The ILS mode is annunciated whenever an ILS frequency is
put "in use .... LOC/GS functions are annunciated by th.e LOC
and GS flags in the HSI (COl). Only angular deviation is
provided in the ILS mode.
DME HOLD OPERA TlON
The DME Hold (HLD) function inhibits changing the DME
60114
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
'Ueechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
your BEECHCRAFT dealer and ensure your manuals are
up to date.
Beech Aircraft Corporation provides a subscription
service which provides ·for direct factory mailing of
BEECHCRAFT publications applicable to a specific serial
number airplane. Details concerning the fees and
ordering information for this owner subscription service
are contained in Service Bulletin number 2001.
For owners who choose not to apply for a Publications
Revision Subscription Service, Beech provides a free
Owner Notification Service by which owners are notified
by post card of BEECHCRAFT manual reissues, revisions
and supplements which are being issued applicable to the
airplane owned. On receipt of such notification, the owner
may obtain the publication through a BEECHCRAFT
Aviation Center, Aero Center or International Distributor.
This notification service is available when requested by
the owner. This request may be made by using the owner
notification request card furnished with the loose
equipment of each airplane at the time of delivery, or by
a letler requesting this service, referencing the specific
airplane serial number owned. Write to :
Supervisor, Special Services
Dept. 52
Beech Aircraft Corporation
P.O. Box 85
Wichita, Kansas 67201-0085
From time to time' Beech Aircraft Corporation issues
BEECH CRAFT Safety CommuniqLles dealing with the
safe operation of' a specific series of airplanes, or
airplanes in general. It is recommended that each owner!
operator maintain a current file of these publications.
Back issues of BEECHCRAFT Safety Communiques may
be obtained without charge by sending a request,
October, 1990
10-11
-receiver frequency. Pressing the HOLD button and then
selecting a new waypoinl forces the KNS-80 into either a
conventional VOR or ILS mode of operation according to
the newly selected frequency.
Engage DME HOLD as follows:
1. Press the HOLD button.
2. Select the new frequency using the data input controls.
HLD will now annunciate. Distance will continue 10 be read
to the VORTAC and information to the HSI (COl) will be
from the newly selected station.
RNA V APPROACH
~
The RNAV Approach (RNV-APR) mode may be used for
runway location (by placing a waypoint at the approach end
of the runway) during an approach to an airport. Press the
RNAV button to select RNV-APR. In RNV-APR the deviation
n.eedle on the HSI (COl) will display crosstrack deviation of :!:
1Yo NM full scale. All other aspects of the RNV-APR mode
are identical to the RNV-ENR mode.
PERFORMANCE - No change
WEIGHT AND BALANCE - No change
SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION
The King KNS-80 is an integrated navigation system
combining a 200 channel VOR/Localizer receiver, a 40
channel glides lope receiver, a 200 channel DME, and a
digital RNAV computer with a capability for preselection and
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
70114
Section X
Safety Information
<Ueechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
BEECHCRAFT SERVICE PUBLICATIONS
(
Beech Aircraft Corporation publishes a wide variety of
manuals, service letters, service instructions, service
bulletins, safety communiques and other publications for
the various models of BEECHCRAFT airplanes.
Information on how to obtain publications relating to your
airplane is contained in BEECHCRAFT Service Bulletin
number 2001, entitled "General - BEECHCRAFT Service
Publications -What is Available and How to Obtain It."
Beech Aircraft Corporation automatically mails original
issues and revisions of BEECHCRAFT Mandatory and
Optional Service Bulletins, FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual Supplements, reissues and revisions of FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manuals, Flight Handbooks,
Owners Manuals, Pilot's Operating Manuals and Pilot's
Operating Handbooks, and original issues and revisions
of BEECHCRAFT Safety Communiques to BEECHCRAFT
Owners addresses as listed by the FAA Aircraft
Registration Branch List and the BEECHCRAFT
International Owner Notification Service List. While this
information is distributed by Beech Aircraft Corporation,
Beech can not make changes in the name or address
furnished by the FAA. The owner must contact the FAA
regarding any changes to name or address. Their
address is: FAA Aircraft Registration Branch (AAC250)
P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, Phone (405)
680-2131.
It is the responsibility of the FAA owner of record to
ensure that any mailings from Beech are forwarded to the
proper persons. Often the FAA registered owner is a
bank or financing company or an individual not in
possession of the airplane. Also, when an airplane is
sold, there is a lag in processing th'e change in
registration with the FAA. If you are a new owner, contact
10-10
October, 1990
I
i
i
I
storage of 4 VOR/LOC frequencies and RNAV waypoint
parameters.
(
The KNS-80 can be operated in anyone of three basic
modes: VOR, RNAV, or ILS. To change from one mode to
another the appropriate pushbutton switch is pressed,
except that the ILS mode is entered automatically whenever
an ILS frequency is channeled in the USE waypoint. The
display will annunciate the mode by lighting a message
above the pushbutton. In addition to the standard VOR and
RNAV enroute (RNV ENR) modes, the KNS-80 has a
constant course width or parallel VOR mode (VOR-PAR)
and an RNAV approach mode (RNV APR). To place the unit
in either of these secondary modes, the VOR pushbutton or
the RNAV pushbutton, as the case may be, is pushed a
second time. Repetitive pushing of the VOR button will
cause the system to alternate between the VOR and
VOR-PAR modes, while repetitive pushing of the RNAV
button causes the system to alternate between RNV ENR
and RNV APR modes.
(
All waypoint information, station frequency, waypoint
distance, and waypoint radial are entered with the
incremenUdecrement rotary switch on the right side of the
panel and displayed in the right hand readout. The small
knob affects the lower significant digits while the large knob
changes the most significant digits. The tenth's position of
waypoint radial and distance can be changed by pulling the
small knob to the out position. The type of data being
displayed is indicated by the illuminated messages (FRQ,
RAD, DST) located directly below the displayed data.
Frequency, radial, or distance information for a waypoint
can be displayed sequentially by pressing the "DATA"
pushbutton. The incremenUdecrement switch changes only
the information being displayed.
The KNS-80 can store frequency, radial, and distance
information for up to four waypoints. The waypoint number
8 of 14
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
Don't fly when physically or mentally exhausted or below
par.
Don't trust to luck.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
There is a wealth of information available to the pilot
created for the sale purpose of making your flying safer,
easier and more' efficient. Take advantage of this
knowledge and be prepared for an emergency in the
event that one should occur.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK AND FAA
APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL
You must be thoroughly familiar with the contents of your
operating manuals, placards, and check lists to ensure
safe utilization of your airplane. When the airplane was
manufactured, it was equipped with one or more of the
fOllowing: placards, Owner's Manual, FAA Flight Manual,
Approved Airplane Flight Manual Supplements, Pilot's
Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual. Beech has revised and reissued many of the
early manuals for certain models of airplanes in GAMA
Standard Format as Pilot's Operating Handbooks and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manuals. For simplicity and
convenience, all official manuals in various modelS are
referred to as the Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual. If the airplane has
changed ownership, the Pilot's Operating Handbook and
FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual may have been
misplaced or may not be current. Replacement
handbooks may be obtained from any BEECHCRAFT
Aviation Center.
