Choosing the Optimal Source Measurement Unit Instrument for Your

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Choosing the Optimal Source Measurement Unit Instrument for
Your Test and Measurement Application
by
Mark A. Cejer, Marketing Director
Jonathan L. Tucker, Sr. Marketing Manager
Lishan Weng, Applications Engineer
Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Stated in the simplest possible terms, a source measure unit (SMU) instrument
integrates the capabilities of a precision power supply (PPS) with those of
a high-performance digital multimeter (DMM) in a single instrument. For
example, SMU instruments can simultaneously source or sink voltage while
measuring current, and source or sink current while measuring voltage
(Figure 1). They can be used as stand-alone constant voltage or constant
current sources, as stand-alone voltmeters, ammeters, and ohmmeters, and as
precision electronic loads. Their high performance architecture also allows
using them as pulse generators, as waveform generators, and as automated
current-voltage (I-V) characterization systems.
I meter
V
V meter
I
Figure 1. Basic SMU instrument topology.
The real benefit of SMU instruments for test and measurement applications
comes from their ability to source and measure signals simultaneously. When
compared with using separate instruments to handle each function, SMUs’
1
simultaneous operation provides for faster test times, simplified connections, improved
accuracy, less complex programming, and a lower cost of ownership (COO). Their tight
integration lets them protect the device under test (DUT) from damage due to accidental
overloads, thermal runaway, and other dangers. It also makes SMU instruments ideal for
characterizing and testing semiconductors and other non-linear devices and materials.
SMU vs. Power Supply
Given that an SMU instrument integrates the functions of a power supply with a digital
multimeter, how exactly does the performance of an SMU’s source differ from that of a typical
power supply?
• Greater speed and precision: SMUs are optimized for both speed and precision, so they
can offer significantly faster rise times and much lower measurement uncertainty than
power supplies. SMUs’ settling times are measured in microseconds compared to the
milliseconds that power supplies require to settle on their programmed value. Similarly,
an SMU’s measurement uncertainty is measured in nanoamps vs. microamps for typical
power supplies.
• Wider operating range and better resolution: Because of their outstanding low current
capability, SMUs typically offer much wider operating ranges with greater resolution
than power supplies, so they are suitable for a wider range of test and measurement
applications.
• Four-quadrant rather than two-quadrant operation: As illustrated in Figure 2, a
typical power supply can only source voltage and/or current. In other words, it provides
only two-quadrant operation (in quadrants I and III), but an SMU can provide full
four-quadrant operation because it’s capable of sourcing and sinking power, acting as
both power supply and an electronic load. During source or sink operation, the SMU
can simultaneously measure voltage, current, and resistance. This operating flexibility
can be especially valuable when characterizing batteries, solar cells, or other energygenerating devices.
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4 Quadrant Operation
2602B SourceMeter Instrument
Typical Power Supply
Source + Sink
Source Only
+I
II
+I
I
–V
II
+V
III
I
–V
IV
+V
III
–I
IV
–I
Figure 2. A power supply (right) offers only two-quadrant operation; an SMU instrument (left) can source
and sink power in all four quadrants.
• Built-in sweep capabilities: The various sweep capabilities SMUs offer can simplify
programming a test’s source, delay, and measure characteristics, significantly boosting
testing productivity. All sweeps can be configured for single-event or continuous
operation to simplify the process of capturing the data needed to characterize and test
a wide range of devices. Sweeps can also be used in conjunction with other throughputenhancing features like Hi-Lo limit inspection and digital I/O control to create high
speed production test systems.
A fixed level sweep outputs a single level of voltage or current with multiple
measurements. This is typically done to bias or stress devices. Various types of fixed
level sweeps can be generated, depending on the needs of the application.
Linear/Log sweeps are used to ramp up or ramp down a level of voltage or current
from a starting level, changing in equal linear steps, or on a logarithmic scale until the
stopping source level is reached. Linear sweeps are routinely used for testing devices
like resistors, transistors, diodes, and much more.
