Mac OS X Server Print Service Administration

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9/12/03
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Page 1
Mac OS X Server
Print Service
Administration
For Version 10.3 or Later
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 Apple Computer, Inc.
© 2003 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of
Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this
publication for the purpose of learning to use such
software. No part of this publication may be reproduced
or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling
copies of this publication or for providing paid-for
support services.
Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for
commercial purposes without the prior written consent
of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and
unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws.
Apple, the Apple logo, AppleTalk, LaserWriter, Mac,
Mac OS, and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple
Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other
countries. Rendezvous is a trademark of Apple
Computer, Inc.
Adobe and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and
other countries, licensed exclusively through
X/Open Company, Ltd.
034-2347/09-20-03
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1
Contents
Chapter 1
5
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
10
About Print Service
Overview of Network Printing
Without Print Service
With Print Service
Supported Printers
Supported Clients
Additional Considerations
Distributing Workload Using Printer Classes
Security
Chapter 2
11
11
11
12
12
14
15
16
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
22
Setting Up Print Service
Before You Begin
Setup Overview
Setting Up the Service
Adding a Print Queue
Choosing a Default LPR Queue
Setting the Print Log Archival Interval
Advertising an LPR Queue Using Rendezvous
Listing an LPR Queue in Open Directory
Starting Print Service
Setting Print Quotas
How Quotas Work
Setting Quotas
Specifying User Print Quotas
Enforcing Print Quotas for a Queue
Resetting a User’s Print Quotas
Chapter 3
23
23
24
24
24
25
Setting Up Printing Clients
About PPD Files
Mac OS X Clients
Adding an AppleTalk Print Queue in Mac OS X
Adding an LPR Print Queue in Mac OS X
Troubleshooting
3
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4
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 Clients
Setting Up an AppleTalk Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
Setting Up an LPR Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
Troubleshooting
Windows Clients
Troubleshooting
UNIX Clients
Chapter 4
29
30
30
31
32
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
39
40
41
42
43
43
44
44
45
46
46
Managing Print Service
Managing the Service
Checking the Status of Print Service
Starting and Stopping Print Service
Managing Print Queues
Viewing Print Queue Status
Stopping a Print Queue
Restarting a Print Queue
Changing Print Queue Settings
Renaming a Print Queue
Changing the Default LPR Print Queue
Deleting a Print Queue
Managing Print Jobs
Monitoring a Print Job
Putting a Print Job on Hold
Releasing a Print Job
Deleting a Print Job
Managing Print Quotas
Suspending Quotas for a Print Queue
Managing Print Logs
Viewing Print Service and Queue Logs
Archiving Print Service Logs
Deleting Archive Log Files
CUPS Logs
Chapter 5
47
47
47
47
47
47
48
Solving Problems
Troubleshooting Print Service
Print Service Doesn’t Start
Clients Can’t Add Queue
Users Can’t Print
Jobs in a Server Queue Don’t Print
Print Queue Becomes Unavailable
Glossary
49
Index
51
Contents
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1
About Print Service
1
Mac OS X Server print service helps you set up a
managed printing environment on your network.
You can share printers by setting up print queues for them on a server. When a user
prints to a shared queue, the print job waits on the server until the printer is available
or until established scheduling criteria are met. For example, you can:
• Change the priority of waiting print jobs
• Hold a job for printing at a later time
• Limit the number of pages individual users can print on specific printers
• Keep logs summarizing printer use
You can use the following applications to set up and administer print service:
• Server Admin to configure print service, set up shared queues, manage print jobs,
and monitor the status of print jobs
• Workgroup Manager to set print quotas for users
The Mac OS X Server print service is built on top of the standard Mac OS X client
printing architecture, which is, in turn, built on the Common UNIX Printing System
(CUPS).
Overview of Network Printing
It’s possible to benefit from some of the advantages of shared network printing
without using a server. However, a quick comparison of network printing with and
without a server-based print service shows what a print service can do to make things
easier for your users and for you as an administrator.
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Without Print Service
Providing shared printers to your users, even without using a server, is relatively
easy: connect the printers to your network and let individual users choose the printer
that best suits their needs.
When a user prints a document, the resulting print job waits in a queue on the client
computer until the printer is ready to accept it (in common printing terminology, you
say the job is “spooled to a local queue”).
Wait
Paper jam!
Client must deal
with printer error
Wait
Wait
Jobs wait in
queues on clients
Although this way of providing access to printers is easy to set up, there are
shortcomings:
• Users need to be sure their jobs have finished printing before they can turn off their
computers or, in the case of mobile clients, disconnect their computers from the
network.
• Error messages from the printer (for example, “out of paper” or “paper jam”) go
directly to the user currently printing.
• It is difficult for you, as administrator, to keep track of or control how many pages are
printed by individual users.
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With Print Service
To take advantage of print service, you set up queues for available printers on a server.
Users choose from these queues instead of choosing printers directly.
When a user prints a document, the resulting print job moves quickly from the queue
on the user’s computer to the queue on the server.
Paper jam!