October, 1990
10-9
of the data being displayed is located above the message
DSP. The DSP waypoint number is changed by pressing
the bsp button. The number of the waypoint being used for
navigation is indicated by the number above the message
USE. If the waypoint in use is different from the displayed
waypoint, the DSP waypoint number blinks. Pressing the
USE button causes the waypoint in use to match the
displayed waypoint.
Normally, the DME is tuned to the station paired with the
VOR frequency. The tuning of the DME·may be frozen by
depressing the HOLD button. Subsequent rechanneling of
the NAV receiver will cause the HLD light to illuminate. The
DME will "hold" the frequency it was tuned to at the time the
button was depressed.
DISPLAYS
1. NM Display
a.
VOR and VOR-PAR modes
Displays DME distance in 0.1 NM increments
from 0 to 99.9 NM and in 1 NM increments from
100 to 200 NM. Displays dashes whenever DME
goes into search.
b.
RNV APR and RNV ENR modes
Displays RNAV distance to waypoint in 0.1 NM
increments from 0 to 99.9 NM and in 1 NM
increments from 100 to 400 NM. Displays dashes
if DME is in search, if VOR flags, or if the VOR is
rechanneled with the HOLD button depressed.
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
90f14
Section X
Safety Information
'ideechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Maintain the prescribed airspeeds in takeoff, climb,
descent, and landing.
Avoid wake turbulence (Vortices).
Preplan fuel and fuel tank management before the actual
flight. Utilize auxiliary tanks only in level cruise flight.
Take off and land on the fullest main tank, NEVER use
auxiliary fuel tanks for take off or landing.
Practice emergency procedures at safe altitudes and
airspeeds, preferably with a qualified instructor pilot, until
the required action is instinctive.
Keep your airplane in good mechanical condition.
Stay informed and alert; fly in a sensible manner.
DON'TS
Don't take off with frost, ice or snow on the airplane.
Don·t take off with less than minimum recommended fuel,
pius adequate reserves, and don·t run the tank dry before
switching.
Don't fly in a reckless, show-off, or careless manner.
Don·t fly into thunderstorms or severe weather.
Don't fly in possible icing conditions unless the airplane
is approved, properly equipped, and all required
equipment is operational for flight in icing conditions.
Don't fly close to mountainous terrain.
Don't apply controls abruptly or with high forces that
could exceed design· loads of the airplane.
Don't fly into weather conditions that are beyond your
ratings or current proficiency.
10-8
October, 1990
2. KT Display
a.
VOR and VOR-PAR modes
(
Displays ground speed to the DME ground station
in 1 knot increments from 0 to 999 knots. Displays
dashes whenever DME goes into search.
b.
RNV APR and RNV ENR modes
Displays ground speed to the active waypoint in
increments of 1 knot from 0 to 999 knots. Displays
dashes whenever DME goes into search, if VOR
flags or if the VOR is rechanneled with the HOLD
button depressed.
-
3. MIN Display
a.
VOR and VOR-PAR modes
Displays time to DME ground station in 1 minute
increments from 0 to 99 minutes. Displays dashes
whenever DME goes into search or when
calculated time exceeds 99 minutes.
b.
RNV APR and RNV ENR modes
Displays time to the active waypoint in 1 minute
increments from 0 to 99 minutes. Displays dashes
if DME is in search, if VOR flags, if the VOR is
rechanneled with the HOLD button depressed, or
if calculated time exceeds 99 minutes.
4.
FRO, RAD, DST Display
a.
FRO mode
Displays frequency from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz in
10 of 14
'. FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
<Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
GENERAL
As a pilot, you are responsible to yourself and to those
who fly with you, to other pilots and their passengers and
to people on the ground, to fly wisely and safely.
The following material in this Safety Section covers
several subjects in limited detail. Here are some
condensed Do's and Don'ts.
DO'S
Be thoroughly familiar with your airplane, know its
limitations and your own.
Be current in your airplane, or fly with a qualified
instructor until you are current. Practice until you are
proficient.
Preplan all aspects of your flight - including a proper
weather briefing and adequate fuel reserves.
Use services available - weather briefing, inflight weather
and Flight Service Station.
Carefully preflight your airplane.
Use the approved checklist.
Have more than enough fuel for takeoff, plus the trip, and
an adequate reserve.
Be sure your' weight loading and C.G. are within limits.
Use seatbe!ts and shoulder harnesses at all times.
Be sure all loose articles and baggage are secured.
Check freedom and proper direction of operation of all
controls during preflight.
October, 1990
10-7
increments of .05 MHz. Least significant digit
displays only zero or five.
b.
RAD mode
Displays ground station radial on which way pOint
is located from 0.0 to 359.9 degrees.
c.
DST mode
Displays the offset distance of the waypoint from
the ground station over a range of 0.0 to 199.9
NM.
5. USE Display
-
Displays waypoint number of data (1 to 4) actually
being used by the system. In VOR modes only the
frequency has meaning. When changed, always takes
on DSP value.
6. DSP Display
Displays waypoint number (1 to 4) of data being
displayed.
7. PAR, VOR, ENR, APR, RNV Displays
System status lights.
8. HLD Display
Indicates when the station to which the DME is actually
tuned is different that the station to which the VOR is
tuned.
FAA Approved
Issued January. 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
11 of 14
Section X
Safety Information
tQeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
r-W-A-RN-IN-G---'I
Because
your
aircraft
is
a
high
performance, high speed transportation
vehicle, designed for operation in a threedimensional environment, special safety
precautions must be observed to reduce
the risk of fatal or serious injuries to the
pilot(s) and occupant(s).
It is mandatory that you fully understand the contents of
this manual and the other manuals which accompany the
aircraft; that FAA requirements for ratings, certifications
and review be sc"rupulously complied with; and that you
allow only persons who are properly licensed and rated,
and thoroughly familiar with the contents of the Pilot's
Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Airplane Flight
Manual to operate the aircraft. IMPROPER OPERATION
OR MAINTENANCE OF AN AIRCRAFT, NO MATTER
HOW WELL BUILT INITIALLY, CAN RESULT IN
CONSIDERABLE DAMAGE OR TOTAL DESTRUCTION
OF THE AIRCRAFT ALONG WITH SERIOUS OR FATAL
INJURIES TO ALL OCCUPANTS.
10-6
October, 1990
9.
DATA Display
Displays waypoint data. The messages FRQ, D8T,
and RAD tell what is being displayed at anyone time.
10. ILS Display
Indicates that the frequency in use is an ILS frequency.
CONTROL
1. VOR Button
Momentary pushbutton which, when pushed while the
system is in either RNV mode, causes the system to
go to VOR mode. Otherwise, the button causes the
system to toggle between VOR and VOR-PAR modes.
