AIX System Management Concepts: Operating System

Bull
AIX System Management Concepts:
Operating System and Devices
AIX
ORDER REFERENCE
86 A2 21KX 02
Bull
AIX System Management Concepts:
Operating System and Devices
AIX
Software
May 2000
BULL ELECTRONICS ANGERS
CEDOC
34 Rue du Nid de Pie – BP 428
49004 ANGERS CEDEX 01
FRANCE
ORDER REFERENCE
86 A2 21KX 02
The following copyright notice protects this book under the Copyright laws of the United States of America
and other countries which prohibit such actions as, but not limited to, copying, distributing, modifying, and
making derivative works.
Copyright
Bull S.A. 1992, 2000
Printed in France
Suggestions and criticisms concerning the form, content, and presentation of
this book are invited. A form is provided at the end of this book for this purpose.
To order additional copies of this book or other Bull Technical Publications, you
are invited to use the Ordering Form also provided at the end of this book.
Trademarks and Acknowledgements
We acknowledge the right of proprietors of trademarks mentioned in this book.
AIXR is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation, and is being used under
licence.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States of America and other countries licensed exclusively through
the Open Group.
Year 2000
The product documented in this manual is Year 2000 Ready.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Groupe Bull will not be liable for errors
contained herein, or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this material.
About This Book
This book contains information for understanding the concepts of the AIX operating system
and the tasks that you perform in your day–to–day life as a system administrator, as well as
the tools AIX provides for system management. Use this book together with the AIX 4.3
System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices, 86 A2 99HX.
Note: You can also find the information in this book on the ”Hypertext Library for AIX 4.3”
CD-ROM. This online documentation is designed for use with an HTML version 3.2
compatible web browser.
Who Should Use This Book
This book is for persons performing system management on the computer and operating
system. Readers of this book are expected to know basic operating system commands.
It is assumed that you are familiar with the information and concepts presented in the
following publications:
• AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Operating System and Devices, 86 A2 97HX
• AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Communications and Networks, 86 A2 98HX
• AIX 4.3 Installation Guide, 86 A2 43GX
How to Use This Book
This book is organized to help you quickly find the information you need. The tasks of each
chapter are arranged in the following order:
• Overview of topic/task group
• Configuration tasks
• Maintenance tasks
• Troubleshooting
Note: The troubleshooting sections are helpful when you know the cause of your
problem. If you encounter a problem for which you do not know the cause, refer to the
AIX Version 4.3 Problem Solving Guide and Reference.
Overview of Contents
This book contains the following chapters and appendixes:
• Chapter 1, ”AIX System Management,” introduces the major tools provided to assist you
in system management and the features specific to the system.
• Chapter 2, ”System Startup and Shutdown,” contains conceptual information about
starting and stopping the system as well as procedural information to guide you in
performing these tasks.
• Chapter 3, ”Security,” introduces the security features, including the Trusted Computing
Base (TCB), the virscan command that detects viruses, auditing, and access control.
• Chapter 4, ”Administrative Roles,” contains conceptual information about roles and
authorization as well as procedural information to guide you in setting up and maintaining
roles.
• Chapter 5, ”Users and Groups,” discusses the features available to manage individual
users and illustrates procedures used to manage groups of users.
Preface
iii
• Chapter 6, ”Logical Volumes,” contains an overview of managing logical volume storage
concepts and procedures.
• Chapter 7, ”File Systems,” contains in–depth concepts and procedures for managing
files, directories, and file systems.
• Chapter 8, ”Paging Space and Virtual Memory,” discusses the practical uses of paging
space allocations, how to create and maintain paging space for your system, and the
Virtual Memory Manager program.
• Chapter 9, ”Backup and Restore,” introduces the commands and concepts used to save
your data and restore it from backup.
• Chapter 10, ”System Environment,” discusses basic environment components you can
manage and how to work with these components. Also included are instructions that
explain how to change the message of the day, broadcast messages to users, and work
with profiles.
• Chapter 11, ”National Language Support,” introduces the special considerations
necessary for managing a system in various languages and time zones.
• Chapter 12, ”Process Management,” introduces system processes and how to use them.
• Chapter 13, ”System Resource Controller and Subsystems,” introduces this feature and
discusses ways to use the controller.
• Chapter 14, ”System Accounting,” introduces the conceptual background information
needed to use the wide array of system accounting commands and subroutines.
• Chapter 15, ”Web-based System Manager” describes Web-based System Manager in
both stand–alone and Client–Server environments.
• Chapter 16, ”System Management Interface Tool,” describes the use and structure of the
System Management Interface Tool (SMIT). SMIT is a command–building user interface
that assists the system manager in constructing and recreating many system
management tasks. The interface can be used in an ASCII or windows environment.
• Chapter 17, ”CDE Desktop,” describes the CDE Desktop.
• Chapter 18, ”Documentation Search Service” allows you to search online HTML
documents on your documentation server that have been indexed. This section provides
information on installation and configuation, and how to create your own indexes to
search User created documents.
• Chapter 19, ”Power Management,” describes the system management and general user
tasks for Power Management.
• Chapter 20, ”Devices,” provides a brief overview of the methods used by the operating
system to manage a wide range of devices.
• Chapter 21, ”Tape Drives,” discusses system management functions related to tape
drives.
• Appendix A, ”AIX for BSD System Managers,” contains information for system managers
who are familiar with the 4.3 BSD UNIX or System V operating system. This chapter
explains both similarities and differences.
iv
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Highlighting
The following highlighting conventions are used in this book:
Bold
Identifies commands, subroutines, keywords, files,
structures, directories, and other items whose names are
predefined by the system. Also identifies graphical objects
such as buttons, labels, and icons that the user selects.
Italics
Identifies parameters whose actual names or values are to
be supplied by the user.
Monospace
Identifies examples of specific data values, examples of text
similar to what you might see displayed, examples of
portions of program code similar to what you might write as
a programmer, messages from the system, or information
you should actually type.
ISO 9000
ISO 9000 registered quality systems were used in the development and manufacturing of
this product.
Other Key Sources of System Management Information
Publications Covering Other Aspects of System Management
In today’s computing environment, it is impossible to create a single book that addresses all
the needs and concerns of a system administrator. While this guide cannot address
everything, we have tried to structure the rest of our library so that a few key books can
provide you with direction on each major aspect of your job.
The following books cover other key topics of interest to you:
• AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Communications and Networks, 86 A2 31JX, covers
network administration and maintenance.
• AIX 4.3 Installation Guide, 86 A2 60AP
• Problem Solving and Messages:
– AIX Version 4.3 Problem Solving Guide and Reference, 86 A2 32JX
– AIX Messages Guide and Reference, 86 A2 33JX
• AIX General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs, 86 A2 34JX,
introduces you to the programming tools and interfaces available for writing and
debugging application programs.
• AIX Communications Programming Concepts, 86 A2 35JX, provides conceptual and
procedural information about various communications programming tools.
• AIX Files Reference, 86 A2 79AP.
• Monitoring and tuning system performance:
– AIX Performance Tuning Guide, 86 A2 72AP, describes the performance monitoring
and tuning tools available with the base operating system.
– Performance Toolbox 1.2 and 2.1 for AIX: User’s Guide, 86 A2 10AQ, describes the
additional monitoring tools available with Performance Toolbox for AIX.
• AIX 4.3 Network Installation Management Guide and Reference, 86 A2 17HX, covers
configuration and maintenance of diskless workstations.
• Distributed SMIT 2.2 for AIX: Guide and Reference, 86 A2 09AQ , covers information
about the Distributed System Management Interface Tool (DSMIT).
• Common Desktop Environment 1.0: Advanced User’s and System Administrator’s Guide,
86 A2 85AT, covers advanced tasks in customizing the appearance and behavior of the
Common Desktop Environment (CDE).
Preface
v
AIX Support for the X/Open UNIX95 Specification
Beginning with AIX Version 4.2, the operating system is designed to support the X/Open
UNIX95 Specification for portability of UNIX–based operating systems. Many new
interfaces, and some current ones, have been added or enhanced to meet this specification.
Beginning with Version 4.2, AIX is even more open and portable for applications.
At the same time, compatibility with previous AIX releases is preserved. This is
accomplished by the creation of a new environment variable, which can be used to set the
system environment on a per–system, per–user, or per–process basis.
To determine the proper way to develop a UNIX95–portable application, you may need to
refer to the X/Open UNIX95 Specification, which can be obtained on a CD–ROM by
ordering the printed copy of AIX Commands Reference, order number 86 A2 38JX to 86 A2
43JX, or by ordering Go Solo: How to Implement and Go Solo with the Single Unix
Specification, a book which includes the X/Open UNIX95 Specification on a CD–ROM.
Reference Information
The following publications contain information on the commands and files used in the
operating system.
• AIX Commands Reference, 86 A2 38JX to 86 A2 43JX, is a six–volume set that contains
supported commands in alphabetical order.
• AIX Files Reference, 86 A2 79AP, contains information on the files available with the
operating system.
The following books contain other information you may find useful in day–to–day managing:
• AIX Quick Reference, 86 A2 55AP, contains brief descriptions of frequently used
commands, along with brief summaries of the commands.
• AIX INed Editor User’s Guide contains information on the INed editor.
Ordering Publications
You can order this book separately from Bull Electronics Angers S.A. CEDOC. See address
in the Ordering Form at the end of this book.
To order additional copies of this book, use order number 86 A2 21KX.
Use AIX and Related Products Documentation Overview for information on related
publications and how to obtain them.
vi
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Contents
About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii
Chapter 1. AIX System Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The System Administrator’s Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A System Is More Than a Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIX–Unique Aspects of System Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Available Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unique Features of the Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Man Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIX Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-4
Chapter 2. Starting and Stopping the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Booting the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Boot Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying and Changing the System Run Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding System Boot Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ROS Kernel Init Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Base Device Configuration Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Boot Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Service Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the RAM File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Shutdown Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-8
2-9
2-10
Chapter 3. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aspects of Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identification and Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Security Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Ownership and User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Networks and Communications Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trusted Computing Base Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tcbck Checking Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCB Checking Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secure System Installation and Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trusted Communication Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auditing Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logger Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
3-2
3-2
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3-3
3-6
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-14
3-16
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3-18
Preface
vii
viii
Chapter 4. Administrative Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roles Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Authorizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-1
4-2
Chapter 5. Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Quota System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Disk Quota System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recovering from Over–Quota Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implementing the Disk Quota System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
Chapter 6. Logical Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Volume Storage Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Volume Storage Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Volume Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quorum Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Developing a Volume Group Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When to Create Separate Volume Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Availability in Case of Disk Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Availability in Case of Adapter or Power Supply Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decide on the Size of Physical Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Developing a Logical Volume Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyze Needs for Performance and Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choose an Inter–Disk Allocation Policy for Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choose an Intra–Disk Allocation Policy for Each Logical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combining Allocation Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Map Files for Precise Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Developing a Striped Logical Volume Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine a Write–Verify Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implement Volume Group Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implementing Volume Group Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Volume Manager Limitation Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
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6-7
6-9
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6-12
6-12
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6-21
Chapter 7. File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Systems Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File System Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Journaled File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CD–ROM File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File System Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File System Management Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the File Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Root File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the /usr File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symbolic Links to the /var Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symbolic Links to the /usr/share and /usr/lib Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the /usr/share Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the /var File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the /export Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Data Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Compression Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implicit Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying Data Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-2
7-3
7-3
7-5
7-6
7-8
7-9
7-9
7-10
7-11
7-12
7-14
7-14
7-14
7-15
7-15
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Compatibility and Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Fragments and a Variable Number of I–Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fragments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variable Number of I–Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Fragment Size and NBPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying Fragment Size and NBPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compatibility and Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Journaled File System Size Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of Inodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocation Group Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Journaled File System Log Size Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Journaled File System Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Large Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create File Systems Enabled for Large Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large File Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sparse File Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Free Space Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Image Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zeroing kproc for Large Allocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Mount Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting File Systems, Directories, and Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Automatic Mounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Mount Security for Diskless Workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskless Mounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Securing Diskless Mounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-15
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-17
7-17
7-18
7-18
7-19
7-19
7-20
7-21
7-21
7-21
7-21
7-22
7-23
7-23
7-23
7-23
7-23
7-23
7-23
7-24
7-24
7-25
7-25
7-27
7-27
7-28
Chapter 8. Paging Space and Virtual Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paging Space Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Paging Space Allocation Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paging Space Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparing Late and Early Paging Space Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the PSALLOC Environment Variable for Early Allocation Mode . . . . . . .
Early Allocation Mode Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Paging Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-7
Chapter 9. Backup and Restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deciding on a Backup Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Backup Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Developing a Backup Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File System Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Data Versus User Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replicating a System (Cloning) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up User Files or File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up the System Image and User–Defined Volume Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-4
9-4
9-5
9-5
9-5
9-6
9-6
9-7
9-8
Preface
ix
x
Configuring before the Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting and Unmounting File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring a Backup Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-8
9-9
9-9
9-9
Chapter 10. System Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Profiles Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
/etc/profile File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.profile File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Time Data Manipulation Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding AIX Support for the X/Open UNIX95 Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling Dynamic Processor Deallocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Potential Impact to Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Processor Deallocation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-1
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-5
10-6
10-6
Chapter 11. National Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Language Support Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Localization of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Separation of Messages from Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conversion between Code Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locale Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locale Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Default Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Locale Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Locale Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Locale Definition Source File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Character Set Description (charmap) Source File . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Your Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the NLS Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converters Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding iconv Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Universal UCS Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-1
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-4
11-5
11-5
11-8
11-9
11-10
11-12
11-13
11-14
11-14
11-16
11-17
11-17
Chapter 12. Process Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-1
Chapter 13. Workload Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Resources with WLM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum and Maximum Resource Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Target Shares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tier Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of Classification and Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up WLM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying WLM Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-1
13-2
13-2
13-3
13-3
13-4
13-5
13-5
Chapter 14. System Resource Controller and Subsystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Resource Controller Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subsystem Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SRC Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of SRC Administration Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-1
14-2
14-2
14-3
14-3
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 15. System Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collecting and Reporting System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collecting Accounting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reporting Accounting Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-1
15-2
15-2
15-2
15-4
15-5
15-7
Chapter 16. Web-based System Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-1
Chapter 17. System Management Interface Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-1
17-2
Chapter 18. The CDE Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18-1
Chapter 19. Documentation Library Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19-1
Chapter 20. Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Management Limitation Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20-1
20-2
Chapter 21. Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Configuration Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adapter Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer/Plotter Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tty Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SCSI Device Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Direct–Bus–Attached Disk Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial–Linked Disk Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drive Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dials/LPFKeys Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiprotocol Port Location Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PCI Hot Plug Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a PCI Hot Plug Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a PCI Hot Plug Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing a PCI Hot Plug Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resource Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unconfiguring a Device from the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unconfiguring Communications Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21-1
21-1
21-1
21-1
21-2
21-2
21-3
21-3
21-4
21-4
21-5
21-5
21-5
21-6
21-6
21-6
21-7
21-7
21-7
21-8
21-8
21-8
21-9
21-9
Chapter 22. Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape Drive Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Information about Each Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 2.0GB 4mm Tape Drives (Type 4mm2gb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 4.0GB 4mm Tape Drives (Type 4mm4gb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 2.3GB 8mm Tape Drives (Type 8mm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 5.0GB 8mm Tape Drives (Type 8mm5gb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 20000MB 8mm Tape Drives (Self Configuring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 35GB Tape Drives (Type 35gb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 150MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Type 150mb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22-1
22-2
22-2
22-4
22-4
22-4
22-5
22-5
22-6
22-7
Preface
xi
xii
Attributes for 525MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Type 525mb) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 1200MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Type 1200mb–c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 12000MB 4mm Tape Drives (Self Configuring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 13000MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Self configuring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 1/2–Inch 9–Track Tape Drives (Type 9trk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for 3490e 1/2–Inch Cartridge (Type 3490e) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attributes for Other SCSI Tapes (Type ost) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Files for Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22-8
22-8
22-9
22-10
22-11
22-12
22-12
22-14
Appendix A. AIX for BSD System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIX for BSD System Managers Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to AIX for BSD System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major Differences between 4.3 BSD and AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boot and Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non–IBM SCSI Tape Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boot and Startup for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands for AIX System Administration for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . .
Cron for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Devices for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Comparison Table for 4.3 BSD, SVR4, and AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Systems for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
/etc/filesystems File and /etc/fstab File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File System Support on AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding and Examining Files for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paging Space for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Networking for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Change Default Startup to Permit 4.3 BSD ASCII Configuration . . . . . . .
Additional Options for ifconfig and netstat Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Network Management Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Name and Address Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differences between AIX and 4.3 BSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Documentation and man Command for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . .
NFS and NIS (formerly Yellow Pages) for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . .
Passwords for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a User Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a 4.3 BSD Password File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing the Password File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Measurement and Tuning for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . .
Printers for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Terminals for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
termcap and terminfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UUCP for BSD 4.3 System Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-4
A-4
A-5
A-5
A-5
A-6
A-6
A-7
A-9
A-9
A-10
A-11
A-15
A-16
A-17
A-19
A-19
A-19
A-20
A-21
A-22
A-22
A-22
A-22
A-23
A-24
A-25
A-26
A-27
A-27
A-27
A-27
A-30
A-31
A-33
A-33
A-34
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Appendix B. Managing the InfoExplorer Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing the InfoExplorer Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the InfoExplorer Information Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing InfoExplorer Public Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing InfoExplorer from CD–ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create a CD–ROM File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mount the CD–ROM File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run the linkinfocd Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing InfoExplorer Information Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Information Bases Installed on Fixed Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Information Bases Linked from CD–ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing InfoExplorer Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating InfoExplorer Public Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transferring InfoExplorer Bookmarks from One User to Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
B-1
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-7
B-7
B-7
B-7
B-8
B-8
B-9
B-9
B-9
B-9
B-9
B-10
B-10
B-10
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X-1
Preface
xiii
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 1. AIX System Management
System management is the task of an individual who is usually referred to in UNIX literature
as the system administrator. Unfortunately, only a few of the system administrator’s
activities are straightforward enough to be properly called administration. This and related
guides are intended to help system administrators with their numerous duties.
The System Administrator’s Objectives
The system administrator has three main objectives:
• See to it that the system does its job effectively and efficiently.
• Ensure that the information stored on the system is secure from intentional or accidental
destruction.
• Administer the system owner’s rules for the use of the system.
To achieve these objectives the system administrator must understand more than just the
structure and interaction of the hardware and software under his or her control. He or she
must also understand the interconnected environment in which almost all of today’s systems
exist, and the effects of that environment on the local system’s function and performance.
A System Is More Than a Computer
A contemporary computer system includes a number of hardware, software, and
information elements that must work cooperatively if the system is to satisfy the needs of its
users. The main elements and their management functions are:
• Fixed–disk drives
– Control the grouping and subdivision of disk space
– Control the location of data and programs for optimum performance
– Control the amount of space allocated for different purposes
• Application programs
– Control the use of sensitive or costly programs
– Install and performance–tune major applications
• Application data
– Control access to sensitive data
– Ensure that appropriate backup measures are taken
• Individual computer processors and memory
– Ensure that resources are used in accordance with the organization’s priorities
– Control access to the system by individuals and groups
– Tune the operating system for optimal use of the available resources
• Local area networks
– Ensure that networks are tuned for optimum performance
– Control network addressing mechanisms
• Local terminals
AIX System Management
1-1
– Control the connection of terminals to processors
– Ensure that terminals and processors are set up for maximum performance
• Connections to other networks
– Ensure that bridges and gateways to other networks are properly configured
– Ensure that interaction with remote networks does not degrade local systems
• Access to and from remote systems
– Control the access permissions in both directions
– Monitor and performance–tune the workload imposed by remote connections
• Access to remotely owned data
– Control the methods and availability of access
AIX–Unique Aspects of System Management
AIX provides its own particular version of system–management support in order to promote
ease of use and to improve security and integrity. This chapter presents information on
these unique features:
• Available interfaces
• Unique features of the operating system
• the man command
Available Interfaces
In addition to conventional command–line system administration, AIX provides these
optionally installable interfaces:
• System Management Interface Tool (SMIT), a menu–based user interface that constructs
commands from the options you choose and executes them.
With SMIT, you can:
– Install, update, and maintain software
– Configure devices
– Configure disk storage units into volume groups and logical volumes
– Make and extend file systems and paging space
– Manage users and groups
– Configure networks and communication applications
– Print
– Perform problem determination
– Schedule jobs
– Manage system environments.
See System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) Overview, on page 16-1 for more
information on managing your system with SMIT.
• Distributed System Management Interface Tool (DSMIT), an ASCII–based user interface
that allows you to perform system administration tasks on ”clusters” of workstations,
including machines running Sun/OS 4.1.3 and HP/UX 9.0. This product can be
purchased separately. For more information on this product, see the Distributed SMIT 2.2
for AIX: Guide and Reference.
1-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Unique Features of the Operating System
Following are brief discussions of unique system–management features of the operating
system.
Logical Volume Manager
The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) allows logical volumes to span multiple physical
volumes. Data on logical volumes appears to be contiguous to the user, but can be
discontiguous on the physical volume. This allows file systems, paging space, and other
logical volumes to be resized or relocated, span multiple physical volumes, and have their
contents replicated for greater flexibility and availability.
For more detailed information, see the overview of logical volume storage, on page 6-2.
System Resource Controller
The System Resource Controller (SRC) provides a set of commands and subroutines for
creating and controlling subsystems and is designed to minimize the need for human
intervention in system processing. It provides a mechanism to control subsystem processes
by using a command–line C interface. This allows you to start, stop, and collect status
information on subsystem processes with shell scripts, commands, or user–written
programs.
For more detailed information, see the overview of the System Resource Controller, on
page 14-2.
Object Data Manager
The Object Data Manager (ODM) is a data manager intended for the storage of system
data. Many system management functions use the ODM database. Information used in
many commands and SMIT functions is stored and maintained as objects with associated
characteristics. System data managed by ODM includes:
• Device configuration information
• Display information for SMIT (menus, selectors, and dialogs)
• Vital product data for installation and update procedures
• Communications configuration information
• System resource information.
Software Vital Product Data
Certain information about software products and their installable options is maintained in
the Software Vital Product Data (SWVPD) database. The SWVPD consists of a set of
commands and Object Data Manager (ODM) object classes for the maintenance of software
product information. The SWVPD commands are provided for the user to query (lslpp) and
verify (lppchk) installed software products. The ODM object classes define the scope and
format of the software product information that is maintained.
The installp command uses the ODM to maintain the following information in the SWVPD
database:
• Name of the installed software product
• Version of the software product
• Release level of the software product, which indicates changes to the external
programming interface of the software product
• Modification level of the software product, which indicates changes that do not affect the
external programming interface of the software product
• Fix level of the software product, which indicates small updates that are to be built into a
regular modification level at a later time
• Fix identification field
AIX System Management
1-3
• Names, checksums, and sizes of the files that make up the software product or option
• Installation state of the software product: available, applying, applied, committing,
committed, rejecting, or broken.
Man Command
The man command is used mainly to access reference information on commands,
subroutines, and files. For example, to view information on the gprof command, enter:
>man gprof
Most of the information displayed is actually taken from formatted HTML files. Many system
managers find using the man command more convenient than starting a web browser
session when they simply need to find out about a certain flag or the syntax of a given
command.
For more information on the man command, see the AIX Commands Reference. Also see
the man command for BSD 4.3 system managers, on page A-25.
AIX Updates
For detailed information on software updates, also termed service updates, see ”Installing
Optional Software and Service Updates” in AIX Installation Guide.
1-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 2. Starting and Stopping the System
This chapter explains system startup activities such as booting, creating boot images or files
for starting the system, and setting the system run level. The chapter also focuses on
stopping the system using the reboot and shutdown commands.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
• Starting the System, on page 2-2
• Understanding the Boot Process, on page 2-3
• Understanding System Boot Processing, on page 2-4
• Understanding the Service Boot Process, on page 2-8
• Understanding the RAM File System, on page 2-9
• Understanding the Shutdown Process, on page 2-10
Starting and Stopping the System
2-1
Starting the System
When the base operating system boots, the system initiates a complex set of tasks. Under
normal conditions, these tasks are performed automatically. For additional information about
booting the system, see:
• Understanding the Boot Process, on page 2-3
• Diagnosing Boot Problems in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
Booting the System
There are some situations when you want to instruct the system to boot; for example, to
cause the system to recognize newly installed software, to reset peripheral devices, to
perform routine maintenance tasks like checking file systems, or to recover from a system
hang or crash. For information on these procedures, see:
• Booting an Uninstalled System in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
• Rebooting a Running System in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
• Booting a System That Crashed in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating
System and Devices.