Service
logs
Ready
Job
logs
Printer error
Hold
Priority
management
Ready
Quotas
Jobs wait in
queues on server
This way of providing printer access has advantages over simple network printing:
• Print jobs transfer quickly from client computers to the server’s queue, so users can
turn off or disconnect their computers soon after printing.
• Printer error conditions are reported on the server rather than on individual client
computers.
• You can easily limit and track the number of pages individual users print on specific
printers.
• You can control when and in what order individual jobs print.
Chapter 1 About Print Service
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Supported Printers
Print service in Mac OS X Server supports:
• PostScript-compatible printers connected to your network that use the AppleTalk or
Line Printer Remote (LPR) protocol
• PostScript printers connected directly to the server using the Universal Serial Bus
(USB)
Mac OS X Server
Ethernet
AppleTalk
PostScript printer
USB
LPR PostScript
printer
PostScript
printer
Note: A non-PostScript printer connected to the USB port of a Mac OS X client
computer can be shared using the Printer Sharing option in Sharing preferences, but
this is outside the scope of Mac OS X Server print service.
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Supported Clients
Any computer using the AppleTalk, LPR, or Server Message Block (SMB) protocol can
print to queues shared through the Mac OS X print service.
Mac OS X Server
AppleTalk
Mac OS X user
(printers selected
using Print Center
or Printer Setup
Utility)
Mac OS 8 and
Mac OS 9 users
(printers selected
using Desktop
Printer Utility)
SMB
UNIX user
Windows NT
and Windows
2000 users
Windows 95,
98, and
ME users
LPR
Mac OS X user
(printers selected
using Print Center or
Printer Setup Utility)
Mac OS 9 user
(printers selected
using Desktop
Printer Utility)
UNIX user
Windows NT
and Windows
2000 users
Macintosh computers can communicate with printers using either AppleTalk or LPR.
Windows computers use LPR and SMB. UNIX computers use LPR. For more information
on printing from a specific kind of client computer, see Chapter 3, “Setting Up Printing
Clients,” on page 23.
Chapter 1 About Print Service
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Additional Considerations
Distributing Workload Using Printer Classes
Each print service queue you set up is assigned to a single printer. The Common UNIX
Printing System (CUPS) supports a special queue called a printer class, which is a queue
with more than one printer assigned to it.
A printer class offers a number of advantages over single-printer queues in highvolume or high-availability printing environments:
• Print jobs are assigned to the next available printer in the class, so you can have as
many jobs printing simultaneously as you have printers assigned to the class.
• If a printer assigned to the class becomes unavailable for any reason, the other
printers in the class continue to print waiting jobs.
You can set up a printer class using Printers > Pool Printers in the Printer Setup Utility
(in /Applications/Utilities). After the class is created, you can add and manage the
resulting class queue in print service as you would any other queue.
You can also create a printer class using commands in Terminal. For more information,
see the chapter on print service in the command-line administration guide.
Security
AppleTalk and LPR printer queues do not support secure authentication. Print service
relies on the client to provide user information. Although standard Macintosh and
Windows clients provide accurate information, a clever user could potentially modify
the client to submit false information and thereby avoid print quotas.
Windows service does support authentication, requiring users to log in before using
SMB printers.
The CUPS software on which print service relies supports a print job submission
method called Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). Print service clients are usually set up to
use AppleTalk, LPR, or SMB to submit print jobs. However, clients that use IPP directly to
submit print jobs can bypass print service and its quotas.
Note: IPP is enabled on a Mac OS X client whenever you turn on Printer Sharing in
Sharing preferences.
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Chapter 1 About Print Service
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2
Setting Up Print Service
2
This chapter shows how to set up print queues and
change print service settings using Server Admin.
Before You Begin
Before you set up print service, note which protocols your clients use for printing. Print
service supports AppleTalk, Line Printer Remote (LPR), and Server Message Block (SMB)
protocols.
Setup Overview
Here is an overview of the steps for setting up print service:
Step 1: Create queues for your printers
Create queues for your printers on the server using Server Admin. Users see these
queues as printers. See “Adding a Print Queue” on page 12.
Step 2: (Optional) Adjust general service settings
Use Server Admin to specify the default LPR queue and turn on print service logs.
By default, there is no default LPR queue and logging is off. See “Choosing a Default
LPR Queue” on page 14 and “Setting the Print Log Archival Interval” on page 15.
Step 3: Start print service
Use Server Admin to start print service on the server and make the queues available to
clients. See “Starting Print Service” on page 18.
Step 4: (Optional) Set print quotas
If you want to limit the number of pages users can print, set print quotas for user
accounts and enforce quotas on print queues. See “Setting Print Quotas” on page 19.
Step 5: Set up client computers
Add, or show your users how to add, your server’s queues to the printing setups on
their computers. See Chapter 3, “Setting Up Printing Clients,” on page 23.
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Setting Up the Service
Adding a Print Queue
You can share any PostScript-compatible printer that has a queue set up for it on the
server. You create queues for shared printers on the server using Server Admin.
Add button
To create a shared print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings.
3 Click Queues, then click the Add (+) button (below the list).
If you don’t see the Queues button, you might already be looking at queue settings.
Click the Back button (the left-pointing arrow in the upper right).
