A a-BBO, 146, 150, 151 Abbe formula, 32 ABCD matrices, 362, 363

Index
A
a-BBO, 146, 150, 151
Abbe formula, 32
ABCD matrices, 362, 363
ABCD technique, 360, 363
Abeles formula, 364
Acceptor, 79, 80, 82
Achromatic doublet, 10
Achromatic phase element, 159, 161
Achromatic prism, 16
Achromats, 12
Acousto-optic cell, 196
Acousto-optical modulator (AOM), 122, 124,
131, 132, 197
Active pixel structure, 338
Active rectifier, 137
Airy formula, 297, 301, 306
Airy function, 207
Amici prism, 16, 17
Amplitude modulator, 122
Anamorphic, 54
Anamorphism, 273
Angle of incidence, 15
Angular dispersion, 258, 259, 261
Angular separation, 157
Angular tolerances, 20
Anode, 100
Anti-reflection coating, 22
Apex, 20, 193
APS, 338
Argon lasers, 68, 69
Argon, 267
Argon-mercury lamp, 269
ASCII, 347
Aspheric, 10
Aspheric lens, 8, 10
Astigmatism, 53, 264
Autofocus, 28
Automatic gain control, 286
Avalanche photodiode, 88
B
Babinet-Soleil compensator, 170–173
Back focal distances, 10
Back focal length (BFL), 4, 10
Back-illumination CCD sensor, 342
Ball bearings, 324
Ball-bearing stage, 204
Bandgap energy, 44
Bandwidth, 136
Barium crown, 15
Barium flint, 15
Bar-step command, 319
Bar-step signal, 317
Bayer filter, 343
Beam profilers, 346
Beamsplitter, 21, 187, 204, 291, 294
Beam-splitting cube, 21, 156, 194, 196, 198,
204, 208, 290, 291
Beam-splitting plate, 21
Beam-splitting rhomb, 156
Becquerel formula, 175
Beryllia, 69
Bessel functions, 123, 126, 127, 207
Bifurcated, 212
Bifurcated cable, 227
Birefringence, 63, 117, 144, 145, 170, 244,
380
Birefringent crystal, 117, 144, 146
Birefringent interfaces, 380
BK7 glass, 7
Blazed diffraction grating, 255
Blazed grating, 258, 259
BMP format, 347
Boltzmann constant, 39, 44
Boltzmann distribution, 44, 45
Bonder, 6
Borosilicate glass BK7, 15
Boundary conditions, 51, 53
Bow-tie, 226
Bragg angle, 128, 129
V. Protopopov, Practical Opto-Electronics, Springer Series in Optical Sciences 184,
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-04513-9, Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014
385
386
Bragg condition, 130, 131
Bragg scheme, 128
Brewster angle, 59, 59, 68, 148, 153
Brewster plate, 58–60, 63, 64
C
Calcite, 146, 149, 150, 153, 382
Calibration curve, 269, 278
Calibration source, 269
Calibration spectrum, 268
Camera lenses, 27
Capillary tube, 58
Cardan joint, 316, 317, 328
Cartesian coordinates, 330
Cartesian system, 150, 171, 173, 366, 373
Cartesian triplet, 367
Cauchy equation, 14
Cavity length, 59, 62
3CCD prism, 343, 344
CCD format, 25
CCR, 193, 194
CCTV, 25
Characteristics, 49
Charge coupled device (CCD), 336, 338
Chebyshev polynomials, 364
Chromatic aberration, 10
Chromatic dispersion, 15
Chromaticity, 161
Circular polarizations, 65
Circularly polarized, 65
Cladding, 220, 222
Clearance diameter, 37
CMOS, 336, 338
CMOS sensor, 338
C-mount, 25–28, 30, 34, 275, 290, 345, 346
C-mount flange, 25
Coddington, 5
Coherence length, 60, 190, 205
Coherent fiber bundle, 229
Cold-light reflectors, 40
Collimator, 224
Color aberrations, 12
Color temperature, 36, 40–42
Coma aberration, 372
Compensator, 170
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor,
336
Concave, 10
Concave or convex mirrors, 2
Conduction band, 43
Confocal IFP, 300, 302