Creating Boot Images
When the system is first installed, the bosboot command creates a boot image from a
RAM (random access memory) disk file system image and the operating system kernel. The
boot image is transferred to a particular media such as the hard disk. When the machine is
rebooted, the boot image is loaded from the media into memory.
For more information, see ”Creating Boot Images” in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide:
Operating System and Devices.
Identifying and Changing the System Run Level
The system run level specifies the system state and defines which processes are started.
For example, when the system run level is 3, all processes defined to operate at that run
level are started. Near the end of the system boot phase of the boot process, the run level is
read from the initdefault entry of the /etc/inittab file. The system run level can be changed
with the init command. The /etc/inittab file contains a record for each process that defines
run levels for that process. When the system boots, the init command reads the /etc/inittab
file to determine which processes to start. For information on these procedures, see:
• Identifying System Run Levels in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
• Changing System Run Levels in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
• Changing the /etc/inittab File in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
2-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding the Boot Process
During the boot process, the system tests the hardware, loads and executes the operating
system, and configures devices. To boot the operating system, the following resources are
required:
• A boot image that can be loaded after the machine is turned on or reset.
• Access to the root and /usr file systems.
There are three types of system boots:
Hard Disk Boot
A machine is started for normal operations with the key in
the Normal position. For more information, see
”Understanding System Boot Processing”, on page 2-4.
Diskless Network Boot
A diskless or dataless workstation is started remotely over
a network. A machine is started for normal operations with
the key in the Normal position. One or more remote file
servers provide the files and programs that diskless or
dataless workstations need to boot.
Service Boot
A machine is started from a hard disk, network, tape, or
CD–ROM with the key set in the Service position. This
condition is also called maintenance mode. In maintenance
mode, a system administrator can perform tasks such as
installing new or updated software and running diagnostic
checks. For more information, see ”Understanding the
Service Boot Process”, on page 2-8.
During a hard disk boot, the boot image is found on a local disk created when the operating
system was installed. During the boot process, the system configures all devices found in
the machine and initializes other basic software required for the system to operate (such as
the Logical Volume Manager). At the end of this process, the file systems are mounted and
ready for use. For more information about the file system used during boot processing, see
”Understanding the RAM File System”, on page 2-9.
The same general requirements apply to diskless network clients. They also require a boot
image and access to the operating system file tree. Diskless network clients have no local
file systems and get all their information by way of remote access.
Starting and Stopping the System
2-3
Understanding System Boot Processing
Most users perform a hard disk boot when starting the system for general operations. The
system finds all information necessary to the boot process on its disk drive.
When the system is started by turning on the power switch (a cold boot) or restarted with
the reboot or shutdown commands (a warm boot), a number of events must occur before
the system is ready for use. These events can be divided into the following phases:
1. Read Only Storage (ROS) Kernel Init Phase
2. Base Device Configuration Phase
3. System Boot Phase
ROS Kernel Init Phase
The ROS Kernel Init Phase diagram illustrates the kernel initialization that takes place
before the system boot process is started.
The ROS kernel initialization phase involves the following steps:
1. The On–Chip Sequencer (OCS) bring–up microprocessor (BUMP) checks to see if there
are any problems with the system motherboard. Control is passed to ROS, which
performs a power–on self–test (POST).
2. The ROS initial program load (IPL) checks the user boot list, a list of available boot
devices. This boot list can be altered to suit your requirements using the bootlist
command. If the user boot list in NVRAM is not valid or if a valid boot device is not found,
the default boot list is then checked. In either case, the first valid boot device found in the
boot list is used for system startup. If a valid user boot list exists in NVRAM, the devices
in the list are checked in order. If no user boot list exists, all adapters and devices on the
bus are checked. In either case, devices are checked in a continuous loop until a valid
boot device is found for system startup.
2-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Note: The system maintains a default boot list located in ROS and a user boot list stored
in NVRAM, for a normal boot. Separate default and user boot lists are also maintained
for booting from the Service key position.
3. When a valid boot device is found, the first record or program sector number (PSN) is
checked. If it is a valid boot record, it is read into memory and is added to the initial
program load (IPL) control block in memory. Included in the key boot record data are the
starting location of the boot image on the boot device, the length of the boot image, and
instructions on where to load the boot image in memory.
4. The boot image is read sequentially from the boot device into memory starting at the
location specified in the boot record. The disk boot image consists of the kernel, a RAM
file system, and base customized device information.
5. Control is passed to the kernel, which begins system initialization.
6. Process 1 executes init, which executes phase 1 of the rc.boot script.
When the kernel initialization phase is completed, base device configuration begins.
Base Device Configuration Phase
The Base Device Configuration Phase diagram illustrates this part of the boot process.
The init process starts the rc.boot script. Phase 1 of the rc.boot script performs the base
device configuration, and it includes the following steps:
Starting and Stopping the System
2-5
1. The boot script calls the restbase program to build the customized Object Database
Manager (ODM) database in the RAM file system from the compressed customized data.
2. The boot script starts the configuration manager, which accesses phase 1 configuration
rules to configure the base devices.
3. The configuration manager starts the sys, bus, disk, SCSI, and the Logical Volume
Manager (LVM) and rootvg volume group (RVG) configuration methods.
4. The configuration methods load the device drivers, create special files, and update the
customized data in the ODM database.
System Boot Phase
The System Boot Phase diagram illustrates the steps involved in the system boot process.
1. The init process starts phase 2 execution of the rc.boot script. Phase 2 of rc.boot
includes the following steps:
a. Call the ipl_varyon program to vary on the rootvg volume group (RVG).
b. Mount the hard disk file systems onto the RAM file system.
c. Run swapon to start paging.
d. Copy the customized data from the ODM database in the RAM file system to the
ODM database in the hard disk file system.
e. Unmount temporary mounts of hard disk file systems and then perform permanent
mounts of root, /usr, and /var.
2-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
f. Exit the rc.boot script.
2. After phase 2 of rc.boot, the boot process switches from the RAM file system to the hard
disk root file system.
3. Then the init process executes the processes defined by records in the /etc/inittab file.
One of the instructions in the /etc/inittab file executes phase 3 of the rc.boot script,
which includes the following steps:
a. Mount /tmp hard disk file system.
b. Start the configuration manager phase 2 to configure all remaining devices.
c. Use the savebase command to save the customized data to the boot logical volume.
d. Exit the rc.boot script.
At the end of this process, the system is up and ready for use.
Starting and Stopping the System
2-7
Understanding the Service Boot Process
Occasions may arise when a service boot is needed to perform special tasks such as
installing new or updated software, performing diagnostic checks, or maintenance. In this
case, the system starts from a bootable medium (CD–ROM, tape), a network, or from the
disk drive with the key in the Service position.
The service boot sequence of events is similar to the sequence of a normal boot. The
events can be outlined as follows:
1. The On–Chip Sequencer (OCS) checks to see if there are any problems with the system
motherboard.
2. Control is passed to ROS, which performs a power–on self–test (POST).
3. ROS checks the user boot list, which can be altered to suit your requirements using the
bootlist command. If the user boot list in NVRAM is not valid or if no valid boot device is
found, the default boot list is checked. In either case, the first valid boot device found in
the boot list is used for system startup.
Note: The system maintains a default boot list, located in ROS, and a user boot list,
stored in NVRAM, for normal boot. Separate default and user boot lists are also
maintained for booting from the Service key position.
4. When a valid boot device is found, the first record or program sector number (PSN) is
checked. If it is a valid boot record, it is read into memory and is added to the initial
program load (IPL) control block in memory. Included in the key boot record data are the
starting location of the boot image on the boot device, the length of the boot image, and
the offset to the entry point to start execution when the boot image is in memory.
5. The boot image is read sequentially from the boot device into memory, starting at the
location specified in the boot record.
6. Control is passed to the kernel, which begins executing programs in the RAM file
system.
7. The Object Data Manager (ODM) database contents determine which devices are
present, and the cfgmgr command dynamically configures all devices found, including
all disks which are to contain the root file system.
8. If CD–ROM, tape, or the network is used to boot the system, the rootvg volume group
(RVG) is not varied on, since the RVG may not exist (as is the case when installing the
operating system on a new system). Network configuration may occur at this time. No
paging occurs when a service boot is performed.
At the end of this process, the system is ready for installation, maintenance, or diagnostics.
Note: If the system is booted from the hard disk, the RVG is varied on,the hard disk root
file system and the hard disk user file system are mounted in the RAM file system, a
menu is displayed which allows you to enter various diagnostics modes or single–user
mode. Selecting single–user mode allows the user to continue the boot process and
enter single–user mode, where the init’s run level is set to ”S”. The system is then ready
for maintenance, software updates, or running the bosboot command.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding the RAM File System
The RAM file system, part of the boot image, is totally memory–resident and contains all
programs that allow the boot process to continue. The files in the RAM file system
determine the type of boot.
A service boot RAM file system might not have the logical volume routines, since the rootvg
volume group may not need to be varied on. During a hard disk boot, however, it is
desirable that the rootvg volume group be varied on and paging activated as soon as
possible. Although there are differences in these two boot scenarios, the structure of the
RAM file system does not vary to a great extent.
The init command on the RAM file system used during boot is actually the ssh (simple
shell) program. The ssh program controls the boot process by calling the rc.boot script.
The first step for rc.boot is to determine from what device the machine was booted. The
boot device determines which devices should be configured on the RAM file system. If the
machine is booted over the network, the network devices need to be configured so that the
client’s file systems can be remotely mounted. In the case of a tape or CD–ROM boot, the
console is configured to display the BOS install menus. After the rc.boot script finds the
boot device, then the appropriate configuration routines are called from the RAM file
system. The rc.boot script itself is called twice by the ssh program to match the two
configuration phases during boot. A third call to rc.boot occurs during a disk or a network
boot when the real init command is called. There is a rc.boot stanza in the inittab file that
does the final configuration of the machine.
The RAM file system for each boot device is also unique due to the various types of devices
to be configured. There is a prototype file associated with each type of boot device. The
prototype file is a template of files making up the RAM file system. The mkfs command is
used by the bosboot command to create the RAM file system using the various prototype
files. See the bosboot command for more details.
Starting and Stopping the System
2-9
Understanding the Shutdown Process
There are several controlled situations in which you may want to shut down your system:
• After installing new software or changing the configuration for existing software
• When a hardware problem exists
• When the system is irrevocably hung
• When system performance is degraded
• When the file system is possibly corrupt
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 3. Security
This chapter explains advanced system security topics. System security is covered in
AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
• Security Administration, on page 3-2
• System Security Guidelines, on page 3-6
• Trusted Computing Base Overview, on page 3-11
• Auditing Overview, on page 3-16
Security
3-1
Security Administration
Proper system administration is vital to maintaining the security of information resources on
a computer system. AIX security is based on establishing and maintaining proper access
control and accountability policies. It is an administrator’s responsibility to configure the
following aspects of security:
Managing Protected Resources with Access Control
Addresses the privacy,
integrity, and availability of
information on your system.
Identification and Authentication, on page 3-2
Determines how users are
identified and how their
identities are authenticated.
Trusted Computing Base (TCB), on page 3-11
Enforces the information
security policies of the
system.
Auditing, on page 3-16
Records and analyzes
events that take place on the
system.
Aspects of Computer Security
The primary goal of security is the detection and prevention of security violations on a
system. Computer security includes the following fundamental aspects.
User Administration
User administration consists of creating users and groups and defining their attributes. A
major attribute of users is how they are authenticated. Users are the primary agents on the
system. Their attributes control their access rights; environment; how they are
authenticated; and how, when, and where their accounts can be accessed.
Groups are collections of users who can share access permissions for protected resources.
A group has an ID and is composed of members and administrators. The creator of the
group is usually the first administrator.
The operating system supports the standard user attributes usually found in the
/etc/passwd and /etc/group files, such as:
Authentication
Information
Specifies the password.
Credentials
Specifies the user identifier, principal group, and the
supplementary group ID.
Environment
Specifies the home or shell environment.
The operating system allows for greater control, if desired, with extended attributes. Security
information can also be separately protected from public access.
Some users and groups can be defined as administrative. These users and groups can be
created and modified only by the root user.
3-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
User Account Control
Each user account has a set of associated attributes. These attributes are created from
default values when a user is created using the mkuser command. They can be altered by
using the chuser command. The following are examples of user attributes:
ttys
Limits certain accounts to physically secure areas.
expires
Manages student or guest accounts; also can be used to turn off accounts
temporarily.
logintimes
Restricts when a user can log in. For example, a user may be restricted to
accessing the system only during normal business hours.
The complete set of user attributes is defined in the /usr/lib/security/mkuser.default,
/etc/security/user, /etc/security/limits, /etc/security/lastlog files. Several of these
attributes control how a user can login, and these attributes can be configured to lock the
user account (prevent further logins) under specified conditions.
Once the user’s account is locked, the user will not be able to login until the system
administrator resets the user’s unsuccessful_login_count attribute in the
/etc/security/lastlog file to be less than the value of login retries. This can be done using
the following chsec command:
chsec –f /etc/security/lastlog –s username –a
unsuccessful_login_count=0
The defaults can be changed by using the chsec command to edit the default stanza in the
appropriate security file, such as the /etc/security/user, /usr/lib/security/mkuser.default,
or /etc/security/limits files. Many of the defaults are defined to be the standard behavior.
Identification and Authentication
Identification and authentication establish a user’s identity. Each user is required to log in to
the system. The user supplies the user name of an account and a password, if the account
has one (in a secure system, all accounts should either have passwords or be invalidated).
If the password is correct, the user is logged in to that account; the user acquires the access
rights and privileges of the account. The /etc/passwd and /etc/security/passwd files
maintain user passwords.
Alternative methods of authentication are integrated into the system by means of the
SYSTEM attribute that appears in /etc/security/user. For instance, the Distributed
Computing Environment (DCE) requires password authentication but validates these
passwords in a manner different from the encryption model used in /etc/passwd and
/etc/security/passwd. Users who authenticate by means of DCE may have their stanza in
/etc/security/user set to SYSTEM=DCE.
Other SYSTEM attribute values are compat, files, and NONE. The compat token is used
when name resolution (and subsequent authentication) follows the local database, and if no
resolution is found, the Network Information Services (NIS) database is tried. The files
token specifies that only local files are to be used during authentication. Finally, the NONE
token turns off method authentication. To turn off all authentication, the NONE token must
appear in the SYSTEM and auth1 lines of the user’s stanza.
Other acceptable tokens for the SYSTEM attribute may be defined in
/etc/security/login.cfg.
Note: The root user should always be authenticated by means of the local system
security file. The SYSTEM attribute entry for the root user is specifically set to SYSTEM
= ”compat” in /etc/security/user.
See the AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Operating System and Devices for more information
on protecting passwords.
Security
3-3
Configuring Password Restrictions
Proper password management can only be accomplished through user education. But to
provide some additional security, AIX provides configurable password restrictions. These
allow the administrator to constrain the passwords chosen by users and to force passwords
to be changed regularly. These restrictions are recorded in the /etc/security/user attribute
file and are enforced whenever a new password is defined for a user. All password
restrictions are defined per user. By keeping restrictions in the default stanza of the
/etc/security/user file, the same restrictions are enforced on all users. To maintain proper
password security, all passwords should be similarly protected.
The operating system also provides a method for administrators to extend the password
restrictions. Using the pwdchecks attribute of the /etc/security/user file, an administrator
can add new subroutines (known as methods) to the password restrictions code. Thus, local
site policies can be added to and enforced by the operating system. See ”Extending
Password Restrictions”, on page 3-5 for more information.
Restrictions should be applied sensibly. Attempts to be too restrictive, such as limiting the
password space (making guessing easier) or forcing the user to select
difficult–to–remember passwords (which are then written down) can jeopardize password
security. Ultimately, password security rests with the user. Simple password restrictions,
coupled with proper guidelines and an occasional audit (checking current passwords to see
if they are unique), are the best policy.
The restrictions that can be applied are:
minage
Minimum number of weeks that must pass before a password can
be changed.
maxage
Maximum number of weeks that can pass before a password must
be changed.
maxexpired
Maximum number of weeks beyond maxage that a password can
be changed before administrative action is required to change the
password. (Root is exempt.)
minalpha
Minimum number of alphabetic characters the new password must
contain.
minother
Minimum number of nonalphabetic characters the new password
must contain. (Other characters are any ASCII printable characters
that are nonalphabetic and are not national language code points).
minlen
Minimum number of characters the new password must contain.
Note: The minimum length of a password on the system is minlen or minalpha plus
minother, whichever is greater. The maximum length of a password is eight characters.
minalpha plus minother should never be greater than eight. If minalpha plus minother
is greater than eight, then minother is reduced to eight minus minalpha.
maxrepeats
Maximum number of times a character can appear in the new
password.
mindiff
Minimum number of characters in the new password that must be
different from the characters in the old password.
histexpire
Number of weeks that a user will not be able to reuse a password.
histsize
Number of previous passwords that cannot be reused.
Note: If both histexpire and histsize are set, the system retains the number of
passwords required to satisfy both conditions up to the system limit of 50 passwords per
user. Null passwords are not retained.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
dictionlist
List of dictionary files checked when a password is changed.
Dictionary files contain passwords that are not allowable.
pwdchecks
List of external password restriction methods that are used when a
password is changed.
Recommended, Default, and Maximum Password Attribute Values
Advised Values
Default Values
Maximum Values
minage
0
0
52
maxage
8
0
52
maxexpired
4
–1
52
minalpha
4
0
8
minother
1
0
8
minlen
6
0
8
mindiff
3
0
8
maxrepeats
1
8
8
histexpire
26
0
260*
histsize
0
0
50
dictionlist
NA
NA
NA
pwdchecks
NA
NA
NA
Restriction Values
*A maximum of 50 passwords are retained. NA = not applicable
Restrictions should be set so that passwords are hard to guess, yet not hard to remember.
Passwords that are hard to remember are often written down somewhere, which
compromises system security.
If text processing is installed on the system, the administrator can use the
/usr/share/dict/words file as a dictionlist dictionary file. In such a case, the administrator
should set minother to 0. Since most words in this dictionary file do not contain characters
that fall into the minother category, setting minother to 1 or more would eliminate the need
for the vast majority of words in this dictionary file.
Extending Password Restrictions
The rules used by the password program to accept or reject passwords (the password
composition restrictions) can be extended by system administrators to provide site–specific
restrictions. Restrictions are extended by adding subroutines, known as methods, which are
called during a password change. The pwdchecks attribute in the /etc/security/user file
specifies the methods called.
The AIX Technical Reference contains a description of the pwdrestrict_method, the
subroutine interface that specified password restriction methods must conform to. To
properly extend the password composition restrictions, the system administrator must
program this interface when writing a password restriction method. Caution is advised in
extending the password composition restrictions. These extensions directly affect the login
command, the passwd command, the su command, and other programs. The security of
the system could easily be subverted by malicious or defective code. Only use code that
you trust.
Login User IDs
All audit events recorded for this user are labeled with this ID and should be examined when
you generate audit records. Refer to the AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Operating System
and Devices for more information about login user IDs.
Security
3-5
System Security Guidelines
The following guidelines are for system administrators who need to implement and maintain
system security.
Introduction
Attention: Any operating environment may have unique security requirements that are
not addressed in these guidelines. To ensure a secure system, system administrators
may need to implement additional security measures not discussed here.
This information does not provide security guidelines for all operational environments. It is
impossible to create a single set of guidelines for all security requirements. These
guidelines are not intended to represent the only requirements for achieving a secure
system.
It is helpful to plan and implement your security policies before you begin using the system.
Security policies are very time consuming to change later, so a little planning now can save
a lot of time later.
The security guidelines by category are:
• Basic Security, on page 3-6
– User Accounts, on page 3-6
– Groups, on page 3-7
– File System Security, on page 3-8
– Root Access, on page 3-9
– PATH Environment Variable, on page 3-9
• Advanced Security, on page 3-10
– Accounting, on page 3-10
– Auditing, on page 3-10
– Trusted Computing Base (TCB), on page 3-10
• Networks and Communications Security, on page 3-10
Basic Security
Every system should maintain the level of security represented by these basic security
policies.
User Accounts
Many attributes can be set for each user account, including password and login attributes.
(For a list of configurable attributes, see the ”Managing Users and Groups Tasks” table in
AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.) The following are
recommended:
• Each user should have a user ID that is not shared with any other user. All of the security
safeguards and accountability tools only work if each user has a unique ID.
• Give user names that are meaningful to the users on the system. Actual names are best,
since most electronic mail systems use the user ID to label incoming mail.
• Add, change, and delete users using the Web-based System Manager or SMIT interface.
Although you can perform all these tasks from the command line, these interfaces help
reduce small errors.
3-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
• Do not give a user account an initial password until the user is ready to log on to the
system. If the password field is defined as an * (asterisk) in the /etc/passwd file, account
information is kept, but no one can log in to that account.
• Do not change the system–defined user IDs that are needed by the system to function
properly. The system–defined user IDs are listed in the /etc/passwd file.
• In general, do not set the admin parameter to true for any user IDs. Only the root user
can change attributes for users with admin=true set in the /etc/security/user file.
File Ownership and User Groups
When a file is created, the operating system assigns the user ID of the new file the effective
user ID of the process that created it. The group ID of the file is either the effective group ID
of the process or the group ID of the directory that contains the file, based on the set group
ID (SUID) bit of that directory.
File ownership can be changed with the chown command.
The id command shows your user ID (UID), group ID (GID), and the names of all groups
you belong to.
In file listings (such as the listings shown by the li or ls command), the three groups of users
are always represented in the following order: user, group, and others. If you need to find
out your group name, the groups command shows all the groups for a user ID.
The ”File Ownership and User Groups” in AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Operating System
and Devices contains more information about file and directory access modes.
Groups
Groups are collections of users who can share access permissions for protected resources.
Plan your system groups before you begin creating them. Groups can make administration
easier, but once you start using the system, it is harder to change your group organization.
There are three types of groups: user, system administrator, and system–defined.
User Groups
In general, create as few user groups as possible.
Groups should be made for people who need to share files on the system, such as people
who work in the same department, or people who are working on the same project.
For example, consider a small engineering office with three sets of people in the office:
office support personnel, system administrators, and engineers. Only two user groups, one
for each function in the office, are needed: OFFICE (for the office management staff), and
ENGINEER (for the engineers). Later, for example, if a small group of engineers begins
work on a special project, a new group called PROJECT can be created and those engineer
user IDs can be added to the PROJECT group. Though users can be in more than one
group at a time, as in this case, they can only have one primary group at a time. Users can
change their primary group with the newgrp command.
It is also recommended for simple systems that you do not set the admin characteristic
when creating groups. If a group has admin=true set in the /etc/security/group file, only
the root user can administer that group.
System Administrator Groups
System administrators should be members of the SYSTEM group. SYSTEM group
membership allows an administrator to perform some system maintenance tasks without
having to operate with root authority.
System–Defined Groups
There are several system–defined groups. The STAFF group is the default group for all
nonadministrative users created in the system. You can change the default group by using
the chsec command to edit the /usr/lib/security/mkuser.default file.
Security
3-7
The SECURITY group is a system–defined group having limited privileges for performing
security administration. SECURITY group members have access to programs and files in
/etc/security directory. SECURITY group members can change most attributes for
nonadministrative users and groups, such as the user’s login shell or the membership of a
nonadministrative group.
Most systems do not need to use this group; only multiuser systems with many users should
consider using this group. Otherwise, system administrators can perform the same tasks as
SECURITY group members by using the su command to gain root privilege.
The other system–defined groups are used to control certain subsystems. Consult the
subsystem information to see if certain users should be defined as a member of those
groups. The system–defined groups and users appear in the /etc/group file.