4 Choose the protocol used by the printer from the pop-up menu.
5 For an AppleTalk printer, select the printer in the list and click OK.
For an LPR printer, type the printer IP address or DNS name and click OK. (If you don’t
want to use the printer’s default queue, first deselect “Use default queue on server” and
type a queue name.)
6 Type the queue name you want clients to see in the Sharing Name field.
This does not change the Printer Setup Utility queue name on the server.
Make sure the name is compatible with any naming restrictions imposed by your
clients. For example, some LPR clients do not support names that contain spaces, and
some Windows clients restrict names to 12 characters.
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Queue names shared via LPR or SMB should not contain characters other than
A–Z, a–z, 0–9, and _ (underscore).
AppleTalk queue names cannot be longer than 32 bytes (which may be fewer than 32
typed characters). Note that the queue name is encoded according to the language
used on the server and may not be readable on client computers using another
language.
7 Select the protocols used for printing by your client computers.
If you select “Windows printing (SMB),” make sure you start Windows services.
8 Select “Enforce quotas for this queue” if you want to enforce the print quotas you
establish for users in Workgroup Manager.
9 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper right).
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
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Choosing a Default LPR Queue
You can use print service General settings in Server Admin to specify a default LPR
queue for the server.
Setting a default LPR queue makes it easier for LPR clients to print without knowing the
names of the queues on the server.
To set the default LPR queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click General.
3 Choose the default queue from the pop-up menu.
4 Click Save.
If the queue you want to use is not in the list, it might not currently be shared using
LPR.
A user can add this default LPR queue to his or her computer’s printer list without
knowing the queue’s name by choosing “Use default queue on server” when adding
the printer.
From the Command Line
You can also set the default LPR queue using the serveradmin command in
Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
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Setting the Print Log Archival Interval
Print service keeps a general service log and individual logs for each shared queue.
When a log is archived, new events are recorded in a new, empty log file.
You can use the Logging settings for print service in Server Admin to specify how often
the logs are archived.
To set the log archive intervals:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Logging.
3 Select Archive for the log you want to save and type how often the log is archived.
4 Click Save.
Both current and archived logs are in /Library/Logs/PrintService.
From the Command Line
You can also set the archival interval using the serveradmin command in Terminal.
For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
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Advertising an LPR Queue Using Rendezvous
You can make it easier for your users to find shared LPR queues by advertising them
using Rendezvous.
Back button
To advertise a queue using Rendezvous:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Double-click the queue you want to advertise.
4 Under LPR in the Protocol section, select “Show name in Rendezvous.”
5 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper right).
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Listing an LPR Queue in Open Directory
You can make it easier for your users to find shared LPR queues by listing them in Open
Directory. If you include the Postscript Printer Description (PPD) printer model name in
the directory, users don’t need to worry about which printer model to choose.
To list a queue in Open Directory:
1 If you haven’t already, create the queue.
2 Open Workgroup Manager.
3 If you don’t see the Inspector buttons, choose Workgroup Manager > Preferences and
select “Show All Records tab and inspector.”
4 If necessary, switch to the correct directory domain.
5 Click the All Records button (it looks like a bull’s-eye, next to the Users, Groups, and
Computers buttons).
6 Choose Printers from the pop-up menu below the All Records button and click
New Record.
7 Double-click “untitled_1” next to RecordName attribute, type the name you want your
users to see when they’re browsing for the printer, and press Return.
8 Click New Attribute and choose PrinterLPRHost from the Attribute Name pop-up menu.
9 Click in the Text field, type the IP address or DNS name of the server that hosts the
queue, and click OK.
10 If the queue you are listing is not the default LPR queue on the server, click New
Attribute, choose PrinterLPRQueue from the pop-up menu, type the queue name in
the Text field, and click OK.
11 To specify the printer model (optional), click New Attribute, choose PrinterType from
the pop-up menu, type the model name, and click OK.
Important: Make sure the model name you type exactly matches the value of the
*ModelName attribute in the PPD file. To confirm the value of this attribute, try either
of the following:
• Open Printer Setup Utility, click Add, choose IP Printing from the pop-up menu,
choose the manufacturer from the Printer Model pop-up menu, and find the name
in the resulting list.
• Make a copy of the PPD file, use the gunzip command in Terminal to decompress
it, then open it in TextEdit or another text editor and search for “*ModelName.” You
can find the PPD files in /Library/Printer/PPDs/Contents/Resources/en.lproj.
12 Click Save.
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Starting Print Service
You can use Server Admin to start print service.
After you start the service, it will restart automatically any time the server is restarted.
To start print service:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Start Service.
From the Command Line
You can also start print service by using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For
more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration
guide.
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Setting Print Quotas
You can establish print quotas to control the number of pages each of your users prints
on your various printers.
How Quotas Work
A print quota is the total number of pages that can be printed during a specified time
period. When a user has printed the specified number of pages, he or she cannot print
again until the quota period ends and the quota is automatically renewed (or until you
explicitly renew the quota, which you can do at any time).
For each user, you set either a single quota that covers all the printers they use or
individual quotas for each printer.
In the case of a single quota, every page printed counts against a user’s quota,
regardless of the printer used.