Pulsed sweeps are often used to limit the amount of power that goes into a material
sample or device over time and to minimize self-heating effects that could otherwise
damage semiconductors and light emitting diodes (LEDs), experimental materials
such as graphene, or other fragile nanotechnology-based devices.
Custom sweeps simplify creating application-specific waveforms.
SMU vs. DMM
Because of its built-in sourcing capabilities, an SMU can minimize overall measurement
uncertainty in many applications. The first diagram in Figure 3 shows the basic voltmeter
configuration for the SMU. Here, the built-in current source can be used to offset or suppress
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any system-level leakage currents (such as cable noise) that could cause unwanted errors in
voltage measurement applications.
Voltmeter Configuration
Ammeter Configuration
HI
HI
Ileakage
I = 0A
V meter
+
I meter
V
V = 0V
HI
I meter
Vburden
I = test
current
Sense HI
V meter
Sense LO
–
LO
Source I = 0A, Measure V
Ohmmeter Configuration
LO
Source V = 0V, Measure I
LO
Source I = test current, Measure
V and I, Remote Sense ON
Figure 3. SMU voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter configurations
For current measurements, the SMU’s built-in source and “feedback ammeter” design
work together to keep voltage burden low and enable low current measurements to subpicoamp levels. DMMs do not have the built-in source and typically have “shunt ammeter”
designs that typically limit low current capabilities to microamp or nanoamp levels.
Finally, for resistance measurements, the SMU architecture offers full flexibility over the
amount of current or voltage sourced to the DUT. DMMs have fixed current source values that
are dependent on the range being used to measure resistance. SMUs offer fully programmable
source values for measuring resistance. This can be valuable for protecting DUTs or for
measuring extra high or extra low resistances. For high resistance measurements, the source
voltage method is preferred; for low resistance measurements, the source current method is
best. Some SMUs have a six-wire ohms feature that “guards out” the effects of unwanted
parallel resistance paths in the circuit.
SMU Measurement Terminology
One of the first considerations in choosing an SMU instrument must be the quality of
the measurements it produces. Poor measurement integrity can cause those using the data
produced to draw incorrect conclusions about the performance of a given DUT. In R&D,
this can mean an imperfect understanding of a device’s operating parameters, leading
to unnecessary rework and costly time-to-market delays. In production test, inaccurate
measurements can result in rejection of good parts (false failures) or acceptance of bad ones,
either of which can cause poor yields, customer dissatisfaction, and other problems.
When considering an SMU instrument’s measurement integrity, keep several key terms in
mind: accuracy, repeatability or stability, resolution, sensitivity, and integration time.
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Accuracy is defined as the closeness of agreement between the result of a measurement
and its true value or accepted standard value. Imagine you are shooting arrows at a target: the
accuracy of your shots would be defined by how close the arrows come to the bullseye.
Repeatability refers to the closeness of agreement between successive measurements
carried out under the same conditions. Although repeatability is not typically specified
on an instrument’s data sheet, it can usually be easily determined during an instrument
demonstration or evaluation. Figure 4 illustrates the concepts of accuracy vs. repeatability.
Accuracy
Repeatability
Figure 4. In the target on the left, the shooter had high accuracy but poor repeatability. The target on the
right shows high repeatability but poor accuracy.
Resolution is defined as the smallest portion of the signal that can be observed. The
resolution of an instrument is determined by the number of digits it can display on the front
panel or send to a PC over the communication bus. This can often be changed by pressing a
front panel button or by sending a programming command to the instrument. In Figure 5, the
user can select between 3, 4, 5, and 6 digits on the display.
Figure 5. Adjusting the Model 2450 SMU instrument’s resolution.
An SMU instrument’s usable maximum resolution depends on its overall accuracy and
the resolution of its analog-to-digital converter (ADC). For example, no one would produce
a 6½-digit instrument with an 8-bit ADC and 5% accuracy because most of the digits being
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displayed would be meaningless. In general, however, the higher the resolution is, the higher
the bit count on the ADC and the higher the accuracy will be.