File System Security
All file system objects (including files, directories, special files, link files, symbolic link files,
and pipes) have security mechanisms associated with them. The most commonly used is
the access control list (ACL), but the following additional ways of controlling file security can
also be used:
Base ACLs
Specifies the permissions for the owner, group, and others.
These permissions are controlled through the chmod
command. For more information, see the section on ”File
Directory and Access Modes” in the AIX 4.3 System User’s
Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Extended ACLs
Provides finer access control than the base ACLs. For
more information about the extended ACLs, see the section
on ”Access Control Lists” in the AIX 4.3 System User’s
Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Status of Extended ACLs
The extended ACL must be enabled for a file system
object; otherwise, the extended ACL is ignored.
Owner ID
This is the user ID of the owner of the file system object.
Only this user ID has the permissions granted for the owner
of the object.
Group ID
This is the ID of the group associated with the object. Only
members of this group have the permissions granted for the
group associated with the object.
Sticky bit
If the sticky bit is set for a directory, only the owner of the
directory or the owner of a file can delete or rename a file
within that directory, even if others have write permission to
the directory. This can be set with the t flag with the chmod
command.
TCB bit
If the TCB bit is set for a file system object, it identifies that
object as part of the Trusted Computing Base (TCB).
umask
The umask environment parameter specifies the default
permissions for any file or directory created.
Status of the file system
A file system can be mounted with read/write or read–only
permissions.
Follow these guidelines when dealing with file system objects:
• In general, do not use extended ACLs. For most systems, base ACLs are sufficient for
administration. If you do need the extra security control provided by extended ACLs, use
them only when necessary and in an organized manner. Maintaining relevant entries in
many extended ACLs can become very time–consuming. Also, do not use extended
ACLs at all if you are in a heterogeneous network because they are only recognized by
AIX systems.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
• Use the sticky bit on directories where everyone has write permissions.
• Protect user .profile files with 740 permissions.
• Do not let users have write access to system directories.
• Do not change permissions on any files or directories installed as part of the system.
Changing those permissions affects system integrity.
Root Access
Attention: The root account should always have a password, and it should never be
shared. Only one person, the system administrator, should know the root password. System
administrators should only operate as root to perform system administration functions that
require root privileges, and then return to a normal user account. Routinely operating as root
can result in damage to the system as root overrides many safeguards in the system.
The system administrator should have the root password to gain root authority by using the
su command. Immediately after the system is installed, the root account should be given a
password.
The root account should always be authenticated by means of the local security files.
PATH Environment Variable
The PATH environment variable is an important security control. It specifies the directories
to be searched to find a command. The default systemwide PATH value is specified in the
/etc/profile file, and each user normally has a PATH value in the user’s $HOME/.profile file.
The PATH value in the .profile file either overrides the systemwide PATH value or adds
extra directories to it.
Unauthorized changes to the PATH environment variable can enable a user on the system
to ”spoof” other users (including root users). Spoofing programs (also called Trojan Horse
programs) replace system commands and then capture information meant for that
command, such as user passwords.
For example, suppose a user changes the PATH value so that the system searches the
/tmp directory first when a command is executed. Then the user places in the /tmp directory
a program called su that asks for the root password just like the su command. Then the
/tmp/su program mails the root password to the user and calls the real su command before
exiting. In this scenario, any root user who used the su command would give away the root
password and not even be aware of it. This is just one of many scenarios for gaining
confidential information by altering PATH values.
However, following a few simple steps will prevent any problems with the PATH environment
variable for system administrators and users:
• When in doubt, specify full path names. If a full path name is specified, the PATH
environment variable is ignored.
• Never put the current directory (specified by . (period)) in the PATH value specified for
the root user. Never allow the current directory to be specified in /etc/profile.
• The PATH value in the /etc/profile file is used by the root user. Only specify directories
that are secure, that is, that only root can write to. It is recommended also that you do not
create a .profile file in the / (root) directory. The .profile files should only be in users’
$HOME directories.
• Warn other users not to change their .profile files without consulting the system
administrator. Otherwise, an unsuspecting user could make changes that allow
unintended access. A user’s .profile file should have permissions set to 740.
• System administrators should not use the su command to gain root privilege from a user
session, because the user’s PATH value specified in the .profile file is in effect. User’s
can set their .profile files to whatever they please. System administrators should log on
to the user’s machine as root, or should use the following command:
su – root
Security
3-9
This will ensure that root’s environment is used during the session. If a system
administrator does operate as root in another user’s session, then the system
administrator should specify full path names throughout the session.
• Protect the IFS (input field separator) environment variable from being changed in the
/etc/profile file. And beware of any user who changes the IFS variable in the .profile file.
It too can be used to alter the PATH value.
Advanced Security
These security policies provide a greater level of security, but also require more work to
maintain. Consequently, many system administrators use these security features only in a
limited way, or not at all.
Accounting
System accounting is not a direct security function, but the information it gathers is
important for detecting security problems. You should activate basic accounting on your
system, as explained in ”Setting Up an Accounting System” in AIX 4.3 System Management
Guide: Operating System and Devices, although you may want to consider not activating
disk accounting and printing accounting as specified in the procedure. Both of these
accounting functions produce a large amount of data, and they are not vital to system
security.
Auditing
For smaller systems, auditing is generally not necessary. However, on large multiuser
systems, it can provide useful information about system activity. For more information, see
”Auditing Overview”, on page 3-16.
Trusted Computing Base (TCB)
The Trusted Computing Base (TCB) allows administrators to closely monitor trusted
programs and enhance the security of the system.
Most systems should use only two parts of the TCB: the tcbck command and the default
/etc/security/sysck.cfg configuration file. The tcbck command uses information in the
/etc/security/sysck.cfg file to compare the security status of key elements of the system
against the base data stored in the sysck.cfg file. All the administrator must do is protect
the sysck.cfg file and run the tcbck command regularly.
For larger systems, the TCB can monitor the system more extensively and provide a secure
set of system components. But this extra security requires extra administrative effort. For
more information, see ”Trusted Computing Base Overview”, on page 3-11.
Administrative Roles
AIX Version 4.2.1 and later supports the system administrator assigning to a user a set of
administrative roles with various levels of authority. For more information, see ”Roles
Administration”, on page 4-1.
Networks and Communications Security
Networks and communications security are described fully in AIX 4.3 System Management
Guide: Communications and Networks.
• TCP/IP Security
• TCP/IP Command Security
• Understanding BNU Security
• Data Security and Information Protection
• NIS Security
• Configuring Secure NFS
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Trusted Computing Base Overview
The Trusted Computing Base (TCB) is the part of the system that is responsible for
enforcing the information security policies of the system. All of the computer’s hardware is
included in the TCB, but a person administering the system should be concerned primarily
with the software components of the TCB.
Many of the TCB functions are now optionally enabled at installation time. Selecting yes for
the Install Trusted Computing Base option on the Installation and Settings menu enables
the trusted path, trusted shell, and system integrity checking (tcbck command). Selecting
no disables these features. These features can only be enabled at installation time.
The TCB software consists of:
• The kernel (operating system)
• The configuration files that control system operation
• Any program that is run with the privilege or access rights to alter the kernel or the
configuration files
Most system files are accessible only by the root user; however, some can also be
accessed by members of an administrative group. Only the root user can alter the operating
system kernel. The TCB contains the following trusted programs:
• All setuid root programs
• All setgid programs to administrative groups
• Any program that is exclusively run by the root user or by a member of the system group
• Any program that must be run by the administrator while on the trusted communication
path (for example, the ls command)
In the operating system, the person who administers the system can mark trusted files as
part of the Trusted Computing Base (the chtcb command), so that they can be clearly
distinguished.
The person who administers the system must be careful to add only software that can be
fully trusted to the TCB. Consider trusting software if, for example:
• You have fully tested the program.
• You have examined the program’s code.
• The program is from a trusted source that has tested or examined the program.
The system administrator must determine how much trust can be given to a particular
program. This determination should include considering the value of the information
resources on the system in deciding how much trust is required for a program to be installed
with privilege.
tcbck Checking Programs
An important aspect of the tcbck program is the program attribute, located in the
/etc/security/sysck.cfg file. The program attribute lists an associated program that can
check additional status. This attribute allows for more thorough and flexible checking than
other attributes provide.
You can use these checking programs to check the integrity and consistency of a file’s
contents and its relationship with other files. Checking programs need not be bound to a
particular file.
For example, assume you wrote a program, /etc/profile, which verifies that each user’s
.profile file is writable only by that user. The program should have the following aspects:
• Owned by root.
Security
3-11
• Member of system group.
• Has a mode of 0750.
• Tagged as part of the TCB.
You can add your program, /etc/profile, to the system security checker by entering the
following:
tcbck –a /etc/profile
”program=/etc/profile” class=profiles \ owner group mode
This command creates the following entry in the database:
/etc/profile:
class = profiles
owner = root
group = system
mode = TCB,rwxr–x–––
program = ”/etc/profile”
The following tcbck command verifies the installation of the /etc/profile program and runs
the program:
tcbck –t profiles
There are several requirements for tcbck checking programs:
• tcbck must accept the –n, –y, –p, and –t flags and handle these similarly to the sysck
command.
• tcbck must return 0 to indicate that no errors were found and write all error messages to
standard error.
• It is important to note that these programs are run with an effective user ID of 0;
therefore, they are fully privileged. They should be written and inspected as setuid–root
programs.
TCB Checking Programs
The operating system supplies the following TCB checking programs:
pwdck
Checks the /etc/passwd and /etc/security/passwd files for internal and
mutual consistency.
grpck
Checks the /etc/group and /etc/security/group files for internal and
mutual consistency.
usrck
Verifies the accuracy of the user definitions in the user database files by
checking the definitions for all the users or for specific users.
Secure System Installation and Update
Installing or updating a program consists of importing files into the system, usually creating
new directories for the program, and occasionally reconfiguring the system itself. From a
security standpoint, the program may need to add user accounts, define new audit events,
and assign privileges to one of the program files.
In the simplest mode, a program installation consists of installing a new subdirectory tree
(from /usr/lpp) and possibly adding new symbolic links in the /usr/bin directory. However,
there are two problems:
• Most real programs need to alter the system configuration and contain commands that
need to be installed with some degree of administrative privilege.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
• Each installation should be done under a separate access domain so that the installation
procedure of one program cannot interfere with that of another.
To provide for secure program installation and update, two strategies are employed. First,
privilege and access rights are delineated and limited during installation and update. This
minimizes the potential for damage by untrustworthy installation packages. Second, the
entire process is auditable. The auditing can be done by examining the system audit trail
after installation or update of the program is complete, or auditing can be interactive. The
watch command is provided for interactive use. The watch command can be used to
execute a specified program and display the stream of audit records (if any) that are
generated during the execution of that program.
This approach provides a great deal of flexibility in installation, while still providing a high
degree of security. Even though the security is detection rather than prevention, this is still
effective. Since the process is interactive, the installation of malicious programs can be
halted quickly.
Guidelines for Ownership and Modes for Files
Normal User Commands
Normal user commands do not need a real owner or group since they can be executed by
anyone and are not set user ID (SUID) or set group ID (SGID). If the command is expected
to be run on the trusted path (for example, using the vi, grep, and cat commands), its TCB
bit should be set. The following is an example of ownership and modes:
owner: bin
group: bin
others:
r–x
r–x
r–x
Administrative User Commands
Administrative user commands are executable only by root, members of an administrative
group, and members who are specified in the extended access control list (ACL) entries.
Since they usually perform privileged operations, some of these commands may need to be
run with privilege (set user ID, or SUID). The following is an example of ownership and
modes: owner: root
r–x (possibly SUID)
group: system r–x (possibly SGID)
others: (possibly extended Access Control List entries)
For an example of a typical administrative user command scenario, consider network files
containing critical network configuration information:
owner: root
group: netgroup
others:
rw–
rw–
–––
Use the changenet command to modify the information in the network file. owner:
root
r–x
group: netgroup
––s
others: (extended Access Control List entry)
permit r–x g:net
permit r–x u:john
In this example, group netgroup is an administrative privilege group with no members. Only
processes running with group netgroup (or root user) can read or write the network files.
Running the changenet command, which is the set group ID (SGID) netgroup, gives users
the ability to change the network files. Only root users, members of group net , and user
john can execute this command.
The Extended ACL Controls figure shows how the extended ACL is associated with the
command instead of with the data files themselves.
Security
3-13
The changenet command is the gateway to the network configuration files. The extended
Access Control List on the changenet command is the guard that allows only certain users
through.
This example assumes that there are more data files than programs that operate on them. If
the reverse were true, it might make more sense to have ACLs on the data files.
Configuration Files
The following example shows the admin group as an administrative privilege group with no
members. The exact name of the admin group depends on what type of configuration file
the group applies to (for example, auditing, authentication, and mail).
owner: root
group: admin
others:
mode:
rw–
rw–
r––
TCB
In general, most configuration files should be readable by all users, with the exception of
auditing and authentication data.
Device Special Files
In general, devices should not be readable or writable by normal users. Exceptions to this
rule are terminal devices that should be writable so users can send messages to each other
and floppy disks that should be both readable and writable so users can transfer files.
Trusted Communication Path
The operating system trusted communication path allows for secure communication
between users and the Trusted Computing Base. Users start the trusted communication
path by pressing the secure attention key (SAK). This allows only trusted processes to
access the user’s terminal. A trusted communication path is used whenever the user must
enter data that must not be compromised (a password, for example). A trusted
communication path can also be used by the person who administers the system to
establish a secure environment for administration.
Note: If the Install Trusted Computing Base option was not selected during the initial
installation, the trusted communications path will be disabled. The path can be properly
enabled only by reinstalling the system.
The trusted communication path is based on:
• A trusted command interpreter (tsh command) that only executes commands that are
marked as being a member of the Trusted Computing Base.
• Restricting access to a terminal to trusted programs.
• A reserved key sequence, called the secure attention key (SAK), which allows the user to
request a trusted communication path.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
After the SAK has been pressed, the init command starts either the getty command or the
shell command that:
• Changes the owner and mode of the terminal so that only processes run by a user can
open the terminal.
• Issues a frevoke subroutine to invalidate all previous open calls of the terminal.
This assures that only the current getty or shell command has access to the terminal.
Trusted Command Interpreter
The getty command runs the shell command in response to a SAK only if the user was
logged in to this terminal. This command establishes the terminal modes and runs the
trusted shell (tsh command).
The tsh command provides a subset of the functions of the normal shell (Korn shell). The
trusted shell executes only trusted programs (for example, programs tagged with the TCB
bit). The built–in shell command allows the user to drop the trusted communication path
and execute the user login shell.
Security
3-15
Auditing Overview
The auditing subsystem provides the system administrator with the means to record
security–relevant information, which can be analyzed to detect potential and actual
violations of the system security policy. The auditing subsystem has three functions: event
detection, information collection, and information processing. Each of these functions can
be configured by the system administrator.
Event Detection
Event detection is distributed throughout the Trusted Computing Base (TCB), both in the
kernel (supervisor state code) and the trusted programs (user state code). An auditable
event is any security–relevant occurrence in the system. A security–relevant occurrence is
any change to the security state of the system, any attempted or actual violation of the
system access control or accountability security policies, or both. The programs and kernel
modules that detect auditable events are responsible for reporting these events to the
system audit logger, which runs as part of the kernel and can be accessed either with a
subroutine (for trusted program auditing) or within a kernel procedure call (for supervisor
state auditing). The information reported should include the name of the auditable event, the
success or failure of the event, and any additional event–specific information that would be
relevant to security auditing.
Event detection configuration consists of turning event detection on or off, either at the
global (system) level or at the local (process) level. To control event detection at the global
level, use the audit command to enable or disable the audit subsystem. To control event
detection at the local level, you can audit selected users for groups of audit events (audit
classes).
Information Collection
Information collection encompasses logging the selected auditable events. This function is
performed by the kernel audit logger, which provides both an SVC (subroutine) and an
intra–kernel procedure call interface that records auditable events.
The audit logger is responsible for constructing the complete audit record, consisting of the
audit header, which contains information common to all events (such as the name of the
event, the user responsible, the time and return status of the event), and the audit trail,
which contains event–specific information. The audit logger appends each successive
record to the kernel audit trail, which can be written in either (or both) of two modes:
BIN mode
The trail is written into alternating files, providing for safety and
long–term storage.
STREAM mode
The trail is written to a circular buffer that is read synchronously
through an audit pseudo–device. STREAM mode offers immediate
response.
Information collection can be configured at both the front end (event recording) and at the
back end (kernel trail processing). Event recording is selectable on a per–user basis. Each
user has a defined set of audit events which are actually logged in the kernel trail when they
occur. At the back end, the modes are individually configurable, so that the administrator
can employ the back–end processing best suited for a particular environment. In addition,
BIN mode auditing can be configured to shut down the system in the event of failure.
Information Processing
The operating system provides several options for processing the kernel audit trail. The BIN
mode trail can be compressed, filtered or formatted for output, or any reasonable
combination of these prior to archival storage of the audit trail, if any. Compression is done
through Huffman encoding. Filtering is done with standard query language (SQL)–like audit
record selection (using the auditselect command) and provides for both selective viewing
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
and selective retention of the audit trail. Formatting of audit trail records can be used to
examine the audit trail, to generate periodic security reports, and to print a paper audit trail.
The STREAM mode audit trail can be monitored in real time, to provide immediate threat
monitoring capability. Configuration of these options is handled by separate programs that
can be invoked as daemon processes to filter either BIN or STREAM mode trails, although
some of the filter programs are more naturally suited to one mode or the other.
Event Selection
The set of auditable events on the system defines which occurrences can actually be
audited and the granularity of the auditing provided. The auditable events must cover the
security–relevant events on the system, as defined previously. The level of detail you use for
auditable event definition must tread a fine line between insufficient detail, leading to
excessive information collection, and too much detail, making it difficult for the administrator
to logically understand the selected information. The definition of events takes advantage of
similarities in detected events. For the purpose of this discussion, a detected event is any
single instance of an auditable event; for instance, a given event may be detected in various
places. The underlying principle is that detected events with similar security properties are
selected as the same auditable event. The following list shows an event classification:
Security Policy Events
Subject Events
– process creation
– process deletion
– setting subject security attributes: user IDs, group IDs,
– process group, control terminal
Object Events
– object creation
– object deletion
– object open (including processes as objects)
– object close (including processes as objects)
– setting object security attributes: owner, group, ACL
Import/Export Events
– importing or exporting an object
Accountability Events
– adding a user, changing user attributes in the password
database
– adding a group, changing group attributes in the group
database
– user login
– user logoff
– changing user authentication information
– trusted path terminal configuration
– authentication configuration
– auditing administration: selecting events and audit
trails,
switching on/off, defining user auditing classes
General System Administration Events
– use of privilege
– file system configuration
– device definition and configuration
– system configuration parameter definition
– normal system IPL and shutdown
– RAS configuration
– other system configuration
Security Violations (potential)
– access permission refusals
– privilege failures
– diagnostically detected faults and system errors
– (attempted) alteration of the TCB.
Security
3-17
Configuration
The auditing subsystem has a global state variable that indicates whether the auditing
subsystem is on or off. In addition, each process has a local state variable that indicates
whether the auditing subsystem should record information about this process. Both of these
variables determine whether events are detected by the Trusted Computing Base (TCB)
modules and programs. Turning TCB auditing off for a specific process allows that process
to do its own auditing and not to bypass the system accountability policy. Permitting a
trusted program to audit itself allows for more efficient and effective collection of information.
Information Collection
Information collection addresses event selection and kernel audit trail modes. It is done by a
kernel routine that provides interfaces to log information, used by the TCB components that
detect auditable events, and configuration interfaces, used by the auditing subsystem to
control the audit logger routine.
Audit Logging
Auditable events are logged with one of two interfaces, the user state and supervisor state.
The user state part of the TCB uses the auditlog or auditwrite subroutine, while the
supervisor state portion of the TCB uses a set of kernel procedure calls.
For each record, the audit event logger prefixes an audit header to the event–specific
information. This header identifies the user and process for which this event is being
audited, as well as the time of the event. The code that detects the event supplies the event
type and return code or status and optionally, additional event–specific information (the
event tail). Event–specific information consists of object names (for example, files refused
access or tty used in failed login attempts), subroutine parameters, and other modified
information.
Events are defined symbolically, rather than numerically. This lessens the chances of name
collisions, without using an event registration scheme. Also, since subroutines are auditable,
the extendable kernel definition, with no fixed SVC numbers, makes it difficult to record
events by number, since the number mapping would have to be revised and logged every
time the kernel interface was extended or redefined.
Audit Record Format
The audit records consist of a common header, followed by audit trails peculiar to the audit
event of the record. The structures for the headers are defined in the
/usr/include/sys/audit.h file. The format of the information in the audit trails is peculiar to
each base event and is shown in the /etc/security/audit/events file.
The information in the audit header is generally collected by the logging routine to ensure its
accuracy, while the information in the audit trails is supplied by the code that detects the
event. The audit logger has no knowledge of the structure or semantics of the audit trails.
For example, when the login command detects a failed login it records the specific event
with the terminal on which it occurred and writes the record into the audit trail using the
auditlog subroutine. The audit logger kernel component records the subject–specific
information (user IDs, process IDs, time) in a header and appends this to the other
information. The caller supplies only the event name and result fields in the header.
Logger Configuration
The audit logger is responsible for constructing the complete audit record. You must select
the audit events that you want to be logged.
Event Selection
There are two different types of audit event selection: per process and per object.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Per–Process Auditing
To select process events with reasonable efficiency and
usability, the operating system allows the system
administrator to define audit classes. An audit class is a
subset of the base auditing events in the system. Auditing
classes provide for convenient logical groupings of the base
auditing events.
For each user on the system, the system administrator
defines a set of audit classes that determines the base
events that could be recorded for that user. Each process
run by the user is tagged with its audit classes.
Per–Object Auditing
The operating system provides for the auditing of object
accesses by name, that is, the auditing of specific objects
(normally files). Most objects are not that interesting from a
security perspective. By–name object auditing prevents
having to cover all object accesses to audit the few
pertinent objects. In addition, the auditing mode can be
specified, so that only accesses of the specified mode
(read/write/execute) and results (success/failure) are
recorded.
Kernel Audit Trail Modes
Kernel logging can be set to BIN or STREAM modes to define where the kernel audit trail is
to be written. If the BIN mode is used, the kernel audit logger must be given (prior to audit
startup) at least one file descriptor to which records are to be appended.
BIN mode consists of writing the audit records into alternating files. At auditing startup, the
kernel is passed two file descriptors and an advisory maximum bin size. It suspends the
calling process and starts writing audit records into the first file descriptor. When the size of
the first bin reaches the maximum bin size, and if the second file descriptor is valid, it
switches to the second bin and reactivates the calling process. It keeps writing into the
second bin until it is called again with another valid file descriptor. If at that point the second
bin is full, it switches back to the first bin, and the calling process returns immediately.
Otherwise, the calling process is suspended, and the kernel continues writing records into
the second bin until it is full. Processing continues this way until auditing is turned off.
The STREAM mode is much simpler than the BIN mode. The kernel writes records into a
circular buffer. When the kernel reaches the end of the buffer, it simply wraps to the
beginning. Processes read the information through a pseudo–device called /dev/audit.
When a process opens this device, a new channel is created for that process. Optionally,
the events to be read on the channel can be specified as a list of audit classes.
The main purpose of this mode is to allow for timely reading of the audit trail, which is
desirable for real–time threat monitoring. Another use is to create a paper trail that is written
immediately, preventing any possible tampering with the audit trail, as is possible if the trail
is stored on some writable media.
Security
3-19
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 4. Administrative Roles
AIX Version 4.3 supports assigning portions of root user authority to non–root users.
Different root user tasks are assigned different authorizations. These authorizations are
grouped into roles and assigned to different users.
This chapter covers the following topics:
• Roles Overview, on page 4-1
• Understanding Authorizations, on page 4-2
Roles Overview
Roles consist of authorizations that allow a user to execute functions normally requiring root
user permission.