Confocality parameter, 365
Conic coefficient, 10
Index
Conic formula, 8
Conical beam, 13
Conical convergence, 13
Conjugation, 31
Conjugation distance, 31
Constant-deviation angle, 15
Constant-deviation reflector, 15
Convex lens, 6, 10
Core, 220, 222
Corner cube reflector, 18, 193, 194, 196, 198
Coulomb force, 78
Coupler, 58, 224, 226
Cover glass, 33
Crystal-stabilized filter, 136
Cubes, 21
Curie temperature, 331
Current-voltage, 49
Current-to-voltage amplifier, 93
Current-to-voltage operational amplifier, 96
Current-voltage characteristic, 54
Curved mirror, 260
Cutoff frequency, 94, 95, 115
Czerny-Turner scheme, 262, 303, 377
D
DAQ Assistant, 353–355, 357
Data acquisition (DAQ), 351, 350
Daylight spectrum, 40
DC-DC converters, 352
Deflection, 15
Delay time, 112
Demodulation, 135
Dense flint, 15
Depletion region, 78
Dextro-Rotary quartz, 179
Diaphragm, 28, 30
Dichroic plastic, 144, 146
Dichroic polarizer, 144–146, 242
Differential mode, 353, 354, 355
Diffraction grating, 257, 258, 260, 264, 303,
304
Diffraction grating equation, 259
Diffraction order, 259
Direct bias, 81, 92
Direct-vision dispersive prism, 16
Direct-vision prism, 15
Dispersion, 222
Dispersion curve, 170
Displacement vector, 232
Displacements, 13
Donor, 80, 82
Double-telecentric, 30
Dove prism, 17, 18
Index
Dovetail, 27
Dovetail flange, 26, 27
D-quartz, 179
Dynodes, 100
E
Effective focal length (EFL), 4
Electro-discharge machines, 310
Electron-hole pairs, 43
Electro-optical modulator (EOM), 117,
120–122, 172
Ellipsoid of indices, 150
Elliptical polarization, 170
Ellipticity, 20, 53, 54, 165–167, 170, 234, 235,
238, 243, 250
Ellipticity of polarization, 161
Energy separator cube (ESC), 21, 156, 198
Epoxy, 6
Equivalent scheme, 89
Etalon fringes, 51
Ethernet connector, 345
Extension rings, 346
Extinction ratio, 144, 146, 153, 155
Extra long working distance (ELWD), 33
Extraordinary ray, 153, 381
Extraordinary wave, 149, 150, 380
F
F-(F-h) lense, 320
F-(lens), 321–324
Faraday effect, 174, 235
Faraday isolator, 176, 248
Faraday rotator, 174, 179, 180
Fast Fourier transform (FFT), 214–216, 288,
289
Fastie-Ebert configuration, 304
Fastie-Ebert scheme, 305
Fiber bundle, 228, 271
Fiber cables, 219
Fiber-optic spectrometer, 212, 260
Field of view, 25
Field stop, 30
Field-effect transistors, 93
Filter, 136–137
Filter thread, 26, 27
Finesse, 298, 299, 301, 307
First-order waveplates, 161
Fixed waveplates, 170
Flange-to-focus distance, 25
Flat mirror, 2
Flat-core filament, 37
Flat-mirror IFP, 298, 300, 302
387
Flexible hinge, 310
Flexible lever, 310
Flexible rotation hinge, 316
Fluorescence, 48, 293
Fluorescence phosphor, 47
Flux-current, 49
F-mount, 28
F-number, 4, 6
Focal length, 10, 25, 32, 260
Fortran, 323, 347, 369, 371, 376, 379, 383
Forward voltage, 49, 50
Foucault, 147, 152
Foucault prism, 145, 146
Fourier plane, 194
Fourier spectrometer, 287
Fourier spectroscopy, 287
Fourier transform, 213, 214, 288, 294, 295
Fourier-transform plane, 28
Fourier-transform spectrometers, 286
Frame transfer, 339
Fraunhofer diffraction, 257
Free spectral range (FSR), 298
Frequency-stabilized lasers, 62
Fresnel formulas, 84, 101, 128, 161, 234
Fresnel rhomb, 20, 159, 161, 162, 164, 165,
169, 170
Fresnel transform, 189