The sensitivity of a measurement is the smallest change in the measured signal that can be
detected. The ultimate sensitivity of an instrument depends both on its maximum resolution
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would have 1pA sensitivity. However, depending on that instrument’s accuracy, that sensitivity
might not be particularly useful.
Measurement instruments employ either (or both) of two basic types of analog-to-digital
converters: integrating ADCs and digitizing ADCs. In general, an integrating ADC will offer
higher accuracy because it cancels out the unwanted effects of AC noise from the power line.
The instrument’s integration rate, which is specified in NPLC (Number of Power Line Cycles),
is adjustable. To reject AC noise, the NPLC must be equal to or greater than 1. Integrating the
measurement over multiple power line cycles will reject this noise still further and thereby
provide a more accurate measurement. However, this noise rejection capability comes at the
expense of reading speed; one power line cycle takes 16.7ms at 60Hz or 20ms at 50Hz. Setting
the NPLC to a fraction of a line cycle will provide faster measurements at the expense of more
noise or lower accuracy (Figure 6).
1 PLC
(Power Line Cycle)
0.1 PLC
(Power Line Cycle)
Figure 6. ADC integration time comparison (NPLC).
That means the reading rate and measurement speed of a highly accurate instrument like
an SMU are determined by its NPLC setting. However, an ADC’s reading rate is only one of
many factors that affects an SMU instrument’s true speed; other factors that can affect overall
throughput include function and range change times, trigger in and out times, settling times,
and program execution times.
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Key Considerations for Selecting an SMU Instrument
When evaluating a specific SMU instrument for a specific application, it’s essential to consider
some key characteristics:
• Ease of use
• System-level speed/throughput
• Source resolution vs. stability
• Measurement settling time, offset error, noise
• Cabling and connections
Let’s examine each of these characteristics in depth.
• Ease of use. In other words, how we interact with the instrument. Instrumentation users
are accustomed to learning the front panel of their measurement tools through the use
of plain text, buttons, and keys. Complex instruments could take from days to weeks
to learn how to use the instrument in a way that best serves their application. Learning
curves could be extensive, resulting in reduced productivity and efficiency, especially for
those individuals who are not necessarily first time users of SMUs.
With advances in touchscreen technology, capacitive touchscreen graphical user
interfaces (GUI) on bench instrumentation can significantly reduce the learning curve.
But above all, touchscreen GUIs significantly improve an instrument’s ease of use for an
instrument.
Figure 7. Advanced capacitive touchscreen GUI on Keithley’s Model 2450 SourceMeter SMU Instrument.
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The use of touchscreen technology is also beneficial in reducing the working space
of the instrument, such that the display can provide larger numerical values, more
details about the measurement, or even graphing capabilities, something that is difficult
with single- or dual-line displays. Additionally, because GUI systems highly leverage
software to define what is displayed, screens can be quickly changed as required for
different applications.
Reaching out for what you want is an instinctive gesture. Using touch is just as simple:
you simply point at what you want. Although with pushbutton-based instruments, some
users may still hesitate to push a button if the front panel has too many buttons to
push and it is unclear what the button will do. With a touchscreen approach, users feel
comfortable that they cannot "do anything wrong"; they instinctively understand how to
use the interface. Touchscreen systems make everyone an "expert user" from the first
touch, whether a new instrument user or the most experienced user.
Touch technology is intuitive and highly learnable. Compared to traditional training
methods, using touchscreens can drastically reduce training time, increase operator
accuracy, and improve overall operational efficiencies. This helps to drive down costs.
• System-level speed or throughput. In other words, how quickly can you get a final
measurement or set of measurements (such as a suite of current vs. voltage parameters)
back to the PC controller? For example, let’s consider a typical diode or LED test,
which will consist of three measurements—forward voltage, reverse voltage, and reverse
current—each of which is typically compared to upper and lower limits. The part is
considered “bad” if any one parameter fails. The objective is to test this part as quickly
as possible without sacrificing accuracy in order to minimize the cost of test.