In the case of per-queue quotas, you can vary the quota from printer to printer, or
choose not to enforce quotas on some printers while restricting the use of others.
Chapter 2 Setting Up Print Service
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Setting Quotas
There are two parts to establishing print quotas:
• Specifying the quota and time period for each user using Workgroup Manager
• Setting print service to enforce quotas for individual queues using Server Admin
Specifying User Print Quotas
You can use Workgroup Manager to specify print quotas for individual users.
To set a user’s quota:
1 Open Workgroup Manager, click Accounts, and select the user.
2 Click Print.
3 To set one quota for all queues, select All Queues, then type the number of pages and
the number of days after which the quota is reset.
To set a quota for a particular queue, select Per Queue, choose the queue from the
pop-up list, and type the quota and quota period.
If the queue is not in the list, click Add and change “untitled” to the queue name. Then
choose the queue from the pop-up list, type the IP address or DNS name of the server
hosting the queue, and type user’s the page quota and quota period.
4 Click Save.
The quotas are not enforced until you turn on quota enforcement for specific queues in
print service using Server Admin. See “Enforcing Print Quotas for a Queue” on page 21.
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Enforcing Print Quotas for a Queue
Users are not subject to print quotas you set for them in Workgroup Manager until you
also turn on quota enforcement for specific print queues in print service.
To enforce quotas for a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings.
3 On the Queues pane, select a queue and click the Edit button (below the list).
4 Select “Enforce quotas for this queue.”
5 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper right).
From the Command Line
You can also set quota enforcement for a queue using the serveradmin command
in Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
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Resetting a User’s Print Quotas
You can restart a user’s quota period or change the user’s page quota at any time using
Workgroup Manager.
To reset quotas for a print queue:
1 Open Workgroup Manager and select the user in the user list.
2 Click the Print tab and select All Queues or Per Queue.
3 To restart the quota period, click Restart Print Quota. (To see when the current period
started, look just above the button.)
To change the number of pages allowed during the current quota period, type a new
value in the “Limit to” field.
4 Click Save.
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3
Setting Up Printing Clients
3
This chapter shows how to set up client computers to use
the printers offered by your print service.
The Mac OS X Server print service supports four basic classes of clients:
• Mac OS X clients
• Mac OS 9 and Mac OS 8 clients
• Windows clients
• Unix clients
About PPD Files
A PostScript Printer Description (PPD) file contains specialized information about a
particular printer model. Your users need the PPD file to take advantage of a printer’s
special features and capabilities. Without the right PPD, they won’t be able to do things
such as choose from multiple paper trays, use special paper sizes, or print on both sides
of the page.
Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server come with PPD files already installed for most popular
printers. (To see what’s available, open Printer Setup Utility, click Add, choose IP
Printing from the pop-up menu, and choose a vendor from the Printer Model pop-up
menu.) If you can’t find a PPD for the printer you want to use, contact the manufacturer
for a PPD installer for that particular model. As a last resort, try using the Generic PPD,
which should allow basic printing on most printers.
The proper PPD file must be chosen on the client computer when the print queue is
added.
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Mac OS X Clients
To use queues offered by a server, Mac OS X users need to add the queues to their
printer lists using Printer Setup Utility or Print Center just as they would add any other
printer. Mac OS X supports AppleTalk and LPR printers.
Adding an AppleTalk Print Queue in Mac OS X
You can use the Print Setup Utility (Print Center in versions of Mac OS X earlier than
10.3) to add print queues to a computer’s printer list. These applications are usually
located in /Applications/Utilities.
To add an AppleTalk print queue:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility or Print Center on the client computer and click Add.
2 Choose AppleTalk from the pop-up menu.
3 Select a queue from the list.
4 Choose the printer type from the Printer Model pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic Postscript works for most printing needs.
5 Click Add.
Adding an LPR Print Queue in Mac OS X
You can use the Printer Setup Utility (Print Center in versions of Mac OS X earlier than
10.3) to add an LPR print queue to a computer’s printer list. Printer Setup Utility (or
Print Center) is usually located in /Applications/Utilities.
The way you add an LPR printer depends on whether the printer is:
• Shared by IP address or DNS name only
• Advertised via Rendezvous
• Listed in Open Directory
To add an LPR print queue by IP address or DNS name:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility or Print Center and click Add.
2 Choose “IP Printing” from the pop-up menu.
3 Enter the server’s DNS name or IP address (not the printer’s name or address) in the
Printer’s Address field.
To use the server’s default queue, leave the Queue Name field blank (Printer Setup
Utility) or select the “Use Default Queue on Server” option (Print Center).
If you have not set up a default LPR queue on the server, or if you want to use a
different queue, type a queue name in the Queue Name field. (In Print Center, first
deselect the “Use Default Queue on Server” option.)
4 Choose the printer type from the Printer Model pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic Postscript works for most printing needs.
5 Click Add.
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If you set up your server to advertise LPR print queues using Rendezvous or Open
Directory, a client can browse for an LPR queue instead of having to know the address
of the server and the name of the queue when adding a printer.
To add an LPR print queue that is advertised via Rendezvous:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility or Print Center and click Add.
