Paper Making and Paper Mills in Scotland

Report Prepared for:
Remade Scotland
October 2000
A synopsis on behalf of The REMADE Programme
Project Reference: Pap00-2
Research Contractor:
Caledonian Shanks Centre for Waste Management
Glasgow Caledonian University
1 The Papermaking Process
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Virgin Wood Pulp
1.2 Recovered Paper
1.3 Paper Recycling Process
1.4 Classification of Paper Grades
2 Paper Mills in Scotland
2.1 Range of Products
2.2 Potential to Increase Recycled Fibre Use
2.3 Problems Arising from Recycled Fibre Use
Figure 1.1: Raw Material Use in UK Mills 1999
Figure 1.2: UK Recycled Fibre Use by Sector 1999
Table 1.1: Paper Manufacturers in Scotland
Table 1.2: End-Uses for Wastepaper Grades
Table 2.1: Recycled Fibre Use in Scottish Paper Mills
Table 2.2: Potential for Increasing Recycled Fibre Use – Company Responses
1 The Papermaking Process
1.0 Introduction
Before examining factors influencing paper recycling in Scotland it is necessary to have an understanding of how
paper is produced, along with knowledge of the recycling process. There are 16 paper mills in Scotland (see table
1.1), with approximately 50% of these using recycled fibres as a raw material to varying extents. The basic
papermaking process (including pulping) is shown below (from Paperonline 2000).
Pulping Process
Mechanical or chemical pulping
Removes chemicals & dissolves lignin
Paper Manufacturing
Removes contaminants
Paper machine
Finished product
Table 1.1: Paper Manufacturers in Scotland
Arjo Wiggins
Fort William
carbonless copy
Packaging boards
Paper ***
Coated papers
Curtis Fine
St. Andrews
High quality
graphics, recycled
Dexter NonWovens
Donside Paper
Inveresk Plc
Alloa, Denny,
Bathgate &
products e.g.
sausage casings,
High quality
graphics, recycled
High quality
Coated boards
Sappi UK
Leslie, Fife
Tullis Russell
Production (tonnes
Raw Material
100% virgin pulp
at Fort William,
90% virgin, 10%
recycled at
99.7% recycled
fibre, 0.3% virgin
100% virgin pulp
Virgin wood pulp,
sorted office
OCC, KLS, News
& Pams,
Virgin wood pulp
Virgin wood pulp
80% virgin, 10%
recycled, 10%
non-wood fibres
(Esparto grass)
Virgin pulp,
non-wood fibres,
synthetic fibres
Virgin Wood
pulp, De-inked
Office Grades
95% virgin pulp,
5% recycled
Virgin wood pulp,
de-inked grades
100% virgin pulp
Virgin wood pulp
90% virgin pulp,
10% recycled
Virgin wood pulp,
Sorted office
Carbonless copy
Packaging papers, 100,000
Paper bags
100% virgin pulp
Virgin wood pulp
95% recycled,
5% virgin pulp
News & pams.
Sorted office,
Virgin wood pulp
Graphics, coated
*** Only integrated mill in Scotland
100% virgin pulp
Virgin wood pulp
Paper can be produced in either integrated mills, where pulping and papermaking are carried out at one site, or, more
commonly in the UK, in separate virgin pulp and paper mills. The only integrated mill in Scotland is Caledonian
Papers, with the remaining 15 mills producing paper from imported virgin wood pulp. Fibre used in papermaking
comes from two major sources, virgin wood pulp and recovered paper. Minor sources include non-wood fibres such
as esparto grass.
1.1 Virgin Wood Pulp
Virgin wood pulp makes up approximately 34% of the raw material used in UK mills (see figure 1.1), and is
primarily imported from Scandinavia, and North and South America (Paper Federation, 2000). The wood used in
papermaking is predominantly sourced from sustainable, managed forests, and uses thinnings, toppings, and sawmill
waste that other commercial users, who make solid wood products, reject. The furnish (see glossary available from ) used in the majority of mills consists of a combination of hardwood
and softwood pulp. Hardwoods such as eucalyptus have short fibres (e.g. eucalyptus, 1mm), but impart good
formation characteristics to give paper a superior finish, while softwoods such as spruce have longer fibre lengths
(e.g. Scandinavian Spruce, 3.5mm), giving tear and strength properties (UNEP, 1996).