The challenge is that all the source and measure values are different. Although
the readings/second specification is important, a range or function change must occur
before a reading can be taken. This type of test isn’t about taking multiple readings
of the same value repeatedly; it’s about taking single-point measurements at different
source-measure levels. Therefore, the speed of the ADC (the NPLC spec) alone won’t
be a good indication of how quickly the instrument can test this part. One should also
consider a variety of other operating parameters, including trigger in time, range change
time, function change time, source settling time, trigger out time, and command transfer,
processing, and execution time.
Figure 8 shows a comparison of the actual test results from a Keithley Series 2600B
System SourceMeter® instrument with that of another brand of SMU instrument. The
data shows the number of diodes tested per second, so the higher the number the higher
the speed. This is a true measure of test throughput.
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1 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.001 NPLC
0.00048 NPLC
Non-Keithley
SMU instrument
8.1
12.4
13.0
13.0
13.0
Keithley Series
2600B
13.3
33.2
37.8
38.2
N/A
Most accurate
Least accurate
Figure 8. Test results: parts per second
Recall that the larger the NPLC is, the more accurate the measurement will be
(corresponding to lower speed). Note how reducing the NPLC setting to less than
0.1 NPLC does not make a significant difference in overall test time per part. In
typical applications in which multiple parameters are being tested, the speed of
other characteristics, such as range or function change time, triggering time, bus
communication time, or program execution time, start to dominate. Even at 1 NPLC,
these other characteristics, if not optimized by the SMU instrument manufacturer,
can have a big impact on overall test throughput. The Keithley Series 2600B System
SourceMeter instrument in this example can test over 60% more parts per second at
1 NPLC and close to 3x more parts at the other NPLC settings.
Although range and function change times are important, it’s also possible to obtain
major breakthroughs in system throughput by embedding then executing the majority
of the test program within the SMU instrument itself. This eliminates most of the
communications bus traffic, speeds up triggering, and optimizes command processing
time. Using this type of feature is a major reason an SMU instrument running at 0.1
NPLC can be as much as four times faster and much more accurate than an SMU
running at 0.00048 NPLC in real-world applications.
Keithley’s Series 2600B System SourceMeter and the Model 2450 Advanced
Touchscreen SourceMeter instruments employ a feature known as Test Script
Processing, or TSP® technology. TSP technology optimizes command transfer, command
processing, and command execution times by embedding the actual test program (or
script) into the instrument’s non-volatile memory. However, TSP technology goes far
beyond simply storing and executing a sequence of standard SCPI commands. TSP
technology is based on Lua, a powerful BASIC-like scripting language. Functions
like “do” loops, variables, If-Then-Else statements, and more are all supported in Lua.
Therefore, TSP scripts are just as powerful as traditional test programs residing in PCs
but with the advantage of actually being embedded in the instrument to optimize overall
test speed.
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• An SMU instrument’s sourcing resolution and output stability are also key to its
overall performance. Let’s look at the relationship between source resolution and
output stability.
When evaluating the performance of an SMU instrument’s source, it’s important to
look beyond the specification sheet and the instrument’s source readback display. The
source’s actual output performance may be very different from its specified resolution or
from its displayed value, which may require instrument specifiers to do their own testing
to verify it.
Based solely on an SMU instrument’s specification sheet, one might conclude that
the SMU instrument with the greatest programming resolution is the most accurate. The
programming resolution determines the output’s “fineness” of adjustment. In Figure 9,
note that the non-Keithley SMU offers 50 times greater programming resolution than the
Model 2450 SourceMeter instrument.
Programming Resolution
20V Range
Non-Keithley 6½-digit
SMU instrument
Keithley Model 2450
10 μV
500 μV
Figure 9. Programming resolution based on specification sheet.
Furthermore, based on the SMU’s “source readback” value displayed on the front
panel or over the bus (Figure 10), one might conclude that the SMU showing readback
values closest to the programmed values is the most stable and therefore the better
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Source Value =
10.001 V
Source Readback
Displayed Value
(pk-pk of variation)
Actual Measured Value
of Source Output
(pk-pk of variation)
Non-Keithley 6½-digit
SMU instrument
0.0 μV
438.7 μV
Keithley Model 2450
29.6 μV
29.0 μV
Figure 10. Actual output stability.
