The syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6 Administrator Guide

The syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6
Administrator Guide
Publication date December 09, 2014
Abstract
This manual is the primary documentation of the syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6
application.
Copyright © 1996-2014 BalaBit S.a.r.l.
This guide is published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works (by-nc-nd) 3.0 license. See Appendix D, Creative
Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License (p. 350) for details. The latest version is always available at
http://www.balabit.com/support/documentation.
Some rights reserved.
This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/). This product includes
cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
AIX™, AIX 5L™, AS/400™, BladeCenter™, eServer™, IBM™, the IBM™ logo, IBM System i™, IBM System i5™, IBM System x™, iSeries™,
i5/OS™, Netfinity™, NetServer™, OpenPower™, OS/400™, PartnerWorld™, POWER™, ServerGuide™, ServerProven™, and xSeries™ are trademarks
or registered trademarks of International Business Machines.
Alliance Log Agent for System i™ is a registered trademark of Patrick Townsend & Associates, Inc.
The BalaBit™ name and the BalaBit™ logo are registered trademarks of BalaBit S.a.r.l..
Debian™ is a registered trademark of Software in the Public Interest Inc.
Linux™ is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
MySQL™ is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
Oracle™, JD Edwards™, PeopleSoft™, and Siebel™ are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates.
Red Hat™, Inc., Red Hat™ Enterprise Linux™ and Red Hat™ Linux™ are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc.
SUSE™ is a trademark of SUSE AG, a Novell business.
Solaris™ is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
The syslog-ng™ name and the syslog-ng™ logo are registered trademarks of BalaBit.
Windows™ 95, 98, ME, 2000, XP, Server 2003, Vista, Server 2008, 7, 8, and Server 2013 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
All other product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.
DISCLAIMER
BalaBit is not responsible for any third-party Web sites mentioned in this document. BalaBit does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any
content, advertising, products, or other material on or available from such sites or resources. BalaBit will not be responsible or liable for any damage or
loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods, or services that are available on or through
any such sites or resources.
www.balabit.com
ii
Table of Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................................ xiii
1. Summary of contents ............................................................................................................. xiii
2. Target audience and prerequisites ........................................................................................... xiv
3. Products covered in this guide ................................................................................................ xiv
4. Typographical conventions ..................................................................................................... xv
5. Contact and support information ............................................................................................. xv
5.1. Sales contact .............................................................................................................. xvi
5.2. Support contact .......................................................................................................... xvi
5.3. Training ..................................................................................................................... xvi
6. About this document ............................................................................................................. xvi
6.1. Summary of changes .................................................................................................. xvi
6.2. Feedback ................................................................................................................... xxi
6.3. Acknowledgments ...................................................................................................... xxi
1. Introduction to syslog-ng ................................................................................................................ 1
1.1. What syslog-ng is .................................................................................................................. 1
1.2. What syslog-ng is not ............................................................................................................ 1
1.3. Why is syslog-ng needed? ...................................................................................................... 2
1.4. What is new in syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6? ................................................................ 2
1.5. Who uses syslog-ng? ............................................................................................................. 2
1.6. Supported platforms .............................................................................................................. 3
2. The concepts of syslog-ng ............................................................................................................... 4
2.1. The philosophy of syslog-ng .................................................................................................. 4
2.2. Logging with syslog-ng ......................................................................................................... 4
2.2.1. The route of a log message in syslog-ng ....................................................................... 4
2.3. Modes of operation ................................................................................................................ 6
2.3.1. Client mode ............................................................................................................... 6
2.3.2. Relay mode ................................................................................................................ 7
2.3.3. Server mode ............................................................................................................... 7
2.4. Global objects ....................................................................................................................... 7
2.5. Timezones and daylight saving ............................................................................................... 8
2.5.1. How syslog-ng OSE assigns timezone to the message ................................................... 9
2.5.2. A note on timezones and timestamps .......................................................................... 10
2.6. The license of syslog-ng OSE ............................................................................................... 10
2.7. High availability support ...................................................................................................... 10
2.8. The structure of a log message .............................................................................................. 10
2.8.1. BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages ...................................................................... 11
2.8.2. IETF-syslog messages ............................................................................................... 13
2.9. Message representation in syslog-ng OSE ............................................................................. 16
2.10. Structuring macros, metadata, and other value-pairs ............................................................. 17
2.10.1. Specifying data types in value-pairs ......................................................................... 17
3. Installing syslog-ng ....................................................................................................................... 23
3.1. Compiling syslog-ng from source ......................................................................................... 23
3.2. Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE ................................................................................................. 27
3.3. Configuring Microsoft SQL Server to accept logs from syslog-ng ........................................... 27
4. The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide ............................................................................................ 34
www.balabit.com
iii
4.1. Configuring syslog-ng on client hosts ................................................................................... 34
4.2. Configuring syslog-ng on server hosts .................................................................................. 36
4.3. Configuring syslog-ng relays ................................................................................................ 37
4.3.1. Configuring syslog-ng on relay hosts ......................................................................... 37
4.3.2. How relaying log messages works ............................................................................. 39
5. The syslog-ng OSE configuration file ............................................................................................ 40
5.1. Location of the syslog-ng configuration file .......................................................................... 40
5.2. The configuration syntax in detail ......................................................................................... 40
5.3. Notes about the configuration syntax .................................................................................... 42
5.4. Defining configuration objects inline .................................................................................... 43
5.5. Using channels in configuration objects ................................................................................ 44
5.6. Global and environmental variables ...................................................................................... 45
5.7. Modules in syslog-ng OSE ................................................................................................... 45
5.7.1. Loading modules ...................................................................................................... 46
5.8. Managing complex syslog-ng configurations ......................................................................... 46
5.8.1. Including configuration files ...................................................................................... 46
5.8.2. Reusing configuration blocks .................................................................................... 48
6. Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers .................................................................. 50
6.1. How sources work ............................................................................................................... 50
6.2. Collecting internal messages ................................................................................................ 52
6.2.1. internal() source options ............................................................................................ 53
6.3. Collecting messages from text files ....................................................................................... 53
6.3.1. Notes on reading kernel messages .............................................................................. 54
6.3.2. file() source options .................................................................................................. 54
6.4. Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) ...................................... 61
6.4.1. network() source options ........................................................................................... 62
6.5. Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications .............................................................. 69
6.5.1. nodejs() source options ............................................................................................. 70
6.6. Collecting messages from named pipes ................................................................................. 70
6.6.1. pipe() source options ................................................................................................. 71
6.7. Collecting process accounting logs on Linux ......................................................................... 77
6.7.1. pacct() options .......................................................................................................... 78
6.8. Receiving messages from external applications ..................................................................... 79
6.8.1. program() source options ........................................................................................... 79
6.9. Collecting messages on Sun Solaris ...................................................................................... 83
6.9.1. sun-streams() source options ...................................................................................... 83
6.10. Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver) ................................... 87
6.10.1. syslog() source options ............................................................................................ 88
6.11. Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform .................................................... 95
6.12. Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage ........................................ 97
6.12.1. systemd-journal() source options .............................................................................. 98
6.13. Collecting systemd messages using a socket ........................................................................ 99
6.14. Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol ............................... 100
6.14.1. tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options .......................................................... 101
6.15. Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets ............................................................... 109
6.15.1. UNIX credentials and other metadata ..................................................................... 109
6.15.2. unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options ....................................................... 110
7. Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers .................................. 116
www.balabit.com
iv
7.1. Publishing messages using AMQP ...................................................................................... 117
7.1.1. amqp() destination options ....................................................................................... 118
7.2. Storing messages in plain-text files ..................................................................................... 121
7.2.1. file() destination options .......................................................................................... 122
7.3. Sending metrics to Graphite ............................................................................................... 128
7.3.1. graphite() destination options ................................................................................... 128
7.4. Storing messages in a MongoDB database ........................................................................... 129
7.4.1. How syslog-ng OSE connects the MongoDB server .................................................. 130
7.4.2. mongodb() destination options ................................................................................. 131
7.5. Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) ....
1
3
4
7.5.1. network() destination options ................................................................................... 135
7.6. Sending messages to named pipes ....................................................................................... 142
7.6.1. pipe() destination options ........................................................................................ 143
7.7. Sending messages to external applications ........................................................................... 147
7.7.1. program() destination options .................................................................................. 148
7.8. pseudofile() ....................................................................................................................... 152
7.8.1. pseudofile() destination options ............................................................................... 152
7.9. Storing name-value pairs in Redis ....................................................................................... 152
7.9.1. redis() destination options ........................................................................................ 153
7.10. Monitoring your data with Riemann .................................................................................. 154
7.10.1. riemann() destination options ................................................................................. 155
7.11. Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs .................................................................. 158
7.11.1. smtp() destination options ...................................................................................... 159
7.12. Storing messages in an SQL database ................................................................................ 163
7.12.1. Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database ......................................................... 164
7.12.2. Using the sql() driver with a Microsoft SQL database .............................................. 165
7.12.3. The way syslog-ng interacts with the database ........................................................ 166
7.12.4. sql() destination options ......................................................................................... 167
7.13. Publishing messages using STOMP .................................................................................. 173
7.13.1. stomp() destination options .................................................................................... 174
7.14. Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol ............................. 176
7.14.1. syslog() destination options ................................................................................... 177
7.15. Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp()
drivers) .................................................................................................................................... 184
7.15.1. tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options .................................................. 185
7.16. Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets ...................................................................... 192
7.16.1. unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options ................................................. 192
7.17. Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination ............................................... 197
8. Routing messages: log paths and filters ...................................................................................... 198
8.1. Log paths .......................................................................................................................... 198
8.1.1. Embedded log statements ........................................................................................ 199
8.1.2. Junctions and channels ............................................................................................ 201
8.1.3. Log path flags ......................................................................................................... 202
8.2. Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control ............................................. 203
8.2.1. Flow-control and multiple destinations ..................................................................... 206
8.2.2. Configuring flow-control ......................................................................................... 206
8.3. Filters ............................................................................................................................... 208
www.balabit.com
v
8.3.1. Using filters ............................................................................................................ 208
8.3.2. Combining filters with boolean operators ................................................................. 208
8.3.3. Comparing macro values in filters ............................................................................ 209
8.3.4. Using wildcards, special characters, and regular expressions in filters ........................ 210
8.3.5. Tagging messages ................................................................................................... 211
8.3.6. Filter functions ....................................................................................................... 211
8.4. Dropping messages ............................................................................................................ 216
9. Global options of syslog-ng OSE ................................................................................................. 217
9.1. Configuring global syslog-ng options .................................................................................. 217
9.2. Global options ................................................................................................................... 217
10. TLS-encrypted message transfer .............................................................................................. 229
10.1. Secure logging using TLS ................................................................................................ 229
10.2. Encrypting log messages with TLS ................................................................................... 230
10.2.1. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients ............................................................... 230
10.2.2. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng server ................................................................ 231
10.3. Mutual authentication using TLS ...................................................................................... 232
10.3.1. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients ............................................................... 232
10.3.2. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng server ................................................................ 234
10.4. TLS options .................................................................................................................... 235
11. Manipulating messages ............................................................................................................. 238
11.1. Customizing message format ............................................................................................ 238
11.1.1. Formatting messages, filenames, directories, and tablenames ................................... 238
11.1.2. Templates and macros ........................................................................................... 239
11.1.3. Date-related macros ............................................................................................... 240
11.1.4. Hard vs. soft macros .............................................................................................. 241
11.1.5. Macros of syslog-ng OSE ...................................................................................... 241
11.1.6. Using template functions ....................................................................................... 248
11.1.7. Template functions of syslog-ng OSE ..................................................................... 248
11.1.8. Modifying the on-the-wire message format ............................................................. 257
11.2. Modifying messages ........................................................................................................ 257
11.2.1. Replacing message parts ........................................................................................ 258
11.2.2. Setting message fields to specific values ................................................................. 259
11.2.3. Creating custom SDATA fields ............................................................................... 260
11.2.4. Setting multiple message fields to specific values .................................................... 260
11.2.5. Conditional rewrites .............................................................................................. 261
11.2.6. Adding and deleting tags ....................................................................................... 262
11.2.7. Anonymizing credit card numbers .......................................................................... 262
11.3. Regular expressions ......................................................................................................... 263
11.3.1. Types and options of regular expressions ................................................................ 264
11.3.2. Optimizing regular expressions .............................................................................. 265
12. Parsing and segmenting structured messages ............................................................................ 267
12.1. Parsing syslog messages ................................................................................................... 267
12.2. Parsing messages ............................................................................................................. 268
12.2.1. Options of CSV parsers ......................................................................................... 270
12.3. The JSON parser ............................................................................................................. 272
12.3.1. Options of JSON parsers ....................................................................................... 273
13. Processing message content with a pattern database ................................................................. 275
13.1. Classifying log messages .................................................................................................. 275
www.balabit.com
vi
13.1.1. The structure of the pattern database ....................................................................... 276
13.1.2. How pattern matching works ................................................................................. 277
13.1.3. Artificial ignorance ............................................................................................... 277
13.2. Using pattern databases .................................................................................................... 278
13.2.1. Using parser results in filters and templates ............................................................ 279
13.2.2. Downloading sample pattern databases ................................................................... 280
13.3. Correlating log messages .................................................................................................. 281
13.3.1. Referencing earlier messages of the context ............................................................ 282
13.4. Triggering actions for identified messages ......................................................................... 283
13.4.1. Conditional actions ............................................................................................... 284
13.4.2. External actions .................................................................................................... 285
13.4.3. Actions and message correlation ............................................................................ 285
13.5. Creating pattern databases ................................................................................................ 286
13.5.1. Using pattern parsers ............................................................................................. 286
13.5.2. What's new in the syslog-ng pattern database format V4 .......................................... 289
13.5.3. The syslog-ng pattern database format .................................................................... 289
14. Statistics of syslog-ng ................................................................................................................ 297
15. Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE ........................................................................... 300
15.1. Multithreading concepts of syslog-ng OSE ........................................................................ 300
15.2. Configuring multithreading .............................................................................................. 301
15.3. Optimizing multithreaded performance ............................................................................. 301
16. Troubleshooting syslog-ng ......................................................................................................... 303
16.1. Possible causes of losing log messages .............................................................................. 303
16.2. Creating syslog-ng core files ............................................................................................ 304
16.3. Collecting debugging information with strace, truss, or tusc ................................................ 304
16.4. Running a failure script .................................................................................................... 305
16.5. Stopping syslog-ng .......................................................................................................... 305
17. Best practices and examples ...................................................................................................... 306
17.1. General recommendations ................................................................................................ 306
17.2. Handling large message load ............................................................................................ 306
17.3. Using name resolution in syslog-ng ................................................................................... 307
17.3.1. Resolving hostnames locally .................................................................................. 307
17.4. Collecting logs from chroot .............................................................................................. 308
17.5. Configuring log rotation ................................................................................................... 309
Appendix A. The syslog-ng manual pages ...................................................................................... 310
loggen ..................................................................................................................................... 311
pdbtool .................................................................................................................................... 315
syslog-ng ................................................................................................................................. 321
syslog-ng.conf ......................................................................................................................... 325
syslog-ng-ctl ............................................................................................................................ 332
Appendix B. GNU General Public License ..................................................................................... 335
B.1. Preamble .......................................................................................................................... 335
B.2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
.................................................................................................................................................. 336
B.2.1. Section 0 ............................................................................................................... 336
B.2.2. Section 1 ............................................................................................................... 336
B.2.3. Section 2 ............................................................................................................... 336
B.2.4. Section 3 ............................................................................................................... 337
www.balabit.com
vii
B.2.5. Section 4 ............................................................................................................... 338
B.2.6. Section 5 ............................................................................................................... 338
B.2.7. Section 6 ............................................................................................................... 338
B.2.8. Section 7 ............................................................................................................... 338
B.2.9. Section 8 ............................................................................................................... 339
B.2.10. Section 9 .............................................................................................................. 339
B.2.11. Section 10 ............................................................................................................ 339
B.2.12. NO WARRANTY Section 11 ................................................................................ 339
B.2.13. Section 12 ............................................................................................................ 339
B.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs ............................................................. 340
Appendix C. GNU Lesser General Public License .......................................................................... 341
C.1. Preamble .......................................................................................................................... 341
C.2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
.................................................................................................................................................. 343
C.2.1. Section 0 ............................................................................................................... 343
C.2.2. Section 1 ............................................................................................................... 343
C.2.3. Section 2 ............................................................................................................... 343
C.2.4. Section 3 ............................................................................................................... 344
C.2.5. Section 4 ............................................................................................................... 344
C.2.6. Section 5 ............................................................................................................... 345
C.2.7. Section 6 ............................................................................................................... 345
C.2.8. Section 7 ............................................................................................................... 346
C.2.9. Section 8 ............................................................................................................... 346
C.2.10. Section 9 .............................................................................................................. 346
C.2.11. Section 10 ............................................................................................................ 347
C.2.12. Section 11 ............................................................................................................ 347
C.2.13. Section 12 ............................................................................................................ 347
C.2.14. Section 13 ............................................................................................................ 347
C.2.15. Section 14 ............................................................................................................ 348
C.2.16. NO WARRANTY Section 15 ................................................................................ 348
C.2.17. Section 16 ............................................................................................................ 348
C.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries ............................................................. 348
Appendix D. Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License
.......................................................................................................................................................... 350
Glossary .......................................................................................................................................... 355
Index ............................................................................................................................................... 359
List of syslog-ng OSE parameters ..................................................................................................... 371
www.balabit.com
viii
List of Examples
2.1. Using type-hinting ....................................................................................................................... 18
2.2. Using the value-pairs() option ............................................................................................... 19
2.3. Using the rekey() option .............................................................................................................. 21
4.1. The default configuration file of syslog-ng OSE ............................................................................ 35
4.2. A simple configuration for clients ................................................................................................. 36
4.3. A simple configuration for servers ................................................................................................ 37
4.4. A simple configuration for relays .................................................................................................. 38
5.1. A simple configuration file ........................................................................................................... 40
5.2. Using required and optional parameters ........................................................................................ 42
5.3. Using inline definitions ................................................................................................................ 43
5.4. Using channels ............................................................................................................................ 44
5.5. Using global variables ................................................................................................................. 45
5.6. Reusing configuration blocks ....................................................................................................... 48
5.7. Defining blocks with multiple elements ........................................................................................ 49
5.8. Passing arguments to blocks ......................................................................................................... 49
5.9. Using arguments in blocks ........................................................................................................... 49
6.1. A simple source statement ............................................................................................................ 50
6.2. A source statement using two source drivers ................................................................................. 50
6.3. Setting default priority and facility ................................................................................................ 50
6.4. Source statement on a Linux based operating system ..................................................................... 51
6.5. Using the internal() driver ............................................................................................................ 53
6.6. Using the file() driver .................................................................................................................. 53
6.7. Tailing files ................................................................................................................................. 54
6.8. Processing indented multi-line messages ....................................................................................... 58
6.9. Processing Tomcat logs ................................................................................................................ 60
6.10. Using the network() driver ......................................................................................................... 61
6.11. Initial window size of a connection ............................................................................................. 65
6.12. Using the nodejs() driver ............................................................................................................ 69
6.13. Using the pipe() driver ............................................................................................................... 70
6.14. Initial window size of a connection ............................................................................................. 73
6.15. Processing indented multi-line messages ..................................................................................... 74
6.16. Processing Tomcat logs .............................................................................................................. 76
6.17. Using the program() driver ......................................................................................................... 79
6.18. Initial window size of a connection ............................................................................................. 81
6.19. Using the sun-streams() driver .................................................................................................... 83
6.20. Initial window size of a connection ............................................................................................. 85
6.21. Using the syslog() driver ............................................................................................................ 87
6.22. Initial window size of a connection ............................................................................................. 92
6.23. Sending all fields through syslog protocol using the systemd-journal() driver ................................ 97
6.24. Filtering for a specific field using the systemd-journal() driver ..................................................... 97
6.25. Sending all fields in value-pairs using the systemd-journal() driver ............................................... 98
6.26. Using the systemd-syslog() driver ............................................................................................... 99
6.27. Using the udp() and tcp() drivers ............................................................................................... 101
6.28. Initial window size of a connection ........................................................................................... 105
6.29. Using the unix-stream() and unix-dgram() drivers ...................................................................... 109
www.balabit.com
ix
6.30. Initial window size of a connection ........................................................................................... 113
7.1. A simple destination statement ................................................................................................... 116
7.2. Using the amqp() driver ............................................................................................................. 118
7.3. Using the file() driver ................................................................................................................. 121
7.4. Using the file() driver with macros in the file name and a template for the message ........................ 121
7.5. Using the graphite() driver ......................................................................................................... 128
7.6. Using the mongodb() driver ........................................................................................................ 129
7.7. Using the network() driver ......................................................................................................... 134
7.8. Using the pipe() driver ............................................................................................................... 143
7.9. Using the program() destination driver ........................................................................................ 148
7.10. Using the redis() driver ............................................................................................................ 153
7.11. Using the riemann() driver ........................................................................................................ 155
7.12. Using the smtp() driver ............................................................................................................ 158
7.13. Simple e-mail alerting with the smtp() driver ........................................................................... 159
7.14. Using the sql() driver ............................................................................................................... 163
7.15. Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database ........................................................................... 164
7.16. Using the sql() driver with an MSSQL database ......................................................................... 165
7.17. Setting flags for SQL destinations ............................................................................................. 168
7.18. Using SQL NULL values ......................................................................................................... 171
7.19. Value: default .......................................................................................................................... 173
7.20. Using the stomp() driver ........................................................................................................... 173
7.21. Using the syslog() driver .......................................................................................................... 176
7.22. Using the tcp() driver ............................................................................................................... 185
7.23. Using the unix-stream() driver .................................................................................................. 192
7.24. Using the usertty() driver .......................................................................................................... 197
8.1. A simple log statement ............................................................................................................... 198
8.2. Using embedded log paths .......................................................................................................... 201
8.3. Using junctions ......................................................................................................................... 202
8.4. Using log path flags ................................................................................................................... 203
8.5. Soft flow-control ....................................................................................................................... 206
8.6. Hard flow-control ...................................................................................................................... 206
8.7. Sizing parameters for flow-control .............................................................................................. 207
8.8. A simple filter statement ............................................................................................................ 208
8.9. Comparing macro values in filters .............................................................................................. 210
8.10. Filtering with widcards ............................................................................................................. 211
8.11. Selecting messages using the in-list filter ................................................................................... 214
8.12. Adding tags and filtering messages with tags ............................................................................. 215
8.13. Skipping messages ................................................................................................................... 216
9.1. Using global options .................................................................................................................. 217
10.1. A destination statement using TLS ............................................................................................ 230
10.2. A source statement using TLS .................................................................................................. 231
10.3. Disabling mutual authentication ................................................................................................ 232
10.4. A destination statement using mutual authentication ................................................................... 233
10.5. A source statement using TLS .................................................................................................. 234
11.1. Using templates and macros ..................................................................................................... 240
11.2. Using SDATA macros .............................................................................................................. 245
11.3. Using the format-json template function .................................................................................... 249
11.4. Using the graphite-output template function ............................................................................... 250
www.balabit.com
x
11.5. Using the grep template function ............................................................................................... 250
11.6. Using the $(hash) template function .......................................................................................... 251
11.7. ............................................................................................................................................... 252
11.8. Using pattern databases and the if template function ................................................................... 252
11.9. Using the indent-multi-line template function ............................................................................ 252
11.10. Using the padding template function ........................................................................................ 254
11.11. Using the sanitize template function ........................................................................................ 255
11.12. Using the substr template function ........................................................................................... 256
11.13. Using Universally Unique Identifiers ....................................................................................... 256
11.14. Using substitution rules .......................................................................................................... 259
11.15. ............................................................................................................................................. 259
11.16. Setting message fields to a particular value .............................................................................. 259
11.17. Rewriting custom SDATA fields ............................................................................................. 260
11.18. Using groupset rewrite rules ................................................................................................... 261
11.19. Using conditional rewriting ..................................................................................................... 262
11.20. Using Posix regular expressions .............................................................................................. 264
11.21. Using PCRE regular expressions ............................................................................................. 265
11.22. Optimizing regular expressions in filters .................................................................................. 266
12.1. Using junctions ........................................................................................................................ 267
12.2. Segmenting hostnames separated with a dash ............................................................................ 268
12.3. Parsing Apache log files ........................................................................................................... 269
12.4. Segmenting a part of a message ................................................................................................ 269
12.5. Adding the end of the message to the last column ...................................................................... 271
12.6. Using a JSON parser ................................................................................................................ 273
12.7. Using the marker option in JSON parser .................................................................................... 273
13.1. Defining pattern databases ........................................................................................................ 278
13.2. Using classification results ....................................................................................................... 278
13.3. Using classification results for filtering messages ....................................................................... 279
13.4. Using pattern parsers as macros ................................................................................................ 280
13.5. How syslog-ng OSE calculates context-timeout ................................................................... 282
13.6. Using message correlation ........................................................................................................ 282
13.7. Sending triggered messages to the internal() source ............................................................. 283
13.8. Generating messages for pattern database matches ..................................................................... 283
13.9. Generating messages with inherited values ................................................................................ 284
13.10. Actions based on the number of messages ............................................................................... 285
13.11. Sending triggered messages to external applications ................................................................. 285
13.12. Pattern parser syntax .............................................................................................................. 286
13.13. Using the STRING and ESTRING parsers ............................................................................... 287
13.14. A V4 pattern database containing a single rule ......................................................................... 295
15.1. Enabling multithreading ........................................................................................................... 301
17.1. File destination for log rotation ................................................................................................ 309
17.2. Command for cron for log rotation ............................................................................................ 309
A.1. Using required and optional parameters ...................................................................................... 327
A.2. Using global options ................................................................................................................. 328
www.balabit.com
xi
List of Procedures
2.2.1. The route of a log message in syslog-ng ....................................................................................... 4
2.5.1. How syslog-ng OSE assigns timezone to the message ................................................................... 9
3.1. Compiling syslog-ng from source ................................................................................................. 23
3.3. Configuring Microsoft SQL Server to accept logs from syslog-ng ................................................... 27
4.1. Configuring syslog-ng on client hosts ........................................................................................... 34
4.2. Configuring syslog-ng on server hosts .......................................................................................... 36
4.3.1. Configuring syslog-ng on relay hosts ......................................................................................... 37
7.4.1. How syslog-ng OSE connects the MongoDB server .................................................................. 130
10.2.1. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients ............................................................................... 230
10.2.2. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng server ................................................................................ 231
10.3.1. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients ............................................................................... 232
10.3.2. Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng server ................................................................................ 234
11.2.5.1. How conditional rewriting works ......................................................................................... 261
16.2. Creating syslog-ng core files .................................................................................................... 304
17.3.1. Resolving hostnames locally .................................................................................................. 307
17.4. Collecting logs from chroot ...................................................................................................... 308
www.balabit.com
xii
Summary of contents
Preface
Welcome to the syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6 Administrator Guide!
This document describes how to configure and manage syslog-ng. Background information for the technology
and concepts used by the product is also discussed.
1. Summary of contents
Chapter 1, Introduction to syslog-ng (p. 1) describes the main functionality and purpose of syslog-ng OSE.
Chapter 2, The concepts of syslog-ng (p. 4) discusses the technical concepts and philosophies behind syslog-ng
OSE.
Chapter 3, Installing syslog-ng (p. 23) describes how to install syslog-ng OSE on various UNIX-based platforms
using the precompiled binaries.
Chapter 4, The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide (p. 34) provides a briefly explains how to perform the most
common log collecting tasks with syslog-ng OSE.
Chapter 5, The syslog-ng OSE configuration file (p. 40) discusses the configuration file format and syntax in
detail, and explains how to manage large-scale configurations using included files and reusable configuration
snippets.
Chapter 6, Collecting log messages — sources and source drivers (p. 50) explains how to collect and receive
log messages from various sources.
Chapter 7, Sending and storing log messages — destinations and destination drivers (p. 116) describes the
different methods to store and forward log messages.
Chapter 8, Routing messages: log paths and filters (p. 198) explains how to route and sort log messages, and
how to use filters to select specific messages.
Chapter 9, Global options of syslog-ng OSE (p. 217) lists the global options of syslog-ng OSE and explains
how to use them.
Chapter 10, TLS-encrypted message transfer (p. 229) shows how to secure and authenticate log transport using
TLS encryption.
Chapter 11, Manipulating messages (p. 238) describes how to customize message format using templates and
macros, how to rewrite and modify messages, and how to use regular expressions.
Chapter 12, Parsing and segmenting structured messages (p. 267) describes how to segment and process
structured messages like comma-separated values.
Chapter 13, Processing message content with a pattern database (p. 275) explains how to identify and process
log messages using a pattern database.
www.balabit.com
xiii
Target audience and prerequisites
Chapter 14, Statistics of syslog-ng (p. 297) details the available statistics that syslog-ng OSE collects about the
processed log messages.
Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE (p. 300) describes how to configure syslog-ng OSE
to use multiple processors, and how to optimize its performance.
Chapter 16, Troubleshooting syslog-ng (p. 303) offers tips to solving problems.
Chapter 17, Best practices and examples (p. 306) gives recommendations to configure special features of
syslog-ng OSE.
Appendix A, The syslog-ng manual pages (p. 310) contains the manual pages of the syslog-ng OSE application.
Appendix C, GNU Lesser General Public License (p. 341) includes the text of the LGPLv2.1 license applicable
to the core of syslog-ng Open Source Edition.
Appendix B, GNU General Public License (p. 335) includes the text of the GPLv2 license applicable to syslog-ng
Open Source Edition.
Appendix D, Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License (p. 350) includes
the text of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License applicable
to The syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6 Administrator Guide.
Glossary (p. 355) defines the important terms used in this guide.
List of syslog-ng OSE parameters (p. 371) provides cross-references to the definitions of options, parameters,
and macros available in syslog-ng OSE.
The Index provides cross-references to important terms used in this guide.
2. Target audience and prerequisites
This guide is intended for system administrators and consultants responsible for designing and maintaining
logging solutions and log centers. It is also useful for IT decision makers looking for a tool to implement
centralized logging in heterogeneous environments.
The following skills and knowledge are necessary for a successful syslog-ng administrator:
■ At least basic system administration knowledge.
■ An understanding of networks, TCP/IP protocols, and general network terminology.
■ Working knowledge of the UNIX or Linux operating system.
■ In-depth knowledge of the logging process of various platforms and applications.
■ An understanding of the legacy syslog (BSD-syslog) protocol) and the new syslog (IETF-syslog)
protocol) standard.
3. Products covered in this guide
This guide describes the use of the following products:
www.balabit.com
xiv
Typographical conventions
■ syslog-ng Open Source Edition (syslog-ng OSE) 3.6.1 and later
4. Typographical conventions
Before you start using this guide, it is important to understand the terms and typographical conventions used
in the documentation. For more information on specialized terms and abbreviations used in the documentation,
see the Glossary at the end of this document.
The following kinds of text formatting and icons identify special information in the document.
Tip
Tips provide best practices and recommendations.
Note
Notes provide additional information on a topic, and emphasize important facts and considerations.
Warning
Warnings mark situations where loss of data or misconfiguration of the device is possible if the instructions are not obeyed.
Command
Commands you have to execute.
Emphasis
Reference items, additional readings.
/path/to/file
File names.
Parameters
Parameter and attribute names.
Label
GUI output messages or dialog labels.
Menu
A submenu or menu item in the menu bar.
Button
Buttons in dialog windows.
5. Contact and support information
This product is developed and maintained by BalaBit-Europe. We are located in Budapest, Hungary. Our address
is:
BalaBit S.a.r.l.
2 Alíz Street
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary
Tel: +36 1 398-6700
Fax: +36 1 208-0875
www.balabit.com
xv
Sales contact
E-mail: <info@balabit.com>
Web: http://www.balabit.com/
5.1. Sales contact
You can directly contact us with sales related topics at the e-mail address <sales@balabit.com>, or leave
us your contact information and we call you back.
5.2. Support contact
In case you experience a problem that is not covered in this guide, visit the syslog-ng wiki or post it on syslog-ng
mailing list.
To report bugs found in syslog-ng OSE, visit this page.
Precompiled binary packages are available for free from various third-parties. Most of these are listed on the
syslog-ng website.
Note
BalaBit-Europe offers a Premium Edition of syslog-ng and a log management appliance syslog-ng Store Box for which
professional support is available. For more information on which syslog-ng product version meets your needs contact
our sales department at <sales@balabit.com>.
For other products of BalaBit-Europe visit http://www.balabit.com/.
5.3. Training
BalaBit S.a.r.l. holds courses on using its products for new and experienced users. For dates, details, and
application forms, visit the http://www.balabit.com/support/trainings/ webpage.
6. About this document
This guide is a work-in-progress document with new versions appearing periodically.
The latest version of this document can be downloaded from the BalaBit website here.
6.1. Summary of changes
This section lists the changes of The syslog-ng Open Source Edition Administrator Guide.
6.1.1. Version 3.5 - 3.6
Changes in product:
Changes in documentation:
■ Section 7.10, Monitoring your data with Riemann (p. 154) has been added to the document.
www.balabit.com
xvi
Summary of changes
■ Section 6.5, Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications (p. 69) has been added to the
document.
■ Section 6.12, Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage (p. 97) has been
added to the document.
■ Section 6.13, Collecting systemd messages using a socket (p. 99) has been added to the document.
■ Section use-rcptid() (p. 228) has been added to the document.
■ Section 11.2.4, Setting multiple message fields to specific values (p. 260) has been added to the
document.
■ The retries and throttle options are available for the SMTP, MongoDB, AMQP, and Redis
destinations.
■ The description of the multi-line-mode option has been updated.
■ Section 6.15.1, UNIX credentials and other metadata (p. 109) has been added to the document.
■ Section RUNID (p. 245) has been added to Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241).
■ The extract-prefix option has been added to Section 12.3, The JSON parser (p. 272).
■ The graphite-output, or and padding template functions have been added to Section 11.1.7,
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE (p. 248).
■ PCRE is now a required dependency of syslog-ng OSE, and by default, syslog-ng OSE uses
PCRE-style regular expressions. Therefore, the --enable-pcre compliation option has been
removed.
■ Section 7.3, Sending metrics to Graphite (p. 128) has been added to the document.
■ Section 7.8, pseudofile() (p. 152) has been added to the document.
■ The custom-domain() and stats-lifetime() options have been added to Section 9.2, Global
options (p. 217).
■ The retry_sql_inserts option has been renamed to retries to increase consistency.
■ Section on-error() (p. 224) can be set locally for MongoDB destinations as well. Also, MongoDB
destinations support the username and password options, and connecting to the server using UNIX
domain sockets. For details, see Section 7.4, Storing messages in a MongoDB database (p. 129).
■ Procedure 7.4.1, How syslog-ng OSE connects the MongoDB server (p. 130) has been added to the
document.
■ Several typos and syntax errors in examples have been corrected.
6.1.2. Version 3.4 - 3.5
Changes in product:
■ Section 7.13, Publishing messages using STOMP (p. 173) has been added to the document.
www.balabit.com
xvii
Summary of changes
■ Section 7.9, Storing name-value pairs in Redis (p. 152) has been added to the document.
■ The replace() option of value-pairs() has been renamed to replace-prefix() in Section
value-pairs() (p. 19).
■ Section 2.10.1, Specifying data types in value-pairs (p. 17) has been added to the document.
■ The multi-line-mode() option has been added to Section 6.3.2, file() source options (p. 54) and
Section 6.6.1, pipe() source options (p. 71).
■ Section inlist() (p. 213) has been added to the document.
■ Section env (p. 248) has been added to the document.
■ Section lowercase (p. 253) has been added to the document.
■ Section uppercase (p. 256) has been added to the document.
■ Section replace-delimiter (p. 254) has been added to the document.
■ The ip-protocol() option of the network() destination has been added to Section 7.5.1, network()
destination options (p. 135).
■ Section 6.2, Collecting internal messages (p. 52) has been updated.
■ The description of escaping special characters used in templates has been updated in Section 11.1.2,
Templates and macros (p. 239).
Changes in documentation:
■ The synopsis and usage of the facility() and priority() filters have been corrected in Section
facility() (p. 212) and Section level() or priority() (p. 214).
■ Incorrect references to escaping colons have been removed from Section @ESTRING@ (p. 288).
■ The default ports of the syslog drivers have been corrected.
■ Erroneous references to RFC5427 and RFC5428 have been removed.
6.1.3. Version 3.3 - 3.4
Changes in product:
■ New configuration objects called junctions and channels are available to improve the flexibility of
configuring syslog-ng OSE. For details, see Section 8.1.2, Junctions and channels (p. 201) and Section
5.5, Using channels in configuration objects (p. 44).
■ syslog-ng OSE can publish messages using the AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol). For
details, see Section 7.1, Publishing messages using AMQP (p. 117).
■ The tcp, tcp6, udp, and udp6 drivers have been merged into a single network() driver. For
details, see Section 6.4, Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver) (p. 61)
and Section 7.5, Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network()
driver) (p. 134).
www.balabit.com
xviii
Summary of changes
■ The tcp, tcp6, syslog, and network source and destination drivers support the new
tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options.
For details, see respective source and driver descriptions, for example, Section 6.10.1, syslog() source
options (p. 88).
■ Objects can be defined inline as well. This is useful if you use the object only once (for example, a
filter). For details, see Section 5.4, Defining configuration objects inline (p. 43).
■ The mongodb() destination supports using replicasets, sockets, and safe-mode. For details, see
Section servers() (p. 133), Section path() (p. 133), and Section safe-mode() (p. 133), respectively.
■ The value-pairs() option can modify the names of the value-pairs using the rekey option. For
details, see Section value-pairs() (p. 19).
■ A new parser is available to explicitly parse messages as syslog messages. For details, see Section
12.1, Parsing syslog messages (p. 267).
■ A new parser is available to parse JSON-formatted messages. For details, see Section 12.3, The JSON
parser (p. 272).
■ The following new macros are available in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241): AMPM,
HOUR12, LOGHOST, MSEC, SYSUPTIME, USEC.
■ The following new template functions are available in Section 11.1.7, Template functions of syslog-ng
OSE (p. 248): GEOIP, LENGTH, STRIP, SUBSTR, TFHASH, UUID, and functions for various
numerical operations.
■ The following new parsers are available in Section 13.5.1, Using pattern parsers (p. 286): @EMAIL@,
@HOSTNAME@, @MACADDR@, @LLADDR@, @PCRE@, @SET@.
■ Actions triggered from the pattern database can use the number of messages as a condition. For
details, see Section 13.4.1, Conditional actions (p. 284).
■ Messages triggered from the pattern database can inherit the properties of the original message. For
details, see Example 13.8, Generating messages for pattern database matches (p. 283).
■ Tags can be added and deleted using rewrite rules. For details, see Section 11.2.6, Adding and deleting
tags (p. 262).
■ The file-template() and proto-template() global options have been documented. For details,
see Section file-template() (p. 219) and Section proto-template() (p. 225), respectively.
■ The dbd-option() and session-statements() options are available for the sql() driver. For
details, see Section dbd-option() (p. 168) and Section session-statements() (p. 172).
■ The tags and name-value pairs set in a pattern database file can be listed using the pdbtool
dictionary command. For details, see the section called “The dictionary command” (p. 315).
■ The expect-hostname source flag has been documented.
■ The --caps command-line option has been documented. For details, see syslog-ng(8) (p. 321).
www.balabit.com
xix
Summary of changes
■ The reload option is available for the syslog-ng-ctl utility. For details, see
syslog-ng-ctl(1) (p. 332).
■ Wildcards can be used to include multiple configuration files. For details, see Section 5.8.1, Including
configuration files (p. 46).
■ Section 7.11, Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs (p. 158) has been added to the document.
Changes in documentation:
■ Updated the documentation of the system() source in Section 6.11, Collecting the system-specific
log messages of a platform (p. 95).
■ Section 13.4, Triggering actions for identified messages (p. 283) has been split into several subsections.
■ Documented several missing pdbtool options in Appendix A, The syslog-ng manual pages (p. 310).
■ The --without-compile-date compiling option has been documented in Procedure 3.1, Compiling
syslog-ng from source (p. 23).
■ The description of the tags() option has been added to Section 6.2.1, internal() source
options (p. 53).
■ Links and compiling option descriptions have been updated in Procedure 3.1, Compiling syslog-ng
from source (p. 23).
■ Section retries (p. 171) has been added to the document.
■ A few notes regarding kernel messages and file sources have been reorganized to Section 6.3.1,
Notes on reading kernel messages (p. 54).
■ Clarified the use of double-quotes and special characters in Section 11.3, Regular expressions (p. 263).
■ Added a note about unsupported column types to Section 7.12.2, Using the sql() driver with a
Microsoft SQL database (p. 165).
■ The maximal number of worker-threads has been clarified in Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling
in syslog-ng OSE (p. 300).
■ Corrected a note about persistent message contexts in Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
■ Clarifications in Section 7.12.1, Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database (p. 164).
■ A description of the BOM character has been added to BOM (p. 355).
■ The description of the delimiter option of csv-parser() has been clarified. For details, see Section
delimiters (p. 270).
■ Missing facility names have been added to Section facility() (p. 212).
■ The description of the chain_hostnames global option has been extended. For details, see Section
chain-hostnames() (p. 217).
■ The descriptions of statistics types have been clarified in Chapter 14, Statistics of syslog-ng (p. 297).
■ The description of pipe() has been clarified.
www.balabit.com
xx
Feedback
■ The manual pages of syslog-ng Open Source Edition have been relicensed under the GPLv2+ license.
See Appendix A, The syslog-ng manual pages (p. 310) for details.
■ Information about chrooting syslog-ng has been corrected in the syslog-ng.8 manual page. See
syslog-ng(8) (p. 321) for details.
■ The example of Section format-json (p. 249) has been expanded and corrected.
■ Lots of other corrections and clarifications.
6.2. Feedback
Any feedback is greatly appreciated, especially on what else this document should cover. General comments,
errors found in the text, and any suggestions about how to improve the documentation is welcome at
documentation@balabit.com.
6.3. Acknowledgments
BalaBit would like to express its gratitude to the syslog-ng users and the syslog-ng community for their invaluable
help and support, including the community members listed at syslog-ng Community Page.
www.balabit.com
xxi
What syslog-ng is
Chapter 1. Introduction to syslog-ng
This chapter introduces the syslog-ng Open Source Edition application in a non-technical manner, discussing
how and why is it useful, and the benefits it offers to an existing IT infrastructure.
1.1. What syslog-ng is
The syslog-ng application is a flexible and highly scalable system logging application that is ideal for creating
centralized and trusted logging solutions. The main features of syslog-ng are summarized below.
■ Reliable log transfer: The syslog-ng application enables you to send the log messages of your hosts
to remote servers using the latest protocol standards. The logs of different servers can be collected
and stored centrally on dedicated log servers. Transferring log messages using the TCP protocol
ensures that no messages are lost.
■ Secure logging using TLS: Log messages may contain sensitive information that should not be
accessed by third parties. Therefore, syslog-ng supports the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol
to encrypt the communication. TLS also allows the mutual authentication of the host and the server
using X.509 certificates.
■ Direct database access: Storing your log messages in a database allows you to easily search and
query the messages and interoperate with log analyzing applications. The syslog-ng application
supports the following databases: MSSQL, MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQLite.
■ Heterogeneous environments: The syslog-ng application is the ideal choice to collect logs in massively
heterogeneous environments using several different operating systems and hardware platforms,
including Linux, Unix, BSD, Sun Solaris, HP-UX, Tru64, and AIX.
■ Filter and classify: The syslog-ng application can sort the incoming log messages based on their
content and various parameters like the source host, application, and priority. Directories, files, and
database tables can be created dynamically using macros. Complex filtering using regular expressions
and boolean operators offers almost unlimited flexibility to forward only the important log messages
to the selected destinations.
■ Parse and rewrite: The syslog-ng application can segment log messages to named fields or columns,
and also modify the values of these fields.
■ IPv4 and IPv6 support: The syslog-ng application can operate in both IPv4 and IPv6 network
environments; it can receive and send messages to both types of networks.
1.2. What syslog-ng is not
The syslog-ng application is not log analysis software. It can filter log messages and select only the ones
matching certain criteria. It can even convert the messages and restructure them to a predefined format, or parse
the messages and segment them into different fields. But syslog-ng cannot interpret and analyze the meaning
behind the messages, or recognize patterns in the occurrence of different messages.
www.balabit.com
1
Why is syslog-ng needed?
1.3. Why is syslog-ng needed?
Log messages contain information about the events happening on the hosts. Monitoring system events is essential
for security and system health monitoring reasons.
The original syslog protocol separates messages based on the priority of the message and the facility sending
the message. These two parameters alone are often inadequate to consistently classify messages, as many
applications might use the same facility — and the facility itself is not even included in the log message. To
make things worse, many log messages contain unimportant information. The syslog-ng application helps you
to select only the really interesting messages, and forward them to a central server.
Company policies or other regulations often require log messages to be archived. Storing the important messages
in a central location greatly simplifies this process.
For details on how can you use syslog-ng to comply with various regulations, see the Regulatory compliance
and system logging whitepaper available here
1.4. What is new in syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.6?
Version 3.6 of syslog-ng Open Source Edition includes the following main features:
■ syslog-ng OSE can send messages and metrics to the Riemann monitoring system. For details, see
Section 7.10, Monitoring your data with Riemann (p. 154).
■ syslog-ng OSE can send messages and metrics to a Graphite server. For details, see Section 7.3,
Sending metrics to Graphite (p. 128).
■ syslog-ng OSE can directly read log messages from the journal file of platforms using systemd. For
details, see Section 6.12, Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage (p. 97).
■ syslog-ng OSE can read log messages from the syslog socket of platforms using systemd. For details,
see Section 6.13, Collecting systemd messages using a socket (p. 99).
■ syslog-ng OSE can receive and automatically parse messages from nodejs application. For details,
see Section 6.5, Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications (p. 69).
■ syslog-ng OSE can rewrite multiple macros at the same time, making it easy to modify the values
of fields parsed using patterndb or from JSON. For details, see Section 11.2.4, Setting multiple
message fields to specific values (p. 260).
■ For a more detailed list of changes in syslog-ng OSE 3.6 and in The syslog-ng Open Source Edition
3.6 Administrator Guide, see Section 6.1.1, Version 3.5 - 3.6 (p. xvi).
1.5. Who uses syslog-ng?
The syslog-ng application is used worldwide by companies and institutions who collect and manage the logs
of several hosts, and want to store them in a centralized, organized way. Using syslog-ng is particularly
advantageous for:
■ Internet Service Providers;
■ Financial institutions and companies requiring policy compliance;
■ Server, web, and application hosting companies;
www.balabit.com
2
Supported platforms
■ Datacenters;
■ Wide area network (WAN) operators;
■ Server farm administrators.
1.6. Supported platforms
The syslog-ng Open Source Edition application is highly portable and is known to run on a wide range of
hardware architectures (x86, x86_64, SUN Sparc, PowerPC 32 and 64, Alpha) and operating systems, including
Linux, BSD, Solaris, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Mac OS X, Cygwin, Tru64, and others.
■ The source code of syslog-ng Open Source Edition is released under the GPLv2 license and is
available here.
■ For
a
list
of
precompiled
binary
packages,
see
http://www.balabit.com/network-security/syslog-ng/opensource-logging-system/downloads/3rd-party.
www.balabit.com
3
The philosophy of syslog-ng
Chapter 2. The concepts of syslog-ng
This chapter discusses the technical concepts of syslog-ng.
2.1. The philosophy of syslog-ng
Typically, syslog-ng is used to manage log messages and implement centralized logging, where the aim is to
collect the log messages of several devices on a single, central log server. The different devices — called
syslog-ng clients — all run syslog-ng, and collect the log messages from the various applications, files, and
other sources. The clients send all important log messages to the remote syslog-ng server, which sorts and
stores them.
2.2. Logging with syslog-ng
The syslog-ng application reads incoming messages and forwards them to the selected destinations. The
syslog-ng application can receive messages from files, remote hosts, and other sources.
Log messages enter syslog-ng in one of the defined sources, and are sent to one or more destinations.
Sources and destinations are independent objects; log paths define what syslog-ng does with a message,
connecting the sources to the destinations. A log path consists of one or more sources and one or more
destinations; messages arriving from a source are sent to every destination listed in the log path. A log path
defined in syslog-ng is called a log statement.
Optionally, log paths can include filters. Filters are rules that select only certain messages, for example, selecting
only messages sent by a specific application. If a log path includes filters, syslog-ng sends only the messages
satisfying the filter rules to the destinations set in the log path.
Other optional elements that can appear in log statements are parsers and rewriting rules. Parsers segment
messages into different fields to help processing the messages, while rewrite rules modify the messages by
adding, replacing, or removing parts of the messages.
2.2.1. Procedure – The route of a log message in syslog-ng
Purpose:
The following procedure illustrates the route of a log message from its source on the syslog-ng client to its final
destination on the central syslog-ng server.
www.balabit.com
4
Logging with syslog-ng
Figure 2.1. The route of a log message
Steps:
Step 1. A device or application sends a log message to a source on the syslog-ng client. For example, an
Apache web server running on Linux enters a message into the /var/log/apache file.
Step 2. The syslog-ng client running on the web server reads the message from its /var/log/apache source.
Step 3. The syslog-ng client processes the first log statement that includes the /var/log/apache source.
Step 4. The syslog-ng client performs optional operations (message filtering, parsing, and rewriting) on the
message; for example, it compares the message to the filters of the log statement (if any). If the message
complies with all filter rules, syslog-ng sends the message to the destinations set in the log statement,
for example, to the remote syslog-ng server.
Warning
Message filtering, parsing, and rewriting is performed in the order that the operations appear in the log
statement.
Note
The syslog-ng client sends a message to all matching destinations by default. As a result, a message may be
sent to a destination more than once, if the destination is used in multiple log statements. To prevent such
situations, use the final flag in the destination statements. For details, see Table 8.1, Log statement
flags (p. 202).
www.balabit.com
5
Modes of operation
Step 5. The syslog-ng client processes the next log statement that includes the /var/log/apache source,
repeating Steps 3-4.
Step 6. The message sent by the syslog-ng client arrives from a source set in the syslog-ng server.
Step 7. The syslog-ng server reads the message from its source and processes the first log statement that
includes that source.
Step 8. The syslog-ng server performs optional operations (message filtering, parsing, and rewriting) on the
message; for example, it compares the message to the filters of the log statement (if any). If the message
complies with all filter rules, syslog-ng sends the message to the destinations set in the log statement.
Warning
Message filtering, parsing, and rewriting is performed in the order that the operations appear in the log
statement.
Step 9. The syslog-ng server processes the next log statement, repeating Steps 7-9.
Note
The syslog-ng application can stop reading messages from its sources if the destinations cannot process the
sent messages. This feature is called flow-control and is detailed in Section 8.2, Managing incoming and
outgoing messages with flow-control (p. 203).
2.3. Modes of operation
The syslog-ng Open Source Edition application has three typical operation scenarios: Client, Server, and Relay.
2.3.1. Client mode
Figure 2.2. Client-mode operation
In client mode, syslog-ng collects the local logs generated by the host and forwards them through a network
connection to the central syslog-ng server or to a relay. Clients often also log the messages locally into files.
www.balabit.com
6
Relay mode
2.3.2. Relay mode
Figure 2.3. Relay-mode operation
In relay mode, syslog-ng receives logs through the network from syslog-ng clients and forwards them to the
central syslog-ng server using a network connection. Relays also log the messages from the relay host into a
local file, or forward these messages to the central syslog-ng server.
2.3.3. Server mode
Figure 2.4. Server-mode operation
In server mode, syslog-ng acts as a central log-collecting server. It receives messages from syslog-ng clients
and relays over the network, and stores them locally in files, or passes them to other applications, for example
log analyzers.
2.4. Global objects
The syslog-ng application uses the following objects:
■ Source driver: A communication method used to receive log messages. For example, syslog-ng can
receive messages from a remote host via TCP/IP, or read the messages of a local application from
a file. For details on source drivers, see Chapter 6, Collecting log messages — sources and source
drivers (p. 50).
www.balabit.com
7
Timezones and daylight saving
■ Source: A named collection of configured source drivers.
■ Destination driver: A communication method used to send log messages. For example, syslog-ng
can send messages to a remote host via TCP/IP, or write the messages into a file or database. For
details on destination drivers, see Chapter 7, Sending and storing log messages — destinations and
destination drivers (p. 116).
■ Destination: A named collection of configured destination drivers.
■ Filter: An expression to select messages. For example, a simple filter can select the messages received
from a specific host. For details, see Section 11.1, Customizing message format (p. 238).
■ Macro: An identifier that refers to a part of the log message. For example, the ${HOST} macro returns
the name of the host that sent the message. Macros are often used in templates and filenames. For
details, see Section 11.1, Customizing message format (p. 238).
■ Parser: Parsers are objects that parse the incoming messages, or parts of a message. For example,
the csv-parser() can segment messages into separate columns at a predefined separator character
(for example a comma). Every column has a unique name that can be used as a macro. For details,
see Chapter 12, Parsing and segmenting structured messages (p. 267) and Chapter 13, Processing
message content with a pattern database (p. 275).
■ Rewrite rule: A rule modifies a part of the message, for example, replaces a string, or sets a field to
a specified value. For details, see Section 11.2, Modifying messages (p. 257).
■ Log paths: A combination of sources, destinations, and other objects like filters, parsers, and rewrite
rules. The syslog-ng application sends messages arriving from the sources of the log paths to the
defined destinations, and performs filtering, parsing, and rewriting of the messages. Log paths are
also called log statements. Log statements can include other (embedded) log statements and junctions
to create complex log paths. For details, see Chapter 8, Routing messages: log paths and filters (p. 198).
■ Template: A template is a set of macros that can be used to restructure log messages or automatically
generate file names. For example, a template can add the hostname and the date to the beginning of
every log message. For details, see Section 11.1, Customizing message format (p. 238).
■ Option: Options set global parameters of syslog-ng, like the parameters of name resolution and
timezone handling. For details, see Chapter 9, Global options of syslog-ng OSE (p. 217).
For details on the above objects, see Section 5.2, The configuration syntax in detail (p. 40).
2.5. Timezones and daylight saving
The syslog-ng application receives the timezone and daylight saving information from the operating system it
is installed on. If the operating system handles daylight saving correctly, so does syslog-ng.
The syslog-ng application supports messages originating from different timezones. The original syslog protocol
(RFC3164) does not include timezone information, but syslog-ng provides a solution by extending the syslog
www.balabit.com
8
Timezones and daylight saving
protocol to include the timezone in the log messages. The syslog-ng application also enables administrators to
supply timezone information for legacy devices which do not support the protocol extension.
2.5.1. Procedure – How syslog-ng OSE assigns timezone to the message
When syslog-ng OSE receives a message, it assigns timezone information to the message using the following
algorithm.
Step 1. The sender application (for example the syslog-ng client) or host specifies the timezone of the messages.
If the incoming message includes a timezone it is associated with the message. Otherwise, the local
timezone is assumed.
Step 2. Specify the time-zone() parameter for the source driver that reads the message. This timezone will
be associated with the messages only if no timezone is specified within the message itself. Each source
defaults to the value of the recv-time-zone() global option. It is not possible to override only the
timezone information of the incoming message; but setting the keep-timestamp() option to no
allows syslog-ng OSE to replace the full timestamp (timezone included) with the time the message
was received.
Note
When processing a message that does not contain timezone information, the syslog-ng OSE application will
use the timezone and daylight-saving that was effective when the timestamp was generated. For example,
the current time is 2011-03-11 (March 11, 2011) in the EU/Budapest timezone. When daylight-saving is
active (summertime), the offset is +02:00. When daylight-saving is inactive (wintertime) the timezone offset
is +01:00. If the timestamp of an incoming message is 2011-01-01, the timezone associated with the
message will be +01:00, but the timestamp will be converted, because 2011-01-01 meant winter time when
daylight saving is not active but the current timezone is +02:00.
Step 3. Specify the timezone in the destination driver using the time-zone() parameter. Each destination
driver might have an associated timezone value; syslog-ng converts message timestamps to this timezone
before sending the message to its destination (file or network socket). Each destination defaults to the
value of the send-time-zone() global option.
Note
A message can be sent to multiple destination zones. The syslog-ng application converts the timezone
information properly for every individual destination zone.
Warning
If syslog-ng OSE sends the message is to the destination using the legacy-syslog protocol (RFC3164) which
does not support timezone information in its timestamps, the timezone information cannot be encapsulated
into the sent timestamp, so syslog-ng OSE will convert the hour:min values based on the explicitly specified
timezone.
Step 4. If the timezone is not specified, local timezone is used.
Step 5. When macro expansions are used in the destination filenames, the local timezone is used. (Also, if the
timestamp of the received message does not contain the year of the message, syslog-ng OSE uses the
local year.)
www.balabit.com
9
A note on timezones and timestamps
2.5.2. A note on timezones and timestamps
If the clients run syslog-ng, then use the ISO timestamp, because it includes timezone information. That way
you do not need to adjust the recv-time-zone() parameter of syslog-ng.
If you want syslog-ng to output timestamps in Unix (POSIX) time format, use the S_UNIXTIME and R_UNIXTIME
macros. You do not need to change any of the timezone related parameters, because the timestamp information
of incoming messages is converted to Unix time internally, and Unix time is a timezone-independent time
representation. (Actually, Unix time measures the number of seconds elapsed since midnight of Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC) January 1, 1970, but does not count leap seconds.)
2.6. The license of syslog-ng OSE
Starting with version 3.2, the syslog-ng Open Source Edition application is licensed under a combined
LGPL+GPL license. The core of syslog-ng OSE is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License
Version 2.1 license, while the rest of the codebase is licensed under the GNU General Public License Version
2 license.
Note
Practically, the code stored under the lib directory of the source code package is under LGPL, the rest is GPL.
For details about the LGPL and GPL licenses, see Appendix C, GNU Lesser General Public License (p. 341)
and Appendix B, GNU General Public License (p. 335), respectively.
2.7. High availability support
Multiple syslog-ng servers can be run in fail-over mode. The syslog-ng application does not include any internal
support for this, as clustering support must be implemented on the operating system level. A tool that can be
used to create UNIX clusters is Heartbeat (for details, see this page).
2.8. The structure of a log message
The following sections describe the structure of log messages. Currently there are two standard syslog message
formats:
■ The old standard described in RFC 3164 (also called the BSD-syslog or the legacy-syslog protocol):
see Section 2.8.1, BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages (p. 11)
■ The new standard described in RFC 5424 (also called the IETF-syslog protocol): see Section 2.8.2,
IETF-syslog messages (p. 13)
■ How messages are represented in syslog-ng OSE: see Section 2.9, Message representation in syslog-ng
OSE (p. 16).
www.balabit.com
10
BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages
2.8.1. BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages
This section describes the format of a syslog message, according to the legacy-syslog or BSD-syslog protocol).
A syslog message consists of the following parts:
■ PRI
■ HEADER
■ MSG
The total message cannot be longer than 1024 bytes.
The following is a sample syslog message: <133>Feb 25 14:09:07 webserver syslogd: restart. The message
corresponds to the following format: <priority>timestamp hostname application: message. The different parts
of the message are explained in the following sections.
Note
The syslog-ng application supports longer messages as well. For details, see the log-msg-size() option in Section 9.2,
Global options (p. 217). However, it is not recommended to enable messages larger than the packet size when using UDP
destinations.
2.8.1.1. The PRI message part
The PRI part of the syslog message (known as Priority value) represents the Facility and Severity of the message.
Facility represents the part of the system sending the message, while severity marks its importance. The Priority
value is calculated by first multiplying the Facility number by 8 and then adding the numerical value of the
Severity. The possible facility and severity values are presented below.
Note
Facility codes may slightly vary between different platforms. The syslog-ng application accepts facility codes as numerical
values as well.
Numerical Code
Facility
0
kernel messages
1
user-level messages
2
mail system
3
system daemons
4
security/authorization messages
5
messages generated internally by syslogd
6
line printer subsystem
7
network news subsystem
www.balabit.com
11
BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages
Numerical Code
Facility
8
UUCP subsystem
9
clock daemon
10
security/authorization messages
11
FTP daemon
12
NTP subsystem
13
log audit
14
log alert
15
clock daemon
16-23
locally used facilities (local0-local7)
Table 2.1. syslog Message Facilities
The following table lists the severity values.
Numerical Code
Severity
0
Emergency: system is unusable
1
Alert: action must be taken immediately
2
Critical: critical conditions
3
Error: error conditions
4
Warning: warning conditions
5
Notice: normal but significant condition
6
Informational: informational messages
7
Debug: debug-level messages
Table 2.2. syslog Message Severities
2.8.1.2. The HEADER message part
The HEADER part contains a timestamp and the hostname (without the domain name) or the IP address of the
device. The timestamp field is the local time in the Mmm dd hh:mm:ss format, where:
■ Mmm is the English abbreviation of the month: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct,
Nov, Dec.
■ dd is the day of the month on two digits. If the day of the month is less than 10, the first digit is
replaced with a space. (For example Aug 7.)
■ hh:mm:ss is the local time. The hour (hh) is represented in a 24-hour format. Valid entries are between
00 and 23, inclusive. The minute (mm) and second (ss) entries are between 00 and 59 inclusive.
Note
The syslog-ng application supports other timestamp formats as well, like ISO, or the PIX extended format. For details,
see the ts-format() option in Section 9.2, Global options (p. 217).
www.balabit.com
12
IETF-syslog messages
2.8.1.3. The MSG message part
The MSG part contains the name of the program or process that generated the message, and the text of the
message itself. The MSG part is usually in the following format: program[pid]: message text.
2.8.2. IETF-syslog messages
This section describes the format of a syslog message, according to the IETF-syslog protocol). A syslog message
consists of the following parts:
■ HEADER (includes the PRI as well)
■ STRUCTURED-DATA
■ MSG
The following is a sample syslog message:
<34>1 2003-10-11T22:14:15.003Z mymachine.example.com su - ID47 - BOM'su root' failed
for lonvick on /dev/pts/8
The message corresponds to the following format:
<priority>VERSION ISOTIMESTAMP HOSTNAME APPLICATION PID MESSAGEID STRUCTURED-DATA
MSG
In this example, the Facility has the value of 4, severity is 2, so PRI is 34. The VERSION is 1. The message
was created on 11 October 2003 at 10:14:15pm UTC, 3 milliseconds into the next second. The message originated
from a host that identifies itself as "mymachine.example.com". The APP-NAME is "su" and the PROCID is
unknown. The MSGID is "ID47". The MSG is "'su root' failed for lonvick...", encoded in UTF-8. The encoding
is defined by the BOM . There is no STRUCTURED-DATA present in the message, this is indicated by "-" in
the STRUCTURED-DATA field. The MSG is "'su root' failed for lonvick...".
The HEADER part of the message must be in plain ASCII format, the parameter values of the
STRUCTURED-DATA part must be in UTF-8, while the MSG part should be in UTF-8. The different parts
of the message are explained in the following sections.
2.8.2.1. The PRI message part
The PRI part of the syslog message (known as Priority value) represents the Facility and Severity of the message.
Facility represents the part of the system sending the message, while severity marks its importance. The Priority
value is calculated by first multiplying the Facility number by 8 and then adding the numerical value of the
Severity. The possible facility and severity values are presented below.
Source: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5424
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
13
IETF-syslog messages
Note
Facility codes may slightly vary between different platforms. The syslog-ng application accepts facility codes as numerical
values as well.
Numerical Code
Facility
0
kernel messages
1
user-level messages
2
mail system
3
system daemons
4
security/authorization messages
5
messages generated internally by syslogd
6
line printer subsystem
7
network news subsystem
8
UUCP subsystem
9
clock daemon
10
security/authorization messages
11
FTP daemon
12
NTP subsystem
13
log audit
14
log alert
15
clock daemon
16-23
locally used facilities (local0-local7)
Table 2.3. syslog Message Facilities
The following table lists the severity values.
Numerical Code
Severity
0
Emergency: system is unusable
1
Alert: action must be taken immediately
2
Critical: critical conditions
3
Error: error conditions
4
Warning: warning conditions
5
Notice: normal but significant condition
6
Informational: informational messages
www.balabit.com
14
IETF-syslog messages
Numerical Code
Severity
7
Debug: debug-level messages
Table 2.4. syslog Message Severities
2.8.2.2. The HEADER message part
The HEADER part contains the following elements:
■ VERSION: Version number of the syslog protocol standard. Currently this can only be 1.
■ ISOTIMESTAMP: The time when the message was generated in the ISO 8601 compatible standard
timestamp
format
(yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss+-ZONE),
for
example:
2006-06-13T15:58:00.123+01:00.
■ HOSTNAME: The machine that originally sent the message.
■ APPLICATION: The device or application that generated the message
■ PID: The process name or process ID of the syslog application that sent the message. It is not
necessarily the process ID of the application that generated the message.
■ MESSAGEID: The ID number of the message.
Note
The syslog-ng application supports other timestamp formats as well, like ISO, or the PIX extended format. The timestamp
used in the IETF-syslog protocol is derived from RFC3339, which is based on ISO8601. For details, see the ts-format()
option in Section 9.2, Global options (p. 217).
The syslog-ng OSE application will truncate the following fields:
■ If APP-NAME is longer than 48 characters it will be truncated to 48 characters.
■ If PROC-ID is longer than 128 characters it will be truncated to 128 characters.
■ If MSGID is longer than 32 characters it will be truncated to 32 characters.
■ If HOSTNAME is longer than 255 characters it will be truncated to 255 characters.
2.8.2.3. The STRUCTURED-DATA message part
The STRUCTURED-DATA message part may contain meta- information about the syslog message, or
application-specific information such as traffic counters or IP addresses. STRUCTURED-DATA consists of
data blocks enclosed in brackets ([]). Every block includes the ID of the block, and one or more name=value
pairs. The syslog-ng application automatically parses the STRUCTURED-DATA part of syslog messages,
which can be referenced in macros (for details, see Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241)). An
example STRUCTURED-DATA block looks like:
[exampleSDID@0 iut="3" eventSource="Application" eventID="1011"][examplePriority@0
class="high"]
www.balabit.com
15
Message representation in syslog-ng OSE
2.8.2.4. The MSG message part
The MSG part contains the text of the message itself. The encoding of the text must be UTF-8 if the BOM
character is present in the message. If the message does not contain the BOM character, the encoding is treated
as unknown. Usually messages arriving from legacy sources do not include the BOM character. CRLF characters
will not be removed from the message.
2.9. Message representation in syslog-ng OSE
When the syslog-ng OSE application receives a message, it automatically parses the message. The syslog-ng
OSE application can automatically parse log messages that conform to the RFC3164 (BSD or legacy-syslog)
or the RFC5424 (IETF-syslog) message formats. If syslog-ng OSE cannot parse a message, it results in an error.
Tip
In case you need to relay messages that cannot be parsed without any modifications or changes, use the flags(no-parse)
option in the source definition, and a template containing only the ${MSG} macro in the destination definition.
A parsed message has the following parts.
■ Timestamps. Two timestamps are associated with every message: one is the timestamp contained
within the message (that is, when the sender sent the message), the other is the time when syslog-ng
OSE has actually received the message.
■ Severity.
The severity of the message.
■ Facility.
The facility that sent the message.
■ Tags. Custom text labels added to the message that are mainly used for filtering. None of the
current message transport protocols adds tags to the log messages. Tags can be added to the log
message only within syslog-ng OSE. The syslog-ng OSE application automatically adds the id of
the source as a tag to the incoming messages. Other tags can be added to the message by the pattern
database, or using the tags() option of the source.
■ IP address of the sender. The IP address of the host that sent the message. Note that the IP address
of the sender is a hard macro and cannot be modified within syslog-ng OSE but the associated
hostname can be modified, for example, using rewrite rules.
■ Hard macros. Hard macros contain data that is directly derived from the log message, for example,
the ${MONTH} macro derives its value from the timestamp. The most important consideration with
hard macros is that they are read-only, meaning they cannot be modified using rewrite rules or other
means.
■ Soft macros. Soft macros (sometimes also called name-value pairs) are either built-in macros
automatically generated from the log message (for example, ${HOST}), or custom user-created
macros generated by using the syslog-ng pattern database or a CSV-parser. The SDATA fields of
RFC5424-formatted log messages become soft macros as well. In contrast with hard macros, soft
macros are writable and can be modified within syslog-ng OSE, for example, using rewrite rules.
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
16
Structuring macros, metadata, and other value-pairs
Note
It is also possible to set the value of built-in soft macros using parsers, for example, to set the ${HOST}
macro from the message using a column of a CSV-parser.
The data extracted from the log messages using named pattern parsers in the pattern database are also soft
macros.
Tip
For the list of hard and soft macros, see Section 11.1.4, Hard vs. soft macros (p. 241).
2.10. Structuring macros, metadata, and other value-pairs
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.3 and later.
The syslog-ng OSE application allows you to select and construct name-value pairs from any information
already available about the log message, or extracted from the message itself. You can directly use this structured
information, for example, in the following places:
■ amqp() destination
■ mongodb() destination
■ stomp() destination
■ or in other destinations using the format-json() template function.
When using value-pairs, there are three ways to specify which information (that is, macros or other
name-value pairs) to include in the selection.
■ Select groups of macros using the scope() parameter, and optionally remove certain macros from
the group using the exclude() parameter.
■ List specific macros to include using the key() parameter.
■ Define new name-value pairs to include using the pair() parameter.
These parameters are detailed in Section value-pairs() (p. 19).