2.
RNA V Button
(
Momentary pushbutton which, when pushed while the
system is in either VOR mode, causes the system to
go to RNV ENR mode. Otherwise the button causes
the system to toggle between RNV ENR and RNV APR
modes.
3.
HOLD Button
Two position pushbutton which, when in the depressed
position, inhibits DME from channeling to a new station
when the VOR frequency is changed. Pushing the
button again releases the button and channels the
DME to the station paired with the VOR station.
4.
USE Button
Momentary pushbutton which, when pressed, causes
the active waypoint to take on the same value as the
12 of 14
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
INTRODUCTION
Beech Aircraft Corporation has developed this special
summary publication of safety information to refresh
pilots' and owners' knowledge of safety related sUbjects.
Topics in this publication are dealt with in more detail in
FAA Advisory Circulars and other publications pertaining
to the subject of safe flying.
The skilled pilot recognizes that safety consciousness is
an integral - and never-ending - part of his or her job. Be
thoroughly familiar with your airplane. Know its limitations
and your own. Maintain your currency, or fly with a
qualified instructor until you are current and proficient.
Practice emergency procedures at safe altitudes and
airspeeds, preferably with a qualified instructor pilot, until
the required action can be accomplished without
reference to the manual. Periodically review this safety
information as part of your recurrency training regimen.
BEECHCRAFT airplanes are designed and built to
provide you with many years of safe and efficient
transportation. By maintaining your BEECHCRAFT
properly and flying it prudently you will realize its full
potential.
.. Beech Aircraft Corporation
October, 1990
10-5
displayed waypoint and the DATA display to go to FRO
mode.
5.
DSP Button
Momentary pushbutton which, when pushed, causes
displayed waypoint to increment by 1 and DATA
display to go to FREOUENC;Y mode.
6.
DATA Button
Momentary pushbutton which, when pressed, causes
waypoint DATA display to change from FRO to RAD to
DST and back to FRO.
7.
OFF/PULL ID Control
Rotary switch/potentiometer which, when turned
clockwise, applies power to the KNS-SO and increases
audio level. Turned counterclockwise it will decrease
audio level and switch off power. The switch may be
pulled out to hear VOR ident.
S.
DATA INPUT Control
Dual concentric knobs with the center knob having an
"in" and "out" position.
a.
Frequency Data
The outer knob varies the 1MHz digit and the
center knob varies the frequency in .05 MHz
increments regardless of whether the switch is in
its "in" or "out" position.
b.
Radial Data
The oLlter knob varies the 10 degree digit with a
FAA Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-59000D-25
13 of 14
Section X
Safety Information
1Qeechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)
10-4
October, 1990
carryover occurring from the tens to hundreds
position. The center knob in the "in" position
varies the 1 degree digit and in the "out" position
varies the 0.1 degree digit.
c.
Distance Data
The outer knob varies the 10 NM digit with a
carryover occurring from the tens to hundreds
place. The center knob in the "in" position varies
the 1 NM digit and in the "out" position varies the
0.1 NM digit.
HANDLING SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
BATTERY REPLACEMENT
The waypoint memory is powered by two silver oxide watch
cells located in the lower left hand corner of the front panel.
Typical life of the cells is two years although high
temperature and humidity conditions can shorten this
period. If the batteries. should become weak, waypoint
storage will be lost and the radio will "wake up" tuned to
110.00 MHz in the VOR mode. The cells can be replaced by
opening the battery pocket with a thin blade screwdriver.
The holder was designed so that the cells can only be
inserted with troe correct polarity.
APPROVED:
~ ~~
W. H. Schultz
Beech Aircraft Corporation
DOA CE-2
14 of 14
F~A Approved
Issued January, 1980
PIN 105-590000-25
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
Section X
Safety Information
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)
SUBJECT
PAGE
Medical Facts for Pilots ....................................... .
General ..............................................................
Fatigue ................................................................
Hypoxia ..............................................................
Hyperventilation ............................................... .
Alcohol .................................................................
Drugs ................................................................. .
Scuba Diving ..................................................... .
Carbon Monoxide and Night Vision ............... .
10-60
10-60
10-60
10-60
10-63
10-63
10-65
10-66
10-66
A Final Word ......................................................... .
10-66
-
October, 1990
10-3
BEECHCRAFT
Section IX
Supplements
Duchess 76
PILOTS OPERATING HANDBOOK
and
FAA APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL
LOG OF SUPPLEMEt.iTS
.FM Supplements must be in the airplane for night operation
when subject equipment is installed:
Supp.
No.
...art
Numt>er
! CfS 77t)
Rev.
No.
Subject
AUtO/Ii-Of
-
.
January 1978
Date
- 1/7f
Section X
Safety Information
'Deechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
{
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)
SUBJECT
PAGE
Preflight Inspection ..................................... .
Weight and Balance ................................... .
Autopilots and Electric Trim Systems ....... .
Turbulent Weather ..................................... .
Wind Shear ................................................. .
Flight in Icing Conditions ........................... .
Weather Radar ........................................... .
Mountain Flying ........................................... .
VFR - Low Ceilings ................................... .
VFR at Night ............................................... .
Vertigo - Disorientation ............................. .
Flight of Multi-Engine Airplanes With
One Engine Inoperative ............................. .
Minimum Control Speed
Airborne (VMCA) ............................. ,.......... ..
Intentional One-Engine Inoperative
Speed (VSSE) ............................................. .
Best Single Engine Rate-aI-Climb
Speed (VYSE) ............................................. .
Best Single Engine Angie-aI-Climb
Speed (VXSE) .......................... ' .................. .
Single Engine Service Ceiling ................... .
Basic Single Engine Procedures ............... .
Engine Failure on Takeoff ......................... .
When to Fly Vx, Vy, VXSE and VYSE ......... .
Stalls, Slow Flight and Training ................. .
. Spins ............................................................ .
Descent ....................................................... .
Vortices -' Wake Turbulence ..................... .
Takeoll and Landing Conditions ............... .
10-2
10-25
10-25
10-26
10-30
10-32
10-33
10-39
10-41 ,
10-42
10-43
10-43
10-45
10-47
(
10,48
10-49
10-49
10-50
10-50
10-51
10-52
10-52
10-55
10-58
10-58
10-59
October, 1990
-'.
-""'.
I
<Ueechcraft
Twin Engine (Piston)
SECTION X
SAFETY INFORMATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUBJECT
PAGE
Introduction ............................................................
10-5
General ....................................................................
Do's ....................................................................
Don'ts ..................................................................
10-7
10-7
10-8
Sources of Information ......................................... .
10-9
Pilot's Operating Handbook and FAA Approved
Airplane Flight Manual ......................................... .
10-9
BEECHCRAFT Service Publications ................... .
10-10
Federal Aviation Regulations ............................. .
Airworthiness Directives ................................. .
Airman's Information Manual ......................... .