Fringe contrast, 204, 205
Fringe pattern, 190–192
Fringe-counting, 187, 194
Front-illuminated scheme, 342
Frounhofer region, 125
FT spectrometer, 287, 290–292
FT spectroscopy, 286, 287, 289–291
Full frame transfer, 339
Full vertical binning, 272
Full-wave active rectifier, 138
Full-wave diode rectifiers, 137
Function generator, 318
Fused silica, 15, 222, 224–226
Full vertical binning (FVB), 272, 273
G
Gain curve, 279
Gain-bandwidth product, 93, 95, 115, 137
Galilean, 203
Galilean telescope, 30
Galvano-mirror, 313, 314, 317
Galvano-scanner, 11
Gas-discharge tube, 274
Gated intensified spectrometer, 276, 285
Gated spectrometer, 277
Gating module, 279
388
Gaussian, 58, 346
Gaussian beam, 364, 365
Gaussian function, 364
Gaussian mode TEM, 59
GBW, 95
Generatrix, 28
Ghost beam, 15, 22
Ghost reflection, 22
Ghost wave, 23
Gimbal, 315
Glan-laser, 152
Glan-Taylor, 147, 148, 152, 153
Glan-Thompson, 147, 152, 153, 248
Glan-type prism, 146
Glass plate, 12
Global shutter, 340
Graded-index fibers, 222
Grating spectrometers, 255
Groove of the grating, 255
H
Half-wave plate, 159, 177, 181
Half-wave voltage, 119, 122
Halogen cycle, 36
Hard crown, 15
Harmonics, 121, 123
Hastings, 12
He-Cd laser, 68
Helium-neon (He-Ne), 57
Helium-neon (He-Ne) lasers, 57
Helium-cadmium (He-Cd) lasers, 68, 69
Heterodyne, 122, 236, 239, 242, 249, 250
Heterodyne interferometer, 195
Heterodyne scheme, 238
Hirose connector, 344
Holders, 7
Holes, 78
Hollow retroreflector, 19
Holographic diffraction grating, 273
Homodyne, 236, 239, 249
Huygens principle, 151, 381
Hysteresis, 331
I
Iceland spar, 146
Igniter, 73, 74
Image intensifier, 277, 286
Image rotating prism, 17
Image sensors, 341
Imaging fiber, 228–230
Imaging interferometers, 203
Imaging lenses, 25
Index
Imaging spectrometer, 272–274, 276
IMSL library, 383
Incandescent lamps, 36
Infinity conjugation, 31
Infinity-corrected objective, 31, 32, 314
Inspection objective, 33
Integrated reflectors, 38
Intensified CCD camera (ICCD), 282
Intensified spectrometer, 286
Intensity-stabilized lasers, 62
Interference filters, 306, 307
Interference fringes, 205
Interference pattern, 201, 275, 333
Interferometer Fabry-Perot (IFP), 296, 298,
300, 306
Interline transfer, 340
Intra-cavity spectral selection, 18
Intrinsic amplification, 238, 249
Intrinsic silicon, 82
Iris diaphragm, 194
Iris rings, 27
Isolator, 173
Isoparaffin, 250
Ittrium-aluminium garnet, 47
J
Junction capacitance, 82, 90, 95
K
KDP, 117
Kerr depolarization, 243
Kerr effect, 232, 233, 235, 236, 244
Kerr reflection coefficient, 238
Kerr rotation angle, 235
Kogelnik rule, 366
K-prism, 165
Kramers-Kronig relation, 66
L
LabVIEW, 350, 352, 356
Laevo-Rotary quartz, 179
Landau-Lifshitz structure, 246
Larmor precession, 175
Laser cavity, 66, 67
Laser coherence, 60
Laser diode, 50, 132, 134
Laser pointer, 241
Lasers, 57, 62
Lateral displacement beamsplitter, 24
Lateral displacement beam-splitting prism, 23
Lateral displacement (LD), 13, 14, 132
Index
LD spectrum, 52
Lead screw, 328
Lead zirconate titanate, 330
Least-square fitting, 269
Least-square linear fitting, 269
Left-circularly polarized wave, 234
Lens diameter, 4
Lens holder, 7
Lenses, 10
Lens-maker equation, 5
Light-emitting diode, 132, 274
