Oscilloscope Trigger

RESTORING AN OPE
_-;
EEL TAPE RECORDER
le
FEBRUARY
1998
NOW®
Build a Multichannel
Oscilloscope Trigger
Troubleshoot and debug even the most
complex digital circuits with a
standard scope and this accessory
Precision
Voltage/Current
Reference
A
Build one and perform
lab -grade measurements
on your own workbench
Build
a
POC$AG Encoder
Create your own
pager messages
$4.50 U.S.
$4.99 CAN.
The Great
OW ttI9WS1103
£LOZ-940iZ
H1Vd NIWHtl31ä39Óá
-ma
N3I6
66 &Id
4£L094ßL £60ä5I56WHOß
ZIStIO
Compression
MPEG is what makes today's
high- capacity multimedia possible;
here's how it works
I"11"I"' I"' I' 1""11' 1"1"" 1111"'
9401Z 1I9I0-5 ******3MbONX84
1' 1' "I
I '
I'
I
II
Professional Power
at a hobbyist price.
That has been our philosophy at MicroCode
Engineering since 1987. So it's no surprise
that CircuitMaker and TraxMaker are the
leading software tools for affordable, easy -touse circuit design, simulation and PCB layout.
`ldrti(rl®IcT7II{i~I
12fJ/J4211
QUICKLY DESIGN analog, digital or mixed
analog /digital circuits with CircuitMaker's
advanced schematic features. You fully control the
wiring, device placement, annotation and colors.
And the Symbol Editor and macro features let you
create unlimited custom devices and symbols.
U
SIMULATE and ANALYZE what you create
try all the "what if" scenarios with:
CircuitMaker®
schematic capture
and simulation
TraxMaker'
A.F.a Ld 50w Bd. Rah
I
Fast, proven 32 -bit SPICE 3f5/XSpice simulator
True mixed analog /digital simulation
Fully interactive digital logic simulation
4,000 -device library
AC Frequency Analysis
DC Operating Point Analysis
DC Transfer Function
Transient Analysis
Step Function step component values and
sources over a user-definable range
PCB layout and autorouting
Hep
H R
TAKE MEASUREMENTS at any point in the circuit with a click of the
Probe tool. Results appear immediately on virtual instruments like the Digital
Oscilloscope, Curve Tracer, Digital Multimeter and Bode Plotter. No other
simulator lets you take measurements as quickly and easily as CircuitMaker.
COMPLETE the design process with TraxMaker, a professional printed
circuit board layout program with built -in autorouter. Import netlists from
CircuitMaker and other schematic programs, or design boards from scratch.
LMyPUm
r
r
Pna e
semN
J
J
J
,wLd,a,
Includes autorouter, auto component placement and Design Rules Check
Supports up to 8 copper layers, board sizes up to 32 x 32 inches
Surface mount and through -hole components from a customizable library
Outputs your PCB as a Gerber file, Excellon N/C drill file, and prints to
any Windows -selectable printer or plotter
RELY ON free technical support from qualified engineers. And every
MicroCode product is backed by our 30 -day Money -Back Guarantee if it
does not live up to your expectations.
Call 800- 419 -4242 for more
information and free demos
(or download from www.microcode.com)
CIRCLE 171 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
MicroCode Engineering Inc
927 W. Center St
$299
CircuitMaker version 5
$299
TraxMaker Version 2
CircuitMaker Design Suite"
CircuitMaker and TraxMaker)
Orem, UT 84057. 801 -226 -4470
CIRCLE 133 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Fax: 801 -226 -6532
$549
Email:sales @microcode.com
Electronics
NOW
Vol. 69 No. 2
CONTENTS
A R Y
F E B R U
1
9 9 8
TECHNOLOGY
ON THE COVER
13
33
PROTOTYPE
BUILD A MULTICHANNEL OSCILLOSCOPE
TRIGGER
While an oscilloscope is among the most useful pieces
of test gear one could own, there are times it falls short
of our needs, such as
RESTORING AN OPEN-REEL TAPE RECORDER
when troubleshooting
a computer or another
complex digital circuit.
Tiny medical sensors, 50 -inch
high- definition plasma TVs,
using space technology to treat
tumors, and more.
fronts
For example, have
you ever tried to
confirm that data was
being written to the
correct address or that
the correct bit is being
set during a memory
operation, using just a
standard, two-channel
Build
a
Multichannel
37
Oscilloscope Trigger
'eeareerarwlr>r-
A
multimedia technologies
possible; here's how it works.
Yasuda Hiroshi
-
Precision
Voltage; Current
Reference
on
46
row own woretworn
Build
Pocsi: tjn:aller
THE GREAT COMPRESSION
MPEG is what makes many of
today's high- capacity
RESTORING A "REEL"
RECORDER
the Grew
Compression
nqn ..cnr multimedia ow*
hare
s
how
1
wens
scope? Impossible,
you say? Well, not anymore- thanks to this month's
cover story. If you troubleshoot digital electronics, this
is one accessory that you just can't do without.
Thomas Peterick
-
Bring those marvelous open reel recorders of yesteryear
Phil Van Praag
back to life.
-
techniques and scientific and technological
As a service to readers, ELECTRONICS NOW publishes available plans or information relating to newsworthy products,
ELECTRONICS NOW disclaims any
developments. Because of possible variances in the quality and condition of materials and workmanship used by readers,
in this magazine,
published
information
or
from
plans
upon
or
responsibility for the safe and proper functioning of reader -built projects based
NOW disclaims any liability for
Since some of the equipment and circuitry in ELECTRONICS NOW may relate to or be covered by U.S. patents, ELECTRONICS
interested in such projects consult a
the infringement of such patents by the making, using, or selling of any such equipment or circuitry, and suggests that anyone
patent attorney.
Inc., 500 Bi- County Boulevard, Farmingdale, NY 11735ELECTRONICS NOW, (ISSN 1067 -9294) February 1998. Published monthly by Gernsback Publications,
No. 334103, authorized at Mississauga, Canada.
3931. Periodicals Postage paid at Farmingdale, NY and additional mailing offices. Canada Post IPM Agreement
Tax, Registration No. R125166280), all
One -year subscription rate U.S.A. and possessions $19.97, Canada $27.79 (includes G.S.T. Canadian Goods and Services
drawn on a U.S.A. bank. Single copies
other countries $28.97. All subscription orders payable in U.S.A. funds only, via international postal money order or check
in
Printed
U.S.A.
$4.50. ©1997 by Gernsback Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.
-5115.
POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to ELECTRONICS NOW, Subscription Dept., Box 55115, Boulder, CO 80328
if their return is desired should they be rejected. We
A stamped self- address envelope must accompany all submitted manuscripts and /or artwork or photographs
or otherwise.
disclaim any responsibility for the loss or damage of manuscripts and/or artwork or photographs while in our possession
1
www.americanradiohistory.com
A R Y
F E B R U
B U
42
I
L D
T H
I
1
9 9 8
S
Electronics
NOW®
BUILD THIS POCSAG ENCODER
Generate your own pager
r
signals with your computer
and this simple interface.
Robert B. Whitaker
-
Hugo Gernsback (1884 -1967) founder
BUILD THIS PRECISION
VOLTAGE /CURRENT
ADRIA COREN, Vice -President
LARRY STECKLER, EHF, CET,
Editor-in -chief and publisher
51
KEN COREN, Vice- President
REFERENCE
EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT
Perform laboratory -grade
measurements on your own
workbench.
Skip Campisi
CARL LARON, editor
JOSEPH J. SUDA, technical editor
JULIAN S. MARTIN, associate editor
-
EVELYN ROSE,
assistant editor
TERI SCADUTO, assistant editor
MICHAEL A. COVINGTON, N4TMI
contributing editor
DEPARTMENTS
SAM GOLDWASSER, service editor
JEFFREY K. HOLTZMAN,
computer editor
J. MILLER,
audio editor
FRANKLIN
11
12
EQUIPMENT REPORT
DON LANCASTER,
Nomai 750.c portable SCSi
hard drive.
DEBBIE CYBULA, editorial assistant
contributing editor
ART DEPARTMENT
ANDRE DUZANT, art director
RUSSELL C. TRUELSON, illustrator
COMPUTER CONNECTIONS
Pilot port /O.
-
PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
RUBY M. YEE, production
KATHRYN R. CAMPBELL,
I
Jeff Holtzman
director
production assistant
KEN COREN,
22
desktop production director
TECH MUSINGS
_ISA BAYNON, desktop production
MELISSA GIORDANO, desktop production
A tiny TV test generator,
investigating Brown's Gas,
and more.
Don Lancaster
CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT
-
THERESA LOMBARDO,
circulation manager
GINA GALLO,
circulation assistant
83
REPRINT DEPARTMENT
SERVICE CLINIC
MARIE FALCON, reprint bookstore
-
How printers and copiers work.
Sam Goldwasser
BB
Typography by Mates Graphics
C-BOX
*4
®
Electronics Now
l ®..-:
AUDIO UPDATE
Build a capacitance- substitution
box.
Franklin J. Miller
-
CT,Jt'..,'
is indexed in Applied
Science & Technology Index, and Readers
Guide to Periodical Literature, Academic
Abstracts, and Magazine Article Summaries.
Microfilm & Microfiche editions are available. Contact reprint bookstore for details.
l_,;
Advertising Sales Offices listed on
page 106.
A N D
4
EDITORIAL
5
Q&A
B
LETTERS
28
MOR
BO
E
Electronics Now Executive and
Administrative Offices
1- 516 -293 -3000.
NEW LITERATURE
Subscriber Customer Service:
108
ADVERTISING INDEX
100
ADVERTISING SALES
1 -800- 999 -7139.
7:00 AM -6:00 PM Monday-Friday MST
V :SIT US ON THE INTERNET AT:
www.gernsback.com
OFFICE
NEW PRODUCTS
Audit Bureau
of Circulations
Member
- Your One Stop Component & Computer Source
J
75MHz
Barebones Pentium® System
Monitor,
video card
and hard
drive not
included
/v1ETEx'4 -Digit Multimeter
with Computer Interface
z
4'/2 -digit LCD
(.5" high digits)
200mV /1 OpV to
750V/100mV
200mV /1 opV to
1000V/100mV
16MB of RAM upgradeable to 128MB
256KB cache RAM, upgradeable to 512K
Hard disk and floppy I/O controller card
Four exposed bays (two 5.25 ", two 3.5 ");
one internal 3.5" bay
Includes keyboard, mouse and cables
3.5" floppy drive
Four PCI slots and three ISA slots
Part No. Description
current/
resolution: 2mA/100mA to 20A/1 mA
Measures hFE, diode /continuity,
AC & DC
144872
Component Cabinet Kits
1
82587
82595
39.95
49.95
PnP ready
Software support for
DOS, Windows® 95
parallel, 2 serial ports.
IC
IC
Selectable gear box ..$14.95 $13.49
-4
5 -9
Soldering Station
EPROMs up
to 8MB, paged EPROMs, EEPROMs,
serial EEPROMs (including 8 -pin), flash
devices. NVRAMs, bi -polar PROMs,
PALs, GALs, PEELs, PALCEs, EPLD5
Package supports DIPs up to 48-pin
Robust memory and logic editing features
145365 EPROM programmer
JAMECO
Complete Motion Control
System on a Chip
$999.95
t
devices such as CMOS ICs against
voltage spikes
Power consumption: 60 watts
Includes one 1 /16" tip
UL listed
5 -9
Soldering Stat....$129.95 $116.95
I
145023 K56 Flex int. modem
j.
$34.95
r""""1
59.95
mil
99.95
La=
145031 K56 Flex ext. modem
Price
Special
99.95
119.95
137998 14.4 int. modem (w/voice)
44.95
141292 28.8 ext. modem
79.95
1368M 33.6 int. modem (SAVD)
79.95
136872 33.6 ext. modem (SAVD)
119.95
Jameco Solderless
Breadboards
Low static plastic
20773
body CMOS safe
Nickel plated clips designed
to withstand up to 5,000 insertion cycles
-
-1-t-
.'"
'.,°.":::.
P.I.D. servo control for DC motors
with incremental encoders
multi -drop networking
Full documentation, test software and
technical support available from the J
R
Part
Number
Contact
Points
94457
20600
136901
20669
100
400
1,600
630
20722
20757
20773
20790
830
1,360
1,660
2,390
20811
3,220
site: "www.jrkerr.com"
Price
$34.95
A comprehensive set
of tools for field
technicians, engineers
and lab personnel.
Aluminum case
18.01 x 14.0"W
x 6.0 "H
Wt: 18.2 lbs.
Price
Part No. Description
105646 66 piece tool kit
1355 Shoreway Road
Belmont, CA 94002 -4100
6.5
3.3
5.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.9
7.3
1
x 0.4
-9
$2.49
4.95
21.95
5.49
7.95
11.95
17.95
22.95
30.95
x 2.1
x 2.3
x 1.4
x 2.1
x 3.1
x 4.3
x 5.8
x 7.5
10 -49
$2.25
4.49
19.95
4.95
6.95
10.95
15.95
20.49
27.95
power: +5V@1Á,
variable power
0 -15V W 500mA
Input power:
120VAC @ 60Hz
DC
Back panel has
features removable
en ,.3?f
pallets, surface -type
locks, a black plastic
handle, side buckles and strap.
Size:
Size
L oW
Jameco Powered
Project Board
KERR PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT web
special
$169.95
ground terminal
Outputs are short
circuit protected
Solderless breadboard with 2420 tie points
Breadboard size: 7.4"L x 6.8"W
Box size: 9.8"L x 8.0'W o 2.6"H
One -year warranty
Weight: 6.8 lbs.
Part No
Mention
v -I.P.# 2R11
Call 1.800.831.4242 da or ni ht!
5 -9
Roadrunner External
Dr,ciFU
FAX:
1-4
Description
136258 Powered breadbrd ..$99.95 $89.95
Cali for your FREE catalog!
1.800.237.6948 (Domestic)
COMPUTER PRODUCTS
FAX: 650.592.2503 (International)
1998 Jameco 2/98
Order Toll Free 24 -Hours E -mail: info @jameco.com
http: //www.jameco.com
7 -Days a Week!
ELECTROMC COMPONENTS
thyristor
switching
protects voltage and current sensitive
1.4
Price
Part No. Description
Electronic
temperature
control from
200 °F to 878 °F
Zero-voltage
146587 Compat. X2 int. modem
Jameco 66 Piece Tool Kit
100/110/
220 /240VAC
Programs 8
and 16 -bit
14.4 int. modem
145015 33.6 int. modem
9.95
146472 PIC -SERVO Chip Set
voltage:
1
139871
Price
Part No. Description
Operatirg
2Z Digital Display
35351
5 -9
Parallel Port, DOS/Win 3.1 ®/Wirt 95
Tester
tester...$699.95 $649.95
Part No. Description
-4
8MB EPROM Programmer
analog switches and
voltage regulators.
Tests 14 to 24 -pin devices
Linear
1
Supports 14.4 down
to 300 bps of data
Compatible with
Part No. Description
Standard serial interface supports
$139.95
transistor arrays,
130147
leitit,
Fax Internal Modem
One -year warranty
;
New Instant Cross software
gives ECG® replacement,
description, case style, and
special notes. Over 4,000
ECG® products. Wt. (Guide): 2.5 lbs
Position, velocity and PWM control modes
32 -bit resolution acceleration
and velocity profiling
DATAI/O Universal 8KB-
ar
Part No. Description
w
14.4kbps Data/
obeties
System requirements:
189871
486 or Pentium®, Windows® 3.xx to
hard
disk space
Win® 95, 4MB RAM, 2MB
25-49
Price
Identify and test op
amps, comparators,
as
10-49
5-9
-4
1
ITU -T standard
The Guide features approx
A
switch with
145509
Part No. Description
®R Linear
1.9
Part No. Description
r.
Master Replacement
PIC -SERVO Motor Control
Chip Set
Gear
-
Prive
146819 ECG Master Replacement Guide...$9.95
Selectable
M One Touch
Box Kit
possibilities:
6.8:1 to 807.93:1
iJ
$39.95
146801 ECG Instant Cross software
Description
140821 Spider advanced kit ..$59.95 $53.95
Guide and Software (1996)
142244 Flnurescent lamp $12.95 $11.49 $9.95
142965 Ultra violet lamp _12.95 11.49 9.95
142252 12VDC lamp
19.95 17.95 15.95
power supply
6 gear ratio
PCI I/O Card
PCI bus
ECG°
Size (L x Dia.): 2.0" x .12"
One touch slide
[1
Description
Pan No. Description
142965 Ultra Violet:
Starting Volt.: 900 (Vrms)
Total Output Flux:.25mW /cm2@1"
Lamp Current: 2.5mA
Part No. Description
Pad No.
s
4
Intensity: 3500 (nt)
Lamp Current: 5mA (12 max.)
Size (L x Dia.): 2.0" x .25"
- call for details!
i
294,000 crosses and over
390 new devices.
142244 Ruorescent:
Starting Volt.: 390 (Vrms)
180 pc. Transistor kit
1
5 -9
142244
270 pc. Diode kit
One -year warranty
-4
02-digit meter....$169.95 $152.95
Kits include the most
Price
Part No. Description
84953 330 pc. 7400 series IC kit
$152.95
119.95
84961 420 pc. 74LS series IC kit
84970 300 pc. CD4000 series IC kit ....84.95
159.95
84988 385 pc. Linear series IC kit
29.95
108329 540 pc. 1/8 watt Resistor kit
28.95
81832 540 pc. 1/4 watt Resistor kit
32.95
107879 540 pc. 1/2 watt Resistor kit
108433 2200 pc. Electr. Hardware kit 39.95
34.95
81867 110 pc. Radial Capacitor kit
81859 320 pc. Ceramic Capacitor kit 29.95
34.95
81883 160 pc. Mylar Capacitor kit
49.95
129 pc. Tantalum Capac. kit
81841
111
{
111907 Tester/emulator
Type Fluorescent &
Ultra Violet Lamps
146499 75MHz Pentium® Sys. Special $299.95
popular components
with extra space for
your customized
expansion. Each kit
includes a 20 drawer
component cabinet.
More kits available
Part No.
JKL Single Lead Tipless
Price
swam.
Size: 10.0 "L x 6.5 "W x 1.5 "H
One-year warranty
Weight: 1.5 lbs.
capacitance and frequency
One -year warranty
Part No. Description
robot that moves
about avoiding obstacles
by infrared ray sensing
system. The infrared ray
sensing system, cornposed of infrared ray
emitter and infrared ray
receiver, finds obstacles to go around and
changes its direction.
A
Tester/Emulator
function emulation
A 360 tie point
solderless breadboard provides free
wiring space for any
additional circuits
voltage/
resolution:
M Spider Advanced Kit
jaktrgeg IC Function
Any DIP type IC up
to 40 -pins can be
inserted into the
universal TEST
TOOL socket for
voltage/
resolution:
AC
DC
146675
Special Prices
Electronics
Now
Readers.
Please
mention VIP
ii2R8j
16X CD -ROM
Parallel port connection
486SX or better
compatibles
Can daisychain
up to 8 compatible
devices plus a printer via
pass- through connector
Includes power adapter and parallel cable
Price
Part No. Description
145322 Ext. 16X CD -ROM
i
$229.95
3
Accredited B.S. Degree in
Computers or Electronics
AD
EDITORIA
by studying at Home
Grantham College ofEngineering
offers
3
distance education programs:
B.S.E.T. emphasis in Electronics
B.S.E.T. emphasis in Computers
B.S. in Computer Science
1
C¡
t
. Electronics Workbench Professional 5.0
`included in our B.S.E.T curriculums
-Approved by more than 200 Companies,
VA and Dantes, (tuition assistance avail.)
For your free catalog of our programs dial
1
-800- 955 -2527
http: / /www.grantham.edu
GCE
Your first step
to lie /p yourself
better your future!
Grantham College of Engineering
34641 Grantham College Road
Slidell, LA 70460-6815
ANTIQUE RADIO CLASSIFIED
Free Sample!
.¢
Antique Radio's
Largest Circulation Monthly.
Articles, Ads & Classifieds.
6 -Month Trial: $19.95. 1-Yr: $38.95 (555.95.1st Class).
A.R.C., P.O. Box 802 -119, Carlisle, MA 01741
Phnne:(508) 371-0512 VISA/MC Fax:(508) 371.7129
.. 0.
Unanswerable FAQs
In the nearly 17 years I've been associated with Gernsback Publications, I've fielded
hundreds, if not thousands, of reader questions. Most can be answered quickly and
efficiently. Others simply can't be answered. Of course, as you might expect, it's the
unanswerable ones that seem to come up time after time. Here are some examples
of the frequently -asked questions (FAQs) we can't answer:
....
I need a circuit to
We get a few of these a week, sometimes with detailed specifications and notes on the intended applications. If we answered them all, this page
and all the ones that follow would be blank. The time demands of putting out
Electronics Now just don't allow us to do the research and design work required.
Even so, when we know of a circuit that will approach the reader's needs, we'll take the
time to send it and often even add comments or hints to help things along. Further,
the circuit requests we feel would benefit the greatest number of readers are printed
and answered in our monthly "Q &A" department. One further suggestion here: Why
not ask your fellow hobbyists for help? Posting a circuit request on the Forums at our
www.gernsback.com Web site might just get you exactly what you are looking for.
How can I modify project XYZ? The projects that appear in these pages have
undergone days, weeks, months, and sometimes years of development and testing by
the author. Without duplicating that work, we have no way of knowing what the
impact of any proposed modifications might be; in some cases, they could easily render a project dangerous to use. Therefore, any modifications are solely up to you. If
you like, you could contact the author for help, but any response or help is solely up
to him or her. Which brings us to ...
.
How can I contact the author? Actually, this is one we CAN answer. Almost always,
our authors are independent contractors who do not work for the magazine. As such,
our policy is to not give out mailing addresses or telephone numbers without their
-.s-
,__
CABLE CONVERTER
DIAGNOSTIC TEST CHIP
(LOAD
DILL AC/IVATtON OP CABLE CONVERTER
WE STOCK A COMPLETE LINE OF CHIPS,TOOLS,
WIRELESS QUICK INSTALL TEST BOARDS AND
DIAGNOSTIC CUBES FOR ALL CONVERTERS!
** *ANYONE IMPLYING /LLEGA( USE WILL BE***
DENIED SALE.WE SELL PRODUCTS ONLY!! TO
TECHNICIANS OR CABLE REPAIR FACILITIES!!
#1 IN CUSTOMER SERVICE & TECH. SUPPORT!
*ALL ORDERS SHIP WITHIN 24HRS, UPS/ FED -X.
*PRIORITY NEXT DAY SHIPPING AVAILABLE!
*SALE- BUY 5 TEST BOARDS AND GET I FREE.
*MON -FRI - BAM -7PM - SAT IOAM -2PM EST.
*WEB PAGE HTTPt //WWW.800-GOCABLE.COM
Ittt
VISUAL
®,,.:1
A
Le"COMMUNICATIONS INC.
tttttá
4
ORDERS /CATALOG 1-800 -GO -CABLE
TOLL FREE TECH. DEPT. 1- 888-519-TECH
EST. 1976
permission. In most cases, where authors are willing to be contacted directly, contact
information is provided in the article. In all other cases, you must write the author in
care of Electronics Now, and we will forward your letter. In a similar vein ... .
What's the kit supplier's telephone number? Often there is none. That's because
many of the companies doing kits for our authors are part-time "kitchen- table"
operations that simply do not have the resources to handle telephone orders or other
calls. In any case, all available contact information for any kit supplier is always pro-
vided in the article.
There you have it-our short list of unanswerable FAQs. We wish we could answer
them all, but, alas, it's not a perfect world.
Cai)
Carl Laron
Editor
&
Q
A
READERS' QUESTIONS, EDITORS' ANSWERS
would also turn offthe equipment in the oppoM., Pleasant Grove, UT
site order?
-T.
BNC: The Answer?
Readers wrote from as far away as
Australia to tell us what "BNC" stands
for. The trouble is, they didn't agree!
"Bayonet Navy Connector" was one of
the most popular answers, sanctioned by
Hewlett- Packard catalog. Others
include "British Navy Connector" and
"Baby `N' Connector."
The most authoritative source was an
a
article in Electronic Packaging and Production, 1980, which cites a "legend" that
BNC stands for "Bayonet Neill- Concelman." Paul Neill and Carl Concelman
definitely did invent the earlier N connector and C connector respectively. It's
certainly plausible that the B stands for
bayonet, because a TNC connector is
the same thing, with threads instead of a
bayonet attachment.
We thank everyone who wrote.
APower -on and power-off sequences
are a classic problem in industrial electronics; old- fashioned solutions involve
thermal -delay relays and other awkward
circuits.
Figure 1 shows a thoroughly modern
solution using an LED bargraph chip. In
effect, the chip displays the gradual
charging and discharging of a capacitor.
But instead of turning on a set of LEDs,
it drives a set of solid -state relays (up to
ten) which can control AC loads. Adjust
Cl until the timing suits you; you may
need to make it as large as 220 p.F. The
power -down sequence will be slower
than the power-up sequence.
Artificial Voice Box
am a lar)'ngectomee; my larynx has been
removed surgically. In order to speak, 1 use
a vibrating device that I hold against my
throat. Unfortunately, it makes me sound like
an alien from outer space. I hate it!
Is there a device 1 can build or buy that
Q1
Pulley Correction
}bur ansa'er- to the question on slowing
down a tape recorder ( "Q&A," September
1997, page 11) is incorrect. A larger pulley
on the motor shaft will cause the recorder to
speed up. You need a smaller pulley on the
motor shaft to slow it down.
Robert
Blum, Huntington Station, NY
will smooth out the vibrations? 1 would use
my vibrator to speak into the device which
would remove some of the buzz, making the
speech sound closer to normal.
E. C., Las
Vegas,
NV
-
AThat's a very interesting idea. As
you've found out the hard way, intonation (tone of voice) is the hardest part
of speech synthesis. The human voice
box varies in pitch and loudness, and
even turns its vibrations on and off many
times during the articulation of a single
word. Your artificial larynx can't do anything but buzz continuously at a fixed
frequency.
It would probably require digital signal processing, but it ought to be possible to filter your speech to remove some
of the buzz and amplify the harmonics
added by your vocal tract. Even then,
your speech would be far from natural,
but it ought to be easier to understand.
Thinking even more futuristically,
why not pick up the nerve impulses that
would have gone to your larynx if it were
still there and use them to control the
artificial larynx? Then you might be able
to achieve much more natural speech.
+5 TO 12V
(ALWAYS ON)
-
A
S1
Oops! You are correct. We also thank
Vincent Sullivan, for pointing out that
the torque, not the power; is what changes
when you change the pulley or gear
ratio. He also points out that gears are
not used in good tape recorders, though
we've seen them in talking toys.
POWER UP/
POWER DOWN
1
MEG
R2 3.3K
Cl
Power -On Sequence
peer! to
turn
on the components
14 audio system in a
f
17
particular sequence,
4
15
5
14
6
13
Wt.
T
1
C2
10 µF
of my
about ve seconds apart, to prevent loud transients in the speakers. Can you suggest a circuit that would automate the process, and
18
16
R1
47 µF
1
IC1
LM3914
2
12
-A.A.ArR3 1K
8
11
10
1-i 7EY
ti
K1 -K10
SOLID STATE RELAYS
(RADIO SHACK 275-310)
ONE FOR EACH OF 10
OUTPUTS
l
T
+
-A
MODERN SOLUTION TO A CLASSIC PROBLEM-here an LED bargraph -driFIG. 1
ver IC is used as the heart of a circuit to turn equipment on and off in sequence.
5
HOW TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT ELECTRONICS
On the Internet: See our Web site at
http: //www.gernsback.com for information
and files relating to our magazines (Electronics Now and Popular Electronics) and
links to other useful sites.
To discuss electronics with your fellow
enthusiasts, visit the newsgroups sci.electronics.repair, sci.electronics.components,
sci.electronics.design, and rec.radio.amateur.homebrew. "For sale" messages are
permitted only in rec.radio.swap and
misc.industry.electronics. marketplace.
Many electronic component manufacturers have Web pages; see the directory at
http://www.hitex.com /chipdir /, or try addresses such as http: //www.ti.com and http: //www.
motorola.com (substituting any company's
name or abbreviation as appropriate). Many
IC data sheets can be viewed online.
Periodical Literature, available at your public
library. Copies of articles in other magazines
can be obtained through your public library's
from our Claggk, Inc., Reprint Department,
P.O Box 4099, Farmingdale, NY 11735; Tel:
516 -293 -3751.
Electronics Now and many other magazines are indexed in the Reader's Guide to
Maybe this will be the next research project at a major lab somewhere.
1 W
ZENER)
*
o
Service manuals: Manuals for radios, TVs,
VCRs, audio equipment, and some computers are available from Howard W. Sams &
Co., Indianapolis,
46214 (1- 800 -4287267). The free Sams catalog also lists
addresses of manufacturers and parts dealers. Even if an item isn't listed in the catalog,
it pays to call Sams; they may have a schematic on file which they can copy for you.
Manuals for older test equipment and
ham radio gear are available from Hi
Manuals, PO Box 802, Council Bluffs, IA
51502, and Manuals Plus, PO Box 549
IN
TO
CONTROLLED
CIRCUIT
K1
REED RELAY
12-V, 1000-OHM COIL
(RADIO SHACK 275233)
V
CONTROL VOLTAGE
(11 V OFF, 20 V ON)
2-
FIG.
HERE'S A CIRCUIT that can be
used to detect an increase in voltage: The
relay pulls in when the voltage exceeds
about 17 volts.
resistance (500 ohms or more) so the
diode doesn't overheat.
Back -Up For Car Alarm
My car, like most, has an alarm installed
Could you suggest a circuitfor a 12volt battery backup for the alarm that would
also charge the back -up batteries as the car is
being driven?
S., Phoenix, AZ
ti on it.
Books: Several good introductory electron-
Copies of past articles: Copies of past
articles in Electronics Now and Popular
Electronics (post 1993 only) are available
(12 V
interlibrary loan service; expect to pay about
30 cents a page.
Tooele, UT 84074.
ics books are available at RadioShack,
including one on building power supplies.
An excellent general electronics textbook
is The Art of Electronics, by Paul Horowitz
and Winfield Hill, available from the publisher (Cambridge University Press, 1- 800 -8727423) or on special order through any bookstore. Its 1125 pages are full of information
on how to build working circuits, with a minimum of mathematics.
Also indispensable is The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs, comprising 1000
pages of theory, radio circuits, and ready -tobuild projects, available from the American
Radio Relay League, Newington, CT 06111,
and from ham -radio equipment dealers.
-o--
D1
1N4742
Replacement semiconductors: Replacement transistors, ICs, and other semiconductors, marketed by Philips ECG, NTE,
and Thomson (SK), are available through
most parts dealers (including RadioShack
on special order). The ECG, NTE, and SK
lines contain a few hundred parts that substitute for many thousands of others; a
directory (supplied as a large book and on
diskette) tells you which one to use. NTE
numbers usually match ECG; SK numbers
are different.
Remember that the "2S" in a Japanese
type number is usually omitted; a transistor
marked D945 is actually a 2SD945.
Hamfests (swap meets) and local organizations: These can be located by writing
to the American Radio Relay League
(Newington, CT 06111; http: //www.arrl.org).
A hamfest is an excellent place to pick up
used test equipment, older parts, and other
items at bargain prices, as well as to meet
your fellow electronics enthusiasts -both
amateur and professional.
voltage increase and operate an alarm whose
power supply is independent of the garage
door opener:
E. U., Northfield, OH
-
-W.
A Without knowing the power requirements of your alarm, it's hard to be
specific, but Fig. 3 shows a simple way to
charge a 12 -volt lead -acid gel cell from
your car's power supply. Then the alarm
will still work even if the main battery
runs down.
11
D1
12 -VOLT,
1N4001
(1 -AMP
RECTIFIER)
-AMP
BULB
1
®
EXISTING
CAR
BATTERY
Ì
H
12 -VOLT
GEL CELL
=-
POWER
TO
ALARM
I
FIG. 3 -THE CAR'S ELECTRICAL SYSTEM charges the 12 -volt gel -cell back-up
battery, but, thanks to diode D1, only the
car's alarm is able to take power from it.
The diode acts as a one -way valve so
that only the alarm can take power from
the alarm battery. The light bulb limits
charging current to amp; under normal conditions it will never light up.
1
Detecting Voltage Increase
l have an overhead garage door with a
6
safety beam across the opening. I would
like to sound an alarm in the house when
someone breaks the beam. When the door is
up or down, the control voltage is I 1-volts
DC, and when the beam is broken the voltage
rises to 20 volts. I need a circuit to detect that
A A circuit that should
do the job is
shown in Fig. 2. It uses a Zener diode
to subtract 12 volts from the voltage
going to the coil of a miniature relay.
Thus, at 11 volts, no current flows, but
at 20 volts, the relay gets 8 volts, which
is more than sufficient to pull it in, even
though it's nominally a 12 -volt relay.
Be sure to use a relay with a high coil
XT Memory In PC AT?
an old 286 AT clone to which I
would like to add more memory. Can 1 use
an old memory card for an XT?
W. B.,
Warren, MI
QI have
-y.
A Yes, possibly, but only up to a total of
640K (the memory limit of the XT).
Addresses from 640K to 1Meg are
reserved, and on the XT bus, higher
addresses don't exist-the bus doesn't
have address lines for them. There may
also be timing problems. In any case, it
won't hurt to try; you will not damage
your computer.
At the heart of any multimeter is a big
multi- contact switch; that's the part that
would be hardest to make for yourself. If
you're building meters for yourself, it's
easier to put fewer functions in each
instrument, so you don't need complicated switching. See the ARRL Handbook for
Radio Amateurs for some circuits and
advice.
Build A Multimeter?
Avalanche!
rim new at electronics and find it difficult to spend a lot of money on equipment
1 could probably build myself I've been looking for plans for a good multimeter to no
capac-
having a difficult time finding out
about
skier avalanche communication. 1
Q
wrote to you in July of 1996 requesting this
information, have scanned every issue, but so
R. G., Gig
far have found nothing.
Harbor, WA
A Believe it or not, it's generally cheaper
to buy a multimeter than to build one.
If you want a real bargain, find a partly
defective multimeter that you can repair;
many of the parts are replaceable. The
main digital IC in a DMM, and the meter
movement in an analog meter, are not
easy to replace.
AUnfortunately, space does not permit
us to answer all the questions we
receive, and this one has been particularly hard to research. Here's what we've
found out so far.
Avalanche transmitters are carried
by skiers so they can be located by radio
direction finding even if they are buried
in snow. Originally, they were verylow- frequency transmitters, operating
QI
avail. Could you provide me with a design
for a multimeter that measures ohms,
itance, and AC/DC volts and amps?
G. G., Bradenton, FL
-
at 2275 Hz, which is within the audio
range. Newer ones operate on 475 kHz,
just below the AM- broadcast band.
Low frequencies are,used so the signals
won't reflect off objects or the atmosphere. Range is limited to a few hundred yards, but the higher frequency
gives somewhat better range than the
lower one.
We'd like to hear from readers with
more information to share. Because it's a
critical safety device, you probably
wouldn't want to build your own
avalanche transmitter, but homebuilt
direction- finding receivers might make
for some interesting experimentation
Also, some good multi-band radios cover
475 kHz, so all you'd need is a directional antenna.
inI'm
-
Electronic Ignition
n.Wy brother has a 1953 6- cylinder
Chevy. He lives in a country where gasoline is expensive and of bad quality. Since I
am an electrical engineer he has asked me
for electronic help. Would a capacitive -discharge ignition help? Can you suggest a
(Continued on page 18)
NM II
P/ZOfOLB
4.8 n
H
Easy -to -use circuitr 111111
Votlm..i.
simulation package from
n n
the leader in electronic
prototyping.
.221-K
_YJAJE2
INSTANTL Y
Off
for only $49.951
Clos
r 0 0.
Insert
Transistor pnp
Designed for use
with Windows' "95
Low Cost - $49.95
Create and
Analyze Circuits
C: \PLRB \RMP_BIP.WPr
Transistor
hanel MOSFET
Oscilloscope
Design circuits
instantly while
choosing from a
complete list of
active and passive
components
Analyze circuits
using built -in test
instruments.
mit
_,a-f öc'_
4
rag screen to shift schematic.
Start
Rght button or
I Protolab 4.0
H to return to the previous actions.
- C: \PLRB \RMP_BIP.WPF
GLOBAL SPECIALTIES
S O F T W A R E
INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS. UNSURPASSED QUALITY.
1- 800 -572 -1028
For a demonstration, visit:
www.globalspecialties.com
Windows ®95 is
CIRCLE 122 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
a
U.S. registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
7
LETTERS
SEND YOUR COMMENTS TO THE EDITORS OF ELECTRONICS NOW MAGAZINE
Telephone Number Updated
Thanks for reviewing the TriField
Natural EM Meter in "New Products"
(Electronics Now, November 1997).
However, our telephone number has
since changed. Our current number is
(808) 874 -9126 (Phone/Fax). We can also
be reached via e-mail at emfineter@webty.
net or at our Web site: http: //www.maui.
net/ -emf.
DAVID FAGGIOLI
ALPHALAB, Iitc.
Code Readers Revisited
The article by Thomas Fox, "Reading
Automobile Computer-Service Codes"
(Electronics Now, December 1997), is a
good one. I, too, have found Sure You Can
Work on Electronic Ignition, Wells Mfg.
Corp., to be quite useful. Mr. Fox did not
mention that this book can be purchased,
at a low price, at many auto parts stores
and in the auto department of some discount stores.
As he did say, a service manual for the
car is also needed, such as Chilton, Haynes,
or Motor's manuals -available at the same
stores. Another option is a manual from
the car's manufacturer, which is the best
source of service codes. However, a few
manuals don't have codes. In that case,
the general codes in the Wells' book can
be used.
However, I have found that not all
"code readers" are as useless as Mr. Fox's
description. Since neither my 1993 edition of the Wells' book nor the manual of
the Ford I was repairing had complete
information about entering the diagnostic mode in a Ford product, I purchased a
Sunpro CP9015 Ford Code Scanner for
about $30. I found it to be much more
than a simple code reader.
Besides reading the codes stored in
memory, it also activates diagnostic routines in the car's computer. The "Key OnEngine Off" tests evaluate most of the
sensors, relays, and solenoids; and there's
also a "wiggle" test for finding loose con8
nections (with a buzzer indicator). The
"Key On- Engine Running" tests indicate
current problems, which may not be
stored in memory, and change various settings to see if the car responds properly.
On cars with separate fuel injectors for
each cylinder (as opposed to "throttle body" injectors), it will test for "weak,"
"very weak," or "dead" cylinders. This
testing is done by turning off the injector
for that cylinder and measuring the
change in engine rpm. Codes are read out
by a flashing LED, since many Ford products do not have a "Check Engine" light.
BILL STILES
Hillsboro, MO
"Does Not Compute!"
I am a free -lance journalist, who has
written for Electronics Now and other
technical magazines. I'm also a dinosaur-I balance my checkbook in my
head, use a wall switch to turn on the
lights, and use a four -legged security system to guard my house.
I still don't own a personal computer.
From the look of things, I never will. My
friends have given me all of the arguments. However, I still do all of my work
on a word processor that costs only about
10% of the PC system I would need to
replace it. Although I'd love to own a PC,
I've never been able to justify the cost.
I draw my schematics by hand, knowing that a CAD software package can do
it easier and faster. However, it would
probably take me even longer to enter
the unusual circuit elements I use into
Write To:
Letters,
Electronics Now Magazine,
500 Bi- County Blvd.,
Farmingdale, NY 11735
Due to the volume of mail we
receive, not all letters can be
answered personally. All letters
are subject to editing for clarity
and length.
the program library. A PC -board design
package might be handy, but most of my
designs are too complex for a single sided board -long traces are NOT the
best solution.
Surfing the Net looks like fun, but
after reading Michael A. Covington's
nicely -done article "Ethics and the
Internet" (Electronics Now, September
1997), I definitely would never send any
personal information over the Net.
For years, I've used a RadioShack
pocket -scientific computer (16K of
RAM), running my own BASIC programs to handle all of the heavy math in
my designs. Scoff if you like, but doing
the most difficult problems still left me
memory to spare!
SKIP CAMPISI
S. Bound Brook, NJ
Screen Sayers or Pretty
Pictures?
From your article "All About Monitors" (Electronics Now, July 1997), I
learned that their technology differs little
from the TV sets that I repaired in the
mid-1970s on board the USS Forrestal. A
common fault on the scores of picture
tubes I replaced was that their cathodes
were no longer capable of emitting
enough electrons to yield a good picture.
Usually, the green cathode wore out
first, resulting in a purple image. All
those sets had high voltage between 25
and 30 kV. Even though many of them
displayed color bars for hours, I never
saw one with an image burned into its
phosphors. But as long as electrons flow
through the cathodes, those cathodes
are wearing out. Screen savers do nothing to inhibit that flow.
Anyone who really wants to watch
tropical fish swimming back and forth
could install a fish bowl near his computer. And, when he goes to lunch, he
could switch the monitor off.
RONALD D. LINDOW
Pittsburgh, PA
te
EQUIPMENT REPORT
NOMAI 7SO.0 PORTABLE SCSI HARD DRIVE
drive.) After that, one simply plugs the
Nomai's power supply into an AC outlet
and pops in a PC- formatted cartridge
when the system boots, the removable
drive becomes part of the operating
system.
Having 750 megabytes of free disk
space to play with is a good thing, especially if your original hard drive is getting clogged. And the speed of the
Nomai 750.c is equal to most conventional hard drives, so there's no penalty
in performance whether you are archiving data or running applications off it. In
benchmark tests, the Nomai drive had a
cached speed of 716 MB /s and an
uncached speed of 0.77 MB /s. We tested
the real-world speed of the drive by
copying a 427 MB file; the job took
transfer rate of
exactly 4 minutes
1.78 MB /s when writing data to disk,
which is always slower than reading data
from disk into RAM.
The Nomai 750.c package includes
Adaptec EZ SCSI 4.0 software on CD-
-
This portable SCSI hard drive
can move more than a CDROM's worth of data between
computess.
.
CIRCLE 15 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
If you regularly deal with large computer files, some type of removable
media is a must. After all, floppy disks are
useful for transferring a few kilobytes or
even a few megabytes, and Zip and similar drives become necessary for moving
100 megabytes or so. But even that's not
much, not with people dabbling in CDR, making movies, and so on with their
PC. And hard drives inevitably fill up no
matter how large they are; so being able
to add storage is a plus.
A Solution
One practical solution is the Nomai
750.c portable SCSI hard drive. That
unit packs 750 megabytes of data on to
removable cartridges that cost about $69
each-that's only 9 cents per megabyte.
The Nomai 750.c is available in internal
and external PC and Mac versions, and
there are parallel -port and docking -bay
options for the external models. The
external PC version we tested costs about
$359, which includes one 750- megabyte
data cartridge pre -formatted for a PC, an
AC power supply, a SCSI card, and all
necessary cables.
The Nomai 750.c removable hard disk drive is fully compatible with
SyQuest cartridges. It can read and write
Nomai 750- and 540-megabyte cartridges, or any SyQuest- compatible disks.
The drive uses Winchester technology
and achieves an average seek time of 10.5
milliseconds and sustains a data transfer
rate of 3.46 megabytes per second.
SCSI is a popular option on many
PCs these days, and a PC that doesn't
have SCSI is just a few dollars away from
having it. SCSI is inexpensive and fast,
so it makes sense to use it for a 750megabyte portable drive. An entire CDR's worth of data can be gathered from
different PCs and brought to the CD -R
system for recording. Or 750 megabytes
of storage space can be added to a PC
with each new $69 cartridge.
The Nomai 750.c is small and
extremely rugged. It measures 7- inches
deep by 4'/4- inches wide by 1'/e- inches
high and weighs less than two pounds.
It's small enough to be easy to carry
around with you. The drive has a thick
steel enclosure that could easily support
a person, so it's not likely to get damaged
simply by being bumped around. The
enclosure has a modern looking matte black finish. An AC power adapter supplies the +5 and +12 volts DC required
by the drive. An eject button and
power/activity indicator are located on
the front panel.
Installing the Nomai 750.c
Installing and using the Nomai 750.c
The external model we
tested comes with a SCSI card, and
installing it is the most difficult step,
though even that is a piece of cake.
That's because it's a plug- and -play PCI
card-Windows 95 instantly recognizes
it and installs the drivers for it automatically. (What's more, if your PC already
has a SCSI card in it, you don't even
have to install the one included with the
is very easy.
-a
ROM and SCSISelect on diskette.
Those utilities let you prepare cartridges, format for PC or Mac, change
a
configuration, update firmware,
change the SCSI ID via software, manage read/write cache options, test and
re-format disks, verify the disk surface
and reallocate bad blocks, low -level
format disks, control the cartridge lock
on the drive, and eject cartridges by
software.
Some Final Thoughts
The Nomai 750.c is very handy and
very fast compared to MO and PD drives.
It's also very affordable. If you've been
waiting for the right removable media
drive to come along before buying one,
then the wait is over. Now is the time to
get a Nomai 750.c. For more information
contact the manufacturer directly
(Nomai; 592 Weddell Street, Suite 5/6;
Sunnyvale, CA 94089; Tel: 408 -5425900; Sales Hotline: 888- 99NOMAI;
Web: http://www.nomai.com), or circle
15 on the Free Information Card.
In
11
COMPUTER CONNECTIONS
BY
JEFF HOLTZMAN
Pilot Port I/O
ONCE UPON A TIME THE VALLEY BEGAT A LITTLE COMPANY CALLED PALM COMPUTING, AND THAT WAS GOOD.
SO GOOD, IN FACT, THAT MEDIUM -SIZE U.S. ROBOTICS SWAL-
LOWED IT WHOLE, AND THAT WAS FINE. SO FINE, IN FACT, THAT
big ole 3Com Corp. gobbled it, and that
was COOL. SO COOL, in fact, that
when a USR/Palm manager presented
3Com president Eric Benhamou with a
Pilot, he said, "Thanks, but I already
have one. We all do." In fact, 3Com is
said to be the largest installed corporate
site for Pilots.
Anyway, it's a cool and useful thing.
Not only can it help you get and stay
organized, but you can also have fun with
it. You can buy and download games for
the Pilot, of course, but I'm talking about
a different kind of fun. Like making it do
things that are both interesting and
unusual. Like making it talk to the outside world.
This month we'll examine a little
data -logging application I wrote that
allows the Pilot to track the minimum,
maximum, and running average of a
series of byte -size inputs. The program is
called HiLo. HiLo is illustrated in Fig. 1.
When you click the Go button, the program opens the serial port at 9600n81
and waits for input. Each time something
arrives, the program recalculates and displays the values shown at the top of the
screen. That process continues until you
click the Exit button, at which time the
program closes the serial port and exits.
CoPilot
The illustration was created using
12
a
freeware program called CoPilot. CoPilot runs on Win95/NT, and I believe
ports are in progress to other platforms.
CoPilot provides a fairly accurate and
complete emulation of the Pilot. You
can load, execute, and even debug Pilot
programs using CoPilot. To run CoPilot, you need a copy of a Pilot ROM.
The CoPilot package comes with a utility that allows you to upload your Pilot's
ROM to your PC. The ROM is needed
because there is actually a 68000 CPU
emulator running beneath the hood.
The bad news is that you can't use
CoPilot to develop and debug serial I/O
programs. Programs run, but serial I/O
just doesn't occur.
Lo:
Rug:
RxCount:
Last:
Setup and Use
Using HiLo is
easy. First download
the program to your Pilot using the Pilot
Install Tool. Then close the HotSync
manager, so it will relinquish the (PC's)
serial port. Run a telecommunications
program, such as HyperTerminal on the
PC, with a setting of 9600 bps, 8 data bits,
no parity, and 1 stop bit. Next, with the
Pilot in the cradle, run HiLo, and click
the Go button; any characters typed on
your PC's keyboard will end up in HiLo's
queue. Remember that you're sending
ASCII characters so for a Ctrl -A, you'll
see a value of 1; for 'A' (uppercase) you'll
see 65; and for 'a' (lowercase), you'll see
97.
The complete program is over 300
lines of C code, not to mention the
resource and header files, so we can't
print the whole thing here. What I will
do is discuss overall program flow, and
present details of key routines. You can
pick up the complete source, along with
the executable, at the new Ingineering
web site, www.ingininc.com. Look for
HiLo.Zip, and unzip with the -d option
if you want to recreate the build directory structure. I created the program in
MetroWerks CodeWarrior DR3 running on NT4, but it should be easy to
port to GCC.
PilotMain and The Event Loop
FIG.1-COPILOT
IS A FAIRLY COM
PLETE EMULATOR for the Win95 /NT envi
ronment. An independent DLL implements
a complete, virtual 68000 CPU, which can
run the actual code uploaded from a Pilot
ROM. CoPilot doesn't do serial /O.
I
Analogous to the 'main' routine in a
normal C program, the entry point for a
Pilot program is called PilotMain, shown
in Listing 1. When the user launches an
application, the operating system calls
the corresponding PilotMain, passing it a
command code and a set of launch flags.
The command code and flags provide a
clever way to implement system -wide
behavior. For example, the Pilot's built in Find procedure doesn't search the
Address Book, the Memo Pads, and
everything else. Instead, it calls each
(Continued on page 17)
type
The Doctor Will Sense You Now
BY DOUGLAS PAGE
wireless electronic
U sing or that
attached
imbedded
fingertip or
tiny,
can be
like a
in a
earlobe, tomorrow's doctors and paramedics will be able to remotely monitor
the vital signs of high -risk patients or
permit neo -natal babies to be liberated
from sensor wires so they can be held
and stroked.
These medical telesensors-miniature integrated circuits that can measure
blood pressure, blood oxygen, pulse, and
temperature, and then transmit data to
remote receivers -are being developed
a
device
band -aid
for the military by government
researchers at Oak Ridge National
Laboratory (ORNL), which is located at
Oak Ridge, TN.
Civilian and Military
Applications
While the work at ORNL is for the
military, there are also countless civilian
applications for these tiny marvels. For
example, doctors can use them to monitor vital signs from miles away, paramedics can be more prepared for
emergencies that await their arrival, and
fire -battalion chiefs can track the respiratory and safety status of firefighters
and "hazmat" crews working in smoke
or toxic clouds. In that last application,
built -in alarms will notify firefighters,
for instance, when blood oxygen levels
indicate danger. The sensor chips can
also automatically telephone emergency
services when triggered by a patient's
deteriorating vital signs.
The military's interest in the sensors
is for remote battlefield triage. "Military
leaders need a way to find out quickly
which soldiers have been wounded and
what their conditions are," said ORNL's
Thomas L. Ferrell, lead researcher on
the project. "Then, medics will be able
to decide whom to treat first and whom
to remove from the battlefields for treat-
THIS MEDICAL TELESENSOR CHIP can measure and transmit data on body temperature. It is the first of several remote sensors under development at the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory. (Photo by Tom Cerniglio, ORNL)
ment." Of course, the same would also
apply in civilian emergency or disaster
situations. Also, if the soldier (or firefighter) were a fatality, that information
would be transmitted, preventing the
unnecessary endangerment of rescue
personnel.
While there are many situations
where these sensors could prove invaluable, civilian firefighters will especially
benefit in several ways. "Our pulse oximeter telesensor finger -ring or earlobe device will monitor the oxygen in
the blood," said Ferrell. "If there's too
much smoke or fume inhalation, an
alarm will sound and an alert will be
transmitted via a belt -worn radio
device." Blood oxygen level is a reliable
indicator of a wide variety of respiration
problems. It is expected that later versions of the system will incorporate
pulse- sensor and blood -pressure technology, in addition to an instrument that
measures electrical conductivity in the
skin, which is often used as an indicator
of stress.
The pulse- oximetry sensor will measure the pulse on the wrist or neck using
a pressure sensor. Blood oxygen changes
are measured by detecting changes in
hemoglobin, the iron- containing pigment in red blood cells. Hemoglobin's
color changes when there is an alteration in oxygen level. "The sensor chip
will have an infrared light source and
detector that can measure changes in the
light absorption of the hemoglobin
when it is exited by light of specific frequencies," said Ferrell.
"Measurements of pulse rate are
important to the military," he continued
"because this information helps medics
13
determine quickly which wounded soldiers are alive and which are not. Also,
blood pressure can he determined by
measuring and comparing times of pulse
arrival at various points on the body.
Measurement of a drop in blood pressure is important because that may indicate a soldier is bleeding." In a civilian
setting, measurement of erratic pulse
rate can warn that a patient has cardiac
arrhythmia.
Eventually the system will be capable of providing diagnostic information
on such conditions as shock and injury.
The ultimate research goal is to develop
an array of chips to monitor body functions collectively. They will be attached
to the body, using methods similar to a
waterproof bandage, sending physiological data via wireless transmission to a
remote monitor. In rescue situations,
whether military combat or civilian
search- and -rescue, the data will be
transmitted directly to paramedics, indicating the condition of an injured soldier
or firefighter. Homing capability, in
which the monitor could also receive
global -satellite -positioning (GPS) data,
will one day be incorporated in the system, allowing precise location of all fire-
fighters, soldiers, etc. at all times. The
value of commanders or rescuers having
access to that information can not be
overstated.