Advisory Information ....................................... .
FAA Advisory Circulars ................................... .
FAA General Aviation News ..... ,..................... .
FAA Accident Prevention Program ............... .
Additional Information ..................................... .
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-17
10-18
10-19
General Information on Specific Topics ........... .
Maintenance ................................................... .
Hazards of Unapproved Modifications ......... .
Flight Planning ................................................. .
Passenger Information Cards ......................... .
Stowage of Articles ......................................... .
Flight Operations ............................................. .
General ........................................................
10-20
10-20
10-22
10-23
10-24
10-24
10-25
10-25
October, 1990
10-1
-
CENTURym
AUTOPILOT FLIGHT SYSTEM
PILOT'S OPERATIN(l HANDBOOK
NOVEMBER 1998
~ ,
88525 .
NOTES
68825
-
36
66525
NOTICE
(
This manual contahY$ Gene'fat ltiformation on
operation of Centu". ijl:A[Jtopi.l~l":: ·~peC?itic;::FAA
approved infohriatio'n on· Speciiir1'~.~hn,i;q,~~s~·
Limitations and':i:ri'ibt!jency. ~roc~d?Jtes foi::-a
partic~late ·m~det, airp.I~~. ,are,.contained '·in
eithaf'an· Airpial1~ Flig~(iM~ljual. $;upple~ent o~
a ·:plac~rd .. Be ~~"9 a~d,i fa rmUa,tlze" yo·u'fSelf with
the·inf6rmationcontainijd th~riih:1:jj~tore;ftight.
(
68825
NOTES
35
68825
REVISION LOG
Original dated March 1981
Revision 1 dated November 1998
Pages and Figure Drawings renumbered and book reformatted incompute~.
J
68S25
Effective: July 4, 1975
(
LIMITED WARRANTY CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC. AUTOPILOT
Each new Century Flight Systems, Inc. Autopilot is warranted by the
manufacturer to be free from defects I material and workmanship under
normal use, subject to the following conditions:
1. Century Flight Systems, Inc. will through its designated service facilities at
its option either repair or replace new components which shall within (12
months after date of installation, be found to Century Flight Systems, Inc.
satisfaction, to have been defective in material or workmanship under
normal use.
2. The warranty registration must be signed and returned to Century Flight
Systems. Inc. within ten days of equipment installation date. In the event
that the registration card is not returned within this time, the date of
shipment from the factory will be deemed 10 be the installation date ..
3. This warranty will not apply to any product which has been installed,
repaired. or altered in any way whatsoever in Century Flight Systems, Inc.
opinion to adversely affect its performance or reliability, or which has bee
subject to mis-use, contamination, negligence, or accident.
4. Cost of transportation, removal, or reinstallation are at the option of
Century Flight Systems, Inc.
5. This is Century Flight Systems, Inc. sale express warranty with respect to
the goods supplied herein. CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC. MAKES
NO OTHER EXPRESS WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER.
CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC. EMPLOYEES MAY HAVE MADE
ORAL STATEMENTS ABOUT THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBED IN THIS
CONTRACT.
SUCH STATEMENTS DO NOT CONSTITUTE
WARRANTIES, SHALL NOT BE RELIED UPON BY THE CUSTOMER,
AND ARE NOT PART OF THE SALE CONTRACT.
6. THE DURATION OF ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY, AND OF ALL
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, SHALL BE LIMITED TO (12) MONTHS
COMMENCING AT DATE OF INSTALLATION TO THE FULL EXTENT
PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE OR
BREECH OF ANY WARRANTY ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED AND
EXCLUDED BY CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC.
(
Century Flight Systems, Inc.
p.O. Box 610
Municipal Airport
Mineral Wells, Texas
76067
August 1983
I
34
II
I
68825
INTRODUCTION
The Century Flight Systems, Inc. Century iii is a light" weight (18 Ibs.)
automatic flight system utilizing an advanced electronic design for
maximum performance and utility. Operating on the versatile and
adaptable 5000 cycle audio frequency, the Century Flight Systems, Inc.
Century /II represents a ·new design concept in which the conventional
follow up, or control position feed back signals, are replaced by solid state
analytical computers.
In addition to providing a more. stable and
adaptable auto-pilot platfolJ"Tl for advanced navigational coupling, this new
system can cope with uneven fuel loads directional mis-trfm and power
changes without the usual directional errors, altitude losses, or command
change req~irements.
Roll and pitch responses are tim" controlled for human-like control action
and smooth attitude transactinns.
This manual describes the basic characteristics' of each control function
and its relationship to other functions in the flight system. Maximum utility
will be realized after familiarization and practice.
4
-
6BS25
CAUTION:
Do not fly airplane on Autopilot below height above ground specified on
placard (or flig ht manual supplement) for "ALT" loss, approach configuration,
with 1 second delay recovery."
Emergency Operation
1. In the event of a malfunction in the ROLL or PITCH SECTION, push the ROLL
ON/OFF button "OFF." This disengages both ROLL and PITCH SECTIONS
of the Century III from the control system.
2. The PITCH TRIM SECTION may be overpowered manually. In the event of a
malfunction in the PITCH-TRIM SECTION, pull the Pitch Trim circuit breaker.
3. The Century III ROLL SECTION may be overpowered manually on either
control wheel. The Century III PITCH SECTION may be overpowered
manually on either control wheel.
4. Engine Failure (Multi-Engine Airplanes)
a) When on ROLL and PITCH mode only. anyone of the following applies
during engine failure.
1. Disengage Autopilot and trim aircraft.
2. Level wings with roll knob, and handle emergency.
3. Switch to HDG mode, (Course Selected) see (b).
b) Autopilot on HDG or coupled: Autopilot will compensate for yaw caused by
engine power loss by banking toward the operating engine. Perform
normal Engine Out Emergency Procedures and re-trim aircraft.
CAUTION
When electrical power is first applied to the NSD-360A instrument, the compass card
mat rotate or "slew" rapidly. This is NOT and indication that the compass system is
orienting itself to the proper magnetic heading. The proper heeding orientation
must be verified and set prior to takeoff and should be verified prior to approach to
landing using the magnetic compass.
