Quick Start Guide - Telecom

MAX-206M2
WiMAX MIMO Indoor CPE (2.5 GHz)
User’s Guide
Firmware Version 1.0
Edition 1, 08/2008
DEFAULT LOGIN
IP Address
http://192.168.100.1
User Name
admin
Password
1234
www.zyxel.com
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the ZyXEL WiMAX Modem using
the web configurator. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP networking
concepts and topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet access.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
• Command Reference Guide
The Command Reference Guide explains how to use the Command-Line Interface (CLI)
and CLI commands to configure the WiMAX Modem.
"
It is recommended you use the web configurator to configure the WiMAX
Modem.
• Support Disc
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and product
certifications.
User’s Guide Feedback
Help us help you. Send all User’s Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to the following address, or use e-mail instead. Thank you!
The Technical Writing Team,
ZyXEL Communications Corp.,
6 Innovation Road II,
Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan.
E-mail: techwriters@zyxel.com.tw
User’s Guide
3
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
1
"
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your WiMAX Modem.
Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The MAX-206M2 may be referred to as the “WiMAX Modem”, the “device”, the
“system” or the “product” in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example, [ENTER]
means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the [ENTER] key.
“Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For example,
TOOLS > Logs > Log Settings means you first click Tools in the navigation panel, then
the Logs sub menu and finally the Log Settings tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value. For
example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may denote “1000000”
or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other words”.
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User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The WiMAX Modem icon is
not an exact representation of your WiMAX Modem.\
Table 1 Common Icons
User’s Guide
WiMAX Device
WiMAX Access Point
Computer
Notebook
Server
WiMAX Base Station
Telephone
Switch
Router
Internet Cloud
Internet/WiMAX Cloud
Wireless Signal
5
Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
1
For your safety, be sure to read and follow all warning notices and instructions.
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should
service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device. Connect it to the right
supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Do NOT remove the plug and connect it to a power outlet by itself; always attach the plug
to the power adaptor first before connecting it to a power outlet.
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power source.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors.
There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.Use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger telecommunication line
cord.
• Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when
using the included antenna(s). Only use the included antenna(s).
• If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical lines, gas or water pipes will
be damaged.
• Make sure that the cable system is grounded so as to provide some protection against
voltage surges.
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User’s Guide
Safety Warnings
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark.
WEEE stands for Waste Electronics and Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical
and electronic products should not be mixed with general waste. Used electrical and electronic
equipment should be treated separately.
User’s Guide
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Safety Warnings
8
User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
Introduction and Wizards ...................................................................................................... 29
Getting Started ........................................................................................................................... 31
Introducing the Web Configurator .............................................................................................. 35
Internet Connection Wizard ....................................................................................................... 41
VoIP Connection Wizard ............................................................................................................ 47
Basic Screens ........................................................................................................................ 51
The Setup Screens .................................................................................................................... 53
Advanced Screens ................................................................................................................. 57
The LAN Configuration Screens ................................................................................................ 59
The WAN Configuration Screens ............................................................................................... 71
The VPN Transport Screens ...................................................................................................... 83
The NAT Configuration Screens ................................................................................................ 93
The System Configuration Screens ......................................................................................... 101
Voice Screens ....................................................................................................................... 109
The Service Configuration Screens ..........................................................................................111
The Phone Screens ................................................................................................................. 125
The Phone Book Screens ........................................................................................................ 133
Tools & Status Screens ....................................................................................................... 139
The Certificates Screens ......................................................................................................... 141
The Firewall Screens ............................................................................................................... 159
Content Filter ........................................................................................................................... 167
The Remote Management Screens ......................................................................................... 171
The Logs Screens ................................................................................................................... 181
The UPnP Screen .................................................................................................................... 195
The Status Screen ................................................................................................................... 203
Troubleshooting and Specifications .................................................................................. 215
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 217
Product Specifications ............................................................................................................. 223
Appendices and Index ......................................................................................................... 229
User’s Guide
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Contents Overview
10
User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide .......................................................................................................... 3
Document Conventions............................................................................................................ 4
Safety Warnings........................................................................................................................ 6
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 9
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... 11
List of Figures ......................................................................................................................... 19
List of Tables........................................................................................................................... 25
Part I: Introduction and Wizards........................................................... 29
Chapter 1
Getting Started ........................................................................................................................ 31
1.1 About Your WiMAX Modem ................................................................................................. 31
1.1.1 WiMAX Internet Access ............................................................................................. 31
1.1.2 Make Calls via Internet Telephony Service Provider .................................................. 32
1.2 WiMAX Modem Hardware ................................................................................................... 33
1.2.1 LEDs .......................................................................................................................... 33
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the WiMAX Modem ................................................................... 34
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator ........................................................................................ 35
2.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 35
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator ................................................................................ 35
2.1.2 The Reset Button ....................................................................................................... 38
2.2 The Main Screen ................................................................................................................. 38
Chapter 3
Internet Connection Wizard ................................................................................................... 41
3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 41
3.1.1 Welcome to the ZyXEL Setup Wizard ........................................................................ 41
3.1.2 System Information .................................................................................................... 42
3.1.3 Authentication Settings .............................................................................................. 43
3.1.4 IP Address .................................................................................................................. 45
User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
3.1.5 Setup Complete ......................................................................................................... 46
Chapter 4
VoIP Connection Wizard......................................................................................................... 47
4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 47
4.2 Welcome to the ZyXEL Setup Wizard ................................................................................. 47
4.2.1 First Voice Account Settings ...................................................................................... 48
4.2.2 Setup Complete ......................................................................................................... 50
Part II: Basic Screens ............................................................................ 51
Chapter 5
The Setup Screens.................................................................................................................. 53
5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 53
5.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ............................................................................. 53
5.1.2 What You Need to Know ............................................................................................ 53
5.1.3 Before You Begin ....................................................................................................... 54
5.2 Set IP Address ..................................................................................................................... 54
5.3 Time Setting ......................................................................................................................... 55
5.3.1 Pre-Defined NTP Time Servers List ........................................................................... 56
5.3.2 Resetting the Time ..................................................................................................... 56
Part III: Advanced Screens.................................................................... 57
Chapter 6
The LAN Configuration Screens............................................................................................ 59
6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 59
6.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ............................................................................. 59
6.1.2 What You Need to Know ............................................................................................ 59
6.2 DHCP Setup ........................................................................................................................ 60
6.3 Static DHCP ......................................................................................................................... 61
6.4 IP Alias ................................................................................................................................ 62
6.5 IP Static Route ..................................................................................................................... 64
6.5.1 IP Static Route Setup ................................................................................................. 65
6.6 Other Settings ...................................................................................................................... 66
6.7 Technical Reference ............................................................................................................ 67
6.7.1 IP Address and Subnet Mask ..................................................................................... 67
6.7.2 DHCP Setup ............................................................................................................... 67
6.7.3 LAN TCP/IP ................................................................................................................ 68
6.7.4 DNS Server Address .................................................................................................. 68
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Table of Contents
6.7.5 RIP Setup ................................................................................................................... 68
6.7.6 Multicast ..................................................................................................................... 69
Chapter 7
The WAN Configuration Screens........................................................................................... 71
7.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 71
7.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ............................................................................. 71
7.1.2 What You Need to Know ............................................................................................ 71
7.2 Internet Connection ............................................................................................................. 74
7.3 WiMAX Configuration .......................................................................................................... 76
7.3.1 Frequency Ranges ..................................................................................................... 77
7.3.2 Configuring Frequency Settings ................................................................................. 78
7.3.3 Using the WiMAX Frequency Screen ......................................................................... 79
7.4 Traffic Redirect .................................................................................................................... 80
7.5 Other Settings ...................................................................................................................... 81
Chapter 8
The VPN Transport Screens................................................................................................... 83
8.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 83
8.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ............................................................................. 84
8.1.2 What You Need to Know ............................................................................................ 84
8.1.3 Before You Begin ....................................................................................................... 85
8.2 General ................................................................................................................................ 85
8.3 Customer Interface .............................................................................................................. 86
8.3.1 Multi-Protocol Label Switching ................................................................................... 86
8.3.2 Generic Routing Encapsulation .................................................................................. 87
8.3.3 Customer Interface Options ....................................................................................... 87
8.3.4 Customer Interface Setup .......................................................................................... 89
8.4 Ethernet Pseudowire ........................................................................................................... 90
8.4.1 Ethernet Pseudowire Setup ....................................................................................... 91
8.5 Statistics .............................................................................................................................. 92
Chapter 9
The NAT Configuration Screens............................................................................................ 93
9.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 93
9.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ............................................................................. 93
9.2 General ................................................................................................................................ 93
9.3 Port Forwarding .................................................................................................................. 94
9.3.1 Port Forwarding Options ............................................................................................ 95
9.3.2 Port Forwarding Rule Setup ....................................................................................... 96
9.4 Trigger Port .......................................................................................................................... 97
9.4.1 Trigger Port Forwarding Example .............................................................................. 98
9.5 ALG ..................................................................................................................................... 99
User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
Chapter 10
The System Configuration Screens .................................................................................... 101
10.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 101
10.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 101
10.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 101
10.2 General ........................................................................................................................... 102
10.3 Dynamic DNS .................................................................................................................. 103
10.4 Firmware .......................................................................................................................... 105
10.4.1 The Firmware Upload Process ............................................................................... 106
10.5 Configuration ................................................................................................................... 106
10.5.1 The Restore Configuration Process ....................................................................... 107
10.6 Restart ............................................................................................................................. 108
10.6.1 The Restart Process .............................................................................................. 108
Part IV: Voice Screens ......................................................................... 109
Chapter 11
The Service Configuration Screens .................................................................................... 111
11.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................111
11.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ..........................................................................111
11.1.2 What You Need to Know .........................................................................................111
11.1.3 Before you Begin .....................................................................................................112
11.2 SIP Settings ......................................................................................................................113
11.2.1 Advanced SIP Settings ............................................................................................114
11.3 QoS .................................................................................................................................. 120
11.4 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 121
11.4.1 SIP Call Progression .............................................................................................. 121
11.4.2 SIP Client Server .................................................................................................... 122
11.4.3 SIP User Agent ....................................................................................................... 122
11.4.4 SIP Proxy Server .................................................................................................... 122
11.4.5 SIP Redirect Server ................................................................................................ 123
11.4.6 NAT and SIP ........................................................................................................... 123
11.4.7 DiffServ ................................................................................................................... 124
11.4.8 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ................................................................................. 124
Chapter 12
The Phone Screens............................................................................................................... 125
12.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 125
12.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 125
12.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 125
12.2 Analog Phone .................................................................................................................. 126
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User’s Guide
Table of Contents
12.2.1 Advanced Analog Phone Setup ............................................................................. 127
12.3 Common .......................................................................................................................... 128
12.4 Region ............................................................................................................................. 129
12.5 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 129
12.5.1 The Flash Key ........................................................................................................ 129
12.5.2 Europe Type Supplementary Phone Services ....................................................... 130
12.5.3 USA Type Supplementary Services ....................................................................... 131
Chapter 13
The Phone Book Screens..................................................................................................... 133
13.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 133
13.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 133
13.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 133
13.2 Incoming Call Policy ........................................................................................................ 134
13.3 Speed Dial ....................................................................................................................... 136
Part V: Tools & Status Screens........................................................... 139
Chapter 14
The Certificates Screens ...................................................................................................... 141
14.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 141
14.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 141
14.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 141
14.2 My Certificates ................................................................................................................. 142
14.2.1 My Certificates Create ............................................................................................ 144
14.2.2 My Certificate Edit .................................................................................................. 147
14.2.3 My Certificate Import .............................................................................................. 149
14.3 Trusted CAs ..................................................................................................................... 150
14.3.1 Trusted CA Edit ...................................................................................................... 152
14.3.2 Trusted CA Import .................................................................................................. 154
14.4 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 155
14.4.1 Certificate Authorities ............................................................................................. 155
14.4.2 Verifying a Certificate ............................................................................................. 157
Chapter 15
The Firewall Screens ............................................................................................................ 159
15.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 159
15.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 159
15.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 159
15.2 Firewall Setting ................................................................................................................ 160
15.2.1 Firewall Rule Directions ......................................................................................... 160
User’s Guide
15
Table of Contents
15.2.2 Triangle Route ........................................................................................................ 161
15.2.3 Firewall Setting Options ......................................................................................... 161
15.3 Service Setting ................................................................................................................ 163
15.4 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 164
15.4.1 Stateful Inspection Firewall. ................................................................................... 164
15.4.2 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall .......................................... 164
15.4.3 The “Triangle Route” Problem ................................................................................ 165
Chapter 16
Content Filter......................................................................................................................... 167
16.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 167
16.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 167
16.2 Filter ................................................................................................................................. 168
16.3 Schedule .......................................................................................................................... 170
Chapter 17
The Remote Management Screens ..................................................................................... 171
17.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 171
17.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 171
17.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 172
17.2 WWW .............................................................................................................................. 173
17.3 Telnet ............................................................................................................................... 173
17.4 FTP .................................................................................................................................. 174
17.5 SNMP .............................................................................................................................. 175
17.5.1 SNMP Traps ........................................................................................................... 176
17.5.2 SNMP Options ....................................................................................................... 176
17.6 DNS ................................................................................................................................. 177
17.7 Security ............................................................................................................................ 178
Chapter 18
The Logs Screens ................................................................................................................. 181
18.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 181
18.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 181
18.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 181
18.2 View Logs ........................................................................................................................ 183
18.3 Log Settings ..................................................................................................................... 185
18.4 Log Message Descriptions .............................................................................................. 187
Chapter 19
The UPnP Screen .................................................................................................................. 195
19.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 195
19.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter ......................................................................... 195
19.1.2 What You Need to Know ........................................................................................ 195
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User’s Guide
Table of Contents
19.2 UPnP ............................................................................................................................... 196
19.3 Technical Reference ........................................................................................................ 197
19.3.1 Installing UPnP in Windows XP ............................................................................. 197
19.3.2 Web Configurator Easy Access ............................................................................. 201
Chapter 20
The Status Screen................................................................................................................. 203
20.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 203
20.2 Status Screen .................................................................................................................. 203
20.2.1 Packet Statistics ..................................................................................................... 207
20.2.2 WiMAX Site Information ......................................................................................... 208
20.2.3 DHCP Table ........................................................................................................... 209
20.2.4 VoIP Statistics ........................................................................................................ 210
20.2.5 WiMAX Profile ........................................................................................................ 212
Part VI: Troubleshooting and Specifications .................................... 215
Chapter 21
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 217
21.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ...................................................................... 217
21.2 WiMAX Modem Access and Login .................................................................................. 218
21.3 Internet Access ................................................................................................................ 219
21.4 Phone Calls and VoIP ...................................................................................................... 221
21.5 Reset the WiMAX Modem to Its Factory Defaults ........................................................... 222
21.5.1 Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ........................................... 222
Chapter 22
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 223
Part VII: Appendices and Index .......................................................... 229
Appendix A WiMAX Security ................................................................................................ 231
Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address ........................................................... 235
Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ...................................... 259
Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 267
Appendix E Importing Certificates ........................................................................................ 277
Appendix F SIP Passthrough ............................................................................................... 301
User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
Appendix G Common Services ............................................................................................ 303
Appendix H Legal Information .............................................................................................. 307
Appendix I Customer Support .............................................................................................. 311
Index....................................................................................................................................... 317
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User’s Guide
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1 Mobile Station and Base Station ............................................................................................... 31
Figure 2 WiMAX Modem’s VoIP Features - Peer-to-Peer Calls ............................................................. 32
Figure 3 WiMAX Modem’s VoIP Features - Calls via VoIP Service Provider ......................................... 32
Figure 4 The WiMAX Modem’s LEDs ..................................................................................................... 33
Figure 5 Password Screen ..................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 6 Change Password Screen ........................................................................................................ 36
Figure 7 Replace Certificate Screen ....................................................................................................... 37
Figure 8 Wizard or Advanced Screen .................................................................................................... 37
Figure 9 Main Screen ............................................................................................................................. 38
Figure 10 Select a Mode ........................................................................................................................ 41
Figure 11 Internet Connection Wizard > System Information ................................................................. 42
Figure 12 Internet Connection Wizard > Authentication Settings Screen ............................................... 43
Figure 13 Internet Connection Wizard > IP Address .............................................................................. 45
Figure 14 Internet Connection Wizard > Complete ................................................................................ 46
Figure 15 Select a Mode ........................................................................................................................ 47
Figure 16 VoIP Connection > First Voice Account Settings .................................................................... 48
Figure 17 VoIP Connection > SIP Registration Test ............................................................................... 49
Figure 18 VoIP Connection > SIP Registration Fail ................................................................................ 49
Figure 19 VoIP Connection > Finish ...................................................................................................... 50
Figure 20 SETUP > Set IP Address ....................................................................................................... 54
Figure 21 SETUP > Time Setting ........................................................................................................... 55
Figure 22 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup ................................................................. 60
Figure 23 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Static DHCP .................................................................. 61
Figure 24 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration> IP Alias ........................................................................... 62
Figure 25 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route ................................................................... 64
Figure 26 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route Setup ......................................................... 65
Figure 27 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Advanced ...................................................................... 66
Figure 28 WiMax: Mobile Station ............................................................................................................ 72
Figure 29 WiMAX: Multiple Mobile Stations ............................................................................................ 72
Figure 30 Using an AAA Server ............................................................................................................. 72
Figure 31 Traffic Redirect WAN Setup .................................................................................................... 73
Figure 32 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup ..................................................................................................... 73
Figure 33 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection ..................................................... 74
Figure 34 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration >WiMAX Configuration
................................................ 76
Figure 35 Frequency Ranges ................................................................................................................. 77
Figure 36 Completing the WiMAX Frequency Screen ............................................................................ 79
Figure 37 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Traffic Redirect ............................................................. 80
Figure 38 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Advanced
User’s Guide
................................................................ 81
19
List of Figures
Figure 39 VPN Transport Example ......................................................................................................... 83
Figure 40 Identifying Users ..................................................................................................................... 84
Figure 41 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > General ............................................................................... 85
Figure 42 Pseudowire Mapping .............................................................................................................. 86
Figure 43 VPLS Tunneling ...................................................................................................................... 87
Figure 44 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface ............................................................. 87
Figure 45 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface Setup
.............................................. 89
Figure 46 Ethernet Pseudowire Settings Example ................................................................................ 90
Figure 47 Advance > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire ................................................................ 90
Figure 48 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire Setup .............................................. 91
Figure 49 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Statistics .............................................................................. 92
Figure 50 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > General ......................................................................... 93
Figure 51 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example .................................................................................. 95
Figure 52 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding ............................................................. 95
Figure 53 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding > Rule Setup ....................................... 96
Figure 54 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Trigger Port ................................................................... 97
Figure 55 Trigger Port Forwarding Example ........................................................................................... 98
Figure 56 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > ALG ............................................................................... 99
Figure 57 ADVANCED > System Configuration > General .................................................................. 102
Figure 58 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Dynamic DNS ......................................................... 104
Figure 59 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware ................................................................ 105
Figure 60 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Configuration .......................................................... 106
Figure 61 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Restart .................................................................... 108
Figure 62 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting .......................................................................113
Figure 63 STUN .....................................................................................................................................115
Figure 64 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced .................................................116
Figure 65 VOICE > Service Configuration > QoS ................................................................................ 120
Figure 66 SIP User Agent ..................................................................................................................... 122
Figure 67 SIP Proxy Server .................................................................................................................. 122
Figure 68 SIP Redirect Server .............................................................................................................. 123
Figure 69 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field .................................................................................... 124
Figure 70 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone ......................................................................................... 126
Figure 71 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone > Advanced ..................................................................... 127
Figure 72 VOICE > Phone > Common ................................................................................................. 128
Figure 73 VOICE > Phone > Region .................................................................................................... 129
Figure 74 VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call Policy ...................................................................... 134
Figure 75 VOICE > Phone Book > Speed Dial ..................................................................................... 136
Figure 76 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates
............................................................................ 142
Figure 77 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Create ................................................................ 144
Figure 78 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Edit .................................................................... 147
Figure 79 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Import ................................................................. 149
Figure 80 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs ................................................................................... 150
Figure 81 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Edit
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...................................................................... 152
User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 82 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Import ..................................................................... 154
Figure 83 Remote Host Certificates ..................................................................................................... 157
Figure 84 Certificate Details ................................................................................................................ 157
Figure 85 Firewall Rule Directions ........................................................................................................ 160
Figure 86 Ideal Firewall Setup .............................................................................................................. 161
Figure 87 TOOLS > Firewall > Firewall Setting .................................................................................... 161
Figure 88 TOOLS > Firewall > Service Setting .................................................................................... 163
Figure 89 “Triangle Route” Problem ..................................................................................................... 165
Figure 90 IP Alias ................................................................................................................................. 166
Figure 91 TOOLS > Content Filter > Filter ........................................................................................... 168
Figure 92 TOOLS > Content Filter > Schedule .................................................................................... 170
Figure 93 TOOLS > Remote Management > WWW ............................................................................ 173
Figure 94 TOOLS > Remote Management > Telnet ............................................................................. 173
Figure 95 TOOLS > Remote Management > FTP ................................................................................ 174
Figure 96 SNMP Management Model .................................................................................................. 175
Figure 97 TOOLS > Remote Management > SNMP ............................................................................ 176
Figure 98 TOOLS > Remote Management > DNS ............................................................................... 177
Figure 99 TOOLS > Remote Management > Security ......................................................................... 178
Figure 100 TOOLS > Logs > View Logs ............................................................................................... 183
Figure 101 TOOLS > Logs > Log Settings ........................................................................................... 185
Figure 102 TOOLS > UPnP .................................................................................................................. 196
Figure 103 Network Connections ......................................................................................................... 197
Figure 104 Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard .......................................................... 197
Figure 105 Networking Services ........................................................................................................... 198
Figure 106 Network Connections ......................................................................................................... 198
Figure 107 Internet Connection Properties .......................................................................................... 199
Figure 108 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings ........................................................... 199
Figure 109 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add .................................................. 200
Figure 110 System Tray Icon ................................................................................................................ 200
Figure 111 Internet Connection Status .................................................................................................. 200
Figure 112 Network Connections ......................................................................................................... 201
Figure 113 Network Connections: My Network Places ......................................................................... 201
Figure 114 Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example ...................................... 202
Figure 115 Status .................................................................................................................................. 203
Figure 116 Packet Statistics ................................................................................................................. 207
Figure 117 WiMAX Site Information .................................................................................................... 208
Figure 118 DHCP Table ........................................................................................................................ 209
Figure 119 VoIP Statistics ..................................................................................................................... 210
Figure 120 WiMAX Profile ................................................................................................................... 212
Figure 121 Windows XP: Start Menu .................................................................................................... 236
Figure 122 Windows XP: Control Panel ............................................................................................... 236
Figure 123 Windows XP: Control Panel > Network Connections > Properties .................................... 237
Figure 124 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties ............................................................... 237
User’s Guide
21
List of Figures
Figure 125 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties .......................................................... 238
Figure 126 Windows Vista: Start Menu ................................................................................................. 239
Figure 127 Windows Vista: Control Panel ............................................................................................ 239
Figure 128 Windows Vista: Network And Internet ................................................................................ 239
Figure 129 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center ..................................................................... 240
Figure 130 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center ..................................................................... 240
Figure 131 Windows Vista: Local Area Connection Properties ............................................................ 241
Figure 132 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties ................................... 242
Figure 133 Mac OS X 10.4: Apple Menu .............................................................................................. 243
Figure 134 Mac OS X 10.4: System Preferences ................................................................................. 243
Figure 135 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Preferences ............................................................................... 244
Figure 136 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Preferences > TCP/IP Tab. ........................................................ 244
Figure 137 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Preferences > Ethernet .............................................................. 245
Figure 138 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Utility .......................................................................................... 245
Figure 139 Mac OS X 10.5: Apple Menu .............................................................................................. 246
Figure 140 Mac OS X 10.5: Systems Preferences ............................................................................... 246
Figure 141 Mac OS X 10.5: Network Preferences > Ethernet .............................................................. 247
Figure 142 Mac OS X 10.5: Network Preferences > Ethernet .............................................................. 248
Figure 143 Mac OS X 10.5: Network Utility .......................................................................................... 248
Figure 144 Ubuntu 8: System > Administration Menu .......................................................................... 249
Figure 145 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > Connections ........................................................................ 249
Figure 146 Ubuntu 8: Administrator Account Authentication ................................................................ 250
Figure 147 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > Connections ........................................................................ 250
Figure 148 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > Properties ........................................................................... 251
Figure 149 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > DNS ................................................................................... 251
Figure 150 Ubuntu 8: Network Tools .................................................................................................... 252
Figure 151 openSUSE 10.3: K Menu > Computer Menu ..................................................................... 253
Figure 152 openSUSE 10.3: K Menu > Computer Menu ..................................................................... 253
Figure 153 openSUSE 10.3: YaST Control Center .............................................................................. 254
Figure 154 openSUSE 10.3: Network Settings .................................................................................... 254
Figure 155 openSUSE 10.3: Network Card Setup ............................................................................... 255
Figure 156 openSUSE 10.3: Network Settings .................................................................................... 256
Figure 157 openSUSE 10.3: KNetwork Manager ................................................................................. 257
Figure 158 openSUSE: Connection Status - KNetwork Manager ........................................................ 257
Figure 159 Pop-up Blocker ................................................................................................................... 259
Figure 160 Internet Options: Privacy .................................................................................................... 260
Figure 161 Internet Options: Privacy .................................................................................................... 261
Figure 162 Pop-up Blocker Settings ..................................................................................................... 261
Figure 163 Internet Options: Security ................................................................................................... 262
Figure 164 Security Settings - Java Scripting ....................................................................................... 263
Figure 165 Security Settings - Java ...................................................................................................... 263
Figure 166 Java (Sun) .......................................................................................................................... 264
Figure 167 Mozilla Firefox: TOOLS > Options ...................................................................................... 265
22
User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 168 Mozilla Firefox Content Security ......................................................................................... 265
Figure 169 Network Number and Host ID ............................................................................................ 268
Figure 170 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting ............................................................................ 270
Figure 171 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting ............................................................................... 271
Figure 172 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example .................................................................... 275
Figure 173 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example .................................................................... 276
Figure 174 Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example .................................................. 276
Figure 175 Internet Explorer 7: Certification Error ................................................................................ 278
Figure 176 Internet Explorer 7: Certification Error ................................................................................ 278
Figure 177 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Error ................................................................................... 278
Figure 178 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate ............................................................................................ 279
Figure 179 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard .................................................................... 279
Figure 180 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard .................................................................... 280
Figure 181 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard .................................................................... 280
Figure 182 Internet Explorer 7: Select Certificate Store ....................................................................... 280
Figure 183 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard .................................................................... 281
Figure 184 Internet Explorer 7: Security Warning ................................................................................. 281
Figure 185 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard .................................................................... 282
Figure 186 Internet Explorer 7: Website Identification .......................................................................... 282
Figure 187 Internet Explorer 7: Public Key Certificate File ................................................................... 283
Figure 188 Internet Explorer 7: Open File - Security Warning .............................................................. 283
Figure 189 Internet Explorer 7: Tools Menu ......................................................................................... 284
Figure 190 Internet Explorer 7: Internet Options .................................................................................. 284
Figure 191 Internet Explorer 7: Certificates .......................................................................................... 285
Figure 192 Internet Explorer 7: Certificates .......................................................................................... 285
Figure 193 Internet Explorer 7: Root Certificate Store .......................................................................... 285
Figure 194 Firefox 2: Website Certified by an Unknown Authority ....................................................... 286
Figure 195 Firefox 2: Page Info ............................................................................................................ 286
Figure 196 Firefox 2: Tools Menu ......................................................................................................... 287
Figure 197 Firefox 2: Options ............................................................................................................... 287
Figure 198 Firefox 2: Certificate Manager ........................................................................................... 288
Figure 199 Firefox 2: Select File .......................................................................................................... 288
Figure 200 Firefox 2: Tools Menu ......................................................................................................... 289
Figure 201 Firefox 2: Options ............................................................................................................... 289
Figure 202 Firefox 2: Certificate Manager ........................................................................................... 290
Figure 203 Firefox 2: Delete Web Site Certificates .............................................................................. 290
Figure 204 Opera 9: Certificate signer not found ................................................................................. 291
Figure 205 Opera 9: Security information ............................................................................................. 291
Figure 206 Opera 9: Tools Menu .......................................................................................................... 292
Figure 207 Opera 9: Preferences ......................................................................................................... 292
Figure 208 Opera 9: Certificate manager ............................................................................................ 293
Figure 209 Opera 9: Import certificate ................................................................................................. 293
Figure 210 Opera 9: Install authority certificate ................................................................................... 294
User’s Guide
23
List of Figures
Figure 211 Opera 9: Install authority certificate ................................................................................... 294
Figure 212 Opera 9: Tools Menu .......................................................................................................... 295
Figure 213 Opera 9: Preferences ......................................................................................................... 295
Figure 214 Opera 9: Certificate manager ............................................................................................ 296
Figure 215 Konqueror 3.5: Server Authentication ................................................................................ 297
Figure 216 Konqueror 3.5: Server Authentication ................................................................................ 297
Figure 217 Konqueror 3.5: KDE SSL Information ................................................................................ 297
Figure 218 Konqueror 3.5: Public Key Certificate File .......................................................................... 298
Figure 219 Konqueror 3.5: Certificate Import Result ............................................................................ 298
Figure 220 Konqueror 3.5: Kleopatra ................................................................................................... 298
Figure 221 Konqueror 3.5: Settings Menu ............................................................................................ 299
Figure 222 Konqueror 3.5: Configure ................................................................................................... 299
24
User’s Guide
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1 Common Icons ............................................................................................................................ 5
Table 2 The WiMAX Modem .................................................................................................................. 33
Table 3 Main > Icons ............................................................................................................................. 39
Table 4 Main .......................................................................................................................................... 39
Table 5 Internet Connection Wizard > System Information ................................................................... 42
Table 6 Internet Connection Wizard > Authentication Settings Screen ................................................. 43
Table 7 Internet Connection Wizard > IP Address ................................................................................. 45
Table 8 VoIP Connection > First Voice Account Settings ...................................................................... 48
Table 9 SETUP > Set IP Address .......................................................................................................... 54
Table 10 SETUP > DHCP Client ............................................................................................................ 55
Table 11 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers ............................................................................................... 56
Table 12 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup .................................................................. 60
Table 13 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Static DHCP ................................................................... 62
Table 14 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration> IP Alias ........................................................................... 62
Table 15 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route .................................................................... 64
Table 16 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route .................................................................... 64
Table 17 Management > Static Route > IP Static Route > Edit ............................................................. 65
Table 18 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Other Settings ................................................................ 66
Table 19 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection > ISP Parameters for Internet Access
74
Table 20 Radio Frequency Conversion ................................................................................................. 76
Table 21 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration >WiMAX Configuration .................................................... 77
Table 22 DL Frequency Example Settings ............................................................................................ 78
Table 23 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Traffic Redirect ............................................................. 80
Table 24 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Advanced ..................................................................... 82
Table 25 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > General ................................................................................ 85
Table 26 Advanced> VPN Transport > Customer Interface ................................................................... 88
Table 27 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface .............................................................. 88
Table 28 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface Setup ................................................... 89
Table 29 Advanced> VPN Transport > Customer Interface ................................................................... 90
Table 30 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire ........................................................... 91
Table 31 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire Setup ................................................. 91
Table 32 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Statistics .............................................................................. 92
Table 33 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > General .......................................................................... 94
Table 34 Advanced> VPN Transport > Customer Interface ................................................................... 95
Table 35 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding ............................................................. 95
Table 36 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding > Rule Setup ....................................... 96
Table 37 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Trigger Port .................................................................... 98
User’s Guide
25
List of Tables
Table 38 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > ALG ................................................................................ 99
Table 39 ADVANCED > System Configuration > General ................................................................... 103
Table 40 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Dynamic DNS ......................................................... 104
Table 41 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware ................................................................. 105
Table 42 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Configuration .......................................................... 107
Table 43 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware ................................................................. 108
Table 44 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting .......................................................................113
Table 45 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced .................................................116
Table 46 Custom Tones Details ............................................................................................................119
Table 47 VOICE > Service Configuration > QoS ................................................................................. 120
Table 48 SIP Call Progression ............................................................................................................. 121
Table 49 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone .......................................................................................... 126
Table 50 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone > Advanced ...................................................................... 127
Table 51 VOICE > Phone > Common .................................................................................................. 128
Table 52 VOICE > Phone > Region ..................................................................................................... 129
Table 53 European Type Flash Key Commands ................................................................................. 130
Table 54 USA Type Flash Key Commands ......................................................................................... 131
Table 55 VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call Policy ....................................................................... 134
Table 56 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route .................................................................. 136
Table 57 VOICE > Phone Book > Speed Dial ...................................................................................... 136
Table 58 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates ................................................................................ 142
Table 59 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates ................................................................................ 142
Table 60 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Create ................................................................. 144
Table 61 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Edit ...................................................................... 147
Table 62 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Import .................................................................. 149
Table 63 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs .................................................................................... 150
Table 64 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs .................................................................................... 150
Table 65 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Edit .......................................................................... 152
Table 66 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs Import ......................................................................... 155
Table 67 TOOLS > Firewall > Firewall Setting ..................................................................................... 162
Table 68 TOOLS > Firewall > Service Setting ..................................................................................... 163
Table 69 TOOLS > Content Filter > Filter ............................................................................................ 169
Table 70 TOOLS > Content Filter > Schedule ..................................................................................... 170
Table 71 Remote Management ........................................................................................................... 171
Table 72 TOOLS > Remote Management > WWW ............................................................................. 173
Table 73 TOOLS > Remote Management > Telnet ............................................................................. 174
Table 74 TOOLS > Remote Management > FTP ................................................................................ 174
Table 75 SNMP Traps .......................................................................................................................... 176
Table 76 TOOLS > Remote Management > SNMP ............................................................................. 177
Table 77 TOOLS > Remote Management > DNS ............................................................................... 178
Table 78 TOOLS > Remote Management > Security .......................................................................... 178
Table 79 Syslog Logs .......................................................................................................................... 182
Table 80 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types ...................................................................................... 182
26
User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 81 TOOLS > Logs > View Logs ................................................................................................. 183
Table 82 TOOLS > Logs > Log Settings .............................................................................................. 186
Table 83 System Error Logs ................................................................................................................ 187
Table 84 System Maintenance Logs .................................................................................................... 187
Table 85 Access Control Logs ............................................................................................................. 188
Table 86 TCP Reset Logs .................................................................................................................... 188
Table 87 Packet Filter Logs ................................................................................................................. 189
Table 88 ICMP Logs ............................................................................................................................ 189
Table 89 PPP Logs .............................................................................................................................. 189
Table 90 UPnP Logs ............................................................................................................................ 190
Table 91 Content Filtering Logs ........................................................................................................... 190
Table 92 Attack Logs ........................................................................................................................... 190
Table 93 Remote Management Logs ................................................................................................... 192
Table 94 ICMP Notes ........................................................................................................................... 192
Table 95 SIP Logs ............................................................................................................................... 193
Table 96 RTP Logs .............................................................................................................................. 193
Table 97 FSM Logs: Caller Side .......................................................................................................... 194
Table 98 FSM Logs: Callee Side ......................................................................................................... 194
Table 99 Lifeline Logs .......................................................................................................................... 194
Table 100 TOOLS > UPnP .................................................................................................................. 196
Table 101 Status .................................................................................................................................. 204
Table 102 Packet Statistics .................................................................................................................. 208
Table 103 WiMAX Site Information ...................................................................................................... 209
Table 104 DHCP Table ........................................................................................................................ 209
Table 105 VoIP Statistics ..................................................................................................................... 210
Table 106 The WiMAX Profile Screen ................................................................................................. 212
Table 107 Environmental and Hardware Specifications ...................................................................... 223
Table 108 Radio Specifications ............................................................................................................ 223
Table 109 Firmware Specifications ...................................................................................................... 224
Table 110 Standards Supported .......................................................................................................... 225
Table 111 Voice Features ..................................................................................................................... 227
Table 112 Star (*) and Pound (#) Code Support .................................................................................. 228
Table 113 IP Address Network Number and Host ID Example ............................................................ 268
Table 114 Subnet Masks ..................................................................................................................... 269
Table 115 Maximum Host Numbers ..................................................................................................... 269
Table 116 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ....................................................................................... 270
Table 117 Subnet 1 .............................................................................................................................. 271
Table 118 Subnet 2 .............................................................................................................................. 272
Table 119 Subnet 3 .............................................................................................................................. 272
Table 120 Subnet 4 .............................................................................................................................. 272
Table 121 Eight Subnets ...................................................................................................................... 273
Table 122 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 273
Table 123 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning ............................................................................ 273
User’s Guide
27
List of Tables
Table 124 Commonly Used Services ................................................................................................... 303
28
User’s Guide
P ART I
Introduction and
Wizards
Getting Started (31)
Introducing the Web Configurator (35)
Internet Connection Wizard (41)
VoIP Connection Wizard (47)
29
30
CHAPTER
1
Getting Started
1.1 About Your WiMAX Modem
The WiMAX Modem has a built-in switch and two phone ports. It allows you to access the
Internet by connecting to a WiMAX wireless network.