2.10.1. Specifying data types in value-pairs
By default, syslog-ng OSE handles every data as strings. However, certain destinations and data formats (for
example, SQL, MongoDB, JSON, AMQP) support other types of data as well, for example, numbers or dates.
The syslog-ng OSE application allows you to specify the data type in templates (this is also called type-hinting).
www.balabit.com
17
Specifying data types in value-pairs
If the destination driver supports data types, it converts the incoming data to the specified data type. For example,
this allows you to store integer numbers as numbers in MongoDB, instead of strings.
Warning
Hazard of data loss! If syslog-ng OSE cannot convert the data into the specified type, an error occurs, and syslog-ng OSE
drops the message by default. To change how syslog-ng OSE handles data-conversion errors, see Section on-error() (p. 224).
To use type-hinting, enclose the macro or template containing the data with the type: <datatype>("<macro>"),
for example: int("$PID").
Currently the mongodb() destination and the format-json template function supports data types.
Example 2.1. Using type-hinting
The following example stores the MESSAGE, PID, DATE, and PROGRAM fields of a log message in a MongoDB
database. The DATE and PID parts are stored as numbers instead of strings.
mongodb(
value-pairs(pair("date", datetime("$UNIXTIME"))
pair("pid", int64("$PID"))
pair("program", "$PROGRAM"))
pair("message", "$MESSAGE"))
)
);
The following example formats the same fields into JSON.
$(format-json date=datetime("$UNIXTIME") pid=int64("$PID") program="$PROGRAM"
message="$MESSAGE")
The syslog-ng OSE application currently supports the following data-types.
■ boolean: Converts the data to a boolean value. Anything that begins with a t or 1 is converted to
true, anything that begins with an f or 0 is converted to false.
■ datetime: Use it only with UNIX timestamps, anything else will likely result in an error. This
means that currently you can use only the $UNIXTIME macro for this purpose.
■ double: A floating-point number.
■ literal: The data as a literal string, without adding any quotes or escape characters.
■ int or int32: 32-bit integer.
■ int64: 64-bit integer.
■ string: The data as a string.
www.balabit.com
18
value-pairs()
value-pairs()
Type:
parameter list of the value-pairs() option
Default: empty string
Description: The value-pairs() option allows you to select specific information about a message easily
using predefined macro groups. The selected information is represented as name-value pairs and can be used
formatted to JSON format, or directly used in a mongodb() destination.
Example 2.2. Using the value-pairs() option
The following example selects every available information about the log message, except for the date-related macros
(R_* and S_*), selects the .SDATA.meta.sequenceId macro, and defines a new value-pair called MSGHDR that contains
the program name and PID of the application that sent the log message.
value-pairs(
scope(nv_pairs core syslog all_macros selected_macros everything)
exclude("R_*")
exclude("S_*")
key(".SDATA.meta.sequenceId")
pair("MSGHDR" "$PROGRAM[$PID]: ")
)
The following example selects the same information as the previous example, but converts it into JSON format.
$(format-json --scope nv_pairs,core,syslog,all_macros,selected_macros,everything \
--exclude R_* --exclude S_* --key .SDATA.meta.sequenceId \
--pair MSGHDR="$PROGRAM[$PID]: ")
Note
Every macro is included in the selection only once, but redundant information may appear if multiple macros include the
same information (for example, including several date-related macros in the selection).
The value-pairs() option has the following parameters. The parameters are evaluated in the following order:
1. scope()
2. exclude()
3. key()
4. pair()
www.balabit.com
19
value-pairs()
exclude()
Type:
Space-separated list of macros to remove from the selection created using the scope() option.
Default: empty string
Description: This option removes the specified macros from the selection. Use it to remove unneeded macros
selected using the scope() parameter.
For example, the following example removes the SDATA macros from the selection.
value-pairs(
scope(rfc5424 selected_macros)
exclude(".SDATA*")
)
The name of the macro to remove can include glob expressions and wildcards (*, ?, [ab], {foo,bar}),
as described in Section glob (p. 265). Regular expressions are not supported.
key()
Type:
A glob expression (or a comma-separated list of glob expressions) specifying the macros to be included
in selection
Default: empty string
Description: This option selects the specified macros. The selected macros will be included as MACRONAME
= MACROVALUE, that is using key("HOST") will result in HOST = $HOST. Multiple macros can be selected
using glob expressions. For details on globs, see Section glob (p. 265). For example:
value-pairs(
scope(rfc3164)
key("HOST"))
value-pairs(
scope(rfc3164)
key("HOST", "PROGRAM"))
pair()
Type:
name value pairs in "<NAME>" "<VALUE>" format
Default: empty string
Description: This option defines a new name-value pair to be included in the message. The value part can
include macros, templates, and template functions as well. For example:
value-pairs(
scope(rfc3164)
pair("TIME" "$HOUR:$MIN")
pair("MSGHDR" "$PROGRAM[$PID]: "))
www.balabit.com
20
value-pairs()
rekey()
Type:
<pattern-to-select-names>, <list of transformations>
Default: empty string
Description: This option allows you to manipulate and modify the name of the value-pairs. You can define
transformations, which are are applied to the selected name-value pairs. The first parameter of the rekey()
option is a glob pattern that selects the name-value pairs to modify. If you omit the pattern, the transformations
are applied to every key of the scope. For details on globs, see Section glob (p. 265).
■ If rekey() is used within a key() option, the name-value pairs specified in the glob of the key()
option are transformed.
■ If rekey() is used outside the key() option, every name-value pair of the scope() is transformed.
The following transformations are available:
add-prefix("<my-prefix>")
Adds the specified prefix to every name. For example, rekey(
add-prefix("my-prefix."))
replace-prefix("<prefix-to-replace>", Replaces a substring at the beginning of the key with another
"<new-prefix>")
string. Only prefixes can be replaced. For example,
replace-prefix(".class", ",patterndb") changes
the beginning tag .class to .patterndb
This option was called replace() in syslog-ng OSE version
3.4.
shift("<number>")
Cuts the specified number of characters from the beginning of
the name.
Example 2.3. Using the rekey() option
The following sample selects every value-pair that begins with .cee., deletes this prefix by cutting 4 characters from
the names, and adds a new prefix (events.).
value-pairs(
key(".cee.*"
rekey(
shift(4)
add-prefix("events.")
)
)
)
The rekey() option can be used with the format-json template-function as well, using the following syntax:
$(format-json --rekey .cee.* --add-prefix events.)
www.balabit.com
21
value-pairs()
scope()
Type:
space-separated list of macro groups to include in selection
Default: empty string
Description: This option selects predefined groups of macros. The following groups are available:
■ nv-pairs: Every soft macro (name-value pair) associated with the message, except the ones that start
with a dot (.) character. Macros starting with a dot character are generated within syslog-ng OSE
and are not originally part of the message, therefore are not included in this group.
■ dot-nv-pairs: Every soft macro (name-value pair) associated with the message which starts with a
dot (.) character. For example, .classifier.rule_id and .sdata.*. Macros starting with a
dot character are generated within syslog-ng OSE and are not originally part of the message.
■ all-nv-pairs: Include every soft macro (name-value pair). Equivalent to using both nv-pairs and
dot-nv-pairs.
■ rfc3164: The macros that correspond to the RFC3164 (legacy or BSD-syslog) message format:
$FACILITY, $PRIORITY, $HOST, $PROGRAM, $PID, $MESSAGE, and $DATE.
■ rfc5424: The macros that correspond to the RFC5424 (IETF-syslog) message format: $FACILITY,
$PRIORITY, $HOST, $PROGRAM, $PID, $MESSAGE, $MSGID, $R_DATE, and the metadata from the
structured-data (SDATA) part of RFC5424-formatted messages, that is, every macro that starts with
.SDATA..
The rfc5424 group also has the following alias: syslog-proto. Note that the value of $R_DATE
will be listed under the DATE key.
The rfc5424 group does not contain any metadata about the message, only information that was
present in the original message. To include the most commonly used metadata (for example, the
$SOURCEIP macro), use the selected-macros group instead.
■ all-macros: Include every hard macro. This group is mainly useful for debugging, as it contains
redundant information (for example, the date-related macros include the date-related information
several times in various formats).
■ selected-macros: Include the macros of the rfc3164 groups, and the most commonly used metadata
about the log message: the $TAGS, $SOURCEIP, and $SEQNUM macros.
■ sdata: The metadata from the structured-data (SDATA) part of RFC5424-formatted messages, that
is, every macro that starts with .SDATA.
■ everything: Include every hard and soft macros. This group is mainly useful for debugging, as it
contains redundant information (for example, the date-related macros include the date-related
information several times in various formats).
For example:
value-pairs(
scope(rfc3164 selected-macros))
www.balabit.com
22
Chapter 3. Installing syslog-ng
This chapter explains how to install syslog-ng Open Source Edition on various platforms.
■ You can install syslog-ng OSE on many platforms using the package manager and official repositories
of the platform. For a list of third-party packages available for various Linux, UNIX, and other
platforms, see third-party binaries page.
■ For instructions on compiling syslog-ng Open Source Edition from the source code, see Procedure
3.1, Compiling syslog-ng from source (p. 23).
3.1. Procedure – Compiling syslog-ng from source
Purpose:
To compile syslog-ng Open Source Edition (OSE) from the source code, complete the following steps.
Alternatively, you can use precompiled binary packages on several platforms. For a list of third-party packages
available for various Linux, UNIX, and other platforms, see third-party binaries page.
Steps:
Step 1. Download the latest version of syslog-ng OSE from the BalaBit website or from GitHub. The source
code is available as a tar.gz archive file.
Step 2. Download the latest version of the EventLog library here.
Step 3. Install the following packages that are required to compile syslog-ng. These packages are available
for most UNIX/Linux systems. Alternatively, you can also download the sources and compile them.
■ A version of the gcc C compiler that properly supports Thread Local Storage (TLS), for
example, version 4.5 (at least version. For building recent gcc versions on Solaris, see
http://jblopen.com/node/16.
■ The GNU flex lexical analyser generator, available here.
■ The bison parser generator, available here.
■ The development files of the glib library, available here.
■ The syslog-ng OSE application now uses PCRE-type regular expressions by default. It
requires the libpcre library package, available here.
Step 4. If you want to use the spoof-source function of syslog-ng, install the development files of the libnet
library, available here.
Step 5. If you want to send e-mails using the smtp() destination, install the development files of the libesmtp
library, available here. This library is not needed if you use the --disable-smtp compile option.
Step 6. If you want to use the /etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow for TCP access, install the development files
of the libwrap (also called TCP-wrappers) library, available here.
Step 7. Uncompress the eventlog archive using the
www.balabit.com
23
$ tar xvfz eventlog-x.x.x.x.tar.gz
or the
$ gunzip -c eventlog-x.x.x.x.tar.gz | tar xvf -
command. A new directory containing the source code of eventlog will be created.
Step 8. By default, eventlog creates a file used by the syslog-ng configure script in the /usr/local/lib/pkgconfig
directory. Issue the following command to add this directory to your PKG_CONFIG_PATH:
PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig:$PKG_CONFIG_PATH
Step 9. Enter the new directory and issue the following commands:
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install
Step 10. Uncompress the syslog-ng archive using the
tar xvfz syslog-ng-x.xx.tar.gz
or the
unzip -c syslog-ng-x.xx.tar.gz | tar xvf -
command. A new directory containing the source code of syslog-ng will be created.
Step 11. Enter the new directory and issue the following commands:
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install
These commands will build syslog-ng using its default options.
Note
■ On Solaris, use gmake (GNU make) instead of make.
■ To build syslog-ng OSE with less verbose output, use the make V=0 command. This results in
shorter, less verbose output, making warnings and other anomalies easier to notice. Note that
silent-rules support is only available in recent automake versions.
Step 12. If needed, use the following options to change how syslog-ng is compiled using the following command
syntax:
$ ./configure --compile-time-option-name
www.balabit.com
24
Note
You can also use --disable options, to explicitly disable a feature and override autodetection. For example,
to disable the TCP-wrapper support, use the --disable-tcp-wrapper option.
Warning
Starting with syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.0.2, default linking mode of syslog-ng is dynamic. This means
that syslog-ng might not be able to start up if the /usr directory is on NFS. On platforms where syslog-ng
is used as a system logger, the --enable-mixed-linking is preferred.
■ --disable-json Disable JSON support. It also disables json-parser, and the format-json
template function. Also, it disables JSON support even if the json-c library is installed
and detected (see --enable-json).
■ --disable-smtp Disable SMTP support. By default, SMTP support is enabled if the libesmtp
library is detected.
■ --enable-amqp Enable the amqp destination (enabled by default). The source of the RabbitMQ
client is included in the source code package of syslog-ng OSE. To use an external client
instead, use the --with-librabbitmq-client=system compiling option. For details
on using this destination, see Section 7.1, Publishing messages using AMQP (p. 117).
■ --enable-debug Include debug information.
■ --enable-dynamic-linking Compile syslog-ng as a completely dynamic binary. If not specified
syslog-ng uses mixed linking (--enable-mixed-linking): it links dynamically to system
libraries and statically to everything else.
■ --enable-geoip Enable GEOIP support, required for the geoip template function (enabled
automatically if the libgeoip library is detected).
■ --enable-ipv6 Enable IPv6 support.
■ --enable-json Enables JSON support (enabled automatically if the json-c 0.9 or newer
library is installed and detected).
■ --enable-linux-caps Enable support for capabilities on Linux. For details, see
syslog-ng(8) (p. 321).
■ --enable-mongodb Enable the mongodb destination (enabled by default). The source of the
MongoDB client is included in the source code package of syslog-ng OSE. To use an external
MongoDB client instead, use the --with-libmongo-client=system compiling option.
For details on using this destination, see Section 7.4, Storing messages in a MongoDB
database (p. 129).
■ --enable-pacct Enable using the pacct() driver to collect process-accounting logs on Linux
systems.
■ --enable-redis Enable the redis destination (enabled by default). The source of the libhiredis
client must be available. To specify the location of the library, use the
www.balabit.com
25
--with-libhiredis=<path-to-libhiredis> compiling option. For details on using
this destination, see Section 7.9, Storing name-value pairs in Redis (p. 152).
■ --enable-spoof-source Enable spoof_source feature (disabled by default).
■ --enable-sql Enables the sql() destination (enabled automatically if the libdbi library is
installed and detected).
■ --enable-ssl Enable SSL support, required for encrypted message transfer, as well as template
functions that calculate hashes and UUIDs (enabled automatically if the libopenssl library
is detected).
■ --enable-sun-door Enable Sun door support even if not detected (autodetected by default).
■ --enable-sun-streams Enable Sun STREAMS support even if not detected (autodetected by
default).
■ --enable-systemd Enable systemd support on Linux platforms (autodetected by default)
(enabled automatically if the libsystemd-daemon library is detected).
■ --enable-tcp-wrapper Enable using /etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow for TCP access
(enabled automatically if the libwrap libraries are detected).
■ --with-embedded-crypto If this option is set, the crypto library is linked directly into
libsyslog-ng: the sources of libsyslog-ng-crypto will be appended to the libsyslog-ng sources,
and -crypto is not built.
■ --with-ivykis Specifies which ivykis implementation to use (default value: internal). The
source of ivykis is included in the source code package of syslog-ng OSE and is used by
default. To use an external implementation instead, use the --with-ivykis=system
compiling option.
■ --with-libhiredis Specifies the path to the libhiredis library. For details on using this
destination, see Section 7.9, Storing name-value pairs in Redis (p. 152).
■ --with-libmongo-client Specifies which MongoDB client to use (default value: auto). The
source of the mongodb client is included in the source code package of syslog-ng OSE, but
the compiler will use an external MongoDB client if it is installed. To force the compiler
to use the internal client instead, use the --with-libmongo-client=internal compiling
option. For details on using this destination, see Section 7.4, Storing messages in a MongoDB
database (p. 129).
■ --with-librabbitmq-client Specifies which RabbitMQ client to use (default value: internal).
The source of the rabbitmq client is included in the source code package of syslog-ng OSE
and is used by default. To use an external client instead, use the
--with-librabbitmq-client=system compiling option. For details on using this
destination, see Section 7.1, Publishing messages using AMQP (p. 117).
■ --with-module-dir Specifies a single directory where the syslog-ng OSE Makefile will install
the modules.
www.balabit.com
26
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
■ --with-module-path Specifies a colon-separated (:) list of directories, where the syslog-ng
OSE binary will search for modules.
■ --with-timezone-dir Specifies the directory where syslog-ng looks for the timezone files to
resolve the time-zone() and local-time-zone() options. If not specified, the
/opt/syslog-ng/share/zoneinfo/ and /usr/share/zoneinfo/ directories are
checked, respectively. Note that HP-UX uses a unique file format (tztab) to describe the
timezone information; that format is currently not supported in syslog-ng. As a workaround,
copy the zoneinfo files from another, non-HP-UX system to the
/opt/syslog-ng/share/zoneinfo/ directory of your HP-UX system.
■ --without-compile-date Removes the compilation date from the binary. For example, as
openSUSE checks if recompilation changes the binary to detect if dependent packages need
to be rebuilt or not, and including the date changes the binary every time.
3.2. Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
If you need to uninstall syslog-ng OSE for some reason, you have the following options:
■ If you have installed syslog-ng OSE from a .deb package: Execute the dpkg -r syslog-ng
command to remove syslog-ng; or the dpkg -P syslog-ng command to remove syslog-ng OSE
and the configuration files as well. Note that removing syslog-ng OSE does not restore the syslog
daemon used before syslog-ng.
■ If you have installed syslog-ng OSE from an .rpm package: Execute the rpm -e syslog-ng
command to remove syslog-ng OSE. Note that removing syslog-ng OSE does not restore the syslog
daemon used before syslog-ng OSE.
3.3. Procedure – Configuring Microsoft SQL Server to accept logs from syslog-ng
Purpose:
Complete the following steps to configure your Microsoft SQL Server to enable remote logins and accept log
messages from syslog-ng.
Steps:
Step 1. Start the SQL Server Management Studio application. Select Start > Programs > Microsoft SQL
Server 2005 > SQL Server Management Studio.
Step 2. Create a new database.
www.balabit.com
27
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
Step a.
Figure 3.1. Creating a new MSSQL database 1.
In the Object Explorer, right-click on the Databases entry and select New Database.
www.balabit.com
28
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
Step b.
Figure 3.2. Creating a new MSSQL database 2.
Enter the name of the new database (for example syslogng) into the Database name
field and click OK.
Step 3. Create a new database user and associate it with the new database.
www.balabit.com
29
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
Step a.
Figure 3.3. Creating a new MSSQL user 1.
In the Object Explorer, select Security, right-click on the Logins entry, then select
New Login.
www.balabit.com
30
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
Step b.
Figure 3.4. Creating a new MSSQL user 2.
Enter a name (for example syslog-ng) for the user into the Login name field.
Step c. Select the SQL Server Authentication option and enter a password for the user.
Step d. In the Default database field, select the database created in Step 2 (for example
syslogng).
Step e. In the Default language field, select the language of log messages that you want to
store in the database, then click OK.
Warning
Incorrect language settings may result in the database converting the messages to a
different character-encoding format. That way the log messages may become unreadable,
causing information loss.
Step f. In the Object Explorer, select Security > Logins, then right-click on the new login
created in the previous step, and select Properties.
www.balabit.com
31
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
Step g.
Figure 3.5. Associating database with the new user
Select User Mapping. In the Users mapped to this login option, check the line
corresponding to the new login (for example syslogng). In the Database role
membership field, check the db_owner and public options.
www.balabit.com
32
Uninstalling syslog-ng OSE
Step 4.
Figure 3.6. Associating database with the new user
Enable remote logins for SQL users.
In the Object Explorer right-click on your database server, and select Properties > Security, and set
the Server Authentication option to SQL Server and Windows Authentication mode.
www.balabit.com
33
Chapter 4. The syslog-ng OSE quick-start guide
This chapter provides a very brief introduction into configuring the syslog-ng OSE application. For details on
the format of the configuration file and how to configure sources, destinations, and other features, refer to the
subsequent chapters.
■ To configure syslog-ng OSE as a client that sends log messages to a central logserver, see Procedure
4.1, Configuring syslog-ng on client hosts (p. 34).
■ To configure syslog-ng OSE as a server that receives log messages from client hosts, see Procedure
4.2, Configuring syslog-ng on server hosts (p. 36).
■ To configure syslog-ng OSE as a relay that receives log messages from client hosts and forwards
them to a central logserver, see Procedure 4.2, Configuring syslog-ng on server hosts (p. 36).
4.1. Procedure – Configuring syslog-ng on client hosts
Purpose:
To configure syslog-ng on a client host, complete the following steps.
Steps:
Step 1. Install the syslog-ng application on the host. For details installing syslog-ng on specific operating
systems, see Chapter 3, Installing syslog-ng (p. 23).
Step 2. Configure the local sources to collect the log messages of the host. Starting with version 3.2, syslog-ng
OSE automatically collects the log messages that use the native system logging method of the platform,
for example, messages from /dev/log on Linux, or /dev/klog on FreeBSD. For a complete list of
messages that are collected automatically, see Section 6.11, Collecting the system-specific log messages
of a platform (p. 95).
Add sources to collect the messages from your log files. File sources look like this:
source s_myfilesource {
file("/var/log/myapplication.log" follow-freq(1)); };
Name every source uniquely. For details on configuring file sources, see Section 6.3, Collecting
messages from text files (p. 53).
Tip
Many applications send log messages to logfiles by default (for example, the Roundcube webmail client, or
the ProFTPD FTP server), but can be configured to send them to syslog instead. If possible, it is recommended
to reconfigure the application that way.
Note
The default configuration file of syslog-ng OSE collects platform-specific log messages and the intenal log
messages of syslog-ng OSE.
www.balabit.com
34
source s_local {
system();
internal();
};
Step 3. Create a network destination that points directly to the syslog-ng server, or to a local relay. The network
destination greatly depends on the protocol that your log server or relay accepts messages. Many
systems still use the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (RFC3162) over the unreliable UDP transport:
destination d_network { udp("10.1.2.3"); };
However, if possible, use the much more reliable IETF-syslog protocol over TCP transport:
destination d_network {syslog(ip("10.1.2.3") transport("tcp")); };
Step 4. Create a log statement connecting the local sources to the syslog-ng server or relay. For example:
log {
source(s_local); destination(d_network); };
Step 5. If the logs will also be stored locally on the host, create local file destinations.
Note
The default configuration of syslog-ng OSE places the collected messages into the /var/log/messages
file:
destination d_local {
file("/var/log/messages"); };
Step 6. Create a log statement connecting the local sources to the file destination.
Note
The default configuration of syslog-ng OSE has only one log statement:
log {
source(s_local); destination(d_local); };
Step 7. Set filters, macros and other features and options (for example TLS encryption) as necessary.
Example 4.1. The default configuration file of syslog-ng OSE
The following is the default configuration file of syslog-ng OSE 3.2. It collects local log messages and the
log messages of syslog-ng OSE and forwards them to a logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol.
@version: 3.6
@include "scl.conf"
source s_local { system(); internal(); };
destination d_local {
file("/var/log/messages"); };
log { source(s_local); destination(d_local); };
www.balabit.com
35
Example 4.2. A simple configuration for clients
The following is a simple configuration file that collects local log messages to the /var/log/messages
file.
@version: 3.6
@include "scl.conf"
source s_local { system(); internal(); };
destination d_syslog_tcp {
syslog("192.168.1.1" transport("tcp") port(2010)); };
log { source(s_local);destination(d_syslog_tcp); };
4.2. Procedure – Configuring syslog-ng on server hosts
Purpose:
To configure syslog-ng on a server host, complete the following steps.
Steps:
Step 1. Install the syslog-ng application on the host. For details installing syslog-ng on specific operating
systems, see Chapter 3, Installing syslog-ng (p. 23).
Step 2. Starting with version 3.2, syslog-ng OSE automatically collects the log messages that use the native
system logging method of the platform, for example, messages from /dev/log on Linux, or /dev/klog
on FreeBSD. For a complete list of messages that are collected automatically, see Section 6.11,
Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform (p. 95).
Step 3. Configure the network sources that collect the log messages sent by the clients and relays. How the
network sources should be configured depends also on the capabilities of your client hosts: many older
networking devices support only the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (RFC3164) using UDP transport:
source s_network { syslog(ip(10.1.2.3) transport("udp")); };
However, if possible, use the much more reliable TCP transport:
source s_network { syslog(ip(10.1.2.3) transport("tcp")); };
For other options, see Section 6.10, Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog()
driver) (p. 87) and Section 6.14, Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog
protocol (p. 100).
Note
Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.2, the syslog() source driver can handle both BSD-syslog (RFC
3164) and IETF-syslog (RFC 5424-26) messages.
Step 4. Create local destinations that will store the log messages, for example file- or program destinations.
The default configuration of syslog-ng OSE places the collected messages into the
/var/log/messages file:
destination d_local {
file("/var/log/messages"); };
www.balabit.com
36
Configuring syslog-ng relays
If you want to create separate logfiles for every client host, use the ${HOST} macro when specifying
the filename, for example:
destination d_local {
file("/var/log/messages_${HOST}"); };
For details on further macros and how to use them, see Chapter 11, Manipulating messages (p. 238).
Step 5. Create a log statement connecting the sources to the local destinations.
log {
source(s_local); source(s_network); destination(d_local); };
Step 6. Set filters, options (for example TLS encryption) and other advanced features as necessary.
Note
By default, the syslog-ng server will treat the relayed messages as if they were created by the relay host, not
the host that originally sent them to the relay. In order to use the original hostname on the syslog-ng server,
use the keep-hostname(yes) option both on the syslog-ng relay and the syslog-ng server. This option can
be set individually for every source if needed.
If you are relaying log messages and want to resolve IP addresses to hostnames, configure the first relay to
do the name resolution.
Example 4.3. A simple configuration for servers
The following is a simple configuration file for syslog-ng Open Source Edition that collects incoming log
messages and stores them in a text file.
@version: 3.6
@include "scl.conf"
options {
time-reap(30);
mark-freq(10);
keep-hostname(yes);
};
source s_local { system(); internal(); };
source s_network {
syslog(transport(tcp));
};
destination d_logs {
file(
"/var/log/syslog-ng/logs.txt"
owner("root")
group("root")
perm(0777)
); };
log { source(s_local); source(s_network); destination(d_logs); };
4.3. Configuring syslog-ng relays
This section describes how to configure syslog-ng OSE as a relay.
4.3.1. Procedure – Configuring syslog-ng on relay hosts
Purpose:
www.balabit.com
37
Configuring syslog-ng relays
To configure syslog-ng on a relay host, complete the following steps:
Steps:
Step 1. Install the syslog-ng application on the host. For details installing syslog-ng on specific operating
systems, see Chapter 3, Installing syslog-ng (p. 23).
Step 2. Configure the network sources that collect the log messages sent by the clients.
Step 3. Create a network destination that points to the syslog-ng server.
Step 4. Create a log statement connecting the network sources to the syslog-ng server.
Step 5. Configure the local sources that collect the log messages of the relay host.
Step 6. Create a log statement connecting the local sources to the syslog-ng server.
Step 7. Enable the keep-hostname() and disable the chain-hostnames() options.
Note
It is recommended to use these options on your syslog-ng OSE server as well.
Step 8. Set filters and options (for example TLS encryption) as necessary.
Note
By default, the syslog-ng server will treat the relayed messages as if they were created by the relay host, not
the host that originally sent them to the relay. In order to use the original hostname on the syslog-ng server,
use the keep-hostname(yes) option both on the syslog-ng relay and the syslog-ng server. This option can
be set individually for every source if needed.
If you are relaying log messages and want to resolve IP addresses to hostnames, configure the first relay to
do the name resolution.
Example 4.4. A simple configuration for relays
The following is a simple configuration file that collects local and incoming log messages and forwards them
to a logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol.
@version: @techversion;
@include "scl.conf"
options {
time-reap(30);
mark-freq(10);
keep-hostname(yes);
chain-hostnames(no);
};
source s_local { system(); internal(); };
source s_network {
syslog(transport(tcp));
};
destination d_syslog_tcp {
syslog("192.168.1.5" transport("tcp") port(2010));
};
log { source(s_local); source(s_network);
destination(d_syslog_tcp);
};
www.balabit.com
38
How relaying log messages works
4.3.2. How relaying log messages works
Depending on your exact needs about relaying log messages, there are many scenarios and syslog-ng OSE
options that influence how the log message will look like on the logserver. Some of the most common cases
are summarized in the following example.
Consider the following example: client-host > syslog-ng-relay > syslog-ng-server, where the IP address of
client-host is 192.168.1.2. The client-host device sends a syslog message to syslog-ng-relay.
Depending on the settings of syslog-ng-relay, the following can happen.
■ By default, the keep-hostname() option is disabled, so syslog-ng-relay writes the IP address
of the sender host (in this case, 192.168.1.2) to the HOST field of the syslog message, discarding
any IP address or hostname that was originally in the message.
■ If the keep-hostname() option is enabled on syslog-ng-relay, but name resolution is disabled
(the use-dns() option is set to no), syslog-ng-relay uses the HOST field of the message as-is,
which is probably 192.168.1.2.
■ To resolve the 192.168.1.2 IP address to a hostname on syslog-ng-relay using a DNS server,
use the keep-hostname(no) and use-dns(yes) options. If the DNS server is properly configured
and reverse DNS lookup is available for the 192.168.1.2 address, syslog-ng OSE will rewrite the
HOST field of the log message to client-host.
Note
It is also possible to resolve IP addresses locally, without relying on the DNS server. For details on local
name resolution, see Procedure 17.3.1, Resolving hostnames locally (p. 307).
■ The above points apply to the syslog-ng OSE server (syslog-ng-server) as well, so if
syslog-ng-relay is configured properly, use the keep-hostname(yes) option on
syslog-ng-server to retain the proper HOST field. Setting keep-hostname(no) on
syslog-ng-server would result in syslog-ng OSE rewriting the HOST field to the address of the
host that sent the message to syslog-ng-server, which is syslog-ng-relay in this case.
■ If you cannot or do not want to resolve the 192.168.1.2 IP address on syslog-ng-relay, but
want to store your log messages on syslog-ng-server using the IP address of the original host
(that is, client-host), you can enable the spoof-source() option on syslog-ng-relay.
However, spoof-source() works only under the following conditions:
• The syslog-ng OSE binary has been compiled with the --enable-spoof-source option.
• The log messages are sent using the highly unreliable UDP transport protocol. (Extremely
unrecommended.)
www.balabit.com
39
Location of the syslog-ng configuration file
Chapter 5. The syslog-ng OSE configuration file
5.1. Location of the syslog-ng configuration file
The syslog-ng application is configured by editing the syslog-ng.conf file. Use any regular text editor
application to modify the file. The location of the configuration file depends on how you installed syslog-ng
OSE. Native packages of a platform (like the ones downloaded from Linux repositories) typically place the
configuration file under the /etc/syslog-ng/ directory.
5.2. The configuration syntax in detail
Every syslog-ng configuration file must begin with a line containing the version information of syslog-ng. For
syslog-ng version 3.6, this line looks like:
@version: 3.6
Versioning the configuration file was introduced in syslog-ng 3.0. If the configuration file does not contain the
version information, syslog-ng assumes that the file is for syslog-ng version 2.x. In this case it interprets the
configuration and sends warnings about the parts of the configuration that should be updated. Version 3.0 and
later will correctly operate with configuration files of version 2.x, but the default values of certain parameters
have changed since 3.0.
Example 5.1. A simple configuration file
The following is a very simple configuration file for syslog-ng: it collects the internal messages of syslog-ng and the
messages from /dev/log into the /var/log/messages_syslog-ng.log file.
@version: 3.6
source s_local { unix-stream("/dev/log"); internal(); };
destination d_file {file("/var/log/messages_syslog-ng.log"); };
log { source(s_local); destination(d_file); };
As a syslog-ng user described on a mailing list:
The syslog-ng's config file format was written by programmers for programmers to be
understood by programmers. That may not have been the stated intent, but it is how things
turned out. The syntax is exactly that of C, all the way down to braces and statement terminators.
—Alan McKinnon
■ The main body of the configuration file consists of object definitions: sources, destinations, logpaths
define which log message are received and where they are sent. All identifiers, option names and
attributes, and any other strings used in the syslog-ng configuration file are case sensitive. Objects
must be defined before they are referenced in another statement. Object definitions (also called
statements) have the following syntax:
object_type object_id {<options>};
www.balabit.com
40
The configuration syntax in detail
• Type of the object: One of source, destination, log, filter, parser, rewrite rule, or
template.
• Identifier of the object: A unique name identifying the object. When using a reserved word as an
identifier, enclose the identifier in quotation marks.
Tip
Use identifiers that refer to the type of the object they identify. For example, prefix source objects with
s_, destinations with d_, and so on.
Note
Repeating a definition of an object (that is, defining the same object with the same id more than once)
is not allowed, unless you use the @define allow-config-dups 1 definition in the configuration
file.
• Parameters: The parameters of the object, enclosed in braces {parameters}.
• Semicolon: Object definitions end with a semicolon (;).
For example, the following line defines a source and calls it s_internal.
source s_internal { internal(); };
The object can be later referenced in other statements using its ID, for example, the previous source
is used as a parameter of the following log statement:
log { source(s_internal); destination(d_file); };
■ The parameters and options within a statement are similar to function calls of the C programming
language: the name of the option followed by a list of its parameters enclosed within brackets and
terminated with a semicolon.
option(parameter1, parameter2); option2(parameter1, parameter2);
For example, the file() driver in the following source statement has three options: the filename
(/var/log/apache/access.log), follow-freq(), and flags(). The follow-freq() option
also has a parameter, while the flags() option has two parameters.
source s_tail { file("/var/log/apache/access.log"
follow-freq(1) flags(no-parse, validate-utf8)); };
Objects may have required and optional parameters. Required parameters are positional, meaning
that they must be specified in a defined order. Optional parameters can be specified in any order
using the option(value) format. If a parameter (optional or required) is not specified, its default
value is used. The parameters and their default values are listed in the reference section of the
particular object.
www.balabit.com
41
Notes about the configuration syntax
Example 5.2. Using required and optional parameters
The unix-stream() source driver has a single required argument: the name of the socket to listen on.
Optional parameters follow the socket name in any order, so the following source definitions have the
same effect:
source s_demo_stream1 {
unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10) group(log)); };
source s_demo_stream2 {
unix-stream("/dev/log" group(log) max-connections(10)); };
■ Some options are global options, or can be set globally, for example, whether syslog-ng OSE should
use DNS resolution to resolve IP addresses. Global options are detailed in Chapter 9, Global options
of syslog-ng OSE (p. 217).
options { use-dns(no); };
■ All identifiers, attributes, and any other strings used in the syslog-ng configuration file are case
sensitive.
■ Objects can be used before definition.
■ Objects can be defined inline as well. This is useful if you use the object only once (for example, a
filter). For details, see Section 5.4, Defining configuration objects inline (p. 43).
■ To add comments to the configuration file, start a line with # and write your comments. These lines
are ignored by syslog-ng.
# Comment: This is a stream source
source s_demo_stream {
unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10) group(log)); };
Tip
Before activating a new configuration, check that your configuration file is syntactically correct using the syslog-ng
--syntax-only command.
To activate the configuration, reload the configuration of syslog-ng using the /etc/init.d/syslog-ng reload
command.
5.3. Notes about the configuration syntax
When you are editing the syslog-ng configuration file, note the following points:
■ The configuration file can contain a maximum of 6665 source / destination / log elements.
■ When writing the names of options and parameters (or other reserved words), the hyphen (-) and
underscore (_) characters are equivalent, for example max-connections(10) and
max_connections(10) are both correct.
■ Numbers can be prefixed with + or - to indicate positive or negative values. Numbers beginning
with zero (0) or 0x are treated as octal or hexadecimal numbers, respectively.
Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.5, you can use suffixes for kilo-, mega-, and gigabytes. Use
the Kb, Mb, or Gb suffixes for the base-10 version, and Kib, Mib, or Gib for the base-2 version. That
www.balabit.com
42
Defining configuration objects inline
is, 2MB means 2000000, while 2MiB means 2097152. For example, to set the log-fifo-size()
option to 2000000 bytes, use log-fifo-size(2Mb).
■ You can use commas (,) to separate options or other parameters for readability; syslog-ng completely
ignores them. The following declarations are equivalent:
source s_demo_stream {
unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10) group(log)); };
source s_demo_stream {
unix-stream("/dev/log", max-connections(10), group(log)); };
■ When enclosing object IDs (for example the name of a destination) between double-quotes
("mydestination"), the ID can include whitespace as well, for example:
source "s demo stream" {
unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10) group(log)); };
■ For notes on using regular expressions, see Section 11.3, Regular expressions (p. 263).
5.4. Defining configuration objects inline
Starting with syslog-ng OSE 3.4, you can define configuration objects inline, where they are actually used,
without having to define them in a separate placement. This is useful if you need an object only once, for
example, a filter or a rewrite rule. Every object can be defined inline: sources, destinations, filters, parsers,
rewrite rules, and so on.
To define an object inline, use braces instead of parentheses. That is, instead of <object-type>
(<object-id>);, you use <object-type> {<object-definition>};
Example 5.3. Using inline definitions
The following two configuration examples are equivalent. The first one uses traditional statements, while the second uses
inline definitions.
source s_local {
system();
internal();
};
destination d_local {
file("/var/log/messages");
};
log {
source(s_local);
destination(d_local);
};
log {
source {
system();
internal();
};
destination {
file("/var/log/messages");s
};
};
www.balabit.com
43
Using channels in configuration objects
5.5. Using channels in configuration objects
Starting with syslog-ng OSE 3.4, every configuration object is a log expression. Every configuration object is
essentially a configuration block, and can include multiple objects. To reference the block, only the top-level
object must be referenced. That way you can use embedded log statements, junctions and in-line object definitions
within source, destination, filter, rewrite and parser definitions. For example, a source can include a rewrite
rule to modify the messages received by the source, and that combination can be used as a simple source in a
log statement. This feature allows you to preprocess the log messages very close to the source itself.
To embed multiple objects into a configuration object, use the following syntax. Note that you must enclose
the configuration block between braces instead of parenthesis.
<type-of-top-level-object> <name-of-top-level-object> {
channel {
<configuration-objects>
}
}
Example 5.4. Using channels
For example, to process a log file in a specific way, you can define the required processing rules (parsers and rewrite
expressions) and combine them in a single object:
source s_apache {
channel {
source { file("/var/log/apache/error.log"); };
parser(p_apache_parser); };
};
};
log { source(s_apache); ... };
The s_apache source uses a file source (the error log of an Apache webserver) and references a specific parser to process
the messages of the error log. The log statement references only the s_apache source, and any other object in the log
statement can already use the results of the p_apache_parserparser.
Note
You must start the object definition with a channel even if you will use a junction, for example:
parser demo-parser() {
channel {
junction {
channel { ... }
channel { ... }
}
}
}
If you want to embed configuration objects into sources or destinations, always use channels, otherwise the source or
destination will not behave as expected. For example, the following configuration is good:
source s_filtered_hosts {
pipe("/dev/pipe");
syslog(ip(192.168.0.1) transport("tcp"));
syslog(ip(127.0.0.1) transport("tcp"));
filter (netmask(10.0.0.0/16));
}
www.balabit.com
44
Global and environmental variables
5.6. Global and environmental variables
Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.2, it is possible to define global variables in the configuration file. Global
variables are actually name-value pairs; when syslog-ng processes the configuration file during startup, it
automatically replaces `name` with value. To define a global variable, use the following syntax:
@define name "value"
The value can be any string, but special characters must be escaped.To use the variable, insert the name of the
variable enclosed between backticks (`, similarly to using variables in Linux or UNIX shells) anywhere in the
configuration file.
The value of the global variable can be also specified using the following methods:
■ Without any quotes, as long as the value does not contain any spaces or special characters. In other
word, it contains only the following characters: a-zA-Z0-9_..
■ Between apostrophes, in case the value does not contain apostrophes.
■ Between double quotes, in which case special characters must be escaped using backslashes (\).
Tip
The environmental variables of the host are automatically imported and can be used as global variables.
Example 5.5. Using global variables
For example, if an application is creating multiple log files in a directory, you can store the path in a global variable, and
use it in your source definitions.
@define mypath
source
source
source
"/opt/myapp/logs"
s_myapp_1 { file("`mypath`/access.log" follow-freq(1)); };
s_myapp_2 { file("`mypath`/error.log" follow-freq(1)); };
s_myapp_3 { file("`mypath`/debug.log" follow-freq(1)); };
The syslog-ng OSE application will interpret this as:
@define mypath
source
source
source
"/opt/myapp/logs"
s_myapp_1 { file("/opt/myapp/logs/access.log" follow-freq(1)); };
s_myapp_2 { file("/opt/myapp/logs/error.log" follow-freq(1)); };
s_myapp_3 { file("/opt/myapp/logs/debug.log" follow-freq(1)); };
5.7. Modules in syslog-ng OSE
Starting with syslog-ng Open Source Edition version 3.3, syslog-ng OSE became modular to increase its
flexibility and also to simplify the development of additional modules. Most of the functionality of syslog-ng
OSE has been moved to separate modules. That way it becomes also possible to finetune the resource
requirements of syslog-ng OSE for example, by loading only the modules that are actually used in the
configuration, or simply omitting modules that are not used but require large amount of memory.
Each module contains one or more plugins, which add some functionality to syslog-ng OSE, for example, a
destination or a source driver.
www.balabit.com
45
Loading modules
■ To display the list of available modules, execute the syslog-ng --version command.
■ To the description of the available modules, execute the syslog-ng --module-registry
command.
■ To customize which modules are loaded automatically when syslog-ng OSE is started, use the
--default-modules command-line option of syslog-ng OSE.
■ To request loading a module from the syslog-ng OSE configuration file, see Section 5.7.1, Loading
modules (p. 46).
For details on the command-line parameters of syslog-ng OSE mentioned in the previous list, see the syslog-ng
OSE man page at syslog-ng(8) (p. 321).
5.7.1. Loading modules
The syslog-ng Open Source Edition application loads every available module during startup.
To load a module that is not loaded automatically, include the following statement in the syslog-ng OSE
configuration file:
@module <module-name>
Note the following points about the @module statement:
■ The @module statement is a top-level statement, that is, it cannot be nested into any other statement.
Usually it is used immediately after the @version statement.
■ Every @module statement loads a single module: loading multiple modules requires a separate
@module statement for every module.
■ In the configuration file, the @module statement of a module must be earlier than the module is used.
Note
To disable loading every module automatically, set the autoload-compiled-modules global variable to 0 in your
configuration file:
@define autoload-compiled-modules 0
Note that in this case, you have to explicitly load the modules you want to use.
5.8. Managing complex syslog-ng configurations
The following sections describe some methods that can be useful to simplify the management of large-scale
syslog-ng installations.
5.8.1. Including configuration files
The syslog-ng application supports including external files in its configuration file, so parts of its configuration
can be managed separately. To include the contents of a file in the syslog-ng configuration, use the following
syntax:
www.balabit.com
46
Including configuration files
include "<filename>";
This imports the entire file into the configuration of syslog-ng OSE, at the location of the include statement.
The <filename> can be one of the following:
■ A filename, optionally with full path. The filename (not the path) can include UNIX-style wildcard
characters (*, ?). When using wildcard characters, syslog-ng OSE will include every matching file.
For details on using wildcard characters, see Section glob (p. 265).
■ A directory. When including a directory, syslog-ng OSE will try to include every file from the
directory, except files beginning with a ~ (tilde) or a . (dot) character. Including a directory is not
recursive. The files are included in alphabetic order, first files beginning with uppercase characters,
then files beginning with lowercase characters. For example, if the directory contains the a.conf,
B. conf, c.conf, D.conf files, they will be included in the following order: B.conf, D.
conf, a.conf, c.conf.
When including configuration files, consider the following points:
■ Defining an object twice is not allowed, unless you use the @define allow-config-dups 1
definition in the configuration file. If an object is defined twice (for example the original syslog-ng
configuration file and the file imported into this configuration file both define the same option,
source, or other object), then the object that is defined later in the configuration file will be effective.
For example, if you set a global option at the beginning of the configuration file, and later include
a file that defines the same option with a different value, then the option defined in the imported file
will be used.
■ Files can be embedded into each other: the included files can contain include statements as well, up
to a maximum depth of 15 levels.
■ You cannot include complete configuration files into each other, only configuration snippets can be
included. This means that the included file cannot have a @version statement.
■ Include statements can only be used at top level of the configuration file. For example, the following
is correct:
@version: 3.6
include "example.conf";
But the following is not:
source s_example {
include "example.conf"
};
Warning
The syslog-ng application will not start if it cannot find a file that is to be included in its configuration. Always double-check
the filenames, paths, and access rights when including configuration files, and use the --syntax-only command-line
option to check your configuration.
www.balabit.com
47
Reusing configuration blocks
5.8.2. Reusing configuration blocks
Starting with syslog-ng OSE 3.2, parts of a configuration file can be easily reused, you have to define the block
(for example, a source) once, and reference it later. Any syslog-ng object can be a block. Use the following
syntax to define a block:
block type name() {<contents of the block>}
Type must be one of the following: destination, filter, log, parser, rewrite, root, source. The
root blocks can be used in the "root" context of the configuration file, that is, outside any other statements.
Blocks may be nested into each other, so for example a block can be built from other blocks. Blocks are
somewhat similar to C++ templates.
The type and name combination of each block must be unique, that is, two blocks can have the same name if
their type is different.
To use a block in your configuration file, you have to do two things:
■ Include the file defining the block in the syslog-ng.conf file — or a file already included into
syslog-ng.conf.
■ Reference the name of the block in your configuration file. This will insert the block into your
configuration. For example, to use a block called myblock, include the following line in your
configuration:
myblock()
Blocks may have parameters, but even if they do not, the reference must include opening and closing
parentheses like in the previous example.
The contents of the block will be inserted into the configuration when syslog-ng OSE is started or reloaded.
Example 5.6. Reusing configuration blocks
Suppose you are running an application on your hosts that logs into the /opt/var/myapplication.log file. Create
a file (for example, myblocks.conf) that stores a source describing this file and how it should be read:
block source myappsource() {
file("/opt/var/myapplication.log" follow-freq(1) default-facility(syslog));
};
Include this file in your main syslog-ng configuration file,reference the block, and use it in a logpath:
@version: 3.6
include "<correct/path>/myblocks.conf";
source s_myappsource { myappsource(); }
...
log { source(s_myappsource); destination(…); };
To define a block that defines more than one object, use root as the type of the block, and reference the block
from the main part of the syslog-ng OSE configuration file.
www.balabit.com
48
Reusing configuration blocks
Example 5.7. Defining blocks with multiple elements
The following example defines a source, a destination, and a log path to connect them.
block root mylogs() {
source s_file { file("/var/log/mylogs.log" follow-freq(1)); };
destination d_local { file("/var/log/messages"); };
log { source(s_file); destination(d_local); };
};
Tip
Since the block is inserted into the syslog-ng OSE configuration when syslog-ng OSE is started, the block can be generated
dynamically using an external script if needed. This is useful when you are running syslog-ng OSE on different hosts and
you want to keep the main configuration identical.
If you want to reuse more than a single configuration object, for example, a logpath and the definitions of its sources and
destinations, use the include feature to reuse the entire snippet. For details, see Section 5.8.1, Including configuration
files (p. 46).
5.8.2.1. Passing arguments to configuration blocks
Configuration blocks can receive arguments as well. The parameters the block can receive must be specified
when the block is defined, using the following syntax:
block type block_name(argument1(<default-value-of-the-argument>)
argument2(<default-value-of-the-argument>) argument3())
If an argument does not have a default value, use empty parentheses after the name of the argument. To refer
the value of the argument in the block, use the name of the argument between backticks (for example,
`argument1`).
Example 5.8. Passing arguments to blocks
The following sample defines a file source block, which can receive the name of the file as a parameter. If no parameter
is set, it reads messages from the /var/log/messages file.
block source s_logfile (filename("messages")) {
file("/var/log/`filename`" );
};
source s_example {
s_logfile(filename("logfile.log"));
};
Example 5.9. Using arguments in blocks
The following example is the code of the pacct() source driver, which is actually a block that can optionally receive
two arguments.
block source pacct(file("/var/log/account/pacct") follow-freq(1)) {
@module pacctformat
file("`file`" follow-freq(`follow-freq`) format("pacct") tags(".pacct"));
};
www.balabit.com
49
How sources work
Chapter 6. Collecting log messages — sources
and source drivers
6.1. How sources work
A source is where syslog-ng receives log messages. Sources consist of one or more drivers, each defining where
and how messages are received.
To define a source, add a source statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following syntax:
source <identifier> { source-driver(params); source-driver(params); ... };
Example 6.1. A simple source statement
The following source statement receives messages on the TCP port 1999 of the interface having the 10.1.2.3 IP address.
source s_demo_tcp { tcp(ip(10.1.2.3) port(1999)); };
Example 6.2. A source statement using two source drivers
The following source statement receives messages on the 1999 TCP port and the 1999 UDP port of the interface having
the 10.1.2.3 IP address.
source s_demo_two_drivers {
tcp(ip(10.1.2.3) port(1999));
udp(ip(10.1.2.3) port(1999)); };
Example 6.3. Setting default priority and facility
If the message received by the source does not have a proper syslog header, you can use the default-facility() and
default-priority() options to set the facility and priority of the messages. Note that these values are applied only
to messages that do not set these parameters in their header.
source headerless_messages { udp(default-facility(syslog) default-priority(emerg)); };
Define a source only once. The same source can be used in several log paths. Duplicating sources causes
syslog-ng to open the source (TCP/IP port, file, and so on) more than once, which might cause problems. For
example, include the /dev/log file source only in one source statement, and use this statement in more than
one log path if needed.
Warning
Sources and destinations are initialized only when they are used in a log statement. For example, syslog-ng OSE starts
listening on a port or starts polling a file only if the source is used in a log statement. For details on creating log statements,
see Chapter 8, Routing messages: log paths and filters (p. 198).
To collect log messages on a specific platform, it is important to know how the native syslogd communicates
on that platform. The following table summarizes the operation methods of syslogd on some of the tested
platforms:
www.balabit.com
50
How sources work
Platform
Method
Linux
A SOCK_STREAM unix socket named /dev/log; some
of the distributions switched over to using
SOCK_DGRAM, though applications still work with either
method. Newer distributions that use systemd collect
log messages into a journal file.
BSD flavors
A SOCK_DGRAM unix socket named /var/run/log.
Solaris (2.5 or below)
An SVR4 style STREAMS device named /dev/log.
Solaris (2.6 or above)
In addition to the STREAMS device used in earlier
versions, 2.6 uses a new multithreaded IPC method
called door. By default the door used by syslogd is
/etc/.syslog_door.
HP-UX 11 or later
HP-UX uses a named pipe called /dev/log that is
padded to 2048 bytes, for example source s_hp-ux
{pipe ("/dev/log" pad-size(2048)}.
AIX 5.2 and 5.3
A SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM unix socket called
/dev/log.
Table 6.1. Communication methods used between the applications and syslogd
Each possible communication mechanism has a corresponding source driver in syslog-ng. For example, to open
a unix socket with SOCK_DGRAM style communication use the driver unix-dgram. The same socket using the
SOCK_STREAM style — as used under Linux — is called unix-stream.
Example 6.4. Source statement on a Linux based operating system
The following source statement collects the following log messages:
■ internal(): Messages generated by syslog-ng.
■ udp(ip(0.0.0.0) port(514)): Messages arriving to the 514/UDP port of any interface of the host.
■ unix-stream("/dev/log");: Messages arriving to the /dev/log socket.
source s_demo {
internal();
udp(ip(0.0.0.0) port(514));
unix-stream("/dev/log"); };
The following table lists the source drivers available in syslog-ng.
Name
Description
file()
Opens the specified file and reads messages.
network()
Listens on the specified TCP or UDP port for incoming
messages using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and
IPv6 networks, respectively. (This driver is a unified
wrapper for the tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6()
drivers.
nodejs()
Receives JSON messages from nodejs applications.
www.balabit.com
51
Collecting internal messages
Name
Description
internal()
Messages generated internally in syslog-ng.
pacct()
Reads messages from the process accounting logs on
Linux.
pipe()
Opens the specified named pipe and reads messages.
program()
Opens the specified application and reads messages
from its standard output.
sun-stream(), sun-streams()
Opens the specified STREAMS device on Solaris systems
and reads incoming messages.
syslog()
Listens for incoming messages using the new
IETF-standard syslog protocol.
system()
Automatically detects which platform syslog-ng OSE
is running on, and collects the native log messages of
that platform.
systemd-journal()
Collects messages directly from the journal of platforms
that use systemd.
systemd-syslog()
Collects messages from the journal using a socket on
platforms that use systemd.
tcp(), tcp6()
Listens on the specified TCP port for incoming
messages using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and
IPv6 networks, respectively.
udp(), udp6()
Listens on the specified UDP port for incoming
messages using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and
IPv6 networks, respectively.
unix-dgram()
Opens the specified unix socket in SOCK_DGRAM mode
and listens for incoming messages.
unix-stream()
Opens the specified unix socket in SOCK_STREAM mode
and listens for incoming messages.
Table 6.2. Source drivers available in syslog-ng
6.2. Collecting internal messages
All messages generated internally by syslog-ng use this special source. To collect warnings, errors and notices
from syslog-ng itself, include this source in one of your source statements.
internal()
The syslog-ng application will issue a warning upon startup if none of the defined log paths reference this
driver.
www.balabit.com
52
internal() source options
Example 6.5. Using the internal() driver
source s_local { internal(); };
The syslog-ng OSE application sends the following message types from the internal() source:
■ fatal: Priority value: critical (2); Facility value: syslog (5)
■ error: Priority value: error (3); Facility value: syslog (5)
■ warning: Priority value: warning (4); Facility value: syslog (5)
■ notice: Priority value: notice (5); Facility value: syslog (5)
■ info: Priority value: info (6); Facility value: syslog (5)
6.2.1. internal() source options
The internal() driver has the following options:
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
6.3. Collecting messages from text files
Collects log messages from plain-text files, for example from the logfiles of an Apache webserver.
The syslog-ng application notices if a file is renamed or replaced with a new file, so it can correctly follow the
file even if logrotation is used. When syslog-ng is restarted, it records the position of the last sent log message
in the /opt/syslog-ng/var/syslog-ng.persist file, and continues to send messages from this position
after the restart.
The file driver has a single required parameter specifying the file to open. For the list of available optional
parameters, see Section 6.3.2, file() source options (p. 54).
Declaration:
file(filename);
Example 6.6. Using the file() driver
source s_file { file("/var/log/messages"); };
www.balabit.com
53
Notes on reading kernel messages
Example 6.7. Tailing files
The following source checks the access.log file every second for new messages.
source s_tail { file("/var/log/apache/access.log"
follow-freq(1) flags(no-parse)); };
Note
If the message does not have a proper syslog header, syslog-ng treats messages received from files as sent by the kern
facility. Use the default-facility and default-priority options in the source definition to assign a different
facility if needed.
6.3.1. Notes on reading kernel messages
Note the following points when reading kernel messages on various platforms.
■ The kernel usually sends log messages to a special file (/dev/kmsg on BSDs, /proc/kmsg on
Linux). The file() driver reads log messages from such files. The syslog-ng application can
periodically check the file for new log messages if the follow-freq() option is set.
■ On Linux, the klogd daemon can be used in addition to syslog-ng to read kernel messages and
forward them to syslog-ng. klogd used to preprocess kernel messages to resolve symbols and so
on, but as this is deprecated by ksymoops there is really no point in running both klogd and syslog-ng
in parallel. Also note that running two processes reading /proc/kmsg at the same time might result
in dead-locks.
■ When using syslog-ng to read messages from the /proc/kmsg file, syslog-ng automatically disables
the follow-freq() parameter to avoid blocking the file.
■ To read the kernel messages on HP-UX platforms, use the following options in the source statement:
file("/dev/klog" program-override("kernel") flags(kernel) follow-freq(0));
6.3.2. file() source options
The file() driver has the following options:
default-facility()
Type: facility string
Default: kern
Description: This parameter assigns a facility value to the messages received from the file source, if the message
does not specify one.
default-priority()
Type: priority string
Default:
www.balabit.com
54
file() source options
Description: This parameter assigns an emergency level to the messages received from the file source, if the
message does not specify one.
file()
Type:
filename with path
Default:
Description: The file to read messages from, including the path.
encoding()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Specifies the characterset (encoding, for example UTF-8) of messages using the legacy BSD-syslog
protocol. To list the available character sets on a host, execute the iconv -l command.
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
www.balabit.com
55
file() source options
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
follow-freq()
Type: number
Default: 1
Description: Indicates that the source should be checked periodically. This is useful for files which always
indicate readability, even though no new lines were appended. If this value is higher than zero, syslog-ng will
not attempt to use poll() on the file, but checks whether the file changed every time the follow-freq()
interval (in seconds) has elapsed. Floating-point numbers (for example 1.5) can be used as well.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
56
file() source options
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. Make sure that
log-iw-size() is larger than the value of log-fetch-limit().
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
multi-line-garbage()
Type: regular expression
Default: empty string
Description: Use the multi-line-garbage() option when processing multi-line messages that contain
unneeded parts between the messages. Specify a string or regular expression that matches the beginning of the
unneeded message parts. If the multi-line-garbage() option is set, syslog-ng OSE ignores the lines between
the line matching the multi-line-garbage() and the next line matching multi-line-prefix(). See also
the multi-line-prefix() option.
When receiving multi-line messages from a source when the multi-line-garbage() option is set, but no
matching line is received between two lines that match multi-line-prefix(), syslog-ng OSE will continue
to process the incoming lines as a single message until a line matching multi-line-garbage() is received.
To use the multi-line-garbage() option, set the multi-line-mode() option to prefix-garbage.
www.balabit.com
57
file() source options
Warning
If the multi-line-garbage() option is set, syslog-ng OSE discards lines between the line matching the
multi-line-garbage() and the next line matching multi-line-prefix().
Note
A message is considered complete if no new lines arrive to the message for 10 seconds, even if no line matching the
multi-line-garbage() or the multi-line-suffix() option is received.
multi-line-mode()
Type: indented|regexp
Default: empty string
Description: Use the multi-line-mode() option when processing multi-line messages. The syslog-ng OSE
application provides the following methods to process multi-line messages: multi-line-mode(indented),
and multi-line-mode(prefix-garbage).
■ The indented mode can process messages where each line that belongs to the previous line is indented
by whitespace, and the message continues until the first non-indented line. For example, the Linux
kernel (starting with version 3.5) uses this format for /dev/log, as well as several applications, like
Apache Tomcat.
Example 6.8. Processing indented multi-line messages
source s_tomcat {
file("/var/log/tomcat/xxx.log" multi-line-mode(indented));
};
■ The prefix-garbage mode uses a string or regular expression (set in multi-line-prefix()) that
matches the beginning of the log messages, ignores newline characters from the source until a line
matches the regular expression again, and treats the lines between the matching lines as a single
message. For details on using multi-line-mode(prefix-garbage), see the
multi-line-prefix() and multi-line-garbage() options.
■ The prefix-suffix mode uses a string or regular expression (set in multi-line-prefix())
that matches the beginning of the log messages, ignores newline characters from the source until a
line matches the regular expression set in multi-line-suffix(), and treats the lines between
multi-line-prefix() and multi-line-suffix() as a single message. Any other lines between
the end of the message and the beginning of a new message (that is, a line that matches the
multi-line-prefix()
expression)
is
discarded.
For
details
on
using
multi-line-mode(prefix-suffix),
see
the
multi-line-prefix()
and
multi-line-suffix() options.
The prefix-suffix mode is similar to the prefix-garbage mode, but it appends the garbage
part to the message instead of discarding it.
www.balabit.com
58
file() source options
Tip
■ To make multi-line messages more readable when written to a file, use a template in the destination and
instead of the ${MESSAGE} macro, use the following: $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE}). This
expression inserts a tab after every newline character (except when a tab is already present), indenting every
line of the message after the first. For example:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE})\n") );
};
For details on using templates, see Section 11.1.2, Templates and macros (p. 239).
■ To actually convert the lines of multi-line messages to single line (by replacing the newline characters with
whitespaces), use the flags(no-multi-line) option in the source.
multi-line-prefix()
Type: regular expression
Default: empty string
Description: Use the multi-line-prefix() option to process multi-line messages, that is, log messages
that contain newline characters (for example, Tomcat logs). Specify a string or regular expression that matches
the beginning of the log messages. Use as simple regular expressions as possible, because complex regular
expressions can severely reduce the rate of processing multi-line messages. If the multi-line-prefix()
option is set, syslog-ng OSE ignores newline characters from the source until a line matches the regular expression
again, and treats the lines between the matching lines as a single message. See also the multi-line-garbage()
option.
Note
A message is considered complete if no new lines arrive to the message for 10 seconds, even if no line matching the
multi-line-garbage() or the multi-line-suffix() option is received.
Tip
■ To make multi-line messages more readable when written to a file, use a template in the destination and
instead of the ${MESSAGE} macro, use the following: $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE}). This
expression inserts a tab after every newline character (except when a tab is already present), indenting every
line of the message after the first. For example:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE})\n") );
};
For details on using templates, see Section 11.1.2, Templates and macros (p. 239).
■ To actually convert the lines of multi-line messages to single line (by replacing the newline characters with
whitespaces), use the flags(no-multi-line) option in the source.
www.balabit.com
59
file() source options
Example 6.9. Processing Tomcat logs
The log messages of the Apache Tomcat server are a typical example for multi-line log messages. The messages start
with the date and time of the query in the YYYY.MM.DD HH:MM:SS format, as you can see in the following example.
2010.06.09. 12:07:39 org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start
SEVERE: Catalina.start:
LifecycleException: service.getName(): "Catalina"; Protocol handler start failed:
java.net.BindException: Address already in use<null>:8080
at org.apache.catalina.connector.Connector.start(Connector.java:1138)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:531)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:710)
at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:583)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
at
sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:288)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
at
sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
at org.apache.commons.daemon.support.DaemonLoader.start(DaemonLoader.java:177)
2010.06.09. 12:07:39 org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start
INFO: Server startup in 1206 ms
2010.06.09. 12:45:08 org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol pause
INFO: Pausing Coyote HTTP/1.1 on http-8080
2010.06.09. 12:45:09 org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService stop
INFO: Stopping service Catalina
To process these messages, specify a regular expression matching the timestamp of the messages in the
multi-line-prefix() option. Such an expression is the following:
source s_file{file("/var/log/tomcat6/catalina.2010-06-09.log" follow-freq(0)
multi-line-mode(regexp) multi-line-prefix("[0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}\.[0-9]{2}\.")
flags(no-parse));};
};
Note that the flags(no-parse) is needed to avoid syslog-ng OSE trying to interpret the date in the message.
optional()
Type: yes or no
Default:
Description: Instruct syslog-ng to ignore the error if a specific source cannot be initialized. No other attempts
to initialize the source will be made until the configuration is reloaded. This option currently applies to the
pipe(), unix-dgram, and unix-stream drivers.
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
www.balabit.com
60
Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver)
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
6.4. Collecting messages using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver)
The network() source driver can receive syslog messages conforming to RFC3164 from the network using the
TCP, TLS, and UDP networking protocols.
Example 6.10. Using the network() driver
TCP source listening on the localhost on port 2222 without using the network() driver.
source s_tcp6 {
tcp6(
ip("::1")
port(2222)
);
};
TCP source listening on the localhost on port 2222 using the network() driver.
source s_network6 {
network(
ip("::1")
transport("tcp")
port(2222)
ip-protocol(6)
);
};
www.balabit.com
61
network() source options
Note
For details on the tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), udp6() drivers, see Section 6.14, Collecting messages from remote hosts
using the BSD syslog protocol (p. 100).
6.4.1. network() source options
The network() driver has the following options.
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
www.balabit.com
62
network() source options
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
■ threaded: The threaded flag enables multithreading for the source. For details on multithreading,
see Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE (p. 300).
Note
The syslog source uses multiple threads only if the source uses the tls or tcp transport protocols.
host-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${HOST} part of the message with the parameter string.
ip() or localip()
Type: string
Default: 0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to. Note that this is not the address where messages are accepted from.
ip-protocol()
Type: number
Default: 4
Description: Determines the internet protocol version of the given driver (network() or syslog()). The
possible values are 4 and 6, corresponding to IPv4 and IPv6. The default value is 4.
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
63
network() source options
ip-tos()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Type-of-Service value of outgoing packets.
ip-ttl()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Time-To-Live value of outgoing packets.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether connections to sources should be closed when syslog-ng is forced to reload its
configuration (upon the receipt of a SIGHUP signal). Note that this applies to the server (source) side of the
syslog-ng connections, client-side (destination) connections are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal
unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the destination.
keep-hostname()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enable or disable hostname rewriting.
■ If enabled (keep-hostname(yes)), syslog-ng OSE assumes that the incoming log message was
sent by the host specified in the HOST field of the message.
■ If disabled (keep-hostname(no)), syslog-ng OSE rewrites the HOST field of the message, either
to the IP address (if the use-dns() parameter is set to no), or to the hostname (if the use-dns()
parameter is set to yes and the IP address can be resolved to a hostname) of the host sending the
message to syslog-ng OSE. For details on using name resolution in syslog-ng OSE, see Section 17.3,
Using name resolution in syslog-ng (p. 307).
Note
If the log message does not contain a hostname in its HOST field, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds a hostname to the
message.
■ For messages received from the network, this hostname is the address of the host that sent the message (this
means the address of the last hop if the message was transferred via a relay).
■ For messages received from the local host, syslog-ng OSE adds the name of the host.
www.balabit.com
64
network() source options
This option can be specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global
option if available.
Note
When relaying messages, enable this option on the syslog-ng OSE server and also on every relay, otherwise syslog-ng
OSE will treat incoming messages as if they were sent by the last relay.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
Example 6.11. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
www.balabit.com
65
network() source options
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
max-connections()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous connections.
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
port() or localport()
Type: number
Default: In case of TCP transport: 601
In case of UDP transport: 514
Description: The port number to bind to.
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
www.balabit.com
66
network() source options
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
so-broadcast()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This option controls the SO_BROADCAST socket option required to make syslog-ng send messages
to a broadcast address. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
so-sndbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description:Specifies the size of the socket send buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
www.balabit.com
67
network() source options
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
tcp-keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This is an obsolete alias of the so-keepalive() option.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
transport()
Type: udp, tcp, or tls
Default: tcp
Description: Specifies the protocol used to receive messages from the source.
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
tls()
Type:
tls options
Default: n/a
Description: This option sets various options related to TLS encryption, for example, key/certificate files and
trusted CA locations. TLS can be used only with tcp-based transport protocols. For details, see Section 10.4,
TLS options (p. 235).
use-dns()
Type: yes, no, persist_only
Default: yes
www.balabit.com
68
Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications
Description: Enable or disable DNS usage. The persist_only option attempts to resolve hostnames locally
from file (for example from /etc/hosts). The syslog-ng OSE application blocks on DNS queries, so enabling
DNS may lead to a Denial of Service attack. To prevent DoS, protect your syslog-ng network endpoint with
firewall rules, and make sure that all hosts which may get to syslog-ng are resolvable. This option can be
specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
use-fqdn()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Add Fully Qualified Domain Name instead of short hostname. This option can be specified
globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
6.5. Receiving JSON messages from nodejs applications
Using the nodejs() driver, syslog-ng OSE can receive application logs directly from nodejs applications that
use the widespread Winston logging API. The syslog-ng OSE application automatically adds the
.nodejs.winston. prefix to the name of the fields the extracted from the message.
To use the nodejs() driver, the scl.conf file must be included in your syslog-ng configuration:
@include "scl.conf"
The nodejs() driver is actually a reusable configuration snippet configured to receive log messages using the
tcp() driver, and process its JSON contents. For details on using or writing such configuration snippets, see
Section 5.8.2, Reusing configuration blocks (p. 48). You can find the source of the nodejs configuration snippet
on GitHub.
Example 6.12. Using the nodejs() driver
The following example uses the default settings of the driver, listening for messages on port 9003 of every IP address of
the syslog-ng OSE host.
@include "scl.conf"
source apps { nodejs(); };
The following example listens only on IP address 192.168.1.1, port 9999.
@include "scl.conf"
source apps { nodejs(
localip(192.168.1.1)
port(9999)
)
};
Note
For details on the parameters of the nodejs() driver, see Section 6.5.1, nodejs() source options (p. 70).
www.balabit.com
69
nodejs() source options
6.5.1. nodejs() source options
The nodejs() driver has the following options.
ip() or localip()
Type: string
Default: 0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to. Note that this is not the address where messages are accepted from.
port() or localport()
Type: number
Default: 9003
Description: The port number to bind to.
6.6. Collecting messages from named pipes
The pipe driver opens a named pipe with the specified name and listens for messages. It is used as the native
message delivery protocol on HP-UX.
The pipe driver has a single required parameter, specifying the filename of the pipe to open. For the list of
available optional parameters, see Section 6.6.1, pipe() source options (p. 71).
Declaration:
pipe(filename);
Note
As of syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.0.2, pipes are created automatically. In earlier versions, you had to create the pipe
using the mkfifo(1) command.
Pipe is very similar to the file() driver, but there are a few differences, for example pipe() opens its argument
in read-write mode, therefore it is not recommended to be used on special files like /proc/kmsg.
Warning
■ It is not recommended to use pipe() on anything else than real pipes.