33
6BS25
TABLE OF CONTENTS
NOTiCE ...................................................................................... 2
REVISION LOG ..•....................................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION ..................•.....................•............................... 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................. 5
COMMAND CONSOLE .............................................................. 6
Roll (Aileron) Engagement ................................................ 6
Roll Command Knob .........•................................................ 7
Heading Mode ..................................................................... 7
Course Selector .................................................................. 7
Airl:!"aft Trim Effects ........................................................... 8
Trim Indicator and Pitch Command Wheel ...................... 8
Pitch (Elevator) Engagement. ............................................ 9
-
Altitude Hold ....................................................................... 9
AUTOMATIC TRIM OPERATIONS ............................................ 10
q;ENERAL OPERATIONS .......................................................... 10
Pilots Preflight Procedures ............................................... 11
Trim Check .......................................................................... 12
AIR FILTER .........................................•.......................•.............. 13
Filter and Element .............................................................. 13
LATERAL GUIDANCE SySTEM ................................................ 14
Omni Mode .......................................................................... 15
Nav Mode ............................................................................ 15
Heading Mode ..................................................................... 16
Localizer (Normal) Mode .................................................... 16
Localizer (Reverse) Mode .................................................. 16
Lateral Guidance System Operation ................................. 17
VOR.Navigation .................................................................. 18
VOR Approach .................................................................... 20
ILS Approach - Nonma!...................................................... 22
ILS' Approach - Back Course ............................................. 24
INTERCEPT CHARACTERisTiCS ............................................. 26
LOCALIZER AND/OR GLIDESLOPE COUPLER ...................... 28
ILS Approach Procedures ........................................................ 30
Limited Warranty Century Flight Systems Autopilot ............. 32
5
68S25
ILS APPROACH PROCEDURES
GLIDESLOPE APPROACH (Typical)
1. To intercept ILS
a) DiallLS outbound course on course selector D.G.
b) Position Radio Coupler mode switch to LOC REV mode.
c) Altitude Hold or Pitch Mode, for Altitude Control.
2. After inlercept and at appropriate time, descent to approach altitude.
3. Press AL T Hold switch on console at published approach altitude. Dial procedure
turn outbound heading on D.G. and position mode selector to HOG.
4. After one minute, dial the published in bound procedure turn heading moving D.G.
course selector in direction of turn. When between 90 and 45 degrees to the
inbound heading, dial inbound course on Course Selector D.G. and position mode
selector to LOC NORM mode. NOTE: For optimum results, switch to localizer
normal at 45°. At this point the airplane will automatically intercept and track the
localizer beam, you should be at the proper altitude and on AL T Hold and the
glideslope deviation needle should be up. If the above conditions are met for 20
seconds or more, the Glideslope Coupler logic circuit will be armed. Adjust power
for the gear down or normal approach speed.
5. Upon interception of glide path (when deviation needle drops to center) the
Glideslope Coupler will automatically engage the indicator light will come on, and
the aircraft will assure a preset nose-down attitude for descent. Drop gear and readjust power as necessary to maintain approach speed. Position flaps not to
exceed 15° for approach at this time. Do not change gear or flap setling after
initial glides lope intercept for remainder of glideslope coupler operation. Power
and airspeed changes must be made carefully to prevent excessive attitude
changes.
NOTE: Monitor deviation indicators for aclual position on Localizer and glide path.
Transmissions may cause deviation needle to fluctuate on some radio
installations. On such installations, the coupler will attempt to follow these
deviations.
A) Upon completion of Glideslope Coupler approach, or when VFR, disconnect
Autopilot and adjust aircraft for landing configuration.
B) For missed approach procedure, set Pitch Command to Climb Attitude.
Switch Coupler 10 HDG mode and apply climb power, gear and flap up,
disengage Altitude Hold and set Autopilot to missed approach HDG.
6. To de-couple anyone of the following methods may be used:
A) Switch ALT Hold OFF. this will de-couple Glideslope and revert pitch control
to the "Pitch Command Knob," which may be preset to desired climb attitude.
S) Switch ALT Hold OFF. then ON. this will de-couple Glideslope and return to
altitude hold.
C) Switch Radio Coupler OFF, LOC-Norm mode. this will de-couple Glideslope
and return pitch control to AL T Hold.
D) Disconnecl entire autopilot and hand fly aircraft.
32
-
J
68S25
GLiDESLOPE DEVIATION INDICATOR
The Glideslope Deviation Indicator must be deflected upward for at least 20 seconds
before the logic circuit of the Glideslope Coupler is armed. This provides assurance
that the Glide path will be intercepted from below in the normal manner and prevents
inadvertent coupling from above. A 60% full scale deflection for 20 seconds will
always accomplish arming.
NOTE: Once coupled, the deviations Indicator will not de-couple the Glide
regardless of needle deflection. The Deviation Indicator however must be
monitored during approach to determine the aircraft's true position relative to
th e localizer beam and the glide path.
INDICATOR LIGHT
-
The Glideslope Coupler incorporates a panel mounted green indicator light. This
light will turn ON at the same time automatic switching takes place to couple the
Autopilot to the glide path. This light will stay lit until such time as the unit is decoupled. As this light only shows that the Glideslope Coupler is switched into the
Autopilot and not actual position relative to glide path. The deviation indicator must
be monitored during the approach.
31
I
68825
COMMAND CONSOLE
The Century III console is designed to provide convenient fingertip command of all
basic autopilot functions. Magnetic engage and mode switches are designed with
logical 'Interlocking features for operational ease and simplicity. The lucite face
panel incorporates optically engineered night lighting with provisions for dimming
control through the standard aircraft rheostat.
.
FIG. 1
ROLL (AILERON) ENGAGEMENT
The Century III is separated into two distinct systems, the
Roll/Heading and Pitch/Altitude.
Each is engaged
separately by means of a fail safe electronic servo
engage mechanism.
FIG. 2
Because the rolt is first in logical sequence. the roll
engage acts as an autopilot master switch. In this
capacity the roll must be engaged for alt other engage
and mode switches to become operative. With this roll
switch only engaged, the autopilot is responsive only to
the rolt axis of the attitude gyro and the commands of the
console roll/turn control.
7
68825
LOCALIZER ANDioR GLiDESLOPE COUPLER
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
(
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The Century Flight Systems, Inc. Glideslope Coupler is a completely automatic
anal.og computer that directs the Autopilot to intercept and track the approach glide
path. The system automatically provides for variances in glide path angle, wind
direction and various approach configurations of the aircraft. A self contained Logic
Circuit provides for certain necessary conditions to be prevalent before automatic
Glides/ope coupling will occur. These conditions are explained in the following
sections.
LOCALIZER (Normal) MODE
The Radio Coupler Mode Selector must be in the LOC
NORM mode for at least 20 seconds before the Logic
Circuit of the Glides/ope Coupler is armed. This provides
safety against inadvertent coupling when flying reverse
course or tracking outbound on the front course. After
coupling, the Glides/ope may be de-coupled by the
momentary switching of the mode selector from LOCNORM position.
Figure 24
NOTE: In order to use Localizer as a navigation aid where glides/ope coupling is not
desired, do not use the LOC NORM mode. The Lateral Guidance. System will fly the
Localizer beam in the OMN/ mode once your position an the beam is established.
ALTITUDE MODE
The Altitude switch must a/so be depressed in the ALT
position at least 20 seconds before the logic circuit of the
Glides/ope Coupler is armed. This condition pravides for
G/ides/ope Coupling from all norma/ procedures but
prevents attempting coupling from a high rate descent.
After caupling. the Glides/ope may be de-coupled by
momentarily switching "OFF" .the AL T button.
FIG 25
30
(
68S25
ROLL
KNOB
.-' "~J!IIII!II'_..