You can use a traditional analog telephone to make Internet calls using the WiMAX Modem’s
Voice over IP (VoIP) communication capabilities.
You can configure firewall and content filtering as well as a host of other features.
The web browser-based Graphical User Interface (GUI), also known as the web configurator,
provides easy management.
See Chapter 22 on page 223 for a complete list of features for your model.
1.1.1 WiMAX Internet Access
Connect your computer or network to the WiMAX Modem for WiMAX Internet access. See
the Quick Start Guide for instructions on hardware connection.
In a wireless metropolitan area network (MAN), the WiMAX Modem connects to a WiMAX
base station (BS) for Internet access.
The following diagram shows a notebook computer equipped with the WiMAX Modem
connecting to the Internet through a WiMAX base station (marked BS).
Figure 1 Mobile Station and Base Station
When the firewall is on, all incoming traffic from the Internet to your network is blocked
unless it is initiated from your network.
Use content filtering to block access to web sites with URLs containing keywords that you
specify. You can define time periods and days during which content filtering is enabled and
include or exclude particular computers on your network from content filtering. For example,
you could block access to certain web sites for the kids.
User’s Guide
31
Chapter 1 Getting Started
1.1.2 Make Calls via Internet Telephony Service Provider
In a home or small office environment, you can use the WiMAX Modem to make and receive
the following types of VoIP telephone calls:
• Peer-to-Peer calls - Use the WiMAX Modem to make a call directly to the recipient’s IP
address without using a SIP proxy server.
Figure 2 WiMAX Modem’s VoIP Features - Peer-to-Peer Calls
• Calls via a VoIP service provider - The WiMAX Modem sends your call to a VoIP service
provider’s SIP server which forwards your calls to either VoIP or PSTN phones.
Figure 3 WiMAX Modem’s VoIP Features - Calls via VoIP Service Provider
32
User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Getting Started
1.2 WiMAX Modem Hardware
Follow the instructions in the Quick Start Guide to make hardware connections.
1.2.1 LEDs
The following figure shows the LEDs (lights) on the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 4 The WiMAX Modem’s LEDs
WIMAX
LINK
STRENGTH
INDICATOR
VOICE
LEDS
1&2
LAN
LEDS
1&2
POWER
LED
The following table describes your WiMAX Modem’s LEDs (from right to left).
Table 2 The WiMAX Modem
LED
STATE
DESCRIPTION
Power
Off
The WiMAX Modem is not receiving power.
Red
The WiMAX Modem is receiving power but has been
unable to start up correctly or is not receiving enough
power. See the Troubleshooting section for more
information.
Green
The WiMAX Modem is receiving power and functioning
correctly.
Off
The LAN is not connected.
Green
The WiMAX Modem has a successful Local Area Network
(Ethernet) connection and is active during modem activity.
Off
No SIP account is registered, or the WiMAX Modem is not
receiving power.
Green
A SIP account is registered.
Green (Blinking)
A SIP account is registered, and the phone attached to the
LINE port is in use (off the hook).
Yellow
A SIP account is registered and has a voice message on
the SIP server.
Yellow (Blinking)
A SIP account is registered and has a voice message on
the SIP server, and the phone attached to the LINE port is
in use (off the hook).
LAN
Voice
User’s Guide
33
Chapter 1 Getting Started
Table 2 The WiMAX Modem
LED
STATE
DESCRIPTION
WiMAN Link
Off
The WiMAX Modem is not connected to a wireless
(WiMAX) network.
Green
The WiMAX Modem is successfully connected to a wireless
(WiMAX) network.
Green (Blinking
Slowly)
The WiMAX Modem is searching for a wireless (WiMAX)
network.
Green (Blinking
Quickly)
The WiMAX Modem has found a wireless (WiMAX) network
and is connecting.
Strength
Indicator
The Strength Indicator LEDs display the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)
of the wireless (WiMAX) connection.
No Signal LEDS
There is no wireless connection.
Signal 1 On
The signal strength is less than or equal to -70 dBm
Signal 2 On
The signal strength is less than or equal to -50 dBm
Signal 3 On
The signal strength is less than or equal to -30 dBm
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the WiMAX Modem
Do the following things regularly to make the WiMAX Modem more secure and to manage
the WiMAX Modem more effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of
different types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an
earlier working configuration may be useful if the WiMAX Modem becomes unstable or
even crashes. If you forget your password, you will have to reset the WiMAX Modem to
its factory default settings. If you backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not
have to totally re-configure the WiMAX Modem. You could simply restore your last
configuration.
34
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
2
Introducing the Web
Configurator
2.1 Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy device set up
and management via any web browser that supports: HTML 4.0, CSS 2.0, and JavaScript 1.5,
and higher. The recommended screen resolution for using the web configurator is 1024 by 768
pixels and 16-bit color, or higher.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by
default in many operating systems and web browsers.
• JavaScript (enabled by default in most web browsers).
• Java permissions (enabled by default in most web browsers).
See the Appendix C on page 259 for more information on configuring your web browser.
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator
1 Make sure your WiMAX Modem hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick
Start Guide for more information).
2 Launch your web browser.
3 Enter "192.168.100.1" as the URL.
User’s Guide
35
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
4 A password screen displays. The default password (“1234”) displays in non-readable
characters. If you haven’t changed the password yet, you can just click Login. Click
Cancel to revert to the default password in the password field. If you have changed the
password, enter your password and click Login.
Figure 5 Password Screen
5 The following screen displays if you have not yet changed your password. It is highly
recommended you change the default password. Enter a new password, retype it to
confirm and click Apply; alternatively click Ignore to proceed to the main menu if you
do not want to change the password now.
Figure 6 Change Password Screen
36
User’s Guide
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
6 Click Apply in the next screen to create a certificate using your WiMAX Modem’s MAC
address that will be specific to this device. This certificate is used for authentication
when using a secure HTTPS connection over the Internet.
Figure 7 Replace Certificate Screen
7 A screen displays to let you choose whether to go to the wizard or the advanced screens.
• Click Go to Wizard setup if you are logging in for the first time or if you want to
make basic changes. The wizard selection screen appears after you click Apply.
See Chapter 3 on page 41 for more information.
• Click Go to Advanced setup if you want to configure features that are not
available in the wizards. The main screen appears after you click Apply. See
Section 3 on page 38 for more information.
• Click Exit if you want to log out.
Figure 8 Wizard or Advanced Screen
"
For security reasons, the WiMAX Modem automatically logs you out if you do
not use the web configurator for five minutes. If this happens, simply log in
again.
User’s Guide
37
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
2.1.2 The Reset Button
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to use the
Reset button to reload the factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all
configurations that you had previously and the password will be reset to “1234”.
2.1.2.1 Using The Reset Button
1 Make sure the Power light is on (not blinking).
2 To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the Reset button for ten
seconds or until the Power light begins to blink and then release it. When the Power
light begins to blink, the defaults have been restored and the device restarts.
3 Reconfigure the WiMAX Modem following the steps in your Quick Start Guide.
2.2 The Main Screen
When you first log into the web configurator and by-pass the wizard, the Main screen appears.
Here you can view a concise summary of your WiMAX Modem connection status. This is also
the default “home” page for the ZyXEL web configurator and it contains conveniently-placed
shortcuts to all of the other screens.
"
Some features in the web configurator may not be available depending on
your firmware version and/or configuration.
Figure 9 Main Screen
38
User’s Guide
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 3 Main > Icons
ICON
DESCRIPTION
MAIN
Click to return to the Main screen.
SETUP
Click to go the Setup screen, where you can configure LAN, DHCP and
WAN settings.
ADVANCED
Click to go to the Advanced screen, where you can configure features like
Port Forwarding and Triggering, SNTP and so on.
VOICE
Click to go to the Voice screen, where you can configure your voice
service and phone settings.
TOOLS
Click to go the Tools screen, where you can configure your firewall, QoS,
and content filter, among other things.
STATUS
Click to go to the Status screen, where you can view status and statistical
information for all connections and interfaces.
Strength Indicator
Displays a visual representation of the quality of your WiMAX connection.
• Disconnected - Zero bars
• Poor reception - One bar
• Good reception - Two bars
• Excellent reception - Three bars
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4 Main
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Help
Click to open the web configurator’s online help.
Wizard
Click to run the Internet Connection and VoIP Connection Setup Wizard.
All of the settings that you can configure in this wizard are also available
in these web configurator screens.
Logout
Click to log out of the web configurator.
Note: This does not log you off the WiMAX network, it simply
logs you out of the WiMAX Modem’s browser-based
configuration interface.
User’s Guide
39
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Table 4 Main (continued)
40
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WiMAX Connection
Status
This field indicates the current status of your WiMAX connection.
Status messages are as follows:
• Connected - Indicates that the WiMAX Modem is connected to the
WiMAX network. Use the Strength Indicator icon to determine the
quality of your network connection.
• Disconnected - Indicates that the WiMAX Modem is not connected to
the WiMAX network.
• DL_SYN - Indicates a download synchronization is in progress. This
means the firmware is checking with the server for any updates or
settings alterations.
Software Version
This field indicates the version number of the WiMAX Modem’s firmware.
The version number takes the form of: Version(Build),release status
(candidate) | Version Release Date.
For example: V3.60(BCC.0)c4 | 07/08/2008 indicates that the firmware is
3.60, build BCC.0, candidate4, released on July 08, 2008.
Version Date
This field indicates the exact date and time the current firmware was
compiled.
System Uptime
This field indicates how long the WiMAX Modem has been on. This resets
every time you shut the device down or restart it.
WiMAX Uptime
This field indicates how long the WiMAX Modem has been connected to
the WiMAX network. This resets every time you disconnect from the
WiMAX network, shut the device down, or restart it.
Voice 1
This field indicates the number and receiver status of the first voice
account.
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
3
Internet Connection Wizard
3.1 Overview
This chapter provides information on the ZyXEL Setup Wizard screens. The wizard guides
you through several steps where you can configure your Internet and VoIP settings.
3.1.1 Welcome to the ZyXEL Setup Wizard
This is the welcome screen for the ZyXEL Setup Wizard. You can choose to either configure
your Internet connection or your VoIP connection.
The Internet Connection Wizard screens are described in detail in the following sections.
Figure 10 Select a Mode
User’s Guide
41
Chapter 3 Internet Connection Wizard
3.1.2 System Information
This Internet Connection Wizard screen allows you to configure your WiMAX Modem’s
system information. The settings here correspond to the ADVANCED > System
Configuration > General screen (see Section 10.2 on page 102 for more).
Figure 11 Internet Connection Wizard > System Information
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 5 Internet Connection Wizard > System Information
42
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
System Name is a unique name to identify the WiMAX Modem in an Ethernet network.
Enter a descriptive name. This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long.
Spaces are not allowed, but dashes "-" and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
Type the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP may
assign a domain name via DHCP. The domain name entered by you is given priority
over the ISP assigned domain name.
Back
Click to display the previous screen.
Next
Click to proceed to the next screen.
Exit
Click to close the wizard without saving.
User’s Guide
Chapter 3 Internet Connection Wizard
3.1.3 Authentication Settings
This Internet Connection Wizard screen allows you to configure your Internet access settings.
The settings here correspond to the ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet
Connection screen (see Section 7.2 on page 74 for more).
Figure 12 Internet Connection Wizard > Authentication Settings Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 Internet Connection Wizard > Authentication Settings Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
User’s Guide
User
Use this field to enter the username associated with your Internet
access account. You can enter up to 61 printable ASCII characters.
Password
Use this field to enter the password associated with your Internet
access account. You can enter up to 47 printable ASCII characters.
Anonymous Identity
Enter the anonymous identity provided by your Internet Service
Provider. Anonymous identity (also known as outer identity) is used
with EAP-TTLS encryption. The anonymous identity is used to route
your authentication request to the correct authentication server, and
does not reveal your real user name. Your real user name and
password are encrypted in the TLS tunnel, and only the anonymous
identity can be seen.
Leave this field blank if your ISP did not give you an anonymous
identity to use.
PKM
This field displays the Privacy Key Management version number.
PKM provides security between the WiMAX Modem and the base
station. At the time of writing, the WiMAX Modem supports PKMv2
only. See the WiMAX security appendix for more information.
43
Chapter 3 Internet Connection Wizard
Table 6 Internet Connection Wizard > Authentication Settings Screen (continued)
LABEL
Authentication
DESCRIPTION
This field displays the user authentication method. Authentication is
the process of confirming the identity of a mobile station (by means of
a username and password, for example).
Check with your service provider if you are unsure of the correct
setting for your account.
Choose from the following user authentication methods:
• TTLS (Tunnelled Transport Layer Security)
• TLS (Transport Layer Security)
Note: Not all WiMAX Modems support TLS
authentication. Check with your service provider
for details.
44
TTLS Inner EAP
This field displays the type of secondary authentication method. Once
a secure EAP-TTLS connection is established, the inner EAP is the
protocol used to exchange security information between the mobile
station, the base station and the AAA server to authenticate the
mobile station. See the WiMAX security appendix for more details.
The WiMAX Modem supports the following inner authentication
types:
• CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
• MSCHAP (Microsoft CHAP)
• MSCHAPV2 (Microsoft CHAP version 2)
• PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
Auth Mode
Select the authentication mode from the drop-down list box.
This field is not available in all WiMAX Modems. Check with your
service provider for details.
The WiMAX Modem supports the following authentication modes:
• User Only
• Device Only with Cert
• Certs and User Authentication
Certificate
This is the security certificate the WiMAX Modem uses to
authenticate the AAA server. Use the TOOLS > Certificates >
Trusted CA screen to import certificates to the WiMAX Modem.
Back
Click to display the previous screen.
Next
Click to proceed to the next screen.
Exit
Click to close the wizard without saving.
User’s Guide
Chapter 3 Internet Connection Wizard
3.1.4 IP Address
This Internet Connection Wizard screen allows you to configure your IP address. The settings
here correspond to the SETUP > Set IP Address screen (see Section 5.2 on page 54).
A fixed IP address is a static IP that your ISP gives you. An automatic (dynamic) IP address is
not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Figure 13 Internet Connection Wizard > IP Address
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 Internet Connection Wizard > IP Address
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
User’s Guide
My computer gets its IP
address automatically from
the network (Default)
Select this if you have a dynamic IP address. A dynamic IP address is
not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect
to the Internet.
Use Fixed IP Address
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you.
Back
Click to display the previous screen.
Next
Click to proceed to the next screen.
Exit
Click to close the wizard screen without saving.
45
Chapter 3 Internet Connection Wizard
3.1.5 Setup Complete
Click Close to complete and save the Internet Connection Wizard settings.
Figure 14 Internet Connection Wizard > Complete
Launch your web browser and navigate to www.zyxel.com. If if everything was configured
properly, the web page should display. You can now surf the Internet!
Refer to the rest of this guide for more detailed information on the complete range of WiMAX
Modem features available in the more advanced web configurator.
"
46
If you cannot access the Internet, open the web configurator again to confirm
that the Internet settings you configured in the wizard setup are correct.
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
4
VoIP Connection Wizard
4.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to use the wizard to set up your voice account(s).
The WiMAX Modem has Voice over IP (VoIP) communication capabilities that allow you to
use a traditional analog telephone to make Internet calls. You can configure the WiMAX
Modem to use up to two SIP based VoIP accounts.
4.2 Welcome to the ZyXEL Setup Wizard
This is the welcome screen for the ZyXEL Setup Wizard. You can choose to either configure
your Internet connection or your VoIP connection.
The VoIP Connection Wizard screens are described in detail in the following sections.
Figure 15 Select a Mode
User’s Guide
47
Chapter 4 VoIP Connection Wizard
4.2.1 First Voice Account Settings
This VoIP Connection Wizard screen allows you to configure your voice account. The settings
here correspond to the VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting screen (see Section
11.2 on page 113 for more information).
Figure 16 VoIP Connection > First Voice Account Settings
The following table describes the labels in this screen
Table 8 VoIP Connection > First Voice Account Settings
48
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SIP Number
Enter your SIP number in this field (use the number or text that comes
before the @ symbol in a SIP account like 1234@VoIP-provider.com).
You can use up to 127 ASCII characters.
SIP Server Address
Type the IP address or domain name of the SIP server in this field. It
doesn’t matter whether the SIP server is a proxy, redirect or register
server. You can use up to 95 ASCII characters.
SIP Service Domain
Enter the SIP service domain name in this field (the domain name that
comes after the @ symbol in a SIP account like 1234@VoIPprovider.com). You can use up to 127 ASCII Extended set characters.
User Name
This is the user name for registering this SIP account with the SIP register
server. Type the user name exactly as it was given to you. You can use up
to 95 ASCII characters.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above. You can use up
to 95 ASCII Extended set characters.
Check here to set up
SIP2 settings.
This screen configures SIP account 1. Select the check box if you have
a second SIP account that you want to use. You will need to configure
the same fields for the second SIP account.
Back
Click to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click to complete the wizard setup and save your configuration.
Exit
Click to close the wizard without saving your settings.
User’s Guide
Chapter 4 VoIP Connection Wizard
After you enter your voice account settings and click Next, the WiMAX Modem attempts to
register your SIP account with the SIP server.
Figure 17 VoIP Connection > SIP Registration Test
This screen displays if SIP account registration fails. Check your WiMAX connection using
the WiMAX Link and Strength Indicator LEDs on the front of the WiMAX Modem, then
wait a few seconds and click Register Again. If your Internet connection was already
working, you can click Back and try re-entering your SIP account settings.
Figure 18 VoIP Connection > SIP Registration Fail
User’s Guide
49
Chapter 4 VoIP Connection Wizard
4.2.2 Setup Complete
Click Close to complete and save the VoIP Connection settings or Run Setup Wizard Again
to configure your Internet Connection settings.
Figure 19 VoIP Connection > Finish
This screen displays if your SIP account registration was successful.
50
User’s Guide
P ART II
Basic Screens
The Main Screen (38)
The Setup Screens (53)
51
52
CHAPTER
5
The Setup Screens
5.1 Overview
Use these screens to configure or view LAN, DHCP Client and WAN settings.
5.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The Set IP Address screen (Section 5.2 on page 54) lets you configure the WiMAX
Modem’s IP address and subnet mask.
• The Time Setting screen (Section 5.3 on page 55) lets you configure your WiMAX
Modem’s time and date keeping settings.
5.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
LAN
A Local Area Network, or a shared communication system to which many computers are
attached. A LAN, as its name implies, is limited to a local area such as a home or office
environment. LANs have different topologies, the most common being the linear bus and the
star configuration.
IP Address
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your device will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP Address that you entered. You do not
need to change the computer subnet mask unless you are instructed to do so.
Daytime
A network protocol used by devices for debugging and time measurement. A computer can
use this protocol to set its internal clock but only if it knows in which order the year, month,
and day are returned by the server. Not all servers use the same format.
User’s Guide
53
Chapter 5 The Setup Screens
Time
A network protocol for retrieving the current time from a server. The computer issuing the
command compares the time on its clock to the information returned by the server, adjusts
itself automatically for time zone differences, then calculates the difference and corrects itself
if there has been any temporal drift.
NTP
NTP stands for Network Time Protocol. It is employed by devices connected to the Internet in
order to obtain a precise time setting from an official time server. These time servers are
accurate to within 200 microseconds.
5.1.3 Before You Begin
• Make sure that you have made all the appropriate hardware connections to the WiMAX
Modem, as described in the Quick Start Guide.
• Make sure that you have logged in to the web configurator at least one time and changed
your password from the default, as described in the Quick Start Guide.
5.2 Set IP Address
Click the SETUP icon in the navigation bar to set up the WiMAX Modem’s IP address and
subnet mask. This screen displays this screen by default. If you are in any other sub-screen you
can simply choose Set IP Address from the navigation menu on the left to open it again.
Figure 20 SETUP > Set IP Address
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 SETUP > Set IP Address
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the WiMAX Modem on the LAN.
Note: This field is the IP address you use to access the
WiMAX Modem on the LAN. If the web configurator is
running on a computer on the LAN, you lose access
to it as soon as you change this field and click Apply.
You can access the web configurator again by typing
the new IP address in the browser.
54
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask of the LAN.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
User’s Guide
Chapter 5 The Setup Screens
5.3 Time Setting
Click SETUP > Time Setting to set the date, time, and time zone for the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 21 SETUP > Time Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 SETUP > DHCP Client
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Time and Date
Current Time
Displays the current time according to the WiMAX Modem.
Current Date
Displays the current time according to the WiMAX Modem.
Time and Date Setup
Manual
User’s Guide
Select this if you want to specify the current date and time in the fields
below.
New Time
Enter the new time in this field, and click Apply.
New Date
Enter the new date in this field, and click Apply.
Get from Time Server
Select this if you want to use a time server to update the current date and
time in the WiMAX Modem.
Time Protocol
Select the time service protocol that your time server uses.Check with
your ISP or network administrator, or use trial-and-error to find a protocol
that works.
Daytime (RFC 867) - This format is day/month/year/time zone.
Time (RFC 868) - This format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total
number of seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC 1305) - This format is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Time Server Address
Enter the IP address or URL of your time server. Check with your ISP or
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
55
Chapter 5 The Setup Screens
Table 10 SETUP > DHCP Client (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Zone Setup
Time Zone
Select the time zone at your location.
Daylight Savings
Select this if your location uses daylight savings time. Daylight savings is
a period from late spring to early fall when many places set their clocks
ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the
evening.
Start Date
Enter which hour on which day of which week of which month daylightsavings time starts.
End Date
Enter which hour on the which day of which week of which month
daylight-savings time ends.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
5.3.1 Pre-Defined NTP Time Servers List
The WiMAX Modem uses a pre-defined list of NTP time servers if you do not specify a time
server or it cannot synchronize with the time server you specified. It can use this list regardless
of the time protocol you select.
When the WiMAX Modem uses the list, it randomly selects one server and tries to
synchronize with it. If the synchronization fails, then it goes through the rest of the list in order
until either it is successful or all the pre-defined NTP time servers have been tried.
Table 11 Pre-defined NTP Time Servers
ntp1.cs.wisc.edu
ntp1.gbg.netnod.se
ntp2.cs.wisc.edu
tock.usno.navy.mil
ntp3.cs.wisc.edu
ntp.cs.strath.ac.uk
ntp1.sp.se
time1.stupi.se
tick.stdtime.gov.tw
tock.stdtime.gov.tw
time.stdtime.gov.tw
5.3.2 Resetting the Time
The WiMAX Modem automatically resets the time in the following circumstances:
• When the device starts up, such as when you press the Power button.
• When you click Apply in the SETUP > Time Setting screen.
• Once every 24-hours after starting up.
56
User’s Guide
P ART III
Advanced Screens
The LAN Configuration Screens (59)
The WAN Configuration Screens (71)
The VPN Transport Screens (83)
The NAT Configuration Screens (93)
The System Configuration Screens (101)
57
58
CHAPTER
6
The LAN Configuration Screens
6.1 Overview
Use the ADVANCED > LAN Configuration screens to set up the WiMAX Modem on the
LAN. You can configure its IP address and subnet mask, DHCP services, and other subnets.
You can also control how the WiMAX Modem sends routing information using RIP.
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many computers
are attached. A LAN is usually a computer network limited to the immediate area, such as the
same building or floor of a building.
6.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The DHCP Setup screen (Section 6.2 on page 60) lets you enable, disable, and configure
the DHCP server in the WiMAX Modem.
• The Static DHCP screen (Section 6.3 on page 61) lets you assign specific IP addresses to
specific computers on the LAN.
• The IP Alias screen (Section 6.4 on page 62) lets you add subnets on the LAN port. You
can also control what routing information is sent and received by each subnet.
• The IP Static Route screen (Section 6.5 on page 64) lets you examine the static routes
configured in the WiMAX Modem.
• The Other Settings screen (Section 6.6 on page 66) lets you control the routing
information that is sent and received by each subnet assign specific IP addresses to
specific computers on the LAN.
6.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
IP Address
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet Masks
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also
use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
User’s Guide
59
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address
and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the
IP address of a networking device before you can access it.
DHCP
A DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server can assign your WiMAX Modem an
IP address, subnet mask, DNS and other routing information when it’s turned on.
6.2 DHCP Setup
Click ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup to enable, disable, and configure
the DHCP server in the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 22 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Setup
Enable DHCP
Server
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to be the DHCP server on the LAN. As
a DHCP server, the WiMAX Modem assigns IP addresses to DHCP clients on the
LAN and provides the subnet mask and DNS server information.
IP Pool Starting
Address
Enter the IP address from which the WiMAX Modem begins allocating IP
addresses, if you have not specified an IP address for this computer in
ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Static DHCP.
Pool Size
Enter the number of IP addresses to allocate. This number must be at least one
and is limited by a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (regardless of the subnet the
WiMAX Modem is in). For example, if the IP Pool Start Address is 10.10.10.10,
the WiMAX Modem can allocate up to 10.10.10.254, or 245 IP addresses.
DNS Server
60
User’s Guide
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
Table 12 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
First, Second and
Third DNS Server
Specify the IP addresses of a maximum of three DNS servers that the network can
use. The WiMAX Modem provides these IP addresses to DHCP clients. You can
specify these IP addresses two ways.
From ISP - provide the DNS servers provided by the ISP on the WAN port.
User Defined - enter a static IP address.
DNS Relay - this setting will relay DNS information from the DNS server obtained
by the WiMAX Modem.
None - no DNS service will be provided by the WiMAX Modem.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
6.3 Static DHCP
Click ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Static DHCP to assign specific IP addresses to
specific computers on the LAN.
"
This screen has no effect if the DHCP server is not enabled. You can enable it
in ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup.
Figure 23 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Static DHCP
User’s Guide
61
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the computer to which you want the WiMAX Modem to
assign the same IP address.
IP Address
Enter the IP address you want the WiMAX Modem to assign to the computer.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
6.4 IP Alias
Click ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > IP Alias to add subnets on the LAN port. You
can also control what routing information is sent and received by each subnet.
Figure 24 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration> IP Alias
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration> IP Alias
62
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias 1
Select this to add the specified subnet to the LAN port.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the WiMAX Modem on the subnet.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask of the subnet.
User’s Guide
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
Table 14 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration> IP Alias (continued)
LABEL
RIP Direction
Use this field to control how much routing information the WiMAX Modem sends
and receives on the subnet.
• None - The WiMAX Modem does not send or receive routing information on
the subnet.
• Both - The WiMAX Modem sends and receives routing information on the
subnet.
• In Only - The WiMAX Modem only receives routing information on the subnet.
• Out Only - The WiMAX Modem only sends routing information on the subnet.
RIP Version
Select which version of RIP the WiMAX Modem uses when it sends or receives
information on the subnet.
• RIP-1 - The WiMAX Modem uses RIPv1 to exchange routing information.
• RIP-2B - The WiMAX Modem broadcasts RIPv2 to exchange routing
information.
• RIP-2M - The WiMAX Modem multicasts RIPv2 to exchange routing
information.
IP Alias 2
User’s Guide
DESCRIPTION
Select this to add the specified subnet to the LAN port.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the WiMAX Modem on the subnet.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the subnet mask of the subnet.
RIP Direction
Use this field to control how much routing information the WiMAX Modem sends
and receives on the subnet.
• None - The WiMAX Modem does not send or receive routing information on
the subnet.
• Both - The WiMAX Modem sends and receives routing information on the
subnet.
• In Only - The WiMAX Modem only receives routing information on the subnet.
• Out Only - The WiMAX Modem only sends routing information on the subnet.
RIP Version
Select which version of RIP the WiMAX Modem uses when it sends or receives
information on the subnet.
• RIP-1 - The WiMAX Modem uses RIPv1 to exchange routing information.
• RIP-2B - The WiMAX Modem broadcasts RIPv2 to exchange routing
information.
• RIP-2M - The WiMAX Modem multicasts RIPv2 to exchange routing
information.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
63
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
6.5 IP Static Route
Click ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > IP Static Route to look at the static routes
configured in the WiMAX Modem.
"
The first static route is the default route and cannot be modified or deleted.
Figure 25 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 15 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Edit
Click to edit this item.
Delete
Click to delete this item.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route
64
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
Name
This field displays the name that describes the static route.
Active
This field shows whether this static route is active (Yes) or not (No).
Destination
This field displays the destination IP address(es) that this static route affects.
Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the gateway to which the WiMAX Modem
should send packets for the specified Destination. The gateway is a router or a
switch on the same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The
gateway helps forward packets to their destinations.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
User’s Guide
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
6.5.1 IP Static Route Setup
Click an Edit icon in ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > IP Static Route to edit a static
route in the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 26 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Management > Static Route > IP Static Route > Edit
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Route Name
Enter the name of the static route.
Active
Select this if you want the static route to be used. Clear this if you do not want the
static route to be used.
Private
Select this if you do not want the WiMAX Modem to tell other routers about this
static route. For example, you might select this if the static route is in your LAN.
Clear this if you want the WiMAX Modem to tell other routers about this static
route.
Destination IP
Address
Enter one of the destination IP addresses that this static route affects.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask that defines the range of destination IP addresses that this
static route affects. If this static route affects only one IP address, enter
255.255.255.255.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway to which the WiMAX Modem should send
packets for the specified Destination. The gateway is a router or a switch on the
same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway helps
forward packets to their destinations.
Metric
Usually, you should keep the default value. This field is related to RIP.
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best
route for transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". The smaller the
metric, the lower the "cost". RIP uses hop count as the measurement of cost,
where 1 is for a directly-connected network. The metric must be 1-15; if you use a
value higher than 15, the routers assume the link is down.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
65
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
6.6 Other Settings
Click ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Other Settings to set the RIP and Multicast
options.
Figure 27 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Advanced
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > Other Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP & Multicast Setup
66
RIP Direction
Use this field to control how much routing information the WiMAX Modem sends
and receives on the subnet.
• None - The WiMAX Modem does not send or receive routing information on
the subnet.
• Both - The WiMAX Modem sends and receives routing information on the
subnet.
• In Only - The WiMAX Modem only receives routing information on the subnet.
• Out Only - The WiMAX Modem only sends routing information on the subnet.
RIP Version
Select which version of RIP the WiMAX Modem uses when it sends or receives
information on the subnet.
• RIP-1 - The WiMAX Modem uses RIPv1 to exchange routing information.
• RIP-2B - The WiMAX Modem broadcasts RIPv2 to exchange routing
information.
• RIP-2M - The WiMAX Modem multicasts RIPv2 to exchange routing
information.
Multicast
You do not have to enable multicasting to use RIP-2M. (See RIP Version.)
Select which version of IGMP the WiMAX Modem uses to support multicasting on
the LAN. Multicasting sends packets to some computers on the LAN and is an
alternative to unicasting (sending packets to one computer) and broadcasting
(sending packets to every computer).
• None - The WiMAX Modem does not support multicasting.
• IGMP-v1 - The WiMAX Modem supports IGMP version 1.
• IGMP-v2 - The WiMAX Modem supports IGMP version 2.
Multicasting can improve overall network performance. However, it requires extra
processing and generates more network traffic. In addition, other computers on
the LAN have to support the same version of IGMP.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
User’s Guide
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
6.7 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the WiMAX Modem
features described in this chapter.
6.7.1 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, computers on a LAN share
one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the Network Address Translation (NAT)
feature of the WiMAX Modem. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved
this block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless
you are told otherwise. Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers
254 individual addresses, from 192.168.100.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In
other words, the first three numbers specify the network number while the last number
identifies an individual computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember,
for instance, 192.168.100.1, for your WiMAX Modem, but make sure that no other device on
your network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your WiMAX
Modem will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered.
You don't need to change the subnet mask computed by the WiMAX Modem unless you are
instructed to do otherwise.
6.7.2 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual
clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the
WiMAX Modem as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a server, the WiMAX
Modem provides the TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If DHCP service is disabled, you
must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else each computer must be manually
configured.
The WiMAX Modem is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP clients
(DHCP Pool). See the product specifications in the appendices. Do not assign static IP
addresses from the DHCP pool to your LAN computers.
These parameters should work for the majority of installations. If your ISP gives you explicit
DNS server address(es), see Section 6.3 on page 61.
User’s Guide
67
Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
6.7.3 LAN TCP/IP
The WiMAX Modem has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS
servers to systems that support DHCP client capability.
The LAN parameters of the WiMAX Modem are preset in the factory with the following
values:
• IP address of 192.168.100.1 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
• DHCP server enabled with 32 client IP addresses starting from 192.168.1.33.
These parameters should work for the majority of installations. If your ISP gives you explicit
DNS server address(es), see Section 6.3 on page 61.
6.7.4 DNS Server Address
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address
and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the
IP address of a machine before you can access it. The DNS server addresses that you enter in
the DHCP setup are passed to the client machines along with the assigned IP address and
subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses. The first is for an ISP
to tell a customer the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when
s/he signs up. If your ISP gives you the DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS Server
fields in DHCP Setup, otherwise, leave them blank.
Some ISPs choose to pass the DNS servers using the DNS server extensions of PPP IPCP (IP
Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If your ISP did not give you explicit DNS servers,
chances are the DNS servers are conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The WiMAX Modem
supports the IPCP DNS server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
If the Primary and Secondary DNS Server fields in the LAN Setup screen are not specified,
for instance, left as 0.0.0.0, the WiMAX Modem tells the DHCP clients that it itself is the DNS
server. When a computer sends a DNS query to the WiMAX Modem, the WiMAX Modem
forwards the query to the real DNS server learned through IPCP and relays the response back
to the computer.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server extensions. It
does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP setup under all circumstances.
If your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make sure that you enter their IP addresses in the
LAN Setup screen. This way, the WiMAX Modem can pass the DNS servers to the computers
and the computers can query the DNS server directly without the WiMAX Modem’s
intervention.
6.7.5 RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information with
other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets.
When set to:
• Both - the WiMAX Modem will broadcast its routing table periodically and incorporate
the RIP information that it receives.
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• In Only - the WiMAX Modem will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP
packets received.
• Out Only - the WiMAX Modem will send out RIP packets but will not accept any RIP
packets received.
• None - the WiMAX Modem will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP
packets received.
The Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the
WiMAX Modem sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally
supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks,
unless you have an unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that
RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
6.7.6 Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1
recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to
a group of hosts on the network - not everybody and not just 1.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC
2236) is an improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class D IP address is
used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The address
224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used by IP multicast computers. The address
224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts
(including gateways). All hosts must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP.
The address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
The WiMAX Modem supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP version 2
(IGMP-v2). At start up, the WiMAX Modem queries all directly connected networks to gather
group membership. After that, the WiMAX Modem periodically updates this information. IP
multicasting can be enabled/disabled on the WiMAX Modem LAN and/or WAN interfaces in
the web configurator (LAN; WAN). Select None to disable IP multicasting on these
interfaces.