2 Choose Rendezvous from the pop-up menu.
3 Select the queue by name.
4 Choose the printer type from the Printer Model pop-up menu. If you’re not sure of the
type, Generic Postscript works for basic printing needs.
5 Click Add.
For help advertising a printer using Rendezvous, see “Advertising an LPR Queue Using
Rendezvous” on page 16.
To add an LPR print queue that is listed in Open Directory:
1 Open Printer Setup Utility or Print Center and click Add.
2 Choose Open Directory from the pop-up menu.
3 Select the queue by name.
4 If the printer type is not preselected in the Printer Model pop-up, choose it from the
pop-up menu. If you’re not sure which type to use, Generic Postscript works for most
basic printing needs.
5 Click Add.
For help listing a printer in Open Directory, see “Listing an LPR Queue in Open
Directory” on page 17.
Troubleshooting
If a Mac OS X client is having trouble printing, see Chapter 5, “Solving Problems,” on
page 47.
Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing Clients
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Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 Clients
To use shared queues on a server, Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 users need to add the
queues just as they would add any other printer, using the Chooser for AppleTalk
printers or the Desktop Printer Utility for LPR printers.
The Desktop Printer Utility is usually located in the Apple Extras/LaserWriter Software or
in /Applications/Utilities.
Setting Up an AppleTalk Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
On a computer running Mac OS 8 or Mac OS 9, you use the Chooser to set up an
AppleTalk queue.
To add an AppleTalk print queue:
1 Open the Chooser.
2 Select the LaserWriter 8 icon or the icon for your printer’s model.
The LaserWriter 8 icon works well in most cases. Use a printer-specific icon, if available,
to take advantage of special features that might be offered by that printer.
3 Select the queue from the list on the right and click Create.
4 When the dialog appears, select the PPD for the printer.
5 Close the Chooser.
Setting Up an LPR Queue on Mac OS 8 or 9 Clients
Use the Desktop Printer Utility to set up LPR printers on a computer running Mac OS 8
or Mac OS 9.
To add an LPR print queue:
1 Open the Desktop Printer Utility, select Printer (LPR), and click OK.
2 In the PostScript Printer Description (PPD) File section, click Change and select the PPD
file for the printer. Choose Generic if you do not know the printer type.
3 In the LPR Printer Selection section, click Change and enter the server’s IP address or
domain name in the Printer Address field.
4 Enter the name of the print queue on the server that is configured for sharing via LPR.
Leave the field blank if you want to print to the default LPR queue.
5 Click Verify to confirm that print service is accepting jobs via LPR.
6 Click OK, then Create.
7 Type a name and choose a location for the desktop printer icon, and click Save.
The default name is the printer’s IP address, and the default location is Desktop.
Troubleshooting
If a Mac OS 8 or 9 client is having trouble printing, see Chapter 5, “Solving Problems,”
on page 47.
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Windows Clients
To enable printing by Windows users who submit jobs using SMB, make sure Windows
services are running and that one or more print queues are available for SMB use.
All Windows computers—including Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium
Edition (ME), and Windows XP—support SMB for using printers on the network.
Windows 2000 and Windows NT also support LPR.
Note: Third-party LPR drivers are available for Windows computers that do not have
built-in LPR support.
Troubleshooting
If a Windows client is having trouble printing, see Chapter 5, “Solving Problems,” on
page 47.
UNIX Clients
UNIX computers support LPR for connecting to networked printers without the
installation of additional software.
Chapter 3 Setting Up Printing Clients
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4
Managing Print Service
4
This chapter shows how to perform routine management
tasks for print service after you have it up and running.
Typical, day-to-day management tasks include:
• Checking the status of print service
• Starting and stopping print service
• Viewing queues
• Stopping and restarting a queue
• Changing print queue settings
• Renaming a queue
• Changing the default LPR queue
• Deleting a queue
• Viewing print jobs
• Holding and releasing jobs
• Deleting jobs
• Suspending print quotas
• Viewing and managing service logs
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Managing the Service
Checking the Status of Print Service
You can use Server Admin to monitor the Mac OS X server print service.
To check the status of print service:
1 In Server Admin, locate the name of the server you want to monitor in the Computers
& Services list and select Print in the list of services under the server name.
2 Click Overview to see if print service is running, the time it started if it is running, and
the number of queues and waiting print jobs.
3 Click Logs, then choose a log from the Show pop-up menu to view its contents.
4 Click Queues to see the status of print queues.
5 Click Jobs to see a list of print jobs waiting in each queue.
From the Command Line
You can also check to see if print service is running using the serveradmin
command in Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the
command-line administration guide.
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Starting and Stopping Print Service
You can use Server Admin to start or stop print service.
To start or stop print service:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Start Service or Stop Service.
From the Command Line
You can also start and stop print service using the serveradmin command in
Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
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Managing Print Queues
This section tells you how to perform day-to-day management of print queues.
Viewing Print Queue Status
You can use Server Admin to see the current status of print queues. The Queues pane
shows all the server’s print queues, listing the queue name and kind of printer, how the
printer is shared, the status of printing from the queue, and how many jobs are waiting.
To view queue status:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Queues to see a list of print queues on the server.