Progress To Date
So far the research group has produced a temperature sensor 2.3 millimeters square-about one -eighth the size of
standard postage stamp. The chip can be
attached to a fingertip or earlobe where it
can measure body temperature and transmit a reading when queried by a remote
receiver. Ferrell said the chip contains a
temperature sensor that measures
absolute temperature to within one -tenth
degree Celsius using bipolar transistors
whose electronic properties are sensitive
to temperature. The chips also contain
some analog signal- processing circuitry
and a short-range (about 1.5 meters) digital transmitter designed to transmit to a
nearby helmet- or belt -worn transceiver/microprocessor unit. That unit analyzes the trauma situation, compresses
the data, and if indicated, sends an alert to
the appropriate medical professional via a
longer -range transmitter
"Each chip," said Ferrell, "will have
a
unique identifier
-a
characteristic
Interoperable Cable Set -Top Boxes
Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. and its members have established OpenCable, a project aimed at developing a new generation of
set -top boxes that are interoperable. These devices will enable a
range of interactive services to be provided to cable customers. The
OpenCable effort will include an intellectual property (IP) pool and a
certification process for testing vendor compliance.
The first task of OpenCable is to evaluate responses to a request
for information (RFI) that was sent to leading computer and consumer electronics companies. The RFI seeks their input into the creation of
a draft specification for advanced set -top boxes. CableLabs executives and board members have held meetings with CEOs of companies
in these industries. This research was overseen by MediaOne
President and COO William T. Schleyer, who is a member of the
CableLabs Board of Directors.
"Our meetings with other industries have shown us that microprocessor and semiconductor technology are advanced to the point
where a set -top box can become a digital set -top computer very soon,"
according to President and CEO of CableLabs, Dr. Richard R. Green.
CableLabs is a research and development consortium of cable television system operators representing more than 85% of the cable subscribers in the US, 75% of subscribers in Canada, and 12% of
subscribers in Mexico. For more information, check their Web sites at
http: / /www.cablelabs.com, http: //www.cablemodem.com, and http: //
www.cablenet.org.
14
03
radio -signal pattern ... in which the frequency spectrum changes every few
microseconds. Such spread- spectrum
transmission allows the monitor to know
which individual soldier, firefighter, etc
needs immediate medical care."
The pulse -oximeter chip is expected
to be near production status as soon as
early this year (1998), Ferrell said. "At
present, only the body temperature telesensor chip has been constructed, and it
will require two further iterations at a
chip foundry before its final form. Each
cycle of fabrication takes several months.
The master -control unit is only partially
designed, and a full range of telesensor
chips will not be ready for several
years-unless a large increase in the
funding of this project is obtained. We
have, however, put in place all of the
basics needed to show that this technology is within our grasp without further
requirement of extraordinary scientific
breakthroughs."
Clinical trials will be done in association with cardiac surgeons as they cool
patients during surgery and need to monitor brain temperature, Ferrell said. Also,
patients undergoing chemotherapy, and
those who lose their ability to regulate
their body temperature, must sometimes
be packed in ice if a fever sets in. With
early intervention, in which the onset of
a fever may be reported by one of the
telesensors, simple aspirin often is sufficient.
"We will soon begin work on the
skin-conductivity telesensor chip for
measuring pulse, respiration, and ion level on the skin (a measure of stress),"
Ferrell said. "Blood pressure we hope
can be done accurately by passive monitoring of pulse velocity."
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory research, funded by the Defense
Sciences Office of the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA), is expected to become so
important in civilian settings ORNL is
seeking additional funding from the private sector to speed up the research.
"Wireless monitors attached to the
skin," said Ferrell, "could provide valuable information on the physiological
conditions of intensive -care patients in
hospitals, high -risk outpatients (aiding
paramedics responding to the scene), or
infants at risk of suffering sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)."
an
type
Space Research
Spotlights Tumors
technology- developed for NASA Space -Shuttle
plant-growth experiments-may soon
help treat cancer and save lives on Earth.
Special lighting
A
treatment technique called
Photodynamic Theory uses tiny pinhead-size LEDs to activate light- sensitive, tumor- treating drugs.
Experiments indicate that when special tumor-fighting drugs are illuminated with LEDs, the tumors are more
effectively destroyed than with conventional surgery. The light source, consisting of 144 tiny diodes, is compact (about
1/2 -inch in diameter), and mechanically
more reliable than lasers and other light
sources used to treat cancer. The entire
light source and cooling system is only
the size of a medium suitcase.
Through the Small Business
Innovation Research Program, NASA
funded contracts to demonstrate the feasibility of using LEDs in cancer treatment. The program is managed by the
Technology Transfer Office at Marshall
Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. In
this application, the LED forms the tip
of a new nine -inch neural probe. The
LED probe can be used for hours at a
time, remains cool to the touch, and is a
fraction of the price of a laser.
"This new probe illuminates
through all nearby tissue," said Dr.
Harry 'Whelan, pediatric neurologist at
the Medical College of Milwaukee, WI.
"We've used lasers too," he added, "but
they are often unreliable and limited in
color spectrum. Lasers are also very
expensive and lose power in their
fiberoptic cables."
The technique used by Dr. Whelan
involves injecting the patient's bloodstream with a drug called Photofrin II.
The drug attaches itself to the unwanted
tissues and permeates them, leaving the
surrounding tissues unaffected. The
doctor then places the solid -state LED
probe near the affected tissue to illumi-
nate the tumor and activate the
Photofrin II drug. Once activated by the
light, the drug destroys the tumor's cells,
leaving the tender brain stems virtually
untouched.
The FDA has approved using the
THIS SIMULATION shows how LED probe would be used, in conjunction with special
drugs, to destroy brain -cancer tumors.
LED probe on a trial basis in the
removal of children's brain tumors. After
the clinical trials are concluded, Dr.
Whelan anticipates full approval of what
could be the operating technique of the
future. Further research combining
LEDs and promising new drugs is yielding the possibility of deeper tumor penetration with the probe, faster reaction
times, and shortened patient sensitivities
to sunlight.
"We're very happy to be a part of
this innovative procedure," said Rose
Allen, manager of the Space Product
Development Office at the Marshall
Center. "It is exciting to see how NASA's
commercial space research results in
benefits on Earth. Who would have
thought that experiments searching for
ways to improve agricultural products
would lead to a medical procedure that
saves children's lives ?"
The LEDs, developed for Marshall
Center by Quantum Devices, Inc.,
(Barneveld, WI), were first intended for
use in food -growth experiments in outer
space. They were used as low-energy
light sources on NASA's second US
Microgravity Laboratory Spacelab mission in October 1995, as part of the
Astroculture Plant Growth Facility. The
experiment was led by Dr. Raymond J.
Bula of the Wisconsin Center for Space
Automation and Robotics (Madison,
WI), a NASA Commercial Space
Center..
"The LED technology developed by
NASA offers new hope to children with
cancer,' stated Dr. Whelan. "Every one
of our eases will be a critical case with no
hopeful alternatives. We think this new
probe will help give children with tumors
a chance to live healthy, happy lives."
Low-Altitude
Vertical Flights in
Urban Areas
Aresearch and development project
conducted in Atlanta during last
year's Olympic games could have a long-
term impact on improving transportation in crowded cities. Supported by the
FAA, Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter
Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation
Research) showed that communications,
navigation, and surveillance (CNS)
equipment based on the Global
Positioning System (GPS) could reliably
track helicopters operating in large metropolitan areas.
Air -traffic- control radar now pro15
type
vides the primary means of monitoring
aircraft in flight. However, ground clutter caused by obstructions such as tall
buildings prevents tracking low-altitude
flights in urban areas. This problem
restricts helicopter transportation in
cities where clogged highways would
otherwise make vertical flight an attractive alternative to ground transportation.
On the busiest day, the project
processed 83,000 aircraft position
reports between 6 AM and 10 PM, tracking more than 60 aircraft engaged in a
wide range of cargo delivery and public
safety missions -including critical security requirements. Heli-STAR used 12
heliports strategically located around
Atlanta. Routes were established to min-
A SPECIALLY-EQUIPPED Operation Heli -STAR helicopter is shown
research facility.
"Operation Heli -STAR showed that
the technology is here now to do low altitude traffic control in urban areas,"
according to Charles M. Stancil, manager of the Georgia Tech Research
Institute (GTRI). "Everything that we
planned and designed for the system
worked. We could track the aircraft,
communicate with them, send weather
information, and even change the mission just by using digitized messages."
Some 88 aircraft equipped with this
technology participated in Heli -STAR
during the Games in Atlanta. The aircraft used on -board GPS systems to
determine their own positions, then
reported that information every few seconds to a central ground station through
a very high -frequency (VHF) data link.
Heli -STAR also sent data about all project aircraft operating in the area to
multi- function displays that were
installed aboard many of the helicopters.
On the ground, sophisticated equipment
used bar-coding and an extensive computer network to track cargo as it moved
to its final destination.
16
here landing at GIT's
imize noise and avoid the restricted airspace set up around Olympic venues.
Development of Heli -STAR began
in 1994. The Heli -STAR program was
the result of cooperation among numerous government and industry groups
who shared the $10 million cost. Among
the government agencies involved were
the FAA, NASA, Department of
Defense, and GEMA (Georgia
Emergency Management Agency).
Businesses and organizations, among
others, were ARNAV Systems, the
Harris Corporation, Helicopter
Association International (HAI), and the
Atlanta Vertical Flight Association
(AVFA). The Project Operations Center
was established at Georgia Institute of
Technology's (GIT's) Cobb County
Research Facility, near Dobbins Air
Force Base.
The project was intended both to
demonstrate the feasibility of the GPSbased equipment and to gather informa-
tion for development of future
large -scale helicopter and low -altitude
operations.
Speaking of the
Olympics
.
...
NEC Corporation announced
that it will sell, beginning in Japan,
The
the world's first high- definition 50 -inch
plasma television, the Hi- Vision Plasma
X. Sales will begin in February to coincide with the start of the Winter
Olympic Games in Nagano, Japan. The
50 -inch Hi- Vision Plasma X (PX -50V2)
offers 1.4 times the screen size of its 42inch predecessor.
The use of a panel production
process specifically for manufacturing
large -sized high -resolution screens permits pixel pitch to be reduced to
0.81mm from 1.08mm. This process
produces a 1365x.768 pixel screen (or
PDP- plasma display panel) capable of
displaying over one million pixels.
Integrated circuits that endure high
pressure allowed NEC to achieve a very
slim television at 97mm.
New versions of NEC's 42 -inch
PlasmaX television and the 33 -inch plasma display unit (PX -33M2) share in the
design concepts of the 50 -inch model.
These new models, which have been on
sale since December, are slimmer than
the previous ones: 89mm instead of
99mm. The PX-33M2 is compatible with
NTSC, PAL, and SECAM broadcast signal standards. Worldwide sale of these
TVs is expected to start in Spring 1998.
Both the 50- and 42 -inch plasma
TVs use NEC's capsulated color -filter
(CCF) technology. This technology
applies a black stripe to non -discharging
plasma cells for more vivid contrast in
bright -light conditions at a ratio of 40:1.
CCF offers colors purer than those of
any Braun tube TV Both models feature
display, tuner /selector, and speaker units
in a component -style set, and use only
one cable to connect the display and the
tuner.
NEC sees the new PDPs as meeting
the demands for thinner, larger, and
clearer TVs. They anticipate that the
combined demand from consumer and
business users will result in the shipment
of 30,000 NEC sets in 1998. That figure
is expected to rise to 300,000 per year by
the year 2000. The price in US dollars is
about $22,500 for the 50 -inch display
and $12,083 for the 42 -inch set.
COMPUTER CONNECTIONS
continued from page 12
application with
a
special launch code.
The app in turn knows that it should
search its database and return results to
the calling app. We don't need that functionality, so the only launch code HiLo
responds to is the one for normal program launch.
When it receives that code, it calls a
startup routine, which draws the main
form and obtains a reference to the serial port. It then goes into an event loop,
in which various processes in turn get a
chance to handle events. The Palm OS
is not multitasking, so the term processes must be taken loosely, in the sense of
a block of code that belongs to a separate
logical entity.
Events include things like detecting
pen motion on the screen, hardware
button presses, serial I/O, alarms, and so
forth. Applications can add their own
events to the event queue. For example,
in HiLo, when the user clicks the Exit
button, the program enqueues an
"appStopEvent." When the event loop
terminates, control returns to Pilot Main, where the StopApplication routine performs any required clean -up. In
our case, that primarily means closing
the serial port.
Within the event loop, the system gets
first crack at handling events. That allows
it to do things like, for example, translating raw pen strokes into ASCII characters, which in turn get enqueued as
keyDown events. Typically, if a process
handles an event, it returns a value of
True, so that subsequent (higher-level)
processes skip over it.
After the system, the menu handler
gets next crack at events. For simplicity,
HiLo has no menu, so I commented out
the corresponding code. I didn't simply
remove it, because I want to show the
default event -processing hierarchy. Next,
the application's main form gets a try, and
finally, the active form. Again, for simplicity, this application has only one form,
so the latter call is redundant. And again,
I didn't remove it, for the same reason.
So after the user starts an application,
the Palm OS settles into the event loop.
The event loop itself is nothing but a
large, possible nested switch statement,
with cases for different types of events,
and subcases for instances of each type.
Typically there are cases for system
events, form events, control events, and
LISTING
1-SERIAL I/O
ROUTINE
static void SerlOReceive(void)
RcvCount = 0;
ULong
Err
error;
Byte
Bufln[17];
if (!SerIORef
II
!SerlOConnected)
return;
error = SerReceiveCheck(SerlORef, &RcvCount):
if (error)
SerClearErr(SerlORef);
FrmCustomAlert (AlertGenericAlert, strErrRcvChk. StrBlank. StrBlank);
return;
}
if ((RcvCount <= 0))
return;
if (RcvCount > 1)
RcvCount = 1;
// Palm OS1, 0S2 compatible
error
=
SerReceive10(SerlORef, Buf In,
1, 10);
// Palrm 0S2 compatible only
//error = 0;
/ /RcvCount = SerReceive(SerlORef, Buf In,
if
(error)
1, 0,
&error);
{
SerClearErr(SerlORef);
FrmCustomAlert (AlertGenericAlert, strErrRcvErr, StrBlank, StrBlank);
return;
}
SerlOCnt++;
SerlOCur = Bufln[0];
SerlOSum += SerlOCur;
if (SerlOCnt > 0)
SerlOAvg = SerlOSum / SerlOCnt;
if (SerlOCur e SerlOMin)
SerlOMin = SerlOCur;
if (SerlOCur > SerlOMax)
SerlOMax = SerlOCur;
// display results
ShowNumResultFld
ShowNumResultFld
ShowNumResultFld
ShowNumResultFld
ShowNumResultFld
(HiLoMainFldAvgField, SerlOAvg);
(HiLoMainFldRxCountField, SerlOCnt);
(HiLoMainFldLoField, SerlOMin);
(HiLoMainFldHiField, SerlOMax);
(HiLoMainFldLastField, SerlOCur);
}
so on. Then, where it makes sense, nested switch statements perform code (or
launch subroutines) that depend on the
subtype. For example, the event dispatcher for control events would have a case
for each control for which an application
needed to respond to an event, and a sub sub handler for each event type it needed
to respond to. An application does not
have to respond to every possible event
for every control.
The Palm OS is not object- oriented,
17
O&A
PILOT DEVELOPER RESOURCES
www.wademan.com/Pilot/Program/FAQ.htm
wvvw.massena.com/darrin/pilot/index.html
www.s1s.lcs.mit.edu/raylau/pilot/
www.usr.com/palm/pilotlinks.html
www.roadcoders.com/pilot/index.html
www.shoppersmart.corn/jlehett/gccwin32.html
www.usr.com/palm/dresources.html
www.metrowerks.com (general info)
www.metrowerks.com/db/updates.qry?function=list&sw=CWPP3 (patches)
Newsgroups:
alt.comp.sys.palmtops.pilot
comp.sys.palmtops.pilot
news.massena.com/pilot.programmer
news.massena.com/pilot.programmer.codewarrior
news.massena.com/pilot.programmer.gcc
news.massena.com/pilot.programmer.jump
news.massena.com/pilot.programmer.pila
nor is the development language. Thus,
the API presents parallel clusters of functions with similar names that perform
similar duties on similar types of controls.
For example, there are separate functions
to set controls (buttons) and fields (entry
fields) usable (visible and "clickable ").
Conversely, some functions do not have
parallels across controls and fields. In the
absence of overridable methods with
identical names and behaviors across different classes of objects, I wish the API
were more consistent. On the other hand,
the overall API is small enough that such
inconsistencies are not intolerable.
Something Happened
The Palm OS user-interface philosophy gives high priority to UI (user interface) events, so those are handled first.
(In a performance -critical application,
that probably wouldn't be the case.)
HiLo's event loop lets all other events
get processed first, and then only for nil
events does it attempt to read serial I/O.
(A nil event is just the OS's way of keeping the system active when there is a lack
of other stimuli. After so much time consisting only of nil events, the system
powers itself down.)
Whenever a nil event occurs, HiLo
calls the routine SerlOReceive, shown in
Listing 1. SerIOReceive simply returns if
the port hasn't been opened, if no characters have been received, or if an error
has occurred. Otherwise, it reads a single
character, updates the internal statistics
(count, min, max, avg), and displays the
results.
18
The routine that actually reads bytes
from the UART is called SerReceivel0.
The routine was originally called
SerReceive. The latter is now the OS rev.
2 version, and the former the original. By
using SerReceivel0, you can write code
that will run on both versions. The new
routine provides more and better status
information, which we don't need for our
application.
tontinned from page 7
source or publish a circuit?
Rochelle Park,
NJ
-
R.
F,
AThere are two things you can do:
route the primary current through a
transistor rather than directly through
the points, and generate a primary
voltage higher than 12 volts (perhaps
more like 250). Almost all modern cars
have transistor ignition, which does
the first of the two. The second one is
what you're asking about, and it
ensures a really high spark voltage at
all times.
Because you need high reliability
and special parts, and because it's not
going into your own car, it's probably
best to use a commercial unit. Write to
J. C. Whitney and Company, P.O. Box
8410, Chicago, IL 60680, and ask for a
catalog. They have add -on electronic
ignitions for American cars made since
1947.
Darts and Transistors
I'M looking to build an electronic dart
of an old computer. Are there
any plans available for this project?
Also, I have an old receiver for which I
need two transistors, a 2SÁ765 and a
2SC1445. What can I use as replacements?
Z., Waukesha, WI
11 board out
For Next Time
There are several ways we can proceed. Right now all we can do is read
data; it might be nice to be able to write
it as well. Another limitation is the user
interface, which is pretty boring. It
might be nice to see a histogram or a
chart- recorder type of display. Peripheral
to the Pilot itself, but nonetheless important, is the data input. Connecting the
Pilot to an (emulated) ASCII terminal is
OK, but there are an awful lot of interesting analog quantities out there.
Stay in touch; you can reach me via email at jkh@acm.org.
-J.
A We don't recall an electronic dart
board project, but we'd like to hear
from any reader who has designed and
built one. Constructing the board itself,
with digital sensors embedded, is the
hard part.
The transistors are easier. Any parts
jobber should have ECG, NTE, and SK
reference hooks in which you can look up
transistor substitutes. Those you ask
about are silicon audio power output
transistors, equivalent to ECG197 and
ECG196 respective
Writing to Q&A
We're on the web
FREE
http://www.poptronix.com
1s always, we welcome your questions; please write to Q &A, Electronics
Now Magazine, 500 Bi- County, Blvd.,
Farmingdale, NY 11735. The most interesting ones are answered in print. Due to
the volume of mail we receive, we regret
that we cannot give personal replies. 111
e
isit our
w
0 0 0 0000l0
i,,
web
new
Site!
Cj,web site at
c'edu
lessons,
eiéa
pe from
one
visit
ProvwWpy
GET HERE.
catalog & much
LEARN A
Skill.
YOU
of our
ourse
the
a freeons
[NJ UY...
...THEN FIND A LOB THAT HAS A FUTURE.
has to start
5 Everyone
somewhere.
curriculum is
unique from
other independent-study
schools in the
respect that we
not only provide
hands -on
training utilizing
today's
technology we
As 150,000 CIE graduates
discovered,
ihave
study from
independent -
The
Cleveland
Institute of
Electron ics can
get you
were you
want to
be. In a
secure,
is
Project Engineer
also instill the
knowledge and understanding of why
technology works the way it does. This
is the foundation upon which every CIE
graduate can trace their success back
to and in which CIE's reputation as a
quality learning facility is based on.
Industrial Robotics
financially rewarding, exciting
career field of your choice.
4111/
Independent study is not for
everyone. But, if you have the desire,
the basic intellect and the motivation
to succeed, CIE can make it happen.
Our learning program is patented and
each lesson
ment. CIE's
Since 1934, CIE has been on
the forefront of an ever expanding
technological revolution.
4111
000000'
11110
START HERE.
Back then
it was
radio and TV,
today it's
computer
technology,
programming
and the electronics that make it all
possible. Today
and yesterday's
Electronics
similarities are
uncanny... Employers are looking for
qualified applicants to hire and having
a hard time finding them.
Students at CIE receive the
training and the education needed to
get hired and to succeed in challenging fields such as computer programming, robotics, broadcast engineering, and information systems manage-
designed
for independent study
while our
instructors
are available
to assist you
Telecommunications
whenever
you feel you
need help. In fact, CIE's curriculum is
so well respected many Fortune 1000
companies utilize it for their own
employees.
CIE offers personalized
training to match your background with over ten career
courses, an Associate Degree
Program and a Bachelor
Degree Program through our
affiliation with World College.
And every CIE graduate got
started
in a
y[si
.
successful
career the
same way you
can...by
sending for
your free CIE
course catalog
and judging for
yourself if CIE's
Please send me more
information on:
CIE's Associate Degree Program
CIE's Computer Programming
Course
CIE's 12 Career Courses
World College's Bachelor
Degree Program
for you.
AE114
Computer
Programming
Name
Address
City
State
It's More Than Just Training...
...It's an Education.
Zip
1776 East 17th Street
Cleveland, OH 44114
(216) 781 -9400 1-800 -243 -6446
Phone:
Check for G.I. Bill Details
Active Duty
Veteran
L
J
21
TECH MUSINGS
BY DON
LANCASTER
Investigating Brown's Gas, A
Tiny TV Generator, and More
THIS MONTH, WE AGAIN HAVE A FASCINATING MIXTURE OF
PSEUDOSCIENCE AND REAL SCIENCE TOPICS. INTERESTINGLY, HOWEVER, THIS TIME "THEY" ALMOST (BUT NOT QUITE)
GOT THE PSEUDOSCIENCE RIGHT. BEFORE WE GET TO THAT, LET'S
see if we can kick things off with a little
dose of reality.
The PIC Calibar
Tim Jenison of NewTek just sent me
one of his new Calibar television test
generators. That $349 pen -sized instrument, shown in Fig. 1, can replace an
entire studio full of professional NTSC
TV test gear. The device generates the
24 precision test patterns shown, and it
can also double as a station master sync
generator. It can be used in the field,
drawing power from a two -hour internal
battery, or on the bench, using a standard
wall -transformer AC supply.
The ergonomics here provide new
meaning to my search for elegant simplicity. The user interface consists of a
pushbutton! You briefly hit the button
twice to turn it on. If you don't like the
current pattern, keep hitting the button
until the one you want comes around.
Hold the button down to turn power
off. A single red LED lights if the
Calibar is active.
Internal 10 -bit digital accuracy is used
for highest waveform precision. Base band video is output from a male BNC
connector. Phono plug, phono jack, and
female BNC adaptors are also included.
There's also a "magic" set of blue glasses
you wear for chroma balance.
Before we get too much further, let's
review some NTSC TV basics. The crucial frequency is called a chroma reference or color subcarrier, and it is always
22
precise 3.579545 MHz, though it is
usually quoted as 3.58 MHz. When that
signal's phase is zero, it corresponds to a
color very slightly on the purple side of
blue. As you shift the phase of the signal,
the color produced varies as shown in the
"color wheel" or "vectorscope display" of
Fig. 2. Thus, the phase of the 3.58 -MHz
signal sets the color, while its amplitude
sets the saturation. Actually, a color-difference amplitude scheme is used so that
very little subcarrier is needed with
whites or pastels. Chroma shift adjustments are also made to favor facial and
skin tones.
The chroma reference is divided by
227.5 to produce a horizontal -scan frequency of 15,735 Hz, providing 63.55
microseconds for each horizontal scan
line. They are further divided by 262.5
to produce a vertical field frequency of
59.94 Hz. Two fields are combined into
a single, interlaced scan, giving you a
frame rate of a tad under thirty frames
per second.
a
Back to our horizontal scan line: The
line is separated into a live scan time of
around 55 microseconds and a blanking
time, called the horizontal -blanking
interval, of slightly over 8 microseconds.
Blanking gives a classic CRT "picture tube" electron beam enough time to
reset from the right side of the screen
back to the left.
Baseband video is normally set so
that one volt is white, a tad over a quarter volt is black, and zero volts are the
"blacker than black" sync tips. The horizontal- blanking interval includes a five microsecond wide horizontal -sync pulse
and an eight -cycle long chroma reference burst on its "back porch ". Those
are used to synchronize or lock the
transmitter to the receiver.
The vertical-blanking interval is more
complex. Vertical blanking is needed to
give the electron beam time to get back
to the top of the screen. Various "hidden" services are also provided in that
interval, including closed captioning, test
signals, and timing standards. The vertical blanking also provides a vertical sync
pulse as the third locking signal. Some
fancy equalizing "teeth" are also placed
in the vertical -sync pulse to preserve
horizontal-sync extraction and to take
care of the half line offset between even
and odd fields.
Inner Details
NEED HELP?
Phone or write all your US Tech
Musings questions to:
Don Lancaster
Synergetics
Box 809 -EN
Thatcher AZ, 85552
Tel: 520 -428 -4073
US e -mail: don @tinaja.com
Web page: http: //www.tinaja.com
Figure 3 shows a rough block diagram of the Calibar. The PIC 16C57
microprocessor used is not quite fast
enough to directly generate the highest
speed video timing, but it does all of the
slower tasks such as a partial pattern timing, horizontal scan -line generation, pattern picking, pushbutton housekeeping,
sync, and the frame -rate timing. The
usual 4x chroma frequency of 14.318
new from
MHz is used as a master system clock.
The heart of the circuit is a highspeed, low- power, 10 -bit Harris D/A
ACTIVE FILTER COOKBOOK
converter, followed by a fast video opamp driver with a carefully controlled
bandwidth. The D/A is driven from a
large EPROM pattern generator. Low
address bits of that pattern generator are
continuously and sequentially accessed
when you scan across each horizontal
line. Upper address bits pick the pattern
for the particular lines being output.
A resettable 4 -bit CMOS binary
counter does the fastest of the pattern
addressing. The PIC does everything
else! Their PIC apparently executes one
instruction cycle every chroma cycle of
3.58 MHz. My best guess as to how the
"half cycle" at the end of each horizontal line is handled is by using horizontal line -pattern pairs. Again guessing, I suspect that the need for any half or odd
horizontal lines is eliminated by generating a full two frames of four fields.
Special line -pair sync patterns would be
needed for each case of even or odd field
and even or odd frame.
Clearly, there is some innovative programming going on here. There's 910
samples of 4x chroma per line, so 10
address bits (210 = 1024) should handle
the sequential addressing for one horizontal line, or 11 address bits for horizontal -line pairs.
With a 64K word EEPROM, that
leaves you with five address lines to access
DON LFÎNCASTER
The sixteenth (!) printing of Don's bible on analog
op -amp lowpass, bandpass, and highpass active
filters. De- mystified instant designs.
$28.50
I
I
RESEARCH INFOPACKS
Don's instant cash -and -carry flat rate consulting
service. Ask any reasonable technical question
a detailed analysis and complete report. See
www.tinaja.com /infonl for specifics.
$75.00
for
I
I
CMOS AND TTL COOKBOOKS
Millions of copies in print worldwide. THE two
books for digital integrated circuit fundamentals.
About as hands -on as you can get. $28.50 each.
INCREDIBLE SECRET
MONEY MACHINE II
Updated 2nd edition of Don's classic on setting
up your own technical or craft venture. $18.50
LANCASTER CLASSICS LIBRARY
Don's best early stuff at a bargain price. Includes
the CMOS Cookbook, The TTL Cookbook, Active
Filter Cookbook, PostScript video, Case Against
Patents, Incredible Secret Money Machine II, and
Hardware Hacker II reprints.
$119.50
LOTS OF OTHER GOODIES
Tech Musings V or VI
Ask the Guru or II or Ill
Hardware Hacker II, III or IV
Micro Cookbook
PostScript Beginner Stuff
PostScript Show and Tell
PostScript Video & secrets
PostScript Reference II
PostScript Tutorial /Cookbook
PostScript by Example
Understanding PS Programming
PostScript: A Visual Approach
PostScript Program Design
Thinking in PostScript
LaserWriter Reference
Type 1 Font Format
Acrobat Reference
Whole works (all PostScript)
Technical Insider Secrets
I
I
$24.50
$24.50
$24.50
$19.50
$29.50
$29.50
$29.50
$34.50
$22.50
$32.50
$29.50
$22.50
$24.50
$22.50
$19.50
$16.50
$24.50
$380.00
FREE
up to 32 possible line patterns. Many of
those will be needed for the exotic synchronization; some others can be reused
in several modes.
The nice thing about this scheme is
its content independence. You don't
have to try and logically define all of the
patterns; all you do is stash their values
in a lookup table. Not all that many live
patterns should be required, because any
selected screen -display mode does not
change much in the vertical direction.
And certain screen modes are simply
combinations of earlier ones. All patterns are exact, and as precise as 10 -bit
samples allow.
I was sort of joking to Tim that he
should also offer the classic "indian head"
pattern. Done as lookup, that would
require a somewhat oversize EPROM;
with some folding, around eight megs
might do it.
Note that the Calibar is NTSC only.
It is not intended for VGA or other
computer-monitor uses, due to differences in scan rates and how colors are
generated and distributed. However, I'd
guess that similar computer monitor
testers are in the works.
As an aside, NewTek is not in Kansas
anymore (took the dog, but left Aunt
Em). Note their new Texas address in
the Names and Numbers box elsewhere
in this article. Their Website remains
www.newtek.com.
I will try to work up some PIC video
BOOK -ON-DEMAND PUB KIT
BNC video
output
Ongoing details on Book -on- demand publishing.
a new method of producing books only when and
as ordered. Reprints, sources, samples. $39.50
THE CASE AGAINST PATENTS
I
CALIBAR
For most individuals, patents are virtually certain
to result in a net loss of sanity, energy, time, and
money. This reprint set shows you Don's tested
28.50
and proven real -world alternatives.
BLATANT OPPORTUNIST
CALIBAR
I
The reprints from all Don's Midnight Engineering
columns. Includes a broad range of real world,
proven coverage on small scale technical startup
ventures. Stuff you can use right now.
$24.50
1
-
2 3 -
RESOURCE BIN I
A complete collection of all Don's Nuts & Volts
columns to date, including a new index and his
master names and numbers list.
$24.50
SMPTE multipurpose bars
Multiburst FCC frequency check
Modulated gain /phase ramp
PATTERNS
13 - EIA bars plus PLUGE
14 - Green pure
15
-
16 -
White 100 IRE screen
6 - Luminescence ramp 0 -100 IRE
17 - Magenta pure color screen
-
18 - Cyan pure color screen
FREE SAMPLES
Check Don's Guru's Lair at http: //www.tinaja.com
for interactive catalogs and online samples of
Don's unique products. Searchable reprints anc.
reference resouces, too. Tech help, hot links tc
cool sites, consultants.
email. donCtinaja.corn
7
9 -
MHz sweep plus markers
19
-
B/W Crosshatch generator
Red pure color screen
20
-
5
10 - Luminance IRE 10 step
SYNERGETICS
11 -
Box 809 -EM
Thatcher, MI 85552
(520) 428 -4073
FREE catalog: http: / /www.tinaja.com
-
8 -
VISA. MG
color screen
Blue pure color screen
Blackburst 0 IRE
4 - Blackburst 7.5 IRE plus sync
5
r
FREE US VOICE IIFLPLINE
battery
access
status program
led
button
pen
clip
Luminance 5 step IRE 20
12 - SMPTE plus FCC multiburst
Chroma bars plus red
B/W convergence dots
Chroma 5 step IRE 20
Full field color bars
23 - Chroma 10 step IRE 10
24 - NTC7 composite sin -square
21
-
22
-
1-
FiG.
PEN -SIZED AND PIC -BASED CALIBAR from NewTek replaces a whole studio full of
television test instruments. The 24 standard precision test patterns listed can be generated.
23
demos in a future column. Meanwhile,
much more on PIC apps appears on the
PIC Library Shelf and the pair of PIC
Web Link pages on www.tinaja.com; also
look there for ELESIMP.PDF, which
contains more on elegant simplicity.
Good sources for video in general are the
older Television Engineering Handbook
from McGraw -Hill, and the newer Video
Demystified from Harris Semiconductor.
More TV and video information appears
as this month's resource sidebar.
but does not normally provide stamina
or energy benefits for fitness jocks.
More on this can be found on my site in
DONTSICK.PDF. Free Medline links
are at www.tinaja.com/beewb01.html. A
custom meta-study service is at www.
tinaja.com/info0 html.
.
It's a Gas
I decided to apply a meta study to
Brown's Gas, one currently popular web
pseudoscience topic. I found a fascinating
mixture of legit science, highly unexpected though apparently valid "gee whiz"
results, along with outrageously unsupported claims. The bottom line is that I
spotted nothing here to get personally
excited about, although a PostScript and
PIC-controlled flutterwumping precision
torch just might make for a rather interesting project.
First off, note that any decent torch
chroma
phase
Meta Studies
24
How, can you honestly evaluate a
controversial technical concept? One
older scientific tool that's seeing new life
is called the meta study, in which you
simply "study the studies." You objectively and without bias gather together
everything you can find on the subject.
Both pro and con. Only after everything
is gathered do you try to judge both
sides for relevance, scientific rigor, timeliness, hidden agendas, vested interests,
and overall credibility. From there, you
go on to decide whether you want to
spend the time and effort to further
involve yourself. The argument "But
you haven't done the experiment" cuts
no ice here. The chances are "the experiment" (or its interpretation) will be
dead wrong anyhow.
A meta study usually will clearly tell
you whether there is any point in getting
further involved. It all comes down to a
simple matter of probabilities. A meta
study is similar to a civil jury trial, where
"preponderance of evidence" is carefully
sought, along with the suitable "motive,
means, and opportunity." After you have
run a few meta studies, obvious "looks
like a duck -quacks like a duck" patterns
emerge. The big picture patterns that
easily let you separate science from
pseudoscience, or the scams, "not even
wrong" bad labwork, and "thuzzy finking" from the real opportunities and
genuine breakthroughs.
The web sure makes doing meta study searches simple and easy. I've got
lots of brand -new search tools at
www.tinaja.com/webwb01.html. But my
favorite search tool remains good old
Hotbot.
Meta studies work in nearly any field.
As one practice non-electronic example,
punch L-Carnitine into Medline and
you'll probably reach the same conclusions that I did: This nutritional supplement does seem highly useful and effective for certain cardiovascular problems,
angle in
degrees
FIG. 2 -THE NTSC CHROMA SUBCARRIER PHASE determines the hue, while its relative amplitude sets the color saturation.
EPROM
pattern
generator
low
10 -bit D/A
converter
addresses
mid
addresses
4-bit
binary
counter
data
valid
latch
7
PIC16C57
timing
generator
controlled
bandwidth
video driver
NTSC
video
out
-O_.1_0-Hi.
14.318
MHz
FIG. 3-A SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM of the Caliber. Table lookup of 43 chroma samples is provided to 10 -bit accuracy. The PIC controls most table access and does all the
synchronization and low- frequency timing.
SOME TELEVISION BROADCASTING RESOURCES
Bacon's TV Directory
Multichannel News
332 S Michigan Ave.
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 922-2400
825 7th Ave.
New York, NY 10019
(212) 887 -8400
Broadcast Engineering
National Association of Broadcasters
9800 Metcalf Ave.
Overland Park, KS 66212
(913) 967 -1737
1771 N Street NW
Broadcasting & Cable
Response TV
245 W 17th St.
New York, NY 10011
(212) 337 -6942
201 Sandpointe Ave.
Cable Vision
Satellite Orbit
825 7th Ave.
New York, NY 10019
(212) 887 -8400
8330 Boone Blvd.
Vienna, VA 22182
(703) 827 -0511
College Broadcaster
George St.
Providence, RI 02912
(401) 863-2225
SMPTE Journal
595 W Hartsdale Rd.
White Plains, NY 10607
(914) 761 -1100
Electronic Media
Television Broadcast
740 N Rush St.
Chicago, IL 60611
(312) 649-5293
460 Park Ave. S 9th Flr.
New York, NY 10016
(212) 378 -0400
HDTV Report
1201 Seven Locks #300
Rockville, MD 20854
(800) 777-5006
Television Quarterly
IEEE Communications Journal
445 Hoes Lane
Piscataway, NJ 08855
(908) 981-0060
TV Technology
5827 Columbia Pike #310
Falls Church, VA 22041
(703) 998-7600
person can pull off all sorts of magic
tricks. At Thatcher Fire Department., we
have a Broco oxy -iron torch we use as the
"master key" to vaporize anything between where we are and where we want
to go. I've personally used a Broco to cut
through cement blocks and to burn the
bottom out of a bucket full of water
from the inside.
Let's start with the re -mixed gas a
chemist would get from the classic electrolysis of water. That will be a stoichiometric mixture of very nearly two parts
of hydrogen and one part of oxygen by
volume. For semantics, let's call this one
stokegas on the off chance that Brown's
Gas might really he something else.
Stokegas is one of the most highly com-
bustible substances known to man. For
that reason, stokegas gets normally generated and used only as it is needed.
Storage is a big time no -no. Specialized
torches seem to be a good on- demand
match here.
Stokegas burns with an extremely hot,
but remarkably low- energy flame; the
degrees are there but the BTUs are not.
For instance, gasoline offers 9000 watt
hours of energy per liter. Stokegas at normal temperature and pressure delivers
only 2.4 watt hours per liter. Stokegas
theoretically burns at 5120 degrees F, or
3100 degrees C. Hydrogen in air theoretically burns at 3860 degrees F, or 2400
degrees C. By contrast, acetylene in air
burns at a hotter 4770 F, or 2670 C.
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 429-3931
Santa Ana, CA 92707
(714) 513-8400
71
W 57th St.
New York, NY 10019
(212) 586-8424
111
-
Claims that you can briefly place your
hand near a stokegas flame do appear
true. But do not try it! The reason is that
despite the extreme temperature, there is
not enough heat energy present to briefly
do you any significant harm.
A claim that stokegas "adjusts" its
temperature to suit the task at hand is
apparently rotten labwork. Infrared
thermometers are based on emissivity,
and there is darn little to emiss. The correct method to make an accurate reading
is to place an object in the flame and
heat it. Then measure the object's emitted radiation. Even then, interpretation
can get rather tricky.
Is a hydrogen flame invisible? Hazmat
folks think so- especially during that hot
summer afternoon tanker rollover in the
Phoenix desert when they had to "joust"
with a rag on a pike pole to find the flame
front. However, in the lab you can in fact
see the flame, albeit it a rather weak one.
Reasons for the near invisibility include
an emission primarily in the ultraviolet,
the lack of carbon particles, and the low
total energy involved.
Valid hydrogen proponents are taking steps to make their flames more visible. Their efforts are similar to placing
methyl mercapan odorant in natural
gas, which otherwise has no smell whatsoever. Interestingly, it seems that when
they first tried natural gas odorants,
they used a chemical that smelled good,
rather than bad, which made people
purposely leave their gas jets open to act
as room air fresheners!
Does stokegas implode rather than
explode? Not really. However, if the container walls are cool enough, the generated steam will condense and will provide you with an amazingly reduced final
pressure, perhaps down around 1 PSI or
so, giving you an explosion rapidly followed by condensation.
There are two rather distinct, but
overlapping processes here. After demonstrating that effect several times in a row,
the container walls and the accumulated
water usually seem to heat up enough
that positive pressures result. The claims
that an "implosion" can lead to any "sub vacuum" pressures or pressures below the
vapor pressure of liquid water have no
apparent basis in fact. "T'ain't likely
McGee."
Could a reduced -pressure engine be
developed? Possibly. Would it be useful
or efficient? Almost certainly not. Why?
Because of inherent and fundamental
thermodynamic -cycle limitations. More 25
NAMES AND NUMBERS
Adobe Systems
McGraw -Hill, Inc.
PO Box 7900
11
Mountain View, CA 94039
(800) 833 -6687
(212) 512-2000
Amazon.com Books
West 19th St.
New York, NY 10011
Seattle. WA 98108
(800) 201-7575
NewTek
8200 IH 10 W, Suite 900
San Antonio, TX 78230
(800) TOASTER
BioCard International
Science /AAAS
7500 Old Oak Blvd.
Cleveland, OH 44130
(440) 243 -1800
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 326-6400
Box 80387
Broco
2824 N Locust Ave.
Rialto, CA 92377
(909) 350-0580
1333 -I St. NW
SenSym
18404 McCarthy Blvd.
Milpitas, CA 95035
(408) 954 -1100
Dallas Semiconductor
Synergetics
4401 Beltwood Pkwy. S
Box 809
Dallas, TX 75244
(972) 371-4448
Thatcher, AZ 85552
(520) 428-4073
Harris Semiconductor
Weighing Technology
Box 883
301 Gibraltar Dr.
Melbourne, FL 32902
(407) 724-7000
Morris Plains, NJ 07950
(201) 292-5100
Lindsay Publications
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
PO Box 538
Bradley, IL 60915
605 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10158
(212) 850 -6088
(815) 935 -5353
on thermodynamic cycles can be found
in HACK64.PDF.
Certain Brown's gas proponents claim
they are generating something that's different than stokegas. Yet the schematics I
looked at seemed to be sending more -orless plain old current through more -orless plain old water.
Brown's gas proponents claim to melt
tungsten. That is believed to be impossible with stokegas. However, reversible
tungsten side reactions that can involve
oxidation, ablation, or a sublimination
appear to be credible mainstream explanations for the observed effects.
Proponents also claim significant generation and long -term storage of
monoatomic oxygen and hydrogen, which
I find highly unlikely, and a chemist finds
so hilarious he won't even talk about it. As
far as anyone knows, monoatomic hydrogen and oxygen very rapidly recombine
into their diatomic forms, or quickly enter
26 into other reactions at most realistic tern-
peratures and pressures.
Certain Brown's gas proponents also
claim over -unity generation and the ability to neutralize radioactivity. The
strongest evidence for these last three
extraordinary claims so far is a GIF image
of a large orange box, which clearly is
radiating at 590 nanometers. Uh, nice try.
As to doing over-unity hydrogen generation, it does turn out that up to one
sixth of electrolysis energy can sometimes
in fact come from waste heat rather than
input electricity. But this modest "gain"
Gasoline
Lithium
Flywheel
Lead Acid
Hydrogen
4-
happens only at low production rates and
is usually swamped by other cell losses.
There is also classic EE student lab
blunder #01 -A, where you'll fail to accurately measure rms power when dealing
with any unusual waveforms. More on
this in MUSE112.PDE
Claims that any electrolysis cell "stays
cool" are easily explained by staying in
the endothermic generation region between 1.23 and 1.47 volts. More details in
Peavey's ineptly misnamed Fuel From
Water, stocked by Lindsay Publications.
In short, I've found nothing whatsoever to convince me that Brown's gas is
in any way, shape, or form any different
from stokegas. But the simple mass spectrographic proof apparently has never
been done. Other Web proponents claim
to be able to somehow "resonate" a water
molecule, aiding its dissociation in some
vaguely over-unity manner. The problem is that the frequencies they are using
seem ten million times too low. And even
if resonance worked, I personally see
absolutely no way that any energy gain
could possibly result in the process.
Claims that a hydrogen-powered car
can be run with "a few watts of electricity" are usually demonstrated by running
the few watts for a long time, dangerously accumulating the gas, and then idling
the car for a brief instant-otherwise
known as using a piggy bank effect.
Unless such extraordinary claims can be
solidly backed up by lots of independent
tests and extraordinary evidence, those
on -board "miracle" hydrogen- electrolysis generators will remain totally useless
for cars. Why? Because you'd be ridiculously better off sending the electricity
directly to wheel motors in the first place.
Lots more about Brown's Gas is on
the Net. Be sure to remember that Net
clearly stands for Not Entirely True.
There is no Brown's Gas torch or information supplier that I can honestly recommend. First, because of highly questionable claims and endemic bad lab work. And second, because I strongly feel
the Broco is a vastly better choice for any
9000 Wh/I
350 Wh/1
210 Wh/1
40 Wh/1
3.5 Wh/1
13,500 Wh/Kg
150 Wh/Kg
120 Wh/Kg
25 Wh/Kg
39,000 Wh/Kg
COMPARE THE ENERGY DENSITIES shown here and draw your own conclusions as to the worth of each as a fuel or a means.
FIG.
hazmat, rescue, underwater, or maintenance.More on hydrogen can be found
in MUSE115.PDF.
An Energy- Density Summary
It never ceases to amaze me how figures that people do not want you to see
sometimes are extremely hard to pin
down. One example is a simple and direct
comparison of energy density. Another is
the fact that the currently highly touted
electric car has a theoretical maximum
energy-storage equivalent of less than six
pints of gasoline (less than your lawn
mower).
As a review, a fuel is something (such
as gasoline) that is capable of delivering
net BTU's worth of "on the books" energy. The fact that the sun and some
swamp labored eons to pre-concentrate
the energy does not seem to count. What
does count by today's economics is just
how much energy you get back for the
energy and "energy equivalents" you put
in, using today's dollars.
By contrast, any energy transport
means (such as hydrogen or lead acid)
does not deliver any net "on the books"
BTUs or watt hours. Those are simply
ways of moving already existing energy
to a more convenient time or place, but
always at an efficiency and energy loss.
At any rate, two very important measures of "how good" either a fuel or an
energy transport means are: How heavy
is it? How much room does it take up? A
useful measure of "how heavy" is in watt
hours per kilogram (Wh/Kg). The "how
much room" can be measured in watt
hours per liter (Wh/l). Figure 4 gives
you the direct comparisons for conventional and alternate energy densities.
Form your own conclusions.
New Tech Ut
What just might be the long- sought
inside secret to photosynthesis may have
appeared in the September 26, 1997 issue
of Science. Check out "A Metalloradical
Mechanism for the Generation of Oxygen
from Water in Photosynthesis" by
Hoganson and Babcock, on pages 19531956. Their key process may involve a
manganese compound that goes through
five reaction states. The first state accepts
water and solar energy and kicks off both
an electron and a hydrogen ion. The second, third, and fourth stage also kick off
an electron and a hydrogen ion. The fifth
state burps out a new diatomic oxygen
molecule as a "waste product," and reverts
itself back to state one.
From SenSym comes an update on
their fine Solid State Pressure Sensors
Handbook. Dallas Semiconductor has
their latest Short Form Catalog on clock,
temperature, digital pot, and other
unique chips.
Our two featured trade journals this
month are Biocard International on hand
print and related security, and Weighing
Technology on scales.
The Secrets of Building a Plastic Injection
Molding Machine forms the latest title
from Lindsay Publications. It shows you
how to recycle ordinary plastics into custom items. Vince and Dave Gingery are
the authors. It lists for $15.95. Lindsay's
Website is www. keynet.net/- lindsay.
One Internet marketing book I am
rather impressed with is Increasing Hits
and Selling More from your Web Site. It is
authored by Greg Helmstetter and published by Wiley. Amazon Books sells it at
$19.96. While largely non -technical, it
seems to nicely complement some of the
ideas and concepts you'll find in the
Webmaster Library Shelf files of my
www.tinaja.com.
Free and detailed specs on new
PostScript Level III are now available
from www.adobe.com. Level III is more
about "formalizing" high -end publishing
and networking options, rather than
about adding new low level features,
although there is a unique curve tracing
feature (spline interpolation of sampled
data), that I will be looking at closely.
Sadly, the transparency options you'll
need for video apps still seem to be either
lacking or well hidden.
Brand new opportunities in PIC
PostScript robotics can be found in
POSTFLUT.PDF My ongoing Blatant
Opportunist columns are now in a -tine
format at www/tinaja.com/blatO 1.html
The latest two include BANNYEAR.
PDF on profiting from Internet advertising banners; and TRIMODE.PDF about
tri -mode paper, electrons, and plastic
publishing options. For details on starting up your own tech venture, take a gander at my Incredible Secret Money Machine
II as per my nearby Synergetics ad or at
www.tinaja.com/ismmOl .html.
As usual, most of the mentioned items
should appear in the Names & Numbers
or the Television Resources sidebars.
Always check there before you phone
our U.S. technical help line shown in the
Need Help? box you'll find nearby. Let's
hear from you.
am
ne Touch Auto Set -Up
OMHi and
OOMHi Analog
scilloscopes
2% Accuracy
Save & Recall
Up To 32
Panel Settings
Model SS -7821, 200 MHz Bandwidth - $2,995.
Model SS -7811, 100 MHz Bandwidth - $1,795.
2m V /div Sensitivity Full TV Trigger with Field and Line Select
Cursor Measurements with CRT Readouts Fine Adjustment Modes
Auto Probe Readout, CH -2 Output Z -Axis Input Bright, Sharp, 6" Meshless CRT Built -in Diagnostics.
Also available: 400 MHz & 470 MHz models. Send for Complete Catalog
Featuring...
3 -CH, 8 Traces
5 Digit Frequency Counter
IWAT
TEST
MEASU REMENT
&
EQUIPMENT DIVISION
Fax: (201) 935 -8533
Tel: (201) 935 -8486
430 Commerce Blvd., Carlstadt, NJ 07072
e -mail: iwatsu @access.diaex.net
WebSite: htte: / /www.iwatsu.com
CIRCLE 134 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
27
P
RO ti
U
USE THE FREE INFORMATION CARD FOR FAST RESPONSE
Digital Multimeters
FLUKE
CORPORATION'S
70/20
Series III Digital Multimeters (DMMs) is
ergonomically designed. Its tapered
shape provides stable results in harsh,
industrial environments. The Series III
DMMs can be used in a variety of electronic and electrical applications by technicians in field service, facilities
maintenance, and/or production equipment maintenance and installation; in
bench service and repair, and in manufacturing environments.
The DMMs feature a large, high -contrast screen and segmented bargraph for
easy reading. With the meter's Touch
Hold function that automatically freezes
the reading and beeps when the measurement is captured, technicians are able to
focus their attention on the test probes
without having to touch any button. The
user-interface has been improved to provide easier access to the Range and Hold
buttons. In addition, the battery and fuses
can be replaced without breaking the calibration seal, thus eliminating unnecessary calibration.
The top-of-the -line models, the 79
and 26 Series III DMMs, offer true rms,
capacitance, frequency, and low -ohms
capabilities. These meters measure volts,
millivolts, DC, AC/DC volts, ohms, and
amps. All the models in the Series III
family perform diode and continuity
tests.
Complying with the International
Electrochemical Commission (IEC)
1010 -1 safety category ratings, based
upon the ability of meters to withstand
power surges and high voltage transients, the Series III has protection up to
6 kV. Input ranges and functions are
protected up to the meter's rated voltage. They have dual IEC 1010 ratings for
Overvoltage Category III 600 V and
Overvoltage Category II 1000 V. These
DMMs will not blow a fuse or be
destroyed if accidentally connected to a
live circuit while in the resistance mode.
The Series III meters are rugged and
durable; their integrated, overmolded
cases are meant to withstand falling,
being dropped, or being tossed into a tool
box. List prices for the 70 Series Model
HI DMMs are $199 (Model 79 III), $179
(Model 77 III), $159 (Model 75 III), $129
(Model 73 III), and $99 (Model 70 III).
For the 20 Series Model III DMMs, the
list prices are $219 (Model 26 III), $199
(Model 23 III), and $179 (Model 21 III).
Fluke Corporation
P.O. Box 9090
Everett, WA 98206
Tel: 800- 44FLUKE or 206 -356 -6600
Fax: 800-FLUKE -FAX or 206 -356 -5116
E -mail: fluke-info@tc.fluke.com
Web: www.fluke.com
CIRCLE 20 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
28
Low-Cost EPROM Emulator
The SR256, Socket Rocket, from
Wisch Communications is a low-cost
EPROM emulator with the ability to
emulate 8K X 8, 16K X 8, or 32K X 8
EPROMs. Designed as a productivity
tool, the SR256 features a sophisticated
command -line loader utility, jumperless
operation, and single -device bus loading.