Figure 1.1: Raw Material Use in UK Mills 1999
woodpulp 8%
Other fibres 1%
woodpulp 26%
Recycled fibre
There are two main technologies used to produce virgin wood pulp, mechanical and chemical (Paperonline, 2000).
a) Mechanical pulp production uses the mechanical processes of grinding and refining to separate the
fibres. Production yields are high, making the process highly cost-effective, but quality constraints mean
that mechanical pulp is predominantly used in the production of lower grades of paper, particularly
newsprint. Such short-life use is essential as the process retains lignin, which reacts with UV wavelengths
in sunlight to discolour paper and make it brittle.
b) Chemical pulp production uses heat and high-pressure steam to soften the woodchips, while lignin is
removed by the addition of chemicals, either through the sulphate (kraft) or sulphite processes. Yields are
as low as 50%, making the process expensive compared to mechanical pulping. However, quality is high
due to the removal of lignin, and the pulp can be utilised in the production of high value graphic papers.
Chemical pulp is often referred to as “woodfree”, signifying that chemical as opposed to mechanical
pulping techniques have been used.
A combination of chemical and mechanical methods can be used to produce combination or semi-chemical pulp,
where chemicals partially dissolve the resins, and mechanical means separate the fibres.
1.2 Recovered Paper
Post-consumer wastepaper makes up 65 % of raw material used in UK mills (Paper Federation, 2000). There are 4
general categories and over 30 specific grades of recovered paper –
a) Pulp substitute grades - high quality wastes that can be used as a substitute for primary pulp in the
manufacture of products such as printings and writing papers. The wastepaper used consists largely of
trimmings and off-cuts that need little cleaning.
b) De-inking grades - where ink is removed from fibres prior to processing. Consists largely of long-fibred
office grades used to produce new graphic papers, or waste newspapers and magazines for newsprint.
Bulk grades (packaging grades) - used in production of packaging materials, where the use of virgin pulp
is largely uneconomic. Consists largely of brown unbleached packaging materials that have long strong
fibres e.g. testliner (recycled) used for cardboard box production instead of kraftliner.
d) Lower grades - mixed papers that are often uneconomical to sort due to heterogeneity or high levels of
contraries (non-recyclables). Mainly used to produce middle packaging layers.
Although not strictly included in the definition of recycled fibre, mill broke and pre-consumer waste make up part of
the furnish, with mills traditionally recycling the maximum amount possible to maintain profits.
Post-consumer household paper waste is generated as a heterogeneous mix of different paper grades, while
industrial and commercial waste is more likely to consist of homogenous paper grades. Wastepaper merchants
frequently sort mixes of paper into categories to recover the higher value constituents’ e.g. white office paper grade.
A significant proportion of wastepaper weight may consist of non-fibrous materials, which cannot be utilised in
recycling. This is termed “shrinkage”, with an average shrinkage for newspaper / magazine waste being 15-20% of
the purchased weight (City of Glasgow, 1992).
1.3 Paper Recycling Process
Reprocessing of secondary fibre involves either a wet or dry process. Dry processes involve the wastepaper being
shredded or pulverised, with the product used for animal bedding, cat litter, bulking agents, hydro-seed mulch or
packaging materials. The more frequently used wet process involves the recycled paper being re-pulped and cleaned
to produce sheet paper, moulded pulp or composites. The wet process is detailed below (International Paper, 2000),
with the first two steps common to the production of all paper grades. The de-inking process is necessary for the
production of grades such as graphic papers and newsprint, but is not essential for packaging grades.
Pulping – wastepaper mixed with water and chemicals, and pulped to a slurry.
Cleaning – pressure screens and wire mesh machines are used to remove large contaminants such as paper
clips, plastics, staples, and problematic contaminants such as glues, which ball up into globules in the pulp
De-inking –essential to remove inks and toner fluids, contaminants such as adhesives, labels and plastic
envelopes, and fibres too short to be utilised in paper production. Two alternative processes are available:
a. Washing – where chemicals are added to separate ink particles from the paper, then large amounts
of water are used to drain the ink away. This process recovers approx 80% of fibre, and has been
used most successfully on wood free wastes. It is more efficient at removing small ink particles
than flotation
b. Flotation – surfactants are added, which froth on top of pulp. Air bubbles are then blown through
the slurry. These carry ink particles to the surface, where they are trapped by the surfactants, and
can be removed by surface skimming. This process yields up to 90-95% of the original material.