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 42, 43, 132
Limit switches, 329
Linear dispersion, 259
Linearization, 368
Linearly polarized mode, 59
Linearly polarized, 58, 65
Lithium niobate (LiNiO3), 117
Linnik imaging interferometer, 211
Linnik interferometer, 212
Lithium tantalate (LiTaO), 117
Littrow dispersion prism, 18
Littrow prism, 19, 68
Localized fringes, 203
Localized interference fringes, 207
Lock-in amplifier, 116, 138
Long working distances (LWD), 33
Longitudinal Kerr effect, 242, 244, 247, 249
Longitudinal mode, 59, 60, 62–66
Longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA), 6
Longitudinal displacement, 13, 14, 232
Long-travel scanners, 16
Lorentzian, 346
L-quartz, 179
Luminous efficacy, 36
M
Magnetic domains, 244
Magnetic field, 66
Magnetic fluid, 250, 251
Magnetic memory, 240
Magnetic tracks, 245
Magnetization, 232, 233, 235, 239, 240, 244,
245, 246
Magnetometry, 248
Magneto-optical fluids, 251
Magnification, 11, 31, 32
Malus law, 154, 177, 181, 186
Marginal rays, 6
Maxwell equations, 233
Mechanical modulator, 116
Median line, 323
Mercury doublet, 270
389
Mercury, 267
Meridional rays, 264, 369
Meridional, 371
Michelson interferometer, 187, 192, 195, 333
Michelson objective, 210, 211
Michelson, 184, 187, 208–210, 216, 276
Micro-channel plate (MCP), 105, 106, 277
Microchannel plate, 105
Micrometer screws, 325
Micropore, 277
Microscope objectives, 25, 31
Microstepping, 326, 328
Mireau objective, 210, 211
Mireau, 208, 209, 216, 276
Mirror, 2, 3
Mode composition, 60
Mode spacing, 60
Modulation circuit, 133
Modulation curve, 292, 293
Modulation depth, 114, 115
Modulation rate, 132
Modulation-sensitive Fourier spectroscopy,
292
Monochromatic light, 10
Monochromatic mirrors, 3
Monochromator, 303–305
Mooney prism, 159
Mooney rhomb, 162
MOS capacitor, 336
MOS-10, 176
MOS-4, 176
MOSFET, 338
Motion-stabilization, 28
Motorized translation stages, 325
Mounting bracket, 12
Mounting, 3
Mounting options, 3
Multi-element photodetector, 318
Multi-element photodiode, 88, 97
Multifibers, 229
Multilayer structure, 21
Multi-mode fiber, 222
Multiple-order ghosts, 305
Multiple-order plates, 160
Multiple-order waveplate, 168
Multiplicity factor, 167
N
Narrow-band, 3
Narrow-pass filter, 136–138, 140, 154
Nd
YAG 70
Negative feedback, 91, 92
390
Neodymium laser, 317
Nicol, 146, 147, 152
Nicol prism, 146, 152, 157, 383
Nikol prism, 181
Noise reduction, 135
Nomarski, 148
Nomarski prism, 146, 157, 158
Nomogram, 270, 312
Non-biased scheme, 92
Non-localized fringes, 203
Non-polarizing, 21
Numerical aperture (NA), 32, 220, 222, 224,
264
O
Objectives, 31
Object-side telecentric, 30
Open-loop gain, 95
Operational amplifier, 56, 90, 91, 93, 109, 115,
137, 138, 318, 354
Optical cavity, 50, 51
Optical fiber, 212, 220
Optical gain, 50, 278, 279, 281
Orders of diffraction, 256
Order-sorting filter, 261, 262, 268, 273, 305
Ordinary prism, 14
Ordinary ray, 149
Ordinary wave, 150
O-ring, 3, 6, 71, 145, 320
P
PANDA, 226
Parasitic capacitance, 96
Paraxial approximation, 361
Paraxial focal plane, 6
Paraxial foci, 10
Paraxial rays, 14, 20, 28, 360
Path difference, 192, 193, 205, 292
Printing circuit board (PCB), 351
PCI (peripheral component interconnect) slot,
350
PCX format, 347, 349
Pellicle beamsplitter, 23