■ By default, syslog-ng OSE uses the flags(no-hostname) option for pipes, meaning that syslog-ng OSE
assumes that the log messages received from the pipe do not contain the hostname field. If your messages
do contain the hostname field, use flags(expect-hostname). For details, see Section flags() (p. 71).
Example 6.13. Using the pipe() driver
source s_pipe { pipe("/dev/pipe" pad-size(2048)); };
www.balabit.com
70
pipe() source options
6.6.1. pipe() source options
The pipe driver has the following options:
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
www.balabit.com
71
pipe() source options
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
follow-freq()
Type: number
Default: 1
Description: Indicates that the source should be checked periodically. This is useful for files which always
indicate readability, even though no new lines were appended. If this value is higher than zero, syslog-ng will
not attempt to use poll() on the file, but checks whether the file changed every time the follow-freq()
interval (in seconds) has elapsed. Floating-point numbers (for example 1.5) can be used as well.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
72
pipe() source options
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
Example 6.14. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
multi-line-garbage()
Type: regular expression
Default: empty string
Description: Use the multi-line-garbage() option when processing multi-line messages that contain
unneeded parts between the messages. Specify a string or regular expression that matches the beginning of the
unneeded message parts. If the multi-line-garbage() option is set, syslog-ng OSE ignores the lines between
the line matching the multi-line-garbage() and the next line matching multi-line-prefix(). See also
the multi-line-prefix() option.
When receiving multi-line messages from a source when the multi-line-garbage() option is set, but no
matching line is received between two lines that match multi-line-prefix(), syslog-ng OSE will continue
to process the incoming lines as a single message until a line matching multi-line-garbage() is received.
To use the multi-line-garbage() option, set the multi-line-mode() option to prefix-garbage.
www.balabit.com
73
pipe() source options
Warning
If the multi-line-garbage() option is set, syslog-ng OSE discards lines between the line matching the
multi-line-garbage() and the next line matching multi-line-prefix().
Note
A message is considered complete if no new lines arrive to the message for 10 seconds, even if no line matching the
multi-line-garbage() or the multi-line-suffix() option is received.
multi-line-mode()
Type: indented|regexp
Default: empty string
Description: Use the multi-line-mode() option when processing multi-line messages. The syslog-ng OSE
application provides the following methods to process multi-line messages: multi-line-mode(indented),
and multi-line-mode(prefix-garbage).
■ The indented mode can process messages where each line that belongs to the previous line is indented
by whitespace, and the message continues until the first non-indented line. For example, the Linux
kernel (starting with version 3.5) uses this format for /dev/log, as well as several applications, like
Apache Tomcat.
Example 6.15. Processing indented multi-line messages
source s_tomcat {
file("/var/log/tomcat/xxx.log" multi-line-mode(indented));
};
■ The prefix-garbage mode uses a string or regular expression (set in multi-line-prefix()) that
matches the beginning of the log messages, ignores newline characters from the source until a line
matches the regular expression again, and treats the lines between the matching lines as a single
message. For details on using multi-line-mode(prefix-garbage), see the
multi-line-prefix() and multi-line-garbage() options.
■ The prefix-suffix mode uses a string or regular expression (set in multi-line-prefix())
that matches the beginning of the log messages, ignores newline characters from the source until a
line matches the regular expression set in multi-line-suffix(), and treats the lines between
multi-line-prefix() and multi-line-suffix() as a single message. Any other lines between
the end of the message and the beginning of a new message (that is, a line that matches the
multi-line-prefix()
expression)
is
discarded.
For
details
on
using
multi-line-mode(prefix-suffix),
see
the
multi-line-prefix()
and
multi-line-suffix() options.
The prefix-suffix mode is similar to the prefix-garbage mode, but it appends the garbage
part to the message instead of discarding it.
www.balabit.com
74
pipe() source options
Tip
■ To make multi-line messages more readable when written to a file, use a template in the destination and
instead of the ${MESSAGE} macro, use the following: $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE}). This
expression inserts a tab after every newline character (except when a tab is already present), indenting every
line of the message after the first. For example:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE})\n") );
};
For details on using templates, see Section 11.1.2, Templates and macros (p. 239).
■ To actually convert the lines of multi-line messages to single line (by replacing the newline characters with
whitespaces), use the flags(no-multi-line) option in the source.
multi-line-prefix()
Type: regular expression
Default: empty string
Description: Use the multi-line-prefix() option to process multi-line messages, that is, log messages
that contain newline characters (for example, Tomcat logs). Specify a string or regular expression that matches
the beginning of the log messages. Use as simple regular expressions as possible, because complex regular
expressions can severely reduce the rate of processing multi-line messages. If the multi-line-prefix()
option is set, syslog-ng OSE ignores newline characters from the source until a line matches the regular expression
again, and treats the lines between the matching lines as a single message. See also the multi-line-garbage()
option.
Note
A message is considered complete if no new lines arrive to the message for 10 seconds, even if no line matching the
multi-line-garbage() or the multi-line-suffix() option is received.
Tip
■ To make multi-line messages more readable when written to a file, use a template in the destination and
instead of the ${MESSAGE} macro, use the following: $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE}). This
expression inserts a tab after every newline character (except when a tab is already present), indenting every
line of the message after the first. For example:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE})\n") );
};
For details on using templates, see Section 11.1.2, Templates and macros (p. 239).
■ To actually convert the lines of multi-line messages to single line (by replacing the newline characters with
whitespaces), use the flags(no-multi-line) option in the source.
www.balabit.com
75
pipe() source options
Example 6.16. Processing Tomcat logs
The log messages of the Apache Tomcat server are a typical example for multi-line log messages. The messages start
with the date and time of the query in the YYYY.MM.DD HH:MM:SS format, as you can see in the following example.
2010.06.09. 12:07:39 org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start
SEVERE: Catalina.start:
LifecycleException: service.getName(): "Catalina"; Protocol handler start failed:
java.net.BindException: Address already in use<null>:8080
at org.apache.catalina.connector.Connector.start(Connector.java:1138)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.start(StandardService.java:531)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer.start(StandardServer.java:710)
at org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start(Catalina.java:583)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
at
sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
at org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap.start(Bootstrap.java:288)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:39)
at
sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:25)
at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:597)
at org.apache.commons.daemon.support.DaemonLoader.start(DaemonLoader.java:177)
2010.06.09. 12:07:39 org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start
INFO: Server startup in 1206 ms
2010.06.09. 12:45:08 org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol pause
INFO: Pausing Coyote HTTP/1.1 on http-8080
2010.06.09. 12:45:09 org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService stop
INFO: Stopping service Catalina
To process these messages, specify a regular expression matching the timestamp of the messages in the
multi-line-prefix() option. Such an expression is the following:
source s_file{file("/var/log/tomcat6/catalina.2010-06-09.log" follow-freq(0)
multi-line-mode(regexp) multi-line-prefix("[0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}\.[0-9]{2}\.")
flags(no-parse));};
};
Note that the flags(no-parse) is needed to avoid syslog-ng OSE trying to interpret the date in the message.
optional()
Type: yes or no
Default:
Description: Instruct syslog-ng to ignore the error if a specific source cannot be initialized. No other attempts
to initialize the source will be made until the configuration is reloaded. This option currently applies to the
pipe(), unix-dgram, and unix-stream drivers.
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
www.balabit.com
76
Collecting process accounting logs on Linux
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
pipe()
Type:
filename with path
Default:
Description: The filename of the pipe to read messages from.
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
6.7. Collecting process accounting logs on Linux
Starting with version 3.2, syslog-ng OSE can collect process accounting logs on Linux systems.Process accounting
is the method of recording and summarizing commands executed on Linux, for example, the commands being
run, the user who executed the command, CPU time used by the process, exit code, and so on. When process
accounting (also called pacct) is enabled on a system, the kernel writes accounting records to the
/var/log/account/pacct file (might vary between different Linux distributions).
To use the pacct() driver, the following conditions must be met:
■ The syslog-ng OSE application must be compiled with the --enable-pacct option. Execute the
syslog-ng -V command to check if your binary supports process accounting.
www.balabit.com
77
pacct() options
■ The pacctformat plugin must be loaded. By default, syslog-ng OSE automatically loads the
available modules.
■ The scl.conf file must be included in your syslog-ng configuration:
@include "scl.conf"
■ Process accounting must be running on the host. You can enable it with the accton command.
The pacct() driver parses the fields of the accounting logs and transforms them into name-value pairs. The
fields are defined in the manual page of the accounting log file (man acct), syslog-ng OSE prepends every
field with the .pacct. prefix. For example, the ac_uid field that contains the id of the user who started the
process will be available under the $.pacct.ac_uid name. These can be used as macros in templates, in
filters to select specific messages, and so on.
To use the pacct() driver, use the following syntax.
@version: @techversion;
@include "scl.conf"
source s_pacct { pacct(); };
...
log { source(s_pacct); destination(...); };
The pacct() driver is actually a reusable configuration snippet configured to handle Linux accounting logs.
For details on using or writing such configuration snippets, see Section 5.8.2, Reusing configuration
blocks (p. 48). You can find the source of the pacct configuration snippet on GitHub.
6.7.1. pacct() options
The pacct() driver has the following options:
file
Type:
filename with path
Default: /var/log/account/pacct
Description: The file where the process accounting logs are stored — syslog-ng OSE reads accounting messages
from this file.
follow-freq()
Type: number
Default: 1
Description: Indicates that the source should be checked periodically. This is useful for files which always
indicate readability, even though no new lines were appended. If this value is higher than zero, syslog-ng will
not attempt to use poll() on the file, but checks whether the file changed every time the follow-freq()
interval (in seconds) has elapsed. Floating-point numbers (for example 1.5) can be used as well.
www.balabit.com
78
Receiving messages from external applications
6.8. Receiving messages from external applications
The program driver starts an external application and reads messages from the standard output (stdout) of the
application. It is mainly useful to receive log messages from daemons that accept incoming messages and
convert them to log messages.
The program driver has a single required parameter, specifying the name of the application to start.
Declaration:
program(filename);
Example 6.17. Using the program() driver
source s_program { program("/etc/init.d/mydaemon"); };
Note
The program is restarted automatically if it exits.
6.8.1. program() source options
The program driver has the following options:
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
www.balabit.com
79
program() source options
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
80
program() source options
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
Example 6.18. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
optional()
Type: yes or no
Default:
Description: Instruct syslog-ng to ignore the error if a specific source cannot be initialized. No other attempts
to initialize the source will be made until the configuration is reloaded. This option currently applies to the
pipe(), unix-dgram, and unix-stream drivers.
www.balabit.com
81
program() source options
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
program
Type: filename with path
Default:
Description: The name of the application to start and read messages from.
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
www.balabit.com
82
Collecting messages on Sun Solaris
6.9. Collecting messages on Sun Solaris
Solaris uses its STREAMS framework to send messages to the syslogd process. Solaris 2.5.1 and above uses
an IPC called door in addition to STREAMS, to confirm the delivery of a message. The syslog-ng application
supports the IPC mechanism via the door() option (see below).
Note
The sun-streams() driver must be enabled when the syslog-ng application is compiled (see ./configure --help).
The sun-streams() driver has a single required argument specifying the STREAMS device to open, and the
door() option. For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 6.9.1, sun-streams() source
options (p. 83).
Declaration:
sun-streams(name_of_the_streams_device door(filename_of_the_door));
Example 6.19. Using the sun-streams() driver
source s_stream { sun-streams("/dev/log" door("/etc/.syslog_door")); };
6.9.1. sun-streams() source options
The sun-streams() driver has the following options.
door()
Type: string
Default: none
Description: Specifies the filename of a door to open, needed on Solaris above 2.5.1.
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
www.balabit.com
83
sun-streams() source options
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
84
sun-streams() source options
follow-freq()
Type: number
Default: 1
Description: Indicates that the source should be checked periodically. This is useful for files which always
indicate readability, even though no new lines were appended. If this value is higher than zero, syslog-ng will
not attempt to use poll() on the file, but checks whether the file changed every time the follow-freq()
interval (in seconds) has elapsed. Floating-point numbers (for example 1.5) can be used as well.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
Example 6.20. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
www.balabit.com
85
sun-streams() source options
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
optional()
Type: yes or no
Default:
Description: Instruct syslog-ng to ignore the error if a specific source cannot be initialized. No other attempts
to initialize the source will be made until the configuration is reloaded. This option currently applies to the
pipe(), unix-dgram, and unix-stream drivers.
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
www.balabit.com
86
Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver)
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
6.10. Collecting messages using the IETF syslog protocol (syslog() driver)
The syslog() driver can receive messages from the network using the standard IETF-syslog protocol (as
described in RFC5424-26). UDP, TCP, and TLS-encrypted TCP can all be used to transport the messages.
Note
The syslog() driver can also receive BSD-syslog-formatted messages (described in RFC 3164, see Section 2.8.1,
BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages (p. 11)) if they are sent using the IETF-syslog protocol.
In syslog-ng OSE versions 3.1 and earlier, the syslog() driver could handle only messages in the IETF-syslog (RFC
5424-26) format.
For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 6.10.1, syslog() source options (p. 88).
Declaration:
syslog(ip() port() transport() options());
Example 6.21. Using the syslog() driver
TCP source listening on the localhost on port 1999.
source s_syslog { syslog(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) transport("tcp")); };
UDP source with defaults.
source s_udp { syslog( transport("udp")); };
Encrypted source where the client is also authenticated. For details on the encryption settings, see Section 10.4, TLS
options (p. 235).
source s_syslog_tls{ syslog(
ip(10.100.20.40)
transport("tls")
tls(
peer-verify(required-trusted)
ca-dir('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/ca.d/')
key-file('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/server_privatekey.pem')
cert-file('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/server_certificate.pem')
)
);};
www.balabit.com
87
syslog() source options
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
6.10.1. syslog() source options
The syslog() driver has the following options.
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
www.balabit.com
88
syslog() source options
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
■ threaded: The threaded flag enables multithreading for the source. For details on multithreading,
see Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE (p. 300).
Note
The syslog source uses multiple threads only if the source uses the tls or tcp transport protocols.
host-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${HOST} part of the message with the parameter string.
ip() or localip()
Type: string
Default: 0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to. Note that this is not the address where messages are accepted from.
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
89
syslog() source options
ip-protocol()
Type: number
Default: 4
Description: Determines the internet protocol version of the given driver (network() or syslog()). The
possible values are 4 and 6, corresponding to IPv4 and IPv6. The default value is 4.
ip-tos()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Type-of-Service value of outgoing packets.
ip-ttl()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Time-To-Live value of outgoing packets.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether connections to sources should be closed when syslog-ng is forced to reload its
configuration (upon the receipt of a SIGHUP signal). Note that this applies to the server (source) side of the
syslog-ng connections, client-side (destination) connections are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal
unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the destination.
keep-hostname()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enable or disable hostname rewriting.
■ If enabled (keep-hostname(yes)), syslog-ng OSE assumes that the incoming log message was
sent by the host specified in the HOST field of the message.
■ If disabled (keep-hostname(no)), syslog-ng OSE rewrites the HOST field of the message, either
to the IP address (if the use-dns() parameter is set to no), or to the hostname (if the use-dns()
parameter is set to yes and the IP address can be resolved to a hostname) of the host sending the
message to syslog-ng OSE. For details on using name resolution in syslog-ng OSE, see Section 17.3,
Using name resolution in syslog-ng (p. 307).
www.balabit.com
90
syslog() source options
Note
If the log message does not contain a hostname in its HOST field, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds a hostname to the
message.
■ For messages received from the network, this hostname is the address of the host that sent the message (this
means the address of the last hop if the message was transferred via a relay).
■ For messages received from the local host, syslog-ng OSE adds the name of the host.
This option can be specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global
option if available.
Note
When relaying messages, enable this option on the syslog-ng OSE server and also on every relay, otherwise syslog-ng
OSE will treat incoming messages as if they were sent by the last relay.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
www.balabit.com
91
syslog() source options
Example 6.22. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
max-connections()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous connections.
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
port() or localport()
Type: number
Default: In case of TCP transport: 601
In case of UDP transport: 514
www.balabit.com
92
syslog() source options
Description: The port number to bind to.
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
so-broadcast()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This option controls the SO_BROADCAST socket option required to make syslog-ng send messages
to a broadcast address. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
so-sndbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
93
syslog() source options
Description:Specifies the size of the socket send buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
tcp-keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This is an obsolete alias of the so-keepalive() option.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
transport()
Type: udp, tcp, or tls
Default: tcp
Description: Specifies the protocol used to receive messages from the source.
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
tls()
Type:
tls options
Default: n/a
www.balabit.com
94
Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform
Description: This option sets various options related to TLS encryption, for example, key/certificate files and
trusted CA locations. TLS can be used only with tcp-based transport protocols. For details, see Section 10.4,
TLS options (p. 235).
use-dns()
Type: yes, no, persist_only
Default: yes
Description: Enable or disable DNS usage. The persist_only option attempts to resolve hostnames locally
from file (for example from /etc/hosts). The syslog-ng OSE application blocks on DNS queries, so enabling
DNS may lead to a Denial of Service attack. To prevent DoS, protect your syslog-ng network endpoint with
firewall rules, and make sure that all hosts which may get to syslog-ng are resolvable. This option can be
specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
use-fqdn()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Add Fully Qualified Domain Name instead of short hostname. This option can be specified
globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
6.11. Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform
Starting with version 3.2, syslog-ng OSE can automatically collect the system-specific log messages of the host
on a number of platforms using the system() driver. If the system() driver is included in the syslog-ng OSE
configuration file, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds the following sources to the syslog-ng OSE configuration.
Note
syslog-ng OSE versions 3.2-3.3 used an external script to generate the system() source, but this was problematic in
certain situations, for example, when the host used a strict AppArmor profile. Therefore, the system() source is now
generated internally in syslog-ng OSE.
The system() driver is also used in the default configuration file of syslog-ng OSE. For details on the default
configuration file, see Example 4.1, The default configuration file of syslog-ng OSE (p. 35). Starting with
syslog-ng OSE version 3.6, you can use the system-expand command-line utility (which is a shell script,
located in the modules/system-source/ directory) to display the configuration that the system() source
will use.
Warning
If syslog-ng OSE does not recognize the platform it is installed on, it does not add any sources.
www.balabit.com
95
Collecting the system-specific log messages of a platform
Starting with version 3.6, syslog-ng OSE parses messages complying with the Common Information Model
(CIM) and marked with @cim as JSON messages (for example, the ulogd from the netfilter project can emit
such messages). That way, you can forward such messages without losing any information to CIM-aware
applications (for example, Splunk).
Platform
Message source
AIX and Tru64
unix-dgram("/dev/log");
FreeBSD
unix-dgram("/var/run/log");
unix-dgram("/var/run/logpriv"
perm(0600));
file("/dev/klog" follow-freq(0)
program-override("kernel")
flags(no-parse));
For
versions
follow-freq(1) is used.
GNU/kFreeBSD
FreeBSD
earlier
than
9.1,
unix-dgram("/var/run/log");
file("/dev/klog" follow-freq(0)
program-override("kernel"));
HP-UX
pipe("/dev/log" pad-size(2048));
Linux
unix-dgram("/dev/log");
file("/proc/kmsg"
program-override("kernel")
flags(kernel));
Note that on Linux, the so-rcvbuf() option of the
system() source is automatically set to 8192.
If the host is running under systemd, syslog-ng OSE
reads directly from the systemd journal file using the
systemd-journal() source.
If the kernel of the host is version 3.5 or newer, and
/dev/kmsg is seekable, syslog-ng OSE will use that
instead
of
/proc/kmsg ,
using
the
multi-line-mode(indented)
and
the
format(linux-kmsg) options.
If syslog-ng OSE is running in a jail or a Linux
Container (LXC), it will not read from the /dev/kmsg
or /proc/kmsg files.
Solaris 8
www.balabit.com
sun-streams("/dev/log");
96
Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage
Platform
Message source
Solaris 9
sun-streams("/dev/log"
door("/etc/.syslog_door"));
Solaris 10
sun-streams("/dev/log"
door("/var/run/syslog_door"));
Table 6.3. Sources automatically added by syslog-ng Open Source Edition
6.12. Collecting messages from the systemd-journal system log storage
The systemd-journal() source collects messages directly from the journal of platforms that use systemd.
If you use the systemd-journal() source directly (instead of using the system() source), make sure that
your other syslog-ng OSE sourcer do not read from /dev/kmsg or /proc/kmsg to avoid duplicating log
messages. (The messages from /dev/kmsg or /proc/kmsg are automatically available in the journal as well.)
Declaration:
systemd-journal(options);
Example 6.23. Sending all fields through syslog protocol using the systemd-journal() driver
To send all fields through the syslog protocol, enter the prefix in the following format: ".SDATA.<name>".
@version: 3.6
source s_journald {
systemd-journal(prefix(".SDATA.journald."));
};
destination d_network {
syslog("server.host");
};
log {
source(s_journald);
destination(d_network);
};
Example 6.24. Filtering for a specific field using the systemd-journal() driver
@version: 5.2
source s_journald {
systemd-journal(prefix(".SDATA.journald."));
};
filter f_uid {"${.SDATA.journald._UID}" eq "1000"};
destination d_network {
syslog("server.host");
};
log {
source(s_journald);
filter(f_uid);
destination(d_network);
};
www.balabit.com
97
systemd-journal() source options
Example 6.25. Sending all fields in value-pairs using the systemd-journal() driver
@version: 5.2
source s_local {
systemd-journal(prefix("journald."));
};
destination d_network {
network("server.host" template("$(format_json --scope rfc5424 --key journald.*)\n"));
};
log {
source(s_local);
destination(d_network);
};
The journal contains credential information about the process that sent the log message. The syslog-ng OSE
application makes this information available in the following macros:
Journald field
syslog-ng predefined macro
MESSAGE
$MESSAGE
_HOSTNAME
$HOST
_PID
$PID
_COMM if does not exist SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER
$PROGRAM
SYSLOG_FACILITY
$FACILITY_NUM
PRIORITY
$LEVEL_NUM
6.12.1. systemd-journal() source options
The systemd-journal() driver has the following options:
default-facility()
Type: facility string
Default: local0
Description: The default facility value if the SYSLOG_FACILITY entry does not exist.
default-level()
Type: string
Default: notice
Description: The default level value if the PRIORITY entry does not exist.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
www.balabit.com
98
Collecting systemd messages using a socket
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
max-field-size()
Type: number (characters)
Default: 65536
Description: The maximum length of a field's value.
prefix()
Type: string
Default:
Description: If this option is set, every non-built-in mapped names get a prefix (for example:
".SDATA.journald.").
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
6.13. Collecting systemd messages using a socket
On platforms running systemd, the systemd-syslog() driver reads the log messages of systemd using the
/run/systemd/journal/syslog socket. Note the following points about this driver:
■ If possible, use the more reliable systemd-journal() driver instead.
■ The socket activation of systemd is buggy, causing some log messages to get lost during system
startup.
■ If syslog-ng OSE is running in a jail or a Linux Container (LXC), it will not read from the /dev/kmsg
or /proc/kmsg files.
Declaration:
systemd-syslog();
Example 6.26. Using the systemd-syslog() driver
@version: 3.6
source s_systemdd {
systemd-syslog();
};
destination d_network {
syslog("server.host");
};
www.balabit.com
99
Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol
log {
source(s_journald);
destination(d_network);
};
6.14. Collecting messages from remote hosts using the BSD syslog protocol
Note
The tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() drivers will be deprecated in later versions, use the network() driver instead.
The tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), udp6() drivers can receive syslog messages conforming to RFC3164 from the
network using the TCP and UDP networking protocols. The tcp6() and udp6() drivers use the IPv6 network
protocol, while tcp() and udp() use IPv4.
UDP is a simple datagram oriented protocol, which provides "best effort service" to transfer messages between
hosts. It may lose messages, and no attempt is made at the protocol level to retransmit such lost messages. The
BSD-syslog protocol traditionally uses UDP.
TCP provides connection-oriented service, which basically means that the path of the messages is flow-controlled.
Along this path, each message is acknowledged, and retransmission is done for lost packets. Generally it is
safer to use TCP, because lost connections can be detected, and no messages get lost, assuming that the TCP
connection does not break. When a TCP connection is broken the 'in-transit' messages that were sent by syslog-ng
but not yet received on the other side are lost. (Basically these messages are still sitting in the socket buffer of
the sending host and syslog-ng has no information about the fate of these messages).
The tcp() and udp() drivers do not have any required parameters. By default they bind to the 0.0.0.0:514
address, which means that syslog-ng will listen on all available interfaces, port 514. To limit accepted connections
to only one interface, use the localip() parameter as described below. For the list of available optional
parameters, see Section 6.14.1, tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options (p. 101).
Declaration:
tcp([options]);
udp([options]);
Note
The TCP port 514 is reserved for use with rshell, so select a different port if syslog-ng and rshell is used at the same
time.
If you specify a multicast bind address to udp() and udp6(), syslog-ng will automatically join the necessary
multicast group. TCP does not support multicasting.
The syslog-ng application supports TLS (Transport Layer Security, also known as SSL) for the tcp() and tcp6()
drivers. For details, see the TLS-specific options below and Section 10.2, Encrypting log messages with
TLS (p. 230). For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 6.14.1, tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6()
source options (p. 101).
www.balabit.com
100
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
Tip
The syslog() driver also supports TLS-encrypted connections.
Example 6.27. Using the udp() and tcp() drivers
A simple udp() source with default settings.
source s_udp { udp(); };# An UDP source with default settings.
A TCP source listening on the localhost interface, with a limited number of connections allowed.
source s_tcp { tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) max-connections(10)); };
A TCP source listening on a TLS-encrypted channel.
source s_tcp { tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999)
tls(peer-verify('required-trusted')
key-file('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.key')
cert-file('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.crt')));
};
A TCP source listening for messages using the IETF-syslog message format. Note that for transferring IETF-syslog
messages, generally you are recommended to use the syslog() driver on both the client and the server, as it uses both
the IETF-syslog message format and the protocol. For details, see Section 6.10, Collecting messages using the IETF
syslog protocol (syslog() driver) (p. 87).
source s_tcp_syslog { tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) flags(syslog-protocol) ); };
6.14.1. tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
The tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), udp6() drivers can receive messages conforming to RFC3164 from the network
using the TCP and UDP networking protocols.
The following options are valid for tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() drivers:
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
encoding()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Specifies the characterset (encoding, for example UTF-8) of messages using the legacy BSD-syslog
protocol. To list the available character sets on a host, execute the iconv -l command.
www.balabit.com
101
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
www.balabit.com
102
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
■ threaded: The threaded flag enables multithreading for the destination. For details on multithreading,
see Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE (p. 300).
Note
Only the tcp and tcp6 sources can use multiple threads.
host-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${HOST} part of the message with the parameter string.
ip() or localip()
Type: string
Default: 0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to. Note that this is not the address where messages are accepted from.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether connections to sources should be closed when syslog-ng is forced to reload its
configuration (upon the receipt of a SIGHUP signal). Note that this applies to the server (source) side of the
syslog-ng connections, client-side (destination) connections are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal
unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the destination.
keep-hostname()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
103
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
Description: Enable or disable hostname rewriting.
■ If enabled (keep-hostname(yes)), syslog-ng OSE assumes that the incoming log message was
sent by the host specified in the HOST field of the message.
■ If disabled (keep-hostname(no)), syslog-ng OSE rewrites the HOST field of the message, either
to the IP address (if the use-dns() parameter is set to no), or to the hostname (if the use-dns()
parameter is set to yes and the IP address can be resolved to a hostname) of the host sending the
message to syslog-ng OSE. For details on using name resolution in syslog-ng OSE, see Section 17.3,
Using name resolution in syslog-ng (p. 307).
Note
If the log message does not contain a hostname in its HOST field, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds a hostname to the
message.
■ For messages received from the network, this hostname is the address of the host that sent the message (this
means the address of the last hop if the message was transferred via a relay).
■ For messages received from the local host, syslog-ng OSE adds the name of the host.
This option can be specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global
option if available.
Note
When relaying messages, enable this option on the syslog-ng OSE server and also on every relay, otherwise syslog-ng
OSE will treat incoming messages as if they were sent by the last relay.
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
www.balabit.com
104
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
Example 6.28. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
max-connections()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous connections.
Note that the udp() and udp6() drivers do not support this option.
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
105
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
port() or localport()
Type: number
Default: 514
Description: The port number to bind to.
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
www.balabit.com
106
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
tcp-keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This is an obsolete alias of the so-keepalive() option.
tcp-keepalive-intvl()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the interval (number of seconds) between subsequential keepalive probes, regardless
of the traffic exchanged in the connection. This option is equivalent to
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. The default value is 0, which means using the kernel
default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tcp-keepalive-probes()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the number of unacknowledged probes to send before considering the connection dead.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tcp-keepalive-time()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
107
tcp(), tcp6(), udp() and udp6() source options
Description: Specifies the interval (in seconds) between the last data packet sent and the first keepalive probe.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
tls()
Type:
tls options
Default: n/a
Description: This option sets various options related to TLS encryption, for example, key/certificate files and
trusted CA locations. TLS can be used only with tcp-based transport protocols. For details, see Section 10.4,
TLS options (p. 235).
use-dns()
Type: yes, no, persist_only
Default: yes
Description: Enable or disable DNS usage. The persist_only option attempts to resolve hostnames locally
from file (for example from /etc/hosts). The syslog-ng OSE application blocks on DNS queries, so enabling
DNS may lead to a Denial of Service attack. To prevent DoS, protect your syslog-ng network endpoint with
firewall rules, and make sure that all hosts which may get to syslog-ng are resolvable. This option can be
specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
www.balabit.com
108
Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets
use-fqdn()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Add Fully Qualified Domain Name instead of short hostname. This option can be specified
globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
6.15. Collecting messages from UNIX domain sockets
The unix-stream() and unix-dgram() drivers open an AF_UNIX socket and start listening on it for messages.
The unix-stream() driver is primarily used on Linux and uses SOCK_STREAM semantics (connection oriented,
no messages are lost); while unix-dgram() is used on BSDs and uses SOCK_DGRAM semantics: this may result
in lost local messages if the system is overloaded.
To avoid denial of service attacks when using connection-oriented protocols, the number of simultaneously
accepted connections should be limited. This can be achieved using the max-connections() parameter. The
default value of this parameter is quite strict, you might have to increase it on a busy system.
Both unix-stream and unix-dgram have a single required argument that specifies the filename of the socket to
create. For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 6.15.2, unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source
options (p. 110)
Declaration:
unix-stream(filename [options]);
unix-dgram(filename [options]);
Note
syslogd on Linux originally used SOCK_STREAM sockets, but some distributions switched to SOCK_DGRAM around 1999
to fix a possible DoS problem. On Linux you can choose to use whichever driver you like as syslog clients automatically
detect the socket type being used.
Example 6.29. Using the unix-stream() and unix-dgram() drivers
source s_stream { unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10)); };
source s_dgram { unix-dgram("/var/run/log"); };
6.15.1. UNIX credentials and other metadata
Starting with syslog-ng OSE 3.6, the unix-stream() and unix-dgram() sources automatically extract the
available UNIX credentials and other metainformation from the received log messages. The syslog-ng OSE
application can extract the following information on Linux and FreeBSD platforms (examples show the value
of the macro for the su - myuser command). Similar information is available for the systemd-journal source.
www.balabit.com
109
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
Macro
Description
${.unix.cmdline}
The name (without the path) and command-line options
of the executable belonging to the PID that sent the
message. For example, su - myuser
${.unix.exe}
The path of the executable belonging to the PID that
sent the message. For example, /usr/bin/su
${.unix.gid}
The group ID (GID) corresponding to the UID of the
application that sent the log message. Note that this is
the ID number of the group, not its human-readable
name. For example, 0
${.unix.pid}
The process ID (PID) of the application that sent the
log message. For example, 774.
Note that on every UNIX platforms, if the system()
source uses sockets, it will overwrite the PID macro
with the value of ${.unix.pid}, if it is available.
${.unix.uid}
The user ID (UID) of the application that sent the log
message. Note that this is the ID number of the user,
not its human-readable name. For example, 0
Table 6.4. UNIX credentials available via UNIX domain sockets
6.15.2. unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
These two drivers behave similarly: they open an AF_UNIX socket and start listening on it for messages. The
following options can be specified for these divers:
encoding()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Specifies the characterset (encoding, for example UTF-8) of messages using the legacy BSD-syslog
protocol. To list the available character sets on a host, execute the iconv -l command.
flags()
Type:
assume-utf8, empty-lines, expect-hostname, kernel,
no-multi-line,
no-parse,
store-legacy-msghdr,
syslog-protocol, validate-utf8
Default:
empty set
Description: Specifies the log parsing options of the source.
■ assume-utf8: The assume-utf8 flag assumes that the incoming messages are UTF-8 encoded, but
does not verify the encoding. If you explicitly want to validate the UTF-8 encoding of the incoming
message, use the validate-utf8 flag.
www.balabit.com
110
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
■ empty-lines: Use the empty-lines flag to keep the empty lines of the messages. By default, syslog-ng
OSE removes empty lines automatically.
■ expect-hostname: If the expect-hostname flag is enabled, syslog-ng OSE will assume that the log
message contains a hostname and parse the message accordingly. This is the default behavior for
TCP sources. Note that pipe sources use the no-hostname flag by default.
■ kernel: The kernel flag makes the source default to the LOG_KERN | LOG_NOTICE priority if not
specified otherwise.
■ no-hostname: Enable the no-hostname flag if the log message does not include the hostname of
the sender host. That way syslog-ng OSE assumes that the first part of the message header is
${PROGRAM} instead of ${HOST}. For example:
source s_dell { udp(port(2000) flags(no-hostname)); };
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line. Note that this happens only if the underlying transport method actually
supports multi-line messages. Currently the , syslog(), udp(), unix-dgram() drivers support
multi-line messages; other drivers, for example, the tcp() driver do not.
■ no-parse: By default, syslog-ng OSE parses incoming messages as syslog messages. The no-parse
flag completely disables syslog message parsing and processes the complete line as the message part
of a syslog message. The syslog-ng OSE application will generate a new syslog header (timestamp,
host, and so on) automatically and put the entire incoming message into the MSG part of the syslog
message. This flag is useful for parsing messages not complying to the syslog format.
■ dont-store-legacy-msghdr: By default, syslog-ng stores the original incoming header of the log
message. This is useful of the original format of a non-syslog-compliant message must be retained
(syslog-ng automatically corrects minor header errors, for example, adds a whitespace before msg
in the following message: Jan 22 10:06:11 host program:msg). If you do not want to store
the original header of the message, enable the dont-store-legacy-msghdr flag.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag specifies that incoming messages are expected to be
formatted according to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame
header. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, which handles only messages that
have a frame header.
■ validate-utf8: The validate-utf8 flag enables encoding-verification for messages formatted
according to the new IETF syslog standard (for details, see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog
messages (p. 13)). If the BOM character is missing, but the message is otherwise UTF-8 compliant,
syslog-ng automatically adds the BOM character to the message.
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order of the message text.
www.balabit.com
111
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
group()
Type: string
Default: root
Description: Set the gid of the socket.
host-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${HOST} part of the message with the parameter string.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Selects whether to keep connections open when syslog-ng is restarted; cannot be used with
unix-dgram().
keep-timestamp()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fetch-limit()
Type: number
Default: 10
Description: The maximum number of messages fetched from a source during a single poll loop. The destination
queues might fill up before flow-control could stop reading if log-fetch-limit() is too high.
log-iw-size()
Type: number
Default: 1000
Description: The size of the initial window, this value is used during flow control. If the max-connections()
option is set, the log-iw-size() will be divided by the number of connections, otherwise log-iw-size()
is divided by 10 (the default value of the max-connections() option). The resulting number is the initial
window size of each connection. For optimal performance when receiving messages from syslog-ng OSE
www.balabit.com
112
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
clients, make sure that the window size is larger than the flush-lines() option set in the destination of your
clients.
Example 6.30. Initial window size of a connection
If log-iw-size(1000) and max-connections(10), then each connection will have an initial window size of 100.
log-msg-size()
Type: number
Default: Use the global log-msg-size() option, which defaults to 8192.
Description: Specifies the maximum length of incoming log messages. Uses the value of the global option if
not specified.
log-prefix() (DEPRECATED)
Type: string
Default:
Description: A string added to the beginning of every log message. It can be used to add an arbitrary string to
any log source, though it is most commonly used for adding kernel: to the kernel messages on Linux. NOTE:
This option is deprecated. Use program-override() instead.
max-connections()
Type: number
Default: 256
Description: Limits the number of simultaneously open connections. Cannot be used with unix-dgram().
optional()
Type: yes or no
Default:
Description: Instruct syslog-ng to ignore the error if a specific source cannot be initialized. No other attempts
to initialize the source will be made until the configuration is reloaded. This option currently applies to the
pipe(), unix-dgram, and unix-stream drivers.
owner()
Type: string
Default: root
Description: Set the uid of the socket.
www.balabit.com
113
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies input padding. Some operating systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block
boundary. This option can be used to specify the block size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes). The syslog-ng OSE
application will pad reads from the associated device to the number of bytes set in pad-size(). Mostly used
on HP-UX where /dev/log is a named pipe and every write is padded to 2048 bytes. If pad-size() was
given and the incoming message does not fit into pad-size(), syslog-ng will not read anymore from this pipe
and displays the following error message:
Padding was set, and couldn't read enough bytes
perm()
Type: number
Default: 0666
Description: Set the permission mask. For octal numbers prefix the number with '0', for example: use 0755
for rwxr-xr-x.
program-override()
Type: string
Default:
Description: Replaces the ${PROGRAM} part of the message with the parameter string. For example, to mark
every message coming from the kernel, include the program-override("kernel") option in the source
containing /proc/kmsg. NOTE: This option replaces the deprecated log-prefix() option.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
www.balabit.com
114
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() source options
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the receiver host (that
is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain platforms, for example, on Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second) can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf()
option of the source is increased. In such cases, you will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the
host (for example, to 1024000), but do not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of incoming
messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf() at least to 2 097 152
bytes.
tags()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: Label the messages received from the source with custom tags. Tags must be unique, and enclosed
between double quotes. When adding multiple tags, separate them with comma, for example tags("dmz",
"router"). This option is available only in syslog-ng 3.1 and later.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default:
Description: The default timezone for messages read from the source. Applies only if no timezone is specified
within the message itself.
www.balabit.com
115
Chapter 7. Sending and storing log messages —
destinations and destination drivers
A destination is where a log message is sent if the filtering rules match. Similarly to sources, destinations consist
of one or more drivers, each defining where and how messages are sent.
Tip
If no drivers are defined for a destination, all messages sent to the destination are discarded. This is equivalent to omitting
the destination from the log statement.
To define a destination, add a destination statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following
syntax:
destination <identifier> {
destination-driver(params); destination-driver(params); ... };
Example 7.1. A simple destination statement
The following destination statement sends messages to the TCP port 1999 of the 10.1.2.3 host.
destination d_demo_tcp { tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999)); };
If name resolution is configured, the hostname of the target server can be used as well.
destination d_tcp { tcp("target_host" port(1999); localport(999)); };
Warning
■ Do not define the same drivers with the same parameters more than once, because it will cause problems.
For example, do not open the same file in multiple destinations.
■ Do not use the same destination in different log paths, because it can cause problems with most destination
types. Instead, use filters and log paths to avoid such situations.
■ Sources and destinations are initialized only when they are used in a log statement. For example, syslog-ng
OSE starts listening on a port or starts polling a file only if the source is used in a log statement. For details
on creating log statements, see Chapter 8, Routing messages: log paths and filters (p. 198).
The following table lists the destination drivers available in syslog-ng.
Name
Description
amqp()
Publishes messages using the AMQP (Advanced
Message Queuing Protocol).
file()
Writes messages to the specified file.
graphite()
Sends metrics to a Graphite server to store numeric
time-series data.
www.balabit.com
116
Publishing messages using AMQP
Name
Description
mongodb()
Sends messages to a MongoDB database.
pipe()
Writes messages to the specified named pipe.
program()
Forks and launches the specified program, and sends
messages to its standard input.
redis()
Sends messages as name-value pairs to a Redis
key-value store.
riemann()
Sends metrics or events to a Riemann monitoring
system.
smtp()
Sends e-mail messages to the specified recipients.
sql()
Sends messages into an SQL database. In addition to
the standard syslog-ng packages, the sql() destination
requires database-specific packages to be installed.
Refer to the section appropriate for your platform in
Chapter 3, Installing syslog-ng (p. 23).
stomp()
Sends messages to a STOMP server.
syslog()
Sends messages to the specified remote host using the
IETF-syslog protocol. The IETF standard supports
message transport using the UDP, TCP, and TLS
networking protocols.
tcp() and tcp6()
Sends messages to the specified TCP port of a remote
host using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and IPv6,
respectively.
udp() and udp6()
Sends messages to the specified UDP port of a remote
host using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and IPv6,
respectively.
unix-dgram()
Sends messages to the specified unix socket in
SOCK_DGRAM style (BSD).
unix-stream()
Sends messages to the specified unix socket in
SOCK_STREAM style (Linux).
usertty()
Sends messages to the terminal of the specified user,
if the user is logged in.
Table 7.1. Destination drivers available in syslog-ng
7.1. Publishing messages using AMQP
The amqp() driver publishes messages using the AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol). syslog-ng
OSE supports AMQP versions 0.9.1 and 1.0. The syslog-ng OSE amqp() driver supports persistence, and every
available exchange types.
The name-value pairs selected with the value-pairs() option will be sent as AMQP headers, while the body
of the AMQP message is empty by default (but you can add custom content using the body() option). Publishing
www.balabit.com
117
amqp() destination options
the name-value pairs as headers makes it possible to use the Headers exchange-type and subscribe only to
interesting log streams. This solution is more flexible than using the routing-key() option.
For the list of available parameters, see Section 7.1.1, amqp() destination options (p. 118).
Declaration:
amqp( host("<amqp-server-address>") )
Example 7.2. Using the amqp() driver
The following example shows the default values of the available options.
destination d_amqp {
amqp(
vhost("/")
host("127.0.0.1")
port(5672)
exchange("syslog")
exchange-type("header")
routing-key("")
body("")
persistent(yes)
value-pairs(
scope("selected-macros" "nv-pairs" "sdata")
)
);
};
7.1.1. amqp() destination options
The amqp() driver publishes messages using the AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol).
The amqp() destination has the following options:
body()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: The body of the AMQP message. You can also use macros and templates.
exchange()
Type: string
Default: syslog
Description: The name of the AMQP exchange where syslog-ng OSE sends the message. Exchanges take a
message and route it into zero or more queues.
exchange-declare()
Type: yes|no
Default: no
www.balabit.com
118
amqp() destination options
Description: By default, syslog-ng OSE does not create non-existing exchanges. Use the
exchange-declare(yes) option to automatically create exchanges.
exchange-type()
Type: direct|fanout|topic|headers
Default: header
Description: The type of the AMQP exchange.
host()
Type:
hostname or IP address
Default: 127.0.0.1
Description: The hostname or IP address of the AMQP server.
password()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: The password used to authenticate on the AMQP server.
persistent()
Type: yes|no
Default: yes
Description: If this option is enabled, the AMQP server or broker will store the messages on its hard disk. That
way, the messages will be retained if the AMQP server is restarted, if the message queue is set to be durable
on the AMQP server.
port()
Type:
number
Default: 5672
Description: The port number of the AMQP server.
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3
Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng
OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the
message.
www.balabit.com
119
amqp() destination options
routing-key()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: Specifies a routing key for the exchange. The routing key selects certain messages published to
an exchange to be routed to the bound queue. In other words, the routing key acts like a filter. The routing key
can include macros and templates.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
username()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: The username used to authenticate on the AMQP server.
value-pairs()
Type: parameter list of the value-pairs() option
Default: scope("selected-macros" "nv-pairs")
Description: The value-pairs() option creates structured name-value pairs from the data and metadata of
the log message. For details on using value-pairs(), see Section 2.10, Structuring macros, metadata, and
other value-pairs (p. 17).
Note
Empty keys are not logged.
vhost()
Type: string
Default: /
Description: The name of the AMQP virtual host to send the messages to.
www.balabit.com
120
Storing messages in plain-text files
7.2. Storing messages in plain-text files
The file driver is one of the most important destination drivers in syslog-ng. It allows to output messages to the
specified text file, or to a set of files.
The destination filename may include macros which get expanded when the message is written, thus a simple
file() driver may create several files: for example, syslog-ng OSE can store the messages of client hosts in
a separate file for each host. For more information on available macros see Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng
OSE (p. 241).
If the expanded filename refers to a directory which does not exist, it will be created depending on the
create-dirs() setting (both global and a per destination option).
The file() has a single required parameter that specifies the filename that stores the log messages. For the
list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.2.1, file() destination options (p. 122).
Declaration:
file(filename options());
Example 7.3. Using the file() driver
destination d_file { file("/var/log/messages" ); };
Example 7.4. Using the file() driver with macros in the file name and a template for the message
destination d_file {
file("/var/log/${YEAR}.${MONTH}.${DAY}/messages"
template("${HOUR}:${MIN}:${SEC} ${TZ} ${HOST} [${LEVEL}] ${MSG} ${MSG}\n")
template-escape(no));
};
Note
When using this destination, update the configuration of your log rotation program to rotate these files. Otherwise, the
log files can become very large.
Also, after rotating the log files, reload syslog-ng OSE using the syslog-ng-ctl reload command, or use another
method to send a SIGHUP to syslog-ng OSE.
Warning
Since the state of each created file must be tracked by syslog-ng, it consumes some memory for each file. If no new
messages are written to a file within 60 seconds (controlled by the time-reap() global option), it is closed, and its state
is freed.
Exploiting this, a DoS attack can be mounted against the system. If the number of possible destination files and its needed
memory is more than the amount available on the syslog-ng server.
The most suspicious macro is ${PROGRAM}, where the number of possible variations is rather high. Do not use the
${PROGRAM} macro in insecure environments.
www.balabit.com
121
file() destination options
7.2.1. file() destination options
The file() driver outputs messages to the specified text file, or to a set of files. The file() destination has
the following options:
Warning
When creating several thousands separate log files, syslog-ng might not be able to open the required number of files. This
might happen for example when using the ${HOST} macro in the filename while receiving messages from a large number
of hosts. To overcome this problem, adjust the --fd-limit command-line parameter of syslog-ng or the global ulimit
parameter of your host. For setting the --fd-limit command-line parameter of syslog-ng see the syslog-ng(8) (p. 321)
manual page. For setting the ulimit parameter of the host, see the documentation of your operating system.
create-dirs()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enable creating non-existing directories.
dir-group()
Type: string
Default: Use the global settings
Description: The group of the directories created by syslog-ng. To preserve the original properties of an existing
directory, use the option without specifying an attribute: dir-group().
dir-owner()
Type: string
Default: Use the global settings
Description: The owner of the directories created by syslog-ng. To preserve the original properties of an existing
directory, use the option without specifying an attribute: dir-owner().
dir-perm()
Type: number
Default: Use the global settings
Description: The permission mask of directories created by syslog-ng. Log directories are only created if a file
after macro expansion refers to a non-existing directory, and directory creation is enabled (see also the
create-dirs() option). For octal numbers prefix the number with 0, for example use 0755 for rwxr-xr-x.
To preserve the original properties of an existing directory, use the option without specifying an attribute:
dir-perm(). Note that when creating a new directory without specifying attributes for dir-perm(), the
default permission of the directories is masked with the umask of the parent process (typically 0022).
www.balabit.com
122
file() destination options
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
■ threaded: The threaded flag enables multithreading for the destination. For details on multithreading,
see Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng OSE (p. 300).
Note
The file destination uses multiple threads only if the destination filename contains macros.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
www.balabit.com
123
file() destination options
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
fsync()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Forces an fsync() call on the destination fd after each write. Note: enabling this option may
seriously degrade performance.
group()
Type: string
Default: Use the global settings
Description: Set the group of the created file to the one specified. To preserve the original properties of an
existing file, use the option without specifying an attribute: group().
local-time-zone()
Type:
name of the timezone or the timezone offset
Default:
The local timezone.
Description: Sets the timezone used when expanding filename and tablename templates. The timezone can be
specified as using the name of the (for example time-zone("Europe/Budapest")), or as the timezone offset
(for example +01:00). The valid timezone names are listed under the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
www.balabit.com
124
file() destination options
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
www.balabit.com
125
file() destination options
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
overwrite-if-older()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: If set to a value higher than 0, syslog-ng OSE checks when the file was last modified before
starting to write into the file. If the file is older than the specified amount of time (in seconds), then syslog-ng
removes the existing file and opens a new file with the same name. In combination with for example the
${WEEKDAY} macro, this can be used for simple log rotation, in case not all history has to be kept. (Note that
in this weekly log rotation example if its Monday 00:01, then the file from last Monday is not seven days old,
because it was probably last modified shortly before 23:59 last Monday, so it is actually not even six days old.
So in this case, set the overwrite-if-older() parameter to a-bit-less-than-six-days, for example, to 518000
seconds.
owner()
Type: string
Default: Use the global settings
Description: Set the owner of the created file to the one specified. To preserve the original properties of an
existing file, use the option without specifying an attribute: owner().
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: If set, syslog-ng OSE will pad output messages to the specified size (in bytes). Some operating
systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block boundary. This option can be used to specify the block
size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes).
Warning
Hazard of data loss! If the size of the incoming message is larger than the previously set pad-size() value, syslog-ng will
truncate the message to the specified size. Therefore, all message content above that size will be lost.
perm()
Type: number
Default: Use the global settings
www.balabit.com
126
file() destination options
Description: The permission mask of the file if it is created by syslog-ng. For octal numbers prefix the number
with 0, for example use 0755 for rwxr-xr-x.
To preserve the original properties of an existing file, use the option without specifying an attribute: perm().
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
www.balabit.com
127
Sending metrics to Graphite
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.3. Sending metrics to Graphite
The graphite() destination can send metrics to a Graphite server to store numeric time-series data. There
are many ways to feed the Graphite template function with name value pairs. The syslog-ng OSE CSV and
PatternDB parsers (for details, see Section 13.5.1, Using pattern parsers (p. 286)) can parse log messages and
generate name value pairs based on message content. The CSV parser (for details, see Section 12.2, Parsing
messages (p. 268)) can be used for logs which have a constant field based structure, like the Apache web server
access logs. The patterndb parser can parse information and can extract important fields from free form log
messages, as long as patterns describing the log messages are available. Another way is to send JSON-based
log messages (for details, see Section 12.3, The JSON parser (p. 272)) to syslog-ng OSE, like running a simple
shell script collecting metrics and running it from cron regularly.
Declaration:
graphite(payload());
Example 7.5. Using the graphite() driver
To use the graphite() destination, the only mandatory parameter is payload, which specifies the value pairs to send to
graphite. In the following example any value pairs starting with "monitor." are forwarded to graphite.
destination d_graphite { graphite(payload("--key monitor.*")); };
Note
The graphite() destination is only a wrapper around the tcp() destination and the graphite-output template
function. If you want to fine-tune the TCP parameters, use the tcp() destination instead, as described in Section
graphite-output (p. 250).
7.3.1. graphite() destination options
The graphite() destination has the following options:
host()
Type:
hostname or IP address
Default: localhost
Description: The hostname or IP address of the Graphite server.
port()
Type:
number
Default: 2003
Description: The port number of the Graphite server.
www.balabit.com
128
Storing messages in a MongoDB database
payload()
Type: parameter list of the payload() option
Default: empty string
Description: The payload() option allows you to select which value pairs to forward to graphite.
The syntax of payload is different from the syntax of value-pairs(): use the command-line syntax used
in the format-json template function. For details on using the payload() option, see Section graphite-output (p. 250).
Note
If left empty, there is no data to be forwarded to Graphite.
7.4. Storing messages in a MongoDB database
The mongodb() driver sends messages to a MongoDB database. MongoDB is a schema-free, document-oriented
database. For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.4.2, mongodb() destination options (p. 131).
Declaration:
mongodb(parameters);
The mongodb() driver does not support creating indexes, as that can be a very complex operation in MongoDB.
If needed, the administrator of the MongoDB database must ensure that indexes are created on the collections.
The mongodb() driver does not add the _id field to the message: the MongoDB server will do that automatically,
if none is present. If you want to override this field from syslog-ng OSE, use the key() parameter of the
value-pairs() option.
The syslog-ng OSE mongodb() driver is compatible with MongoDB server version 1.4 and newer.
Note
By default, syslog-ng OSE handles every message field as a string. For details on how to send selected fields as other
types of data (for example, handle the PID as a number), see Section 2.10.1, Specifying data types in value-pairs (p. 17).
Example 7.6. Using the mongodb() driver
The following example creates a mongodb() destination using only default values.
destination d_mongodb {
mongodb();
};
The following example displays the default values, and is equivalent with the previous example.
destination d_mongodb {
mongodb(
servers("localhost:27017")
database("syslog")
collection("messages")
value-pairs(
scope("selected-macros" "nv-pairs" "sdata")
)
www.balabit.com
129
Storing messages in a MongoDB database
);
};
7.4.1. Procedure – How syslog-ng OSE connects the MongoDB server
When syslog-ng OSE connects the MongoDB server during startup, it completes the following steps.
Step 1. The syslog-ng OSE application connects the first address listed in the servers() option.
Step 2.
■ If the server is accessible and it is a master MongoDB server, syslog-ng OSE authenticates
on the server (if needed), then starts sending the log messages to the server.
■ If the server is not accessible, or it is not a master server in a MongoDB replicaset and it
does not send the address of the master server, syslog-ng OSE connects the next address
listed in the servers() option.
■ If the server is not a master server in a MongoDB replicaset, but it sends the address of the
master server, syslog-ng OSE connects the received address.
Step 3. When syslog-ng OSE connects the master MongoDB server, it retrieves the list of replicas (from the
replSet option of the server), and appends this list to the servers() option.
Warning
■ This means that syslog-ng OSE can send log messages to addresses that are not listed in its
configuration.
■ Addresses retrieved from the MongoDB servers are not stored, and can be lost when syslog-ng
OSE is restarted. The retrieved addresses are not lost if the server() option of the destination
was not changed in the configuration file since the last restart.
■ The failover mechanism used in the mongodb() driver is different from the client-side failover
used in other drivers.
Step 4. The syslog-ng OSE application attempts to connect another server if the servers() list contains at
least two addresses, and one of the following events happens:
■ The safe-mode() option is set to no, and the MongoDB server becomes unreachable.
■ The safe-mode() option is set to yes, and syslog-ng OSE cannot insert a log message
into the database because of an error.
In such case, syslog-ng OSE starts to connect the addresses in from the servers() list (starting from
the first address) to find the new master server, authenticates on the new server (if needed), then
continues to send the log messages to the new master server.
During this failover step, one message can be lost if the safe-mode() option is disabled.
Step 5. If the original master becomes accessible again, syslog-ng OSE will automatically connect to the
original master.
www.balabit.com
130
mongodb() destination options
7.4.2. mongodb() destination options
The mongodb() driver sends messages to a MongoDB database. MongoDB is a schema-free, document-oriented
database.
The mongodb() destination has the following options:
collection()
Type: string
Default: messages
Description: The name of the MongoDB collection where the log messages are stored (collections are similar
to SQL tables). Note that the name of the collection must not start with a dollar sign ($), and that it may contain
dot (.) characters.
Warning
Hazard of data loss! The syslog-ng OSE application does not verify that the specified collection name does not contain
invalid characters. If you specify a collection with an invalid name, the log messages sent to the MongoDB database will
be irrevocably lost without any warning.
database()
Type: string
Default: syslog
Description: The name of the MongoDB database where the log messages are stored. Note that the name of
the database must not start with a dollar sign ($) and it cannot contain dot (.) characters.
Warning
Hazard of data loss! The syslog-ng OSE application does not verify that the specified database name does not contain
invalid characters. If you specify a database with an invalid name, the log messages sent to the MongoDB database will
be irrevocably lost without any warning.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
www.balabit.com
131
mongodb() destination options
local-time-zone()
Type:
name of the timezone or the timezone offset
Default:
The local timezone.
Description: Sets the timezone used when expanding filename and tablename templates. The timezone can be
specified as using the name of the (for example time-zone("Europe/Budapest")), or as the timezone offset
(for example +01:00). The valid timezone names are listed under the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
on-error()
Accepted values: drop-message|drop-property|fallback-to-string|silently-drop-message|silently-drop-property|silently-fallback-to-string
Default:
Use the global setting (which defaults to drop-message)
Description: Controls what happens when type-casting fails and syslog-ng OSE cannot convert some data to
the specified type. By default, syslog-ng OSE drops the entire message and logs the error. Currently the
value-pairs() option uses the settings of on-error().
■ drop-message: Drop the entire message and log an error message to the internal() source. This
is the default behavior of syslog-ng OSE.
■ drop-property: Omit the affected property (macro, template, or message-field) from the log
message and log an error message to the internal() source.
■ fallback-to-string: Convert the property to string and log an error message to the internal()
source.
■ silently-drop-message: Drop the entire message silently, without logging the error.
■ silently-drop-property: Omit the affected property (macro, template, or message-field) silently,
without logging the error.
■ silently-fallback-to-string: Convert the property to string silently, without logging the
error.
password()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: Password of the database user.
www.balabit.com
132
mongodb() destination options
path()
Type:
string
Default: empty
Description: If the path() option is set, syslog-ng OSE will connect to the database using the specified UNIX
domain socket. Note that you cannot set the path() and the servers() options at the same time.
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3
Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng
OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the
message.
For MongoDB operations, syslog-ng OSE uses a one-minute timeout: if an operation times out, syslog-ng OSE
assumes the operation has failed.
safe-mode()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: If safe-mode() is enabled, syslog-ng OSE performs an extra check after each insert to verify
that the insert succeeded. The insert is successful only if this second check is successful. Note that enabling
this option reduces the performance of the driver.
servers()
Type: list of hostname:port pairs
Default: 127.0.0.1:27017
Description: Specifies the hostname or IP address and the port number of the database server. When specifying
an IP address, IPv4 (for example, 192.168.0.1) or IPv6 (for example, [::1]) can be used as well.
To send the messages to a MongoDB replicaset, specify the addresses of the database servers as a
comma-separated list, for example: servers(192.168.1.1:27017,192.168.3.3:27017)
For details on how syslog-ng OSE connects the MongoDB server, see Procedure 7.4.1, How syslog-ng OSE
connects the MongoDB server (p. 130).
To connect to the server using a UNIX domain socket, use path option. Note that you cannot set the path()
and the servers() options at the same time.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
133
Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network() driver)
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
username()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: Name of the database user. Note that the mongodb() driver currently does not support
TLS-encrypted authentication.
value-pairs()
Type: parameter list of the value-pairs() option
Default: scope("selected-macros" "nv-pairs")
Description: The value-pairs() option creates structured name-value pairs from the data and metadata of
the log message. For details on using value-pairs(), see Section 2.10, Structuring macros, metadata, and
other value-pairs (p. 17).
Note
Empty keys are not logged.
7.5. Sending messages to a remote log server using the RFC3164 protocol (network()
driver)
The network() destination driver can send syslog messages conforming to RFC3164 from the network using
the TCP, TLS, and UDP networking protocols.
Example 7.7. Using the network() driver
TCP source listening on the localhost on port 2222 without using the network() driver.
destination d_tcp6 {
tcp6(
ip("::1")
port(2222)
);
};
TCP source listening on the localhost on port 2222 using the network() driver.
destination d_network6 {
network(
ip("::1")
port(2222)
transport(tcp)
ip-protocol(6)
);
};
www.balabit.com
134
network() destination options
Note
For details on the tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), udp6() drivers, see Section 7.15, Sending messages to a remote log server
using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp() drivers) (p. 184).
7.5.1. network() destination options
The network() driver sends messages to a remote host (for example a syslog-ng server or relay) on the local
intranet or internet using the RFC3164 syslog protocol (for details about the protocol, see Section 2.8.1,
BSD-syslog or legacy-syslog messages (p. 11)). The network() driver supports sending messages using the
UDP, TCP, or the encrypted TLS networking protocols.
These destinations have the following options:
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
www.balabit.com
135
network() destination options
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
ip-protocol()
Type: number
Default: 4
Description: Determines the internet protocol version of the driver. The possible values are 4 and 6,
corresponding to IPv4 and IPv6. The default value is 4.
ip-tos()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Type-of-Service value of outgoing packets.
ip-ttl()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Time-To-Live value of outgoing packets.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether connections to destinations should be closed when syslog-ng is reloaded. Note
that this applies to the client (destination) side of the syslog-ng connections, server-side (source) connections
are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the source.
www.balabit.com
136
network() destination options
localip()
Type:
string
Default:
0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to before connecting to target.
localport()
Type:
number
Default:
0
Description: The port number to bind to. Messages are sent from this port.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
mark-freq()
Accepted values: number
Default:
1200
Description: An alias for the obsolete mark() option, retained for compatibility with syslog-ng version 1.6.x.
The number of seconds between two MARK messages. MARK messages are generated when there was no message
traffic to inform the receiver that the connection is still alive. If set to zero (0), no MARK messages are sent. The
mark-freq() can be set for global option and/or every MARK capable destination driver if mark-mode() is
periodical or dst-idle or host-idle. If mark-freq() is not defined in the destination, then the mark-freq()
will be inherited from the global options. If the destination uses internal mark-mode(), then the global
mark-freq() will be valid (does not matter what mark-freq() set in the destination side).
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
www.balabit.com
137
network() destination options
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
port() or destport()
Type: number
Default: 601
Description: The port number to connect to. Note that the default port numbers used by syslog-ng do not
comply with the latest RFC which was published after the release of syslog-ng 3.0.2, therefore the default port
numbers will change in the future releases.
www.balabit.com
138
network() destination options
so-broadcast()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This option controls the SO_BROADCAST socket option required to make syslog-ng send messages
to a broadcast address. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
so-sndbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description:Specifies the size of the socket send buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
spoof-source()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables source address spoofing. This means that the host running syslog-ng generates UDP
packets with the source IP address matching the original sender of the message. It is useful when you want to
perform some kind of preprocessing via syslog-ng then forward messages to your central log management
solution with the source address of the original sender. This option only works for UDP destinations though
the original message can be received by TCP as well. This option is only available if syslog-ng was compiled
using the --enable-spoof-source configuration option.
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
www.balabit.com
139
network() destination options
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
tcp-keepalive-intvl()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the interval (number of seconds) between subsequential keepalive probes, regardless
of the traffic exchanged in the connection. This option is equivalent to
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. The default value is 0, which means using the kernel
default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tcp-keepalive-probes()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the number of unacknowledged probes to send before considering the connection dead.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tcp-keepalive-time()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
140
network() destination options
Description: Specifies the interval (in seconds) between the last data packet sent and the first keepalive probe.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
Note
If a message uses the IETF-syslog format (RFC5424), only the text of the message can be customized (that is, the
$MESSAGE part of the log), the structure of the header is fixed.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
www.balabit.com
141
Sending messages to named pipes
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
tls()
Type:
tls options
Default: n/a
Description: This option sets various options related to TLS encryption, for example, key/certificate files and
trusted CA locations. TLS can be used only with tcp-based transport protocols. For details, see Section 10.4,
TLS options (p. 235).
transport()
Type: udp, tcp, or tls
Default: tcp
Description: Specifies the protocol used to send messages to the destination server.
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.6. Sending messages to named pipes
The pipe() driver sends messages to a named pipe like /dev/xconsole.
The pipe driver has a single required parameter, specifying the filename of the pipe to open. The filename can
include macros. For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.6.1, pipe() destination options (p. 143).
Declaration:
pipe(filename);
Warning
Starting with syslog-ng OSE 3.0.2, pipes are created automatically. In earlier versions, you had to create the pipe using
the mkfifo(1) command.
www.balabit.com
142
pipe() destination options
Example 7.8. Using the pipe() driver
destination d_pipe { pipe("/dev/xconsole"); };
7.6.1. pipe() destination options
This driver sends messages to a named pipe like /dev/xconsole.
The pipe() destination has the following options:
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
www.balabit.com
143
pipe() destination options
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
group()
Type: string
Default: Use the global settings
Description: Set the group of the created file to the one specified. To preserve the original properties of an
existing file, use the option without specifying an attribute: group().
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
www.balabit.com
144
pipe() destination options
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
owner()
Type: string
Default: Use the global settings
Description: Set the owner of the created file to the one specified. To preserve the original properties of an
existing file, use the option without specifying an attribute: owner().
www.balabit.com
145
pipe() destination options
pad-size()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: If set, syslog-ng OSE will pad output messages to the specified size (in bytes). Some operating
systems (such as HP-UX) pad all messages to block boundary. This option can be used to specify the block
size. (HP-UX uses 2048 bytes).
Warning
Hazard of data loss! If the size of the incoming message is larger than the previously set pad-size() value, syslog-ng will
truncate the message to the specified size. Therefore, all message content above that size will be lost.
perm()
Type: number
Default: 0600
Description:The permission mask of the pipe. For octal numbers prefix the number with '0', for example: use
0755 for rwxr-xr-x.
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
www.balabit.com
146
Sending messages to external applications
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.7. Sending messages to external applications
The program() driver starts an external application or script and sends the log messages to its standard input
(stdin).
The program() driver has a single required parameter, specifying a program name to start. The program is
executed with the help of the current shell, so the command may include both file patterns and I/O redirections.
For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.7.1, program() destination options (p. 148).
Declaration:
program(command_to_run);
Note
The syslog-ng OSE application executes program destinations through the standard system shell. If the system shell is
not bash and you experience problems with the program destination, try changing the /bin/sh link to /bin/bash.
www.balabit.com
147
program() destination options
Note
■ The syslog-ng OSE application automatically restarts the external program if it exits for reliability reasons.
However it is not recommended to launch programs for single messages, because if the message rate is
high, launching several instances of an application might overload the system, resulting in Denial of Service.
■ Certain external applications buffer the log messages, which might cause unexpected latency and other
problems. For example, if you send the log messages to an external Perl script, Perl uses a line buffer for
terminal output and block buffer otherwise. You might want to disable buffering in the external application.
Warning
The syslog-ng OSE application must be able to start and restart the external program, and have the necessary permissions
to do so. For example, if your host is running AppArmor, you might have to modify your AppArmor configuration to
enable syslog-ng OSE to execute external applications.
Note that the message format does not include the priority and facility values by default. To add these values,
specify a template for the program destination, as shown in the following example.
Example 7.9. Using the program() destination driver
destination d_prog { program("/bin/script" template("<${PRI}>${DATE} ${HOST} ${MSG}\n")
); };
7.7.1. program() destination options
This driver starts an external application or script and sends the log messages to its standard input (stdin).
The program() destination has the following options:
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
www.balabit.com
148
program() destination options
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
www.balabit.com
149
program() destination options
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
www.balabit.com
150
program() destination options
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
www.balabit.com
151
pseudofile()
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.8. pseudofile()
The pseudofile() destination driver is a very simple driver, aimed at delivering messages to special files
such as files in the /proc, /dev or sys directories. It opens and closes the file after each write operation,
instead of keeping it open. It does not append further data. It does not support templates in the filename, and
does not have a queue, processing is performed immediately as read by the source. Therefore, no loss is possible,
but it takes CPU time from the source, so it is not adequate in high traffic situations.
Declaration:
pseudofile(filename options());
7.8.1. pseudofile() destination options
The pseudofile() destination has the following options:
file()
Type:
filename with path
Default:
Description: The file to write messages to, including the path.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
7.9. Storing name-value pairs in Redis
The redis() driver sends messages as name-value pairs to a Redis key-value store.
For the list of available parameters, see Section 7.9.1, redis() destination options (p. 153).
Declaration:
redis(
host("<redis-server-address>")
port("<redis-server-port>")
command("<redis-command>", "<first-command-parameter>",
"<second-command-parameter>", "<third-command-parameter>")
)
www.balabit.com
152
redis() destination options
Example 7.10. Using the redis() driver
The following destination counts the number of log messages received per host.
destination d_redis {
redis(
host("localhost")
port(6379)
command("HINCRBY", "hosts", "$HOST", "1")
);
};
The following example creates a statistic from Apache webserver logs about the browsers that the visitors use (per minute)
@version: 3.6
source s_apache {
file("/var/log/apache2/access.log");
};
parser p_apache {
csv-parser(columns("APACHE.CLIENT_IP", "APACHE.IDENT_NAME", "APACHE.USER_NAME",
"APACHE.TIMESTAMP", "APACHE.REQUEST_URL", "APACHE.REQUEST_STATUS",
"APACHE.CONTENT_LENGTH", "APACHE.REFERER", "APACHE.USER_AGENT",
"APACHE.PROCESS_TIME", "APACHE.SERVER_NAME")
flags(escape-double-char,strip-whitespace)
delimiters(" ")
quote-pairs('""[]')
);
};
destination d_redis {
redis( command("HINCRBY" "${MONTH_ABBREV} ${DAY} ${HOUR}:${MIN}"
"1"));
};
"${APACHE.USER_AGENT}"
log {
source(s_apache);
parser(p_apache);
destination(d_redis);
};
7.9.1. redis() destination options
The redis() driver sends messages as name-value pairs to a Redis key-value store.
The redis() destination has the following options:
command()
Type: comma-separated list of strings ("<redis-command>", "<first-command-parameter>",
"<second-command-parameter>", "<third-command-parameter>")
Default: empty string
Description: The Redis command to execute, for example, LPUSH, INCR, or HINCRBY. Using the HINCRBY
command with an increment value of 1 allows you to create various statistics. For example, the
command("HINCRBY" "${HOST}/programs" "${PROGRAM}" "1") command counts the number of log
messages on each host for each program.