From the Command Line
You can also list the queues using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
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Stopping a Print Queue
To prevent waiting jobs from printing, you can use Server Admin to stop the queue
that contains them.
New jobs continue to be added to the queue but do not print until you restart the
queue. A job that is already printing is reprinted from the beginning when you restart
the queue.
Stop button
To stop a queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Queues to see a list of print queues on the server.
3 Select the queue you want to stop and click the Stop button (lower right).
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Restarting a Print Queue
You can use Server Admin to restart a stopped queue and resume printing for all
waiting jobs.
Start button
To restart a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Queues to see a list of print queues on the server.
3 Select a stopped queue (look in the Status column) and click the Start button (lower
right).
Individual jobs that are on hold will remain on hold. If a printing job was interrupted
when you stopped the queue, that job will print again from the beginning.
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Changing Print Queue Settings
You can use Server Admin to view and change a print queue’s configuration.
Note: When you change a queue’s configuration, the queue may become unavailable
to users, and they may need to set up their computers to use the queue again.
Back button
To change a print queue’s settings:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click the Queues tab.
3 Select the print queue you want to change and click the Edit button (below the list).
4 Make changes, click Save, and then click the Back button (in the upper right).
From the Command Line
You can also change queue settings using the serveradmin command in Terminal.
For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
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Renaming a Print Queue
When you add a printer in Printer Setup Utility or Print Center, the default name of the
new queue is the name of the associated printer. You can change this name to help
your users choose the right printer or to comply with naming conventions imposed by
the protocols your clients use.
Note: If you change the name of a print queue that has already been shared, users will
need to set up their computers again to use the queue with its new name. New jobs
that users send to the queue with the old name will not be printed.
Back button
To rename a queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Select the print queue you want to change and click the Edit button (below the list).
4 Type a new name in the Sharing Name field.
5 Click Save, and then click the Back button (in the upper right).
Changing the sharing name for the queue does not change its underlying Printer Setup
Utility or Print Center queue name.
From the Command Line
You can also rename a queue using the serveradmin command in Terminal. See the
print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
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Changing the Default LPR Print Queue
Specifying a default LPR queue simplifies setup for client computers. Users can choose
to print to the default queue rather than having to enter the name of a specific queue.
To select a default print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings.
3 In the General pane, choose the queue from the “Default Queue for LPR” pop-up menu.
If the queue you want to use is not listed, click Queues, double-click the queue in the
list, and make sure LPR protocol is enabled.
From the Command Line
You can also change the default LPR queue using the serveradmin command in
Terminal. For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
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Deleting a Print Queue
When you delete a print queue, jobs in the queue are also deleted.
Note: If a job is printing, it is canceled immediately. To avoid interrupting waiting print
jobs while preventing new jobs from arriving, you can disable the sharing protocols in
the queue settings and wait until all jobs have finished printing before deleting the
queue.
Delete button
To delete a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Select the queue and click the Delete button (at the bottom of the list).
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Managing Print Jobs
This section tells you how to perform day-to-day management of print jobs.
Monitoring a Print Job
You can monitor individual print jobs using Server Admin.
To view a print job:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Choose a queue from the “Jobs on Queue” pop-up menu.
Jobs are listed in priority order, and include the name of the user who submitted each
job, the name of the job, its size, the number of sheets to be printed, the current status
of the job, and the number of pages in the job (you might need to scroll to see the
page column).
About Page and Sheet Counts
The page count is the number of pages created and spooled by an application. It is
determined by the pagination performed by the application, and depends on
application settings (such as margin or font size) and Page Setup settings (such as
paper size). A user can choose to print more than one document page on a single
sheet of paper, so the page count does not always indicate how much paper the job
uses. For example, a 20-page document printed 2 pages per sheet uses only 10 sheets
of paper.
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The sheet count is the amount of printer paper used, and is used to enforce user print
quotas. In the example in the preceding paragraph, the sheet count for a job
containing a 20-page document was only 10 sheets.
Note: The sheet count is accurate for Macintosh clients printing from applications that
do not generate their own Postscript code. Jobs created by other applications or
computers might not contain the information needed to calculate an accurate sheet
count.
Putting a Print Job on Hold
When you put a print job on hold, it is not printed until you take it off hold. If the job
has already started to print, printing stops and the job remains in the queue. When you
resume the job, printing restarts from the beginning of the job.
Hold button
To put a print job on hold:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Select the queue from the pop-up list.
4 Select a job and click the Hold button (below the list).
Shift-click or Command-click to select multiple jobs.
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Releasing a Print Job
When a print job has been placed on hold, it is not printed until you resume the job.
When you resume the job, printing restarts from the beginning.
Note: If you put the entire print queue on hold, you also need to restart the queue to
print the job.
Start button
To restart a print job:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Select the queue from the pop-up menu.
4 Select the job and click the Start button (below the list).
Shift-click or Command-click to select multiple jobs.
The job is printed after all other jobs in the queue that have the same priority.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
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Deleting a Print Job
You can use Server Admin to delete a print job and prevent it from printing.
Delete button
To delete a print job:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Jobs.