-----'
,
.~I'
" ,..
OnDO
:
~".,
,n"
"I'IlI""
FIG. 3
The roll command knob controls the roll axis of the
aircraft when roll mode switch is. engaged. It is useful in
maneuvering and will permit steeper bank angels (up to
300 ) than those resulting from D.G. heading commands.
When the heading mode switch is engaged the roll knob
is removed from lhe autopilot circuit and is ineffective.
However, it should be left in the centered position for
convenience.
NOTE: Do not use roll mode during approach configuration on twin engine
aircraft as engine failure will result in excessive heading deviation.
HEADING MODE
FIG. 4
The heading mode switch is located directly adjacent and
to the right of the roll engage switch, It is the function of
lhe heading mode switch 10 remove the roll command
knob from lhe autopilot circuit and add the D.G., heading
command and coupler funclions to the basic roll attitude
conlrol. This switch is interlocked with the roll engage so
thaI lhe roll function will be engaged simultaneously with
lhe heading mode switch. Prior to engagement of the
heading mode, the D.G. course selector and coupler
modes should be set. (See seclions on coupler operation
when optional coupler is installed.)
COURSE SELECTOR D.G.
The course selector O.G. replaces, the standard
direclional gyro and provides a. fully, visible course
indicator around the normal O.G. opening, The O.G. dial
is marked in 5° intervals and numbered each 30° around
FIG 5
its azimuth. A center indice is provided at the top to align
selected headings. Additional indices are located each
45 0 to facilitate rapid turn selection withput mental
arilhmetic. Any heading may be selected, eith'er before or
after engagement, and turns up to 1800 may be
programmed directly, either right or left. If the course
indicator is rotated beyond 180 0 from the D.G. card
heading, the course selector will command a reversal in
bank to reach the resultanl selected heading in the
shortest direction .
I
68S25
(3) INTERCEPT BEYOND THE STATION: Behavior beyond the station is similar to
that explained in paragraph 2 in that as the intercept distance is made larger the
tendency for overshoot is reduced.
.-:":=--C'::;:;;~"'-....-==--- - - - --:-::-
--- ---- ---
."...------
----------- ---
Figure 22
(4) CROSS WIND EFFECTS: Crosswind effects which might be expected are
illustrated in the three plots below. curve A is the no wind condition and
performance will be as per sections (1) thru (3). Curve B shows the effect of
approaching the desired course. Because this rate is reduced by the wind, the
tendency to overshoot is likewise reduced. Curve C shows the effect of a wind
which tends to increase·the rate at which the aircraft approaches the course. As
would be expected, this will tend to cause an overshot.
Figure 23
29
68S25
The D.G. card is normally set to the magnetic compass with the caging knob on the
left in the usual fashion, while the course selector indicator is rotated by the heading
knob on the right. Direction of rotation of both the knob and indicator commands the
same direction of turn.
RIGHT
BANK
REAR VIEW
FIG. 6
AIRCRAFT TRIM EFFECTS
An important axiom to remember is that if the airplane is properly trimmed, a
CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEM INC. autopilot in heading mode will never fly the
airplane with a wing down.
This statement can be changed slightly to apply to an airplane without an auto pilot:
In order to fly a trimmed airplane on a constant heading, the wings must be held
level.
Consider the effect of rudder trim in the above drawing (Fig. 6). Viewing the airplane
from the rear, note that with left rudder applied the right wing must be lowered to
offset the rudder effect and keep the heading constant, i.e. the left tum effect of the
rudder is canceled by the right turn effect of the bank.
Since the Century III is slaved to heading, this is exactly what it will do in order to
. hold a heading when the rudder is out of trim.
Thus when operating on autopilot heading mode the pilot knows rudder trim in the
direction toward the low wing is required.
TRIM INDICATOR AND PITCH COMMAND WHEEL
Prior to the engagement of the pitch axis, it is desirable to
adjust the autopilot pitch to match the attitude being flown
in, this way the pilot can transition from hand flight to
autopilot smoothly during the ciimbout or other pitch
maneuvering. The pitch servo effort meter (trim) to the
left of the pitch control wheel indicates the position of the
pitch command wheel with relatioil to the attitude being
FIG. 7
flown.
Thus, if it is pointing upward prior to engagement it indicates that the aircraft can be
expected to increase pitch attitude upon engagement, conversely a down meter
indicates pitch attitude will be decreased upon engagement. The pitch command
wheel is in the autopilot circuit when the pitch mode switch only is engaged. It is
removed from the circuit and becomes ineffective upon engagement of the altitude
hold. During altitude hold operation it may be set to level or preprogrammed to
produce climb or descent upon altitude hold disengagement.
9
68825
INTERCEPT CHARACTERISTICS
r-_
_____ - - -"'~I--------------------~~~()~--==-~-==~--- --- --z mile.
--- ----
__ -
---- --- ---
Figure 20
(1) BEYOND 2 MILES FROM STATION:
Aircraft approaches course at
approximately 45° intercept angle until omni needle deflection is 50% of full
scale, then turns to required heading (cross wind corrected for) with no overshoot
of course.
211ilu
---
---
----
yx
Figure 21
(2) CLOSE IN INTERCEPT: With a given intercept angle established the time
required to pass through the active region near the desired radial (-50% full
needle deflection) is proportional to the distance from the station. For this reason
overshoot occurs when close in intercepts are made. (Tllis is true of all systems,
since the turning rate· or bank angle must be limited). the three paths show what
might be expected as the intercept distance is made nearer and then finally at the
station. It will be noted that if the intercept heading takes the aircraft very near to
the station, no maneuvering would occur until the aircraft has passed the station.
28
-
68S25
(
PITCH (ELEVATOR) ENGAGEMENT
FIG. B
The pitch mode switch engages the autopilot pitch servo
and makes the autopilot responsive to the pitch attitude of
the gyro horizon and the commands of the pitch control
wheel. Constant attitudes may be directed by rotating the
command wheel in the appropriate direction.
The
computer system in combination with the automatic trim
will maintain this constant attitude through power
changes and during gear and flap position transitions.
On aircraft not equipped with century Flight Systems, Inc.
automatic trim, it will be necessary to dis.engage the pitch
and manually trim the airplane during attitude, airspeed,
or gear flap transitions. (See section on automatic trim.)
ALTITUDE HOLD
FIG.9
The altitude hold is a "command" type which reqUires no
pitch command adjustment prior to engagement.
Engagement of the altitude mode switch will remove the
pitch command wheel from the circuit and initiate a
smooth transition to the pressure altitude at which it was
engaged. Barometric sensors provide precise altitude
holding with nominal climb and dive limitations for
operation in turbulence.
]0
68S25
ILS APPROACH-BACK COURSE (See Fig. 19)
1. To Intercept
A. OiallLS Back Course outbound heading on Course Selector O.G.
B. When stabilized, position mode selector to LOC NORM mode.
2. After interception and when beyond fix, position mode selector to HOG and dial
outbound procedure tum heading.