The following is a list of valid roles:
Add and Remove Users
Allows any user to act as the root user for this role. They
are able to add and remove users, change information
about a user, modify audit classes, manage groups, and
change passwords. Anyone who performs user
administration must be in group security.
Change Users Password
Allows a user to change a passwords.
Manage Roles
Allows a user to create, change, remove and list roles. The
user must be in group security.
Backup and Restore
Allows a user to back up and restore file systems and
directories. This role requires authorizations to enable a
system backup and restore.
Backup Only
Allows a user only to back up file systems and directories.
The user must have the proper authorization to enable a
system backup.
Run Diagnostics
Allows a user, Customer Engineer or Service Support
Representative to run diagnostics and diagnostic tasks. The
user must have system as the primary group and also a
group set that includes shutdown.
Note: Users in the Run Diagnostics role can change the
system configuration, update microcode, and so on.
Users in this role must understand the responsibility the
role requires.
System Shutdown
Allows a user to shut down, reboot, and halt a system.
Administrative Roles
4-1
Understanding Authorizations
Authorizations are authority attributes for a user. These authorizations allow a user to do
certain tasks. For example, a user with the UserAdmin authorization can create an
administrative user by running the mkuser command. A user without this authority cannot
create an administrative user.
There are two types of authorizations:
Primary Authorization
Allows a user to execute a specific command. For
example, RoleAdmin authorization is a primary
authorization allowing a user administrator to execute the
chrole command. Without this authorization, the command
terminates without modifying the role definitions.
Authorization modifier
Increases the capability of a user. For example, UserAdmin
authorization is an authorization modifier that increases the
capability of a user administrator belonging to the group
security. Without this authorization, the mkuser command
only creates non–administrative users. With this
authorization, the mkuser command also creates
administrative users.
The authorizations perform the following functions:
Backup
Performs a system backup.
The following command uses the Backup authorization:
Backup
Diagnostics
Backs up files and file systems. The user
administrator must have Backup authorization.
Allows a user to run diagnostics. This authority is also required to
run diagnostic tasks directly from the command line.
The following command uses the Diagnostics authorization:
diag
GroupAdmin
Runs diagnostics on selected resources. If the
user administrator does not have Diagnostics
authority, the command terminates.
Performs the functions of the root user on group data.
The following commands use the GroupAdmin authorization:
4-2
chgroup
Changes any group information. If the user
does not have GroupAdmin authorization, they
can only change non–administrative group
information.
chgrpmem
Administers all groups. If the group
administrator does not have GroupAdmin
authorization, they can only change the
membership of the group they administer or a
user in group security to administer any
non–administrative group.
chsec
Modifies administrative group data in the
/etc/group and /etc/security/group files. The
user can also modify the default: stanza
values. If the user does not have GroupAdmin
authorization, they can only modify
non–administrative group data in the
/etc/group and /etc/security/group files.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
ListAuditClasses
mkgroup
Creates any group. If the user does not have
GroupAdmin authorization, the user can only
create non–administrative groups.
rmgroup
Removes any group. If the user does not
have GroupAdmin authorization, the user can
only remove non–administrative groups.
Views the list of valid audit classes. The user administrator who
uses this authorization does not have to be the root user or in
group audit.
Use the smit mkuser or smit chuser fast path to list audit
classes available to make or change a user. Enter the list of audit
classes in the AUDIT classes field.
PasswdAdmin
Performs the functions of the root user on password data.
The following commands use the PasswdAdmin authorization:
PasswdManage
chsec
Modifies the lastupdate and flags attributes
of all users. Without the PasswdAdmin
authorization, the chsec command allows the
user administrator to only modify the
lastupdate and flags attribute of
non–administrative users.
lssec
Views the lastupdate and flags attributes of
all users. Without the PasswdAdmin
authorization, the lssec command allows the
user administrator to only view the lastupdate
and flags attribute of non–administrative
users.
pwdadm
Changes the password of all users. The user
administrator must be in group security.
Performs password administration functions on
non–administrative users.
The following command uses the PasswdManage authorization:
pwdadm
UserAdmin
Changes the password of a
non–administrative user. The administrator
must be in group security or have the
PasswdManage authorization.
Performs the functions of the root user on user data. Only users
with UserAdmin authorization can modify the role information of a
user. You cannot access or modify user auditing information with
this authorization.
The following commands use the UserAdmin authorization:
chfn
Changes any user’s gecos (general
information) field. If the user does not have
UserAdmin authorization but is in group
security, they can change any
non–administrative user’s gecos field.
Otherwise, users can only change their own
gecos field.
Administrative Roles
4-3
UserAudit
chsec
Modifies administrative user data in the
/etc/passwd, /etc/security/environ,
/etc/security/lastlog, /etc/security/limits,
and /etc/security/user files including the roles
attribute. The user administrator can also
modify the default: stanza values and the
/usr/lib/security/mkuser.default file,
excluding the auditclasses attributes.
chuser
Changes any user’s information except for the
auditclasses attribute. If the user does not
have UserAdmin authorization, they can only
change non–administrative user information,
except for the auditclasses and roles
attributes.
mkuser
Creates any user, except for the auditclasses
attribute. If the user does not have UserAdmin
authorization, the user can only create
non–administrative users, except for the
auditclasses and roles attributes.
rmuser
Removes any user. If the user administrator
does not have UserAdmin authorization, they
can only create non–administrative users.
Allows the user to modify user–auditing information.
The following commands use the UserAudit authorization:
RoleAdmin
chsec
Modifies the auditclasses attribute of the
mkuser.default file for non–administrative
users. If the user has UserAdmin
authorization, they can also modify the
auditclasses attribute of the mkuser.default
file for administrative and non–administrative
users.
chuser
Modifies the auditclasses attribute of a
non–administrative user. If the user
administrator has UserAdmin authorization,
they can also modify the auditclasses attribute
of all users.
lsuser
Views the auditclasses attribute of a
non–administrative user if the user is root user
or in group security. If the user has
UserAdmin authorization, they can also view
the auditclasses attribute of all users.
mkuser
Creates a new user and allows user
administrator to assign the auditclasses
attribute of a non–administrative user. If the
user has UserAdmin authorization, they can
also modify the auditclasses attribute of all
users.
Performs the functions of the root user on role data.
The following commands use the RoleAdmin authorization:
4-4
chrole
Modifies a role. If the user administrator does
not have the RoleAdmin authorization, the
command terminates.
lsrole
Views a role.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Restore
mkrole
Creates a role. If the user administrator does
not have the RoleAdmin authorization, the
command terminates.
rmrole
Removes a role. If the user administrator
does not have the RoleAdmin authorization,
the command terminates.
Performs a system restoration.
The following command uses the Restore authorization:
Restore
Restores backed–up files. The user
administrator must have Restore authorization.
See ”Command to Authorization List” in the AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating
System and Devices for a mapping of commands to authorizations.
Administrative Roles
4-5
4-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 5. Users and Groups
This chapter contains information for managing users and groups. Also included in this
chapter is information on disk quotas.
Users and Groups
5-1
Disk Quota System Overview
The disk quota system allows system administrators to control the number of files and data
blocks that can be allocated to users or groups. The following sections provide further
information about the disk quota system, its implementation, and use:
• Understanding the Disk Quota System, on page 5-2
• Recovering from Over–Quota Conditions, on page 5-2
• Implementing the Disk Quota System, on page 5-2
Understanding the Disk Quota System
The disk quota system, based on the Berkeley Disk Quota System, provides an effective
way to control the use of disk space. The quota system can be defined for individual users
or groups, and is maintained for each journaled file system.
The disk quota system establishes limits based on three parameters that can be changed
with the edquota command:
• User’s or group’s soft limits
• User’s or group’s hard limits
• Quota grace period
The soft limit defines the number of 1KB disk blocks or files below which the user should
remain. The hard limit defines the maximum amount of disk blocks or files the user can
accumulate under the established disk quotas. The quota grace period allows the user to
exceed the soft limit for a short period of time (the default value is one week). If the user
fails to reduce usage below the soft limit during the specified time, the system will interpret
the soft limit as the maximum allocation allowed, and no further storage will be allocated to
the user. The user can reset this condition by removing enough files to reduce usage below
the soft limit.
The disk quota system tracks user and group quotas in the quota.user and quota.group
files that reside in the root directories of file systems enabled with quotas. These files are
created with the quotacheck and edquota commands and are readable with the quota
commands.
Recovering from Over–Quota Conditions
There are several methods available to reduce file system usage when you have exceeded
quota limits:
• Abort the current process that caused the file system to reach its limit, remove surplus
files to bring the limit below quota, and retry the failed program.
• If you are running an editor such as vi, use the shell escape sequence to check your file
space, remove surplus files, and return without losing your edited file. Alternatively, if you
are using the C or Korn shells, you can suspend the editor with the Ctrl–Z key sequence,
issue the file system commands, and then return with the fg (foreground) command.
• Temporarily write the file to a file system where quota limits have not been exceeded,
delete surplus files, and then return the file to the correct file system.
Implementing the Disk Quota System
You should consider implementing the disk quota system under the following conditions:
• Your system has limited disk space.
• You require more file system security.
• Your disk–usage levels are large, such as at many universities.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
If these conditions do not apply to your environment, you may not want to create
disk–usage limits by implementing the disk quota system.
Typically, only those file systems that contain user home directories and files require disk
quotas. The disk quota system works only with the journaled file system.
Note: It is recommended that disk quotas not be established for the /tmp file system.
Users and Groups
5-3
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 6. Logical Volumes
This chapter describes concepts for managing logical volume storage. This chapter covers
the following topics:
• Logical Volume Storage Overview, on page 6-2
• Developing a Volume Group Strategy, on page 6-9
• Developing a Logical Volume Strategy, on page 6-12
• Implementing Volume Group Policies, on page 6-20
• Logical Volume Manager Limitation Warnings, on page 6-21
Logical Volumes
6-1
Logical Volume Storage Overview
A hierarchy of structures is used to manage fixed–disk storage. Each individual fixed–disk
drive, called a physical volume (PV) has a name, such as /dev/hdisk0. Every physical
volume in use belongs to a volume group (VG). All of the physical volumes in a volume
group are divided into physical partitions (PPs) of the same size (by default 2MB in volume
groups that include physical volumes smaller than 300MB, 4MB otherwise). For
space–allocation purposes, each physical volume is divided into five regions (outer_edge,
inner_edge, outer_middle, inner_middle and center). The number of physical partitions in
each region varies, depending on the total capacity of the disk drive. If the volume group is
created with –B option in mkvg command, the above limits increase to 128 physical volumes
and 512 logical volumes.
Within each volume group, one or more logical volumes (LVs) are defined. Logical volumes
are groups of information located on physical volumes. Data on logical volumes appears to
be contiguous to the user but can be discontiguous on the physical volume. This allows file
systems, paging space, and other logical volumes to be resized or relocated, span multiple
physical volumes, and have their contents replicated for greater flexibility and availability in
the storage of data.
Each logical volume consists of one or more logical partitions (LPs). Each logical partition
corresponds to at least one physical partition. If mirroring is specified for the logical volume,
additional physical partitions are allocated to store the additional copies of each logical
partition. Although the logical partitions are numbered consecutively, the underlying physical
partitions are not necessarily consecutive or contiguous.
Logical volumes can serve a number of system purposes, such as paging, but each logical
volume that holds ordinary system or user data or programs contains a single journaled file
system (JFS). Each JFS consists of a pool of page–size (4KB) blocks. When data is to be
written to a file, one or more additional blocks are allocated to that file. These blocks may or
may not be contiguous with one another or with other blocks previously allocated to the file.
In AIX 4.1, a given file system can be defined as having a fragment size of less than 4KB
(512 bytes, 1KB, 2KB).
After installation, the system has one volume group (the rootvg volume group) consisting of
a base set of logical volumes required to start the system and any others you specify to the
installation script. Any other physical volumes you have connected to the system can be
added to a volume group (using the extendvg command). You can add the physical volume
either to the rootvg volume group or to another volume group (defined by using the mkvg
command). Logical volumes can be tailored using the commands or the menu–driven
System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) interface.
This overview contains information about the following:
• Logical Volume Storage Concepts, on page 6-3
– Physical Volumes, on page 6-3
– Volume Groups, on page 6-3
– Physical Partitions, on page 6-4
– Logical Volumes, on page 6-5
– Logical Partitions, on page 6-5
– File Systems, on page 6-5
• Logical Volume Manager, on page 6-6
• Quorum Concepts, on page 6-7
– Vary–On Process, on page 6-7
– Quorums, on page 6-7
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
– Forcibly Varying On, on page 6-8
– Nonquorum Volume Groups, on page 6-8
Logical Volume Storage Concepts
The five basic logical storage concepts are physical volumes, volume groups, physical
partitions, logical volumes, and logical partitions. The Volume Group figure illustrates the
relationships among these concepts.
Physical Volumes
A disk must be designated as a physical volume and be put into an available state before it
can be assigned to a volume group. A physical volume has certain configuration and
identification information written on it. This information includes a physical volume identifier
that is unique to the system. When a disk becomes a physical volume, it is divided into
512–byte physical blocks. You designate a disk as a physical volume with the mkdev or
chdev commands or by using the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) to add a
physical volume.
The first time you start up the system after connecting a new disk, the operating system
detects the disk and examines it to see if it already has a unique physical volume identifier
in its boot record. If it does, the disk is designated as a physical volume and a physical
volume name (typically, hdiskx where x is a unique number on the system) is permanently
associated with that disk until you undefine it.
Volume Groups
The physical volume must now become part of a volume group. A volume group is a
collection of 1 to 32 physical volumes of varying sizes and types. A physical volume may
belong to only one volume group per system; there can be up to 255 volume groups per
system.
When a physical volume is assigned to a volume group, the physical blocks of storage
media on it are organized into physical partitions of a size you specify when you create the
volume group. Physical partitions are discussed below.
When you install the system, one volume group (the root volume group, called rootvg) is
automatically created. The rootvg contains a base set of logical volumes required to start
Logical Volumes
6-3
the system plus any other logical volumes you specify to the install script. The rootvg
volume group includes paging space, the journal log, boot data, and dump storage, each in
its own separate logical volume. The rootvg has attributes that differ from other,
user–defined volume groups. For example, the rootvg cannot be imported or exported.
When performing a command or procedure on the rootvg, you need to be familiar with its
unique characteristics.
You create a new volume group with the mkvg command. You add a physical volume to a
volume group with the extendvg command and remove it from a volume group with the
reducevg command. Some of the other commands that you will be using on volume groups
include: change (chvg), list (lsvg), remove (exportvg), install (importvg), reorganize
(reorgvg), synchronize (syncvg), make available for use (varyonvg), and make
unavailable for use (varyoffvg).
Small systems may require only one volume group to contain all the physical volumes
attached to the system. You may want to create separate volume groups, however, for
security reasons, because each volume group can have its own security permissions.
Separate volume groups also make maintenance easier because groups other than the one
being serviced can remain active. Because the rootvg must always be online, it should
contain only the minimum number of physical volumes necessary for system operation.
You can move data from one physical volume to other physical volumes in the same volume
group with themigratepv command. This command allows you to free a physical volume so
it can be removed from the volume group. For example, you could move data off of a
physical volume that is to be replaced.
A VG that is created with smaller physical and logical volume limits can be converted to big
format which can hold more PVs (upto 128) and more LVs (upto 512). This operation
requires that there be enough free partitions on every PV in the VG for the Volume group
descriptor area (VGDA) expansion. The number of free partitions required depends on the
size of the current VGDA and the physical partition size. Since the VGDA resides on the
edge of the disk and it requires contiguous space, the free partitions are required on the
edge of the disk. If those partitions are allocated for user usage, they will be migrated to
other free partitions on the same disk. The rest of the physical partitions will be renumbered
to reflect the loss of the partitions for VGDA usage. This will change the mappings of the
logical to physical partitions in all the PVs of this VG. If you have saved the mappings of the
LVs for a potential recovery operation, you should generate the maps again after the
completion of the conversion operation. Also, if the backup of the VG is taken with map
option and you plan to restore using those maps, the restore operation may fail since the
partition number may no longer exist (due to reduction). It is recommended that backup is
taken before the conversion and right after the conversion if the map option is utilized. Since
the VGDA space has been increased substantially, every VGDA update operation (creating
an LV, changing an LV, adding a PV, etc.) may take considerably long duration.
Note: Once you create a big volume group or convert a volume group to big volume
group format, you cannot import it back to any level prior to AIX Version 4.3.2.
Physical Partitions
When you add a physical volume to a volume group, the physical volume is partitioned into
contiguous, equal–sized units of space called physical partitions. A physical partition is the
smallest unit of storage space allocation and is a contiguous space on a physical volume.
Physical volumes inherit the volume group’s physical partition size, which you can set only
when you create the volume group (for example, using the mkvg –s command). A Volume
Group Containing Three Physical Volumes shows the relationship between physical
partitions on physical volumes and volume groups.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Logical Volumes
After you create a volume group, you can create logical volumes within that volume group.
A logical volume, although it may reside on noncontiguous physical partitions or even on
more than one physical volume, appears to users and applications as a single, contiguous,
extensible disk volume. You can create additional logical volumes with the mklv command.
This command allows you to specify the name of the logical volume and define its
characteristics, including the number and location of logical partitions to allocate for it. After
you create a logical volume, you can change its name and characteristics with the chlv
command, and you can increase the number of logical partitions allocated to it with the
extendlv command. The default maximum size for a logical volume at creation is 128
logical partitions, unless specified to be larger. The chlv command is used to relax this
limitation.
Note: After you create a logical volume, the characteristic LV STATE, which can be seen
using the lslv command, will be closed. It will become open when, for example, a file
system has been created in the logical volume and mounted.
Logical volumes can also be copied (cplv), listed (lslv), removed (rmlv), and have the
number of copies they maintain increased or decreased (mklvcopy and rmlvcopy). They
can also be relocated when the volume group is reorganized.
The system will allow you to define up to 256 (512 in case of a big volume group) logical
volumes per volume group, but the actual number you can define depends on the total
amount of physical storage defined for that volume group and the size of the logical
volumes you define.
Logical Partitions
When you create a logical volume, you specify the number of logical partitions for the logical
volume. A logical partition is one, two, or three physical partitions, depending on the number
of instances of your data you want maintained. Specifying one instance means there is only
one copy of the logical volume (the default). In this case, there is a direct mapping of one
logical partition to one physical partition. Each instance, including the first, is termed a copy.
Where physical partitions are located (for example, how near each other physically) is
determined by options you specify when you create the logical volume.
File Systems
The logical volume defines allocation of disk space down to the physical–partition level.
Finer levels of data management are accomplished by higher level software components
such as the Virtual Memory Manager or the file system. Therefore, the final step in the
Logical Volumes
6-5
evolution of a disk is the creation of file systems. You can create one file system per logical
volume. To create a file system, use the crfs command. For more information on file
systems, see ”File Systems Overview”, on page 7-2.
Limitations for Logical Storage Management
The following table shows the limitations for logical storage management. Although the
default maximum number of physical volumes per volume group is 32 (128 in case of big
volume group), you can set the maximum for user–defined volume groups when you use
the mkvg command. For the rootvg, however, this variable is automatically set to the
maximum by the system during the installation.
MAXPVS: 32 (128 big volume group)
MAXLVS: 255 (512 big volume group)
Limitations for Logical Storage Management
Volume group
255 per system
Physical volume
(MAXPVS / volume group factor) per
volume group
Physical partition
(1016 x volume group factor) per physical
volume up to 1024MB each in size.
Logical volume
MAXLVS per volume group
Logical partition
(MAXPVS * 1016) per logical volume
If you previously created a volume group before the 1016 physical partitions per physical
volume restriction was enforced, stale partitions in the volume group are not correctly
tracked unless you convert the volume group to a supported state. You can convert the
volume group with the chvg –t command. A suitable factor value is chosen by default to
accommodate the largest disk in the volume group.
For example, if you created a volume group with a 9GB disk and 4Mb partition size, this
volume group will have approximately 2250 partitions. Using a conversion factor of 3 (1016
* 3 = 3048) allows all 2250 partitions to be tracked properly. Converting a volume group with
a higher factor enables inclusion of a larger disk of partitions up to the 1016* factor. You can
also specify a higher factor when you create the volume group in order to accommodate a
larger disk with a small partition size.
These operations reduce the total number of disks that you can add to a volume group. The
new maximum number of disks you can add would be a 32/factor. For example, a factor of 2
decreases the maximum number of disks in the volume group to 16 (32/2).
Note: Once you convert a volume group, you cannot import it back to any level prior to
AIX Version 4.3.1.
Logical Volume Manager
The set of operating system commands, library subroutines, and other tools that allow you
to establish and control logical volume storage is called the Logical Volume Manager (LVM).
The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) controls disk resources by mapping data between a
more simple and flexible logical view of storage space and the actual physical disks. The
LVM does this using a layer of device driver code that runs above traditional disk device
drivers.
The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) consists of the logical volume device driver (LVDD) and
the LVM subroutine interface library. The logical volume device driver (LVDD) is a
pseudo–device driver that manages and processes all I/O. It translates logical addresses
into physical addresses and sends I/O requests to specific device drivers. The LVM
subroutine interface library contains routines that are used by the system management
commands to perform system management tasks for the logical and physical volumes of a
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
system. The programming interface for the library is available to anyone who wishes to
expand the function of the system management commands for logical volumes.
For more information about how LVM works, see ”Understanding the Logical Volume Device
Driver” in AIX Version 4 Kernel Extensions and Device Support Programming Concepts and
”Logical Volume Programming Overview” in AIX Version 4 General Programming Concepts:
Writing and Debugging Programs.
Quorum Concepts
The following sections describe the vary–on process and the quorum, which are how the
LVM ensures that a volume group is ready to use and contains the most up–to–date data.
Vary–On Process
The varyonvg and varyoffvg commands activate or deactivate (make available or
unavailable for use) a volume group that you have defined to the system. The volume group
must be varied on before the system can access it. During the vary–on process (activation),
the LVM reads management data from the physical volumes defined in the volume group.
This management data, which includes a volume group descriptor area (VGDA) and a
volume group status area (VGSA), is stored on each physical volume of the volume group.
The VGDA contains information that describes the mapping of physical partitions to logical
partitions for each logical volume in the volume group, as well as other vital information,
including a time stamp. The VGSA contains information such as which physical partitions
are stale and which physical volumes are missing (that is, not available or active) when a
vary–on operation is attempted on a volume group.
If the vary–on operation cannot access one or more of the physical volumes defined in the
volume group, the command displays the names of all physical volumes defined for that
volume group and their status. This helps you decide whether to continue operating with this
volume group. For more information about the meanings of the physical volume status that
can be displayed from the varyonvg command, refer to the lvm_varyonvg subroutine.
Quorum
A quorum is a vote of the number of Volume Group Descriptor Areas and Volume Group
Status Areas (VGDA/VGSA) that are active. A quorum ensures data integrity of the
VGDA/VGSA areas in the event of a disk failure. Each physical disk in a volume group has
at least one VGDA/VGSA. When a volume group is created onto a single disk, it initially has
two VGDA/VGSA areas residing on the disk. If a volume group consists of two disks, one
disk still has two VGDA/VGSA areas, but the other disk has one VGDA/VGSA. When the
volume group is made up of three or more disks, then each disk is allocated just one
VGDA/VGSA.
A quorum is lost when enough disks and their VGDA/VGSA areas are unreachable so that a
51% majority of VGDA/VGSA areas no longer exists. In a two–disk volume group, if the disk
with only one VGDA/VGSA is lost, a quorum still exists because two of the three
VGDA/VGSA areas still are reachable. If the disk with two VGDA/VGSA areas is lost, this
statement is no longer true. The more disks that make up a volume group, the lower the
chances of quorum being lost when one disk fails.
When a quorum is lost, the volume group varies itself off so that the disks are no longer
accessible by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM). This prevents further disk I/O to that
volume group so that data is not lost or assumed to be written when physical problems
occur. Additionally, as a result of the vary off, the user is notified in the error log that a
hardware error has occurred and service must be performed.