Performance indicators include paper brightness, ink speck coverage, and tear strength. In
newsprint mills around 30% magazines are included during de-inking as the clay from coated
papers binds ink particles, increasing removal efficiency (Inveresk, 2000).
Bleaching (only for high quality products) – to brighten paper, and remove any discolouration. Due to the
harmful effects of chlorine many pulps are now total chlorine free (TCF) or elemental chlorine free (ECF),
using alternative bleaches such as ultraviolet radiation.
Additives – finishing materials added to enhance appearance, quality, fitness for purpose e.g. coatings,
waxes, dyes, pigments, or fillers. Coatings such as clay give a smooth writing / printing surface, while alum
can be added to prevent liquid absorption.
1.4 Classification of Paper Grades
Wastepaper can be classified into specific grades according to quality, taking into account factors such as potentially
recoverable fibre content and extent of contamination. There are 11 standard UK wastepaper grades, as follows
(Paper Federation, 1999) –
Grade 1 - white, woodfree, unprinted e.g. white printer shavings, envelope cuttings
Grade 2 - white, woodfree, printed e.g. white carbonless copy paper
Grade 3 - white, lightly printed mechanical e.g. white unprinted news
Grade 4 - coloured woodfree e.g. best pams, coloured shavings
Grade 5 - heavily printed mechanical e.g. news and pams
Grade 6 - coloured crafts and manilas e.g. kraft liner
Grade 7 - new kraft lined (KLS)
Grade 8 - container waste
Grade 9 - mixed papers
Grade 10 - coloured card
Grade 11 - contaminated grades e.g. plastic/ laminated waste, telephone directories.
The Bureau of International Recycling has recently published a classification of paper grades that will be recognised
throughout Europe, with the aim of harmonising grading systems to facilitate international trade in recovered paper.
This is likely to replace the traditional UK grades (Bureau of International Recycling, 1999).
Wastepaper grades can be used as a feedstock for differing types of paper product, with recovered paper having to
meet specific quality requirements for individual product types. Fitness for use is important, with lower grades such
as mixed papers unsuitable for incorporation into higher quality products such as graphics papers. Table 1.1 below
illustrates the typical end-uses for the main wastepaper grades (UNEP, 1996).
Table 1.2: End-Uses for Wastepaper Grades
Wastepaper Grade
Mixed Household Papers
Old Corrugated Containers
Old Newspapers
Mixed Commercial Papers
Sorted Woodfree
Pulping Process
Screening and Pulping
Screening and Pulping
Screening, Pulping, De-inking,
Screening and Pulping, De-inking for
Higher Grade End-Uses
Screening, Pulping, De-inking,
Corrugated Packaging
Corrugated Packaging, Testliner
Newsprint, Low-grade Printing & Writings
Printings & Writings, Packaging Boards
High Quality Graphics Papers
In general, paper products can be split into seven broad categories (Key Note Ltd, 1999) –
1. Newsprint - predominantly manufactured in integrated mills globally (but in recycled mills in the UK), the
majority of fibre used is mechanical pulp, with a small percentage of chemical pulp used to impart the necessary
strength for speed printing. China clay is added to give bulk and opacity. The 3 UK mills (all in England) use a very
high proportion (over 90%) of wastepaper as a feedstock, with the small quantities of virgin pulp required being
imported from North America and Scandinavia.
2. Printings and Writing Papers - largely dependent on imported chemical market pulp due to a lack of domestic
chemical wood pulp mills. Requires a high quality fibre source, though significant quantities of wastepaper can be
used if quality specifications are adhered to. Consists of uncoated boards/sheets for stationary, wallpaper, banknotes,
etc. and coated products (one or both sides) for books and advertising material. Coating materials include mixes of
starch, latex, china clay, or other binders.
3. Corrugated Case Materials – brown packaging materials are manufactured almost entirely from recycled waste
in UK.
4. Packaging Papers/Wrappings – bleached and unbleached kraft pulp used to manufacture bags, sacks,
wrappings, etc. Most packaging papers use imported market pulp.
5. Packaging Boards – made from chipboard and fibreboard of varying thickness and weights (coated or uncoated).
Cartonboard uses a combination of recycled waste and imported chemical pulp, while greyboard uses mainly
recycled materials.