However, the picture changes dramatically when we measure the actual source
output using a separate instrument. To obtain the data in the right-most column of
Figure 9, we chose Keithley’s Model 2002 8½-digit digital multimeter to measure
the source output of each SMU directly. The Model 2002 is one of the most accurate
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DMMs available on the market and is used by many calibration labs, which makes it a
good choice for high accuracy applications of this type.
To view the stability of the source outputs, we made 100 measurements using the
Model 2002 at 10 NPLC to ensure maximum accuracy. We observed that the nonKeithley 6½-digit SMU (Figure 11a) actually has almost 0.5mV peak-to-peak variation
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readback display indicates. In addition, this error is more than 40 times greater than
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(Figure 11b) actually has more than 15 times better output stability than the non+
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Figure 11a. Actual source performance: programming resolution vs. stability for non-Keithley 6½-digit SMU.
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Figure 11b. Actual source performance: programming resolution vs. stability for Keithley Model 2450
SourceMeter instrument.
For the non-Keithley SMU, note that the readback voltage is exactly the same as the
programmed voltage. However, the actual measured voltage is quite different from the
readback voltage or the programmed voltage. The SMU readback indicates the output
voltage to be exactly 10.001V; in reality, the output voltage is somewhere between
10.0014V and 10.0018V. This is a significant amount of error that the user would not
normally see indicated on the SMU display. In addition, the fineness of adjustment of
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so this level of resolution is unrealizable.
In contrast, for the Keithley Model 2450 SourceMeter instrument, note that the
readback voltage closely tracks the actual voltage measured at the output terminals.
You’ll also see that the readback voltage differs from the programmed voltage. One
would expect to see a difference, given the source’s accuracy specs. These kinds of
results should give you confidence that the voltage actually being delivered to the DUT
is that which is expected. In addition, with the Model 2450, the source error does not
overwhelm the programming resolution, as it does for the non-Keithley SMU. That
means users can have the confidence to take full advantage of the fineness of adjustment
of the programming resolution.
As this comparison shows, an SMU instrument’s programming resolution
specification is not a good indication of its stability and overall performance. It also
shows that the source readback results can be highly questionable. Therefore, when
evaluating an SMU for your application, be sure to do some testing for yourself.
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• Measurement settling time, offset error, and noise can have a big impact on an SMU
instrument’s performance, particularly in low current applications. The example
illustrated in Figure 12 shows the results of two SMU instruments sourcing 200V with
nothing connected to the input terminals while measuring the resulting current using
each instrument’s built-in ammeter feature. This comparison offers a good indication of
each instrument’s fundamental low current performance, and it’s an easy test to recreate
on the test bench.
The non-Keithley 6.5-digit SMU has over 0.2nA error
when the 2636B is already settled to its 120fA spec.
2636B
Figure 12. Comparison of measurement settling time, offset error, and noise.
Note that the non-Keithley 6½-digit SMU (the blue line) settles to its specified
offset error of 50pA in about four seconds. The “bumpiness” of the data curve indicates
measurement noise. In contrast, the Keithley Model 2636B (the red line) settles to its
specified offset error of 0.12pA (120fA) in about half a second. The smooth data curve
indicates a distinct lack of measurement noise. So, based on the data, it’s obvious the
Model 2636B will deliver a better measurement faster. In fact, at the point when the
Model 2636B is settled and capable of providing in-spec sub-picoamp measurements,
the non-Keithley SMU still has nanoamp-level errors. In addition, if you were to take
a series of measurements over time, the Model 2636B would provide more consistent
results due to its fast, flat, and noise-free settling.
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Note that, in either case, when measuring low current, the settling times drive overall
test time. This is due to R-C time constants inherent in the overall architectural design
of any SMU instrument. Therefore, an ADC running at sub-line cycle integration (for
example, at 0.001 NPLC) won’t provide a faster measurement.