It has 90 -120nS access times, dual- polarity reset outputs, and an LED status indi-
cator. Its small outline accommodates
dense component areas.
that seamlessly integrates schematic capture and simulation in one complete program. Professional schematic capabilities
include a built-in symbol editor, a macro
feature for hierarchical devices, and
SmartWires automatic wire routing.
These features allow users to quickly cre-
and six A/D channels are provided.
An optical fiber link in each line provides a minimum of 2500V DC isolation
against electrical ground loops, surges,
ate high -quality schematics. Designers
can also export CircuitMaker schematics
as PCB netlists for use in MicroCode's
CIRCLE 21 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
The command -line loader utility
allows users to load Hex, S- Record, or
Binary files into the emulator. It also
enables them to set the EPROM size of
the emulator, to fill unused locations in
the emulator with a data byte, to locate
code anywhere using offsets, to verify
that the data loaded is correct, and to run
a self-test diagnostic on the emulator.
Cables and software, as well as a
shareware table-driven assembler, are
included with the SR256, as is the manual and step -by -step instruction for installation and use. The SR256 is priced at
$99, plus shipping and handling.
Wisch Communications
2550 Trinity Mills Road, Suite 132E
Carrollton, TX 75006
Tel: 972-417 -3533
Fax: 972 -417-3821
E -mail: wischcomayberamp.net
Schematic Capture Tool
CircuitMaker Version 5 has recently
been released by MicroCode Engineering. The Windows -based schematic capture and simulation tool now features
fast, accurate, mixed -signal simulation
previously only available on higher-cost
EDA software. Aimed at engineers, this
software can simulate any combination of
analog and digital components-without
manually inserting A/D or D/A translators. Version 5 makes mixed -signal simulation as easy as analog-only simulation.
Along with the expanded simulation
capability, the new release features a
larger device library of over 4000
devices, easier SPICE model import, and
no limit on the number of pins for an
individual device. Version 5 offers a
proven, accurate, 32 -bit SPICE -based
simulator for analog and mixed -signal
circuits. It also provides fully interactive
digital logic mode when only logic simulation is needed.
CircuitMaker is an EDA software tool
TraxMaker or other printed- circuitboard layout products.
A wealth of analyses in the software
allows designers to test and troubleshoot
circuits in a virtual lab environment,
without worrying about bad parts or
faulty connections that often plague traditional prototyping. With a click of the
free -floating Probe tool, users can
instantly see waveforms and measurements on virtual instruments, like the
digital oscilloscope, curve tracer, bode
CIRCLE 22 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
CIRCLE 23 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
and spikes. The 2320PSDA is port-powered on the RS -232 side of the device.
An external isolated power supply is
needed to power the I/O side of the
device, which has terminal blocks. The
host RS -232 serial port is a DB -25
(female) connector.
Demonstration software and a data logging utility on a 3.5 -inch disk are
included. The 2320PSDA is priced at
$ 109.95. The optional power supply is
$14.95.
B &B Electronics Manufacturing Co.
707 Dayton Road
Ottawa, IL 61350
Tel: 815- 433 -5100
Fax: 815-434 -7094
Web: www.bb -elec.com
plotter, or digital multimeter. Simulation
tools like CircuitMaker give engineers
the freedom to try all scenarios, changing
parts or component values to see how
changes affect the circuit's operation and
performance.
The software operates on the
Windows 3.1x, 95, and NT platforms.
Single -use copies are priced at $299.
Special upgrade offers are available for
current registered users.
MicroCode Engineering Inc.
927 West Center Street
Orem, UT 84057
Tel: 800- 419 -4242 or 801 -226 -4470
Fax: 801- 226 -6532
E -mail: sales@microcode.com
Coax LAN Test Accessory Kits
"Iìco Coaxial LAN "lest Accessory Kits
from ITT Pomona provide the network
technician with everything needed for
Web: www.microcode.com.
CIRCLE 24 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
Serial Data Acquisition Module
B&B Electronics has introduced an
RS -232 serial -port data -acquisition module. It amplifies and conditions the very
low -voltage signals coming from sensors,
so that they can be monitored and
recorded on a PC. Two digital I/O lines
coax -cable LAN troubleshooting, installation, and repair. The Model 6201, a
general -use LAN test kit, includes a flexible assortment of cables, breakouts, ter-
mination plugs, and adapters. The Model
6202 LAN test kit is designed specifically
(Continued on page 62)
31
RETAILERS THAT SELL OUR MAGAZINE MONTHLY
Arkansas
Telephone Store
P.O. Box 804
Searcy, AR 72145
California
California Electronics
221 N. Johnson Ave.
El Cajon, CA 90202
Ford Electronics
8431 Commonwealth Avenue
Buena Park, CA 90621
All Electronics
14928 Oxnard Street
Van Nuys, CA 91411
Gateway Electronics of CA
9222 Chesapeake Drive
San Diego, CA 92123
Mac's Electronics
191 South "E" Street
San Bernardino, CA 92401
Electronics Warehouse
2691 Main Street
Riverside, CA 92501
Marvac Dow Electronics
265 -B Reservation Road
Marina, CA 93933
Minuteman Electronics
37111 Post St., Suite 1
Fremont, CA 94536
HCS Electronics
6819 S. Redwood Drive
Cotati, CA 94931
Halted Specialties Co.
3500 Ryder Street
Santa Clara, CA 95051
HSC Electronics
4837 Amber Lane
Sacramento, CA 95841
Gateway Electronics of CO
2525 Federal Blvd.
Denver, CO 80211
Centennial Electronics
2324 E. Bijou
Colorado Sps., CO 80909
Cables & Connectors
2198 Berlin Turnpike
Newington, CT 06111
Electronic Service Prod.
437 Washington Avenue
North Haven, CT 06473
JK Electronics
6395 Westminster Blvd.
Westminster, CA 92683
Georgia
Kandarian Electronics
1101 19th Street
Bakersfield, CA 93301
Whitcomm Electronics
105 W. Dakota #106
Clovif, CA 93612
Mark Elec. Supply Inc.
5015 Herzel Place
Beltsville, MD 20705
Philcap Electronic Suppliers
275 E. Market Street
Akron, OH 44308
Amateur Radio Center
1117 West 36th Street
Baltimore, MD 21211
Massachusetts
Oregon
Norvac Electronics
7940 SW Nimbus Avenue
Beaverton, OR 97005
U -Do -It Electronics
40 Franklin Street
Needham, MA 02194
Purchase Radio Supply
327 East Hoover Avenue
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Norwest Electronics
33760 Plymouth Road
Livonia, MI 48150
Taztronics
257 N. Wasson St.
Coos Bay, OR 97420
Pennsylvania
Business & Computer Bookstore
213 N. Easton Road
Willow Grove, PA 19090
Texas
Colorado
Say -On Electronics
13225 Harbor Blvd.
Garden Grove, CA 92643
Marvac Dow Electronics
980 S. A Street
Oxnard, CA 93030
Ohio
Michigan
Metro Electronics
1831 J Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
Connecticut
Orvac Electronics
1645 E Orangethorpe Ave.
Fullerton, CA 92631
Maryland
Norman's Electronics, Inc.
3653 Clairmont Road
Chamblee, GA 30341
Illinois
Tri State Elex
200 W. Northwest Hwy.
Mt. Prospect, IL 60056
Kansas
Electronic Hobby Shop
309 E. McKay
Frontenac, KS 66763
The Elec. Connection
37387 Ford Road
Westland, MI 48185
Elec. Parts Specialists
711 Kelso Street
Flint, MI 48506
Mouser Electronics
958 N. Main Street
Mansfield, TX 76063
Tanner Electronics
1301 W Beltine
Carrollton, TX 75006
Minnesota
Acme Electronics
224 Washington Avenue N.
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Missouri
Gateway Electronics Of MO
8123 -25 Page Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63130
New Jersey
Lashen Electronics Inc.
21 Broadway
Denville, NJ 07834
Electronic Parts Outlet
3753 B Fondren
Houston, TX 77063
GMD Electronics
2625 S. Loop Hwy.
Alvin, TX 77511
Electronic Parts Outlet
17318 Highway 3
Webster, TX 77598
Washington
New York
Amateur Radio Supply Co.
5963 Corson Ave., Ste 140
Seattle, WA 98108
R&E Electronics
4991 Rt. 209
Accord, NY 12404
Wisconsin
Unicorn Electronics
Valley Plaza
Johnson City, NY 13790
T.V. -VCR Repair
1306 W. Madison St.
P.O. Box 64257
Milwaukee, WI 53204
If you'd like to sell our magazine in your store,
please circle 210 on Free Information Card.
32
Build
A MULTiCIIANNEL
OsciLLoscopE TRiqqER
Trigger an oscilloscope sweep on
a combination of input signals!
TRIGGER
OUT
SCOPE
Trigger
Flew° Technical
OFFIOR
QUALIFIERS
& COUNTER
THOMAS PETERICK
úo
Products. Inc.
OFF
ON
=
LOGIC
' LOGIC
1
U.
DON'T CARE
O
COUNT SITS
01
0 0
I 0
0 I
I
0
TRIGGER EVERY MATCH
TRIGGER EVERY 20J MATCH
TRIGGER EVERY are MATCH
TRIGGER EVERY :In MATCH
If you have ever experimented
with your PC's hardware, you
have probably figured out
that a two-channel oscilloscope
isn't exactly the best tool for debugging or troubleshooting computers. Generally, when digging
around in any computer-based circuit, you want to look at the resulting output of several input signals. A
two- channel scope doesn't provide that capability. With the
Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger
presented here, you can examine
one or two signals with a triggering
circuit based upon as many as ten
other inputs. Such a capability can
be very handy when you want to
be sure that data is written to the
correct I/O address or the correct
bit is set when a memory operation
takes place.
The Multichannel Oscilloscope
Trigger can assist in providing faithful
and reliable information when probing digital circuits. The scope trigger
a ten -bit comparator with a built counter feature. It generates an
output pulse when the inputs match
the value set into the selector
switches or on some multiple of
matches. The counter feature allows
is
in
the scope trigger to provide an output pulse on every second, third or
fourth count. The output pulse can
be fed into the trigger of a standard
oscilloscope causing the scope to
trigger only when the digital signals
present at the monitored inputs
match the switch settings on the
trigger unit.
Circuit Description. The schematic
for the scope trigger is shown in Fig.
1. It consists of two integrated circuits, three resistor packs, and some
support circuitry. The monitoring
portion of the circuit is built around
IC1, a 74AC520 eight -bit comparator. It compares the inputs that are
connected to pins 5 -12 of J1 to the
switch settings on S2. Pin 13 of J1 is
an enable control that must be at
a low logic level (or grounded) for
ICI to operate.
When the inputs match the
switch settings, a negative-going
pulse appears on pin 19 of IC1 and
is passed on to IO2, a GAL16V8
Programmable Logic Array (PLA).
The programming for IC2 is set so
that it acts as both a 2 -bit corn parator and a counter. Inside IC2,
the inputs from pins 3 and 4 of J1
are compared to S1 -c and S1 -d. If
the inputs match the switches and
there is a negative pulse from IC1,
the logic inside IC2 decodes a
data match and outputs that condition on pin 17. In other words, S1 -c
and S1 -d act like a ninth and tenth
comparator bit, extending the
range of IC1.
The count process is also controlled by IC2. If both S1 -a and S1 -b
are on, every match is passed out
of IC2 on pin 19. If S1 -b is turned off
and S1 -a is turned on, every other
match is passed out of pin 19 of
IC2. The full set of combinations for
S1 -a and S1 -b is shown in Table 1.
The counter feature gives the
Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger
greater flexibility for whatever type
of triggering is needed.
Resistor packs R1, R2, and diode
D1 provide some isolation from the
circuit under test as well as protection for the scope trigger, in case the
Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger is
not hooked up properly to a circuit.
Resistor pack R3 acts as a set of pull up resistors for S1 as well as for the
inputs on J1. That is done in order to
have a valid signal on the inputs in
case not all of the inputs are needed. Capacitors Cl and C2 are for
power decoupling.
The final output to the oscilloscope trigger is selected by S3. If the
output from IC1 is to be used directly by the oscilloscope, the final trigger can have up to eight trigger
33
F13
767-161-R472
S1
16
-AM
+V
A
.1
15
4
3
14
3
13
2
1M
5
C2
.1
A
2
4
Cl
PC
1-a
+V
Mh
1M
AM.
6
'M
AAS
7
-M,
w1
12
1
-
S1-
o
oo
o
o
o..nr0
6
11
10
D1
9
MBR05301T1
J1
0
o
o
R1
14
767-16341331
13
1
12
2
11
3
10
4
9
5
8
6
7
6
,,
AoM
w
III
'
16
15
2
14
4
13
6
17
8
11
11
7
10
13
8
9
4
2
1
19
2
w1
17
16
19
5
15
1
f
+V
20
12
5
S3
20
6
IC1
IC2
7
74AC520
2
15
3
11011 14
9
8
3
3
11010411 13
10
7
5
4
11
6
7
12
5
9
13
4
12
14
3
14
15
2
16
16
1
18
+V
GAL16V8
8
10
11
R2
767-163-R331
10
S2
S2-a
-
S2-h
Fig. I The Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger is a simple device that lets you use your oscilloscope
to examine complex circuits. You can trigger your oscilloscope on a combination of either eight or
ten logic inputs. You can also set the output to trigger on every trigger occurrence up to everyfourth
trigger occurrence.
.
--D1
inputs at a speed up to 100 MHz. By
using the output from IC2, the trigger
J1
output can be more sophisticated
in operation. However, the speed of
the trigger will drop to about 50 MHz.
Building the Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger. The Multichannel
Oscilloscope Trigger uses several
surface -mount (SMT) components.
Anyone with knowledge of soldering should be able to build the unit
without difficulty. If you do not have
any experience with surface mount technology, this project is a
good first exposure to the methods
used in working with SMTs. The sidebar on soldering SMT components
should be reviewed before starting
construction.
The programmable logic array,
34
S2
IC1
C2
J2
S1
R2
IC2
AMONIOL
Cl
Fig. 2. The Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger is based on surface -mount components. This project
is a good introduction if you've never worked with SMT components before.
programmed before it
installed in the board. If you wish
to program your own part, the proIC2, must be
is
gramming data can be down loaded from the Gernsback FTP
site (ftp: / /ffp.gernsback.com). The
AN SMT PRIMER
- o'-ÿ
---o
o
o
0
o
~-0
b.fo
7
T
o
1
-o
0
T
o
0
o
o
DJ
....
S
-
Soldering surface -mount components is
no different from any other soldering task.
4o
-
O
0
o
o
o
Copyright (C) 1997 ETP, Inc.
0
o
3 13/16 INCHES
Here's the foil pattern for the component side of the Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger.
3 13/16 INCHES
I
The solder side of the Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger completes all of the connections needed to
the other side of the board. if you're making your own hoard, don't forget to make the connections
between the two sides of the board or the Multichannel Oscilloscope trigger won't work.
name of the file that contains the
data is otrigger.dat.
If you are using the PC board
from the kit given in the Parts List or
you have etched your own board
using the foil patterns included
here, follow the parts -placement
diagram in Fig. 2 for component
location. Start by soldering the surface -mount components to the PC
board. That approach will make it
easy to position the soldering iron
and solder the components to the
PC board without some of the larger components getting in the way.
After Cl, C2, Dl, Rl -23, IC1, and IC2
are in place, install the through -hole
components. If you wish, you could
add a jumper wire between pin 13
and pin of J1. That will disable the
pin 13 input on J1 and permanently
1
enable IC1. A disadvantage to that
modification is that it will not be
possible to cascade several Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger units
together. However, it is not necessary to remember to ground the
enable line when using a single unit.
The enable input can also be used
as an active -low qualifier input for
the Trigger -the choice is entirely
up to you.
Install sockets for Si and S2. That
will lift the switches off the PC board
and project them through the top
of the case. The trigger output jack,
J2, has a large thermal mass, making it more difficult to solder to the
PC board with a small iron. When
soldering J2 onto the board, heat
the two large pins more than the
pads on the PC board. The joint will
The limited contact area that SMT components have just makes the same job more
critical. Dirt or contamination that could be
ignored on through -hole components cannot be tolerated on SMT components.
Therefore, the first rule of SMT soldering is
cleanliness. The least bit of contamination
on the PC board or component can drastically change the amount of solderable surface area in a connection.
Use fresh components and PC boards
to reduce the chances of contamination.
The soldering iron should be tinned and
shiny. If there is any flux crust or dark spots
on the iron tip, wipe it off with a damp
sponge and re -tin the tip. Always use fresh
solder.
The second rule is that the equipment
should match the job. You don't crack walnuts with a sledgehammer, nor should you
solder SMT components with an oversized soldering iron. To do the job right,
the soldering -iron tip should match the
physical size of the SMT connections. A
suggested tip size should be no bigger
than 76 inch. It is also a good idea to purchase solder that is appropriate for soldering SMT components. A solder diameter
between 0.015 and 0.031 inch is suitable
for most SMT tasks.
The third rule is to watch the temperature of the soldering iron. All common electrical solders begin to melt at about 361' F.
Applying an iron with a tip temperature over
800° F to the joint could damage the component or the board. If the tip is properly
sized to the job, there is no need to heat a
component lead and PC board contact to
more than 600" F to solder components.
Now that we have the right tools for the
job, let's examine how to hand -solder an
SMT component to the board. For multi leaded components. pick a corner lead on
the PC board for the component to be soldered. Melt some solder onto that pad.
Position the component on the board. Heat
the component and wetted pad with the
soldering iron. The solder will reflow and
the component leg will sink into the solder.
Inspect the component's alignment with its
footprint. If the alignment is good, solder
the diagonally opposite corner from the first
connection so that the component cannot
move, If the alignment is not correct, reheat
the joint and move the component until the
alignment is good. With two diagonal corners soldered in place, the other pins can
be soldered. Those connections are done
the same way you would solder any other
connection -heat the component and pad
with the soldering iron and apply solder to
the component leg. The corner -tack
method holds the component in good
mechanical alignment.
35
PARTS LIST FOR THE
MULTICHANNEL
OSCILLOSCOPE TRIGGER
HOLE FOR
S1 /S2
SEMICONDUCTORS
74AC520SC 8 -bit comparator,
IC
integrated circuit, surface-mount
1C2- GAL16V8 programmable logic
array, integrated circuit, surface-mount
MBRO530LTI Schottky diode,
surface -mount
1-
DI-
RESISTORS
RI, R2-767 -163 -R330G resistor network, surface-mount
R3-767 -161 -R472G resistor network,
surface-mount
ADDITIONAL PARTS AND
MATERIALS
C 1, C2-0.1-AF capacitor, ceramic surface -mount
JI -14 -pin right-angle header (Digikey A5308 or similar)
J2-BNC connector, right -angle PCboard -mount (AMP 414373 -1 or
similar)
SI-4-position DIP switch
S2-8- position DIP switch
S3-Single -pole double -throw switch,
right-angle PC- board -mount (Digi -key
EG1905 or similar)
IC sockets, case (Digi -key SRM6 -B or
similar), wire, test probe clips, hardware, etc.
Fig. 3. The Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger fits nicely into a small hand-held case. Several holes
will need to he cut at specific locations in order for the controls to he accessible.
36
eventually get hot enough for the
solder to flow. When installing J1,
you could cut off pin 2. That pin is
not used, and can be utilized as an
orientation key. Filling the hole on
the corresponding plug will reduce
the risk of installing the input cable
backwards.
Once all of the components
have been soldered to the board,
inspect each solder connection
thoroughly. Use a magnifying glass
or jewelers loupe, if possible. Look
for all the indications of a good sol-
der joint. They should be shiny and
even, without either too much solder or too little solder. Joints that
have peaks or points have too
much solder. If there is too little solder, it will be difficult to tell if the
connection is soldered. Solder
bridges and excessive solder can
be cleaned up by using solder wick
to draw the excess solder away
from the components.
Drill and cut appropriate holes in
a suitable enclosure. Square holes
will have to be cut for J1, Si, and
Note: The following items are available
from Electro Technical Products, Inc.,
PO Box 16658, West Palm Beach, FL
33416 -6658, E -mail: etpinc@pb.seflin.
org: Complete kit of parts including
pre- programmed 1C2, case, PC board,
and case labels, $64.95; Assembled
and tested unit, $84.95; 13 -piece test
clip set for use with JI, $29.95. Please
add $3.00 for shipping and handling
charges. FL residents add appropriate
sales tax.
Round holes are needed for J2
and S3. Measure the locations of
those components on the PC
board to find the locations that
need to be cut on the case.
Additional holes will be needed in
the back of the case for mounting
the PC board. Screws, nuts, and
spacers can be used. As an alternative, plastic tubes can be glued
to the inside of the case and the
PC board held in place with selftapping screws. The general
S2.
(Continued on page 56)
Most
readers of this maga-
zine have likely heard the
term "MPEG," and are
aware that it is the key technology
that has made digital direct -tohome satellite TV, DVD video, DTV
(digital
TV),
and other advances
possible. In this article, we will
explore what MPEG is, what it does,
and some of the history behind it.
Why MPEG? MPEG, which stands
for Moving Picture Coding Experts
Group, is a technology for compressing the amount of data contained in moving images such as in
film and video. It is also the name of
the organization that has worked to
create international standards for
this technology.
But why is compression needed
at all? Take a look at Fig. 1, which is
a comparison of the volume of
data required for a person to
spend an hour enjoying various
media forms. As you can see from
that figure, an hour of music
requires 1,000 times as much data
space as an hour's worth of text,
and an hour of video takes up
million times as much data as an
hour of text. While high -capacity
CDs (compact discs), MO (magnet
optical) discs, or DVD (digital video
discs) can hold more than previously available technologies, there
is still a limit on how much data can
be placed on a single disc.
In the broadcasting realm, digital technology coupled with compression would allow a high- definition TV (HDTV) signal to be broadcast using no more spectrum than
a standard, analog signal. It would
also allow the transmission of multiple channels of standard -definition
digital TV in the same spectrum
space as a single channel of analog Television.
1
How Compression Works. Technology for the perfect reproduction
of moving images has yet to be
developed. Television broadcasts
and film footage use a series of still
photographs to reproduce motion.
BY YASUDA
THE
GREAT
COMPRESSION
MPEG is the key behind many of
today's high -capacity multimedia technologies.
Here's an overview of what it is and how it works.
vision, while European countries use
only 25 shots per second. Conse-
quently, video tapes recorded in
Europe cannot be viewed in Japan
or the U.S. without special equipment. No such regional differences
exist in relation to movies.)
When many photographs are
continually transmitted like this,
often there are only minute differences between one still image and
the next. If there is absolutely no
movement on the screen during the
'both or ' /24th of a second between
*Courtesy LOOK JAPAN, August 1997
images, there is no need to send the
next photograph as long as the previous image has been stored and
can be re -shown in the place of the
next photo. In this way, the number
of photographs sent (the volume of
data) can be reduced.
Figure 2 shows two images of a
moving airplane. The entire image
other than the moving plane does
not change from one image to the
next. Thus, that part of the image
that has not changed need not be
retransmitted. Assuming the moving
AFTER
MPEG
COMPRESSION
(BYTES)
1T
100G
100G
10G
1G
1G
270M
100M
30M
10M
1M
380K
100K
10K
For television, 30- frames -per-second
are used, while 24-frames -per-second are used for film. (Japan and
the United States use the same
number of shots per second for tele-
HIROSHI*
o
LITERATURE
(200 PAGES)
TELEPHONE
MUSIC
TV OR MOVIE
NOTE: FIGURES ARE FOR ONE HOUR
Fig. I While moving images (either video or film) require much more storage space than other type
of media, MPEG compression can greatly reduce those requirements.
.
37
duce the next image. Furthermore,
if the shape of the airplane is
known, the only additional information needed is how far and in what
direction (known as the vector of
movement) the plane moved during the 'both of a second between
the two still images.
In this way, the volume of data
can be cut even more by simply
PREVIOUS
IMAGE
CURRENT
TIME
Fig. 2. For an object in motion, such as an airplane, and assuming that all other elements in the
image are identical, the only additional information needed to produce the next frame is the object's
motion vector and data for the area occupied by the object in the first frame.
2
1
3
r,,4 r_5 r,6
r.
I
i
I
l
¡
L
i
II
1,
I
t
;
I
I
I
I
L
L
l
¡
L
I
I
,
IÌ
L
j
I
13
.
"
I
,
,
P
9
10
11
12
r. r, r, r,
7
8
N, ,Th
r_
'
\T
i
1,
I
I
¡
L
I
I
= ORIGINAL IMAGE
P. PREDICTED IMAGE
Fig. 3. In motion-compensated interframe coding, all images after the original (I) frame are predicted by combining the initial image and any motion information.
1\
2
3
B
B
4
5
6
B
B
7
8
9
10
P;B;;B
P
I
P
t
L.
-11
L
.
_J
= ORIGINAL IMAGE
P=
PREDICTED IMAGE
B. BI- DIRECTIONAL FRAME
Fig. 4. In MPEG encoding, the frame stream is broken up into GOPs (group ofpictures) and motion
compensation from past and future images is used. For example, in this GOP the fifth frame is created using information from the fourth and seventh frames.
38
plane accounts for 'both of the total
area of the image, for example,
only 'both of the total volume of
data need be transmitted to repro-
moving the known image of the
plane along the known vector of
movement. (Of course, since it is not
known what image will appear in the
area occupied by the plane in the
first image, the data for that area
must be sent as well.) This method of
reducing data volume combined
with mathematical processing technology is called "motion-compensated interframe coding."
The initial research in that tech nology was initiated to find a way of
making video telephone technolo
gy less expensive. MPEG took the
motion- compensated- interframecoding principle and corrected its
faults, made it applicable to a wide
range of fields, and standardized
the technology so it could be used
worldwide.
Establishing
The Compression
Standard. The history of MPEG standardization began in 1987 with the
JPEG (Joint Photographic coding
Experts Group). The difference
between JPEG and MPEG is that
JPEG encodes and compresses still
images rather than moving images.
By the fall of 1987, specifications for
the JPEG international standards
had already been settled and all
that was left to do was to put them
in writing and put them to a final
international vote. Once those tasks
were achieved, the organization
formed to create the international
standards would have completed
their function. To dissolve the organization after going to all the trouble
to create it, however, seemed a pity.
In fact, there were calls for setting up
a new task for the organization to
take on. Then, at a meeting in the
United States of JPEG members in
November 1987, a discussion developed over the desire to place
movies on CD and the possibility of
creating compression- coding standards for film and television. Based
(Continued on page 56)
The Four -Year Electronics Degree
Program That Really Hits Home!
Bring The Technology Home With A Bachelor Of Electronics
Engineering Degree. No Hassles. No High Cost!
World College gives you the skills,
the knowledge, the power to take
advantage of your best opportunity in
electronics. And you can do it all at
your own pace!
Four Powerful Reasons
To Connect With
World College Today:
Earn your four-year
degree!
1
Without leaving home.
Self -paced
training!
World College continually works
to provide its students with the most
Now's the time to prepare for a profitable career.
We've lowered the cost of
higher education.
It's true! You can earn a lour -year
Bachelor of Electronics Engineering
Technology degree today ... and
prepare yourself for a high -paying
electronics career ... without quitting.
your job or ever leaving your home.
Because World College, an affiliate of
the Cleveland Institute of Electronics
offers you the total flexibility of indepen.
dent study programs proven effective for
people like you who truly want to succeed! World College independent study
lessons help you build valuable skills
Mail/Fax Today
or Call
1- 800 -696-7532
step -by -step, and expert instructors are
personally available to you with a toll -free
call. What a way to earn an education!
advanced education tools. From the
latest equipment and reference books
to breakthrough computer -simulated
experiments, students are exposed to
the latest technological advancements.
All the equipment, parts, and software you need are included in your
affordable tuition, including more than
300 hands -on lab experiments you
can complete in your home.
Choose your own pace.
3
Independent study in
your home!
4
Expert
r Give Me The
-
Send me a FREE
World College course
catalog today!
-
and at your pace
because you pay tuition to World
College only as you complete the
upper -level semesters close to
graduation. The faster you make it
through, the less you pay. So you
have an incentive to make your future
happen quickly
yet the freedom
to choose your own pace!
Send today for your FREE
course catalog
and give yourself that
future you've always wanted
with an electronics degree education
-
-
-
from World College.
A world of opportunity.
1
Power!
Earn your bachelor's degree
on your time
instruction!
(Please Print Neatly,ì
Name
Address
City
State, Zip
Phone
(
1
Age
For faster service, call
-800 -696 -7532,
or call
1- 804 -464 -4600.
Or fax this coupon to
1- 804 -464 -3687.
1
(WC3
Where is your career headed?
With a four -year bachelor's degree
from World College, you call the shots,
WORLD
O
C
choosing from incredible, high -paying
opportunities in electronics, telecommunications,computer, electrical
power, and many other growing fields.
L L
E
G E
Shores Plaza
5193 Drive, Suite 113
Virginia Beach. VA 23455 -2500
Lacre
Affiliated witn
Cleveland Institute of Electronics
WAE60
Take charge
of your future in electronics.
J
BUILD THIS
POCSAG
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
Generate pager signals with this
simple interface and computer
program.
ROBERT B. WHITAKER, KI5PG
too many years ago,
personal pagers were
mainly used only by
people in the business world. Now
pagers have become a popular
means for almost everyone to keep
in touch with one another, These
days, even school children have
pagers on their belts or in their
backpacks so that they can keep in
touch with their parents and friends.
The strange-sounding digital signals that activate pagers and
encode their messages are not difficult to generate. We'll show you
how to build a simple POCSAG
pager-signal generator and encoding system using a small interface
circuit to connect an IBM- compatible personal computer and an FSK
(frequency-shift keyed) FM -radio
transmitter or signal generator.
The software for the pager encoder is readily available over the
Internet, and it is free. The interface
itself can be built for about $10.00
on a small piece of perfboard.
Nof
42
What is POCSAG? POCSAG is an
abbreviation for Post Office Code
Standard Advisory Group. It refers
to the standard protocol used to
send messages to common pocket
pagers that many people carry
around on their belts or in their purses. As opposed to the radio signals
used for voice transmission, POC-
is based on digital signals. Depending upon the type of pager
used, different digital signals can
be sent. Some tone -only pagers
activate when they receive a special tone. With tone -only pagers,
you generally have to call the
pager service in order to find out
what the message is. Numeric
pagers can receive numeric information such as a telephone number to call to talk directly to the
person trying to contact them.
Alphanumeric pagers have the
capability of viewing actual text
messages; long messages will usually scroll across a viewing screen.
Some people even have the capability of directing their Internet email to their alphanumeric pager
so that they can read their e-mail
directly from it.
The most common baud rates
used by pagers are 512 baud, 1200
baud, and 2400 baud. With just a little experience, a person can distinguish different pager baud rates
just by listening to the digital signal
over a scanner or radio receiver.
SAG
What is FSK? POCSAG signals are
sent using a method called
Frequency-Shift Keying, or FSK for
short. With that method, the carrier
wave is shifted by 4.5 KHz up or
down from the center frequency.
Those shifts represent the actual
data being sent. For example, a signal sent on 158,100 MHz will shift
back and forth between 158.0955
MHz and 158.1045 MHz,
One of the easiest ways to creFSK signal is to directly control the modulation stage of an FM
transmitter. A varactor (a voltage variable capacitor) is usually used
to couple the digital data into the
transmitter. The changing voltage
fed to the varactor changes -s
capacitance. That will change the
tuning of the transmitter's modulation stage, causing the transmitter
to shift its output frequency in direct
response to the digital data.
Ham operators who have 9600 baud packet -capable radios can
use those radios to generate POCSAG signals, Many other crystal controlled FM radios can also be
used for FSK work when properly
modified, Some older radio equipment that uses phase -locked loop
circuits might have problems trying
to generate FSK signals. A list of
known FSK -capable radios is shown
ate an
i
in Table 1.
The Software. An excellent program that can be used to generate POCSAG signals and control a
radio transmitter has been written
by two British ham -radio enthusiasts, Clive Cooper (G8UKN) and
Pete Baston (GWOPJA). The pro-
gram, PE,EXE, can be found at several Internet locations, including
http: / /www.seelect,demon.co,uk/
pocsag.html and ffp: //ffp.demon,
co.uk /pub /ham /scanners/
pe- 204.zip.
At only 68 kilobytes, PE,EXE is a
fairly small DOS -based program
that needs only an 80386 -based
personal computer or better. Text to
be sent is typed into the program,
which then assembles the data
into the POCSAG format and sends
that information to an RS -232 port
for controlling the radio transmitter.
The radio is keyed by shifting the
voltage state on the serial port RTS
(Request to Send) pin. The POCSAG
data is then sent to the transmitter's
modulation stage by shifting the
voltage state on the DTR (Data
Terminal Ready) pin.
When first started, the program
asks for the "capcode" of the
pager. A capcode is a unique
seven -digit identification number
that is assigned to each pager.
After the capcode is entered, the
program asks for the data that will
be sent. Once the data is typed in,
the program will ask if the data
should be sent in the alphanumeric
or numeric format. If the data is all
numbers, the program will default
to numeric format.
The baud rate and serial port can
be shifted though the various choic-
es by simply pressing the various
control keys. Each press of a certain
control key will cycle that individual
setting to the next choice. Pages
can be sent in normal or inverted
mode by keyboard control as well.
Different transmitters might invert the
digital signal, so try the inverted signal format if the normal mode does
not work.
One particularly useful way to
use the program is by entering all of
the information directly through the
DOS command line. That method,
which can be used in a "batch"
command, is set up as follows:
PE (CAPCODE) (TYPE)
("MESSAGE") (Nil) (COMPORT#) (BAUD)
to alphabetic, numeric, signal and
tone only function 1, or tone only
function 2. The message to be sent
must be enclosed in quotation
marks. One important limitation of
the unregistered version of the software is that the message is limited to
a maximum of eight characters and
spaces. The registered version of the
software allows longer text strings. If
the signal must be inverted as
described above, type an "I" next.
Typing an "N" will not invert the signal. Finally, the serial port and baud
rate are specified.
A typical command line might
look something like:
PE
1281491 N "800 555 1212" 14
512
The first entry, of course, is the program itself. The pagers seven -digit
capcode is entered next. The "type"
choices are A, N, 1, or 2, which refers
TALE
1-
RADIOS THAT ARE
KNOWN TO BE FSK CAPABLE
Alinco DR -1200 Data Radio
GE Mastr Executive H, VHF and UHF
GE Custom MVP, VHF and UHF
!corn IC series: 25, 38, 228, 271, 290, 471
Kenwood TM series: 211, 212, 221, 231,
431, TS series 700 and 770
Motorola Mitrek
MFJ Model 8621 VHF Data Radio
Standard C58, C140
Yaesu FT series: 212, 221, 230
In that example, the numericonly message "800 555 1212" will be
sent to pager number 1281491. The
inverted signal will be sent to serial
port 4 at a rate of 512 baud.
The Interface. Any number of different interface designs between
the computer serial port and radio
transmitter could be used. A suggested circuit is shown in Fig. 1. That
circuit uses a small relay powered
directly by the voltage from the serial port's RTS line. The relay provides
a reliable switch to turn on and off
the radio transmitter. The voltage 43
PAGER SOURCES
The following businesses have agreed to
supply refurbished numeric and alphanumeric pagers without signing a commercial pager contract. For a reasonable
charge, the pagers can be re- crystaled for
a specific frequency.
McManus Communications
400 North Fifth Street
Blytheville, AR 72315
501 -763 -6250 (voice)
501 - 763 -6533 (fax)
PageCo International, Inc.
2400 E. Commercial Blvd., Suite 630
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33308-4033
954 -491 -9501 (voice)
954 -491 -8834 (fax)
e -mail: info @pageco.com
Web: http://www.pageco.com
level of the POCSAG data, which is
delivered through the serial port
DTR pin, can be adjusted with R2. A
2,2 -11,f non -polarized capacitor (C1)
provides DC isolation between the
transmitter and the serial port while
passing the modulation voltage. A
bipolar LED (LED1) is included for a
visual indicator of the outgoing
modulation data. An additional LED
(LED2) shows when the radio is
keyed on. That LED also prevents
the RTS voltage from closing the
relay when the program is idle.
Diode Dl is included to sink any
possible voltage spikes caused by
the collapsing magnetic field when
the relay is switched off.
The circuit can easily be built on a
small piece of perfboard. For a
neater appearance, an etched single -sided PC board can also be
used. A foil pattern has been included here for those who wish to use
that method for building the interface. A source where you can
obtain etched PC boards is given in
the Parts List.
If an etched board is used, the
parts -placement diagram in Fig. 2
should be followed. Note the polarities of the diodes when assembling
the board. The three connections to
the computer serial port should be
wired to the proper terminals of a
suitable connector. The particular
pins to be used depend upon the
type of connector that will be used.
If a 9 -pin connector will be used,
connect DTR to pin 4, RTS to pin 7,
44 and the ground to pin 5. For a 25 -pin
connector, use pin 20 for DTR, pin
for RTS, and pin 7 for ground.
4
Using a Signal Generator. A signal
generator can also be used with
the program and interface to generate POCSAG signals for testing
pagers. In that case, the only circuitry needed is a potentiometer
wired between the serial port's DTR
line and ground. The potentiometer
sets the voltage level of the signal
from the serial port. Set the signal
generator to external modulation
and attach interface's the ground
and potentiometer wiper to the
generator's external -modulation
input.
In Case of Problems. Although the
software and hardware interface
are relatively simple in operation,
diagnosing problems could be a little difficult. The first step in problem
solving would be to make sure that
the program is operating properly.
The best diagnostic tool for that is an
RS -232
tester such as RadioShack
catalog No. 276-1401. That device
has red and green LEDs that light up
to show serial port activity. No LED
activity at all probably indicates that
the wrong serial port has been
picked. The tester's LED for the RTS
pin should shift color when the radio
is keyed up to send a page. At the
same time the RTS line is shifted, the
LED on the DTR line should flicker to
show that the POCSAG data is being
sent to the transmitter. If an RS -232
tester is not available, the voltage on
the RTS and DTR pins can be
checked with a standard multimeter. The voltage on the serial port's
RTS
and DTR pins should shift
between -10 to -12 volts DC and
+10 to +12 volts DC.
If the program and the serial port
appear to be working properly, the
hardware interface and transmitter
should be checked. Make sure that
the transmitter is being keyed when
pages are being sent. The program
will indicate "Transmitting" on the
status line at the bottom of the
screen, and the RTS pin on the serial
line will shift from +12 volts to -12
volts.
If--1
1
/2- INCHES
-
The POCSAG interface is simple enough to he
laid out on
a single -sided PC hoard.
Most transmitters are turned on
and off by a control line that is
switched on and off to ground. The
output of the hardware interface
should change the resistance from
a high resistance state to near
ground potential state that should
activate the transmitter's push -totalk (PTT) switch. In case the keying
of the radio is reversed, change the
polarity of the LED2. If the relay does
not work at all, try reversing the
DTR
TO MODULATION
STAGE
TO RADIO
GROUND
GND
TO RADIO PTT
SWITCH
RTS
Fig. I. The interface circuit for the POCSAG encoder is very simple. Light -emitting diodes give a
visual indication of activity during transmission.
PARTS LIST FOR THE
POCSAG ENCODER
TO SERIAL PORT
fRND
\\LED2
tIl
fDTA
-RI _
LEDI-Light -emitting
LEDI
R2
-i
You can Build Gadgets;
Here are 3 reasons why!
/
---H -D2
avl
diode, bi -polar
LED2-Light -emitting diode, green
D1- 1N4001, silicon diode
R1- 2200 -ohm'' -watt, 5% resistor
R2- 10,000-ohm potentiometer
2.2 -RF, 50 WVDC, electrolytic
capacitor, non -polarized
RY1 -12 -volt DC relay, single -pole, single -throw (RadioShack 275 -233 or
similar)
Wire. PC board, 9- or 25 -pin connector,
hardware, etc.
r
Cl
IPTT 1GND.IMODIPTT
TO RADIO
Fig. 2. Use this parts -placement diagram if you
build the interface circuit on an etched PC
board.
polarity of Dl.
If the radio keys up properly,
monitor the transmitted signal with
a scanner or another radio. POCSAG signals are very distinctive. The
easiest way to check your transmitter volume level (deviation) without
expensive test equipment is simply
by listening to a commercial pager
transmission and setting your signal
level to about the same level. lif a
commercial signal is not available
for comparison, just set your output
level to a sound level comparable
with normal voice transmissions.
Signals that are cut short or sound
especially distorted or garbled are
probably at too high a level.
Reduce the level of voltage output
though R2. Also, some transmitters
might work better if you remove
capacitor Cl.
you still have problems, your
radio might not be FSK capable or
you might not be injecting the signal
to the proper modulation stage on
your radio. Remember, you are sending data by direct frequency shifting.
Using the regular transmitter microphone input for this application simply will not work.
If
What You Can Do With a POCSAG
Encoder. This project lends itself to
quite a number of useful applications. First, it is quite educational. You
can learn about POCSAG signals
and how pagers function. The project can be used to demonstrate
POCSAG operation to others. Using
a second PC with a POCSAG
decoder, such as the unit described
in the May 1997 issue of Electronics
Now, allows a complete POCSAG
BP345- GETTING
STARTED IN
PRACTICAL
CI-
The POCSAG encoding program can be
found at http:/ /www.seelect.demon.co.
uk/pocsag.html and ftp: //ftp.demon.co.
uk /pub /ham/scanners /pe- 204.zip.
United States purchasers can obtain
registered copies of PE, the POCSAG
encoding program, from Robert B.
Whitaker, Trustee, P.O. Box 1266,
Victoria, TX 77902 -1266. The registered, full- function software costs
$39.95, postage paid. Unregistered
software, for those without Internet
access, can also be purchased for
$12.50, postage paid.
A high -quality printed circuit board with
silkscreen artwork for parts placement
is available from FAR Circuits,
18N640 Field Ct., Dundee, IL, 601189269 for $3.75. A fully assembled and
tested interface kit is available for
$29.95, plus $5.05 for shipping and
handling, from Robert B. Whitaker,
P.O. Box 1266, Victoria, TX, 779021266.
transmission and reception system
to be demonstrated.
Commercial paging companies
and technicians will enjoy using the
POCSAG encoder program to test
and diagnose pagers without the
need to use expensive page -generating equipment. Amateur operators could use the program to set
up their own personal- or club -paging system on the ham bands. Using
the paging capabilities from the
DOS command prompt, pages
could even be sent remotely using
remote -computer-control
programs such as pcAnywhere from
Symantec Corporation.
POCSAG encoding is really fairly
simple. The software and hardware
interface described here can be
used to generate POCSAG digital
signals for a wide variety of diagnostic, demonstration, and actual
applications.
S2
ELECTRONICS$5.95
If you are looking into
launching an exciting
hobby activity, this text
provides minimum essentials for the builder
and 30 easy-to -build fun
projects every experimenter should toy with. Printed -circuit board
designs are included to give your project a pro fessional appearance.
LI BP349PRACTICAL OPTOELECTRONIC
PROJECTS $5.95
If you shun opto -electronic projects for lack of
knowledge, this is the
book for you. A bit of introductory theory comes
first and then a number
of practical projects
which utilize a range of opto devices, from a filament bulb to modem infrared sensors and emitters -all are easy to build.
BiP363PRACTICAL
ELECTRONIC
MUSIC PROJECTS
$5.95
The text contains a good-
ly number of practical
music projects most often
requested by musicians.
All the projects are relatively low -in -cost to build
and all use standard, readily- available components that you can buy. The project categories
are guitar, general music and MIDI.
Mail to:
Electronic Technology Today, Inc.
P.O. Box 240
Massapequa Park, NY 11762 -0240
Shipping Charges in USA & Canada
$0.01 to $5.00
$5.01 to $10.00
$10.01 to $20.00
$20.01 to $30.00
$30.01 to $40.00
$40.01 to $50.00
$6.00
$3.00
$4.00
$50.01 and above
$8.50
$2.00
$7.00
$5.00
Sorry, no orders accepted outside of USA and
Canada. All payments must be in U.S. funds only.
Number of books ordered.
Total price of books
Shipping (see chart)
$
$
Subtotal
$
Sales Tax (NYS only)
Total enclosed
5
$
Name
Address
City
State
ZIP
Please allow 6 -8 weeks for delivery
45
month, we begin
a series of articles
about repairing and
restoring audio tape recorders. Specifically, it focusThis
RESTORING
A
"REEL"
-a
vintage open -reel
machines of the 1940s
es on
through the early 1970s
time that saw explosive
growth in the field in terms
of both features and performance. Just as with the
'muscle cars" of the 1950s
and '60s, the "big- iron" tape
recorders -such as the
ones shown in the beginning of this article and in
Fig. -still draw head -turning attention, not only from
the "Baby- Boomer" crowd,
but from "post- Boomers" as
RECORDER
restoration process itself. As
you can see, we've a lot to
do, so let's get started.
Repair vs. Restoration. All
vintage tape recorders -irrespective of complexity or
quality when designed and
manufactured -require periodic maintenance. Rubber
parts wear, harden, and otherwise decompose; vacuum
tubes wear out with use;
capacitors deteriorate over
time; heads and other tapepath components become
contaminated and gradually acquire permanent magnetism; grease sloughs off
and becomes mixed with
1
In addition, when
properly restored and
well!
tuned, these machines can
still provide countless hours
of enjoyment with all the
clarity and response they
provided when new.
Note: The material presented here and in subsequent articles is taken from
the author's book Evolution
of the Audio Recorder;
details on that book, including ordering information,
can be found in the "For
More Information" box that
ed elsewhere in this article.
46
worthwhile as It can be most
rewarding personally to
breathe life back into these
wonderful old "talk back"
machines. Plus, when you're
done, you will have both a
useful tool and a valued
keepsake.
We will explain the differences between repairs and
restorations, let you know
what test equipment you'll
need, and then get into the
dirt; oil dissipates ... sounds
really bleak, doesn't it! Well,
is
locat-
The Dilemma. Pity the poor tape recorder repair person of the 1960s
or '70s, having to cope with a
seemingly endless array of models
and maladies, both electronic and
mechanical. For the non- manufacturer-specific repair shop, it was
especially tough, given the lack of
key service manuals and repair bulletins. Even some of the so-called
"simple" single -motor machines,
such as the 1950s Webcor (an internal view of that machine is shown
in Fig. 2), were a real challenge to
repair. As if that weren't bad
enough, let's "fast forward" to the
present, where added to this situation is the age of most of these classic analog machines: from 20 to
over 40 years old!
That unnerving fact adds a
whole new level of difficulty if your
goal is to get that old machine
Here's what you need to
know and do to bring
your open -reel audio tape
recorder back to life.
PHIL VAN PRAAG
working again. Not only do you
have to repair the original problem
(the one that most likely sidelined it
in the first place), but now you're
faced with an extreme parts scarcity,
deteriorated rubber compo-
nents, dried up or seized bearings,
frequently faulty capacitors, and, in
most cases, a total lack of servicing
information!
Well, never fear, as the purpose
of this article, and the ones that follow, is to prepare you for this challenging task. And it is a task that is
that is all part of the normal
aging process, some of which
occurs whether or not the recorder
is used. Add to that the consequences of abuse, poor storage
conditions, and neglect for long
periods of time (certain parts, such
as belts and idlers, should be rotated from time to time), and the result
is likely to be a candidate for complete restoration.
One major issue here is that, even
if you have been lucky enough to
obtain the original manufacturer's
service manual, the manual will not
address the steps that must be
taken to overcome the various
aging effects. A number of those
steps should be taken even before
powering up a machine for the first
time after a long period of storage.
There's actually a very important
distinction between "repair" and
"restoration" -and it's one that's
often not fully understood. That lack
of understanding can wind up
being both frustrating and expen-
want to overlook something that
will fail soon, or may wear out prematurely due to lack of lubrication;
also, want it to look nice." Well,
here's the tough part. A failing
component doesn't always hang
out a shingle saying: "Hey, replace
me now because I'm going to fail
soon." Further, if you don't reconcile
just how far you want to go with this
work, you will probably be disappointed with the results. It might
cost too much, take too long, or not
look as good or work as well as you
would like.
If you take the machine to someone else with a non -specific, non detailed repair order, that will doom
the poor technician no matter what
I
Fig. 1. The Ampex Model 602 -2 tape deck is a vintage vacuum -tube machine with professional, timeless styling -and performance to match.
do understand the
difference and decide what path
you want or are willing to take, you
can better determine what to look
for before you buy; what questions
to ask; and how to evaluate what
you already own. Now you can get
mentally prepared for the service
or restoration process before you
dig into the machine.
Repairs, by definition, tightly
focus on specifically targeted trouble spots. Typically, those service
operations should be clearly identified at the outset-and if you are
using the services of a repair shop,
thoroughly agreed upon by both
yourself and the technician. Note
that there may be additional faulty
components or alignments needed beyond the identified symptoms; you and the technician need
to discuss what to do if such problems are encountered. That will
ensure that both parties understand how much work will be done.
To do otherwise could easily result
in repairs costing more than two
times the amount needed to just fix
the immediate problem.
Once again, repair means: "fix
the following problem(s); eliminate
the following symptom(s); and do
nothing else, unless specifically
agreed upon beforehand by both
sive. Once you
parties."
Restoration, on the other hand,
means do everything necessary to
bring this machine back to orig nal
specs, additionally ensuring that all
appropriate manufacturer's periodic mantenance steps are followed. I- might optionally also
include complete cosmetic renovation -not simply cleaning, but
restoring original finishes and
repairing cabinet cracks or separations. While that might seem to be
all -inclusive, there are still decisions
to be made, such as whether to
replace all capacitors, or even just
all electrolytic capacitors.
Which Way to Go? Now, you may
be thinking: "I don't want a complete restoration, but also don't
I
he does. If he scrupulously just
repairs the immediate problem
only those components and adjustments directly accounting for the
current malady -then there's a
good likelihood the machine will
come back soon with some other
or even the same-symptom. lf, on
the other hand, he or she just as
scrupulously- repairs, replaces, or
adjusts all weaknesses associated in
any way with the problem .. well,
that can be a much more expensive proposition.
The relevance of all this is that
whether or not you decide to have
others help you get your machine
fixed, you first need to reconcile
exactly what it is you want accom-
Fig. 2. The internal mechanics of a typical 1950's single -motor recorder transport.
-
-
.
47
is it that you really
want this machine to be; what role
do you want it to play in your life? Is
it to be simply a display item? Is it to
provide a means for occasional,
recreational recording, where it's
"no big deal" if things don't work out
during a particular session? Or is it to
play a serious role in critical applications, where breakdowns or substandard performance are intolerable?
Once you've thought the above
through, it is important to communicate your intentions to your technician. Be realistic about what we've
been saying concerning the deterioration that comes with time, use,
abuse, and storage. Consider the
complexities of the mechanics and
electronics, and all of the tests and
alignments that must be performed
to truly recreate the machine that
you may want (but may not be prepared to pay for).
plished. What
Doing it Yourself. Assuming you
have the financial resources, and
can find a technician or repair
shop willing to accept the challenge of restoring or repairing your
machine (note that while some will,
most won't), that is a perfectly legitimate way to handle this task. But
there is another, potentially more
rewarding way to go: doing the
work yourself. However, no matter
how skilled you are around a test
bench, there is plenty of potential
frustration attached to this task as
well. Before you dive in, we need to
TABLE 1 -AUDIO OSCILLATOR
RECOMMENDATIONS
Frequency range: 20 Hz- 20.000 Hz
Accuracy: within ± 5%
Frequency response: ± dB (although
1
greater
quency
ber to
change
amplitude change with freis okay as long as you rememreset level each time you
frequency)
volt into 600 ohms is
Output level:
usually sufficient
Distortion (THD): Better than 0.5 % is
adequate: also, you can get by if your
unit can meet that spec at just a single
frequency, either 400 Hz or kHz
1
1
discuss what you will need in terms
of test gear and other resources.
One of those resources is time.
On average, it can easily take a full
day or more to completely restore
a relatively simple vintage recorder
that
is cosmetically still in good
shape and still at least partially
operational. A complex machine
that's a basket case can easily
take two or three days. If major rebuilding of mechanical components is needed, or major re- wiring
or component replacement is
required, or extensive cabinet and
cosmetic work is specified, this can
add another day or two. Note that
those time estimates are for experienced technicians, with many similar restorations already completed.
Of course, that can translate into
huge costs if you have others per-
form this work.
On the other hand, if you're
ready, willing, and able, read on to
find out how you can do most or all
of the work yourself. In this way you
could save 80% or more of the total
cost that usually constitutes the
labor portion.
Test Equipment Needs. Let's talk a
bit about test equipment. Now, I'm
not trying to scare those of you
thinking about possibly doing your
own repairs or restorations at home,
but we do need to be realistic
about just what it takes to do the job
right. Further, even if you can't do
the entire job yourself, there may be
aspects of it that you can do, and
thus reduce the cost for professional
help to finish the repair or restoration
task. Finally, once you understand
exactly what's needed and where
to get it, you may find it surprisingly
inexpensive.