Note the following points when using the redis() destination:
■ You can use macros and templates in the parameters of the Redis command.
www.balabit.com
153
Monitoring your data with Riemann
■ Currently you can use only one command in a redis() destination.
■ The syslog-ng OSE application ignores the return value of the command. If the Redis server returns
an error, syslog-ng OSE closes the connection.
host()
Type:
hostname or IP address
Default: 127.0.0.1
Description: The hostname or IP address of the Redis server.
port()
Type:
number
Default: 6379
Description: The port number of the Redis server.
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3
Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng
OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the
message.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
7.10. Monitoring your data with Riemann
The riemann() driver sends your data (for example, metrics or events) to a Riemann monitoring system.
For the list of available parameters, see Section 7.10.1, riemann() destination options (p. 155).
Declaration:
riemann(
server("<riemann-server-address>")
port("<riemann-server-port>")
metric("<the-metric-or-data-to-send-to-riemann>")
)
www.balabit.com
154
riemann() destination options
Example 7.11. Using the riemann() driver
The following destination sends the value of the SEQNUM macro (the number of messages sent to this destination) as a
metric to the Riemann server.
@version: 3.6
source s_network {
tcp(port(12345));
};
destination d_riemann {
riemann(
server("localhost")
port(5555)
ttl("300.5")
metric(int("$SEQNUM"))
description("syslog-ng riemann test")
state("ok")
attributes(x-ultimate-answer("$(+ $PID 42)")
key("MESSAGE", rekey(add-prefix("x-")) )
)
);
};
log {
source(s_network);
destination(d_riemann);
flags(flow-control);
};
For a detailed use-case on using syslog-ng OSE with the Riemann monitoring system, see the article of Fabien
Wernli at http://devops.com/features/guide-modern-monitoring-alerting/.
7.10.1. riemann() destination options
The riemann() driver sends metrics or events to a Riemann monitoring system.
The riemann() destination has the following options:
attributes()
Type: parameter list of the value-pairs() option
Default:
Description: The attributes() option adds extra metadata to the Riemann event, that can be displayed on
the Riemann dashboard. To specify the metadata to add, use the syntax of the value-pairs() option. For
details on using value-pairs(), see Section 2.10, Structuring macros, metadata, and other value-pairs (p. 17).
description()
Type: template, macro, or string
Default:
Description: The value to add as the description field of the Riemann event.
www.balabit.com
155
riemann() destination options
host()
Type:
template, macro, or string
Default: ${HOST}
Description: The value to add as the host field of the Riemann event.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
metric()
Type: template, macro, or string
Default:
Description: The numeric value to add as the metric field of the Riemann event. If possible, include type-hinting
as well, otherwise the Riemann server will interpret the value as a floating-point number. The following example
specifies the SEQNUM macro as an integer.
metric(int("$SEQNUM"))
port()
Type:
number
Default: 5555
Description: The port number of the Riemann server.
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3
Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng
OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the
message.
server()
Type: hostname or IP address
Default: 127.0.0.1
Description: The hostname or IP address of the Riemann server.
www.balabit.com
156
riemann() destination options
service()
Type: template, macro, or string
Default: ${PROGRAM}
Description: The value to add as the service field of the Riemann event.
state()
Type: template, macro, or string
Default:
Description: The value to add as the state field of the Riemann event.
tags()
Type:
string list
Default: the tags already assigned to the message
Description: The list of tags to add as the tags field of the Riemann event. If not specified syslog-ng OSE
automatically adds the tags already assigned to the message. If you set the tags() option, only the tags you
specify will be added to the event.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
ttl()
Type:
template, macro, or number
Default:
Description: The value (in seconds) to add as the ttl (time-to-live) field of the Riemann event.
type()
Type:
tcp | udp
Default: tcp
Description: The type of the network connection to the Riemann server: UDP or TCP.
www.balabit.com
157
Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs
7.11. Generating SMTP messages (e-mail) from logs
The smtp() driver sends e-mail messages triggered by log messages. The smtp() driver uses SMTP, without
needing external applications. You can customize the main fields of the e-mail, add extra headers, send the
e-mail to multiple recipients, and so on.
The subject(), body(), and header() fields may include macros which get expanded in the e-mail. For
more information on available macros see Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241).
The smtp() driver has the following required parameters: host(), port(), from(), to(), subject(), and
body(). For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.11.1, smtp() destination options (p. 159).
Note
The smtp() destination driver is available only in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
Declaration:
smtp(host() port() from() to() subject() body() options());
Example 7.12. Using the smtp() driver
The following example defines an smtp() destination using only the required parameters.
destination d_smtp {
smtp(
host("localhost")
port(25)
from("syslog-ng alert service" "noreply@example.com")
to("Admin #1" "admin1@example.com")
subject("[ALERT] Important log message of $LEVEL condition received from
$HOST/$PROGRAM!")
body("Hi!\nThe syslog-ng alerting service detected the following important log
message:\n $MSG\n-- \nsyslog-ng\n")
);
};
The following example sets some optional parameters as well.
destination d_smtp {
smtp(
host("localhost")
port(25)
from("syslog-ng alert service" "noreply@example.com")
to("Admin #1" "admin1@example.com")
to("Admin #2" "admin2@example.com")
cc("Admin BOSS" "admin.boss@example.com")
bcc("Blind CC" "blindcc@example.com")
subject("[ALERT] Important log message of $LEVEL condition received from
$HOST/$PROGRAM!")
body("Hi!\nThe syslog-ng alerting service detected the following important log
message:\n $MSG\n-- \nsyslog-ng\n")
header("X-Program", "$PROGRAM")
);
};
www.balabit.com
158
smtp() destination options
Example 7.13. Simple e-mail alerting with the smtp() driver
The following example sends an e-mail alert if the eth0 network interface of the host is down.
filter f_linkdown {
match("eth0: link down" value("MESSAGE"));
};
destination d_alert {
smtp(
host("localhost") port(25)
from("syslog-ng alert service" "syslog@localhost")
reply-to("Admins" "root@localhost")
to("Ennekem" "me@localhost")
subject("[SYSLOG ALERT]: eth0 link down")
body("Syslog received an alert:\n$MSG")
);
};
log {
source(s_local);
filter(f_linkdown);
destination(d_alert);
};
7.11.1. smtp() destination options
The smtp() sends e-mail messages using SMTP, without needing external applications. The smtp() destination
has the following options:
body()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: The BODY field of the e-mail. You can also use macros in the string. Use \n to start a new line.
For example:
body("syslog-ng OSE received the following alert from $HOST:\n$MSG")
bcc()
Type:
string
Default: n/a
Description: The BCC recipient of the e-mail (contents of the BCC field). You can specify the e-mail address,
or the name and the e-mail address. Set the bcc() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients.
For example:
bcc("admin@example.com")
or
bcc("Admin" "admin@example.com")
or
bcc("Admin" "admin@example.com")
bcc("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")
www.balabit.com
159
smtp() destination options
cc()
Type:
string
Default: n/a
Description: The CC recipient of the e-mail (contents of the CC field). You can specify the e-mail address, or
the name and the e-mail address. Set the cc() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients.
For example:
cc("admin@example.com")
or
cc("Admin" "admin@example.com")
or
cc("Admin" "admin@example.com")
cc("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")
from()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: The sender of the e-mail (contents of the FROM field). You can specify the e-mail address, or
the name and the e-mail address. For example:
from("admin@example.com")
or
from("Admin" "admin@example.com")
If you specify the from() option multiple times, the last value will be used. Instead of the from() option, you
can also use sender(), which is just an alias of the from() option.
header()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: Adds an extra header to the e-mail with the specified name and content. The first parameter sets
the name of the header, the second one its value. The value of the header can contain macros. Set the header()
option multiple times to add multiple headers. For example:
header("X-Program", "$PROGRAM")
When using the header option, note the following points:
■ Do not use the header() option to set the values of headers that have dedicated options. Use it only
to add extra headers.
www.balabit.com
160
smtp() destination options
■ If you set the same custom header multiple times, only the first will be added to the e-mail, other
occurrences will be ignored.
■ It is not possible to set the DATE header.
host()
Type:
hostname or IP address
Default: n/a
Description: Hostname or IP address of the SMTP server.
Note
If you specify host="localhost", syslog-ng OSE will use a socket to connect to the local SMTP server. Use
host="127.0.0.1" to force TCP communication between syslog-ng OSE and the local SMTP server.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
port()
Type:
number
Default: 25
Description: The port number of the SMTP server.
reply-to()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: Replies of the recipient will be sent to this address (contents of the REPLY-TO field). You can
specify the e-mail address, or the name and the e-mail address. Set the reply-to() option multiple times to
send the e-mail to multiple recipients. For example:
reply-to("admin@example.com")
or
reply-to("Admin" "admin@example.com")
or
reply-to("Admin" "admin@example.com")
reply-to("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")
www.balabit.com
161
smtp() destination options
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3
Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng
OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the
message.
subject()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: The SUBJECT field of the e-mail. You can also use macros. For example:
subject("[SYSLOG ALERT]: Critical error message received from $HOST")
If you specify the subject() option multiple times, the last value will be used.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
to()
Type:
string
Default: localhost
Description: The recipient of the e-mail (contents of the TO field). You can specify the e-mail address, or the
name and the e-mail address. Set the to() option multiple times to send the e-mail to multiple recipients. For
example:
to("admin@example.com")
or
to("Admin" "admin@example.com")
or
to("Admin" "admin@example.com")
to("Admin2" "admin2@example.com")
www.balabit.com
162
Storing messages in an SQL database
7.12. Storing messages in an SQL database
The sql() driver sends messages into an SQL database. Currently the Microsoft SQL (MSSQL), MySQL,
Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQLite databases are supported.
Declaration:
sql(database_type host_parameters database_parameters [options]);
The sql() driver has the following required parameters: type(), database(), table, columns(), and
values.
Warning
The syslog-ng application requires read and write access to the SQL table, otherwise it cannot verify that the destination
table exists.
Currently the syslog-ng application has default schemas for the different databases and uses these defaults if the database
schema (for example columns and column types) is not defined in the configuration file. However, these schemas will
be deprecated and specifying the exact database schema will be required in later versions of syslog-ng.
The table and value parameters can include macros to create tables and columns dynamically (for details,
see Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241)).
Warning
When using macros in table names, note that some databases limit the maximum allowed length of table names. Consult
the documentation of the database for details.
Inserting the records into the database is performed by a separate thread. The syslog-ng application automatically
performs the escaping required to insert the messages into the database.
Example 7.14. Using the sql() driver
The following example sends the log messages into a PostgreSQL database running on the logserver host. The messages
are inserted into the logs database, the name of the table includes the exact date and the name of the host sending the
messages. The syslog-ng application automatically creates the required tables and columns, if the user account used to
connect to the database has the required privileges.
destination d_sql {
sql(type(pgsql)
host("logserver") username("syslog-ng") password("password")
database("logs")
table("messages_${HOST}_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
columns("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message")
values("{$R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message"));
};
The following example specifies the type of the database columns as well:
destination d_sql {
sql(type(pgsql)
host("logserver") username("syslog-ng") password("password")
database("logs")
table("messages_${HOST}_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
columns("datetime varchar(16)", "host varchar(32)", "program varchar(20)", "pid
varchar(8)", "message varchar(200)")
values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
www.balabit.com
163
Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database
indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message"));
};
7.12.1. Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database
The Oracle sql destination has some special aspects that are important to note.
■ The hostname of the database server is set in the tnsnames.ora file, not in the host parameter of
the sql() destination.
If the tnsnames.ora file is not located in the /etc directory (or in the /var/opt/oracle directory on
Solaris), set the following Oracle-related environment variables, so syslog-ng OSE will find the file:
ORACLE_BASE, ORACLE_HOME, and ORACLE_SID. For details, see the documentation of the Oracle
Instant Client.
■ You cannot use the same database() settings in more than one destination, because the database()
option of the SQL driver is just a reference to the connection string of the tnsnames.ora file. To
overcome this problem, you can duplicate the connections in the tnsnames.ora file under a different
name, and use a different table in each Oracle destination in syslog-ng OSE.
■ As certain database versions limit the maximum length of table names, macros in the table names
should be used with care.
■ In the current version of syslog-ng OSE, the types of database columns must be explicitly set for the
Oracle destination. The column used to store the text part of the syslog messages should be able to
store messages as long as the longest message permitted by syslog-ng, therefore it is usually
recommended to use the varchar2 or clob column type. (The maximum length of the messages
can be set using the log-msg-size() option.) For details, see the following example.
■ The Oracle Instant Client used by syslog-ng OSE supports only the following character sets:
• Single-byte character sets: US7ASCII, WE8DEC, WE8MSWIN1252, and WE8ISO8859P1
• Unicode character sets: UTF8, AL16UTF16, and AL32UTF8
Example 7.15. Using the sql() driver with an Oracle database
The following example sends the log messages into an Oracle database running on the logserver host, which must be
set in the /etc/tnsnames.ora file. The messages are inserted into the LOGS database, the name of the table includes
the exact date when the messages were sent. The syslog-ng application automatically creates the required tables and
columns, if the user account used to connect to the database has the required privileges.
destination d_sql {
sql(type(oracle)
username("syslog-ng") password("password")
database("LOGS")
table("msgs_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
columns("datetime varchar(16)", "host varchar(32)", "program varchar(32)", "pid
varchar(8)", "message varchar2")
values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message"));
};
The Oracle Instant Client retrieves the address of the database server from the /etc/tnsnames.ora file. Edit or create
this file as needed for your configuration. A sample is provided below.
www.balabit.com
164
Using the sql() driver with a Microsoft SQL database
LOGS =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)
(HOST = logserver)
(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVICE_NAME = EXAMPLE.SERVICE)
)
)
7.12.2. Using the sql() driver with a Microsoft SQL database
The mssql database driver can access Microsoft SQL (MSSQL) destinations. This driver has some special
aspects that are important to note.
■ The date format used by the MSSQL database must be explicitly set in the /etc/locales.conf
file of the syslog-ng server. For details, see the following example.
■ As certain database versions limit the maximum length of table names, macros in the table names
should be used with care.
■ In the current version of syslog-ng OSE, the types of database columns must be explicitly set for the
MSSQL destination.
Warning
The following column types cannot be used in MSSQL destinations: nchar, nvarchar, ntext, and xml.
■ The column used to store the text part of the syslog messages should be able to store messages as
long as the longest message permitted by syslog-ng. The varchar column type can store maximum
4096 bytes-long messages. The maximum length of the messages can be set using the
log-msg-size() option. For details, see the following example.
■ Remote access for SQL users must be explicitly enabled on the Microsoft Windows host running
the Microsoft SQL Server. For details, see Procedure 3.3, Configuring Microsoft SQL Server to
accept logs from syslog-ng (p. 27).
Example 7.16. Using the sql() driver with an MSSQL database
The following example sends the log messages into an MSSQL database running on the logserver host. The messages
are inserted into the syslogng database, the name of the table includes the exact date when the messages were sent. The
syslog-ng application automatically creates the required tables and columns, if the user account used to connect to the
database has the required privileges.
destination d_mssql {
sql(type(mssql) host("logserver") port("1433")
username("syslogng") password("syslogng") database("syslogng")
table("msgs_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")columns("datetime varchar(16)", "host
varchar(32)",
"program varchar(32)", "pid varchar(8)", "message varchar(4096)")
values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid"));
};
www.balabit.com
165
The way syslog-ng interacts with the database
The date format used by the MSSQL database must be explicitly set in the /etc/locales.conf file of the syslog-ng
server. Edit or create this file as needed for your configuration. A sample is provided below.
[default]
date = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"
7.12.3. The way syslog-ng interacts with the database
Used SQL operations by syslog-ng.
Create table:
■ If the given table does not exist, syslog-ng tries to create it with the given column types.
■ The syslog-ng OSE application automatically creates the required tables and columns, if the user
account used to connect to the database has the required privileges.
■ If syslog-ng cannot create or alter a table, it tries to do it again when reach the next time-reopen().
Alter table:
■ If the table structure is different from given structure in an existing table, syslog-ng tries to add
columns in this table but never will delete or modify an existing column.
■ If syslog-ng OSE cannot create or alter a table, it tries to do it again when reach the next time-reopen().
■ The syslog-ng OSE application requires read and write access to the SQL table, otherwise it cannot
verify that the destination table exists.
Insert table:
■ Insert new records in a table.
■ Inserting the records into the database is performed by a separate thread.
■ The syslog-ng OSE application automatically performs the escaping required to insert the messages
into the database.
■ If insert returns with error, syslog-ng tries to insert the message +two times by default, then drops
it. Retrying time is the value of time-reopen().
Encoding.
The syslog-ng OSE application uses UTF-8 by default when writes logs into database.
Start/stop and reload.
Start:
■ The syslog-ng OSE application will connect to database automatically after starting regardless existing
incoming messages.
Stop:
■ The syslog-ng OSE application will close the connection to database before shutting down.
Possibility of losing logs:
www.balabit.com
166
sql() destination options
■ The syslog-ng OSE application cannot lose logs during shutting down if disk buffer was given and
it is not full yet.
■ The syslog-ng OSE application cannot lose logs during shutting down if disk buffer was not given.
Reload:
■ The syslog-ng OSE application will close the connection to database if it received SIGHUP signal
(reload).
■ It will reconnect to the database when it tries to send a new message to this database again.
Macros:
The value of ${SEQNUM} macro will be overrided by sql driver regardless of local or relayed incoming
message.
It will be grown continously.
7.12.3.1. MySQL-specific interaction methods
To specify the socket to use, set and export the MYSQL_UNIX_PORT environment variable, for example
MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock; export MYSQL_UNIX_PORT.
7.12.3.2. MsSQL-specific interaction methods
In SQL Server 2005 this restriction is lifted - kind of. The total length of all key columns in an index cannot
exceed 900 bytes.
If you are using null() in your configuration, be sure that the columns allow NULL to insert. Give the column
as the following example: "datetime varchar(16) NULL".
The date format used by the MSSQL database must be explicitly set in the /etc/locales.conf file of the
syslog-ng server. [default] date = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S".
7.12.4. sql() destination options
This driver sends messages into an SQL database. The sql() destination has the following options:
columns()
Type: string list
Default: "date", "facility", "level", "host", "program", "pid", "message"
Description: Name of the columns storing the data in fieldname [dbtype] format. The [dbtype] parameter
is optional, and specifies the type of the field. By default, syslog-ng OSE creates text columns. Note that not
every database engine can index text fields.
Warning
The following column types cannot be used in MSSQL destinations: nchar, nvarchar, ntext, and xml.
www.balabit.com
167
sql() destination options
database()
Type: string
Default: logs
Description: Name of the database that stores the logs. Macros cannot be used in database name. Also, when
using an Oracle database, you cannot use the same database() settings in more than one destination.
dbd-option()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: Specify database options that are set whenever syslog-ng OSE connects to the database server.
Consult the documentation of your database server for details on the available options. Syntax:
dbd-option(OPTION_NAME VALUE)
OPTION_NAME is always a string, VALUE is a string or a number. For example:
dbd-option("null.sleep.connect" 1)
dbd-option("null.sleep.query" 5)
flags()
Type: list of flags
Default: empty string
Description: Flags related to the sql() destination.
■ dont-create-tables: Enable this flag to prevent syslog-ng OSE from creating non-existing database
tables automatically. The syslog-ng OSE application typically has to create tables if you use macros
in the table names. Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.2 and later.
■ explicit-commits: By default, syslog-ng OSE commits every log message to the target database
individually. When the explicit-commits option is enabled, messages are committed in batches.
This improves the performance, but results in some latency, as the messages are not immediately
sent to the database. The size and frequency of batched commits can be set using the flush-lines()
and flush-timeout() parameters. The explicit-commits option is available in syslog-ng OSE
version 3.2 and later.
Example 7.17. Setting flags for SQL destinations
The following example sets the dont-create-tables and explicit-commits flags for an sql() destination.
flags(dont-create-tables,explicit-commits)
www.balabit.com
168
sql() destination options
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
host()
Type:
hostname or IP address
Default: n/a
Description: Hostname of the database server. Note that Oracle destinations do not use this parameter, but
retrieve the hostname from the /etc/tnsnames.ora file.
www.balabit.com
169
sql() destination options
Note
If you specify host="localhost", syslog-ng will use a socket to connect to the local database server. Use
host="127.0.0.1" to force TCP communication between syslog-ng and the local database server.
To specify the socket to use, set and export the MYSQL_UNIX_PORT environment variable, for example
MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock; export MYSQL_UNIX_PORT.
indexes()
Type: string list
Default: "date", "facility", "host", "program"
Description: The list of columns that are indexed by the database to speed up searching. To disable indexing
for the destination, include the empty indexes() parameter in the destination, simply omitting the indexes
parameter will cause syslog-ng to request indexing on the default columns.
The syslog-ng OSE application will create the name of indexes automaticaly with the following method:
■ In case of MsSQL, PostgreSQL, MySQL or SQLite or (Oracle but tablename < 30 characters):
{table}_{column}_idx.
■ In case of Oracle and tablename > 30 characters: md5sum of {table}_{column}-1 and the first
character will be replaced by "i" character and the md5sum will be truncated to 30 characters.
local-time-zone()
Type:
name of the timezone or the timezone offset
Default:
The local timezone.
Description: Sets the timezone used when expanding filename and tablename templates. The timezone can be
specified as using the name of the (for example time-zone("Europe/Budapest")), or as the timezone offset
(for example +01:00). The valid timezone names are listed under the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
null()
Type:
string
Default:
Description: If the content of a column matches the string specified in the null() parameter, the contents of
the column will be replaced with an SQL NULL value. If unset (by default), the option does not match on any
string. For details, see the Example 7.18, Using SQL NULL values (p. 171).
www.balabit.com
170
sql() destination options
Example 7.18. Using SQL NULL values
The null() parameter of the SQL driver can be used to replace the contents of a column with a special SQL NULL
value. To replace every column that contains an empty string with NULL, use the null("") option, for example
destination d_sql {
sql(type(pgsql)
host("logserver") username("syslog-ng") password("password")
database("logs")
table("messages_${HOST}_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
columns("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message")
values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}")
indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message")
null(""));
};
To replace only a specific column (for example pid) if it is empty, assign a default value to the column, and use this
default value in the null() parameter:
destination d_sql {
sql(type(pgsql)
host("logserver") username("syslog-ng") password("password")
database("logs")
table("messages_${HOST}_${R_YEAR}${R_MONTH}${R_DAY}")
columns("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message")
values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID:-@@NULL@@}",
"${MSGONLY}")
indexes("datetime", "host", "program", "pid", "message")
null("@@NULL@@"));
};
Ensure that the default value you use does not appear in the actual log messages, because other occurrences of this string
will be replaced with NULL as well.
password()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: Password of the database user.
port()
Type:
number
Default: 1433 TCP for MSSQL, 3306 TCP for MySQL, 1521 for Oracle, and 5432 TCP for PostgreSQL
Description: The port number to connect to.
retries
Type: number
Default: 3
Description: The number of insertion attempts. If syslog-ng OSE could not insert a message into the database,
it will repeat the attempt until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the connection to the
database. For example, syslog-ng OSE will try to insert a message maximum three times by default (once for
first insertion and twice if the first insertion was failed).
www.balabit.com
171
sql() destination options
session-statements()
Type: comma-separated list of SQL statements
Default: empty string
Description: Specifies one or more SQL-like statement which is executed after syslog-ng OSE has successfully
connected to the database. For example:
session-statements("SET COLLATION_CONNECTION='utf8_general_ci'")
Warning
The syslog-ng OSE application does not validate or limit the contents of customized queries. Consequently, queries
performed with a user with write-access can potentially modify or even harm the database. Use customized queries with
care, and only for your own responsibility.
table()
Type: string
Default: messages
Description: Name of the database table to use (can include macros). When using macros, note that some
databases limit the length of table names.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
type()
Type:
mssql, mysql, oracle, pgsql, or sqlite3
Default: mysql
Description: Specifies the type of the database, that is, the DBI database driver to use. Use the mssql option
to send logs to an MSSQL database. For details, see the examples of the databases on the following sections.
username()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: Name of the database user.
www.balabit.com
172
Publishing messages using STOMP
values()
Type: string list
Default: "${R_YEAR}-${R_MONTH}-${R_DAY}, ${R_HOUR}:${R_MIN}:${R_SEC}", "${FACILITY}",
"${LEVEL}", "${HOST}", "${PROGRAM}", "${PID}", "${MSGONLY}"
Description: The parts of the message to store in the fields specified in the columns parameter.
It is possible to give a special value calling: default (without quotation marks).It means that the value will be
used that is the default of the column type of this value.
Example 7.19. Value: default
columns("date datetime", "host varchar(32)", "row_id serial")
values("${R_DATE}", "${HOST}", default)
7.13. Publishing messages using STOMP
The stomp() driver sends messages to servers (message brokers) using the Simple (or Streaming) Text Oriented
Message Protocol (STOMP), formerly known as TTMP. syslog-ng OSE supports version 1.0 of the STOMP
protocol. The syslog-ng OSE stomp() driver supports persistence.
The name-value pairs selected with the value-pairs() option will be sent as STOMP headers, while the
body of the STOMP message is empty by default (but you can add custom content using the body() option).
Publishing the name-value pairs as headers makes it possible to use the Headers exchange-type and subscribe
only to interesting log streams. This solution is more flexible than using the routing-key() option.
For the list of available parameters, see Section 7.13.1, stomp() destination options (p. 174).
Declaration:
stomp( host("<stomp-server-address>") )
Example 7.20. Using the stomp() driver
The following example shows the default values of the available options.
destination d_stomp {
stomp(
host("localhost")
port(61613)
destination("/topic/syslog")
routing-key("")
# optional, empty by default
body("")
# optional, empty by default
persistent(yes)
ack(no)
username("user")
# optional, empty by default
password("password") # optional, empty by default
value-pairs(scope(selected-macros, nv-pairs, sdata))
);
};
www.balabit.com
173
stomp() destination options
7.13.1. stomp() destination options
The stomp() driver publishes messages using the Simple (or Streaming) Text Oriented Message Protocol
(STOMP).
The stomp() destination has the following options:
ack()
Type:
string
Default: no
Description: Request the STOMP server to acknowledge the receipt of the messages. If you enable this option,
then after sending a message, syslog-ng OSE waits until the server confirms that it has received the message.
This delay can seriously limit the performance of syslog-ng OSE if the message rate is high, and the server
cannot acknowledge the messages fast enough.
body()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: The body of the STOMP message. You can also use macros and templates.
destination()
Type: string
Default: /topic/syslog
Description: The name of the destination (message queue) on the STOMP server. It can include macros and
templates.
host()
Type:
hostname or IP address
Default: 127.0.0.1
Description: The hostname or IP address of the STOMP server.
password()
Type: string
Default: n/a
Description: The password used to authenticate on the STOMP server.
www.balabit.com
174
stomp() destination options
persistent()
Type: yes|no
Default: yes
Description: If this option is enabled, the STOMP server or broker will store the messages on its hard disk.
That way, the messages will be retained if the STOMP server is restarted, if the message queue is set to be
durable on the STOMP server.
port()
Type:
number
Default: 61613
Description: The port number of the STOMP server.
retries()
Type: number (of attempts)
Default: 3
Description: The number of times syslog-ng OSE attempts to send a message to this destination. If syslog-ng
OSE could not send a message, it will try again until the number of attempts reaches retries, then drops the
message.
routing-key()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: Specifies a routing key for the exchange. The routing key selects certain messages published to
an exchange to be routed to the bound queue. In other words, the routing key acts like a filter. The routing key
can include macros and templates.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
username()
Type: string
Default: empty string
Description: The username used to authenticate on the STOMP server.
www.balabit.com
175
Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol
value-pairs()
Type: parameter list of the value-pairs() option
Default: scope("selected-macros" "nv-pairs")
Description: The value-pairs() option creates structured name-value pairs from the data and metadata of
the log message. For details on using value-pairs(), see Section 2.10, Structuring macros, metadata, and
other value-pairs (p. 17).
Note
Empty keys are not logged.
7.14. Sending messages to a remote logserver using the IETF-syslog protocol
The syslog() driver sends messages to a remote host (for example a syslog-ng server or relay) on the local
intranet or internet using the new standard syslog protocol developed by IETF (for details about the new protocol,
see Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog messages (p. 13)). The protocol supports sending messages using the UDP,
TCP, or the encrypted TLS networking protocols.
The required arguments of the driver are the address of the destination host (where messages should be sent).
The transport method (networking protocol) is optional, syslog-ng uses the TCP protocol by default. For the
list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.14.1, syslog() destination options (p. 177).
Declaration:
syslog(host transport [options]);
Note
Note that the syslog destination driver has required parameters, while the source driver defaults to the local bind address,
and every parameter is optional.
The udp transport method automatically sends multicast packets if a multicast destination address is specified.
The tcp and tls methods do not support multicasting.
Note
The default ports for the different transport protocols are as follows: UDP — 514; TLS — 6514.
Example 7.21. Using the syslog() driver
destination d_tcp { syslog("10.1.2.3" transport("tcp") port(1999) localport(999)); };
If name resolution is configured, the hostname of the target server can be used as well.
destination d_tcp { syslog("target_host" transport("tcp") port(1999) localport(999)); };
www.balabit.com
176
syslog() destination options
Send the log messages using TLS encryption and use mutual authentication. For details on the encryption and authentication
options, see Section 10.4, TLS options (p. 235).
destination d_syslog_tls{
syslog("10.100.20.40"
transport("tls")
port(6514)
tls(peer-verify(required-trusted)
ca-dir('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/ca.d/')
key-file('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/client_key.pem')
cert-file('/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/keys/client_certificate.pem'))
);};
Note
If a message uses the IETF-syslog format (RFC5424), only the text of the message can be customized (that is, the
$MESSAGE part of the log), the structure of the header is fixed.
7.14.1. syslog() destination options
The syslog() driver sends messages to a remote host (for example a syslog-ng server or relay) on the local
intranet or internet using the RFC5424 syslog protocol developed by IETF (for details about the protocol, see
Section 2.8.2, IETF-syslog messages (p. 13)). The protocol supports sending messages using the UDP, TCP,
or the encrypted TLS networking protocols.
These destinations have the following options:
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
www.balabit.com
177
syslog() destination options
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
ip-tos()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Type-of-Service value of outgoing packets.
ip-ttl()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Time-To-Live value of outgoing packets.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
www.balabit.com
178
syslog() destination options
Description: Specifies whether connections to destinations should be closed when syslog-ng is reloaded. Note
that this applies to the client (destination) side of the syslog-ng connections, server-side (source) connections
are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the source.
localip()
Type:
string
Default:
0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to before connecting to target.
localport()
Type:
number
Default:
0
Description: The port number to bind to. Messages are sent from this port.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
mark-freq()
Accepted values: number
Default:
1200
Description: An alias for the obsolete mark() option, retained for compatibility with syslog-ng version 1.6.x.
The number of seconds between two MARK messages. MARK messages are generated when there was no message
traffic to inform the receiver that the connection is still alive. If set to zero (0), no MARK messages are sent. The
mark-freq() can be set for global option and/or every MARK capable destination driver if mark-mode() is
periodical or dst-idle or host-idle. If mark-freq() is not defined in the destination, then the mark-freq()
will be inherited from the global options. If the destination uses internal mark-mode(), then the global
mark-freq() will be valid (does not matter what mark-freq() set in the destination side).
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
www.balabit.com
179
syslog() destination options
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
port() or destport()
Type: number
Default: 601
www.balabit.com
180
syslog() destination options
Description: The port number to connect to. Note that the default port numbers used by syslog-ng do not
comply with the latest RFC which was published after the release of syslog-ng 3.0.2, therefore the default port
numbers will change in the future releases.
so-broadcast()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This option controls the SO_BROADCAST socket option required to make syslog-ng send messages
to a broadcast address. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
so-sndbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description:Specifies the size of the socket send buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
spoof-source()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables source address spoofing. This means that the host running syslog-ng generates UDP
packets with the source IP address matching the original sender of the message. It is useful when you want to
perform some kind of preprocessing via syslog-ng then forward messages to your central log management
solution with the source address of the original sender. This option only works for UDP destinations though
the original message can be received by TCP as well. This option is only available if syslog-ng was compiled
using the --enable-spoof-source configuration option.
www.balabit.com
181
syslog() destination options
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
tcp-keepalive-intvl()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the interval (number of seconds) between subsequential keepalive probes, regardless
of the traffic exchanged in the connection. This option is equivalent to
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. The default value is 0, which means using the kernel
default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tcp-keepalive-probes()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the number of unacknowledged probes to send before considering the connection dead.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
www.balabit.com
182
syslog() destination options
tcp-keepalive-time()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the interval (in seconds) between the last data packet sent and the first keepalive probe.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
Note
If a message uses the IETF-syslog format (RFC5424), only the text of the message can be customized (that is, the
$MESSAGE part of the log), the structure of the header is fixed.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
183
Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol (tcp(), udp()
drivers)
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
tls()
Type:
tls options
Default: n/a
Description: This option sets various options related to TLS encryption, for example, key/certificate files and
trusted CA locations. TLS can be used only with tcp-based transport protocols. For details, see Section 10.4,
TLS options (p. 235).
transport()
Type: udp, tcp, or tls
Default: tcp
Description: Specifies the protocol used to send messages to the destination server.
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.15. Sending messages to a remote log server using the legacy BSD-syslog protocol
(tcp(), udp() drivers)
Note
The tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() drivers will be deprecated in later versions, use the network() driver instead.
The tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() drivers send messages to another host (for example a syslog-ng
server or relay) on the local intranet or internet using the UDP or TCP protocol. The tcp6() and udp6()
drivers use the IPv6 network protocol.
www.balabit.com
184
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
All four drivers have a single required parameter specifying the destination host address, where messages should
be sent. For the list of available optional parameters, see Section 7.15.1, tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination
options (p. 185).
The udp() and udp6() drivers automatically send multicast packets if a multicast destination address is
specified. The tcp() and tcp6() drivers do not support multicasting.
Declaration:
tcp(host [options]);
udp(host [options]);
tcp6(host [options]);
udp6(host [options]);
Example 7.22. Using the tcp() driver
destination d_tcp { tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999) localport(999)); };
If name resolution is configured, the hostname of the target server can be used as well.
destination d_tcp { tcp("target_host" port(1999) localport(999)); };
To send messages using the IETF-syslog message format without using the IETF-syslog protocol, enable the
syslog-protocol flag:
destination d_tcp { tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999) flags(syslog-protocol) ); };
(For details on how to use the IETF-syslog protocol, see Section 7.14.1, syslog() destination options (p. 177).)
Using an IPv6 address:
tcp6("fd00:abcd:4321:2:20c:29ff:fea8:9671" port(514));
7.15.1. tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
This driver sends messages to another host on the local intranet or internet according to RFC3164 using the
UDP or TCP protocol. The tcp6() and udp6() drivers use the IPv6 network protocol.
Note
When using IPv6 destination addresses, always enclose the address between double-quotes:
tcp6("fd00:abcd:4321:2:20c:29ff:fea8:9671" port(514));
These destinations have the following options:
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
www.balabit.com
185
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
ip-tos()
Type: number
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
186
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
Description: Specifies the Type-of-Service value of outgoing packets.
ip-ttl()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the Time-To-Live value of outgoing packets.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether connections to destinations should be closed when syslog-ng is reloaded. Note
that this applies to the client (destination) side of the syslog-ng connections, server-side (source) connections
are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the source.
localip()
Type:
string
Default:
0.0.0.0
Description: The IP address to bind to before connecting to target.
localport()
Type:
number
Default:
0
Description: The port number to bind to. Messages are sent from this port.
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
www.balabit.com
187
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
port() or destport()
Type:
number
Default:
514
Description: The port number to connect to. Note that the default port numbers used by syslog-ng do not
comply with the latest RFC which was published after the release of syslog-ng 3.0.2, therefore the default port
numbers will change in the future releases.
www.balabit.com
188
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
Note
The TCP port 514 is reserved for use with rshell, so select a different port if syslog-ng and rshell is used at the same
time.
so-broadcast()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This option controls the SO_BROADCAST socket option required to make syslog-ng send messages
to a broadcast address. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
so-sndbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description:Specifies the size of the socket send buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
spoof-source()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables source address spoofing. This means that the host running syslog-ng generates UDP
packets with the source IP address matching the original sender of the message. It is useful when you want to
perform some kind of preprocessing via syslog-ng then forward messages to your central log management
solution with the source address of the original sender. This option only works for UDP destinations though
the original message can be received by TCP as well. This option is only available if syslog-ng was compiled
using the --enable-spoof-source configuration option.
www.balabit.com
189
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
tcp-keepalive-intvl()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the interval (number of seconds) between subsequential keepalive probes, regardless
of the traffic exchanged in the connection. This option is equivalent to
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl. The default value is 0, which means using the kernel
default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
tcp-keepalive-probes()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the number of unacknowledged probes to send before considering the connection dead.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
www.balabit.com
190
tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6() destination options
tcp-keepalive-time()
Type: number [seconds]
Default: 0
Description: Specifies the interval (in seconds) between the last data packet sent and the first keepalive probe.
This option is equivalent to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time. The default value is 0, which
means using the kernel default.
Warning
The tcp-keepalive-time(), tcp-keepalive-probes(), and tcp-keepalive-intvl() options only work on
platforms which support the TCP_KEEPCNT, TCP_KEEPIDLE,and TCP_KEEPINTVL setsockopts. Currently, this is Linux.
A connection that has no traffic is closed after tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes() seconds.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
www.balabit.com
191
Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
tls()
Type:
tls options
Default: n/a
Description: This option sets various options related to TLS encryption, for example, key/certificate files and
trusted CA locations. TLS can be used only with tcp-based transport protocols. For details, see Section 10.4,
TLS options (p. 235).
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.16. Sending messages to UNIX domain sockets
The unix-stream() and unix-dgram() drivers send messages to a UNIX domain socket in either
SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM mode.
Both drivers have a single required argument specifying the name of the socket to connect to. For the list of
available optional parameters, see Section 7.16.1, unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options (p. 192).
Declaration:
unix-stream(filename [options]);
unix-dgram(filename [options]);
Example 7.23. Using the unix-stream() driver
destination d_unix_stream { unix-stream("/var/run/logs"); };
7.16.1. unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options
These drivers send messages to a unix socket in either SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_DGRAM mode. The
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destinations have the following options:
www.balabit.com
192
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options
flags()
Type: no_multi_line, syslog-protocol
Default: empty set
Description: Flags influence the behavior of the destination driver.
■ no-multi-line: The no-multi-line flag disables line-breaking in the messages; the entire message
is converted to a single line.
■ syslog-protocol: The syslog-protocol flag instructs the driver to format the messages according
to the new IETF syslog protocol standard (RFC5424), but without the frame header. If this flag is
enabled, macros used for the message have effect only for the text of the message, the message header
is formatted to the new standard. Note that this flag is not needed for the syslog driver, and that
the syslog driver automatically adds the frame header to the messages.
flush-lines()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
For optimal performance when sending messages to an syslog-ng OSE server, make sure that the
flush-lines() is smaller than the window size set using the log-iw-size() option in the source of your
server.
flush-timeout() (DEPRECATED)
Type: time in milliseconds
Default: Use global setting.
Description: This is a deprecated option. Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output
buffer. For details, see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type: number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
www.balabit.com
193
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
log-fifo-size()
Type: number
Default: Use global setting.
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
keep-alive()
Type: yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether connections to destinations should be closed when syslog-ng is reloaded. Note
that this applies to the client (destination) side of the syslog-ng connections, server-side (source) connections
are always reopened after receiving a HUP signal unless the keep-alive option is enabled for the source.
so-broadcast()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: This option controls the SO_BROADCAST socket option required to make syslog-ng send messages
to a broadcast address. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
so-keepalive()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enables keep-alive messages, keeping the socket open. This only effects TCP and UNIX-stream
sockets. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
www.balabit.com
194
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
so-rcvbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
www.balabit.com
195
unix-stream() and unix-dgram() destination options
Description: Specifies the size of the socket receive buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual
page.
so-sndbuf()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description:Specifies the size of the socket send buffer in bytes. For details, see the socket(7) manual page.
suppress()
Type: seconds
Default: 0 (disabled)
Description: If several identical log messages would be sent to the destination without any other messages
between the identical messages (for example, an application repeated an error message ten times), syslog-ng
can suppress the repeated messages and send the message only once, followed by the Last message repeated
n times. message. The parameter of this option specifies the number of seconds syslog-ng waits for identical
messages.
template()
Type: string
Default: A format conforming to the default logfile format.
Description: Specifies a template defining the logformat to be used in the destination. Macros are described
in Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Please note that for network destinations it might not be
appropriate to change the template as it changes the on-wire format of the syslog protocol which might not be
tolerated by stock syslog receivers (like syslogd or syslog-ng itself). For network destinations make sure the
receiver can cope with the custom format defined.
template-escape()
Type: yes or no
Default: no
Description: Turns on escaping for the ', ", and backspace characters in templated output files. This is useful
for generating SQL statements and quoting string contents so that parts of the log message are not interpreted
as commands to the SQL server.
throttle()
Type: number
Default: 0
Description: Sets the maximum number of messages sent to the destination per second. Use this
output-rate-limiting functionality only when using large enough buffers as well to avoid the risk of losing
messages. Specifying 0 or a lower value sets the output limit to unlimited.
www.balabit.com
196
Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination
time-zone()
Type: timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
ts-format()
Type: rfc3164, bsd, rfc3339, iso
Default: Use the global option (which defaults to rfc3164)
Description: Override the global timestamp format (set in the global ts-format() parameter) for the specific
destination. For details, see Section ts-format() (p. 227).
7.17. Sending messages to a user terminal — usertty() destination
This driver writes messages to the terminal of a logged-in user.
The usertty() driver has a single required argument, specifying a username who should receive a copy of
matching messages. Use the asterisk * to specify every user currently logged in to the system.
Declaration:
usertty(username);
The usertty() does not have any further options nor does it support templates.
Example 7.24. Using the usertty() driver
destination d_usertty { usertty("root"); };
www.balabit.com
197
Log paths
Chapter 8. Routing messages: log paths and
filters
8.1. Log paths
Log paths determine what happens with the incoming log messages. Messages coming from the sources listed
in the log statement and matching all the filters are sent to the listed destinations.
To define a log path, add a log statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following syntax:
log {
source(s1); source(s2); ...
optional_element(filter1|parser1|rewrite1);...
optional_element(filter2|parser2|rewrite2);...
destination(d1); destination(d2); ...
flags(flag1[, flag2...]);
};
Warning
Log statements are processed in the order they appear in the configuration file, thus the order of log paths may influence
what happens to a message, especially when using filters and log flags.
Example 8.1. A simple log statement
The following log statement sends all messages arriving to the localhost to a remote server.
source s_localhost { tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) ); };
destination d_tcp { tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999); localport(999)); };
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_tcp); };
All matching log statements are processed by default, and the messages are sent to every matching destination
by default. So a single log message might be sent to the same destination several times, provided the destination
is listed in several log statements, and it can be also sent to several different destinations.
This default behavior can be changed using the flags() parameter. Flags apply to individual log paths; they
are not global options. The following flags available in syslog-ng:
■ final: Do not send the messages processed by this log path to any further destination.
■ fallback: Process messages that were not processed by other log paths.
■ catchall: Process every message, regardless of its source or if it was already processed by other log
paths.
■ flow-control: Stop reading messages from the source if the destination cannot accept them. For
details, see Section 8.2, Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control (p. 203).
www.balabit.com
198
Embedded log statements
For details on the individual flags, see Section 8.1.3, Log path flags (p. 202). The effect and use of the
flow-control flag is detailed in Section 8.2, Managing incoming and outgoing messages with
flow-control (p. 203).
8.1.1. Embedded log statements
Starting from version 3.0, syslog-ng can handle embedded log statements (also called log pipes). Embedded
log statements are useful for creating complex, multi-level log paths with several destinations and use filters,
parsers, and rewrite rules.
For example, if you want to filter your incoming messages based on the facility parameter, and then use further
filters to send messages arriving from different hosts to different destinations, you would use embedded log
statements.
Figure 8.1. Embedded log statement
Embedded log statements include sources — and usually filters, parsers, rewrite rules, or destinations — and
other log statements that can include filters, parsers, rewrite rules, and destinations. The following rules apply
to embedded log statements:
■ Only the beginning (also called top-level) log statement can include sources.
■ Embedded log statements can include multiple log statements on the same level (that is, a top-level
log statement can include two or more log statements).
■ Embedded log statements can include several levels of log statements (that is, a top-level log statement
can include a log statement that includes another log statement, and so on).
■ After an embedded log statement, you can write either another log statement, or the flags() option
of the original log statement. You cannot use filters or other configuration objects.
■ Embedded log statements that are on the same level receive the same messages from the higher-level
log statement. For example, if the top-level log statement includes a filter, the lower-level log
statements receive only the messages that pass the filter.
www.balabit.com
199
Embedded log statements
Figure 8.2. Embedded log statements
Embedded log filters can be used to optimize the processing of log messages, for example, to re-use the results
of filtering and rewriting operations.
8.1.1.1. Using embedded log statements
Embedded log statements (for details, see Section 8.1.1, Embedded log statements (p. 199)) re-use the results
of processing messages (for example the results of filtering or rewriting) to create complex log paths. Embedded
log statements use the same syntax as regular log statements, but they cannot contain additional sources. To
define embedded log statements, use the following syntax:
log {
source(s1); source(s2); ...
optional_element(filter1|parser1|rewrite1);
optional_element(filter2|parser2|rewrite2);...
destination(d1); destination(d2); ...
#embedded log statement
log
{
optional_element(filter1|parser1|rewrite1);
optional_element(filter2|parser2|rewrite2);
...
destination(d1); destination(d2); ...
#another embedded log statement
log
{
optional_element(filter1|parser1|rewrite1);
optional_element(filter2|parser2|rewrite2);
...
destination(d1); destination(d2); ...};
};
#set flags after the embedded log statements
flags(flag1[, flag2...]);
};
www.balabit.com
200
Junctions and channels
Example 8.2. Using embedded log paths
The following log path sends every message to the configured destinations: both the d_file1 and the d_file2 destinations
receive every message of the source.
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_file1); destination(d_file2); };
The next example is equivalent with the one above, but uses an embedded log statement.
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_file1);
log {destination(d_file2); };
};
The following example uses two filters:
■ messages coming from the host 192.168.1.1 are sent to the d_file1 destination; and
■ messages coming from the host 192.168.1.1 and containing the string example are sent to the d_file2
destination.
log { source(s_localhost); host(192.168.1.); destination(d_file1);
log {message("example"); destination(d_file2); };
};
The following example collects logs from multiple source groups and uses the source() filter in the embedded log
statement to select messages of the s_network source group.
log { source(s_localhost); source(s_network); destination(d_file1);
log {source(s_network); destination(d_file2); };
};
8.1.2. Junctions and channels
Junctions make it possible to send the messages to different channels, process the messages differently on each
channel, and then join every channel together again. You can define any number of channels in a junction:
every channel receives a copy of every message that reaches the junction. Every channel can process the
messages differently, and at the end of the junction, the processed messages of every channel return to the
junction again, where further processing is possible.
A junction includes one or more channels. A channel usually includes at least one filter, though that is not
enforced. Otherwise, channels are identical to log statements, and can include any kind of objects, for example,
parsers, rewrite rules, destinations, and so on. (For details on using channels, as well as on using channels
outside junctions, see Section 5.5, Using channels in configuration objects (p. 44).)
Note
Certain parsers can also act as filters:
■ The JSON parser automatically discards messages that are not valid JSON messages.
■ The csv-parser() discards invalid messages if the flags(drop-invalid) option is set.
You can also use log-path flags in the channels of the junction. Within the junction, a message is processed by
every channel, in the order the channels appear in the configuration file. Typically if your channels have filters,
you also set the flags(final) option for the channel. However, note that the log-path flags of the channel
apply only within the junction, for example, if you set the final flag for a channel, then the subsequent channels
of the junction will not receive the message, but this does not affect any other log path or junction of the
configuration. The only exception is the flow-control flag: if you enable flow-control in a junction, it affects
the entire log path. For details on log-path flags, see Section 8.1.3, Log path flags (p. 202).
www.balabit.com
201
Log path flags
junction {
channel { <other-syslog-ng-objects> <log-path-flags>}
channel { <other-syslog-ng-objects> <log-path-flags>}
...
}
Example 8.3. Using junctions
For example, suppose that you have a single network source that receives log messages from different devices, and some
devices send messages that are not RFC-compliant (some routers are notorious for that). To solve this problem in earlier
versions of syslog-ng OSE, you had to create two different network sources using different IP addresses or ports: one
that received the RFC-compliant messages, and one that received the improperly formatted messages (for example, using
the flags(no-parse) option). Using junctions this becomes much more simple: you can use a single network source
to receive every message, then use a junction and two channels. The first channel processes the RFC-compliant messages,
the second everything else. At the end, every message is stored in a single file. The filters used in the example can be
host() filters (if you have a list of the IP addresses of the devices sending non-compliant messages), but that depends
on your environment.
log {
source s_network { syslog(ip(10.1.2.3) transport("tcp") flags(no-parse)); };
junction {
channel { filter(f_compliant_hosts); parser { syslog-parser(); }; };
channel { filter(f_noncompliant_hosts); };
};
destination { file("/var/log/messages"); };
};
Since every channel receives every message that reaches the junction, use the flags(final) option in the channels to
avoid the unnecessary processing the messages multiple times:
log {
source s_network { syslog(ip(10.1.2.3) transport("tcp") flags(no-parse)); };
junction {
channel { filter(f_compliant_hosts); parser { syslog-parser(); }; flags(final);
};
channel { filter(f_noncompliant_hosts); flags(final); };
};
destination { file("/var/log/messages"); };
};
Note
Junctions differ from embedded log statements, because embedded log statements are like branches: they split the flow
of messages into separate paths, and the different paths do not meet again. Messages processed on different embedded
log statements cannot be combined together for further processing. However, junctions split the messages to channels,
then combine the channels together.
8.1.3. Log path flags
Flags influence the behavior of syslog-ng, and the way it processes messages. The following flags may be used
in the log paths, as described in Section 8.1, Log paths (p. 198).
Flag
Description
catchall
This flag means that the source of the message is ignored, only the filters are taken into account
when matching messages. A log statement using the catchall flag processes every message
that arrives to any of the defined sources.
fallback
This flag makes a log statement 'fallback'. Fallback log statements process messages that were
not processed by other, 'non-fallback' log statements.
www.balabit.com
202
Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control
Flag
Description
final
This flag means that the processing of log messages processed by the log statement ends here,
other log statements appearing later in the configuration file will not process the messages
processed by the log statement labeled as 'final'. Note that this does not necessarily mean that
matching messages will be stored only once, as there can be matching log statements processed
prior the current one.
flow-control Enables flow-control to the log path, meaning that syslog-ng will stop reading messages from
the sources of this log statement if the destinations are not able to process the messages at the
required speed. If disabled, syslog-ng will drop messages if the destination queues are full. If
enabled, syslog-ng will only drop messages if the destination queues/window sizes are improperly
sized. For details, see Section 8.2, Managing incoming and outgoing messages with
flow-control (p. 203).
Table 8.1. Log statement flags
Warning
The final, fallback, and catchall flags apply only for the top-level log paths, they have no effect on embedded log
paths.
Example 8.4. Using log path flags
Let's suppose that you have two hosts (myhost_A and myhost_B) that run two applications each (application_A and
application_B), and you collect the log messages to a central syslog-ng server. On the server, you create two log paths:
■ one that processes only the messages sent by myhost_A; and
■ one that processes only the messages sent by application_A.
This means that messages sent by application_A running on myhost_A will be processed by both log paths, and the
messages of application_B running on myhost_B will not be processed at all.
■ If you add the final flag to the first log path, then only this log path will process the messages of myhost_A,
so the second log path will receive only the messages of application_A running on myhost_B.
■ If you create a third log path that includes the fallback flag, it will process the messages not processed
by the first two log paths, in this case, the messages of application_B running on myhost_B.
■ Adding a fourth log path with the catchall flag would process every message received by the syslog-ng
server.
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_file); flags(catchall); };
8.2. Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control
This section describes the internal message-processing model of syslog-ng, as well as the flow-control feature
that can prevent message losses. To use flow-control, the flow-control flag must be enabled for the particular
log path.
The syslog-ng application monitors (polls) the sources defined in its configuration file, periodically checking
each source for messages. When a log message is found in one of the sources, syslog-ng polls every source and
reads the available messages. These messages are processed and put into the output buffer of syslog-ng (also
called fifo). From the output buffer, the operating system sends the messages to the appropriate destinations.
www.balabit.com
203
Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control
In large-traffic environments many messages can arrive during a single poll loop, therefore syslog-ng reads
only a fixed number of messages from each source. The log-fetch-limit() option specifies the number of
messages read during a poll loop from a single source.
Figure 8.3. Managing log messages in syslog-ng
Every destination has its own output buffer. The output buffer is needed because the destination might not be
able to accept all messages immediately. The log-fifo-size() parameter sets the size of the output buffer.
The output buffer must be larger than the log-fetch-limit() of the sources, to ensure that every message
read during the poll loop fits into the output buffer. If the log path sends messages to a destination from multiple
sources, the output buffer must be large enough to store the incoming messages of every source.
TCP and unix-stream sources can receive the logs from several incoming connections (for example many
different clients or applications). For such sources, syslog-ng reads messages from every connection, thus the
log-fetch-limit() parameter applies individually to every connection of the source.
Figure 8.4. Managing log messages of TCP sources in syslog-ng
The flow-control of syslog-ng introduces a control window to the source that tracks how many messages can
syslog-ng accept from the source. Every message that syslog-ng reads from the source lowers the window size
by one; every message that syslog-ng successfully sends from the output buffer increases the window size by
one. If the window is full (that is, its size decreases to zero), syslog-ng stops reading messages from the source.
The initial size of the control window is by default 1000: the log-fifo-size() must be larger than this value
in order for flow-control to have any effect. If a source accepts messages from multiple connections, all messages
use the same control window.
Note
Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.3, if the source can handle multiple connections (for example, tcp()), the size
of the control window is divided by the value of the max-connections() parameter and this smaller control window
is applied to each connection of the source.
www.balabit.com
204
Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control
When flow-control is used, every source has its own control window. As a worst-case situation, the output
buffer of the destination must be set to accommodate all messages of every control window, that is, the
log-fifo-size() of the destination must be greater than number_of_sources*log-iw-size(). This
applies to every source that sends logs to the particular destination. Thus if two sources having several connections
and heavy traffic send logs to the same destination, the control window of both sources must fit into the output
buffer of the destination. Otherwise, syslog-ng does not activate the flow-control, and messages may be lost.
The syslog-ng application handles outgoing messages the following way:
Figure 8.5. Handling outgoing messages in syslog-ng OSE
■ Output queue: Messages from the output queue are sent to the target syslog-ng server. The syslog-ng
application puts the outgoing messages directly into the output queue, unless the output queue is
full. The output queue can hold 64 messages, this is a fixed value and cannot be modified.
■ Overflow queue: If the output queue is full, syslog-ng puts the outgoing messages into the overflow
queue of the destination. (The overflow queue is identical to the output buffer used by other
destinations.) The log-fifo-size() parameter specifies the number of messages stored in the
overflow queue. For details on sizing the log-fifo-size() parameter, see Section 8.2, Managing
incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control (p. 203).
There are two types of flow-control: Hard flow-control and soft flow-control.
■ Soft flow-control: In case of soft flow-control there is no message lost if the destination can accept
messages, but it is possible to lose messages if it cannot accept messages (for example non-writeable
www.balabit.com
205
Flow-control and multiple destinations
file destination, or the disk becomes full), and all buffers are full. Soft flow-control cannot be
configured, it is automatically available for file destinations.
Example 8.5. Soft flow-control
source s_file {file("/tmp/input_file.log");};
destination d_file {file("/tmp/output_file.log");};
destination d_tcp { tcp("127.0.0.1" port(2222) log-fifo-size(1000)); };
log{ source(s_file); destination(d_file); destination(d_tcp);};
Warning
Hazard of data loss! For destinations other than file, soft flow-control is not available. Thus, it is possible
to lose log messages on those destinations. To avoid data loss on those destinations, use hard flow-control.
■ Hard flow-control: In case of hard flow-control there is no message lost. To use hard flow-control,
enable the flow_control flag in the logpath. Hard flow-control is available for all destinations.
Example 8.6. Hard flow-control
source s_file {file("/tmp/input_file.log");};
destination d_file {file("/tmp/output_file.log");};
destination d_tcp { tcp("127.0.0.1" port(2222) log-fifo-size(1000)); };
log{ source(s_file); destination(d_file); destination(d_tcp)
flags(flow_control);};
8.2.1. Flow-control and multiple destinations
Using flow-control on a source has an important side-effect if the messages of the source are sent to multiple
destinations. If flow-control is in use and one of the destinations cannot accept the messages, the other destinations
do not receive any messages either, because syslog-ng stops reading the source. For example, if messages from
a source are sent to a remote server and also stored locally in a file, and the network connection to the server
becomes unavailable, neither the remote server nor the local file will receive any messages.
Note
Creating separate log paths for the destinations that use the same flow-controlled source does not avoid the problem.
8.2.2. Configuring flow-control
For details on how flow-control works, see Section 8.2, Managing incoming and outgoing messages with
flow-control (p. 203). The summary of the main points is as follows:
■ The syslog-ng application normally reads a maximum of log-fetch-limit() number of messages
from a source.
www.balabit.com
206
Configuring flow-control
■ From TCP and unix-stream sources, syslog-ng reads a maximum of log-fetch-limit() from
every connection of the source. The number of connections to the source is set using the
max-connections() parameter.
■ Every destination has an output buffer (log-fifo-size()).
■ Flow-control uses a control window to determine if there is free space in the output buffer for new
messages. Every source has its own control window; log-iw-size() parameter sets the size of
the control window.
■ When a source accepts multiple connections, the size of the control window is divided by the value
of the max-connections() parameter and this smaller control window is applied to each connection
of the source.
■ The output buffer must be larger than the control window of every source that logs to the destination.
■ If the control window is full, syslog-ng stops reading messages from the source until some messages
are successfully sent to the destination.
■ If the output buffer becomes full, and flow-control is not used, messages may be lost.
Warning
If you modify the max-connections() or the log-fetch-limit() parameter, do not forget to adjust the
log-iw-size() and log-fifo-size() parameters accordingly.
Example 8.7. Sizing parameters for flow-control
Suppose that syslog-ng has a source that must accept up to 300 parallel connections. Such situation can arise when a
network source receives connections from many clients, or if many applications log to the same socket. Therefore, set
the max-connections() parameter of the source to 300. However, the log-fetch-limit() (default value: 10)
parameter applies to every connection of the source individually, while the log-iw-size() (default value: 1000)
parameter applies to the source. In a worst-case scenario, the destination does not accept any messages, while all 300
connections send at least log-fetch-limit() number of messages to the source during every poll loop. Therefore, the
control window must accommodate at least max-connections()*log-fetch-limit() messages to be able to read
every incoming message of a poll loop. In the current example this means that (log-iw-size() should be greater than
300*10=3000. If the control window is smaller than this value, the control window might fill up with messages from
the first connections — causing syslog-ng to read only one message of the last connections in every poll loop.
The output buffer of the destination must accommodate at least log-iw-size() messages, but use a greater value: in
the current example 3000*10=30000 messages. That way all incoming messages of ten poll loops fit in the output buffer.
If the output buffer is full, syslog-ng does not read any messages from the source until some messages are successfully
sent to the destination.
source s_localhost {
tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) max-connections(300)); };
destination d_tcp {
tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999); localport(999)); log-fifo-size(30000); };
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_tcp); flags(flow-control); };
If other sources send messages to this destination, than the output buffer must be further increased. For example, if a
network host with maximum 100 connections also logs into the destination, than increase the log-fifo-size() by
10000.
source s_localhost {
tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) max-connections(300)); };
source s_tcp {
tcp(ip(192.168.1.5) port(1999) max-connections(100)); };
destination d_tcp {
www.balabit.com
207
Filters
tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999); localport(999)); log-fifo-size(40000); };
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_tcp); flags(flow-control); };
8.3. Filters
The following sections describe how to select and filter log messages.
■ Section 8.3.1, Using filters (p. 208) describes how to configure and use filters.
■ Section 8.3.2, Combining filters with boolean operators (p. 208) shows how to create complex filters
using boolean operators.
■ Section 8.3.3, Comparing macro values in filters (p. 209) explains how to evaluate macros in filters.
■ Section 8.3.4, Using wildcards, special characters, and regular expressions in filters (p. 210) provides
tips on using regular expressions.
■ Section 8.3.5, Tagging messages (p. 211) explains how to tag messages and how to filter on the tags.
■ Section 8.3.6, Filter functions (p. 211) is a detailed description of the filter functions available in
syslog-ng OSE.
8.3.1. Using filters
Filters perform log routing within syslog-ng: a message passes the filter if the filter expression is true for the
particular message. If a log statement includes filters, the messages are sent to the destinations only if they pass
all filters of the log path. For example, a filter can select only the messages originating from a particular host.
Complex filters can be created using filter functions and logical boolean expressions.
To define a filter, add a filter statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following syntax:
filter <identifier> { <filter_type>("<filter_expression>"); };
Example 8.8. A simple filter statement
The following filter statement selects the messages that contain the word deny and come from the host example.
filter demo_filter { host("example") and match("deny" value("MESSAGE")) };
For the filter to have effect, include it in a log statement:
log {
source(s1);
filter(demo_filter);
destination(d1);};
8.3.2. Combining filters with boolean operators
When a log statement includes multiple filter statements, syslog-ng sends a message to the destination only if
all filters are true for the message. In other words, the filters are connected with the logical AND operator. In
the following example, no message arrives to the destination, because the filters are exclusive (the hostname
of a client cannot be example1 and example2 at the same time):
filter demo_filter1 { host("example1"); };
filter demo_filter2 { host("example2"); };
www.balabit.com
208
Comparing macro values in filters
log {
source(s1); source(s2);
filter(demo_filter1); filter(demo_filter2);
destination(d1); destination(d2); };
To select the messages that come from either host example1 or example2, use a single filter expression:
filter demo_filter { host("example1") or host("example2"); };
log {
source(s1); source(s2);
filter(demo_filter);
destination(d1); destination(d2); };
Use the not operator to invert filters, for example, to select the messages that were not sent by host example1:
filter demo_filter { not host("example1"); };
However, to select the messages that were not sent by host example1 or example2, you have to use the and
operator (that's how boolean logic works):
filter demo_filter { not host("example1") and not host("example2"); };
Alternatively, you can use parentheses to avoid this confusion:
filter demo_filter { not (host("example1") or host("example2")); };
For a complete description on filter functions, see Section 8.3.6, Filter functions (p. 211).
The following filter statement selects the messages that contain the word deny and come from the host example.
filter demo_filter { host("example") and match("deny" value("MESSAGE")); };
The value() parameter of the match function limits the scope of the function to the text part of the message
(that is, the part returned by the ${MESSAGE} macro). For details on using the match() filter function, see
Section match() (p. 214).
Tip
Filters are often used together with log path flags. For details, see Section 8.1.3, Log path flags (p. 202).
8.3.3. Comparing macro values in filters
Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.2, it is also possible to compare macro values and templates as numerical
and string values. String comparison is alphabetical: it determines if a string is alphabetically greater or equal
to another string. Use the following syntax to compare macro values or templates. For details on macros and
templates, see Section 11.1, Customizing message format (p. 238).
filter <filter-id>
{"<macro-or-template>" operator "<value-or-macro-or-template>"};
www.balabit.com
209
Using wildcards, special characters, and regular expressions in filters
Example 8.9. Comparing macro values in filters
The following expression selects log messages containing a PID (that is, ${PID} macro is not empty):
filter f_pid {"${PID}" !=""};
The following expression accomplishes the same, but uses a template as the left argument of the operator and compares
the values as strings:
filter f_pid {"${HOST}${PID}" eq "${HOST}"};
The following example selects messages with priority level 4 or higher.
filter f_level {"${LEVEL_NUM}" > "5"};
Note that:
■ The macro or template must be enclosed in double-quotes.
■ The $ character must be used before macros.
■ Using comparator operators can be equivalent to using filter functions, but is somewhat slower. For
example, using "${HOST}" eq "myhost" is equivalent to using host("myhost" type(string)).
■ You can use any macro in the expression, including user-defined macros from parsers and results
of pattern database classifications.
■ The results of filter functions are boolean values, so they cannot be compared to other values.
■ You can use boolean operators to combine comparison expressions.
The following operators are available:
Numerical operator
String operator
Meaning
==
eq
Equals
!=
ne
Not equal to
>
gt
Greater than
<
lt
Less than
>=
ge
Greater than or equal
=<
le
Less than or equal
Table 8.2. Numerical and string comparison operators
8.3.4. Using wildcards, special characters, and regular expressions in filters
The host(), match(), and program() filter functions accept regular expressions as parameters. The exact
type of the regular expression to use can be specified with the type() option. By default, syslog-ng OSE uses
PCRE regular expressions.
In regular expressions, the asterisk (*) character means 0, 1 or any number of the previous expression. For
example, in the f*ilter expression the asterisk means 0 or more f letters. This expression matches for the
following strings: ilter, filter, ffilter, and so on. To achieve the wildcard functionality commonly
represented by the asterisk character in other applications, use .* in your expressions, for example f.*ilter.
Alternatively, if you do not need regular expressions, only wildcards, use type(glob) in your filter:
www.balabit.com
210
Tagging messages
Example 8.10. Filtering with widcards
The following filter matches on hostnames starting with the myhost string, for example, on myhost-1, myhost-2, and
so on.
filter f_wildcard {host("myhost*" type(glob));};
For details on using regular expressions in syslog-ng OSE, see Section 8.3.4, Using wildcards, special characters,
and regular expressions in filters (p. 210).
To filter for special control characters like the carriage return (CR), use the \r escape prefix in syslog-ng OSE
version 3.0 and 3.1. In syslog-ng OSE 3.2 and later, you can also use the \x escape prefix and the ASCII code
of the character. For example, to filter on carriage returns, use the following filter:
filter f_carriage_return {match("\x0d" value ("MESSAGE"));};
8.3.5. Tagging messages
Starting with syslog-ng 3.1, it is also possible to label the messages with custom tags. Tags are simple labels,
identified by their names, which must be unique. Currently syslog-ng can tag a message at two different places:
■ at the source when the message is received; and
■ when the message matches a pattern in the pattern database. For details on using the pattern database,
see Section 13.2, Using pattern databases (p. 278), for details on creating tags in the pattern database,
see Section 13.5.3, The syslog-ng pattern database format (p. 289).
■ Tags can be also added and deleted using rewrite rules. For details, see Section 11.2.6, Adding and
deleting tags (p. 262).
When syslog-ng receives a message, it automatically adds the .source.<id_of_the_source_statement>
tag to the message. Use the tags() option of the source to add custom tags, and the tags() option of the
filters to select only specific messages.
Note
■ Tagging messages and also filtering on the tags is very fast, much faster than other types of filters.
■ Tags are available locally, that is, if you add tags to a message on the client, these tags will not be available
on the server.
■ To include the tags in the message, use the ${TAGS} macro in a template. Alternatively, if you are using
the IETF-syslog message format, you can include the ${TAGS} macro in the .SDATA.meta part of the
message. Note that the ${TAGS} macro is available only in syslog-ng OSE 3.1.1 and later.
For an example on tagging, see Example 8.12, Adding tags and filtering messages with tags (p. 215).
8.3.6. Filter functions
The following functions may be used in the filter statement, as described in Section 8.3, Filters (p. 208).
Name
Description
facility()
Filter messages based on the sending facility.
www.balabit.com
211
Filter functions
Name
Description
filter()
Call another filter function.
host()
Filter messages based on the sending host.
inlist()
File-based whitelisting and blacklisting.
level() or priority()
Filter messages based on their priority.
match()
Use a regular expression to filter messages based on a
specified header or content field.
message()
Use a regular expression to filter messages based on
their content.
netmask()
Filter messages based on the IP address of the sending
host.
program()
Filter messages based on the sending application.
source()
Select messages of the specified syslog-ng OSE source
statement.
tags()
Select messages having the specified tag.
Table 8.3. Filter functions available in syslog-ng OSE
facility()
Synopsis: facility(<facility-name>) or facility(<facility-code>) or facility(<facility-name>..<facility-name>)
Description: Match messages having one of the listed facility codes.
The facility() filter accepts both the name and the numerical code of the facility or the importance level.
Facility codes 0-23 are predefined and can be referenced by their usual name. Facility codes above 24 are not
defined.
You can use the facility filter the following ways:
■ Use a single facility name, for example, facility(user)
■ Use a single facility code, for example, facility(1)
■ Use a facility range (works only with facility names), for example, facility(local0..local5)
The syslog-ng application recognizes the following facilities: (Note that some of these facilities are available
only on specific platforms.)