Low current performance is very important for many semiconductor and
optoelectronic applications, as well as in materials research applications such as
nanoscale devices, graphene, etc. To understand the true measurement performance of an
SMU instrument, it’s important to look beyond “headline” terms like 6½ digits or 10fA
resolution. Figure 13 offers another comparison of the low current performance of the
Model 2636B with the non-Keithley 6½-digit SMU.
Figure 13. It’s important to understand the difference between an SMU instrument’s actual measurement
performance and its “headline” specifications. The table lists specifications from the data sheet;
the diagram explains the offset accuracy.
The non-Keithley SMU is specified as having 6½ digits and 10fA resolution.
However, a closer look at the manufacturer’s specs shows that its bottom current range
is 10nA and its offset accuracy is 50pA. The total accuracy of most instruments is
calculated as the gain accuracy plus offset accuracy. Gain accuracy is typically given in
% of signal, and offset accuracy is usually a fixed amount.
The Model 2636B is specified as having 1fA resolution. The spec table in Figure 13
shows that it has a 100pA range and 120fA of offset accuracy. Obviously, although both
the Keithley and non-Keithley SMU instruments can appear similar when looking at
the “headline” specs, the Model 2636B actually has 400 times better offset accuracy,
so it has much better sensitivity, and is capable of far more accurate low current
measurements.
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• Cabling. Using triaxial cables rather than the more common coaxial cables is essential
to achieving optimal low current measurement performance. Triaxial cables have an
extra shield that coaxial ones don’t, which ensures lower current leakage, better R-C
time constant response, and greater noise immunity. In addition, the better R-C response
allows for faster settling when measuring higher levels of current.
Figure 14 illustrates how a triaxial cable works with the SMU instrument’s driven
guard to prevent the leakage resistance of the cable from degrading the low current
measurements. In the circuit on the top, the leakage resistance of the coaxial cable is in
parallel with the device under test, creating an unwanted leakage current. This leakage
current will degrade low current measurements.
Coax Cable
a) Unguarded Circuit
SMU
IDUT
Force/Output HI
RL
IM
Guard
×1
Coax
Cable
IL
Z
RDUT
V
Force/Output LO
RL = Coax Cable Leakage Resistance
IL = Leakage Current
RDUT = Resistance of Device Under Test
IM = IDUT + IL
Triax Cable
b) Guarded Circuit
SMU
IDUT
Force/Output HI
IM
Guard
×1
0V
RL1
Triax
Cable
Z
RDUT
RL2
V
Force/Output LO
RL1 = Triax Cable Inside Shield Leakage Resistance
RL2 = Leakage Resistance Between Shields
RDUT = Resistance of Device Under Test
IM = IDUT
Figure 14. Cable and connection considerations.
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In the circuit on the bottom, the inside shield of the triaxial cable is connected to
the guard terminal of the SMU instrument. Now this shield is driven by the SMU’s
unity-gain, low impedance amplifier (Guard). The difference in potential between the
Force/Output Hi terminal and the Guard terminal is nearly 0V, so the leakage current
is eliminated.
Due to their high level of performance, triaxial cables can be expensive, so when
specifying your final test configuration or comparing price quotations from various
manufacturers, make certain they are included with the SMU instrument. If they are
considered an optional accessory instead, you could be in for a costly surprise. In
addition, some SMU instruments require optional adapters to convert more common
input connectors, like banana jacks, to use triaxial cables. Again, be sure to understand
and specify your cabling carefully, because it can easily add more than $2000 to the
total cost of an SMU instrument.
Conclusion
The integrity of the measurements an SMU instrument produces must always be a primary
selection consideration. Poor measurement integrity can produce costly errors in both
R&D and production test applications, leading to expensive rework, time-to-market delays,
poor yields, customer dissatisfaction, and other problems. A careful evaluation of an
SMU’s accuracy, repeatability, resolution, sensitivity, and integration time is critical. Other
key considerations when selecting an SMU instrument include system-level throughput,
source stability, measurement settling time, offset error, and noise, and finally, cabling and
connection issues.