The two most basic pieces of
gear you need are an audio oscillator and voltmeter that is "audiocapable" (more on that in a
moment). If you have both on
hand, great. If not, the purchase of
those two items could easily set you
.
back about $250. One way to cut
that cost is to look at a local "flea
market" or amateur-radio swap
meet ( "hamfest "). Of course, if you
do that you will face the problem
of ensuring that they both work
properly, and at least come close
to meeting their original specs. One
compromise would be to purchase
older, but guaranteed, instruments
from a used -equipment dealer;
you can often find ads for those in
the back pages of Electronics Now.
That way you will pay more than at
a flea market, but you will at least
be sure that the items work.
Two of my own "flea market
finds" are shown in Fig. 3: a Hewlett
Packard (HP) Model 200 audio
oscillator and an HP Model 410
VTVM (vacuum -tube voltmeter).
The HP 200 is one of a long -lived
series of similar oscillators that were
an outstanding success for Hewlett
Packard. These were truly "workhorse" machines, rarely requiring
service. Many thousands of these
were "excessed" by industry when
as
Fig. ;. Two e.mmples of vintage vacuum-tube test equipment front Hewlett Packard: a Model 410
VTVM (left) and a Model 200 audio oscillator.
transistorized gear became the
standard, but those vacuum -tube
units perform about as well as
many new designs.
a hefty price tag -generally exceeding $1,000. However, a trip to your
local flea market (once again,
hamfests are particularly good for
this), plus a little patience, will likely
yield something useful in the $50 to
$150 range. Because of the relative-
modest requirements associated
with working in the audio- frequency range (and even considering
bias/erase oscillators that operate
at, say, 180 kHz), even the lowest -frequency-response scopes are suitable for tape recorder use. do
recommend that you purchase
one with a "triggered- sweep" option. However, other than getting a
decent probe, that's about it.
And don't necessarily ignore the
ly
I
older vacuum -tube scopes.
Fig. 4. Two wow/flutter meters: the 3M Model 8160 (top) and the Woelke Model ME-106 (bottom).
is
That unit meets or exceeds what
needed to service any audio
recorder manufactured through at
least the 1970s. If you go with
another unit, the basic specs you
should look for are given in Table 1.
Note that the HP410 shown is not
an "audio VTVM ". It's important to
understand the difference. With
most VTVMs, like the 410, the smallest AC-voltage range is -volt full
scale. Due to reading interpretation, that generally translates to an
ability to read voltages as low as
about 20 millivolts. That is okay for
most troubleshooting and alignments, except S /N. For that, you will
need an audio voltmeter with at
least a 3- millivolt scale (thereby
capable of reading 100 microvolts). One unit that you might find
on the surplus /hamfest market is
the HP403B. It has a
millivolt
scale -more than what's needed
for tape- recorder work. As an alternative, if you choose to purchase a
surplus distortion analyzer (our next
topic), you may find that an audio
voltmeter is also built in to that
instrument.
As a final note on voltmeters,
many ordinary VTVMs and VOMs
(volt-ohm -meter) do have sufficient
frequency response to cover the
audio spectrum. An old favorite, the
Simpson Model 260 Series 4, for
example, has an AC frequency
response up to 500 kHz.
Next, let's take a look at distortion analyzers. Harmonic distortion
1
1
the standard distortion test and
calibration used by tape- recorder
manufacturers. Distortion analyzers
can be expensive new, but can
also be found from used /surplus/
hamfest sources. For example, the
modest but adequate Heath
Model IM -58 can still be found at
hamfests for about $30 to $45. While
it doesn't have specs as impressive
as the HP analyzers, such as the
Model 331A (which still sells for
about $150 or more), it can be used
quite effectively for all but the most
demanding measurements. It also
has a built -in audio voltmeter.
An oscilloscope is not absolutely
required for most tape- recorder
servicing. After all, armed with your
oscillator, distortion analyzer, and
audio voltmeter, you can perform
the necessary checks and alignments on a machine whose electronic components are functioning
well. However, if you don't have an
oscilloscope, "Murphy's Law" will
surely kick in. This will occur in the
form of a noisy pre -amp stage, or
the inexplicable loss of signal deep
within a record or play amp, or any
number of other maladies for which
the oscilloscope is a worthwhile, if
not required, diagnostic tool.
The subject of oscilloscopes usually conjures up notions of the family savings quickly evaporating. True,
a new, triggered- sweep, 50 -MHz
analog scope can set you back at
least $600 or so. The new digital
scopes, despite their small size, carry
is
Although they are not in fashion
anymore (translation: they can be
had cheap), if you find one that's
not rusty and that appears in good
cosmetic and functional condition,
it may provide you with many years
of flawless operation when used
judiciously. Just allow adequate
warm -up time (around 20 minutes
or so), and remember to switch it off
when you're done!
A good wow /flutter (W /F) meter
is indispensable for mechanical
adjustments and alignment. Very
briefly, W/F is a measure of shortterm speed accuracy; that is,
speed variations of less than one
second, up to about two seconds
(corresponding to a frequency
range of about 200 Hz down to
about 0.5 Hz). We'll get into this
much more in a later installment.
There are many different possible
causes for poor W/F have seen
good technicians virtually pulling
their hair out in vain attempts to correct W/F problems. There is literally
no way of doing this effectively without the assistance of wow /flutter
I
measurements.
The principal issue for those on a
limited budget is that used commercial W/F meters are rather
expensive and seldom found. This is
probably due to their restricted
application, and therefore relatively few being manufactured. When
you can find one, prices of $70 to
$150 are not unusual. Two popular
commercial models were the 3M
8160 and the (German) Woelke
ME -106, as pictured in Fig.4. Either of
49
restorations, or whether this is pretty
much a one -time event. Of course
I'm biased in this matter, but
believe this is an excellent hobby
it's a great way to increase your
overall understanding of mechanics and electronics in general, and
to gain a heightened appreciation and enjoyment of your tape
recorder specifically.
However, if you don't have the
time or desire to make a commit-
-
I
Fig.
S.
Here are carious nueasuremrvu tools used to check !elisions, speed, and wear.
these will do the job nicely. While a
sensitivity of 0.3% full scale is
acceptable, both of these particular units exceed that capability.
If budget or availability becomes
a problem, and time is not a pressure, here is another alternative:
Franklin Miller, as part of the audio
test-gear series currently running in
his "Audio Update" column in this
magazine, is scheduled to do a simple W/F meter in a future installment.
In fact, if you are comfortable doing
construction work, many of the
50
pieces of equipment outlined
above will be appearing in future
issues, and an audio oscillator has
already appeared (see "Audio
Update," Electronics Now, July,
September, and October 1997).
Other equipment you will need
includes tube /transistor testers and
power supplies (if you will be performing electronic repairs), a variable voltage AC transformer
( "Variac" is a common trade
name), a tape -head demagnetizer,
a soldering iron with a fine tip, and
various hand tools. In addition, to
perform mechanical adjustments
and to check manufacturer specs in
this area, you will need tension
gauges such as those pictured in
Fig. 5. Also shown in that photo is a
play -speed strobe wheel, and an
illuminated magnifier (less than $10
at Radio Shack), Finally, if you will be
restoring cabinetry, etc., you will
need wood- and metal- working
tools, plus strippers, cleaners, polish ers, and refinishing coatings.
The only other items needed are
tapes for test recordings, plus a
music source and playback gear
to check out your accomplishments. If you will be testing or
adjusting head alignment, equalization, or playback response, then
a standard alignment tape is very
desirable. More about this tape will
be covered in a future installment. If
you would like information on
obtaining an open -reel alignment
tape, write to the author c/o EC
Designs at the address given in the
"For More Information" box.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
This article is based on the new book,
Evolution of the Audio Recorder by the
author, Phil Van Praag. It contains over
500 pages of history, evolution, restoration, photos, and a price guide. It's available at $39.95, postpaid, from EC
Designs. P.O. Box 33. Genesee Depot, WI
53127.
ment to this, then you're probably
better off leaving the work to others.
It's possible to do great damage to
a tape recorder if improper repairs
are performed. In fact, technicians
will often charge more to work on a
machine if faulty repair efforts have
been made. Efficient repairs by professional technicians depend on
certain assumptions that are based
on previous experience coupled
with subtle observations during the
troubleshooting process. This process
can be seriously impeded if things
have been "stirred up" by someone
else. Adjustments might have been
disturbed, and components that
were still okay before the aborted
repair attempt might now be defective (bent, broken, shorted out, electrically or mechanically stressed
beyond their design limits, etc.). This
offen complicates subsequent repair attempts. So, read through the
repair and restoration descriptions in
the upcoming installments carefully,
and then decide whether this is
something you want to tackle.
In the next installment, we'll begin
the actual restoration process! See
you then.
Yours for only
Cost and Commitment. From a
cost standpoint, the equipment
described above would total about
$500 or less, if a conservative "used or build -only" strategy is followed.
Perhaps a more difficult decision to
be made is whether to invest the
time to acquire the knowledge
needed to perform the various
mechanical and electronic tasks
associated with repairs and restorations. Much of this, of course, will
have to do with whether you intend
to continue doing repairs and
$350
Prices includes
shipping!
HAVE A THOUSAND YUCKS FOR ONLY
THREE AND A HALF BUCKS! That comes
to one -third of a cent per laugh. Electronics
Comics is a compilation of over 125 riotous,
outrageous and phenomenal cartoons that
appeared in Popular Electronics and Electronics Now. Only $3.50 -price includes
shipping. Claggk, Inc., Reprint Bookstore,
P.O. Box 4099, Farmingdale, NY 117350793. All payments in U.S. funds. Sorry, no
orders outside U.S.A. and Canada. Check or
money order only -send no cash. NY state
residents add applicable tax.
MAO4
i2
BUILD THIS
PRECISION
VOLTAGE/
CURRENT
REFERENCE
Add this easy -to -build and inexpensive
accessory to your test bench for lab-quality
measurements and calibration.
SKIP CAMPISI
If you enjoy experimenting with
both linear and non -linear analog-electronic circuits, you've
probably gotten aggravated having to breadboard a precise reference circuit every time one is
required. A standard linear power
supply with variable voltage and
current limiting can sometimes be
used if the application is not too critical.
However, those methods leave a
lot to be desired when precise,
drift -free performance is required.
Wouldn't it be great if you had
such a piece of test equipment
available on your test bench to
handle such tasks?
The Precision Reference presented here has a typical stability of better than ±100 -parts-per-million-per-
degree Celsius when assembled
with the suggested components.
Even better, the cost of the ertire
project is less than the cost of a standard power supply! The outputs
include a voltage output that can
range between
millivolt and 10
volts, and a current output that can
be set anywhere from microamp
to 10 milliamps. A range -select
switch can set the output range to
1
1
0,1,10,100, or 1000 millivolts or microamps. Two independent 10 -turn precision potentiometers with turn
counters let each range be multiplied by through 10 according to
the dial setting.
Using the 1% metal -film resistors
specified, you can expect an accu1
racy of about 0.2% of the dial setting for the 10,100, and 1000 range switch settings. Typically, the accuracy is better than 0.1% overall. The
lowest range has an accuracy of
%, and it typically can be as good
as 0.5 %. A built -in 31/2 -digit LCD
panel meter can display the load
voltage present at either output. It
has its own range selector switch.
Fixed current limiting is provided
for the voltage- output section of the
circuit. That provides a maximum of
about 30 milliamps at the 10 -voltoutput level, increasing to about 80
milliamps at the 1- millivolt- output
level. This method has the added
benefit of short- circuit protection.
The current output has a variable "compliance" control in order
to protect any voltage- sensitive
devices being tested. The voltage
at the current output is adjustable
between about 1.5 volts at the minimum setting and about 11 volts at
the maximum position.
1
Circuit Description. -The Precision
Voltage /Current Reference design
can be divided into four basic sections: the voltage- reference inputs,
the voltage- current-reference outputs, the power supply, and the
panel -meter display.
The schematic diagram in Fig.
shows the simplicity of the circuit. A
-volt reference is supplied by Dl
to the current-reference circuit,
with D2 supplying a -volt reference to the voltage- reference
1
1
1
section. Both diodes are temperature- stable ICL8069 band -gap reference diodes. The -volt reference
from D1 appears on the wiper of R3
when R3 is set to its maximum rotation. At the minimum setting of R3,
100 millivolts appears. That voltage
is buffered by IC2, an LF356 JFET opamp. The buffered reference voltage is applied to Q1. Since Q1 is a
part of the feedback loop of IC2,
the reference voltage is placed
across the range resistor (R6-R9) as
selected by Sl -a.
Due to the high gain of Q1, the
output current at its collector is the
same as the reference voltage
divided by the selected range resistor.That output current is connected
to J1. The maximum output voltage
at J1 is set with R13 and Q2, which is
configured as an emitter follower.
The bias on D3 lets the output of IC2
stay in its active -voltage range.
-volt reference from D2
The
feeds the voltage divider corn posed of R17 -R21. The range from
that divider is selected by SI -b and
is buffered by IC1, a TLC271 CMOS
op -amp. It is configured as a non inverting amplifier with a variable
gain set by R24. High- current
capacity for the voltage output is
provided by Q3, a 2N2219 NPN transistor. It is a part of ICI's feedback
loop. Current limiting and short-circuit protection for Q3 is provided by
_
R26, a 100 -ohm, 2-watt resistor.
The power -supply portion of the
circuit is shown in Fig. 2. The power
1
1
normal 200 -millivolt range. One half
of S3 selects the range from the
divider network, while the other half
selects the proper decimal -point
location for the display.
O 13.5V
D1
R1
R2
1000
9530
ICL8069
Cl
1%
+
R3
10K
1000
R28
25K
1000
.
R6
100K
.1%
10
0100
R5
1K
R27
10K
1%
10K
.1%
R9
R4
1K
1%
1/35
R7
R8
1K
.1%
0
01
S1 -a
O-A-O 0
O
1/35
01
MPSA63
1M
R29
499K
D3
1N4148
1%
N
Wv
5
R11
1.8K
ici
TLC271
4
R26
Cs
R25
1K
.01
C7
.01
C4
1000
.1
C3
.01
1K
R10
25K
M C9
IF-
R12
JN10/Ir-
8
=
J1
Qo
.1
2W
02
-
MPSA63
C12
R13
10K
1
N
D4
R24
10K
1N4148
o;
AM
J2
1`
J3
R14
1000
R16
9530
D2
ICL8069
ó
51-b
00-0
o
5K
R23
R22
10K
1%
R21
1
MEG
.1%
R15
1000
10000
C6
1/35
C5
.o1
R20
100K
.1%
10
r,00
OR19
10K
.1%
R18
P17
5620
5490
.1%
.1%
'M
Fig. I. Although it might look complicated. the Precision Voltage /Current Reference is actually a
srraightfbrward circuit that is built around several high-precision op -amps. The circuit is easy to
calibrate using only an accurate digital voltmeter.
supply has some unusual design
features that are needed for the
circuit to work properly. There are
two isolated outputs: 13.5 volts for
the main circuit and 9 volts for the
digital -panel meter, DISP1. Because
DISP1 uses an on -board reference,
its supply must be completely isolated from the rest of the circuit!
The isolated outputs are achieved
by choosing a "split- bobbin" transformer for T1. That type of transformer
has two separate 120-volt primaries
and two separate 12 -volt secondaries. In effect, the transformer is
52 two separate transformers that share
a common core.
The input to the display circuit is
switched by S4. That lets the input
measure the load voltage at J1 (the
current reference) or J2 (the voltage
reference). The voltage is applied to
I04, a TLC271 CMOS op -amp wired
as a unity -gain buffer. The output of
IC4 drives another voltage divider
consisting of R34 through R37. The
output of IC4 is loaded by R38 so
that it can approach ground potential if needed.
The range of DISP1 is set by S3.
The
DISP1
resistor -divider network lets
display voltages beyond
its
Construction lips. The actual layout and construction of the Precision
Current /Voltage Reference is not
critical to circuit performance. However, following the guidelines mentioned here will assure success and
accuracy with the project.
Choose a suitably-sized cabinet
that will be big enough to hold all of
the circuitry and all of the controls.
The author's prototype was assembled in a sloping plastic cabinet
about 71/2- inches wide and 43/4 -inches deep. The cabinet's aluminum
top panel on which most of the
controls were installed is an excellent ground plane.
Point -to -point wiring was used on
standard 0.1- inch -grid perfboard
with copper-foil pads. The powersupply section was mounted on a
separate board, supported by
DISPI's mounting lugs. The power
cord enters the cabinet near the
supply with S2 mounted next to it. Be
sure to drill several ventilation holes
in the cabinet near the transformer.
The references and meter driver
were constructed on another
board; the voltage- current -output
sections are contained on a third
board. Both of those boards were
mounted away from the power -supply board in order to avoid picking
up any 60 -cycle "hum ". All of the
connections between the components on the boards were made
with 22 -gauge bus wire. Insulated
stranded wire was used for any connections between boards or anywhere there was a possibility that
the wires could come in contact
with another conductor. For the long
runs between the boards and the
panel components, the insulated
wires were twisted together in pairs.
Mount 0.1% metal -film resistors
R17 -R21 directly onto the appropriate lugs of S1 -b. One lead of R17
should be connected to a panel
ground lug. Mount R6 -R9 from S1 -a
to the lug on R13 that will be connected to the positive power
source. The positive lead of R26
should be connected directly to
that lug, also. Note that the 13.5-
volt power leads from all of the
boards, including the power supply,
should be run to that same lug. That
arrangement is called a "star"
because all of the connections
radiate out from one central point.
In that way, there is no accumulated resistance from the individual
wires if they were to be run sequentially from point to point in a "daisy chain" style.
Make a "star" connection for the
ground in the same way. Conrect
each board's ground lead to the
panel ground lug connected to
R17. The common -output ground
terminal, J3, should also be connected to that lug with a short
piece of bus wire. For best decoup-
before. You have the option of using
a 41/2-digit digital -panel meter
(DPM) at about twice the cost. If you
require further information on DPMs,
refer to the excellent article by Bill
Stiles in the October 1996 issue of
Popular Electronics magazine.
Install and wire DISP1 according
to its instruction sheet. Although a
typical hookup is shown on Fig. 2, you
should follow any recommendations
for the actual unit that you will be
using. Install R34 -R37 on the appropriate lugs of S3 -a. One lead from
R37 is connected to a panel ground
lug, as with R17 and SI -b. Wire S3 -b to
select the decimal point.
Before connecting 10 -turn preci-
ling, install bypass capacitors C9
and C12 right on the body of R26
with very short leads.
DISP1, a 31/2 -digit LCD-panel voltmeter, is available from many surplus
and overstock sources for less than
$10. Brand new units can be bought
the "dead space" at the ends of
their rotations must be eliminated.
Start by securely mounting R3 and
R24 in their holes on the top panel.
With a DMM, make a note of the
exact resistance between lugs
and 3 on R3.
Connect the DMM between lugs
and 2. Rotate R3's shaft until you
read exactly 10% of the previous
resistance. Take one of the 10 -turn
dial counters, set it for 2.00 (two
turns clockwise from 0.00), and lock
the setting. Install the counter on R3
from
several
major
mail -order
sources, but those sources might
charge $50 and up. The unit that
you choose should have a maximum input range of 200 millivolts,
and can be powered by an isolated
supply of 9 volts, as mentioned
120-VOLTS
AC
without moving the shaft. Check
the resistance on R3 once again to
be sure that the shaft hasn't moved
and lock the set screws securely.
Rotate the counter dial counterclockwise until it stops. You will note
that it now reads a couple of
"clicks" below 1.00. That shows that
the installation is correct. Rotating
the counter nine turns clockwise
will give an indication of 0.00, which
is to be taken as 10.00. Ten -turn
counter dials do not have the number "10" on their dial. Turning the
dial an additional clockwise turn
will indicate 1.00 again, which is
now equal to 11.00.
You can, of course, use a 15 -turn
counter dial for true indications.
However, the Precision Reference
might not work correctly beyond
the "10.00" setting because of the
design of the circuit. Using the
same techniques, install the other
counter dial on R24, and complete
the wiring of the controls.
Double check all of your wiring
and interconnections before calibrating the unit. Turn on the power
and check the 13.5-volt supply to
make sure it is within ±0.5 volt. If it is
over 14 volts, add an infra -red LED
in parallel with LED1. If it is under 13
sion potentiometers R3 and R24,
1
1
T1
IC3
LP24-100827
78L12
O
IN
5
+
+13.5V
OUT
GND
fC16
220/25
LEDI
S2
6
0
R30
25K
J1
0
VW-0
R31
499K
S4
R32
1K
+13 5V
1%
R34
100K
.1%
0
C15
.1
R35
10K
.1%
0.2
+)
(
2.0
S3-a
WIN
DISP1
(SEE TEXT)
2
-L-
R36
COM
DPCOM
-O
DP3
DP
IN
DP
S3-b
DP1
-O
DP2
DP
5620
J2
.1%
L
J
R37
R38
10K
5490
.1%
Fig. 2. The Precision Reference's power supply uses a split -secondary transformer in order to have
two isolated power sources in a compact size. The digital -panel meter allows for easy monitoring of
the outputs.
53
PARTS LIST FOR THE PRECISION
VOLTAGE/CURRENT REFERENCE
SEMICONDUCTORS
ICI, IC4- TLC271 orTL091 CMOS
op -amp. integrated circuit
IC2-LF356 JFET -input op -amp, inte
grated circuit
IC3 -78L12 voltage regulator, integrated
circuit (TO -92 package)
Q1, Q2-MPSA63 or MPSA64, PNP
Darlington transistor
Q3- 2N2219, NPN transistor
BR I-1 amp. 50 -volt bridge rectifier
-1 light -emitting diode, red
LED I
-1 % light- emitting diode (any
LED2
color)
DI. D2-ICL8069 band -gap reference
diode
D3, D4- 1N4148 silicon diode
D5
N5239B Zener diode, 9.1 -volts
D6- 1N4001 silicon diode
-T
-T
-1
RESISTORS
(All resistors are 'A-watt, 5% units unless
otherwise noted.)
RI, R15 -100 -ohm, single -turn trimmer
potentiometer
R2, R 16- 953-ohm, 1/4-watt, 1% metal film
R3. R24- 10,000-ohm. 10-turn, panelmount, precision potentiometer
R4-1000-ohm, 1/4-watt, 1% metal -film
R5- 1000-ohm multi -turn trimmer poten
tiometer
R6, R20, R34- 100,000 -ohm, 'A-watt,
0.1% metal -film
R7, R19, R35- 10,000- ohm, 1/4-watt,
0.1% metal -film
R8-1000-ohm, 1/4-watt, 0.1% metal -film
R9 -100-ohm, 1/4-watt, 0.1% metal -film
R10, R28, R30- 25,000 -ohm multi -turn
trimpot
Rll, R33- 1800 -ohm
Rl2, R25, R32 -1000-ohm
R13 -10,000-ohm, panel -mount, single-
volts, add a 1N4148 silicon diode in
series with LED] That will assure the
.
best operation of the Precision
Reference.
Calibration Procedure. The Precision
Reference needs to be calibrated
properly in order to get the most
benefit from the circuit. Although the
calibration procedure given here is
fairly straightforward, it should be followed exactly. The only tool you will
need is a good -quality 41/2-digit digital voltmeter. An accurate 31/2-digit
DVM will also work, but there will be
some loss of accuracy.
Turn on the power and allow the
unit to warm up for a minute or so.
54 Set S4 to connect J2 to the panel-
turn potentiometer
R 14 -100 -ohm
R17, R37-549 -ohm, 1/4-watt, 0.1%
metal -film
R18, R36-562 -ohm, 1/4-watt, 0.1%
metal -film
megohm, 0.1%, 1/4-watt, metal R21
film
R22, R27- 10,000 -ohm, 'A-watt, 1%
metal -film
R23 -5000-ohm multi -turn trimpot
R26 -100 -ohm, 2 -watt, 5 %, wire -wound
R29, R31-499,000-ohm, 1/4-watt, 1%
metal -film
R38- 10,000-ohm
-1
CAPACITORS
Cl, C6, C11, C13 -RF, 35 -WVDC,
solid tantalum
C2, C3, C5, C7, C8- 0,01 -p.F, ceramic disc
C4, C9, C10, C12, C15, C17-0.1-11F,
ceramic -disc
C14 47 p.F, 25 -WVDC, aluminum elec
trolytic
C16-220 -1.LF, 25 -WVDC, aluminum
electrolytic
-1
ADDITIONAL PARTS
AND MATERIALS
TI -Dual 12 -volt, 100 -mA secondary,
split- bobbin transformer
DISPI -31/2- or 41/2-digit liquid- crystal
display panel -mount voltmeter (see text)
-pole, 6- position rotary switch,
S 1, S3
panel- mount, non-shorting
S2- double -pole, double -throw toggle
switch
S4- single -pole, double -throw toggle
switch
J -J3- binding posts
10 -turn counting dials for R3 and R24,
case, line cord, wire, hardware, etc.
-2
1
a reading of exactly 10.000 volts.
millivolt and "tweak"
Switch Si to
R28 for a reading of exactly 10.00
millivolts. Note that that adjustment
is very sensitive. Return R24 to the
"1.00" setting and re -check your calibration results.
To calibrate the current- reference section, set S1 to microamp.
Connect the DVM across pins 2 and
3 of IC2 and adjust R10 for a reading
of exactly 0.00 millivolts. If you can't
get that setting, replace IC2. Set R3
to "10.00" and connect the DVM
between the 13.5 -volt "star" connection and the wiper of R3. Adjust
R5 for a reading of exactly 1.0000
volts. Reset R3 down to "1.00" and
adjust Rl for a reading of exactly
100.00 millivolts. As those last two
adjustments interact slightly, reset R3
back to "10.00" and note the reading. "Tweak" R5 again if necessary,
and recheck the reading with R3 set
at "1.00 ". Keep repeating the process until you are satisfied.
With S1 set to microamp, connect the DVM across R6 and set R3
to "1.00 ". The reading should be 100
millivolts. Advance R3 to "10.00" and
the reading should advance linearly with the counter dial up to a 1.00 volt reading. If not, replace IC2 with
a unit made by a different manufacturer. Some chips are known to
have problems working near theipositive supply rails. A good chip
should not have a problem working
with its inputs as high as 100 millivolts
above the positive rail.
Finally, connect the DVM in its current-measuring mode to J and J3
Set Si to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microamps and note the actual current
readings with R3 set at "1.00"
Repeat the process at "10.00" and
re- calibrate, if necessary.
1
1
1
1
display circuit. Range switch S3
should be set to the highest setting
(20 volts). Rotate R13 to its "off" position (the wiper connected to the
supply voltage) and set S1 to the 1millivolt range. Both R3 and R24
should be set to "1.00 ".
To calibrate the voltage- reference section, connect the DVM
across pins 2 and 3 on IC 1. Adjust
R28 for a reading of exactly 0.00 millivolts. Connect the DVM to J2 and
J3 and adjust R23 for a reading of
exactly 1.00 millivolt. Set S1 to 10,100,
and 1000 millivolts, noting the reading each time. If needed, "tweak"
R23 for accuracy over the entire
range. With S1 set at 1000 millivolts,
set R24 to "10.00" and adjust R15 for
To calibrate the digital- panelmeter section, set R24 to "1.00 ", S1 to
1000 millivolts, S4 to connect to J2,
and S3 to 2.0 volts. Connect the DVM
across pins 2 and 3 of IC4 and adjust
R30 for a reading of exactly 0.00 millivolts. Adjust the reference-calibration trimmer located on DISP1 as per
its data sheet for a reading of exactly 1.000 volts on its LCD display.
Check the readings on all other
ranges and "tweak" the trimmer as
needed for overall accuracy.
If the display refuses to go down
low enough to indicate the lower
output ranges, try swapping I04
with IC1, or replace IC4 altogether.
Maximum output swings for the
TLC271 can vary from unit to unit,
although they will normally go
down to within a few hundred
microvolts above ground.
Operating
Hints. The Precision
Voltage /Current Reference
is
extremely accurate and simple to
operate. Aside from the obvious
uses such as the calibration of analog circuitry, metering equipment,
and the like, the unit has many
other applications. Only a few
examples will be discussed here
you will surely find many others uses.
If you need to put high current
into a low- impedance load, you
might want to use "remote sensing"
to maintain an accurate load voltage. That is easily done by bringing
the lead from lug on R24 out to a
separate binding post rather than
connecting it to Q3 and J2. Likewise,
connect the ground connections of
R15 and R17, along with D2, C6, and
R22 to another binding post rather
than J3.
Run separate leads from J2 and
the binding post from R24 to one
side of the load, and separate leads
from J3 and the other new binding
post to the other side of the load.
For normal operation with a "light"
load, simply short J2 to its companion binding post and J3 to the other
binding post with short lengths of
solid bus wire. That will restore the
original connections and only two
leads will be needed for the load.
If long leads are used for "remote
sensing ", output instability might be
a problem. If that is the case, shielded cables should be used. Also,
increasing the value of C8 by one or
two decades might be quite helpful.
Of course, the Precision Reference makes an excellent oscilloscope calibrator. If you have a
dual -trace oscilloscope, you can
even use the Precision Reference
as a voltage- cursor display! Input a
signal into one channel of the oscilloscope and adjust the scope to
show a normal display. Set the
scope's attenuators to their "calibrated" position. Connect J2 and
J3 from the Precision Reference to
the scope's second channel. Set Si
to 0.0 millivolts and set the scope to
-
1
"alternate" or "chop" so that both
traces will be displayed superimposed on each other
The input signal from the first
channel will be shown on the
scope's display with a straight horizontal line through it. That line represents the "zero" -volt cursor from
the Precision Reference. By using
the second channel's vertical -position control, the zero cursor can be
moved to any position vertically on
the trace from which you wish to
begin your measurement.
Note the approximate signal voltage being displayed on the first
channel and set up the second
channel to display a similar voltage
available from the Precision Reference. Set S1 on the Precision Reference to the appropriate range
required and advance R24 until the
cursor reaches the measurement
endpoint. Since you already know
the approximate voltage from the
CRT display, it is a simple matter to
read the precise, actual voltage
from the Reference controls.
The current reference can be
easily used as a precision ohmmeter
simply by connecting the resistance
to J1 and J3. Leave R3 set at "1.00 ,
set S4 to read current from J1, set S3
to 2.0 volts, and raise compliance
control R13 so that there is no "compliance". Advance Si from to 1000
microamps and find the highest voltage reading that can be displayed
on DISP1. Dividing the voltage by the
current setting gives the resistance. If
you need to read higher or lower
resistance readings than normal, set
S3 to 200 millivolts or 20 volts and set
R3 to "10.00", if required.
The current source output can
also be used to precisely forward or
reverse bias a semiconductor junction, with the display measuring the
resulting voltage drop. Reverse voltages of up to about 11 volts can be
measured with R13 in the "off" posi-
tested by the Precision Reference.
It is quite easy to identify the package leads in laser diodes, as the PIN
photo-diode will have a forward
drop of about 0.7 volts, while the
laser diode will exhibit a forward
drop of about 2.0 volts.
You can also identify the leads on
bipolar transistors the same way. As
most emitter-base reverse- breakdown voltages on silicon transistors
are below 11 volts, the Reference
should be used at a setting of about
10 to 100 microamps to locate that
junction. The collector-base reverse breakdown voltages are usually well
above 20 volts. Of course, the forward voltages of both junctions are
tion. Zener diodes, signal diodes,
LEDs, and laser diodes are easily tested. Be sure not to exceed the maximum reverse voltage on the component or it will be destroyed. Light emitting diodes and laser diodes are
especially sensitive to reverse voltages. Keeping the reverse voltage
below 3 volts will protect most LEDs.
Laser diodes will not "lase" at
very low currents levels when being
of kids off drugs, out of gangs
about 0.7 volts.
As you can see, the Precision
Reference has unlimited applications. The display
is
only for showing
the load voltages at the current
source output -the voltage- source
output -control settings have much
more resolution than the 31/2 -digit
display. If you're more interested in
ultimate display accuracy, it's a
good idea to invest in a 41/2 -digit
digital -panel meter which will have
S2
higher resolution.
1
This card can stop a bullet.
It's only a
piece of paper, but
that little card up there carries
a
lot of weight. Keeping millions
and in school. To learn how you
can help the Boys & Girls Clubs,
call: 1e
800 -854 -Club.
Positive Place For Kairo
55
MULTICHANNEL TRIGGER
TABLE
(continued from page 36)
Count (S1 -b)
Trigger Function
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
1
arrangement for fitting the PC
board into the enclosure given in
Count 2 (S1 -a)
Every occurrence
Every second
occurrence
the Parts List is shown in Fig. 3. Using
a different case will probably need
a different arrangement. The only
requirement is that the switches
and jacks be readily accessible.
Using the Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger. To use the Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger; locate
a 5 -volt source and ground connection on the circuit you will be testing.
Attach the 5 -volt source to pin 14 of
J1, and connect pin
to ground. If
you didn't permanently ground the
enable input (pin 13), that pin
should also be either grounded or
connected to a signal that is low
during the time that you want to
trigger your oscilloscope.
As mentioned before, there are
three ways to use the Multichannel
Oscilloscope Trigger. The mode with
the fastest speed is the eight-bit
ON
OFF
Every third occurence
ON
ON
Every fourth occurence
mode. Operation at speeds over
100 MHz
is
possible. To use that
mode, set the qualifier and counter
switch in S1 to the off position and
set the S2 switches to the desired
pattern of on and off states. The
eight settings on S2 will be corn pared to the inputs on J1. A negative -going pulse will appear at J2
when a match is detected.
Probably the most common
mode of operation will be the 10-bit
mode. With that mode, you can typically decode a full byte of data on
a computer's data bus during a
read or write operation along with
an enable signal. The 10-bit mode
1
generated.)
In addition, rewind
playback, playing a video or film
backwards, is also impossible. This
shortcoming in the compression
coding of television broadcasts has
no place in the current video culture. Thus, MPEG's work began with
the search for compression- coding
standards under which channel surfing, fast -forward playback, and
rewind playback would be possible.
The eventual solution to this prob-
GREAT COMPRESSION
(continued from page 38)
on this discussion, the MPEG organization was formed in April 1988.
At the time, international corn pression- coding standards for video
telephones were already being discussed. Initially, MPEG members believed that adopting those standards for film and television compression would be a simple matter, but
their research turned up problems.
Figure 3 shows a moving image
reproduced using the motion -compensated interframe-coding method already described. The P (predicted) images are generated one
after another by incorporated data
about the portion of image (the
original image) that has experienced motion. Although this is a
very good method for compressing
data, it has one fatal flaw. That flaw
is that compression coding cannot
start from a P image, but only from
the original image. (This can be
compared to switching television
channels in the middle of a broadcast: Without the original image,
the subsequent P images cannot be
I
I
I
56
1
lem
shown in Fig. 4. As seen there,
is
the series of still images are broken
down into units of 12 to 15 photographs called a GOP (Group of
Pictures). The initial image is always
the original image. As long as there
is an
image, all the problems are
resolved. However, an original
image at the head of each GOP
cuts into the degree of compression
possible. To solve this problem, the
degree of movement from one still
image to the next is predicted using
not only the previous image but
future images as well. That is, the B
(bi- directional) frame is an image
created with motion compensation
from past and future P frames or the
frame. The fifth B frame, for
instance, was created with referI
I
I
works the same as the eight -bit
mode, except that it will only
decode at rates up to 50 MHz. To use
the 10-bit mode, the qualifier and
counter switch in S1 must be on.
To use the Multichannel Oscilloscope Trigger in the counter mode,
simply set the count switches as
shown in Table 1, The counter mode
lets the trigger output toggle on
every second, third, or fourth occurrence of a match on the input pins.
If you want to use the trigger to
qualify fewer than 8 or 10 inputs,
simply set the S1 switches for the
unused inputs to logic ones. The
internal pull -up resistors on IC1 will
automatically set the unused pins
to the same state, making them
valid. That will let the Multichannel
Oscilloscope Trigger pulse its output
based upon the other inputs.
To troubleshoot complex circuits,
you might want to have several units
available on your bench. Connecting the output of one device
into the enable pin of another will
let you see the state of some very
complex signal combinations.
S2
ence to the fourth and seventh P
frames. This technique serves to
both improve the accuracy of the
predictions and cut back on
amount of data required.
Faultless liming. Despite its technological breakthroughs, MPEG
would not have succeeded without
the benefits of good luck and good
timing. With the participation of
many top scientists and researchers
and under good, positive leadership, the standards were hammered
out in a short period. Due to the swift
movement, standardization coincided with the rise in popularity of the
Internet and the standards were
widely adopted.
MPEG is now firmly entrenched
as the compression method of
choice for a wide variety of audio/
video technologies
in
the
U.S.,
In
Japan, and throughout the world.
recognition of its technological
achievements and its wide acceptance, particularly in the area of
broadcast video, MPEG (including
its predecessor, JPEG) were awarded an Emmy by the U.S. National
Academy of Television Arts and
Science in October 1996.
SZ
ELECTZrnitE
lov.11104.14,fir
Books
Your Library
OR ON
when you join EBC
I
,..
f
II WI
T
,
If
ON
14441111=41441
070761'
12165
N
R (1
I
-
11160411
OSCI
1576568 S24.95
(
I
fluì
"414
r
'
l.2.1."113
172(92X
;21.95
rit/761T
i;
N ECH ANI
DIE VICES
117-.
AL
¡pRafip
1,13irqulif
(1H Ei
PERINI;
031791
8-6)10
9-10:
247 813.95
0501149 526.95
fIlIO
Ith0ITAL
RUMS
\ ...
ON
0)1114
.;
LFUM
Psiliattn
Warknrroo
--
1119151111
0177.11 54175
0236143 924 95
03501
0242553 524.95
044
01
7358768 11-195
u.
tLECAINICS
Understanding
Electricity and
Dec
'f,RCOT
.
.
9380767 53995
_
1110
w06as7r5a4
ODWA.IMON4*
167E472 S29 95
0582165 $19.95
033189S-K X 689.50
Hardcovertounts
a
as
1571469 618.35
348n75 124.95
2
nember of the lECTRONICS BOOK CLUB..
:HE
k
u1I enjoy
re latest
ecoining Club buletins evlty 3-4 weeks containing exciting olers
0428433 660.00
Hardcover
AlAIIM SIOOR
SfOIflY
C
RUH
on
beaks in the Feld at sauisgp of up to 50% off the regular publishers
Fins. If yoLwert the Main seIectin,o nothing and twill be shipped Womancall!. If you wan: another boot, or re Inok at all, simply return the reply form tc us
the date qpecilec. Youll have at Wst 10 days to decide. If you ever receive a
bok you do-ft went due :o late Avery of the bulletin, you can return c at DV
Expense. Vow cny obligtior is tc perchase 2 more books during the next 12
rsorths, afteywhich you lily carcelvoor membership at anytime And you'll be eli
gible for FREE BOOKS thn:tigli off Gcnus Book Program.
b
Ash ppinghardling :horge and soles ta: ma
leas otherwiee novd. Pubkher: Pricey
A
.1116V1
111111
0053553 650.00
9119018 632.95
3497060 534.95
0366946 1124.95
Hardcover
be added to all orders. All books are paperbac)
Security Systems
1997 EBC
I- card is tossing, write to:
Electronics Book Club
ri4SICI7 of Tit &draw-Hill Companies
EI Ba 549, Elnklick, OH 43004-0549
NI,
FHONE: 1-614-759-3666 Ia3Ca.m. to 5:00 p.m. EST Monday-Fridayf
HIM- -614-J59-374)(:4 hours
a
day,
7
and Nun
Mton.e,
days a week)
INTERIZT: wwwImakcl ubs.mcg raw-hi II.com
RPIE298
*
Busk
Electronics
Course
4
0717751 $19.95
0155593 622.95
1574815 519.95
1577564 624.95
59
JI1Fr1
I
USE THE FREE INFORMATION CARD FOR FAST RESPONSE
The ARRL Handbook
for Radio
Amateurs 1998 Edition
edited by Paul Danzer, N1I1
American Radio Relay League
225 Main Street
Newington, CT 06111 -1494
Tel: 860 -594 -0200 or 888- 277 -5289
Fax: 860 - 594 -0259
E-mail: pubsales@arrl.org
Web: www.arrl.org
$32
The 1998 ARRL
THE ARRL
HANDBOOK,
Handbook, the 75th
edition published by
the American Radio
Relay League, covers the state of Ama-
teur Radio as the
21st century approaches. Over the
course of 75 years,
this handbook has
meant many things to several generations of hams, engineers, and technicians. It's been an unimpeachable source
of reference data, project ideas, and electronics theory. The book has served as
an overview of what hams do and how
they do it. To the technician and engineer, the guide has been an invaluable
supplement to their reference books and
data sheets. For newcomers to the
hobby, it's provided a primer on the
modes and equipment hams use, as well
as an introduction to basic theory.
Among the new material in this edition are three items that are shown on the
front cover. They are N1TEV's superregenerative receiver, which readers will
enjoy building and using; K9EK's integrated L -band satellite antenna and
amplifier; and a high -power antenna
tuner by N6BV. In response to reader
comments on the last edition, this book
has been redesigned to be more userfriendly, with the addition of a mini -table
of contents and index tabs at the start of
each chapter.
The handbook is divided into 30
chapters grouped under five headings:
CIRCLE 338 ON FREE
INFORMATIONS CARD
60
Introduction, Fundamental Theory,
Practical Design and Projects, Construction Techniques, and Operating
Practices. In addition to the ones already
mentioned, projects include power supplies, RF power amps, modulators and
demodulators, receivers and transmitters, and antennas.
Since bundling a disk with the book
increased its cost, the software for the
book is now available separately. It can
be downloaded from either the ARRL
Web site above or from the League's
Hiram BBS, or it can be ordered for a
nominal cost.
Mouser Electronics Catalog
Mouser Electronics
958 North Main Street
Mansfield, TX 76063
Tel: 800-992 -9943 or 817- 483 -4422
Fax: 817- 483 -0931
E -mail: catalog@mousercom
Web: www.mousercom
Free
Updated and expanded to 356 pages,
the Mouser Electronics Catalog is an
excellent guide for
anyone who needs
electronic components. It offers over
69,000 products
from more than 135
of today's leading
electronic manufacturers. Free copies of the catalog or CD
can be obtained by using either the telephone or fax numbers, or the e-mail or
web addresses listed above.
In addition to the paper catalog, a
CD -ROM version is also available. This
user -friendly disk includes the entire
catalog cover-to- cover, a new -products
section, product and vendor listings, service options that offer order forms and
credit applications, a direct link to the
Web site, and over 1850 of their available spec sheets.
CIRCLE 339 ON FREE
INFORMATIONS CARD
Mouser has an established line of
quality electronic components from such
industry leaders as 3M, AMP, Amphenol,
Dale, Mallory, NEC, SGS-Thomson,
Spectrol, Sprague, Thomson -Passive,
and many more.
Now Hear This! Electronic
Eavesdropping Equipment Design
by Winston
Arrington
Sheffield Electronics Co.
P.O. Box 377940
Chicago, IL 60637 -7940
Tel: 773 -324 -2196
$65 plus S &H ($6 U.S.;
$8 Canada)
NOW HEAR THIS!
ELECTRONIC
EAVESDROPPING
EQUIPMENT
DESIGN
This 126 -page revised edition contains explanatory
text and 117 schem-
atic diagrams of
electronic
eavesdropping
CIRCLE 340 ON FREE
INFORMATIONS CARD
equipment. Knowledge of electronics,
including how to
build projects from a
schematic, is essential for building this
equipment.
In the introduction, the author discusses surveillance techniques and presents an extract from Title III, the law on
wiretapping and electronic surveillance.
There are plans for 29 crystal- controlled
transmitters of all types, 35 room -surveillance transmitters -both batterypowered and plug -in-and 32 telephone
devices. Schematics for phantom zero subcarrier transmitters, infrared units,
and high- impedance recorder activators
are also included. Each chapter starts
with a discussion of the theory behind
those devices, and their advantages and
disadvantages.
Counter-surveillance techniques and
countermeasure-detection equipment are
covered in detail. The chapter on counter-surveillance techniques is written by
Kevin Murray, an expert in the field.
TechAmerica Catalog
LèchAmerica
300 W. Third Street, Suite 300
Ft. Worth, TX 76102 -2905
Tel: 800-303 -4550 x2151
Fax: 800 -813-0087
Web: www.techam.com
Free
The recently published full -color 500-
page catalog from
CIRCLE 341 ON FREE
INFORMATIONS CARD
TechAmerica is designed to serve the
needs of small business and individual
purchasers. Readers
can easily order individual electronic
components, test
equipment, and specialized tools from
the extensive and comprehensive collection included here.
Seven new categories have been
added: home automation, home and auto
security, satellite products, computer
cables and switch boxes, video, weather
equipment, and metal detectors. Also featured is a collection of technical books,
do- it-yourself kits, and soldering equipment. Containing color photographs, indepth descriptions, and useful reference
materials, the catalog is a handy resource
of parts and components from resistors to
cables for hobbyists and electronics professionals.
anticipate, prevent, and solve problems.
Five key steps to successful troubleshooting are presented: collect information, localize the problem, isolate the
problem, correct the problem, and verify problem resolution. Each of these
steps is explained in detail, and methods
of putting them into practice are also
illustrated.
Directions on how to use this book
suggest that readers designing a new network begin at the beginning with Chapter
1. However, if there is a panic situation,
the place to start is Chapter 2. Chapter 3
goes on to give an overview on how to
form a network -maintenance strategy.
Useful appendices discuss important
aspects of networks. It is recommended
that people new to the field start by
looking at Appendix B: Operation. The
guidebook concludes with a glossary of
LAN terms.
The Troubleshooting Guide serves
both as a reference for networking professionals and an educational text for
novices interested in learning more
about network operation.
Catalog
97/'98
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
150 W. Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
847 -541 -3800
Fax: 847- 520-0085
E-mail: elenco @elenco.com
Tel:
Web: www.elenco.com
Free
Network Maintenance and
Troubleshooting Guide: First Edition
by Neal Allen
Fluke Corporation
P.O. Box 9090
Everett, WA 98206
Tel: 800- 44FLUKE or 206 -356-6600
Fax: 800- FLUKE -FAX or 206 -356 -5116
E -mail: fluke-info@tcfluke.com
Web: www.fluke.com/nettools
$29.95
Fluke Corporation
has published a 176 page reference guide
for troubleshooting
and
maintaining
local -area networks
(LANs). Written for
CIRCLE 342 ON FREE
the network admünINFORMATIONS CARD
istrator, MIS director, and others responsible for maintaining networks, the guide covers how to
operate a healthy network; and how to
ELENCO
azzlies
.-
The 25th anniver-
sary issue of
Elec==>r Elenco
tronics' 48 -page
color catalog is
now available. It
features trainers,
hand tools, oscillo-
scopes, power
CIRCLE 343 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
supplies, counters, generators,
multimeters, and breadboard accessories.
Educational kits of all types are also
included, such as robot kits, an electronic
keyboard kit, and a remote -control car
kit. Two radio kits complete with training
courses make excellent projects for the
classroom. Elenco specializes in building
kits for many of the largest schools in the
country.
Among the new products highlighted
in the catalog are the XK-700 deluxe dig ital/analog tester, a complete mini -lab for
building, testing, and prototyping analog
and digital circuits; a digital temperature
meter; and a function generator kit that
includes a training course on working
with surface-mount components (surface
mount components are used in the generator itself). Photographs and specifications are provided for each product.
HiQ
Brochure
National Instruments
6504 Bridge Point Parkway
Austin, TX 78730-5039
Tel: 512- 794-0100
Web: http: //www.natinst.com /hig
Free
This eight -page
brochure describes
National Instruments' HiQ interactive problem solving software
for technical pro-
fessionals. The
brochure highlights some of
CIRCLE 344 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
HiQ's hundreds of
built-in functions,
including data fitting, geometry, integral
equations, numerical integration, and
more. Advanced features include powerful
built-in analysis, data visualization, and
interactive report generation. Scientists
and engineers can use HiQ to generate
two- and three -dimensional graphs from
both data and functions and immediately
view the results. Users also can import
data from other applications, for example,
from Excel and LabVIEW. HiQ is available for Windows NT and 95 and
Macintosh. A free evaluation copy can be
downloaded from the National Instruments Web site, listed above.
The Futuretech Sourcebook
by Larry Ball
Futuretech
P.O. Box 6291
GulfBreeze, FL 32561
Tel: 850- 932-9682
$11.95 plus $3 S &H (Florida
residents, add 7% sales tax)
Locating parts and equipment is a problem for electronics professionals and
hobbyists. This directory of electronics
and technical vendors makes that problem easier to handle. The 63 -page booklet contains 394 categories, organized in
both table and index formats.
Most of the product lines of the mail order vendors, including transistors,
61
Fueteca
5,111'cebook
resistors, capacitors,
and oscilloscopes,
are listed. There is
information on the
types of products
carried; minimum
order requirements,
if any; if there are
toll -free numbers
and 'Web sites; and
if credit cards are
accepted. The organization of the tables makes it easy to
compare the product lines of various
companies, and it can eliminate the
need to order from multiple vendors to
assemble all the parts needed for one
project. In the alphabetical index, there
are 147 vendors -most of which were
previously cited, as well as over 30
additional specialized suppliers who
are only listed there. This index
CIRCLE 345 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
includes address, phone, and web
information; a short description of the
product lines; and anything of note
about the vendor.
NEW PRODUCTS
toi t¡oued from page 31
for use with Fluke LAN testers.
Accessories in each of the kits
include two 50 -ohm BNC cables; two
BNC -male -to- Grabber breakouts with
Minigrabber and Mini -gator test clips;
BNC termination plugs for 50 -, 75 -,
and 100 -ohm impedances; Type-N termination plugs for 50- and 75 -ohm
impedances; and eight BNC and Type N adapters.
All connection interfaces feature gold plated center contact pins and PTFE
dielectrics for high connection integrity
and reliability. Insulated in Teflon with a
tarnish- resistant brass shell, Pomona 50ohm coax connectors are typically rated
at 500 volts rms.
The Model 6201 and Model 6202 test
accessory kits are priced at $200 each.
iTT POMONA ELECTRONICS
1500 East Ninth Street
Pomona, CA 91766-3835
Tel: 909 -469 -2900
Fax: 909 -629-3317
Desktop FM Transceiver
R.L. Drake has returned to the
62 amateur-radio market with the TR270
This convenient booklet helps you
locate various items from air muscles to
custom -made crystals. You can even
find Van De Graff generators, voice
changers, and fog machines in these
pages.
Practical Robotics
Bill Davies
WERD Technology Inc.
Unit 35, Suite 155
10520 Yonge Street
Richmond Hill, Ontario
Canada L4C 3C7
$69
by
It is difficult to find information about
robotics. When you do find it, it is often
bits and pieces in many different places.
This book, the first in a projected series
on robotics, takes care of that problem
with a wealth of material on robotics,
both theoretical and practical.
It starts with an introduction to
the electronic equipment needed by
FM Transceiver. It is the only desktop
FM transceiver dedicated specifically
to two meter operation. Two radios in
one, the TR270 permits both full two meter capability (142 -150 MHz) and
independent dual-band reception (136174 MHz and 420 -470- MHz). This
broad range lets listeners hear public
service, marine, weather, and amateur
bands.
CIRCLE 25 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
Internal card slots are used for integrating 1200/9600 bps packet- radio,
satellite, weather-fax, and data reception. The optional TNC270 Terminal
Node Controller and DEMOD270
Demodulator plug -in cards fit neatly
inside the TR270. Those cards eliminate the need to jury-rig multiple
components together, as well as eliminate the tangled web of cabling that
often accompanies multiple pieces of
equipment.
Its five modes of operation provide
the amateur -radio user with a wider
raL LI( a]
Robotics
the robot builder,
such as oscilloscopes, meters,
and logic probes.
is followed
by a chapter reviewing basic electronics. The rest
of the book offers
That
detailed descriptions of the components used in
robotics -what they are and how to use
them. Power sources, sensors, force
transducers, motors, magnetic forces,
resistors, and capacitors are thoroughly
CIRCLE 346 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
explained and illustrated.
This 337 -page compendium is profusely illustrated with over 250 drawings and photographs. Useful appendices present a bibliography of robotics
publications and a list of manufacturers
and suppliers. Aimed at students primarily, it will also be a handy reference
for hobbyists, teachers, and professionals- anyone interested in robotics.
as
variety of options than previously found
in one transceiver. This transceiver
caters to the preferences of the operator
and can be customized to meet the individual user's needs. Selecting filters, setting memory scan, or customizing channel lists for both receiver and transmitter can easily be done with setup menus
and front-panel inputs. The TR270
boasts 400 total channel memories, and
it can remember favorite frequencies in
voice, satellite, or data modes.
The unit comes with a built-in 140 watt, 115/230 VAC switching power
supply, and has three jacks: external
audio -in, external speaker, and telephone. Other features of this unit
include an external DC input for mobile
or emergency -power operation and a
transmit time -out timer. DTMF and
CTCSS tone-encoding and decoding
ability for both two -meter and wideband
receivers is also provided. Among the
accessories included with this Drake
transceiver is a high -quality dynamic
microphone.