There are cases when it is desirable to continue operating the volume group even though a
quorum is lost. In these cases, quorum checking may be turned off for the volume group.
This type of volume group is referred to as a nonquorum volume group. The most common
case for a nonquorum volume group is when the logical volumes have been mirrored. When
a disk is lost, the data is not lost if a copy of the logical volume resides on a disk that is not
disabled and can be accessed. However, there can be instances in nonquorum volume
Logical Volumes
6-7
groups, mirrored or nonmirrored, when the data (including copies) resides on the disk or
disks that have become unavailable. In those instances, the data may not be accessible
even though the volume group continues to be varied on.
Forcibly Varying On
Attention: Overriding a vary–on failure is an unusual operation; all other possible
problem sources such as hardware, cables, adapters, and power sources should be
checked before proceeding. Overriding the quorum failure during a vary–on process
should be used only in an emergency and only as a last resort (for example, to salvage
data from a failing disk). Data integrity cannot be guaranteed for management data
contained in the chosen copies of the VGDA and the VGSA when a quorum failure is
overridden.
When you choose to forcibly vary on a volume group by overriding the absence of a
quorum, the PV STATE of all physical volumes that are missing during this vary–on process
will be changed to removed. This means that all the VGDA and VGSA copies will be
removed from these physical volumes. Once this is done, these physical volumes will no
longer take part in quorum checking, nor will they be allowed to become active within the
volume group until you return them to the volume group.
Under one or more of the following conditions, you may want to override the vary–on failure
so that the data on the available disks in the volume group can be accessed:
• Unavailable physical volumes appear permanently damaged.
• You can confirm that at least one of the presently accessible physical volumes (which
must also contain a good VGDA and VGSA copy) was online when the volume group
was last varied on. The missing physical volumes should be unconfigured and powered
off until they can be diagnosed and repaired.
The following procedure provides a way to avoid losing quorum when one disk is missing or
may soon fail and requires repair.
1. Use the chpv –vr command to temporarily remove the volume from the volume group.
This physical volume will no longer be factored in quorum checking. However, in a
two–disk volume group, this command will fail if you try the chpv command on the disk
which contains the two VGDA/VGSAs. The command will not allow you to cause quorum
to be lost.
2. If the goal was to remove the disk for repair, power off the system, and remove the disk.
After fixing the disk and returning the disk to the system, run chpv –v in order to make it
available to the volume group for quorum checking.
Note: The chpv command is used only for quorum–checking alteration. The data that
resides on the disk is still there and must be moved or copied to other disks if the disk is
not to be returned to the system.
Nonquorum Volume Groups
The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) automatically deactivates the volume group when it
lacks a quorum of VGDAs or VGSAs. However, you can choose an option that allows the
group to stay online as long as there is one VGDA/VGSA intact. This option produces a
nonquorum volume group. The LVM requires access to all of the disks in nonquorum
volume groups before allowing reactivation to ensure up–to–date VGDA and VGSA.
You might want to use this procedure in systems where every logical volume has at least
two copies.
If a disk failure occurs, the volume group remains active as long as there is one logical
volume copy intact on a disk.
Note: Both user–defined and rootvg volume groups can operate in nonquorum status,
but the methods used to configure user–defined volume groups and rootvg volume
groups as nonquorum and for recovery after hardware failures are different. Be sure you
use the correct method for the appropriate volume group.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Developing a Volume Group Strategy
Disk failure is the most common hardware failure in the storage system, followed by failure
of adapters and power supplies. Protection against disk failure primarily involves the
configuration of the logical volumes (see ”Developing a Logical Volume Strategy”, on page
6-12). However, volume group size also plays a part as is explained below.
To protect against adapter and power supply failure, you need to consider a special
hardware configuration for any specific volume group. Such a configuration includes two
adapters and at least one disk per adapter, with mirroring across adapters, and a
nonquorum volume group configuration. The additional expense of this configuration is not
appropriate for all sites or systems. It is recommended only where high
(up–to–the–last–second) availability is a priority. Depending on the configuration, high
availability can cover hardware failures that occur between the most recent backup and the
current data entry. High availability does not apply to files deleted by accident.
Prerequisites
It is important that you understand the material contained in the ”Logical Volume Storage
Overview”, on page 6-2.
When to Create Separate Volume Groups
You may want to organize physical volumes into volume groups separate from rootvg for the
following reasons:
• For safer and easier maintenance.
– Operating system updates, reinstallations, and crash recoveries are safer because you
can separate user file systems from the operating system so that user files are not
jeopardized during these operations.
– Maintenance is easier because you can update or reinstall the operating system
without having to restore user data. For example, before updating, you can remove a
user–defined volume group from the system by unmounting its file systems,
deactivating it (using varyoffvg), then exporting the group (using exportvg). After
updating the system software, you can reintroduce the user–defined volume group
(using importvg), then remount its file systems.
• For different physical–partition sizes. All physical volumes within the same volume group
must have the same physical partition size. To have physical volumes with different
physical partition sizes, place each size in a separate volume group.
• When different quorum characteristics are required. If you have a file system for which
you want to create a nonquorum volume group, maintain a separate volume group for
that data; all of the other file systems should remain in volume groups operating under a
quorum.
• To have multiple JFS logs or JFS logs dedicated on one physical volume for the purpose
of reducing bottlenecking, especially on server machines.
• For security. For example, you might want to remove a volume group at night.
• To switch physical volumes between systems. If you create a separate volume group for
each system on an adapter that is accessible from more than one system, you can switch
the physical volumes between the systems that are accessible on that adapter without
interrupting the normal operation of either (see the varyoffvg, exportvg, importvg, and
varyonvg commands).
• To remove disks from the system while the system continues to run normally. By making
a separate volume group for removable disks, provided the volume group is not rootvg,
you can make removable disks unavailable and physically remove them during normal
operation without affecting other volume groups.
Logical Volumes
6-9
High Availability in Case of Disk Failure
The primary methods used to protect against disk failure involve logical volume
configuration settings, such as mirroring. While the volume group considerations are
secondary, they have significant economic implications because they involve the number of
physical volumes per volume group:
• The quorum configuration, which is the default, keeps the volume group active (varied
on) as long as a quorum (51%) of the disks is present. For more information about
quorum requirements, see the section on vary–on process in the ”Logical Volume
Storage Overview”, on page 6-7. In most cases, you need at least three disks with
mirrored copies in the volume group to protect against disk failure.
• The nonquorum configuration keeps the volume group active (varied on) as long as one
VGDA is available on a disk (see ”Changing a Volume Group to Nonquorum Status” in
AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices). With this
configuration, you need only two disks with mirrored copies in the volume group to
protect against disk failure.
When deciding on the number of disks in each volume group, you also need to plan for
room to mirror the data. Keep in mind that you can only mirror and move data between
disks that are in the same volume group. If the site uses large file systems, finding disk
space on which to mirror could become a problem at a later time. Be aware of the
implications on availability of inter–disk settings for logical volume copies and intra–disk
allocation for a logical volume.
High Availability in Case of Adapter or Power Supply Failure
To protect against adapter or power supply failure, depending on the stringency of your
requirements, do one or more of the following:
• Use two adapters, located in the same or different cabinets. Locating the adapters in
different cabinets protects against losing both adapters if there is a power supply failure
in one cabinet.
• Use two adapters, attaching at least one disk to each adapter. This protects against a
failure at either adapter (or power supply if adapters are in separate cabinets) by still
maintaining a quorum in the volume group, assuming cross–mirroring (copies for a logical
partition cannot share the same physical volume) between the logical volumes on disk A
(adapter A) and the logical volumes on disk B (adapter B. This means that you copy the
logical volumes that reside on the disks attached to adapter A to the disks that reside on
adapter B and also that you copy the logical volumes that reside on the disks attached to
adapter B to the disks that reside on adapter A as well.
• Configure all disks from both adapters into the same volume group. This ensures that at
least one logical volume copy will remain intact in case an adapter fails, or, if cabinets are
separate, in case a power supply fails.
• Make the volume group a nonquorum volume group. This allows the volume group to
remain active as long as one Volume Group Descriptor Area (VGDA) is accessible on
any disk in the volume group (see ”Changing a Volume Group to Nonquorum Status” in
AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices).
• If there are two disks in the volume group, implement cross–mirroring between the
adapters. If more than one disk is available on each adapter, implement
double–mirroring. In that case, you create a mirrored copy on a disk that uses the same
adapter and one on a disk using a different adapter.
Decide on the Size of Physical Partitions
The physical partition size is set when the volume group is created. The default size is 4MB.
The default is designed to suit most sites and systems but may not be appropriate in every
case. You can choose a partition size as small as 1MB to gain flexibility in sizing but this
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
requires more partitions. The additional partitions create more overhead for the Logical
Volume Manager (LVM) and are likely to affect performance.
If you make the partitions larger than 4MB, you lose some sizing flexibility and may also
waste space. For example, if you have 20MB partitions, then your JFS log will have to be
20MB when it only needs 4MB. Some waste may be an acceptable tradeoff if the particular
site or system requires larger partitions.
Note that you may only create and extend physical partitions in increments that are a factor
of their size; for example, 20MB partitions are created or extended in 20MB increments.
Logical Volumes
6-11
Developing a Logical Volume Strategy
The policies described in this section help you set a strategy for logical volume use that is
oriented toward a combination of availability, performance, and cost that is appropriate for
your site.
Availability is the ability to recover data that is lost because of disk, adapter, or other
hardware problems. The recovery is made from copies of the data that are made and
maintained on separate disks and adapters during normal system operation.
Performance is the average speed at which data is accessed. Policies such as write–verify
and mirroring enhance availability but add to the system processing load, and thus degrade
performance. Mirroring doubles or triples the size of the logical volume. In general,
increasing availability degrades performance. Disk striping can increase performance.
Beginning with AIX Version 4.3.3, disk striping is allowed with mirroring.
By controlling the allocation of data on the disk and between disks, you can tune the storage
system for the highest possible performance. See Monitoring and Tuning Memory Use, and
Monitoring and Turning Disk I/O, in AIX Performance Tuning Guide for detailed information
on how to maximize storage–system performance.
The sections that follow should help you evaluate the tradeoffs among performance,
availability, and cost. Remember that increased availability often decreases performance,
and vice versa. Mirroring may increase performance, however, if the LVM chooses the copy
on the least busy disk for Reads.
Note: Mirroring does not protect against the loss of individual files that are accidentally
deleted or lost because of software problems. These files can only be restored from
conventional tape or diskette backups.
This section discusses:
• Choosing an Inter–Disk Allocation Policy for your System, on page 6-14
• Choosing an Intra–Disk Allocation Policy for Each Logical Volume, on page 6-17
• Combining Allocation Policies, on page 6-17
• Using Map Files for Precise Allocation, on page 6-18
• Determining a Write–Verify Policy, on page 6-19
Prerequisites
It is important that you understand the material contained in the Logical Volume Storage
Overview, on page 6-2.
Analyze Needs for Performance and Availability
Determine whether the data that will be stored in the logical volume is valuable enough to
warrant the processing and disk–space costs of mirroring.
Performance and mirroring are not always opposed. If the different instances (copies) of the
logical partitions are on different physical volumes, preferably attached to different adapters,
the LVM can improve Read performance by reading the copy on the least busy disk. Writes,
unless disks are attached to different adapters, always cost the same because you must
update all copies, but you only need to Read one.
If you have a large sequential–access file system that is performance–sensitive, you may
want to consider disk striping.
Normally, whenever data on a logical partition is updated, all the physical partitions
containing that logical partition are automatically updated. However, physical partitions can
become stale (no longer containing the most current data) because of system malfunctions
or because the physical volume was unavailable at the time of an update. The LVM can
refresh stale partitions to a consistent state by copying the current data from an up–to–date
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
physical partition to the stale partition. This process is called mirror synchronization. The
refresh can take place when the system is restarted, when the physical volume comes back
online, or when you issue the syncvg command.
While mirroring improves storage system availability, it is not intended as a substitute for
conventional tape backup arrangements.
Beginning with AIX Version 4.3.3, the boot logical volume can be mirrored.
Any change that affects the physical partition makeup of a boot logical volume requires that
you run bosboot after that change. This means that actions such as changing the mirroring
of a boot logical volume require a bosboot.
A dump to a mirrored logical volume results in an inconsistent dump and therefore should
be avoided. Since the default dump device is the primary paging logical volume you should
create a seperate dump logical volume if you mirror your paging logical volumes, and
therefore if you mirror your root volume group you should create a seperate dump logicial
volume also.
Determine Scheduling Policy for Mirrored Writes to Disk
For data that has only one physical copy, the logical volume device driver (LVDD) translates
a logical Read or Write request address into a physical address and calls the appropriate
physical device driver to service the request. This single–copy or nonmirrored policy
handles bad block relocation for Write requests and returns all Read errors to the calling
process.
If you use mirrored logical volumes, two different scheduling policies for writing to disk can
be set for a logical volume with multiple copies, sequential and parallel.
The sequential–scheduling policy performs Writes to multiple copies or mirrors in order. The
multiple physical partitions representing the mirrored copies of a single logical partition are
designated primary, secondary, and tertiary. In sequential scheduling, the physical partitions
are written to in sequence; the system waits for the Write operation for one physical partition
to complete before starting the Write operation for the next one.
The parallel–scheduling policy starts the Write operation for all the physical partitions in a
logical partition at the same time. When the Write operation to the physical partition that
takes the longest to complete finishes, the Write operation is completed.
For Read operations on mirrored logical volumes with a sequential–scheduling policy, the
primary copy is read. If that Read operation is unsuccessful, the next copy is read. During
the Read retry operation on the next copy, the failed primary copy is corrected by the LVM
with a hardware relocation. Thus the bad block that prevented the first Read from
completing is patched for future access.
Specifying mirrored logical volumes with a parallel–scheduling policy may improve I/O
read–operation performance, because multiple copies allow the system to direct the Read
operation to the copy that can be most quickly accessed.
Determine Mirror Write Consistency (MWC) Policy for a Logical Volume
Mirror Write Consistency (MWC) identifies which logical partitions may be inconsistent if the
system or the volume group is not shut down properly. When the volume group is varied
back online for use, this information is used to make logical partitions consistent again.
If a logical volume is using MWC, then requests for this logical volume are held within the
scheduling layer until the MWC cache blocks can be updated on the target physical
volumes. When the MWC cache blocks have been updated, the request proceeds with the
physical data Write operations.
When MWC is being used, system performance can be adversely affected. This is caused
by the overhead of logging or journalling that a Write request is active in a Logical Track
Group (LTG) (32 4K–byte pages or 128K bytes). This overhead is for mirrored Writes only. It
is necessary to guarantee data consistency between mirrors only if the system or volume
group crashes before the Write to all mirrors has been completed. When MWC is not used,
Logical Volumes
6-13
the mirrors of a mirrored logical volume can be left in an inconsistent state in the event of a
system or volume group crash.
After a crash, any mirrored logical volume that has MWC turned off should do a forced sync
(syncvg –f –l LVname) before the data within the logical volume is used. With MWC turned
off, Writes outstanding at the time of the crash can leave mirrors with inconsistent data the
next time the volume group is varied on. An exception to this is logical volumes whose
content is only valid while the logical volume is open, such as paging spaces.
A mirrored logical volume is no different really than a non–mirrored logical volume with
respect to a Write. When LVM completely finishes with a Write request the data has been
written to the drive(s) below LVM. Until LVM issues an iodone on a Write the outcome of the
Write is unknown. Any blocks being written that have not been completed (iodone) when a
machine crashes should be rewritten whether mirrored or not and regardless of the MWC
setting.
MWC only makes mirrors consistent when the volume group is varied back online after a
crash by picking one mirror and propagating that data to the other mirrors. MWC does not
keep track of the latest data it only keeps track of LTGs currently being written, therefore
MWC does not guarantee that the lastest data will be propagated to all the mirrors. It is the
application above LVM that has to determine the validity of the data after a crash. From the
LVM prospective, if the application always reissues all outstanding Writes from the time of
the crash, the possibly inconsistent mirrors will be consistent when these Writes finish, (as
long as the same blocks are written after the crash as were outstanding at the time of the
crash).
Choose an Inter–Disk Allocation Policy for Your System
The inter–disk allocation policy specifies the number of disks on which a logical volume’s
physical partitions are located. The physical partitions for a logical volume might be located
on a single disk or spread across all the disks in a volume group. Two options in the mklv
and chlv commands are used to determine inter–disk policy:
• The Range option determines the number of disks used for a single physical copy of the
logical volume.
• The Strict option determines whether the mklv operation will succeed if two or more
copies must occupy the same physical volume.
• Striped logical volumes can only have a maximum range and a strict inter–disk policy.
Inter–Disk Settings for a Single Copy of the Logical Volume
If you select the minimum inter–disk setting (Range = minimum), the physical partitions
assigned to the logical volume are located on a single disk to enhance availability. If you
select the maximum inter–disk setting (Range = maximum), the physical partitions are
located on multiple disks to enhance performance. The allocation of mirrored copies of the
original partitions is discussed in the following section.
For nonmirrored logical volumes, use the minimum setting to provide the greatest
availability (access to data in case of hardware failure). The minimum setting indicates that
one physical volume should contain all the original physical partitions of this logical volume if
possible. If the allocation program must use two or more physical volumes, it uses the
minimum number, while remaining consistent with other parameters.
By using the minimum number of physical volumes, you reduce the risk of losing data
because of a disk failure. Each additional physical volume used for a single physical copy
increases that risk. An nonmirrored logical volume spread across four physical volumes is
four times as likely to lose data because of one physical volume failure than a logical
volume contained on one physical volume.
The Minimum Inter–Disk Allocation Policy figure illustrates a minimum inter–disk allocation
policy:
6-14
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
The maximum setting, considering other constraints, spreads the physical partitions of the
logical volume as evenly as possible over as many physical volumes as possible. This is a
performance–oriented option, because spreading the physical partitions over several disks
tends to decrease the average access time for the logical volume. To improve availability,
the maximum setting should only be used with mirrored logical volumes.
The Maximum Inter–Disk Allocation Policy figure illustrates a maximum inter–disk allocation
policy:
These definitions are also applicable when extending or copying an existing logical volume.
The allocation of new physical partitions is determined by your current allocation policy and
where the existing used physical partitions are located.
Inter–Disk Settings for Logical Volume Copies
The allocation of a single copy of a logical volume on disk is fairly straightforward. When you
create mirrored copies, however, the resulting allocation is somewhat complex. The figures
that follow show minimum and maximum inter–disk (Range) settings for the first instance
of a logical volume along with the available Strict settings for the mirrored logical volume
copies.
For example, if there are mirrored copies of the logical volume, the minimum setting
causes the physical partitions containing the first instance of the logical volume to be
allocated on a single physical volume, if possible. Then, depending on the setting of the
Strict option, the additional copy or copies are allocated on the same or on separate
physical volumes. In other words, the algorithm uses the minimum number of physical
volumes possible, within the constraints imposed by other parameters such as the Strict
option, to hold all the physical partitions.
The setting Strict = y means that each copy of the logical partition will be placed on a
different physical volume. The setting Strict = n means that the copies are not restricted to
different physical volumes.
Note: If there are fewer physical volumes in the volume group than the number of copies
per logical partition you have chosen, you should set Strict to n. If Strict is set to y, an
error message is returned when you try to create the logical volume.
Logical Volumes
6-15
The Minimum Inter–Disk Policy/Strict figure illustrates a minimum inter–disk allocation policy
with differing Strict settings:
The Maximum Inter–Disk Policy/Strict figure illustrates a maximum inter–disk allocation
policy with differing Strict settings:
6-16
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Choose an Intra–Disk Allocation Policy for Each Logical Volume
The closer a given physical partition is to the center of a physical volume, the lower the
average seek time because the center has the shortest average seek distance from any
other part of the disk.
The file system log is a good candidate for allocation at the center of a physical volume
because it is used by the operating system so often. At the other extreme, the boot logical
volume is used infrequently and therefore should be allocated at the edge or middle of the
physical volume.
The general rule, then, is that the more I/Os, either absolutely or during the running of an
important application, the closer to the center of the physical volumes the physical partitions
of the logical volume should be allocated. This rule has two important exceptions:
1. Logical volumes on 200MB, 540MB, or 1GB disks that contain large, sequential files
should be at the edge because sequential performance is better there (there are more
blocks per track at the edge than farther in).
2. Mirrored logical volumes with Mirror Write Consistency (MWC) set to ON should be at
the outer edge because that is where the system writes MWC data. If mirroring is not in
effect, MWC does not apply and does not affect performance. Otherwise, see
”Performance Implications of Disk Mirroring” in the section on performance–related
installation guidelines in the AIX Performance Tuning Guide.
The intra–disk allocation policy choices are based on the five regions of a disk where
physical partitions can be located. The five regions are: outer edge, inner edge, outer
middle, inner middle, and center. The edge partitions have the slowest average seek times,
which generally result in longer response times for any application that uses them. The
center partitions have the fastest average seek times, which generally result in the best
response time for any application that uses them. There are, however, fewer partitions on a
physical volume at the center than at the other regions.
The Five Regions of a Disk illustration shows the regions that can be used for allocating
physical partitions in a physical volume.
Combining Allocation Policies
If you select inter–disk and intra–disk policies that are not compatible, you may get
unpredictable results. The system will assign physical partitions by allowing one policy to
take precedence over the other. For example, if you choose an intra–disk policy of center
and an inter–disk policy of minimum, the inter–disk policy will take precedence. The system
will place all of the partitions for the logical volume on one disk if possible, even if the
partitions will not all fit into the center region. Make sure you understand the interaction of
the policies you choose before implementing them.
Logical Volumes
6-17
Using Map Files for Precise Allocation
If the default options provided by the inter– and intra–disk policies are not sufficient for your
needs, consider creating map files to specify the exact order and location of the physical
partitions for a logical volume.
You can use Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the –m option for the mklv command to
create map files.
Note: The –m option is not permitted with disk striping.
For example, to create a ten–partition logical volume called lv06 in the rootvg in partitions 1
through 3, 41 through 45, and 50 through 60 of hdisk1, you could use the following
procedure from the command line.
1. Use the command:
lspv –p hdisk1
to verify that the physical partitions you plan to use are free to be allocated.
2. Create a file, such as /tmp/mymap1, containing:
hdisk1:1–3
hdisk1:41–45
hdisk1:50–60
The mklv command will allocate the physical partitions in the order that they appear in
the map file. Be sure that there are sufficient physical partitions in the map file to allocate
the entire logical volume that you specify with the mklv command. (You can list more
than you need.)
3. Use the command:
mklv –t jfs –y lv06 –m /tmp/mymap1 rootvg 10
Developing a Striped Logical Volume Strategy
Striped logical volumes are used for large sequential file systems that are frequently
accessed and performance–sensitive. Striping is intended to improve performance.
NOTE:
1. You may import a Version 3.2 created volume group into a Version 4.1 system, and you
may import a Version 4.1 volume group into a Version 3.2. system, provided striping has
not been applied. Once striping is put onto a disk, its importation into Version 3.2 is
prevented. The current implementation of mksysb will not restore any striped logical
volume after the mksysb image is restored.
2. A volume group with a mirrored striped logical volume cannot be imported into a version
older than Version 4.3.3.
3. A dump space or boot logical volume whould not be striped.
To create a 12–partition striped logical volume called lv07 in VGName with a stripe size of
16KB across hdisk1, hdisk2, and hdisk3, you would enter the following:
mklv –y lv07 –S 16K VGName 12 hdisk1 hdisk2
hdisk3
To create a 12–partition striped logical volume called lv08 in VGName with a stripe size of
8KB across any three disks within VGName, you would enter the following:
mklv –y lv08 –S 8K –u 3 VGName 12
For more information on how to improve performance by using disk striping, see AIX
Performance Tuning Guide.