6. Toilet and Tissue Paper - wastepaper makes up a high percentage of fibre use, the rest being chemical market
7. Specialities/ others - mainly plasterboard liner, which is produced entirely from wastepaper.
The amount of recycled fibre used in the manufacture of each type of product varies significantly (see figure 1.2),
ranging from corrugated packaging materials and newsprint which achieve almost 100% recycled fibre use to higher
grade graphics papers which average only 19% (Paper Federation, 2000).
Figure 1.2: UK Recycled Fibre Use by Sector 1999
Packaging Papers
Packaging Boards
All Others
Sanitary Papers
Corrugated Case Materials
Percentage Recycled Content (%)
2 Paper Mills in Scotland
2.1 Range of Products
The 16 paper mills in Scotland are owned by 11 companies (see table 1.1) and manufacture a range of products from
corrugated packaging materials to high quality carbonless copy paper. Scottish paper mills utilise recycled fibre to
varying extents (see table 2.1), with recycled fibre use being strongly linked to the type of product manufactured.
The mills can be split into four groups on this basis: packaging, printing and writing papers, carbonless copy paper
and speciality mills.
Table 2.1: Recycled Fibre Use in Scottish Paper Mills
Paper Mill
BPB Paperboard
Curtis Fine Papers
Arjo Wiggins, Aberdeen
Donside Paper
Tullis Russell
International Paper
Arjo Wiggins,
Fort William
Sappi UK
Dexter Non-Wovens
Caledonian Paper
Packaging boards
Packaging materials
Graphics paper, coated papers & boards, recycled
Printing & writings, recycled range
Printings & writings, recycled range
Printings & writings,
Recycled range
Printings & writings
Printings & writings
Carbonless copy paper
Recycled Fibre Use
Carbonless copy Paper
Non-Woven Products
Coated papers
a) Packaging Grades
A high percentage of secondary fibre (95-100%) is used in the two mills producing packaging materials. This high
utilisation rate is possible as packaging grades have less stringent raw materials requirements than other grades, and
so can use almost 100% recycled fibre without significant problems. Wastepaper is also lower cost than virgin
material; crucial in keeping costs down in the production of a material with a lower selling price than higher grades.
There is little opportunity to increase the use of recycled fibre in these mills, as a minimum percentage of virgin
fibre will always be essential to provide longer fibres for strength. There may, however, be a possibility of the mills
using differing grades of recycled fibre. BPB formerly used mixed papers from the local councils (Aberdeen,
Aberdeenshire and Moray), but discontinued this grade following problems with reliability, quality and
contamination. This has left the aforementioned councils with collection systems in place, but no market for the
material, resulting in collected paper being disposed to landfill in some cases. Although BPB have no plans to
incorporate this grade in the future, they could possibly be persuaded if a reliable supply of quality, sorted paper
could be established.
b) Printings & Writing Papers
The mills producing this grade of product incorporate 0-10% recycled fibre into the fibre mix. This use is linked
with the production of recycled stationary ranges, which are generally produced from 100% post-consumer waste.
The exceptions are Tullis Russell and International Paper, neither of whom produce a recycled range or utilises
recycled fibre. The experience gained in utilising recycled fibre for recycled stationary ranges may be valuable in
persuading companies to increase the recycled fibre content of the raw material mix up to an upper technical limit.
Further study is essential to determine an maximum limit for recycled fibre use for each type of paper product, i.e.
the maximum recycled content that can be included before quality is reduced to an unacceptable level.
Tullis Russell carried out a 6-month trial using recycled fibre (de-inked grades purchased from Inveresk), but were
forced to discontinue due problems with cleanliness. A second attempt failed this year, as Inveresk were unable to
produce de-inked fibre for sale. This stemmed from a shutdown of their de-inking plant caused by difficulties in
sourcing adequate quantities of wastepaper of the required quality. The only other potential source of de-inked fibre
in Scotland is Smith-Anderson, who currently doesn’t sell de-inked fibre on the open market.