3. After one minute, dial inbound procedure turn heading indirection of turn.
4. When between 90" and 45" to inbound course, dial inbound course on Course
Selector O.G. and position mode selector on LOC REV mode.
5. Approximately Y, mile away from runway, position mode selector to HOG mode to
prevent "s" turn over ILS station near runway threshold.
-
27
68S25
AUTOMATIC TRIM OPERATIONS
Three different versions of CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEM INC. Automatic Pitch Trim
Systems are used with Century III Autopilots.
Normal
Dual Contact
Toggle
AUTOPILOT PITCH ON
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
AUTOPILOT OFF
Push Button
Push Button
Toggle Switch
The type used is based on the characteristics of the aircraft and FAA approval.
Trim operation with all three types is identical when the Autopilot Pitch is engaged.
the Trim System operates on a full time basis and will automatically correct aircraft
trim for airspeed changes that are called for by the Autopilot Pitch Command,
Altitude Hold or power changes.
.
Push Button Automatic Trim operates when the autopilot is OFF. The pilot may
press the wheel mounted push button any time he wishes to automatically relieve
control forces. This will be particularty helpful during approaches when speed is
being reduced and to make trim changes caused by lowering of flaps or gear.
Toggle Switch Trim operates when the autopilot is OFF. The pilot may press the
wheel switch to cause electric trim action in the desired direction to relieve control
wheel forces.
The pilot can override the trim system at any time by manual operation of the aircraft
trim control. In addition, the circuit breaker switch labeled "Trim" on the instrument
panel may be pulled to disconnect the trim from the aircraft electrical system.
GENERAL OPERATIONS
The Century III coupler and automatic trim systems are FAA approved on each make
and model aircraft under a "Supplemental Type Certificale" (STC).
There are no restrictions to operations in turbulence and , as a general rule,
autopilot operation in turbulence will result in lower "G" forces being imposed on the
structure.
Autopilot and automatic trim operating airspeed limitations (if any) will be speCified
on the operation placard or in the flight manual supplement.
The Century III servO mechanisms are designed with a fail safe electric engage and
disengage features. The autopilot may also be overridden by the pilot without
damage to the system. Override forces are adjusted to the servo pmver output
requirements of particular aircraft.
NOTE: Only CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEM INC. trained specialists at approved
service centers should adjust servo torque outputs.
II
68825
ILS APPROACH-BACK COURSE
I
I~
27
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4
FIG. 19
26
68S25
(
PILOTS PREFLIGHT PROCEDURE
1. With engines running and gyros erected, check vacuum gage readings. Should
be 4.75" to 5.00" Hg.
2. With all mode switches off, place coupler in HOG position (if applicable) and
center roll and pitch. commands and O.G. course selector indicator.
3. Engage roll mode master switch, rotate roll knob left and right and note that
wheel responds in each direction.
NOTE: Without the aerodynamic response of flight continue to stop with
command off center.
4. Engage "HDG" mode switch and rotate course selector indicator to either side,
note roll servo response; again, without aerodynamic response, servo action is
not limited.
5. While engaged, override the roll in both directions. Force required should be 1 015 Ibs. at wheel edge dependent on aircraft model.
6. Center D.G. course selector so as to stop roll servo action while checking pitch.
7. Adjust pilch command knob so as to center "Trim" indicator.
8. Engage pitch mode switch and rotate pitch command knob in each direction.
Observe pitch control action in each direction.
NOTE: Without the aerodynamic response of flight, pitch action is not limited
in ground operation.
NOTE: If aircraft has heavy controls due to loading springs or bob weights, it
may be necessary to assist the pitch control motion as servo input
power may be limited to match inflight responses and override
requirements.
NOTE: If autopilot ground check is prolonged, automatic trim may run to up or
down limit. In such cases it may be desirable to temporarily pull the
trim circuit breaker switch.
9. Check pitch override in each direction. Override forces will vary considerably
with aircraft and direction of motion die to elevator spring and bob weight effect
and the servo force adjustment.
12
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68S25
ILS APPROACH-NORMAL (See Fig. 18)
1. To Intercept
A. Dial ILS outbound on Course Selector O.G.
B. When stabilized; position mode selector to LOC REV mode.
2. After interception and when beyond outer marker, position mode selector to HOG
and dial outbound procedure tum heading.
3. After one minute, dial inbound procedure turn heading in direction of turn.
4. When between 90° and 45° to ILS inbound course. dial inbound course on
Course Selector O.G. and position mode selector to LOC NORM mode.
5. When beyond midpoint of runway. or when missed approach is elected, position
mode selector to HOG mode and execute missed approach procedure.
25
6BS25
TRIM CHECK
(Autopi!ot)
10. The Automatic trim is activated by engagement of autopilot pitch mode switch.
On systems equipped with CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEMS INC. automatic pitch
trim, note that trim action follows control force, (not motion) on ground check.
(Manual Push Button)
11. With all autopilot controls off, depress automatic trim butt on control wheel.
Apply forward and aft load on control wheel and note that trim wheel or handle
follows.
11 a.(Manual Toggle Switch)
With all autopilot controls OFF, press Toggle Switch in both directions and note
that Trim Wheel or handle runs in correct direction
NOTE: Aircraft equipped with dual contact trim system require a special preflight check- consult airplane flight manual supplement or placards for
these procedures.
NOTE: On aircraft equipped with springs andlor bob weights it may not be
possible to apply a down loading on the elevator system.
12. Check pilot's trim control override in each direction.
13.Be sure all autopilot controls are off, that trim circuit breaker is reset, and that
elevator trim is set prior to takeoff.
AUTOPILOT ENGAGE SEQUENCE (IN FLIGHT)
1. Trim aircraft to desired flight attitude.
2. Center roll knob and engage "Roll" mode switch.
3. Center O.G. course selector indicator and engage "HOG" mode switch.
4. Center "Trim" indicator with pitch command wheel and engage "Pitch" mode
switch.
5. Engage "Alt" mode switch at desired altitude.
NOTE: When system is not equipped with CENTURY FLIGHT SYSTEM INC.
. automatic pitch trim, and manually adjust aircraft pitch trim for attitude
and airspeed changes.
13
68S25
Figure 18
24
68825
AIR FILTER
AIR FILTER AND ELEMENT
The 1X314 central air filter is incorporated on all 3" gyro systems with the exception
of aircraft with original equipment filters of like quality.
The lX314 filter system uses the 51A5 replaceable filter element which is capable of
removing 97% of all contaminating substances above .3 microns. This includes
tobacco tars that would otherwise be harmful to bearings and vanes. Because of
this exceptional filtering ability, contaminants tend to accumulate at a higher rate
than in other types. It is therefore considered necessary that filter elements be
replaced at each 100 hour period and that filters subjected to tobacco tars, industrial
smoke and like enVironment, be inspected each 50 hours for possible replacement.