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Chapter 6 The LAN Configuration Screens
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CHAPTER
7
The WAN Configuration Screens
7.1 Overview
Use the ADVANCED > WAN Configuration screens to set up your WiMAX Modem’s Wide
Area Network (WAN) or Internet features.
A Wide Area Network (or WAN) links geographically dispersed locations to other networks or
the Internet. A WAN configuration can include switched and permanent telephone circuits,
terrestrial radio systems and satellite systems.
7.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The Internet Connection screen (Section 7.2 on page 74) lets you set up your WiMAX
Modem’s Internet settings.
• The WiMAX Configuration screen (Section 7.3 on page 76) lets set up the frequencies
used by your WiMAX Modem.
• The Traffic Redirect screen (Section 7.4 on page 80) lets change your WiMAX Modem’s
traffic redirect settings.
• The Other Settings screen (Section 7.5 on page 81) lets configure your DNS server, RIP,
Multicast and Windows Networking settings.
7.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
WiMAX
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the IEEE 802.16 wireless
networking standard, which provides high-bandwidth, wide-range wireless service across
wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). ZyXEL is a member of the WiMAX Forum,
the industry group dedicated to promoting and certifying interoperability of wireless
broadband products.
In a wireless MAN, a wireless-equipped computer is known either as a mobile station (MS) or
a subscriber station (SS). Mobile stations use the IEEE 802.16e standard and are able to
maintain connectivity while switching their connection from one base station to another base
station (handover) while subscriber stations use other standards that do not have this capability
(IEEE 802.16-2004, for example). The following figure shows an MS-equipped notebook
computer MS1 moving from base station BS1’s coverage area and connecting to BS2.
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Figure 28 WiMax: Mobile Station
WiMAX technology uses radio signals (around 2 to 10 GHz) to connect subscriber stations
and mobile stations to local base stations. Numerous subscriber stations and mobile stations
connect to the network through a single base station (BS), as in the following figure.
Figure 29 WiMAX: Multiple Mobile Stations
A base station's coverage area can extend over many hundreds of meters, even under poor
conditions. A base station provides network access to subscriber stations and mobile stations,
and communicates with other base stations.
The radio frequency and bandwidth of the link between the WiMAX Modem and the base
station are controlled by the base station. The WiMAX Modem follows the base station’s
configuration.
Authentication
When authenticating a user, the base station uses a third-party RADIUS or Diameter server
known as an AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) server to authenticate the
mobile or subscriber stations.
The following figure shows a base station using an AAA server to authenticate mobile station
MS, allowing it to access the Internet.
Figure 30 Using an AAA Server
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In this figure, the dashed arrow shows the PKM (Privacy Key Management) secured
connection between the mobile station and the base station, and the solid arrow shows the EAP
secured connection between the mobile station, the base station and the AAA server. See the
WiMAX security appendix for more details.
Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards WAN traffic to a backup gateway when the WiMAX Modem cannot
connect to the Internet through its normal gateway. Connect the backup gateway on the WAN
so that the WiMAX Modem still provides firewall protection for the LAN.
Figure 31 Traffic Redirect WAN Setup
IP alias allows you to avoid triangle route security issues when the backup gateway is
connected to the LAN or DMZ. Use IP alias to configure the LAN into two or three logical
networks with the WiMAX Modem itself as the gateway for each LAN network. Put the
protected LAN in one subnet (Subnet 1 in the following figure) and the backup gateway in
another subnet (Subnet 2). Configure a LAN to LAN/WiMAX Modem firewall rule that
forwards packets from the protected LAN (Subnet 1) to the backup gateway (Subnet 2).
Figure 32 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup
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Chapter 7 The WAN Configuration Screens
7.2 Internet Connection
Click ADVANCED > WAN Configuration to set up your WiMAX Modem’s Internet
settings.
"
Not all WiMAX Modem models have all the fields shown here.
Figure 33 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection > ISP Parameters for
Internet Access
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
74
User
Use this field to enter the username associated with your Internet access
account. You can enter up to 61 printable ASCII characters.
Password
Use this field to enter the password associated with your Internet access
account. You can enter up to 47 printable ASCII characters.
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Chapter 7 The WAN Configuration Screens
Table 19 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection > ISP Parameters for
Internet Access (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Anonymous
Identity
Enter the anonymous identity provided by your Internet Service Provider.
Anonymous identity (also known as outer identity) is used with EAP-TTLS
encryption. The anonymous identity is used to route your authentication
request to the correct authentication server, and does not reveal your real user
name. Your real user name and password are encrypted in the TLS tunnel,
and only the anonymous identity can be seen.
Leave this field blank if your ISP did not give you an anonymous identity to
use.
PKM
This field displays the Privacy Key Management version number. PKM
provides security between the WiMAX Modem and the base station. At the
time of writing, the WiMAX Modem supports PKMv2 only. See the WiMAX
security appendix for more information.
Authentication
This field displays the user authentication method. Authentication is the
process of confirming the identity of a mobile station (by means of a username
and password, for example).
Check with your service provider if you are unsure of the correct setting for
your account.
Choose from the following user authentication methods:
• TTLS (Tunnelled Transport Layer Security)
• TLS (Transport Layer Security)
Note: Not all WiMAX Modems support TLS authentication.
Check with your service provider for details.
TTLS Inner EAP
This field displays the type of secondary authentication method. Once a
secure EAP-TTLS connection is established, the inner EAP is the protocol
used to exchange security information between the mobile station, the base
station and the AAA server to authenticate the mobile station. See the WiMAX
security appendix for more details.
This field is available only when TTLS is selected in the Authentication field.
The WiMAX Modem supports the following inner authentication types:
• CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
• MSCHAP (Microsoft CHAP)
• MSCHAPV2 (Microsoft CHAP version 2)
• PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
Auth Mode
Select the authentication mode from the drop-down list box.
This field is not available in all WiMAX Modems. Check with your service
provider for details.
The WiMAX Modem supports the following authentication modes:
• User Only
• Device Only with Cert
• Certs and User Authentication
Certificate
This is the security certificate the WiMAX Modem uses to authenticate the
AAA server. Use the TOOLS > > Trusted CAs screen to import certificates to
the WiMAX Modem.
WAN IP Address Assignment
User’s Guide
Get automatically
from ISP (Default)
Select this if you have a dynamic IP address. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the
Internet.
Use Fixed IP
Address
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. Type your ISP
assigned IP address in the IP Address field below.
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Chapter 7 The WAN Configuration Screens
Table 19 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection > ISP Parameters for
Internet Access (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to the appendices to calculate a subnet mask If you are implementing
subnetting.
Gateway IP
Address
Specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP).
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
7.3 WiMAX Configuration
Click ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > WiMAX Configuration to set up the
frequencies used by your WiMAX Modem.
In a WiMAX network, a mobile or subscriber station must use a radio frequency supported by
the base station to communicate. When the WiMAX Modem looks for a connection to a base
station, it can search a range of frequencies.
Radio frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz).
Table 20 Radio Frequency Conversion
1 kHz = 1000 Hz
1 MHz = 1000 kHz (1000000 Hz)
1 GHz = 1000 MHz (1000000 kHz)
Figure 34 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration >WiMAX Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration >WiMAX Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DL Frequency /
Bandwidth
These fields show the downlink frequency settings in kilohertz (kHz). Enter
values in these fields to have the WiMAX Modem scan these frequencies for
available channels in ascending numerical order.
Note: The Bandwidth field is not user-configurable; when the
WiMAX Modem finds a WiMAX connection, its frequency
is displayed in this field.
Contact your service provider for details of supported frequencies.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
7.3.1 Frequency Ranges
The following figure shows the WiMAX Modem searching a range of frequencies to find a
connection to a base station.
Figure 35 Frequency Ranges
In this figure, A is the WiMAX frequency range. “WiMAX frequency range” refers to the
entire range of frequencies the WiMAX Modem is capable of using to transmit and receive
(see the Product Specifications appendix for details).
In the figure, B shows the operator frequency range. This is the range of frequencies within the
WiMAX frequency range supported by your operator (service provider).
The operator range is subdivided into bandwidth steps. In the figure, each C is a bandwidth
step.
The arrow D shows the WiMAX Modem searching for a connection.
Have the WiMAX Modem search only certain frequencies by configuring the downlink
frequencies. Your operator can give you information on the supported frequencies.
The downlink frequencies are points of the frequency range your WiMAX Modem searches
for an available connection. Use the Site Survey screen to set these bands. You can set the
downlink frequencies anywhere within the WiMAX frequency range. In this example, the
downlink frequencies have been set to search all of the operator range for a connection.
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Chapter 7 The WAN Configuration Screens
7.3.2 Configuring Frequency Settings
You need to set the WiMAX Modem to scan one or more specific radio frequencies to find an
available connection to a WiMAX base station.
Use the WiMAX Frequency screen to define the radio frequencies to be searched for
available wireless connections. See Section 7.3.3 on page 79 for an example of using the
WiMAX Frequency screen.
"
It may take several minutes for the WiMAX Modem to find a connection.
• The WiMAX Modem searches the DL Frequency settings in ascending numerical order,
from [1] to [9].
"
The Bandwidth field is not user-configurable; when the WiMAX Modem finds
a WiMAX connection, its frequency is displayed in this field.
• If you enter a 0 in a DL Frequency field, the WiMAX Modem immediately moves on to
the next DL Frequency field.
• When the WiMAX Modem connects to a base station, the values in this screen are
automatically set to the base station’s frequency. The next time the WiMAX Modem
searches for a connection, it searches only this frequency. If you want the WiMAX
Modem to search other frequencies, enter them in the DL Frequency fields.
The following table describes some examples of DL Frequency settings.
Table 22 DL Frequency Example Settings
78
EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE 2
Bandwidth:
2500000
2500000
DL Frequency [1]:
2550000
2550000
DL Frequency [2]
0
2600000
DL Frequency [3]:
0
0
DL Frequency [4]:
0
0
The WiMAX Modem
searches at 2500000 kHz,
and then searches at
2550000 kHz if it has not
found a connection.
The WiMAX Modem searches
at 2500000 kHz and then at
2550000 kHz if it has not found
an available connection. If it still
does not find an available
connection, it searches at
2600000 kHz.
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Chapter 7 The WAN Configuration Screens
7.3.3 Using the WiMAX Frequency Screen
In this example, your Internet service provider has given you a list of supported frequencies:
2.51, 2.525, 2.6, and 2.625.
1 In the DL Frequency [1] field, enter 2510000 (2510000 kilohertz (kHz) is equal to 2.51
gigahertz).
2 In the DL Frequency [2] field, enter 2525000.
3 In the DL Frequency [3] field, enter 2600000.
4 In the DL Frequency [4] field, enter 2625000.
Leave the rest of the DL Frequency fields at zero. The screen appears as follows.
Figure 36 Completing the WiMAX Frequency Screen
5 Click Apply. The WiMAX Modem stores your settings.
When the WiMAX Modem searches for available frequencies, it scans all frequencies
from DL Frequency [1] to DL Frequency [4]. When it finds an available connection,
the fields in this screen will be automatically set to use that frequency.
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7.4 Traffic Redirect
Click ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Traffic Redirect to change your WiMAX
Modem’s traffic redirect settings.
Figure 37 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Traffic Redirect
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Traffic Redirect
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the WiMAX Modem use traffic redirect if the normal
WAN connection goes down.
Note: If you activate traffic redirect, you must configure the Check
WAN IP Address field.
Backup Gateway
IP Address
Type the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal notation. The
WiMAX Modem automatically forwards traffic to this IP address if the WiMAX
Modem's Internet connection terminates.
Check WAN IP
Address
Configure this field to test your WiMAX Modem's WAN accessibility. Type the IP
address of a reliable nearby computer (for example, your ISP's DNS server
address).
Note: If you activate either traffic redirect or dial backup, you must
configure an IP address here.
When using a WAN backup connection, the WiMAX Modem periodically pings the
addresses configured here and uses the other WAN backup connection (if
configured) if there is no response.
80
Fail Tolerance
Type the number of times (2 recommended) that your WiMAX Modem may ping
the IP addresses configured in the Check WAN IP Address field without getting a
response before switching to a WAN backup connection (or a different WAN
backup connection).
Period (sec)
The WiMAX Modem tests a WAN connection by periodically sending a ping to
either the default gateway or the address in the Check WAN IP Address field.
Type a number of seconds (5 to 300) to set the time interval between checks.
Allow more time if your destination IP address handles lots of traffic.
Timeout (sec)
Type the number of seconds (1 to 10) for your WiMAX Modem to wait for a
response to the ping before considering the check to have failed. This setting must
be less than the Period. Use a higher value in this field if your network is busy or
congested.
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Chapter 7 The WAN Configuration Screens
Table 23 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Traffic Redirect (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
7.5 Other Settings
Click ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Other Settings to configure your DNS server,
RIP, Multicast and Windows Networking settings.
Figure 38 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Advanced
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DNS Servers
First, Second and Third
DNS Server
Select Obtained from ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS server
information (and the WiMAX Modem's WAN IP address). Use the drop-down
list box to select a DNS server IP address that the ISP assigns in the field to
the right.
Select UserDefined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the
DNS server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose UserDefined,
but leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, UserDefined changes to None after
you click Apply. If you set a second choice to UserDefined, and enter the
same IP address, the second UserDefined changes to None after you click
Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. You must have
another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computers must have their
DNS server addresses manually configured. If you do not configure a DNS
server, you must know the IP address of a computer in order to access it.
RIP & Multicast Setup
RIP Direction
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a multicast group. The WiMAX Modem supports
both IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP-v2. Select None to disable it.
Windows Networking (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
Allow between LAN
and WAN
82
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the WAN
and from the WAN to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default
policy set to block WAN to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default
WAN to LAN firewall rule that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the
WAN and from the WAN to the LAN.
Allow Trigger Dial
Select this option to allow NetBIOS packets to initiate calls.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
8
The VPN Transport Screens
8.1 Overview
This chapter describes the ADVANCED > VPN Transport screens, where you can configure
the WiMAX Modem to allow traffic from multiple users to pass through the WiMAX network
to the service provider’s router. Each user has his own personal connection to the service
provider, even though there is only a single WiMAX connection. This allows the service
provider to identify which user traffic comes from.
VPN stands for “Virtual Private Network”. There are many types of VPN; the type used by the
WiMAX Modem is known as Virtual Private LAN Service, or VPLS.
"
Unlike some other types of VPN (such as IPSec VPNs) VPLS VPNs do not
use authentication or encryption to secure the data they carry.
The following figure shows two users (A and B), connecting to the WiMAX Modem (Z)
through a switch (S). Each user has his own connection over the WiMAX network to the
service provider’s router (R).
Figure 39 VPN Transport Example
A
B
"
S
Z
WiMAX
R
The services available may vary, depending upon the service provider.
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Chapter 8 The VPN Transport Screens
8.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The General screen (Section 8.2 on page 85) lets you turn VPN transport on or off, and to
set the VPN transport endpoint (your service provider’s router).
• The Customer Interface screen (Section 8.3 on page 86) lets you specify which users can
use which WiMAX network links.
• The Ethernet Pseudowire screen (Section 8.4 on page 90) lets you configure the links
over the WiMAX network between the WiMAX Modem and the service provider’s router.
• The Statistics screen (Section 8.5 on page 92) lets you view performance information
about the VPN transport connections.
8.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Identifying Users
For the WiMAX Modem’s VPN Transport feature to work, it must be able to identify users on
the LAN. It does this by examining VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) tags.
These tags must be added to the data packets by a switch on the LAN. In the following
example, two users (A and B) are connected to a switch (C). A and B are connected to
different ports on the switch (port 1 and port 2). A and B send untagged packets to the switch.
The switch adds tags to packets depending on the physical port on which they arrive. Packets
arriving on port 1 are given a VLAN ID (VLAN IDentifier) of 1, and packets arriving on port
2 are given a VLAN ID of 2. When the packets reach the WiMAX Modem (D), their source is
identified by examining their VLAN tags.
Figure 40 Identifying Users
A
PORT 1
PORT 2
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
PORT 1
1
C
2
D
PORT 2
B
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Chapter 8 The VPN Transport Screens
8.1.3 Before You Begin
Before you start configuring your WiMAX Modem to use VPN transport, ensure that you have
the following from the service provider:
• The IP address or domain name of the service provider’s edge router.
• Virtual circuit (VC) labels for each Ethernet Pseudowire you want to create.
• Also make sure that you know the VLAN IDs (Virtual LAN IDentifiers) of the VLANs on
your LAN.
8.2 General
Click ADVANCED > VPN Transport to turn VPN transport on or off and to set the VPN
transport endpoint (your service provider’s router).
Figure 41 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
L2/L3 VPN Transport General Setup
User’s Guide
Transport L2/L3
VPN...
Select this to turn the VPN transport feature on. Deselect it to turn the VPN
transport feature off.
Remote GRE
Tunnel End
Enter the domain name or IP address of your service provider’s router.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
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8.3 Customer Interface
Customer interfaces connect data coming from your computers to Ethernet pseudowires,
according to the data’s VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) information. One customer
interface is for traffic that has no tag; this is the default interface (rule 0) which cannot be
deleted in the GUI. All other customer interfaces are identified by their VLAN ID.
Once the WiMAX Modem has examined a frame’s VLAN tag, it is able to assign the frame to
a specified path. This is done using a customer interface. The customer interface is simply a
set of information that takes frames from a VLAN and put them on an Ethernet pseudowire,
and vice versa.
In this example, the WiMAX Modem takes frames tagged with two different VLAN IDs (10
and 20) and using the customer interfaces, assigns them to specific pseudowires (PW1 and
PW2).
Figure 42 Pseudowire Mapping
VLAN 10
VLAN 20
PW1
PW2
PW1
10
1
20
WiMAX
PW2
2
R
The WiMAX Modem has a default customer interface configured for frames that arrive at the
WiMAX Modem without VLAN tags.
8.3.1 Multi-Protocol Label Switching
The WiMAX Modem uses MPLS VPNs to create virtual private LANs. MPLS stands for
Multi-Protocol Label Switching, and is a packet-switching technology that allows packets
with different VLAN tags to be transported on different paths (known as LSPs, or Label
Switched Paths). Each packet is identified by its VLAN tag and sent to a specific LSP for
transport over the WiMAX network.
Each LSP has a defined start-point and end-point. Since MPLS creates mono-directional paths
(traffic flows in only one direction), each Ethernet pseudowire uses two LSPs so that traffic
can flow both ways. One LSP carries upstream traffic, and the other carries downstream
traffic.
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8.3.2 Generic Routing Encapsulation
In order to transport the VPLS traffic over the WiMAX network, the WiMAX Modem uses the
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) protocol. Like MPLS, GRE is a tunneling protocol that
has specified endpoints. The GRE tunnel is bi-directional, and transports both LSPs. The GRE
tunnel runs across the WiMAX network between the WiMAX Modem and your service
provider’s router.
It is necessary to encapsulate the Ethernet pseudowire since the WiMAX connection is IPonly. MPLS information is carried in a packet’s Ethernet header and, without encapsulation,
would be stripped from the packet prior to the packet’s transmission over the WiMAX link.
The following figure shows the VPLS connection between your WiMAX Modem (A) and
your service provider’s router (B), consisting of GRE-encapsulated Ethernet pseudowire
traffic.
Figure 43 VPLS Tunneling
ETHERNET PSEUDOWIRES
GRE
TUNNEL
WiMAX CONNECTION
8.3.3 Customer Interface Options
Click ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface to configure the VPNs used by
the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 44 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface
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The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 26 Advanced> VPN Transport > Customer Interface
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Edit
Click to edit this item.
Delete
Click to delete this item.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
Active
This icon is green if the associated interface is enabled. The icon is grey if the
associated interface is disabled. Enable or disable an interface by clicking its Edit
icon and selecting or deselecting Active and clicking Apply in the screen that
displays.
Interface
88
Type
This displays either Tagged or Untagged. A tagged interface controls traffic with
a specific IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag, whereas an untagged interface controls traffic
that does not have a VLAN tag. There can be only one untagged interface.
VLAN ID
For a tagged interface, this displays the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN ID number. For the
untagged interface, -1 displays.
Mode
This displays either B (bridging) or R (routing). Only the default interface,
interface 0, can be a routing interface.
Associated
Ethernet
Pseudowire
(Ingress, Egress)
This displays the number of the Ethernet pseudowire that this interface uses, as
well as the ingress and egress MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) VC (Virtual
Circuit) label numbers.
DSCP
This displays the DiffServ Control Point value you previously entered in binary.
This determines the pseudowire’s priority on the network. The DSCP value is
displayed in binary notation and has six bits.
Interface
Description
This displays the information you previously entered describing the interface. For
the default interface, interface 0, the description reads “for routing / NAT”.
Action
Click the Edit icon to set up a new interface or alter the configuration of an
existing interface.
Click the Delete icon to remove an existing interface.
User’s Guide
Chapter 8 The VPN Transport Screens
8.3.4 Customer Interface Setup
Click the Edit icon in the ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface screen to
open the Customer Interface Setup.
Customer interfaces map traffic onto specific Ethernet pseudowires for transport over the
WiMAX network. There is also a default customer interface for routing traffic that does not
possess a VLAN tag.
Figure 45 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select to make this customer interface active. Deselect it to make the
customer interface inactive.
Customer Interface
User’s Guide
Type
A customer interface can be tagged (controlling traffic that has a specific
VLAN ID) or untagged (controlling traffic without a specific VLAN ID). There
can be only one untagged interface.
VLAN ID
Enter the Virtual Local Area Network Identifier number (1 ~ 4094) for this
interface. This VLAN ID must not be used by any other customer interface.
For the untagged interface, -1 displays.
Mode
This displays Bridging or Routing. A tagged interface can operate in bridging
mode only.
Associated Ethernet
Pseudowire
Select the Ethernet pseudowire this interface should use for communications
over the WiMAX network. You should configure the pseudowire (in the
ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire screen) before you
select it.
DSCP
If you wish to prioritize an interface, enter a DiffServ Code Point value of six
bits in binary notation. The higher the value, the higher the interface’s priority
on the WiMAX Modem’s WiMAX link.
Interface Description
Enter a brief (up to 31 characters) name or description for this interface.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
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8.4 Ethernet Pseudowire
Because VPLS mimics a simple wired Ethernet connection to your service provider’s router,
the connection between the WiMAX Modem and the peer device is known as an “Ethernet
pseudowire” or “PW”.
The Ethernet pseudowires use MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching) virtual circuit labels to
define the connection. In any such pseudowire, the ingress label on one device must be the
same as the egress label on the peer device, as shown in the following figure. A is your
WiMAX Modem and B is your service provider’s router.
Figure 46 Ethernet Pseudowire Settings Example
A
TO Y
PSEUDOWIRE
TO X
B
INGRESS LABEL: X
INGRESS LABEL: Y
EGRESS LABEL: Y
EGRESS LABEL: X
Click ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire to configure the WiMAX
Modem’s Ethernet pseudowires.
Figure 47 Advance > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 29 Advanced> VPN Transport > Customer Interface
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Edit
Click to edit this item.
Delete
Click to delete this item.
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
Active
This icon is green if the associated pseudowire is enabled. The icon is grey
if the associated pseudowire is disabled. Enable or disable a pseudowire by
clicking its Edit icon.
MPLS VC Label
Ingress
This is the MPLS virtual circuit label number for traffic coming from the peer
device.
Egress
This is the MPLS virtual circuit label number for traffic going to the peer
device.
Pseudowire Description
This displays the information you previously entered describing the
pseudowire.
Action
Click the Edit icon to set up an Ethernet pseudowire or alter the
configuration of an existing Ethernet pseudowire.
Click the Delete icon to remove an existing Ethernet pseudowire.
8.4.1 Ethernet Pseudowire Setup
Click a pseudowire entry’s Edit icon in the ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet
Pseudowire screen to set up or modify an Ethernet pseudowire’s configuration.
Figure 48 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable the pseudowire. Deselect it to disable the
pseudowire.
MPLS VC Label
Ingress
User’s Guide
Enter the VC ingress label number for this pseudowire. This must be the
egress label number of the peer device. This should not be the ingress
label number of any other Ethernet pseudowire configured on the WiMAX
Modem.
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Table 31 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Ethernet Pseudowire Setup (continued)
LABEL
Egress
Pseudowire Description
DESCRIPTION
Enter the egress label number for this pseudowire. This must be the
ingress label of the peer device. This should not be the egress label
number of any other Ethernet pseudowire configured on the WiMAX
Modem.
Enter a brief (up to 31 characters) description for this pseudowire.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
8.5 Statistics
Click ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Statistics to view details and performance
information of each active customer interface and its associated Ethernet pseudowire.
Figure 49 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Statistics
92
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
Active
This icon is green if the associated interface is enabled. The icon is grey if
the associated interface is disabled. Enable or disable an interface by
clicking its Edit icon.
Total Packets
This displays the number of packets received (Receive) and sent
(Transmit) on the customer interface since the interface was activated, or
the Clear button pressed.
Total Bytes
This displays the number of bytes received (Receive) and sent (Transmit)
on the customer interface since the interface was activated, or the Clear
button pressed.
Interface Description
This is the brief name or description of the customer interface configured in
the ADVANCED > VPN Transport > Customer Interface Setup screen.
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
9
The NAT Configuration Screens
9.1 Overview
Use these screens to configure port forwarding and trigger ports for the WiMAX Modem. You
can also enable and disable SIP, FTP, and H.323 ALG.
Network Address Translation (NAT) maps a host’s IP address within one network to a
different IP address in another network. For example, you can use a NAT router to map one IP
address from your ISP to multiple private IP addresses for the devices in your home network.
9.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The General screen (Section 9.2 on page 93) lets you enable or disable NAT and to
allocate memory for NAT and firewall rules.
• The Port Forwarding screen (Section 9.3 on page 94) lets you look at the current portforwarding rules in the WiMAX Modem, and to enable, disable, activate, and deactivate
each one.
• The Trigger Port screen (Section 9.4 on page 97) lets you maintain trigger port
forwarding rules for the WiMAX Modem.
• The ALG screen (Section 9.5 on page 99) lets you enable and disable SIP (VoIP), FTP
(file transfer), and H.323 (audio-visual) ALG in the WiMAX Modem.
9.2 General
Click ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > General to enable or disable NAT and to
allocate memory for NAT and firewall rules.
Figure 50 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Network
Address Translation
Select this if you want to use port forwarding, trigger ports, or any of the
ALG.
Max NAT/Firewall
Session Per User
When computers use peer to peer applications, such as file sharing
applications, they may use a large number of NAT sessions. If you do
not limit the number of NAT sessions a single client can establish, this can
result in all of the available NAT sessions being used. In this case, no
additional NAT sessions can be established, and users may not be able to
access the Internet.
Each NAT session establishes a corresponding firewall session. Use this
field to limit the number of NAT/firewall sessions each client computer can
establish through the WiMAX Modem.
If your network has a small number of clients using peer to peer
applications, you can raise this number to ensure that their performance is
not degraded by the number of NAT sessions they can establish. If your
network has a large number of users using peer to peer applications, you
can lower this number to ensure no single client is using all of the available
NAT sessions.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
9.3 Port Forwarding
A NAT server set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or
FTP, that you can make accessible to the outside world even though NAT makes your whole
inside network appear as a single machine to the outside world.
Use the ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding screen to forward incoming
service requests to the server(s) on your local network. You may enter a single port number or
a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local IP address of the desired server. The
port number identifies a service; for example, web service is on port 80 and FTP on port 21. In
some cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can support more than one
service (for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to specify a range of port
numbers.
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server. A service
request that does not have a server explicitly designated for it is forwarded to the default
server. If the default is not defined, the service request is simply discarded.
For example, let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A
in the example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP address of
192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP
assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a single host on the Internet.
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Figure 51 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
9.3.1 Port Forwarding Options
Click ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding to look at the current portforwarding rules in the WiMAX Modem, and to enable, disable, activate, and deactivate each
one. You can also set up a default server to handle ports not covered by rules.
Figure 52 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 34 Advanced> VPN Transport > Customer Interface
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Edit
Click to edit this item.
Delete
Click to delete this item.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default Server Setup
Default Server
User’s Guide
Enter the IP address of the server to which the WiMAX Modem should forward
packets for ports that are not specified in the Port Forwarding section below or in
the TOOLS > Remote MGMT screens. Enter 0.0.0.0 if you want the WiMAX
Modem to discard these packets instead.
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Table 35 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Forwarding
#
The number of the item in this list.
Active
Select this to enable this rule. Clear this to disable this rule.
Name
This field displays the name of the rule. It does not have to be unique.
Start Port
This field displays the beginning of the range of port numbers forwarded by this
rule.
End Port
This field displays the end of the range of port numbers forwarded by this rule. If it
is the same as the Start Port, only one port number is forwarded.
Server IP Address This field displays the IP address of the server to which packet for the selected
port(s) are forwarded.
Action
Click the Edit icon to set up a port forwarding rule or alter the configuration of an
existing port forwarding rule.
Click the Delete icon to remove an existing port forwarding rule.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
9.3.2 Port Forwarding Rule Setup
Click a port forwarding rule’s Edit icon in the ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port
Forwarding screen to activate, deactivate, or edit it.
Figure 53 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding > Rule Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding > Rule Setup
96
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable this rule. Clear this to disable this rule.
Service Name
Enter a name to identify this rule. You can use 1 - 31 printable ASCII characters, or
you can leave this field blank. It does not have to be a unique name.
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Chapter 9 The NAT Configuration Screens
Table 36 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Port Forwarding > Rule Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Port
End Port
Enter the port number or range of port numbers you want to forward to the
specified server.
To forward one port number, enter the port number in the Start Port and End Port
fields.
To forward a range of ports,
• enter the port number at the beginning of the range in the Start Port field
• enter the port number at the end of the range in the End Port field.
Server IP Address Enter the IP address of the server to which to forward packets for the selected port
number(s). This server is usually on the LAN.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
9.4 Trigger Port
Some services use a dedicated range of ports on the client side and a dedicated range of ports
on the server side. With regular port forwarding you set a forwarding port in NAT to forward a
service (coming in from the server on the WAN) to the IP address of a computer on the client
side (LAN). The problem is that port forwarding only forwards a service to a single LAN IP
address. In order to use the same service on a different LAN computer, you have to manually
replace the LAN computer's IP address in the forwarding port with another LAN computer's IP
address,
Trigger port forwarding solves this problem by allowing computers on the LAN to
dynamically take turns using the service. The WiMAX Modem records the IP address of a
LAN computer that sends traffic to the WAN to request a service with a specific port number
and protocol (a "trigger" port). When the WiMAX Modem's WAN port receives a response
with a specific port number and protocol ("incoming" port), the WiMAX Modem forwards the
traffic to the LAN IP address of the computer that sent the request. After that computer’s
connection for that service closes, another computer on the LAN can use the service in the
same manner. This way you do not need to configure a new IP address each time you want a
different LAN computer to use the application.
Click ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Trigger Port to maintain trigger port
forwarding rules for the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 54 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Trigger Port
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > Trigger Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
Name
Enter a name to identify this rule. You can use 1 - 15 printable ASCII characters, or
you can leave this field blank. It does not have to be a unique name.
Incoming
Start Port
End Port
Enter the incoming port number or range of port numbers you want to forward to
the IP address the WiMAX Modem records.
To forward one port number, enter the port number in the Start Port and End Port
fields.
To forward a range of ports,
• enter the port number at the beginning of the range in the Start Port field
• enter the port number at the end of the range in the End Port field.
If you want to delete this rule, enter zero in the Start Port and End Port fields.
Trigger
Start Port
End Port
Enter the outgoing port number or range of port numbers that makes the WiMAX
Modem record the source IP address and assign it to the selected incoming port
number(s).
To select one port number, enter the port number in the Start Port and End Port
fields.
To select a range of ports,
• enter the port number at the beginning of the range in the Start Port field
• enter the port number at the end of the range in the End Port field.
If you want to delete this rule, enter zero in the Start Port and End Port fields.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
9.4.1 Trigger Port Forwarding Example
The following is an example of trigger port forwarding. In this example, J is Jane’s computer
and S is the Real Audio server.
Figure 55 Trigger Port Forwarding Example
1 Jane requests a file from the Real Audio server (port 7070).
2 Port 7070 is a “trigger” port and causes the WiMAX Modem to record Jane’s computer
IP address. The WiMAX Modem associates Jane's computer IP address with the
"incoming" port range of 6970-7170.
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3 The Real Audio server responds using a port number ranging between 6970-7170.
4 The WiMAX Modem forwards the traffic to Jane’s computer IP address.
5 Only Jane can connect to the Real Audio server until the connection is closed or times
out. The WiMAX Modem times out in three minutes with UDP (User Datagram
Protocol), or two hours with TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
Two points to remember about trigger ports:
1 Trigger events only happen on data that is coming from inside the WiMAX Modem and
going to the outside.
2 If an application needs a continuous data stream, that port (range) will be tied up so that
another computer on the LAN can’t trigger it.
9.5 ALG
Some applications, such as SIP, cannot operate through NAT (are NAT un-friendly) because
they embed IP addresses and port numbers in their packets’ data payload.
Some NAT routers may include a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). An Application
Layer Gateway (ALG) manages a specific protocol (such as SIP, H.323 or FTP) at the
application layer.
A SIP ALG allows SIP calls to pass through NAT by examining and translating IP addresses
embedded in the data stream.
Click ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > ALG to enable and disable SIP (VoIP), FTP
(file transfer), and H.323 (audio-visual) ALG in the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 56 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > ALG
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 ADVANCED > NAT Configuration > ALG
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable SIP ALG
Select this to make sure SIP (VoIP) works correctly with port-forwarding and porttriggering rules.
Enable FTP ALG
Select this to make sure FTP (file transfer) works correctly with port-forwarding
and port-triggering rules.
Enable H.323
ALG
Select this to make sure H.323 (audio-visual programs, such as NetMeeting)
works correctly with port-forwarding and port-triggering rules.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
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CHAPTER
10
The System Configuration
Screens
10.1 Overview
Click ADVANCED > System Configuration to set up general system settings, change the
system mode, change the password, configure the DDNS server settings, and set the current
date and time.
10.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The General screen (Section 10.2 on page 102) lets you change the WiMAX Modem’s
mode, set up its system name, domain name, idle timeout, and administrator password.
• The Dynamic DNS screen (Section 10.3 on page 103) lets you set up the WiMAX Modem
as a dynamic DNS client.
• The Firmware screen (Section 10.4 on page 105) lets you upload new firmware to the
WiMAX Modem.
• The Configuration screen (Section 10.5 on page 106) lets you back up or restore the
configuration of the WiMAX Modem.
• The Restart screen (Section 10.6 on page 108) lets you restart your WiMAX Modem from
within the web configurator.
10.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
System Name
The System Name is often used for identification purposes. Because some ISPs check this
name you should enter your computer's "Computer Name".
• In Windows 2000: Click Start > Settings > Control Panel and then double-click the
System icon. Select the Network Identification tab and then click the Properties button.
Note the entry for the Computer Name field and enter it as the System Name.
• In Windows XP: Click Start > My Computer > View system information and then click
the Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer name field and enter it as
the WiMAX Modem System Name.
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Domain Name
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. If you leave
this blank, the domain name obtained by DHCP from the ISP is used. While you must enter
the host name (System Name) on each individual computer, the domain name can be assigned
from the WiMAX Modem via DHCP.
DNS Server Address Assignment
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa, for instance, the IP address of www.zyxel.com is 204.217.0.2. The DNS server is
extremely important because without it, you must know the IP address of a computer before
you can access it.
The WiMAX Modem can get the DNS server addresses in the following ways:
1 The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet,
when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS
Server fields in the SYSTEM General screen.
2 If the ISP did not give you DNS server information, leave the DNS Server fields in the
SYSTEM General screen set to 0.0.0.0 for the ISP to dynamically assign the DNS
server IP addresses.
10.2 General
Click ADVANCED > System Configuration > General to change the WiMAX Modem’s
mode, set up its system name, domain name, idle timeout, and administrator password.