Tullis Russell did however estimate that they, and presumably other mills manufacturing similar products, could use
up to 10% recycled fibre in all products without any significant problems. Donside Paper formerly used a higher
percentage of secondary fibre until contamination and quality problems resulted in recycled fibre use being limited
to the production of recycled stationary. International Paper has expressed interest in using recovered paper as a
feedstock if a guaranteed supply of high quality paper became available locally.
c) Carbonless Copy Paper
Both Sappi UK and Arjo Wiggins (Fort William) use 100% virgin woodpulp in production, primarily resulting from
the high quality standards required for carbonless copy paper. If either were to incorporate recycled fibre it would
have to meet strict specifications, and be from the highest grades such as unprinted kraft shavings.
d) Speciality Mills
Dexter Non-Wovens can be seen as separate from other Scottish paper mills, manufacturing speciality products such
as teabag papers, sausage casings and medical wipes. The fibre mix utilised is also unique, with a high percentage of
non-wood (manila, hemp) and synthetic fibres (polyester, rayon) being used in addition to virgin wood pulp. No
recycled fibre is incorporated due to the specialised nature of the production process.
Caledonian Paper is the only integrated pulp and paper mill in Scotland and as such can be viewed on an individual
basis. The incorporation of recycled fibre is viewed as unlikely by the company since they produce high quality
woodpulp on-site, and would have to alter their entire production process to use secondary fibre.
2.2 Potential to Increase Recycled Fibre Use
The printing and writing papers sector can therefore be seen to provide the greatest opportunity for increased use of
recycled fibre. Even if the mills in this category only used 10% recycled fibre, this would create demand for an
additional 45,000 tonnes of recovered paper. Effective collection and sorting systems would have to be put in place
to meet the high quality demanded by these graphics sectors. Commercial collections of sorted office paper are
likely to be required, as the heterogeneity and high proportion of low grades in household waste would not meet the
exacting specifications. Consistently high quality papers of the required quantities, along with reliability of supply
are seen as the most important factors by mills. There are signs that mills are increasingly willing to enter into
contract agreements with collectors if these conditions can be fulfilled.
A lack of de-inking capacity can also be seen as a limiting factor, with facilities available only at Inveresk (Kilbagie)
and Smith Anderson. Investment in new capacity is unlikely in the current economic climate, with many mills
struggling financially and dealing with very tight margins. Similarly, a lack of newsprint capacity is a major
shortfall in the Scottish paper industry. With newsprint mills able to utilise almost 100% used newspapers, a facility
in Scotland would represent an important market for recovered paper. Once-read newspapers make up a significant
proportion of household waste, and are also one of the most difficult to find markets for due to their low quality and
mechanical content.
Currently the majority of newspapers collected in Scotland are transported south to one of the three UK newsprint
mills (Bridgewater, Shotton and Aylesford). A newsprint mill has been proposed at Gartcosh in the past, where it
would be conveniently adjacent to Cheshire Recycling, the company who constitute the largest collector of old
newspapers in Scotland. However, at least partial funding would be necessary to build such new capacity, with a
modern facility with a capacity of 250,000 tonnes costing in the region of £250 million (Glasgow City Council,
1992). Such a project is unlikely to attract Government assistance due to the disparity between the high capital
investment and low number of jobs the facility would provide. Funding of this sort may be construed as politically
unacceptable, and the only alternative would be to attempt to attract foreign investment.
2.3 Problems Arising from Recycled Fibre Use
In parallel to the wastepaper reprocessors, a major problem mills face when using recycled fibre is that of
contamination, with contraries such as staples, adhesives and plastics causing problems in respect of quality and lost
production time. All three mills visited (BPB, Inveresk and Smith Anderson) were keen to have quality standards
and specifications produced, and saw producer education as essential in the quest to establish separation of grades at
source and lessen contamination.
A related issue is the availability of wastepaper stocks, with Inveresk in particular having difficulty in sourcing
adequate volumes this year, leading to a temporary closure of their de-inking plant. Smith Anderson also
experienced difficulties in sourcing paper, with the local Fife council reluctant to put paper collection systems in
place. The underlying problem here is the wide variability of wastepaper prices. Many organisations, councils in
particular, were forced to abandon wastepaper collections when paper prices collapsed in the mid-1990s. They are
understandably reluctant to restart collections even when prices and demand are high due to the unpredictability of
the market.