Penta-prism, 15, 17
Perforated wheel, 116
Phase delay, 295, 319
Phase elements, 157
Phase modulation, 122
Phase modulator, 122
Phase plates, 158
Index
Phase screen approximation, 124, 125
Phosphor, 47
Photocathode, 278
Photodiode (PD), 78, 87
Photodiode receiver, 88
Photographic lenses, 25
Photomultiplier (PMT), 99, 290
Photomultiplier receiver, 107
Photomultiplier tube, 99
Phototransistor (PT), 86, 87
Photovoltaic regime, 80–82, 94
Photovoltaic scheme, 95
Piezo-stage, 291, 330, 333
Piezo-transducer, 291, 299, 302
PIN-diode, 82-84
Pithagoras theorem, 19
Pizeo-transducer, 290
Planck constant, 39, 41, 44, 85
Planck formula, 38, 40
Planck law, 43
Plane-wave interferometers, 184, 185
Plano-concave, 8
Plano-convex, 11
Plano-convex lens, 6, 369, 371, 373
Plastic optical fibers, 224
Plastic polarizer, 145
Plates, 12
PMT module, 99, 100, 104, 290
Pn-junction, 78, 79, 337
Pn-photodiodes, 336
Pockels effect, 119
Poisson, 102
Poisson distribution, 103
Poisson statistics, 279–281
Polar and longitudinal Kerr effects, 246
Polar Kerr effect, 240, 247, 249
Polar magneto-optical Kerr effect, 232
Polar, longitudinal, or transversal, 240
Polarization, 50
Polarization rotator, 165
Polarization separator, 146, 155
Polarization-maintaining (PM) optical fibers,
225
Polarizers, 144
Polarizing beam splitter, 64, 65, 246, 248
Polarizing, 21
Polygon mirror, 320
Polymethyl-methacrylate, 226
Polynomial, 269
Porro prism, 17
Positive feedback, 98
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 117
Index
391
Power on Ethernet (POE), 345
Power over Ethernet, 346
Principal planes, 4
Prism, 12, 54, 101
Prismatic retroreflectors, 20
Pseudo-differential connection, 356
Pulse modulation, 133
Pure silica, 226
Rolling shutter, 340
Roof-prism, 16
Rotary encoder, 313
90- rotation prism, 15
180 rotator, 15
Rowland circle, 263, 264
Rowland scheme, 263, 264, 267
Royal Microscopy Society, 32
Q
Q-switch, 70, 71
Quadrant photodetector, 88, 248
Quadrant photodiode, 89
Quadrature signal, 141, 316
Quality factor, 136, 140
Quantum efficiency, 84, 85, 99, 100, 102
Quarter wave plate (QWP), 65, 71, 159, 167,
172, 196, 198, 234, 243, 246, 249
Quartz, 146
Quartz resonators, 136
Quartz rotator, 179
Qudrature signals, 142
S
s- and p-polarizations, 20
Sagittal rays, 264
Saw-tooth signal, 123
Scalar product, 19, 375
Scanning IFP, 296, 298
Scanning interferometer Fabry-Perot, 296,
302
Schmitt trigger, 187
SCSI, 351
Sensor format, 340
Separation angle, 156
Service magnetic tracks, 244
Shape factor, 5, 301
Shear-plate interferometer, 198, 202, 373
Sheet polarizer, 144–146
Short-pulse operation, 134
Signal-to-noise ratio, 102, 103, 187, 242, 249,
272, 279
Simple lenses, 3
Sine-bar mechanism, 304, 305
Single-mode cavity, 65
Single-mode operation, 60
Single-mode scheme, 65
Sinusoidal optical flux, 133
Sinusoidal optical modulation, 133
Slanted ion etching, 255
Slanted prisms, 146
SMA-905, 223, 225, 267, 271
Snell law, 220, 311, 366, 374, 381
Solid-state lasers, 70, 71
Spark erosion, 310
Sparker, 73, 74
Spatial-spectral map, 275
Spatial-spectral picture, 273
Speckles, 51
Spectral divergence, 15
Spectral interferometry, 212, 274, 275
Spectral reflection, 3
Spectral resolution, 299
Spectral selector, 15
Spectral sensitivity, 85, 86, 102