Numerical Code
Facility name
Facility
0
kern
kernel messages
1
user
user-level messages
2
mail
mail system
3
daemon
system daemons
4
auth
security/authorization messages
www.balabit.com
212
Filter functions
Numerical Code
Facility name
Facility
5
syslog
messages generated internally by
syslogd
6
lpr
line printer subsystem
7
news
network news subsystem
8
uucp
UUCP subsystem
9
cron
clock daemon
10
authpriv
security/authorization messages
11
ftp
FTP daemon
12
ntp
NTP subsystem
13
security
log audit
14
console
log alert
15
solaris-cron
clock daemon
16-23
local0..local7
locally used facilities (local0-local7)
Table 8.4. syslog Message Facilities recognized by the facility() filter
filter()
Synopsis: filter(filtername)
Description: Call another filter rule and evaluate its value.
host()
Synopsis: host(regexp)
Description: Match messages by using a regular expression against the hostname field of log messages.
inlist()
Synopsis: in-list("</path/to/file.list>", value("<field-to-filter>"));
Description: Matches the value of the specified field to a list stored in a file, allowing you to do simple,
file-based black- and whitelisting. The file must be a plain-text file, containing one entry per line. The syslog-ng
OSE application loads the entire file, and compares the value of the specified field (for example, ${PROGRAM})
to entries in the file. When you use the in-list filter, note the following points:
■ Comparing the values is case-sensitive.
■ Only exact matches are supported, partial and substring matches are not.
■ If you modify the list file, reload the configuration of syslog-ng OSE for the changes to take effect.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.5 and later.
www.balabit.com
213
Filter functions
Example 8.11. Selecting messages using the in-list filter
Create a text file that contains the programs (as in the ${PROGRAM} field of their log messages) you want to select. For
example, you want to forward only the logs of a few applications from a host: kernel, sshd, and sudo. Create the
/etc/syslog-ng/programlist.list file with the following contents:
kernel
sshd
sudo
The following filter selects only the messages of the listed applications:
filter f_whitelist { in-list("/etc/syslog-ng/programlist.list", value("PROGRAM")); };
Create the appropriate sources and destinations for your environment, then create a log path that uses the previous filter
to select only the log messages of the applications you need:
log {
source(s_all);
filter(f_whitelist);
destination(d_logserver);};
To create a blacklist filter, simply negate the in-list filter:
filter f_blacklist { not in-list("/etc/syslog-ng/programlist.list", value("PROGRAM")); };
level() or priority()
Synopsis: level(<priority-level>) or level(<priority-level>..<priority-level>)
Description: The level() filter selects messages corresponding to a single importance level, or a level-range.
To select messages of a specific level, use the name of the level as a filter parameter, for example use the
following to select warning messages:
level(warning)
To select a range of levels, include the beginning and the ending level in the filter, separated with two dots
(..). For example, to select every message of error or higher level, use the following filter:
level(err..emerg)
The level() filter accepts the following levels: emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info, debug.
match()
Synopsis: match(regexp)
Description: Match a regular expression to the headers and the message itself (that is, the values returned by
the MSGHDR and MSG macros). Note that in syslog-ng version 2.1 and earlier, the match() filter was applied
only to the text of the message, excluding the headers. This functionality has been moved to the message()
filter.
To limit the scope of the match to a specific part of the message (identified with a macro), use the match(regexp
value("MACRO")) syntax. Do not include the $ sign in the parameter of the value() option.
The value() parameter accepts both built-in macros and user-defined ones created with a parser or using a
pattern database. For details on macros and parsers, see Section 11.1.2, Templates and macros (p. 239), Section
12.2, Parsing messages (p. 268), and Section 13.2.1, Using parser results in filters and templates (p. 279).
www.balabit.com
214
Filter functions
message()
Synopsis: message(regexp)
Description: Match a regular expression to the text of the log message, excluding the headers (that is, the value
returned by the MSG macros). Note that in syslog-ng version 2.1 and earlier, this functionality was performed
by the match() filter.
netmask()
Synopsis: netmask(ip/mask)
Description: Select only messages sent by a host whose IP address belongs to the specified IP subnet. Note
that this filter checks the IP address of the last-hop relay (the host that actually sent the message to syslog-ng),
not the contents of the HOST field of the message. You can use both the dot-decimal and the CIDR notation to
specify the netmask. For example, 192.168.5.0/255.255.255.0 or 192.168.5.0/24.
program()
Synopsis: program(regexp)
Description: Match messages by using a regular expression against the program name field of log messages.
source()
Synopsis: source id
Description: Select messages of a source statement. This filter can be used in embedded log statements if the
parent statement contains multiple source groups — only messages originating from the selected source group
are sent to the destination of the embedded log statement.
tags()
Synopsis: tag
Description: Select messages labeled with the specified tag. Every message automatically has the tag of its
source in .source.<id_of_the_source_statement> format. This option is available only in syslog-ng
3.1 and later.
Example 8.12. Adding tags and filtering messages with tags
source s_tcp {
tcp(ip(192.168.1.1) port(1514) tags("tcp", "router"));
};
Use the tags() option of the filters to select only specific messages:
filter f_tcp {
tags(".source.s_tcp");
};
filter f_router {
tags("router");
};
www.balabit.com
215
Dropping messages
Note
Starting with version 3.2, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds the class of the message as a tag using the
.classifier.<message-class> format. For example, messages classified as "system" receive the
.classifier.system tag. Use the tags() filter function to select messages of a specific class.
filter f_tag_filter {tags(".classifier.system");};
8.4. Dropping messages
To skip the processing of a message without sending it to a destination, create a log statement with the appropriate
filters, but do not include any destination in the statement, and use the final flag.
Example 8.13. Skipping messages
The following log statement drops all debug level messages without any further processing.
filter demo_debugfilter { level(debug); };
log { source(s_all); filter(demo_debugfilter); flags(final); };
www.balabit.com
216
Configuring global syslog-ng options
Chapter 9. Global options of syslog-ng OSE
9.1. Configuring global syslog-ng options
The syslog-ng application has a number of global options governing DNS usage, the timestamp format used,
and other general points. Each option may have parameters, similarly to driver specifications. To set global
options, add an option statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following syntax:
options { option1(params); option2(params); ... };
Example 9.1. Using global options
To disable domain name resolving, add the following line to the syslog-ng configuration file:
options { use-dns(no); };
For a detailed list of the available options, see Section 9.2, Global options (p. 217). For important global options
and recommendations on their use, see Chapter 17, Best practices and examples (p. 306).
9.2. Global options
The following options can be specified in the options statement, as described in Section 9.1, Configuring global
syslog-ng options (p. 217).
bad-hostname()
Accepted values: regular expression
Default:
no
Description: A regexp containing hostnames which should not be handled as hostnames.
chain-hostnames()
Accepted values: yes | no
Default:
no
Description: Enable or disable the chained hostname format. If the log message is forwarded to the log server
via a relay, and the chain-hostnames() option is enabled, the relay adds its own hostname to the hostname
of the client, separated with a / character. For example, consider a client-relay-server scenario with the following
hostnames: client-hostname, relay-hostname, server-hostname. The hostname of the log message
received by the server will look like: client-hostname/relay-hostname. If the client sends a hostname
in the message that is different from its real hostname (as resolved from DNS), the relay can add the resolved
hostname to the message, resulting in two different client hostnames in the message, for examle,
client-hostname-from-the-message/client-hostname-resolved-on-the-relay/relay-hostname.
www.balabit.com
217
check-hostname()
check-hostname()
Accepted values: yes | no
Default:
no
Description: Enable or disable checking whether the hostname contains valid characters.
create-dirs()
Accepted values: yes | no
Default:
no
Description: Enable or disable directory creation for destination files.
custom-domain()
Accepted values: string
Default:
empty string
Description: Use this option to specify a custom domain name that is appended after the short hostname to
receive the FQDN. This option affects every outgoing message: eventlog sources, file sources, MARK messages
and internal messages of syslog-ng OSE.
■ If the hostname is a short hostname, the custom domain name is appended after the hostname (for
example mypc becomes mypc.customcompany.local).
■ If the hostname is an FQDN, the domain name part is replaced with the custom domain name (for
example if the FQDN in the forwarded message is mypc.mycompany.local and the custom domain
name is customcompany.local, the hostname in the outgoing message becomes
mypc.customcompany.local).
dir-group()
Accepted values: groupid
Default:
root
Description: The default group for newly created directories.
dir-owner()
Accepted values: userid
Default:
root
Description: The default owner of newly created directories.
dir-perm()
Accepted values: permission value
Default:
www.balabit.com
0700
218
dns-cache()
Description: The permission mask of directories created by syslog-ng. Log directories are only created if a file
after macro expansion refers to a non-existing directory, and directory creation is enabled (see also the
create-dirs() option). For octal numbers prefix the number with 0, for example use 0755 for rwxr-xr-x.
To preserve the original properties of an existing directory, use the option without specifying an attribute:
dir-perm(). Note that when creating a new directory without specifying attributes for dir-perm(), the
default permission of the directories is masked with the umask of the parent process (typically 0022).
dns-cache()
Accepted values: yes | no
Default:
yes
Description: Enable or disable DNS cache usage.
dns-cache-expire()
Accepted values: number
Default:
3600
Description: Number of seconds while a successful lookup is cached.
dns-cache-expire-failed()
Accepted values: number
Default:
60
Description: Number of seconds while a failed lookup is cached.
dns-cache-hosts()
Accepted values: filename
Default:
unset
Description: Name of a file in /etc/hosts format that contains static IP->hostname mappings. Use this
option to resolve hostnames locally without using a DNS. Note that any change to this file triggers a reload in
syslog-ng and is instantaneous.
dns-cache-size()
Accepted values: number
Default:
1007
Description: Number of hostnames in the DNS cache.
file-template()
Accepted values: time offset (for example: +03:00)
Default:
www.balabit.com
local timezone
219
flush-lines()
Description: Specifies a template that file-like destinations use by default. For example:
template t_isostamp { template("$ISODATE $HOST $MSGHDR$MSG\n"); };
options { file-template(t_isostamp); };
flush-lines()
Accepted values: number
Default:
100
Description: Specifies how many lines are flushed to a destination at a time. The syslog-ng OSE application
waits for this number of lines to accumulate and sends them off in a single batch. Increasing this number
increases throughput as more messages are sent in a single batch, but also increases message latency. To limit
the latency, adjust the flush-timeout() option.
By default, syslog-ng OSE waits for 100 lines. If the source sends a few messages, but less than 100 messages,
syslog-ng OSE will not send the messages to the destination until the flush-timeout() time passes (which
is 10 seconds by default). If you stop or reload syslog-ng OSE or in case of network sources, the connection
with the client is closed, syslog-ng OSE automatically sends the unsent messages to the destination.
flush-timeout()
Accepted values: time in milliseconds
Default:
10000
Description: Specifies the time syslog-ng waits for lines to accumulate in its output buffer. For more information,
see the flush-lines() option.
frac-digits()
Type:
number
Default: Value of the global option (which defaults to 0)
Description: The syslog-ng application can store fractions of a second in the timestamps according to the
ISO8601 format. The frac-digits() parameter specifies the number of digits stored. The digits storing the
fractions are padded by zeros if the original timestamp of the message specifies only seconds. Fractions can
always be stored for the time the message was received. Note that syslog-ng can add the fractions to non-ISO8601
timestamps as well.
group()
Accepted values: groupid
Default:
root
Description: The default group of output files. By default, syslog-ng changes the privileges of accessed files
(for example /dev/null) to root.root 0600. To disable modifying privileges, use this option with the -1
value.
www.balabit.com
220
keep-hostname()
keep-hostname()
Type:
yes or no
Default: no
Description: Enable or disable hostname rewriting.
■ If enabled (keep-hostname(yes)), syslog-ng OSE assumes that the incoming log message was
sent by the host specified in the HOST field of the message.
■ If disabled (keep-hostname(no)), syslog-ng OSE rewrites the HOST field of the message, either
to the IP address (if the use-dns() parameter is set to no), or to the hostname (if the use-dns()
parameter is set to yes and the IP address can be resolved to a hostname) of the host sending the
message to syslog-ng OSE. For details on using name resolution in syslog-ng OSE, see Section 17.3,
Using name resolution in syslog-ng (p. 307).
Note
If the log message does not contain a hostname in its HOST field, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds a hostname to the
message.
■ For messages received from the network, this hostname is the address of the host that sent the message (this
means the address of the last hop if the message was transferred via a relay).
■ For messages received from the local host, syslog-ng OSE adds the name of the host.
This option can be specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global
option if available.
Note
When relaying messages, enable this option on the syslog-ng OSE server and also on every relay, otherwise syslog-ng
OSE will treat incoming messages as if they were sent by the last relay.
keep-timestamp()
Type:
yes or no
Default: yes
Description: Specifies whether syslog-ng should accept the timestamp received from the sending application
or client. If disabled, the time of reception will be used instead. This option can be specified globally, and
per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
log-fifo-size()
Accepted values: number
Default:
10000
Description: The number of messages that the output queue can store.
www.balabit.com
221
log-msg-size()
log-msg-size()
Accepted values: number
Default:
8192
Description: Maximum length of a message in bytes. This length includes the entire message (the data structure
and individual fields). The maximal value that can be set is 268435456 bytes (256MB). For messages using
the IETF-syslog message format (RFC5424), the maximal size of the value of an SDATA field is 64kB.
mark() (DEPRECATED)
Accepted values: number
Default:
1200
Description: The mark-freq() option is an alias for the deprecated mark() option. This is retained for
compatibility with syslog-ng version 1.6.x.
mark-freq()
Accepted values: number
Default:
1200
Description: An alias for the obsolete mark() option, retained for compatibility with syslog-ng version 1.6.x.
The number of seconds between two MARK messages. MARK messages are generated when there was no message
traffic to inform the receiver that the connection is still alive. If set to zero (0), no MARK messages are sent. The
mark-freq() can be set for global option and/or every MARK capable destination driver if mark-mode() is
periodical or dst-idle or host-idle. If mark-freq() is not defined in the destination, then the mark-freq()
will be inherited from the global options. If the destination uses internal mark-mode(), then the global
mark-freq() will be valid (does not matter what mark-freq() set in the destination side).
mark-mode()
Accepted values: internal | dst-idle | host-idle | periodical | none | global
Default:
internal for pipe, program drivers
none for file, unix-dgram, unix-stream drivers
global for syslog, tcp, udp destinations
host-idle for global option
Description:The mark-mode() option can be set for the following destination drivers: file(), program(),
unix-dgram(), unix-stream(), udp(), udp6(), tcp(), tcp6(), pipe(), syslog() and in global option.
■ internal: When internal mark mode is selected, internal source should be placed in the log path
as this mode does not generate mark by itself at the destination. This mode only yields the mark
messages from internal source. This is the mode as syslog-ng OSE 3.3 worked. MARK will be generated
by internal source if there was NO traffic on local sources:
www.balabit.com
222
normalize-hostnames()
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram(), program()
■ dst-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO traffic on destination drivers. MARK signal from
internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ host-idle: Sends MARK signal if there was NO local message on destination drivers. For example
MARK is generated even if messages were received from tcp. MARK signal from internal source will
be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ periodical: Sends MARK signal perodically, regardless of traffic on destination driver. MARK signal
from internal source will be dropped.
MARK signal can be sent by the following destination drivers: tcp(), udp(), syslog(), program(),
file(), pipe(), unix-stream(), unix-dgram().
■ none: Destination driver drops all MARK messages. If an explicit mark-mode() is not given to the
drivers where none is the default value, then none will be used.
■ global: Destination driver uses the global mark-mode() setting. The syslog-ng interprets syntax
error if the global mark-mode() is global.
Note
In case of dst-idle, host-idle and periodical; MARK message will not be written in the destination, if it is not open
yet.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
normalize-hostnames()
Accepted values: yes | no
Default:
no
Description: If enabled (normalize-hostnames(yes)), syslog-ng OSE converts the hostnames to lowercase.
Note
This setting applies only to hostnames resolved from DNS. It has no effect if the keep-hostname() option is enabled,
and the message contains a hostname.
www.balabit.com
223
on-error()
on-error()
Accepted values: drop-message|drop-property|fallback-to-string|silently-drop-message|silently-drop-property|silently-fallback-to-string
Default:
drop-message
Description: Controls what happens when type-casting fails and syslog-ng OSE cannot convert some data to
the specified type. By default, syslog-ng OSE drops the entire message and logs the error. Currently the
value-pairs() option uses the settings of on-error().
■ drop-message: Drop the entire message and log an error message to the internal() source. This
is the default behavior of syslog-ng OSE.
■ drop-property: Omit the affected property (macro, template, or message-field) from the log
message and log an error message to the internal() source.
■ fallback-to-string: Convert the property to string and log an error message to the internal()
source.
■ silently-drop-message: Drop the entire message silently, without logging the error.
■ silently-drop-property: Omit the affected property (macro, template, or message-field) silently,
without logging the error.
■ silently-fallback-to-string: Convert the property to string silently, without logging the
error.
owner()
Accepted values: userid
Default:
root
Description: The default owner of output files. By default, syslog-ng changes the privileges of accessed files
(for example /dev/null) to root.root 0600. To disable modifying privileges, use this option with the -1
value.
perm()
Accepted values: permission value
Default:
0600
Description: The default permission for output files. By default, syslog-ng changes the privileges of accessed
files (for example /dev/null) to root.root 0600. To disable modifying privileges, use this option with
the -1 value.
www.balabit.com
224
proto-template()
proto-template()
Accepted values: name of a template
Default:
The default message format of the used protocol
Description: Specifies a template that protocol-like destinations (for example, tcp() and syslog()) use by default.
For example:
template t_isostamp { template("$ISODATE $HOST $MSGHDR$MSG\n"); };
options { proto-template(t_isostamp); };
recv-time-zone()
Accepted values: time offset (for example: +03:00)
Default:
local timezone
Description: Specifies the time zone associated with the incoming messages, if not specified otherwise in the
message or in the source driver. For details, see also Section 2.5, Timezones and daylight saving (p. 8) and
Section 2.5.2, A note on timezones and timestamps (p. 10).
send-time-zone()
Accepted values: time offset (for example: +03:00)
Default:
local timezone
Description: Specifies the time zone associated with the messages sent by syslog-ng, if not specified otherwise
in the message or in the destination driver. For details, see Section 2.5, Timezones and daylight saving (p. 8).
stats-freq()
Accepted values: number
Default:
600
Description: The period between two STATS messages in seconds. STATS are log messages sent by syslog-ng,
containing statistics about dropped log messages. Set to 0 to disable the STATS messages.
stats-level()
Accepted values: 0 | 1 | 2 | 3
Default:
0
Description: Specifies the detail of statistics syslog-ng collects about the processed messages.
■ Level 0 collects only statistics about the sources and destinations
■ Level 1 contains details about the different connections and log files, but has a slight memory overhead
■ Level 2 contains detailed statistics based on the hostname.
■ Level 3 contains detailed statistics based on various message parameters like facility, severity, or
tags.
www.balabit.com
225
stats-lifetime()
Note that level 2 and 3 increase the memory requirements and CPU load. For details on message statistics, see
Chapter 14, Statistics of syslog-ng (p. 297).
stats-lifetime()
Accepted values: number (minutes)
Default:
10
Description: Controls how often dynamic counters are expired. The timer is not exact, some timers may live
a little bit longer than the specified time. Dynamic counters are now cleaned up repeatedly in time intervals
specified in stats-lifetime() instead of only on reloads. This intends to reduce the memory used by dynamic
counters.
sync() or sync-freq() (DEPRECATED)
Accepted values: number
Default:
0
Description: Obsolete aliases for flush-lines()
threaded()
Accepted values: yes|no
Default:
yes
Description: Enable syslog-ng OSE to run in multithreaded mode and use multiple CPUs. Available only in
syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.3 and later. See Chapter 15, Multithreading and scaling in syslog-ng
OSE (p. 300) for details.
time-reap()
Accepted values: number
Default:
60
Description: The time to wait in seconds before an idle destination file is closed. Note that only destination
files having macros in their filenames are closed automatically.
time-reopen()
Accepted values: number
Default:
60
Description: The time to wait in seconds before a dead connection is reestablished.
time-sleep() (DEPRECATED)
Accepted values: number
Default:
www.balabit.com
0
226
time-zone()
Description: The time to wait in milliseconds between each invocation of the poll() iteration.
time-zone()
Type:
timezone in +/-HH:MM format
Default: unspecified
Description: Convert timestamps (and all date-related macros derived from the timestamp) to the timezone
specified by this option. If this option is not set then the original timezone information in the message is used.
ts-format()
Accepted values: rfc3164 | bsd | rfc3339 | iso
Default:
rfc3164
Description: Specifies the timestamp format used when syslog-ng itself formats a timestamp and nothing else
specifies a format (for example: STAMP macros, internal messages, messages without original timestamps). For
details, see also Section 2.5.2, A note on timezones and timestamps (p. 10).
By default, timestamps include only seconds. To include fractions of a second (for example, milliseconds) use
the frac-digits() option. For details, see Section frac-digits() (p. 220).
Note
This option applies only to file and file-like destinations. Destinations that use specific protocols (for example, tcp(),
or syslog()) ignore this option. For protocol-like destinations, use a template locally in the destination, or use the
proto-template option.
use-dns()
Type:
yes, no, persist_only
Default: yes
Description: Enable or disable DNS usage. The persist_only option attempts to resolve hostnames locally
from file (for example from /etc/hosts). The syslog-ng OSE application blocks on DNS queries, so enabling
DNS may lead to a Denial of Service attack. To prevent DoS, protect your syslog-ng network endpoint with
firewall rules, and make sure that all hosts which may get to syslog-ng are resolvable. This option can be
specified globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
use-fqdn()
Type:
yes or no
Default: no
Description: Add Fully Qualified Domain Name instead of short hostname. This option can be specified
globally, and per-source as well. The local setting of the source overrides the global option if available.
www.balabit.com
227
use-rcptid()
use-rcptid()
Accepted values: yes | no
Default:
no
Description: When the use-rcptid global option is set to yes, syslog-ng OSE automatically assigns a unique
reception ID to every received message. You can access this ID and use it in templates via the ${RCPTID}
macro. The reception ID is a monotonously increasing 48-bit integer number, that can never be zero (if the
counter overflows, it restarts with 1).
www.balabit.com
228
Secure logging using TLS
Chapter 10. TLS-encrypted message transfer
10.1. Secure logging using TLS
The syslog-ng application can send and receive log messages securely over the network using the Transport
Layer Security (TLS) protocol. TLS is an encryption protocol over the TCP/IP network protocol, so it can be
used only with TCP-based sources and destinations ( tcp() and tcp6()).
TLS uses certificates to authenticate and encrypt the communication, as illustrated on the following figure:
Figure 10.1. Certificate-based authentication
The client authenticates the server by requesting its certificate and public key. Optionally, the server can also
request a certificate from the client, thus mutual authentication is also possible.
In order to use TLS encryption in syslog-ng, the following elements are required:
■ A certificate on the syslog-ng server that identifies the syslog-ng server.
■ The certificate of the Certificate Authority that issued the certificate of the syslog-ng server (or the
self-signed certificate of the syslog-ng server) must be available on the syslog-ng client.
When using mutual authentication to verify the identity of the clients, the following elements are required:
■ A certificate must be available on the syslog-ng client. This certificate identifies the syslog-ng client.
■ The certificate of the Certificate Authority that issued the certificate of the syslog-ng client must be
available on the syslog-ng server.
Mutual authentication ensures that the syslog-ng server accepts log messages only from authorized clients.
For details on configuring TLS communication in syslog-ng, see Section 10.2, Encrypting log messages with
TLS (p. 230).
www.balabit.com
229
Encrypting log messages with TLS
10.2. Encrypting log messages with TLS
This section describes how to configure TLS encryption in syslog-ng. For the concepts of using TLS in syslog-ng,
see Section 10.1, Secure logging using TLS (p. 229).
Create an X.509 certificate for the syslog-ng server.
Note
The subject_alt_name parameter (or the Common Name parameter if the subject_alt_name parameter is empty)
of the server's certificate must contain the hostname or the IP address (as resolved from the syslog-ng clients and relays)
of the server (for example syslog-ng.example.com).
Alternatively, the Common Name or the subject_alt_name parameter can contain a generic hostname, for example
*.example.com.
Note that if the Common Name of the certificate contains a generic hostname, do not specify a specific hostname or an IP
address in the subject_alt_name parameter.
10.2.1. Procedure – Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients
Purpose:
Complete the following steps on every syslog-ng client host. Examples are provided using both the legacy
BSD-syslog protocol (using the tcp() driver) and the new IETF-syslog protocol standard (using the syslog()
driver):
Steps:
Step 1. Copy the CA certificate (for example cacert.pem) of the Certificate Authority that issued the certificate
of the syslog-ng server (or the self-signed certificate of the syslog-ng server) to the syslog-ng client
hosts, for example into the /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d directory.
Issue the following command on the certificate: openssl x509 -noout -hash -in cacert.pem
The result is a hash (for example 6d2962a8), a series of alphanumeric characters based on the
Distinguished Name of the certificate.
Issue the following command to create a symbolic link to the certificate that uses the hash returned by
the previous command and the .0 suffix.
ln -s cacert.pem 6d2962a8.0
Step 2. Add a destination statement to the syslog-ng configuration file that uses the tls(
ca-dir(path_to_ca_directory) ) option and specify the directory using the CA certificate. The
destination must use the tcp() or tcpv6() destination driver, and the IP address and port parameters
of the driver must point to the syslog-ng server.
Example 10.1. A destination statement using TLS
The following destination encrypts the log messages using TLS and sends them to the 6514/TCP port of the
syslog-ng server having the 10.1.2.3 IP address.
destination demo_tls_destination {
tcp("10.1.2.3" port(6514)
tls( ca-dir("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")) ); };
www.balabit.com
230
Encrypting log messages with TLS
A similar statement using the IETF-syslog protocol and thus the syslog() driver:
destination demo_tls_syslog_destination { syslog("10.1.2.3" port(6514)
transport("tls")
port(3214)
tls(ca-dir("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")) );
};
Step 3. Include the destination created in Step 2 in a log statement.
Warning
The encrypted connection between the server and the client fails if the Common Name or the
subject_alt_name parameter of the server certificate does not contain the hostname or the IP address (as
resolved from the syslog-ng clients and relays) of the server.
Do not forget to update the certificate files when they expire.
10.2.2. Procedure – Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng server
Purpose:
Complete the following steps on the syslog-ng server:
Steps:
Step 1. Copy the certificate (for example syslog-ng.cert) of the syslog-ng server to the syslog-ng server
host, for example into the /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d directory. The certificate
must be a valid X.509 certificate in PEM format.
Step 2. Copy the private key (for example syslog-ng.key) matching the certificate of the syslog-ng server
to the syslog-ng server host, for example into the /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d
directory. The key must be in PEM format, and must not be password-protected.
Step 3. Add
a source statement to the syslog-ng configuration file that uses the tls(
key-file(key_file_fullpathname) cert-file(cert_file_fullpathname) ) option and
specify the key and certificate files. The source must use the source driver (tcp() or tcpv6())
matching the destination driver used by the syslog-ng client.
Example 10.2. A source statement using TLS
The following source receives log messages encrypted using TLS, arriving to the 1999/TCP port of any
interface of the syslog-ng server.
source demo_tls_source {
tcp(ip(0.0.0.0) port(1999)
tls( key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/syslog-ng.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/syslog-ng.cert")) ); };
A similar source for receiving messages using the IETF-syslog protocol:
source demo_tls_syslog_source {
syslog(ip(0.0.0.0) port(1999)
transport("tls")
tls(
key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/syslog-ng.key")
www.balabit.com
231
Mutual authentication using TLS
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/syslog-ng.cert")) ); };
Step 4. Disable mutual authentication for the source by setting the following TLS option in the source statement:
tls( peer-verify(optional-untrusted);
For details on how to configure mutual authentication, see Section 10.3, Mutual authentication using
TLS (p. 232).
For the details of the available tls() options, see Section 10.4, TLS options (p. 235).
Example 10.3. Disabling mutual authentication
The following source receives log messages encrypted using TLS, arriving to the 1999/TCP port of any
interface of the syslog-ng server. The identity of the syslog-ng client is not verified.
source demo_tls_source {
tcp(ip(0.0.0.0) port(1999)
tls( key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/syslog-ng.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/syslog-ng.cert")
peer-verify(optional-untrusted))
); };
A similar source for receiving messages using the IETF-syslog protocol:
source demo_tls_syslog_source {
syslog(ip(0.0.0.0) port(1999)
transport("tls")
tls(
key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/syslog-ng.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/syslog-ng.cert")
peer-verify(optional-untrusted)) ); };
Warning
Do not forget to update the certificate and key files when they expire.
10.3. Mutual authentication using TLS
This section describes how to configure mutual authentication between the syslog-ng server and the client.
Configuring mutual authentication is similar to configuring TLS (for details, see Section 10.2, Encrypting log
messages with TLS (p. 230)), but the server verifies the identity of the client as well. Therefore, each client must
have a certificate, and the server must have the certificate of the CA that issued the certificate of the clients.
For the concepts of using TLS in syslog-ng, see Section 10.1, Secure logging using TLS (p. 229).
10.3.1. Procedure – Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng clients
Purpose:
www.balabit.com
232
Mutual authentication using TLS
Complete the following steps on every syslog-ng client host. Examples are provided using both the legacy
BSD-syslog protocol (using the tcp() driver) and the new IETF-syslog protocol standard (using the syslog()
driver):
Steps:
Step 1. Create an X.509 certificate for the syslog-ng client.
Step 2. Copy the certificate (for example client_cert.pem) and the matching private key (for example
client.key )
to
the
syslog-ng
client
host,
for
example
into
the
/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d directory. The certificate must be a valid X.509
certificate in PEM format and must not be password-protected.
Step 3. Copy the CA certificate of the Certificate Authority (for example cacert.pem) that issued the certificate
of the syslog-ng server (or the self-signed certificate of the syslog-ng server) to the syslog-ng client
hosts, for example into the /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d directory.
Issue the following command on the certificate: openssl x509 -noout -hash -in cacert.pem
The result is a hash (for example 6d2962a8), a series of alphanumeric characters based on the
Distinguished Name of the certificate.
Issue the following command to create a symbolic link to the certificate that uses the hash returned by
the previous command and the .0 suffix.
ln -s cacert.pem 6d2962a8.0
Step 4. Add a destination statement to the syslog-ng configuration file that uses the tls(
ca-dir(path_to_ca_directory) ) option and specify the directory using the CA certificate. The
destination must use the tcp() or tcpv6() destination driver, and the IP address and port parameters
of the driver must point to the syslog-ng server. Include the client's certificate and private key in the
tls() options.
Example 10.4. A destination statement using mutual authentication
The following destination encrypts the log messages using TLS and sends them to the 1999/TCP port of the
syslog-ng server having the 10.1.2.3 IP address. The private key and the certificate file authenticating the
client is also specified.
destination demo_tls_destination {
tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999)
tls( ca-dir("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")
key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/client.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/client_cert.pem"))
); };
destination demo_tls_syslog_destination {
syslog("10.1.2.3" port(1999)
transport("tls")
tls( ca-dir("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")
key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/client.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/client_cert.pem"))
); };
Step 5. Include the destination created in Step 2 in a log statement.
www.balabit.com
233
Mutual authentication using TLS
Warning
The encrypted connection between the server and the client fails if the Common Name or the
subject_alt_name parameter of the server certificate does not the hostname or the IP address (as resolved
from the syslog-ng clients and relays) of the server.
Do not forget to update the certificate files when they expire.
10.3.2. Procedure – Configuring TLS on the syslog-ng server
Purpose:
Complete the following steps on the syslog-ng server:
Steps:
Step 1. Copy the certificate (for example syslog-ng.cert) of the syslog-ng server to the syslog-ng server
host, for example into the /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d directory. The certificate
must be a valid X.509 certificate in PEM format.
Step 2. Copy the CA certificate (for example cacert.pem) of the Certificate Authority that issued the certificate
of the syslog-ng clients to the syslog-ng server, for example into the
/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d directory.
Issue the following command on the certificate: openssl x509 -noout -hash -in cacert.pem
The result is a hash (for example 6d2962a8), a series of alphanumeric characters based on the
Distinguished Name of the certificate.
Issue the following command to create a symbolic link to the certificate that uses the hash returned by
the previous command and the .0 suffix.
ln -s cacert.pem 6d2962a8.0
Step 3. Copy the private key (for example syslog-ng.key) matching the certificate of the syslog-ng server
to the syslog-ng server host, for example into the /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d
directory. The key must be in PEM format, and must not be password-protected.
Step 4. Add
a source statement to the syslog-ng configuration file that uses the tls(
key-file(key_file_fullpathname) cert-file(cert_file_fullpathname) ) option and
specify the key and certificate files. The source must use the source driver (tcp() or tcpv6())
matching the destination driver used by the syslog-ng client. Also specify the directory storing the
certificate of the CA that issued the client's certificate.
For the details of the available tls() options, see Section 10.4, TLS options (p. 235).
Example 10.5. A source statement using TLS
The following source receives log messages encrypted using TLS, arriving to the 1999/TCP port of any
interface of the syslog-ng server.
source demo_tls_source {
tcp(ip(0.0.0.0) port(1999)
tls( key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/syslog-ng.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/syslog-ng.cert")
ca-dir("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")) ); };
www.balabit.com
234
TLS options
A similar source for receiving messages using the IETF-syslog protocol:
source demo_tls_syslog_source {
syslog(ip(0.0.0.0) port(1999)
transport("tls")
tls(
key-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/key.d/syslog-ng.key")
cert-file("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/cert.d/syslog-ng.cert")
ca-dir("/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng/ca.d")) ); };
Warning
Do not forget to update the certificate and key files when they expire.
10.4. TLS options
The syslog-ng application is able to encrypt incoming and outgoing syslog message flows using SSL/TLS, if
the TCP transport protocol (the tcp() or tcp6() sources or destination) is used.
Note
The format of the TLS connections used by syslog-ng is similar to using syslog-ng and stunnel, but the source IP information
is not lost.
To encrypt connections, use the tls() option in the source and destination statements.
The tls() option can include the following settings:
ca-dir()
Accepted values: Directory name
Default:
none
Description: Name of a directory, that contains a set of trusted CA certificates in PEM format. The CA certificate
files have to be named after the 32-bit hash of the subject's name. This naming can be created using the c_rehash
utility in openssl.
cert-file()
Accepted values: Filename
Default:
none
Description: Name of a file, that contains an X.509 certificate (or a certificate chain) in PEM format, suitable
as a TLS certificate, matching the private key. If the file contains a certificate chain, the file must begin with
the certificate of the host, followed by the CA certificate that signed the certificate of the host, and any other
signing CAs in order.
www.balabit.com
235
cipher-suite()
cipher-suite()
Accepted values: Cipher name
Default:
aes-128-cbc
Description: Specifies the cipher, hash, and key-exchange algorithms used for the encryption. The following
values are accepted: aes-128-cbc, aes-128-ecb, aes-192-cbc, aes-192-ecb, aes-256-cbc,
aes-256-ecb, base64, bf, bf-cbc, bf-cfb, bf-ecb, bf-ofb, cast, cast-cbc, cast5-cbc, cast5-cfb,
cast5-ecb, cast5-ofb, des, des-cbc, des-cfb, des-ecb, des-ede, des-ede-cbc, des-ede-cfb,
des-ede-ofb, des-ede3, des-ede3-cbc des-ede3-cfb des-ede3-ofbdes-ofb, des3, desx, rc2,
rc2-40-cbc, rc2-64-cbc, rc2-cbc, rc2-cfb, rc2-ecb, rc2-ofb, rc4, rc4-40, md2, md4, md5, rmd160,
sha, sha1.
crl-dir()
Accepted values: Directory name
Default:
none
Description: Name of a directory that contains the Certificate Revocation Lists for trusted CAs. Similarly to
ca-dir() files, use the 32-bit hash of the name of the issuing CAs as filenames. The extension of the files
must be .r0.
key-file()
Accepted values: Filename
Default:
none
Description: Name of a file, that contains an unencrypted private key in PEM format, suitable as a TLS key.
peer-verify()
Accepted values: optional-trusted
|
optional-untrusted
|
|
required-trusted
required-untrusted
Default:
required-trusted
Description: Verification method of the peer, the four possible values is a combination of two properties of
validation:
■ whether the peer is required to provide a certificate (required or optional prefix), and
■ whether the certificate provided needs to be valid or not.
The following table summarizes the possible options and their results depending on the certificate of the peer.
www.balabit.com
236
trusted-dn()
The remote peer has:
no certificate
optional-untrusted TLS-encryption
invalid certificate
TLS-encryption
valid certificate
TLS-encryption
rejected connection TLS-encryption
Local peer-verify() optional-trusted TLS-encryption
setting
required-untrusted rejected connection TLS-encryption
TLS-encryption
required-trusted
rejected connection rejected connection TLS-encryption
For untrusted certificates only the existence of the certificate is checked, but it does not have to be valid —
syslog-ng accepts the certificate even if it is expired, signed by an unknown CA, or its CN and the name of the
machine mismatches.
Warning
When validating a certificate, the entire certificate chain must be valid, including the CA certificate. If any certificate of
the chain is invalid, syslog-ng OSE will reject the connection.
trusted-dn()
Accepted values: list of accepted distinguished names
Default:
none
Description: To accept connections only from hosts using certain certificates signed by the trusted CAs, list
the distinguished names of the accepted certificates in this parameter. For example using trusted-dn("*,
O=Example Inc, ST=Some-State, C=*") will accept only certificates issued for the Example Inc
organization in Some-State state.
trusted-keys()
Accepted values: list of accepted SHA-1 fingerprints
Default:
none
Description: To accept connections only from hosts using certain certificates having specific SHA-1 fingerprints,
list the fingerprints of the accepted certificates in this parameter. For example
trusted-keys("SHA1:00:EF:ED:A4:CE:00:D1:14:A4:AB:43:00:EF:00:91:85:FF:89:28:8F",
"SHA1:0C:42:00:3E:B2:60:36:64:00:E2:83:F0:80:46:AD:00:A8:9D:00:15").
To find the fingerprint of a certificate, you can use the following command: openssl x509 -in
<certificate-filename> -sha1 -noout -fingerprint
Note
When using the trusted-keys() and trusted-dn() parameters, note the following:
■ First, the trusted-keys() parameter is checked. If the fingerprint of the peer is listed, the certificate
validation is performed.
■ If the fingerprint of the peer is not listed in the trusted-keys() parameter, the trusted-dn() parameter
is checked. If the DN of the peer is not listed in the trusted-dn() parameter, the authentication of the
peer fails and the connection is closed.
www.balabit.com
237
Customizing message format
Chapter 11. Manipulating messages
This chapter explains the methods that you can use to customize, reformat, and modify log messages using
syslog-ng Open Source Edition.
■ Section 11.1, Customizing message format (p. 238) explains how to use templates and macros to
change the format of log messages, or the names of logfiles and database tables.
■ Section 11.2, Modifying messages (p. 257) describes how to use rewrite rules to search and replace
certain parts of the message content.
■ Section 11.3, Regular expressions (p. 263) lists the different types of regular expressions that can be
used in various syslog-ng OSE objects like filters and rewrite rules.
11.1. Customizing message format
The following sections describe how to customize the names of logfiles, and also how to use templates, macros,
and template functions.
■ Section 11.1.1, Formatting messages, filenames, directories, and tablenames (p. 238) explains how
macros work.
■ Section 11.2, Modifying messages (p. 257) describes how to use macros and templates to format log
messages or change the names of logfiles and database tables.
■ Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241) lists the different types of macros available in
syslog-ng OSE.
■ Section 11.1.6, Using template functions (p. 248) explains what template functions are and how to
use them.
■ Section 11.1.7, Template functions of syslog-ng OSE (p. 248) lists the template functions available
in syslog-ng OSE.
11.1.1. Formatting messages, filenames, directories, and tablenames
The syslog-ng OSE application can dynamically create filenames, directories, or names of database tables using
macros that help you organize your log messages. Macros refer to a property or a part of the log message, for
example, the ${HOST} macro refers to the name or IP address of the client that sent the log message, while
${DAY} is the day of the month when syslog-ng has received the message. Using these macros in the path of
the destination log files allows you for example to collect the logs of every host into separate files for every
day.
A set of macros can be defined as a template object and used in multiple destinations.
Another use of macros and templates is to customize the format of the syslog message, for example, to add
elements of the message header to the message text.
www.balabit.com
238
Templates and macros
Note
If a message uses the IETF-syslog format (RFC5424), only the text of the message can be customized (that is, the
$MESSAGE part of the log), the structure of the header is fixed.
■ For details on using templates and macros, see Section 11.1.2, Templates and macros (p. 239).
■ For a list and description of the macros available in syslog-ng OSE, see Section 11.1.5, Macros of
syslog-ng OSE (p. 241).
■ For details on using custom macros created with CSV parsers and pattern databases, see Chapter
12, Parsing and segmenting structured messages (p. 267) and Section 13.2.1, Using parser results
in filters and templates (p. 279), respectively.
11.1.2. Templates and macros
The syslog-ng OSE application allows you to define message templates, and reference them from every object
that can use a template. Templates can be used for example to create standard message formats or filenames.
Templates can reference one or more macros (for example date, the hostname, and so on). For a list of macros
available in syslog-ng Open Source Edition, see Section 11.1.5, Macros of syslog-ng OSE (p. 241). Fields from
the structured data (SD) part of messages using the new IETF-syslog standard can also be used as macros.
Template objects have a single option called template-escape(), which is disabled by default
(template-escape(no)). This behavior is useful when the messages are passed to an application that cannot
handle escaped characters properly. Enabling template escaping (template-escape(yes)) causes syslog-ng
to escape the ', ", and backslash characters from the messages.
Note
In versions 2.1 and earlier, the template-escape() option was enabled by default.
Macros can be included by prefixing the macro name with a $ sign, just like in Bourne compatible shells.
Although using braces around macro names is not mandatory, and the "$MSG" and "${MSG}" formats are
equivalent, using the "${MSG}" format is recommended for clarity.
To use a literal $ character in a template, you have to escape it. In syslog-ng OSE versions 3.4 and earlier, use
a backslash (\$). In version 3.5 and later, use $$.
Note
To use a literal @ character in a template, use @@.
Default values for macros can also be specified by appending the :- characters and the default value of the
macro. If a message does not contain the field referred to by the macro, or it is empty, the default value will be
used when expanding the macro. For example, if a message does not contain a hostname, the following macro
can specify a default hostname.
www.balabit.com
239
Date-related macros
${HOST:-default_hostname}
Warning
The hostname-related macros (${FULLHOST}, ${FULLHOST_FROM}, ${HOST}, and ${HOST_FROM}) do not have any
effect if the keep-hostname() option is disabled.
By default, syslog-ng sends messages using the following template: ${ISODATE} ${HOST}
${MSGHDR}${MSG}\n. (The ${MSGHDR}${MSG} part is written together because the ${MSGHDR} macro
includes a trailing whitespace.)
Note
Earlier versions of syslog-ng used templates and scripts to send log messages into SQL databases. Starting from version
2.1, syslog-ng natively supports direct database access using the sql() destination. For details, see Section 7.12.4, sql()
destination options (p. 167).
Example 11.1. Using templates and macros
The following template (t_demo_filetemplate) adds the date of the message and the name of the host sending the
message to the beginning of the message text. The template is then used in a file destination: messages sent to this
destination (d_file) will use the message format defined in the template.
template t_demo_filetemplate {
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} ${MSG}\n"); template-escape(no); };
destination d_file {
file("/var/log/messages" template(t_demo_filetemplate)); };
Templates can also be used inline, if they are used only at a single location. The following destination is equivalent with
the previous example:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} ${MSG}\n") template-escape(no) );
};
The following file destination uses macros to daily create separate logfiles for every client host.
destination d_file {
file("/var/log/${YEAR}.${MONTH}.${DAY}/${HOST}.log");
};
Note
Macros can be used to format messages, and also in the name of destination files or database tables. However, they cannot
be used in sources as wildcards, for example, to read messages from files or directories that include a date in their name.
11.1.3. Date-related macros
The macros related to the date of the message (for example: ${ISODATE}, ${HOUR}, and so on) have three
further variants each:
■ S_ prefix, for example, ${S_DATE}: The ${S_DATE} macro represents the date found in the log
message, that is, when the message was sent by the original application.
www.balabit.com
240
Hard vs. soft macros
■ R_ prefix, for example, ${R_DATE}: ${R_DATE} is the date when syslog-ng OSE has received the
message.
■ C_ prefix, for example, C_DATE: C_DATE is the current date, that is when syslog-ng OSE processes
the message and resolves the macro.
The ${DATE} macro equals the ${S_DATE} macro.
The values of the date-related macros if calculated based on the original timezone information of the message.
To convert it to a different timezone, use the time-zone() option. (You can set the time-zone() option as
a global option, or per destination. For sources, it applies only if the original message does not contain timezone
information.
11.1.4. Hard vs. soft macros
Hard macros contain data that is directly derived from the log message, for example, the ${MONTH} macro
derives its value from the timestamp. Hard macros are read-only. Soft macros (sometimes also called name-value
pairs) are either built-in macros automatically generated from the log message (for example, ${HOST}), or
custom user-created macros generated by using the syslog-ng pattern database or a CSV-parser. In contrast to
hard macros, soft macros are writable and can be modified within syslog-ng OSE, for example, using rewrite
rules.
Hard and soft macros are rather similar and often treated as equivalent. Macros are most commonly used in
filters and templates, which does not modify the value of the macro, so both soft and hard macros can be used.
However, it is not possible to change the values of hard macros in rewrite rules or via any other means.
The following macros in syslog-ng OSE are hard macros and cannot be modified: BSDTAG, CONTEXT_ID, DATE,
DAY, FACILITY_NUM, FACILITY, FULLDATE, HOUR, ISODATE, LEVEL_NUM, LEVEL, MIN, MONTH_ABBREV,
MONTH_NAME, MONTH, MONTH_WEEK, , PRIORITY, PRI, RCPTID, SDATA, SEC, SEQNUM, SOURCEIP, STAMP,
TAG, TAGS, TZOFFSET, TZ, UNIXTIME, WEEK_DAY_ABBREV, WEEK_DAY_NAME, WEEK_DAY, WEEK, YEAR_DAY,
YEAR.
The following macros can be modified:FULLHOST_FROM, FULLHOST, HOST_FROM, HOST, LEGACY_MSGHDR,
MESSAGE, MSG,MSGID, MSGONLY, PID, PROGRAM, SOURCE. Custom values created using rewrite rules or parsers
can be modified as well, just like stored matches of regular expressions ($0 ... $255).
11.1.5. Macros of syslog-ng OSE
The following macros are available in syslog-ng OSE.
AMPM
Description: Typically used together with the ${HOUR12} macro, ${AMPM} returns the period of the day: AM
for hours before mid day and PM for hours after mid day. In reference to a 24-hour clock format, AM is between
00:00-12:00 and PM is between 12:00-24:00. 12AM is midnight. Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
BSDTAG
Description: Facility/priority information in the format used by the FreeBSD syslogd: a priority number
followed by a letter that indicates the facility. The priority number can range from 0 to 7. The facility letter can
www.balabit.com
241
Macros of syslog-ng OSE
range from A to Y, where A corresponds to facility number zero (LOG_KERN), B corresponds to facility 1
(LOG_USER), and so on.
Custom macros
Description: CSV parsers and pattern databases can also define macros from the content of the messages, for
example, a pattern database rule can extract the username from a login message and create a macro that references
the username. For details on using custom macros created with CSV parsers and pattern databases, see Chapter
12, Parsing and segmenting structured messages (p. 267) and Section 13.2.1, Using parser results in filters and
templates (p. 279), respectively.
DATE, C_DATE, R_DATE, S_DATE
Description: Date of the message using the BSD-syslog style timestamp format (month/day/hour/minute/second,
each expressed in two digits). This is the original syslog time stamp without year information, for example:
Jun 13 15:58:00.
DAY, C_DAY, R_DAY, S_DAY
Description: The day the message was sent.
FACILITY
Description: The name of the facility (for example, kern) that sent the message.
FACILITY_NUM
Description: The numerical code of the facility (for example, 0) that sent the message.
FULLDATE, C_FULLDATE, R_FULLDATE, S_FULLDATE
Description: A nonstandard format for the date of the message using the same format as ${DATE}, but including
the year as well, for example: 2006 Jun 13 15:58:00.
FULLHOST
Description: The full FQDN of the host name chain (without trimming chained hosts), including the domain
name.
FULLHOST_FROM
Description: FQDN of the host that sent the message to syslog-ng as resolved by syslog-ng using DNS. If the
message traverses several hosts, this is the last host in the chain.
The syslog-ng OSE application uses the following procedure to determine the value of the $FULLHOST_FROM
macro:
1. The syslog-ng OSE application takes the IP address of the host sending the message.
2. If the use-dns() option is enabled, syslog-ng OSE attempts to resolve the IP address to a hostname.
If it succeeds, the returned hostname will be the value of the $FULLHOST_FROM macro. This value
will be the FQDN of the host if the use-fqdn() option is enabled, but only the hostname if
use-fqdn() is disabled.
www.balabit.com
242
Macros of syslog-ng OSE
3. If the use-dns() option is disabled, or the address resolution fails, the ${FULLHOST_FROM} macro
will return the IP address of the sender host.
HOUR, C_HOUR, R_HOUR, S_HOUR
Description: The hour of day the message was sent.
HOUR12, C_HOUR12, R_HOUR12, S_HOUR12
Description: The hour of day the message was sent in 12-hour clock format. See also the ${AMPM} macro.
12AM is midnight. Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
HOST
Description: The name of the source host where the message originates from.
■ If the message traverses several hosts and the chain-hostnames() option is on, the first host in
the chain is used.
■ If the keep-hostname() option is disabled (keep-hostname(no)), the value of the $HOST macro
will be the DNS hostname of the host that sent the message to syslog-ng OSE (that is, the DNS
hostname of the last hop). In this case the $HOST and $HOST_FROM macros will have the same
value.
■ If the keep-hostname() option is enabled (keep-hostname(yes)), the value of the $HOST
macro will be the hostname retrieved from the log message. That way the name of the original sender
host can be used, even if there are log relays between the sender and the server.
HOST_FROM
Description: Name of the host that sent the message to syslog-ng, as resolved by syslog-ng using DNS. If the
message traverses several hosts, this is the last host in the chain.
ISODATE, C_ISODATE, R_ISODATE, S_ISODATE
Description: Date of the message in the ISO 8601 compatible standard timestamp format
(yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss+-ZONE), for example: 2006-06-13T15:58:00.123+01:00. If possible, it is
recommended to use ${ISODATE} for timestamping. Note that syslog-ng can produce fractions of a second
(for example milliseconds) in the timestamp by using the frac-digits() global or per-destination option.
LEVEL_NUM
Description: The priority (also called severity) of the message, represented as a numeric value, for example,
3. For the textual representation of this value, use the ${LEVEL} macro. See Section PRIORITY or LEVEL (p. 245)
for details.
LOGHOST
Description: The hostname of the computer running syslog-ng OSE — it returns the same result as the hostname
command.
www.balabit.com
243
Macros of syslog-ng OSE
MIN, C_MIN, R_MIN, S_MIN
Description: The minute the message was sent.
MONTH, C_MONTH, R_MONTH, S_MONTH
Description: The month the message was sent as a decimal value, prefixed with a zero if smaller than 10.
MONTH_ABBREV, C_MONTH_ABBREV, R_MONTH_ABBREV, S_MONTH_ABBREV
Description: The English abbreviation of the month name (3 letters).
MONTH_NAME, C_MONTH_NAME, R_MONTH_NAME, S_MONTH_NAME
Description: The English name of the month name.
MONTH_WEEK, C_MONTH_WEEK, R_MONTH_WEEK, S_MONTH_WEEK
Description: The number of the week in the given month (0-5). The week with numerical value 1 is the first
week containing a Monday. The days of month before the first Monday are considered week 0. For example,
if a 31-day month begins on a Sunday, then the 1st of the month is week 0, and the end of the month (the 30th
and 31st) is week 5.
MSEC, C_MSEC, R_MSEC, S_MSEC
Description: The millisecond the message was sent.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
MSG or MESSAGE
Description: Text contents of the log message without the program name and pid. Note that this has changed
in syslog-ng version 3.0; in earlier versions this macro included the program name and the pid. In syslog-ng
3.0, the ${MSG} macro became equivalent with the ${MSGONLY} macro. The program name and the pid together
are available in the ${MSGHDR} macro.
MSGHDR
Description: The name and the PID of the program that sent the log message in PROGRAM[PID]: format.
Includes a trailing whitespace. Note that the macro returns an empty value if both the PROGRAM and PID
fields of the message are empty.
MSGID
Description: A string specifying the type of the message in IETF-syslog (RFC5424-formatted) messages. For
example, a firewall might use the ${MSGID} "TCPIN" for incoming TCP traffic and the ${MSGID} "TCPOUT"
for outgoing TCP traffic. By default, syslog-ng OSE does not specify this value, but uses a dash (-) character
instead. If an incoming message includes the ${MSGID} value, it is retained and relayed without modification.
MSGONLY
Description: Message contents without the program name or pid.
PID
Description: The PID of the program sending the message.
www.balabit.com
244
Macros of syslog-ng OSE
PRI
Description: The priority and facility encoded as a 2 or 3 digit decimal number as it is present in syslog
messages.
PRIORITY or LEVEL
Description: The priority (also called severity) of the message, for example, error. For the textual representation
of this value, use the ${LEVEL} macro. See Section PRIORITY or LEVEL (p. 245) for details.
PROGRAM
Description: The name of the program sending the message. Note that the content of the ${PROGRAM}
variable may not be completely trusted as it is provided by the client program that constructed the message.
RCPTID
Description: When the use-rcptid global option is set to yes, syslog-ng OSE automatically assigns a unique
reception ID to every received message. You can access this ID and use it in templates via the ${RCPTID}
macro. The reception ID is a monotonously increasing 48-bit integer number, that can never be zero (if the
counter overflows, it restarts with 1).
RUNID
Description: An ID that changes its value every time syslog-ng OSE is restarted, but not when reloaded.
SDATA, .SDATA.SDID.SDNAME
Description: The syslog-ng application automatically parses the STRUCTURED-DATA part of IETF-syslog
messages, which can be referenced in macros. The ${SDATA} macro references the entire STRUCTURED-DATA
part of the message, while structured data elements can be referenced using the ${.SDATA.SDID.SDNAME}
macro.
Note
When using STRUCTURED-DATA macros, consider the following:
■ When referencing an element of the structured data, the macro must begin with the dot (.) character. For
example, ${.SDATA.timeQuality.isSynced}.
■ The
SDID
and
SDNAME
parts
of
the
macro
names
are
case
sensitive:
${.SDATA.timeQuality.isSynced} is not the same as ${.SDATA.TIMEQUALITY.ISSYNCED}.
Example 11.2. Using SDATA macros
For example, if a log message contains the following structured data: [exampleSDID@0 iut="3"
eventSource="Application" eventID="1011"][examplePriority@0 class="high"] you can use macros
like: ${.SDATA.exampleSDID@0.eventSource} — this would return the Application string in this case.
SEC, C_SEC, R_SEC, S_SEC
Description: The second the message was sent.
SEQNUM
Description: The ${SEQNUM} macro contains a sequence number for the log message. The value of the macro
depends on the scenario, and can be one of the following:
www.balabit.com
245
Macros of syslog-ng OSE
■ If syslog-ng OSE receives a message via the IETF-syslog protocol that includes a sequence ID, this
ID is automatically available in the ${SEQNUM} macro.
■ If the message is a Cisco IOS log message using the extended timestamp format, then syslog-ng
OSE stores the sequence number from the message in this macro. If you forward this message the
IETF-syslog protocol, syslog-ng OSE includes the sequence number received from the Cisco device
in the ${.SDATA.meta.sequenceId} part of the message.
Note
To enable sequence numbering of log messages on Cisco devices, use the following command on the
device (available in IOS 10.0 and later): service sequence-numbers. For details, see the manual of
your Cisco device.
■ For locally generated messages (that is, for messages that are received from a local source, and not
from the network), syslog-ng OSE calculates a sequence number when sending the message to a
destination (it is not calculated for relayed messages).
• The sequence number is not global, but per-destination. Essentially, it counts the number of
messages sent to the destination.
• This sequence number increases by one for every message sent to the destination. It not lost when
syslog-ng OSE is reloaded, but it is reset when syslog-ng OSE is restarted.
• This sequence number is added to every message that uses the IETF-syslog protocol
(${.SDATA.meta.sequenceId}), and can be added to BSD-syslog messages using the
${SEQNUM} macro.
Note
If you need a sequence number for every log message that syslog-ng OSE receives, use the RCPTID macro.
SOURCE
Description: The identifier of the source statement in the syslog-ng OSE configuration file that received the
message. For example, if syslog-ng OSE received the log message from the source s_local { internal();
}; source statement, the value of the ${SOURCE} macro is s_local. This macro is mainly useful for debugging
and troubleshooting purposes.
SOURCEIP
Description: IP address of the host that sent the message to syslog-ng. (That is, the IP address of the host in
the ${FULLHOST_FROM} macro.) Please note that when a message traverses several relays, this macro contains
the IP of the last relay.
STAMP, R_STAMP, S_STAMP
Description: A timestamp formatted according to the ts-format() global or per-destination option.
www.balabit.com
246
Macros of syslog-ng OSE
SYSUPTIME
Description: The time elapsed since the computer running syslog-ng OSE has booted. If this data is not available,
the macro contains the time elapsed since syslog-ng OSE was started. The value of this macro is an integer
containing the time in 1/100th of the second.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
TAG
Description: The priority and facility encoded as a 2 digit hexadecimal number.
TAGS
Description: A comma-separated list of the tags assigned to the message.
Note
Note that the tags are not part of the log message and are not automatically transferred from a client to the server. For
example, if a client uses a pattern database to tag the messages, the tags are not transferred to the server. A way of
transferring the tags is to explicitly add them to the log messages using a template and the ${TAGS} macro, or to add
them to the structured metadata part of messages when using the IETF-syslog message format.
When sent as structured metadata, it is possible to reference to the list of tags on the central server, and for example, to
add them to a database column.
TZ, C_TZ, R_TZ, S_TZ
Description: An alias of the ${TZOFFSET} macro.
TZOFFSET, C_TZOFFSET, R_TZOFFSET, S_TZOFFSET
Description: The time-zone as hour offset from GMT; for example: -07:00. In syslog-ng 1.6.x this used to
be -0700 but as ${ISODATE} requires the colon it was added to ${TZOFFSET} as well.
UNIXTIME, C_UNIXTIME, R_UNIXTIME, S_UNIXTIME
Description: Standard UNIX timestamp, represented as the number of seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00.
USEC, C_USEC, R_USEC, S_USEC
Description: The microsecond the message was sent.
Available in syslog-ng OSE version 3.4 and later.
YEAR, C_YEAR, R_YEAR, S_YEAR
Description: The year the message was sent.
WEEK, C_WEEK, R_WEEK, S_WEEK
Description: The week number of the year, prefixed with a zero for the first nine week of the year. (The first
Monday in the year marks the first week.)
WEEK_ABBREV, C_WEEK_ABBREV, R_WEEK_ABBREV, S_WEEK_ABBREV
Description: The 3-letter English abbreviation of the name of the day the message was sent, for example Thu.
www.balabit.com
247
Using template functions
WEEK_DAY, C_WEEK_DAY, R_WEEK_DAY, S_WEEK_DAY
Description: The day of the week as a numerical value (1-7).
WEEKDAY, C_WEEKDAY, R_WEEKDAY, S_WEEKDAY
Description: These macros are deprecated, use ${WEEK_ABBREV}, ${R_WEEK_ABBREV},
${S_WEEK_ABBREV} instead. The 3-letter name of the day of week the message was sent, for example Thu.
WEEK_DAY_NAME, C_WEEK_DAY_NAME, R_WEEK_DAY_NAME, S_WEEK_DAY_NAME
Description: The English name of the day.
11.1.6. Using template functions
A template function is a transformation: it modifies the way macros or name-value pairs are expanded. Template
functions can be used in template definitions, or when macros are used in the configuration of syslog-ng OSE.
Template functions use the following syntax:
$(function-name parameter1 parameter2 parameter3 ...)
For example, the $(echo) template function simply returns the value of the macro it receives as a parameter,
thus $(echo ${HOST}) is equivalent to ${HOST}.
The parameters of template functions are separated by a whitespace character. If you want to use a longer string
or multiple macros as a single parameter, enclose the parameter in double-quotes or apostrophes. For example:
$(echo "${HOST} ${PROGRAM} ${PID}")
Template functions can be nested into each other, so the parameter of a template function can be another template
function, like:
$(echo $(echo ${HOST}))
For details on using template functions, see the descriptions of the individual template functions in Section
11.1.7, Template functions of syslog-ng OSE (p. 248).
11.1.7. Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
The following template functions are available in syslog-ng OSE.
echo
Syntax:
$(echo argument)
Description: Returns the value of its argument. Using $(echo ${HOST}) is equivalent to ${HOST}.
env
Syntax:
$(env <environment-variable>)
www.balabit.com
248
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
Description: Returns the value of the specified environment variable. Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.5 and
later.
format-json
Syntax:
$(format-json parameters)
Description: The format-json template function receives value-pairs as parameters and converts them into
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. Including the template function in a message template allows you
to store selected information about a log message (that is, its content, macros, or other metadata) in JSON
format.
For details on selecting value-pairs in syslog-ng OSE and for possibilities to specify which information to
convert to JSON format, see Section 2.10, Structuring macros, metadata, and other value-pairs (p. 17). Note
that the syntax of format-json is different from the syntax of value-pairs(): format-json uses a syntax
similar to command lines.
Note
By default, syslog-ng OSE handles every message field as a string. For details on how to send selected fields as other
types of data (for example, handle the PID as a number), see Section 2.10.1, Specifying data types in value-pairs (p. 17).
Example 11.3. Using the format-json template function
The following example selects every available information about the log message, except for the date-related macros
(R_* and S_*), selects the .SDATA.meta.sequenceId macro, and defines a new value-pair called MSGHDR that contains
the program name and PID of the application that sent the log message (since you will use the template-function in a
template, you must escape the double-quotes).
$(format-json --scope syslog,all_macros,selected_macros \
--exclude R_* --exclude S_* --key .SDATA.meta.sequenceId \
--pair MSGHDR=\"$PROGRAM[$PID]: \")
The following example shows how to use this template function to store log messages in JSON format:
destination d_json {
file("/var/log/messages.json" template("$(format-json --scope selected_macros --scope
nv_pairs)\n"));
};
Note
In case of syslog-ng macros starting with a dot (for example ".SDATA.meta.sequenceID") an empty key name is added
at the top level of the JSON structure. You can work around this by adding --shift 1 as a parameter to the template
function. For example in case of ".SDATA.meta.sequenceID", an empty key name is added at the top level of the
JSON structure:
{"":
{"SDATA" :
{"meta" :
{"sequenceID": "123"}
}
}
}
www.balabit.com
249
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
geoip
Syntax:
$(geoip <IP-address>)
Description: This template function returns the 2-letter country code of any IPv4 address or host. Currently
only the 2-letter codes are supported, and only from the default database. For example, $(geoip $HOST)
Note
This template function is available only if syslog-ng OSE has been compiled with the --enable-geoip compiling
option.
graphite-output
Syntax:
$(graphite-output parameters)
Description: Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.6 and later (Originally appeared in the syslog-ng OSE incubator
for syslog-ng 3.5). This template function converts value-pairs from the incoming message to the Graphite
plain text protocol format. It is ideal to use with the messages generated by the monitor-source plugin (currently
available in the syslog-ng incubator project).
For details on selecting value-pairs in syslog-ng OSE and for possibilities to specify which information to
convert to Graphite plain text protocol format, see Section 2.10, Structuring macros, metadata, and other
value-pairs (p. 17). Note that the syntax of graphite-output is different from the syntax of value-pairs():
graphite-output uses a the command-line syntax used in the format-json template function.
Example 11.4. Using the graphite-output template function
The following configuration example shows, how to send value-pairs with names starting with "vmstat." to Graphite
running on localhost, port 2003:
destination d_graphite {
tcp( host("localhost") port(2003) template("$(graphite-output --key vmstat.*)"));
};
grep
Syntax:
$(grep condition value-to-select)
Description: The grep template function is useful when using a pattern database to correlate related log
messages. The grep template function can be used to filter the messages of the same context when the index
of the particular message is not known.
Example 11.5. Using the grep template function
The following example selects the message of the context that has a username name-value pair with the root value,
and returns the value of the auth_method name-value pair.
$(grep ("${username}" == "root") ${auth_method})
www.balabit.com
250
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
It is possible to specify multiple name-value pairs as parameters, separated with commas. If multiple messages
match the condition of grep, these will be returned also separated by commas. This can be used for example
to collect the e-mail recipients from postfix messages.
hash
Syntax:
$(<method> [opts] $arg1 $arg2 $arg3...)
Options:
--length N, -l N
Truncate the hash to the first N characters.
Description: Calculates a hash of the string or macro received as argument using the specified hashing method.
If you specify multiple arguments, effectively you receive the hash of the first argument salted with the subsequent
arguments.
<method> can be one of md5, md4, sha1, sha256, sha512 and "hash", which is equivalent to md5. Macros are
expected as arguments, and they are concatenated without the use of additional characters.
This template function can be used for anonymizing sensitive parts of the log message (for example username)
that were parsed out using PatternDB before storing or forwarding the message. This way, the ability of
correlating messages along this value is retained.
Also, using this template, quasi-unique IDs can be generated for data, using the --length option. This way,
IDs will be shorter than a regular hash, but there is a very small possibility of them not being as unique as a
non-truncated hash.
Note
These template functions are available only if syslog-ng OSE has been compiled with the --enable-ssl compile option
and the tfhash module has been loaded. By default, syslog-ng OSE loads every available module.
Example 11.6. Using the $(hash) template function
The following example calculates the SHA1 hash of the hostname of the message:
$(sha1 $HOST)
The following example calculates the SHA256 hash of the hostname, using the salted string to salt the result:
$(sha1 $HOST salted)
To use shorter hashes, set the --length:
$(sha1 --length 6 $HOST)
To replace the hostname with its hash, use a rewrite rule:
rewrite r_rewrite_hostname{set("$(sha1 $HOST)", value("HOST"));};
www.balabit.com
251
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
Example 11.7.
The following example replaces every IPv4 address in the MESSAGE part with its SHA-1 hash:
rewrite pseudonymize_ip_addresses_in_message {subst
("(([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])\.){3}([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])",
"$(sha1)", value("MSG"));};
if
Syntax:
$(if (<condition>) <true template> <false template>)
Description: Returns the value of the <true template> parameter if the <condition> is true. If the
<condition> is false, the value of <false template> is returned.
Example 11.8. Using pattern databases and the if template function
The following example returns violation if the username name-value pair of a message processed with pattern database
is root, and system otherwise.
$(if ("${username}" == "root") "violation" "system")
This can be used to set the class of a message in pattern database rules based on the condition.
<value name="username">$(if ("${username}" == "root") "violation" "system")</value>
Since template functions can be embedded into each other, it is possible to use another template function as the template
of the first one. For example, the following expression returns root if the username is root, admin if the username is
joe, and normal user otherwise.
<value name="username">
$(if ("${username}" == "root")
"root"
$(if ("${username}" == "joe") "admin" "normal user")
"normal user")</value>
indent-multi-line
Syntax:
$(indent-multi-line parameter)
Description: This template function makes it possible to write multi-line log messages into a file. The first line
is written like a regular message, subsequent lines are indented with a tab, in compliance with RFC822.
Example 11.9. Using the indent-multi-line template function
The following example writes multi-line messages into a text file.
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("${ISODATE} ${HOST} $(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE})\n") );
};
ipv4-to-int
Syntax:
$(ipv4-to-int parameter)
www.balabit.com
252
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
Description: Converts the specified IPv4 address to its numeric representation. The numerical value of an IPv4
address is calculated by treating the IP address as a 4-byte hexadecimal value. For example, the 192.168.1.1
address equals to: 192=C0, 168=A8, 1=01, 1=01, or C0A80101, which is 3232235777 in decimal representation.
Note
This template function is available only if the convertfuncs module has been loaded. By default, syslog-ng OSE loads
every available module.
length
Syntax:
$(length "<macro>")
Description: Returns the length of the macro in characters, for example, the length of the message. For example,
the following filter selects messages that are shorter than 16 characters:
f_short {
match ('-', value ("$(if ($(length "${MSG}") <= 16) "-" "+")"));
};
lowercase
Syntax:
$(lowercase "<macro>")
Description: Returns the lowercase version of the specified string or macro. For example, the following example
uses the lowercase version of the hostname in a directory name:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/${MONTH}/${DAY}/$(lowercase "${HOST}")/messages");
};
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.5 and later.
Numerical operations
Syntax:
$(<operation> "<value1>" "<value2>")
Description: These template functions allow you to manipulate numbers, that is, to perform addition (+),
substraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/), and modulus (%). All of them require two numeric arguments.
The result is NaN (Not-a-Number) if the parameters are not numbers, cannot be parsed, or if a division by zero
would occur. For example, to add the value of two macros, use the following template function:
$(+ "${<MACRO1>}" "${<MACRO2>}");
or
Syntax:
www.balabit.com
253
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
$(or <macro1> <macro2>)
Description: This template function returns the first non-empty argument.
padding
Syntax:
$(padding <macro> <prepended characters>)
Description: This template function extends a string to a specified width with prepending specified characters.