The TR270 FM transceiver retails
for $999.
R. L. Drake Company
230 Industrial Drive
Franklin, OH 45005-4496
Tel: 513- 746 -4556
Fax: 513- 746-4510
/
Web: http: /www.rldrake.com
BY SAM GOLDWASSER
Printer and Copier Basics
THIS MONTH, WE ARE GOING TO DO SOMETHING THAT'S A
LITTLE DIFFERENT: RATHER THAN DEALING WITH SPECIFIC
SERVICING PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS,
WE ARE GOING TO PRE-
SENT A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER PRINTERS AND HOW THEY
work. Note that some of the following
information was sent to my Web site by
others; in those cases, I have given credit to the original contributor.
Let's start off by taking a look at dot -
matrix printers. In that printer, a set of
steel pins-as few as 9 and as many as
24-strike the paper through a fabric or
carbon -film ribbon. The pins are activated by solenoids that are controlled by the
printer's control logic. Multiple passes
are sometimes used to increase the effective number of pins and improve print
quality (letter versus draft mode).
For text, an internal character generator (ROM) converts ASCII codes to pin firing patterns. For arbitrary graphics, the
actual bitmap is read out and used to control the pin drive. The paper, carriage,
and sometimes ribbon movement are all
controlled by stepper motors. Those
motors, their drivers, or the interconnect
cables, are the most common problem
areas. Note that dot -matrix printers are
about the only type of impact printers
still in wide use, and fewer and fewer are
being sold each year.
Ink -Jet Printer Basics
Much of what follows on ink -jet printers comes from Tony Hardman
(tony@f54x19.demon.co.uk): There is a
US publication called The Hard Copy
OBSERVER from Lyra Research Inc.,
Tel: 617 -322 -0708. It discusses the latest
technologies and who does what. It may
not cover the print -head technology in
very great detail, but it is still a good read
if you are into print technology in general. There are many companies that sell
variable print processes. One I have heard
of is RALFLATAC. They publish a
brochure that presents an excellent brief
of most technologies available for print-
DOT-MATRIX PRINTERS are the only type
of impact printers widely sold today.
ing. They have locations in the UK (and
around Europe) and the US. By telephone, you can reach them in the UK at
01732 -583661, and in the US at 704684 -3931. I have no idea if you can get
copies of either publication from them, so
here is a very brief description:
There are two main types of ink -jet
printing -continuous ink jet (CU) and
drop -on- demand (DOD) impulse printing. Each of those can use either a single
jet or an array of jets. CU is a continuous
jet of ink cycling round a system and
occasionally (when required) a drop is
deflected out of the stream onto the
paper. The stream is modulated to break
it into a consistent drop size. The deflection works like the beam on an oscilloscope. If you charge one drop and pass it
between two high -voltage plates, it is
deflected. This system also requires cunning mechanics, but the support electronics is much more complex, and probably one of the reasons for its performance limitations; the calculations of the
aerodynamics of drops being deflected is
no small task, even if look -up tables are
used. For the most part, CIJ, as a single
jet, is used in high -speed industrial applications, such as product marking (sell -by
dates, serial numbers, etc.).
In contrast, DOD most often uses an
array of small jets and is the system used
in most desk -top printers. In principle,
DOD works like a dot-matrix pin printer,
but instead of firing a pin at a ribbon, a
drop of ink is fired at the paper. The drop
is fired by either a piezoelectric crystal
squeezing the ink out of a small tube, or
by boiling the ink and having the vapor
force the ink out of the chamber. The key
to both of those processes is in the
mechanical design of very small components. The control electronics is a bit cunning, too, but I figure that is the easy bit.
How Many Colors?
I use a Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 680C
in the office. It has two cartridges: one for
black and one for color. If the printer fires
one drop of each ink at a given point, we
can have only six different colors (ignoring white and black). If it can fire two or
more drops at a given point, maybe we
can have more colors, but I suspect that
the printer uses this to control the quality
of the presentation, not the number of
colors (does anybody knows for sure ?).
With dithering it can make more colors,
with reduced resolution.
63
As in most print processes, you only
have a limited selection of inks to use. Full
color can be derived from three colors,
just like a monitor. For monitors, those
colors are red, green, and blue because
monitors emit light, resulting in an additive color process. Inks, on the other
hand, absorb light, so printing is a subtractive process. The resulting inks should
then be cyan (blue plus green or blue
minus red), magenta (red plus blue or red
minus green), and yellow (red plus green
or red minus blue). Therefore, the colors
used in common ink -jet printers are not
really capable of producing true full-spectrum, photo -realistic quality since they
are red (not magenta), blue (not cyan),
and yellow. Those inks are optimized for
nice saturated primary colors when used
independently. One of the newest color
inkjet printers is the Epson Stylus Photo.
It uses a five -color ink cartridge, in addition to black, to create high -quality realistic color images.
From Tony Hardman comes the following: If you can vary the drop size, you
can change the drop spread on the paper.
That can be done by firing bigger slugs of
ink, or multiples of the drop at the same
position. As you can understand, the ink
will either spread and make a bigger
drop, or stay the same size and become
denser. Depending on the resolution you
want, either technique could improve
color density, depending on two key
components: the ink, and the paper.
The problems with laying down multiple drops on paper is that if you do a
large block, the paper will curl and the
overall image becomes worse. That is
why you can pay as much as $1 for a sheet
of really high-quality, really white paper.
Another problem with this is speed.
Firing two drops in the exact same place
is difficult unless the head is stationary,
but that is not good either. You may
notice that most DOD printers operating in their high -resolution mode do a
number of passes over the same place.
That allows dithering and other techniques that improve resolution/color
enhancement. These printers usually
only print while going in one direction
for improved mechanical control.
Inks are a problem too. They can dry
at different rates because of the different
dyes used, or they may not mix the way
you expect if you place two colors on top
of each other. It's only ink, but to get the
best balance of surface tension, drying
time, viscosity, color, stability and more
64 is not as straightforward as it might
THE HEWLETT -PACKARD DESKJET 680C
has two ink cartridges: One for black ink and
one for the three color inks.
THIS COLOR INKJET PRINTER from Epson
uses a five-color ink cartridge (plus black) to
provide more realistic colors.
seem. I have noticed that the water-based
inks are improving, and there are some
that do not run if they get wet (after drying on the paper).
Laser Printers
Some of the information in this section was sent to me by Copenhagen
Cowboy (cowboy@fastlane.net): Copiers
and laser printers have a lot in common.
The major difference between them is in
how the image is formed on a photosensitive drum. .A copier uses a bright light
and lens to focus an image of the original
(actually, a strip at a time is scanned in
most modern low- to medium- performance copiers) onto the drum. Adjusting
the lens -to- original and the lens -todrum distance is used to vary the reduction or magnification.
A laser printer uses a low -power,
sharply focused laser beam to scan one
line at a time on the drum. Modern laser
printers use infrared, solid -state laser
diodes similar to those used in CD players and optical disk drives. The digital
image is generated from a bit map stored
in the printer's memory and modulates
the laser beam. Scanning is mechanical
a high -speed motor spins a multifaceted
deflection mirror to get the X -axis, and
the paper moves to get the Y axis. LED
"page printers" use a large array of LEDs
as the image source, but are otherwise
similar to laser printers. Plain -paper fax
-
machines also use similar techniques in
their printing mechanism.
The only other significant difference
between copiers and laser printers is that
copiers use a positive process (dark areas
in the original result in marks on the
paper) and laser printers commonly use
a negative process (a spot of light results
in a dark mark on the paper).
The photosensitive drum is the heart
of the laser printer or copier. In larger
machines, it may be a separately replaceable unit. In many laser printers and
smaller copiers, it is part of the toner
cartridge and is a throw -away (or could
be recycled). The drum is coated with a
photosensitive material that has an
extremely high resistance when in darkness. Its resistance drops to a low value
when illuminated.
All of the following takes place as a
continuous process as the drum rotates.
Note that the actual photosensitive
drum in most copiers and laser printers
has a circumference that is much smaller than the length of the printed page.
Therefore, only a portion fits at any
given time; and the charging, exposure,
transfer to the paper, cleaning, and erasing is a continuous process.
The drum's surface is charged to a
high positive voltage (typically 5 to 6
kilovolts DC) by a set of charging corona wires in close proximity to the drum.
The exposure process differs for copiers
and laser printers.
For copiers, a swath of the original is
focused onto the drum. As the drum
turns, a quartz lamp and strip mirror
moves along the original, with a second
strip mirror moving at half the speed of
the first. The result is that the entire original image is kind of "peeled" onto the
rotating drum. (Look through the glass
platform that supports the original as the
machine is copying, and you will see what
I mean.) For laser printers, the negative
image of the page stored in the printer's
buffer memory (the laser is turned on
where the print is to be black) is read out
and scanned onto the drum one line (e.g.,
'/600th of an inch) at a time.
' /300th or
Where the light hits the drum's surface,
its resistance drops dramatically and the
charge in those areas is dissipated.
Regardless of the machine type, at
that point, a swath of the image of your
ultimate copied or printed page resides
as areas of electrostatic charge on the
drum. That is a "latent" image and must
be "developed."
As the drum continues to turn, the
Paper is then transported to the fuser,
which fixes the toner to the paper via heat
(to soften the toner particles) and pressure (to embed them in the paper fiber).
There are parts in the fuser that also keep
the paper from sticking to the hot rollers.
latent image rotates past the developer
unit, which contains a mixture of developer and toner. For the most part, developer is not really used up during the
printing process, but some is lost and
may need to be replenished from time to
time (depends on the machine's design).
Developer is a material that includes
powdered iron or another powder that is
attracted by a magnet. Toner is the actual ink and consists of very finely powdered, thermoplastic particles. Those are
"fixed" in the fuser by literally melting
the image onto the paper. Depending on
design, the developer material may be
separate or actually combined with the
toner. A magnet in the developer unit,
which is as long as the page is wide, causes the developer along with trapped
toner to stand out, following the lines of
force off of its long N -S pole pieces.
That forms a kind of brush of toner and
developer material that is in contact with
the drum as it rotates with its latent
image. Normally, the developer -material
brush is C- shaped, and toner particles
are carried in the C-shape (the back of
the "C" is against the drum).
Here is where the developing processes of copiers and laser printers differ. For
copiers, the relative charges of the drum
and toner are set up so that toner is drawn
to the unexposed (dark parts of the original) portions of the drum resulting in a
positive image on the paper. For laser
printers, the relative charges of the drum
and toner are set up so that toner is drawn
to the exposed (where the laser beam was
turned on) portions of the drum resulting
Finally, your copy or printed page is
ready. However, we are not completely
done as there is still some toner on the
drum
is not possible to get it all off
electrically
there is usually a rubber
or plastic blade that rubs in direct contact
with the drum. That drum blade scrapes
the toner off the drum, and the recovery
blade catches it to keep it from falling
back into the machine. A used -toner
auger transports the used toner, which is
now changed both physically and electrically, and is also contaminated with paper
in a negative image on the paper.
The drum c'ontinues to rotate around
and comes in contact with the paper.
Below the paper is another corona, the
"transfer corona." Another high voltage
is applied to the back of the paper
(around 7 or 8 kilovolts DC) to draw the
toner from the drum to the paper.
Remember, all that is going on in a continual cycle and it is all in motion.
Depending on the manufacturer of
the machine, there may or may not be a
third corona, the "separation corona ".
That is needed to separate the paper from
the drum, but not disturb the toner on
the paper. The separation corona is usually at around 4 or 5 kilovolts AC (if it was
DC, you would separate the paper from
the drum, but will have very smeared
toner all over the page, making it unreadable). The separation corona usually has
guides over it to keep the paper from dipping down too far into the corona shell.
dust. Don't reuse your used toner,
because it will eventually damage the
developer unit, cleaning blades, fuser sections, and other parts of the mechanism.
Now that all the toner has been
scraped off the drum, there is still some
residual charge on the drum from the
previous exposure process. You obviously can't scrape the static charge off the
drum, so the cleaned drum is now fully
exposed to a bright light to discharge
the drum surface and prepare it for the
next charge.
That is the basic process. Many variations are possible and, depending upon
the machine and manufacturer, some of
this may be a little different in your printer or copier. Where a toner cartridge is
used, many of the components mentioned- typically the drum, the toner and
developer (usually combined into a single
powder), developer magnet, cleaning
blades, and some of the corona wires-
A thermostatically-controlled quartz -
tube lamp provides the heat inside the
anti-stick (Teflon -coated) fuser roller.
are part of that cartridge and are replaced
each time the cartridge is changed.
Wrap Up
Well, I told you that it was going to
be different this time. While we did not
get to any hard -core servicing information, I felt that, since so little information
on printers is readily available, the information I did have was worth presenting.
Anyway, that's all for this month.
Between now and my next column, why
not visit my sci.electronics.repair FAQ
site on the internet at www.repairfaq.org.
If you wish, you can reach me directly via
e -mail at sam @stdavids.picker.com. See
you next time.
Timid about getting on the..
isseissolsoromo°0r1..
LASER PRINTERS, like this one from
Hewlett- Packard, work very much like laser
copiers, though there are some significant
differences.
-it
-so
.
World Wide Web?
You've heard about the Information
Superhighway and all the hype that goes
with it! Sort of makes you feel timid about
getting on the Web. Put your fears aside! A
new book, The Internet and World Wide
Web Explained, eliminates all the mystery
and presents clear, concise information to
build your confidence. The jargon used is
explained in simple English. Once the tech talk is understood, and with an hour or two
of Web time under your belt, your friends
will believe you are an Internet guru!
To order Book #403 send $6.95 plus $3.00 for
shipping in the U.S. and Canada only to Electronics
Technology Today Inc., P.O. Box 240, Massapequa
Park, NY 11762 -0240. Payment in U.S. funds by
11.S. bank check or International Money Order.
Please allow 6 -8 weeks for delivery.
BUY BONDS
WINDOWS 95
-One
Step at a Time
Don't know what to do
when confronted with
Microsoft's Windows 95
screen? Then you need
a copy of
Windows 95-
One Step at a Time.
Develop your expertise
with the straight -forward
presentation of the frequently -used features that make Windows
95 so valuable to the PC user.
To order Book BP399 send $6.95 plus $3.00 for
shipping in the U.S. and Canada only to
Electronics Technology Today Inc., P.O. Box
240, Massapequa Park, NY 11762 -0240. Payment
in U.S. funds by U.S. bank check or International
Money Order. Please allow 6 -8 weeks for delivery.
65
Au
I
UPDATE
BY
FRANKLIN J. MILLER
Building a Capacitance
Substitution Box
IF YOU WERE INTERESTED IN THE RESISTANCE SUBSTITUTION BOX WE DESCRIBED IN THE DECEMBER
1997 ISSUE,
IT
IS
LIKELY THAT YOU HAVE BY NOW BUILT IT AND PUT IT TO WORK.
THIS MONTH, WE WILL SHOW YOU ANOTHER USEFUL ACCESSORY
for audio testing. It is a capacitance-sub stitution box, or C box; it is very similar
to the R-box, and it too will help make
your audio -testing chores easier.
punching in the capacitance value you
need using the pushbutton pad. The
selected value then appears across the terminals labeled CX at the top of the unit.
A Capacitor-Substitution Box
Our C Box provides capacitance outputs from 10 pF to 11.1110 µF just by
pushing the appropriate combination of
buttons on the front panel. If you decide
to build the box, be sure to use only precision components. Particularly, close
capacitor tolerances are a must. Ideally,
you need 1% components to make a very
accurate box. Unfortunately, such tolerances are nearly impossible to find, and
what is available is very expensive. To get
around this problem, I purchased a large
number of readily available 20% tolerance ceramic -disc capacitors. Then I
measured them carefully with a capacitance bridge, and I selected sets of capacitors that came closest to the needed values. I also made sure that they all fell to
the same side of the optimum value. I
know that this is a time- consuming
process, but it is the only practical way to
get the precise values of capacitance you
need if you decide to build the box without the benefit of the available kit (see the
Parts List). The parts in my kit are selected in the fashion described, and all of the
capacitors swing in the same direction so
their actual values track.
A photograph of the finished unit is
shown in Fig. 1. Just like the R-box, you
select the value you want to use by simply
10,
10
110
1-
FIG.
HERE'S HOW THE C -BOX will
look when finished. As you can see, the
look its very similar to December's R -Box.
Note that the unit is labeled in nanofarads (nF) rather than the more familiar
microfarads (µF). (Actually, outside of
this country, capacitors are often marked
in nanofarads rather than microfarads).
To make the conversion, just move the
decimal point three places to the left.
For example, 562 nF is 0.562 µF.
Now, let's see how we would get the
C Box to output that 562 nF. If you built
or remember our R Box you have a head
start, as the process is pretty much iden-
tical. First, you would push the 4 key and
the 1 key in the row above 100 nF-that
gives you 500 nF at the terminals. Then
you would depress the 4 key in the 10nF row and the 2 key in the same row.
That adds 60 nF to the 500 nF. The
switches stay down, and the selected
value is available across the CX terminals. For the final 2 nF, push the 2 button in the 1 -nF row. It is just that easy.
Putting It Together
The complete schematic for the substitution box is shown in Fig. 2. For easiest construction, a PC board is recommended and is provided elsewhere in this
column. The parts-placement diagram
for that board is shown in Fig. 3. As indicated there by the dotted lines, the capacitors are all mounted on the foil side of
the board; that's done to make the entire
assembly as compact as possible. The
switches mount on the component side of
the board in the usual manner.
Note that both the PC pattern and
the schematic show DPDT switches,
although only one section of each is
used. Those switches are used because
they are easier to find than latching
SPDT pushbuttons; they are probably
less expensive, too.
Construction is straightforward. All
24 switches mount right on the PC
board. Make sure that you insert them so
that they fit flat and tight against the
board. This is important! If you do not
get it right, the knobs will not fit properly through the top plate. Note: If you
elect not to use the available kit, make
sure you select an enclosure that is deep
enough to accommodate the switches
that you do use. The critical dimension
here is the depth of the box; it should be
deep enough so that when you mount the
PC board inside, the switch buttons pro-
S1
He--
p-
S5
.
C1
tOpF
C9
i
100pF
¡
inF
O
O
C13
i
Cf
K
C17
i
1
O
1µF
1
¡
o-
O-
K
C21
100nF
10nF
¡
-U 6
0-
>-
.
0
C5
i
S17
3,3
S9
OUTPIJ
O-
RED
o--IF----
2
S6
S10
C,
C2
20pF
d
'
d
oS4
4
-IF--
S8
-d
10pF
CJ
S15
K
o
-ó oo
K
C8
400pF
i
1y-
100pF
.
K
.
S16
.
C12
4nF
o
;
Ip-
K
S19
o
.
S20
o
i
-ó o-
q0-
10nF
100nF
1nF
1
21IF
-Cf O-
O-
K
623
o
K
C20
400nF
S24
.
;
BLACK J
GREEN
4r
K
C23
3µF
1
-d
-o' 0C16
40nF
o--IEC
K
C19
300nF
o o-
-ó o-
o-
-O
K
S22
C18
200nF
C15
30nF
3nF
S12
o
K
O-
C11
¡
o-
j
o
300pF
o
C4
40pF
o-
S11
C7
I
o-
S18
C14
20nF
i
2nF
K
C3
o
K
C10
d
O-
S7
30pF
o
I
200pF
¡
----
3
,
K
C6
r
S14
-..
o-
C24
4µF
1
1µF
FIG. 2 -AS YOU CAN SEE IN THIS SCHEMATIC, the C -Box circuit is simply a combination of capacitors and switches.
J
7
J1
U
S12
S8
S4
C4i
C
N
U
(D
N_
C
U
1J3
Ú
rn
U
i
S3
I
S7
S15
S11
N
U
U
U
U
S24
S20
S16
S23
S19
C31
1
CsI
C2
a
U
Lr)
U
Cl
S1
SID
S6
S2
S5
S14
S13
S22
S18
U
U
S9
N
U
U
U
U
U
Ú
S17
S21
FIG. 3 -WHEN BUILDING THE BOARD, remember that the switches go on the component
side of the board, and the capacitors go on the foil side.
trude far enough through the top plate
for you to attach the switch knobs. Once
the switches are in place, mount the
capacitors on the foil side of the board.
Do not install J1 J3 at this time.
Once you have mounted all of the
components (except J1 J3), carefully
inspect the PC -board assembly for the
usual construction errors. When you are
satisfied all is well, put it aside for the
time being.
The next step is to apply the front panel overlay. If you choose to buy the
kit, an overlay and pre -punched enclosure are provided. If you elect not to use
the kit, you should create your own
overlay. The appropriate markings can
be seen in the photograph back in Fig. 1.
If you want a drilling guide for the front
panel, use the one for the R -Box, which
was shown in Fig. 4 in the December
1997 issue. It is identical to the one for
this unit. In fact, when we get around to
building an inductance box (L Box) in a
future issue, it too uses the same drilling
pattern.
The overlay supplied with the kit has
an adhesive backing. To ensure that it
will adhere properly, you must make sure
that the front panel is very clean. A small
amount of acetone, which can be purchased at any paint store, will do the job
nicely. It will remove any grease or dirt
that might interfere with attaching the
overlay. Since its vapors can be hazardous, make sure you are in a well -ventilated area when you work with acetone.
Now you need a small bottle of water
with a spray attachment. It will allow you
to move the overlay around for precise 67
0
PARTS LIST
CAPACITORS
(All capacitors are 20%. 50 -volt, ceramic
disc, selected as described in the text to
get the 1% values needed.)
C1 -10 -pF
C2-20 -pF
C3 -30 -pF
C4 10 -pF
C5- 100-pF
C6- 200-pF
C7- 300-pF
C8- 400-pF
C9
-nF (0.001 -µF)
C10
-nF (0.002 -µF)
C11
-nF (0.003 -RF)
-nF (0.004 -RF)
C12
C13 -10 -nF (0.01 -p.F)
C14 -20 -nF (0.02 -µF)
C 15 -30 -nF (0.03-11F)
C16-40 nF (0.04-RF)
C17-100-nF (0.1 -p F)
C18-200 -nF (0.2 -µF)
C19-300 -nF (0.3 -p F)
C20 400 -nF (0.4 -RF)
t_o
o
-1
-2
-3
-1 -µF
-2
-3
-µF
C22
C23
-µF
C24--4 -µF
ADDITIONAL PARTS
AND MATERIALS
S1 S24- Pushbutton switch, DPDT, see
text
J1 -Banana jack, red
J2 -Banana jack, black
Banana jack, green
Switch knobs (four each black, red, yellow, green, blue, and white), enclosure
(see text); PC board, top-panel overlay, hardware, wire, solder, etc.
Note: The following items are available
from Franklin J. Miller, 2100 Ward
Drive, Henderson, NV 89015. A complete kit, including pre -drilled aluminum case, front -panel label, pushbutton knobs, PC board and all other
components, for $95.00 postpaid.
J3-
placement. Place both the front panel
and the overlay in front of you, with the
three holes at the top. Remove the overlay backing and align the upper-left corner of both pieces. Once the label is
aligned, gradually smooth the balance of
the overlay down using the side of your
hand. After this is done, use an orange
stick (available in the beauty section of
any supermarket) as a rolling device to
get out all the bubbles. Let the front
panel dry overnight to be sure all of the
water has evaporated. Do not use heat! It
will ruin the overlay material.
The next step is to put the knobs
68 (supplied with the kit) on the switches.
D
O
13-6
-4
C21
i
a b b -b a
l4° ietle 1
Da CI
(LI
o-
op-6
0-
0
p-,
0
0
0
121:1_
a
D-
0
4
O
d
0
D
ö4
d4
04
c BOx
o
o
?-
o
2 7/8- INCHES
USE THIS FOIL PATTERN when building the C -Box.
Position the PC board in front of you,
with the three pads for J1, J2 and J3
toward the top. There are four rows and
six columns. Use black buttons for the
first column, on the far left. As you go to
your right, use the red, yellow, green,
and blue buttons in order for each row.
Use the white buttons for the row on the
extreme right, and you are done. Note
that the buttons will just snap on. As you
install each one, be sure that you hear a
snap, indicating that each button knob is
properly seated.
Now install the banana jacks through
the front panel. Go from left to right and
insert red, black, and green, in order,
tightening the nuts that hold them in
place as you go. There are four 2.5 -mm
x 10-mm long screws, four 'Is -inch long
spacers, four nuts, three lock washers,
and one ground -lug washer that are
inserted in each one of the four corners
of the front panel. Insert the four screws
and turn the assembly over (put a small
piece of cardboard over the top to hold
the screws in place while you do this).
Slip the spacers over the screws. Now the
PC board should fit onto the spacers, followed by the lock washers in three corners and the ground -lug washer in one.
Finally, place the nuts on the screws and
tighten them only finger tight. Turn the
unit over to be sure that all of the push
buttons work without any problems.
Once that is confirmed, tighten the four
screws and nuts to the final fit. Now you
can solder the banana jacks to the PC
board. The last step is to assemble the
rest of the case.
You have just built a very important
test fixture. The C -box is extremely useful when you need to find out about passive and active filters. Also, capacitors
determine the low- and high -frequency
response of amplifiers. Next time, we
will put our new C -box to work.
THE COLLECTED WORKS OF
MOHAMMED ULLYSES FIPS
#166 -By Hugo Gernsback.
Here is a collection of 21 April
Fools Articles, reprinted from
the pages of the magazines
they appeared in, as a 74-
page, 8,4 x
11 -inch
book.
The stories were written between 1933 and 1964. Some k
of the devices actually exist
today. Others are just around the corner. All
are fun and almost possible. Stories include the
Cordless Radio Iron, The Visi- Talkie, Electronic Razor, 30 -Day LP Record, Teleyeglasses and
even Electronic Brain Servicing. Get your copy
today,. Ask for book #166 and include $16.00
(Includes shipping and handling) in the US
and Canada, and order from CLAGGK Inc.,
P.O. Box 4099, Farmingdale, NY 11735-0793.
Payment in US funds by US bank check or International Money Order. Allow 6 -8 weeks for
delivery.
MA05
SUPPLEMENT TO ELECTRONICS NOW FEBRUARY 1998
EIe,trvnii
SHOPPER
The things you'll need for building,
trouble- shooting & repairing your
electronics projects
.. Test
Equipment ...Wire /Cable/ Connectors ..
Reference Materials
Crimpers
Workbenches & Static Control ..
Solder /Desolder Stations ..
and everything else you need to do your job.
Tool Kits, Cases & Specialty Tools
.
.
...
...
.
.
PLUS: 100% Satisfaction Guaranteed; Life-
'-time Guarantee on all Jensen brand hand
tools; FREE technical support; and more!
JENSENTOOLS
FREE
CATALOG
7815 S. 46th Street, Phoenix, AZ 85044
Tel: 800 -426 -1194 or 602- 968 -6231
Fax: 800- 366 -9662 or 602 -438 -1690
800 -426 -1194
Dept. 156
E -Mail:
jensen @stanleyworks.com
Visit us on the WWW
- http://www.jensentools.com
CIRCLE 334 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
MICRO SIZE CCD VIDEO CAMERAS
MB -750U
Video Camera
$99.95
MB -705ÚX
C-Plount Camera
with Lens Included;
8 or 12mm Lens
t_-
your chore!
t
t.1Ï
See
P r,*,
LP-850i Excellent
1111
Cts@
monitoring Camera,
and ideal for CU- SeeMe.
http://www.polarisusa-com
800.752.3571
470 Armour Drive NE
$249.95
Atlanta GA 30324
Free Catalog
Tech Info:
404-872-0722
FAX
404- 872 -1038
69
TIMELINE INC.
vor 11 years and 29,000 customers and still growing
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS
240x64 clot LCD with built-in controller.
AND 4021 ST -EC). Unit is EL back-lit.
$59.1N1or 2
16x2
16x2
16x4
(Ig.
20x2
$10.00
20x4
$15.00
20x4 (lg. char.)....$10.00
24x2
$10.00
$10.00
32x4
$7.00
char.)....$10.00
$15.00
5
2 at 1.4 Amp input Horizontal frequency 15Khz. Ability to do 40 and 80 column.
inch Amber $25.00 7 inch Amber $25.00
9 inch Amber or Green $25.00
5" COLOR MONITOR $39.""
Alphanumeric-parallel interface
16x1
$7.00
16x1 (lg. char.)....$10.00
Nce -E closes:d TTL
ornes with pnout. I
for $109." or
OPTREX. DMF5005 (non back -lit)
$49." or 2 for $89."
20 character x 8 line
The built -in controller allows you to do text and graphic
7)(Lx24H
MONITORS
L
Flat Faceplate
32x2
$8.00
40x1
$8.00
40x2 .........2 for $20.00
40x4
$20.00
4x2
$5.00
320
200 Dot Resolution
x
12 VDC Operation
Open Frame Construction
it
Fully Enclosed
power required Built -in C -MOS LCD driver & controller Easy "microprocessor"
interface 98 ASCII character generator Certain models are backlit, call for more info.
6" VGA
price
$10.00
$20.00
$20.00
$15.00
$15.00
Mfr
size
480x128
Hitachi
256x128
Epson
240x128 (backlit) Optrex
240x64
Epson
160x128
Optrex
price
$25.00
$20.00
$15.00
$10.00
LCD 640X480, Sanyo LMDK55 -22 $2529
LASER PRODUCTS
HeNe Laser Head
(
toms.
.,
.
output immix). 15.5" lung MFG: NEC
Laser Power Supply (for HeNe tube) $79 i
LASER SCJANNI:K Assn:M111-Y $19."
Assembly intended for
$89?w
I
LASER DIODE (5mW) with collimator $20 -4°
VISIBLE LASER DIODE: 5mw at 67Onm $1 5 44
1
will not fit standard All in One case because of non standard location of riser hoard. VLB
riser hoard is included with motherboard.
DRIVER $696
Ini
Pos S EIAR CODE
MAGNETIC CARD READER $25."
20 character dot matrix display with full alpha -numeric capability keypanel
with full alpha- numeric entry separate 7.5 VDC /0.5 Amp power supply standard
telephone interface extension cord lithium battery and Hat -cone speaker.
HP bar code wand (HBCS 2300)
COLOR CCD CAMERA $14.99-2
re:
m dxe nurn" mounted on an armature Iha .Tin, a 125 rcvdueige per second yielding a nam.sweep rated
511 swap, e,
Tte dnvir fix die polype on regain, 24 vdu and plu and mina, 12 volt, to operate. Tore u ale a f-Ihela kw le
11 ilk piyge
scanning ienilanlvn with: duo Ind Jonson Grix for igecal exp;nneCL,. di. Very high quality uni6. 1517 JAPAN IaAx.Tn)iA31
t ,irJ
Includes:
made Micronics 486 VLB ALL in ONE $3929 or 2 for $6922
motherboard, supports 3.4 or 5v CPU, at either 25 or 33 mhz basic clock. Con use AMC) or
Intel from 486SX25 thou 4860X4 -100 to HOT new AMD 5X86 -133 cpu. On board SVGA
video. On board meg video ram expandable to 2 meg with All Moch 2 chip set. On board
2 high speed serial ports, 1 printer port, Floppy and IDE hard drive controller. On board 256K
cache. Uses 72 pin nimm memory. Landmark speed rating of 479 with AMD chip.
QO
I. Vop =1.25, Beam Divergence 25.6° x 28.6 °; 2. Tc =24 °C, lop =19 to 20mA,
ITH= 10.7mA; 3. Wavelength range between 1.280nm and 1,330 nm
L
$25.00
POWER SUPPLYS
SWITCHING POWER SUPPLYS $12.00 or 2 for $20.00 115/230 Volts
73 WATT (2) 4 pin power connectors attached Dim: 8.5" l x 4.5" W x 2" H
Output: +5V 0 2 -9.75, A, +12v 0 0-1.5 A, -5V 0 0-0.4 A, -12V 0 0-0.5 A
60 WATT Dim: 8% x 4% x 3 .Output:5V @ 6A + 12V O IA- 5V O IA - 12V ®1 A
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES
VDC
/3_inch. CCD area image sensor 514 (horizontal) x 491 (vertical)
kHz (horizontal), 59.94 Hz (venicel) 330 horizontal and 350 vertical lines 101x
12
Lens: I/3 -inch. fixed focus (F:2.8 f:5.61
400- 1,100nm resolution and responsivity. S500ffi Original cost device
Sony CCD Imager - designed for black and white composite video
cameras. Picture elements: 384 (H) x 491 (V)
Chip size 10.7 (H) x 9.3 (V) mm' Unit cell size 23.0 (H) x 13.4 (V) um'.
Ceramic 24 pin DIP package Mir: Sony, Part# 016AL
$29"
$15.00
CCD
x
(H)
34
V.
15.734
NTSC signal format
(I 45)
x
(D) 112.6 (4.43)
14 CM (0.55 inch) Diagonal Full Color Display Built In Horizontal and Vertical Drivers Della
Dot Patten for High Picture Quality - 537 dots (H) x 222 dots (V) Compatible with NTSC & PAL
Format and Sync Inputs 12 VDC Operation with -I to +17 V RGB Signal and Driver Input Voltage
Excellent Display for Virtual Reality Projects, Viewfinders, and Miniature Test Equipment
Displays Pin One and Specification Included Unit Requires Clock. Synchronization and Video
CELL SI
I la,
TRANSCEIVER
$494"1
2
fur
x89,"i
These transceivers were designed for operation in an AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) cell site. The
20 MHz bandwidth of the transceiver allows it to operate on all 666 channels allocated. The transmit
channels are 870.030 -889.980 MHz with the receive channels 45 HMz below Rose frequencies. A digital
synthesizer u utilized to generate the selected frequency. Each und contains two independent receivers lo
demodulate voice and data with a Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) circuit to select the one with the
best signal strength. The transmitter provides a 1.5 watt modulated signal to driva an external power
amplifier. channel selection is accomplished with a 10 bit binary input via a connector on the back panel.
Other interface requirements for operation are 26 VDC (unregulated) and an 18.990 MHz reference
frequency for the digital synthesizer. The units contain independent boards for receivers. exciter. synthesizer.
tunable Iront end, and interface assembly (which includes power supplies and voltage- controlled oscillator).
Service manual. schematics and cireur descriptions included.
to1000nm75Lx25Wx1
%H
Comes complete with CCD camera, mounting nut on bottom of casing,
2VDC power supply. Excellent low light capability, standard RCA NTSC video out
$89.00
v.7
2 for $159.00
I
Thomson 576X550 pixel CCD
1024 element CCD $10.00
2048 element CCD $10.00
Dimensions: (WI 67 (2.63)
I
SONY Miniature Color LCD Display (LCX005BKB) $29óo
IR viewing
4096 element
2:1 interlaced
1
Encased Black & White Composite CCD Camera with Adapter
MATRIX TYPE
"The Spy In The Sky" $29.°lá
99"
Bound
Mitsubishi Electric part number ML701BIR -E214, General specs
8a
$249.1"
swivel type.
The PruxLink Radio Module is a small communication device which replaces cables between RS232 devices with wireless RF (Radio Frequency) technology. Attaching a pair of ProxLrnks to any
two devices with three wire asynchronous RS -232 ports allows wireless data transmittal at rates up
w 19.2 Kbaud (full duplex) over a range of 51X1 - 8(N) feet. Module, use 900 MZ spread spectrum
radio for communication which dons not require an FCC site license. A variety of configuration
infurmaiion (radio channel, baud rate, serial non configuration, etc.) can be programmed into
module's non -volatile memory by host PC to provide compatibility and avoid overlapping systems.
Configuration changes arc supported by menu driven, on -hoard software. Commonly used Terminal
Emulation software and transfer protocols can he used for configuring modules and transferring
data between computers. ProxLinks require only 6 -9 VDC (3511 mA), RS -232 (9 pin sub - D)
interface, and small (- 4") whip antenna for operation. Unit site is 4.(1" x 6.5" x 11.75 ". Installation
chematics and application details available.
Index guided. Threshold current 40 nia typical.
3 and 4mW, 1,300nm LASER DIODES, 5.6mm package,
POLYGON MOTOR UNIT
- Tilt and
Encased Spread Spectrum RF Modem $ 1
US
6ser printer. Includes terra t3ade, polygon motor (6 sided) and mist optics and lenses
Tco.adal lust
Mfr SamSoir
Degoussing Coil included
HACKER CORNER
Graphics and alphanumeric-serial interface
MIL
Epson
Panasonic
Toshiba
ALPS
60 Hz Vert. Sync. Freq.
Standard Interface Connector
9" COLOR SVGA MONITOR
55/
640x480 (backlit)
640x400 (backlit)
640x200
480x128 (backlit)
CGA & Hercules Compatible
15.75 KHz Hartz. Freq.
LINEAR TYPE
1728 element CCD $10.00
Great for: entryway security/remote monitoring,
video conferencing/desktop video conferencing
This miniature camera is perfect for multimedia computer applications as well as security and
surveillance. NTSC output allows use with all popular video digitizing hoards for Apple
Macintosh and Microsoft videos for Windows. Connects directly to any composite monitor or VCR
with "video,' input. Its razor -sharp wide -angle lens focuses from two inches to infinity and its
state -of- the -an CCD technology accurately capares 16 level graysculc images for Quick Time
movies and still pictures. Records at 311 frames per second and 2611 lines resolution with excellent
low light capability. Uses I2VDC (adapter supplied) and standard RCA cable.
POINT OF SALE BANK TERMINAL $39ffi or
LCD Display 20 Char. x 4 Line
Intel 80032 Processor
Keypad
"
Solid St"
Non : J"
MISCELLANEOUS
Prints
2
16
Column Dot Matrix
PCMCIA Sockets (
Buzzers (PiRzo Electri
Roc
of
ell
lector
-
Epso
D as
2
for $69e
ey Domed Membrane
1287 Realtime Clock
2
Interface (4
ace
-C: s Ba ry Ptak Inside
Inside
Note: We have
Ic to
an
ccx
,de i
(twarc.
us, while time of day and ,"her
introductory things
ed i L
Iginul capabilities of this unit cannot he guaranteed. Also, we
do not have a sou
c s
arts t ai were m gin in the PCM CIA sockets. Requires 12 volt adapter for power.
(Not included) Dimension., 9. /2L x 6. /4W x 2 -1/2 D Original cost aver 5450.51
¡} 'in.,
..
C
dry
1
ADAPTEC
4070A
(RLL) OR
4000A (MFM),
SCSI
Controller, your choice $25"
IBM 370 option XT and AT emulation boards $25°
2539 W. 237th Street, Bldg. F, Torrance, CA 90505
Order desk only: USA: (800) 872 -8878 CA: (800) 223 -9977
L.A. & Technical Info:
(310) 784-5488
Fax:
(310) 784 -7590
OEM INQUIRIES WELCOME
I
I
Minimum Order: $20.00. Minimum shipping and handling charge $5.00. We accept cashiers
checks, MC or VISA. No personal checks or COD's. CA residents odd 8.25% sales tax. We are
not responsible for typographical errors. All merchandise subject to prior sale. Phone orders
welcome. Foreign orders require special handling. Prices subject to change without notice. 20%
restocking fee for returned orders.
CIRCLE 275 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
`''-
Digital Entertainment
also available through
i.
KSkyvision®
41)Tv
FOR C BAND
)0o0 i\`Sten
BEST
.4°°t
Values
Ru i
tg St
ng
Co
from Skyvisionl
Everything an the arc for complete variety
Receivers
from $229
including 4DTV
Enjoy debut of new channels
Often in the clear for months
Dish Movers
12" to 52" for all
C- and Ku -band dishes
Wild feeds... Acti m as it happens
Programming you wan: at a price
LNBs
All kinds
to heat up your picture
you can afford to pray
Whether you're considering your first
1une/-Up Kits
for C /Ku band &
DBS
Programming
Save 30%
-
50% with Skypac
Support
Customers enjoy toll-free technical help
satellite TV entertainment system or
looking for an upgrade to your
current system, Skyviskm provides
the best in hardware, technical
support, convey fence,
low cast and service.
1010 Frontier Drive
Fergus Falls, MN 56537
their
ors
.
is
F
18-73 ' -4879 Int'I: 218-739-5231
1-800-543-3025 iiSkyvision®
www.skyvision.com
CIRCLE 270 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
71
fiS-232 Networkable Devices
tn
33
_a
a
R
o
o
ta
o
Z
o
0
CD
o
NEW: RS -232 programmable c
L
256x128 Graphic Display Mod- o
3
ó
ule
w
/software
controlled
Backc
Add Graphics
light.
Upload
up
to
128
BMP
to Any Micro
Image Files, animate at 960
with an
co.,z fear.,
,
C
frames/second, 16 level gray RS-232
scale
capability.
Supports
32x16
Interface!!!
Text overlayed with graphics. 8/16 Hobby ServoController.
Documentation, Windows95 Futaba -J Compatible, Infrared
'" Setup Utility, and OBasic Example Receiver Included with SV16
Software included. Counts as 2 Devices on the NCD RS -232 upgrade. Perfect in all anima Network. Combine up to 8 LCDAs on a Single Serial Line or mix tronic applications.
with our relay drivers and other devices. Model described SV8 Kit $39 Asm $54
'ust $299. Two other models available for $199 and $249. SV16 Upgd Kit $19 Asm $29
i
iblr
g
44.4"1.M
111
8 -Relay Driver (Quad Relay
Driver Available) includes 8
LED Status Lights. 12V Operation. Infrared Receiver.
With Omron Mech Relays.
R85 (5A) Kit $89 Asm $139
R810 (10A) Kit $109 Asm $159
2Combine 16 Devices in ANY Combination to Your RS-232 Porti
Includes Drivers
in QBasic. Mac &
Amiga Software
Also Su orted.
Leds
4+
Show
Step
Pat -
:1
National Control Devices
Contact Ryan Sheldon
Phone: (404) 244 -2432
FAX: (417) 646 -8302
3
i...k
;C"'
6
4,3 +.b
1
A,
k
`
41
tern.
m
A.''
,t.
tn
v
ir
_.
Audio /Video Switcher: 8 In- Audio Selector with 4 steController for unipolar mo- puts, 2 Outputs, Infrared reo inputs, 2 stereo outputs.
tors up to 12 volts 2 amps. Controllable, Routes Any In- Volume, Trebble, Bass, Fader
tn
Takes a step for every byte put to Any Output. 12 -18 volt Controlled by infrared or RSIÚ
Include $5 Shipping.
tv
received. Control up to 16 DC operation. For Low -Power 232 w/Windows95 software.
IU
steppers from 1 serial port. (Line -Level) Signal Switching. Fully NCD Networkable.
Visa/MC Accepted.
U)
NCD- ASP8X4 Asm $79
AVSB Kit $89 Asm $139
STP Kit $24 Asm $39
NCO, Box 384, Osceola, MO 64776
v
Infrared Transceiver for Remote RS -232 Communication with 16 IR Controllable Devices. IRTR Kit '.24 Asm $39
o
RSB Serial Booster Gives our RS -232 Port the Power It Needs to Drive 16 NCD Devices. RSB Kit 12 Asm '.24
(ñ
High -Power Stepper Motor
'
On-Line Catalo: htt://members.aol.com/ncdcat/
E-mail: ncdr an@aol.com
CIRCLE 330 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
WHITE -STAR ELECTRONICS
TEL: 405 -631 -5153
FAX: 405- 631 -4788
CONVERTERS:
20
45
Regal CR-83
* New, Panasonic TZPC 145
DQN -5 (2 or 3) (unmodified)
DRZ -3 PJ (unmodified) 70 Channel Plain
DRX -3 PJ (unmodified) 60 Channel Plain
75
45
35
32
50
39
69
39
32
30
100+
RF Data Modules
35
65
ERP 0.25mW into 500
3V(F), 5V(F) or 6- 12V(A)
35
29
418 or 433.9Mhz
27
I
I
I
TXM -4XX-A
TXM -4XX-F
Call for FREE catalog.
405- 631 -5153
r,
20
4.95
4.95
7.50
4.95
7.50
4.95
Zenith: All
Tocom: 5503 -VIP, 5503 -A
Universal: 4 in 1 R/M
7.00
7.50
100+
4.25
4.25
7.00 6.50
4.50 4.25
7.00 6.50
4.50 4.25
6.50 6.25
7.00 6.50
50
4.50
4.50
Call for Oak, Hamlin, Regal-83, Regency,
Texscan, and all others.
Tamper-Bit tools: (10-lot)
Jerrold compatible bits:
1/4" Stacom Bit
$8.00
Oval Round D
$20.00
Torx Bit:
Tocom T-8
Zenith T- l0,T-l5
Pioneer T-20
Scientific Atlanta T-20
Pio 63XX Oval
Bit Driver Handle
dot
$8.00
$8.00
$8.00
$8.00
$20.00
$4.00
;
t
s
*Only 21x47x5mm
3mÁ; 130uÁ on power save (100:1)
*Carrier detect o/p
418 or 433.9MHz FM Superhet
SAW controlled - stability
*Analog or digital o/p
Wide supply range 4,5 -9V (A/F ver.)
Fast enable time <3ms
'>2't.
'
SILRX-4XX -A
SILRX-4XX -F
1
$39.38
$41.92
iI'
Only23x33xllmm
Up to 40,000bps of balanced
418or433MHzFM
Direct interface to 5V CMOS logic
BIM-4XX -F
,
Fast
$87.36
e`
pm Central Time.
Call for FREE catalog.
Email: wse405@ aol.com
CIRCLE 314 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
1ms enable from power saving
3 wire RS232 interface
'
59 x 40 a 14mm
,Si4
5
code
*Up to 170m range.
5v operation
S
CYPHERNET -RS232
$139.30
Up to 38400 bps
*418 or 433MHz FM. 7.5 -15Vdc
TX/RX LED indication
Up to 150m range
Volume Discounts
Specializing in large quantities.
72
_
ry^;'. c$
We carry most remote hand units. If you don't find the one you're looking for,
we can locate for you.
HOURS: Monday thru Friday 9 am to
I
$24.50
$25.80
eiy
REMOTE CONTROL
HAND UNITS:
Jerrold Replaces: 400/450/550
Scientific Atlanta: 075/175/475
8600: On screen display
Pioneer: BR 81, 82
Panasonic: Call for model #
FM
simply add antenna, data, power
Range up to 200m
Analog or digital data i/p
SAW controlled - stability
COIN
ABANCOM
TECHNOLOGIES
67 Hamptonbrook Dr
Free Catalog Available
MasterCard / Visa
Weston
ON
M9P 1A2
Tel: 416-242-3120
Fax: 416-242-2697
FaxBack: 416- 242 -3082
Canada
www.
rogerssystems
getOa+ystearllti
.com
Battery Backup
Universal
w/ built in surge and
noise suppression
15
AC to DC
TM -225
TRIPP LITE
Converter
$13944 each
AMP fused circuit breaker w/ reset
feature, built -in light indicator,
Metal case, 5' heavy duty cord,
6 outlet with surge protection
Eliminates Batteries
Great for small radios,
CD players, and toys
-
Features:
-
RFI /EMI line noise filtering
protects against brownouts
up -front diagnostic LEDs and alarm
Microprocessor control of on -board
functions
h
Power/Modem Protection
$2Q4 each
SVGA Shielded
Cables
P,
Famous Maker Mini -Size amplified
3.5 mm stereo mini phono plug
to 2 RCA phono jacks
Speakers
V
#TM -170
$300 each
4/$5.00
10/$7.85 each
Parallel Port
monitors
Replacement for original case
#TM -CD1
$.40 each
#CN -702 $.50
1
#CC- VGA -4C
iee
CD Jewel Case
DB25 Female to 26 pin socket IDC
Dual coaxial shield
-helps with ghosting, line
loss, and high resolution
$.50
$300 each
Call for quantity
#TM -MIC
I-EEE 1284
Printer Cable
(34r6
10' Bi- Directional
DB25 Male to Mini Centronic 36
A.K.A. type "A"
-
6 ft. HD 15 male to male
discounts!
MOti/Se
Miniature Mouse
#TM -KB -1
"C"
#CC -PR6 -BIMIN
$344 each
Well suited for professional quality recording & PA
Durable 8 ft cord
Dynamic freq. response: 80- 13,000 Hz
each
6 h. HD 15 male to male
#CC -VGA -3
\
Uni- Directional Dynamic Vocal Mic
00.'$.40
$9e° each
switch box cable
each
$854 each set
20/$2.80
#CC -VGA -4
#AD-561
#TM -172
$344 each
6 h. HD 15 male to female
6 ft. HD 15 male to female
P.C. MultiMedia
4" Stereo Mini Phono Plug
to 2 RCA Jacks
Major Brand!
Stereo Digital Headphones
Black, foam pads
3.5 mm stereo plug
great for walkman & multi -media use
#TM 200
$12.00 each
5' cord, 6 outlet
Microphone
#TM -MIC -2
L
stage -EMI /RFI/Surge protection, FAX/
modem protection,
3
#TM -307 $3.00 each
1.5v -12v DC/300 ma
Active Data Loss
Hard Drive Data Loss
Computer and Monitor Damage
#TM -199
$6.00 each
#TM -310 $5.00 each
1.5v -12v DC/ 1000 ma
Protects against:
Stick-on monitor or clip on or
stick onshirt 6 ft. cord;
condenser mic.
.com
Communications
k - Audio - Video
Surge Protection
2- Button, black
Great for small hands
or laptop!
$1600 each
$.89 each
#TM-290-MINI
14" SCSI Ill Cables
switch box cable
Dual coaxial shield
-helps with ghosting, line
loss, and high resolution
monitors
#CC- VGA -3C
$9`" each
Local 805- 295 -5577
34 Twisted Pairs with drain wire
Half Pitch Db 68 Male -to -Male
#CC- 693 -18
$544 each
$444 each
BTC Extended Keyboard
104 keys with 5 pin DIN Plug
3 LED mode indicator
extra Windows 95 keys
Remember, We Have Great Connections...ForYou!
Call for prices on:
PS /2 mouse
Touch Pads
Serial mouse
FAX 805- 295-8777
$10.00 minimum order required Add $4.50 shipping for pre -paid orders
California residents add 8.25% tax eMail Sales @RogersSystems.com
Call for quantity discounts No out of state checks accepted Most orders shipped same day
24895 Avenue Rockefeller, Valencia, CA 91355
73
CIRCLE 320 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
DIGITAL
CIIEC1c CAPACITORS IM- CIRCUIT
STORAGE
OSCILLOSCOPES
WITH
SPECTRUM
ANAL YZER,
DVM, FREQ.
COUNTER,
AND DATA
LOGGER.
PORTABLE
MODULES
CONVERT PC'S
INTO
MULTIPURPOSE
TEST AND
MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS.
10
100
r
Automatically discharges capacitor,
checks for DC leakage (DCR) and
beeps below your preset value,
measures ESR on LED bar
and beeps from 1 to
5 beeps for values
from good to bad.
t
ONE -HANDED
GOLD- PLATED
TWEEZER PROBE
HANDY 3 -COLOR
CHART SHOWS
TYPICAL READINGS
0-1.1Pf Ip
200
Tw
I..e
rs
Yry-TI (m1
PC
Opp
0233
-0ié
2pAO 0
21
pp,, 11111N
1U1``.11
EN
20 SEGMENT LED
METER DISPLAYS
ESR FROM 0.1 TO
20 OHMS
ÑÜ%/`nNÜ
11419141f1111td1
2J0
v3/dp
U-000Y. p
'ó ,ÿL.xrs
o"
3pp
PORTABLE, RUNS
ON AAA BATTERIES
02153
,°
13(04/
WITU 100%
M 3 SECONDS--- COARAA/TEED`
ACCURACY
21515
TRIAL PERIOD WITH MONEY -BACK GUARANTEE
AVAILIABLE FROM MOST MAJOR DISTRIBUTORS
C60 DAY
VISA
á
d
240
Why lug a scope around? Toss one of our modules into
your laptop case or tool kit. For a multi -purpose test
device, plug to a PC parallel port and use the PC
screen. Continuous, delayed, or triggered sweeps can
be frozen on the screen, printed out, or saved to disk.
Frequency Spectrums DC to 25 MHz.
=
we make test equipment designed to make you money
co
MEAS Vu
TEMPERATURE
MHz
USES PRINTER PORT
USES STD. PROBES
PROBE SETS
AUTOMOTIVE PROBES
PICO (ADC 200/20) (DC- 10MHz, dual trace)
PICO (ADC 200/50) (DC- 25MHz, dual trace)
PICO pc based data loggers from $99.
CALL
CALL
8343 CARVEL, HOUSTON, TX. 77036 U.S.A.
PHONE: 713-777 -0401 FAX: 713- 777-4746 BBS: 713- 777 -4753
http://www. atcweb. corn
LIQUID LEVELS
MODEL 45
$189
RS-212 RITEREALE
24 LINES DtOITAi I/O
L DIGITAL
I/O
S CHANNEL-
L ANALOG
INPU'i
art *JD/
IN
2 ANALOG OIITPL'TE
2 COUNTERS -24
SIT
UP TO 14I1 SMP/8EC
MODEL
100......: $279
1211T 1E9101í
A/0
S
3AMP REUYO
4 ANALOG OUTPUTS
1A DIGITAL
3 TIMER COUNTERS
1
1/o
-
i.Ir ANAIOO IMF
24 DISMAL I/O
RS-222 INTERFACE
2S LINES DIGITAL
Shipping within U.S. UPS Ground $7.50(Second day $11.50)
SEND CREDIT CARD INFO., M.O., or CHECK,OR CALL
1-800 -980 -9806
Allison Technology Corporation
HUMIDITY
12 SIT COUNTER
Picos Made in U.K.