3 Select the queue from the pop-up list.
4 Select the job and click the Delete button (below the list).
Any pages already sent to the printer will continue to print even after you delete the
job.
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Managing Print Quotas
This section tells you how to perform day-to-day management of print quotas.
Suspending Quotas for a Print Queue
You can use Server Admin to enforce and suspend print quotas for specific queues.
Suspending quotas for a print queue allows all users unlimited printing to the queue.
To suspend quotas for a print queue:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Queues.
3 Select the print queue you want to change and click Edit.
4 Deselect “Enforce quotas for this queue.”
5 Click Save, then click the Back button (in the upper right).
From the Command Line
You can also disable quotas using the serveradmin command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
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Managing Print Logs
This section tells you how to view and archive print service and queue logs.
Viewing Print Service and Queue Logs
Print service keeps two kinds of logs: a print service log and individual print queue
logs. The print service log records events such as when print service is started and
stopped and when a print queue is put on hold. Print queue logs record information
such as which user submitted a job and the size of the jobs.
You can view the print service logs using Server Admin.
To view print service logs:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Logs, then choose a log from the Show pop-up menu.
The logs are in /Library/Logs/PrintService. Job logs are named after their queues (for
example, PrintService.myqueue.job.log). Archived logs have the archive date appended
(for example, PrintService.myqueue.job.log.20021231).
From the Command Line
You can also view the logs by using the cat or tail command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
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Archiving Print Service Logs
You can use Server Admin to specify how often the print service logs are archived and
new logs started.
To specify how often to archive print logs:
1 In Server Admin, select Print in the Computers & Services list.
2 Click Settings, then click Logging.
3 Select “Archive server log every” and type the number of days after which you want to
archive the log and start a new one.
The current service log file is named PrintService.server.log. Archived logs have the
archive date appended (for example, PrintService.server.log.20030731 for a file archived
on July 31, 2002).
4 Select “Archive job logs every” and type the archive interval.
Archived job logs (and current logs) are in /Library/Logs/PrintService.The files are
named after their queues (for example, PrintService.myqueue.job.log). Archived logs
have the archive date appended (for example, PrintService.myqueue.job.log.20021231).
From the Command Line
You can also set the archive interval using the serveradmin command in Terminal.
For more information, see the print service chapter of the command-line
administration guide.
Chapter 4 Managing Print Service
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Deleting Archive Log Files
The print service log files are stored in /Library/Logs/PrintService. You can delete
unwanted files as you would any other file using the Finder.
You can also use the log rolling scripts supplied with Mac OS X Server to reclaim disk
space used by log files. For more information, see the print service chapter of the
command-line administration guide.
From the Command Line
You can also delete archived log files using the rm command in Terminal. For more
information, see the print service chapter of the command-line administration guide.
CUPS Logs
A separate set of log files is maintained by the underlying Common UNIX Print Service
(CUPS) used by print service. These logs are stored in /var/log/cups.
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5
Solving Problems
5
Troubleshooting Print Service
Try these suggestions to solve or avoid printing problems you or your users encounter
while using print service.
Print Service Doesn’t Start
• Verify that the server’s software serial number is entered correctly and has not
expired. To check the number, open Server Admin, select the server in the Computers
& Services list, and click Overview. To enter an updated serial number, click Settings.
• Check the print service log for problem indications. Open Server Admin, select Print
in the Computers & Services list, and click Logs.
Clients Can’t Add Queue
• Make sure that print service is running. Open Server Admin and select Print in the
Computers & Services list. If the service is not running, click Start Service.
• Verify that the queue is shared correctly. SMB is for Windows users only. LPR is a
standard protocol that users on (some) Windows computers, as well as on Macintosh,
UNIX, and other computers, can use for printing.
Users Can’t Print
• Make sure that print service is running. Open Server Admin and select Print in the
Computers & Services list. If the service is not running, click Start Service.
• Make sure the queue has been added. On Mac OS 8 or Mac OS 9 computers, use the
Chooser (for AppleTalk print queues) or Desktop Printer Utility (for LPR print queues)
to make sure the printer setup is correct. On Mac OS X, use Printer Setup Utility or
Print Center to add print queues to the printer list.
• Verify that Mac OS clients have TCP/IP set up correctly.
• If Windows NT 4.x clients can’t print to the server, make sure that the queue name is
not the TCP/IP address of the printer or server. Use the DNS host name instead of the
printer or server address or, if there is no DNS name, enter a queue name containing
only letters and numbers.
Jobs in a Server Queue Don’t Print
• Make sure that neither the queue nor the jobs in it are on hold. Open Server Admin,
select Print in the Computers & Services list, and click Queues and Jobs.
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• Make sure that the printer is connected to the server or to the network to which the
server is connected.
• Make sure the printer is turned on and that there are no problems with the printer
itself (out of paper, paper jams, and so on).
• Review the print logs for additional information. Open Server Admin, select Print in
the Computers & Services list, and click Logs.
Print Queue Becomes Unavailable
• If you changed a print queue name that has already been shared, print jobs sent by
users to the old queue name will not be printed. Users need to set up their
computers again to use the queue with its new name.