The default padding character is ' '(space). For example:
Example 11.10. Using the padding template function
$(padding $MESSAGE 10 X): bar
This will result in the following string: XXXXXXXbar
$(padding $MESSAGE 10 foo): bar
This will result in the following string: foofoofbar
replace-delimiter
Syntax:
$(replace-delimiter "<old-delimiters>" "<new-delimiter>" "<macro>")
Description: Replaces the delimiter character with a new one. For example, the following example replaces
the tabulators (/t) in the message with semicolons (;):
$(replace-delimiter "\t" ";" "${MESSAGE}")
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.5 and later.
sanitize
Syntax:
$(sanitize <options> "<macro1>" "<macro2> ...")
Description: This file replaces the special characters in macro values, for example, it can replace the slash (/)
characters in a filename with the underscore (_) character. If you specify multiple arguments, they will be
concatenated using the / character, so they can be used as separate directory levels when used in filenames.
The function has the following options:
--ctrl-chars or -c
Filter control characters (characters that have an ASCII code of
32 or lower). This option is used by default.
--invalid-chars
<characterlist> or -i
<characterlist>
The list of characters to be replaced with underscores (_). The
default list contains the / character. The following example
replaces the \ and @ characters, so for example, fo\o@bar
becomes foobar:
www.balabit.com
254
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
$(sanitize -i \@ $PROGRAM)
--no-ctrl-chars or -C
Do not filter the control characters (characters that have an ASCII
code of 32 or lower).
--replacement
<replacement-character> or
-r <replacement-character>
The character used to replace invalid characters. By default, this
is the underscore (_). The following example replaces invalid
characters with colons instead of underscores, so for example,
foo/bar becomes foo;bar:
$(sanitize -r ; $PROGRAM)
Example 11.11. Using the sanitize template function
The following example uses the sanitize function on two macros, and the results are used as directory names in a file
destination.
file("/var/log/$(sanitize $HOST $PROGRAM)/messages");
This is equivalent to file("/var/log/$HOST/$PROGRAM/messages");, but any slashes in the values of the $HOST
and $PROGRAM macros are replaced with underscores.
strip
Syntax:
$(strip "<macro>")
Description: Deletes whitespaces from the beginning and the end of a macro. You can specify multiple macros
separated with whitespace in a single template function, for example:
$(strip "${MSG}" "${PROGRAM}");
};
substr
Syntax:
$(substr "<argument>" "<offset>" "<length>")
Description: This function extracts a substring of a string.
argument
The string to extract the substring from, for example, "${MSG}"
offset
Specifies where the substring begins (in characters). 0 means to
start from the beginning of the string, 5 means to skip the first
5 characters of the string, and so on. Use negative numbers to
specify where to start from the end of the string, for example,
-1 means the last character, -5 means to start five characters
before the end of the string.
length
Optional parameter: The number of characters to extract. If not
specified, the substring will be extracted from the offset to the
end of the string. Use negative numbers to stop the substring
www.balabit.com
255
Template functions of syslog-ng OSE
before the end of the string, for example, -5 means the substring
ends five characters before the end of the string.
Example 11.12. Using the substr template function
Skip the first 15 characters of the message, and select the rest:
$(substr "${MSG}" "15");
Select characters 16-30 of the message:
$(substr "${MSG}" "15" "30");
Select the last 15 characters of the message:
$(substr "${MSG}" "-15");
A template that converts the message to RFC3164 (BSD-syslog) format and truncates the messages to 1023 characters:
template t_truncate_messages {
template("$(substr \"<$PRI>$DATE $HOST $MSGHDR$MSG\" \"0\" \"1023\")\n");
template-escape(no);
};
uppercase
Syntax:
$(uppercase "<macro>")
Description: Returns the uppercase version of the specified string or macro. For example, the following example
uses the uppercase version of the hostname in a directory name:
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/${MONTH}/${DAY}/$(uppercase "${HOST}")/messages");
};
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.5 and later.
uuid
Syntax:
$(uuid)
Description: Generates a Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) that complies with RFC4122. That way, an
UUID can be added to the message soon after it is received, so messages stored in multiple destinations can be
identified. For example, when storing messages in a database and also in files, the UUID can be used to find a
particular message both in the database and the files.
To generate a UUID, you can use a rewrite rule to create a new value-pair for the message.
Example 11.13. Using Universally Unique Identifiers
The following example adds a value-pair called MESSAGE_UUID to the message using a rewrite rule and a template.
www.balabit.com
256
Modifying the on-the-wire message format
rewrite r_add_uuid { set("$(uuid)" value("MESSAGE_UUID")); };
destination d_file {
file ("/var/log/messages"
template("$MESSAGE_UUID $ISODATE $HOST $MSG\n")
template-escape(no)
);
};
log { source(s_network);
rewrite(r_add_uuid);
destination(d_file);
};
Note
This template function is available only if the tfuuid module has been loaded. By default, syslog-ng OSE loads every
available module.
11.1.8. Modifying the on-the-wire message format
Macros, templates, and template functions allow you to fully customize the format of the message. This flexibility
makes it possible to use syslog-ng OSE in some unexpected way if needed, for example, to emulate simple,
plain-text protocols. The following example shows you how to send LPUSH commands to a Redis server.
Note
The purpose of this example is to demonstrate the flexibility of syslog-ng OSE. A dedicated Redis destination is available
in syslog-ng OSE version 3.5. For details, see Section 7.9, Storing name-value pairs in Redis (p. 152).
The following template is a valid LPUSH command in accordance with the Redis protocol, and puts the
$MESSAGE into a separate list for every $PROGRAM:
template t_redis_lpush {
template("*3\r\n$$5\r\nLPUSH\r\n$$$(length
${PROGRAM})\r\n${PROGRAM}\r\n$$$(length ${MESSAGE})\r\n${MESSAGE}\r\n");
};
If you use this template in a tcp() destination, syslog-ng OSE formats the message according to the template,
and sends it to the Redis server.
destination d_redis_tcp {
tcp("127.0.0.1" port(6379) template(t_redis_lpush));
};
11.2. Modifying messages
The syslog-ng application can rewrite parts of the messages using rewrite rules. Rewrite rules are global objects
similar to parsers and filters and can be used in log paths. The syslog-ng application has two methods to rewrite
This example is a summary of a blog post by Ben Wilder.
www.balabit.com
257
Replacing message parts
parts of the log messages: substituting (setting) a part of the message to a fix value, and a general
search-and-replace mode.
Substitution completely replaces a specific part of the message that is referenced using a built-in or user-defined
macro.
General rewriting searches for a string in the entire message (or only a part of the message specified by a macro)
and replaces it with another string. Optionally, this replacement string can be a template that contains macros.
Rewriting messages is often used in conjunction with message parsing Section 12.2, Parsing messages (p. 268).
Rewrite rules are similar to filters: they must be defined in the syslog-ng configuration file and used in the log
statement.
Note
The order of filters, rewriting rules, and parsers in the log statement is important, as they are processed sequentially.
11.2.1. Replacing message parts
To replace a part of the log message, you have to:
■ define a string or regular expression to find the text to replace
■ define a string to replace the original text (macros can be used as well)
■ select the field of the message that the rewrite rule should process
Substitution rules can operate on any value available via macros, for example HOST, MESSAGE, PROGRAM,
or any user-defined macros created using parsers (for details, see Chapter 12, Parsing and segmenting structured
messages (p. 267) and Chapter 13, Processing message content with a pattern database (p. 275)). The only
exceptions are the FACILITY, SEVERITY, TAGS, and the date-related fields, which cannot be rewritten. You
can also rewrite the structured-data fields of messages complying to the RFC5424 (IETF-syslog) message
format. Substitution rules use the following syntax:
Declaration:
rewrite <name_of_the_rule> {
subst("<string or regular expression to find>",
"<replacement string>", value(<field name>), flags() );
};
The type() and flags() options are optional. The type() specifies the type of regular expression to use;
while the flags() are the flags of the regular expressions. For details on regular expressions, see Section 11.3,
Regular expressions (p. 263).
A single substitution rule can include multiple substitutions that are applied sequentially to the message. Note
that rewriting rules must be included in the log statement to have any effect.
www.balabit.com
258
Setting message fields to specific values
Tip
For case-insensitive searches, add the flags(ignore-case) option; to replace every occurrence of the string, add
flags(global) option.
Example 11.14. Using substitution rules
The following example replaces the IP in the text of the message with the string IP-Address.
rewrite r_rewrite_subst{subst("IP", "IP-Address", value("MESSAGE"));};
To replace every occurrence, use:
rewrite r_rewrite_subst{
subst("IP", "IP-Address", value("MESSAGE"), flags("global"));
};
Multiple substitution rules are applied sequentially; the following rules replace the first occurrence of the string IP with
the string IP-Addresses.
rewrite r_rewrite_subst{
subst("IP", "IP-Address", value("MESSAGE"));
subst("Address", "Addresses", value("MESSAGE"));
};
Example 11.15.
The following example replaces every IPv4 address in the MESSAGE part with its SHA-1 hash:
rewrite pseudonymize_ip_addresses_in_message {subst
("(([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])\.){3}([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])",
"$(sha1)", value("MSG"));};
11.2.2. Setting message fields to specific values
To set a field of the message to a specific value, you have to:
■ define the string to include in the message, and
■ select the field where it should be included.
You can set the value of available macros, for example HOST, MESSAGE, PROGRAM, or any user-defined
macros created using parsers (for details, see Chapter 12, Parsing and segmenting structured messages (p. 267)
and Chapter 13, Processing message content with a pattern database (p. 275)). The only exceptions are the
FACILITY, SEVERITY, TAGS, and the date-related fields, which cannot be rewritten. Note that the rewrite
operation completely replaces any previous value of that field. Use the following syntax:
Declaration:
rewrite <name_of_the_rule> {
set("<string to include>", value(<field name>));
};
Example 11.16. Setting message fields to a particular value
The following example sets the HOST field of the message to myhost.
rewrite r_rewrite_set{set("myhost", value("HOST"));};
The following example appends the "suffix" string to the MESSAGE field:
www.balabit.com
259
Creating custom SDATA fields
rewrite r_rewrite_set{set("$MESSAGE suffix", value("MESSAGE"));};
For details on rewriting SDATA fields, see Section 11.2.3, Creating custom SDATA fields (p. 260).
11.2.3. Creating custom SDATA fields
If you use RFC5424-formatted (IETF-syslog) messages, you can also create custom fields in the SDATA part
of the message (For details on the SDATA message part, see Section 2.8.2.3, The STRUCTURED-DATA message
part (p. 15)). According to RFC5424, the name of the field (its SD-ID) must not contain the @ character for
reserved SD-IDs. Custom SDATA fields must be in the following format: name@<private enterprise
number>, for example, mySDATA-field@18372.4. (18372.4 is the private enterprise number of BalaBit
S.a.r.l., the developer of syslog-ng OSE.)
Example 11.17. Rewriting custom SDATA fields
The following example sets the sequence ID field of the RFC5424-formatted (IETF-syslog) messages to a fixed value.
This field is a predefined SDATA field with a reserved SD-ID, therefore its name does not contain the @ character.
rewrite r_sd {
set("55555" value(".SDATA.meta.sequenceId"));
};
It is also possible to set the value of a field that does not exist yet, and create a new, custom name-value pair that is
associated with the message. The following example creates the MODIFIED@18372.4 field and sets its value to yes. If
you use the ${MODIFIED@18372.4} macro in a template or SQL table, its value will be yes for every message that was
processed with this rewrite rule, and empty for every other message.
rewrite r_rewrite_set {
set("yes", value("MODIFIED@18372.4"));
};
11.2.4. Setting multiple message fields to specific values
The groupset() rewrite rule allows you to modify the value of multiple message fields at once, for example,
to change the value of sensitive fields extracted using patterndb, or received in a JSON format.
■ The first parameter is the new value of the modified fields. This can be a simple string, a macro, or
a template (which can include template functions as well).
■ The second parameter (values()) specifies the fields to modify. You can explicitly list the macros
or fields (a space-separated list with the values enclosed in double-quotes), or use wildcards and
glob expressions to select multiple fields.
■ Note that groupset() does not create new fields, it only modifies existing fields.
■ You can refer to the old value of the field using the $_ macro. This is resolved to the value of the
current field, and is available only in groupset() rules.
Declaration:
rewrite <name_of_the_rule> {
groupset("<new-value-of-the-fields>", values("<field-name-or-glob>"
["<another-field-name-or-glob>"]));
};
www.balabit.com
260
Conditional rewrites
Example 11.18. Using groupset rewrite rules
The following examples show how to change the values of multiple fields at the same time.
■ Change the value of the HOST field to myhost.
groupset ("myhost" values("HOST"))
■ Change the value of the HOST and FULLHOST fields to myhost.
groupset ("myhost" values("HOST" "FULLHOST"))
■ Change the value of the HOST FULLHOST and fields to lowercase.
groupset ("$(lowercase "$_")" values("HOST" "FULLHOST"))
■ Change the value of each field and macro that begins with .USER to nobody.
groupset ("nobody" values(".USER.*"))
■ Change the value of each field and macro that begins with .USER to its SHA-1 hash (truncated to 6
characters).
groupset ("$(sha1 --length 6 $_)" values(".USER.*"))
11.2.5. Conditional rewrites
Starting with 3.2, it is possible to apply a rewrite rule to a message only if certain conditions are met. The
condition() option effectively embeds a filter expression into the rewrite rule: the message is modified only
if the message passes the filter. If the condition is not met, the message is passed to the next element of the log
path (that is, the element following the rewrite rule in the log statement, for example, the destination). Any
filter expression normally used in filters can be used as a rewrite condition. Existing filter statements can be
referenced using the filter() function within the condition. For details on filters, see Section 8.3,
Filters (p. 208).
Tip
Using conditions in rewrite rules can simplify your syslog-ng OSE configuration file, as you do not need to create separate
log paths to modify certain messages.
11.2.5.1. Procedure – How conditional rewriting works
Purpose:
The following procedure summarizes how conditional rewrite rules (rewrite rules that have the condition()
parameter set) work. The following configuration snippet is used to illustrate the procedure:
rewrite r_rewrite_set{set("myhost", value("HOST")
condition(program("myapplication")));};
log {
source(s1);
rewrite(r_rewrite_set);
destination(d1);};
Steps:
www.balabit.com
261
Adding and deleting tags
Step 1. The log path receives a message from the source (s1).
Step 2. The rewrite rule (r_rewrite_set) evaluates the condition. If the message matches the condition (the
PROGRAM field of the message is "myapplication"), syslog-ng OSE rewrites the log message (sets
the value of the HOST field to "myhost"), otherwise it is not modified.
Step 3. The next element of the log path processes the message (d1).
Example 11.19. Using conditional rewriting
The following example sets the HOST field of the message to myhost only if the message was sent by the myapplication
program.
rewrite r_rewrite_set{set("myhost", value("HOST") condition(program("myapplication")));};
The following example is identical to the previous one, except that the condition references an existing filter template.
filter f_rewritefilter {program("myapplication");};
rewrite r_rewrite_set{set("myhost", value("HOST") condition(filter(f_rewritefilter)));};
11.2.6. Adding and deleting tags
To add or delete a tag, you can use rewrite rules. To add a tag, use the following syntax:
rewrite <name_of_the_rule> {
set-tag("<tag-to-add>");
};
To delete a tag, use the following syntax:
rewrite <name_of_the_rule> {
clear-tag("<tag-to-delete>");
};
You cannot use macros in the tags.
11.2.7. Anonymizing credit card numbers
Log messages of banking and e-commerce applications might include credit card numbers (Primary Account
Number or PAN). According to privacy best practices and the requirements of the Payment Card Industry Data
Security Standards (PCI-DSS), PAN must be rendered unreadable. The syslog-ng OSE application uses a regular
expression to detect credit card numbers, and provides two ways to accomplish this: you can either mask the
credit card numbers, or replace them with a hash. To mask the credit card numbers, use the
credit-card-mask() or the credit-card-hash() rewrite rules in a log path.
Usage:
@include 'scl/rewrite/cc-mask.conf'
rewrite { credit-card-mask(value("<message-field-to-process>")); };
};
By default, these rewrite rules process the MESSAGE part of the log message.
www.balabit.com
262
Regular expressions
credit-card-hash()
Synopsis: credit-card-hash(value("<message-field-to-process>"))
Description: Process the specified message field (by default, ${MESSAGE}), and replace any credit card numbers
(Primary Account Number or PAN) with its 16-character-long SHA-1 hash.
credit-card-mask()
Synopsis: credit-card-mask(value("<message-field-to-process>"))
Description: Process the specified message field (by default, ${MESSAGE}), and replace the 7-12th character
of any credit card numbers (Primary Account Number or PAN) with asterisks (*). For example, syslog-ng OSE
replaces the number 5542043004559005 with 554204******9005.
11.3. Regular expressions
Filters and substitution rewrite rules can use regular expressions. In regular expressions, the characters
()[].*?+^$|\ are used as special symbols. Depending on how you want to use these characters and which
quotation mark you use, these characters must be used differently, as summarized below.
■ Strings between single quotes ('string') are treated literally and are not interpreted at all, you do
not have to escape special characters. For example the output of '\x41' is \x41 (characters as
follows: backslash, x(letter), 4(number), 1(number)). This makes writing and reading regular
expressions much more simple: it is recommended to use single quotes when writing regular
expressions.
■ When enclosing strings between double-quotes ("string"), the string is interpreted and you have
to escape special characters, that is, to precede them with a backslash (\) character if they are meant
literally. For example the output of the "\x41" is simply the letter a. Therefore special characters
like \(backslash) "(quotation mark) must be escaped (\\ and \"). The following expressions are
interpreted: \a; \n; \r; \t; \v. For example, the \$40 expression matches the $40 string. Backslashes
have to be escaped as well if they are meant literally, for example, the \\d expression matches the
\d string.
Tip
If you use single quotes, you do not need to escape the backslash, for example match("\\.") is equivalent
to match('\.').
■ Enclosing alphanumeric strings between double-quotes ("string") is not necessary, you can just
omit the double-quotes. For example when writing filters, match("sometext") and
match(sometext) will both match for the sometext string.
Note
Only strings containing alphanumerical characters can be used without quotes or double quotes. If the
string contains whitespace or any special characters (()[].*?+^$|\ or ;:#), you must use quotes or
double quotes.
www.balabit.com
263
Types and options of regular expressions
When using the ;:# characters, you must use quotes or double quotes, but escaping them is not required.
By default, all regular expressions are case sensitive. To disable the case sensitivity of the expression, add the
flags(ignore-case) option to the regular expression.
filter demo_regexp_insensitive { host("system" flags(ignore-case)); };
The regular expressions can use up to 255 regexp matches (${1} ... ${255}), but only from the last filter
and only if the flags("store-matches") flag was set for the filter. For case-insensitive searches, use the
flags("ignore-case") option.
11.3.1. Types and options of regular expressions
By default, syslog-ng uses PCRE-style regular expressions. To use other expression types, add the type()
option after the regular expression.
The syslog-ng OSE application supports the following expression types:
■ POSIX regular expressions
■ Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE)
■ Literal string searches
■ Glob patterns without regular expression support
posix
Description: Use POSIX regular expressions.
Posix regular expressions have the following flag options:
global:
Usable only in rewrite rules; match for every occurrence of the expression, not only the first one.
ignore-case:
Disable case-sensitivity.
store-matches: Store the matches of the regular expression into the $1, ... $255 variables. Matches from
the last filter expression can be referenced in regular expressions.
utf8:
Use UTF-8 matching.
Example 11.20. Using Posix regular expressions
filter f_message { message("keyword" flags("utf8" "ignore-case") ); };
pcre
Description: Use Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE). If the type() parameter is not specified,
syslog-ng uses PCRE regular expressions by default.
www.balabit.com
264
Optimizing regular expressions
PCRE regular expressions have the following flag options:
Usable only in rewrite rules; match for every occurrence of the expression, not only the first one.
global:
ignore-case:
Disable case-sensitivity.
store-matches: Store the matches of the regular expression into the $1, ... $255 variables. Named
matches (also called named subpatterns), for example (?<name>...), are stored as well. Matches from the
last filter expression can be referenced in regular expressions.
unicode:
utf8:
Use Unicode support for UTF-8 matches: UTF-8 character sequences are handled as single characters.
An alias for the unicode flag.
Example 11.21. Using PCRE regular expressions
rewrite r_rewrite_subst
{subst("a*", "?", value("MESSAGE") type("pcre") flags("utf8" "global"));
};
string
Description: Match the strings literally, without regular expression support. By default, only identical strings
are matched. For partial matches, use the flags("prefix") or the flags("substring") flags.
glob
Description: Match the strings against a pattern containing '*' and '?' wildcards, without regular expression
and character range support. The advantage of glob patterns to regular expressions is that globs can be processed
much faster.
*
matches an arbitrary string, including an empty string
?
matches an arbitrary character
Note
■ The wildcards can match the / character.
■ You cannot use the * and ? literally in the pattern.
11.3.2. Optimizing regular expressions
The host(), match(), and program() filter functions and some other syslog-ng objects accept regular
expressions as parameters. But evaluating general regular expressions puts a high load on the CPU, which can
cause problems when the message traffic is very high. Often the regular expression can be replaced with simple
filter functions and logical operators. Using simple filters and logical operators, the same effect can be achieved
at a much lower CPU load.
www.balabit.com
265
Optimizing regular expressions
Example 11.22. Optimizing regular expressions in filters
Suppose you need a filter that matches the following error message logged by the xntpd NTP daemon:
xntpd[1567]: time error -1159.777379 is too large (set clock manually);
The following filter uses regular expressions and matches every instance and variant of this message.
filter f_demo_regexp {
program("demo_program") and
match("time error .* is too large .* set clock manually"); };
Segmenting the match() part of this filter into separate match() functions greatly improves the performance of the
filter.
filter f_demo_optimized_regexp {
program("demo_program") and
match("time error") and
match("is too large") and
match("set clock manually"); };
www.balabit.com
266
Parsing syslog messages
Chapter 12. Parsing and segmenting structured
messages
The filters and default macros of syslog-ng work well on the headers and metainformation of the log messages,
but are rather limited when processing the content of the messages. Parsers can segment the content of the
messages into name-value pairs, and these names can be used as user-defined macros. Subsequent filtering or
other type of processing of the message can use these custom macros to refer to parts of the message. Parsers
are global objects most often used together with filters and rewrite rules.
syslog-ng OSE provides the following possibilities to parse the messages, or parts of the messages:
■ By default, syslog-ng OSE parses every message as a syslog message. To disable message parsing,
use the flags(no-parse) option of the source. To explicitly parse a message as a syslog message,
use the syslog parser. For details, see Section 12.1, Parsing syslog messages (p. 267).
■ To segment a message into columns using a CSV-parser, see Section 12.2, Parsing messages (p. 268).
■ To parse JSON-formatted messages, see Section 12.3, The JSON parser (p. 272).
■ To identify and parse the messages using a pattern database, see Chapter 13, Processing message
content with a pattern database (p. 275).
12.1. Parsing syslog messages
By default, syslog-ng OSE parses every message using the syslog-parser as a syslog message, and fills the
macros with values of the message. The syslog-parser does not discard messages: the message cannot be
parsed as a syslog message, the entire message (including its header) is stored in the $MSG macro. If you do
not want to parse the message as a syslog message, use the flags(no-parse) option of the source.
Example 12.1. Using junctions
For example, suppose that you have a single network source that receives log messages from different devices, and some
devices send messages that are not RFC-compliant (some routers are notorious for that). To solve this problem in earlier
versions of syslog-ng OSE, you had to create two different network sources using different IP addresses or ports: one
that received the RFC-compliant messages, and one that received the improperly formatted messages (for example, using
the flags(no-parse) option). Using junctions this becomes much more simple: you can use a single network source
to receive every message, then use a junction and two channels. The first channel processes the RFC-compliant messages,
the second everything else. At the end, every message is stored in a single file. The filters used in the example can be
host() filters (if you have a list of the IP addresses of the devices sending non-compliant messages), but that depends
on your environment.
log {
source s_network { syslog(ip(10.1.2.3) transport("tcp") flags(no-parse)); };
junction {
channel { filter(f_compliant_hosts); parser { syslog-parser(); }; };
channel { filter(f_noncompliant_hosts); };
};
destination { file("/var/log/messages"); };
};
Since every channel receives every message that reaches the junction, use the flags(final) option in the channels to
avoid the unnecessary processing the messages multiple times:
log {
source s_network { syslog(ip(10.1.2.3) transport("tcp") flags(no-parse)); };
www.balabit.com
267
Parsing messages
junction {
channel { filter(f_compliant_hosts); parser { syslog-parser(); }; flags(final);
};
channel { filter(f_noncompliant_hosts); flags(final); };
};
destination { file("/var/log/messages"); };
};
12.2. Parsing messages
The syslog-ng application can separate parts of log messages (that is, the contents of the $MSG macro) to
named fields (columns). These fields act as user-defined macros that can be referenced in message templates,
file- and tablenames, and so on.
Parsers are similar to filters: they must be defined in the syslog-ng configuration file and used in the log statement.
Note
The order of filters, rewriting rules, and parsers in the log statement is important, as they are processed sequentially.
To create a parser, define the columns of the message, the delimiter or separator characters (for example,
semicolon or tabulator), and optionally the characters that are used to escape the delimiter characters (quote-pairs).
For the list of parser parameters, see Section 12.2.1, Options of CSV parsers (p. 270).
Declaration:
parser parser_name {
csv-parser(
columns(column1, column2, ...)
delimiters()
quote-pairs()
);
};
Column names work like macros. Always use a prefix to identify the columns of the parsers, for example
MYPARSER1.COLUMN1, MYPARSER2.COLUMN2, and so on. Column names starting with a dot (for example
.HOST) are reserved for use by syslog-ng.
Example 12.2. Segmenting hostnames separated with a dash
The following example separates hostnames like example-1 and example-2 into two parts.
parser p_hostname_segmentation {
csv-parser(columns("HOSTNAME.NAME", "HOSTNAME.ID")
delimiters("-")
flags(escape-none)
template("${HOST}"));
};
destination d_file { file("/var/log/messages-${HOSTNAME.NAME:-examplehost}"); };
log { source(s_local); parser(p_hostname_segmentation); destination(d_file);};
www.balabit.com
268
Parsing messages
Example 12.3. Parsing Apache log files
The following parser processes the log of Apache web servers and separates them into different fields. Apache log
messages can be formatted like:
"%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %T %v"
Here is a sample message:
192.168.1.1 - - [31/Dec/2007:00:17:10 +0100] "GET /cgi-bin/example.cgi HTTP/1.1" 200 2708
"-" "curl/7.15.5 (i4 86-pc-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.15.5 OpenSSL/0.9.8c zlib/1.2.3 libidn/0.6.5"
2 example.balabit
To parse such logs, the delimiter character is set to a single whitespace (delimiters(" ")). Whitespaces between
quotes and brackets are ignored (quote-pairs('""[]')).
parser p_apache {
csv-parser(columns("APACHE.CLIENT_IP", "APACHE.IDENT_NAME", "APACHE.USER_NAME",
"APACHE.TIMESTAMP", "APACHE.REQUEST_URL", "APACHE.REQUEST_STATUS",
"APACHE.CONTENT_LENGTH", "APACHE.REFERER", "APACHE.USER_AGENT",
"APACHE.PROCESS_TIME", "APACHE.SERVER_NAME")
flags(escape-double-char,strip-whitespace)
delimiters(" ")
quote-pairs('""[]')
);
};
The results can be used for example to separate log messages into different files based on the APACHE.USER_NAME
field. If the field is empty, the nouser name is assigned.
log { source(s_local);
parser(p_apache); destination(d_file);};
};
destination d_file { file("/var/log/messages-${APACHE.USER_NAME:-nouser}"); };
Multiple parsers can be used to split a part of an already parsed message into further segments.
Example 12.4. Segmenting a part of a message
The following example splits the timestamp of a parsed Apache log message into separate fields.
parser p_apache_timestamp {
csv-parser(columns("APACHE.TIMESTAMP.DAY", "APACHE.TIMESTAMP.MONTH",
"APACHE.TIMESTAMP.YEAR", "APACHE.TIMESTAMP.HOUR", "APACHE.TIMESTAMP.MIN",
"APACHE.TIMESTAMP.MIN", "APACHE.TIMESTAMP.ZONE")
delimiters("/: ")
flags(escape-none)
template("${APACHE.TIMESTAMP}"));
};
log { source(s_local);
log { parser(p_apache); parser(p_apache_timestamp); destination(d_file);};
};
Further examples:
■ For an example on using the greedy option, see Example 12.5, Adding the end of the message to
the last column (p. 271).
www.balabit.com
269
Options of CSV parsers
12.2.1. Options of CSV parsers
The syslog-ng application can separate parts of log messages (that is, the contents of the ${MSG} macro) to
named fields (columns). These fields act as user-defined macros that can be referenced in message templates,
file- and tablenames, and so on.
To create a parser, define the columns of the message, the delimiter or separator characters, and optionally the
characters that are used to escape the delimiter characters (quote-pairs).
Declaration:
parser parser_name {
csv-parser(
columns(column1, column2, ...)
delimiters()
quote-pairs()
);
};
Column names work like macros. Always use a prefix to identify the columns of the parsers, for example
MYPARSER1.COLUMN1, MYPARSER2.COLUMN2, and so on. Column names starting with a dot (for example
.HOST) are reserved for use by syslog-ng.
csv-parser
Synopsis: csv-parser(columns("PARSER.COLUMN1", "PARSER.COLUMN2", ...))
Description: Specifies the type of parser to use, and the name of the columns to separate messages to. Currently
only the csv-parser is implemented, which can separate columns based on delimiter characters and strings.
delimiters
Synopsis: delimiters("<delimiter_characters>")
Description: The character that separates the columns in the message. If you specify multiple characters, every
character will be treated as a delimiter. To separate the columns at the tabulator (tab character), specify \t. For
example, to separate the text at evert hyphen (-) and colon (:) character, use delimiters("-:")
flags()
Synopsis: drop-invalid, escape-none, escape-backslash, escape-double-char, greedy, strip-whitespace
Description: Specifies various options for parsing the message. The following flags are available:
■ drop-invalid: When the drop-invalid option is set, the parser does not process messages that do
not match the parser. For example, a message does not match the parser if it has less columns than
specified in the parser, or it has more columns but the greedy flag is not enabled. Using the
drop-invalid option practically turns the parser into a special filter, that matches messages that
have the predefined number of columns (using the specified delimiters).
www.balabit.com
270
Options of CSV parsers
Tip
Messages dropped as invalid can be processed by a fallback log path. For details on the fallback
option, see Section 8.1.3, Log path flags (p. 202).
■ escape-backslash: The parsed message uses the backslash (\) character to escape quote characters.
■ escape-double-char: The parsed message repeats the quote character when the quote character is
used literally. For example, to escape a comma (,), the message contains two commas (,,).
■ escape-none: The parsed message does not use any escaping for using the quote character literally.
■ greedy: The greedy option assigns the remainder of the message to the last column, regardless of
the delimiter characters set. You can use this option to process messages where the number of columns
varies.
Example 12.5. Adding the end of the message to the last column
If the greedy option is enabled, the syslog-ng application adds the not-yet-parsed part of the message to
the last column, ignoring any delimiter characters that may appear in this part of the message.
For example, you receive the following comma-separated message: example 1, example2, example3,
and you segment it with the following parser:
csv-parser(columns("COLUMN1", "COLUMN2", "COLUMN3") delimiters(","));
The COLUMN1, COLUMN2, and COLUMN3 variables will contain the strings example1, example2, and
example3, respectively. If the message looks like example 1, example2, example3, some more
information, then any text appearing after the third comma (that is, some more information) is not
parsed, and possibly lost if you use only the variables to reconstruct the message (for example, to send it
to different columns of an SQL table).
Using the greedy flag will assign the remainder of the message to the last column, so that the COLUMN1,
COLUMN2, and COLUMN3 variables will contain the strings example1, example2, and example3, some
more information.
csv-parser(columns("COLUMN1", "COLUMN2", "COLUMN3") delimiters(",")
flags(greedy));
■ strip-whitespace: The strip-whitespace flag removes trailing whitespaces from the beginning
and the end of the columns.
quote-pairs()
Synopsis: quote-pairs('<quote_pairs>')
Description: List quote-pairs between single quotes. Delimiter characters enclosed between quote characters
are ignored. Note that the beginning and ending quote character does not have to be identical, for example [}
can also be a quote-pair. For an example of using quote-pairs() to parse Apache log files, see Example
12.3, Parsing Apache log files (p. 269).
template()
Synopsis: template("${<macroname>}")
www.balabit.com
271
The JSON parser
Description: The macro that contains the part of the message that the parser will process. It can also be a macro
created by a previous parser of the log path. By default, this is empty and the parser processes the entire message
(${MESSAGE}). For examples, see Example 12.2, Segmenting hostnames separated with a dash (p. 268) and
Example 12.4, Segmenting a part of a message (p. 269).
12.3. The JSON parser
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a text-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange.
It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, serving as an alternative to XML. It
is described in RFC 4627. The syslog-ng OSE application can separate parts of JSON-encoded log messages
to name-value pairs, using json-c. For details on using value-pairs in syslog-ng OSE see Section 2.10, Structuring
macros, metadata, and other value-pairs (p. 17).
You can refer to the separated parts of the JSON message using the key of the JSON object as a macro. For
example, if the JSON contains {"KEY1":"value1","KEY2":"value2"}, you can refer to the values as
${KEY1} and ${KEY2}. If the JSON content is structured, syslog-ng OSE converts it to dot-notation-format.
For example, to access the value of the following structure {"KEY1": {"KEY2": "VALUE"}}, use the
${KEY1.KEY2} macro.
Warning
If the names of keys in the JSON content are the same as the names of syslog-ng OSE soft macros, the value from the
JSON content will overwrite the value of the macro. For example, the {"PROGRAM":"value1","MESSAGE":"value2"}
JSON content will overwrite the ${PROGRAM} and ${MESSAGE} macros. To avoid overwriting such macros, use the
prefix() option.
Hard macros cannot be modified, so they will not be overwritten. For details on the macro types, see Section 11.1.4, Hard
vs. soft macros (p. 241).
Note
The JSON parser currently supports only integer, double and string values when interpreting JSON structures. As syslog-ng
does not handle different data types internally, the JSON parser converts all JSON data to string values. In case of boolean
types, the value is converted to 'TRUE' or 'FALSE' as their string representation.
The JSON parser discards messages if it cannot parse them as JSON messages, so it acts as a JSON-filter as well.
To create a JSON parser, define a parser that has the json-parser() option. Defining the prefix and the
marker are optional. By default, the parser will process the ${MESSAGE} part of the log message. To process
other parts of a log message with the JSON parser, use the template() option.
Declaration:
parser parser_name {
json-parser(
marker()
prefix()
);
};
www.balabit.com
272
Options of JSON parsers
Example 12.6. Using a JSON parser
In the following example, the source is a JSON encoded log message. The syslog parser is disabled, so that syslog-ng
OSE does not parse the message: flags(no-parse). The json-parser inserts ".json." prefix before all extracted
name-value pairs. The destination is a file, that uses the format-json template function. Every name-value pair that
begins with a dot (".") character will be written to the file (dot-nv-pairs). The log line connects the source, the
destination and the parser.
source s_json {
tcp(port(21514) flags(no-parse));
};
destination d_json {
file("/tmp/test.json"
template("$(format-json --scope dot-nv-pairs)\n"));
};
parser p_json {
json-parser (prefix(".json."));
};
log {
source(s_json);
parser(p_json);
destination(d_json);
};
12.3.1. Options of JSON parsers
The JSON parser has the following options.
extract-prefix
Synopsis: extract-prefix()
Description: Extract only the specified subtree from the JSON message. Use the dot-notation to specify the
subtree. The rest of the message will be ignored. For example, assuming that the incoming object is named
msg, the json-parser(extract-prefix("foo.bar[5]")); syslog-ng OSE parser is equivalent to the
msg.foo.bar[5] javascript code. Note that the resulting expression must be a JSON object, so that syslog-ng
OSE can extract its members into name-value pairs.
This feature also works when the top-level object is an array, because you can use an array index at the first
indirection level, for example: json-parser(extract-prefix("[5]")), which is equivalent to msg[5].
marker
Synopsis: marker()
Description: Use a marker in case of mixed log messages, to identify JSON encoded messages for the parser.
Some logging implementations require a marker to be set before the JSON payload. The JSON parser is able
to find these markers and parse the message only if it is present.
Example 12.7. Using the marker option in JSON parser
This json parser parses log messages which use the "@cee:" marker in front of the json payload. It inserts ".cee." in
front of the name of name-value pairs, so later on it is easier to find name-value pairs that were parsed using this parser.
(For details on selecting name-value pairs, see Section value-pairs() (p. 19).)
www.balabit.com
273
Options of JSON parsers
parser {
json-parser(
marker("@cee:")
prefix(".cee.")
);
};
prefix
Synopsis: prefix()
Description: Insert a prefix before the name part of the name-value pairs to help further processing. For example,
if you forward the parsed messages using the IETF-syslog protocol, you can insert all the parsed data into the
SDATA part of the message using the prefix(.SDATA.json.) .
template()
Synopsis: template("${<macroname>}")
Description: The macro that contains the part of the message that the parser will process. It can also be a macro
created by a previous parser of the log path. By default, this is empty and the parser processes the entire message
(${MESSAGE}).
www.balabit.com
274
Classifying log messages
Chapter 13. Processing message content with a
pattern database
13.1. Classifying log messages
The syslog-ng application can compare the contents of the received log messages to predefined message patterns.
By comparing the messages to the known patterns, syslog-ng is able to identify the exact type of the messages,
and sort them into message classes. The message classes can be used to classify the type of the event described
in the log message. The message classes can be customized, and for example can label the messages as user
login, application crash, file transfer, and so on events.
To find the pattern that matches a particular message, syslog-ng uses a method called longest prefix match radix
tree. This means that syslog-ng creates a tree structure of the available patterns, where the different characters
available in the patterns for a given position are the branches of the tree.
To classify a message, syslog-ng selects the first character of the message (the text of message, not the header),
and selects the patterns starting with this character, other patterns are ignored for the rest of the process. After
that, the second character of the message is compared to the second character of the selected patterns. Again,
matching patterns are selected, and the others discarded. This process is repeated until a single pattern completely
matches the message, or no match is found. In the latter case, the message is classified as unknown, otherwise
the class of the matching pattern is assigned to the message.
To make the message classification more flexible and robust, the patterns can contain pattern parsers: elements
that match on a set of characters. For example, the NUMBER parser matches on any integer or hexadecimal
number (for example 1, 123, 894054, 0xFFFF, and so on). Other pattern parsers match on various strings and
IP addresses. For the details of available pattern parsers, see Section 13.5.1, Using pattern parsers (p. 286).
The functionality of the pattern database is similar to that of the logcheck project, but it is much easier to write
and maintain the patterns used by syslog-ng, than the regular expressions used by logcheck. Also, it is much
easier to understand syslog-ng pattens than regular expressions.
Pattern matching based on regular expressions is computationally very intensive, especially when the number
of patterns increases. The solution used by syslog-ng can be performed real-time, and is independent from the
number of patterns, so it scales much better. The following patterns describe the same message: Accepted
password for bazsi from 10.50.0.247 port 42156 ssh2
A
regular
expression
matching
this
message
from
the
logcheck
project:
Accepted
(gssapi(-with-mic|-keyex)?|rsa|dsa|password|publickey|keyboard-interactive/pam)
for [^[:space:]]+ from [^[:space:]]+ port [0-9]+( (ssh|ssh2))?
A
syslog-ng database pattern for this message: Accepted @QSTRING:auth_method:
for@QSTRING:username: @from @QSTRING:client_addr: @port @NUMBER:port:@ ssh2
@
For details on using pattern databases to classify log messages, see Section 13.2, Using pattern databases (p. 278).
www.balabit.com
275
The structure of the pattern database
13.1.1. The structure of the pattern database
The pattern database is organized as follows:
Figure 13.1. The structure of the pattern database
■ The pattern database consists of rulesets. A ruleset consists of a Program Pattern and a set of rules:
the rules of a ruleset are applied to log messages if the name of the application that sent the message
matches the Program Pattern of the ruleset. The name of the application (the content of the
${PROGRAM} macro) is compared to the Program Patterns of the available rulesets, and then the
rules of the matching rulesets are applied to the message.
■ The Program Pattern can be a string that specifies the name of the appliation or the beginning of its
name (for example, to match for sendmail, the program pattern can be sendmail, or just send), and
the Program Pattern can contain pattern parsers. Note that pattern parsers are completely independent
from the syslog-ng parsers used to segment messages. Additionally, every rule has a unique identifier:
if a message matches a rule, the identifier of the rule is stored together with the message.
■ Rules consist of a message pattern and a class. The Message Pattern is similar to the Program Pattern,
but is applied to the message part of the log message (the content of the ${MESSAGE} macro). If
a message pattern matches the message, the class of the rule is assigned to the message (for example,
Security, Violation, and so on).
■ Rules can also contain additional information about the matching messages, such as the description
of the rule, an URL, name-value pairs, or free-form tags.
■ Patterns can consist of literals (keywords, or rather, keycharacters) and pattern parsers.
Note
If the ${PROGRAM} part of a message is empty, rules with an empty Program Pattern are used to classify
the message.
If the same Program Pattern is used in multiple rulesets, the rules of these rulesets are merged, and every
rule is used to classify the message. Note that message patterns must be unique within the merged rulesets,
but the currently only one ruleset is checked for uniqueness.
www.balabit.com
276
How pattern matching works
13.1.2. How pattern matching works
Figure 13.2. Applying patterns
The followings describe how patterns work. This information applies to program patterns and message patterns
alike, even though message patterns are used to illustrate the procedure.
Patterns can consist of literals (keywords, or rather, keycharacters) and pattern parsers. Pattern parsers attempt
to parse a sequence of characters according to certain rules.
Note
Wildcards and regular expressions cannot be used in patterns. The @ character must be escaped, that is, to match for this
character, you have to write @@ in your pattern. This is required because pattern parsers of syslog-ng are enclosed between
@ characters.
When a new message arrives, syslog-ng attempts to classify it using the pattern database. The available patterns
are organized alphabetically into a tree, and syslog-ng inspects the message character-by-character, starting
from the beginning. This approach ensures that only a small subset of the rules must be evaluated at any given
step, resulting in high processing speed. Note that the speed of classifying messages is practically independent
from the total number of rules.
For example, if the message begins with the Apple string, only patterns beginning with the character A are
considered. In the next step, syslog-ng selects the patterns that start with Ap, and so on, until there is no more
specific pattern left.
Note that literal matches take precedence over pattern parser matches: if at a step there is a pattern that matches
the next character with a literal, and another pattern that would match it with a parser, the pattern with the literal
match is selected. Using the previous example, if at the third step there is the literal pattern Apport and a pattern
parser Ap@STRING@, the Apport pattern is matched. If the literal does not match the incoming string (for
example, Apple), syslog-ng attempts to match the pattern with the parser. However, if there are two or more
parsers on the same level, only the first one will be applied, even if it does not perfectly match the message.
If there are two parsers at the same level (for example, Ap@STRING@ and Ap@QSTRING@), it is random which
pattern is applied (technically, the one that is loaded first). However, if the selected parser cannot parse at least
one character of the message, the other parser is used. But having two different parsers at the same level is
extremely rare, so the impact of this limitation is much less than it appears.
13.1.3. Artificial ignorance
Artificial ignorance is a method to detect anomalies. When applied to log analysis, it means that you ignore the
regular, common log messages - these are the result of the regular behavior of your system, and therefore are
not too interesting. However, new messages that have not appeared in the logs before can sign important events,
and should be therefore investigated. "By definition, something we have never seen before is anomalous"
(Marcus J. Ranum).
www.balabit.com
277
Using pattern databases
The syslog-ng application can classify messages using a pattern database: messages that do not match any
pattern are classified as unknown. This provides a way to use artificial ignorance to review your log messages.
You can periodically review the unknown messages — syslog-ng can send them to a separate destination - and
add patterns for them to the pattern database. By reviewing and manually classifying the unknown messages,
you can iteratively classify more and more messages, until the only the really anomalous messages show up as
unknown.
Obviously, for this to work, a large number of message patterns are required. The radix-tree matching method
used for message classification is very effective, can be performed very fast, and scales very well; basically the
time required to perform a pattern matching is independent from the number of patterns in the database. For
sample pattern databases, see Section 13.2.2, Downloading sample pattern databases (p. 280).
13.2. Using pattern databases
To classify messages using a pattern database, include a db-parser() statement in your syslog-ng configuration
file using the following syntax:
Declaration:
parser <identifier> {db-parser(file("<database_filename>"));};
Note that using the parser in a log statement only performs the classification, but does not automatically do
anything with the results of the classification.
Example 13.1. Defining pattern databases
The following statement uses the database located at /opt/syslog-ng/var/db/patterndb.xml.
parser pattern_db {
db-parser(
file("/opt/syslog-ng/var/db/patterndb.xml")
);
};
To apply the patterns on the incoming messages, include the parser in a log statement:
log {
source(s_all);
parser(pattern_db);
destination( di_messages_class);
};
Note
The default location of the pattern database file is /opt/syslog-ng/var/run/patterndb.xml. The file option of
the db-parser statement can be used to specify a different file, thus different db-parser statements can use different
pattern databases. Later versions of syslog-ng will be able to dynamically generate a main database from separate pattern
database files.
Example 13.2. Using classification results
The following destination separates the log messages into different files based on the class assigned to the pattern that
matches the message (for example Violation and Security type messages are stored in a separate file), and also adds the
ID of the matching rule to the message:
destination di_messages_class {
file("/var/log/messages-${.classifier.class}"
template("${.classifier.rule_id};${S_UNIXTIME};${SOURCEIP};${HOST};${PROGRAM};${PID};${MSG}\n")
www.balabit.com
278
Using parser results in filters and templates
template-escape(no)
);
};
For details on how to create your own pattern databases see Section 13.5.3, The syslog-ng pattern database
format (p. 289).
13.2.1. Using parser results in filters and templates
The results of message classification and parsing can be used in custom filters and templates, for example, in
file and database templates. The following built-in macros allow you to use the results of the classification:
■ The .classifier.class macro contains the class assigned to the message (for example violation,
security, or unknown).
■ The .classifier.rule_id macro contains the identifier of the message pattern that matched the
message.
■ The .classifier.context_id macro contains the identifier of the context for messages that
were correlated. For details on correlating messages, see Section 13.3, Correlating log
messages (p. 281).
Example 13.3. Using classification results for filtering messages
To filter on a specific message class, create a filter that checks the .classifier_class macro, and use this filter in a
log statement.
filter fi_class_violation {
match("violation"
value(".classifier.class")
type("string")
);
};
log {
source(s_all);
parser(pattern_db);
filter(fi_class_violation);
destination(di_class_violation);
};
Filtering on the unknown class selects messages that did not match any rule of the pattern database. Routing these messages
into a separate file allows you to periodically review new or unknown messages.
To filter on messages matching a specific classification rule, create a filter that checks the .classifier.rule_id
macro. The unique identifier of the rule (for example e1e9c0d8-13bb-11de-8293-000c2922ed0a) is the id attribute
of the rule in the XML database.
filter fi_class_rule {
match("e1e9c0d8-13bb-11de-8293-000c2922ed0a"
value(".classifier.rule_id")
type("string")
);
};
Pattern database rules can assign tags to messages. These tags can be used to select tagged messages using the
tags() filter function.
www.balabit.com
279
Downloading sample pattern databases
Note
Starting with version 3.2, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds the class of the message as a tag using the
.classifier.<message-class> format. For example, messages classified as "system" receive the
.classifier.system tag. Use the tags() filter function to select messages of a specific class.
filter f_tag_filter {tags(".classifier.system");};
The message-segments parsed by the pattern parsers can also be used as macros as well. To accomplish this,
you have to add a name to the parser, and then you can use this name as a macro that refers to the parsed value
of the message.
Example 13.4. Using pattern parsers as macros
For example, you want to parse messages of an application that look like "Transaction: <type>.", where <type>
is a string that has different values (for example refused, accepted, incomplete, and so on). To parse these messages, you
can use the following pattern:
'Transaction: @ESTRING::.@'
Here the @ESTRING@ parser parses the message until the next full stop character. To use the results in a filter or a
filename template, include a name in the parser of the pattern, for example:
'Transaction: @ESTRING:TRANSACTIONTYPE:.@'
After that, add a custom template to the log path that uses this template. For example, to select every accepted transaction,
use the following custom filter in the log path:
match("accepted" value("TRANSACTIONTYPE"));
Note
The above macros can be used in database columns and filename templates as well, if you create custom templates for
the destination or logspace.
Use a consistent naming scheme for your macros, for example, APPLICATIONNAME_MACRONAME.
13.2.2. Downloading sample pattern databases
To simplify the building of pattern databases, BalaBit has released (and will continue to release) sample
databases. You can download sample pattern databases from the BalaBit GitHub page (older samples are
temporarily available here.
Note that these pattern databases are only samples and experimental databases. They are not officially supported,
and may or may not work in your environment.
The syslog-ng pattern databases are available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (CC
by-SA) license. This includes every pattern database written by community contributors or the BalaBit staff.
It means that:
■ you are free to use and modify the patterns for your needs;
■ if you redistribute the pattern databases, you must distribute your modifications under the same
license;
■ if you redistribute the pattern databases, you must make it obvious that the source of the original
syslog-ng pattern databases is the BalaBit GitHub page.
www.balabit.com
280
Correlating log messages
For legal details, the full text of the license is available here.
If you create patterns that are not available in the GitHub repository, consider sharing them with us and the
syslog-ng community, and send them to the syslog-ng mailing list, or to the following e-mail address:
<patterndb@balabit.com>
13.3. Correlating log messages
Starting with version 3.2, the syslog-ng OSE application is able to correlate log messages identified using
pattern databases.
Log messages are supposed to describe events, but applications often separate information about a single event
into different log messages. For example, the Postfix e-mail server logs the sender and recipient addresses into
separate log messages, or in case of an unsuccessful login attempt, the OpenSSH server sends a log message
about the authentication failure, and the reason of the failure in the next message.
Of course, messages that are not so directly related can be correlated as well, for example, login-logout messages,
and so on.
To correlate log messages, syslog-ng OSE uses the pattern database to add messages into message-groups called
contexts. A context consists of a series of log messages that are related to each other in some way, for example,
the log messages of an SSH session can belong to the same context. As new messages come in, they may be
added to a context. Also, when an incoming message is identified it can trigger actions to be performed, for
example, generate a new message that contains all the important information that was stored previously in the
context. (For details on triggering actions and generating messages, see Section 13.4, Triggering actions for
identified messages (p. 283).)
There are two attributes for pattern database rules that determine if a message matching the rule is added to a
context: context-scope and context-id. The context-scope attribute acts as an early filter, selecting
messages sent by the same process (${HOST}${PROGRAM}${PID} is identical), application
(${HOST}${PROGRAM} is identical), or host, while the context-id actually adds the message to the context
specified in the id. The context-id can be a simple string, or can contain macros or values extracted from
the log messages for further filtering. Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.5, if a message is added to a
context, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds the identifier of the context to the .classifier.context_id
macro of the message.
Note
Message contexts are persistent and are not lost when syslog-ng OSE is reloaded (SIGHUP), but are lost when syslog-ng
OSE is restarted.
Another parameter of a rule is the context-timeout attribute, which determines how long a context is stored,
that is, how long syslog-ng OSE waits for related messages to arrive. Note the following points about timeout
values:
■ When a new message is added to a context, syslog-ng OSE will restart the timeout using the
context-timeout set for the new message.
www.balabit.com
281
Referencing earlier messages of the context
■ When calculating if the timeout has already expired or not, syslog-ng OSE uses the timestamps of
the incoming messages, not system time elapsed between receiving the two messages (unless the
messages do not include a timestamp, or the keep-timestamp(no) option is set). That way syslog-ng
OSE can be used to process and correlate already existing log messages offline. However, the
timestamps of the messages must be in chronological order (that is, a new message cannot be older
than the one already processed), and if a message is newer than the current system time (that is, it
seems to be coming from the future), syslog-ng OSE will replace its timestamp with the current
system time.
Example 13.5. How syslog-ng OSE calculates context-timeout
Consider the following two messages:
<38>1990-01-01T14:45:25 customhostname program6[1234]: program6 testmessage
<38>1990-01-01T14:46:25 customhostname program6[1234]: program6 testmessage
If the context-timeout is 10 seconds and syslog-ng OSE receives the messages within 1 sec, the timeout
event will occour immediately, because the difference of the two timestamp (60 sec) is larger than the
timeout value (10 sec).
■ Avoid using unnecessarily long timeout values on high-traffic systems, as storing the contexts for
many messages can require considerable memory. For example, if two related messages usually
arrive within seconds, it is not needed to set the timeout to several hours.
Example 13.6. Using message correlation
<rule xml:id="..." context-id="ssh-session" context-timeout="86400" context-scope="process">
<patterns>
<pattern>Accepted @ESTRING:usracct.authmethod: @for @ESTRING:usracct.username:
@from @ESTRING:usracct.device: @port @ESTRING:: @@ANYSTRING:usracct.service@</pattern>
</patterns>
...
</rule>
For details on configuring message correlation, see the description of the context-id, context-timeout, and
context-scope attributes of pattern database rules.
13.3.1. Referencing earlier messages of the context
When using the <value> element in pattern database rules together with message correlation, you can also
refer to fields and values of earlier messages of the context by adding the
@<distance-of-referenced-message-from-the-current> suffix to the macro. For example, if there
are three log messages in a context, and you are creating a generated message for the third log message, the
${HOST}@1 expression refers to the host field of the current (third) message in the context, the ${HOST}@2
expression refers to the host field of the previous (second) message in the context, ${PID}@3 to the PID of the
first message, and so on. For example, the following message can be created from SSH login/logout messages
(for details on generating new messages, see Section 13.4, Triggering actions for identified messages (p. 283)):
An SSH session for ${SSH_USERNAME}@1 from ${SSH_CLIENT_ADDRESS}@2 closed. Session
lasted from ${DATE}@2 to ${DATE}.
www.balabit.com
282
Triggering actions for identified messages
Warning
When referencing an earlier message of the context, always enclose the field name between braces, for example, ${PID}@3.
The reference will not work if you omit the braces.
Note
To use a literal @ character in a template, use @@.
13.4. Triggering actions for identified messages
Starting with version 3.2, the syslog-ng OSE application is able to generate (trigger) messages automatically
if certain events occur, for example, a specific log message is received, or the correlation timeout of a message
expires. Basically, you can define messages for every pattern database rule that are emitted when a message
matching the rule is received. Triggering messages is often used together with message correlation, but can
also be used separately.
The generated message is injected into the same place where the db-parser() statement is referenced in the
log path. To post the generated message into the internal() source instead, use the inject-mode() option
in the definition of the parser.
Example 13.7. Sending triggered messages to the internal() source
To send the generated messages to the internal source, use the inject-mode(internal) option:
parser p_db {db-parser(
file("mypatterndbfile.xml")
inject-mode(internal)
);};
To inject the generated messages where the pattern database is referenced, use the inject-mode(pass-through)
option:
parser p_db {db-parser(
file("mypatterndbfile.xml")
inject-mode(pass-through)
);};
Note
Version 3.2 of syslog-ng OSE was able to send the generated messages only to the internal source.
The generated message must be configured in the pattern database rule. It is possible to create an entire message,
use macros and values extracted from the original message with pattern database, and so on.
Example 13.8. Generating messages for pattern database matches
When inserted in a pattern database rule, the following example generates a message when a message matching the rule
is received.
<actions>
<action>
<message>
www.balabit.com
283
Conditional actions
<values>
<value name="MESSAGE">A log message from ${HOST} matched rule number
$.classifier.rule_id</value>
</values>
</message>
</action>
</actions>
To inherit the properties and values of the triggering message, set the inherit-properties attribute of the
<message> element to TRUE. That way the triggering log message is cloned, including name-value pairs and
tags. If you set any values for the message in the <action> element, they will override the values of the original
message.
Example 13.9. Generating messages with inherited values
The following action generates a message that is identical to the original message, but its $PROGRAM field is set to
overriding-original-program-name
<actions>
<action>
<message inherit-properties='TRUE'>
<values>
<value name="PROGRAM">overriding-original-program-name</value>
</values>
</message>
</action>
</actions>
For details on configuring actions, see the description of the pattern database format.
13.4.1. Conditional actions
To limit when a message is triggered, use the condition attribute and specify a filter expression: the action
will be executed only if the condition is met. For example, the following action is executed only if the message
was sent by the host called myhost.
<action condition="'${HOST}' == 'example'">
You can use the same operators in the condition that can be used in filters. For details, see Section 8.3.3,
Comparing macro values in filters (p. 209).
The following action can be used to log the length of an SSH session (the time difference between a login and
a logout message in the context):
<actions>
<action>
<message>
<values>
<value name="MESSAGE">An SSH session for ${SSH_USERNAME}@1 from
${SSH_CLIENT_ADDRESS}@2 closed. Session lasted from ${DATE}@2 ${DATE} </value>
</values>
</message>
</action>
</actions>
www.balabit.com
284
External actions
Example 13.10. Actions based on the number of messages
The following example triggers different actions based on the number of messages in the context. This way you can check
if the context contains enough messages for the event to be complete, and execute a different action if it does not.
<actions>
<action condition='"$(context-length)" >= "4"'>
<message>
<values>
<value name="PROGRAM">event</value>
<value name="MESSAGE">Event complete</value>
</values>
</message>
</action>
<action condition='"$(context-length)" < "4"'>
<message>
<values>
<value name="PROGRAM">error</value>
<value name="MESSAGE">Error detected</value>
</values>
</message>
</action>
</actions>
13.4.2. External actions
To perform an external action when a message is triggered, for example, to send the message in an e-mail, you
have to route the generated messages to an external application using the program() destination.
Example 13.11. Sending triggered messages to external applications
The following sample configuration selects the triggered messages and sends them to an external script.
1. Set a field in the triggered message that is easy to identify and filter. For example:
<values>
<value name="MESSAGE">A log message from ${HOST} matched rule number
$.classifier.rule_id</value>
<value name="TRIGGER">yes</value>
</values>
2. Create a destination that will process the triggered messages.
destination d_triggers { program("/bin/myscript"; ); };
3. Create a filter that selects the triggered messages from the internal source.
filter f_triggers {match("yes" value ("TRIGGER") type(string));};
4. Create a logpath that selects the triggered messages from the internal source and sends them to the script:
log { source(s_local); filter(f_triggers); destination(d_triggers); };
5. Create a script that will actually process the generated messages, for example:
#!/usr/bin/perl
while (<>) {
# body of the script to send emails, snmp traps, and so on
}
13.4.3. Actions and message correlation
Certain features of generating messages can be used only if message correlation is used as well.
www.balabit.com
285
Creating pattern databases
■ The syslog-ng OSE application automatically fills the fields for the generated message based on the
scope of the context, for example, the HOST and PROGRAM fields if the context-scope is
program.
■ When used together with message correlation, you can also refer to fields and values of earlier
m e s s a g e s
o f
t h e
c o n t e x t
b y
a d d i n g
t h e
@<distance-of-referenced-message-from-the-current> suffix to the macro. For details,
see Section 13.3.1, Referencing earlier messages of the context (p. 282).
■ It is possible to generate a message when the context-timeout of the original message expires
and no new message is added to the context during this time. To accomplish this, include the
trigger="timeout" attribute in the action element:
<action trigger="timeout">
For example, the following action can be used to log the length of an SSH session (the time difference between
a login and a logout message in the context):
<actions>
<action>
<message>
<values>
<value name="MESSAGE">An SSH session for ${SSH_USERNAME}@1 from
${SSH_CLIENT_ADDRESS}@2 closed. Session lasted from ${DATE}@2 ${DATE} </value>
</values>
</message>
</action>
</actions>
For details on correlating messages, see Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
13.5. Creating pattern databases
13.5.1. Using pattern parsers
Pattern parsers attempt to parse a part of the message using rules specific to the type of the parser. Parsers are
enclosed between @ characters. The syntax of parsers is the following:
■ a beginning @ character;
■ the type of the parser written in capitals;
■ optionally a name;
■ parameters of the parser, if any;
■ a closing @ character.
Example 13.12. Pattern parser syntax
A simple parser:
@STRING@
A named parser:
www.balabit.com
286
Using pattern parsers
@STRING:myparser_name@
A named parser with a parameter:
@STRING:myparser_name:*@
A parser with a parameter, but without a name:
@STRING::*@
Patterns and literals can be mixed together. For example, to parse a message that begins with the Host: string
followed by an IP address (for example, Host: 192.168.1.1), the following pattern can be used:
Host:@IPv4@.
Note
Note that using parsers is a CPU-intensive operation. Use the ESTRING and QSTRING parsers whenever possible, as
these can be processed much faster than the other parsers.
Example 13.13. Using the STRING and ESTRING parsers
For example, if the message is user=joe96 group=somegroup, @STRING:mytext:@ parses only to the first
non-alphanumeric character (=), parsing only user. @STRING:mytext:=@ parses the equation mark as well, and proceeds
to the next non-alphanumeric character (the whitespace), resulting in user=joe96 being parsed. @STRING:mytext:=
@ will parse the whitespace as well, and proceed to the next non-alphanumeric non-equation mark non-whitespace character,
resulting in user=joe96 group=somegroup.
Of course, usually it is better to parse the different values separately, like this: "user=@STRING:user@
group=@STRING:group@".
If the username or the group may contain non-alphanumeric characters, you can either include these in the second parameter
of the parser (as shown at the beginning of this example), or use an ESTRING parser to parse the message till the next
whitespace: "user=@ESTRING:user: @group=@ESTRING:group: @".
13.5.1.1. Pattern parsers of syslog-ng OSE
The following parsers are available in syslog-ng OSE.
@ANYSTRING@
Parses everything to the end of the message; you can use it to collect everything that is not parsed specifically
to a single macro. In that sense its behavior is similar to the greedy() option of the CSV parser.
@DOUBLE@
An obsolete alias of the @FLOAT@ parser.
@EMAIL@
This parser matches an e-mail address. The parameter is a set of characters to strip from the beginning and the
end of the e-mail address. That way e-mail addresses enclosed between other characters can be matched easily
(for example, <user@example.com> or "user@example.com". Characters that are valid for a hostname are
not stripped from the end of the hostname. This includes a trailing period if present.
www.balabit.com
287
Using pattern parsers
For example, the @EMAIL:email:"[<]>@ parser will match any of the following e-mail addresses:
<user@example.com>, [user@example.com], "user@example.com", and set the value of the email
macro to user@example.com.
@ESTRING@
This parser has a required parameter that acts as the stopcharacter: the parser parses everything until it finds
the stopcharacter. For example, to stop by the next " (double quote) character, use @ESTRING::"@. You can
use the colon (:) as stopcharacter as well, for example: @ESTRING:::@. You can also specify a stopstring
instead of a single character, for example, @ESTRING::stop_here.@. The @ character cannot be a stopcharacter,
nor can line-breaks or tabs.
@FLOAT@
A floating-point number that may contain a dot (.) character. (Up to syslog-ng 3.1, the name of this parser was
@DOUBLE@.)
@HOSTNAME@
Parses a generic hostname. The hostname may contain only alphanumeric characters (A-Z,a-z,0-9), hypen (-),
or dot (.).
@IPv4@
Parses an IPv4 IP address (numbers separated with a maximum of 3 dots).
@IPv6@
Parses any valid IPv6 IP address.
@IPvANY@
Parses any IP address.
@LLADDR@
Parses a Link Layer Address in the xx:xx:xx:... form, where each xx is a 2 digit HEX number (an octet).
The parameter specifies the maximum number of octets to match and defaults to 20. The MACADDR parser
is a special wrapper using the LLADDR parser. For example, the following parser parses maximally 10 octets,
and stores the results in the link-level-address macro:
@LLADDR:link-level-address:10@
@MACADDR@
Parses the standard format of a MAC-48 address, consisting of is six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated
by colons. For example, 00:50:fc:e3:cd:37.
@NUMBER@
A sequence of decimal (0-9) numbers (for example, 1, 0687, and so on). Note that if the number starts with the
0x characters, it is parsed as a hexadecimal number, but only if at least one valid character follows 0x. A leading
hyphen (–) is accepted for non-hexadecimal numbers, but other separator characters (for example, dot or comma)
are not. To parse floating-point numbers, use the @FLOAT@ parser.
www.balabit.com
288
What's new in the syslog-ng pattern database format V4
@PCRE@
Use Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions (as implemented by the PCRE library), after the identification of the
potential patterns has happened by the radix implementation.
Syntax: @PCRE:name:regexp@
@QSTRING@
Parse a string between the quote characters specified as parameter. Note that the quote character can be different
at the beginning and the end of the quote, for example: @QSTRING::"@ parses everything between two quotation
marks ("), while @QSTRING:&lt;&gt;@ parses from an opening bracket to the closing bracket. The @ character
cannot be a quote character, nor can line-breaks or tabs.
@SET@
Parse any combination of the specified characters until another character is found. For example, specifying a
whitespace character parses any number of whitespaces, and can be used to process paddings (for example, log
messages of the Squid application have whitespace padding after the username).
For example, the @SET:: "@ parser will parse any combination of whitespaces and double-quotes.
Available in syslog-ng OSE 3.4 and later.
@STRING@
A sequence of alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-z), not including any whitespace. Optionally, other accepted
characters can be listed as parameters (for example, to parse a complete sentence, add the whitespace as
parameter, like: @STRING:: @). Note that the @ character cannot be a parameter, nor can line-breaks or tabs.
13.5.2. What's new in the syslog-ng pattern database format V4
The V4 database format has the following differences compared to the V3 format:
■ It is now possible to specify multiple program patterns for a ruleset. For details, see the description
of the patterns tag.
■ The <value> element of name-value pairs can include template functions. For details, see Section
11.1.6, Using template functions (p. 248), for examples, see Section if (p. 252).
■ It is now possible to correlate log messages processed with the pattern database. For details, see
Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
■ It is now possible to generate new messages based on pattern matching and correlation results. For
details, see Section 13.4, Triggering actions for identified messages (p. 283) and the description of
the actions tag.
13.5.3. The syslog-ng pattern database format
Pattern databases are XML files that contain rules describing the message patterns. For sample pattern databases,
see Section 13.2.2, Downloading sample pattern databases (p. 280).
The following scheme describes the V4 format of the pattern database. This format is used by syslog-ng OSE
3.2 and later, and is backwards-compatible with the earlier V3 format.
www.balabit.com
289
The syslog-ng pattern database format
For a sample database containing only a single pattern, see Example 13.14, A V4 pattern database containing
a single rule (p. 295).
Tip
Use the pdbtool utility that is bundled with syslog-ng to test message patterns and convert existing databases to the
latest format. For details, see pdbtool(1) (p. 315).
To automatically create an initial pattern database from an existing log file, use the pdbtool patternize command.
For details, see the section called “The patternize command” (p. 318).
■ <patterndb>: The container element of the pattern database. For example:
<patterndb version='4' pub_date='2010-10-25'>
■ version: The schema version of the pattern database. The current version is 4.
■ pubdate: The publication date of the XML file.
■ <ruleset>: A container element to group log patterns for an application or program. For example:
<ruleset name='su' id='480de478-d4a6-4a7f-bea4-0c0245d361e1'>
A <patterndb> element may contain any number of <ruleset> elements.
• name: The name of the application. Note that the function of this attribute is to make the database
more readable, syslog-ng uses the <pattern> element to identify the applications sending log
messages.
• id: A unique ID of the application, for example, the md5 sum of the name attribute.
• description: OPTIONAL — A description of the ruleset or the application.
• url: OPTIONAL — An URL referring to further information about the ruleset or the application.
• <patterns>: A container element storing program names also called program pattern. For
example:
<patterns>
<pattern>su</pattern>
</patterns>
A <patterns> element may contain any number of <pattern> elements.
• pattern: The name of the application — syslog-ng matches this value to the ${PROGRAM}
header of the syslog message to find the rulesets applicable to the syslog message.
Specifying multiple patterns is useful if two or more applications have different names (that is,
different ${PROGRAM} fields), but otherwise send identical log messages.
<patterns>
<pattern>firstapplication</pattern>
<pattern>otherapplication</pattern>
</patterns>
www.balabit.com
290
The syslog-ng pattern database format
It is not necessary to use multiple patterns if only the end of the ${PROGRAM} fields is different,
use only the beginning of the ${PROGRAM} field as the pattern. For example, the Postfix
e-mail server sends messages using different process names, but all of them begin with the
postfix string.
You can also use parsers in the program pattern if needed, and use the parsed results later. For
example: <pattern>postfix\@ESTRING:.postfix.component:[@</pattern>
Note
If the <pattern> element of a ruleset is not specified, syslog-ng OSE will use this ruleset as a fallback
ruleset: it will apply the ruleset to messages that have an empty PROGRAM header, or if none of the
program patterns matched the PROGRAM header of the incoming message.
• <rules>: A container element for the rules of the ruleset.
• <rule>: An element containing message patterns and how a message that matches these patterns
is classified. For example:
<rule provider='balabit' id='f57196aa-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
class='violation'>
The following example specifies attributes for correlating messages as well. For details on
correlating messages, see Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
<rule provider='balabit' id='f57196aa-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
class='violation' context-id='same-session' context-scope='process'
context-timeout='360'>
Note
If the following characters appear in the message, they must be escaped in the rule as follows:
• @: Use @@, for example user@@example.com
• <: Use &lt;
• >: Use &gt;
• &: Use &amp;
The <rules> element may contain any number of <rule> elements.