Figure 57 ADVANCED > System Configuration > General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 ADVANCED > System Configuration > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Setup
System Name
Enter your computer's "Computer Name". This is for identification purposes, but
some ISPs also check this field. This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric
characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and underscores "_" are
accepted.
Domain Name
Enter the domain name entry that is propagated to DHCP clients on the LAN. If
you leave this blank, the domain name obtained from the ISP is used. Use up to
38 alphanumeric characters. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and periods
"." are accepted.
Administrator
Inactivity Timer
Enter the number of minutes a management session can be left idle before the
session times out. After it times out, you have to log in again. A value of "0" means
a management session never times out, no matter how long it has been left idle.
This is not recommended. Long idle timeouts may have security risks. The default
is five minutes.
Password Setup
Old Password
Enter the current password you use to access the WiMAX Modem.
New Password
Enter the new password for the WiMAX Modem. You can use up to 30 characters.
As you type the password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Retype to Confirm Enter the new password again.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
10.3 Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or many
dynamic DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe, etc.). You
can also access your FTP server or Web site on your own computer using a domain name (for
instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a name of your choice) that will never change
instead of using an IP address that changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives
will always be able to call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with www.dyndns.org. This is
for people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that would still like to have a
domain name. The Dynamic DNS service provider will give you a password or key.
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the
same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use,
for example, www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
"
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
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Click ADVANCED > System Configuration > Dynamic DNS to set up the WiMAX Modem
as a dynamic DNS client.
Figure 58 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Dynamic DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dynamic DNS Setup
Enable Dynamic
DNS
Select this to use dynamic DNS.
Service Provider
Select the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
Dynamic DNS
Type
Select the type of service that you are registered for from your Dynamic DNS
service provider.
Host Name
Enter the host name. You can specify up to two host names, separated by a
comma (",").
User Name
Enter your user name.
Password
Enter the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Option
Select this to enable the DynDNS Wildcard feature.
Enable offline
option
This field is available when CustomDNS is selected in the DDNS Type field.
Select this if your Dynamic DNS service provider redirects traffic to a URL that you
can specify while you are off line. Check with your Dynamic DNS service provider.
IP Address Update Policy
Use WAN IP
Address
104
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to update the domain name with the
WAN port's IP address.
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Table 40 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Dynamic DNS (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dynamic DNS
server auto detect
IP address
Select this if you want the DDNS server to update the IP address of the host
name(s) automatically. Select this option when there are one or more NAT routers
between the WiMAX Modem and the DDNS server.
Note: The DDNS server may not be able to detect the proper IP
address if there is an HTTP proxy server between the
WiMAX Modem and the DDNS server.
Use specified IP
address
Select this if you want to use the specified IP address with the host name(s). Then,
specify the IP address. Use this option if you have a static IP address.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
10.4 Firmware
Click ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware to upload new firmware to the
WiMAX Modem. Firmware files usually use the system model name with a "*.bin" extension,
such as "WiMAX Modem.bin". The upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the system will reboot.
Contact your service provider for information on available firmware upgrades.
"
Only use firmware for your WiMAX Modem’s specific model.
Figure 59 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Enter the location of the *.bin file you want to upload, or click Browse... to find it.
You must decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Browse...
Click this to find the *.bin file you want to upload.
Upload
Click this to begin uploading the selected file. This may take up to two minutes.
Note: Do not turn off the device while firmware upload is in
progress!
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10.4.1 The Firmware Upload Process
When the WiMAX Modem uploads new firmware, the process usually takes about two
minutes. The device also automatically restarts in this time. This causes a temporary network
disconnect.
"
Do not turn off the device while firmware upload is in progress!
After two minutes, log in again, and check your new firmware version in the Status screen.
You might have to open a new browser window to log in.
If the upload is not successful, you will be notified by error message.
Click Return to go back to the Firmware screen.
10.5 Configuration
Click ADVANCED > System Configuration > Configuration to back up or restore the
configuration of the WiMAX Modem. You can also use this screen to reset the WiMAX
Modem to the factory default settings.
Figure 60 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Backup Configuration
Backup
Click this to save the WiMAX Modem’s current configuration to a file on your
computer. Once your device is configured and functioning properly, it is highly
recommended that you back up your configuration file before making configuration
changes. The backup configuration file is useful if you need to return to your
previous settings.
Restore Configuration
File Path
Enter the location of the file you want to upload, or click Browse... to find it.
Browse
Click this to find the file you want to upload.
Upload
Click this to restore the selected configuration file.
Note: Do not turn off the device while configuration file upload is in
progress.
Back to Factory Defaults
Reset
Click this to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the WiMAX
Modem to its factory defaults. There is no warning screen.
10.5.1 The Restore Configuration Process
When the WiMAX Modem restores a configuration file, the device automatically restarts. This
causes a temporary network disconnect.
"
Do not turn off the device while configuration file upload is in progress.
If the WiMAX Modem’s IP address is different in the configuration file you selected, you may
need to change the IP address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default
management IP address (192.168.5.1). See the Quick Start Guide or the appendices for details
on how to set up your computer’s IP address.
You might have to open a new browser to log in again.
If the upload was not successful, you are notified by Configuration Upload Error message:
Click Return to go back to the Configuration screen.
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10.6 Restart
Click ADVANCED > System Configuration > Restart to reboot the WiMAX Modem
without turning the power off.
"
Restarting the WiMAX Modem does not affect its configuration.
Figure 61 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Restart
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 ADVANCED > System Configuration > Firmware
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Restart
Click this button to have the device perform a software restart. The Power LED
blinks as it restarts and the shines steadily if the restart is successful.
Note: Wait one minute before logging back into the WiMAX Modem
after a restart.
10.6.1 The Restart Process
When you click Restart, the the process usually takes about two minutes. Once the restart is
complete you can log in again.
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P ART IV
Voice Screens
The Service Configuration Screens (111)
The Phone Screens (125)
The Phone Book Screens (133)
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CHAPTER
11
The Service Configuration
Screens
11.1 Overview
The VOICE > Service Configuration screens allow you to set up your voice accounts and
configure your QoS settings.
VoIP (Voice over IP) is the sending of voice signals over the Internet Protocol. This allows you
to make phone calls and send faxes over the Internet at a fraction of the cost of using the
traditional circuit-switched telephone network. You can also use servers to run telephone
service applications like PBX services and voice mail. Internet Telephony Service Provider
(ITSP) companies provide VoIP service. A company could alternatively set up an IP-PBX and
provide it’s own VoIP service.
Circuit-switched telephone networks require 64 kilobits per second (kbps) in each direction to
handle a telephone call. VoIP can use advanced voice coding techniques with compression to
reduce the required bandwidth.
11.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The SIP Settings screen (Section 11.2 on page 113) lets you setup and maintain your SIP
account(s) in the WiMAX Modem.
• The Advanced SIP Settings screen (Section 11.2.1 on page 114) lets you set up and
maintain advanced settings for each SIP account
• The QoS screen (Section 11.3 on page 120) lets you set up and maintain ToS and VLAN
settings for the WiMAX Modem.
11.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
SIP
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol that
handles the setting up, altering and tearing down of voice and multimedia sessions over the
Internet. SIP signaling is separate from the media for which it handles sessions. The media that
is exchanged during the session can use a different path from that of the signaling. SIP handles
telephone calls and can interface with traditional circuit-switched telephone networks.
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SIP Identities
A SIP account uses an identity (sometimes referred to as a SIP address). A complete SIP
identity is called a SIP URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). A SIP account's URI identifies the
SIP account in a way similar to the way an e-mail address identifies an e-mail account. The
format of a SIP identity is SIP-Number@SIP-Service-Domain.
SIP Number
The SIP number is the part of the SIP URI that comes before the “@” symbol. A SIP number
can use letters like in an e-mail address (johndoe@your-ITSP.com for example) or numbers
like a telephone number (1122334455@VoIP-provider.com for example).
SIP Service Domain
The SIP service domain of the VoIP service provider (the company that lets you make phone
calls over the Internet) is the domain name in a SIP URI. For example, if the SIP address is
1122334455@VoIP-provider.com, then “VoIP-provider.com” is the SIP service domain.
SIP Register Server
A SIP register server maintains a database of SIP identity-to-IP address (or domain name)
mapping. The register server checks your user name and password when you register.
RTP
When you make a VoIP call using SIP, the RTP (Real time Transport Protocol) is used to
handle voice data transfer. See RFC 1889 for details on RTP.
Use NAT
If you know the NAT router’s public IP address and SIP port number, you can use the Use
NAT feature to manually configure the WiMAX Modem to use a them in the SIP messages.
This eliminates the need for STUN or a SIP ALG. You must also configure the NAT router to
forward traffic with this port number to the WiMAX Modem.
11.1.3 Before you Begin
• Ensure that you have all of your voice account information on hand. If not, contact your
voice account service provider to find out which settings in this chapter you should
configure in order to use your telephone with the WiMAX Modem.
• Connect your WiMAX Modem to the Internet, as described in the Quick Start Guide. If
you have not already done so, then you will not be able to test your VoIP settings.
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11.2 SIP Settings
Click VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting to setup and maintain your SIP
account(s) in the WiMAX Modem. Your VoIP or Internet service provider should provide you
with your account information. You can also enable and disable each SIP account.
Figure 62 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SIP Account
Select the SIP account you want to see in this screen. If you change this field, the
screen automatically refreshes.
SIP Settings
Active SIP
Account
User’s Guide
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to use this account. Clear it if you do not
want the WiMAX Modem to use this account.
Number
Enter your SIP number. In the full SIP URI, this is the part before the @ symbol.
You can use up to 127 printable ASCII characters.
SIP Local Port
Enter the WiMAX Modem’s listening port number, if your VoIP service provider
gave you one. Otherwise, keep the default value.
SIP Server
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of the SIP server provided by your VoIP
service provider. You can use up to 95 printable ASCII characters. It does not
matter whether the SIP server is a proxy, redirect or register server.
SIP Server
Port
Enter the SIP server’s listening port number, if your VoIP service provider gave
you one. Otherwise, keep the default value.
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Table 44 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
REGISTER
Server
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of the SIP register server, if your VoIP
service provider gave you one. Otherwise, enter the same address you entered in
the SIP Server Address field. You can use up to 95 printable ASCII characters.
REGISTER
Server Port
Enter the SIP register server’s listening port number, if your VoIP service provider
gave you one. Otherwise, enter the same port number you entered in the SIP
Server Port field.
SIP Service
Domain
Enter the SIP service domain name. In the full SIP URI, this is the part after the @
symbol. You can use up to 127 printable ASCII Extended set characters.
Send Caller ID
Select this if you want to send identification when you make VoIP phone calls.
Clear this if you do not want to send identification.
Authentication
User Name
Enter the user name for registering this SIP account, exactly as it was given to
you. You can use up to 95 printable ASCII characters.
Password
Enter the user name for registering this SIP account, exactly as it was given to
you. You can use up to 95 printable ASCII Extended set characters.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced
Click this to edit the advanced settings for this SIP account. The Advanced SIP
Settings screen appears.
11.2.1 Advanced SIP Settings
This section describes the features of the Advanced SIP settings screen.
11.2.1.1 STUN
STUN (Simple Traversal of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) through Network Address
Translators) allows the WiMAX Modem to find the presence and types of NAT routers and/or
firewalls between it and the public Internet. STUN also allows the WiMAX Modem to find the
public IP address that NAT assigned, so the WiMAX Modem can embed it in the SIP data
stream. STUN does not work with symmetric NAT routers or firewalls. See RFC 3489 for
details on STUN.
The following figure shows how STUN works.
1 The WiMAX Modem (A) sends SIP packets to the STUN server (B).
2 The STUN server (B) finds the public IP address and port number that the NAT router
used on the WiMAX Modem’s SIP packets and sends them to the WiMAX Modem.
3 The WiMAX Modem uses the public IP address and port number in the SIP packets that
it sends to the SIP server (C).
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Figure 63 STUN
1
B
NAT
C
A
11.2.1.2 Outbound Proxy
Your VoIP service provider may host a SIP outbound proxy server to handle all of the WiMAX
Modem’s VoIP traffic. This allows the WiMAX Modem to work with any type of NAT router
and eliminates the need for STUN or a SIP ALG. Turn off a SIP ALG on a NAT router in front
of the WiMAX Modem to keep it from re-translating the IP address (since this is already
handled by the outbound proxy server).
11.2.1.3 Voice Coding
A codec (coder/decoder) codes analog voice signals into digital signals and decodes the digital
signals back into voice signals. The WiMAX Modem supports the following codecs.
• G.711 is a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) waveform codec. PCM measures analog signal
amplitudes at regular time intervals (sampling) and converts them into digital bits
(quantization). Quantization “reads” the analog signal and then “writes” it to the nearest
digital value. For this reason, a digital sample is usually slightly different from its analog
original (this difference is known as “quantization noise”). G.711 provides excellent sound
quality but requires 64kbps of bandwidth.
• G.723 is an Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) waveform codec.
Differential (or Delta) PCM is similar to PCM, but encodes the audio signal based on the
difference between one sample and a prediction based on previous samples, rather than
encoding the sample’s actual quantized value. Many thousands of samples are taken each
second, and the differences between consecutive samples are usually quite small, so this
saves space and reduces the bandwidth necessary.
However, DPCM produces a high quality signal (high signal-to-noise ratio or SNR) for
high difference signals (where the actual signal is very different from what was predicted)
but a poor quality signal (low SNR) for low difference signals (where the actual signal is
very similar to what was predicted). This is because the level of quantization noise is the
same at all signal levels. Adaptive DPCM solves this problem by adapting the difference
signal’s level of quantization according to the audio signal’s strength. A low difference
signal is given a higher quantization level, increasing its signal-to-noise ratio. This
provides a similar sound quality at all signal levels. G.723 provides high quality sound and
requires 20 or 40 kbps.
• G.729 is an Analysis-by-Synthesis (AbS) hybrid waveform codec. It uses a filter based on
information about how the human vocal tract produces sounds. The codec analyzes the
incoming voice signal and attempts to synthesize it using its list of voice elements. It tests
the synthesized signal against the original and, if it is acceptable, transmits details of the
voice elements it used to make the synthesis. Because the codec at the receiving end has
the same list, it can exactly recreate the synthesized audio signal.G.729 provides good
sound quality and reduces the required bandwidth to 8kbps.
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11.2.1.4 MWI (Message Waiting Indication)
Enable Message Waiting Indication (MWI) enables your phone to give you a message–waiting
(beeping) dial tone when you have one or more voice messages. Your VoIP service provider
must have a messaging system that sends message-waiting-status SIP packets as defined in
RFC 3842.
11.2.1.5 Advanced SIP Settings Options
Click Advanced in VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings to set up and maintain
advanced settings for each SIP account.
Figure 64 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SIP Server Settings
URL Type
116
Select whether or not to include the SIP service domain name when the WiMAX
Modem sends the SIP number.
• SIP - include the SIP service domain name
• TEL - do not include the SIP service domain name
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Table 45 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Expiration
Duration
Enter the number of seconds your SIP account is registered with the SIP register
server before it is deleted. The WiMAX Modem automatically tries to re-register
your SIP account when one-half of this time has passed. (The SIP register server
might have a different expiration.)
Register Re-send
timer
Enter the number of seconds the WiMAX Modem waits before it tries again to
register the SIP account, if the first try failed or if there is no response.
Session Expires
Enter the number of seconds the conversation can last before the call is
automatically disconnected. Usually, when one-half of this time has passed, the
WiMAX Modem or the other party updates this timer to prevent this from
happening.
Min-SE
Enter the minimum number of seconds the WiMAX Modem accepts for a session
expiration time when it receives a request to start a SIP session. If the request has
a shorter time, the WiMAX Modem rejects it.
RTP Port Range
Start Port
End Port
Enter the listening port number(s) for RTP traffic, if your VoIP service provider
gave you this information. Otherwise, keep the default values.
To enter one port number, enter the port number in the Start Port and End Port
fields.
To enter a range of ports:
• Type the port number at the beginning of the range in the Start Port field
• Type the port number at the end of the range in the End Port field.
Voice Compression
Primary,
Secondary, and
Third
Compression
Select the type of voice coder/decoder (codec) that you want the WiMAX Modem
to use.
G.711 provides high voice quality but requires more bandwidth (64 kbps).
• G.711A is typically used in Europe.
• G.711u is typically used in North America and Japan.
• G.723 provides good voice quality, and requires 20 or 40 kbps.
• G.729 requires only 8 kbps.
The WiMAX Modem must use the same codec as the peer. When two SIP devices
start a SIP session, they must agree on a codec.
For more on voice compression, see Voice Coding on page 115
DTMF Mode
Control how the WiMAX Modem handles the tones that your telephone makes
when you push its buttons. You should use the same mode your VoIP service
provider uses.
• RFC 2833 - send the DTMF tones in RTP packets
• PCM - send the DTMF tones in the voice data stream. This method works best
when you are using a codec that does not use compression (like G.711).
Codecs that use compression (like G.729) can distort the tones.
• SIP INFO - send the DTMF tones in SIP messages
STUN
Active
Select this if all of the following conditions are satisfied.
• There is a NAT router between the WiMAX Modem and the SIP server.
• The NAT router is not a SIP ALG.
• Your VoIP service provider gave you an IP address or domain name for a
STUN server.
• Otherwise, clear this field.
Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of the STUN server provided by your VoIP
service provider.
Server Port
Enter the STUN server’s listening port, if your VoIP service provider gave you one.
Otherwise, keep the default value.
Use NAT
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Table 45 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to send SIP traffic to a specific NAT
router. You must also configure the NAT router to forward traffic with the specified
port to the WiMAX Modem. This eliminates the need for STUN or a SIP ALG.
Server Address
Enter the public IP address or domain name of the NAT router.
Server Port
Enter the port number that your SIP sessions use with the public IP address of the
NAT router.
Outbound Proxy
Active
Select this if your VoIP service provider has a SIP outbound server to handle voice
calls. This allows the WiMAX Modem to work with any type of NAT router and
eliminates the need for STUN or a SIP ALG. Turn off any SIP ALG on a NAT router
in front of the WiMAX Modem to keep it from re-translating the IP address (since
this is already handled by the outbound proxy server).
Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of the SIP outbound proxy server.
Server Port
Enter the SIP outbound proxy server’s listening port, if your VoIP service provider
gave you one. Otherwise, keep the default value.
NAT Keep Alive
Active
Select this to stop NAT routers between the WiMAX Modem and SIP server (a SIP
proxy server or outbound proxy server) from dropping the SIP session. The
WiMAX Modem does this by sending SIP notify messages to the SIP server based
on the specified interval.
Keep Alive with
SIP Proxy
Select this if the SIP server is a SIP proxy server.
Keep Alive with
Outbound Proxy
Select this if the SIP server is an outbound proxy server. You must enable
Outbound Proxy to use this.
Keep Alive
Interval
Enter how often (in seconds) the WiMAX Modem should send SIP notify
messages to the SIP server.
MWI (Message Waiting Indication)
Enable
Select this if you want to hear a waiting (beeping) dial tone on your phone when
you have at least one voice message. Your VoIP service provider must support
this feature.
Expiration Time
Keep the default value, unless your VoIP service provider tells you to change it.
Enter the number of seconds the SIP server should provide the message waiting
service each time the WiMAX Modem subscribes to the service. Before this time
passes, the WiMAX Modem automatically subscribes again.
Fax Option
G.711 Fax
Passthrough
Select this if the WiMAX Modem should use G.711 to send fax messages. The
peer devices must also use G.711.
T.38 Fax Relay
Select this if the WiMAX Modem should send fax messages as UDP or TCP/IP
packets through IP networks. This provides better quality, but it may have interoperability problems. The peer devices must also use T.38.
Call Forward
Call Forward
Table
Select which call forwarding table you want the WiMAX Modem to use for
incoming calls. You set up these tables in VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call
Policy.
Caller Ringing
Enable
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Check this box if you want people to hear a customized recording when they call
you.
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Table 45 VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings > Advanced (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Caller Ringing
Tone
Select the tone you want people to hear when they call you. See Custom Tones
(IVR) on page 119 for information on how to record these tones.
On Hold
Enable
Check this box if you want people to hear a customized recording when you put
them on hold.
On Hold Tone
Select the tone you want people to hear when you put them on hold. See Custom
Tones (IVR) on page 119 for information on how to record these tones.
Back
Click this to return to the SIP Settings screen without saving your changes.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
11.2.1.6 Custom Tones (IVR)
IVR (Interactive Voice Response) is a feature that allows you to use your telephone to interact
with the WiMAX Modem. The WiMAX Modem allows you to record custom tones for the
Caller Ringing Tone and On Hold Tone functions. The same recordings apply to both the
caller ringing and on hold tones.
Table 46 Custom Tones Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Total Time for All Tones
128 seconds for all custom tones combined
Maximum Time per
Individual Tone
20 seconds
Total Number of Tones
Recordable
8
You can record up to eight different custom tones but the total time must
be 128 seconds or less.
Use the following steps if you would like to create new tones or change your tones:
1 Pick up the phone and press **** on your phone’s keypad and wait for the message that
says you are in the configuration menu.
2 Press a number from 1101~1108 on your phone followed by the # key.
3 Play your desired music or voice recording into the receiver’s mouthpiece. Press the #
key.
4 You can continue to add, listen to, or delete tones, or you can hang up the receiver when
you are done.
Do the following to listen to a custom tone:
1 Pick up the phone and press **** on your phone’s keypad and wait for the message that
says you are in the configuration menu.
2 Press a number from 1201~1208 followed by the # key to listen to the tone.
3 You can continue to add, listen to, or delete tones, or you can hang up the receiver when
you are done.
Do the following to delete a custom tone:
1 Pick up the phone and press **** on your phone’s keypad and wait for the message that
says you are in the configuration menu.
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2 Press a number from 1301~1308 followed by the # key to delete the tone of your choice.
Press 14 followed by the # key if you wish to clear all your custom tones.
3 You can continue to add, listen to, or delete tones, or you can hang up the receiver when
you are done.
11.3 QoS
Network traffic can be classified by setting the ToS (Type Of Service) values at the data source
(for example, at the WiMAX Modem) so a server can decide the best method of delivery, that
is the least cost, fastest route and so on.
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple
logical networks. Only stations within the same group can communicate with each other.
Your WiMAX Modem can add IEEE 802.1Q VLAN ID tags to voice frames that it sends to
the network. This allows the WiMAX Modem to communicate with a SIP server that is a
member of the same VLAN group. Some ISPs use the VLAN tag to identify voice traffic and
give it priority over other traffic.
Click VOICE > Service Configuration > QoS to set up and maintain ToS and VLAN settings
for the WiMAX Modem. QoS (Quality of Service) refers to both a network's ability to deliver
data with minimum delay and the networking methods used to provide bandwidth for realtime multimedia applications.
Figure 65 VOICE > Service Configuration > QoS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 VOICE > Service Configuration > QoS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TDS
SIP TOS Priority
Setting
Enter the priority for SIP voice transmissions. The WiMAX Modem creates Type of
Service priority tags with this priority to voice traffic that it transmits.
RTP TOS Priority
Setting
Enter the priority for RTP voice transmissions. The WiMAX Modem creates Type
of Service priority tags with this priority to RTP traffic that it transmits.
VLAN Tagging
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Table 47 VOICE > Service Configuration > QoS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Voice VLAN ID
Select this if the WiMAX Modem has to be a member of a VLAN to communicate
with the SIP server. Ask your network administrator, if you are not sure. Enter the
VLAN ID provided by your network administrator in the field on the right. Your LAN
and gateway must be configured to use VLAN tags.
Otherwise, clear this field.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
11.4 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the WiMAX Modem
features described in this chapter.
11.4.1 SIP Call Progression
The following figure displays the basic steps in the setup and tear down of a SIP call. A calls
B.
Table 48 SIP Call Progression
A
B
1. INVITE
2. Ringing
3. OK
4. ACK
5.Dialogue (voice traffic)
6. BYE
7. OK
1 A sends a SIP INVITE request to B. This message is an invitation for B to participate in
a SIP telephone call.
2 B sends a response indicating that the telephone is ringing.
3 B sends an OK response after the call is answered.
4 A then sends an ACK message to acknowledge that B has answered the call.
5 Now A and B exchange voice media (talk).
6 After talking, A hangs up and sends a BYE request.
7 B replies with an OK response confirming receipt of the BYE request and the call is
terminated.
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11.4.2 SIP Client Server
SIP is a client-server protocol. A SIP client is an application program or device that sends SIP
requests. A SIP server responds to the SIP requests.
When you use SIP to make a VoIP call, it originates at a client and terminates at a server. A
SIP client could be a computer or a SIP phone. One device can act as both a SIP client and a
SIP server.
11.4.3 SIP User Agent
A SIP user agent can make and receive VoIP telephone calls. This means that SIP can be used
for peer-to-peer communications even though it is a client-server protocol. In the following
figure, either A or B can act as a SIP user agent client to initiate a call. A and B can also both
act as a SIP user agent to receive the call.
Figure 66 SIP User Agent
A
B
11.4.4 SIP Proxy Server
A SIP proxy server receives requests from clients and forwards them to another server.
In the following example, you want to use client device A to call someone who is using client
device C.
1 The client device (A in the figure) sends a call invitation to the SIP proxy server (B).
2 The SIP proxy server forwards the call invitation to C.
Figure 67 SIP Proxy Server
B
1
A
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2
C
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11.4.5 SIP Redirect Server
A SIP redirect server accepts SIP requests, translates the destination address to an IP address
and sends the translated IP address back to the device that sent the request. Then the client
device that originally sent the request can send requests to the IP address that it received back
from the redirect server. Redirect servers do not initiate SIP requests.
In the following example, you want to use client device A to call someone who is using client
device C.
1 Client device A sends a call invitation for C to the SIP redirect server (B).
2 The SIP redirect server sends the invitation back to A with C’s IP address (or domain
name).
3 Client device A then sends the call invitation to client device C.
Figure 68 SIP Redirect Server
1
2
A
B
3
C
11.4.6 NAT and SIP
The WiMAX Modem must register its public IP address with a SIP register server. If there is a
NAT router between the WiMAX Modem and the SIP register server, the WiMAX Modem
probably has a private IP address. The WiMAX Modem lists its IP address in the SIP message
that it sends to the SIP register server. NAT does not translate this IP address in the SIP
message. The SIP register server gets the WiMAX Modem’s IP address from inside the SIP
message and maps it to your SIP identity. If the WiMAX Modem has a private IP address
listed in the SIP message, the SIP server cannot map it to your SIP identity. See Chapter 9 The
NAT Configuration Screens for more information.
Use a SIP ALG (Application Layer Gateway), Use NAT, STUN, or outbound proxy to allow
the WiMAX Modem to list its public IP address in the SIP messages.
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11.4.7 DiffServ
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application
types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the
level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to
handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths
or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request
a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
11.4.8 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS)
field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which
can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
Figure 69 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP
(6-bit)
Unused
(2-bit)
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated
according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
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12
The Phone Screens
12.1 Overview
Use the VOICE > Phone screens to configure the volume, echo cancellation, VAD settings
and custom tones for the phone port on the WiMAX Modem. You can also select which SIP
account to use for making outgoing calls.
12.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The Analog Phone screen (Section 12.2 on page 126) lets you control which SIP accounts
each phone uses.
• The Common screen (Section 12.3 on page 128) lets you activate and deactivate
immediate dialing.
• The Region screen (Section 12.4 on page 129) lets you maintain settings that often depend
on the region of the world in which the WiMAX Modem is located.
12.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Voice Activity Detection/Silence Suppression/Comfort Noise
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) detects whether or not speech is present. This lets the
WiMAX Modem reduce the bandwidth that a call uses by not transmitting “silent packets”
when you are not speaking.
When using VAD, the WiMAX Modem generates comfort noise when the other party is not
speaking. The comfort noise lets you know that the line is still connected as total silence could
easily be mistaken for a lost connection.
Echo Cancellation
G.168 is an ITU-T standard for eliminating the echo caused by the sound of your voice
reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
Supplementary Phone Services Overview
Supplementary services such as call hold, call waiting, call transfer, etc. are generally
available from your VoIP service provider. The WiMAX Modem supports the following
services:
• Call Hold
• Call Waiting
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
"
Making a Second Call
Call Transfer
Call Forwarding
Three-Way Conference
Internal Calls
Caller ID
CLIP (Calling Line Identification Presentation)
CLIR (Calling Line Identification Restriction)
To take full advantage of the supplementary phone services available though
the WiMAX Modem's phone port, you may need to subscribe to the services
from your VoIP service provider.
12.2 Analog Phone
Click VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone to control which SIP accounts each phone uses.
Figure 70 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Phone Port
Settings
Select the phone port you want to see in this screen. If you change this field, the
screen automatically refreshes.
Outgoing Call Use
126
SIP1
Select this if you want this phone port to use the SIP1 account when it makes
calls. If you select both SIP accounts, the WiMAX Modem tries to use SIP2 first.
SIP2
Select this if you want this phone port to use the SIP2 account when it makes
calls. If you select both SIP accounts, the WiMAX Modem tries to use SIP2 first.
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Table 49 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Incoming Call apply to
SIP1
Select this if you want to receive phone calls for the SIP1 account on this phone
port. If you select more than one source for incoming calls, there is no way to
distinguish between them when you receive phone calls.
SIP2
Select this if you want to receive phone calls for the SIP2 account on this phone
port. If you select more than one source for incoming calls, there is no way to
distinguish between them when you receive phone calls.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced Setup
Click this to edit the advanced settings for this phone port. The Advanced Analog
Phone Setup screen appears.
12.2.1 Advanced Analog Phone Setup
Click the Advanced button in VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone to edit advanced settings for
each phone port.
Figure 71 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone > Advanced
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone > Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Voice Volume Control
Speaking Volume
Enter the loudness that the WiMAX Modem uses for speech that it sends to the
peer device. -1 is the quietest, and 1 is the loudest.
Listening Volume
Enter the loudness that the WiMAX Modem uses for speech that it receives from
the peer device. -1 is the quietest, and 1 is the loudest.
Echo Cancellation
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Table 50 VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone > Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
G.168 Active
Select this if you want to eliminate the echo caused by the sound of your voice
reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
Dialing Interval Select
Dialing Interval
Select
Enter the number of seconds the WiMAX Modem should wait after you stop dialing
numbers before it makes the phone call. The value depends on how quickly you
dial phone numbers.
If you select Active Immediate Dial in VOICE > Phone > Common, you can
press the pound key (#) to tell the WiMAX Modem to make the phone call
immediately, regardless of this setting.
VAD Support
Select this if the WiMAX Modem should stop transmitting when you are not
speaking. This reduces the bandwidth the WiMAX Modem uses.
Back
Click this to return to the Analog Phone screen without saving your changes.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
12.3 Common
Click VOICE > Phone > Common to activate and deactivate immediate dialing.
Figure 72 VOICE > Phone > Common
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 VOICE > Phone > Common
128
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active Immediate
Dial
Select this if you want to use the pound key (#) to tell the WiMAX Modem to make
the phone call immediately, instead of waiting the number of seconds you selected
in the Dialing Interval Select in VOICE > Phone > Analog Phone.
If you select this, dial the phone number, and then press the pound key if you do
not want to wait. The WiMAX Modem makes the call immediately.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 12 The Phone Screens
12.4 Region
Click VOICE > Phone > Region to maintain settings that often depend on the region of the
world in which the WiMAX Modem is located.
Figure 73 VOICE > Phone > Region
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 VOICE > Phone > Region
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Region Settings
Select the place in which the WiMAX Modem is located. Do not select Default.
Call Service Mode Select the mode for supplementary phone services (call hold, call waiting, call
transfer and three-way conference calls) that your VoIP service provider supports.
• Europe Type - use supplementary phone services in European mode
• USA Type - use supplementary phone services American mode
You might have to subscribe to these services to use them. Contact your VoIP
service provider.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
12.5 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the WiMAX Modem
features described in this chapter.
12.5.1 The Flash Key
Flashing means to press the hook for a short period of time (a few hundred milliseconds)
before releasing it. On newer telephones, there should be a "flash" key (button) that generates
the signal electronically. If the flash key is not available, you can tap (press and immediately
release) the hook by hand to achieve the same effect. However, using the flash key is preferred
since the timing is much more precise. The WiMAX Modem may interpret manual tapping as
hanging up if the duration is too long
You can invoke all the supplementary services by using the flash key.
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12.5.2 Europe Type Supplementary Phone Services
This section describes how to use supplementary phone services with the Europe Type Call
Service Mode. Commands for supplementary services are listed in the table below.
After pressing the flash key, if you do not issue the sub-command before the default subcommand timeout (2 seconds) expires or issue an invalid sub-command, the current operation
will be aborted.
Table 53 European Type Flash Key Commands
COMMAND
SUB-COMMAND
Flash
DESCRIPTION
Put a current call on hold to place a second call.
Switch back to the call (if there is no second call).
Flash
0
Drop the call presently on hold or reject an incoming call which is
waiting for answer.
Flash
1
Disconnect the current phone connection and answer the
incoming call or resume with caller presently on hold.
Flash
2
1. Switch back and forth between two calls.
2. Put a current call on hold to answer an incoming call.
3. Separate the current three-way conference call into two
individual calls (one is on-line, the other is on hold).
Flash
3
Create three-way conference connection.
Flash
*98#
Transfer the call to another phone.
European Call Hold allows you to put a call (A) on hold by pressing the flash key.
If you have another call, press the flash key and then “2” to switch back and forth between
caller A and B by putting either one on hold.
Press the flash key and then “0” to disconnect the call presently on hold and keep the current
call on line.
Press the flash key and then “1” to disconnect the current call and resume the call on hold.
If you hang up the phone but a caller is still on hold, there will be a remind ring.
European Call Waiting allows you to place a call on hold while you answer another incoming
call on the same telephone (directory) number.
If there is a second call to a telephone number, you will hear a call waiting tone. Take one of
the following actions.
• Reject the second call.
Press the flash key and then press “0”.
• Disconnect the first call and answer the second call.
Either press the flash key and press “1”, or just hang up the phone and then answer the
phone after it rings.
• Put the first call on hold and answer the second call.
Press the flash key and then “2”.
European Call Transfer allows you to transfer an incoming call (that you have answered) to
another phone. To do so:
1 Press the flash key to put the caller on hold.
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2 When you hear the dial tone, dial “*98#” followed by the number to which you want to
transfer the call. to operate the Intercom.
3 After you hear the ring signal or the second party answers it, hang up the phone.
European Three-Way Conference allows you to make three-way conference calls. To do so:
1 When you are on the phone talking to someone, place the flash key to put the caller on
hold and get a dial tone.
2 Dial a phone number directly to make another call.
3 When the second call is answered, press the flash key and press “3” to create a three-way
conversation.
4 Hang up the phone to drop the connection.
5 If you want to separate the activated three-way conference into two individual
connections (one is on-line, the other is on hold), press the flash key and press “2”.
12.5.3 USA Type Supplementary Services
This section describes how to use supplementary phone services with the USA Type Call
Service Mode. Commands for supplementary services are listed in the table below.
After pressing the flash key, if you do not issue the sub-command before the default subcommand timeout (2 seconds) expires or issue an invalid sub-command, the current operation
will be aborted.
Table 54 USA Type Flash Key Commands
COMMAND
SUB-COMMAND
Flash
Flash
DESCRIPTION
Put a current call on hold to place a second call. After the second
call is successful, press the flash key again to have a three-way
conference call.
Put a current call on hold to answer an incoming call.
*98#
Transfer the call to another phone.
USA Call Hold allows you to put a call (A) on hold by pressing the flash key.
If you have another call, press the flash key to switch back and forth between caller A and B
by putting either one on hold.
If you hang up the phone but a caller is still on hold, there will be a remind ring.
USA Call Waiting allows you to place a call on hold while you answer another incoming call
on the same telephone (directory) number.
If there is a second call to your telephone number, you will hear a call waiting tone.
Press the flash key to put the first call on hold and answer the second call.