48
Chapter 5 Solving Problems
Glossary
Glossary
LL2347.Book Page 49 Wednesday, August 13, 2003 11:20 AM
CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System) A cross-platform printing facility based on the
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). The Mac OS X Print Center, its underlying print system,
and the Mac OS X Server print service are all based on CUPS. For more information, visit
www.cups.org.
IPP (Internet Printing Protocol) A client-server protocol for printing over the Internet.
The Mac OS X printing infrastructure and the Mac OS X Server print service that is built
on it support IPP.
LPR (Line Printer Remote) A standard protocol for printing over TCP/IP.
PPD (Postscript Printer Description) file A file that contains information about the
capabilities of a particular printer model. The PPD file provides the controls you need to
take advantage of special features such as multiple paper trays, special paper sizes, or
duplex printing. The printer model you choose when you add a printer specifies the
PPD file used with the printer.
print queue An orderly waiting area where print jobs wait until a printer is available.
The print service in Mac OS X Server uses print queues on the server to facilitate
management.
queue An orderly waiting area where items wait for some type of attention from the
system. See also print queue.
Rendezvous A protocol developed by Apple for automatic discovery of computers,
devices, and services on IP networks. This proposed Internet standard protocol is
sometimes referred to as “ZeroConf” or “multicast DNS.” For more information, visit
www.apple.com or www.zeroconf.org.
SMB (Server Message Block) A protocol that allows client computers to access files
and network services. It can be used over TCP/IP, the Internet, and other network
protocols. Windows services use SMB to provide access to servers, printers, and other
network resources.
USB (Universal Serial Bus) A standard for communicating between a computer and
external peripherals using an inexpensive direct-connect cable.
49
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LL2347.Book Page 51 Wednesday, August 13, 2003 11:20 AM
Index
Index
A
L
accounting. See quotas
AppleTalk printer
adding a queue 12
AppleTalk printing
Mac OS 8 or 9 clients 26
Mac OS X clients 24
authentication 10
log files
archiving 45
CUPS 46
deleting 46
location 45
managing 44
naming convention 44, 45
setting archival interval 15
viewing 30, 44
LPR printing
client chooses default queue 14
Mac OS 8 or 9 clients 26
Mac OS X clients 24
setting default queue 37
Unix clients 27
C
Chooser
setting up printing via AppleTalk 26
client computers, Mac OS 8 and 9
setting up printing 26
client computers, Mac OS X
setting up printing 24
client computers, UNIX
setting up printing 27
client computers, Windows
setting up printing 27
Common Unix Printing System (CUPS). See CUPS
configuring a queue 35
CUPS (Common Unix Printing System) 5
log files 46
printer classes 10
D
default LPR queue
adding a queue 12
changing 37
specifying 14
deleting a job 42
deleting a queue 38
Desktop Printer Utility
setting up LPR printing 26
I
Inspector
in Server Admin 17
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). See IPP
IPP (Internet Printing Protocol)
print service and security 10
N
naming printers and queues. See queue names
O
Open Directory
listing LPR queues 17
P
page count
checking a job’s 39
defined 39
Postscript Printer Description (PPD) file. See PPD files
PPD files
examining content 17
overview 23
specified in Open Directory 17
viewing installed 23
Print Center
adding AppleTalk queue 24
adding LPR queue 24
printer classes 10
printer names. See queue names
Printer Setup Utility
adding AppleTalk queue 24
setting up a printer class 10
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print jobs
deleting 42
holding 40
monitoring 39
restarting 41
print queues. See queues
print service
adding queues 12
applications for managing 5
monitoring 30
overview 5
setting up Mac OS 8 and 9 clients 26
setting up Mac OS X clients 24
setup overview 11
starting 18
stopping 31
supported clients 9
supported printers 8
troubleshooting 47
UNIX clients 27
Windows clients 27
Q
queue names
changing 36
considerations and restrictions 12
sharing name 12
queues
adding 12
adding in Mac OS X using AppleTalk 24
adding in Mac OS X using LPR 24
advertising via Rendezvous 16
default 37
deleting 38
listing in Open Directory 17
monitoring 32
overview 6–7
reconfiguring 35
renaming 36
restarting 34
stopping 33
quotas
based on sheet count 40
enforcing 19
managing 43
overview 19
security of 10
setting up 19
52
Index
R
Rendezvous
advertising LPR queues 16
restarting a queue 34
S
Server Admin
adding queues 12
archiving log files 45
changing print queue quotas 43
deleting print jobs 42
deleting print queues 38
enforcing quotas for queues 19–21
holding print jobs 40
Inspector 17
monitoring print jobs 39
monitoring print queues 32
monitoring print service 30
reconfiguring print queues 35
renaming print queues 36
restarting print jobs 41
restarting print queues 34
specifying default LPR queue 37
stopping print queues 33
stopping print service 31
viewing print logs 44
sharing name 36
sheet count
checking a job’s 39
defined 40
SMB printing
setting up a queue for Windows clients 13
Windows clients 27
starting a queue 34
starting print service 18
stopping a queue 33
stopping print service 31
T
troubleshooting 47
U
Universal Serial Bus (USB). See USB printers
USB (Universal Serial Bus) printers 8
V
viewing log files 44
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