Spherical aberration, 5, 8, 12, 203, 371
Spherical mirror, 264
R
Randomly polarized, 58, 59
Ray tracing, 366, 373
Rayleigh criterion, 269, 270
Rear focal distance, 34
Rectifier, 140
Red fluorescence, 47
Reference signal, 142, 243
Referenced single-ended (RSE) connection,
353
Reflector, 37
Refractive index, 14, 220
Relay lens, 11, 283, 314
Repolarization, 331
Responsivity, 84
Resonant-cavity LED, 46–48
Retardation, 70
Retraction stopper, 33
Retroreflector, 18, 21
Reverse bias, 81, 83
Reverse-biased scheme, 92
Right- and left-circularly polarized waves,
234, 235
Right-angle prism, 15–17
Risley prism, 311, 312, 320, 321
RLE algorithm, 347
Rochon prism, 157
Rochon, 148
Roller bearings, 324
392
Spherical surface, 10
Spherical, 10
Spot size, 38
Stabilization loop, 64
Stabilized lasers, 62, 63
Standing-wave condition, 59
Steering mirror, 315
Stefan-Boltzmann law, 38
Steinheil, 12
Stepper motor, 325, 327–329
Superluminescent diode (SLD), 51, 52, 248
Surface profilers, 16
Symmetrical triplet, 12
Synchronous detection, 136, 138, 139, 154,
198
Synchronous detector, 137, 140, 141, 154, 293,
294
T
T3-APS scheme, 338
Taylor expansion, 298
Taylor series, 368
Telecentric lens, 28, 194
Television (TV) lenses, 25
TEM00 mode, 58
Terbium gallium garnet (TGG), 176, 178–180
Terbium-doped flint glass, 176
Terminal block, 351, 352, 354
Thermal generation, 78
Thickness, 4
Thread, 32
Threads Per Inch (TPI), 25, 32
Three-contact gimbal, 310
Threshold, 54
Threshold voltage, 48
Tilting, 168, 169
Time-resolved spectrum, 134
Total internal reflection, 16, 17, 101, 220
Transimpedance amplifier, 91
Trans-impedance operational amplifier, 91, 93,
96
Translation stages, 324
Transversal Kerr effect, 232, 239–241, 244
Transversal mode TEM, 69
Transverse illumination, 247
Transverse spherical aberration (TSA), 6
Triangulation range-finders, 16
Trimming process, 55
Trimming resistor, 109
TTL voltage levels, 134
Index
Tube lens, 31, 32, 314
Tunable lasers, 68
Tungsten halogen lamps, 36, 275, 308
Tuning curve, 305
TV lens, 25, 27, 275, 289, 290, 343, 346
Two-element PD, 97
U
Ultra-violet, 6
Uniaxial crystal, 117, 146, 149, 380
Uniaxial negative, 150
Uniaxial positive, 150
USB connector, 345
UV bonder, 6, 7
UV curing, 6
V
Valence band, 43
Variable attenuator, 181
Variable waveplates, 170
Varied line-space (VLS) grating, 266, 267
Vector product, 366
Verdet constant, 176–179
VHDCI, 351
Vibration, 328
Video cameras, 344
Video sensor, 336
Visibility of fringes, 185, 186, 191
Visibility, 186, 187
Voigt, 233
Voltage drop, 49
Voltage-to-voltage type, 93, 137
W
Wadsworth scheme, 264–266
Waist, 364
Wavefront, 5, 67
Waveplate, 157, 159, 169
White-light emitting diode, 284
White-light LED, 48, 133, 292
Wide-band, 3
Wide-band radiation, 36
Wide-range spectrometer, 261
Wien displacement law, 39
Wollaston, 148
Wollaston and Rochon prisms, 157
Wollaston prism, 146, 157
Working distance (WD), 32
Index
X
Xenon flash lamp, 72–75, 305
Xenon lamp, 72–74
Y
YBO4, 146
Yttrium aluminium garnet, 70
Yttrium orthovanadate, 157
393
Z
Zeeman, 61, 236
Zeeman laser, 65–67, 112, 114, 138, 154, 180,
196, 197, 237, 238, 243, 292
Zeeman split, 66
Zero bias, 92
Zero-bias scheme, 92
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