6-18
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Determine a Write–Verify Policy
Using the write–verify option causes all Write operations to be verified by an immediate
follow–up Read operation to check the success of the Write. If the Write operation is not
successful, you will get an error message. This policy enhances availability but degrades
performance because of the extra time needed for the Read. You can specify the use of a
write–verify policy on a logical volume either when you create it (mklv) or later by changing
it (chlv).
Implement Volume Group Policies
1. Use the lspv command to check your allocated and free physical volumes. In a standard
configuration, the more disks that make up a quorum volume group the better the
chance of the quorum remaining when a disk failure occurs. In a nonquorum group, a
minimum of two disks must make up the volume group.
2. To ensure a quorum, add one or more physical volumes (see Add fixed disk without data
to existing volume group in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and
Devices ), or Add fixed disk without data to new volume group AIX 4.3 System
Management Guide: Operating System and Devices. To change a volume group to
nonquorum status, see Change a User–Defined Volume Group to Nonquorum Status
AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
3. The standard configuration provides a single volume group that includes multiple
physical volumes attached to the same disk adapter and other supporting hardware.
Reconfiguring the hardware is an elaborate step. Separate hardware is only necessary if
your site requires high availability.
Logical Volumes
6-19
Implementing Volume Group Policies
1. Use the lspv command to check your allocated and free physical volumes. In a standard
configuration, the more disks that make up a quorum volume group the better the
chance of the quorum remaining when a disk failure occurs. In a nonquorum group, a
minimum of two disks must make up the volume group.
2. The standard configuration provides a single volume group that includes multiple
physical volumes attached to the same disk adapter and other supporting hardware.
Reconfiguring the hardware is an elaborate step. Separate hardware is only necessary if
your site requires high availability.
6-20
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Logical Volume Manager Limitation Warnings
• In the design of Logical Volume Manager (LVM), each logical partition maps to one
physical partition (PP). And, each physical partition maps to a number of disk sectors.
The design of LVM limits the number of physical partitions that LVM can track per disk to
1016. In most cases, not all the 1016 tracking partitions are used by a disk. The default
size of each physical partition during a mkvg command is 4MB, which implies that
individual disks up to 4GB can be included into a volume group.
If a disk larger than 4GB is added to a volume group (based on usage of the default 4MB
size for the physical partition), the disk addition fails. The warning message provided will
be:
The Physical Partition Size of <number A> requires the creation
of <number B>: partitions for hdiskX. The system limitation is
<number C> physical partitions per disk at a factor value of
<number D>. Specify a larger Physical Partition Size or a larger
factor value in order create a volume group on this disk.
There are two instances where this limitation will be enforced:
1. The user tries to use mkvg to create a volume group and the number of physical
partitions on a disk in the volume group exceeds 1016.
The workaround to this limitation is to select from the physical partition size ranges of:
1, 2, (4), 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024
Megabytes and use the mkvg –s option OR
Use a suitable factor (mkvg –t option) that allows multiples of 1016 partitions per disk.
2. The disk that violates the 1016 limitation attempts to join a pre–existing volume group
with the extendvg command. The user can convert the existing volume group to hold
multiples of 1016 paritions per disk using –t option of chvg command. The value of the
–t option (factor) with chvg command can be chosen in such a way that the new disk
can be accommodated within the new limit of (1016 * factor). However, once the volume
group is converted, it cannot be imported into AIX 4.3.0 or lower versions. The user can
also recreate the volume group with a larger partition size allowing the new disk to work
or create a standalone volume group consisting of a larger physical size for the new disk.
If the install code detects that the rootvg drive is larger than 4GB, it will change the
mkvg –s value until the entire disk capacity can be mapped to the available 1016 tracks.
This install change also implies that all other disks added to rootvg, regardless of size,
will also be defined at that physical partition size.
For RAID systems, the /dev/hdiskX name used by LVM in AIX may really consist of
many non–4GB disks. In this case, the 1016 requirement still exists. LVM is unaware of
the size of the individual disks that may really make up /dev/hdiskX. LVM bases the
1016 limitation on the AIX recognized size of /dev/hdiskX, and not the real physical
disks that make up /dev/hdiskX.
Limitations:
Logical Volumes
6-21
1016 VGSA Regulations
The 1016 VGSA is used to track the staleness of mirrors.
The staleness of mirrors indicates that one copy of the data
will not look like the other two copies. If you are in volation
of 1016, you may get a false report of a non–mirrored
logical volume being stale, or you may get a false indication
that one of your mirror copies has gone stale. Also, the
migratepv command may fail because migratepv briefly
uses mirroring to move a logical volume from one disk to
another. If the target logical partition is incorrectly
considered stale, the migratepv cannot remove the source
logical partition, and the command will fail in the middle of
migration. The reorgvg is another command that performs
its actions by using temporary mirroring.
Mirroring or migratepv
If you do not use mirroring or the migratepv command,
your data is still safe as the day before you found out about
1016 violations. The data may be lost only if you are
mirroring a logical volume, and:
– All copies go bad at the same time, and
– LVM is not aware of it because copies that go bad are
beyond the 1016 tracking range.
In this case, you would still lose data if you were within
the 1016 range. If you do not use mirror or the
migratepv command, this issue would not be a
problem.
Move Volume Group
A volume group can be moved between systems and
versions of AIX. The enforcement of this 1016 limit is only
during mkvg and extendvg. The data is safe on all
versions of AIX.
Change the PP Size
Limitation
The PP size limitation will not be changed. The ability to
change the PP size assures that regardless of the size of
your disk drive, you will be able to accommodate the drive
below 1016 limit. Also, if a change to the limitation is made,
then a huge incompatibility would occur in the LVM.
Rebuild the Volume Group
The later versions of AIX mentioned in this document only
prevent the future creation of disks in volume groups that
will violate the 1016 limitation. Disks that already violate the
1016 limit must be recreated at larger PP sizes.
• In some instances, the user will experience a problem adding a new disk to an existing
volume group or in creating of a new volume group. The warning message provided by
LVM is:
Not enough descriptor area space left in this volume group.
Either try adding a smaller PV or use another volume group.
On every disk in a volume group, there exists an area called the volume group descriptor
area (VGDA). This space allows the user to take a volume group to another AIX system
and importvg the volume group into the AIX system. The VGDA contains the names of
disks that make up the volume group, their physical sizes, partition mapping, logical
volumes that exist in the volume group, and other pertinent LVM management
information.
When the user creates a volume group, the mkvg command defaults to allowing the new
volume group to have a maximum of 32 disks in a volume group. However, as bigger
disks have become more prevalent, this 32–disk limit is usually not achieved because
the space in the VGDA is used up faster, as it accounts for the capacity on the bigger
disks. This maximum VGDA space, for 32 disks, is a fixed size which is part of the LVM
design. Large disks require more management–mapping space in the VGDA, causing
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
the number and size of available disks to be added to the existing volume group to
shrink. When a disk is added to a volume group, not only does the new disk get a copy
of the updated VGDA, but all existing drives in the volume group must be able to accept
the new, updated VGDA.
The exception to this description of the maximum VGDA is rootvg. To provide AIX users
more free disk space, when rootvg is created, mkvg does not use the maximum limit of
32 disks that is allowed into a volume group. Instead in AIX 3.2, the number of disks
picked in the install menu of AIX is used as the reference number by mkvg –d during the
creation of rootvg. Beginning with AIX 4.1, this –d number is 7 for one disk and one
more for each additional disk picked. For example, if two disks are picked, the number is
8 and if three disks are picked, the number is 9, and so on. This limit does not prohibit
the user from adding more disks to rootvg during post–install. The amount of free space
left in a VGDA, and the number size of the disks added to a volume group, depends on
the size and number of disks already defined for a volume group.
If the customer requires more VGDA space in the rootvg, then they should use the
mksysb, and migratepv commands to reconstruct and reorganize their rootvg (the only
way to change the –d limitation is recreation of a volume group).
Note: It is recommended that users do not place user data onto rootvg disks. This
separation provides an extra degree of system integrity.
• The logical volume control block (LVCB) is the first 512 bytes of a logical volume. This
area holds important information such as the creation date of the logical volume,
information about mirrored copies, and possible mount points in the journaled filesystem
(JFS). Certain LVM commands are required to update the LVCB, as part of the algorithms
in LVM. The old LVCB is read and analyzed to see if it is a valid. If the information is valid
LVCB information, the LVCB is updated. If the information is not valid, the LVCB update is
not performed and the user is given the warning message:
Warning, cannot write lv control block data.
Most of the time, this is a result of database programs accessing raw logical volumes
(and bypassing the JFS) as storage media. When this occurs, the information for the
database is literally written over the LVCB. Although this may seem fatal, it is not the
case. Once the LVCB is overwritten, the user can still:
– Expand a logical volume
– Create mirrored copies of the logical volume
– Remove the logical volume
– Create a journaled filesystem to mount the logical volume
There are limitations to deleting LVCBs. The logical volumes with deleted LVCB’s face
possible, incomplete importation into other AIX systems. During an importvg, the LVM
command will scan the LVCB’s of all defined logical volumes in a volume group for
information concerning the logical volumes. If the LVCB is deleted, the imported volume
group will still define the logical volume to the new AIX system, which, is accessing this
volume group, and the user can still access the raw logical volume. However, any
journaled filesystem information is lost and the associated mount point won’t be imported
into the new AIX system. The user must create new mount points and the availability of
previous data stored in the filesystem is not assured. Also, During this import of logical
volume with an erased LVCB, some non–jfs information concerning the logical volume,
which is displayed by the lslv command, cannot be found. When this occurs, the system
uses default logical volume information to populate the logical volume’s ODM
information. Thus, some output from lslv will be inconsistent with the real logical volume.
If any logical volume copies still exist on the original disks, the information will not be
correctly reflected in the ODM database. The user should use the rmlvcopy and
mklvcopy commands to rebuild any logical volume copies and synchronize the ODM.
Logical Volumes
6-23
6-24
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 7. File Systems
This chapter explains file systems, including information about directories, disk space,
access control, mounted file systems and directories, and file system recovery. Topics
covered are:
• File Systems Overview, on page 7-2
• Understanding the File Tree, on page 7-5
• Understanding the Root File System, on page 7-6
• Understanding the /usr File System, on page 7-8
• Understanding the /usr/share Directory, on page 7-10
• Understanding the /var File System, on page 7-11
• Understanding the /export Directory, on page 7-12
• Understanding Data Compression, on page 7-14
• Understanding Fragments and a Variable Number of I–Nodes, on page 7-17
• Understanding Journaled File System Size, on page 7-21
• Understanding Large Files, on page 7-23
• Understanding Mount Security for Diskless Workstations, on page 7-27
File Systems
7-1
File Systems Overview
A file system is a hierarchical structure (file tree) of files and directories. This type of
structure resembles an inverted tree with the roots at the top and branches at the bottom.
This file tree uses directories to organize data and programs into groups, allowing the
management of several directories and files at one time.
Some tasks are performed more efficiently on a file system than on each directory within the
file system. For example, you can back up, move, or secure an entire file system.
A file system resides on a single logical volume. The mkfs (make file system) command or
the System Management Interface Tool (smit command) creates a file system on a logical
volume. Every file and directory belongs to a file system within a logical volume.
To be accessible, a file system must be mounted onto a directory mount point. When
multiple file systems are mounted, a directory structure is created that presents the image of
a single file system. It is a hierarchical structure with a single root. This structure includes
the base file systems and any file systems you create.
You can access both local and remote file systems using the mount command. This makes
the file system available for read and write access from your system. Mounting or
unmounting a file system usually requires system group membership. File systems can be
mounted automatically, if they are defined in the /etc/filesystems file. You can unmount a
local or remote file system with the umount command, unless a user or process is
accessing that file system.
For information on the structure of the file system, see ”Understanding the File Tree”, on
page 7-5.
File System Types
Multiple file system types are supported. These include the following:
Journaled File System
The native file system type is called the journaled file system (JFS). It supports the entire
set of file system semantics. This file system uses database journaling techniques to
maintain its structural consistency. This prevents damage to the file system when the
system is halted abnormally.
Each journaled file system resides on a separate logical volume. The operating system
mounts journaled file systems during initialization. This multiple file system configuration is
useful for system management functions such as backup, restore, and repair, because it
isolates a part of the file tree so that you can work on it.
Network File System
The network file system (NFS) is a distributed file system that allows users to access files
and directories located on remote computers and use those files and directories as if they
were local. For example, users can use operating system commands to create, remove,
read, write, and set file attributes for remote files and directories.
CD–ROM File System
The CD–ROM file system (CDRFS) is a file system type that allows you to access the
contents of a CD–ROM through the normal file system interfaces. It is a read–only local file
system implementation under the AIX logical file system (LFS) layer supporting the following
volume and file structure formats:
7-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
The ISO 9660:1988(E) standard:
The CDRFS supports ISO 9660 level 3 of
interchange and level 1 of implementation.
The High Sierra Group Specification:
Precedes the ISO 9660 and provides backward
compatibility with previous CD–ROMs.
The Rock Ridge Group Protocol:
Specifies extensions to the ISO 9660 that are
fully compliant with the ISO 9660 standard, and
that provide full POSIX file system semantics
based on the System Use Sharing Protocol
(SUSP) and the Rock Ridge Interchange
Protocol (RRIP), enabling mount/access
CD–ROM as with any other UNIX file system.
The CD–ROM eXtended Architecture File Format (in Mode 2 Form 1 sector format only)
The CD–ROM eXtended Architecture (XA) file
format specifies extensions to the ISO 9660 that
are used in CD–ROM–based multimedia
applications for example, Photo CD.
For all volume and file structure formats, the following restrictions apply:
• Single–volume volume set only
• Non–interleaved files only
The CDRFS is dependent upon the underlying CD–ROM device driver to provide
transparency of the physical sector format (CD–ROM Mode 1 and CD–ROM XA Mode 2
Form 1), and the multisession format of the disks (mapping the volume descriptor set from
the volume recognition area of the last session).
File System Commands
There are a number of commands designed to operate on file systems, regardless of type.
The /etc/filesystems file controls the list of file systems that the following commands can
manipulate:
chfs
Changes the characteristics of a file system.
crfs
Adds a file system.
lsfs
Displays the characteristics of a file system.
rmfs
Removes a file system.
mount
Makes a file system available for use.
Four commands operate on virtual file systems types. The /etc/vfs file contains the
information on the file system types that the following commands manipulate:
chvfs
Changes the characteristics of a file system type.
crvfs
Adds a new file system type.
lsvfs
Lists the characteristics of a file system type.
rmvfs
Removes a file system type.
File System Management Tasks
A file system is a complete directory structure, including a root directory and any
subdirectories and files beneath it. File systems are confined to a single logical volume.
Some of the most important system management tasks have to do with file systems,
specifically:
• Allocating space for file systems on logical volumes
• Creating file systems
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7-3
• Making file system space available to system users
• Monitoring file system space usage
• Backing up file systems to guard against data loss in the event of system failures
• Maintaining file systems in a consistent state.
Following is a list of system management commands that are used regularly for working
with file systems:
7-4
backup
Performs a full or incremental backup of a file system.
dd
Copies data directly from one device to another for making file
system backups.
df
Reports the amount of space used and free on a file system.
fsck
Checks file systems and repairs inconsistencies.
mkfs
Makes a file system of a specified size on a specified logical volume.
mount
Attaches a file system to the systemwide naming structure so that
files and directories in that file system can be accessed.
restore
Restores files from a backup.
umount
Removes a file system from the systemwide naming structure,
making the files and directories in the file system inaccessible.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding the File Tree
The AIX file tree organizes files into directories containing similar information. This
organization facilitates remote mounting of directories and files. System administrators can
use these directories as building blocks to construct a unique file tree for each client
mounting individual directories from one or more servers. Mounting files and directories
remotely, rather than keeping all information local, has the following advantages:
• Conserves disk space.
• Allows easy, centralized system administration.
• Provides a more secure environment.
The AIX file tree has the following characteristics:
• Files that can be shared by machines of the same hardware architecture are located in
the /usr file system.
• Variable per–client files, such as spool and mail files, are located in the /var file system.
• Architecture–independent, shareable text files, such as manual pages, are located in the
/usr/share directory.
• The / (root) file system contains files and directories critical for system operation. For
example, it contains a device directory, programs used for system boot, and mount points
where file systems can be mounted onto the root file system.
• The /home file system is the mount point for user home directories.
• For servers, the /export directory contains paging–space files, per–client (unshared) root
file systems, dump, home, and /usr/share directories for diskless clients, as well as
exported /usr directories.
For information about the contents of a specific file system or directory, see the following:
• Understanding the Root File System, on page 7-6
• Understanding the /usr File System, on page 7-8
• Understanding the /usr/share Directory, on page 7-10
• Understanding the /var File System, on page 7-11
• Understanding the /export Directory, on page 7-12
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7-5
Understanding the Root File System
The Root File System diagram shows many of the subdirectories of the root file system:
The root file system is the top of the hierarchical file tree. It contains the files and directories
critical for system operation, including the device directory and programs for booting the
system. The root file system also contains mount points where file systems can be mounted
to connect to the root file system hierarchy.
The following list provides information about the contents of some of the subdirectories of
the / (root) file system.
/etc
Contains configuration files that vary for each machine. Examples include:
• /etc/hosts
• /etc/passwd
The /etc directory contains the files generally used in system
administration. Most of the commands that previously resided in the /etc
directory now reside in the /usr/sbin directory. However, for compatibility,
the /usr/sbin directory contains symbolic links to the locations of some
executable files. Examples include:
• /etc/chown is a symbolic link to /usr/bin/chown.
• /etc/exportvg is a symbolic link to /usr/sbin/exportvg.
7-6
/bin
Symbolic link to the /usr/bin directory. In prior UNIX file systems, the /bin
directory contained user commands that now reside in the /usr/bin
directory.
/sbin
Contains files needed to boot the machine and mount the /usr file system.
Most of the commands used during booting come from the boot image’s
RAM disk file system; therefore, very few commands reside in the /sbin
directory.
/dev
Contains device nodes for special files for local devices. The /dev
directory contains special files for tape drives, printers, disk partitions, and
terminals.
/tmp
Serves as a mount point for a file system that contains system–generated
temporary files. The /tmp file system is an empty directory.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
/var
Serves as a mount point for files that vary on each machine. The /var file
system is configured as a file system since the files it contains tend to
grow. See ”Understanding the /var File System”, on page 7-11 for more
information.
/u
Symbolic link to the /home directory.
/usr
Contains files that do not change and can be shared by machines such as
executables and ASCII documentation.
Standalone machines mount the root of a separate local file system over
the /usr directory. Diskless and disk–poor machines mount a directory from
a remote server over the /usr file system. See ”Understanding the /usr File
System”, on page 7-8 for more information about the file tree mounted over
the /usr directory.
/home
Serves as a mount point for a file system containing user home directories.
The /home file system contains per–user files and directories.
In a standalone machine, the /home directory is contained in a separate
file system whose root is mounted over the root file system’s /home
directory. In a network, a server might contain user files that should be
accessible from several machines. In this case, the server’s copy of the
/home directory is remotely mounted onto a local /home file system.
/export
Contains the directories and files on a server that are for remote clients.
See ”Understanding the /export Directory”, on page 7-12 for more
information about the file tree that resides under the /export directory.
/lib
Symbolic link to the /usr/lib directory. See ”Understanding the /usr File
System”, on page 7-8 for more information.
/tftpboot
Contains boot images and boot information for diskless clients.
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7-7
Understanding the /usr File System
The /usr file system contains executable files that can be shared among machines. The
major subdirectories of the /usr directory are shown in the /usr File System diagram.
On a standalone machine the /usr file system is a separate file system (in the /dev/hd2
logical volume). On a diskless or disk–poor machine, a directory from a remote server is
mounted with read–only permissions over the local /usr file system. The /usr file system
contains read–only commands, libraries, and data.
Except for the contents of the /usr/share directory, the files and directories in the /usr file
system can be shared by all machines of the same hardware architecture.
The /usr file system includes the following directories:
7-8
/usr/bin
Contains ordinary commands and shell scripts. For example, the
/usr/bin directory contains the ls, cat, and mkdir commands.
/usr/ccs
Contains unbundled development package binaries.
/usr/include
Contains include, or header, files.
/usr/lbin
Contains executable files that are backends to commands.
/usr/lib
Contains architecture–independent libraries with names of the form
lib*.a. The /lib directory in / (root) is a symbolic link to the /usr/lib
directory, so all files that were once in the /lib directory are now in
the /usr/lib directory. This includes a few nonlibrary files for
compatibility.
/usr/lpp
Contains optionally installed products.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
/usr/sbin
Contains utilities used in system administration, including System
Management Interface Tool (SMIT) commands. Most of the
commands that once resided in the /etc directory now reside in the
/usr/sbin directory.
/usr/share
Contains files that can be shared among machines with different
architectures. See ”Understanding the /usr/share Directory”, on page
7-10 for more information.
Symbolic Links to the /var Directory
/usr/adm
Symbolic link to the /var/adm directory.
/usr/mail
Symbolic link to the /var/spool/mail directory.
/usr/news
Symbolic link to the /var/news directory.
/usr/preserve
Symbolic link to the /var/preserve directory.
/usr/spool
Symbolic link to the /var/spool directory.
/usr/tmp
Symbolic link to the /var/tmp directory, since the /usr directory is
potentially shared by many nodes and is read–only.
Symbolic Links to the /usr/share and /usr/lib Directory
/usr/dict
Symbolic link to the /usr/share/dict directory.
/usr/man
Symbolic link to the /usr/share/man directory.
/usr/lpd
Symbolic link to the /usr/lib/lpd directory.
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7-9
Understanding the /usr/share Directory
The /usr/share directory contains architecture–independent shareable text files. The
contents of this directory can be shared by all machines, regardless of hardware
architecture.
In a mixed architecture environment, the typical diskless client mounts one server directory
over its own /usr directory and then mounts a different directory over the /usr/share
directory. The files below the /usr/share directory are contained in one or more separately
installable packages. Thus, a node may have the other parts of the /usr directory it depends
on locally installed while using a server to provide the /usr/share directory.
Some of the files in the /usr/share directory include the directories and files shown in the
/usr/share Directory diagram.
The /usr/share directory includes the following:
7-10
/usr/share/man
Contains the manual pages if they have been loaded.
/usr/share/dict
Contains the spelling dictionary and its indexes.
/usr/share/info
Contains the InfoExplorer database files.
/usr/share/lib
Contains architecture–independent data files, including terminfo,
learn, tmac, me, and macros.
/usr/share/lpp
Contains data and information about optionally installable products
on the system.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding the /var File System
Attention: The /var file system tends to grow because it contains subdirectories and
data files that are used by busy applications such as accounting, mail, and the print
spooler. If applications on your system use the /var file system extensively, you will have
to increase the file system size beyond the 4MB /var default.
Specific /var files that warrant periodic monitoring are /var/adm/wtmp and
/var/adm/ras/errlog.
Other /var files to monitor are:
/var/adm/ras/trcfile
If the trace facility is turned on.
/var/tmp/snmpd.log
If the snmpd command is running on your system.
The /var directory diagram shows some of the directories in the /var file system.
/var/adm
Contains system logging and accounting files.
/var/news
Contains system news.
/var/preserve
Contains preserved data from interrupted edit sessions; similar to
the /usr/preserve directory in previous releases.
/var/spool
Contains files being processed by programs such as electronic mail;
similar to the /usr/spool directory in previous releases.
/var/tmp
Contains temporary files; similar to the /usr/tmp directory in
previous releases. The /usr/tmp directory is now a symbolic link to
/var/temp.
File Systems
7-11
Understanding the /export Directory
The /export directory contains server files exported to clients, such as diskless, dataless, or
disk–poor machines. A server can export several types of disk space, including packages of
executable programs, paging space for diskless clients, and root file systems for diskless or
disk–poor clients. The standard location for such disk space in the file tree is the /export
directory. Some of the subdirectories of the /export directory are shown in the /export File
System diagram.
The /export directory is the default location for client resources for the diskless commands.