USA Call Transfer allows you to transfer an incoming call (that you have answered) to
another phone. To do so:
1 Press the flash key to put the caller on hold.
2 When you hear the dial tone, dial “*98#” followed by the number to which you want to
transfer the call. to operate the Intercom.
3 After you hear the ring signal or the second party answers it, hang up the phone.
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USA Three-Way Conference allows you to make three-way conference calls. To do so:
1 When you are making a call, press the flash key to put the call on hold and get a dial
tone.
2 Dial a phone number to make a second call.
3 When the second call is answered, press the flash key to create a three-way conversation.
4 If you want to separate the three-way conference into two individual calls (one call is
online, the other is on hold), press the flash key. The first call is online and the second
call is on hold. Pressing the flash key again will recreate the three-way conversation. The
next time you press the flash key, the second call is online and the first call is on hold.
5 Hang up the phone to drop the connection.
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13
The Phone Book Screens
13.1 Overview
The VOICE > Phone Book screens allow you to configure the WiMAX Modem’s phone book
for making VoIP calls.
13.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The Incoming Call Policy screen (Section 13.2 on page 134) lets you maintain rules for
handling incoming calls. You can block, redirect, or accept them.
• The Speed Dial screen (Section 13.3 on page 136) lets you add, edit, or remove speed-dial
entries.
13.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Speed Dial and Peer-to-Peer Calling
Speed dial provides shortcuts for dialing frequently used (VoIP) phone numbers. It is also
required if you want to make peer-to-peer calls.
In peer-to-peer calls, you call another VoIP device directly without going through a SIP server.
In the WiMAX Modem, you must set up a speed dial entry in the phone book in order to do
this. Select Non-Proxy (Use IP or URL) in the Type column and enter the callee’s IP address
or domain name. The WiMAX Modem sends SIP INVITE requests to the peer VoIP device
when you use the speed dial entry.
You do not need to configure a SIP account in order to make a peer-to-peer VoIP call.
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Chapter 13 The Phone Book Screens
13.2 Incoming Call Policy
Click VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call Policy to maintain rules for handling
incoming calls. You can block, redirect, or accept them.
Figure 74 VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call Policy
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Table Number
Select the call-forwarding table you want to see in this screen. If you change this
field, the screen automatically refreshes.
Forward to Number Setup
134
Unconditional
Forward to
Number
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to forward all incoming calls to the
specified phone number, regardless of other rules in the Forward to Number
section. Specify the phone number in the field on the right.
Busy Forward to
Number
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to forward incoming calls to the
specified phone number if the phone port is busy. Specify the phone number in the
field on the right. If you have call waiting, the incoming call is forwarded to the
specified phone number if you reject or ignore the second incoming call.
No Answer
Forward to
Number
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to forward incoming calls to the
specified phone number if the call is unanswered. (See No Answer Waiting
Time.) Specify the phone number in the field on the right.
User’s Guide
Chapter 13 The Phone Book Screens
Table 55 VOICE > Phone Book > Incoming Call Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No Answer
Waiting Time
This field is used by the No Answer Forward to Number feature and No Answer
conditions below.
Enter the number of seconds the WiMAX Modem should wait for you to answer an
incoming call before it considers the call is unanswered.
Advanced Setup
"
#
The number of the item in this list.
Activate
Select this to enable this rule. Clear this to disable this rule.
Incoming Call
Number
Enter the phone number to which this rule applies.
Forward to
Number
Enter the phone number to which you want to forward incoming calls from the
Incoming Call Number. You may leave this field blank, depending on the
Condition.
Condition
Select the situations in which you want to forward incoming calls from the
Incoming Call Number, or select an alternative action.
• Unconditional - The WiMAX Modem immediately forwards any calls from the
Incoming Call Number to the Forward to Number.
• Busy - The WiMAX Modem forwards any calls from the Incoming Call
Number to the Forward to Number when your SIP account already has a call
connected.
• No Answer - The WiMAX Modem forwards any calls from the Incoming Call
Number to the Forward to Number when the call is unanswered. (See No
Answer Waiting Time.)
• Block - The WiMAX Modem rejects calls from the Incoming Call Number.
• Accept - The WiMAX Modem allows calls from the Incoming Call Number.
You might create a rule with this condition if you do not want incoming calls
from someone to be forwarded by rules in the Forward to Number section.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
The WiMAX Modem checks the Advanced rules first before checking the
Forward to Number rules. All rules are checked in order from top to bottom.
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Chapter 13 The Phone Book Screens
13.3 Speed Dial
Click VOICE > Phone Book > Speed Dial to add, edit, or remove speed-dial entries.
You must create speed-dial entries if you want to make peer-to-peer calls or call SIP numbers
that use letters. You can also create speed-dial entries for frequently-used SIP phone numbers.
Figure 75 VOICE > Phone Book > Speed Dial
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 56 Advanced> LAN Configuration > IP Static Route
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click to delete this item.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 VOICE > Phone Book > Speed Dial
136
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Speed Dial
Select the speed-dial number you want to use for this phone number.
Number
Enter the SIP number you want the WiMAX Modem to call when you dial the
speed-dial number.
Name
Enter a name to identify the party you call when you dial the speed-dial number.
You can use up to 127 printable ASCII characters.
User’s Guide
Chapter 13 The Phone Book Screens
Table 57 VOICE > Phone Book > Speed Dial
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Select Use Proxy if you want to use one of your SIP accounts to call this phone
number.
Select Non-Proxy (Use IP or URL) if you want to use a different SIP server or if
you want to make a peer-to-peer call. In this case, enter the IP address or domain
name of the SIP server or the other party in the field below.
Add
Click to add the new number to the list below.
#
This is a list of speed dial numbers.
Number
This is the SIP number the WiMAX Modem calls when you use this speed dial
number.
Name
This is the name of the party associated with this speed-dial number.
Type
This indicates whether this speed dial number uses a proxy or not when placing a
call to the phone number associated with it.
Destination
This indicates if the speed-dial entry uses one of your SIP accounts or uses the IP
address or domain name of the SIP server.
Action
Click the Delete icon to erase this speed-dial entry.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Clear
Click to clear all fields on the screen and begin anew.
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P ART V
Tools & Status
Screens
The Certificates Screens (141)
The Firewall Screens (159)
Content Filter (167)
The Remote Management Screens (171)
The Logs Screens (181)
The UPnP Screen (195)
The Status Screen (203)
139
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CHAPTER
14
The Certificates Screens
14.1 Overview
Use the TOOLS > Certificates screens to manage public key certificates on the WiMAX
Modem.
The WiMAX Modem can use public key certificates (also sometimes called “digital IDs”) to
authenticate users. Certificates are based on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the
certificate owner’s identity and public key. Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys
for use in authentication.
Public key certificates are used by web browsers to ensure that a secure web site is legitimate.
When a certificate authority such as VeriSign, Comodo, or Network Solutions (to name a few)
receives a certificate request from a website operator, they confirm that the web domain and
contact information in the request match those on public record with a domain name registrar.
If they match, then the certificate is issued to the website operator, who then places it on his
site to be issued to all visiting web browsers to let them know that the site is legitimate.
14.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The My Certificates screen (Section 14.2 on page 142) lets you generate and export selfsigned certificates or certification requests and import the WiMAX Modem’s CA-signed
certificates.
• The Trusted CAs screen (Section 14.3 on page 150) lets you display a summary list of
certificates of the certification authorities that you have set the WiMAX Modem to accept
as trusted.
14.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Certificate Authorities
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each
certificate owner. There are commercial certification authorities like CyberTrust or VeriSign
and government certification authorities. You can use the WiMAX Modem to generate
certification requests that contain identifying information and public keys and then send the
certification requests to a certification authority.
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Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
14.2 My Certificates
Click TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates to generate and export self-signed
certificates or certification requests and import the WiMAX Modem’s CA-signed certificates.
Figure 76 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 58 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Edit
Click to edit this item.
Import
Click to import an item.
Delete
Click to delete this item.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates
142
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the WiMAX Modem’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding more certificates.
#
The number of the item in this list.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that
you give each certificate a unique name.
Type
This field displays what kind of certificate this is.
REQ represents a certification request and is not yet a valid certificate. Send a
certification request to a certification authority, which then issues a certificate. Use
the My Certificate Import screen to import the certificate and replace the request.
SELF represents a self-signed certificate.
*SELF represents the default self-signed certificate which signs the imported
remote host certificates.
CERT represents a certificate issued by a certification authority.
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Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
Table 59 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates (continued)
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expired! message if the certificate has expired.
Action
Click the Edit icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate.
Click the Export icon to save a copy of the certificate without its private key.
Browse to the location you want to use and click Save.
Click the Delete icon to remove a certificate. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Subsequent certificates move up by
one when you take this action.
The WiMAX Modem keeps all of your certificates unless you specifically delete
them. Uploading new firmware or default configuration file does not delete your
certificates.
You cannot delete certificates that any of the WiMAX Modem’s features are
configured to use.
Import
Click to a certificate into the WiMAX Modem.
Create
Click to go to the screen where you can have the WiMAX Modem generate a
certificate or a certification request.
Refresh
Click to display the current validity status of the certificates.
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Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
14.2.1 My Certificates Create
Click TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates and then the Create icon to open the My
Certificates Create screen. Use this screen to have the WiMAX Modem create a self-signed
certificate, enroll a certificate with a certification authority or generate a certification request.
Figure 77 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Create
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 60 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Create
144
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
Type a name to identify this certificate. You can use up to 31 alphanumeric
and ;‘~!@#$%^&()_+[]{}’,.=- characters.
Subject Information
Use these fields to record information that identifies the owner of the
certificate. You do not have to fill in every field, although the Common Name
is mandatory. The certification authority may add fields (such as a serial
number) to the subject information when it issues a certificate. It is
recommended that each certificate have unique subject information.
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Table 60 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Create
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Common Name
Select a radio button to identify the certificate’s owner by IP address, domain
name or e-mail address. Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation),
domain name or e-mail address in the field provided. The domain name or email address is for identification purposes only and can be any string.
A domain name can be up to 255 characters. You can use alphanumeric
characters, the hyphen and periods.
An e-mail address can be up to 63 characters. You can use alphanumeric
characters, the hyphen, the @ symbol, periods and the underscore.
Organizational Unit
Identify the organizational unit or department to which the certificate owner
belongs. You can use up to 63 characters. You can use alphanumeric
characters, the hyphen and the underscore.
Organization
Identify the company or group to which the certificate owner belongs. You can
use up to 63 characters. You can use alphanumeric characters, the hyphen
and the underscore.
Country
Identify the state in which the certificate owner is located. You can use up to
31 characters. You can use alphanumeric characters, the hyphen and the
underscore.
Key Length
Select a number from the drop-down list box to determine how many bits the
key should use (512 to 2048). The longer the key, the more secure it is. A
longer key also uses more PKI storage space.
Enrollment Options
These radio buttons deal with how and when the certificate is to be generated.
Create a self-signed
certificate
Select Create a self-signed certificate to have the WiMAX Modem generate
the certificate and act as the Certification Authority (CA) itself. This way you do
not need to apply to a certification authority for certificates.
Create a certification
request and save it
locally for later
manual enrollment
Select Create a certification request and save it locally for later manual
enrollment to have the WiMAX Modem generate and store a request for a
certificate. Use the My Certificate Details screen to view the certification
request and copy it to send to the certification authority.
Copy the certification request from the My Certificate Details screen and then
send it to the certification authority.
Create a certification
request and enroll for
a certificate
immediately online
Select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online to have the WiMAX Modem generate a request for a
certificate and apply to a certification authority for a certificate.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen.
When you select this option, you must select the certification authority’s
enrollment protocol and the certification authority’s certificate from the dropdown list boxes and enter the certification authority’s server address. You also
need to fill in the Reference Number and Key if the certification authority
requires them.
Enrollment Protocol
This field applies when you select Create a certification request and enroll
for a certificate immediately online. Select the certification authority’s
enrollment protocol from the drop-down list box.
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is a TCP-based enrollment
protocol that was developed by VeriSign and Cisco.
Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) is a TCP-based enrollment
protocol that was developed by the Public Key Infrastructure X.509 working
group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is specified in RFC
2510.
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Table 60 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Create
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
CA Server Address
This field applies when you select Create a certification request and enroll
for a certificate immediately online. Enter the IP address (or URL) of the
certification authority server.
For a URL, you can use up to 511 of the following characters. a-zA-Z0-9'()+,/
:.=?;!*#@$_%-
CA Certificate
This field applies when you select Create a certification request and enroll
for a certificate immediately online. Select the certification authority’s
certificate from the CA Certificate drop-down list box.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen. Click Trusted CAs to go to the Trusted CAs screen
where you can view (and manage) the WiMAX Modem's list of certificates of
trusted certification authorities.
Request
Authentication
When you select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online, the certification authority may want you to include a
reference number and key to identify you when you send a certification
request.
Fill in both the Reference Number and the Key fields if your certification
authority uses CMP enrollment protocol. Just the Key field displays if your
certification authority uses the SCEP enrollment protocol.
For the reference number, use 0 to 99999999.
For the key, use up to 31 of the following characters. a-zA-Z09;|`~!@#$%^&*()_+\{}':,./<>=-
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
If you configured the My Certificate Create screen to have the WiMAX Modem enroll a
certificate and the certificate enrollment is not successful, you see a screen with a Return
button that takes you back to the My Certificate Create screen. Click Return and check your
information in the My Certificate Create screen. Make sure that the certification authority
information is correct and that your Internet connection is working properly if you want the
WiMAX Modem to enroll a certificate online.
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14.2.2 My Certificate Edit
Click TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates and then the Edit icon to view in-depth
certificate information and change the certificate’s name.
Figure 78 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Edit
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. You can use up to 31
alphanumeric and ;‘~!@#$%^&()_+[]{}’,.=- characters.
Property
Select Default self-signed certificate which signs the imported remote host
certificates to use this certificate to sign the remote host certificates you upload
in the TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs screen.
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Table 61 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certification Path
This field displays for a certificate, not a certification request.
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the hierarchy of
certification authorities that validate the certificate (and the certificate itself).
If the issuing certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted
certification authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along
with the certificate itself). If the certificate is a self-signed certificate, the
certificate itself is the only one in the list. The WiMAX Modem does not trust the
certificate and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has
expired or been revoked.
Refresh
Click to display the certification path.
Certification Information
148
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). “X.509”
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number. “
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority or generated by the WiMAX Modem.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same as the Subject Name field.
“none” displays for a certification request.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate. The
WiMAX Modem uses rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key encryption
algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Some certification authorities may use
rsa-pkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and the MD5 hash
algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. “none”
displays for a certification request.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expired! message if the certificate has expired. “none” displays
for a certification request.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the WiMAX Modem uses RSA encryption) and the length
of the key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path. This field does not display for a certification
request.
User’s Guide
Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
Table 61 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the WiMAX Modem calculated using
the MD5 algorithm.
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the WiMAX Modem calculated using
the SHA1 algorithm.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses lowercase letters, uppercase letters
and numerals to convert the binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste a certification request into a certification authority’s web
page, an e-mail that you send to the certification authority or a text editor and
save the file on a management computer for later manual enrollment.
You can copy and paste a certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste a certificate into a text editor and save the
file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
14.2.3 My Certificate Import
Click TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Import to import a certificate that matches
a corresponding certification request that was generated by the WiMAX Modem. You must
remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can import it.
Figure 79 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 TOOLS > Certificates > My Certificates > Import
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
You cannot import a certificate with the same name as a certificate that is already in the
WiMAX Modem.
Browse
Click to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
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14.3 Trusted CAs
Click TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs to display a summary list of certificates of the
certification authorities that you have set the WiMAX Modem to accept as trusted. The
WiMAX Modem accepts any valid certificate signed by a certification authority on this list as
being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any certificate that is signed by one of these
certification authorities.
Figure 80 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs
The following table describes the icons in this screen.
Table 63 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Edit
Click to edit this item.
Export
Click to export an item.
Delete
Click to delete this item.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs
150
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the WiMAX Modem’s PKI storage space that is
currently in use. When the storage space is almost full, you should consider
deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding more certificates.
#
The number of the item in this list.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the
same information as in the Subject field.
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Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
Table 64 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs (continued)
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or
has already expired.
CRL Issuer
This field displays Yes if the certification authority issues CRL (Certificate
Revocation Lists) for the certificates that it has issued and you have selected the
Check incoming certificates issued by this CA against a CRL check box in the
certificate’s details screen to have the WiMAX Modem check the CRL before
trusting any certificates issued by the certification authority. Otherwise the field
displays No.
Action
Click the Edit icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate.
Use the Export icon to save the certificate to a computer. Click the icon and then
Save in the File Download screen. The Save As screen opens, browse to the
location that you want to use and click Save.
Click the Delete icon to remove the certificate. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a certification
authority that you trust, from your computer to the WiMAX Modem.
Refresh
Click this button to display the current validity status of the certificates.
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14.3.1 Trusted CA Edit
Click TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs and then click the Edit icon to open the Trusted
CAs screen to view in-depth certificate information and change the certificate’s name.
Figure 81 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Edit
152
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. You can use up to 31
alphanumeric and ;‘~!@#$%^&()_+[]{}’,.=- characters.
Property
Select Default self-signed certificate which signs the imported remote host
certificates to use this certificate to sign the remote host certificates you upload
in the TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs screen.
User’s Guide
Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
Table 65 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certification Path
This field displays for a certificate, not a certification request.
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the hierarchy of
certification authorities that validate the certificate (and the certificate itself).
If the issuing certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted
certification authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along
with the certificate itself). If the certificate is a self-signed certificate, the
certificate itself is the only one in the list. The WiMAX Modem does not trust the
certificate and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has
expired or been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certification Information
User’s Guide
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). “X.509”
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number. “
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority or generated by the WiMAX Modem.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same as the Subject Name field.
“none” displays for a certification request.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate. The
WiMAX Modem uses rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key encryption
algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Some certification authorities may use
rsa-pkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and the MD5 hash
algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. “none”
displays for a certification request.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expired! message if the certificate has expired. “none” displays
for a certification request.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the WiMAX Modem uses RSA encryption) and the length
of the key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path. This field does not display for a certification
request.
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Table 65 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the WiMAX Modem calculated using
the MD5 algorithm.
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the WiMAX Modem calculated using
the SHA1 algorithm.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses lowercase letters, uppercase letters
and numerals to convert the binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste a certification request into a certification authority’s web
page, an e-mail that you send to the certification authority or a text editor and
save the file on a management computer for later manual enrollment.
You can copy and paste a certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste a certificate into a text editor and save the
file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
14.3.2 Trusted CA Import
Click TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs and then click Import to open the Trusted CA
Import screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to save a trusted certification authority’s
certificate from a computer to the WiMAX Modem. The WiMAX Modem trusts any valid
certificate signed by any of the imported trusted CA certificates.
"
You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import the certificate.
Figure 82 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs > Import
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 TOOLS > Certificates > Trusted CAs Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Choose...
Click to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
14.4 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the WiMAX Modem
features described in this chapter.
14.4.1 Certificate Authorities
When using public-key cryptology for authentication, each host has two keys. One key is
public and can be made openly available. The other key is private and must be kept secure.
These keys work like a handwritten signature (in fact, certificates are often referred to as
“digital signatures”). Only you can write your signature exactly as it ought to look. When
people know what your signature ought to look like, they can verify whether something was
signed by you, or by someone else. In the same way, your private key “writes” your digital
signature and your public key allows people to verify whether data was signed by you, or by
someone else. This process works as follows.
1 Tim wants to send a message to Jenny. He needs her to be sure that it comes from him,
and that the message content has not been altered by anyone else along the way. Tim
generates a public key pair (one public key and one private key).
2 Tim keeps the private key and makes the public key openly available. This means that
anyone who receives a message seeming to come from Tim can read it and verify
whether it is really from him or not.
3 Tim uses his private key to sign the message and sends it to Jenny.
4 Jenny receives the message and uses Tim’s public key to verify it. Jenny knows that the
message is from Tim, and she knows that although other people may have been able to
read the message, no-one can have altered it (because they cannot re-sign the message
with Tim’s private key).
5 Additionally, Jenny uses her own private key to sign a message and Tim uses Jenny’s
public key to verify the message.
The WiMAX Modem uses certificates based on public-key cryptology to authenticate users
attempting to establish a connection, not to encrypt the data that you send after establishing a
connection. The method used to secure the data that you send through an established
connection depends on the type of connection. For example, a VPN tunnel might use the triple
DES encryption algorithm.
The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone can then use the
certification authority’s public key to verify the certificates.
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A certification path is the hierarchy of certification authority certificates that validate a
certificate. The WiMAX Modem does not trust a certificate if any certificate on its path has
expired or been revoked.
Certification authorities maintain directory servers with databases of valid and revoked
certificates. A directory of certificates that have been revoked before the scheduled expiration
is called a CRL (Certificate Revocation List). The WiMAX Modem can check a peer’s
certificate against a directory server’s list of revoked certificates. The framework of servers,
software, procedures and policies that handles keys is called PKI (public-key infrastructure).
14.4.1.1 Advantages of Certificates
Certificates offer the following benefits.
• The WiMAX Modem only has to store the certificates of the certification authorities that
you decide to trust, no matter how many devices you need to authenticate.
• Key distribution is simple and very secure since you can freely distribute public keys and
you never need to transmit private keys.
14.4.1.2 Self-signed Certificates
You can have the WiMAX Modem act as a certification authority and sign its own certificates.
14.4.1.3 Factory Default Certificate
The WiMAX Modem generates its own unique self-signed certificate when you first turn it on.
This certificate is referred to in the GUI as the factory default certificate.
14.4.1.4 Certificate File Formats
Any certificate that you want to import has to be in one of these file formats:
• Binary X.509: This is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for X.509
certificates.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded X.509: This Privacy Enhanced Mail format uses lowercase
letters, uppercase letters and numerals to convert a binary X.509 certificate into a printable
form.
• Binary PKCS#7: This is a standard that defines the general syntax for data (including
digital signatures) that may be encrypted. A PKCS #7 file is used to transfer a public key
certificate. The private key is not included. The WiMAX Modem currently allows the
importation of a PKS#7 file that contains a single certificate.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded PKCS#7: This Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format uses
lowercase letters, uppercase letters and numerals to convert a binary PKCS#7 certificate
into a printable form.
"
156
Be careful to not convert a binary file to text during the transfer process. It is
easy for this to occur since many programs use text files by default.
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Chapter 14 The Certificates Screens
14.4.2 Verifying a Certificate
Before you import a certificate into the WiMAX Modem, you should verify that you have the
correct certificate. This is especially true of trusted certificates since the WiMAX Modem also
trusts any valid certificate signed by any of the imported trusted certificates.
14.4.2.1 Checking the Fingerprint of a Certificate on Your Computer
A certificate’s fingerprints are message digests calculated using the MD5 or SHA1 algorithms.
The following procedure describes how to check a certificate’s fingerprint to verify that you
have the actual certificate.
1 Browse to where you have the certificate saved on your computer.
2 Make sure that the certificate has a “.cer” or “.crt” file name extension. (On some Linux
distributions, the file extension may be “.der”.)
Figure 83 Remote Host Certificates
3 Double-click the certificate’s icon to open the Certificate window. Click the Details tab
and scroll down to the Thumbprint Algorithm and Thumbprint fields.
Figure 84 Certificate Details
4 Use a secure method to verify that the certificate owner has the same information in the
Thumbprint Algorithm and Thumbprint fields. The secure method may very based
on your situation. Possible examples would be over the telephone or through an HTTPS
connection.
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CHAPTER
15
The Firewall Screens
15.1 Overview
Use the TOOLS > Firewall screens to manage WiMAX Modem’s firewall security measures.
Originally, the term firewall referred to a construction technique designed to prevent the
spread of fire from one room to another. The networking term "firewall" is a system or group
of systems that enforces an access-control policy between two networks. It may also be
defined as a mechanism used to protect a trusted network from an untrusted network. Of
course, firewalls cannot solve every security problem.
A firewall is one of the mechanisms used to establish a network security perimeter in support
of a network security policy. It should never be the only mechanism or method employed. For
a firewall to guard effectively, you must design and deploy it appropriately. This requires
integrating the firewall into a broad information-security policy. In addition, specific policies
must be implemented within the firewall itself.
15.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The Firewall Setting screen (Section 15.2 on page 160) lets you configure the basic
settings for your firewall.
• The Service Setting screen (Section 15.3 on page 163) lets you enable service blocking,
set up the date and time service blocking is effective, and to maintain the list of services
you want to block.
15.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
About the WiMAX Modem Firewall
The WiMAX Modem firewall is a stateful inspection firewall and is designed to protect
against Denial of Service attacks when activated. The WiMAX Modem's purpose is to allow a
private Local Area Network (LAN) to be securely connected to the Internet. The WiMAX
Modem can be used to prevent theft, destruction and modification of data, as well as log
events, which may be important to the security of your network.
The WiMAX Modem is installed between the LAN and a WiMAX base station connecting to
the Internet. This allows it to act as a secure gateway for all data passing between the Internet
and the LAN.
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The WiMAX Modem has one Ethernet (LAN) port. The LAN (Local Area Network) port
attaches to a network of computers, which needs security from the outside world. These
computers will have access to Internet services such as e-mail, FTP and the World Wide Web.
However, “inbound access” is not allowed (by default) unless the remote host is authorized to
use a specific service.
15.2 Firewall Setting
This section describes firewalls and the built-in WiMAX Modem’s firewall features.
15.2.1 Firewall Rule Directions
Figure 85 Firewall Rule Directions
LAN-to-WAN rules are local network to Internet firewall rules. The default is to forward all
traffic from your local network to the Internet.
You can block certain LAN-to-WAN traffic in the Services screen (click the Services tab). All
services displayed in the Blocked Services list box are LAN-to-WAN firewall rules that block
those services originating from the LAN.
Blocked LAN-to-WAN packets are considered alerts. Alerts are “higher priority logs” that
include system errors, attacks and attempted access to blocked web sites. Alerts appear in red
in the View Log screen. You may choose to have alerts e-mailed immediately in the Log
Settings screen.
LAN-to-LAN/WiMAX Modem means the LAN to the WiMAX Modem LAN interface. This
is always allowed, as this is how you manage the WiMAX Modem from your local computer.
WAN-to-LAN rules are Internet to your local network firewall rules. The default is to block
all traffic from the Internet to your local network.
How can you forward certain WAN to LAN traffic? You may allow traffic originating from the
WAN to be forwarded to the LAN by:
• Configuring NAT port forwarding rules.
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• Configuring WAN or LAN & WAN access for services in the Remote MGMT screens or
SMT menus. When you allow remote management from the WAN, you are actually
configuring WAN-to-WAN/WiMAX Modem firewall rules. WAN-to-WAN/WiMAX
Modem firewall rules are Internet to the WiMAX Modem WAN interface firewall rules.
The default is to block all such traffic. When you decide what WAN-to-LAN packets to
log, you are in fact deciding what WAN-to-LAN and WAN-to-WAN/WiMAX Modem
packets to log.
Forwarded WAN-to-LAN packets are not considered alerts.
15.2.2 Triangle Route
When the firewall is on, your WiMAX Modem acts as a secure gateway between your LAN
and the Internet. In an ideal network topology, all incoming and outgoing network traffic
passes through the WiMAX Modem to protect your LAN against attacks.
Figure 86 Ideal Firewall Setup
15.2.3 Firewall Setting Options
Click TOOLS > Firewall > Firewall Setting to configure the basic settings for your firewall.
Figure 87 TOOLS > Firewall > Firewall Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 TOOLS > Firewall > Firewall Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Firewall
Select this to activate the firewall. The WiMAX Modem controls access and
protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks when the firewall is activated.
Bypass Triangle
Route
Select this if you want to let some traffic from the WAN go directly to a computer in
the LAN without passing through the WiMAX Modem.
Max NAT/Firewall
Session Per User
Select the maximum number of NAT rules and firewall rules the WiMAX Modem
enforces at one time. The WiMAX Modem automatically allocates memory for the
maximum number of rules, regardless of whether or not there is a rule to enforce.
This is the same number you enter in Network > NAT > General.
Packet Direction
162
Log
Select the situations in which you want to create log entries for firewall events.
No Log - do not create any log entries
Log Blocked - (LAN to WAN only) create log entries when packets are blocked
Log Forwarded - (WAN to LAN only) create log entries when packets are
forwarded
Log All - create log entries for every packet
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 15 The Firewall Screens
15.3 Service Setting
Click TOOLS > Firewall > Service Setting to enable service blocking, set up the date and
time service blocking is effective, and to maintain the list of services you want to block.
Figure 88 TOOLS > Firewall > Service Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 TOOLS > Firewall > Service Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Setup
User’s Guide
Enable Services
Blocking
Select this to activate service blocking. The Schedule to Block section controls
what days and what times service blocking is actually effective, however.
Available
Services
This is a list of pre-defined services (destination ports) you may prohibit your LAN
computers from using. Select the port you want to block, and click Add to add the
port to the Blocked Services field.
A custom port is a service that is not available in the pre-defined Available
Services list. You must define it using the Type and Port Number fields.
Blocked Services
This is a list of services (ports) that are inaccessible to computers on your LAN
when service blocking is effective. To remove a service from this list, select the
service, and click Delete.
Type
Select TCP or UDP, based on which one the custom port uses.
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Table 68 TOOLS > Firewall > Service Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Number
Enter the range of port numbers that defines the service. For example, suppose
you want to define the Gnutella service. Select TCP type and enter a port range of
6345-6349.
Add
Click this to add the selected service in Available Services to the Blocked
Services list.
Delete
Select a service in the Blocked Services, and click this to remove the service
from the list.
Clear All
Click this to remove all the services in the Blocked Services list.
Schedule to Block
Day to Block
Select which days of the week you want the service blocking to be effective.
Time of Day to
Block
Select what time each day you want service blocking to be effective. Enter times in
24-hour format; for example, 3:00pm should be entered as 15:00.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
15.4 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the WiMAX Modem
features described in this chapter.
15.4.1 Stateful Inspection Firewall.
Stateful inspection firewalls restrict access by screening data packets against defined access
rules. They make access control decisions based on IP address and protocol. They also
"inspect" the session data to assure the integrity of the connection and to adapt to dynamic
protocols. These firewalls generally provide the best speed and transparency; however, they
may lack the granular application level access control or caching that some proxies support.
Firewalls, of one type or another, have become an integral part of standard security solutions
for enterprises.
15.4.2 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall
1
2
3
4
Change the default password via web configurator.
Think about access control before you connect to the network in any way.
Limit who can access your router.
Don't enable any local service (such as telnet or FTP) that you don't use. Any enabled
service could present a potential security risk. A determined hacker might be able to find
creative ways to misuse the enabled services to access the firewall or the network.
5 For local services that are enabled, protect against misuse. Protect by configuring the
services to communicate only with specific peers, and protect by configuring rules to
block packets for the services at specific interfaces.
6 Protect against IP spoofing by making sure the firewall is active.
7 Keep the firewall in a secured (locked) room.
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15.4.3 The “Triangle Route” Problem
A traffic route is a path for sending or receiving data packets between two Ethernet devices.
You may have more than one connection to the Internet (through one or more ISPs). If an
alternate gateway is on the LAN (and its IP address is in the same subnet as the WiMAX
Modem’s LAN IP address), the “triangle route” (also called asymmetrical route) problem may
occur. The steps below describe the “triangle route” problem.
1 A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending out a SYN packet to a
receiving server on the WAN.
2 The WiMAX Modem reroutes the SYN packet through Gateway A on the LAN to the
WAN.
3 The reply from the WAN goes directly to the computer on the LAN without going
through the WiMAX Modem.
As a result, the WiMAX Modem resets the connection, as the connection has not been
acknowledged.
Figure 89 “Triangle Route” Problem
15.4.3.1 Solving the “Triangle Route” Problem
If you have the WiMAX Modem allow triangle route sessions, traffic from the WAN can go
directly to a LAN computer without passing through the WiMAX Modem and its firewall
protection.
Another solution is to use IP alias. IP alias allows you to partition your network into logical
sections over the same Ethernet interface. Your WiMAX Modem supports up to three logical
LAN interfaces with the WiMAX Modem being the gateway for each logical network.
It’s like having multiple LAN networks that actually use the same physical cables and ports.
By putting your LAN and Gateway A in different subnets, all returning network traffic must
pass through the WiMAX Modem to your LAN. The following steps describe such a scenario.
1 A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet to a receiving
server on the WAN.
2 The WiMAX Modem reroutes the packet to Gateway A, which is in Subnet 2.
3 The reply from the WAN goes to the WiMAX Modem.
4 The WiMAX Modem then sends it to the computer on the LAN in Subnet 1.
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Figure 90 IP Alias
166
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CHAPTER
16
Content Filter
16.1 Overview
Use the TOOLS > Content Filter screens to create and enforce policies that restrict access to
the Internet based on content
Internet content filtering allows you to create and enforce Internet access policies tailored to
their needs. Content filtering is the ability to block certain web features or specific URL
keywords. The WiMAX Modem can block web features such as ActiveX controls, Java
applets, cookies and disable web proxies. The WiMAX Modem also allows you to define time
periods and days during which the WiMAX Modem performs content filtering.
16.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The Filter screen (Section 16.2 on page 168) lets you set up a trusted IP address, which
web features are restricted, and which keywords are blocked when content filtering is
effective.
• The Schedule screen (Section 16.3 on page 170) lets you schedule content filtering.
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Chapter 16 Content Filter
16.2 Filter
Click TOOLS > Content Filter > Filter to set up a trusted IP address, which web features are
restricted, and which keywords are blocked when content filtering is effective.
Figure 91 TOOLS > Content Filter > Filter
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 TOOLS > Content Filter > Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trusted IP Setup
Trusted Computer
IP Address
You can allow a specific computer to access all Internet resources without the
restrictions you set in these screens. Enter the IP address of the trusted computer.
Restrict Web
Features
Select the web features you want to disable. If a user downloads a page with a
restricted feature, that part of the web page appears blank or grayed out.
ActiveX - This is a tool for building dynamic and active Web pages and distributed
object applications. When you visit an ActiveX Web site, ActiveX controls are
downloaded to your browser, where they remain in case you visit the site again.
Java - This is used to build downloadable Web components or Internet and
intranet business applications of all kinds.
Cookies - This is used by Web servers to track usage and to provide service
based on ID.
Web Proxy - This is a server that acts as an intermediary between a user and the
Internet to provide security, administrative control, and caching service. When a
proxy server is located on the WAN, it is possible for LAN users to avoid content
filtering restrictions.
Keyword Blocking
User’s Guide
Enable URL
Keyword Blocking
Select this if you want the WiMAX Modem to block Web sites based on words in
the web site address. For example, if you block the keyword bad, http://
www.website.com/bad.html is blocked.
Keyword
Type a keyword you want to block in this field. You can use up to 64 printable
ASCII characters. There is no wildcard character, however.
Add
Click this to add the specified Keyword to the Keyword List. You can enter up to
64 keywords.
Keyword List
This field displays the keywords that are blocked when Enable URL Keyword
Blocking is selected. To delete a keyword, select it, click Delete, and click Apply.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected keyword in the Keyword List. The keyword
disappears after you click Apply.
Clear All
Click this button to remove all of the keywords in the Keyword List.
Denied Access
Message
Enter the message that is displayed when the WiMAX Modem’s content filter
feature blocks access to a web site.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 16 Content Filter
16.3 Schedule
Click TOOLS > Content Filter > Schedule to schedule content filtering.
Figure 92 TOOLS > Content Filter > Schedule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 TOOLS > Content Filter > Schedule
170
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Day to Block
Select which days of the week you want content filtering to be effective.
Time of Day to
Block
Select what time each day you want content filtering to be effective. Enter times in
24-hour format; for example, 3:00pm should be entered as 15:00.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
17
The Remote Management
Screens
17.1 Overview
Use the TOOLS > Remote Management screens to control which computers can use which
services to access the WiMAX Modem on each interface.