***
Biographical Notes
Mark A. Cejer is a marketing director for Keithley Instruments, Inc., which is part of the
Tektronix test and measurement portfolio. He joined Keithley in 1991. During his tenure,
he has served in a variety of positions, including marketing engineer, product/marketing
manager, regional sales manager, and business manager. In his work, he has helped define and
launch a number of Keithley’s most popular instruments, including many of the company’s
SourceMeter® instruments, digital multimeters (DMMs), and datalogging products. Before
joining Keithley, he served in several project management and electrical engineering positions
in the electronics industry with emphasis on aerospace/defense. He holds a BSEE from the
University of Akron (Akron, Ohio) and an MBA from Case Western Reserve University
(Cleveland, Ohio.) His technical interests include compound semiconductors for power,
LED, and energy efficiency applications, as well as optical devices, sensors, and discrete
semiconductors.
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Jonathan Tucker is a senior marketing and product manager for Keithley Instruments, which
is part of the Tektronix test and measurement portfolio. He joined Keithley in 1987. During
his tenure, he has served in a variety of positions, including manufacturing test engineer,
applications engineer, applications manager, product manager, and business development
manager. He holds a BSEE from Cleveland State University (Cleveland, Ohio) and an MBA
from Kent State University (Kent, Ohio). He was a 2007 recipient of the Nano Science
and Technology Institutes (NSTI) Fellow Award for outstanding contributions towards the
advancement of the Nanotechnology, Microtechnology, and Biotechnology community.
Jonathan is a Senior Member of IEEE and was recently the IEEE Nanotechnology Council
Standards Committee Chairman. His technical interests include nanotechnology, LED and
energy applications, software defined radio technology, and JAVA/HTML web programming.
Lishan Weng is an applications engineer at Keithley Instruments, Inc. in Cleveland, Ohio,
which is part of the Tektronix test and measurement portfolio. Weng is interested in new
measurement instruments/techniques related to graphene. She holds master’s degrees in both
electrical engineering and physics from Purdue University, where her research focused on
graphene devices and p-type GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Her previous research also
includes carbon nanotube based nanolithography and tunable graphene oxidation, as well as
quantum transport measurement and a specialization in AFM lithography.
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T: +44 (0)1582 764334
F: +44 (0)1582 712084
Specifications are subject to change without notice. All Keithley trademarks and trade names are the property of Keithley Instruments, Inc.
All other trademarks and trade names are the property of their respective companies.
A Greater Measure of Confidence
KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS, INC. Q 28775 AURORA RD. Q CLEVELAND, OH 44139-1891 Q 440-248-0400 Q Fax: 440-248-6168 Q 1-888-KEITHLEY Q www.keithley.com
BENELUX
+31-40-267-5506
www.keithley.nl
FRANCE
+33-01-69-86-83-60
www.keithley.fr
ITALY
+39-049-762-3950
www.keithley.it
MALAYSIA
60-4-643-9679
www.keithley.com
SINGAPORE
01-800-8255-2835
www.keithley.com.sg
BRAZIL
55-11-4058-0229
www.keithley.com
GERMANY
+49-89-84-93-07-40
www.keithley.de
JAPAN
81-120-441-046
www.keithley.jp
MEXICO
52-55-5424-7907
www.keithley.com
TAIWAN
886-3-572-9077
www.keithley.com.tw
CHINA
86-10-8447-5556
www.keithley.com.cn
INDIA
080-30792600
www.keithley.in
KOREA
82-2-6917-5000
www.keithley.co.kr
RUSSIA
+7-495-664-7564
www.keithley.ru
UNITED KINGDOM
+44-1344-39-2450
www.keithley.co.ukw
For further information on how to purchase or to locate a sales partner please visit www.keithley.com/company/buy
© Copyright 2013 Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Printed in the U.S.A
No. 3161
8.13.13
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