The /export directory is only the location of client resources on the server. Since clients
mount these resources onto their own file tree, these resources appear to clients at the
normal places in a file tree. The major subdirectories of the /export directory, and their
corresponding mount points on a client file tree, include:
/export/root directory
This directory is mounted over the client’s root ( / ) file
system. Client root directories are located in the
/export/root directory by default and are named with the
client’s host name.
/export/exec, or Shared Product Object Tree (SPOT) directory
This directory is mounted over the client’s /usr file system.
SPOTs are versions of the /usr file system stored in the
/export/exec directory and have names that reflect their
release level. By default, the name is RISCAIX.
7-12
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
/export/share, or share
directory
This directory is mounted over the client’s /usr/share
directory. This directory contains data that can be shared by
many architectures. The default location is
/export/share/AIX/usr/share.
/export/home directory
This directory is mounted over the client’s /home file
system. It contains user directories grouped by client host
names. The default location for client home directories is
/export/home.
/export/swap, or paging
directory
In standalone or dataless systems, paging is provided by a
local disk; for diskless clients, this service is provided by a
file on a server. This file is named after the client’s host
name and by default is found in the /export/swap directory.
/export/dump directory
Standalone systems use a local disk as the dump device;
diskless clients use a file on a server. The file resides in a
directory named after the client’s host name and by default
is found in the /export/dump directory.
microcode directory
This directory contains microcode for physical devices. The
default location is
/export/exec/RISCAIX/usr/lib/microcode.
File Systems
7-13
Understanding Data Compression
The journaled file system (JFS) supports fragmented and compressed file systems. Both
types of file systems save disk space by allowing a logical block to be stored on the disk in
units or ”fragments” smaller than the full block size of 4096 bytes. In a fragmented file
system, only the last logical block of files no larger than 32KB are stored in this manner, so
that fragment support is only beneficial for file systems containing numerous small files.
Data compression, however, allows all logical blocks of any–sized file to be stored as one or
more contiguous fragments. On average, data compression saves disk space by about a
factor of two.
The use of fragments and data compression does, however, increase the potential for
fragmentation of the disk’s free space. Fragments allocated to a logical block must be
contiguous on the disk. A file system experiencing free space fragmentation may have
difficulty locating enough contiguous fragments for a logical block’s allocation, even though
the total number of free fragments may exceed the logical block’s requirements. The JFS
alleviates free space fragmentation by providing the defragfs utility which ”defragments” a
file system by increasing the amount of contiguous free space. This utility can be used for
fragmented and compressed file systems. The disk space savings gained from fragments
and data compression can be substantial, while the problem of free space fragmentation
remains manageable.
Data compression in the current JFS is compatible with previous versions of AIX. The
application programming interface (API) comprised of all the system calls remains the same
in both versions of the JFS.
For more information on fragment support, disk utilization, free space fragmentation, and
the performance costs associated with fragments, refer to ”Understanding Fragments and a
Variable Number of I Nodes”, on page 7-17.
Data Compression Implementation
Attention: The root file system (/) must not be compressed.
Attention: Compression /usr file system is not recommended because installp must be
able to do accurate size calculations for updates and new installs. See the Implicit
Behavior section below for more information on size and calculations.
Data compression is an attribute of a file system which is specified when the file system is
created with the crfs or mkfs command. Compression only applies to regular files and long
symbolic links in such file systems. Fragment support continues to apply to directories and
meta–data that are not compressed. Each logical block of a file is compressed by itself
before being written to the disk. Compression in this manner facilitates random seeks and
updates, while losing only a small amount of freed disk space in comparison to compressing
data in larger units.
Once compressed, a logical block usually requires less than 4096 bytes of disk space. The
compressed logical block is written to the disk and allocated only the number of contiguous
fragments required for its storage. If a logical block does not compress, then it is written to
disk in its uncompressed form and allocated 4096 bytes of contiguous fragments.
Implicit Behavior
Since a program that writes a file does not expect an out–of–space (ENOSPC) condition to
occur after a successful write (or successful store for mapped files), it is necessary to
guarantee that space be available when logical blocks are written to the disk. This is
accomplished by allocating 4096 bytes to a logical block when it is first modified so that
there will be disk space available even if the block does not compress. If a 4096–byte
allocation is not available, the system returns an ENOSPC or EDQUOT error condition even
though there may be enough disk space to accommodate the compressed logical block.
Premature reporting of an out–of–space condition is most likely when operating near disk
quota limits or with a nearly full file system.
7-14
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
In addition to incurring a premature out–of–space error, compressed file systems may
exhibit the following behavior:
• Because 4096 bytes are initially allocated to a logical block, certain system calls may
receive an ENOSPC or EDQUOT error. For example, an old file may be mapped using
the mmap system call, and a store operation into a previously written location may result
in an ENOSPC error. The ftruncate system call may also incur an ENOSPC or EDQUOT
error if the truncation is not to a logical block boundary.
• With data compression, a full disk block remains allocated to a modified block until it is
written to disk. If the block had a previously committed allocation of less than a full block,
the amount of disk space tied up by the block is the sum of the two, the previous
allocation not being freed until the file (i–node) is committed. This is the case for normal
fragments. The number of logical blocks in a file that can have previously committed
allocations is at most one for normal fragments, but can be as many as the number of
blocks in a file with compression.
• None of the previously committed resources for a logical block are freed until the fsync
or sync system call is run by the application program.
• The stat system call indicates the number of fragments allocated to a file. The number
reported is based on 4096 bytes being allocated to modified but unwritten blocks and the
compressed size of unmodified blocks. Previously committed resources are not counted
by the stat system call. The stat system call would report the correct number of allocated
fragments after an i–node commit operation if none of the modified blocks compressed.
Similarly, disk quotas are charged for the current allocation. As the logical blocks of a file
are written to the disk, the number of fragments allocated to them decrease if they
compress, and thereby change disk quotas and the result from stat.
Specifying Compression
The crfs, mkfs, and lsfs commands have been extended for data compression. These
commands as well as the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) now contain options
for specifying or identifying data compression.
Identifying Data Compression
The –q option of the lsfs command displays the current value for compression.
Compatibility and Migration
Previous versions of AIX are compatible with the current JFS. Disk image compatibility is
maintained with previous versions of AIX, so that file systems can be mounted and
accessed without requiring disk migration activities or losing file system performance.
Backup/Restore
While backup and restore sequences may be performed from compressed to
noncompressed file systems or between compressed file systems with different fragment
sizes, due to the enhanced disk utilization of compressed file systems, restore operations
may fail due to a shortage of disk space. This is of particular interest for full file system
backup and restore sequences and may even occur when the total file system size of the
target file system is larger than that of the source file system.
Compression Algorithm
The compression algorithm is an IBM version of LZ. In general, LZ algorithms compress
data by representing the second and later occurrences of a given string with a pointer that
identifies the location of the string’s first occurrence and its length. At the beginning of the
compression process, no strings have been identified, so at least the first byte of data must
be represented as a ”raw” character requiring 9–bits (0,byte). Once a given amount of data
is compressed, say N bytes, then the compressor searches for the longest string in the N
bytes that matches the string starting at the next unprocessed byte. If the longest match has
length 0 or 1, the next byte is encoded as a ”raw” character. Otherwise, the string is
File Systems
7-15
represented as a (pointer,length) pair and the number of bytes processed is incremented by
length. Architecturally, IBM LZ supports values of N of 512, 1024, or 2048. IBM LZ specifies
the encoding of (pointer,length) pairs and of raw characters. The pointer is a fixed–length
field of size log2 N, while the length is encoded as a variable–length field.
Performance Costs
Because data compression is an extension of fragment support, the performance costs
associated with fragments also apply to data compression. Compressed file systems also
affect performance in the following ways:
• It may require a great deal of time to compress and decompress data so that the usability
of a compressed file system may be limited for some user environments.
• Most UNIX regular files are written only once, but some are updated in place. For the
latter, data compression has the additional performance cost of having to allocate 4096
bytes of disk space when a logical block is first modified, and then reallocate disk space
after the logical block is written to the disk. This additional allocation activity is not
necessary for regular files in a noncompressed file system.
• Data compression increases the number of processor cycles. For the software
compressor, the number of cycles for compression is approximately 50 cycles per byte,
and for decompression 10 cycles per byte.
7-16
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Fragments and a Variable Number of I–Nodes
The journaled file system (JFS) fragment support allows disk space to be divided into
allocation units that are smaller than the default size of 4096 bytes. Smaller allocation units
or ”fragments” minimize wasted disk space by more efficiently storing the data in a file or
directory’s partial logical blocks. The functional behavior of JFS fragment support is based
on that provided by Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) fragment support. Similar to BSD,
JFS fragment support allows users to specify the number of i–nodes that a file system has.
Disk Utilization
Many UNIX file systems only allocate contiguous disk space in units equal in size to the
logical blocks used for the logical division of files and directories. These allocation units are
typically referred to as ”disk blocks” and a single disk block is used exclusively to store the
data contained within a single logical block of a file or directory.
Using a relatively large logical block size (4096 bytes for example) and maintaining disk
block allocations that are equal in size to the logical block are advantageous for reducing
the number of disk I/O operations that must be performed by a single file system operation,
since a file or directory’s data is stored on disk in a small number of large disk blocks rather
than in a large number of small disk blocks. For example, a file with a size of 4096 bytes or
less would be allocated a single 4096–byte disk block if the logical block size is 4096 bytes.
A read or write operation would therefore only have to perform a single disk I/O operation to
access the data on the disk. If the logical block size were smaller requiring more than one
allocation for the same amount of data, then more than one disk I/O operation may be
required to access the data. A large logical block and equal disk block size are also
advantageous for reducing the amount of disk space allocation activity that must be
performed as new data is added to files and directories, since large disk blocks hold more
data.
Restricting the disk space allocation unit to the logical block size can, however, lead to
wasted disk space in a file system containing numerous files and directories of a small size.
Wasted disk space occurs when a logical block’s worth of disk space is allocated to a partial
logical block of a file or directory. Since partial logical blocks always contain less than a
logical block’s worth of data, a partial logical block will only consume a portion of the disk
space allocated to it. The remaining portion remains unused since no other file or directory
can write its contents to disk space that has already been allocated. The total amount of
wasted disk space can be large for file systems containing a large number of small files and
directories. A file system using 4096–byte allocation units may experience up to 45%
wasted disk space. (Statistic taken from UNIX System Manager’s Manual, Computer
Systems Research Group, University of California at Berkeley, The Regents of the
University of California and/or Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1988, SMM 14.)
Optimizing Disk Utilization
In the JFS, however, the disk space allocation unit, referred to as a fragment, can be
smaller than the logical block size of 4096 bytes. With the use of fragments smaller than
4096 bytes, the data contained within a partial logical block can be stored more efficiently by
using only as many fragments as are required to hold the data. For example, a partial
logical block that only has 500 bytes could be allocated a fragment of 512 bytes (assuming
a fragment size of 512 bytes), thus greatly reducing the amount of wasted disk space. If the
storage requirements of a partial logical block increase, one or more additional fragments
will be allocated.
Fragments
The fragment size for a file system is specified during its creation. The allowable fragment
sizes for journaled file systems (JFS) are 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096 bytes. For consistency
with previous verions of AIX Version 3, the default fragment size is 4096 bytes. Different file
systems can have different fragment sizes, but only one fragment size can be used within a
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7-17
single file system. Different fragment sizes can also coexist on a single system (machine) so
that users can select a fragment size most appropriate for each file system.
JFS fragment support provides a view of the file system as a contiguous series of fragments
rather than as a contiguous series of disk blocks. To maintain the efficiency of disk
operations, however, disk space is often allocated in units of 4096 bytes so that the disk
blocks or allocation units remain equal in size to the logical blocks. A disk–block allocation in
this case can be viewed as an allocation of 4096 bytes of contiguous fragments.
Both operational overhead (additional disk seeks, data transfers, and allocation activity) and
better utilization of disk space increase as the fragment size for a file system decreases. To
maintain the optimum balance between increased overhead and increased usable disk
space, the following factors apply to JFS fragment support:
• Disk space allocations of 4096 bytes of fragments are maintained for a file or directory’s
logical blocks where possible.
• Only partial logical blocks for files or directories less than 32KB in size can be allocated
less than 4096 bytes of fragments.
Maintaining 4096–byte disk space allocations allows disk operations to be more efficient as
described previously in ”Disk Utilization.”
As the files and directories within a file system grow beyond 32KB in size, the benefit of
maintaining disk space allocations of less than 4096 bytes for partial logical blocks
diminishes. The disk space savings as a percentage of total file system space grows small
while the extra performance cost of maintaining small disk space allocations remains
constant. Since disk space allocations of less than 4096 bytes provide the most effective
disk space utilization when used with small files and directories, the logical blocks of files
and directories equal to or greater than 32KB are always allocated 4096 bytes of fragments.
Any partial logical block associated with such a large file or directory is also allocated 4096
bytes of fragments.
Variable Number of I–Nodes
Since fragment support optimizes disk space utilization, it increases the number of small
files and directories that can be stored within a file system. However, disk space is only one
of the file system resources required by files and directories: each file or directory also
requires a disk i–node. The JFS allows the number of disk i–nodes created within a file
system to be specified in case more or fewer than the default number of disk i–nodes is
desired. The number of disk i–nodes can be specified at file system creation as the number
of bytes per i–node (NBPI). For example, an NBPI value of 1024 causes a disk i–node to be
created for every 1024 bytes of file system disk space. Another way to look at this is that a
small NBPI value (512 for instance) results in a large number of i–nodes, while a large NBPI
value (such as 16,384) results in a small number of i–nodes.
The set of allowable NBPI values vary according to the allocation group size (agsize). The
default is 8MB. In AIX Version 4.1, agsize is fixed at 8MB. The allowable NBPI values are
512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, and 16,384 with an agize of 8MB.
In AIX Version 4.2 or later, a larger agsize may be used. The allowable values for agsize are
8, 16, 32, and 64. The range of allowable NBPI values scales up as agsize increases. If the
agsize is doubled to 16MB, the range of NBPI values also double: 1024, 2048, 4096, 8193,
16384, and 32768.
For consistency with previous versions of AIX Version 3, the default NBPI value is 4096, and
the default agsize is 8. The desired NBPI and agsize values are specified during file system
creation. If the file system size is increased, the NBPI and agsize values remain set to the
values specified during the file system’s creation.
Specifying Fragment Size and NBPI
Fragment size and the number–of–bytes–per–i–node (NBPI) value are specified during the
file system’s creation with the crfs and mkfs commands or by using the System
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Management Interface Tool (SMIT). The decision of fragment size and how many i–nodes to
create for the file system should be based on the projected number of files contained by the
file system and their size.
Identifying Fragment Size and NBPI
The file–system–fragment size and the number–of–bytes–per–i–node (NBPI) value can be
identified through the lsfs command or the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT). For
application programs, the statfs subroutine can be used to identify the file system fragment
size.
Compatibility and Migration
Previous versions of AIX are compatible with the current JFS, although file systems with a
nondefault fragment size, NBPI value, or allocation group size may require special attention
if migrated to a previous version.
File System Images
The JFS fully supports JFS file system images created under previous versions of AIX.
These file system images and any JFS file system image created with the default fragment
size and NBPI value of 4096 bytes, and default allocation group size (agsize) of 8 can be
interchanged with the current and previous versions of AIX without requiring any special
migration activities.
JFS file system images created with a fragment size or NBPI value or agsize other than the
default values may be incompatible with previous versions of AIX. Specifically, only file
system images less than or equal to 2G in size and created with the default parameters can
be interchanged amongst AIX Versions 3.2, 4.1 and 4.2. File system images created with
fragment size of either 512, 1024, 2048, or 4096, and an NBPI value of either 512, 1024,
2048, 4096, 8192, or 16384, and a agsize of 8M can ge interchanges amongst AIX Version
4.1 and AIX Version 4.2. Finally, creating a file system with NBPI value greater than 16384
or with an agsize greater than 8M will result in a JFS file system that is only recognized on
AIX Version 4.2.
The following procedure must be used to migrate incompatible file systems from one
version of AIX to another:
1. Backup the file system by file name on the source system.
2. Create a file system on the destination system.
3. Restore the backed–up files on the destination system.
Backup/Restore
Although backup and restore sequences can be performed between file systems with
different fragment sizes and NBPI values, due to increased disk utilization and a large
number of i–nodes, restore operations may fail due to a lack of free fragments or disk
i–nodes if the fragment size or NBPI value of the source file system is smaller than the
fragment size or NBPI value of the target file system. This is of particular interest for full file
system backup and restore sequences and may even occur when the total file system size
of the target file system is larger than that of the source file system.
Device Driver Limitations
A device driver must provide disk block addressability that is the same as the file system
fragment size. For example, if a JFS file system was made on a user supplied RAM disk
device driver, the driver must allow 512 byte blocks to contain a file system that had 512
byte fragments. If the driver only allowed page level addressability, a JFS with a fragment
size of 4096 bytes could only be used.
Note: Any valid NBPI value can be specified for any device.
File Systems
7-19
Performance Costs
Although file systems that use fragments smaller than 4096 bytes as their allocation unit
may require substantially less disk space than those using the default allocation unit of 4096
bytes, the use of smaller fragments may incur performance costs.
Increased Allocation Activity
Since disk space is allocated in smaller units for a file system with a fragment size other
than 4096 bytes, allocation activity may occur more often when files or directories are
repeatedly extended in size. For example, a write operation that extends the size of a
zero–length file by 512 bytes results in the allocation of one fragment to the file, assuming a
fragment size of 512 bytes. If the file size is extended further by another write of 512 bytes,
an additional fragment must be allocated to the file. Applying this example to a file system
with 4096–byte fragments, disk space allocation would occur only once, as part of the first
write operation. No additional allocation activity must be performed as part of the second
write operation since the initial 4096–byte fragment allocation is large enough to hold the
data added by the second write operation.
Allocation activity adds performance overhead to file system operations. However, allocation
activity can be minimized for file systems with fragment sizes smaller than 4096 bytes if files
are extended by 4096 bytes at a time when possible.
Free Space Fragmentation
Using fragments smaller than 4096 bytes may cause greater fragmentation of the disk’s free
space. For example, consider an area of the disk that is divided into eight fragments of 512
bytes each. Suppose that different files, requiring 512 bytes each, have written to the first,
fourth, fifth, and seventh fragments in this area of the disk, leaving the second, third, sixth,
and eighth fragments free. Although four fragments representing 2048 bytes of disk space
are free, no partial logical block requiring four fragments (or 2048 bytes) will be allocated for
these free fragments, since the fragments in a single allocation must be contiguous.
Since the fragments allocated for a file or directory’s logical blocks must be contiguous, free
space fragmentation may cause a file system operation that requests new disk space to fail
even though the total amount of available free space is large enough to satisfy the
operation. For example, a write operation that extends a zero–length file by one logical
block requires 4096 bytes of contiguous disk space to be allocated. If the file system free
space is fragmented and consists of 32 noncontiguous 512–byte fragments or a total of
16KB of free disk space, the write operation will fail, since eight contiguous fragments (or
4096 bytes of contiguous disk space) are not available to satisfy the write operation.
A file system with an unmanageable amount of fragmented free space can be defragmented
with the defragfs command. The execution of defrags has an impact on performance.
Increased Fragment Allocation Map Size
More virtual memory and file system disk space may be required to hold fragment allocation
maps for file systems with a fragment size smaller than 4096 bytes. Fragments serve as the
basic unit of disk space allocation, and the allocation state of each fragment within a file
system is recorded in the file system’s fragment allocation map.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Journaled File System Size Limitations
The maximum size for a journaled file system (JFS) is defined when the file system is
created. When you create a JFS, there are five significant issues to consider:
• Number of i–nodes
• Allocation group size
• NO TAGFile system fragment addressability
• Journaled file system log size
• Maximum journaled file system size
Number of Inodes
The total number of i–nodes in a file system limits the total number of files and the total size
of the file system. The JFS provides the nbpi (number of bytes per i–node) parameter that
affects the number of i–nodes in a file system. JFS supports nbpi values of 512, 1024,
2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536, and 131072. The values 32768, 65536, and
131072 only apply to AIX Version 4.2 or later.
One i–node is created for every NBPI bytes of allocation group space allocated to the
filesystem. An allocation group can be partially allocated, though the full number of i–nodes
per allocation group is still allocated. NBPI is inversely proportional to the total number of
i–nodes in a file system.
The JFS restricts all file systems to 16M ( 224) i–nodes.
Allocation Group Size
AIX Version 4.2 or later supports various allocation group sizes. The JFS segregates file
system space into groupings of i–nodes and disk blocks for user data. These groupings are
called allocation groups. The allocation group size can be specified when the file system is
created. The allocation group sizes are 8M, 16M, 32M, and 64M. Each allocation group size
has an associated npbi range. The ranges are defined by the following table:
Allocation Group
Size in Megabytes
8
16
Allowable NBPI Values
512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384
1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768
32
2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536
64
4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536,131072
File System Fragment Addressability
The JFS supports four fragment sizes of 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096 byte units of
contiguous disk space. The JFS maintains fragment addresses in i–nodes and indirect
blocks as 28–bit numbers. Each fragment must be addressable by a number from 0 to
(228).
Journaled File System Log Size Issues
Another size–related issue is the size of the JFS log. In most instances, multiple journaled
file systems use a common log configured to be 4MB in size. For example, after initial
installation, all file systems within the root volume group use logical volume hd8 as a
common JFS log. The default logical volume partition size is 4MB, and the default log size is
one partition, therefore, the root volume group normally contains a 4MB JFS log. When file
systems exceed 2GB or when the total amount of file system space using a single log
exceeds 2GB, the default log size may not be sufficient. In either case, the log sizes should
be scaled upward as the file system size increases. The JFS log is limited to a maximum
size of 256MB.
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Maximum Journaled File System Size
The maximum JFS size is defined when the file system is created. For example, selecting
an nbpi ratio of 512 will limit the file system to a size of 8GB (512* 224 =8GB). When
creating a JFS file system, the factors listed above (nbpi, fragment size, and allocation
group size) need to be weighed carefully. The filesystem size limitation is the minimum of
NPBI * 224 or Fragment Size * 228
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Large Files
This section contains information about creating large files and file allocation. Large files are
only applicable to AIX Version 4.2 or later.
Create File Systems Enabled for Large Files
File systems enabled for large files can be created with the crfs and mkfs commands. Both
commands have a new option (bf=true) to specify file systems enabled for large files. The
JFS SMIT menus can create these file systems also.
Large File Geometry
In file systems enabled for large files, file data stored before the 4MB file offset is allocated
in 4096 byte blocks. File data stored beyond the 4MB file offset is allocated with large disk
blocks of 128 KB in size. The large disk blocks are actually 32 contiguous 4096 byte blocks.
For example, a 132 MB file in a file system enabled for large files has 1024 4KB disk blocks
and 1024 128KB disk blocks. In a regular file system, the 132 MB file would require 33
single indirect blocks (each filled with 1024 4KB disk addresses). However, the large file
geometry requires only 2 single indirect blocks for the 132 MB file.
Sparse File Allocation
Files that do not have disk blocks allocated for each logical block are called sparse files.
Sparse files are created by seeking two different file offsets and writing data. If the file
offsets are greater than 4MB, then a large disk block of 128KB is allocated. Applications
using sparse files larger than 4MB may require more disk blocks in a file system enabled for
large files than in a regular file system.
Free Space Fragmentation
Large disk blocks require 32 contiguous 4KB blocks. If you write to large files beyond the
4MB, file offset will fail with ENOSPC if the file system does not contain 32 unused
contiguous 4KB blocks.
Note: The file system may have thousands of free blocks, but if 32 of them are not
contiguous, the allocation will fail.
The defragfs command reorganizes disk blocks to provide larger contiguous free block
areas.
Disk Image Compatibility
File systems enabled for large files cannot be migrated to releases of Versions 3 or 4.1 of
AIX. These releases of AIX will not recognize the superblock version number and may
generate a message such as: unknown file system type. File systems enabled for
large files are not the only file systems subject to this behavior. See ”Understanding
Fragments and a Variable Number of I–Nodes”, on page 7-17 for more information about file
system migration.