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
WiMAX Modem interface (if any) from which computers.
You may manage your WiMAX Modem from a remote location via:
Table 71 Remote Management
•
Internet (WAN only)
•
ALL (LAN and WAN)
•
LAN only
•
Neither (Disable).
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The WiMAX Modem
automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority when another
remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities for the different types of
remote management sessions are as follows.
1 Telnet
2 HTTP
17.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The WWW screen (Section 17.2 on page 173) lets you control HTTP access to your
WiMAX Modem.
• The Telnet screen (Section 17.3 on page 173) lets you control Telnet access to your
WiMAX Modem.
• The FTP screen (Section 17.4 on page 174) lets you control FTP access to your WiMAX
Modem.
• The SNMP screen (Section 17.5 on page 175) lets you control SNMP access to your
WiMAX Modem.
• The DNS screen (Section 17.6 on page 177) lets you control DNS access to your WiMAX
Modem.
• The Security screen (Section 17.7 on page 178) lets you control how your WiMAX
Modem responds to other types of requests.
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
17.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1 A filter in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet,
FTP or Web service.
2 You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
3 The IP address in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP address. If it
does not match, the WiMAX Modem will disconnect the session immediately.
4 There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the WiMAX Modem’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the WiMAX Modem’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The WiMAX Modem automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for
longer than this timeout period. The management session does not time out when a statistics
screen is polling. You can change the timeout period in the Maintenance > System > General
screen.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol used for exchanging
management information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Your WiMAX Modem supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a
manager station to manage and monitor the WiMAX Modem through the network. The
WiMAX Modem supports SNMP version one (SNMPv1) and version two (SNMPv2). The
next figure illustrates an SNMP management operation.
"
172
SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
17.2 WWW
Click TOOLS > Remote Management > WWW to control HTTP access to your WiMAX
Modem.
Figure 93 TOOLS > Remote Management > WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 TOOLS > Remote Management > WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
Enter the port number this service can use to access the WiMAX Modem. The
computer must use the same port number.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the WiMAX Modem
using this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
Select All to allow any computer to access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Select Selected to only allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
17.3 Telnet
Click TOOLS > Remote Management > Telnet to control Telnet access to your WiMAX
Modem.
Figure 94 TOOLS > Remote Management > Telnet
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 TOOLS > Remote Management > Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
Enter the port number this service can use to access the WiMAX Modem. The
computer must use the same port number.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the WiMAX Modem
using this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
Select All to allow any computer to access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Select Selected to only allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
17.4 FTP
Click TOOLS > Remote Management > FTP to control FTP access to your WiMAX
Modem.
Figure 95 TOOLS > Remote Management > FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 TOOLS > Remote Management > FTP
174
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
Enter the port number this service can use to access the WiMAX Modem. The
computer must use the same port number.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the WiMAX Modem
using this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
Select All to allow any computer to access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Select Selected to only allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
17.5 SNMP
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
Figure 96 SNMP Management Model
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the WiMAX
Modem). An agent translates the local management information from the managed device into
a form compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network
administrators perform network management functions. It executes applications that control
and monitor managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects. The WiMAX Modem supports MIB II that is defined in RFC-1213
and RFC-1215. The focus of the MIBs is to let administrators collect statistical data and
monitor status and performance.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list
within an agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table
from an agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
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17.5.1 SNMP Traps
The WiMAX Modem sends traps to the SNMP manager when any of the following events
occurs:
Table 75 SNMP Traps
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
0
coldStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (power on).
1
warmStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (software reboot).
4
authenticationFailure (defined in
RFC-1215)
A trap is sent to the manager when receiving any
SNMP get or set requirements with the wrong
community (password).
6
whyReboot (defined in ZYXELMIB)
A trap is sent with the reason of restart before
rebooting when the system is going to restart (warm
start).
6a
For intentional reboot:
A trap is sent with the message "System reboot by
user!" if reboot is done intentionally, (for example,
download new files, CI command "sys reboot", etc.).
6b
For fatal error:
A trap is sent with the message of the fatal code if the
system reboots because of fatal errors.
17.5.2 SNMP Options
Click TOOLS > Remote Management > SNMP to control SNMP access to your WiMAX
Modem.
Figure 97 TOOLS > Remote Management > SNMP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 TOOLS > Remote Management > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SNMP Configuration
Get Community
Enter the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get and
GetNext requests from the management station. The default is public and
allows all requests.
Set Community
Enter the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests
from the management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Trap Community
Enter the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager. The default is public and allows all requests.
Trap Destination
Enter the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
SNMP
Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you
must use the same port number in order to use that service for remote
management.
Access Status
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the WiMAX
Modem using this service.
Secured Client IP
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
WiMAX Modem using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the WiMAX Modem using this
service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify
to access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
17.6 DNS
Click TOOLS > Remote Management > DNS to control DNS access to your WiMAX
Modem.
Figure 98 TOOLS > Remote Management > DNS
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 TOOLS > Remote Management > DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This field is read-only. This field displays the port number this service uses to
access the WiMAX Modem. The computer must use the same port number.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the WiMAX Modem
using this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
Select All to allow any computer to access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Select Selected to only allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the WiMAX Modem using this service.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
17.7 Security
Click TOOLS > Remote Management > Security to control how your WiMAX Modem
responds to other types of requests.
Figure 99 TOOLS > Remote Management > Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 TOOLS > Remote Management > Security
178
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Respond to Ping
on
Select the interface(s) on which the WiMAX Modem should respond to incoming
ping requests.
• Disable - the WiMAX Modem does not respond to any ping requests.
• LAN - the WiMAX Modem only responds to ping requests received from the
LAN.
• WAN - the WiMAX Modem only responds to ping requests received from the
WAN.
• LAN & WAN - the WiMAX Modem responds to ping requests received from
the LAN or the WAN.
Do not respond to
requests for
unauthorized
services
Select this to prevent outsiders from discovering your WiMAX Modem by sending
requests to unsupported port numbers. If an outside user attempts to probe an
unsupported port on your WiMAX Modem, an ICMP response packet is
automatically returned. This allows the outside user to know the WiMAX Modem
exists. Your WiMAX Modem supports anti-probing, which prevents the ICMP
response packet from being sent. This keeps outsiders from discovering your
WiMAX Modem when unsupported ports are probed.
If you clear this, your WiMAX Modem replies with an ICMP Port Unreachable
packet for a port probe on unused UDP ports and with a TCP Reset packet for a
port probe on unused TCP ports.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
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Chapter 17 The Remote Management Screens
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CHAPTER
18
The Logs Screens
18.1 Overview
Use the TOOLS > Logs screens to look at log entries and alerts and to configure the WiMAX
Modem’s log and alert settings.
For a list of log messages, see Section 18.4 on page 187.
18.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
• The View Logs screen (Section 18.2 on page 183) lets you look at log entries and alerts.
• The Log Settings screen (Section 18.3 on page 185) lets you configure where the WiMAX
Modem sends logs and alerts, the schedule for sending logs, and which logs and alerts are
sent or recorded.
18.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Alerts
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. Some categories such as System
Errors consist of both logs and alerts.
Syslog Logs
There are two types of syslog: event logs and traffic logs.
The device generates an event log when a system event occurs, for example, when a user logs
in or the device is under attack. The device generates a traffic log when a "session" is
terminated.
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Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
A traffic log summarizes the session's type, when it started and stopped the amount of traffic
that was sent and received and so on. An external log analyzer can reconstruct and analyze the
traffic flowing through the device after collecting the traffic logs.
Table 79 Syslog Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Event Log: <Facility*8 +
Severity>Mon dd hr:mm:ss
hostname src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
devID="<mac address>"
cat="<category>"
This message is sent by the system ("RAS" displays as the
system name if you haven’t configured one) when the
router generates a syslog. The facility is defined in the Log
Settings screen. The severity is the log’s syslog class. The
definition of messages and notes are defined in the various
log charts throughout this appendix. The “devID” is the
MAC address of the router’s LAN port. The “cat” is the
same as the category in the router’s logs.
Traffic Log: <Facility*8 +
Severity>Mon dd hr:mm:ss
hostname src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="Traffic Log"
note="Traffic Log" devID="<mac
address>" cat="Traffic Log"
duration=seconds
sent=sentBytes
rcvd=receiveBytes
dir="<from:to>"
protoID=IPProtocolID
proto="serviceName"
trans="IPSec/Normal"
This message is sent by the device when the connection
(session) is closed. The facility is defined in the Log
Settings screen. The severity is the traffic log type. The
message and note always display "Traffic Log". The "proto"
field lists the service name. The "dir" field lists the incoming
and outgoing interfaces ("LAN:LAN", "LAN:WAN",
"LAN:DEV" for example).
The following table shows RFC-2408 ISAKMP payload types that the log displays. Please
refer to the RFC for detailed information on each type.
Table 80 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types
182
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
SA
Security Association
PROP
Proposal
TRANS
Transform
KE
Key Exchange
ID
Identification
CER
Certificate
CER_REQ
Certificate Request
HASH
Hash
SIG
Signature
NONCE
Nonce
NOTFY
Notification
DEL
Delete
VID
Vendor ID
User’s Guide
Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
18.2 View Logs
Click TOOLS > Logs > View Log to look at log entries and alerts. Alerts are written in red.
Figure 100 TOOLS > Logs > View Logs
Click a column header to sort log entries in descending (later-to-earlier) order. Click again to
sort in ascending order. The small triangle next to a column header indicates how the table is
currently sorted (pointing downward is descending; pointing upward is ascending).
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 TOOLS > Logs > View Logs
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
Select a category whose log entries you want to view. To view all logs, select All
Logs. The list of categories depends on what log categories are selected in the
Log Settings page.
Email Log Now
Click this to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in the Log
Settings page.
Refresh
Click to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click to clear all the log entries, regardless of what is shown on the log screen.
#
The number of the item in this list.
Time
This field displays the time the log entry was recorded.
Message
This field displays the reason for the log entry. See Section 18.4 on page 187.
Source
This field displays the source IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet. In many cases, some or all of this information may not be available.
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Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 81 TOOLS > Logs > View Logs (continued)
184
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet. In many cases, some or all of this information may not be available.
Note
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
User’s Guide
Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
18.3 Log Settings
Click TOOLS > Logs > Log Settings to configure where the WiMAX Modem sends logs and
alerts, the schedule for sending logs, and which logs and alerts are sent or recorded.
Figure 101 TOOLS > Logs > Log Settings
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Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 TOOLS > Logs > Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
E-mail Log Settings
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server the WiMAX Modem
should use to e-mail logs and alerts. Leave this field blank if you do not want to
send logs or alerts by e-mail.
Mail Subject
Enter the subject line used in e-mail messages the WiMAX Modem sends.
Send Log to
Enter the e-mail address to which log entries are sent by e-mail. Leave this field
blank if you do not want to send logs by e-mail.
Send Alerts to
Enter the e-mail address to which alerts are sent by e-mail. Leave this field blank if
you do not want to send alerts by e-mail.
Log Schedule
Select the frequency with which the WiMAX Modem should send log messages by
e-mail.
• Daily
• Weekly
• Hourly
• When Log is Full
• None.
If the Weekly or the Daily option is selected, specify a time of day when the E-mail
should be sent. If the Weekly option is selected, then also specify which day of the
week the E-mail should be sent. If the When Log is Full option is selected, an
alert is sent when the log fills up. If you select None, no log messages are sent.
Day for Sending
Log
This field is only available when you select Weekly in the Log Schedule field.
Select which day of the week to send the logs.
Time for Sending
Log
This field is only available when you select Daily or Weekly in the Log Schedule
field.
Enter the time of day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00 pm) to
send the logs.
Clear log after
sending mail
Select this to clear all logs and alert messages after logs are sent by e-mail.
Syslog Logging
Active
Select this to enable syslog logging.
Syslog Server IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that logs the selected
categories of logs.
Log Facility
Select a location. The log facility allows you to log the messages in different files in
the syslog server. See the documentation of your syslog for more details.
Active Log and Alert
186
Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record.
Send immediate
alert
Select the categories of alerts that you want the WiMAX Modem to send
immediately.
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Cancel
Click to return to the previous screen without saving your changes.
User’s Guide
Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
18.4 Log Message Descriptions
The following tables provide descriptions of example log messages.
Table 83 System Error Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
WAN connection is down.
The WAN connection is down. You cannot access the network
through this interface.
%s exceeds the max.
number of session per
host!
This attempt to create a NAT session exceeds the maximum
number of NAT session table entries allowed to be created per
host.
Table 84 System Maintenance Logs
User’s Guide
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The device has adjusted its time based on information from
the time server.
Time calibration failed
The device failed to get information from the time server.
WAN interface gets IP: %s
The WAN interface got a new IP address from the DHCP or
PPPoE server.
DHCP client gets %s
A DHCP client got a new IP address from the DHCP server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns %s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
Successful WEB login
Someone has logged on to the device's web configurator
interface.
WEB login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the device's web configurator
interface.
TELNET Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
Successful FTP login
Someone has logged on to the device via ftp.
FTP login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the device via ftp.
NAT Session Table is Full!
The maximum number of NAT session table entries has been
exceeded and the table is full.
Time initialized by Daytime
Server
The device got the time and date from the Daytime server.
Time initialized by Time
server
The device got the time and date from the time server.
Time initialized by NTP
server
The device got the time and date from the NTP server.
Connect to Daytime server
fail
The device was not able to connect to the Daytime server.
Connect to Time server fail
The device was not able to connect to the Time server.
Connect to NTP server fail
The device was not able to connect to the NTP server.
Too large ICMP packet has
been dropped
The device dropped an ICMP packet that was too large.
Configuration Change: PC =
0x%x, Task ID = 0x%x
The device is saving configuration changes.
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Table 85 Access Control Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
<Packet Direction>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched the default policy and was blocked or forwarded
according to the default policy’s setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match:[ TCP
| UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF
] <Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched (or did not match) a configured firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
[ TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The router blocked a packet that didn't have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Router sent blocked web site
message: TCP
The router sent a message to notify a user that the router
blocked access to a web site that the user requested.
Exceed maximum sessions per host
(%d).
The device blocked a session because the host's
connections exceeded the maximum sessions per host.
Firewall allowed a packet that
matched a NAT session: [ TCP |
UDP ]
A packet from the WAN (TCP or UDP) matched a cone
NAT session and the device forwarded it to the LAN.
Table 86 TCP Reset Logs
188
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Under SYN flood attack,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a host was under a SYN
flood attack (the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.)
Exceed TCP MAX
incomplete, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of TCP
incomplete connections exceeded the user configured threshold.
(the TCP incomplete count is per destination host.)
Peer TCP state out of
order, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a TCP connection state
was out of order.Note: The firewall refers to RFC793 Figure 6 to
check the TCP state.
Firewall session time
out, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a dynamic firewall
session timed out.
The default timeout values are as follows:
ICMP idle timeout: 3 minutes
UDP idle timeout: 3 minutes
TCP connection (three way handshaking) timeout: 270 seconds
TCP FIN-wait timeout: 2 MSL (Maximum Segment Lifetime set in
the TCP header).
TCP idle (established) timeout (s): 150 minutes
TCP reset timeout: 10 seconds
User’s Guide
Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 86 TCP Reset Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Exceed MAX incomplete,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of
incomplete connections (TCP and UDP) exceeded the userconfigured threshold. (Incomplete count is for all TCP and UDP
connections through the firewall.)Note: When the number of
incomplete connections (TCP + UDP) > “Maximum Incomplete
High”, the router sends TCP RST packets for TCP connections
and destroys TOS (firewall dynamic sessions) until incomplete
connections < “Maximum Incomplete Low”.
Access block, sent TCP
RST
The router sends a TCP RST packet and generates this log if you
turn on the firewall TCP reset mechanism (via CI command: sys
firewall tcprst).
Table 87 Packet Filter Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
[ TCP | UDP | ICMP | IGMP |
Generic ] packet filter
matched (set: %d, rule: %d)
Attempted access matched a configured filter rule (denoted
by its set and rule number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
For type and code details, see Table 94 on page 192.
Table 88 ICMP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <type:%d>,
<code:%d>
ICMP access matched the default policy and was
blocked or forwarded according to the user's setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>,
<type:%d>, <code:%d>
ICMP access matched (or didn’t match) a firewall rule
(denoted by its number) and was blocked or forwarded
according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
ICMP
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to pass
through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: ICMP
The router blocked a packet that didn’t have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Unsupported/out-of-order ICMP:
ICMP
The firewall does not support this kind of ICMP packets
or the ICMP packets are out of order.
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP
The router sent an ICMP reply packet to the sender.
Table 89 PPP Logs
User’s Guide
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Starting
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage has started.
ppp:LCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:CHAP Opening
The PPP connection’s Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol stage is
opening.
ppp:IPCP
Starting
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is starting.
ppp:IPCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is opening.
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Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 89 PPP Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is closing.
ppp:IPCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is closing.
Table 90 UPnP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
UPnP pass through Firewall
UPnP packets can pass through the firewall.
Table 91 Content Filtering Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s: Keyword blocking
The content of a requested web page matched a user defined
keyword.
%s: Not in trusted web
list
The web site is not in a trusted domain, and the router blocks all traffic
except trusted domain sites.
%s: Forbidden Web site The web site is in the forbidden web site list.
%s: Contains ActiveX
The web site contains ActiveX.
%s: Contains Java
applet
The web site contains a Java applet.
%s: Contains cookie
The web site contains a cookie.
%s: Proxy mode
detected
The router detected proxy mode in the packet.
%s: Trusted Web site
The web site is in a trusted domain.
%s
When the content filter is not on according to the time schedule:
Waiting content
filter server
timeout
The external content filtering server did not respond within the timeout
period.
DNS resolving
failed
The WiMAX Modem cannot get the IP address of the external content
filtering via DNS query.
Creating socket
failed
The WiMAX Modem cannot issue a query because TCP/UDP socket
creation failed, port:port number.
Connecting to
content filter
server fail
The connection to the external content filtering server failed.
License key is
invalid
The external content filtering license key is invalid.
For type and code details, see Table 94 on page 192.
Table 92 Attack Logs
190
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
attack [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF attack.
attack ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP attack.
User’s Guide
Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 92 Attack Logs (continued)
User’s Guide
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
land [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF land
attack.
land ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP land attack.
ip spoofing - WAN [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall detected an IP spoofing attack on the WAN port.
ip spoofing - WAN ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP IP spoofing attack on the WAN
port.
icmp echo : ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP echo attack.
syn flood TCP
The firewall detected a TCP syn flood attack.
ports scan TCP
The firewall detected a TCP port scan attack.
teardrop TCP
The firewall detected a TCP teardrop attack.
teardrop UDP
The firewall detected an UDP teardrop attack.
teardrop ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP teardrop attack.
illegal command TCP
The firewall detected a TCP illegal command attack.
NetBIOS TCP
The firewall detected a TCP NetBIOS attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall classified a packet with no source routing entry as an
IP spoofing attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall classified an ICMP packet with no source routing
entry as an IP spoofing attack.
vulnerability ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP vulnerability attack.
traceroute ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP traceroute attack.
ports scan UDP
The firewall detected a UDP port scan attack.
Firewall sent TCP packet
in response to DoS attack
TCP
The firewall sent TCP packet in response to a DoS attack
ICMP Source Quench ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP Source Quench attack.
ICMP Time Exceed ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP Time Exceed attack.
ICMP Destination
Unreachable ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP Destination Unreachable attack.
ping of death. ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP ping of death attack.
smurf ICMP
The firewall detected an ICMP smurf attack.
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Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 93 Remote Management Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Remote Management: FTP denied
Attempted use of FTP service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: TELNET
denied
Attempted use of TELNET service was blocked according
to remote management settings.
Remote Management: HTTP or
UPnP denied
Attempted use of HTTP or UPnP service was blocked
according to remote management settings.
Remote Management: WWW denied
Attempted use of WWW service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: HTTPS
denied
Attempted use of HTTPS service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: SSH denied
Attempted use of SSH service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: ICMP Ping
response denied
Attempted use of ICMP service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Remote Management: DNS denied
Attempted use of DNS service was blocked according to
remote management settings.
Table 94 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
Echo Reply
0
0
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to
the destination network.
Redirect
5
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
192
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
11
DESCRIPTION
Echo message
Time Exceeded
User’s Guide
Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 94 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
15
0
Information request message
Information Reply
16
0
Information reply message
Table 95 SIP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
SIP Registration Success
by SIP:SIP Phone Number
The listed SIP account was successfully registered with a SIP
register server.
SIP Registration Fail by
SIP:SIP Phone Number
An attempt to register the listed SIP account with a SIP register
server was not successful.
SIP UnRegistration
Success by SIP:SIP Phone
Number
The listed SIP account’s registration was deleted from the SIP
register server.
SIP UnRegistration Fail
by SIP:SIP Phone Number
An attempt to delete the listed SIP account’s registration from the
SIP register server failed.
Table 96 RTP Logs
User’s Guide
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Error, RTP init fail
The initialization of an RTP session failed.
Error, Call fail: RTP
connect fail
A VoIP phone call failed because the RTP session could not be
established.
Error, RTP connection
cannot close
The termination of an RTP session failed.
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Chapter 18 The Logs Screens
Table 97 FSM Logs: Caller Side
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
VoIP Call Start Ph[Phone
Port Number] <- Outgoing
Call Number
Someone used a phone connected to the listed phone port to
initiate a VoIP call to the listed destination.
VoIP Call Established
Ph[Phone Port] ->
Outgoing Call Number
Someone used a phone connected to the listed phone port to
make a VoIP call to the listed destination.
VoIP Call End Phone[Phone
Port]
A VoIP phone call made from a phone connected to the listed
phone port has terminated.
Table 98 FSM Logs: Callee Side
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
VoIP Call Start from
SIP[SIP Port Number]
A VoIP phone call came to the WiMAX Modem from the listed SIP
number.
VoIP Call Established
Ph[Phone Port] <Outgoing Call Number
A VoIP phone call was set up from the listed SIP number to the
WiMAX Modem.
VoIP Call End
Phone[Phone Port]
A VoIP phone call that came into the WiMAX Modem has
terminated.
Table 99 Lifeline Logs
194
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
PSTN Call Start
A PSTN call has been initiated.
PSTN Call End
A PSTN call has terminated.
PSTN Call Established
A PSTN call has been set up.
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
19
The UPnP Screen
19.1 Overview
Use the TOOLS > UPnP screen to enable the WiMAX Modem’s UPnP feature.
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that uses TCP/IP
for simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A UPnP device can
dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address, convey its capabilities and learn about other
devices on the network. In turn, a device can leave a network smoothly and automatically
when it is no longer in use.
19.1.1 What You Can Do in This Chapter
The UPnP screen (Section 19.2 on page 196) lets you enable the UPnP feature in your
WiMAX Modem.
19.1.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
How do I know if I'm using UPnP?
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder (Windows XP).
Each UPnP compatible device installed on your network will appear as a separate icon.
Selecting the icon of a UPnP device will allow you to access the information and properties of
that device.
NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate through NAT.
UPnP network devices can automatically configure network addressing, announce their
presence in the network to other UPnP devices and enable exchange of simple product and
service descriptions. NAT traversal allows the following:
• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
• Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal and UPnP.
See Chapter 9 on page 93 for further information about NAT.
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Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own services and
opening firewall ports may present network security issues. Network information and
configuration may also be obtained and modified by users in some network environments.
All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without additional
configuration. Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has received UPnP certification from the official UPnP Forum (http://www.upnp.org).
ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports IGD 1.0 (Internet Gateway Device).
The WiMAX Modem only sends UPnP multicasts to the LAN.
19.2 UPnP
Click TOOLS > UPnP to enable UPnP in your WiMAX Modem.
Figure 102 TOOLS > UPnP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 100 TOOLS > UPnP
196
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Device Name
This field identifies your device in UPnP applications.
Enable the
Universal Plug
and Play (UPnP)
Feature
Select this to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use a UPnP application
to open the web configurator's login screen without entering the WiMAX Modem's
IP address. You still have to enter the password, however.
Allow users to
make
configuration
changes through
UPnP
Select this to allow UPnP-enabled applications to automatically configure the
WiMAX Modem so that they can communicate through the WiMAX Modem. For
example, using NAT traversal, UPnP applications automatically reserve a NAT
forwarding port in order to communicate with another UPnP enabled device; this
eliminates the need to manually configure port forwarding for the UPnP enabled
application.
Allow UPnP to
pass through
Firewall
Select this to allow traffic from UPnP-enabled applications to bypass the firewall.
Clear this if you want the firewall to check UPnP application packets (for example,
MSN packets).
Apply
Click to save your changes.
Reset
Click to restore your previously saved settings.
User’s Guide
Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
19.3 Technical Reference
The following section contains additional technical information about the WiMAX Modem
features described in this chapter.
19.3.1 Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows XP.
1 Click Start > Control Panel.
2 Double-click Network Connections.
3 In the Network Connections window, click Advanced in the main menu and select
Optional Networking Components ….
Figure 103 Network Connections
4 The Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard window displays. Select
Networking Service in the Components selection box and click Details.
Figure 104 Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard
5 In the Networking Services window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box.
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Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
Figure 105 Networking Services
6 Click OK to go back to the Windows Optional Networking Component Wizard
window and click Next.
19.3.1.1 Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device in Windows XP
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must already have
UPnP installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the WiMAX Modem.
Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the WiMAX Modem. Turn on your
computer and the WiMAX Modem.
1 Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Network Connections. An icon displays
under Internet Gateway.
2 Right-click the icon and select Properties.
Figure 106 Network Connections
198
User’s Guide
Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
3 In the Internet Connection Properties window, click Settings to see the port mappings
there were automatically created.
Figure 107 Internet Connection Properties
4 You may edit or delete the port mappings or click Add to manually add port mappings.
Figure 108 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings
User’s Guide
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Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
Figure 109 Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add
5 When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port mappings
will be deleted automatically.
6 Select Show icon in notification area when connected option and click OK. An icon
displays in the system tray.
Figure 110 System Tray Icon
7 Double-click on the icon to display your current Internet connection status.
Figure 111 Internet Connection Status
200
User’s Guide
Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
19.3.2 Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the WiMAX Modem without
finding out the IP address of the WiMAX Modem first. This becomes helpful if you do not
know the IP address of the WiMAX Modem.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator:
1 Click Start and then Control Panel.
2 Double-click Network Connections.
3 Select My Network Places under Other Places.
Figure 112 Network Connections
4 An icon with the description for each UPnP-enabled device displays under Local
Network.
5 Right-click on the icon for your WiMAX Modem and select Invoke. The web
configurator login screen displays.
Figure 113 Network Connections: My Network Places
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Chapter 19 The UPnP Screen
6 Right-click on the icon for your WiMAX Modem and select Properties. A properties
window displays with basic information about the WiMAX Modem.
Figure 114 Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example
202
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
20
The Status Screen
20.1 Overview
Use this screen to view a complete summary of your WiMAX Modem connection status.
20.2 Status Screen
Click the STATUS icon in the navigation bar to go to this screen, where you can view the
current status of the device, system resources, interfaces (LAN and WAN), and SIP accounts.
You can also register and un-register SIP accounts as well as view detailed information from
DHCP and statistics from WiMAX, VoIP, bandwidth management, and traffic.
Figure 115 Status
User’s Guide
203
Chapter 20 The Status Screen
The following tables describe the labels in this screen.
Table 101 Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Select how often you want the WiMAX Modem to update this screen.
Refresh Now
Click this to update this screen immediately.
Device Information
System Name
This field displays the WiMAX Modem system name. It is used for identification.
You can change this in the ADVANCED > System Configuration > General
screen’s System Name field.
Firmware Version
This field displays the current version of the firmware inside the device. It also
shows the date the firmware version was created.
You can change the firmware version by uploading new firmware in ADVANCED >
System Configuration > Firmware.
WAN Information
IP Address
This field displays the current IP address of the WiMAX Modem in the WAN.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the current subnet mask on the WAN.
DHCP
This field displays what DHCP services the WiMAX Modem is using in the WAN.
Choices are:
Client - The WiMAX Modem is a DHCP client in the WAN. Its IP address
comes from a DHCP server on the WAN.
None - The WiMAX Modem is not using any DHCP services in the WAN. It has
a static IP address.
LAN Information
IP Address
This field displays the current IP address of the WiMAX Modem in the LAN.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the current subnet mask in the LAN.
DHCP
This field displays what DHCP services the WiMAX Modem is providing to the
LAN. Choices are:
Server - The WiMAX Modem is a DHCP server in the LAN. It assigns IP
addresses to other computers in the LAN.
Relay - The WiMAX Modem is routing DHCP requests to one or more DHCP
servers. The DHCP server(s) may be on another network.
None - The WiMAX Modem is not providing any DHCP services to the LAN.
You can change this in ADVANCED > LAN Configuration > DHCP Setup.
WiMAX Information
204
Operator ID
Every WiMAX service provider has a unique Operator ID number, which is
broadcast by each base station it owns. You can only connect to the Internet
through base stations belonging to your service provider’s network.
BSID
This field displays the identification number of the wireless base station to which
the WiMAX Modem is connected. Every base station transmits a unique BSID,
which identifies it across the network.
Cell ID
A base station’s coverage area can be divided into multiple cells. This field shows
the identification number of the cell in which the WiMAX Modem is connected.
Frequency
This field displays the radio frequency of the WiMAX Modem’s wireless connection
to a base station.
MAC address
This field displays the Media Access Control address of the WiMAX Modem.
Every network device has a unique MAC address which identifies it across the
network.
User’s Guide
Chapter 20 The Status Screen
Table 101 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WiMAX State
This field displays the status of the WiMAX Modem’s current connection.
• INIT: the WiMAX Modem is starting up.
• DL_SYN: The WiMAX Modem is unable to connect to a base station.
• RANGING: the WiMAX Modem and the base station are transmitting and
receiving information about the distance between them. Ranging allows the
WiMAX Modem to use a lower transmission power level when communicating
with a nearby base station, and a higher transmission power level when
communicating with a distant base station.
• CAP_NEGO: the WiMAX Modem and the base station are exchanging
information about their capabilities.
• AUTH: the WiMAX Modem and the base station are exchanging security
information.
• REGIST: the WiMAX Modem is registering with a RADIUS server.
• OPERATIONAL: the WiMAX Modem has successfully registered with the
base station. Traffic can now flow between the WiMAX Modem and the base
station.
• IDLE: the WiMAX Modem is in power saving mode, but can connect when a
base station alerts it that there is traffic waiting.
Bandwidth
This field shows the size of the bandwidth step the WiMAX Modem uses to
connect to a base station in megahertz (MHz).
CINR mean
This field shows the average Carrier to Interference plus Noise Ratio of the current
connection. This value is an indication of overall radio signal quality. A higher
value indicates a higher signal quality, and a lower value indicates a lower signal
quality.
CINR deviation
This field shows the amount of change in the CINR level. This value is an
indication of radio signal stability. A lower number indicates a more stable signal,
and a higher number indicates a less stable signal.
RSSI
This field shows the Received Signal Strength Indication. This value is a
measurement of overall radio signal strength. A higher RSSI level indicates a
stronger signal, and a lower RSSI level indicates a weaker signal.
A strong signal does not necessarily indicate a good signal: a strong signal may
have a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
UL Data Rate
This field shows the number of data packets uploaded from the WiMAX Modem to
the base station each second.
DL Data Rate
This field shows the number of data packets downloaded to the WiMAX Modem
from the base station each second.
PER
This field shows the Packet Error Rate. The PER is the percentage of data
packets transmitted across the network but not successfully received.
Tx Power
This field shows the output transmission (Tx) level of the WiMAX Modem.
System Status
User’s Guide
System Uptime
This field displays how long the WiMAX Modem has been running since it last
started up. The WiMAX Modem starts up when you plug it in, when you restart it
(ADVANCED > System Configuration > Restart), or when you reset it.
Current Date/
Time
This field displays the current date and time in the WiMAX Modem. You can
change this in SETUP > Time Setting.
CPU Usage
This field displays what percentage of the WiMAX Modem’s processing ability is
currently being used. The higher the CPU usage, the more likely the WiMAX
Modem is to slow down. You can reduce this by disabling some services, such as
DHCP, NAT, or content filtering.
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Chapter 20 The Status Screen
Table 101 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Memory Usage
This field displays what percentage of the WiMAX Modem’s memory is currently
used. The higher the memory usage, the more likely the WiMAX Modem is to slow
down. Some memory is required just to start the WiMAX Modem and to run the
web configurator. You can reduce the memory usage by disabling some services
(see CPU Usage); by reducing the amount of memory allocated to NAT and
firewall rules (you may have to reduce the number of NAT rules or firewall rules to
do so); or by deleting rules in functions such as incoming call policies, speed dial
entries, and static routes.
IVR Usage
This field displays what percentage of the WiMAX Modem’s IVR memory is
currently used. IVR (Interactive Voice Response) refers to the customizable ring
tone and on-hold music you set.
Interface Status
Interface
This column displays each interface of the WiMAX Modem.
Status
This field indicates whether or not the WiMAX Modem is using the interface.
For the WAN interface, this field displays Up when the WiMAX Modem is
connected to a WiMAX network, and Down when the WiMAX Modem is not
connected to a WiMAX network.
For the LAN interface, this field displays Up when the WiMAX Modem is using the
interface and Down when the WiMAX Modem is not using the interface.
Rate
For the LAN ports this displays the port speed and duplex setting.
For the WAN interface, it displays the downstream and upstream transmission rate
or N/A if the WiMAX Modem is not connected to a base station.
For the WLAN interface, it displays the transmission rate when WLAN is enabled
or N/A when WLAN is disabled.
Summary
Packet Statistics
Click this link to view port status and packet specific statistics.
WiMAX Site
Information
Click this link to view details of the radio frequencies used by the WiMAX Modem
to connect to a base station.
DHCP Table
Click this link to see details of computers to which the WiMAX Modem has given
an IP address.
VoIP Statistics
Click this link to view statistics about your VoIP usage.
WiMAX Profile
Click this link to view details of the current wireless security settings.
VoIP Status
Account
206
This column displays each SIP account in the WiMAX Modem.
User’s Guide
Chapter 20 The Status Screen
Table 101 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Registration
This field displays the current registration status of the SIP account. You have to
register SIP accounts with a SIP server to use VoIP.
If the SIP account is already registered with the SIP server,
Click Unregister to delete the SIP account’s registration in the SIP server. This
does not cancel your SIP account, but it deletes the mapping between your SIP
identity and your IP address or domain name.
The second field displays Registered.
If the SIP account is not registered with the SIP server,
Click Register to have the WiMAX Modem attempt to register the SIP account
with the SIP server.
The second field displays the reason the account is not registered.
Inactive - The SIP account is not active. You can activate it in VOICE > SIP > SIP
Settings.
Register Fail - The last time the WiMAX Modem tried to register the SIP account
with the SIP server, the attempt failed. The WiMAX Modem automatically tries to
register the SIP account when you turn on the WiMAX Modem or when you
activate it.
URI
This field displays the account number and service domain of the SIP account.
You can change these in VOICE > SIP > SIP Settings.
20.2.1 Packet Statistics
Click Status > Packet Statistics to open this screen. This read-only screen displays
information about the data transmission through the WiMAX Modem. To configure these
settings, go to the corresponding area in the Advanced screens.
Figure 116 Packet Statistics
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Chapter 20 The Status Screen
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 102 Packet Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This column displays each interface of the WiMAX Modem.
Status
This field indicates whether or not the WiMAX Modem is using the interface.
For the WAN interface, this field displays the port speed and duplex setting when
the WiMAX Modem is connected to a WiMAX network, and Down when the
WiMAX Modem is not connected to a WiMAX network.
For the LAN interface, this field displays the port speed and duplex setting when
the WiMAX Modem is using the interface and Down when the WiMAX Modem is
not using the interface.
For the WLAN interface, it displays the transmission rate when WLAN is enabled
or Down when WLAN is disabled.
TxPkts
This field displays the number of packets transmitted on this interface.
RxPkts
This field displays the number of packets received on this interface.
Collisions
This field displays the number of collisions on this port.
Tx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes transmitted in the last second.