Gyro warranty is dependent upon following this procedure.
-
14
68S25
ILS APPROACH-NORMAL
LMM
LOM
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2
23
6B825
LATERAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM
FIGURE 10
LATERAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM
The Century Flight Systems, Inc. Lateral Guidance System contains. Track
interception angles a completely automatic, analog computer that directs the
autopilot in bolh VOR and ILS navigation. The system conlains a five position mode
selector switch which mounts in the instrument panel are 45° and an automatic 15°
crosswind correction capabilities is provided. The complete capture, intercept and
tracking sequence is accomplished automatically without monitoring or multiple
switching.
15
68S25
VOR APPROACH (See Fig.17)
(
1. Track inbound to station as described in VOR Navigation section.
2. After station passage (when "5" turn starts) dial outbound course on Course
Selector in O.G. then dial same course on 08S.
3. After estilblished on outbound radial, position mode selector to HOG mode and
select outbound procedure turn heading.
4. After one minute, dial inbound procedure tum heading on Course. Selector O.G.
dialing toward desired turn. Set 085 to inbound course.
5. When 90" to inbound course, dial Course Selector O.G. to inbound course and
position mode selector to OMNI mode.
6. If holding pattern is desired, position mode selector on HOG mode at station
passage inbound and select outbound heading in direction of turn.
7. After elapsed time, dial inbound course on Course Selector O.G.
-
8. When 90" to radial, position mode selector on OMNI mode.
NOTE
NOTE:
For precise tracking over Omni Station, without "S" turn, position
mode selector on HOG. Until station passage.
I .
22
68S25
Figure 11
Figure 12
OMNIMODE
When in the OMNI MODE position, the system is coupled
to the Radio Omni Bearing Indicator. By setting the D.G.
Course Indicator to match the Omni Course selection, all
headings are then controlled by the Omni radio signals.
A full deflection on the Omni Indicator (10 or more off
selected radial) will produce a 45" interception angle.
Inside the 10" area, the system will automatically
compute the location and closure rate to direct a smooth,
tangential intercept without overshoot and arrive over the
radial with crosswind correction established. The same
dynamic intercept is accomplished whether 2 miles or
maximum reception distance from station. Below 2 miles,
the aircraft bank limitations will allow a slight overshoot
when making maximum angle interception.
NAVMODE
The NAV Mode is designed to extend the coupler utility
by making operation practical under Ihe adverse
conditions of unsteady or erratic VOR Signals. Several
factors such as terrain, distance, bent courses, etc.,
produce short term needle deflections which can cause
excessive roll motion when in the OMNI Mode. The NAV
Mode incorporates an extended time delay in the
computer circuit which reduces reaction to these short
term needle deflections. Close in OMNI approach work
requires the proportioned dynamic response as provided
in the OMNI Mode. Therefore the NAV Mode should not
be used for close in work.
16
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68S25
"PPROACI-l
VOR A
figure 17
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68S25
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HEADING MODE
When in the HDG mode, the Century III Autopilot will
function in the same mannAr as described in section I of
this manual.
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Figure 13
Figure 14
LOCALIZER (Normal) MODE
In the LOC NORM mode, Ihe system automatically
adjusts its sensitivity to accommodate the 2%° full needle
signal instead of the 10° as found in Omni navigation .
As the Localizer beam which is only Y. as wide as the
Omni, additional damping circuits are also switched in to
produce the same smooth intercept track as described for
the Omni. Intercept angles of 45° are still automatic with
full signal defiection and tangential intercepts with
automatic crosswind correction are accomplished beyond
the Outer Marker. As with the Omni mode, the Course
Selection D.G. must be set to correspond with the desired
magnetic track.
LOCALIZER (Reverse) MODE
All Century Flight Systems, Inc. Lateral Guidance
Systems are equipped with the Localizer Reverse feature
to permit automatic backcourse approaches and to track
outbound on the Front Course prior to procedure turn.
The features of LaC-NORM except that the aircrafl will fiy
away from the Localizer Indicator needle instead of
toward. When using the LaC-REV mode, the Course
Selector O.G. is set to the reciprocal of the Front-Course
heading.
Figure 15
17
68S25
VOR NAVIGATION (See Fig. 16)
1. TO INTERCEPT
A. 'Using Bearing Selector, dial desired course, inbound or outbound.
8. Set identical heading on Course Selector D.G.
C. After aircraft has stabilized, position coupler mode selector knob to OMNI
mode.
NOTE:
If less than 45° from selected radial, aircraft will intercept before
station. If more than 45°, interception will occur after station passage.
D. As aircraft nears selected radial, interception and crosswind
automatically accomplished without further switching.
will be
E. Asthe aircraft nears the OMNI station, (V, mile) the zone of confusion will
direct an'S" turn in alternate directions as the OMNI indicator needle swings.
This aiternate banking, limited to the standard D.G. bank angle, is an
indication of station passage.
2. TO SELECT NEW COURSE
A. To select any different outbound course or radial, including reciprocal of the
previous inbound radial, dial the new course into the Course Selector D.G.
B. Rotate OBS to the new course.
C. Aircraft will automatically turn, in the shortest direction to the interception
heading for the new course.
3. TO CHANGE STATIONS
A. If same course is desired, merely tune receiver to new station frequency.
B. If different course is desired, position coupler mode selector to HDG Mode.
C. Dial Course Selector D.G. to new course.
D. Dial OBS to new course.
E. Position mode selector to OMNI mode.
20
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68S25
LATERAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM OPERATION
A. Establish aircraft in normal flight with autopilot as outlined in first part of manual.
(
B. With Guidance Mode Selector in HOG position, engage the HOG Mode Switch on
autopilot console.
C. Lateral control is now directed by the "Lateral Guidance" Mode Selector.
O. Set D.G, Card to the magnetic compass in normal manner.
NOTE: Some naVigation receivers are designed in same package as the
associated transmitter in such a manner that the visual navigation
signal is temporarily interrupted when transmitting.
CAUTION: The NSD has an optional slaving feature that requires initial heading
setting on start-up. Subsequent resetting of the heading card, required manually on
non-slaved verSions, is automatically accomplished with the slaved version.
Proper heading synchronization must be verified on other non-slaved and slaved
NSO-360A units. This is accomplished by comparing the heading displayed under
the lubber line with the magnetic compass.
The NSO-360A incorporates a heading warning flag to warn of loss of either air or
electric power. Appearance of the flag during flight should be sufficient grounds to
question the validity of the displayed heading. In slaved versions, the slaving meter
should oscillate about a 45° point to show that the slaving meter are accomplishing
their function. Should the needle remain motionless or either vertical or horizontal
for an extended period (two minutes) in level flight, the heading should be manually
set using the magnetic compass and the performance of the heading card observed.
If this condition perSists, set the slaving mode switch to SL#2 on free gyro. In free
gyro mode. the instrument must be periodically reset to manually counteract the
effects of gyro precession.
18
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figure 10
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