Same Day Shipping
Includes Cable, Software & Manuals
$189.
$349.
LIGHT LEVEES
PLUOE INTO PC SUS
S
0-Scopes Made in U.S.A.
0-Scope I (DC-5OKHz, single trace)
0-Scope II (DC-500KHz, dual trace)
MOTORS
THERMOSTATS
$79
MODEL 30
OPTIONS:
BATTERY PACKS
SOFT & HARD CASES
PRESSURE
SWITCH POSITIONS
á
PORTABLE UNITS TO 25
-IV 1111?-41310
LIGHTS
RELAYS
Allison now provides PICO TECHNOLOGY Ltd.
portable test equipment, including high -speed scopes,
and multi channel data loggers. Pico and O -Scope
modules accept standard probes and work with 286 or
faster PC's.
FEATURES:
ta
(561) 487 -6103
$169
ELECTRONIC DESIGN SPECIALISTS
S
RS-232
INFIRM
T
I96í A/O
I/O
ANALOG INPUTS
1.5 DIGIT
PWM OUTPUT
UP TO
IA IMP,/SEC
OPTIONAL IT SIT A/O
NEEClo
A CtBSTOM roe Et?' TRY WI-
PRAIRIE DIGITAL, INC.
PHONE 608 -643 -8599
846 SEVENTEENTH STREET
FAX
608- 643 -6754
PRAIRIE DU SAC, WISCONSIN 5357S
74
CIRCLE 325 ON FREE INFORMATION' CARD
i
Check Out
What
Pgsitive Photo Resist Pre -Sensitized
Printed Circuit Boards
We
Have
To Offer:
SINCE
1971
Fantastic DMM Offer!!!
Don't let the price fool you. This meter is a digital
multimeter designed for engineers and hobbyists. Equipped with 5 functions and 19 ranges.
Each test position is quickly and easily selected
with
simple to of the FUNCTION/RANGE
seector rotary switch.
Our
Best
Display: 3-1/2 Digit LCD, 21mm Figure Height
with Automatic Polarity
dBc
Overraf
3 Least Signifi-
ae
//
tiion:
In
Temperature for Guaranteed Accuracy:
23 °C ±5 °C RH<75%
Temperature Ranges
Operating: 0°Cto40°C(32°Fto
Storage: -1
to
(14°F to 122° F
Power: 9V Alkaline or Carbon -Zin
Battery(NEDA 1604)
Low Battery Indication: BAT on Left of
LCD Display
Dlmenslons:188mm long x 87mm wide x
33mm thick
Net Weight: 400g
DC Voltage (DCV)
Range: Resolution: Accuracy:
::
200mV
2000mV
20V
200V
100pV
1000V
1V
lmV
±(1%rdg +2dgts)
10mV
100mV
Maximum Allowable Input: 1000V DC
or Peak AC.
DC Current
Ronge: Resolution:
IOOnA
200pA
2000pA liA
20mA
10íA
200mA 1000,
IOA
lOmA
(DCA)
High
Quality
OFu Sited
1
DMM
any qty
Resistance (52)
Resolution: Accuracy:
Ronge:
2000
20000
20Ko
100m0
10
±(1.2%rdg+2dgts)
±(1.2%rdg+2dgts)
Overload Protection:mA Input. 2A /250V
tuse.
2000Ko
±(2%rdg +lOdgts)
Maximum Open Circuit Voltage: 2.8V
20M52
Diode Test
Measures forward voltage drop of a
semiconductor Junction In mV test current of 1.5mA Max.
Measures transistor hFE.
Frequency Range. 45Hz-450Hz
Maximum Allowable Input: 750V rms
Response: Average Responding. Call brated in rms of a Sine Wave.
AC Voltage (ACV)
Range: Resolution: Accuracy:
200V
100mV
±(12%dg+10dgls)
750V
1V
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
include the holster!
PROTEK506
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
Digital Multimeter
$139.00
Developer
This product is used as the developer
on our positive photo -resist printed circuit boards.
Includes instructions. 50 gram package, mixes with
water, makes quart.
PRICE EACH
CAT NO
DESCRIPTION
1
10
25
POSDEV Positive Developer S .95 $ .80 5 .50
1
Etching Chemicals/Ferric Chloride
A dry concentrate that mixes with water to make pint
of etchant, enough to etch 400 sq.
PRICE EACH
inches of
board.
DESCRIPTION
1
CAT NO
5
1
1
o
Makes
ER -3
1
pint
$3.50
$2.75
CIRCUIT SPECIALISTS, INC.
5ti
800- 811 -5203
602- 464-2485
602- 464-5824 FAX
gel
1
WE ACCEPT:
150mm x 250mm /5.91 " x 9.84"
150mm x 300mm/5.91° x 11.81"
10.20
DESCRIPTION
CAT NO
GD 101 l 00mm x 150mm /3.91 " x 5.91"
GD114 114mm x 165mm/4.6" x 6.6"
GD152 150mm x 250mm/5.91" x 9.84"
GD153 150mm x 300mm/5.91" x 11.81"
305mm
305mm/ 12"
x
1
5.07
5.95
$
x 12"
10
$2.98
3.49
5.98
7.20
50
$2.60
3.20
5.78
6.80
15.73
12.59
PRICE EACH
10
50
$3.68 $3.38
10.47
11.95
4.29
7.39
8.69
3.99
6.98
8.30
22.09
18.35
14.68
Etching Tank This handy etching system
will handle PC boards up to 8' x 9', two at a time.
Ideal for etching your PCB's! System Includes an
1000
1Ko
10Ko
200KO
1
3.90
4.80
8.69
S
G61212 305mm x 305mm/ 12' x 12"
18.88
Double -Sided, loz. Copper Foil on Fiberglass Substrate
GD1212
9300G Rugged High Quality DMM with Rubber Boot $19.00
Special Offer! The next generction of Digital
ulttmeters with 3 -3/4 digits, 4000 count, auto-ranging
and analog bargraph, 10MHz frequency counter, True
RMS mode and RS-232C interface. LIMITED TIME OFFER!
You MUST enter your order by December 31st, 1997 to
receive this special price! Regular C.S.I. rice S169.00.
MIR
Plus we'll even include the optional temperature
adaptor and K -type thermocouple probe! We even
CAT NO
GS 152
GS153
t(1.2%rdg+2dgh)
1052
ohFE Test
Accuracy:
CAT NO
O
Single -Sided, loz. Copper Foil on Paper Phenolic Substrate PRICE EACH
1
10
50
CAT NO
DESCRIPTION
PP101
100mm x 150mm /3,91" x 5.91"
$2.55 $1.90 $1.70
114mm x 165mm/4.6" x 6.6'
1.98
PP114
2.98
2.45
PP152
150mm x 250mm/5.91' x 9.84"
3.60
5.40
3.98
PP153
150mm x 300mm/5.91" x 11.81"
4.48
4,10
6.15
PP1212 305mm x 305mm/ 12" x 12"
12.78
10.65
8.52
Single- Sided, loz. Copper Foil on Fiberglass Substrate
PRICE EACH
Offer CAT NO
Ever GS 101 l 00mm xDESCRIPTION
/3.91 " x 5.91'
on a GS114 114mm x 150mm
165mm/4.6" x 6.6'
Rubber Boot Included
General
p ut
:These
bodsg
small rodë
ideal
/t,on runs. They provide high resolution
and excellent line width control. High
sensitive positive resist coated on loz.
opper foil allows you to go direct from
our computer plot or art work layout. No
need to reverse art.
air pump for etchant agitation, a thermostatically
controlled heater for keeping etchant at optimum
temperature and a tank that holds 1.35 gallons of
etchant. A tight fitting Ild is also supplied to prevent
evaporation when system Is not being used. Typical etching time is
reduced to 4 minutes on loz. copper board!
REDUCES
CAT NO
PRICE
DESCRIPTION
12 -700
ETCHING TIME!
Etch Tank System $37.95
1/3" CCD Board Cameras
Available with PINHOLE LENS with AUDIO; STANDARD LENS with AUDIO;
and STANDARD LENS with INFRA -RED. These are the world's smallest
commercially available CCD board cameras!
World's Smallest B&W Board Cameras
Specifications
Image Pick -Up Device
Picture Elements
Pixel Pitch
1/3" CCD area Sensor
EIA=512(H) x 492(V)
EIA =9.6UM (H) x 7.5ÚM
Scanning System
Scanning Frequency
2 1 Interlace
EIA =525 lines. 60
KHz x 60 HK
Resolution
430 Unes
0.03 LUX
45DB
Minimum Illumination
S/N Ratio
Lens Mounting
Video Output
Power Requirement
Power Consumption
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Audio Pick -Up Sensitivity
Audio Frequency Range
Audio S/N Ratio
Audio Output Level
Dimensions
WDP -2000
WDS -2005
WDI -4000
M
:
field /sec
(IO
15.750
4.3mm standard, 5mm pinhole
1.0 VP- P/7500HM composite signal
8-12 VDC (9VDC standard)
100mA
-20C -+ 70 C RH 95% Max
-40C -= 85 C RH 95% Max
-60 DB (0DB = B/UBAR.
20 Hz to 20KHz
More than 35DB
VP-P /600 OHM
1
1
WDP -2000
*"
WDS-2005
KNZ)
1
30mm (H) x 30mm (W)
30mm (H) x 30mm (W)
44mm (H) x 30mm (W)
WDI -4000
PRICE EACH
1
5
DESCRIPTION
1/3' B&W Pinhole Lens with Audio
WDP -2000
$89.00
$77.00
1/3' B &W Standard Lens with Audio
89.00
77.00
WDS -2005
1/3' B&W Infra -RED (no audio)
89.00
77.00
WDI -4000
13.00
12.00
WDPH -55BW Plastic Housing Option for B &W Board
CAT NO
Cameras
RECEIVE OUR LATEST 132 PAGE CATALOG!
It's chock full of all types of electronic equipment and supplies.
We've got I.C.'s. capacitors, resistors, pots, inductors, test
equipment, breadboarding supplies, PC supplies, indus-
trial computers, data acquisition products, personal
computers and computer parts, plus much, much more. FAX
us
your name and address or call 800 -8115203, ext. 5, to leave a message on our catalog request line.
CIRCLE 328 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
75
TURN YOUR PC INTO A
EARN
MORE
DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPE!
The all new
PC-
MultiScope
2
10Mhz
analog
bandwidth!
MONEY
Be an FCC
LICENSED
wd....,.
n.we..w.oi51bli UMW
-I
®
óUU
Mw
C!
I
"
®oo
o.
.6i,
A6in
oy,.
T...n
05.
05
020..
At right:
Ói.
(1..5.
88i.
Ós
O2r
Actual
scope
screen as
seen on
your PC
monitor
8á.
os.-
.
Oii.
o...
Ons-
,..
V,..
oa..
s..
2..
f1
0.2OBI..
ow.-
o,..
5..
oQ2..
050,.
2.,.
mm'
To.4
®
....IE
8LL5r
7
.+.
...-...-
A
E,...
85u
2.
o,-
®
-r..i
.,,....
_.
B
0
:
-'--.
-
0511.
8.5r
1-!I
CO
111
mu=...
r.....,..
FEATURES:
Dual channel; external triggered
2. Digital storage; Wndows based
3 Connects to PC parallel port
4 20Megasamples/sec sampling;
10Mhz max. analog bandwidth
5. 8 bit resolution/ 8K RAM buffer
6. Prog. gain: 10v /div to 1mv /div
7. Spectrum analyzer (fft) functicn
8. Strip chart recorder function
9. TTL output for control app's
10.Visual Basic source code avail.
1
#,uNS,meI
ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN!
For industrial, educational, hobbyist,
auto, and audio test d measurement
$399
+ S /H. Visa/MC /Check OK
Add $99 for source code option
The top choice of corporations, universities and scientists worldwide!
AMAZE ELECTRONICS CORPORATION
amaze @hooked.net www.hooked.net/users /amaze
Earn up to
$60 an hour
and more!
J°I9.84101---
)
Phone: 800 -996 -2008 Fax: 408 -374 -1737
From MILLIWATTS to KILOWATTS
\
RF POWER TRANSISTORS
Learn at home in spare time.
.
I
TUBES
POWER MODULES
No previous experience needed!
No costly school. No
commuting to class.
The Original Home -Study course prepares
you for the "FCC Commercial Radiotelephone License." This valuable license is
your professional "ticket" to thousands of
exciting jobs in Communications, RadioTV, Microwave, Maritime, Radar, Avionics
and more...even start your own business!
You don't need a college degree to qualify,
but you do need an FCC License.
No Need to Quit Your Job or Go To School
This proven course is easy, fast and low
cost! GUARANTEED PASS You get your
FCC License or money refunded. Send for
FREE facts now. MAIL COUPON TODAY!
Best pricing on U.S. 8Z Russian
Transmitting
®
4-400C
3 -500ZG
6146B & W
3CX800A7
81:
Receiving Tubes Svetlana
811A
833A
8560AS
8875
3CX1200A7 & Z7
572B
3CX400A7 & U7
3CX1500A7
3CX3000A7
4CX400A 4CX800A
5CX1500A & B
4CX250B & R
including full range through 4CX20,000A
mtMITSUBISHI
ELECTRIC
Complete inventory for servicing
amateur and commercial
communications equipment.
Transistors
RE Modules
Trimmers
Relays
Heatsinks
Bird Wattmeters
Broadband Transformers & Combiners
Doorknob Capacitors
MOTOROLA
TOSHIBA
QUANTITY PRICING AVAIILABLE
Send for your FREE 1998 Catalog
Same Day Shipping on most orders.
Or, Call 1- 800 -932 -4268 Ext. 210
r commanD
PRODUCTionS
FCC LICENSE TRAINING, Dept. 210
P.O. Box 2824, San Francisco, CA 94126
Please rush FREE details immediately!
e
1
1
NAME
I
ADDRESS
76
CITY
L
STATE
ZIP
I
800 RF -PARTS 760 -744 -0700
Fax: 888 - 744 -1943
760 -744 -1943
e -mail:
rfp @rfparts.com
RE PRATS
435 SOUTH PACIFIC STREET
SAN MARCOS. CA 92069
MCM
Your
Electronics
Authority ELECTRONICS®
Prices Effective
January 6
through
February 27. 1998
To take advantage of
special pricing on fhe
items listed you must
provide this code
y
SOURCE CODE.
ENS43
IC Cross
Reference
Software
Looks up/displays
the pin layouts of ICs, regulators, mote
drivers, voltage regulators, TVs, VCRs
computer, faxes, audio equipment and
more. Basic voltage readings for pin
layouts are available or enter your owr.
Approximately 7,000 entries.
Order
la
8" Poly Cone Woofers
Multi- Voltage Power Supply
Perfect for replacement, upgrade or
original manufacturing in most
speaker applications. They feature
polypropylene cone, foam surround and
high temperature voice coil. Power
capacity 70W/100W RMS/peak,
40Hz -3KHz response, 114" voice coil,
18 oz. magnet and SPL 87dB
Use as a battery elin-inator or to power
small projects. Fully regulated output
provides 2 imp output at 3, 4)4, 6, 754, 9 or
12VDC. Cdor ccded binding posts make
connection easy.
Order a
55 -1605
Impedance
Order
i
(ea.)
Regular
4ohm
ani
DMM with Logic Function
Features 3l digit LCD display,
10Mohm input impedance, logic test,
transistor and diode test, capacitance
measurement, AC/DC current
measurement and overload protection
Measures AC/DC voltage to 600V,
AC/DC current to 10A, resistance to
2000Mohm and capacitance t. 20µF.
Requires 9V battery.
Order
72 -4025
Reg.
$35.95
110 Weft Subwoofer
Power Amp Module
MCM now offers the ultimate subwoofer
power amp module for all your home
audio and home theater projects. It can
be built directly into most ar_y existing
subwoofer enclosure, requiring a cut-out
of only 10" x 7", and accepts either speaker level or RCA inputs. Features include
an auto sense circuit to turn on amp
when music is present, and 60-160Hz
continuously variable 12dB crossover.
Order
/
HeavyDuty
Aluminwn Thal Cass
Lightweight durable aluminum case
includes two inside panels and adjustable
compartments b easily carry hand tools,
small soldering equipment and more.
Black finis-i. Measures approximately
19" x 14"
x6".
Order
pai5
$34.95
(ea.)
Pre Msaah ed
tvlrw.mcmelectronics.com
Hours: M -F 7 e.m. -9 p.m., Sat. 9 a.m. -6 p.m., EST.
MCM ELECTRONICS°
650 CONGRESS
PARK OR.
CEN-rERVILLE, OH 45459
A PREMIER FARNELL Company
CIRCLE 332 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Amplifier Moduli
Great for repair or
modification of equipment,
projects or prototype work.
Line level input, 15W output O 4ohm.
Includes oversized heat sink. Requires
12 -35VDC (optimum 24VDC), 500mÁ
Dimension. 3)4" x 2)4' x 1%". Contact your
MCM Salee Rep -esertative about our
wide variety of other pre -assembled
circuit modules.
Order a
(sa.)
?8 -4797
319.11
SOURCE CODE: ENS43
n
CALL TOLL FREE
C &S SALES
(800) 292 -7711 orders only
Se Habla Espanol
XK -700 Digital / Analog Trainer
XK -700
Assembled and Tested
-
SEMI KIT
w/ Fully Assembled PC Board
-
Kit
#1AC
SATELLITE FINDER
Model SF -100A
Aligns Satelite Dishes
Range 950- 2050MHz
Audio Tone
Compact Size
Self Power Check
fixed - +5V @ 3A, +12V @ 1A, -12V
Variable - 2.5 - 20V @ 2A
01A
$89.
Technician Tool Kit
TK-1500
functions
Remote control
included
7
Phone kit
with training
course.
a
$24.95
No Soldering Required
35m T1 Camera Kit
Lean all about photography
with training course
$29.95
WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD
plus
a
DMM
contained In a large
flexible tool case with
handles ideal for
everyone on the go.
1'49.95
The New DMM900 Series Handheld Digital Multimeters
MODEL AK-870
Sales Lu,
1
functions including freq to
20MHz, cap to 20µF. Meets ÚL1244 safety specs.
$14.95
OTHERS GALL FOH Dl- IAILS
3
$39.95
RADIO CONTROL CAR KIT
S
voltages:
28 tools
over 100 kits available
Model AM /FM -108K
Transistor Radio Kit
Fully Regulated DC Power Supplies In One Unit
4 DC
Digital Multimeter
Model M -1700
Kit Corner
AK -700
Model XP -581
4
11
$39.95
'5
Signal Output Function
3 1/2 Digit Display
$125
$399
10MHz BAK 4017 $309
5MHz BAK 4011 $239
pF to 20µF
750°C
DC Volts 0 - 20V
Frequency up to 15MHz
Diode /Audible
Continuity Test
Model M -6100
0.2Hz to 20MHz
AM & FM modulation
Burst Operation
External Frequency
counter to 30MHz
Linear and Log sweep
.1
Inductance 1pH to 20H
Resistance .010 to
2000MÁ
Temperature -20C tc
$19.50
The M -6100 is Elenco's most sophisticated meter with almost every possible
feature available. The M -6100 even
has a computer interface for viewing
and storing data on a personal computer. It comes complete with software,
RS -232 cable, test leads and manual.
B &K 4040
N
Capacitance
Detects voltage metallic contact.
/ Function
Generator with Freq Counter
Il Resident .Kid
$99.95
outer surfaces are
unconductive for safety.
20MHz Sweep
78
et -sized AC line voltage
detector from Fluke. Easy to
use - just touch the tip to an
outlet or cord. When it glows
red, you know there's voltage in the line.
DIGITAL LCR METER
Model LCR -1810
All
Made In the USA
-lb MATE s
FLUKE
Fits in shirt pocket for convenience.
$159.95
UPS SHIPPING
AlertTM By
is the new pock-
in the shop, or at home.
$174.95
XK-700K
Volt
Volt Alert
Electrician's, maintenance,
service, and safety personel
can quickly test for energized circuits and defective
grounds on the factory floor,
$189.95
XK -700
L
EXCELLENCE IN SERVICE
Elenco's newest advanced designed Digital / Analog Twiner is specially designed for
school projects. It is built on a single PC board tor maximum reliability. It includes 5 builtin power supplies, a function generator with continuously sine, triangular and square waveforms and a 1560 tie point bredboard area. Tools and meter shown optional. (Mounted in a professional tool case made of reinforced metal).
LOOK FOR OTHER
MONTHLY SPECIALS
ON OUR WEBSITE
AK -540
For high -performance digital multimeters that are accurate, reliable, and rugged, the DMM900
Series extends the Tektronix line of already affordable DMMs. Twice the accuracy. Up to 10 tines
the resolution. And a full range of capability that spans voltage. current, digital multimeters features a dual numeric display, 3 -year warranty, and autoranging capability. All backed by the re5ability of the Tektronix brand.
Features
DMM912, DMM914,
fl
:
DMM916
40,000 Count Display
0.06% Basic DC Volts Accuracy
(DMM916)
DC Voltage Ranges from 400mV to
1,0000 V
AC Voltage Ranges from 4V to 750V
(True RMS)
AC and DC Current Ranges from
10,000yA to 10A
Resistance Ranges from 4000 to 40Mí1
Capacitance Ranges from 4nF to 40µF
Frequency Ranges from 400Hz to 2MHz
Temperature Measurements from
-50°C to +980°C (DMM916, DMM914.
3 Year Warranty
CE Marking
C &S SALES, INC.
150 W CARPENTER AVENUE
WHEELING. IL 60090
=AX (847) 541 9904 (847) 541 0710
blip www.elencacom cs sales.
J
I
Hsif11,,
11g
o
°
Q
t_70
DMM 912
DMM 914
$189
$235
DMM 9 16
$275
GUARANTEED LOWEST
PRICES ON TEK DMMs
15 DAY MONEY BACK
7IZ
CIRCLE 322 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
GUARANTEE
FULL FACTORY WARRANTY
i,
f
mal,
B.!E
C.
1
HAN, k WITHOUT NOTIC1
-
C
Same Day
&SSALES
CALL OR WRITE FOR OU
NEW FREE 64 PAGE
Your one stop source for
all your electronic needs!
Shipping
Quality Scopes by Elenco
Fluke Scopemeters
123
92B
96B
99B... NEW
105B
CATALOG!
(800) 445 -3201
Lowest Prices of the Year!
$950
$1445
$1695
$2095
$2495
ALL FLUKE
PRODUCTS
ON SALE
B & K PRECISION
-:'..1VI7f{gftflll f1!?
SCOPES
100MHz THREE -TRACE
tmv:elwslonsanslbvdy
sweeps to snsldiv stop
Model 2190A
Dual time ease
Signal delay line
15KV accelerating voltage
51295.00
60MHz DUAL -TRACE
mV;mwslon sens/semy
Model 2160
sweeps to Snerv¢ ion
Dual time base
Signal eelay line
25 /30MHz
DS-303 30MHz $1095
60MHz
40MHz
$1350
DS -603
Analog / Digital Storage
20MS /s Sampling Rate
$569
S -1345
IDS -203 20MHz$725
Analog with Delayed Sweep
$749
S -1360
40MHz DUAL -TRACE
mV d islon sensitivity
Model 1541C
Video sync separators
100MHz
2
$995
S -1390
'
Analog
ans Input
Single Sweep
V mode displays two signals untie
Iatea In frequency
component roster
ay
iK.
1
cursors ana readouts
tmV
sensmvlty
Model 2260
23 calibrated ranges - math lime base
19 celebrated ranges delayed lime base
Signal delay time
V -mode displays 2 signals unre
hoed in frequency.
Component tester
input
Single sweep
Fluke Multimeters
SIMM MODULE TESTER
B & K
898
51225
Model 70111
Model 73111
Model 75111
Model 7111
Model 79111
$625
Tests 72 and 30 -pin SIMMs to 36 bits.
Stand alone and portable. No other equipment
20MHz DUAL -TRACE
- 2 Year Warranty
Model 2120B
required.
Astomatically identifies width. depth and speed
of SIMMS.
IC built -in
tests
identify most
PUahent cycle prior
10
memory defects.
tect
PORTABLE SEMICONDUCTOR TESTER
B &K 510
In or out -of -order circuit tests for
transistor, FETs, SCRs and dar-
Special 5375
Model 2125A with delayed sweep
lingtons.
$539.95
lmVldrnsgn sensitivity
$199.00
AUTO/NORM triggered sweep operation
AC. NH. NV and line coupling
Calibrated to step time-base with alg
magnifier
Compact low -prattle design
500MHz Series
1.05GHz Series
Model 2625 - $2395
Model 2630 w/ tracking
generator - $2995
$1895
-
il
HE-.RS
lf.
u
lrl,.r
I;ALL EUH DE Ali
I
litri
if ^t;
Sab
t
$235
$269
$289
$475
Model 867BE $650
Model 83
Model85
Model87
Model863E
Precision Multimeters
391
390
339
5390
5380
$143
$127
$109
$295
$265
Mode1388A
Mode12707
Model2860A
Model 5370
Mode15360
$99
$75
$79
$219
$195
Features:
One instrument with four test and measuring systems:
- 1.3GHz Frequency Counter
2MHz Sweep Function Generator
Digital Multimeter
Digital Triple Power Supply
0 -30V @ 3A, 15V @ 1A, 5V @2A
GUARANTEED LOWEST PRICES
t
B &K
Model
Model
Model
Model
Model
$85
$115
$139
$154
$175
MX -9300
Four Functions in One Instrument
Affordable Spectrum
Analyzers by B &K
Model 2615 - $1595
Model 2620 wr tracking
$325
25MHz Analog
-
generator
S -1325
5695
60MHz, CURSORS & READOUTS, DUAL TIME BASE
$439
Year
Warranty
t
Z
Digital Storage
25MHz Analog
Delayed Sweep
V
5895.00
/
S-1330
Analog
Analog with Delayed Sweep
mode displays two signals unre
lated In frequency.
Component tester
Analog
$475
S -1340
C &S SALES, INC.
150 W CARPENTER AVENUE
WHEELING.
IL
60090
FAX (847) 541 9904 1847) 541 0710
http:, www.elenco.corn cs sales
l
CIRCLE 322 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
15 DAY MONEY BACK
GUARANTEE
FULL FACTORY WARRANTY
79
New
Pre
and
-Owrie
cl
Test Equiprimer1t
Goldstar
Pre-Owned Oscilloscope Specials
B
Model OS -9100P
-
Tektronix 465
100 MHz $599.00
Tektronix 465B
100 MHz $699.00
Tektronix 475
200 MHz $799.00
Tektronix 475A 250 MHz $899.00
The Industry Standard of Oscilloscopes
Dual Channell, Calibrated Delayed Sweep
Professionally Refurbished
Aligned & Calibrated to Original Specifications
6 Month Warranty - The Longest Available!
$899.00
Full 100 MHz Bandwidth!
Dual -Channel, High Sensitivity
FREE SHIPPING!
TV Synchronization Trigger
ON GOLDSTAR EQUIPMENT
ANYWHERE IN THE U.S.
Calibrated Delayed Sweep
Excluding AK & HI
Includes Two Probes, 2 Year Warranty
?
LOWEST PRICES EVER!
NEW FLUKE MLLTIMETERS
PRECISION
Model 4040 $499.00
20 MHz Sweep /Function Generator
YXTIBC wg6lNfm-wa cop
EW!
(AMEXI C.O.D.
See us on the Web!
www.fotronic.com
Burst Operation
External 30 MHz Frequency Counter
&
TEKTRONIX OSCILLOSCOPES
The Industry Standard in Multimeters
Fluke Model 87 .3285.00
.
0.2 Hz to 20 MHz, 5 digit LED Display
AM & FM Internal or External Modulation
Sine, Square, Triangle, TTL, CMOS Outputs
+K Precision 1476 10 MHz $229.00
Great Starter Scope!
TEKTRONIX
TDS
SERIES
ON SALE!
Test Equipment Depot
A
FOTRONIC CORPORATION COMPANY
P.O. BOX 708 Medford, MA 02155
1-800- 996 -3837
TOLL FREE 1- 800 -99 -METER
(617) 665-1400
FAX (617) 665-078D
email: afoti @fotronic.com
CIRCLE 331 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
ATTENTION CABLE VIEWERS +
CABLE VIEWERS. ..get
back to your
BASIC
Cable Needs
Call 800- 577 -8775
For information regarding all of your BASIC cable needs.
5
GOOD REASONS TO BUY OUR FAR SUPERIOR PRODUCT
: PRICE
EFFICIENT SALES AND SERVICE
WE SPECIALIZE IN 5, 10 LOT PRICING
ALL FUNCTIONS (COMPATIBLE WITH ALL MAJOR BRANDS)
BAS C
ELECTRICAL
SUPPLY
Sr
WAREHOUSING
CORPORATION
: ANY
SIZE ORDER
We handle NEW
FILLED WITH SAME DAY SHIPPING
equipment ONLY - Don't trust last year's OBSOLETE and UNSOLD stock!
COMPETITIVE PRICING- DEALERS WELCOME
HOURS: Monday -Saturday 9-5 C.S.T.
It is not the intent of B.E.S. W. to defraud any pay television oper.ot an we will not .osnt any t urn pany or IndtvlduaI in downs the
'Refer to sales pert.,nnel for specific.rtions.
P.O. Box 81 80
time
Bartlett, IL 601 03 800- 577 -8775
80
CIRCLE 282 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Does your Desoldering Tool really
If not, try one of my two far
ritem.
I have attended many trade shows worldwide in the last few years
and these are the top two Desoldering
Tools that I have found. You have probably seen the testimonials on the DEN -ON SC -7000Z in the last
several issues. If you wish to see a copy or referrals from technicians in
your state, call toll free and we will fax it to you immediately.
'ale Price
New Features and Specifications
Totally Self Contained diaphragm vacuum pump and AC motor (In the
handle) for high vacuum suction or reversible hot air blow for SMD removal.
100Watt Ceramic heater with zero- crossover switching heater control circuit
which prevents spikes and leakage currents.
Unique patented long lasting filter cartridge design. Solder builds up on easily
cleaned baffle, while air flows around the outside of baffle.
Totally ESD Safe. The housing contains carbon and the tip is at ground
potential for complete ESD Protection.
Maximum vacuum of 650mmHg is attained in 100 milliseconds.
Temperature adjustable from 300 °C - 500 °C (572 °F - 932°F).
price includes
one extra filter
and tip cleaner
$395.00
Voltage
Power Consumption
Pump
Motor Output
Vacuum Attained
Temperature Range
Air Flow Rate
Heater
Control System
Net Weight
AC 00v,120V,230 V,50/60HZ
120W
Diaphragm Type
2W
650mmHg
300°C-500°C (572 °F-932 °F)
15 Liter/Minute (Open)
100W (Ceramic)
Feed Back Zero Cross -over Type
420Grams
Check us out on the WEB
/
http: /www.heinc.com
New Features
EDSYN has redesigned and improved their most popular ZD500 SOLDAPULLT Hot Tip Self- Contained Desoldering Station and renamed it the
ZD500DX
New control circuitry for more precise temperature control, heat transfer, stability
and calibration.
New vacuum pump design for improved performance and appearance.
New external calibration assists with IS09000 compliance.
Updated modular design for easier maintenance.
Adjustable trigger and head assembly for comfort and ease of operation.
Wide range of tips available for all applications.
Vacuum Pump starts when handle is lifted from holder, thereby placing full vacuum at the trigger switch waiting for the trigger to be depressed. This allows for
increased performance over conventional competitive models.
v
Demo Units available to Qualifying Companies
Visa - M/C - Discover - American Express - Terms to Qualifying Companvs
30 Day Money Back Total Satisfaction Guarantee - One Year Paris and Labor \1.arranty
Web Site www.heinc.com
Toll Free U.S. and Canada
O WARD
E -Mail sales @heinc.com
ITRONIC
NSTRUMENTS
6222
N. Oliver Kechi, KS 67067
NC
1- 800. 394 -1984
133
744 -1993
(316) 744 -1994
International(316)
or Fax
CIRCLE 321 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
81
Complete On Site
"QUAL/ry
LLtc
is OUR
HONIGS INC.
I
Electrical Engineering Lab
P/T
Ca
ONC
EN
R i
=..i..G..i..i
PRODUCT
ENGINEERING
ING
R
FIRMWARE DEVELOPMENT
MICRO CONTROLLER &
EPROM
t
i_
-'
:
r
REVERSE ENGINEERING
RF CIRCUIT DESIGN &
MANUFACTURING
HARDWARE & SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
From Auto-Routing to CNC Routing to Electronic Assemblies..
is Your Best Route For Printed Circuit Boards.
.
Capital Electronics
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS
DESIGN/LAYOUT
CAD
ALL CAD SYSTEMS
FROM SCHEMATICS OR
SAMPLE PCB's
PHOTOPLOTTING SERVICES
28,800 BAUDE MODEM
For Quick
&
ASSEMBLY SERVICES
SINGLE & DOUBLE SIDED
MULTI -LAYER & FLEXIBLE PCB's
FROM QUICK TURN PROTOYPES
TO SCHEDULED PRODUCTION RUNS
LAYOUT SERVICES
COMPATIBLE WITH ALMOST
FINE LINES, SMT
ELECTRICAL TESTING
PRECIOUS METAL PLATING
Competitive Pricing or More Information,
Please Call Us Today!
Internet Access:
For Automated Info Response:
IN FO @capital-elec.com
303 Sherman Street Ackley, Iowa 50601
(515) 847 -3888
E -Mail:
Quote@capital -elec.com
Web Access: http: //www.capital- elec.com
Modem (515) 847 -3890
Fax (515) 847 -3889
FAST TURN BOARD STUFFING
WIRE HARNESSES
WAVE SOLDERING
ACQUISITION OF PARTS
FINAL TESTING
TURNKEY SERVICES
CUSTOM ENCLOSURES
CIRCLE 327 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
l"
The PRIMER
ER 8085
-
ii
Based Microprocessor
Training and Control System shows you how
TTEHAC/
fak
t
ÇOMP14?Y ION
lAre
111/
to program by example. Examples &
exercises in the Self Instruction manual
take you from writing simple programs
to controlling motors. Start out in
Machine language, then move on to
Assembler, & then continue on with
optional C, Basic, or Forth Compilers.
This trainer can be used stand alone via
the keypad and display or connected to a PC
with the optional upgrade ($49.95). The Upgrade includes: an RS232 serial
port & cable, 32K of battery backed RAM, & Assembler/Terminal software.
Examples
Include:
Measuring Temperature
Using a Photocell to Detect Light Levels
Making a Waveform Generator
Constructing a Capacitance Meter
Motor Speed Control Using Back EMF
Interfacing and Controlling Stepper Motors
Scanning Keypads and Writing to LCD/LED Displays
Bus Interfacing an 8255 PPI (new)
Using the Primer as an EPROM Programmer
The PRIMER is only $119.95 in kit form. The PRIMER Assembled & Tested
is $169.95. Please add $5.00 for shipping within the U.S. Picture shown with
upgrade option and optional heavy -duty keypad ($29.95) installed.
IL 62901
CARBONDALE,
BBS 529 -5708
Fax 457 -0110
618 -529 -4525
World Wide Web: http: / /www.emacinc.com
11
82
inc.
EMAC
WAY,
tS
ER
CP -ROTA
1985
-
1997
OVER
12
YEARS
OF SERVICE
you interested ka using the internet in ways you never
d possible? Want a war- dialer program or something to
'a password? Do you want to learn how the phone
y gets ripped off, or learn how to build a red box, or
modify
-fluter phone? Wait to see what the security holes in
Windows
ara? Or hgw tc compromise a Unix machine or a
BBS? Want e teárn how to use the system in ways you never
imagined po-.ible,? This-CD is the place to look! It contains all
kinds of co utee- telephone and general hacking information.
Even a video of -dutch hackers breaking into a classified US
military c
Outer! In all, over 600 megabytes of fascinating
'
n that's hard to get anywhere else!
''
PC-COMPArIBCe
vD SZ9. 95 SHIPPING $3
Cryptography Unlimited
CD -ROM
Cryptographic software will soon be outlawed-by the US
government. Get this important bundle of ovelSVO megabytes
in the US
of cryptographic software while you still
will even dare to publish a CD like this anymore ard,we had to
import it from Africa! Includes file enc
ors, c sl ncryptors,
PGP, steganography, code cracki
P hbne and lots
more!
can!.y
pC CD -ROM
$,F
"Y.*
Call (800)71
°
to order (Visa/MC/COD) or call or write
hard -to -get information about corn . >:'
hacking, security and
wi
CATALOG of
s computer
Aisterican Eagle:
P.
Show
CIRCLE 315 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
4 Way
Speaker Switch
4Peak Instrument'gü
Control up to 4 pairs of speakers with this
compact speaker selector switch. Features
circuit protector, heavy duty rocker switches,
spring loaded terminals, and silver plated
switch connectors. Includes one pair of
"The Woofer Tester"
eak
NOW
WAS
$225°,,,
#EN- 309-030
1
B
Instrument
Co.
proudly
ntroduces "The Woofer Tester ". Just
ask any loudspeaker engineer, and
:hey will tell that the only way to
design enclosures of the correct size
and tuning is to measure the Thiele Small parameters for the actual
drivers to be used. The reason?
amplifier inputs. Load to amplifier is
minimum 4 ohms (with 8 ohm speakers) or
220 ohms with all speakers switched off.
Net weight' 1 lb.
EACH
Manufacturers published specs can
3e off by as much as 50%! But until
now, measuring the parameters
yourself required expensive test
equipment and tedious calculations,
or super expensive measurement
systems ($1,200 to $20,000). The
Woofer Tester changes all that.
Finally, a cost effective, yet extremely accurate way to derive Thiele -Small
parameters, in only minutes! The Woofer Tester is a combination hardware and
software system that will run on any IBM compatible cemputer that has EGA or better
graphics capability and an RS232 serial port. The Woofer Tester will generate the
following parameters. Raw driver data Fs, OMs, Ors, O1s, VAS, BL, Re, Le, SPL
1W /1m, Mmd, Cm, and Rm. Sealed box data: Fsb and system O. Vented box data:
Fsb, ha, alpha, and Q loss. The Woofer Tester system includes hardware, test leads.
serial cable, AC wall adaptor, detailed instructions, and software.
"The Sound Bridge" FM
Wireless Transmitter
The Sound Bridge is a
mini FM wireless transmitter that can be used to
broadcast stereo sound
from any audio source like
portable CO players, TVs,
electronic games, CDROM,
even
computer
soundcards, to your home
$249 "'EACr
#EN- 390 -800
stereo receiver! Adjustable horn
89 to 95.5 MHz.
900 MHz Wireless Speaker System
#EN- 249-220
900 MHz technology sends signal
up to 180 ft., through walls, floor.
and ceilings.
Ideal for use as rear surround speakers or for adding wireless sound to
every room in the house!
Weller Professional Irons
Full range, bass reflex design with
built -in high power, low distortion
amplifier.
Weather resistant cabinet for
outdoor use.
Selectable battery (six C size for
each speaker) or AC operation,
adaptor included. Built -in recharging c rcul -y fot ni -cad batteries.
System includes: 900 MHz transmitter, wi elm speaker pair, AC adaptors, and all cables necessary to hook up sys:err.
Perfect for a variety of electronic soldering work, this top quality iron features a
long life, double coated tip and a quick change, plug -in heater element.
Lightweight handle includes a comfortable cushioned grip. Net weight: 1/2 lb.
#EN- 372 -110 (25 Watt)
$30°1'j1,31
$2850
#EN- 372 -112
$38p0,.
$3495
(35 Watt)
Limited availability.
Frequency response:
Net weigh- 9 lbs.
20- 18KHz.
$16999EACH
#EN- 319 -030
Home Theatre In -Floor Subwoofer
Da on Loud
fully appreciate the potential of movie soundtracks, a dual voice coil
subwoofer is a must! Many film special effects are extremely demanding in the
low frequency range and require a subwoofer
that can duplicate explosions, earthquakes, even the footsteps of
Tyrannosaurus Rex! This
subwoofer fits the bill by featuring a 10" dual voice coil woofer
for true stereo operation and
high pass filters for your main
speakers. The most unique feature of this subwoofer is the fact
that it is designed to be mounted
in between the floor joists in new
and existing home constructions.
Simply mount the in -floor sub to the
joists and mount a heat register grill
above opening in subwoofer front enclosure. The subwoofer is now totally out of
view and ready to rumble! Includes detailed
installation manual.
Specifications: 10' dual voice coil treated paper
cone woofer with poly foam surround *Frequency response: 30 -100 Hz *Nominal impedance: 8 ohms par
coil *Power handling: 100 watts RMS channe1/140 vatts
max SPL: 89 dB 1W /1m *Dimensions: 27' D x 14-5/8' W x
9' H
weight: 29 lbs.
-
Baker
Co.®
To
Net
#EN- 300 -445
$13995
m
cr
ó
EACH
30
VISA
day money back guarantee $20.00 minimum order
+We accept Mastercard, Visa, Discover, and company C.O.D.
orders 4624 hour shipping +Shippingg charge = UPS chart rate
if $1.90 ($5.00 minimum charge) *Hours 8:00 am - 8:00 pm
am - 5:00 pm Saturday. Mail order
ET, Monday - Friday
customers, please call for shipping estimate on orders exceeding 5 lbs. *Foreign destination customers please send
$5.00 U.S. funds for catalog. +Quantity pricing available.
9:00
CIRCLE 262 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
18003380531
340 E. First St., Dayton, OH 45402.1257
Fax: 937- 222 -4644
Phone: 937-222 -0173
E -Mail:
sales@parts- express.com
83
Printed Circuits
in Minutes Direct
From LaserPrint!
SC552ES CONTRIIIBi
H.;1411.
3
srrzr6lr
80652
7 SECOND IC REMOVER
6x31
Remove 100's of good IC's per hour
WonYtiamage IC's or circuit boards
3 LEO
16
8 1/2' x 11'
* Or Photocopy
**Use standard
household iron
or P -n -P Press.
circuit board
10 SA relay outputs
laserPrint*
1.
é 22MHz
Enhanced BASIC language
8
a bpc outputs
*o- isolated inputs
d.10
b8 onalag inpats
2 ch. B bit analog outputs
2. Press On **
3. Peel Off
4. Etch
biros docb/casdar
1281 Stain RAM
12BK RUSH memory
256 byte serial EPROM
3
send pork 11S132/4051
expansion
IIC bus
terminal blocks
8 Desoldering Tools
(Remove 6 thru 40 pin
10 Desoldering Tools
(Remove 6 thru 64 pin
Use Standard Copper Clad Board
20 Shts $30/ 40 Shts $50/ 100 Shts $100
Visa /MC /PO/Ck /M0 $4 S&H
Techniks Inc.
P.O. Box 463
4W(a6-l0 or)
Hard
31e
68HC
SIM (1313240ns)
320
634
81,0 (2313240na)
164/114693.7.60 nsl 355
37W (8x3240na) 8105
5120
37616(4a6410or)
31651
1.0Gó IDE
3200
1ND
WD2.1Gb(0E
MID
2.500110E
S23Ó
MID
3.20010E
3245
3325
1304.3(b IDE
Video Card.
CPU'.
AHD KSPAIOO
AHD KO-200
AMD 06 -233
Gym 686.0200
Cynic Mx 166
Gyros MX 200
$00
$250
6350
8100
$130
6230
lral
sus
in* Pant 233rtnn
3540
(MKMxn 133
Intel Pont 200mmic 3360
Motherboards
Prim (MM TMai2 V)t
390
512412
R&M= Intel Tmon2 TX,
512412. dews 3130
Potters Inert Tdbn2 TX.
512K12. ATx
$140
1 1
T-
1
1
Modules for
Solderless Breadboards
256K ISA VGA
Trident 69001Mb
ISA SVGA
S24
632
Onus Lope 512611E
VID SVGA
180000000
SVGA *AWED
$36
PCI
336
Miscellaneous
14481nFDD
12Mó FDO
326
366
CD-ROM IDE
16x CD-ROM ICE
370
$80
11.3
HP7300032gb lam
rato
3205
3-WAm seri moor $6
1014taybo.rd
316
Ial,
807
1112
1610587
info(cosylvaconEols.cor
Slot Machines
$ 449.00
Free Shipping
Video S 5.99
40 - Minutes
33.6$FaV lodom S65
33.60 U$RFa01oe rn
PNP
6140
33.6 Et UER FW
Mourn PIP
3170
33.610 USR Fax/
Mois 6166
56K Ire Sups Fax/
Modem Ws°. 6150
Sr MO 20' Wide lY Deep
Brochure $1.00
eo0n
Soo
Sound Batter AWE
vale.
$106
Controller Card.
ISA 60601/O($0.
FOC. 251 P /10
Poe Jud U574.95, our Starter Package (ADI ISPI provides everything you need to gel ides fast! Now you can harness the power
00 the popular 68HC11 In your p
Includes ADAPT.] I with
4813C$1102, providing 2K EEPROM (re- progranunabld, 8 channel
Sea A.ateg-to-DlgJW Converter (ADC /. hardware timers, counters. Interns/Mk Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), Serial Communitador Interface (SCO. more! On -board RS-232 Interface (cable
001.dedl, 5-voa regulator, 8MHs crystal. reset circuit, and convenient program/run switch Coma with non- commercial versions of
HCII Aa{oebier, BASIC, A C. as well as handy utilities it maniple Ta e Includes Motorola 68HC I I Pocket Programming Referees Guide and manual with schematic. All you need it a PC to
writs program your software, DC power supply. and soldertea breadboard (or protobo..d) to build your application dmrin
on (or use our madder .aeaories(.
\
nee.!
Sound Cards
1601 Soad BIMYr666
Sound alamar 32 PNP
613
PCI ANFUC 2610
SC5I.2 fast
801 168 2487
Slot Machias Darrte
Modem.
WD 1.200 IDE
SY LVA
CONTROL SYSTEMS
www.sylvacontrols.cam
A D A P
I/O
519 Richard Street, thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada PIA
salssaihoopswars.com
Driva
c
Ph
959 W. 5th St. Reno, NV 89503
(702) 322-6875 Fax (702) 324-3900
Memory
$114.95
-
TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATES
www.tschass.eom
ICs)
P. O. BOX 357
GLEN, MISS. 38846
Orders By Mail Only. No COD's.
UPGRADE YOUR COMPUTER!
Jv,Na
$
APPLICATION
READY ONLY
FRANKS ELECTRONICS
Ringoes NJ 08551
ph. 908.788.8249 fax 908.788.8837
http :\\chelsea.los.com\- techniks
Retail Dealer Inquires Invited
r,n10
89.95
Cs)
I
3200
NOTE: Prices are
projections based
on advertising
Imes.
Prices and availability subject m change without notice.
CALL FOR DAILY LOW PRICES!
fiera.+'
Laser Modules
Variety of laser modules from 635 to 830
nm with 5-40 mW output power. World
Star Tech. also has TTL modulated laser
t
l
TECHNOLOGICAL ARTS
309 Aragau Blvd., Suite 102, Box 418. Va. Bears, VA 23462
1644 Bayview Avenue, Box 1704, Toronto, ON 1414G 3C2
voice/fax:14161 963 -8996 www.interlog.cont/ tecltart
FRIENDLY LITRE
MICRO CONTROLLER
$149
(single)
modules, adjustable focus laser modules,
line generators and etc.
Magic Box
Test Chips
Filter Kits
t1
Notch Filters
Video Media www.nutnet.com
P.O. Box 93/6025
Margate, Fl. 33093
(954) -752 -9202
Make your own
circuit boards at home!!
Don't project -board your electronics circuits,
Afford -A -Board them!! Our complete line of
circuit board manufacturing equipment lets
you create professional single or double -sided
circuit boards in your own home. We manufacture affordable, developing, etching anc
stripping tanks. Afford -A-Board is your source
for 2 -sided photo -sensitive copperclad board
12x12 FR4 1 oz. DS S15.99
Call for our low, low pricing on film.
chemicals and drill bits.
.
Laser Pointer
Pen -size laser pointer has a range
...packs
"St
of 150-
200 yard with high quality laser beam.
Ask for laser modules and laser pointers catalog
World Star Technologies, Inc.
20 Carlton Str. Unit 1626
Toronto, M5B 2H3 Canada
Ph: 416 204 6298 Fax: 416 596 7619
laser@arcos.org
You can visit us on http: //web,arcos.org/laser
MEAN punch
39 I/O + 8 A/D (I 0 bit)
SRAM + I28K Flash
LCD /Keypad Interface
Fast 16 bit Motorola CPU
I28K
Affordable C Compiler
Comprehensive s/w Library
Intec Automation Inc.
www.islandnet.com / -iii
v:
250 -721 -5150
(x:250 -721 -4191
Afford -A -Board
P.O. Box 32613
Kansas City, MO 64171
Tel: (913) 385-1843
Fax: (913) 895 -9330
(800) 847-0157
Visa /AMEX/MC/Cash COD /MO
you want!
Any waveformSynthesized
Signal Generator
Starting at
$795
Quantity
Clean sinewaves DC -20 MHz with .001% accuracy!
.1 Hz steps. DC Offset. RS232 remote controL
Arbitrary Waveform Generator
1
Money back
guarantee
40 Megasamples/Second. 32,768 points. 12 bit DAC
Function Generator
Ramps, Triangles, Exponentials
& more to
2 MHz!
Pulse Generator
Telulex Inc. model SG-100
Digital waveforms with adjustable duty cycle
slit
NAN
11
DC to 20 MHz linear
and log sweeps
Ramps, Triangles,
Exponentials
Int/Ext AM, SSB,
Dualtone Gen.
InUExt FM, PM,
BPSK, Burst
Noise
Arbitrary Waveforms
Unlimited Possibilities!
Old Middlefield Way S Tel (415) 938 -0240
http: //www.Tèlulex.com
V4441
Pulse Generator
Telulex Inc.
2:455
Fax (415) 938 -0241 Email: sales @Telulex.com
Mountain View, CA 94043
CIRCLE 324 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Fcc
Radiotelephone - Radiotelegraph
Digital Power
Meter
Measures
Watts
& Watt -hours
(kW-hr)
Simple to use.
Plug t_le Power Meter into any
115V AC outlet, and plug the appliance to be
measured into the Power Meter. That's it!
Measure REAL ( "true ") power 3 to 1850 Watts
Measure Power used, 1 Watt -hour to 9999 kilo-Watt-hr
Measure power cost ($), just enter cost per kilo- Watt -hr
Microprocessor based circuitry
4 button keypad
16 character LCD display
Digital processing handles any AC waveform, any power factor
Lifetime Warranty!
License
Why Take Chances?
Discover how easy it
I
I
I
I
To
Brand Electronics,
421 Hilton Rd.
Whitefield, ME 04353
For information only, call
1
order, call toll free
-888-433 -6600
1- 207 -549 -3401
pass the exams.
I
I
Send for FREE DETAILS or call
1- 800 -800 -7555
I
r
WPT Publications
4701 N.E. 47th St.
Vancouver, WA 98661
Performs the same functions as instruments costing $500 -$1000!
No other instrument on the market even cernes close for this price!!
$149.95 Delivered! Mc/rlsa/Mo/alecr
is to
Study with the most current materials available. Our
Homestudy Guides, Audio, Video or PC "Q &A" disks
make it so fast, easy and inexpensive. No college or
experience needed. The new commercial FCC exams
have been revised, covering updated Aviation, Marine,
Radar, Microwave, New Rules & Regs, Digital
Circuitry & more.We feature the Popular "Complete
Electronic Career Guide ". 1000's of satisfied customers
Guarantee to pass or money back. Newest Q &A pools.
Self Calibrating for excellent accuracy!
Only
Commercial
I
Name
I
Address
City
St._
1-800-800-7555
Zip
85
FLECTilIJJ1IIA' EARNESf>»-r
WELLER
S
OLDERING STATION -MODEL
Variable power control (5 to 40 watts)
Replaceable heating element
Quality light- weight pencil iron
DUAL -TRACE OSCILLOSCOPE
Goldstar 9020
20M11Z
$36"
A nKPREcmaw
5
SCOPE PROBE
60 MHZ
SWI,WHABLf X1. X10
SET OF
t;
$3495
pt
SWITCHES
WITH CAP/FREOUENCV/
TESTER
""
ALLIGATOR LEADS $210
$12es
DIGITAL MULTIMETER
Model DM645
10'
$9900
L
A.
Mn Toggle SPDT
ON-ON
HIGH QUALITY TOOLS
ANALOG TRAINER
With Cushion Grips and Return Spring
Diagonal
Needle Nose Wire
Stripper
Pliers
Cutter
portable
workstation.