• provider: The provider of the rule. This is used to distinguish between who supplied the rule;
that is, if it has been created by BalaBit, or added to the XML by a local user.
• id: The globally unique ID of the rule.
• class: The class of the rule — syslog-ng assigns this class to the messages matching a pattern
of this rule.
• context-id: OPTIONAL — An identifier to group related log messages when using the pattern
database to correlate events. The ID can be a descriptive string describing the events related to
the log message (for example, ssh-sessions for log messages related to SSH traffic), but can
also contain macros to generate IDs dynamically. When using macros in IDs, see also the
www.balabit.com
291
The syslog-ng pattern database format
context-scope attribute. Starting with syslog-ng OSE version 3.5, if a message is added to
a context, syslog-ng OSE automatically adds the identifier of the context to the
.classifier.context_id macro of the message. For details on correlating messages, see
Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
Note
The syslog-ng OSE application determines the context of the message after the pattern matching is
completed. This means that macros and name-value pairs created by the matching pattern database
rule can be used as context-id macros.
• context-timeout: OPTIONAL — The number of seconds the context is stored. Note that for
high-traffic logservers, storing open contexts for long time can require significant amount of
memory. For details on correlating messages, see Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
• context-scope: OPTIONAL — Specifies which messages belong to the same context. This
attribute is used to determine the context of the message if the context-id does not specify
any macros. Usually, context-scope acts a filter for the context, with context-id refining
the filtering if needed. The context-scope attribute has the following possible values:
• process: Only messages that are generated by the same process of a client belong to the same
context, that is, messages that have identical ${HOST}, ${PROGRAM} and ${PID} values.
This is the default behavior of syslog-ng OSE if context-scope is not specified.
• program: Messages that are generated by the same application of a client belong to the same
context, that is, messages that have identical ${HOST} and ${PROGRAM} values.
• host: Every message generated by a client belongs to the same context, only the ${HOST}
value of the messages must be identical.
• global: Every message belongs to the same context.
Note
Using the context-scope attribute is significantly faster than using macros in the context-id
attribute.
For details on correlating messages, see Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
• <patterns>: An element containing the patterns of the rule. If a <patterns> element contains
multiple <pattern> elements, the class of the <rule> is assigned to every syslog message
matching any of the patterns.
• <pattern>: A pattern describing a log message. This element is also called message
pattern. For example:
<pattern>+ ??? root-</pattern>
www.balabit.com
292
The syslog-ng pattern database format
Note
Support for XML entities is limited, you can use only the following entities: &amp; &lt; &gt;
&quot; &apos;. User-defined entities are not supported.
• description: OPTIONAL — A description of the pattern or the log message matching the
pattern.
• urls: OPTIONAL — An element containing one or more URLs referring to further information
about the patterns or the matching log messages.
• url: OPTIONAL — An URL referring to further information about the patterns or the
matching log messages.
• values: OPTIONAL — Name-value pairs that are assigned to messages matching the patterns,
for example, the representation of the event in the message according to the Common Event
Format (CEF) or Common Event Exchange (CEE). The names can be used as macros to
reference the assigned values.
• value: OPTIONAL — Contains the value of the name-value pair that is assigned to the
message. For example:
<value name=".classifier.outcome">/Success</value>
The <value> element of name-value pairs can include template functions. For details, see
Section 11.1.6, Using template functions (p. 248), for examples, see Section if (p. 252).
When used together with message correlation, the <value> element of name-value pairs
can include references to the values of earlier messages from the same context. For details,
see Section 13.3, Correlating log messages (p. 281).
• name: The name of the name-value pair. It can also be used as a macro to reference the
assigned value.
• examples: OPTIONAL — A container element for sample log messages that should be
recognized by the pattern. These messages can be used also to test the patterns and the parsers.
• example: OPTIONAL — A container element for a sample log message.
• test_message: OPTIONAL — A sample log message that should match this pattern.
For example:
<test_message program="myapplication">Content filter has been
enabled</test_message>
• program: The program pattern of the test message. For example:
<test_message program="proftpd">ubuntu
(::ffff:192.168.2.179[::ffff:192.168.2.179]) - FTP session
closed.</test_message>
• test_values: OPTIONAL — A container element to test the results of the parsers used
in the pattern.
www.balabit.com
293
The syslog-ng pattern database format
• test_value: OPTIONAL — The expected value of the parser when matching the
pattern to the test message. For example:
<test_value name=".dict.ContentFilter">enabled</test_value>
• name: The name of the parser to test.
• actions: OPTIONAL — A container element for actions that are performed if a message is
recognized by the pattern. For details on actions, see Section 13.4, Triggering actions for identified
messages (p. 283).
• action: OPTIONAL — A container element describing an action that is performed when a
message matching the rule is received.
• condition: A syslog-ng filter expression. The action is performed only if the message matches
the filter. The filter can include macros and name-value pairs extracted from the message.
When using actions together with message-correlation, you can also use the
$(context-length) macro, which returns the number of messages in the current context.
For example, this can be used to determine if the expected number of messages has arrived
to the context: condition='"$(context-length)" >= "5"'
• rate: Specifies maximum how many messages should be generated in the specified time
period in the following format: <number-of-messages>/<period-in-seconds>. For
example: 1/60 allows 1 message per minute. Rates apply within the scope of the context,
that is, if context-scope="host" and rate="1/60", then maximum one message is
generated per minute for every host that sends a log message matching the rule. Excess
messages are dropped. Note that when applying the rate to the generated messages, syslog-ng
OSE uses the timestamps of the log messages, similarly to calculating the context-timeout.
That way rate is applied correctly even if the log messages are processed offline.
• trigger: Specifies when the action is executed. The trigger attribute has the following
possible values:
• match: Execute the action immediately when a message matching the rule is received.
• timeout: Execute the action when the correlation timer (context-timeout) expires. This
is available only if actions are used together with correlating messages.
• message: A container element storing the message to be sent when the action is executed.
Currently syslog-ng OSE sends these messages to the internal() destination.
• inherit-properties: If set to TRUE, the original message that triggered the action is cloned,
including its name-value pairs and tags. For details, see Section 13.4, Triggering actions
for identified messages (p. 283).
• values: A container element for values and fields that are used to create the message generated
b the action.
• value: Sets the value of the message field specified in the name attribute of the element.
For example, to specify the body of the generated message, use the following syntax:
<value name="MESSAGE">A log message matched rule number
$.classifier.rule_id</value>
www.balabit.com
294
The syslog-ng pattern database format
Note that currently it is not possible to add DATE, FACILITY, or SEVERITY fields to
the message.
When the action is used together with message correlation, the syslog-ng OSE application
automatically adds fields to the message based on the context-scope parameter. For
example, using context-scope="process" automatically fills the HOST, PROGRAM,
and PID fields of the generated message.
• name: Name of the message field set by the value element.
• tags: OPTIONAL — An element containing custom keywords (tags) about the messages matching
the patterns. The tags can be used to label specific events (for example user logons). It is also
possible to filter on these tags later (for details, see Section 8.3.5, Tagging messages (p. 211)).
Starting with syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.2, the list of tags assigned to a message can be
referenced with the ${TAGS} macro.
• tag: OPTIONAL — A keyword or tags applied to messages matching the rule. For example:
<tags><tag>UserLogin</tag></tags>
Example 13.14. A V4 pattern database containing a single rule
The following pattern database contains a single rule that matches a log message of the ssh application. A sample log
message looks like:
Accepted password for sampleuser from 10.50.0.247 port 42156 ssh2
The following is a simple pattern database containing a matching rule.
<patterndb version='4' pub_date='2010-10-17'>
<ruleset name='ssh' id='123456678'>
<pattern>ssh</pattern>
<rules>
<rule provider='me' id='182437592347598' class='system'>
<patterns>
<pattern>Accepted @QSTRING:SSH.AUTH_METHOD: @
for@QSTRING:SSH_USERNAME: @from\ @QSTRING:SSH_CLIENT_ADDRESS: @port @NUMBER:SSH_PORT_NUMBER:@
ssh2</pattern>
</patterns>
</rule>
</rules>
</ruleset>
</patterndb>
Note that the rule uses macros that refer to parts of the message, for example, you can use the ${SSH_USERNAME} macro
refer to the username used in the connection.
The following is the same example, but with a test message and test values for the parsers.
<patterndb version='4' pub_date='2010-10-17'>
<ruleset name='ssh' id='123456678'>
<pattern>ssh</pattern>
<rules>
<rule provider='me' id='182437592347598' class='system'>
<patterns>
<pattern>Accepted @QSTRING:SSH.AUTH_METHOD: @
for@QSTRING:SSH_USERNAME: @from\ @QSTRING:SSH_CLIENT_ADDRESS: @port @NUMBER:SSH_PORT_NUMBER:@
ssh2</pattern>
</patterns>
<examples>
<example>
<test_message>Accepted password for sampleuser from 10.50.0.247
port 42156 ssh2</test_message>
www.balabit.com
295
The syslog-ng pattern database format
<test_values>
<test_value name="SSH.AUTH_METHOD">password</test_value>
<test_value name="SSH_USERNAME">sampleuser</test_value>
<test_value
name="SSH_CLIENT_ADDRESS">10.50.0.247</test_value>
<test_value name="SSH_PORT_NUMBER">42156</test_value>
</test_values>
</example>
</examples>
</rule>
</rules>
</ruleset>
</patterndb>
www.balabit.com
296
Chapter 14. Statistics of syslog-ng
Periodically, syslog-ng sends a message containing statistics about the received messages, and about any lost
messages since the last such message. It includes a processed entry for every source and destination, listing
the number of messages received or sent, and a dropped entry including the IP address of the server for every
destination where syslog-ng has lost messages. The center(received) entry shows the total number of
messages received from every configured sources.
The following is a sample log statistics message for a configuration that has a single source (s_local) and a
network and a local file destination (d_network and d_local, respectively). All incoming messages are sent
to both destinations.
Log statistics;
dropped='tcp(AF_INET(192.168.10.1:514))=6439',
processed='center(received)=234413',
processed='destination(d_tcp)=234413',
processed='destination(d_local)=234413',
processed='source(s_local)=234413'
Log statistics can be also retrieved on-demand using one of the following options:
■ Use
the
socat
application:
echo
STATS
UNIX-CONNECT:/opt/syslog-ng/var/run/syslog-ng.ctl -
|
socat
-vv
■ If you have an OpenBSD-style netcat application installed, use the echo STATS | nc -U
/opt/syslog-ng/var/run/syslog-ng.ctl command. Note that the netcat included in most
Linux distributions is a GNU-style version that is not suitable to query the statistics of syslog-ng.
■ Starting from syslog-ng Open Source Edition version 3.1, syslog-ng Open Source Edition includes
the syslog-ng-ctl utility. Use the syslog-ng-ctl stats command.
The statistics include a list of source groups and destinations, as well as the number of processed messages for
each. The verbosity of the statistics can be set using the stats-level() option. For details, see Section 9.2,
Global options (p. 217). An example output is shown below.
src.internal;s_all#0;;a;processed;6445
src.internal;s_all#0;;a;stamp;1268989330
destination;df_auth;;a;processed;404
destination;df_news_dot_notice;;a;processed;0
destination;df_news_dot_err;;a;processed;0
destination;d_ssb;;a;processed;7128
destination;df_uucp;;a;processed;0
source;s_all;;a;processed;7128
destination;df_mail;;a;processed;0
destination;df_user;;a;processed;1
destination;df_daemon;;a;processed;1
destination;df_debug;;a;processed;15
destination;df_messages;;a;processed;54
destination;dp_xconsole;;a;processed;671
dst.tcp;d_network#0;10.50.0.111:514;a;dropped;5080
dst.tcp;d_network#0;10.50.0.111:514;a;processed;7128
www.balabit.com
297
dst.tcp;d_network#0;10.50.0.111:514;a;stored;2048
destination;df_syslog;;a;processed;6724
destination;df_facility_dot_warn;;a;processed;0
destination;df_news_dot_crit;;a;processed;0
destination;df_lpr;;a;processed;0
destination;du_all;;a;processed;0
destination;df_facility_dot_info;;a;processed;0
center;;received;a;processed;0
destination;df_kern;;a;processed;70
center;;queued;a;processed;0
destination;df_facility_dot_err;;a;processed;0
The statistics are semicolon separated; every line contains statistics for a particular object (for example source,
destination, tag, and so on). The statistics have the following fields:
1. The type of the object (for example dst.file, tag, src.facility)
2. The ID of the object used in the syslog-ng configuration file, for example d_internal or
source.src_tcp. The #0 part means that this is the first destination in the destination group.
3. The instance ID (destination) of the object, for example the filename of a file destination, or the
name of the application for a program source or destination.
4. The status of the object. One of the following:
■ a - active. At the time of quering the statistics, the source or the destination was still alive (it
continuously received statistical data).
■ d - dynamic. Such objects may not be continuously available, for example, like statistics based
on the sender's hostname.
■ o - This object was once active, but stopped receiving messages. (For example a dynamic object
may disappear and become orphan.)
Note
The syslog-ng OSE application stores the statistics of the objects when syslog-ng OSE is reloaded.
However, if the configuration of syslog-ng OSE was changed since the last reload, the statistics of
orphaned objects are deleted.
5. The type of the statistics:
■ processed: The number of messages that successfully reached their destination driver.
■ dropped: The number of dropped messages — syslog-ng OSE could not send the messages to
the destination and the output buffer got full, so messages were dropped by the destination driver.
■ stored: The number of messages stored in the message queue of the destination driver, waiting
to be sent to the destination.
■ suppressed: The number of suppressed messages (if the suppress() feature is enabled).
■ stamp: The UNIX timestamp of the last message sent to the destination.
www.balabit.com
298
6. The number of such messages.
Note
Certain statistics are available only if the stats-level() option is set to a higher value.
When receiving messages with non-standard facility values (that is, higher than 23), these messages will be listed as
other facility instead of their facility number.
www.balabit.com
299
Multithreading concepts of syslog-ng OSE
Chapter 15. Multithreading and scaling in
syslog-ng OSE
Starting with version 3.3, syslog-ng OSE can be run in multithreaded mode to scale to multiple CPUs or cores
for increased performance.
Note
Starting with version 3.6, syslog-ng OSE runs in multithreaded mode by default.
15.1. Multithreading concepts of syslog-ng OSE
This section is a brief overview on how syslog-ng OSE works in multithreaded mode. It is mainly for illustration
purposes: the concept has been somewhat simplified and may not completely match reality.
Note
The way syslog-ng OSE uses multithreading may change in future releases. The current documentation applies to version
3.6.
syslog-ng OSE has a main thread that is always running, and a number of worker threads that process the
messages. The maximum number of worker threads syslog-ng OSE uses is the number of CPUs or cores in the
host running syslog-ng OSE (up to 64) but can be limited using the --worker-threads command-line option.
Note
The --worker-threads command-line option sets the maximum total number of threads syslog-ng OSE can use,
including the main syslog-ng OSE thread.
When an event requiring a new thread occurs (for example, syslog-ng OSE receives new messages, or a
destination becomes available), syslog-ng OSE tries to start a new thread. If there are no free threads, the task
waits until a thread finishes its task and becomes available. There are two types of worker threads:
■ Reader threads read messages from a source (as many as possible, but limited by the
log-fetch-limit() and log-iw-size() options. The thread then processes these messages,
that is, performs filtering, rewriting and other tasks as necessary, and puts the log message into the
queue of the destination. If the destination does not have a queue (for example, usertty), the reader
thread sends the message to the destination, without the interaction of a separate writer thread.
■ Writer threads take the messages from the queue of the destination and send them to the destination,
that is, write the messages into a file, or send them to the syslog server over the network. The writer
thread starts to process messages from the queue only if the destination is writable, and there are
www.balabit.com
300
Configuring multithreading
enough messages in the queue, as set in the flush-lines() and the flush-timeout() options.
Writer threads stop processing messages when the destination becomes unavailable, or there are no
more messages in the queue.
The following list describes which sources and destinations can use multiple threads.
■ The tcp and syslog(tcp) sources can process independent connections in separate threads. The
number of independent connections is limited by the max-connections() option of the source.
Separate sources are processed by separate thread, for example, if you have two separate tcp sources
defined that receive messages on different IP addresses or port, syslog-ng OSE will use separate
threads for these sources even if they both have only a single active connection.
■ The udp, file, and pipe sources use a single thread for every source statement.
■ The tcp, syslog, and pipe destinations use a single thread for every destination.
■ The file destination uses a single thread for writing the destination file, but may use a separate
thread for each destination file if the filename includes macros.
■ Every sql destination uses its own thread. These threads are independent from the setting of the
--worker-threads command-line option.
15.2. Configuring multithreading
Starting with version 3.6, syslog-ng OSE runs in multithreaded mode by default.
Multithreading in syslog-ng OSE can be enabled using the following methods:
■ Globally using the threaded(yes) option.
■ Separately for selected sources or destinations using the flags("threaded") option.
Example 15.1. Enabling multithreading
To enable multithreading globally, use the threaded option:
options {threaded(yes) ; };
To enable multithreading only for a selected source or destination, use the flags("threaded") option:
source s_tcp_syslog { tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) flags("syslog-protocol", "threaded")
); };
15.3. Optimizing multithreaded performance
Destinations that have a queue process that queue in a single thread. Multiple sources can send messages to the
same queue, so the queue can scale to multiple CPUs. However, when the writer thread writes the queue contents
to the destination, it will be single-threaded.
Message parsing, rewrite rules, filters, and other types of message processing is performed by the reader thread
in a sequential manner. This means that such operations can scale only if reading messages from the source
www.balabit.com
301
Optimizing multithreaded performance
can be multithreaded. For example, if a tcp source can process messages from different connections (clients)
in separate threads. If the source cannot use multiple threads to process the messages, the operations will not
scale.
To improve the processing power of syslog-ng OSE and scale to more processors, use the following methods:
■ To improve scaling on the source side, use more sources, for example, more source files, or receive
the messages from more parallel connections. For network sources, you can also configure a part of
your clients to send the messages to a different port of your syslog-ng server, and use separate source
definitions for each port.
■ On the destination side, when writing the log messages to files, use macros in the filename to split
the messages to separate files (for example, using the ${HOST} macro). Files with macros in their
filenames are processed in separate writer threads.
■ On the destination side, when sending messages to a syslog-ng server, you can use multiple
connections to the server if you configure the syslog-ng server to receive messages on multiple ports,
and configure the clients to use both ports.
www.balabit.com
302
Possible causes of losing log messages
Chapter 16. Troubleshooting syslog-ng
This chapter provides tips and guidelines about troubleshooting problems related to syslog-ng.
Tip
As a general rule, first try to get logging the messages to a local file. Once this is working, you know that syslog-ng is
running correctly and receiving messages, and you can proceed to forwarding the messages to the server.
If the syslog-ng server does not receive the messages, use tcpdump or a similar packet sniffer tool on the client to verify
that the messages are sent correctly, and on the server to verify that it receives the messages.
If syslog-ng is closing the connections for no apparent reason, be sure to check the log messages of syslog-ng. You might
also want to run syslog-ng with the --verbose or --debug command-line options for more-detailed log messages.
Starting from syslog-ng OSE version 3.1, you can enable these messages without restarting syslog-ng using the
syslog-ng-ctl verbose --set=on command. For details, see the syslog-ng-ctl man page at syslog-ng-ctl(1) (p. 332).
Similarly, build up encrypted connections step-by-step: first create a working unencrypted (for example TCP) connection,
then add TLS encryption, and finally client authentication if needed.
16.1. Possible causes of losing log messages
During the course of a message from the sending application to the final destination of the message, there are
a number of locations where a message may be lost, even though syslog-ng does its best to avoid message loss.
Usually losing messages can be avoided with careful planning and proper configuration of syslog-ng and the
hosts running syslog-ng. The following list shows the possible locations where messages may be lost, and
provides methods to minimize the risk of losing messages.
Note
The following list covers the main possibilities of losing messages, but does not take into account the possible use of
flow-control (for details, see Section 8.2, Managing incoming and outgoing messages with flow-control (p. 203)). This
topic will be addressed in more detail in the future releases of this guide.
■ Between the application and the syslog-ng client: Make sure to use an appropriate source to receive
the logs from the application (for example from /dev/log). For example, use unix-stream instead
of unix-dgram whenever possible.
■ When syslog-ng is sending messages: If syslog-ng cannot send messages to the destination and the
output buffer gets full, syslog-ng will drop messages. Use flags (flow-control) to avoid it (for details,
see Section 8.2.2, Configuring flow-control (p. 206)). The number of dropped messages is displayed
per destination in the log message statistics of syslog-ng (for details, see Chapter 14, Statistics of
syslog-ng (p. 297)).
■ On the network: When transferring messages using the UDP protocol, messages may be lost without
any notice or feedback — such is the nature of the UDP protocol. Always use the TCP protocol to
transfer messages over the network whenever possible.
■ In the socket receive buffer: When transferring messages using the UDP protocol, the UDP datagram
(that is, the message) that reaches the receiving host placed in a memory area called the socket
www.balabit.com
303
Collecting debugging information with strace, truss, or tusc
receive buffer. If the host receives more messages than it can process, this area overflows, and
the kernel drops messages without letting syslog-ng know about it. Using TCP instead of UDP
prevents this issue. If you must use the UDP protocol, increase the size of the receive buffer using
the so-rcvbuf() option.
■ When syslog-ng is receiving messages: The receiving syslog-ng (for example the syslog-ng server
or relay) may drop messages if the fifo of the destination file gets full. The number of dropped
messages is displayed per destination in the log message statistics of syslog-ng (for details, see
Chapter 14, Statistics of syslog-ng (p. 297)).
■ When the destination cannot handle large load: When syslog-ng is sending messages at a high rate
into an SQL database, a file, or another destination, it is possible that the destination cannot handle
the load, and processes the messages slowly. As a result, the buffers of syslog-ng fill up, syslog-ng
cannot process the incoming messages, and starts to loose messages. For details, see the previous
entry. Use the throttle parameter to avoid this problem.
■ As a result of an unclean shutdown of the syslog-ng server: If the host running the syslog-ng server
experiences an unclean shutdown, it takes time until the clients realize that the connection to the
syslog-ng server is down. Messages that are put into the output TCP buffer of the clients during this
period are not sent to the server.
16.2. Procedure – Creating syslog-ng core files
Purpose:
When syslog-ng crashes for some reason, it can create a core file that contains important troubleshooting
information. To enable core files, complete the following procedure:
Steps:
Step 1. Core files are produced only if the maximum core file size ulimit is set to a high value in the
init script of syslog-ng. Add the following line to the init script of syslog-ng:
ulimit -c unlimited
Step 2. Verify that syslog-ng has permissions to write the directory it is started from, for example
/opt/syslog-ng/sbin/.
Step 3. If syslog-ng crashes, it will create a core file in the directory syslog-ng was started from.
Step 4. To test that syslog-ng can create a core file, you can create a crash manually. For this, determine the
PID of syslog-ng (for example using the ps -All|grep syslog-ng command), then issue the
following command: kill -ABRT <syslog-ng pid>
This should create a core file in the current working directory.
16.3. Collecting debugging information with strace, truss, or tusc
To properly troubleshoot certain situations, it can be useful to trace which system calls syslog-ng OSE performs.
How this is performed depends on the platform running syslog-ng OSE. In general, note the following points:
www.balabit.com
304
Running a failure script
■ When syslog-ng OSE is started, a supervisor process might stay in the foreground, while the actual
syslog-ng daemon goes to the background. Always trace the background process.
■ Apart from the system calls, the time between two system calls can be important as well. Make sure
that your tracing tool records the time information as well. For details on how to do that, refer to the
manual page of your specific tool (for example, strace on Linux, or truss on Solaris and BSD).
■ Run your tracing tool in verbose mode, and if possible, set it to print long output strings, so the
messages are not truncated.
■ When using strace, also record the output of lsof to see which files are accessed.
The following are examples for tracing system calls of syslog-ng on some platforms. The output is saved into
the /tmp/syslog-ng-trace.txt file, sufficed with the PID of the related syslog-ng process.The path of the
syslog-ng binary assumes that you have installed syslog-ng OSE from the official syslog-ng OSE binaries
available at the BalaBit website — native distribution-specific packages may use different paths.
■ Linux: strace -o /tmp/trace.txt -s256 -ff -ttT /opt/syslog-ng/sbin/syslog-ng
-f /opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng.conf -Fdv
■ HP-UX: tusc -f -o /tmp/syslog-ng-trace.txt -T /opt/syslog-ng/sbin/syslog-ng
■ IBM AIX and Solaris: truss -f -o /tmp/syslog-ng-trace.txt -r all -w all -u
libc:: /opt/syslog-ng/sbin/syslog-ng -d -d -d
Tip
To execute these commands on an already running syslog-ng OSE process, use the -p <pid_of_syslog-ng> parameter.
16.4. Running a failure script
When syslog-ng is abnormally terminated, it can execute a user-created failure script. This can be used for
example to send an automatic e-mail notification. The script must be located at
/opt/syslog-ng/sbin/syslog-ng-failure.
16.5. Stopping syslog-ng
To avoid problems, always use the init scripts to stop syslog-ng (/etc/init.d/syslog-ng stop), instead
of using the kill command. This is especially true on Solaris and HP-UX systems, here use
/etc/init.d/syslog stop.
www.balabit.com
305
General recommendations
Chapter 17. Best practices and examples
This chapter discusses some special examples and recommendations.
17.1. General recommendations
This section provides general tips and recommendations on using syslog-ng. Some of the recommendations
are detailed in the subsequent sections.
■ Do not base the separation of log messages into different files on the facility parameter. As several
applications and processes can use the same facility, the facility does not identify the application
that sent the message. By default, the facility parameter is not even included in the log message
itself. In general, sorting the log messages into several different files can make finding specific log
messages difficult. If you must create separate log files, use the application name.
■ Standard log messages include the local time of the sending host, without any time zone information.
It is recommended to replace this timestamp with an ISODATE timestamp, because the ISODATE
format includes the year and timezone as well. To convert all timestamps to the ISODATE format,
include the following line in the syslog-ng configuration file:
options {ts-format(iso) ; };
■ Resolving the IP addresses of the clients to domain names can decrease the performance of syslog-ng.
For details, see Section 17.3, Using name resolution in syslog-ng (p. 307).
17.2. Handling large message load
This section provides tips on optimizing the performance of syslog-ng. Optimizing the performance is important
for syslog-ng hosts that handle large traffic.
■ Disable DNS resolution, or resolve hostnames locally. For details, see Section 17.3, Using name
resolution in syslog-ng (p. 307).
■ Enable flow-control for the TCP sources. For details, see Section 8.2, Managing incoming and
outgoing messages with flow-control (p. 203).
■ Do not use the usertty() destination driver. Under heavy load, the users are not be able to read
the messages from the console, and it slows down syslog-ng.
■ Do not use regular expressions in our filters. Evaluating general regular expressions puts a high load
on the CPU. Use simple filter functions and logical operators instead. For details, see Section 11.3,
Regular expressions (p. 263).
■
www.balabit.com
Warning
When receiving messages using the UDP protocol, increase the size of the UDP receive buffer on the
receiver host (that is, the syslog-ng OSE server or relay receiving the messages). Note that on certain
platforms, for example, on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, even low message load (~200 messages per second)
can result in message loss, unless the so-rcvbuf() option of the source is increased. In such cases, you
306
Using name resolution in syslog-ng
will need to increase the net.core.rmem_max parameter of the host (for example, to 1024000), but do
not modify net.core.rmem_default parameter.
As a general rule, increase the so-rcvbuf() so that the buffer size in kilobytes is higher than the rate of
incoming messages per second. For example, to receive 2000 messages per second, set the so-rcvbuf()
at least to 2 097 152 bytes.
■ Increase the value of the flush-lines() parameter. Increasing flush-lines() from 0 to 100
can increase the performance of syslog-ng OSE by 100%.
17.3. Using name resolution in syslog-ng
The syslog-ng application can resolve the hostnames of the clients and include them in the log messages.
However, the performance of syslog-ng is severely degraded if the domain name server is unaccessible or slow.
Therefore, it is not recommended to resolve hostnames in syslog-ng. If you must use name resolution from
syslog-ng, consider the following:
■ Use DNS caching. Verify that the DNS cache is large enough to store all important hostnames. (By
default, the syslog-ng DNS cache stores 1007 entries.)
options { dns-cache-size(2000); };
■ If the IP addresses of the clients change only rarely, set the expiry of the DNS cache large.
options { dns-cache-expire(87600); };
■ If possible, resolve the hostnames locally. For details, see Procedure 17.3.1, Resolving hostnames
locally (p. 307).
Note
Domain name resolution is important mainly in relay and server mode.
17.3.1. Procedure – Resolving hostnames locally
Purpose:
Resolving hostnames locally enables you to display hostnames in the log files for frequently used hosts, without
having to rely on a DNS server. The known IP address – hostname pairs are stored locally in a file. In the log
messages, syslog-ng will replace the IP addresses of known hosts with their hostnames. To configure local
name resolution, complete the following steps:
Steps:
Step 1. Add the hostnames and the respective IP addresses to the file used for local name resolution. On Linux
and UNIX systems, this is the /etc/hosts file. Consult the documentation of your operating system
for details.
www.balabit.com
307
Using name resolution in syslog-ng
Step 2. Instruct syslog-ng to resolve hostnames locally. Set the use-dns() option of syslog-ng to
persist_only.
Step 3. Set the dns-cache-hosts() option to point to the file storing the hostnames.
options {
use-dns(persist_only);
dns-cache-hosts(/etc/hosts); };
17.4. Procedure – Collecting logs from chroot
Purpose:
To collect logs from a chroot using a syslog-ng client running on the host, complete the following steps:
Figure 17.1. Collecting logs from chroot
Steps:
Step 1. Create a /dev directory within the chroot. The applications running in the chroot send their log messages
here.
Step 2. Create a local source in the configuration file of the syslog-ng application running outside the chroot.
This source should point to the /dev/log file within the chroot (for example to the /chroot/dev/log
directory).
www.balabit.com
308
Configuring log rotation
Step 3. Include the source in a log statement.
Note
You need to set up timezone information within your chroot as well. This usually means creating a symlink
to /etc/localtime.
17.5. Configuring log rotation
The syslog-ng OSE application does not rotate logs by itself. To use syslog-ng OSE for log rotation, consider
the following approaches:
Use logrotate together with syslog-ng OSE:
■ Ideal for workstations or when processing fewer logs.
■ It is included in most distributions by default.
■ Less scripting is required, only logrotate has to be configured correctly.
■ Requires frequent restart (syslog-ng OSE must be reloaded/restarted when the files are rotated).
■ The statistics collected by syslog-ng OSE, and the correlation information gathered with Pattern
Database is lost with each restart.
Separate incoming logs based on time, host or other information:
■ Ideal for central log servers, where regular restart of syslog-ng OSE is unfavorable.
■ Requires shell scripts or cron jobs to remove old logs.
■ It can be done by using macros in the destination name (in the filename, directory name, or the
database table name).
Example 17.1. File destination for log rotation
This sample file destination configuration stores incoming logs in files that are named based on the current year, month
and day, and places these files in directories that are named based on the hostname:
destination d_sorted { file("/var/log/remote/${HOST}/${YEAR}_${MONTH}_${DAY}.log"
create-dirs(yes)); };
Example 17.2. Command for cron for log rotation
This sample command for cron removes files older than two weeks from the /var/log/remote directory:
find /var/log/remote/ -daystart -mtime +14 -type f -exec rm {} \;
www.balabit.com
309
Appendix A. The syslog-ng manual pages
www.balabit.com
310
loggen
loggen — Generate syslog messages at a specified rate
Synopsis
loggen [options]target [port]
Description
NOTE: The loggen application is distributed with the syslog-ng system logging application, and is usually part
of the syslog-ng package. The latest version of the syslog-ng application is available at the official syslog-ng
website.
This manual page is only an abstract; for the complete documentation of syslog-ng, see The syslog-ng
Administrator Guide.
The loggen application is tool to test and stress-test your syslog server and the connection to the server. It can
send syslog messages to the server at a specified rate, using a number of connection types and protocols,
including TCP, UDP, and unix domain sockets. The messages can be generated automatically (repeating the
PADDstring over and over), or read from a file or the standard input.
When loggen finishes sending the messages, it displays the following statistics:
■ average rate: Average rate the messages were sent in messages/second.
■ count: The total number of messages sent.
■ time: The time required to send the messages in seconds.
■ average message size: The average size of the sent messages in bytes.
■ bandwidth: The average bandwidth used for sending the messages in kilobytes/second.
Options
--active-connections
<number-of-connections>
Number of connections loggen will use to send messages to
the destination. This option is usable only when using TCP or
TLS connections to the destination. Default value: 1
The loggen utility waits until every connection is established
before starting to send messages. See also the
--idle-connections option.
--csv or -C
Send the statistics of the sent messages to stdout as CSV. This
can be used for plotting the message rate.
--dgram or -D
Use datagram socket (UDP or unix-dgram) to send the messages
to the target. Requires the --inet option as well.
--dont-parse or -d
Do not parse the lines read from the input files, send them as
received.
www.balabit.com
311
--help or -h
Display a brief help message.
--idle-connections
<number-of-connections>
Number of idle connections loggen will establish to the
destination. Note that loggen will not send any messages on
idle connections, but the connection is kept open using keep-alive
messages. This option is usable only when using TCP or TLS
connections
to
the
destination.
See
also
the
--active-connections option. Default value: 0
--inet or -i
Use the TCP (by default) or UDP (when used together with the
--dgram option) protocol to send the messages to the target.
--interval <seconds> or -I
<seconds>
The number of seconds loggen will run. Default value: 10
Note
Note that when the --interval and --number are used
together, loggen will send messages until the period set
in --interval expires or the amount of messages set
in --number is reached, whichever happens first.
--ipv6 or -6
Specify the destination using its IPv6 address. Note that the
destination must have a real IPv6 address.
--loop-reading or -l
Read the file specified in --read-file option in loop: loggen
will start reading from the beginning of the file when it reaches
the end of the file.
--number
<number-of-messages> or -n
<number-of-messages>
Number of messages to generate.
--no-framing or -F
Do not use the framing of the IETF-syslog protocol style, even
if the syslog-proto option is set.
--quiet or -Q
Output statistics only when the execution of loggen is finished.
If not set, the statistics are displayed every second.
--rate <message/second> or -r
<message/second>
The number of messages generated per second for every active
connection. Default value: 1000
--read-file <filename> or -R
<filename>
Read the messages from a file and send them to the target. See
also the --skip-tokens option.
www.balabit.com
Note
Note that when the --interval and --number are used
together, loggen will send messages until the period set
in --interval expires or the amount of messages set
in --number is reached, whichever happens first.
312
Specify - as the input file to read messages from the standard
input (stdio). Note that when reading messages from the standard
input, loggen can only use a single thread. The -R - parameters
must be placed at end of command, like: loggen 127.0.0.1
1061 --read-file --sdata <data-to-send> or -p
<data-to-send>
Send the argument of the --sdata option as the SDATA part
of IETF-syslog (RFC5424 formatted) messages. Use it together
with the --syslog-proto option. For example: --sdata
"[test name=\"value\"]
--size <message-size> or -s
<message-size>
The size of a syslog message in bytes. Default value: 256.
Minimum value: 127 bytes, maximum value: 8192 bytes.
--skip-tokens <number>
Skip the specified number of space-separated tokens (words) at
the beginning of every line. For example, if the messages in the
file look like foo bar message, --skip-tokens 2 skips
the foo bar part of the line, and sends only the message part.
Works only when used together with the --read-file
parameter. Default value: 3
--stream or -S
Use a stream socket (TCP or unix-stream) to send the messages
to the target.
--syslog-proto or -P
Use the new IETF-syslog message format as specified in
RFC5424. By default, loggen uses the legacy BSD-syslog
message format (as described in RFC3164). See also the
--no-framing option.
--unix </path/to/socket> or
-x </path/to/socket>
Use a UNIX domain socket to send the messages to the target.
--use-ssl or -U
Use an SSL-encrypted channel to send the messages to the target.
Note that it is not possible to check the certificate of the target,
or to perform mutual authentication.
--version or -V
Display version number of syslog-ng.
Examples
The following command generates 100 messages per second for ten minutes, and sends them to port 2010 of
the localhost via TCP. Each message is 300 bytes long.
loggen --size 300 --rate 100 --interval 600 127.0.0.1 2010
The following command is similar to the one above, but uses the UDP protocol.
loggen --inet --dgram --size 300 --rate 100 --interval 600 127.0.0.1 2010
Send a single message on TCP6 to the ::1 IPv6 address, port 1061:
www.balabit.com
313
loggen --ipv6 --number 1 ::1 1061
Send a single message on UDP6 to the ::1 IPv6 address, port 1061:
loggen --ipv6 --dgram --number 1 ::1 1061
Send a single message using a unix domain-socket:
loggen --unix --stream --number 1 </path/to/socket>
Read messages from the standard input (stdio) and send them to the localhost:
loggen 127.0.0.1 1061 --read-file -
Files
/opt/syslog-ng/bin/loggen
See also
syslog-ng.conf(5)
Note
For the detailed documentation of syslog-ng OSE see The syslog-ng OSE 3.6 Administrator Guide
If you experience any problems or need help with syslog-ng, visit visit the syslog-ng wiki or the syslog-ng mailing
list.
For news and notifications about of syslog-ng, visit the syslog-ng Insider Blog.
Author
This manual page was written by the BalaBit Documentation Team <documentation@balabit.com>.
Copyright
The authors grant permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this manual page under the terms of the GNU
General Public License Version 2 or newer (GPL v2+).
www.balabit.com
314
pdbtool
pdbtool — An application to test and convert syslog-ng pattern database rules
Synopsis
pdbtool [command] [options]
Description
This manual page is only an abstract; for the complete documentation of syslog-ng and pdbtool, see
syslog-ng Administrator Guide .
The
The syslog-ng application can match the contents of the log messages to a database of predefined message
patterns (also called patterndb). By comparing the messages to the known patterns, syslog-ng is able to identify
the exact type of the messages, tag the messages, and sort them into message classes. The message classes can
be used to classify the type of the event described in the log message. The functionality of the pattern database
is similar to that of the logcheck project, but the syslog-ng approach is faster, scales better, and is much easier
to maintain compared to the regular expressions of logcheck.
The pdbtool application is a utility that can be used to:
■ test messages, or specific rules;
■ convert an older pattern database to the latest database format;
■ merge pattern databases into a single file;
■ automatically create pattern databases from a large amount of log messages;
■ dump the RADIX tree built from the pattern database (or a part of it) to explore how the pattern
matching works.
The dictionary command
dictionary [options]
Lists every name-value pair that can be set by the rules of the pattern database.
--dump-tags or -T
List the tags instead of the names of the name-value pairs.
--pdb <path-to-file> or -p
<path-to-file>
Name of the pattern database file to use.
--program <programname> or -P
<programname>
List only the name-value pairs that can be set for the messages
of the specified $PROGRAM application.
The dump command
dump [options]
www.balabit.com
315
Display the RADIX tree built from the patterns. This shows how are the patterns represented in syslog-ng and
it might also help to track down pattern-matching problems. The dump utility can dump the tree used for
matching the PROGRAM or the MSG parts.
--debug or -d
Enable debug/diagnostic messages on stderr.
--pdb or -p
Name of the pattern database file to use.
--program or -P
Displays the RADIX tree built from the patterns belonging to the
${PROGRAM} application.
--program-tree or -T
Display the ${PROGRAM} tree.
--verbose or -v
Enable verbose messages on stderr.
Example and sample output:
pdbtool dump -p patterndb.xml
-P 'sshd'
'p'
'assword for'
@QSTRING:@
'from'
@QSTRING:@
'port '
@NUMBER:@ rule_id='fc49054e-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
' ssh' rule_id='fc55cf86-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
'2' rule_id='fc4b7982-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
'ublickey for'
@QSTRING:@
'from'
@QSTRING:@
'port '
@NUMBER:@ rule_id='fc4d377c-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
' ssh' rule_id='fc5441ac-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
'2' rule_id='fc44a9fe-75fd-11dd-9bba-001e6806451b'
The match command
match [options]
Use the match command to test the rules in a pattern database. The command tries to match the specified
message against the patterns of the database, evaluates the parsers of the pattern, and also displays which part
of the message was parsed successfully. The command returns with a 0 (success) or 1 (no match) return code
and displays the following information:
■ the class assigned to the message (that is, system, violation, and so on),
■ the ID of the rule that matched the message, and
■ the values of the parsers (if there were parsers in the matching pattern).
The match command has the following options:
www.balabit.com
316
--color-out or -c
Color the terminal output to highlight the part of the message
that was successfully parsed.
--debug or -d
Enable debug/diagnostic messages on stderr.
--debug-csv or -C
Print
the
debugging
information
returned
by
the
--debug-pattern option as comma-separated values.
--debug-pattern or -D
Print debugging information about the pattern matching. See
also the --debug-csv option.
--file=<filename-with-path>
or -f
Process the messages of the specified log file with the pattern
database. This option allows to classify messages offline, and
to apply the pattern database to already existing logfiles. To read
the messages from the standard input (stdin), specify a hyphen
(-) character instead of a filename.
--filter=<filter-expression>
or -F
Print only messages matching the specified syslog-ng filter
expression.
--message or -M
The text of the log message to match (only the ${MESSAGE}
part without the syslog headers).
--pdb or -p
Name of the pattern database file to use.
--program or -P
Name of the program to use, as contained in the ${PROGRAM}
part of the syslog message.
--template=<template-expression>
or -T
A syslog-ng template expression that is used to format the output
messages.
--verbose or -v
Enable verbose messages on stderr.
Example: The following command checks if the patterndb.xml file recognizes the Accepted publickey
for myuser from 127.0.0.1 port 59357 ssh2 message:
pdbtool match -p patterndb.xml -P sshd -M "Accepted publickey for myuser from
127.0.0.1 port 59357 ssh2"
The following example applies the sshd.pdb pattern database file to the log messages stored in the
/var/log/messages file, and displays only the messages that received a useracct tag.
pdbtool match -p sshd.pdb \
–file /var/log/messages \
–filter ‘tags(“usracct”);’
The merge command
merge [options]
Use the merge command to combine separate pattern database files into a single file (pattern databases are
usually stored in separate files per applications to simplify maintenance). If a file uses an older database format,
www.balabit.com
317
it is automatically updated to the latest format (V3). See the The syslog-ng Administrator Guide for
details on the different pattern database versions.
--debug or -d
Enable debug/diagnostic messages on stderr.
--directory or -D
The directory that contains the pattern database XML files to be merged.
--glob or -G
Specify filenames to be merged using a glob pattern, for example, using
wildcards. For details on glob patterns, see man glob. This pattern is
applied only to the filenames, and not on directory names.
--pdb or -p
Name of the output pattern database file.
--recursive or -r
Merge files from subdirectories as well.
--verbose or -v
Enable verbose messages on stderr.
Example:
pdbtool merge --recursive --directory /home/me/mypatterns/
/var/lib/syslog-ng/patterndb.xml
--pdb
Currently it is not possible to convert a file without merging, so if you only want to convert an older pattern
database file to the latest format, you have to copy it into an empty directory.
The patternize command
patternize [options]
Automatically create a pattern database from a log file containing a large number of log messages. The resulting
pattern database is printed to the standard output (stdout). The pdbtool patternize command uses a data
clustering technique to find similar log messages and replacing the differing parts with @ESTRING:: @ parsers.
For details on pattern databases and message parsers, see the The syslog-ng Administrator Guide .
The patternize command is available only in syslog-ng OSE version 3.2 and later.
--debug or -d
Enable debug/diagnostic messages on stderr.
--file=<path> or -f
The logfile containing the log messages to create patterns from.
To receive the log messages from the standard input (stdin), use
-.
--iterate-outliers or -o
Recursively iterate on the log lines to cover as many log
messages with patterns as possible.
--named-parsers or -n
The number of example log messages to include in the pattern
database for every pattern. Default value: 1
--no-parse or -p
Do not parse the input file, treat every line as the message part
of a log message.
--samples=<number-of-samples>
Include a generated name in the parsers, for example,
.dict.string1, .dict.string2, and so on.
--support=<number> or -S
A pattern is added to the output pattern database if at least the
specified percentage of log messages from the input logfile match
www.balabit.com
318
the pattern. For example, if the input logfile contains 1000 log
messages and the --support=3.0 option is used, a pattern is
created only if the pattern matches at least 3 percent of the log
messages (that is, 30 log messages). If patternize does not create
enough patterns, try to decrease the support value.
Default value: 4.0
--verbose or -v
Enable verbose messages on stderr.
Example:
pdbtool patternize --support=2.5 --file=/var/log/messages
The test command
test [options]
Use the test command to validate a pattern database XML file. Note that you must have the xmllint application
installed. The test command is available only in syslog-ng OSE version 3.2 and later.
--color-out or -c
Enable coloring in terminal output.
--debug or -d
Enable debug/diagnostic messages on stderr.
--debug or -D
Print debugging information on non-matching patterns.
--rule-id or -r
Test only the patterndb rule (specified by its rule id) against its example.
--validate
Validate a pattern database XML file.
--verbose or -v
Enable verbose messages on stderr.
Example:
pdbtool test --validate /home/me/mypatterndb.pdb
Files
/opt/syslog-ng/
/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng.conf
See also
The syslog-ng Administrator Guide
syslog-ng.conf(5)
syslog-ng(8)
www.balabit.com
319
Note
For the detailed documentation of syslog-ng OSE see The syslog-ng OSE 3.6 Administrator Guide
If you experience any problems or need help with syslog-ng, visit visit the syslog-ng wiki or the syslog-ng mailing
list.
For news and notifications about of syslog-ng, visit the syslog-ng Insider Blog.
Author
This manual page was written by the BalaBit Documentation Team <documentation@balabit.com>.
Copyright
The authors grant permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this manual page under the terms of the GNU
General Public License Version 2 or newer (GPL v2+).
www.balabit.com
320
syslog-ng
syslog-ng — syslog-ng system logger application
Synopsis
syslog-ng [options]
Description
This manual page is only an abstract; for the complete documentation of syslog-ng, see The syslog-ng Open
Source Edition Administrator Guide or the official syslog-ng website.
The syslog-ng OSE application is a flexible and highly scalable system logging application. Typically, syslog-ng
is used to manage log messages and implement centralized logging, where the aim is to collect the log messages
of several devices on a single, central log server. The different devices - called syslog-ng clients - all run
syslog-ng, and collect the log messages from the various applications, files, and other sources. The clients send
all important log messages to the remote syslog-ng server, where the server sorts and stores them.
Options
--caps
Run syslog-ng OSE process with the specified POSIX capability
flags.
■ If the --no-caps option is not set,syslog-ng OSE has been
compiled with the --enable-linux-caps compile option,
and the host supports CAP_SYSLOG, syslog-ng OSE uses
the
following
capabilities:
"cap_net_bind_service,cap_net_broadcast,cap_net_raw,cap_dac_read_search,cap_dac_override,cap_chown,cap_fowner=p
cap_syslog=ep"
■ If the --no-caps option is not set, and the host does not
support CAP_SYSLOG, syslog-ng OSE uses the following
c
a
p
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
:
"cap_net_bind_service,cap_net_broadcast,cap_net_raw,cap_dac_read_search,cap_dac_override,cap_chown,cap_fowner=p
cap_sys_admin=ep"
--cfgfile <file> or -f <file>
Use the specified configuration file.
--chroot <dir> or -C <dir>
Change root to the specified directory. The configuration file is
read after chrooting so, the configuration file must be available
within the chroot. That way it is also possible to reload the
syslog-ng configuration after chrooting. However, note that the
--user and --group options are resolved before chrooting.
--debug or -d
Start syslog-ng in debug mode.
--default-modules
A comma-separated list of the modules that are loaded
automatically. Modules not loaded automatically can be loaded
by including the @module <modulename> statement in the
www.balabit.com
321
syslog-ng OSE configuration file. The following modules are
l o a d e d
b y
d e f a u l t :
affile,afprog,afsocket,afuser,basicfuncs,csvparser,dbparser,syslogformat,afsql.
Available only in syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.3 and later.
--enable-core
Enable syslog-ng to write core files in case of a crash to help
support and debugging.
--fd-limit <number>
Set the minimal number of required file descriptors (fd-s); this
sets how many files syslog-ng can keep open simultaneously.
Default value: 4096. Note that this does not override the global
ulimit setting of the host.
--foreground or -F
Do not daemonize, run in the foreground.
--group <group> or -g <group>
Switch to the specified group after initializing the configuration
file.
--help or -h
Display a brief help message.
--module-registry
Display the list and description of the available modules. Note
that not all of these modules are loaded automatically, only the
ones specified in the --default-modules option. Available
only in syslog-ng Open Source Edition 3.3 and later.
--no-caps
Run syslog-ng as root, without capability-support. This is the
default behavior. On Linux, it is possible to run syslog-ng as
non-root with capability-support if syslog-ng was compiled with
the --enable-linux-caps option enabled. (Execute
syslog-ng --version to display the list of enabled build
parameters.)
To run syslog-ng OSE with specific capabilities, use the --caps
option.
--persist-file
<persist-file> or -R
<persist-file>
Set the path and name of the syslog-ng.persist file where
the persistent options and data are stored.
--pidfile <pidfile> or -p
<pidfile>
Set path to the PID file where the pid of the main process is
stored.
--preprocess-into
<output-file>
After processing the configuration file and resolving included
files and variables, write the resulting configuration into the
specified output file. Available only in syslog-ng Open Source
Edition 3.3 and later.
--process-mode <mode>
Sets how to run syslog-ng: in the foreground (mainly used for
debugging), in the background as a daemon, or in
safe-background mode. By default, syslog-ng runs in
safe-background mode. This mode creates a supervisor
process called supervising syslog-ng , that restarts
syslog-ng if it crashes.
www.balabit.com
322
--stderr or -e
Log internal messages of syslog-ng to stderr. Mainly used for
debugging purposes in conjunction with the --foreground
option. If not specified, syslog-ng will log such messages to its
internal source.
--syntax-only or -s
Verify that the configuration file is syntactically correct and exit.
--user <user> or -u <user>
Switch to the specified user after initializing the configuration
file (and optionally chrooting). Note that it is not possible to
reload the syslog-ng configuration if the specified user has no
privilege to create the /dev/log file.
--verbose or -v
Enable verbose logging used to troubleshoot syslog-ng.
--version or -V
Display version number and compilation information, and also
the list and short description of the available modules. For
detailed description of the available modules, see the
--module-registry option. Note that not all of these modules
are loaded automatically, only the ones specified in the
--default-modules option.
--worker-threads
Sets the number of worker threads syslog-ng OSE can use,
including the main syslog-ng OSE thread. Note that certain
operations in syslog-ng OSE can use threads that are not limited
by this option. This setting has effect only when syslog-ng OSE
is running in multithreaded mode. Available only in syslog-ng
Open Source Edition 3.3 and later. See The syslog-ng Open
Source Edition 3.6 Administrator Guide for details.
Files
/opt/syslog-ng/
/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng.conf
See also
syslog-ng.conf(5)
Note
For the detailed documentation of syslog-ng OSE see The syslog-ng OSE 3.6 Administrator Guide
If you experience any problems or need help with syslog-ng, visit visit the syslog-ng wiki or the syslog-ng mailing
list.
For news and notifications about of syslog-ng, visit the syslog-ng Insider Blog.
Author
This manual page was written by the BalaBit Documentation Team <documentation@balabit.com>.
www.balabit.com
323
Copyright
The authors grant permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this manual page under the terms of the GNU
General Public License Version 2 or newer (GPL v2+).
www.balabit.com
324
syslog-ng.conf
syslog-ng.conf — syslog-ng configuration file
Synopsis
syslog-ng.conf
Description
This manual page is only an abstract; for the complete documentation of syslog-ng, see The syslog-ng Open
Source Edition Administrator Guide or the official syslog-ng website.
The syslog-ng OSE application is a flexible and highly scalable system logging application. Typically, syslog-ng
is used to manage log messages and implement centralized logging, where the aim is to collect the log messages
of several devices on a single, central log server. The different devices - called syslog-ng clients - all run
syslog-ng, and collect the log messages from the various applications, files, and other sources. The clients send
all important log messages to the remote syslog-ng server, where the server sorts and stores them.
Basic concepts of syslog-ng OSE
The syslog-ng application reads incoming messages and forwards them to the selected destinations. The
syslog-ng application can receive messages from files, remote hosts, and other sources.
Log messages enter syslog-ng in one of the defined sources, and are sent to one or more destinations.
Sources and destinations are independent objects; log paths define what syslog-ng does with a message,
connecting the sources to the destinations. A log path consists of one or more sources and one or more
destinations; messages arriving from a source are sent to every destination listed in the log path. A log path
defined in syslog-ng is called a log statement.
Optionally, log paths can include filters. Filters are rules that select only certain messages, for example, selecting
only messages sent by a specific application. If a log path includes filters, syslog-ng sends only the messages
satisfying the filter rules to the destinations set in the log path.
Other optional elements that can appear in log statements are parsers and rewriting rules. Parsers segment
messages into different fields to help processing the messages, while rewrite rules modify the messages by
adding, replacing, or removing parts of the messages.
Configuring syslog-ng
■ The main body of the configuration file consists of object definitions: sources, destinations, logpaths
define which log message are received and where they are sent. All identifiers, option names and
attributes, and any other strings used in the syslog-ng configuration file are case sensitive. Objects
must be defined before they are referenced in another statement. Object definitions (also called
statements) have the following syntax:
object_type object_id {<options>};
www.balabit.com
325
• Type of the object: One of source, destination, log, filter, parser, rewrite rule, or
template.
• Identifier of the object: A unique name identifying the object. When using a reserved word as an
identifier, enclose the identifier in quotation marks.
Tip
Use identifiers that refer to the type of the object they identify. For example, prefix source objects with
s_, destinations with d_, and so on.
Note
Repeating a definition of an object (that is, defining the same object with the same id more than once)
is not allowed, unless you use the @define allow-config-dups 1 definition in the configuration
file.
• Parameters: The parameters of the object, enclosed in braces {parameters}.
• Semicolon: Object definitions end with a semicolon (;).
For example, the following line defines a source and calls it s_internal.
source s_internal { internal(); };
The object can be later referenced in other statements using its ID, for example, the previous source
is used as a parameter of the following log statement:
log { source(s_internal); destination(d_file); };
■ The parameters and options within a statement are similar to function calls of the C programming
language: the name of the option followed by a list of its parameters enclosed within brackets and
terminated with a semicolon.
option(parameter1, parameter2); option2(parameter1, parameter2);
For example, the file() driver in the following source statement has three options: the filename
(/var/log/apache/access.log), follow-freq(), and flags(). The follow-freq() option
also has a parameter, while the flags() option has two parameters.
source s_tail { file("/var/log/apache/access.log"
follow-freq(1) flags(no-parse, validate-utf8)); };
Objects may have required and optional parameters. Required parameters are positional, meaning
that they must be specified in a defined order. Optional parameters can be specified in any order
using the option(value) format. If a parameter (optional or required) is not specified, its default
value is used. The parameters and their default values are listed in the reference section of the
particular object.
www.balabit.com
326
Example A.1. Using required and optional parameters
The unix-stream() source driver has a single required argument: the name of the socket to listen on.
Optional parameters follow the socket name in any order, so the following source definitions have the
same effect:
source s_demo_stream1 {
unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10) group(log)); };
source s_demo_stream2 {
unix-stream("/dev/log" group(log) max-connections(10)); };
■ Some options are global options, or can be set globally, for example, whether syslog-ng OSE should
use DNS resolution to resolve IP addresses. Global options are detailed in Chapter 9, Global options
of syslog-ng OSE (p. 217).
options { use-dns(no); };
■ All identifiers, attributes, and any other strings used in the syslog-ng configuration file are case
sensitive.
■ Objects can be used before definition.
■ Objects can be defined inline as well. This is useful if you use the object only once (for example, a
filter). For details, see Section 5.4, Defining configuration objects inline (p. 43).
■ To add comments to the configuration file, start a line with # and write your comments. These lines
are ignored by syslog-ng.
# Comment: This is a stream source
source s_demo_stream {
unix-stream("/dev/log" max-connections(10) group(log)); };
The syntax of log statements is as follows:
log {
source(s1); source(s2); ...
optional_element(filter1|parser1|rewrite1);...
optional_element(filter2|parser2|rewrite2);...
destination(d1); destination(d2); ...
flags(flag1[, flag2...]);
};
The following log statement sends all messages arriving to the localhost to a remote server.
source s_localhost { tcp(ip(127.0.0.1) port(1999) ); };
destination d_tcp { tcp("10.1.2.3" port(1999); localport(999)); };
log { source(s_localhost); destination(d_tcp); };
The syslog-ng application has a number of global options governing DNS usage, the timestamp format used,
and other general points. Each option may have parameters, similarly to driver specifications. To set global
options, add an option statement to the syslog-ng configuration file using the following syntax:
options { option1(params); option2(params); ... };
www.balabit.com
327
Example A.2. Using global options
To disable domain name resolving, add the following line to the syslog-ng configuration file:
options { use-dns(no); };
The sources, destinations, and filters available in syslog-ng are listed below. For details, see The syslog-ng
Administrator Guide .
Name
Description
file()
Opens the specified file and reads messages.
network()
Listens on the specified TCP or UDP port for incoming
messages using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and
IPv6 networks, respectively. (This driver is a unified
wrapper for the tcp(), tcp6(), udp(), and udp6()
drivers.
nodejs()
Receives JSON messages from nodejs applications.
internal()
Messages generated internally in syslog-ng.
pacct()
Reads messages from the process accounting logs on
Linux.
pipe()
Opens the specified named pipe and reads messages.
program()
Opens the specified application and reads messages
from its standard output.
sun-stream(), sun-streams()
Opens the specified STREAMS device on Solaris systems
and reads incoming messages.
syslog()
Listens for incoming messages using the new
IETF-standard syslog protocol.
system()
Automatically detects which platform syslog-ng OSE
is running on, and collects the native log messages of
that platform.
systemd-journal()
Collects messages directly from the journal of platforms
that use systemd.
systemd-syslog()
Collects messages from the journal using a socket on
platforms that use systemd.
tcp(), tcp6()
Listens on the specified TCP port for incoming
messages using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and
IPv6 networks, respectively.
udp(), udp6()
Listens on the specified UDP port for incoming
messages using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and
IPv6 networks, respectively.
unix-dgram()
Opens the specified unix socket in SOCK_DGRAM mode
and listens for incoming messages.
www.balabit.com
328
Name
Description
unix-stream()
Opens the specified unix socket in SOCK_STREAM mode
and listens for incoming messages.
Table A.1. Source drivers available in syslog-ng
Name
Description
amqp()
Publishes messages using the AMQP (Advanced
Message Queuing Protocol).
file()
Writes messages to the specified file.
graphite()
Sends metrics to a Graphite server to store numeric
time-series data.
mongodb()
Sends messages to a MongoDB database.
pipe()
Writes messages to the specified named pipe.
program()
Forks and launches the specified program, and sends
messages to its standard input.
redis()
Sends messages as name-value pairs to a Redis
key-value store.
riemann()
Sends metrics or events to a Riemann monitoring
system.
smtp()
Sends e-mail messages to the specified recipients.
sql()
Sends messages into an SQL database. In addition to
the standard syslog-ng packages, the sql() destination
requires database-specific packages to be installed.
Refer to the section appropriate for your platform in
Chapter 3, Installing syslog-ng (p. 23).
stomp()
Sends messages to a STOMP server.
syslog()
Sends messages to the specified remote host using the
IETF-syslog protocol. The IETF standard supports
message transport using the UDP, TCP, and TLS
networking protocols.
tcp() and tcp6()
Sends messages to the specified TCP port of a remote
host using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and IPv6,
respectively.
udp() and udp6()
Sends messages to the specified UDP port of a remote
host using the BSD-syslog protocol over IPv4 and IPv6,
respectively.
unix-dgram()
Sends messages to the specified unix socket in
SOCK_DGRAM style (BSD).
unix-stream()
Sends messages to the specified unix socket in
SOCK_STREAM style (Linux).
www.balabit.com
329
Name
Description
usertty()
Sends messages to the terminal of the specified user,
if the user is logged in.
Table A.2. Destination drivers available in syslog-ng
Name
Description
facility()
Filter messages based on the sending facility.
filter()
Call another filter function.
host()
Filter messages based on the sending host.
inlist()
File-based whitelisting and blacklisting.
level() or priority()
Filter messages based on their priority.
match()
Use a regular expression to filter messages based on a
specified header or content field.
message()
Use a regular expression to filter messages based on
their content.
netmask()
Filter messages based on the IP address of the sending
host.
program()
Filter messages based on the sending application.
source()
Select messages of the specified syslog-ng OSE source
statement.
tags()
Select messages having the specified tag.
Table A.3. Filter functions available in syslog-ng OSE
Files
/opt/syslog-ng/
/opt/syslog-ng/etc/syslog-ng.conf
See also
syslog-ng(8)
Note
For the detailed documentation of syslog-ng OSE see The syslog-ng OSE 3.6 Administrator Guide
If you experience any problems or need help with syslog-ng, visit visit the syslog-ng wiki or the syslog-ng mailing
list.
For news and notifications about of syslog-ng, visit the syslog-ng Insider Blog.
Author
This manual page was written by the BalaBit Documentation Team <documentation@balabit.com>.
www.balabit.com
330
Copyright
The authors grant permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this manual page under the terms of the GNU
General Public License Version 2 or newer (GPL v2+).
www.balabit.com
331
syslog-ng-ctl
syslog-ng-ctl — Display message statistics and enable verbose, debug and trace modes in syslog-ng Open
Source Edition
Synopsis
syslog-ng-ctl [command] [options]
Description
NOTE: The syslog-ng-ctl application is distributed with the syslog-ng Open Source Edition system logging
application, and is usually part of the syslog-ng package. The latest version of the syslog-ng application is
available at the official syslog-ng website.
This manual page is only an abstract; for the complete documentation of syslog-ng, see The syslog-ng
Open Source Edition Administrator Guide .
The syslog-ng-ctl application is a utility that can be used to:
■ enable/disable various syslog-ng messages for troubleshooting;
■ display statistics about the processed messages;
■ reload the configuration of syslog-ng OSE.
Enabling troubleshooting messages
command [options]
Use the syslog-ng-ctl <command> --set=on command to display verbose, trace, or debug messages. If
you are trying to solve configuration problems, the verbose (and occasionally trace) messages are usually
sufficient; debug messages are needed mostly for finding software errors. After solving the problem, do not
forget to turn these messages off using the syslog-ng-ctl <command> --set=off. Note that enabling
debug messages does not enable verbose and trace messages.
Use syslog-ng-ctl <command> without any parameters to display whether the particular type of messages
are enabled or not.
If you need to use a non-standard control socket to access syslog-ng, use the syslog-ng-ctl <command>
--set=on --control=<socket> command to specify the socket to use.
verbose
Print verbose messages. If syslog-ng was started with the --stderr or -e option, the
messages will be sent to stderr. If not specified, syslog-ng will log such messages to its
internal source.
trace
Print trace messages of how messages are processed. If syslog-ng was started with the
--stderr or -e option, the messages will be sent to stderr. If not specified, syslog-ng
will log such messages to its internal source.
www.balabit.com
332
debug
Print debug messages. If syslog-ng was started with the --stderr or -e option, the
messages will be sent to stderr. If not specified, syslog-ng will log such messages to its
internal source.
Example:
syslog-ng-ctl verbose --set=on
The stats command
stats [options]
Use the stats command to display statistics about the processed messages. The stats command has the
following options:
--control=<socket> or -c
Specify the socket to use to access syslog-ng. Only needed when
using a non-standard socket.
Example:
syslog-ng-ctl stats
An example output:
src.internal;s_all#0;;a;processed;6445
src.internal;s_all#0;;a;stamp;1268989330
destination;df_auth;;a;processed;404
destination;df_news_dot_notice;;a;processed;0
destination;df_news_dot_err;;a;processed;0
destination;d_ssb;;a;processed;7128
destination;df_uucp;;a;processed;0
source;s_all;;a;processed;7128
destination;df_mail;;a;processed;0
destination;df_user;;a;processed;1
destination;df_daemon;;a;processed;1
destination;df_debug;;a;processed;15
destination;df_messages;;a;processed;54
destination;dp_xconsole;;a;processed;671
dst.tcp;d_network#0;10.50.0.111:514;a;dropped;5080
dst.tcp;d_network#0;10.50.0.111:514;a;processed;7128
dst.tcp;d_network#0;10.50.0.111:514;a;stored;2048
destination;df_syslog;;a;processed;6724
destination;df_facility_dot_warn;;a;processed;0
destination;df_news_dot_crit;;a;processed;0
destination;df_lpr;;a;processed;0
destination;du_all;;a;processed;0
destination;df_facility_dot_info;;a;processed;0
center;;received;a;processed;0
destination;df_kern;;a;processed;70
center;;queued;a;processed;0
destination;df_facility_dot_err;;a;processed;0
www.balabit.com
333
Reloading the configuration
command [options]
Use the syslog-ng-ctl reload command to reload the configuration file of syslog-ng OSE without having
to restart the syslog-ng OSE application. The syslog-ng-ctl reload works like a SIGHUP.
Files
/opt/syslog-ng/sbin/syslog-ng-ctl
See also
The syslog-ng Administrator Guide
syslog-ng.conf(5)
syslog-ng(8)
Note
For the detailed documentation of syslog-ng OSE see The syslog-ng OSE 3.6 Administrator Guide
If you experience any problems or need help with syslog-ng, visit visit the syslog-ng wiki or the syslog-ng mailing
list.
For news and notifications about of syslog-ng, visit the syslog-ng Insider Blog.
Author
This manual page was written by the BalaBit Documentation Team <documentation@balabit.com>.
Copyright
The authors grant permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this manual page under the terms of the GNU
General Public License Version 2 or newer (GPL v2+).
www.balabit.com
334
Preamble
Appendix B. GNU General Public License
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright © 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301
USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not
allowed.
Version 2, June 1991
B.1. Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the
GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software - to make
sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software
Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your
programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are
designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service
if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use
pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you
to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of
the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients
all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you
must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps:
1. copyright the software, and
2. offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no
warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients
to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on
the original authors' reputations.
www.balabit.com
335
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that
redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary.
To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed
at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
B.2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
B.2.1. Section 0
This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder
saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The “Program”, below, refers to
any such program or work, and a “work based on the Program” means either the Program or any derivative
work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or
with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation
in the term “modification”.) Each licensee is addressed as “you”.
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside
its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if
its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
B.2.2. Section 1
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium,
provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty
protection in exchange for a fee.
B.2.3. Section 2
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the
Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that
you also meet all of these conditions:
a. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and
the date of any change.
b. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived
from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under
the terms of this License.
c. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when
started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement
including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that
you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and
www.balabit.com
336
Section 3
telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: If the Program itself is interactive
but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required
to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived
from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this
License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when
you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of
the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole,
and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you;
rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on
the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work
based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
B.2.4. Section 3
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2 in object code or executable
form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
b. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge
no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable
copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above
on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source
code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the
program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an
executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated
interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However,
as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in
either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system
on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then
offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source
code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
www.balabit.com
337
Section 4
B.2.5. Section 4
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this
License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full
compliance.
B.2.6. Section 5
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you
permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if
you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying,
distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.
B.2.7. Section 6
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives
a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and
conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
B.2.8. Section 7
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited
to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict
the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute
so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as
a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit
royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you,
then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of
the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of
the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to
contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free
software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent
application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software
through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
www.balabit.com
338
Section 8
B.2.9. Section 8
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted
interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit
geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of
this License.
B.2.10. Section 9
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from
time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License
which applies to it and “any later version”, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify
a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
B.2.11. Section 10
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are
different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software
Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will
be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting
the sharing and reuse of software generally.
B.2.12. NO WARRANTY Section 11
BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE
PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE
STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE
PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND
PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE,
YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
B.2.13. Section 12
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY
COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE
PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE
OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR
DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES
OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH
HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
www.balabit.com
339
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
B.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to
achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file
to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line
and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General
Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option)
any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even
the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO
WARRANTY; for details type “show w”. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under
certain conditions; type “show c” for details.
The hypothetical commands “show w” and “show c” should show the appropriate parts of the General Public
License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than “show w” and “show c”; they
could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a “copyright
disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program “Gnomovision” (which makes passes
at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your
program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.
www.balabit.com
340
Preamble
Appendix C. GNU Lesser General Public License
This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts as the successor of the GNU Library Public
License, version 2, hence the version number 2.1.
Copyright © 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301
USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not
allowed.
Version 2.1, February 1999
C.1. Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the
GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to
make sure the software is free for all its users.
This license, the Lesser General Public License, applies to some specially designated software packages--typically
libraries--of the Free Software Foundation and other authors who decide to use it. You can use it too, but we
suggest you first think carefully about whether this license or the ordinary General Public License is the better
strategy to use in any particular case, based on the explanations below.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom of use, not price. Our General Public Licenses
are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this
service if you wish); that you receive source code or can get it if you want it; that you can change the software
and use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you are informed that you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid distributors to deny you these rights or to ask
you to surrender these rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute
copies of the library or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all
the rights that we gave you. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. If you link
other code with the library, you must provide complete object files to the recipients, so that they can relink
them with the library after making changes to the library and recompiling it. And you must show them these
terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with a two-step method:
1. we copyright the library, and
2. we offer you this license, which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the
library.
www.balabit.com
341
Preamble
To protect each distributor, we want to make it very clear that there is no warranty for the free library. Also, if
the library is modified by someone else and passed on, the recipients should know that what they have is not
the original version, so that the original author's reputation will not be affected by problems that might be
introduced by others.