Rx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes received in the last second.
Up Time
This field displays the elapsed time this interface has been connected.
System up Time
This is the elapsed time the system has been on.
Poll Interval(s)
Type the time interval for the browser to refresh system statistics.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Poll Interval
field above.
Stop
Click this button to halt the refreshing of the system statistics.
20.2.2 WiMAX Site Information
Click Status > WiMAX Site Information to open this screen. This read-only screen shows
WiMAX frequency information for the WiMAX Modem. These settings can be configured in
the ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > WiMAX Configuration screen.
Figure 117 WiMAX Site Information
208
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Chapter 20 The Status Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 103 WiMAX Site Information
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DL Frequency
[0] ~ [9]
These fields show the downlink frequency settings in kilohertz (kHz). These
settings determine how the WiMAX Modem searches for an available
wireless connection.
20.2.3 DHCP Table
Click Status > DHCP Table to open this screen. This read-only screen shows the IP
addresses, Host Names and MAC addresses of the devices currently connected to the WiMAX
Modem. These settings can be configured in the ADVANCED > LAN Configuration >
DHCP Setup screen.
Figure 118 DHCP Table
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 104 DHCP Table
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
The number of the item in this list.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address the WiMAX Modem assigned to a computer in
the network.
Host Name
This field displays the system name of the computer to which the WiMAX
Modem assigned the IP address.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of the computer to which the WiMAX
Modem assigned the IP address.
Refresh
Click this button to update the table data.
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Chapter 20 The Status Screen
20.2.4 VoIP Statistics
Click Status > DHCP Table to open this screen. This read-only screen shows SIP registration
information, status of calls and VoIP traffic statistics. These settings can be configured in the
VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Setting screen.
Figure 119 VoIP Statistics
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 105 VoIP Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SIP Status
Port
This column displays each SIP account in the WiMAX Modem.
Status
This field displays the current registration status of the SIP account. You can
change this in the Status screen.
Registered - The SIP account is registered with a SIP server.
Register Fail - The last time the WiMAX Modem tried to register the SIP account
with the SIP server, the attempt failed. The WiMAX Modem automatically tries to
register the SIP account when you turn on the WiMAX Modem or when you
activate it.
Inactive - The SIP account is not active. You can activate it in VOICE > SIP > SIP
Settings.
Last Registration
This field displays the last time you successfully registered the SIP account. It
displays N/A if you never successfully registered this account.
URI
This field displays the account number and service domain of the SIP account.
You can change these in VOICE > SIP > SIP Settings.
Protocol
This field displays the transport protocol the SIP account uses. SIP accounts
always use UDP.
Message Waiting
This field indicates whether or not there are any messages waiting for the SIP
account.
Last Incoming
Number
This field displays the last number that called the SIP account. It displays N/A if no
number has ever dialed the SIP account.
Last Outgoing
Number
This field displays the last number the SIP account called. It displays N/A if the
SIP account has never dialed a number.
Call Statistics
Phone
210
This field displays the WiMAX Modem’s phone port number.
User’s Guide
Chapter 20 The Status Screen
Table 105 VoIP Statistics
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Hook
This field indicates whether the phone is on the hook or off the hook.
On - The phone is hanging up or already hung up.
Off - The phone is dialing, calling, or connected.
Status
This field displays the current state of the phone call.
N/A - There are no current VoIP calls, incoming calls or outgoing calls being
made.
DIAL - The callee’s phone is ringing.
RING - The phone is ringing for an incoming VoIP call.
Process - There is a VoIP call in progress.
DISC - The callee’s line is busy, the callee hung up or your phone was left off the
hook.
Codec
This field displays what voice codec is being used for a current VoIP call through a
phone port.
Peer Number
This field displays the SIP number of the party that is currently engaged in a VoIP
call through a phone port.
Duration
This field displays how long the current call has lasted.
Tx Pkts
This field displays the number of packets the WiMAX Modem has transmitted in
the current call.
Rx Pkts
This field displays the number of packets the WiMAX Modem has received in the
current call.
Tx B/s
This field displays how quickly the WiMAX Modem has transmitted packets in the
current call. The rate is the average number of bytes transmitted per second.
Rx B/s
This field displays how quickly the WiMAX Modem has received packets in the
current call. The rate is the average number of bytes transmitted per second.
Poll Interval(s)
Enter how often you want the WiMAX Modem to update this screen, and click Set
Interval.
Set Interval
Click this to make the WiMAX Modem update the screen based on the amount of
time you specified in Poll Interval.
Stop
Click this to make the WiMAX Modem stop updating the screen.
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Chapter 20 The Status Screen
20.2.5 WiMAX Profile
Click Status > WiMAX Profile to open this screen. This read-only screen displays
information about the security settings you are using. To configure these settings, go to the
ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > Internet Connection screen.
"
Not all WiMAX Modem models have all the fields shown here.
Figure 120 WiMAX Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 106 The WiMAX Profile Screen
212
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User
This is the username for your Internet access account.
Password
This is the password for your Internet access account. The password
displays as a row of asterisks for security purposes.
Anonymous Identity
This is the anonymous identity provided by your Internet Service Provider.
Anonymous identity (also known as outer identity) is used with EAP-TTLS
encryption.
PKM
This field displays the Privacy Key Management version number. PKM
provides security between the WiMAX Modem and the base station. See the
WiMAX security appendix for more information.
Authentication
This field displays the user authentication method. Authentication is the
process of confirming the identity of a user (by means of a username and
password, for example).
EAP-TTLS allows an MS/SS and a base station to establish a secure link (or
‘tunnel’) with an AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) server
in order to exchange authentication information. See the WiMAX security
appendix for more details.
User’s Guide
Chapter 20 The Status Screen
Table 106 The WiMAX Profile Screen (continued)
User’s Guide
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TTLS Inner EAP
This field displays the type of secondary authentication method. Once a
secure EAP-TTLS connection is established, the inner EAP is the protocol
used to exchange security information between the mobile station, the base
station and the AAA server to authenticate the mobile station. See the
WiMAX security appendix for more details.
The WiMAX Modem supports the following inner authentication types:
• CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
• MSCHAP (Microsoft CHAP)
• MSCHAPV2 (Microsoft CHAP version 2)
• PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
Auth Mode
This is the authentication mode. The WiMAX Modem supports the following
authentication modes:
• User Only
• Device Only with Cert
• Certs and User Authentication
Certificate
This is the security certificate the WiMAX Modem uses to authenticate the
AAA server, if one is available.
213
Chapter 20 The Status Screen
214
User’s Guide
P ART VI
Troubleshooting
and Specifications
Troubleshooting (217)
Product Specifications (223)
215
216
CHAPTER
21
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories:
•
•
•
•
•
Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
WiMAX Modem Access and Login
Internet Access
Phone Calls and VoIP
Reset the WiMAX Modem to Its Factory Defaults
21.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
V
The WiMAX Modem does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1 Make sure you are using the power adapter or cord included with the WiMAX Modem.
2 Make sure the power adapter or cord is connected to the WiMAX Modem and plugged in
to an appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
3 Disconnect and re-connect the power adapter or cord to the WiMAX Modem.
4 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
V
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1 Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.2.1 on page 33
for more information.
2 Check the hardware connections. See the Quick Start Guide.
3 Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4 Disconnect and re-connect the power adapter to the WiMAX Modem.
5 If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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Chapter 21 Troubleshooting
21.2 WiMAX Modem Access and Login
V
I forgot the IP address for the WiMAX Modem.
1 The default IP address is http://192.168.100.1.
2 If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address of the
WiMAX Modem by looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your computer.
To do this in most Windows computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd, and then enter
ipconfig. The IP address of the Default Gateway might be the IP address of the
WiMAX Modem (it depends on the network), so enter this IP address in your Internet
browser.
3 If this does not work, you have to reset the WiMAX Modem to its factory defaults. See
Section 21.1 on page 217.
V
I forgot the password.
1 The default password is 1234.
2 If this does not work, you have to reset the WiMAX Modem to its factory defaults. See
Section 10.5 on page 106.
V
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1 Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is http://192.168.100.1.
• If you changed the IP address (Section 5.2 on page 54), use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for I forgot the IP address for the WiMAX Modem.
2 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.2.1 on page 33.
3 Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScript and
Java enabled. See Appendix C on page 259.
4 If there is a DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer is using a dynamic
IP address. Your WiMAX Modem is a DHCP server by default.
If there is no DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer’s IP address is in
the same subnet as the WiMAX Modem. See Appendix D on page 267.
5 Reset the WiMAX Modem to its factory defaults, and try to access the WiMAX Modem
with the default IP address. See Section 10.6 on page 108.
6 If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the
advanced suggestions.
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Chapter 21 Troubleshooting
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the WiMAX Modem using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access
the WiMAX Modem, check the remote management settings and firewall rules to find out
why the WiMAX Modem does not respond to HTTP.
• If your computer is connected wirelessly, use a computer that is connected to a LAN/
ETHERNET port.
V
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the WiMAX Modem.
1 Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default user
name is admin, and the default password is 1234. These fields are case-sensitive, so
make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2 You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using Telnet to access the
WiMAX Modem. Log out of the WiMAX Modem in the other session, or ask the person
who is logged in to log out.
3 Disconnect and re-connect the power adapter or cord to the WiMAX Modem.
4 If this does not work, you have to reset the WiMAX Modem to its factory defaults. See
Section 10.5 on page 106.
V
I cannot Telnet to the WiMAX Modem.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
21.3 Internet Access
V
I cannot access the Internet.
1 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.2.1 on page 33.
2 Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly in the wizard. These
fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
3 Check your security settings. In the web configurator, go to the Status screen. Click the
WiMAX Profile link in the Summary box and make sure that you are using the correct
security settings for your Internet account.
4 Check your WiMAX settings. The WiMAX Modem may have been set to search the
wrong frequencies for a wireless connection. In the web configurator, go to the Status
screen. Click the WiMAX Site Information link in the Summary box and ensure that
User’s Guide
219
Chapter 21 Troubleshooting
the values are correct. If the values are incorrect, enter the correct frequency settings in
the ADVANCED > WAN Configuration > WiMAX Configuration screen. If you are
unsure of the correct values, contact your service provider.
5 If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure the wireless settings in the
wireless client are the same as the settings in the AP.
6 Disconnect all the cables from your WiMAX Modem, and follow the directions in the
Quick Start Guide again.
7 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
I cannot access the Internet any more. I had access to the Internet (with the
WiMAX Modem), but my Internet connection is not available any more.
1 Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See
the Quick Start Guide and Section 1.2.1 on page 33.
2 Disconnect and re-connect the power adapter to the WiMAX Modem.
3 If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
V
The Internet connection is slow or intermittent.
1 The quality of the WiMAX Modem’s wireless connection to the base station may be
poor. Poor signal reception may be improved by moving the WiMAX Modem away
from thick walls and other obstructions, or to a higher floor in your building.
2 There may be radio interference caused by nearby electrical devices such as microwave
ovens and radio transmitters. Move the WiMAX Modem away or switch the other
devices off. Weather conditions may also affect signal quality.
3 As well as having an external antenna connector, the MAX-210HW2 is equipped with an
internal directional antenna. If you know the location of the base station, orient the front
of the WiMAX Modem (the side with the LEDs) towards the base station. If you do not
know the location of the base station, experiment by moving the WiMAX Modem while
observing the Strength Indicator LEDs for an increase in received signal strength. The
MAX-200HW2 and MAX-230HW2 do not have internal antennas.
4 There might be a lot of traffic on the network. Look at the LEDs, and check Section 1.2.1
on page 33. If the WiMAX Modem is sending or receiving a lot of information, try
closing some programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer applications.
5 Disconnect and re-connect the power adapter to the WiMAX Modem.
6 If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the
advanced suggestions.
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Chapter 21 Troubleshooting
V
The Internet connection disconnects.
1 Check your WiMAX link and signal strength using the WiMAX Link and Strength
Indicator LEDs on the device.
2 Contact your ISP if the problem persists.
21.4 Phone Calls and VoIP
V
The telephone port won’t work or the telephone lacks a dial tone.
1 Check the telephone connections and telephone wire.
2 Make sure you have the VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings screen
properly configured (Chapter 11 on page 111).
V
I can access the Internet, but cannot make VoIP calls.
1 Make sure you have the VOICE > Service Configuration > SIP Settings screen
properly configured (Chapter 11 on page 111).
2 The VoIP LED should come on. Make sure that your telephone is connected to the VoIP
port (see the Quick Start Guide for information on connecting telephone cables to the
these ports).
3 You can also check the VoIP status in the Status screen.
4 If the VoIP settings are correct, use speed dial to make peer-to-peer calls. If you cannot
make a call using speed dial, there may be something wrong with the SIP server. Contact
your VoIP service provider.
V
Problems With Multiple SIP Accounts
You can set up two SIP accounts on your WiMAX Modem. By default your WiMAX Modem
uses SIP account 1 for outgoing calls, and it uses SIP accounts 1 and 2 for incoming calls.
With this setting, you always use SIP account 1 for your outgoing calls and you cannot
distinguish which SIP account the calls are coming in through. If you want to control the use
of different dialing plans for accounting purposes or other reasons, you need to configure your
phone port in order to control which SIP account you are using when placing or receiving
calls.
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Chapter 21 Troubleshooting
21.5 Reset the WiMAX Modem to Its Factory Defaults
If you reset the WiMAX Modem, you lose all of the changes you have made. The WiMAX
Modem re-loads its default settings, and the password resets to 1234. You have to make all of
your changes again.
V
You will lose all of your changes when you push the Reset button.
To reset the WiMAX Modem,
1 Make sure the Power LED is on and not blinking.
2 Press and hold the Reset button for five to ten seconds. Release the Reset button when
the Power LED begins to blink. The default settings have been restored.
If the WiMAX Modem restarts automatically, wait for the WiMAX Modem to finish
restarting, and log in to the web configurator. The password is “1234”.
If the WiMAX Modem does not restart automatically, disconnect and reconnect the WiMAX
Modem’s power. Then, follow the directions above again.
21.5.1 Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Please see Appendix C on page 259.
222
User’s Guide
CHAPTER
22
Product Specifications
This chapter gives details about your WiMAX Modem’s hardware and firmware features.
Table 107 Environmental and Hardware Specifications
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Operating Temperature
0°C to 45°C
Storage Temperature
-25°C to 55°C
Operating Humidity
20% ~ 90% (non-condensing)
Storage Humidity
10% to 95% (non-condensing)
Power Supply
12V DC, 2 A
Power consumption
18W
Ethernet Interface
Two auto-negotiating, auto-MDI/MDI-X NWay 10/100 Mbps RJ-45
Ethernet ports
Telephony Interface
Two analog ATA interfaces for standard telephones through RJ-11
FXS (Foreign Exchange Subscriber) analog connector
Antennas
Two internal 5dBi WiMAX antennas
Weight
480g
Dimensions
160mm (W) x 118mm (D) x 167mm (H)
Safety Approvals
UL 60950-1
CAN/CSA C22.2 No. 60950-1-03
EN 60950-1
IEC 60950-1
EMI Approvals
EN 301489-1 v1.6.1
EN 61000-3-2
EN 61000-3-3
EMS Approvals
EN 301489-4 v1.3.1
RF Approvals
EN 302326
Table 108 Radio Specifications
User’s Guide
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Media Access Protocol
IEEE 802.16e
WiMAX Bandwidth
2.5 GHz
223
Chapter 22 Product Specifications
Table 108 Radio Specifications (continued)
Data Rate
Download:
Maximum 20 Mbps
Average 6 Mbps
Upload:
Maximum 4 Mbps
Average 3 Mbps
Modulation
QPSK (uplink and downlink)
16-QAM (uplink and downlink)
64-QAM (downlink only)
Output Power
27dBm with external antennas attached
Duplex mode
Time Division Duplex (TDD)
Security
PKMv2
EAP
CCMP, 128-bit AES
Table 109 Firmware Specifications
224
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
Web-based Configuration
and Management Tool
Also known as “the web configurator”, this is a firmware-based
management solution for the WiMAX Modem. You must connect using
a compatible web browser in order to use it.
High Speed Wireless Internet
Access
The WiMAX Modem is ideal for high-speed wireless Internet browsing.
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a
wireless networking standard providing high-bandwidth, wide-range
secured wireless service. The WiMAX Modem is a WiMAX mobile
station (MS) compatible with the IEEE 802.16e standard.
Firewall
The WiMAX Modem is a stateful inspection firewall with DoS (Denial
of Service) protection. By default, when the firewall is activated, all
incoming traffic from the WAN to the LAN is blocked unless it is
initiated from the LAN. The WiMAX Modem’s firewall supports TCP/
UDP inspection, DoS detection and prevention, real time alerts,
reports and logs.
Content Filtering
The WiMAX Modem can block access to web sites containing
specified keywords. You can define time periods and days during
which content filtering is enabled and include or exclude a range of
users on the LAN from content filtering.
Network Address Translation
(NAT)
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an
Internet protocol address used within one network (for example a
private IP address used in a local network) to a different IP address
known within another network (for example a public IP address used
on the Internet).
Universal Plug and Play
(UPnP)
Your device and other UPnP enabled devices can use the standard
TCP/IP protocol to dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address
and convey their capabilities to each other.
Dynamic DNS Support
With Dynamic DNS support, you can have a static hostname alias for
a dynamic IP address, allowing the host to be more easily accessible
from various locations on the Internet. You must register for this
service with a Dynamic DNS service provider.
User’s Guide
Chapter 22 Product Specifications
Table 109 Firmware Specifications (continued)
FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) allows the individual
clients (computers) to obtain the TCP/IP configuration at start-up from
a centralized DHCP server. Your device has built-in DHCP server
capability enabled by default. It can assign IP addresses, an IP default
gateway and DNS servers to DHCP clients. Your device can also act
as a surrogate DHCP server (DHCP Relay) where it relays IP address
assignment from the actual real DHCP server to the clients.
IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into logical networks
over the same Ethernet interface. Your device supports three logical
LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet interface with the your
device itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
Multiple SIP Accounts
You can configure multiple voice (SIP) accounts.
SIP ALG
Your device is a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). It allows VoIP
calls to pass through NAT for devices behind it (such as a SIP-based
VoIP software application on a computer).
Dynamic Jitter Buffer
The built-in adaptive buffer helps to smooth out the variations in delay
(jitter) for voice traffic (up to 60 ms). This helps ensure good voice
quality for your conversations.
Voice Activity Detection/
Silence Suppression
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) reduces the bandwidth that a call uses
by not transmitting when you are not speaking.
Comfort Noise Generation
Your device generates background noise to fill moments of silence
when the other device in a call stops transmitting because the other
party is not speaking (as total silence could easily be mistaken for a
lost connection).
Echo Cancellation
You device supports G.168 of at least 24 ms.
This an ITU-T standard for eliminating the echo caused by the sound
of your voice reverberating in the telephone receiver while you talk.
Time and Date
Get the current time and date from an external server when you turn
on your WiMAX Modem. You can also set the time manually.
Logging
Use the WiMAX Modem’s logging feature to view connection history,
surveillance logs, and error messages.
Codecs
Enhanced Variable Rate Codec (EVRC), G.711 (PCM µ-law and alaw), G.729a, and G.723.1
Fax Support
T.38 FAX relay (FAX over UDP).
G.711 fax relay for fax calls and be able to renegotiate codec to G.711
if a fax call is detected.
Ring Tones
Supports different distinctive ring tones on each line.
Call Prioritization
Prioritize VoIP traffic originating from the RJ-11 ports over any other
traffic.
Table 110 Standards Supported
User’s Guide
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 768
User Datagram Protocol
RFC 791
Internet Protocol v4
RFC 792
Internet Control Message Protocol
RFC 792
Transmission Control Protocol
RFC 826
Address Resolution Protocol
RFC 854
Telnet Protocol
225
Chapter 22 Product Specifications
Table 110 Standards Supported (continued)
226
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 1349
Type of Service Protocol
RFC 1706
DNS NSAP Resource Records
RFC 1889
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
RFC 1890
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)
RFC 2030
Simple Network Time Protocol
RFC 2104
HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication
RFC 2131
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
RFC 2401
Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol
RFC 2409
Internet Key Exchange
RFC 2475
Architecture for Differentiated Services (Diffserv)
RFC 2617
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Authentication: Basic and Digest
Access Authentication
RFC 2782
A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)
RFC 2833
Real-time Transport Protocol Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones
and Telephony Signals
RFC 2976
The SIP INFO Method
RFC 3261
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP version 2)
RFC 3262
Reliability of Provisional Responses in the Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP).
RFC 3263
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers
RFC 3264
An Offer/Answer Model with the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
RFC 3265
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event Notification
RFC 3323
A Privacy Mechanism for SIP
RFC 3325
Private Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Asserted
Identity within Trusted Networks
RFC 3550
RTP - A Real Time Protocol for Real-Time Applications
RFC 3581
An Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Symmetric
Response Routing
RFC 3611
RTP Control Protocol Extended Reports (RTCP XR)-XR
RFC 3715
IP Sec/NAT Compatibility
RFC 3842
A Message Summary and Message Waiting Indication Event Package for
the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
IEEE 802.3
10BASE5 10 Mbit/s (1.25 MB/s)
IEEE 802.3u
100BASE-TX, 100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s
(12.5 MB/s) with auto-negotiation
User’s Guide
Chapter 22 Product Specifications
Table 111 Voice Features
User’s Guide
Call Park and
Pickup
Call park and pickup lets you put a call on hold (park) and then continue the call
(pickup). The caller must still pay while the call is parked.
When you park the call, you enter a number of your choice (up to eight digits),
which you must enter again when you pick up the call. If you do not enter the
correct number, you cannot pickup the call. This means that only someone who
knows the number you have chosen can pick up the call.
You can have more than one call on hold at the same time, but you must give
each call a different number.
Call Return
With call return, you can place a call to the last number that called you (either
answered or missed). The last incoming call can be through either SIP or
PSTN.
Country Code
Phone standards and settings differ from one country to another, so the settings
on your WiMAX Modem must be configured to match those of the country you
are in. The country code feature allows you to do this by selecting the country
from a list rather than changing each setting manually. Configure the country
code feature when you move the WiMAX Modem from one country to another.
Do not Disturb
(DnD)
This feature allows you to set your phone not to ring when someone calls you.
You can set each phone independently using its keypad, or configure global
settings for all phones using the command line interpreter.
Auto Dial
You can set the WiMAX Modem to automatically dial a specified number
immediately whenever you lift a phone off the hook. Use the Web Configurator
to set the specified number. Use the command line interpreter to have the
WiMAX Modem wait a specified length of time before dialing the number.
Phone config
The phone config table allows you to customize the phone keypad combinations
you use to access certain features on the WiMAX Modem, such as call waiting,
call return, call forward, etc. The phone config table is configurable in command
interpreter mode.
Firmware update
enable / disable
If your service provider uses this feature, you hear a recorded message when
you pick up the phone when new firmware is available for your WiMAX Modem.
Enter *99# in your phone’s keypad to have the WiMAX Modem upgrade the
firmware, or enter #99# to not upgrade. If your service provider gave you
different numbers to use, enter them instead. If you enter the code to not
upgrade, you can make a call as normal. You will hear the recording again each
time you pick up the phone, until you upgrade.
Call waiting
This feature allows you to hear an alert when you are already using the phone
and another person calls you. You can then either reject the new incoming call,
put your current call on hold and receive the new incoming call, or end the
current call and receive the new incoming call.
Call forwarding
With this feature, you can set the WiMAX Modem to forward calls to a specified
number, either unconditionally (always), when your number is busy, or when
you do not answer. You can also forward incoming calls from one specified
number to another.
Caller ID
The WiMAX Modem supports caller ID, which allows you to see the originating
number of an incoming call (on a phone with a suitable display).
REN
A Ringer Equivalence Number (REN) is used to determine the number of
devices (like telephones or fax machines) that may be connected to the
telephone line. Your device has a REN of three, so it can support three devices
per telephone port.
QoS (Quality of
Service)
Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms help to provide better service on a perflow basis. Your device supports Type of Service (ToS) tagging and
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) tagging. This allows the device to tag voice
frames so they can be prioritized over the network.
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Chapter 22 Product Specifications
Table 111 Voice Features
SIP ALG
Your device is a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). It allows VoIP calls to
pass through NAT for devices behind it (such as a SIP-based VoIP software
application on a computer).
Other Voice
Features
SIP version 2 (Session Initiating Protocol RFC 3261)
SDP (Session Description Protocol RFC 2327)
RTP (RFC 1889)
RTCP (RFC 1890)
Voice codecs (coder/decoders) G.711, G.726, G.729
Fax and data modem discrimination
DTMF Detection and Generation
DTMF: In-band and Out-band traffic (RFC 2833),(PCM), (SIP INFO)
Point-to-point call establishment between two IADs
Quick dialing through predefined phone book, which maps the phone dialing
number and destination URL.
Flexible Dial Plan (RFC3525 section 7.1.14)
Table 112 Star (*) and Pound (#) Code Support
"
*0
Wireless Operator Services
*2
Customer Care Access
*66
Repeat Dialing
*67
Plus the 10 digit phone number to block Caller ID on a single call basis
*69
Return last call received
*70
Followed by the 10 digit phone number to cancel Call Waiting on a single call
basis
*72
Activate Call Forwarding (*72 followed by the 10 digit phone number that is
requesting call forwarding service)
*720
Activate Call Forwarding (*720 followed by the 10 digit phone number that is
requesting deactivation of call forwarding service)
*73
Plus the forward to phone number to activate Call Forwarding No Answer (no
VM service plan)
*730
Deactivate Call Forwarding No Answer
*740
Plus the forward to phone number to activate Call Forwarding Busy (no VM
service plan)
*911/911
Emergency phone number (same as dialing 911)
*411/411
Wireless Information Services
To take full advantage of the supplementary phone services available through
the WiMAX Modem's phone port, you may need to subscribe to the services
from your voice account service provider.
Not all features are supported by all service providers. Consult your service
provider for more information.
228
User’s Guide
P ART VII
Appendices and
Index
WiMAX Security (231)
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address (235)
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions (259)
IP Addresses and Subnetting (267)
Importing Certificates (277)
SIP Passthrough (301)
Common Services (303)
Legal Information (307)
Customer Support (311)
229
230
APPENDIX
A
WiMAX Security
Wireless security is vital to protect your wireless communications. Without it, information
transmitted over the wireless network would be accessible to any networking device within
range.
User Authentication and Data Encryption
The WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) standard employs user authentication and encryption to ensure
secured communication at all times.
User authentication is the process of confirming a user’s identity and level of authorization.
Data encryption is the process of encoding information so that it cannot be read by anyone
who does not know the code.
WiMAX uses PKMv2 (Privacy Key Management version 2) for authentication, and CCMP
(Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Protocol) for data
encryption.
WiMAX supports EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) which allows
additional authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the base station or the
mobile or subscriber stations.
PKMv2
PKMv2 is a procedure that allows authentication of a mobile or subscriber station and
negotiation of a public key to encrypt traffic between the MS/SS and the base station. PKMv2
uses standard EAP methods such as Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS) or Tunneled TLS
(EAP-TTLS) for secure communication.
In cryptography, a ‘key’ is a piece of information, typically a string of random numbers and
letters, that can be used to ‘lock’ (encrypt) or ‘unlock’ (decrypt) a message. Public key
encryption uses key pairs, which consist of a public (freely available) key and a private
(secret) key. The public key is used for encryption and the private key is used for decryption.
You can decrypt a message only if you have the private key. Public key certificates (or ‘digital
IDs’) allow users to verify each other’s identity.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The base station is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server handles the following tasks:
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Appendix A WiMAX Security
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected
to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your base station acts as a message relay
between the MS/SS and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the base station and the
RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an base station requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The base
station sends a proper response from the user and then sends another Access-Request
message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the base station and the
RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the base station requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared
secret key, which is a password they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In
addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the
network from unauthorized access.
Diameter
Diameter (RFC 3588) is a type of AAA server that provides several improvements over
RADIUS in efficiency, security, and support for roaming.
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Appendix A WiMAX Security
Security Association
The set of information about user authentication and data encryption between two computers
is known as a security association (SA). In a WiMAX network, the process of security
association has three stages.
• Authorization request and reply
The MS/SS presents its public certificate to the base station. The base station verifies the
certificate and sends an authentication key (AK) to the MS/SS.
• Key request and reply
The MS/SS requests a transport encryption key (TEK) which the base station generates
and encrypts using the authentication key.
• Encrypted traffic
The MS/SS decrypts the TEK (using the authentication key). Both stations can now
securely encrypt and decrypt the data flow.
CCMP
All traffic in a WiMAX network is encrypted using CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block
Chaining Message Authentication Protocol). CCMP is based on the 128-bit Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.
‘Counter mode’ refers to the encryption of each block of plain text with an arbitrary number,
known as the counter. This number changes each time a block of plain text is encrypted.
Counter mode avoids the security weakness of repeated identical blocks of encrypted text that
makes encrypted data vulnerable to pattern-spotting.
‘Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication’ (also known as CBC-MAC) ensures
message integrity by encrypting each block of plain text in such a way that its encryption is
dependent on the block before it. This series of ‘chained’ blocks creates a message
authentication code (MAC or CMAC) that ensures the encrypted data has not been tampered
with.
Authentication
The WiMAX Modem supports EAP-TTLS authentication.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the
server-side authentications to establish a secure connection (with EAP-TLS digital
certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless clients for mutual authentication).
Client authentication is then done by sending username and password through the secure
connection, thus client identity is protected. For client authentication, EAP-TTLS supports
EAP methods and legacy authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and MSCHAP v2.
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Appendix A WiMAX Security
234
User’s Guide
APPENDIX
B
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP
Address
"
Your specific ZyXEL device may not support all of the operating systems
described in this appendix. See the product specifications for more information
about which operating systems are supported.
This appendix shows you how to configure the IP settings on your computer in order for it to
be able to communicate with the other devices on your network. Windows Vista/XP/2000,
Mac OS 9/OS X, and all versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need
to use TCP/IP on your computer.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using a dynamic IP, make sure that your
network’s computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet.
In this appendix, you can set up an IP address for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
User’s Guide
Windows XP/NT/2000 on page 236
Windows Vista on page 239
Mac OS X: 10.3 and 10.4 on page 243
Mac OS X: 10.5 on page 246
Linux: Ubuntu 8 (GNOME) on page 249
Linux: openSUSE 10.3 (KDE) on page 253
235
Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Windows XP/NT/2000
The following example uses the default Windows XP display theme but can also apply to
Windows 2000 and Windows NT.
1 Click Start > Control Panel.
Figure 121 Windows XP: Start Menu
2 In the Control Panel, click the Network Connections icon.
Figure 122 Windows XP: Control Panel
3 Right-click Local Area Connection and then select Properties.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Figure 123 Windows XP: Control Panel > Network Connections > Properties
4 On the General tab, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and then click Properties.
Figure 124 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
5 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens.
Figure 125 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6 Select Obtain an IP address automatically if your network administrator or ISP
assigns your IP address dynamically.
Select Use the following IP Address and fill in the IP address, Subnet mask, and
Default gateway fields if you have a static IP address that was assigned to you by your
network administrator or ISP. You may also have to enter a Preferred DNS server and
an Alternate DNS server, if that information was provided.
7 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.Verifying Settings
1 Click Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER].
You can also go to Start > Control Panel > Network Connections, right-click a
network connection, click Status and then click the Support tab to view your IP address
and connection information.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Windows Vista
This section shows screens from Windows Vista Professional.
1 Click Start > Control Panel.
Figure 126 Windows Vista: Start Menu
2 In the Control Panel, click the Network and Internet icon.
Figure 127 Windows Vista: Control Panel
3 Click the Network and Sharing Center icon.
Figure 128 Windows Vista: Network And Internet
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
4 Click Manage network connections.
Figure 129 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
5 Right-click Local Area Connection and then select Properties.
Figure 130 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
"
240
During this procedure, click Continue whenever Windows displays a screen
saying that it needs your permission to continue.
User’s Guide
Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
6 Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and then select Properties.
Figure 131 Windows Vista: Local Area Connection Properties
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
7 The Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window opens.
Figure 132 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
8 Select Obtain an IP address automatically if your network administrator or ISP
assigns your IP address dynamically.
Select Use the following IP Address and fill in the IP address, Subnet mask, and
Default gateway fields if you have a static IP address that was assigned to you by your
network administrator or ISP. You may also have to enter a Preferred DNS server and
an Alternate DNS server, if that information was provided.Click Advanced.
9 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.Verifying Settings
1 Click Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER].
You can also go to Start > Control Panel > Network Connections, right-click a
network connection, click Status and then click the Support tab to view your IP address
and connection information.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Mac OS X: 10.3 and 10.4
The screens in this section are from Mac OS X 10.4 but can also apply to 10.3.
1 Click Apple > System Preferences.
Figure 133 Mac OS X 10.4: Apple Menu
2 In the System Preferences window, click the Network icon.
Figure 134 Mac OS X 10.4: System Preferences
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
3 When the Network preferences pane opens, select Built-in Ethernet from the network
connection type list, and then click Configure.
Figure 135 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Preferences
4 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure IPv4 list in
the TCP/IP tab.
Figure 136 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Preferences > TCP/IP Tab.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
5 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure IPv4 list, select Manually.
• In the IP Address field, type your IP address.
• In the Subnet Mask field, type your subnet mask.
• In the Router field, type the IP address of your device.
Figure 137 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Preferences > Ethernet
Click Apply Now and close the window.Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties by clicking Applications > Utilities > Network Utilities, and
then selecting the appropriate Network Interface from the Info tab.
Figure 138 Mac OS X 10.4: Network Utility
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Mac OS X: 10.5
The screens in this section are from Mac OS X 10.5.
1 Click Apple > System Preferences.
Figure 139 Mac OS X 10.5: Apple Menu
2 In System Preferences, click the Network icon.
Figure 140 Mac OS X 10.5: Systems Preferences
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
3 When the Network preferences pane opens, select Ethernet from the list of available
connection types.
Figure 141 Mac OS X 10.5: Network Preferences > Ethernet
4 From the Configure list, select Using DHCP for dynamically assigned settings.
5 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure list, select Manually.
• In the IP Address field, enter your IP address.
• In the Subnet Mask field, enter your subnet mask.
• In the Router field, enter the IP address of your WiMAX Modem.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Figure 142 Mac OS X 10.5: Network Preferences > Ethernet
6 Click Apply and close the window.
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties by clicking Applications > Utilities > Network Utilities, and
then selecting the appropriate Network interface from the Info tab.
Figure 143 Mac OS X 10.5: Network Utility
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Linux: Ubuntu 8 (GNOME)
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in the GNU Object
Model Environment (GNOME) using the Ubuntu 8 Linux distribution. The procedure, screens
and file locations may vary depending on your specific distribution, release version, and
individual configuration. The following screens use the default Ubuntu 8 installation.
"
Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address in GNOME:
1 Click System > Administration > Network.
Figure 144 Ubuntu 8: System > Administration Menu
2 When the Network Settings window opens, click Unlock to open the Authenticate
window. (By default, the Unlock button is greyed out until clicked.) You cannot make
changes to your configuration unless you first enter your admin password.
Figure 145 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > Connections
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
3 In the Authenticate window, enter your admin account name and password then click
the Authenticate button.
Figure 146 Ubuntu 8: Administrator Account Authentication
4 In the Network Settings window, select the connection that you want to configure, then
click Properties.
Figure 147 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > Connections
5 The Properties dialog box opens.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Figure 148 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > Properties
• In the Configuration list, select Automatic Configuration (DHCP) if you have a
dynamic IP address.
• In the Configuration list, select Static IP address if you have a static IP address. Fill
in the IP address, Subnet mask, and Gateway address fields.
6 Click OK to save the changes and close the Properties dialog box and return to the
Network Settings screen.
7 If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the DNS tab in the Network Settings
window and then enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 149 Ubuntu 8: Network Settings > DNS
8 Click the Close button to apply the changes.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties by clicking System > Administration > Network Tools, and
then selecting the appropriate Network device from the Devices tab. The Interface Statistics
column shows data if your connection is working properly.