$tes
Variable and
fb ed power
supp'ies, function generator,
digital I/O, rugged design,
high mpact case.
Assembled
Kit
$15000
$110 °°
$150
$295
POWER SUPPLIES
0-30
VDC, 0-3 Amp. Built-in current
limiting, overload protected, constant
voltage and current operation.
01PSGP4303A
01PSGP4303D
SOLDERING IRON
830 tie points. MB102PLT
model features 3 binding posts
HIGH PERFORMANCE
and aluminum backplate.
SOLDERING IRON
Part No.
MB102
MB102PLT
HELPING
-9
10+
5.95
8.95
5.00
8.00
1
¡;$
$350
'NMI
Analog Display $169.00
Digital Display
206.00
365 Blair
15 TURN POT
A$395
L
220
27e
win.
10 Min.
2N3904
PN2222
10
tTa
Green LED T11/4 10 Mie.....
Yellow LED T 11/4 lo Mk .
Photo Cell Ink
100K Pot., 1' Shaft PC Mt.
CD22402
RoadAvenel, NJ
ea.
7C ea.
80
650
10
0700+1
MII
ea.
ea.
15C ea.
8.95
MORT
Low- Priced
Items In Our
FREE
1921Page Catalog
ea.
OWW1000RM
-2293
800-972-2225
e60ç ea.
FREE CATALOG
60 ea.
60 ea.
10 Mln.
ea.
Boums 3006P series. All standard MAN72 C.ARed 0.3'
values available.
MAN74 C.CRed 0.3"
6Q ea.
10 Mie.
3
7 SEG. DISPLAY
ea.
180 ea
300 ea.
10 Min.
Red LED T 11/4
690
total.
TERMS: Min. 20 +skipp_in8. School Purchase Orders, VISA(MC, MaleyOrder,L'repaúL NOPER.SOLIL4L
In NJ: 732 -381 -8020
FAX: 732 -381 -1572
1
1,'4W 5% film. 5
pieces each of 73
,1
741$00 10 Min.
7805 Regulator
7
#060842
$595
#060836
LM741
$350
W/SPONGE
values. 365 pieces
LM555 io
$525
60/40 Solder Roll .031"
HAND
MAGNIFIER
-°=1.ill==
#060501
LB.
3-WIRE
DESOLDER PUMP W/TIP
50 RESISTOR KIT #060820
WITH
600 ea.
500 ea.
8 POS DIP
PAC -234 DIGITAL/
Complete
SOLDERLESS BREADBOARD
FUNCTION GEN.
MHZ, DIGITAL DISPLAY
MODEL 4011
$33900
TRAMOISTOR
WLC 100
d69reSdiet:T,
http: / /www.elexp.com
Email: electron @elexp.com
CIRCLE 335 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
IPY CAT
995.00 ",
7 -Way
Sta rTa c
Does..
1.
MOTOROLA (incudes elite and EE3)! 2. NEC (includes
P100- 200 -300 -400 -600 -700)!
3.
AUDIOVOX (does new 800 & 850)!
4.
PANASONIC! 5. SONY (H333)! 6. MITSUBISHI -DIAMONDTE.L!
7.
GE- ERICSSON (includes new version)!
We offer complete upgrade options on older units as well as new
Upgrade
Your Old Copy
NOW
to a 7 -Way
with EE3
at
and replacement cables. We also offer used and refurbished units,
For
a
&
StarTac
compete catalog, visit us on the web at www.celfltec.com
*cables
un is are so or 4:fß 1G1,14.`tt G6`L44g11Litt[1.`l_C1r/al14 YI`I
!
CALL US TODAY AT
770.973.8474
CIRCLE 313 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
optional
CALL, WRITE,
or E-MAIL ForFAX
QUALITY
PARTS
Free 96
FAST
SHIPPING
CATALOG.
Outside the
send S3.00 U.S.A.
postage.
DISCOUNT
PRICING
High Brightness
FLASHER LEDs
Shielded Woofer
60 Watt Switching
Supply
Mfg. by Sony for Sun Microsystems # APS -28
Input: 100 -240 vac.
Output: 5 vdc © 4.5 A
and 12 vdc © 4 A
voo
Designed for use in Infinity center channel
video sound systems. These well constructed woofers have shielded magnets to prevent interference with
picture quality.
5
1/4" 6 OHM
1" voice coil. 8 oz.
T 1 3/4 (5mm) high brightness
RED LEDs with built -in flasher unit.
3 -5 Vdc operation
CAT # LED-4 2 for 900
100 for $40.00
1000 for $300.00
magnet. 50 watts max
power. 3.125" deep.
CAT # SK -7346
$1000
On /off switch. IEC
power input receptacle. 9.5" x
2.56" x 2 5" UL, CSA listed
CAT #PS -60
1
$1
2 0°
each
Ferrite Bead
TDK
#
1.1" x
HF7ORH 16X28X9
0.63" od x 0.35" id.
CAT # FB -24 $1.00 each
10 for $8.50 - 100 for $70.00
12
Low Power Audio Amp
Motorola MC34119P
Low power audio amplifier suitable
for speaker phones or talking picture
frames. The 8 pin DIP package requires
only a few additional parts, operates on 2 - 16
volts and drives speakers of 8 ohms or greater.
Output power exceeds 250 mW with 32 ohm
speaker. Power -down option saves power in
battery driven applications. Hook -up sheet.
CAT # MC34119P
500
S -VHS TAPES (USED)
Super VHS tape
users! Save a bundle
on name -brand SVHS, T -120 tapes.
These tapes were
used for a brief period, then bulk erased.
The record -protect tabs
have been broken out, so you
w ill have to cover the notch with a
piece of tape, but they work great and
cost a fraction of the "new" price. Try some,
you'll be back for more.
10
for $28.00
$
T 1 3/4 (5mm) diffused LEDs.
Connect directly to 12 Vdc (max.
15 Vdc). No resistor necessary. oc
RED CAT# LED -100
2for$1.00-
10 for $4.00
GREEN CAT# LED -200
2 for $1.00
-
10 for $4.00
YELLOW CAT# LED -300
2 for $1.20
-
10 for $5.00
Large quantity available.
SUPER SAVINGS ON
CAT #S -VHS
12 Volt LEDs
for $96.00
each
for $20.00
for $150.00
3 Volt Lithium Coin
Cell with PC Leads
Panasonic # BR2330 -1GU
3 volt, 255 mAh coin cell. Lithium
batteries have a very long shelf life
00
each
100 for $250.00
and are great for memory back -up
protection. 0.9" diameter x 0.12" thick. 0.7"
between positive and negative pc leads.
VERY SPECIAL PRICE
LARGE QUANTITY AVAILABLE
750each
CAT #LBAT-16
ORDER TOLL FREE
MAIL ORDERS TO
ALL ELECTRONICS CORP.
P.O. BOX 567
VAN NUYS, CA 91408 -0567
50
500
20 for $12.00
100 for $45.00
1000 for $300.00
Light Activated
Intrusion Alarm
Leviton "Snapit- Alert"
# 830 -51031
This handy light activated
alarm buzzes intermittently when
exposed to light. Use it in desk drawer,
gun rack, medicine cabinet, refrigerator,
school locker or file cabinet to prevent
children or unwanted intruders from
being where they don't belong. Red
plastic case with self- adhesive Velcro
backing. 2.5" x 3" x 0.84 ". Operates on
9 volt battery (not included). Good looking retail packaging.
$2 each
eacCAT#
10
SNA -2
for $20.00
1-800-826-5432
FAX (818) 781 -2653
INFO (818) 904-0524
http://www.allcorp.com/
E-MAIL allcorp@allcorp.com
Orders
NO MINIMUM ORDER All Orders Can Be Charged to Visa, Mastercard, American Express or Discover Checks and Money Orders Accepted by Mail
Delivered in the State of California must include California State Sales Tax NO C.O.D Shipping and Handling $5.00 for the 48 Continental United States - ALL
notice.
without
Prices Subject to change
Quantities Limited
OTHERS including Alaska. Hawaii, P.R. and Canada Must Pay Full Shipping
MANUFACTURERS
- We
NYZJI
INTERNET
(48
p11CER
Purchase EXCESS INVENTORIES... Call, Write, E -MAIL or Fax YOUR LIST
CIRCLE 214 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
87
The Only 100% Legal, FCC approved,
DESCRAMBLER you can buy!
INAMISAMIR IL..
Booth #3752 ¿
In 4 VCC at
Winter
CES
only legal way to own your converter!
4
250 Channel Capacity
Subscribe to two different cable
systems simultaneously
Interactive
On- Screen Display
Watch one premium channel while recording another
Electronic program guide shows all programming over next 7 days
One Touch Recording
NO RENTAL FEES!
Advanced
Features!
Most advanced
set -top you
can buy!
FCC
&
UL
Save
Money!
Y
Approved
DYNAMIC Technologies Phone: 402 -731 -9555
Suite 541 064 Boystown, NE 68154
CIRCLE 312 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
NEW! Cellphone
E.S.N. readers $250 each, cell phone
programmers $175 each, cell phones $25 each, DSS satellite dish card readers and programmers $125 each, credit
card readers $250 each, Cable T.V. notch filters 50 cents
each, convertor boxes $50 each, magnetic strip card readers for ATM machines, bank cards, drivers license, and all
types of data acquisitions all under $200 each. You pay
these super low prices when you deal directly with the man-
ELECTRONIC GAMES
Where would Hansel
and Gretel Le without
a
-A
forest?
ufacturers. When you order "Direct Connection" a 150 page
directory published by Ed Treki Publications, you will
receive the largest collection of names, addresses, and
phone numbers of all the leading American and
International manufacturers of these products never before
Only You Can prevent Fores( Fres.
available. Stop paying second, third and fourth hand prices
and deal directly with the source!!! Order your copy of
"Direct Connection" today for only $99.95 plus $5 shipping. All orders are sent C.O.D. Please call Ed Treki
Publications 24 hour order hot line 914 -544-2829.
88
4.7
4t.
SC> fcm,l
BP69
number of interesting electronic game projects
using IC's are presented. Includes 19 different projects
ranging from a simple coin
flipper, to a competitive reaction game, to electronic
roulette, a combination lock
game, a game timer and
more. To order BP69 send
$8.00 (includes s &h) in the
US and Canada to Electronic Technology Today Inc., P.O. Box 240, Massapequa Park, NY 11762 -0240. US funds only.
Use US bank check or International Money
Order. Allow 6 -8 weeks for delivery.
MAO7
Wireless Video Headquarters
MicroEye CCD Camera &
Transmitter Combo
The
Cube
World's Smallest TV Transmitter
Perfect video transmission from a transmitter you can hide under a quarter and only as thick as a stack of four pennies- that's a nickel in the picture! Transmits color or B &W up to 150' to any TV tuned to cable channel
59 with a solid 20 mW of power. Crystal cortrolled for no frequency drift
with performance that equals law enforcement models that cost hundreds
more! Deluxe model includes sound using a sensitive built -in mike that
will hear a whisper 15 feet away! Units run on 9 volts and hook -up to
most any CCD camera. Our cameras shown below have been tested to
mate perfectly with The Cube and work great. Fully assembled.
C -2000
C -3000
$89.95
$149.95
Video Transmitter Cube
Video and Audio Transmitter Cube
CCD Video Cameras
If you're looking for a good quality CCD board
camera, stop right here! Our cameras use top
quality Japanese Class 'A' CCD arrays, not
the off-spec arrays that are found on many
other cameras. You see, the Japanese suppliers grade the CCDs at manufacture and some manufacturers end up
with the off-grade chips due to either cost constraints or lack of buying
'clout'. These cameras have nice clean fields and excellent light sensitivity, you'll really see the difference, and if you want to see in the dark,
these are super IR (Infra -Red) sensitive! Available with Wide -angle (80 °)
or super slim Pin-hole style lens. Both run on 9 VDC and produce standard 1 volt p -p video. Add one of our transmitter units for wireless transmission to any TV set, or add our Interface board (below) for Audio
sound pick-up and direct wire connection to any Video monitor or TV
video /audio input jacks. Fully assembled.
CCDWA -2 CCD Camera, wide -angle lens
CCDPH -2 CCD Camera, slim fit pin -hole lens
$99.95
$99.95
CCD Camera Interface Board
Here's a nifty little kit that eases hook -up of your
CCD camera module to any video monitor, VCR
or video input TV set. The board provides a voltage regulated and filtered source to power the
camera (CCD Cameras require a stable source
of power for best operation), sensitive electret condensor mike for great
sound pick -up and RCA Phono jacks for both audio and video outputs.
Runs on 11 - 20 VDC.
$14.95
IB -1 Interface Board Kit
Budget TV Transmitter
Transmit audio and video to any TV set with this fully
assembled transmitter. Although not tiny, it still offers
some neat features. Takes standard volt p -p video
and audio and transmits on any UHF TV channel of
your choice from 17 - 42. Has rugged metal case,
includes AC adapter, whip antenna and even RCA phono plug patch
cords! Can also run on 12 VDC.
$29.95
VS-2 Video and Audio Sender, Fully Assembled
1
IR
Illuminator for CCD Cameras
See in total darkness with one of our CCD video
cameras and this IR illuminator! IR light can't be
seen, illuminate the scene with IR and a CCD camera
'sees' just fine. The array of 24 extra high intensity
LEDs are invisible to anybody - except for aliens and Casper! Runs on 12
VDC. Illuminates similar to that of a bright flashlight.
IR -1 IR
Illuminator Kit
$24.95
We married together one of our quality
CCD cameras, a sensitive electret microphone and a small TV transmitter to give
you a super neat - and tiny - all in one,
'knows all, sees all, hears all' package!
Small enough to fit into a cigarette pack
and powerful enough to transmit up to
150' to any standard TV set. Tunable to operate on TV channels 4,
5, or 6 and runs on 9 to 20 VDC. The sensitive mike picks up normal voice within an average size room. Ideal for private detectives,
investigators, hobbyists, babysitters, model rocketeers, RC airplanes and other uses limited only by your imagination. Camera
module is fully wired and the transmitter unit is an easy to build kit
that goes together in an evening. Includes all parts, handsome jetblack case and clear, concise instructions with ideas for use. And,
don't forget, our CCD cameras are very sensitive to IR light - just
add the IR -1 IR Illuminator kit for see -in- the -dark operation!
ME -2000 MicroEye TV Transmitter Combo
$149.95
Wavecom
Wireless Video
and Audio
Transmission
System
Transmit extremely clean
and sharp video and
audio up to 300 feet. Wavecom transmits in the 2.4 GHz band
using FM and circular polarization for state -of-the -art transmission.
There is no fading, ghosting, humming, buzzing or picture rolling
when using the Wavecom. System consists of two parts, a transmitter unit and a receiver unit. Switch selectable 4 channel operation allows use of multiple Wavecoms in the same geographic area.
Connections are video and audio in and out using standard RCA
phono jacks. Includes AC wall plug adapters, patch cords, coax
cable jumper, TV antenna NB switch and complete hook-up
instructions. Fully assembled with one year warranty.
The Wavecom Sr. has all of the features above plus adds the
capability of transmitting your TV/DSSNCR remote control signals
from the receiver unit back to the transmitter unit. This is great for
controlling your DSS satellite receiver or VCR from any room in the
house. We also offer the small intemal transmitter module assembly for those who wish to make their own concealed video transmitter system. Module is about the size of a couple of matchboxes and
includes microwave patch antenna.
WC -1 Wavecom Jr. Wireless System
WC -5 Wavecom Sr. with Remote Capability
WC -TX Transmitter Module Assembly
\$/
RAMSEY
$189.95
$239.95
$105.00
RAMSEY ELECTRONICS, INC.
793 Canning Parkway
Victor, NY 14564
Call for our free catalogue or visit us on the web: www.ramseyelectronics.com
Toll-free Order Service:
1- 800 -446 -2295
Sorry no technical into or order status at this numbe'
For Tech Info or Order Status, Call the Factory Direct
Phone (716) 924 -4560
Fax (716) 924 -4555
VISA
ORDERING INFO: Satisfaction Guaranteed. Examine for 10 days, if
not pleased, return in original form for refund. Add $5.95 for shipping,
handling and insurance. Orders under $20, add $3.00. NY residents
add 7% sales tax. Sorry, no CODs. Foreign orders, add 20% for surface mail or use credit card and specify shipping method.
CIRCLE 266 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
DIICOVER
G,
89
EZ -EP DEVICE PROGRAMMER
Check Web!1 --
www.m2l.com
Fast - Programs 27C010 in 23 seconds
Portable - Connects to PC Parallel Port
Versatile - Programs 2716 -080 plus EE
-
$169.95
STRANGE BOOKS!
Available Adapters
EP -PIC (16C5x,61,62x,71,84)
EP -PIC64 (62-5,72-4)
EP -PIC12 (12C50x)
EP -PIC17 ((17C4x
bbs or web page.
EP- 51(8751,C511
$3995
EP- 11E(88HC11 E/A)
559.95
EP -119 (68HC711D3)
539.95
EP -16 (16bit
EPROMS) $49.95
EP-28(286E02 4,8,7,8)
$39 95
EP -SEE2 (93x,24x,25x,85x)
$39 95
EP -750 (87C750,1 2)
$59.95
EP- PEEL(ICT22v10,18v8)
$59.95
EP- 1051(89C1051,2051)
$39.95
EP -PLCC (PLCC EPROM.)
549.95
EP -SOIC (SOIC EPROMs)
$49.95
Many Other Adapters Available
Full over current detection on all device power
supplies protects against bad chips and
reverse insertion.
310/037 -7110 Fax1BBS: 3101041ó060
and Flash (28F,29C) to 32 pins
Inexpensive- Best for less than $200
Correct implementation of manufacturer
algorithms for fast, reliable programming.
Easy to use menu based software has binary
editor, read, verify, copy, etc. Free updates via
M2L
Unusual, detailed how -to books, manuals,
references, old & new, for experimenters arid
EZ-EP
Mi. ELECTRONICS
-
Broad support for additional devices using
adapters listed below.
3
or Mad Scientists!
$49.95
$39.95
$39.95
$49.95
Los
Angebs. CBMonva
I
radio and television,
vacuum tube gear,
Tesla, plastics,
Electronics
3520 Jasmine 84; Los MOOS, CA 90034
CA orders add 9.25% soles lax.
Axis Motion Control System
Complete, ready to run
$ 255.50 + 12.00 Snt
Build or adapt CNC mills, CNC routers, Robots, Etc.
Includes. 3 Stepping motors (70 ovin 200 steps/rev).
External board (connects to parallel port of a PC). Power
supply. Cables, Manual and the MAXNC drive software,
with linear, circular and helical interpolation, acceleration
deceleration, full contouring, 'G' code programming.
screen plot, code generation from CAD (CAM), and more.
For more information,
phone or write to:
MAXNC
hi
mad scientists on hi 9
voltage, crystal sets, early
htpiAaww.m2lca,
ELECTRONIC EAVESDROPPING
EQUIPMENT DESIGN
By Winston Arrington
chemistry, hydrogen fuel, lasers,
whiskey, solar cells, embalming, telegraphy,
more! Highest quality! Guaranteed! Write (or
send Igor) for big illustrated catalog! http: //
www.keynet.net/- lindsay fax:815/935 -5477
Lindsay's Technical Books
PO Box 538 -EBD, Bradley IL 60915
This revised edition contains 117 schematics
and text of our production equipment. 29
Crystal transmitters, 35 Room, 32 Telephone,
15 Subcarrier. Countermeasures equipment,
and much more. Request a free detailed
explanation sheet of contents.
PRICE: $65.00 + S&H. $6.00.
SHEFFIELD ELECTRONICS CO.
6509 W. Frye Rd. Suite3
Chandler AZ 85224
Ph (602) 940-9414
Fax (602) 940-2384
P.O. BOX 377940 -C, CHICAGO, IL 60637 -7940
TEL. (773) 324 -2196
Code: 377940 -C
One tree can make
3,000,000 matches.
$150.00
ELECTRONIC
COMPONENTS
ion
Build your own functional Hexapod Robot
The kit comes complete with all hardware,
structural components, 3 Hitec servos, Counterfeit
Basic Stamp kit, software and an illustrated assembly manual.
This robot can walk forward, reverse and turn on a dime using
the alternating tripod walking gait. It is an excellent foundation
for many artificial intelligence and behavioural based experiments.
It is a lot of fun to build and even more fun to operate. Check out
our web site for more information and other robot kits.
12 Servo Hexapod $375.00
Infrared Proximity Dot $30.00
One match can burn
3,LXXI,LXXI
trees.
Mobile Robots Book $48.00
Quantity discounts available $7.50 Shipping Si Handling for USA, call for international and
quantity shipping charges. IL residents add 6.25% sales tax to total.
Many more robot kits, ask for our free catalog!
Technical Service & Solutions
104 Partridge Road
M
Pekin, IL 61554 -1403 USA
.
.
Tel: 309 -382 -1816
Fax: 309 -382 -1254
www.lynxmotion.com
jfrye @lynxmotion.com
The Electronic Experimenter's Journal
Call for your FREE 364
page catalog TODAY!
70,000+ Products
135 Manufacturers
Same Day Shipping
No Minimum Order
800 -992 -9943
817- 483 -6828
Fax: 817-483-0931
www.mouser.com
catalog @mouser.com
958 North Main St., Mansfield, TX 78063
90
k's pat catalog
plans, articles,
Call for your
pat magazine
and pat data book with kits, parts,
application nobs.
In America
Debco Electronics
4025 Edwards Rd.
Cincinnati, OH 45209
1
800 423-4499
BUGGED
??
f(
0 is unbelievably widespread! Electronic
Devices with amazing capabilities can be monitoring your
telephone and room conversations RIGHT NOWT Are you
sure you're safe? FREE CATALOG tells Yoe faatl Includes
Free Bonus details on fantastic opportunities now open in
Counter- Surveillance field. Exciting, immensely interesting
end EXTREMELY profitable (u to 0250 hr) full/ art-time
income. Call Nowl
-5
1
-800 732
CIRCLE 283 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
S
Take
Stock
FREE
copy today
000
A public service of this magazine
Do You Repair Electronics?
Repair Databases for
TV, VCR, Monitor, UL
Audio, FCC, and more.
-
Over 75,000 records
Private user forums
Live on -line chat rooms
www.electronix.com
:,,
Iiu.uI ir
n
\l_,,,,,,I.u,bo,n.(III
* Do-lt- Yourself Electronic Kits *
Mark V Electronics, Inc.
in
Catalog & Information
Shipping
9
8019 E. Slauson Ave.,
213/ 888 -8988
Order
Montebello, CA 90640
Fax 213/ 888 -6868
httpalvwaw.mark5co.com
Email:Inark5co @aol.com
ORDER 1- 800 -521 -MARK
beginner
Kit skill levels
TY-35
arance Sale
This s a low power teal
FM transmitter. Transmit
frequency within 88 -108
MHz. Transmit range
KA I;
0 6.99
about 200 ft. It has high
sensitivity sound pickup by a capacitance
microphone. May be used strictly for series
purposes such as remote wireless montering.
11
:
r
1;
$ 16.75
+
:
Regulated DC Power Supply
V
short circuit proof and
has
overload
protection.
Output voltage is variable
over a range of 0 -50 vols.
Current limit r.rip is adjustable
up to max of 3A May use
Mark V #002 transformer.
It is
AF -2
6
AA
lbs.
Power Output: 250W into 4 ohms RMS(42VX2 6A transformer is
used). 120W into 4 ohms RMS(33VX2 4A transformer is used).
Frequency Response: 3Hz- 22,000Hz. THD: <0.03 %. Signal to
Noise Ratio: 91dB. Sensitivity: 1V RMS at 47k. Load Impedance: 4
or 8 ohms. Power Requirement: ±46VDC 4A or t6OVDC 6A. May
use Mark V model 012 Transformer. Suggested Capacitor 8,200uf
Metal Cabinet LG -1925.
gg
'.0 82.80 Asm,.$ 114.80 100V Model 020. Suggested
300W High Power Mono Amplifier
'
`
82.00
Kit
It
.,, ,,,
120 -250W Mosfet Power Mono Am lifier
Kit: $
Sale
Super fast acting relay protects TR -503
speakers against destructive DC
voltages. Can conned directly
to a power amplifier or can use
a separate power supply. Has a
3 second turn -on delay to avoid
turn-on thumps.
Kit: $ 18.75
à;
Kit:
'
advanced!
employs high stability
power IC & has a build
in temperature compen`
sating system. It has
Kit S, 5 4.85
large power output &
output & good distortion characteristic. Accept
various magnetic & capacitor micro-phone
input & other line input. 6 -16V DC.
Ih
Stereo Loudspeaker Protector
TY -25 A
1- 800 -423 -FIVE
/
V intermediate or W
'
0
~'
Asmb.$ 115.00
.
a
'
TA -3600 (5 lbs.)
AAA
Power Output: 300W into 8 ohms RMS. 540W music power into 8
ohms. Frequency Response: 10Hz- 20KHz. THD: < 0.05 %.
Sensitivity: 1V RMS at 47K Power Requirement: 60 to 75 VDC at
8A May use Mark V Model 007 or 009 Transformer. Suggested
Capacitor: 8,200uf 100V Model 020 Capacitor. Suggested Metal
Cabinet LG -1925.
120W + 120W Pre & Main Stereo Amplifier
TA- 800MK2 (4 lbs.)
AA
SCHOOL PROJECT CORNER
po orders welcomed from schools
Melody Generator
Kit $
6W Mini-Ampifier
0- 15V5ARegulated DCPS
36W Class A Power Amp.
Dynamic Noise Reduction
Multi-Function Control Switch
20 Bar/Dot Level Display AA
Microphone Mixer Mono Amp.
Superior Electronic Roulette
Digital Clock with Melody Alarm
Stereo Pre -Amp with Mic Amp.
Mini Stereo Multi-Input Amp.
A
130-in -one Electronic Lab
A
13.85
9.50
17.50
32.50
26.00
10.50
41.45
20.79
21.50
25.00
10.78
30.50
29.99
SEE OUR CATALOG FOR MORE KITS I
Fluorescent Light Driver
TY -2
(1 lb.)
This unit drives 6-40
watts fluorescent light
portable
for
and
emergency use. Works
from a 7.2 - 16 VDC
14.75
battery. Includes a "HiEfficiency Switching Mode IC Driving
Circuit" suitable for use with different lihts.
Kill
30 -in -one Electronic Lab Kit
KA -901
No soldering
$'9
is
-.'
11.99
required!
This
simple electronics
kit safely teaches
:.:'
.<
the fundamentals
IN
of
electronics.
Build
a
radio,
alarm, timer and
more. Earphone
for private listening. Uses safe battery
power. Requires 4 "AA" batteries!
ma
150MHz
8
Digit Frequency Counter
SM-100 (216s. ) It
is
used
for
adjustment, test & repair
of any kind of high
frequency
circuit
products.l can give up
;f/,','
'''
Kit
S
Asmh.$ 86.95
67.92
Power Output: 120W into 4 ohms RMS. 72W into 8 ohms RMS.
Frequency Response: 10 - 20 KHZ. THD: < 0.01 %. Tone Control:
Bass t12dB, Mid ±8dB, Treble ±8dB. Sensitivity: Phono Input,
3mV into 47K Line, 0.3V into 47K Signal to Noise Ratio: 86dB.
Power Requirement: 40V DC © 6A. May use Mark V Model 001
or 008 Transformer. Suggested Metal Cabinet Model LG -1924.
AA
80W + 80W Pure DC Stereo Main Power Amplifier
TA -802 (4
lbs.)
P
(
Ili:
Kit: $49.94
Asmb.$ 69.94
Power Output 80W per channel into
hms. THD: < 0.05 %.
Frequency Response: DC to 200 KHZ, -0 dB, -3dB @ 1 W. Power
Requirement: 30V AC X 2 @ 6A. May use Mark V Model 001 or
008 Transformer. Suggested Capacitor
00uí 50V Model 017.
Suggested Metal Cabinet LG -1924
30W + 30W Pre & Main Stereo Amplifier TA -323A
i4
j
Kit:
$ 32.50
Asmb.$ 50.50
Metal Cabinets
Aluminum Front Panel
(1
lb.)
Power Output 30W into 8 ohms RMS per channeL THD: < 0.1%
from 100 HZ to 10 KHZ. Sensitivity: Phono 3mV
47K Tuner,
Tape 130m\ @47K Signal to Noise ratio: 81)áB. Power
Requirement: 22 to 36V AC, 3A. May use Mark V Model 002
Transformer. Suggested Cabinet LG -1684.
,,,
S
1
3x12x7"
(4 lbs.)$ 26.50
4x16x8"
71bs.
lbs.)
32.50
(
4x19x11'/2'(10 lbs.) 38.25
5x19x11'/i' ( 10 lbs. ) 42.00
2%x19x8" (7 lbs.) 35.25
Transformers
5 -12 lbs.)
Toroidal Transformers
(
28V/30V x2 6A $ 30.00
LG -1273
36V x2
3A 25.00
LG -1684
40V x2
6A 32.00
LG -1924
# 008*" 28V/30V x2 6A
42.00
LG 1925
# 009** 48/53V x2
8A
68.00
1_
LG -1983
it 012** 33/40/42V x2 6A
52.00
Minimum order $ 20.03. We accept Visa. MasterCard. Money Orders. and Checks(allow
2 weeks for clearance) We ship by UPS ground inside US (min $600) and ship by US
mail outside US Please call our operator 'or orders over 2 lbs or foreign orders
i'
/r
# 001
# 002
# 003
CIRCLE 333 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
to 8 digit of resolution
for a wide frequency
\
Kit:S JAiO 68..00 range 10Hz - 150 MHz.
The last input frequency
Asmb.S 99.00
can HOLD on the display for future
reference & comparison. The circuit
structure is compact & reliable for the most
updated ND LSI circuitry. The input
imedance is 1M ohm.
60+60W Stereo Power Amp.
P AA
SM-302 (11 lbs.)
provides 3 input jack
pairs. One pair accept
a
high
impedance
micro -phone. The two
remaining pairs are for
high & low level input
sources. Power Output: 60W per channel
into
4
ohms
RMS.
20Hz-20KHz.
THD:<0.1 %. Input Sensitivity :Mic /Guitar
1 OmV, Hi 380mV, Lo 640mV.Ready to plug
in when assembled.
31/2
SM-43
It
Multi- Function LED DPM
(
1
1h.'
V
To use this instrument as
a
voltmeter, ammeter, ohmSAGA
meter, temperature
perature meter..
AC/DC Voltage range:1 mV000V.Thermometer range
:0- 100C.DC current range:
18.00 1 microamp - 2 amp.
Kir $
Capacitance range: 1d -2
AsmbS
microfarads. Frequency Counter: 10HZMax , 2iption 11999. Power
Supply: 5 -0V DC, 200 ma.
"
91
NEW! ELECTRONICS CD -ROM
de_,,Ei1
,It
,, `i'
v
The most
effective way
of learning
electronics
USE WITH REGULAR
HOUSEHOLDIRON
FAX (305) 538 -3648
811r
11-
on
Two Courses
one CD -ROM!
Only
Send theçk cr
owner order to
$4999-
P+rt.
Gallery
,Electrantc C±rr.tit
A
Ceapcnents
1348 Washington ay.
sn 1eVOductlon
Suite # 189 Miami Beach
Florida , FL 33139
Electronic Circuits and Components
Discover the standards and application of common types of electronic components
and how they are used to form complete circuits in Electronic Circuits &
Components. Sections on the disc include: Fundamental Electronic Theory, Active
Components, Passive Components, Analog Circuits, and Digital Circuits. The CDROM includes:
Interactive laboratories Supervisor notes
Full audio commentary Editable worksheets
About 20 links to pre- designed Electronics Workbench circuits
The Parts Gallery
MAKE CIRCUITS EASY
FROM YOUR LASER
OR PHOTOCOPY MACHINE
SURVEILLANCE
The Latest High Tech
Professional Electronic Devices
Many students have a good understanding of electronic theory but still have difficulty in recognizing the vast number of different types and makes of electronic components. The Parts Gallery has been designed to help overcome this problem; it will
help students recognize common electronic components and their corresponding
symbols in circuit diagrams. This CD ROM incorporates a quiz so that students can
check their knowledge of electronic components and symbols. The CD -ROM
includes:
Over 150 component and circuit photographs Supervisor notes
Hundreds of electronic symbols
Self-test component and symbol quizzes
To Be
S&H
INCLUDED
30 sheets for $24.00
Released Soon!
A series of interactive CD -ROMs provides a comprehensive and up -to -date introduction to the world of electronics. The series provides a sound understanding of the principles and behavior of electronic components and the circuits to which they are connected. Two new CD ROM discs are to be released in the very near future. They are
Analog Electronics and Digital Electronics. As soon as they are released, information on their contents and availability will be published.
Our latest catalog offers a HUGE
selection of surveillance, counter surveillance/privacy devices:
hidden video equipment, pinhole
cameras $159`°, telephone
recording systems: 7-Hour $125`'10 -Hour $139`"' -16 -Hour $199`x'
touch tone decoders, scanners,
bug/phone tap detectors, voice
disguisers, telephone scramblers,
locksmithing tools, and more.
Catalog $ 5.00
SPYOUTLET
P.O. Box 337, Buffalo, NY 1 -4226
(716) 695 -8660/(716) 691 -3-76
1
Claggk Inc., PO Box 4099
Farmingdale NY 11735 -0792
e -mail: claggk@poptronix.corn
Cable TV Outlet
I..I.IIII
Phone
Name
factory
Direct)
Address
State
City
Get the Clearest Coverage
of Sports, Movies, News,
Main Events and Adult+
Zip
Enclosed is $49 for each Student version (single user) of The Parts
Gallery and Electronic Circuits & Components on a single CD -ROM,
shipping included inside the U.S.
) copies at $49 each. NY State residents must include
I am ordering (
sales tax.
have enclosed my check for $
Please charge my credit card for $
/
Expiration Date:
Discover
MasterCard
Visa
-Unbeatable Wholesale Pricing -Converters/Descramblers-Filters and Accessories-Premium Channel Coverage-Full Satisfaction Guaranteed -
I
Card Number
QB VIDEO
to
Open M -F 9a
Visa, MC 8 C.O.D.'s Welcome
(Name on order and signature must be same as on Credit Card.)
92
L
5p (CT)
1- 800 -249 -3025
Signature
J
PROvcrs/
MA/NO
A
ELECTRONIC & SCIENTIFIC DEVICES
USES
LASER WINDOW BOUNCE SCIENCE PROJECTS
1
cotant lcna i
YEAR WARRANTEE
a
Noiseless
Op_
12 VDC/5 Amps or Battery
115 VAC Optional Converter
Adiustable Frequency
Control For Effect
TCL5 Plans
TCLSK Kit /Plans
TCL50 Ready to Use
12DC/7 12VDCO7Amps
$8.00
$59.50
$99.50
$39.50
CYBERNETIC EAR!
.
F
Caudry Lowering of TV Volume.......
T "rg
W. 0.1W Ratan and Othe
j
Mechanical Abnomater. L.akkg oases,
Ak or Corona. Great Solely Ald for Shop
Abet Homing3 o 4Th. f
,sAyenior
E°AY
OFw.EA M.
14°
Use
Control
CYBEREAR Ready
to use... 19.95
S/49.50
$199.50
lesile On /M foaadeen lnodee lYkaawr
Praha Only lamas When Phone N Used
VWPM7K Kit/Plans
$39.50
BEÉPIK BEEPER ALERT KIT
S19.95
ELECTRIC CHARGE GUN
WITH 15 FOOT RANGE!!
and Nmlobeizes
Attackers From o Distance.
More Knockdown Power
Star
Check Your aide Legality
FREE!! 100KV Stun Gun
ECG IO With STUN 100 ....... $249.50
UNLIMITED
DEPT EN 1097
BOX 716 AMHERST, N.H 03031
4
5
6
.í
``ha
or
LAfe!
$299.50
1
MN
T.Npoon.' DROP
All 6 Above Kits Plus FREE Info Dora Pock
on HELPFUL HINTS Usin Wireless Devices
COMBOX Kits and Plans.
Oi
$20.00
$8.00
HOTTER THAN
129.50
249.50 MOST TORCHES!
.$99.50
$79.50
.
Available
teaser a urique
on
$2L
,
{
ELECTRONIC f'&pNOSs
AND MND CONTROL
-KINETIC ELECTRIC GUN
PIONEER A FUTURISTIC
aHighly Effecthe
dVisual Stimuli
WEAPON!
Transmit Wireless Energy
Strange and Bizarre
effects.
on Motors Anti-Gravity
l
fe4allon Levitate on Object!
120.00
GRAI Plans and Book
GRA1K Pwr Sup lit/Plans $ 99.50
GRA IO Assbled Pwr Sup... $ 149.50
Parts
LC7 Plans
$59. l
phenomena of oladriasi
medians that produce IM
eftect of ante- prv.N. You
buld and Irritate a sural
Ildp NOm
mock
materials.
allonBooff
ak
dsmonst
fasci atI g method of
BURNING CO2 BENCH LASER
AR
.-
.
Video GAUnlo
Shod
!V/FM DYnpNr
NEAT PRAN 11 Dbn.11on AdPwd
ACQIIC PBT!I
LAGUN2 Pla
1N' RanrnBNr
BalerWl.rR
al Palls
Awlle
eft
mum
90-352
N..dr No solNLl.rl
hocking/Horning Beacon
'Beeping TwOmW.r
LOSSIESS
plasma.
elf as
as I
and expands so over S"
before swporaNrg info
space. This L an aaeIe t
attention pdNng display as
well as a winning science
projedll WWI arc ae1Na.
lbn.NlM
LiL. Powered-
way CHAINING
et
Au
WNh Bic Foodbadt That
Hypnotic as
Can aà
Waxed
Storage
500OirM
Size 20 "Hx8 "Sq
Weight - 25 Pounds
115 Volts/2 Amps AC
Labeled "Use Caution"
BTC3 Plans
BTC3K Kit/Plans
BTC30 Ready to Use
BTC4 Plans, 500kv Unit
States of Nut Mind. Pleas
Sublecb Under' Your
Control. Enhances Hidden
PSYCHIC Ability in
vCharging
'
Spark awed
PROTOTYPIO Sr OUR LASS
JOIN THE RESEARCH!
$15.00
$349.50
$449.50
$20.00
'
.
Labeled A Defiers eroded
3Mi FM BC TRANSMITTER
Safety Product Mows Listening
Awn Uses
Psi Table Top Radio.
FMVIKKit/Plans
MIND Plans
MIND2K Kit and Plans
MIND20Assembled
/
9.50
79.50
TELEPHONE TAPING SYST M
EXTENDED X4 PLAY,
to Chlidren «Invalids s
Hrffidous Areal, Pooh. Ponds
etc. Great see, ally Intnelon
INFINITY+ TRANSMITTER
MOMROR YOURPREMISES
Awl d ar bu.er and brook
lit CCESS ON
CALLS
heed
Handheld Battery Operated
EGUNI Plans with Parts List
$20.00
All Parts are Individual Available
ROOM MONITOR/ UNE GRABBER /CONTROLLER
It CONTROL
APPUANCTS
Remote corma vox lnmW
NNpAone
BURNING LASER RAY GUN
Observe
Ir
Pharr
Ordc
Pte krpa121
,
$39.50 TAP3OX Ready to Use
BEEP 10 Beeper Alert
$84.50
$29.95
,
/
SHOCK FORCE HELD VEHICLE
OOBJER
FIER
TE
B
ll
ADDED FEATURE!!!
TELCON3 Plans
S 10.00
TELCON3K KIt /Pkms.
$99.50
S149.50
TELCON30 Ready to Use
rammed With bum M BEEPER ALERT
ATTENTION!! RAILGUN EXPERIMENTERS
HIGH ENERGY PULSER
PHASOR BLAST WAVE PISTOL
130 db of Directional Sonic
RAIL GUN, COIL GUN, EXPLODING WATER, ANTIGRAVITY, MASS
Shock Waves Energy
Handheld and Battery Op.
PPPIKKt/Plans
PPPIO Ready to Use
ATTENTION!
Mini Sir
=V'
VARPING,LLVITATION, PLASMA PROPULSION,
MICE SNAPPING, IMP ek
Louisa
Programmable Voltage to 2 KV
and Energy Control to 3 KJ
149.50
$79.50
STUNGUNS SOLD SEPERATELY HOVERCRAFT ION GULPS
FORCE FIELDS, SHOCKERS etc
STUN200200KV StunGun....$49.50
STUN300 300KV StunGun.... $69.50 MINIMAX4 4KVOlOma
INFORMATION
e VO17 SNORE
Range,"
JACOBS LADDER
EXTRA
MI TELEPHONE
TRANSMITTER
3
$
WTI nAOwruee
250KY TESLA COIL
TRANSISTORIZED TESLA COIL 10 -14" of Explosive
TURNS A LIGHT BULB INTO A
Bolts of Lightning
SPECTACULAR PLASMA DISPLAY
cyUOe.CALesoOaRe
WC e WWI MU
UM LOW NOIR DEISM
JACK! Plans
JACKIKKN Minus Case
JACKI0 Ready to Use
12KVGEN20Pwr Supply Or
12KVGEN2K Kit of Pwr Supply
Ronsmils Wireless Energy
Projects
Check Publio Law
sup., s.nNHv. URLO clew
NMR.. volt. rea, mNt..
2
MOM
Extender Lens and Cushioned Headsets
ALL MEHL
; wr
CAU110N:
LWB5 Plans
$20.00 LWB5K KIT/PLANS
LWB50 Ready to Use With Selected Laser Pointer
LWB70 Above With High Performance Laser Gun Sight, Long
ULTRA BRIGHT LASERS
ftiUK
L
Remarkable concept allows user to hear sounds within a
premise over a beam of laser light reflected from a
window or similar surface. Experimental device providé
hours of Interesting and educational use. Utilizes a visible
red laser that simplifies alignment and discourages
Illegal use. Usable range will vary- expect about 20 to 50
meters. Optional lens will Increase range 200 to 400
meters! Further range requires expensive optics.
Requires a sturdy video tripod (not Incl.) Caution-check
local law In your state If planning to use for accessing
oral communication
4 to 7x brighter 650 -630 nm Radiation
9? 6 TRAHSmIR
SCAIIERED AND
DIRECT REFLECTIONS
Triggered Spark Switch (1KJA
Universal 12 VDC or 115 VAC
7.5 X 7.5 X 7" Light weight
HOTSHOT
HEP3 Plans High Energy Pulser/I niton
HEP3K KB /Plans (Minus Energy Storage)
HEP30 Assembled (Minus Energy Storage)
HEPCAP 800 Joules Energy Storage
!:
ENE
r-
$19.50
24 Hr Toll FREE "Orders Only" Line 1 -800- 221 -1705
Fax Your Order to 1- 603 -672 -5406
9 to 5 pm EST Information Line 1- 603 -673 -4730
See Our Web Site at http: /www.amazing 1.com
/
www.americanradiohistory.com
cl
1
$ 15.00
$199.5
$299.500
$199.50
We Accept MC, VISA, Cash. MO.
ttpepclks. PNate add $5 .00
$4
50rders Add
REQUEST A FREE CATALOG!!
93
Make Life Easy!
ABC ELECTRONICS 315 7TH AVE N. MPLS. MN. 55401
(612)332 -2378 FAX (612)332 -8481 E-MAILSURPI @VISI.COM
WE BUY TEST EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS.
VISIT US ON THE WEB AT WWW.ABCTEST.COM
TEK 7B15 I GHZ DELAYING TIME BASE
TEK 2465A 350 MHZ 4 CHANNEL O -SCOPE
TEK 7A26 200 MHZ DUAL TRACE AMPLIFIER
TEK 7904 500 MHZ MAIN FRAME
TEK 577 /177 CURVE TRACER
TEK 7512 GENERAL PURPOSE SAMPLER
TEK 453 50MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE
DRANETZ 626 DISTURBANCE ANALYZER
GENRAD 1657 RLC BRIDGE
TEK 7D20 PROGRAMMABLE DIGMZER
TEK 465100 MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE
TEK 465B 100 MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE
TEK 2335 100 MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE
TEK 221560 MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE
TEK 496P IKHZ- 1.8GHZ SPECTRUM ANALYZER
BRADLEY 132 SCOPE CALIBRATOR
PHILLIPS PM3350A 60 MHZ DIG.STORAGE SCOPE
HP 860IA 110 MHZ SWEEP /SIGNAL GENERATOR
TEK F0504 40 MHZ FUNCTION GENERATOR
HP 54100A 1GHZ DIGITIZING OSCILLOSCOPE
HP 8170A LOGIC PATTERN GENERATOR
T250.00
83200.00
875.00
7250.00
$1500.00
S350.00
8200.00
71500.00
8750.00
7500.00
$400.00
7450.00
81200.00
735000
I2C671, I2C672, 14000,
16C554. I6C556, I6C558,
16C620,16C621,16C622,
TEK 2245 100 MHZ 4 CHANNEL O -SCOPE
81200.00
TEK 7A19 600 MHZ SINGLE TRACE AMPLIFIER $150.00
TEK 7885 400 MHZ DELAYING TIME BASE
7125.00
HP 1630D 25 MHZ LOGIC ANALYZER
S250.00
TEK 7S11 SAMPLING PLUG IN
8200.00
FLUKE 95 SCOPE METER NO PROBES
8600.00
FLUKE 97 SCOPE METER WITH PROBES
81000.00
HP 8182A 50 MHZ PATTERN GENERATOR
S800.00
PHILLIPS PM3296 400 MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE
81000.00
EMI SCR 7.5 -300 7.5V 300A POWER SUPPLY
8500.00
HP 8558B SPECTRUM ANALYZER
81500.00
WAVETEK 175 WAVE FORM GENERATOR
5500.00
WAVETEK 157 PROG. WAVE FORM SYNTH
5500.00
RACAL DANA 1901 100 MHZ COUNTER
8200.00
85000.00
T700.00
S1000.00
$400.00
$500.00
$3000.00
$150.00
$ 500.00
$700.00
VALHALLA 2790B SYSTEM INTERFACE
GENRAD 1683 RLC BRIDGE
HP 3455A MULTIMETER
HP 3456A MULTIMETER
FLUKE 5200A AC CALIBRATOR
TEK TM504 4 SLOT POWER FRAME
HP 4955A PROTOCOL ANALYZER
SYSTRON DONNER DPSD 50
MAGTROL 4614 POLYPHASE POWER ANLZR.
LEADER LSG2ISA 125 MHZ SIGNAL GENERATOR
TEK CT-5 HIGH CURRENTTRANSFORMER
SPECIAL THIS AD ONLY TEK 475 200 MHZ OSCILLOSCOPE REGULAR PRICE $500.00 SALE PRICE $400.00
SPECIAL THIS AD ONLY TEK DAS 9100 AS IS NO PROBES THESE UNITS ARE UNTESTED NOT REJECTS $150.00
PIC'
Program these PICs in BASIC:
16C62,16C63,16C64,16C65.
16C71 , 16C72. 16C73, 16C74,
16C84, 16F83, 16F84, more.
BASIC makes it easy for you to program the
fast and powerful Microchip PIC microcontrollers
+ Expanded BASIC Stamp compatible instrucfns
I
+ True compiler provides faster program execution
and longer programs than BASIC interpreters
PicBasic Compiler - $99.95
PicBasic Compiler Bundle - $179.95
Includes. PicBasic Compiler, EPIC Programmer,
8150.00
8300.00
8300.00
8450.00
S1500.00
$125.00
$500.00
$300.00
$500.00
AC Adapter, Cable, PICProtol8 and PIC16F84
'BASIC Stomp w s irsdamar5
Di
Pawlse Inc
micraG7ungineering
C7nc.
Box 7532 Colorado Springs CO 80933
(719) 520 -5323
fax (719) 520-1867
http://www.melabs.com
ise
Ia
EPROM Emulator
Books
n
Sockit Rockit
LEARN ABOUT PIC16/17 MICROCONTROLLERS
EASY
P C'n
P
I
I
C'n
Up The Pace
Intermediate
Beginner
Programming techniques
Serial communication
PIC16 to peripheral chips
PIC16 to PIC16
Serial EEPROMS
LCD interface
Scanning keypads
D/A conversion
Sensors - analog voltage
outlun
A/D conversion
Math routines
Decimal Interface
PIC16C84 EEPROM data
memory
Lots of circuits and code
$34.95
Instruction set
Addressing nodes
Bit manipulation
Subroutines
Sequencing
Lookup tables
Interrupts
Using a text editor
-
source code
Using an assembler
Timing and counting
Interfacing - I/O conversion
Lots of examples
$29.95
The SR256 EPROM Emulator can
emulate 8K x 8 to 32K x 8 120 ns
EPROMs, with features that
provide embedded code developers increased
productivity. Advantages include: software
selectable device size and target address;
download verify; Hex, S- Record and binary file
support; status LED; dual polarity reset outputs
and single device bus loading.
INCLUDES
PC Software and Quick Start Manual
Table Assembler supporting common 8 -bit micros
PC Parallel Port Adapter and 7 ft. Interface Cable
Reset Jumper Wire
+ 84 s/h in US for one book, $6 both books
VISA, MC, AMEX, MO, Check
CA residents please add 7.25% CA sales tax
PIC is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc.
i
CQ uJJlñllsSJ9
*Shipping and handling not included.
and AmEx accepted.
VISA, MasterCard, Discover
B.SCTRONICC
Wisch Communications
P.O. Box 501, Kelseyville, CA 95451
Voice
FAX (707) 2798883
(707) 279 -8881
http://www.sg-1.com
J
2550 Trinity Mills Road
Suite 132B
Carrollton, TX 75006
Ph: (972) 417 -3533
Fax: (972) 417 -3821
wischcom 0 cyberramp.net
SURVEILLANCE HIDDEN CAMERAS
UTAECI FROM MANUFACTIFER-BEST PRICE IN THE MARKET
!!!BROADCAST FARTHER ! ! !
The model 220 is an 80 -110 MHz RF amplifier that connects to mono or
stereo FM transmitters and produces a powerful 2 -15 watt signal which
could broadcast up to 5 miles or more! Requires 50 -150 mW drive.
Step by step plans complete with part source
information and antenna designs
ONLY
...
PProgressive Concepts
94
4C BOX 586 STREAMWOOD. IL 60107
(630)736 -9822 FAX:(630)736 -0353
1/
PLUS S2 S&H
No c.o.o.,
VII aart Mlle lln imp larPOI
IsMMr. op dop Pow Fr OW all Y16 K
NOW.
Coro AC
dr eap
as. Ham S1S9.00.AYO IA' 11WYUl
cop OP 00 USO vArYY IMO COW
5449.00 USE PM SSA M SM. mewled
'
It
COO,
lYdtr.
OWL *WV 0eO1 a'areS10.
BOLIDE INTERNETIONAL CORPORATION
PH 18001 355'[695 ur (818) 575 -8178
9660 Flax Dnve 018. El Monte. CA 91731
191p
ra.rv. Indlie.nnannapmdn[1,
con(
CABLE TV CONVERTERS
Equipment & Accessories
Wholesalers Welcome
Call
C
&D ELECTRONICS
1- 888 -615 -5757 M -F 10a -6p
Key Titles from...
Buy more
than 1 book
and take 15%
off total order
Newnes
An imprint of Butterworth- Heinennnn
JOHN D. LINK
JOHN D. LENK
,d
SIMPLIFIED
DESIGN OF
VOLTAGE FREQUENCY
CONVERTERS
JOHN D. LENK
JOHN D. LENK
UFIEC
SIMPLIFIED
DESIGN
DESIGN
01 DATA
CONVERTERS
í.=w L3ë
JOHN D. LENK
.
-.-üYdOPhV£r,
,`
OF
IC
JOHN D. LEVK
AMPLIFIERS
>a
a
Simplified Design
of Switching
Power Supplies
Simplified Design
of Linear Power
Lenk Series
Supplies
by John D...enk
by John D. Lenk
19% 225pp pa
11- 75069821 -7
$29.95
Simplified Design
of IC Amplifiers
Simplified Design of
Voltage- Frequency
Simplified Design
Converters
Converters
by John D. Lenk
September 1997 304pp
$29.95
pa
0-7506- 9654 -0
by John D. Lenk
1996. 240pp pa
0 -7506- 9508 -0
$29.95
of Data
996
246Fp
pa
5 -7506 982) -9
42330
by John D. Lenk
of MicroFower and
April
E
242pp pa
0- 75064509 -9 $2995
1947
attery Circuits
br John D. Lenk
1496
240pp
pa
0- 7506-951( -2
Audio Power
$29.95
Simplifies Design
$29.95
More Books from Newnes
Amplifier Design
Handbook
PCB Design
Using
AutoCAD
Understand
Electronic
Filters
by Chris Schroeder
Aug 1997
336pp
pa 0- 7506- 9834 -9
1996.180ppha
$44.95
PC Card
Inside PC Card
by 5aisal Hogue
19% 352pp ha
0 -7506- 9747-4
$5.95
Audio Power
Amplifier
Design
Handbook
by Douglas Self
1996 256pp pa
0- 7506- 2788 -3
$34.95
Please send me the bock(s) Hated below. (Buy
more than one, and take 15% off the total order.)