A stabilisation of market demand and prices would be difficult to achieve due to the worldwide nature of the paper
market, although the availability of long-term contracts with fixed or minimum prices would go a long way towards
restoring the confidence of local authorities to proceed with paper collections. Smith Anderson have established
their own recycling facility in an attempt to achieve security of wastepaper supply, aiming to source at least 50% of
their annual requirements. Inveresk attempted to establish a similar scheme in the mid 1990s, but the collapse of
paper prices led the to abandon the project. However, in the correct economic climate such a scheme is likely to be a
success, and provide the company with a guaranteed raw material supply. Another problem is that of wastepaper
merchants exporting to the continent and Asia when prices are favourable, leading to domestic wastepaper
A further issue is the reduction in quality associated with the repeated use of recycled fibres. Fibre lengths shorten
with each successive use, leading to a loss in strength of the fibre mix. Concern was also expressed that the longterm use of recycled fibres may be unsustainable, as the overall quality of the fibre-stock would progressively
deteriorate, and eventually a high input of virgin fibres would be necessary to restore fibre quality and strength.
Sources at Smith Anderson claimed that the average fibre length for KLS (recycled cardboard) has fallen from 1.6 to
1.0 millimetres in the 6 years, causing problems as short fibres are weaker, and slow production rates as they take
longer to dry, an effect particularly unwelcome in an industry where yield is of utmost importance in maintaining
profitability. Research in this area would provide valuable insights into recycled fibre use, and may yield solutions
to the strength loss problem.
A final issue associated with the dependence on recycled fibre is the haphazard and ever-changing nature of the
portion of the supply system that is comprised of collection schemes run by local authorities. Pulp and paper mills
are very large and capital intensive manufacturing operations that must operate continuously at very high operating
rates to remain economically feasible. They simply cannot afford to have unreliable sources of supply that might
force them to curtail operations. Local authorities must become part of a fundamentally reliable supply
infrastructure if the mills are to recognize their participation as legitimate, let alone base additional investment upon
Table 2.2: Potential for Increasing Recycled Fibre Use – Company Responses
Potential to Increase
Recycled Fibre Use
Problems with
Recycled Fibre Use
Additional Information
Potential to Increase
Recycled Fibre Use
High with appropriate technology
& assured quality supply
Problems with
Recycled Fibre Use
Quality &
Minimal as always need small %
Contamination with
plastics, polystyrene a
major issue
Curtis Fine
Limited potential related to on-site
pulp production
High with appropriate technology
& assured quality supply
Dexter NonWovens
Minimal due to speciality nature of
production process
High with appropriate technology
& quality assured supply
High if appropriate technology &
assured quality supply
Quality problems as
need long fibres for
Inveresk Plc
High with assured quality supply
Difficulties securing
sufficient quantity &
quality supply
Sappi UK
Potential if new technologies
Contamination &
Minimal as always need small %
Quality problems due
to spiralling decline in
recycled fibre lengths,
Tullis Russell
High with appropriate technology
and assured quality supply
Quality &
Arjo Wiggins
Quality &
Quality &
Additional Information
Need advanced technologies to
incorporate recycled fibre into
carbonless copy paper production
Would welcome standards/
specifications for each grade.
Formerly used mixed grades in
furnish, stopped due to
Recent job losses following financial
difficulties due to competition from
Europe and exchange rate
Lack of recycling technology
appropriate for specific products
Formerly used higher % recycled,
but decreased due to contamination,
and problems sourcing high quality
Would consider use of recycled fibre
if local supplies of high quality
segregated office waste could be
Had to temporarily close de-inking
plant due to shortage of wastepaper
Would welcome development of
Experiencing financial problems, job
Advanced technologies needed to
incorporate recycled fibre into
carbonless copy paper
De-inking plant on-site.
In-house wastepaper collection to
achieve security of supply.
Need grade specifications &
producer education to decrease
Pilot use of recycled fibre phased
out due to contamination problems.
If guaranteed supply of quality deinked grades would use 5-10%
recycled with no problems
Bureau of International Recycling. (1999). European List of Standard Grades of Recovered Paper and Board.
City of Glasgow. (1992). Draft Recycling Plan. Glasgow City Council, Glasgow.
International Paper. (2000). The Paper Recycling Process. Accessed at
Inveresk Plc. (2000). De-inking. Accessed at
Key Note Ltd. (1999). Paper and Board Manufacturing. Key Note Industrial Sector Reports, London.
Paper Federation. (2000). Paper Industry Statistics. Accessed at
Paper Federation. (1999). Recycling: Key Facts. Accessed at
Paperonline. (2000). The Paper-making Process. Accessed at
United Nations Environment Programme. (1996). Environmental Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry.
UNEP, France.
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