Figure 150 Ubuntu 8: Network Tools
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Linux: openSUSE 10.3 (KDE)
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in the K Desktop
Environment (KDE) using the openSUSE 10.3 Linux distribution. The procedure, screens and
file locations may vary depending on your specific distribution, release version, and individual
configuration. The following screens use the default openSUSE 10.3 installation.
"
Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address in the KDE:
1 Click K Menu > Computer > Administrator Settings (YaST).
Figure 151 openSUSE 10.3: K Menu > Computer Menu
2 When the Run as Root - KDE su dialog opens, enter the admin password and click OK.
Figure 152 openSUSE 10.3: K Menu > Computer Menu
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
3 When the YaST Control Center window opens, select Network Devices and then click
the Network Card icon.
Figure 153 openSUSE 10.3: YaST Control Center
4 When the Network Settings window opens, click the Overview tab, select the
appropriate connection Name from the list, and then click the Configure button.
Figure 154 openSUSE 10.3: Network Settings
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
5 When the Network Card Setup window opens, click the Address tab
Figure 155 openSUSE 10.3: Network Card Setup
6 Select Dynamic Address (DHCP) if you have a dynamic IP address.
Select Statically assigned IP Address if you have a static IP address. Fill in the IP
address, Subnet mask, and Hostname fields.
7 Click Next to save the changes and close the Network Card Setup window.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
8 If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the Hostname/DNS tab in Network
Settings and then enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 156 openSUSE 10.3: Network Settings
9 Click Finish to save your settings and close the window.
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
Verifying Settings
Click the KNetwork Manager icon on the Task bar to check your TCP/IP properties. From
the Options sub-menu, select Show Connection Information.
Figure 157 openSUSE 10.3: KNetwork Manager
When the Connection Status - KNetwork Manager window opens, click the Statistics tab
to see if your connection is working properly.
Figure 158 openSUSE: Connection Status - KNetwork Manager
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Appendix B Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
258
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APPENDIX
C
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
"
Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2) or
allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP address.
Disable Pop-up Blockers
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
Figure 159 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in the
Privacy tab.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
2 Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen. This
disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 160 Internet Options: Privacy
3 Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable Pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the following
steps.
1 In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
2 Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 161 Internet Options: Privacy
3 Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have blocked)
with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.167.1.
4 Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 162 Pop-up Blocker Settings
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
5 Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6 Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check that
JavaScripts are allowed.
1 In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 163 Internet Options: Security
2
3
4
5
6
262
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Scripting.
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
Click OK to close the window.
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Figure 164 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
1
2
3
4
5
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Click the Custom Level... button.
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 165 Security Settings - Java
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
JAVA (Sun)
1 From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced tab.
2 Make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
3 Click OK to close the window.
Figure 166 Java (Sun)
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox 2.0 screens are used here. Screens for other versions may vary.
You can enable Java, Javascripts and pop-ups in one screen. Click Tools, then click Options in
the screen that appears.
Figure 167 Mozilla Firefox: TOOLS > Options
Click Content.to show the screen below. Select the check boxes as shown in the following
screen.
Figure 168 Mozilla Firefox Content Security
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Appendix C Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
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APPENDIX
D
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also
use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host ID. In the same
way that houses on a street share a common street name, the hosts on a network share a
common network number. Similarly, as each house has its own house number, each host on the
network has its own unique identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network number
to send packets to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on the
network the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for example,
192.168.100.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is an eight-digit binary
number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or 0 to 255 in
decimal.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets (192.168.1)
are the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
Figure 169 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID varies
according to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term “subnet” is short for “subnetwork”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the
IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in bold text)
and host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 113 IP Address Network Number and Host ID Example
1ST OCTET: 2ND
OCTET:
(192)
(168)
3RD
OCTET:
(1)
4TH OCTET
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
00000010
By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from
the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of
32 bits.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits with a “1”
value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the mask are ones and the
remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The following
examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit and 29-bit subnet
masks.
Table 114 Subnet Masks
BINARY
DECIMAL
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH OCTET
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.248
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible hosts you can
have on your network. The larger the number of network number bits, the smaller the number
of remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network (192.168.1.0 with a
24-bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host IDs of all ones is the broadcast
address for that network (192.168.1.255 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the maximum number
of possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 115 Maximum Host Numbers
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
8 bits
24 bits
224 – 2
16777214
65534
255.0.0.0
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOSTS
16 bits
255.255.0.0
16 bits
216
24 bits
255.255.255.0
8 bits
28 – 2
254
29 bits
255.255.255.248
3 bits
23 – 2
6
–2
Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask
255.255.255.128.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 116 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the following
example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a group of servers from
the rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three octets of the
address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining octet is the host ID, allowing a
maximum of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 170 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate
sub-networks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or /25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two subnets;
192.168.1.0 /25 and 192.168.100.128 /25.
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now two subnetworks, A and B.
Figure 171 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of 27 – 2 or 126
possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself, all ones is the subnet’s
broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.100.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned
to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.100.1 and the highest is 192.168.100.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.100.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit address into two
subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host
ID bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01, 10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a host ID of all
zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
Table 117 Subnet 1
User’s Guide
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
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Table 117 Subnet 1 (continued)
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.100.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
Table 118 Subnet 2
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.100.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.100.126
Table 119 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.100.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.100.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.100.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.100.190
Table 120 Subnet 4
272
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.100.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.100.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
User’s Guide
Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and
111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 121 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit network
number.
Table 122 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit network
number.
Table 123 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
User’s Guide
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Table 123 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning (continued)
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this
block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you
are told otherwise. You must also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the WiMAX
Modem.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your WiMAX Modem
that is easy to remember (for instance, 192.168.100.1) but make sure that no other device on
your network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your WiMAX
Modem will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered.
You don't need to change the subnet mask computed by the WiMAX Modem unless you are
instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from
the Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example) you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks:
• 10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
• 172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned from a
private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an
ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other
hand, if you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network
administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address; always follow the
guidelines above. For more information on address assignment, please refer to RFC 1597,
Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466, Guidelines for Management of IP
Address Space.
IP Address Conflicts
Each device on a network must have a unique IP address. Devices with duplicate IP addresses
on the same network will not be able to access the Internet or other resources. The devices may
also be unreachable through the network.
Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
More than one device can not use the same IP address. In the following example computer A
has a static (or fixed) IP address that is the same as the IP address that a DHCP server assigns
to computer B which is a DHCP client. Neither can access the Internet. This problem can be
solved by assigning a different static IP address to computer A or setting computer A to obtain
an IP address automatically.
Figure 172 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
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Appendix D IP Addresses and Subnetting
Conflicting Router IP Addresses Example
Since a router connects different networks, it must have interfaces using different network
numbers. For example, if a router is set between a LAN and the Internet (WAN), the router’s
LAN and WAN addresses must be on different subnets. In the following example, the LAN
and WAN are on the same subnet. The LAN computers cannot access the Internet because the
router cannot route between networks.
Figure 173 Conflicting Computer IP Addresses Example
Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example
More than one device can not use the same IP address. In the following example, the computer
and the router’s LAN port both use 192.168.100.1 as the IP address. The computer cannot
access the Internet. This problem can be solved by assigning a different IP address to the
computer or the router’s LAN port.
Figure 174 Conflicting Computer and Router IP Addresses Example
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APPENDIX
E
Importing Certificates
This appendix shows you how to import public key certificates into your web browser.
Public key certificates are used by web browsers to ensure that a secure web site is legitimate.
When a certificate authority such as VeriSign, Comodo, or Network Solutions, to name a few,
receives a certificate request from a website operator, they confirm that the web domain and
contact information in the request match those on public record with a domain name registrar.
If they match, then the certificate is issued to the website operator, who then places it on the
site to be issued to all visiting web browsers to let them know that the site is legitimate.
Many ZyXEL products, such as the NSA-2401, issue their own public key certificates. These
can be used by web browsers on a LAN or WAN to verify that they are in fact connecting to
the legitimate device and not one masquerading as it. However, because the certificates were
not issued by one of the several organizations officially recognized by the most common web
browsers, you will need to import the ZyXEL-created certificate into your web browser and
flag that certificate as a trusted authority.
"
You can see if you are browsing on a secure website if the URL in your web
browser’s address bar begins with https:// or there is a sealed padlock
icon (
) somewhere in the main browser window (not all browsers show the
padlock in the same location.)
In this appendix, you can import a public key certificate for:
•
•
•
•
User’s Guide
Internet Explorer on page 278
Firefox on page 286
Opera on page 291
Konqueror on page 297
277
Appendix E Importing Certificates
Internet Explorer
The following example uses Microsoft Internet Explorer 7 on Windows XP Professional;
however, they can also apply to Internet Explorer on Windows Vista.
1 If your device’s web configurator is set to use SSL certification, then the first time you
browse to it you are presented with a certification error.
Figure 175 Internet Explorer 7: Certification Error
2 Click Continue to this website (not recommended).
Figure 176 Internet Explorer 7: Certification Error
3 In the Address Bar, click Certificate Error > View certificates.
Figure 177 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Error
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
4 In the Certificate dialog box, click Install Certificate.
Figure 178 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate
5 In the Certificate Import Wizard, click Next.
Figure 179 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
6 If you want Internet Explorer to Automatically select certificate store based on the
type of certificate, click Next again and then go to step 9.
Figure 180 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard
7 Otherwise, select Place all certificates in the following store and then click Browse.
Figure 181 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard
8 In the Select Certificate Store dialog box, choose a location in which to save the
certificate and then click OK.
Figure 182 Internet Explorer 7: Select Certificate Store
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
9 In the Completing the Certificate Import Wizard screen, click Finish.
Figure 183 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard
10 If you are presented with another Security Warning, click Yes.
Figure 184 Internet Explorer 7: Security Warning
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
11 Finally, click OK when presented with the successful certificate installation message.
Figure 185 Internet Explorer 7: Certificate Import Wizard
12 The next time you start Internet Explorer and go to a ZyXEL web configurator page, a
sealed padlock icon appears in the address bar. Click it to view the page’s Website
Identification information.
Figure 186 Internet Explorer 7: Website Identification
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Installing a Stand-Alone Certificate File in Internet Explorer
Rather than browsing to a ZyXEL web configurator and installing a public key certificate
when prompted, you can install a stand-alone certificate file if one has been issued to you.
1 Double-click the public key certificate file.
Figure 187 Internet Explorer 7: Public Key Certificate File
2 In the security warning dialog box, click Open.
Figure 188 Internet Explorer 7: Open File - Security Warning
3 Refer to steps 4-12 in the Internet Explorer procedure beginning on page 278 to
complete the installation process.
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Removing a Certificate in Internet Explorer
This section shows you how to remove a public key certificate in Internet Explorer 7.
1 Open Internet Explorer and click TOOLS > Internet Options.
Figure 189 Internet Explorer 7: Tools Menu
2 In the Internet Options dialog box, click Content > Certificates.
Figure 190 Internet Explorer 7: Internet Options
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
3 In the Certificates dialog box, click the Trusted Root Certificates Authorities tab,
select the certificate that you want to delete, and then click Remove.
Figure 191 Internet Explorer 7: Certificates
4 In the Certificates confirmation, click Yes.
Figure 192 Internet Explorer 7: Certificates
5 In the Root Certificate Store dialog box, click Yes.
Figure 193 Internet Explorer 7: Root Certificate Store
6 The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just
removed, a certification error appears.
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285
Appendix E Importing Certificates
Firefox
The following example uses Mozilla Firefox 2 on Windows XP Professional; however, the
screens can also apply to Firefox 2 on all platforms.
1 If your device’s web configurator is set to use SSL certification, then the first time you
browse to it you are presented with a certification error.
2 Select Accept this certificate permanently and click OK.
Figure 194 Firefox 2: Website Certified by an Unknown Authority
3 The certificate is stored and you can now connect securely to the web configurator. A
sealed padlock appears in the address bar, which you can click to open the Page Info >
Security window to view the web page’s security information.
Figure 195 Firefox 2: Page Info
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Installing a Stand-Alone Certificate File in Firefox
Rather than browsing to a ZyXEL web configurator and installing a public key certificate
when prompted, you can install a stand-alone certificate file if one has been issued to you.
1 Open Firefox and click TOOLS > Options.
Figure 196 Firefox 2: Tools Menu
2 In the Options dialog box, click ADVANCED > Encryption > View Certificates.
Figure 197 Firefox 2: Options
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
3 In the Certificate Manager dialog box, click Web Sites > Import.
Figure 198
Firefox 2: Certificate Manager
4 Use the Select File dialog box to locate the certificate and then click Open.
Figure 199
Firefox 2: Select File
5 The next time you visit the web site, click the padlock in the address bar to open the
Page Info > Security window to see the web page’s security information.
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Removing a Certificate in Firefox
This section shows you how to remove a public key certificate in Firefox 2.
1 Open Firefox and click TOOLS > Options.
Figure 200 Firefox 2: Tools Menu
2 In the Options dialog box, click ADVANCED > Encryption > View Certificates.
Figure 201 Firefox 2: Options
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
3 In the Certificate Manager dialog box, select the Web Sites tab, select the certificate
that you want to remove, and then click Delete.
Figure 202
Firefox 2: Certificate Manager
4 In the Delete Web Site Certificates dialog box, click OK.
Figure 203 Firefox 2: Delete Web Site Certificates
5 The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just
removed, a certification error appears.
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Opera
The following example uses Opera 9 on Windows XP Professional; however, the screens can
apply to Opera 9 on all platforms.
1 If your device’s web configurator is set to use SSL certification, then the first time you
browse to it you are presented with a certification error.
2 Click Install to accept the certificate.
Figure 204 Opera 9: Certificate signer not found
3 The next time you visit the web site, click the padlock in the address bar to open the
Security information window to view the web page’s security details.
Figure 205 Opera 9: Security information
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Installing a Stand-Alone Certificate File in Opera
Rather than browsing to a ZyXEL web configurator and installing a public key certificate
when prompted, you can install a stand-alone certificate file if one has been issued to you.
1 Open Opera and click TOOLS > Preferences.
Figure 206 Opera 9: Tools Menu
2 In Preferences, click ADVANCED > Security > Manage certificates.
Figure 207 Opera 9: Preferences
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
3 In the Certificates Manager, click Authorities > Import.
Figure 208
Opera 9: Certificate manager
4 Use the Import certificate dialog box to locate the certificate and then click Open.
Figure 209
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Opera 9: Import certificate
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
5 In the Install authority certificate dialog box, click Install.
Figure 210
Opera 9: Install authority certificate
6 Next, click OK.
Figure 211
Opera 9: Install authority certificate
7 The next time you visit the web site, click the padlock in the address bar to open the
Security information window to view the web page’s security details.
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Removing a Certificate in Opera
This section shows you how to remove a public key certificate in Opera 9.
1 Open Opera and click TOOLS > Preferences.
Figure 212 Opera 9: Tools Menu
2 In Preferences, ADVANCED > Security > Manage certificates.
Figure 213 Opera 9: Preferences
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
3 In the Certificates manager, select the Authorities tab, select the certificate that you
want to remove, and then click Delete.
Figure 214
Opera 9: Certificate manager
4 The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just
removed, a certification error appears.
"
296
There is no confirmation when you delete a certificate authority, so be
absolutely certain that you want to go through with it before clicking the button.
User’s Guide
Appendix E Importing Certificates
Konqueror
The following example uses Konqueror 3.5 on openSUSE 10.3, however the screens apply to
Konqueror 3.5 on all Linux KDE distributions.
1 If your device’s web configurator is set to use SSL certification, then the first time you
browse to it you are presented with a certification error.
2 Click Continue.
Figure 215 Konqueror 3.5: Server Authentication
3 Click Forever when prompted to accept the certificate.
Figure 216 Konqueror 3.5: Server Authentication
4 Click the padlock in the address bar to open the KDE SSL Information window and
view the web page’s security details.
Figure 217 Konqueror 3.5: KDE SSL Information
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Installing a Stand-Alone Certificate File in Konqueror
Rather than browsing to a ZyXEL web configurator and installing a public key certificate
when prompted, you can install a stand-alone certificate file if one has been issued to you.
1 Double-click the public key certificate file.
Figure 218 Konqueror 3.5: Public Key Certificate File
2 In the Certificate Import Result - Kleopatra dialog box, click OK.
Figure 219 Konqueror 3.5: Certificate Import Result
The public key certificate appears in the KDE certificate manager, Kleopatra.
Figure 220 Konqueror 3.5: Kleopatra
3 The next time you visit the web site, click the padlock in the address bar to open the
KDE SSL Information window to view the web page’s security details.
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
Removing a Certificate in Konqueror
This section shows you how to remove a public key certificate in Konqueror 3.5.
1 Open Konqueror and click Settings > Configure Konqueror.
Figure 221 Konqueror 3.5: Settings Menu
2 In the Configure dialog box, select Crypto.
3 On the Peer SSL Certificates tab, select the certificate you want to delete and then click
Remove.
Figure 222 Konqueror 3.5: Configure
4 The next time you go to the web site that issued the public key certificate you just
removed, a certification error appears.
"
There is no confirmation when you remove a certificate authority, so be
absolutely certain you want to go through with it before clicking the button.
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Appendix E Importing Certificates
300
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APPENDIX
F
SIP Passthrough
Enabling/Disabling the SIP ALG
You can turn off the WiMAX Modem SIP ALG to avoid retranslating the IP address of an
existing SIP device that is using STUN. If you want to use STUN with a SIP client device (a
SIP phone or IP phone for example) behind the WiMAX Modem, use the ip alg disable
ALG_SIP command to turn off the SIP ALG.
Signaling Session Timeout
Most SIP clients have an “expire” mechanism indicating the lifetime of signaling sessions.
The SIP UA sends registration packets to the SIP server periodically and keeps the session
alive in the WiMAX Modem.
If the SIP client does not have this mechanism and makes no call during the WiMAX Modem
SIP timeout default (60 minutes), the WiMAX Modem SIP ALG drops any incoming calls
after the timeout period. You can use the ip alg siptimeout command to change the
timeout value.
Audio Session Timeout
If no voice packets go through the SIP ALG before the timeout period default (5 minutes)
expires, the SIP ALG does not drop the call but blocks all voice traffic and deletes the audio
session. You cannot hear anything and you will need to make a new call to continue your
conversation.
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Appendix F SIP Passthrough
302
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APPENDIX
G
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers. For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services,
visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the
service uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is USER-DEFINED, the
Port(s) is the IP protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further
information about port numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the
situations in which this service is used.
Table 124 Commonly Used Services
User’s Guide
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is also
used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
UDP
7648
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for example
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this
service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out if a
user is logged on.
303
Appendix G Common Services
Table 124 Commonly Used Services (continued)
304
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
FTP
TCP
TCP
20
21
File Transfer Program, a program to enable
fast transfer of files, including large files
that may not be possible by e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/
server protocol for the world wide web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often
used in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST) User-Defined
2
Internet Group Management Protocol is
used when sending packets to a specific
group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is
used for key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service
uses this protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/
server distributed file service that provides
transparent file sharing for network
environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that
sends out ICMP echo requests to test
whether or not a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or
other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL
(GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real
time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
User’s Guide
Appendix G Common Services
Table 124 Commonly Used Services (continued)
User’s Guide
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface
to access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and
network servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in
UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/
IP networks. Its primary function is to allow
users to log into remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet
file transfer protocol similar to FTP, but
uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
rather than TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
305
Appendix G Common Services
306
User’s Guide
APPENDIX
H
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimers
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Your use of the WiMAX Modem is subject to the terms and conditions of any related service
providers.
Do not use the WiMAX Modem for illegal purposes. Illegal downloading or sharing of files
can result in severe civil and criminal penalties. You are subject to the restrictions of copyright
laws and any other applicable laws, and will bear the consequences of any infringements
thereof. ZyXEL bears NO responsibility or liability for your use of the download service
feature.
Trademarks
Trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for identification purposes only and may be
properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
User’s Guide
307
Appendix H Legal Information
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This device generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with
the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this device does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be
determined by turning the device off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
1 Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2 Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3 Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
4 Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
• This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna
or transmitter.
• To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, a separation distance of at
least 20 cm must be maintained between the antenna of this device and all persons.
注意 !
依據
低功率電波輻射性電機管理辦法
第十二條 經型式認證合格之低功率射頻電機,非經許可,公司、商號或使用
者均不得擅自變更頻率、加大功率或變更原設計之特性及功能。
第十四條 低功率射頻電機之使用不得影響飛航安全及干擾合法通信;經發現
有干擾現象時,應立即停用,並改善至無干擾時方得繼續使用。
前項合法通信,指依電信規定作業之無線電信。低功率射頻電機須忍
受合法通信或工業、科學及醫療用電波輻射性電機設備之干擾。
本機限在不干擾合法電臺與不受被干擾保障條件下於室內使用。
減少電磁波影響,請妥適使用。
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
308
User’s Guide
Appendix H Legal Information
Viewing Certifications
1 Go to http://www.zyxel.com.
2 Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3 Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty
shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act
of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact your vendor. You may also refer to the
warranty policy for the region in which you bought the device at http://www.zyxel.com/web/
support_warranty_info.php.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information
at www.zyxel.com.
User’s Guide
309
Appendix H Legal Information
310
User’s Guide
APPENDIX
I
Customer Support
In the event of problems that cannot be solved by using this manual, you should contact your
vendor. If you cannot contact your vendor, then contact a ZyXEL office for the region in
which you bought the device. Regional offices are listed below (see also http://
www.zyxel.com/web/contact_us.php). Please have the following information ready when you
contact an office.
Required Information
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
“+” is the (prefix) number you dial to make an international telephone call.
Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.tw
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.tw
Telephone: +886-3-578-3942
Fax: +886-3-578-2439
Web: www.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science Park,
Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
China - ZyXEL Communications (Beijing) Corp.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: cso.zycn@zyxel.cn
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.cn
Telephone: +86-010-82800646
Fax: +86-010-82800587
Address: 902, Unit B, Horizon Building, No.6, Zhichun Str, Haidian District, Beijing
Web: http://www.zyxel.cn
China - ZyXEL Communications (Shanghai) Corp.
•
•
•
•
User’s Guide
Support E-mail: cso.zycn@zyxel.cn
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.cn
Telephone: +86-021-61199055
Fax: +86-021-52069033
311
Appendix I Customer Support
• Address: 1005F, ShengGao International Tower, No.137 XianXia Rd., Shanghai
• Web: http://www.zyxel.cn
Costa Rica
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: soporte@zyxel.co.cr
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.cr
Telephone: +506-2017878
Fax: +506-2015098
Web: www.zyxel.co.cr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Costa Rica, Plaza Roble Escazú, Etapa El Patio, Tercer Piso, San
José, Costa Rica
Czech Republic
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@cz.zyxel.com
Telephone: +420-241-091-350
Fax: +420-241-091-359
Web: www.zyxel.cz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Czech s.r.o., Modranská 621, 143 01 Praha 4 Modrany, Ceská Republika
Denmark
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.dk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.dk
Telephone: +45-39-55-07-00
Fax: +45-39-55-07-07
Web: www.zyxel.dk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Columbusvej, 2860 Soeborg, Denmark
Finland
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.fi
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.fi
Telephone: +358-9-4780-8411
Fax: +358-9-4780-8448
Web: www.zyxel.fi
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Oy, Malminkaari 10, 00700 Helsinki, Finland
France
•
•
•
•
•
312
E-mail: info@zyxel.fr
Telephone: +33-4-72-52-97-97
Fax: +33-4-72-52-19-20
Web: www.zyxel.fr
Regular Mail: ZyXEL France, 1 rue des Vergers, Bat. 1 / C, 69760 Limonest, France
User’s Guide
Appendix I Customer Support
Germany
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.de
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.de
Telephone: +49-2405-6909-69
Fax: +49-2405-6909-99
Web: www.zyxel.de
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH., Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146, Wuerselen,
Germany
Hungary
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.hu
Sales E-mail: info@zyxel.hu
Telephone: +36-1-3361649
Fax: +36-1-3259100
Web: www.zyxel.hu
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Hungary, 48, Zoldlomb Str., H-1025, Budapest, Hungary
India
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.in
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.in
Telephone: +91-11-30888144 to +91-11-30888153
Fax: +91-11-30888149, +91-11-26810715
Web: http://www.zyxel.in
Regular Mail: India - ZyXEL Technology India Pvt Ltd., II-Floor, F2/9 Okhla Phase -1,
New Delhi 110020, India
Japan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.jp
Sales E-mail: zyp@zyxel.co.jp
Telephone: +81-3-6847-3700
Fax: +81-3-6847-3705
Web: www.zyxel.co.jp
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Japan, 3F, Office T&U, 1-10-10 Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku,
Tokyo 141-0022, Japan
Kazakhstan
•
•
•
•
•
•
User’s Guide
Support: http://zyxel.kz/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.kz
Telephone: +7-3272-590-698
Fax: +7-3272-590-689
Web: www.zyxel.kz
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Kazakhstan, 43 Dostyk Ave., Office 414, Dostyk Business Centre,
050010 Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan
313
Appendix I Customer Support
Malaysia
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.my
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.my
Telephone: +603-8076-9933
Fax: +603-8076-9833
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.my
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Malaysia Sdn Bhd., 1-02 & 1-03, Jalan Kenari 17F, Bandar
Puchong Jaya, 47100 Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
North America
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com
Support Telephone: +1-800-978-7222
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com
Sales Telephone: +1-714-632-0882
Fax: +1-714-632-0858
Web: www.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications Inc., 1130 N. Miller St., Anaheim, CA 928062001, U.S.A.
Norway
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.no
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.no
Telephone: +47-22-80-61-80
Fax: +47-22-80-61-81
Web: www.zyxel.no
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Nils Hansens vei 13, 0667 Oslo, Norway
Poland
•
•
•
•
•
E-mail: info@pl.zyxel.com
Telephone: +48-22-333 8250
Fax: +48-22-333 8251
Web: www.pl.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, ul. Okrzei 1A, 03-715 Warszawa, Poland
Russia
•
•
•
•
•
•
314
Support: http://zyxel.ru/support
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.ru
Telephone: +7-095-542-89-29
Fax: +7-095-542-89-25
Web: www.zyxel.ru
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Russia, Ostrovityanova 37a Str., Moscow 117279, Russia
User’s Guide
Appendix I Customer Support
Singapore
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.sg
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.sg
Telephone: +65-6899-6678
Fax: +65-6899-8887
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.sg
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Singapore Pte Ltd., No. 2 International Business Park, The Strategy
#03-28, Singapore 609930
Spain
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.es
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.es
Telephone: +34-902-195-420
Fax: +34-913-005-345
Web: www.zyxel.es
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications, Arte, 21 5ª planta, 28033 Madrid, Spain
Sweden
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.se
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.se
Telephone: +46-31-744-7700
Fax: +46-31-744-7701
Web: www.zyxel.se
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications A/S, Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg, Sweden
Taiwan
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.com.tw
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.com.tw
Telephone: +886-2-27399889
Fax: +886-2-27353220
Web: http://www.zyxel.com.tw
Address: Room B, 21F., No.333, Sec. 2, Dunhua S. Rd., Da-an District, Taipei
Thailand
•
•
•
•
•
•
User’s Guide
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.th
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.th
Telephone: +662-831-5315
Fax: +662-831-5395
Web: http://www.zyxel.co.th
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Thailand Co., Ltd., 1/1 Moo 2, Ratchaphruk Road, Bangrak-Noi,
Muang, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
315
Appendix I Customer Support
Turkey
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: cso@zyxel.com.tr
Telephone: +90 212 222 55 22
Fax: +90-212-220-2526
Web: http:www.zyxel.com.tr
Address: Kaptanpasa Mahallesi Piyalepasa Bulvari Ortadogu Plaza N:14/13 K:6
Okmeydani/Sisli Istanbul/Turkey
Ukraine
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support E-mail: support@ua.zyxel.com
Sales E-mail: sales@ua.zyxel.com
Telephone: +380-44-247-69-78
Fax: +380-44-494-49-32
Web: www.ua.zyxel.com
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Ukraine, 13, Pimonenko Str., Kiev 04050, Ukraine
United Kingdom
•
•
•
•
•
•
316
Support E-mail: support@zyxel.co.uk
Sales E-mail: sales@zyxel.co.uk
Telephone: +44-1344-303044, 0845 122 0301 (UK only)
Fax: +44-1344-303034
Web: www.zyxel.co.uk
Regular Mail: ZyXEL Communications UK Ltd., 11 The Courtyard, Eastern Road,
Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2XB, United Kingdom (UK)
User’s Guide
Index
Index
A
AAA 72–73
AbS 115
accounting server
see AAA
ACK message 121
activity 72
Advanced Encryption Standard
see AES
AES 233
ALG 99, 225, 228
alternative subnet mask notation 270
analysis-by-synthesis 115
antenna 223
Application Layer Gateway
see ALG
authentication 43, 72, 75, 231
inner 233
key
server 72
types 233
authorization 231
request and reply 233
server 72
auto dial 227
auto-discovery
UPnP 198
B
base station
see BS
BS 71–72
links 72
BYE request 121
C
CA 141, 155
and certificates 156
call
User’s Guide
Europe type service mode 130
forwarding 227
hold 130–131
park and pickup 227
return 227
service mode 130–131
transfer 130–131
waiting 130–131, 227
caller ID 227
CBC-MAC 233
CCMP 231, 233
cell 71
Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) 145
Certificate Revocation List (CRL) 156
certificates 141, 231
advantages 156
and CA 156
certification path 148, 153, 156
expired 156
factory-default 156
file formats 156
fingerprints 149, 154
importing 143
not used for encryption 155
revoked 156
self-signed 145
serial number 148, 153
storage space 142
thumbprint algorithms 157
thumbprints 157
used for authentication 155
verification 233
verifying fingerprints 157
certification
authority, see CA
notices 308
requests 141, 145
viewing 309
chaining 233
chaining message authentication
see CCMP
circuit-switched telephone networks 111
Class of Service (CoS) 124
client-server
protocol 122
SIP 122
CMAC
see MAC
codec 115, 228
317
Index
comfort noise 125
generation 225
contact information 311
copyright 307
CoS 124
counter mode
see CCMP
country code 227
coverage area 71
cryptography 231
customer support 311
E
EAP 73
echo cancellation 125, 225
encryption 231–233
traffic 233
environmental specifications 223
Ethernet 223
encapsulation 94
Europe type call service mode 130
Extensible Authorization Protocol
see EAP
D
F
data 231–233
decryption 231
encryption 231
flow 233
rate 224
device name 196
DHCP 60, 102, 103, 225
client 102, 225
relay 225
server 60, 225
diameter 72
Differentiated Services
see DiffServ
DiffServ 124
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) 124
marking rule 124
digital ID 231
dimensions 223
DL frequency 79
DnD 227
do not disturb 227
domain name 102
download frequency
see DL frequency
DS field 124
DSCP
see DiffServ
DTMF 228
detection and generation 228
duplex 224
dynamic DNS 103, 224
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
see DHCP
dynamic jitter buffer 225
318
FCC interference statement 307
firewall 159, 164
flash key 129
flashing 129
frequency
band 79
ranges 79
scanning 79
FTP 103, 172
restrictions 172
G
G.168 125, 225
G.711 115, 228
G.726 228
G.729 115, 228
H
humidity 223
hybrid waveform codec 115
I
IANA 274, 275
identity 72, 231
idle timeout 172
User’s Guide
Index
IEEE 802.16 71, 231
IEEE 802.16e 71
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 120
IGD 1.0 196
inner authentication 233
interface 223
Internet
access 72, 224
gateway device 196
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
see IANA 274
Internet Telephony Service Provider
see ITSP
interoperability 71
IP alias 225
IP-PBX 111
ITSP 111
ITU-T 125
J
jitter buffer 225
Metropolitan Area Network
see MAN
microwave 71, 72
mobile station
see MS
modulation 224
MS 72
multimedia 111
multiple SIP accounts 225
MWI 116
My Certificates 142
see also certificates
N
NAT 114, 274
and remote management 172
routers 114
server sets 94
traversal 195
network
activity 72
services 72
Network Address Translation
see NAT
K
key 43, 75, 231
request and reply 233
O
listening port 118
OK response 121
operating humidity 223
operating temperature 223
outbound proxy 115, 123
server 115
SIP 115
M
P
MAC 233
MAN 71
Management Information Base (MIB) 175
manual site survey 79
Media Access Protocol 223
Message Authentication Code
see MAC
message integrity 233
message waiting indication 116
park 227
pattern-spotting 233
PBX services 111
PCM 115
peer-to-peer calls 133
per-hop behavior 124
PHB (per-hop behavior) 124
phone
configuration 227
L
User’s Guide
319
Index
services 125
physical specifications 223
pickup 227
PKMv2 43, 73, 75, 231, 233
plain text encryption 233
point-to-point calls 228
power 223
output 224
supply 223
Privacy Key Management
see PKM
private key 231
product registration 309
proxy server
SIP 122
public certificate 233
public key 43, 75, 231
Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) 156
public-private key pairs 141, 155
pulse code modulation 115
Q
QoS 227
Quality of Service 227
see QoS
quick dialing 228
R
RADIUS 72, 231
Message Types 232
Messages 232
Shared Secret Key 232
Real-time Transport Protocol
see RTP
redirect server
SIP 123
region 227
register server
SIP 112
registration
product 309
related documentation 3
remote management and NAT 172
remote management limitations 172
REN 227
required bandwidth 115
320
RFC 1889 112, 228
RFC 1890 228
RFC 2327 228
RFC 2510. See Certificate Management Protocol.
RFC 3261 228
RFC 3489 114
RFC 3842 116
Ringer Equivalence Number 227
RTCP 228
RTP 112, 228
S
safety warnings 6
SDP 228
secure communication 43, 75, 231
secure connection 73
security 224, 231
security association 233
see SA
server
outbound proxy 115
services 72
Session Description Protocol 228
Session Initiation Protocol
see SIP
silence suppression 125, 225
silent packets 125
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) 145
SIP 111
account 112, 225
ACK message 121
ALG 99, 123, 225, 228
Application Layer Gateway, see ALG
authentication 48
authentication password 48
BYE request 121
call progression 121
client 122
client server 122
identities 112
INVITE request 121
number 48, 112
OK response 121
outbound proxy 115
proxy server 122
redirect server 123
register server 112
server address 48
servers 122
service domain 48, 112
URI 112
User’s Guide
Index
user agent 122
version 2 228
SNMP 172
manager 175
sound quality 115
specifications
physical and environmental 223
speed dial 133
SS 71, 72
stateful inspection 164
storage humidity 223
storage temperature 223
STUN 115, 123
subnet 267
mask 268
subnetting 270
subscriber station
see SS
supplementary phone services 125
syntax conventions 4
system timeout 172
T
tampering
TCP/IP configuration 60
TDD 224
TEK 233
temperature 223
TFTP restrictions 172
three-way conference 131, 132
TLS 43, 75, 231
transport encryption key
see TEK
transport layer security
see TLS
triangle route
problem 165
solutions 165
trigger port forwarding
process 98
TTLS 43, 75, 231, 233
tunneled TLS
see TTLS
U
unauthorized device 231
User’s Guide
uniform resource identifier 112
Universal Plug and Play
see UPnP
UPnP 195–196, 224
application 195
auto-discovery 198
security issues 196
Windows XP 197
USA type call service mode 131
use NAT 123
use NAT feature 112
user agent, SIP 122
user authentication 231
user ID 48
user name 104
V
VAD 125, 225
verification 233
virtual local area network
see VLAN
VLAN 120
group 120
ID tags 120
tags 120
VLAN ID 120
voice
activity detection 125, 225
coding 115
mail 111
Voice over IP
see VoIP
VoIP 111
standards compliance 225
W
waveform codec 115
weight 223
WiMAX 71–72, 223
bandwidth 223
security 233
WiMAX Forum 71
Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access
see WiMAX
Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
see MAN
wireless network
321
Index
access 71
standard 71
wireless security 224, 231
wizard setup 41
322
User’s Guide
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