Write book number's) here:
Performance
Audio Power
by Owen Bishop
Amp
0 -7506- 2628 -3
$26.95
Digital Storage
High
Oscilloscopes
Performance
Audio Power
Digital Storage
Osdlloscopes
Amplifiers
by Ber Duncan
1996
2SSpp
ha
by
I
Hickman
0 -7506- 2629 -1
199F20Lpppi
$59.95
0 -7506 -2856 -I
$39 95
Fax: 1-800 -446 -6520
Phone: 1-800 -36E -BOOK
E -mail your orcer to orders@repp.com
have enclosed a deck for S
I
Please charge Yty:
MasterCard
Visa
LI
American Express
Exp. date
Card ro.
Mail your order to: Butterworth-Heinemann, Fulfillment
Center, 225 Wildwood Aje., Wobum, MA 01801 USA
Signature
Name
for each additional item, o all cheek and credit card orders 3illed orders will be
charged additional shipping baseeon weight ans destination. All U.S. orders
must indLde your slate mies tax. Prepermeni .r corn sans purchase order is
required for all orders. P ices subject to changewithoi t notice.
Canadian Customers: Please pry by credit cad or it U.S. Lends and ñdude
7% GST en books and handling.
Europeam Customers: Add £2.60 UK and suiace p )stage. O Check for Air
Mail; extra cost will be charged.
Address
City
Phone
E
State
zip
Fax
-mail
U.S. Customers: Please add $4.00 handling fee for the first tern ordered. $1.50
A manber of the Reed Elsevier plc group
Please send me a free Newnes catalog, Item #645.
\
Nil
CIRCLE 326 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
TS232
ur ssLh site: hllp://sssss..hh.cunt/ncssncs
95
MEM/Aril NE
sWIÏL7Ì KÌ737
FLAT PANEL KEYPADS
ASSEMBLE IN
MINUTES WITH YOUR
LEGEND
ROBOTIC ARM TRAINER
AVAILABLE IN 4, 12,
16, 24 & 40 KEY TYPES
(No Soldering)
CONNECTOR
TRIPLE ACTION SOLAR CAR
AND BEZEL
(No Soldering)
INCLUDED I
OPTIONAL
"CLICKDOMES"
AVAILABLE
MOON WALKER
Each OWIKIT also incorporates the
OWI's "Next Generation"
MORE THAN 30 LAYOUTS
TO FIT MOST
APPLICATIONS
EK
knowledge and fun!
But remember! OWI is the recognized
founder and leader in Educational Robot
Kits. ACCEPT NO IMITATIONS.
/
http: /www.owirobot.com
CALL FOR FREE
BROCHURE
ELEKIT
1160 Mahal(' Place, Suite
OWI-007
TRIPLE ACTION SOLAR CAR OWÌ-685
5
Axis Control
Solar Sensor
69.95
NEW
NEW
39.95
47 Pg. Book
36.95
S-CIRGO
OWI.936K Sound Sensor
WAO H
OWÌ -961 K
Programmable - Graphic 59 Pg. Book
69.95
SPIDER
OWI.962K
Infrared Sensor
49 Pg. Book
49.95
UNE TRACKER
OWI.963K
Infrared Sensor
48 Pg. Book
49.95
HYPER PEPPY
OWI-969K
Sound
46 Pg. Book
24.95
MOON WALKER
OWI -989K
Solar Sensor
10 Pg. Book
34.95
/ Touch Sensor
TYPIiS
AVAILAI3LN.
an exciting, hands-on adventure of
Visit our homepage
DSK -12
$14.29
INDUSTRIAL.
basic principles of robotic experiments,
sensing and locomotion, guaranteeing
of affordable, rugged Robot
Kits challenge the enthusiast to
solider circuit boards and/or
mechanically assemble.
ROBOTIC ARM TRAINER
DSK -4
$9.89
HYPER PEPPY
LINE TRACKER
B
¡
Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220-5443
(310) 638-7970
Fax: (310) 638-8347
OMNI
vlsn
Order M
- F: 8a.m. - 4p.m.
SIL- WALKER
880 CALLE PLANO,
UNIT N
CAMARILLO, CA
93012
PHONE: (805) 389-8100
FAX: (805) 484 -3311
PST
VISA / MASTERCARD
CIRCLE 318 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
TEST EQUIPMENT SALES
SURPLUS
MENE
St
WE RENT THE FOLLOWING EQUIPMENT:
CALL
US FOR YOUR
NEXT RENTAL
IFR FM/AM 1200 "SUPER" S
HP 4191A
HP 4193A
HP 3577A
HP 6050A
HP 3562A
HP 4275A
TEK 2465A
CALL FOR
QUOTES ON
SED EQUIPMENT
WE SELL, RENT AND BUY TEST EQUIPMENT !!
P.O. BOX 986
LONDONDERRY, NH 03053
96
PHONE (800) 684 -4651
FAX
(603) 425 -2945
ASK ABOUT OUR NEW
TEKTRONIX & FLUKE
PRODUCTS
"Get the skills you need at a price you can afford!"
Earn up to
$45 an hour or more
as a skilled
Computer Programmer.
Cash in on the explosion of
Start your new career
or even open a business of your own
as a highlypaid computer programmer.
illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
..
opportunities.
Nomputer programmers today can almost write their
own ticket to financial well being and job satisfaction.
Only Foley Belsaw's unique in home training programs can
give you the skills you need at a price you can afford.
You'll learn the three hot computer languages
QBasic,
C and Visual Basic. You'll even work with the hot new C-1-1-.
With this easytolearn knowledge, you'll write your first
QBasic program by the end of the first SkillPak of lessons.
Soon you'll be programming sound and graphics, and even
learning how to program for the Windows environment
the most popular application program today.
-
-
It's easy to cash in!
Look at some of the things professional
computer programmers do. "Wrote a C program
to clean up a WordPerfect file; edited the resulting
file as data errors were found." This work would take a
trained programmer less than five hours to complete, and
they could make over $200 for the work. That's money you
could be making
and soon with training from the
Foley Belsaw Institute of Computer Programming.
-
-
Everything is included!
We provide you with all the materials you'll need to
become a professional computer programmer. You'll receive
37 lessons, designed for you by the Foley Belsaw Professional
Programmer Staff. Other valuable materials include a
Programmer's Handbook, Programmer's Examples on two 3.5
inch disks, Programmer's Flowchart Template, and a booklet,
Selecting the Right Computer.
Other schools force you to buy a complete computer
package as part of their training program. At Foley Belsaw we
understand that your needs as a programmer may not fit into a
"one size fits all" approach. Why should you pay hundreds. of
dollars for a computer system that you may not need?
We'll tell you what you need to know so that when
you're ready to buy your own computer, you can get the
machine that fits your needs at the lowest possible price.
That's the Foley Belsaw way.
Get the free facts today.
Whether you want to change careers, have a profitable
part -time job or start your own business, Foley -Belsaw
Institute's new computer programming course is the first step.
A profitable future in computer programming can be yours.
Call or write today for a fact -filled information kit including a
free copy of Computer Programming
Profitable Career In
Your Spare Time. See how easy it is to begin a money- making
career as a sought -after computer programmer. Our free full color information kit outlines the steps of the computer
programming course and shows you everything you will
receive as part of your training.
(.
Mail this coupon or call today
Toll Free 1.800. 487,2100!
Your free opportunity kit will be rushed to you!
A
C
-A
If
coupon is missing, write to: Foley-Belsaw Company, 6301 Equitable Road, Kansas City, MO 64120
I- Call or complete & return this coupon to: Foley- Belsaw
P
P
L
E
Institute,6301 Equitable Road, Kansas City, MO 64120
YES! Rush me a free information kit on Computer
Programming right away. Dept. 35417
Other career courses:
Locksmithing, Dept. 13039
Small Engine Repair, Dept. 52915
Saw & Tool Sharpening, Dept. 21851
i] VCR Repair, Dept. 62737
Computer Repair, Dept. 64638
LI TV /Satellite Dish Repair, Dept. 31509
Gunsmithing, Dept. 92540
Woodworking, Dept. 43783
Upholstery, Dept. 81453
Vinyl Repair, Dept. 71383
Electrician, 95312
Computer Specialist, Dept. 38284
Networking Specialist, Dept. 39271
I
Since 1926
understand that there is ABSOLUTELY NO OBUGAr1ON and NO SALESMAN WILL CALL.
Name
Address
L City
CIRCLE 336 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
State
Zip
J
97
386 MINI -PC $83
*
EVAL
Digital Oscilloscope 100 MSa /s
2 Channels
/ZV MSa\s
-5 Serial,3 Parallel (32bit max)
-Up to 8 meg ROM (27C080)
Ff
11111111u'II
-32k RAM exp. to 64Mbyte
Battery backed RT Clock
-LCD and Keyboard ports
-IRQ x15, DMA x2, TIMER x4
-On -board LED display
-Industry Standard PC Bus
-
Perfect when a full -size PC is too large, expensive, or power
hungry. A fully functional single board computer, needs only
program and power source. Runs DOS / WINDOWS. Use
Turbo C, BASIC, MASM. All utilities to do this included.
A to D D to A
CONVERTERS
or SBC
8,12,16 bi
bitt resolution
up to 24 channels
starting $21
M (1k)
evatl kit $O75
aE
$95 UNIVERSAL
PROGRAMMER
2 Ch. Digital Oscilloscope
100 MSa/s max single
shot rate on both channels
32K samples per channel
Advanced Triggering
Easy to use Windows and
DOS software included
Small and Lightweight
(9 oz and 6.3" x 3.75" x 1.25 ")
Parallel Port interface to
FLASH, EEPROM, NVRAM, EPROM
to 8 meg (27C64 -080). Adapters for
micros, PLCC, etc. Parallel port version
for notebook. FAST AND EASY TO USE
LOW COST... LOW POWER...
ow 1K PRICE
LOW RISC!
$1K990
LOWER COST, FASTER, EASIER TO PROGRAM SINGLE CHIP COMPUTER
COMPARE:
16C54
MV1200
PINOUT
OEM (1K) PRICE
$2.57
$1.99
RS232 PROGRAM DOWNLOAD NO
YES
RESET
"20 VCC
SINGLE CHIP OPERATION
NO
YES
PDO
19
PB7
2
BUILT -IN BASIC
NO
YES
P01
18
PB6
3
EEPROM DATA MEMORY
NONE
64
17
PB5
xouT 4
PROGRAM MEMORY
768 OTP 1K FLASH
XIN
16
PB4
5
MATH REGISTERS
1
32
P02/INT
15
PB3
6
MAX INSTRUCTIONS / SEC
5M
20M
PD3
7
14
PB2
MAX COUNTER BITS
16
18
PD4/TMR
13
PB1/AD1
8
INPUT / OUTPUT BITS
12
15
PD5
12
P80/AD0
9
10
11
PD6
A TO D COMPARATOR
NO
YES
GND
HARDWARE INTERRUPTS
NONE
3
- LONG WORD INSTRUCTION - FRIENDLY SYMMETRIC ARCHITECTURE .
Laptop or Desktop PC
Optional FFT Spectrum
Analyzer, Advanced Math
and TVLine Trigger.
.`
For y499 you get the model
DSO -2102S Oscilloscope,
Probes, Interface Cable, Power
Adapter, and Windows and DOS
Software.
Link Instruments (973) 808-8990
369 Passaic Ave
(
Suite 100
(
Fairfield, NJ 07004
httplhvww.Linklnstruments.com ( Email: Sales@ILinklnstnlments.com
1
PC SOLID
STATE0k) DISK
kit
$21
controller
No More Hangups...
for PC or SBC
VGA 640x480
oem $25 eval
PC WATCHDOG!
combo
LCD versionon available
Reboots
EVAL
75.00
OEM
evil!
FLASH / RAM / EPROM
256K -16M PCMCIA/DIPS
$27
PC
OEM $21
$75
Learn MICROCONTROLLERS
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS and
PROGRAMMING...
...with the AES learning system/
embedded control system.
Extensive manuals guide you
through your development
project. All programming and
hardware details explained.
Complete schematics. Learn to
program the LCD, keypad digital,
analog, and serial I/O. for your applications.
THREE MODELS AVAILABLE.
Choose from an
Intel 8051, Intel 8088, or Motorola 68HC11
based system. All models come with:
32K Byte ROM, 32K Byte RAM 2 by 16 Liquid Crystal Display 4
by 5 Keypad Digital, Analog, and Serial I/O Interrupts,timers, chip selects 26 pin expansion connector Built -in Logic
Logic Probe Power
Supply (can also be battery operated) Powerful
MONITOR to
help you program Connects to your PC for programming or data
logging (cable included) Assembly, BASIC, and C programming
(varies with model) Program disks with Cross Assembler and many,
well documented, program examples User's Manuals: cover all details
(over 500 pages) Completely assembled and ready to use Snrce
code for all drivers and MONITOR Optional Text Rook
Call for Free Info Pack, or see
Everything you need. From $279.
Money Back Guarantee
visit our web site: www.star.net/people/ mvs
MVS BOX 850
MERRIMACK,NH 03054
(508) 792 -9507
98
C
M v
5yr Limited Warranty
Free Shipping
Hrs: Mon-Fri 10 -6 EST
CIRCLE 323 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
AES
WEB at http: / /www.aesmicro.com
714 -550-8094, FAX 714-550 -9941
Call
1
-800 -730 -3232
AES 575 ANTON BLVD SUITE 300, COSTA MESA, CA 92626, USA
Electronic CAD for Windows
Professional Windows EDA tools at an
affordable price with powerful features to
make designing faster. WinBoard PCB
layout delivers sophisticated interactive
routing for complex designs, plus it has
the tools needed for h gh -speed circuits,
analog, RF and SMT designs.
7_71-2-
'Israt.>
O
4!
:
[i7
T;K7rt
;
t.
WinDraft Schematics
Use True -Type fonts. Quickly copy and
paste into other applications.
Supports hierarchical designs, electrical rules
checking, Annotation & Bill of Materials.
Thousands of library parts and symbol editor
included.
TM
WinBoard PCB layout
Supports 16 layers, multiple copper pours,
and advanced features for RF designs.
SMD & through hole library with on -line
graphical editor.
CAM outputs include BOM, in-circuit test, NC
Drill, Gerber, Pick & Place, & Advanced
Design Rule Checking (DRC).
With our unique pin capacity versions
you only pay for what you need. You
choose the base configuration to suit
your needs today, and expand that
configuration to handle increased pin
capacity as your design requirements
change.
WinDraft 2.0 Available Now
$ 250
$ 495
WinDraft or WinBoard - P650
WinDraft or WinBoard - unlimited
$ 895
WinBoard P650 with CCT
Specctra® autorouter.
Thousands of satisfied customers are using
this new generation of powerful and affordable
Windows EDA tools from ivex. Your
satisfaction is guaranteed!
World Wide Web: http://www.ivex.com
Get Prenatal Care Etrl
I -2229
Call 1.1400- H1-2229
Tel: (503) 531 -3555
Fax: (503) 629 -4907
BBS: (503) 645 -0576
A
C
E
ADV2_1
íi EREDi TH--ME
INSTRUMENTS
kot
NEW- VISIBLE
LASER DIODES
1510
I
o\
GREEN OUTPUT HE -NE TUBES
RUBY LASER ASSEMBLY
$99
$295
t
http: / /www.mi- lasers.com
CATALOG
On LASERS & OPTICS
Call Or Write For A FREE
Take Care of Yourself
Can Take Care of Your Baby.
1,,
L
DESIGN
INTERNATIONAL.
'vex Design International. 1522 NW Greenbrier
Parkway. Beaverton, Oregon 97006. USA.
Confidential
So You
P
Information and free evaluation version is available on
the Ivex WW Web, FTP and BES.
CIRCLE 319 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Don't Put Your
Baby's Health
On The Line.
P
L
RSA
NEW -820NM LASER DIODES
WITH COLLIMATOR
$20
$35
°
..00
PHONE: /602) 934 -9387
FAX: (602) 934 -9482
P.O. BOX 1724
GLENDALE, AZ 85301
5035 N. 55TH AVE.. #5,
99
Turn Your Multimedia PC into a Powerful
Real -Time Audio Spectrum Analyzer
PROGRAMMERSMovEDEL.S
ADVANTECH EETOOLS NEEDHAMS DATA VO ICE TECHNOLCG,
CHROMA MODULAR CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY x:
SYSTEM GENERAL
Mal
Features
20 kHz real -time bandwith
Fast 32 bit executable
Dual channel analysis
High Resolution FFT
PROMAA
Octave Analysis
THD, THD+N, SNR measurements
Signal Generation
Digital Filtering
Triggering, Decimation
Transfer Functions, Coherence
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
lime Series, Spectrum Phase,
Spectrogram and 3-D Surface plots
Real-lime Recording and
Post -Processing modes
LABTOOL48
Applications
Priced from $299
Distortion Analysis
Frequency Response Testing
Vibration Measurements
Acoustic Research
(U.S. sales only
System Requirements
DOWNLOAD FREE 30 DAY TRIAL!
www.telebyte.com/pioneer
Spectra Plus 4.0
Affordable Signal Processing Software
Fax: (360) 697-7717
e -mail:
pioneer @ telebyte.corn
Nurture the future
BF A HEAD
Sales
Web
START VOLUNTEER
PLUS ROMMYI5TER1
408 -241 -7376 Fu 241 -6375 BBS 983 -1234
E -Mail ielevlee @bett.eom
wv.generdleviee.eom
INSIDE CRYSTAL SETS
book
on crystal set theory
THE.
GRYSTn,
noE3o
-E
and construction opens
pros alike. Build radios
like Grandpa did, do
it
t.
better, and know what
doing. The
Crystal Set Handbook,
The
published
by
you
are
PF
111
IP N.
ANDERSON
Crystal Set Society, is an authentic guide on
the topic.
To order The Crystal Set Handbook, send
$10.95 plus $4.00 for shipping in the U.S. and
Canada only to Electronics Technology Today
Inc., P.O. Box 240, Massapequa Park, NY 117620240. Payment in U.S. funds by U.S. bank check or
International Money Order. Please allow 6-8 weeks
for delivery.
J' )TW D r. ° CrIMATiti
...
.
ROUTE, MILL, DRILL, CARVE, ENGRAVE, PAINT
.
IN WOOD, PLASTIC, VINYL, PC BOARD, & LIGHT METALS!
4 MOTOR GANTRY MILL CONFIGURATIONS
PC COMPUTER CONTROLLED CNC /DNC
IMPORT/ EXPORT FILES TO OTHER CADS
AUTO -BACKLASH COMPENSATION
PRE -MACHINED HEAVY CASTINGS
SIMULTANEOUS 3 AXIS MOTION
FREE 3D CAD /CAM SOFTWARE
AVAILABLE IN KITS OR ASSEMBLED
EXPEDITE SERVICE ALSO AVAILABLE
OPTIONAL ALUMINUM WAY COVERS
.001" RESOLUTION / AMERICAN MADE
U.S. CYBERLAB, INC.
14786
STARTING AT
$695.00
3 AXIS UNITS
FROM 12" X 12" TO
66" X 66" MACH. AREA
h1tp:/ /www.uscyberlab.com
i
SLATE
GAP RD., WEST FORK, AR 72774
CALL NOW FOR INSTANT SPECS 501- 839-8293 24 HR, FAX-BACK
100
EMIUPA
vistas for novices and
Since 1965, we've worked to make sure all children have the opportunity to
learn valuable lessons during the years when it's easiest for them to learn.
To find out how you can help, call your local Head Start.
¿
MCRpM4$TER SpERPRO AIUMX
An easy -to -read
Pioneer Hill Software
24460 Mason Rd. N.W.
Poulsbo, WA 98370
Sales: (360) 697 -3472
TESTER
General Device Instruments
- not for export/resale)
Professional Quality Sound Cards Available...Call
486 CPU or greater
8 MB RAM minimum
Win. 95, NT, or Win. 3.1 + Win.32s
Mouse and Math coprocessor
16 bit sound card
PHS
EM+20 MEGAMAX MEGAMA%4 SMNSP
CALL ADVANTECH LOBTOOL 599 EETOOLS SIMMAX
629 ICE TECH MICROLV
795 CHROMA SIMM/SIP
650 EETOOLS ALLMAX +
359 MOD -MCT- EMUPA?1
409 EETOOLS MEGAMAX
279 MOD -MCT- EMUP/R
509 EETOOLS MEGAMAX4
49 EPROM 1G TO 512K
369 XELTEK SUPERPRO II
69 EPROM 1G TO 1MEG
409 XELTEK SUPERPRO II P
99 EPROM 4G TO 1MEG
249 XELTEX SUPERPRO L
199 EPROM 16G TO 1 MEG
165 XELTEK ROMMASTER II
89 EPROM 1G TO 8MEG
479 MOD-MCT-EMUPA
129 EPROM 4G TO 8MEG
739 STAG ORBIT-32
250 EPROM 8G TO 8MEG
The World's Largest Source
for Home Automation
-
The Best & Most Comprehensive Home
Automation Catalog in the Industry.
Best Customer Service &
- - --Technical Support
Online
Edition
hard -to-find
Thousands
of
automation, X-10 and wireless
control products. Computer interfaces, software, development
control, telephone
systems, security systems, surveillance cameras, infrared audio/video
tools, lighting
control, home theater, touchscreen
control, HVAC, pet care automation,
wiring supplies, books and videos and
128 page lull
color catalog'
We're on the web
much
FREE
morel
World's Largest Selection!
Lowest Prices Guaranteed!
HOME AUTOMATION Sy5TEM5r INC.
starting up,
but you can watch us grow!
We are
Questions: 714- 708 -0610 Fax: 714. 708-0614
e -mail: catalog@smarthome.com
www.smarthome.com
Call for a FREE Catalog!
800-SMART-HOME
.i::s
Projects for beginners to experts!
New Product information!
Bookstore-discover what's new!
http://www.poptronix.com
800-762-7846
Dealers/Resellers ask about our
HASPRO Dealer Program 800 -949 -6255
EPROM+
DEVICE PROGRAMMER
FOR BENCH AND FIELD
WE'RE WITH YOU EVERY DAY
A
24 HOURS A DAY! DROP IN!
WE'D LOVE TO HAVE YOU VISIT!
16x17
t '{/ I
P
SUpR71,RO
1170
Ce. Deagnand
Construction
YOU CAN WIND
YOUR OWN COILS?
Manual
There's no trick to it except knowing what
you are doing. In a unique, 106 -page book
you can become expert in winding RF, IF,
audio and power coils, chokes and transformers. Practically every type of coil is discussed and necessary calculations are given
with the mathematical data simplified for use by anyone. Get your
copy today!
rMail coupon
to:
A
C
E
READ, PROGRAM, COPY COMPARE, FILE LOAD /SAVE (PLUS MORE!)
FULL SCREEN EDITOR W/25 COMMANDS e- BYTE & WORD MODES
SOFTWARE RUNS UNDER DOS, WIN3.1/95 ON ANY SPEED MACHINE
DA IYEQUIRED
MADE IN THE USA 30 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE CIAGRAMS
WW1).
$289
CABLE, PRINTED MANUAL AND POWER PACK
Massapequa Park, NY 11762 -0240
ANDROMEDA RESEARCH
Please send me my copy of Coil Design and Construction Manual
(160). I enclose a check or money order for $8.95 to cover the
book's cost and shipping- and -handling expenses. NY state residents must add local sales tax.
Name
P.O. BOX 222
MILFORD, OHIO 45150
(513) 831 -9708
FAX (513) 831 -7562
55.00 SHIPPING
VISA
$5.00 C.O.D.
MASTERCARD
AMEX
The Greatest Thing Since Sliced Bread
Address
City
USES PARALLEL
m
'
SUPPORTS ALL
PRINTER PORT!
STANDARD PARTS!
FIRST GENERATION EPROMS 124 PIN) 2708, TMS2716, 1702, 25XX
SECOND GENERATION EPROMS (24, 28, 32 PIN) 2716 - 27C080 (8 MEG)
16 BIT EPROMS. (40, 42 PIN) 27C1024 - ä7C160 (16 MEG)
FLASH EPROMS (32 PIN) 28F, 29C, 29EE, 29F FAMILIES PLUS BOOT BLOCK
EEPROMS/NVRAMS (24-32 PIN) 28C04 - 28C010, X2210/12, ER5901, 12XX
SERIAL EEPROMS (ALL 8 PIN PARTS) 17, 24, 25, 35, 59, 80011, 85, 93, ERI400
BIPOLAR PROMS. (16 -24 PIN) 74SXXX AND 82SXXX FAMILIES
MICROCONTROLLERS' (ALL FAMILIES) 874X, 875X, 87C5XX, 87C75X, 89C5X
89CX05I 68HC705, 68HC7I I, PICI2XXX - I6XXX, 17C4X PLUS FLASH AND 14000
P
L
SYSTEM INCLUDES: PROGRAMMING UNIT, SOFTWARE, PRINTER PORT
Electronics Technology Today, Inc.
P.O. Box 240
PLUS
State
Our free Consumer Information Catalog lists more than 200 free
and low -cost government booklets that are helpful and practical.
To get your free copy, send your name and address to:
ZIP
All orders must be paid in U.S. funds only. Sorry, no orders accepted outside of USA and Canada. Please allow 6 -8 weeks for de-
Consumer Information Center
livery.
Pueblo. Colorado $1009
J
Department GT
101
WHOLESALE PRICES
:411.1111116eM
STARTING AS LOW AS 599.03
* 30 days money back
guarantee
* 1 yr warranty
* Quantity Discounts
* Dealers Welcome!
CABLE TV
DESCRAMBLERS
FILTERS
1
ris*
CONVERTERS
MC
AMEX
E.O.N.
CONVERTERS
VIDEO STABILIZERS
Year Warranty on All Products.
Affordable Extended Warranty.
FREE CATALOG!
st
EQUIPMENT
(800)739-2253
3
NEW DX SERIES DMMs
Call the Cable Professionals 24 Hours A gay!
1
YEAR
WARRANTY
.
-800- 379 -3976
NTTP: // W WW.ORION-ELECTRONICS.COM
DELUXE HOLSTER INCLUDED
MERIT DX Series DMMs have best
values for performance, features and
dependability with 3 year warranty.
Bel
INPUT WARNING MOWER
'.4.114'
DX460L,
full function in a single meter
Wide LCR Range
Inductance, up to 20H
Capacitance, up to 2000pF
Resistance, up to 20Mo
Logic, TTL & CMOS
Auto Frequency, Up to 20MHz
Diode Test, Continuity Beeper
Data Hold, Peak Hold
Input Warning Beeper
Auto Power Off
IDEO INVERTER
Lots More Test Instruments
Oscilloscope, DC Power Supply, Function
Generator, Audio Oscillator, Frequency &
Universal Counter, Multimeter, Capacitance
Meter, Clamp -On, Electrical Tester and More.
Auto
True HMS
AC/DC Voltage (750V/1000V)
ACIDC Current (10A)
ReekWnce (20M0)
Continuity Beper/Dlode
Temperu4eeWPtob, Type K
20s,
200,
200,
30M
2000M
Supports PIC16C55x, 16C6x, 16C62x, 16C8x,
Based on
16C92x microcontroller families.
ANSI C standard. Supports arrays, unions,
structures, pointers, strings, function calls, if, for,
switch, while, interrupt vectors, in -line assembler
code, 8 & 16 bit variables, etc. Outputs Intel Hex
format and assembly code. Code optimizer
included. Excellent development tool!
732-873-151916c 732473 -1582 e arlchrc®aol.coo
Grids RC ht. 120 Cedr Greve Lm, Ste 340, Somerset N108873
Create & Restore Inverted Video
R.C. Dist
552
sing
South
south -b
4
IN
H. net,;.[,
2000M
TR11FE
2000.
Ceposttnce (20wF)
For Free
Information Pod age
on Completed Units and Pricing
Frequency (20MHz)
Logic (rn 0 CMOS)
Inductees* (20H)
Call 219 - 236 -5776
Auto Power-Off
Input teeming Beeper
Date Hold
Peek HAM
Proypdy@ Holster
PRICE
49.95
74.95
64.95
64.95
69.95
74.95
84.95
99.95
See your local distributors or Call for Catalog
Be MERIT
I
102
SOLUTIONS FOR THE TEST INSTRUMENT
1- 800 -532 -3221
FAX (714) 586 -3399
PO. Box 744. Lake Forest. CA 92630
(714) 586 -2310
CIRCLE 283 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
CABLE TV CONVERTERS
Equipment & Accessories
Wholesalers Welcome
Call CAD ELECTRONICS
1-888-615 -5757 M -F 10a -6p
KENWOOD
_from the company you've
been listening to for rears...
2-Channel, 20-MHz
LS -4125
k:eytular $595
Sale $389
2- Channel, 40 -MHz Oscilloscope
CS -4135
Regular $855
Sale $685
Hybrid IC Technology is the Key to the High
Quality and High Reliability at Low Cost!
FIX SYNCHRONIZATION detects
the trigger level automatically fe,r the acquisition
y eform
without complicated sync level adjustments.
VERT MODE TRIGGERING enables the acquisition of staticn.lr 3.avet<)nns for both
CHI and CH2 even ' lie I`ic input signals to the two channels have di-fercn. frequencies.
HIGH WITHSh.AND INPUT voltage of 40OV (HOCVp -p).
RELAY ATTENI, r I`ORS are provided for reliable logic switeixwer.
of statimiar
v
:
o
SCALE ILLUMINATION (CS -4135 only)
300(343) s 140(150) x
DIMENSIONS vAT'.
\Vk (ßl1
I
:
415(431))mm
-4125)
(CS
7kg
-4135)
approx.
approx. 7.2kg (:'ti
(
)
A
MoeterCOrtl
V
including protrusion.
PR NT oro"'
Call for your free 84 page test instrument catalog today!!!
8931 Brookville Road * Silver Spring, ,Maryland * 20910
Produt< International
* Phone 800 -638 -2020 * Fax 800 -545 -0058 * email SMPRODINTL{áAOL.com
I
CIRCLE 264 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
103
CLASSIFIED
MISCELLANEOUS
ELECTRONICS FOR SALE
with the
Capacitor Wizard
PIECE parts for Delco OEM radios. Low pricing.
Factory Original. No subs. Call today, 1 (800) 4339657.
TUBES: For sale large stock on hand. Call 1 -800370 -3390 or dwarders @telepath.com.
CALL for a free electronics catalog or visit our
web site at www.bgmicro.com /. B.G. Micro-PO
box 280298 Dallas, TX 75228. Order line 800-2762206
PLANS-KITS -SCHEMATICS
FREE Catalog. 100 Leading-Edge kits. K1, PIC.
Full instructions, source code. (800) 875 -3214.
SCIENCE FIRST, 95 Botsford Place, Buffalo, NY
14216.
ELECTRONIC Project Kits. www.gkits.com 1-888GO -4 -KITS. 292 Queen St., Kingston, ON., K7K
1 B8. QUALITY KITS.
ALL -In-one catalog, 60 mouth -watering pages.
CB/HAM/audio/TV/spy/broadcast/scienceprojects,
micropower broadcasting, broadcast transmitters, amplifiers, antennas, "secret books", start
your own radio station and more. Send $1.00 to
PAN -COM INTERNATIONAL, PO Box 130 -N2,
Paradise, CA 95967.
MUSICAL Lights -build a color organ. Let your
stereo control your lighting system or Christmas
lights. Easy, inexpensive and fun to build. ComIlete documentation $19.95. JAK ENGINEERNG, 2712 16th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN 55407.
1
The Capacitor Wizard is an extremely FAST and RELIABLE device designed to measure ESR
(Equivalent Series Resistance) on
capacitors of of and larger "IN
CIRCUIT", eliminating the need to
remove the capacitor for accurate
tests. The Capacitor Wizard finds
BAD caps IN CIRCUIT that even
VERY EXPENSIVE cap checkers
MISS ENTIRELY, even out of the
circuit!! Standard capacitor meters
cannot detect any change in ESR
therefore they miss bad capacitors
leading to time consuming "Tough
Dog" repairs. Technicians say it is
the most cost effective instrument
on their workbench.
1
TUBES: "oldest. "latest ". Parts and schematics
SASE for lists. Steinmetz Electronics, 7519 Maplewood Ave., Hammond, Indiana 46324.
Pocket Testbench kit. Digital analyzer, oscilloscope, counter, generator modes. RS232 interface. Handheld, inexpensive. Oricom Technologies (303) 444 -9776, www.sni.net/-oricom.
REPAIRS -SERVICES
PCB Designs. Professionally mastered in
"TANGO ". AWESOME DESIGNS, P.O. Box 214,
Aurora, Ohio 44202 -0214. E -Mail: Awesome Designs@worldnet.att.net
TEST Equipment pre -owned now at affordable
prices. Signal generators for $50.00, osciloscopes
from $50.00. Other equipment including manuals
available. Send $2.00 US for catalog. Refunded
on first order. J.B. Electronics, 3446 Dempster,
Skokie, IL 60076. (847)982 -1973
Made in the USA
Order Today
Only $179.95
Call 1- 800 -394 -1984
http: / /www.heinc.com
Int. # 316 -744 -1993
Fax 316- 744 -1994
6222 N. Oliver, Kechi KS 67067
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
I'M making a "bundle" reclaiming scrap gold from
junk computers. Free info: 24 hrs, (603) 645 -4767.
ELECTRONICS Businesses. Home based.
Part/Full time. 250pg Comprehensive Guidebook,
insider information. $19.95 24hr recording (800)
326-4560 x159.
GREAT extra income ideal Assemble products at
home for best companies. Information call:
1(800)377 -6000 Ext. 6870.
PERSONAL COMPUTERS OWNERS CAN
EARN $1000 TO $5000 MONTHLY offering simple services part time. Free list of 100 best services. Write: B.D.R.C.M. 5667 Harrison #124,
Odgen, Utah 84403 -4322.
EECTRONIC
.;... I
EDUCATION & INSTRUCTION
EINSTRUMENTS
Y... a...r...;.
NC
LEARN Electronics. Home study. Outstanding careers. Free literature. P.C.D.I., Atlanta, Georgia.
(800) 362 -7070 Dept. ELB342.
PIC controller course, get up and running fast with
Beginners PIC http://www.telusplanet.net/public/rhenders, Data Burst Software. Box 1193,
Medicine Hat, AB. T1A7H3. 1-403 -526 -7676.
1
104
CABLE TV
CABLE Descrambling New secret manual. Build
your own descramblers for cable and subscription TV. Instructions, schematics for SSAVI,
Gated Sync, Sinewave, $12.95, $2 postage.
CABLETRONICS, Box 30502R, Bethesda, MD
20824.
CABLE
units Pia c.
's, Op" Ts and
owest prices. Money back guarantee.
neert±310's, Scientific Atlanta
others.
t
Precielor
EI cfrcrics, H^'stcr, TX
1
(888) 691-
4610.
CABLE test modules.!c'ibe^. Pioneers, S:A, Tocorns, Jerrolds. Quantity discounts. Call DCR Tel:
(718) 624-8334 Fax: (718) 246 -9731. No N.Y. calls!
NEW! Jerrold and Pioneer wireless test units
$125.00 each, also 75DB notch filters $19.95
each, quantity pricing available. Please call
KEN ERNY ELECTRONICS, 24 hour order and
information hot line (516) 389 -3536.
CABLE descramblers and converters 10 lot decoders $38.00 ea. 10 lot converters $57.00 ea.
Visa and Mastercard accepted. (3041 337 -8027.
MAESTRO latest technology. Compatible with all
major systems: Pioneer, Jerrok', Scientific Atlanta,
Zenith. Universal descrambling capabilities. Dealers wante0. Money a' to'ar^ "ter`. 1 '800) 67e7966.
'
DESCRAMBLE CABLE USING SIMPLE CIRCUIT. E -Z TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS $10.00.
COMPLETE KIT WITH FREE BULLET 'TERMINATORE' 420.00. 1- 800 - 522 -8053.
CABLE TV EQUIPMENT & ACCESSORIES.
Who:esalerr Welcome! 30 Day Moneyback Guarantee) Free Catalog! PROFORMANCF ÆI Ef.,TRONICS, INC. 1-000-815-1512
Signal Eliminator can block severs TV interfernce or unwanted channels! Visit us on the web
today at http: /members.aol.com/tvfilter. Request
a free brochure by mail or voicemail. Star Circuits,
PO Box 94917, Las Vegas, NV 89193. 1- 800-4336319.
Multimode test modules. Master Files. Reverse
engineering. Lowest prices, best quality. Dealers
welcome. 717- 462 -3877
RFT-DAM (Digital Auto Mode) The only answer
for DPBx=> CFT 20XX. Best Prices. 1- 800 -6272339
Wholesale Cable Warehouse Decoders for all
systems Best Prices Guaranteed Helpful, friendly service and support ready to help. 30 day
money back guarantee and full 1 year warranty call now 1- 800 -387 -0349 Dealers Welcome
Call for free price quote.
Free Cable Descrambler Plans. For Details
Write: Sierra Publishing, 909 E. Yorba Linda Blvd.,
Suite
H -181.
Dept. ENN. Placentia. CA 92870
Cable TV, Descremblers, Converters Quantity
Discounts, Low Low Prices 30 Day -Money
back Guaranteed. net! uvr 8884398 -328A Skylab Sales Inc.
SATELLITE EQUIPMENT
VIDEOCYPHER II descrambling manual. Schematics, video and audio. Explains DES, EPROM,
CloneMaster, Pay-per -view $16.95, $2.00 postage.
Schematics for Videocypher Plus, $20.00.
Schematics for Videocypher 032, $15.00. Collection of Software to copy and alter EPROM codes,
$25.00. VCII Plus EPROM, binary and source
code, $30.00. CABLETRONICS, Box 30502R,
Bethesda, MD 20824.
OBTAINING sound for your VCII and VCII Plus is
easy. No codes needed. Also DSS Test Card information. Details (800) 211 -5635.
FREE 05$ TEST CARD Information package.
Works or new system and turne or at channels
including PPV, adult and sports channels. Write
Signal Solutions, 2711 Rufr,1 R!+ Seri+" 180,
Richmond VA 23235
1
DSS Test Card Authorizes all channels for information plus free bonus call toll free 1- 888 -4167296
DSS BIBLE Volume 2.- $85.50 DSS BIBLE Volume 1- $55.45 DSS SECRETS- All Patents
$69.95. CELLULAR HACKERS PACKAGE (3)
Hackers Bibles, (2) Videos & Programming
Software. $199.00 +Master Test Chip Flies.
Jerrold, Scientific -Atlanta, Tocom, Pioneer,
Zenith. Software & Book. $79.95. TELECODE
-520- 726 -2833. http:/ /www.hackerscatalog.com
SKYVISION! Your Satellite Home Entertainment
Source. Best values: DBS and C/Ku -band equipment, including 4DTV. Most complete selection:
Parts -Tools-Upgrades -Accessories! Free Discount
Buyer's Guide. Call 800 -543 -3025. International
218 -739 -5231. www.skyvision.com.
DSS Hacking: How to construct and program
1
FOR OVER 47 YEARS,
THE SERVICEMAN'S
CHOICE FOR IN-
OELRICH PUBLICATIONS.
PRICED AS LOW AS 4 CENTS EA.
COMPUTER FORMS AND CHECKS
CALL TODAY
FOR A FREE CATALOG
LASERS Astonishing Low Prices Free Catalog
T.E.P. PO Box 1353 Glendale, AZ 85311 Phone
# 602- 487 -9897.
SCRAMBLING NEWS
BEST satellite TV news includes coverage of piracy. Voice /Fax (716) 283 -6910. www.scrambling
news.com
BEST DEALER PRICING!
CABLE
[] /REGT
CONVERTERS FILTERS
OESCRAMBLERS
IMPROVE YOLK Ih1AGE 1VIIH
VIDEO STABILIZERS
FREE
/
www.plugpWrcom/alpha.htm
Sarasota, FL 34230
5,
/
Detaihed Specs on web site!
CALL FREE in US
EDUCATION
Canada:
&
1-888- PLUGPWR
HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA At Home, Accredited, Fast,
'Failure-Proof' 1.800-470-4723: American Academy,
(1- 888 -758 -4797)
12651 S. Dixie Highway, Miami, FL 33156
RNANCIAL
CASH NOW FOR FUTURE PAYMENTS! We buy pay
mints from Insurance Settlements, Annuities, and Casino Winnings We also buy Owner Financed Mort aapes. Call RAP Capital Resources at 1 -800-338-5815,
Microwave TV S stems
WIRELESS CABLE - ITFS RANDS
ATV - 1
IONAL - S-BAND
Oualit
Amplifiers Antennas Books Components
Filters
"UVE LIKE A KING' Experience Financial Freedom!
Systems
Video Products
RF Frequency 1990 - 2700 MHz
Cable Ready - VHF - UHF Outputs
SASE For 'FREE' Catalog or Send S1
Quickly and Easily Become Debt Freel Enoy The Benefits 01 Wealth! For details send SASE: !.PAT., 1279
Street, Springfield, Oregon 97477.
QUICK CASK No Collateral, No Credit Check, No
Front Fees (310) 281.7027.
HEALTH
101 QUESTIONS AND SHOCKING ANSWERS ABOUT
AIDS. Only X10.00. MINORITIES ARE PEOPLE, INC.,
PHILLIPS-TECH ELECTRONICS
PO Box 8533
CHALLENGER SyS-ES
LINE
'° ORDER
FAX LINE
Complete ssd
Grid St 65
Rye Year
Scottsdale, AZ 85252
800 -880 -MMDS
602- 947 -7700
602-947 -7799
CATALOG / INFO
wanwa
FREE SHIPPING Visa IA/C Al=
Disc
COD's
r
Prld
PO Box 1606- (ELE), New York, NY 10116.
ATTENTION DEALERS: WHOLESALE ONLY!
f! a1
la:mum
\11nr
.
BEST PRICES!
FAST SERVICE
SAME DAY SHIPPING
-
1>,mwirm
\\\\H\ JIJIL1/.../!O,
,.
JES,
Inc.
EVCi'U5
Now you can tune -in your favorite
cable TV programming
and SAVE $100S EVEN $1000S on premium
CABLE TV EQUIPMENT.
NEW!
MUDDERN
ELECTRONICS
1 -800- 906 -6664
OMAHA. NE 68130
http://www.modernelectromcs,com
10+
$57
Std. /HRC Switch
20 +
52
5+
10+ 20+
$12
65
60
Refurb Panasonic 145
57
55
52
Panasonic 100
52
49
--
Panasonic 145
Wavemaster 99 Channel
Sleep Timer
2609 S. 156TH CIRCLE
SINGLE oty.. USS
NEXT DAYOr 2 DAY AIR
MAIL
BY
Rates: Write National, Box
Formerly
CABLE TV
CATALOG!
$29.95
1- 800 -621 -0105
BEST
AUDIO -VIDEO -LASERS
Po is r..
VDC @ Amps
1.6
5.0
1.1
9.0
0.8
12.0
QUALITY YOU CAN COUNT ON
System schematics. $16.95 CABLETRONICS,
Box 30502R Bethesda, MD 20824.
CB RADIO MODIFICATIONS! Books, plans, freqencies, sliders, 10- meter, amplifiers, repairs, highpeformance accessories. Catalog $3.00. CBCI,
Box 31500EN, Phoenix AZ 85046.888 -643-1300.
Plug
The Smallest *, Lightest *, Coolest,
5% Regulated, 10 Watt DC
Power Supplies are here!
1.9 x 2.1 r, 2.9 oz. Tiny, aren't they?
VOICES AND SALES
BOOKS HAS BEEN
smart cards, w /pic16C84, software. Complete DSS
CB-SCANNERS
r
THE SMART CHOICE
Parental Control
50+
45
TOLL FREE:
800 -322 -9690
- -- CALL! - --
Panasonic 175
Starcomm DQN
49
45
39
(99 :h; Ref urb.)
if-)cp\
FAX:
5I6 -246 -5634
105
ADVERTISING
SALES OFFICES
ADVERTISING INDEX
Electronics Now does not assume any responsibility for errors that may appear in
the index below.
Free Information Number
Page
Abacom Technology
72
Link Instruments
98
ABC Electronics
94
Lynxmotion
90
AES
98
M2L Electronics
90
All Electronics
87
333
Mark
91
Allison Technology
74
332
MCM Electronics
77
Amaze Electronics
76
Meredith Instruments
99
American Eagle Publications
82
323
Merrimack Valley Systems
98
101
133
MicroCode Engineering
214
315
Andromeda Research
282
Basic Electrical Supply
283
Bel -Merit
Free Information Number
Electronics
V
microEngineering Labs
80
102
Page
CV2
94
Modern Electronics
105
Brand Electronics
85
283
Mouser Electronics
90
326
Butterworth -Heinemann
95
330
NCD Electronics
72
322
C &S Sales, Inc.
78
NRI Schools
327
Capital Electronics
82
Orion
102
328
Circuit Specialists
75
318
OWI
96
CLAGGK, Inc
92
262
Parts Express Inc
83
Cleveland Inst. of Electronics
21
Pioneer Hill Software
100
Command Productions
76
Plug Power
105
313
C1sG
86
Polaris Industries
69
312
Dynamic Technology
88
325
Prairie Digital
74
EDE - Spy Outlet
92
264
Print (Pace)
Gernsback Publications, Inc.
500 Bi- County Blvd.
Farmingdale, NY 11735 -3931
1 -(516) 293 -3000
Fax 1 -(516) 293 -3115
Larry Steckler
publisher (ext. 201)
e -mail advertising @gernsback.com
Adria Coren
vice -president (ext. 208)
Ken Coren
vice -president (ext. 267)
Christina Estrada
assistant to the publisher (ext. 209)
Arline Fishman
advertising director (ext. 206)
Marie Falcon
advertising assistant (ext. 211)
Adria Coren
credit manager (ext. 208)
9
For Advertising ONLY
EAST /SOUTHEAST
Stanley Levitan
Eastern Advertising
Overlook Ave.
Great Neck, NY 11021 -3750
1- 516- 487 -9357
Fax -516- 487 -8402
slevitan26 @aol.com
MIDWEST /Texas /Arkansas /Okla.
Ralph Bergen
Midwest Advertising
One Northfield Plaza, Suite 300
Northfield, IL 60093 -1214
1
1
Electronic Design Specialists
Electronic Tech.Today
335
74
45, 101
89
102
RC Distributing Co.
Emac Inc
82
RF Parts
76
Roger's Systems Specialist
73
Sil Walker
96
Skyvision Inc.
71
Square
94
336
Foley -Belsaw Co.
97
331
Fotronic
80
General Device Instruments
CV3
320
270
100
1
Electronics
Global Specialties
7
Starlet Sysems
Grantham Col. of Engineering
4
Tab Books
Home Automation
Tekview
101
Howard Electronics
81
Howard Electronics
104
Information Unlimited
93
324
275
Test Equipment Sales
96
Timeline
70
U.S. Cyberlab
319
IVEX Design
99
Visual Communications
134
IWATSU America
27
James Electronics
334
105
Jensen Tools
69
Lindsay Publications
90
314
102
85
Interactive Image Technologies CV4
3
92
29,59
Telulex
126
Jameco
106
92
Ramsey Electronics
86
Fluke Corp
321
QB Video
Electronix Express
121
122
266
103
100
4
White Star Electronics
72
Wisch Communications
94
World College
41
WPT Publications
85
1- 847 -559 -0555
Fax 1- 847 -559 -0562
bergenrj @aol.com
PACIFIC COAST
Janice Woods
Pacific Advertising
Hutch Looney & Associates, Inc.
6310 San Vicente Blvd., Suite 360
Los Angeles, CA 90048 -5426
1- 213- 931 -3444 (ext. 228)
Fax 1- 213- 931 -7309
woodyowl@aol.com
Electronic Shopper
Joe Shore
National Representative
P.O. Box 169
Idyllwild, CA 92549 -0169
1- 909 -659 -9743
Fax 1- 909 -659 -2469
Jshere@gernsback.com
Megan Mitchell
National Representative
9072 Lawton Pine Avenue
Las Vegas, NV 89129
Phone /Fax 702 - 240 -0184
Lorri88 @aol.com
Customer Service
1- 800 -999 -7139
7:00 AM - 6:00 PM M -F MST
FLUKE
Introducing the Rugged
NEW Fluke 70 Series III
Digital Multimeters.
Rough handling and
high voltage are tough
on a meter. But the new
Fluke 70 Series III takes it
all in stride.
It's built tough inside and out.
With overvoltage protection to
guard against spikes up to 6 kV,
and safety ratings to prove it. It
even protects against measuring
voltage if the knob is accidentally set
on ohms. Plus its rugged, overmolded
body armor case offers constant
protection no matter how much you
throw it around.
As tough as it is, the 70 Series III
is very easy on you. Its tapered
design fits more easily in your hand,
pocket and tool box. The display is
40% larger, with extra large characters that are easy to read from a distance. Plus, there's easier access to
Fluke's patented Touch Hold® mode
which automatically captures the
measurement, beeps, and locks it on
the digital display for later viewing.
No matter how tough your job is,
the new Fluke 70 Series III is even
tougher. There are five models to
choose from. And of course, they're
backed by a lifetime warranty.
Fluke Multimeters
Keeping your world up
and running.
Take a demo.
Find out just how
tough the new
70 Series III DMMs
really are. Visit Fluke
at www.fluke.com or
call 1- 800 -44-FLUKE
for the distributor
nearest you.
The tough
just got tougher.
CE
v
Pending
Fending
01997 Fluke Corporation. P.O. Box 9090. M/S 250E. Everett WA
98206 -9090. U.S. 1800) 44-FLUKE or 1425) 356 -5400.
Canada 1905) 890 -7600. Europe (31 40) 2 678 200.
Other countries (4251 356 -5500.
Web access: www.fluke.com
All rights reserved. Ad no. 01022
CIRCLE 121 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Better Designs - Faster
With the Personal Design Solution
The Design Solution Includes: Electronics Workbench Personal Edition
Electronics
+ EWB
layout
Electronics
Workbench Lqyouf
Workbench
Personal
Edit/on
Full- featured schematic capture
and
SPICE 3F
Power -packed PCB layout with
autorouting and real -time DRC!
circuit simulation!
The world's best selling circuit design software. With
analog, digital and mixed A/D SPICE simulation, a
full suite of analyses and over 4000 devices. Imports
netlists. Seamlessly integrated with EWB Layout or exports
to other popular PCB programs. Still the standard for
power and ease of use. Still the same effective price.
EWB Layout is a powerful board layout package for
producing high quality, multi layer printed circuit boards.
Offering tight integration with our schematic capture
program, you can incorporate board layout and design
and quickly bring well designed boards to production.
...»be. .-...
Ç99
299
VowsioK
5
VcsioK 5
HIGH -END FEATURES
ANALOG/DIGITAL
TRUE MIXED
INTERACTIVE SIMULATION
PRO SCHEMATIC EDITOR
HIERARCHICAL CIRCUITS
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTS
ON SCREEN GRAPHS
ANALOG AND DIGITAL MODELS
FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT
DC OPERATING POINT
AC FREQUENCY
TRANSIENT
FOURIER
FULLY
NOISE
DISTORTION
POWER- PACKED FEATURES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
OVER
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
AUTOROUTING
4,000
(70,./f oifru`
30 DAY MONEY-BACK
GUARANTEE
REROUTE WHILE MOVE
YES
YES
LAYERS
32 ROUTING LAYERS
BOARD SIZE
50"
LIBRARY SHAPES
BLIND AND BURIED VIAS
OVER
castoln0/ws2
aKes
oatWy O`/,2/G/!`Gut
5eZG/t``oK/GS VV, ;p,, tooe
0
Gl``G
QK. otci`
ELECTRONICS WORKBENCH Personal Edition
$299.00
EWB LAYOUT Personal Edition
$299.00
etela 800 - 263 -5552
For a free demo, visit our website
at http: / /www.interactiv.com
50"
3,500
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
EXTENSIVE OUTPUT
SELECTIVE NET HIGHLIGHTING
USER DEFINED PADS
REAL TIME DESIGN RULE CHECK
DENSITY HISTOGRAMS
FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT
85,000
X
BUY
BOTH
AND
CALL FOR INFORMATION
AND PRICING ON OUR
PROFESSIONAL EDITION.
PERSONAL DESIGN SOLUTION
$s?C.o0
$548.00
SAVE
INTERACTIVE IMAGE TECHNOLOGIES LTD 908 Niagara Falls Boulevard,
#068, North Tonawanda, New York 14120 2060 /Telephone 416- 977-5550.
,
TRADEMARKS ARE PROPERTY OF THEIR RESPECTIVE HOLDERS. OFFER IS IN U S. DOUARS AND VALID ONLY
IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA ALL ORDERS SUBJECT 10 $15 SHIPPING AND HANDLING CHARGE.
Fax: 416- 977 -1818 E -mail:ewb @interactiv.com
CompuServe: 71333,3435 / BBS:416-977 -3540
CIRCLE 126 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
WTERACTRIE
Download PDF
Similar pages