Finally, software patents pose a constant threat to the existence of any free program. We wish to make sure that
a company cannot effectively restrict the users of a free program by obtaining a restrictive license from a patent
holder. Therefore, we insist that any patent license obtained for a version of the library must be consistent with
the full freedom of use specified in this license.
Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary GNU General Public License. This
license, the GNU Lesser General Public License, applies to certain designated libraries, and is quite different
from the ordinary General Public License. We use this license for certain libraries in order to permit linking
those libraries into non-free programs.
When a program is linked with a library, whether statically or using a shared library, the combination of the
two is legally speaking a combined work, a derivative of the original library. The ordinary General Public
License therefore permits such linking only if the entire combination fits its criteria of freedom. The Lesser
General Public License permits more lax criteria for linking other code with the library.
We call this license the Lesser General Public License because it does Less to protect the user's freedom than
the ordinary General Public License. It also provides other free software developers Less of an advantage over
competing non-free programs. These disadvantages are the reason we use the ordinary General Public License
for many libraries. However, the Lesser license provides advantages in certain special circumstances.
For example, on rare occasions, there may be a special need to encourage the widest possible use of a certain
library, so that it becomes a de-facto standard. To achieve this, non-free programs must be allowed to use the
library. A more frequent case is that a free library does the same job as widely used non-free libraries. In this
case, there is little to gain by limiting the free library to free software only, so we use the Lesser General Public
License.
In other cases, permission to use a particular library in non-free programs enables a greater number of people
to use a large body of free software. For example, permission to use the GNU C Library in non-free programs
enables many more people to use the whole GNU operating system, as well as its variant, the GNU/Linux
operating system.
Although the Lesser General Public License is Less protective of the users' freedom, it does ensure that the
user of a program that is linked with the Library has the freedom and the wherewithal to run that program using
a modified version of the Library.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. Pay close attention to the
difference between a “work based on the library” and a “work that uses the library”. The former contains code
derived from the library, whereas the latter must be combined with the library in order to run.
www.balabit.com
342
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
C.2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
C.2.1. Section 0
This License Agreement applies to any software library or other program which contains a notice placed by
the copyright holder or other authorized party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Lesser General
Public License (also called “this License”). Each licensee is addressed as “you”.
A “library” means a collection of software functions and/or data prepared so as to be conveniently linked with
application programs (which use some of those functions and data) to form executables.
The “Library”, below, refers to any such software library or work which has been distributed under these terms.
A “work based on the Library” means either the Library or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to
say, a work containing the Library or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated
straightforwardly into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term
“modification”.)
“Source code” for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For a library,
complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface
definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the library.
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside
its scope. The act of running a program using the Library is not restricted, and output from such a program is
covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Library (independent of the use of the Library in a
tool for writing it). Whether that is true depends on what the Library does and what the program that uses the
Library does.
C.2.2. Section 1
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Library's complete source code as you receive it, in any
medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright
notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
warranty; and distribute a copy of this License along with the Library.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty
protection in exchange for a fee.
C.2.3. Section 2
You may modify your copy or copies of the Library or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the
Library, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that
you also meet all of these conditions:
a. The modified work must itself be a software library.
b. You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and
the date of any change.
c. You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no charge to all third parties under the terms
of this License.
www.balabit.com
343
Section 3
d. If a facility in the modified Library refers to a function or a table of data to be supplied by an
application program that uses the facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility is
invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an application does not
supply such function or table, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose
remains meaningful.
(For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has a purpose that is entirely well-defined
independent of the application. Therefore, Subsection 2d requires that any application-supplied
function or table used by this function must be optional: if the application does not supply it, the
square root function must still compute square roots.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived
from the Library, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this
License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when
you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Library, the distribution of the
whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole,
and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you;
rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on
the Library.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Library with the Library (or with a work based
on the Library) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope
of this License.
C.2.4. Section 3
You may opt to apply the terms of the ordinary GNU General Public License instead of this License to a given
copy of the Library. To do this, you must alter all the notices that refer to this License, so that they refer to the
ordinary GNU General Public License, version 2, instead of to this License. (If a newer version than version 2
of the ordinary GNU General Public License has appeared, then you can specify that version instead if you
wish.) Do not make any other change in these notices.
Once this change is made in a given copy, it is irreversible for that copy, so the ordinary GNU General Public
License applies to all subsequent copies and derivative works made from that copy.
This option is useful when you wish to copy part of the code of the Library into a program that is not a library.
C.2.5. Section 4
You may copy and distribute the Library (or a portion or derivative of it, under Section 2) in object code or
executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you accompany it with the complete
corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2
above on a medium customarily used for software interchange.
If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place satisfies the requirement to distribute the source code, even
though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
www.balabit.com
344
Section 5
C.2.6. Section 5
A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the Library, but is designed to work with the Library
by being compiled or linked with it, is called a “work that uses the Library”. Such a work, in isolation, is not
a derivative work of the Library, and therefore falls outside the scope of this License.
However, linking a “work that uses the Library” with the Library creates an executable that is a derivative of
the Library (because it contains portions of the Library), rather than a “work that uses the library”. The executable
is therefore covered by this License. Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables.
When a “work that uses the Library” uses material from a header file that is part of the Library, the object code
for the work may be a derivative work of the Library even though the source code is not. Whether this is true
is especially significant if the work can be linked without the Library, or if the work is itself a library. The
threshold for this to be true is not precisely defined by law.
If such an object file uses only numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, and small macros
and small inline functions (ten lines or less in length), then the use of the object file is unrestricted, regardless
of whether it is legally a derivative work. (Executables containing this object code plus portions of the Library
will still fall under Section 6.)
Otherwise, if the work is a derivative of the Library, you may distribute the object code for the work under the
terms of Section 6. Any executables containing that work also fall under Section 6, whether or not they are
linked directly with the Library itself.
C.2.7. Section 6
As an exception to the Sections above, you may also combine or link a “work that uses the Library” with the
Library to produce a work containing portions of the Library, and distribute that work under terms of your
choice, provided that the terms permit modification of the work for the customer's own use and reverse
engineering for debugging such modifications.
You must give prominent notice with each copy of the work that the Library is used in it and that the Library
and its use are covered by this License. You must supply a copy of this License. If the work during execution
displays copyright notices, you must include the copyright notice for the Library among them, as well as a
reference directing the user to the copy of this License. Also, you must do one of these things:
a. Accompany the work with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code for the Library
including whatever changes were used in the work (which must be distributed under Sections 1 and
2 above); and, if the work is an executable linked with the Library, with the complete
machine-readable “work that uses the Library”, as object code and/or source code, so that the user
can modify the Library and then relink to produce a modified executable containing the modified
Library. (It is understood that the user who changes the contents of definitions files in the Library
will not necessarily be able to recompile the application to use the modified definitions.)
b. Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the Library. A suitable mechanism is one
that (1) uses at run time a copy of the library already present on the user's computer system, rather
than copying library functions into the executable, and (2) will operate properly with a modified
version of the library, if the user installs one, as long as the modified version is interface-compatible
with the version that the work was made with.
www.balabit.com
345
Section 7
c. Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give the same user the
materials specified in Subsection 6a, above, for a charge no more than the cost of performing this
distribution.
d. If distribution of the work is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, offer equivalent
access to copy the above specified materials from the same place.
e. Verify that the user has already received a copy of these materials or that you have already sent this
user a copy.
For an executable, the required form of the “work that uses the Library” must include any data and utility
programs needed for reproducing the executable from it. However, as a special exception, the materials to be
distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the
major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless
that component itself accompanies the executable.
It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license restrictions of other proprietary libraries that do not
normally accompany the operating system. Such a contradiction means you cannot use both them and the
Library together in an executable that you distribute.
C.2.8. Section 7
You may place library facilities that are a work based on the Library side-by-side in a single library together
with other library facilities not covered by this License, and distribute such a combined library, provided that
the separate distribution of the work based on the Library and of the other library facilities is otherwise permitted,
and provided that you do these two things:
a. Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the Library, uncombined
with any other library facilities. This must be distributed under the terms of the Sections above.
b. Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact that part of it is a work based on the
Library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work.
C.2.9. Section 8
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the Library except as expressly provided under
this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the Library is void,
and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies,
or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in
full compliance.
C.2.10. Section 9
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you
permission to modify or distribute the Library or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if
you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Library (or any work based on the
Library), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying,
distributing or modifying the Library or works based on it.
www.balabit.com
346
Section 10
C.2.11. Section 10
Each time you redistribute the Library (or any work based on the Library), the recipient automatically receives
a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute, link with or modify the Library subject to these terms
and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted
herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
C.2.12. Section 11
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited
to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict
the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute
so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as
a consequence you may not distribute the Library at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit
royalty-free redistribution of the Library by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you,
then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of
the Library.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of
the section is intended to apply, and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to
contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free
software distribution system which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous
contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application
of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any
other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
C.2.13. Section 12
If the distribution and/or use of the Library is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted
interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Library under this License may add an explicit
geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of
this License.
C.2.14. Section 13
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the Lesser General Public License
from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library specifies a version number of this License
which applies to it and “any later version”, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library does not specify
a license version number, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
www.balabit.com
347
Section 14
C.2.15. Section 14
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Library into other free programs whose distribution conditions are
incompatible with these, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the
Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our
decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
C.2.16. NO WARRANTY Section 15
BECAUSE THE LIBRARY IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE
LIBRARY, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE
STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE
LIBRARY “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND
PERFORMANCE OF THE LIBRARY IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE LIBRARY PROVE DEFECTIVE,
YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
C.2.17. Section 16
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY
COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE
LIBRARY AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE
OR INABILITY TO USE THE LIBRARY (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR
DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES
OR A FAILURE OF THE LIBRARY TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH
HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
C.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, we recommend
making it free software that everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting redistribution
under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of the ordinary General Public License).
To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is safest to attach them to the start of each
source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright”
line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the library's name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General
Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version.
www.balabit.com
348
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even
the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
Lesser General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this library; if not,
write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a “copyright
disclaimer” for the library, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the library `Frob' (a library for tweaking knobs)
written by James Random Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1990 Ty Coon, President of Vice
That's all there is to it!
www.balabit.com
349
Appendix D. Creative Commons Attribution
Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd)
License
THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS CREATIVE
COMMONS PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT
AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED
UNDER THIS LICENSE OR COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED. BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO
THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS
LICENSE. TO THE EXTENT THIS LICENSE MAY BE CONSIDERED TO BE A CONTRACT, THE
LICENSOR GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED HERE IN CONSIDERATION OF YOUR
ACCEPTANCE OF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS.
1. Definitions
a. "Adaptation" means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work and other pre-existing works,
such as a translation, adaptation, derivative work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a
literary or artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations
or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or adapted including in any
form recognizably derived from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will
not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License. For the avoidance of doubt,
where the Work is a musical work, performance or phonogram, the synchronization of the Work
in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching") will be considered an Adaptation for the
purpose of this License.
b. "Collection" means a collection of literary or artistic works, such as encyclopedias and anthologies,
or performances, phonograms or broadcasts, or other works or subject matter other than works
listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents,
constitute intellectual creations, in which the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form
along with one or more other contributions, each constituting separate and independent works in
themselves, which together are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a
Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined above) for the purposes of this
License.
c. "Distribute" means to make available to the public the original and copies of the Work through
sale or other transfer of ownership.
d. "Licensor" means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that offer(s) the Work under the
terms of this License.
e. "Original Author" means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the individual, individuals,
entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher;
and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other
persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic
works or expressions of folklore; (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person
or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds; and, (iii) in the case
of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the broadcast.
www.balabit.com
350
f. "Work" means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this License including
without limitation any production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be
the mode or form of its expression including digital form, such as a book, pamphlet and other
writing; a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same nature; a dramatic or
dramatico-musical work; a choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show; a musical
composition with or without words; a cinematographic work to which are assimilated works
expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; a work of drawing, painting, architecture,
sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photographic work to which are assimilated works expressed
by a process analogous to photography; a work of applied art; an illustration, map, plan, sketch
or three-dimensional work relative to geography, topography, architecture or science; a
performance; a broadcast; a phonogram; a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a
copyrightable work; or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not
otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.
g. "You" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has not previously
violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission
from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
h. "Publicly Perform" means to perform public recitations of the Work and to communicate to the
public those public recitations, by any means or process, including by wire or wireless means or
public digital performances; to make available to the public Works in such a way that members
of the public may access these Works from a place and at a place individually chosen by them;
to perform the Work to the public by any means or process and the communication to the public
of the performances of the Work, including by public digital performance; to broadcast and
rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs, sounds or images.
i. "Reproduce" means to make copies of the Work by any means including without limitation by
sound or visual recordings and the right of fixation and reproducing fixations of the Work,
including storage of a protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic
medium.
2. Fair Dealing Rights. Nothing in this License is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any uses free
from copyright or rights arising from limitations or exceptions that are provided for in connection
with the copyright protection under copyright law or other applicable laws.
3. License Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a
worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright)
license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:
a. to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections, and to Reproduce
the Work as incorporated in the Collections; and,
b. to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections.
The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised.
The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise
the rights in other media and formats, but otherwise you have no rights to make Adaptations. Subject
to 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved, including but not limited
to the rights set forth in Section 4(d).
4. Restrictions. The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the
following restrictions:
www.balabit.com
351
a. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You
must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with every
copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms
on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to
exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You may not sublicense
the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of
warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. When You Distribute
or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the
Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted
to that recipient under the terms of the License. This Section 4(a) applies to the Work as
incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself
to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collection, upon notice from any
Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collection any credit as required
by Section 4(c), as requested.
b. You may not exercise any of the rights granted to You in Section 3 above in any manner that is
primarily intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or private monetary compensation.
The exchange of the Work for other copyrighted works by means of digital file-sharing or
otherwise shall not be considered to be intended for or directed toward commercial advantage
or private monetary compensation, provided there is no payment of any monetary compensation
in connection with the exchange of copyrighted works.
c. If You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or Collections, You must, unless a request has
been made pursuant to Section 4(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide,
reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or
pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate
another party or parties (for example a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution
("Attribution Parties") in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable
means, the name of such party or parties; (ii) the title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent
reasonably practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work,
unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work.
The credit required by this Section 4(c) may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided,
however, that in the case of a Collection, at a minimum such credit will appear, if a credit for all
contributing authors of Collection appears, then as part of these credits and in a manner at least
as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, You
may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of attribution in the manner set
out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly
assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author, Licensor
and/or Attribution Parties, as appropriate, of You or Your use of the Work, without the separate,
express prior written permission of the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties.
d. For the avoidance of doubt:
i. Non-waivable Compulsory License Schemes. In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect
royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensor
reserves the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights
granted under this License;
ii. Waivable Compulsory License Schemes. In those jurisdictions in which the right to collect
royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensor
reserves the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights
www.balabit.com
352
granted under this License if Your exercise of such rights is for a purpose or use which is
otherwise than noncommercial as permitted under Section 4(b) and otherwise waives the right
to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme; and,
iii. Voluntary License Schemes. The Licensor reserves the right to collect royalties, whether
individually or, in the event that the Licensor is a member of a collecting society that
administers voluntary licensing schemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the
rights granted under this License that is for a purpose or use which is otherwise than
noncommercial as permitted under Section 4(b).
e. Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise permitted by
applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as
part of any Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other derogatory action
in relation to the Work which would be prejudicial to the Original Author's honor or reputation.
5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer UNLESS OTHERWISE MUTUALLY AGREED BY
THE PARTIES IN WRITING, LICENSOR OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO
REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE WORK,
EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY,
OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE.
SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
SO SUCH EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
6. Limitation on Liability. EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN
NO EVENT WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR ANY
SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE USE OF THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS
BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
7. Termination
a. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by
You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Collections from You
under this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals
or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive
any termination of this License.
b. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for the duration
of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right
to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time;
provided, however that any such election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other
license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this
License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above.
8. Miscellaneous
a. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection, the Licensor offers to
the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to
You under this License.
b. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect
the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further
www.balabit.com
353
action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent
necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable.
c. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless
such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver
or consent.
d. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed
here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not
specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any
communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement
of the Licensor and You.
e. The rights granted under, and the subject matter referenced, in this License were drafted utilizing
the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as
amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Convention of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty
of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Universal Copyright
Convention (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and subject matter take effect in the
relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the
corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable
national law. If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes
additional rights not granted under this License, such additional rights are deemed to be included
in the License; this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable
law.
www.balabit.com
354
Glossary
alias IP
An additional IP address assigned to an interface that already has an IP address.
The normal and alias IP addresses both refer to the same physical interface.
authentication
The process of verifying the authenticity of a user or client before allowing
access to a network system or service.
auditing policy
The auditing policy determines which events are logged on host running
Microsoft Windows operating systems.
BOM
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character used to signal the byte-order
of the message text.
BSD-syslog protocol
The old syslog protocol standard described in RFC 3164. Sometimes also
referred to as the legacy-syslog protocol.
CA
A Certificate Authority (CA) is an institute that issues certificates.
certificate
A certificate is a file that uniquely identifies its owner. Certificates contains
information identifying the owner of the certificate, a public key itself, the
expiration date of the certificate, the name of the CA that signed the certificate,
and some other data.
client mode
In client mode, syslog-ng collects the local logs generated by the host and
forwards them through a network connection to the central syslog-ng server
or to a relay.
destination
A named collection of configured destination drivers.
destination driver
A communication method used to send log messages.
destination, network
A destination that sends log messages to a remote host (that is, a syslog-ng
relay or server) using a network connection.
destination, local
A destination that transfers log messages within the host, for example writes
them to a file, or passes them to a log analyzing application.
disk queue
See disk buffer.
domain name
The name of a network, for example: balabit.com.
embedded log statement
A log statement that is included in another log statement to create a complex
log path.
filter
An expression to select messages.
www.balabit.com
355
fully qualified domain name
(FQDN)
A domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the
Domain Name System (DNS). For example, given a device with a local
hostname myhost and a parent domain name example.com, the fully qualified
domain name is myhost.example.com.
gateway
A device that connects two or more parts of the network, for example: your
local intranet and the external network (the Internet). Gateways act as entrances
into other networks.
high availability
High availability uses a second syslog-ng server unit to ensure that the logs
are received even if the first unit breaks down.
host
A computer connected to the network.
hostname
A name that identifies a host on the network.
IETF-syslog protocol
The syslog-protocol standard developed by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF), described in RFC 5424-5427.
key pair
A private key and its related public key. The private key is known only to the
owner; the public key can be freely distributed. Information encrypted with
the private key can only be decrypted using the public key.
log path
A combination of sources, filters, parsers, rewrite rules, and destinations:
syslog-ng examines all messages arriving to the sources of the logpath and
sends the messages matching all filters to the defined destinations.
LSH
See log source host.
log source host
A host or network device (including syslog-ng clients and relays) that sends
logs to the syslog-ng server. Log source hosts can be servers, routers, desktop
computers, or other devices capable of sending syslog messages or running
syslog-ng.
log statement
See log path.
name server
A network computer storing the IP addresses corresponding to domain names.
Oracle Instant Client
The Oracle Instant Client is a small set of libraries, which allow you to connect
to an Oracle Database. A subset of the full Oracle Client, it requires minimal
installation but has full functionality.
output buffer
A part of the memory of the host where syslog-ng stores outgoing log messages
if the destination cannot accept the messages immediately.
output queue
Messages from the output queue are sent to the target syslog-ng server. The
syslog-ng application puts the outgoing messages directly into the output
queue, unless the output queue is full. The output queue can hold 64 messages,
this is a fixed value and cannot be modified.
www.balabit.com
356
overflow queue
See output buffer.
parser
A set of rules to segment messages into named fields or columns.
ping
A command that sends a message from a host to another host over a network
to test connectivity and packet loss.
port
A number ranging from 1 to 65535 that identifies the destination application
of the transmitted data. For example: SSH commonly uses port 22, web servers
(HTTP) use port 80, and so on.
Public-key authentication
An authentication method that uses encryption key pairs to verify the identity
of a user or a client.
regular expression
A regular expression is a string that describes or matches a set of strings. The
syslog-ng application supports extended regular expressions (also called POSIX
modern regular expressions).
relay mode
In relay mode, syslog-ng receives logs through the network from syslog-ng
clients and forwards them to the central syslog-ng server using a network
connection.
rewrite rule
A set of rules to modify selected elements of a log message.
template
A user-defined structure that can be used to restructure log messages or
automatically generate file names.
server mode
In server mode, syslog-ng acts as a central log-collecting server. It receives
messages from syslog-ng clients and relays over the network, and stores them
locally in files, or passes them to other applications, for example, log analyzers.
source
A named collection of configured source drivers.
source, network
A source that receives log messages from a remote host using a network
connection. The following sources are network sources: tcp(), tcp6(),
udp(), udp6().
source, local
A source that receives log messages from within the host, for example, from
a file.
source driver
A communication method used to receive log messages.
SSL
See TLS.
syslog-ng
The syslog-ng application is a flexible and highly scalable system logging
application, typically used to manage log messages and implement centralized
logging.
syslog-ng agent
The syslog-ng Agent for Windows is a commercial log collector and forwarder
application for the Microsoft Windows platform. It collects the log messages
www.balabit.com
357
of the Windows-based host and forwards them to a syslog-ng server using
regular or SSL-encrypted TCP connections.
syslog-ng client
A host running syslog-ng in client mode.
syslog-ng Premium Edition
The syslog-ng Premium Edition is the commercial version of the open-source
application. It offers additional features, like encrypted message transfer and
an agent for Microsoft Windows platforms.
syslog-ng relay
A host running syslog-ng in relay mode.
syslog-ng server
A host running syslog-ng in server mode.
TLS
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer
(SSL), are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on
the Internet. The syslog-ng Open Source Edition application can encrypt the
communication between the clients and the server using TLS to prevent
unauthorized access to sensitive log messages.
traceroute
A command that shows all routing steps (the path of a message) between two
hosts.
UNIX domain socket
A UNIX domain socket (UDS) or IPC socket (inter-procedure call socket) is
a virtual socket, used for inter-process communication.
www.balabit.com
358
Index
Symbols
$(context-length), 294
$(echo), 248
$(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE}), 59, 75
$DATE, 22
$FACILITY, 22
$FULLHOST_FROM, 242
$HOST, 22
$MESSAGE, 22
$MSGID, 22
$PID, 22
$PRIORITY, 22
$PROGRAM, 22, 315
$R_DATE, 22
$SEQNUM, 22
$SOURCEIP, 22
$TAGS, 22
$UNIXTIME, 18
$_, 260
${.SDATA.SDID.SDNAME}, 245
${.unix.cmdline}, 110
${.unix.exe}, 110
${.unix.gid}, 110
${.unix.pid}, 110
${.unix.uid}, 110
${AMPM}, 241, 243
${DATE}, 240, 242
${DAY}, 238
${FULLHOST_FROM}, 240, 243, 246
${FULLHOST}, 240
${HOST_FROM}, 240
${HOST}, 8, 36, 122, 238, 240, 248
${HOUR12}, 241
${HOUR}, 240
${ISODATE}, 240, 243, 247
${LEVEL}, 243, 245
${MESSAGE}, 59, 75, 208, 271, 317
${MSGHDR}, 239, 244
${MSGONLY}, 244
${MSG}, 16, 244, 255
${PID}, 210
${PROGRAM}, 121, 316-317
${RCPTID}, 228, 245
www.balabit.com
${R_DATE}, 241
${SDATA}, 245
${SEQNUM}, 245-246
${S_DATE}, 240
${TAGS}, 211, 247, 295
${TZOFFSET}, 247
${WEEKDAY}, 126
-, 312, 317-318
--active-connections, 312
--caps, xix, 322
--ctrl-chars or -c, 254
--debug, 303
--debug-csv, 317
--debug-pattern, 317
--dgram, 312
--disable-smtp, 23
--enable-geoip, 250
--enable-linux-caps, 321-322
--enable-mixed-linking, 25
--enable-pacct, 77
--enable-pcre, xvii
--enable-spoof-source, 39, 139, 181, 189
--enable-ssl, 251
--fd-limit, 122
--foreground, 323
--group, 321
--idle-connections, 311
--inet, 311
--interval, 312
--invalid-chars <characterlist> or -i <characterlist>,
254
--length, 251
--no-caps, 321
--no-ctrl-chars or -C, 255
--no-framing, 313
--number, 312
--read-file, 312-313
--replacement <replacement-character> or -r
<replacement-character>, 255
--sdata, 313
--sdata [test name=\value\], 313
--skip-tokens, 312
--skip-tokens 2, 313
--stderr, 332-333
--support=3.0, 318
--syslog-proto, 313
--user, 321
--verbose, 303
359
--with-ivykis=system, 26
--with-libmongo-client=internal, 26
--with-libmongo-client=system, 25
--with-librabbitmq-client=system, 25-26
--without-compile-date, xx
--worker-threads, 300-301
-e, 332-333
-R -, 312
.classifier.<message-class>, 216, 280
.classifier.class, 279
.classifier.context_id, 279, 281, 291
.classifier.rule_id, 279
.classifier.system, 216, 280
.classifier_class, 279
.dict.string1, 318
.dict.string2, 318
.nodejs.winston., 69
.SDATA.meta, 211
.USER, 261
/, 254
/usr, 25
0, 107, 140, 182-183, 190-191, 316
00:50:fc:e3:cd:37, 288
1, 316, 318
1061, 313
4, 136
4.0, 318
4096, 322
6, 136
::1, 313
<action>, 283
<message>, 283
<object-type> (<object-id>);, 43
<object-type> {<object-definition>};, 43
<pattern>postfix\@ESTRING:.postfix.component:[@</pattern>,
290
<user@example.com>, 287
@cim, 96
@define allow-config-dups 1, 41, 47, 326
@DOUBLE@, 288
@EMAIL:email:[<]>@, 287
@EMAIL@, @HOSTNAME@, @MACADDR@,
@LLADDR@, @PCRE@, @SET@, xix
@ESTRING:: @, 318
@FLOAT@, 287
@module, 46
@module <modulename>, 321
@PCRE:name:regexp@, 289
www.balabit.com
@SET:: @, 289
@version, 46-47
[user@example.com], 287
A
Accepted publickey for myuser from 127.0.0.1 port
59357 ssh2, 316
actions, 283
conditional actions, 284
context-length, 294
external actions, 285
message correlation, 285
AF_UNIX, 109-110
alert, 214
alerting, 283
AMPM, HOUR12, LOGHOST, MSEC, SYSUPTIME,
USEC, xix
amqp(), 17, 117-118
compiling, 25-26
anonymization, 252, 259
anonymizing credit card numbers, 262
artificial ignorance
message classification, 286
assume-utf8, 55, 62, 71, 79, 83, 88, 102, 110
attributes(), 155
authentication, 229-230
autoload-compiled-modules, 46
B
background, 322
balabit.com, 355
bcc(), 159
body(), 117, 158, 173
BOM, xx
boolean, 18
boolean operators, 208
BSDTAG, 241
C
ca-dir(), 236
catchall, 202-203
cc(), 160
certificates, 229
chain-hostnames(), 38, 217, 243
chain_hostnames, xx
channel, 44
channels, 44
360
chroots, 308
CIM, 96
Cisco sequence number, 246
Cisco timestamp, 246
classifying messages
concepts of, 275
configuration, 278
creating databases, 289
filtering, 279
pattern matching concepts, 277
client mode, 6
client-host, 39
client-hostname, 217
columns, 173
columns(), 163
Common Information Model (CIM), 96
Common Name, 230-231, 234
comparing values, 209
compiling syslog-ng OSE, 23
condition, 284
condition(), 261
condition='$(context-length) >= 5', 294
conditional rewrites, 261
configuration file
default configuration, 34-35
including other files, 46
configuration snippets, 48
context of messages, 281
context-id, 281, 292
context-scope, 281, 286, 291-292, 294
context-timeout, 281-282, 286, 294
CONTEXT_ID, 241
Coordinated Universal Time, 10
core files, 304
correlating messages, 281
create-dirs(), 121-122, 218
creating SDATA fields, 260
credit card numbers
anonymizing, 262
masking, 262
credit-card-hash(), 262
credit-card-mask(), 262
crit, 214
CSV parsers, 270
csv-parser, 270
csv-parser(), 8, 201
CSV-values, 268
custom-domain(), xvii, 218
www.balabit.com
custom_domain(), 218
C_DATE, 241
D
data anonymization, 262
data types, 17
database(), 163-164, 168
DATE, 22, 241
datetime, 18
DAY, 241
daylight saving changes, 8
db-parser, 278
db-parser(), 278, 283
dbd-option(), xix
debug, 214, 216
default-facility, 54
default-facility(), 50, 98
default-level(), 98
default-priority, 54
default-priority(), 50
default_facility(), 98
default_level(), 98
deleting syslog-ng OSE, 27
delimiter, xx
destination, 41, 48, 326
destination drivers, 8, 116
amqp() driver, 117-118
database driver, 163, 167
file() driver, 121-122
graphite(), 128
graphite() driver, 128
list of, 117, 330
mongodb() driver, 129, 131
network() driver, 135
pipe() driver, 142-143
program() driver, 147-148
pseudofile() driver, 152
redis() driver, 152-153
riemann() driver, 154-155
smtp() driver, 158-159
sql() driver, 163, 167
stomp() driver, 173-174
syslog() driver, 176-177
tcp() driver, 184-185
tcp6() driver, 184-185
udp() driver, 184-185
udp6() driver, 184-185
unix-dgram() driver, 192
361
unix-stream() driver, 192
usertty() driver, 197
destinations, 4, 8, 116, 325
amqp(), 25-26
defining, 116
FreeTDS configuration, 27
Microsoft SQL Server configuration, 27
mongodb(), 25-26
MSSQL configuration, 27
redis(), 25-26
smtp(), 23
sql(), 26
sql() configuration, 163-165, 171
dir-group(), 122
dir-owner(), 122
dir-perm(), 122, 218
discarding messages, 216
dns-cache-hosts(), 308
dont-create-tables, 168
dont-store-legacy-msghdr, 56, 63, 71, 80, 84, 89, 102,
111
door(), 83
dot-nv-pairs, 22
double, 18
download
pattern databases, 280
drop-invalid, 270
drop-message, 132, 224
drop-property, 132, 224
dropped, 297-298
dropping messages, 216
dynamic, 25
E
email, 287
embedded log statements, 199
emerg, 214
empty-lines, 55, 62, 71, 79, 84, 88, 102, 111
encrypting log messages, 229-230
environmental variables, 45
err, 214
error, 245
error solving, 303
escaping special characters, 264
exclude(), 17, 19
expect-hostname, xix, 55, 62, 71, 79, 84, 88, 102, 111
explicit-commits, 168
extended timestamp format, 246
www.balabit.com
extract-prefix, xvii
F
facilities, 12, 14, 213, 306
FACILITY, 241
facility, 306
facility(), xviii, 212
FACILITY_NUM, 241
fail-over, 10
failover
in mongodb, 130
failure script, 305
fallback, 203, 271
fallback-to-string, 132, 224
fd limit, 122
file, 123, 278, 301
file descriptors, 122
file(), 41, 53-54, 70, 121-122, 125, 138, 145, 150, 180,
187-188, 195, 222-223, 326
file-template(), xix
filter, 41, 48, 326
filter functions
list of, 212, 330
filter(), 261
filtering
.classifier_class, 279
on message class, 279
filtering rewrites, 261
filters, 4, 8, 208, 265, 306, 325
AND, OR, NOT, 208
blacklisting, 213
boolean operators, 208
comparing values, 209
control characters, 211
defining, 208
facilities, , 212
facility and priority (level) ranges, 214
in-list(), 213
priorities, 214
reference, 211
tags, 211
whitelisting, 213
wildcards, 210
final, 5, 203, 216
flags, 198, 203
empty-lines, 55, 62, 71, 79, 83, 88, 102, 110
in junctions, 201
flags(), 41, 198-199, 258, 326
362
flags(no-multi-line), 59, 75
flags(no-parse), 16, 267
flow-control, 198, 203, 206
example, 207
hard, 206
multiple destinations, 206
soft, 205
flow_control, 206
flush-lines(), 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 113, 123-124,
135-136, 143-144, 149, 168-169, 178, 186, 193, 220,
226, 300, 307
flush-timeout(), 123, 135, 143, 149, 168-169, 178,
186, 193, 220, 300
follow-freq(), 41, 54, 56, 72, 78, 85, 326
follow-freq(1), 96
foo bar, 313
foo bar message, 313
foreground, 322
format(linux-kmsg), 96
format-json, 17, 21, 25, 249, 273
compiling, 25
format-json(), 17
formatting messages, 238
formatting multi-line messages, 59, 75
frac-digits(), 124, 131, 136, 144, 149, 169, 178, 186,
194, 220, 227, 243
from(), 158, 160
fsync(), 124
FULLDATE, 241
FULLHOST, 241, 261
FULLHOST_FROM, 241
G
generating alerts, 283
geoip, 25
compiling, 25
GEOIP, LENGTH, STRIP, SUBSTR, TFHASH,
UUID, xix
glob patterns, 265
global objects, 7
global options, 217
reference, 217
global variables, 45
gmake, 24
graphite(), 128
graphite-output, xvii, 128, 250
greedy, 269-271
greedy(), 287
www.balabit.com
grep, 250
group(), 124, 144
groupset(), 260
H
hard macros, 16, 241
HEADER, 11, 13
header(), 158, 160
HOST, 64, 90-91, 104, 215, 221, 241, 261
host, 164
host(), 158, 202, 210, 265, 267
HOST_FROM, 241
HOUR, 241
I
in-list, 214
in-list filter, 213
indenting multi-line messages, 59, 75
indexes, 170
indexes(), 170
info, 214
inherit-properties, 283
inject-mode(), 283
installing syslog-ng, 23
installing syslog-ng OSE from source, 23
int, 18
int32, 18
int64, 18
internal, 283
internal(), 52-53, 132, 224, 283, 294
ip-protocol(), xviii
ISODATE, 241
J
JavaScript Object Notation, 249
JSON, 249
Common Information Model (CIM), 96
JSON parsers, 272
json-c, 25
json-parser, 25
compiling, 25
json-parser(), 272
junction, 44
junctions, 201
and flags, 201
363
K
keep-alive, 64, 90, 103, 136, 179, 187, 194
keep-hostname(), 38-39, 223, 240, 243
keep-timestamp(), 9
kern, 54, 242
kernel, 55, 62, 71, 79, 84, 88, 102, 111
key(), 17, 19, 21, 129
klogd, 54
kmsg, 54, 96
ksymoops, 54
L
LEGACY_MSGHDR, 241
LEVEL, 241
level(), 214
LEVEL_NUM, 241
libdbi, 26
libgeoip, 25
libopenssl, 26
libpcre, 23
libsystemd-daemon, 26
libwrap, 26
link-level-address, 288
literal, 18
local time, 12, 15
local-time-zone(), 27
localip(), 100
log, 41, 48, 326
log messages, representation, 16
log messages, structure, 10
BSD-syslog protocol, 11
IETF-syslog protocol, 13
legacy-syslog protocol, 11
RFC 3164, 11
RFC 5424, 13
log paths, 4, 198, 325
defining, 198
flags, 198, 203
flow-control, 203, 206-207
log pipes
embedded log statements, 199
log statements, 8
embedded, 199
log paths, 4, 325
log statistics, 297
on unix-socket, 297
www.balabit.com
log-fetch-limit(), 57, 65, 72, 81, 85, 91, 99, 104, 112,
203, 206-207, 300
log-fifo-size(), 42, 203, 205-207
log-fifo-size(2Mb), 42
log-iw-size(), 57, 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 113, 123,
135, 143, 149, 169, 178, 186, 193, 203, 206-207, 300
log-msg-size(), 11, 57, 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 113,
164-165
log-prefix(), 61, 67, 77, 82, 86, 93, 106, 114
logging procedure, 4
logrotate, 121
losing messages, 303
M
macros, 8, 238
date-related, 240
default value, 239
hard, 16
hard and soft macros, 241
in filenames, 240
patterndb tags, 247
read-only, 16
reference, 241
rewritable, 16
SDATA, 245
soft, 16
make, 24
manipulating tags (see modifying tags)
MARK, 125-126, 137-138, 145, 150, 179-180, 187188, 195, 222-223
mark(), 137, 179, 222
mark-freq(), 137, 179, 222
mark-mode(), 125-126, 137-138, 145, 150, 179-180,
188, 195, 222-223
match, 208
match(), 208, 210, 214-215, 265-266
max-connections(), 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 109, 113,
203-204, 206-207, 301
max-field-size(), 99
maximal message size, 222
max_field_size(), 99
message, 313
facilities, 12, 14
ID, 246
statistics, 297
MESSAGE, 241
message classification, 278-279, 289
message context, 281
364
message correlation, 281
message counters, 297
message facilities, 213
message filtering
using parsers, 279
message loss, 303
message parsing, 267, 278-279
message statistics, 297
message templates, 238
message triggers, 283
message(), 214
Microsoft SQL
sql() configuration, 165
Microsoft SQL Server configuration, 27
MIN, 241
modes of operation, 6
client mode, 6
relay mode, 7
server mode, 7
modifying SDATA, 260
modifying tags, 262
modules, 45-46
mongodb (see type-casting)
failover, 130
replicasets, 130
mongodb(), xix, 17, 19, 129-131, 134
compiling, 25-26
MONTH, 241
MONTH_ABBREV, 241
MONTH_NAME, 241
MONTH_WEEK, 241
MSG, 11, 13, 214-215, 241
MSGHDR, 214
MSGID, 241
MSGONLY, 241
mssql, 165, 172
MSSQL
sql() configuration, 165
multi-line messages, 57-60, 73-76
multi-line-garbage(), 58-60, 74-76
multi-line-mode, xvii
multi-line-mode(), xviii, 58-59, 74-75
multi-line-mode(indented), 59, 75, 96
multi-line-mode(prefix-garbage), 58-59, 74-75
multi-line-mode(prefix-suffix), 58, 74
multi-line-prefix(), 58, 60, 74, 76
multi-line-suffix(), 58-59, 74-75
multiline
www.balabit.com
indented-multiline, 96
multiline messages (see multi-line messages)
multithreading in syslog-ng OSE, 300
mutual authentication, 229, 232
myhost, 261
MYSQL_UNIX_PORT, 167, 170
N
name, 294
name resolution, 306-307
local, 307
network(), xviii, 62-63, 90, 100, 135, 184
no-hostname, 55, 62, 71, 79-80, 84, 88, 102, 111
no-multi-line, 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 102, 111, 123,
135, 143, 148, 177, 185, 193
no-parse, 56, 62, 71, 80, 84, 89, 102, 111
nobody, 261
nodejs(), 69-70
notice, 214
NULL, 167
null(), 167, 170-171
number of open files, 122
nv-pairs, 22
O
on-error(), 132, 224
optimizing regular expressions, 265
optimizing syslog-ng performance, 306
regular expressions, 265
options, 8
reference, 217
or, xvii
Oracle
sql() configuration, 164
ORACLE_BASE, 164
ORACLE_HOME, 164
ORACLE_SID, 164
other, 299
output buffer, 204, 206
output queue, 205
overflow queue
output buffer, 205
overriding facility, 50
overriding-original-program-name, 284
overwrite-if-older(), 126
owner(), 126, 145
365
P
pacct(), 25, 49, 77-78
compiling, 25
pacctformat, 78
pad-size(), 61, 66, 77, 82, 86, 92, 106, 114
PADD, 311
padding, xvii
pair(), 17, 19
Parameters, xv
parameters
log-fetch-limit() , 203, 206
log-fifo-size() , 203, 206
log-iw-size() , 204, 206
max-connections() , 204, 206
parser, 41, 48, 326
parsers, 4, 8, 267, 278-279, 325
parsing messages, 267, 278-279, 286
concepts of, 267
filtering parsed messages, 279
password, xvii
path(), 133
pattern database, 278-279, 289, 295
concepts of, 275
creating parsers, 286
pattern matching precedence, 277
structure of, 276
using the results, 279
pattern database schema, 289
pattern databases
correlating messages, 281
pattern matching
procedure of, 277
patterndb
download, 280
payload, 129
payload(), 129
pdbtool dictionary, xix
performance
optimizing multithreading, 301
using multithreading, 300
perm(), 127
persist_only, 69, 95, 108, 227, 308
pid, 171
PID, 241
pipe, 71, 301
pipe(), 60, 70-71, 76, 81, 86, 113, 125, 138, 142-143,
145, 150, 180, 187-188, 195, 222-223
plugins (see modules)
www.balabit.com
poll(), 56, 72, 78, 85, 226
port(), 158
PostgreSQL
sql() configuration, 163
prefix(), 99, 272
preventing message loss
flow-control, 203, 206
PRI, 11, 13, 241
PRIORITY, 241
priority(), xviii
process accounting, 77
processed, 297-298
processing multi-line messages, 57-59, 73-75
program, 79
PROGRAM, 241
program(), 79, 125, 138, 145, 147-148, 150, 180, 187188, 195, 210, 222-223, 265, 285
program-override(), 57, 66, 73, 81, 86, 92, 105, 113
proto-template, 227
proto-template(), xix
pseudofile(), 152
pseudonymization, 252, 259
p_apache_parser, 44
Q
quote-pairs(), 271
R
RCPTID, 241
read-only macros, 16
reading messages
from external applications, 79
recv-time-zone(), 9-10
redis(), 152-153
compiling, 25-26
regular expressions, 208, 263, 265, 306
case-insensitive, 264
escaping, 264
pcre, 264
posix, 210
rekey, xix
rekey(), 21
relay mode, 7
relay-hostname, 217
reload, xx
removing syslog-ng OSE, 27
replace(), xviii, 21
replace-prefix(), xviii
366
replacing message text, 257
reply-to(), 161
retries, xvii, 119, 133, 154, 156, 162, 171, 175
reusing snippets, 48
rewritable macros, 16
rewrite, 41, 48, 326
rewrite if, 261
rewrite rules, 4, 8, 257, 325
rewriting
IP addresses, 252, 259
rewriting messages, 257
concepts of, 257
conditional rewrites, 261
rfc3164, 22
rfc5424, 22
riemann(), 154-155
rltp, 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 102, 111
root, 48-49
rotating log files, 121
routing-key(), 117, 173
R_UNIXTIME, 10
S
safe-background, 322
safe-mode(), 130, 133
scaling to multiple CPUs, 300
scl
system(), 95
scope(), 17, 19-21
SDATA, 241
SEC, 241
secondary messages, 283
sedding messages, 257
segmenting messages, 268, 270, 272
selected-macros, 22
send-time-zone(), 9
sender(), 160
SEQNUM, 241
sequence ID, 245
sequence number, 246
Cisco, 246
server mode, 7
server(), 130
server-hostname, 217
servers(), 130, 133
session-statements(), xix
setting facility, 50
setting message fields, 259-260
www.balabit.com
setting multiple fields, 260
silent building, 24
silent rules (see silent building)
silently-drop-message, 132, 224
silently-drop-property, 132, 224
silently-fallback-to-string, 132, 224
skipping messages, 216
smtp(), 23, 158-159
compiling, 23
so-keepalive(), 68, 94, 107
so-rcvbuf(), 67-68, 88, 93-94, 96, 101, 106, 115, 303,
306
SOCK_DGRAM, 50-52, 109, 117, 192, 328-329
SOCK_STREAM, 50-52, 109, 117, 192, 329
soft macros, 16, 241
source, 41, 48, 326
SOURCE, 241
source drivers, 7, 50
file() driver, 53-54
internal() driver, 52-53
list of, 52, 329
network() driver, 62
nodejs() driver, 70
pacct() driver, 77
pipe() driver, 70-71
program() driver, 79
reference, 50
sun-streams() driver, 83
syslog() driver, 87-88
system() driver, 95
systemd-journal() driver, 97
systemd-syslog() driver, 99
tcp() driver, 100-101
tcp6() driver, 100-101
udp() driver, 100-101
udp6() driver, 100-101
unix-dgram() driver, 110
unix-stream() driver, 110
source(), 201
SOURCEIP, 241
sources, 4, 8, 50
defining, 50
on different platforms, 51
pacct(), 25
SO_BROADCAST, 67, 93, 139, 181, 189, 194
splitting messages, 268, 270, 272
spoof-source(), 39
spoof_source
367
compiling, 23
sql, 301
sql destinations, 163
SQL NULL values, 171
sql(), xix, 117, 163-164, 167-168, 240, 329
compiling, 26
ssl support
compiling, 26
STAMP, 227, 241
stamp, 298
statistics, 297
stats-level(), 297, 299
stats-lifetime(), xvii, 226
stdin, 147-148
stomp(), 17, 173-174
stored, 298
strace, 304
STREAMS, 51-52, 83, 328
string, 18
string comparison, 209
strip-whitespace, 271
STRUCTURED-DATA, 13, 245
subject(), 158, 162
subject_alt_name, 230-231, 234
sun-streams(), 83
supervising syslog-ng, 322
supported architectures, 3
supported operating systems, 3
suppress(), 298
suppressed, 298
syslog, 56, 63, 72, 80, 84, 89, 102, 111, 123, 135, 143,
148, 176-177, 186, 193, 267, 301
syslog(), 36, 55, 62-63, 71, 80, 84, 87-88, 90, 101-102,
111, 125, 138, 145, 150, 176-177, 180, 188, 195, 223,
227, 230, 232
syslog-ng
troubleshooting, 303
syslog-ng clients
configuring, 34
syslog-ng relays
configuring, 37
syslog-ng servers
configuring, 36
syslog-ng-ctl, xx
syslog-ng-relay, 39
syslog-ng-server, 39
syslog-ng.8, xxi
syslog-ng.conf, 40
www.balabit.com
environmental variables, 45
global variables, 45
includes, 46
syslog-parser, 267
syslog-proto, 22, 312
syslog-protocol, 56, 63, 72, 80, 84, 89, 102, 111, 123,
135, 143, 148, 177, 185-186, 193
syslogd, 50-51, 83, 109, 127, 141, 146, 151-152, 183,
191, 196
system(), xx, 95-97, 110
systemd, 96
compiling, 26
systemd-journal(), 96-98
systemd-syslog(), 99
s_apache, 44
S_UNIXTIME, 10
T
table, 163
TAG, 241
tagging messages, 211, 295
tags, 211, 295
as macro, 247
TAGS, 241
tags(), xx, 16, 157, 211, 215-216, 279-280
tcp, 63, 89, 103, 176, 301
tcp(), 51, 55, 62, 69, 71, 80, 84, 88, 100-102, 111, 125,
128, 135, 138, 145, 150, 180, 184-185, 188, 195, 204,
223, 227, 229-235, 328, 357
tcp, tcp6, syslog, and network, xix
tcp, tcp6, udp, and udp6, xviii
tcp-keepalive-intvl(), xix, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183,
190-191
tcp-keepalive-probes(), xix, 107-108, 140-141, 182183, 190-191
tcp-keepalive-time(), xix, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183,
190-191
tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes(), 107-108, 140-141, 182-183,
190-191
tcp6, 103
tcp6(), 51, 62, 100-101, 135, 184-185, 229, 235, 328,
357
tcpv6(), 230-231, 233-234
TCP_KEEPCNT, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183, 190191
TCP_KEEPIDLE, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183, 190191
368
TCP_KEEPINTVL, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183, 190191
template, 41, 326
template functions, 248
embedding, 252
template(), 272
template-escape(), 239
templates, 8, 238, 239
defining, 240
escaping, 239
example, 240
literal $, 239
template functions, 248
threaded, 63, 89, 103, 123, 301
threading, 300
throttle, xvii, 304
Thu, 247
time-reap(), 121
time-zone(), 9, 27, 240
timestamp, 10, 12, 15, 306
timezone
in chroots, 309
timezones, 8, 10
TLS, 62, 87-88, 101, 229
configuring, 230, 232
reference, 235
tls, 63, 89, 176
tls(), 232-235
to(), 158, 162
Tomcat logs, 60, 76
transport layer security
TLS, 229
trigger, 294
triggered messages, 283
triggers, 283
troubleshooting, 303
core files, 304
failure script, 305
strace, 304
syslog-ng, 304-305
truss, 304
tusc, 304
truss, 304
trusted-dn(), 237
trusted-keys(), 237
ts-format(), 12, 15, 128, 142, 147, 152, 184, 192, 197,
246
tusc, 304
www.balabit.com
type(), 163, 210, 258, 264
type-casting, 17, 132, 224
type-hinting, 17
typecasting (see type-casting)
TZ, 241
TZOFFSET, 241
tztab, 27
U
udp, 176, 301
udp(), 51, 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 100-102, 105, 111,
125, 135, 138, 145, 150, 180, 184-185, 188, 195, 223,
328, 357
udp6(), 51, 62, 100-101, 105, 135, 184-185, 328, 357
ulimit, 122
unicode, 265
uninstalling syslog-ng OSE, 27
UNIX credentials, 109
unix-dgram, 50, 60, 76, 81, 86, 113, 303
unix-dgram(), 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 102, 109-113,
125, 138, 145, 150, 180, 187-188, 192, 195, 222-223
unix-stream, 50, 60, 76, 81, 86, 113, 303
unix-stream(), 42, 109-110, 125, 138, 145, 150, 180,
187-188, 192, 195, 222-223, 327
UNIXTIME, 241
unknown, 279
use-dns(), 39, 64, 90, 104, 221, 242-243, 308
use-fqdn(), 242
use-rcptid, 228, 245
user@example.com, 287
useracct, 316
username, xvii
usertty(), 197, 306
UTC, 10
V
validate-utf8, 55-56, 62-63, 71-72, 79-80, 83-84, 8889, 102-103, 110-111
value, 163, 295
value comparison, 209
value(), 208, 214
value-pairs, 17
value-pairs(), xviii-xix, 19, 117, 120, 129, 132, 134,
155, 173, 176, 224, 249-250
values, 163
values(), 260
varchar, 165
369
W
warning, 214
WEEK, 241
WEEK_DAY, 241
WEEK_DAY_ABBREV, 241
WEEK_DAY_NAME, 241
Winston API, 70
X
xx:xx:xx:..., 288
Y
YEAR, 241
YEAR_DAY, 241
www.balabit.com
370
List of syslog-ng OSE
parameters
Symbols
$(context-length), 294
$(echo), 248
$(indent-multi-line ${MESSAGE}), 59, 75
$DATE, 22
$FACILITY, 22
$FULLHOST_FROM, 242
$HOST, 22
$MESSAGE, 22
$MSGID, 22
$PID, 22
$PRIORITY, 22
$PROGRAM, 22, 315
$R_DATE, 22
$SEQNUM, 22
$SOURCEIP, 22
$TAGS, 22
$UNIXTIME, 18
$_, 260
${.SDATA.SDID.SDNAME}, 245
${.unix.cmdline}, 110
${.unix.exe}, 110
${.unix.gid}, 110
${.unix.pid}, 110
${.unix.uid}, 110
${AMPM}, 241, 243
${DATE}, 240, 242
${DAY}, 238
${FULLHOST_FROM}, 240, 243, 246
${FULLHOST}, 240
${HOST_FROM}, 240
${HOST}, 8, 36, 122, 238, 240, 248
${HOUR12}, 241
${HOUR}, 240
${ISODATE}, 240, 243, 247
${LEVEL}, 243, 245
${MESSAGE}, 59, 75, 208, 271, 317
${MSGHDR}, 239, 244
${MSGONLY}, 244
${MSG}, 16, 244, 255
${PID}, 210
www.balabit.com
${PROGRAM}, 121, 316-317
${RCPTID}, 228, 245
${R_DATE}, 241
${SDATA}, 245
${SEQNUM}, 245-246
${S_DATE}, 240
${TAGS}, 211, 247, 295
${TZOFFSET}, 247
${WEEKDAY}, 126
-, 312, 317-318
--active-connections, 312
--caps, xix, 322
--ctrl-chars or -c, 254
--debug, 303
--debug-csv, 317
--debug-pattern, 317
--dgram, 312
--disable-smtp, 23
--enable-geoip, 250
--enable-linux-caps, 321-322
--enable-mixed-linking, 25
--enable-pacct, 77
--enable-pcre, xvii
--enable-spoof-source, 39, 139, 181, 189
--enable-ssl, 251
--fd-limit, 122
--foreground, 323
--group, 321
--idle-connections, 311
--inet, 311
--interval, 312
--invalid-chars <characterlist> or -i <characterlist>,
254
--length, 251
--no-caps, 321
--no-ctrl-chars or -C, 255
--no-framing, 313
--number, 312
--read-file, 312-313
--replacement <replacement-character> or -r
<replacement-character>, 255
--sdata, 313
--sdata [test name=\value\], 313
--skip-tokens, 312
--skip-tokens 2, 313
--stderr, 332-333
--support=3.0, 318
--syslog-proto, 313
371
--user, 321
--verbose, 303
--with-ivykis=system, 26
--with-libmongo-client=internal, 26
--with-libmongo-client=system, 25
--with-librabbitmq-client=system, 25-26
--without-compile-date, xx
--worker-threads, 300-301
-e, 332-333
-R -, 312
.classifier.<message-class>, 216, 280
.classifier.class, 279
.classifier.context_id, 279, 281, 291
.classifier.rule_id, 279
.classifier.system, 216, 280
.classifier_class, 279
.dict.string1, 318
.dict.string2, 318
.nodejs.winston., 69
.SDATA.meta, 211
.USER, 261
/, 254
/usr, 25
0, 107, 140, 182-183, 190-191, 316
00:50:fc:e3:cd:37, 288
1, 316, 318
1061, 313
4, 136
4.0, 318
4096, 322
6, 136
::1, 313
<action>, 283
<message>, 283
<object-type> (<object-id>);, 43
<object-type> {<object-definition>};, 43
<pattern>postfix\@ESTRING:.postfix.component:[@</pattern>,
290
<user@example.com>, 287
@define allow-config-dups 1, 41, 47, 326
@DOUBLE@, 288
@EMAIL:email:[<]>@, 287
@EMAIL@, @HOSTNAME@, @MACADDR@,
@LLADDR@, @PCRE@, @SET@, xix
@ESTRING:: @, 318
@FLOAT@, 287
@module, 46
@module <modulename>, 321
www.balabit.com
@PCRE:name:regexp@, 289
@SET:: @, 289
@version, 46-47
[user@example.com], 287
A
Accepted publickey for myuser from 127.0.0.1 port
59357 ssh2, 316
AF_UNIX, 109-110
alert, 214
AMPM, HOUR12, LOGHOST, MSEC, SYSUPTIME,
USEC, xix
amqp(), 17, 117-118
assume-utf8, 55, 62, 71, 79, 83, 88, 102, 110
attributes(), 155
autoload-compiled-modules, 46
B
background, 322
balabit.com, 355
bcc(), 159
body(), 117, 158, 173
BOM, xx
boolean, 18
BSDTAG, 241
C
ca-dir(), 236
catchall, 202-203
cc(), 160
chain-hostnames(), 38, 217, 243
chain_hostnames, xx
channel, 44
client-host, 39
client-hostname, 217
columns, 173
columns(), 163
Common Name, 230-231, 234
condition, 284
condition(), 261
condition='$(context-length) >= 5', 294
context-id, 281, 292
context-scope, 281, 286, 291-292, 294
context-timeout, 281-282, 286, 294
CONTEXT_ID, 241
create-dirs(), 121-122, 218
credit-card-hash(), 262
372
credit-card-mask(), 262
crit, 214
csv-parser, 270
csv-parser(), 8, 201
custom-domain(), xvii, 218
C_DATE, 241
D
database(), 163-164, 168
DATE, 22, 241
datetime, 18
DAY, 241
db-parser, 278
db-parser(), 278, 283
dbd-option(), xix
debug, 214, 216
default-facility, 54
default-facility(), 50, 98
default-priority, 54
default-priority(), 50
delimiter, xx
destination, 41, 48, 326
dir-group(), 122
dir-owner(), 122
dir-perm(), 122, 218
dns-cache-hosts(), 308
dont-create-tables, 168
dont-store-legacy-msghdr, 56, 63, 71, 80, 84, 89, 102,
111
door(), 83
dot-nv-pairs, 22
double, 18
drop-invalid, 270
drop-message, 132, 224
drop-property, 132, 224
dropped, 297-298
dynamic, 25
E
email, 287
emerg, 214
empty-lines, 55, 62, 71, 79, 84, 88, 102, 111
err, 214
error, 245
exclude(), 17, 19
expect-hostname, xix, 55, 62, 71, 79, 84, 88, 102, 111
explicit-commits, 168
extract-prefix, xvii
www.balabit.com
F
FACILITY, 241
facility, 306
facility(), xviii, 212
FACILITY_NUM, 241
fallback, 203, 271
fallback-to-string, 132, 224
file, 123, 278, 301
file(), 41, 53-54, 70, 121-122, 125, 138, 145, 150, 180,
187-188, 195, 222-223, 326
file-template(), xix
filter, 41, 48, 326
filter(), 261
final, 5, 203, 216
flags(), 41, 198-199, 258, 326
flags(no-multi-line), 59, 75
flags(no-parse), 16, 267
flow-control, 198, 203, 206
flow_control, 206
flush-lines(), 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 113, 123-124,
135-136, 143-144, 149, 168-169, 178, 186, 193, 220,
226, 300, 307
flush-timeout(), 123, 135, 143, 149, 168-169, 178,
186, 193, 220, 300
follow-freq(), 41, 54, 56, 72, 78, 85, 326
follow-freq(1), 96
foo bar, 313
foo bar message, 313
foreground, 322
format(linux-kmsg), 96
format-json, 17, 21, 25, 249, 273
format-json(), 17
frac-digits(), 124, 131, 136, 144, 149, 169, 178, 186,
194, 220, 227, 243
from(), 158, 160
fsync(), 124
FULLDATE, 241
FULLHOST, 241, 261
FULLHOST_FROM, 241
G
geoip, 25
GEOIP, LENGTH, STRIP, SUBSTR, TFHASH,
UUID, xix
gmake, 24
graphite(), 128
graphite-output, xvii, 128, 250
373
greedy, 269-271
greedy(), 287
grep, 250
group(), 124, 144
groupset(), 260
H
HEADER, 11, 13
header(), 158, 160
HOST, 64, 90-91, 104, 215, 221, 241, 261
host, 164
host(), 158, 202, 210, 265, 267
HOST_FROM, 241
HOUR, 241
I
in-list, 214
in-list filter, 213
indexes, 170
indexes(), 170
info, 214
inherit-properties, 283
inject-mode(), 283
int, 18
int32, 18
int64, 18
internal, 283
internal(), 52-53, 132, 224, 283, 294
ip-protocol(), xviii
ISODATE, 241
J
json-c, 25
json-parser, 25
json-parser(), 272
junction, 44
K
keep-alive, 64, 90, 103, 136, 179, 187, 194
keep-hostname(), 38-39, 223, 240, 243
keep-timestamp(), 9
kern, 54, 242
kernel, 55, 62, 71, 79, 84, 88, 102, 111
key(), 17, 19, 21, 129
klogd, 54
ksymoops, 54
www.balabit.com
L
LEGACY_MSGHDR, 241
LEVEL, 241
level(), 214
LEVEL_NUM, 241
libdbi, 26
libgeoip, 25
libopenssl, 26
libpcre, 23
libsystemd-daemon, 26
libwrap, 26
link-level-address, 288
literal, 18
local-time-zone(), 27
localip(), 100
log, 41, 48, 326
log-fetch-limit(), 57, 65, 72, 81, 85, 91, 99, 104, 112,
203, 206-207, 300
log-fifo-size(), 42, 203, 205-207
log-fifo-size(2Mb), 42
log-iw-size(), 57, 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 113, 123,
135, 143, 149, 169, 178, 186, 193, 203, 206-207, 300
log-msg-size(), 11, 57, 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 113,
164-165
log-prefix(), 61, 67, 77, 82, 86, 93, 106, 114
M
make, 24
MARK, 125-126, 137-138, 145, 150, 179-180, 187188, 195, 222-223
mark(), 137, 179, 222
mark-freq(), 137, 179, 222
mark-mode(), 125-126, 137-138, 145, 150, 179-180,
188, 195, 222-223
match, 208
match(), 208, 210, 214-215, 265-266
max-connections(), 65, 73, 81, 85, 92, 105, 109, 113,
203-204, 206-207, 301
MESSAGE, 241
message, 313
message(), 214
MIN, 241
mongodb(), xix, 17, 19, 129-131, 134
MONTH, 241
MONTH_ABBREV, 241
MONTH_NAME, 241
MONTH_WEEK, 241
374
MSG, 11, 13, 214-215, 241
MSGHDR, 214
MSGID, 241
MSGONLY, 241
mssql, 165, 172
multi-line-garbage(), 58-60, 74-76
multi-line-mode, xvii
multi-line-mode(), xviii, 58-59, 74-75
multi-line-mode(indented), 59, 75, 96
multi-line-mode(prefix-garbage), 58-59, 74-75
multi-line-mode(prefix-suffix), 58, 74
multi-line-prefix(), 58, 60, 74, 76
multi-line-suffix(), 58-59, 74-75
myhost, 261
MYSQL_UNIX_PORT, 167, 170
N
name, 294
network(), xviii, 62-63, 90, 100, 135, 184
no-hostname, 55, 62, 71, 79-80, 84, 88, 102, 111
no-multi-line, 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 102, 111, 123,
135, 143, 148, 177, 185, 193
no-parse, 56, 62, 71, 80, 84, 89, 102, 111
nobody, 261
nodejs(), 69-70
notice, 214
NULL, 167
null(), 167, 170-171
nv-pairs, 22
O
on-error(), 132, 224
or, xvii
ORACLE_BASE, 164
ORACLE_HOME, 164
ORACLE_SID, 164
other, 299
overriding-original-program-name, 284
overwrite-if-older(), 126
owner(), 126, 145
P
pacct(), 25, 49, 77-78
pacctformat, 78
pad-size(), 61, 66, 77, 82, 86, 92, 106, 114
PADD, 311
padding, xvii
www.balabit.com
pair(), 17, 19
Parameters, xv
parser, 41, 48, 326
password, xvii
path(), 133
payload, 129
payload(), 129
pdbtool dictionary, xix
perm(), 127
persist_only, 69, 95, 108, 227, 308
pid, 171
PID, 241
pipe, 71, 301
pipe(), 60, 70-71, 76, 81, 86, 113, 125, 138, 142-143,
145, 150, 180, 187-188, 195, 222-223
poll(), 56, 72, 78, 85, 226
port(), 158
prefix(), 99, 272
PRI, 11, 13, 241
PRIORITY, 241
priority(), xviii
processed, 297-298
program, 79
PROGRAM, 241
program(), 79, 125, 138, 145, 147-148, 150, 180, 187188, 195, 210, 222-223, 265, 285
program-override(), 57, 66, 73, 81, 86, 92, 105, 113
proto-template, 227
proto-template(), xix
pseudofile(), 152
p_apache_parser, 44
Q
quote-pairs(), 271
R
RCPTID, 241
recv-time-zone(), 9-10
redis(), 152-153
rekey, xix
rekey(), 21
relay-hostname, 217
reload, xx
replace(), xviii, 21
replace-prefix(), xviii
reply-to(), 161
retries, xvii, 119, 133, 154, 156, 162, 171, 175
rewrite, 41, 48, 326
375
rfc3164, 22
rfc5424, 22
riemann(), 154-155
rltp, 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 102, 111
root, 48-49
routing-key(), 117, 173
R_UNIXTIME, 10
S
safe-background, 322
safe-mode(), 130, 133
scope(), 17, 19-21
SDATA, 241
SEC, 241
selected-macros, 22
send-time-zone(), 9
sender(), 160
SEQNUM, 241
server(), 130
server-hostname, 217
servers(), 130, 133
session-statements(), xix
silently-drop-message, 132, 224
silently-drop-property, 132, 224
silently-fallback-to-string, 132, 224
smtp(), 23, 158-159
so-keepalive(), 68, 94, 107
so-rcvbuf(), 67-68, 88, 93-94, 96, 101, 106, 115, 303,
306
SOCK_DGRAM, 50-52, 109, 117, 192, 328-329
SOCK_STREAM, 50-52, 109, 117, 192, 329
source, 41, 48, 326
SOURCE, 241
source(), 201
SOURCEIP, 241
SO_BROADCAST, 67, 93, 139, 181, 189, 194
spoof-source(), 39
sql, 301
sql(), xix, 117, 163-164, 167-168, 240, 329
STAMP, 227, 241
stamp, 298
stats-level(), 297, 299
stats-lifetime(), xvii, 226
stdin, 147-148
stomp(), 17, 173-174
stored, 298
STREAMS, 51-52, 83, 328
string, 18
www.balabit.com
strip-whitespace, 271
STRUCTURED-DATA, 13, 245
subject(), 158, 162
subject_alt_name, 230-231, 234
sun-streams(), 83
supervising syslog-ng, 322
suppress(), 298
suppressed, 298
syslog, 56, 63, 72, 80, 84, 89, 102, 111, 123, 135, 143,
148, 176-177, 186, 193, 267, 301
syslog(), 36, 55, 62-63, 71, 80, 84, 87-88, 90, 101-102,
111, 125, 138, 145, 150, 176-177, 180, 188, 195, 223,
227, 230, 232
syslog-ng-ctl, xx
syslog-ng-relay, 39
syslog-ng-server, 39
syslog-ng.8, xxi
syslog-parser, 267
syslog-proto, 22, 312
syslog-protocol, 56, 63, 72, 80, 84, 89, 102, 111, 123,
135, 143, 148, 177, 185-186, 193
syslogd, 50-51, 83, 109, 127, 141, 146, 151-152, 183,
191, 196
system(), xx, 95-97, 110
systemd-journal(), 96-98
systemd-syslog(), 99
s_apache, 44
S_UNIXTIME, 10
T
table, 163
TAG, 241
TAGS, 241
tags(), xx, 16, 157, 211, 215-216, 279-280
tcp, 63, 89, 103, 176, 301
tcp(), 51, 55, 62, 69, 71, 80, 84, 88, 100-102, 111, 125,
128, 135, 138, 145, 150, 180, 184-185, 188, 195, 204,
223, 227, 229-235, 328, 357
tcp, tcp6, syslog, and network, xix
tcp, tcp6, udp, and udp6, xviii
tcp-keepalive-intvl(), xix, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183,
190-191
tcp-keepalive-probes(), xix, 107-108, 140-141, 182183, 190-191
tcp-keepalive-time(), xix, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183,
190-191
376
tcp-keepalive-time() + tcp-keepalive-intvl() *
tcp-keepalive-probes(), 107-108, 140-141, 182-183,
190-191
tcp6, 103
tcp6(), 51, 62, 100-101, 135, 184-185, 229, 235, 328,
357
tcpv6(), 230-231, 233-234
TCP_KEEPCNT, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183, 190191
TCP_KEEPIDLE, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183, 190191
TCP_KEEPINTVL, 107-108, 140-141, 182-183, 190191
template, 41, 326
template(), 272
template-escape(), 239
threaded, 63, 89, 103, 123, 301
throttle, xvii, 304
Thu, 247
time-reap(), 121
time-zone(), 9, 27, 240
tls, 63, 89, 176
tls(), 232-235
to(), 158, 162
trigger, 294
trusted-dn(), 237
trusted-keys(), 237
ts-format(), 12, 15, 128, 142, 147, 152, 184, 192, 197,
246
type(), 163, 210, 258, 264
TZ, 241
TZOFFSET, 241
tztab, 27
UNIXTIME, 241
unknown, 279
use-dns(), 39, 64, 90, 104, 221, 242-243, 308
use-fqdn(), 242
use-rcptid, 228, 245
user@example.com, 287
useracct, 316
username, xvii
usertty(), 197, 306
U
YEAR, 241
YEAR_DAY, 241
udp, 176, 301
udp(), 51, 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 100-102, 105, 111,
125, 135, 138, 145, 150, 180, 184-185, 188, 195, 223,
328, 357
udp6(), 51, 62, 100-101, 105, 135, 184-185, 328, 357
ulimit, 122
unicode, 265
unix-dgram, 50, 60, 76, 81, 86, 113, 303
unix-dgram(), 55, 62, 71, 80, 84, 88, 102, 109-113,
125, 138, 145, 150, 180, 187-188, 192, 195, 222-223
unix-stream, 50, 60, 76, 81, 86, 113, 303
unix-stream(), 42, 109-110, 125, 138, 145, 150, 180,
187-188, 192, 195, 222-223, 327
www.balabit.com
V
validate-utf8, 55-56, 62-63, 71-72, 79-80, 83-84, 8889, 102-103, 110-111
value, 163, 295
value(), 208, 214
value-pairs, 17
value-pairs(), xviii-xix, 19, 117, 120, 129, 132, 134,
155, 173, 176, 224, 249-250
values, 163
values(), 260
varchar, 165
W
warning, 214
WEEK, 241
WEEK_DAY, 241
WEEK_DAY_ABBREV, 241
WEEK_DAY_NAME, 241
X
xx:xx:xx:..., 288
Y
377
Download PDF
Similar pages