Note: File systems from Versions 3 and 4.1 of AIX can be migrated forward.
Zeroing kproc for Large Allocations
The JFS is required to initialize all new disk allocations. The JFS starts the kernel kproc
procedure used to zero initial file allocations when mounting the first large file enabled file
system on your system. The kproc procedure remains once the file system enabled for large
files has successfully unmounted.
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Mounting Overview
Mounting makes file systems, files, directories, devices, and special files available for use at
a particular location. It is the only way a file system is made accessible. The mount
command instructs the operating system to attach a file system at a specified directory.
You can mount a file or directory if you have access to the file or directory being mounted
and write permission for the mount point. Members of the system group can also perform
device mounts (in which devices or file systems are mounted over directories) and the
mounts described in the /etc/filesystems file. A user operating with root user authority can
mount a file system arbitrarily by naming both the device and the directory on the command
line. The /etc/filesystems file is used to define mounts to be automatic at system
initialization. The mount command is used to mount after system startup.
Understanding Mount Points
A mount point is a directory or file at which a new file system, directory, or file is made
accessible. To mount a file system or a directory, the mount point must be a directory; and to
mount a file, the mount point must be a file. The File Tree View before Mounting figure
shows a file system mount point.
Typically, a file system, directory, or file is mounted over an empty mount point, but that is
not required. If the file or directory that serves as the mount point contains any data, that
data is not accessible while it is mounted over by another file or directory. In effect, the
mounted file or directory covers what was previously in that directory. The original directory
or file that has been mounted over is accessible again once the mount over it is undone.
The File Tree View after Mounting figure shows the mounting of a file system.
When a file system is mounted over a directory, the permissions of the root directory of the
mounted file system take precedence over the permissions of the mount point. The one
exception involves the .. (dot dot) parent directory entry in the mounted–over directory. In
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
order for the operating system to access the new file system, the mount point parent
directory information must be available.
For example, if the current working directory is /home/frank, the command cd .. changes
the working directory to /home. If /home/frank directory is the root of a mounted file
system, the operating system must find the parent directory information in the
/home/frank directory in order for the cd .. command to succeed.
For any command that requires parent directory information in order to succeed, users must
have search permission in the mounted–over directory. Failure of the mounted–over
directory to grant search permission can have unpredictable results, especially since the
mounted–over directory’s permissions are not visible. A common problem is failure of the
pwd command. Without search permission in the mounted–over directory, the pwd
command returns this message:
pwd: Permission denied
This problem can be avoided by always setting the permissions of the mounted–over
directory to at least 111.
Mounting File Systems, Directories, and Files
There are two types of mounts, a remote mount and a local mount. Remote mounts are
done on a remote system on which data is transmitted over a telecommunication line.
Remote file systems, such as Network File System (NFS), require that the files be exported
before they can be mounted. Local mounts are mounts done on your local system.
Each file system is associated with a different device (logical volume). Before you can use a
file system, it must be connected to the existing directory structure (either the root file
system or to another file system that is already connected). The mount command makes
this connection.
The same file system, directory, or file can be accessed by multiple paths. For example, if
you have one database and several users using this database, it can be useful to have
several mounts of the same database. Each mount should have its own name and
password for tracking and job–separating purposes. This is accomplished by mounting the
same file system on different mount points. For example, you can mount from
/home/server/database to the mount point specified as /home/user1,
/home/user2, and /home/user3:
/home/server/database
/home/server/database
/home/server/database
/home/user1
/home/user2
/home/user3
A file system, directory, or file can be made available to various users through the use of
symbolic links. Symbolic links are created with the ln –s command. Linking multiple users to
a central file ensures that all changes to the file are reflected each time a user accesses the
file.
Controlling Automatic Mounts
Mounts can be set to occur automatically during system initialization. There are two types of
automatic mounts. The first type consists of those mounts that are required to boot and run
the system. These file systems are explicitly mounted by the boot process. The stanzas of
such file systems in the /etc/filesystems file have mount = automatic. The second type of
automatic mount is user–controlled. These file systems are mounted by the /etc/rc script
when it issues the mount all command. The stanzas of user–controlled automatic mounts
have mount = true in /etc/filesystems.
The /etc/filesystems file controls automatic mounts; they are done hierarchically, one
mount point at a time. They can also be placed in a specific order that can be changed and
rearranged.
The /etc/filesystems file is organized into stanzas, one for each mount. A stanza describes
the attributes of the corresponding file system and how it is mounted. The system mounts
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7-25
file systems in the order they appear in the /etc/filesystems file. The following is an
example of stanzas within the /etc/filesystems file:
/:
dev=/dev/hd4
vol=”root”
mount=automatic
check=false
free=true
vfs=jfs
log=/dev/hd8
type–bootfs
/home:
dev=/dev/hd1
vfs=jfs
log=/dev/hd8
mount=true
check=true
vol=”/home”
free=false
/usr:
/dev=/dev/hd2
vfs=jfs
log=/dev/hd8
mount=automatic
check=false
type=bootfs
vol=”/usr”
free=true
You can edit the /etc/filesystems file to control the order in which mounts will occur. If a
mount is unsuccessful, any of the following mounts defined in the /etc/filesystems file will
continue to mount. For example, if the mount of the /home file system is unsuccessful, the
mount for the /usr file system will continue and be mounted. Mounts can be unsuccessful
for reasons such as typographical errors, dependency, or a system problem.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Mount Security for Diskless Workstations
Diskless workstations must have the ability to create and access device–special files on
remote machines to have their /dev directories mounted from a server. Because servers
cannot distinguish device–special files intended for a client from those intended for the
server, a user on the server may be able to access the server’s physical devices using the
client’s device special files.
For example, the ownership for a tty is automatically set to the user using the tty. If the user
IDs are not the same on both the client and server, a nonprivileged user on the server can
access a tty that is being used by a different user on the server.
A user who is privileged on a client can create device–special files to match physical
devices on the server and have them not require privilege for access. The user can then
use an unprivileged account on the server to access the normally protected devices using
the new device–special files.
A similar security problem involves the use of setuid and setgid programs on the client and
server. Diskless clients must be able to create and execute setuid and setgid programs on
the server for normal operation. Again, the server cannot distinguish between those
programs intended for the server and those intended for the client.
In addition, the user IDs and group IDs may not match between the server and client, so
users on the server may be able to run programs with capabilities that were not intended for
them.
The problem is that setuid and setgid programs and device–special files should generally
only be usable on the machine that created them.
The solution is to use security options to the mount command that restrict the ability to use
these objects. These options can also be used in stanzas in the /etc/filesystems file.
The nosuid option in the mount command prevents the execution of setuid and setgid
programs that are accessed via the resulting mounted file system. This option should be
used for any file system that is being mounted on a particular host for use only by a different
host (for example, exported for diskless clients).
The nodev option in the mount command prevents the opening of devices using device
special files that are accessed via the resulting mounted file system. This option should also
be used for any file system that is being mounted for use only by a different host (for
example, exported for diskless clients).
Diskless Mounts
Although a diskless workstation’s file systems are mounted from a server’s /exports
directory, from the diskless machine’s perspective, the file system looks just like the file
system on a standalone machine.
The following shows the relationship between server exports, and the diskless workstation
mount points:
Server Exports
Diskless Imports
/export/root/HostName
/ (root)
/export/exec/SPOTName
/usr
/export/home/HostName
/home
/export/share
/usr/share
/export/dump
Used by diskless client as dump space.
/export/swap
Used by diskless clients as remote paging space.
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For more information about the /export directory, see ”Understanding the /export Directory”,
on page 7-12.
Securing Diskless Mounts
In general, users on a server should not have any access to the /export directory.
Exporting the /export/root Directory
The /export/root directory must be exported with read/write permissions, and the root user
on the server must have access. However, you may want to mount this directory with the
following options of the mount command:
nosuid
Prevents a user on the server from running the client’s setuid programs.
nodev
Prevents a user from accessing the server’s devices using a client’s
device– special file.
An alternative to mounting the /export/root directory with these options is to avoid giving
users running on the server any access to the /export/root directory.
Exporting the /export/exec Directory
The /export/exec directory should be exported with read–only permissions and must
provide root access. However, you may want to mount this directory with the following
options of the mount command:
nosuid
Prevents a user on the server from running the client’s setuid programs. If
you are exporting the server’s /usr directory, you cannot use the nousid
option.
nodev
Prevents a user from accessing the server’s devices using a client’s
device– special file.
Exporting the /export/share Directory
The /export/share directory should be exported with read–only permissions and must
provide root access. Because this directory generally contains only data (no executables or
devices), you do not need to use the mount security options.
Exporting the /export/home Directory
There are several ways to mount a user’s /home directory:
• You can mount the /export/home/ClientHostName directory over the client’s /home
directory. In this case, the client should have read/write permissions and the root user
should have access. To ensure the system’s security, mount the /export/home directory
with the following options to the mount command:
nosuid
Prevents a user on the server from running the client’s setuid programs.
nodev
Prevents a user from accessing the server’s devices using a client’s
device–special file.
• You can mount the /home directory on the server over the /home directory of the client.
In this case, the /home directory should be exported with read/write permissions and
without root access. To ensure the system’s security, mount the /home directory on both
the server and client with the nosuid and nodev options of the mount command.
• Alternatively, you can mount on the client each /home/UserName directory on the server
over the /home/UserName directory on the client so users can log in to different
machines and still have access to their home directories. In this case, the
/home/UserName directories on the server and clients should both be mounted with the
nousid and nodev options of the mount command.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Exporting the /export/dump Directory
Export the /export/dump/ClientHostName directory with read/write permissions and root
access. Users on the server should not have any access to the
/export/dump/ClientHostName files.
Exporting the /export/swap Directory
Export the /export/swap/ClientHostName file with read/write permissions and root access.
No security measures are necessary. Users on the server should not have any access to
the /export/swap/ClientHostName files.
File Systems
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 8. Paging Space and Virtual Memory
This chapter explains the different types of paging space and allocation policies. For
performance implications related to paging spaces, see the section on performance
considerations of paging spaces in AIX Performance Tuning Guide.
Topics covered are:
• Paging Space Overview, on page 8-2
• Managing Paging Spaces, on page 8-6
• Understanding Paging Space Allocation Policies, on page 8-3
• Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) Overview, on page 8-7
Paging Space and Virtual Memory
8-1
Paging Space Overview
A paging space is fixed disk storage for information that is resident in virtual memory, but is
not currently being accessed. A paging space, also called a swap space, is a logical volume
with the attribute type equal to paging. This type of logical volume is referred to as a
paging–space logical volume, or simply paging space. When the amount of free real
memory in the system is low, programs or data that have not been used recently are moved
from real memory to paging space to release real memory for other activities.
The following articles provide more information about paging spaces:
• Managing Paging Spaces, on page 8-6
• Understanding Paging Space Allocation Policies, on page 8-3
The following procedures in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and
Devices explain various ways of managing paging spaces:
• Adding and Activating a Paging Space
• Changing or Removing a Paging Space
• Resizing or Moving the hd6 Paging Space
The ”Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) Overview”, on page 8-7 explains how virtual memory
is related to paging space.
The default paging space size is determined during the system customization phase of AIX
installation according to the following standards:
• Paging space can use no less than 16MB except for hd6 which can use no less than
32MB in AIX Version 4.2.1 and later
• Paging space can use no more than 20% of total disk space
• If real memory is less than 32MB, paging space is two times real memory
• If real memory is greater than or equal to 32MB, paging space is real memory plus 16MB
There is another type of paging space available that can be accessed through a device that
uses an NFS server for paging–space storage. For an NFS client to access this paging
space, the NFS server must have a file created and exported to that client. The file size
represents the paging space size for the client.
The logical volume paging space is defined by making a new paging–space logical volume
or by increasing the size of existing paging–space logical volumes. To increase the size of
an NFS paging space, the file that resides on the server must be increased by the correct
actions on the server.
The total space available to the system for paging is the sum of the sizes of all active
paging–space logical volumes.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Paging Space Allocation Policies
The operating system uses two modes for paging space allocation. The setting of the
PSALLOC environment variable determines the paging space allocation mode. The default
mechanism is the late paging space allocation algorithm. The user can switch to an early
paging space allocation mode by setting the value of the PSALLOC environment variable to
early.
Paging Space Considerations
The amount of paging space required depends on the type of activities performed on the
system. If paging space runs low, processes may be lost, and if paging space runs out, the
system may panic. When a paging–space low condition is detected, additional paging space
should be defined.
The system monitors the number of free paging space blocks and detects when a
paging–space shortage exists. When the number of free paging–space blocks falls below a
threshold known as the paging–space warning level, the system informs all processes
(except kprocs) of this condition by sending the SIGDANGER signal. If the shortage
continues and falls below a second threshold known as the paging–space kill level, the
system sends the SIGKILL signal to processes that are the major users of paging space
and that do not have a signal handler for the SIGDANGER signal (the default action for the
SIGDANGER signal is to ignore the signal). The system continues sending SIGKILL signals
until the number of free paging–space blocks is above the paging–space kill level.
Processes that dynamically allocate memory can ensure that sufficient paging space exists
by monitoring the paging–space levels with the psdanger subroutine or by using special
allocation routines. You can use the disclaim subroutine to prevent processes from ending
when the paging–space kill level is reached. To do this, define a signal handler for the
SIGDANGER signal and release memory and paging–space resources allocated in their
data and stack areas and in shared memory segments.
Comparing Late and Early Paging Space Allocation
The operating system uses the PSALLOC environment variable to determine the
mechanism used for memory and paging space allocation. If the PSALLOC environment
variable is not set, is set to null, or is set to any value other than early, the system uses the
default late allocation algorithm.
The default late allocation algorithm for memory and paging space allocation assists in the
efficient use of disk resources and supports applications of customers who wish to take
advantage of a sparse allocation algorithm for resource management. The late allocation
algorithm does not reserve paging space when a memory request is made; it approves the
request and assigns paging space when pages are touched. Some programs allocate large
amounts of virtual memory and then use only a fraction of the memory. Examples of such
programs are technical applications that use sparse vectors or matrices as data structures.
The late allocation algorithm is also more efficient for a real–time, demand–paged kernel
such as the one in the operating system.
For AIX 4.3.2 and later, the late allocation algorithm is modified to further delay the
allocation of paging space. As mentioned above, before AIX 4.3.2, paging space was
allocated when a page was touched. However, this paging space may never be used,
especially on systems with large real memory where paging is rare. Therefore, the
allocation of paging space is delayed until it is necessary to page out the page, which
results in no wasted paging space allocation. This does result, however, in additional
overcommitment of paging space. On a system where enough virtual memory is accessed
that paging is necessary, the amount of paging space required may be as much as was
required on previous releases.
It is possible to overcommit resources when using the late allocation algorithm for paging
space allocation. In this case, when one process gets the resource before another, a failure
Paging Space and Virtual Memory
8-3
results. The operating system attempts to avoid complete system failure by killing processes
affected by the resource overcommitment. The SIGDANGER signal is sent to notify
processes that the amount of free paging space is low. If the paging space situation reaches
an even more critical state, selected processes that did not receive the SIGDANGER signal
are sent a SIGKILL signal.
The user can use the PSALLOC environment variable to switch to an early allocation
algorithm for memory and paging space allocation. The early allocation mechanism
allocates paging space for the executing process at the time the memory is requested. If
there is insufficient paging space available at the time of the request, the early allocation
mechanism fails the memory request.
If the PSALLOC environment variable is set to early, then every program started in that
environment from that point on, but not including currently running processes, will run in the
early allocation environment. In the early allocation environment, interfaces such as the
malloc subroutine and the brk subroutine will fail if sufficient paging space cannot be
reserved when the request is made.
Processes executed in the early allocation environment mode will not be sent the SIGKILL
signal should a low paging space condition occur.
The following memory allocation interface subroutines are affected by a switch to an early
allocation environment:
• malloc
• free
• calloc
• realloc
• brk
• sbrk
• shmget
• shmctl
Setting the PSALLOC Environment Variable for Early Allocation Mode
The following examples show the different ways a user can set the PSALLOC environment
variable to early so that applications run in early allocation mode. The examples also
explain the results of each method.
1. Entering the following command on a shell command line:
PSALLOC=early;export PSALLOC
causes all subsequent commands run from that shell session to run in early allocation
mode.
2. Entering the following command in a .shrc file or .kshrc file:
PSALLOC=early;export PSALLOC
causes all processes in the user’s login session, with the exception of the login shell, to
run under early allocation mode. This command also protects the processes from the
SIGKILL signal mechanism.
3. Making the following entry in the /etc/environment file:
PSALLOC=early
causes all processes in the system, except the init process (process ID 1) to run in the
early allocation mode and be protected from the SIGKILL signal mechanism.
8-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
4. You can use the putenv subroutine to set the PSALLOC environment variable to early
from inside a program. The early allocation behavior takes effect at the next call to the
exec subroutine.
Early Allocation Mode Considerations
The early allocation algorithm guarantees as much paging space as requested by a memory
allocation request. Thus, proper paging space allocation on the system disk is important for
efficient operations. When available paging space drops below a certain threshold, new
processes cannot be started and currently running processes may not be able to get more
memory. Any processes running under the default late allocation mode become highly
vulnerable to the SIGKILL signal mechanism. In addition, since the operating system kernel
sometimes requires memory allocation, it is possible to crash the system by using up all
available paging space.
Before you use the early allocation mode throughout the system, it is very important to
define an adequate amount of paging space for the system. The paging space required for
early allocation mode will almost always be greater than the paging space required for the
default late allocation mode. How much paging space to define depends on how your
system is used and what programs you run. A good starting point for determining the right
mix for your system is to define a paging space four times greater than the amount of
physical memory.
Certain applications can use extreme amounts of paging space if they are run in early
allocation mode. The AIXwindows server currently requires more than 250MB of paging
space when the application runs in early allocation mode. The paging space required for
any application depends on how the application is written and how it is run.
All commands and subroutines that show paging space and process memory use include
paging space allocated under early allocation mode. The lsps command uses the –s flag to
display total paging space allocation, including paging space allocated under early allocation
mode.
Programming Interface
The programming interface that controls the paging space allocation mode uses the
PSALLOC environment variable. To ensure that an application always runs under the
desired mode (with or without early paging space allocation), do the following:
1. Use the getenv subroutine to examine the current state of the PSALLOC environment
variable.
2. If the value of the PSALLOC environment variable is not the value required by the
application, use the setenv subroutine to alter the value of the environment variable.
Since only the execve subroutine examines the state of the PSALLOC environment
variable, call the execve subroutine with the same set of parameters and environment
received by the application. When the application reexamines the state of the PSALLOC
environment variable and finds the correct value, the application continues normally.
3. If the getenv subroutine reveals that the current state of the PSALLOC environment
variable is correct, no modification is needed. The application continues normally.
Paging Space and Virtual Memory
8-5
Managing Paging Spaces
The following commands are used to manage paging space:
chps
Changes the attributes of a paging space.
lsps
Displays the characteristics of a paging space.
mkps
Adds an additional paging space.
rmps
Removes an inactive paging space.
swapon
Activates a paging space.
The mkps command uses the mklv command with a specific set of options when creating a
paging space logical volume. To create NFS paging spaces, the mkps command uses the
mkdev command with another set of options. Some of the following options are required for
all logical volume paging spaces:
• Paging type
• No bad–block relocation
• No mirroring
The following options are used to maximize paging performance with a logical volume:
• Allocate in the middle of the disk to reduce disk arm travel.
• Use multiple paging spaces, each allocated from a separate physical volume.
For NFS paging spaces the mkps command needs the host name of the NFS server and
the path name of the file that is exported from the server.
The swapon command is used during early system initialization to activate the initial
paging–space device. During a later phase of initialization, when other devices become
available, the swapon command is used to activate additional paging spaces so that paging
activity occurs across several devices.
Active paging spaces cannot be removed. To remove an active paging space, it must first
be made inactive. To accomplish this, use the chps command so the paging space is not
used on the next system restart. Then, after restarting the system, the paging space is
inactive and can be removed using the rmps command.
The /etc/swapspaces file specifies the paging–space devices that are activated by the
swapon –a command. A paging space is added to this file when it is created by the mkps
–a command, removed from the file when it is deleted by the rmps command, and added or
removed by the chps –a command.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) Overview
The Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) provides the virtual memory facilities that are used by
the other parts of the system to implement the following:
• Virtual address space of processes
• Sharing of executables
• Shared memory segments
• Mapped files
The VMM implements virtual memory, allowing the creation of segments larger than the
physical memory available in the system. The segments are divided into fixed–size units
called pages. Each page in a segment can be in physical memory or stored on disk until it is
needed. When a process accesses a page that is not present in physical memory, the VMM
reads the page into memory; this is called a PageIn. When physical memory is not
available, the VMM writes pages to disk; this is called a PageOut or PageSteal.
The following are some of the segment types:
Working storage
Segments are used to implement the data areas of processes
and shared memory segments. The pages for working storage
segments are stored in the paging spaces configured in the
system.
Persistent storage
Segments are used to manipulate files and directories. When a
persistent storage segment is accessed, the pages are read and
written from its file system.
Client storage
Segments are used to implement some virtual file systems like
Network File System (NFS) and the CD–ROM file system. The
storage for client segment pages can be in a local or remote
computer.
Paging Space and Virtual Memory
8-7
8-8
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 9. Backup and Restore
This chapter contains information about methods of backing up and restoring information as
well as backup policies for specific needs.
Topics covered are:
• Backup Overview, on page 9-2
• Developing a Backup Strategy, on page 9-5
• Backing Up User Files or File Systems, on page 9-7
• Backing Up Your System in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and
Devices
Backup and Restore
9-1
Backup Overview
Once your system is in use, your next consideration should be backing up file systems,
directories, and files. Files and directories represent a significant investment of time and
effort. At the same time, all computer files are potentially easy to change or erase, either
intentionally or by accident. If you take a careful and methodical approach to backing up
your file systems, you should always be able to restore recent versions of files or file
systems with little difficulty. When a hard disk crashes, the information contained on that
disk is destroyed. The only way to recover the destroyed data is to retrieve the information
from your backup copy.
Backup Methods
Several different methods exist for backing up information. One of the most frequently used
methods is called backup by name, also called file name archive. This method of backup is
done when the i flag is specified and is used to make a backup copy of individual files and
directories. It is a method commonly used by individual users to back up their accounts.
Another frequently used method is called backup by file system, also called backup by
i–node or file system archive. This method of backup is done when the i flag is not
specified. It is used to make a backup copy of an entire file system and is the method
commonly used by system administrators to back up large groups of files, such as all of the
user accounts in /home. A file system backup allows incremental backups to be performed
easily. An incremental backup will back up all files that have been modified since a specified
previous backup.
The compress and pack commands enable you to compress files for storage, and the
uncompress and unpack commands unpack the files once they have been restored. The
process of packing and unpacking files takes time, but once packed the data uses less
space on the backup medium.
Several commands create backups and archives. Because of this, data that has been
backed up needs to be labeled as to what command was used when doing the backup, and
how the backup was made (by name or by file system). The backup command is the most
frequently used, but other commands serve specific purposes:
backup
Backs up files by name or by file system.
mksysb
Creates an installable image of the rootvg volume group.
cpio
Copies files into and out of archive storage. Can usually read data
archived on another platform provided it is in cpio format.
dd
Converts and copies a file. Commonly used to convert and copy
data to and from non–AIX systems, for example, mainframes. dd
does not group multiple files into one archive; it is used to manipulate
and move data.
tar
Manipulates tar format archives.
rdump
A network command that backs up files by file system onto a remote
machine’s device.
pax
POSIX–conformant archive utility that can read and write tar and
cpio archives.
Deciding on a Backup Policy
No single backup policy can meet the needs of all users. A policy that works well for a
system with one user, for example, could be inadequate for a system that serves five or ten
different users. Likewise, a policy developed for a system on which many files are changed
daily would be inefficient for a system on which data changes infrequently. Whatever the
appropriate backup strategy for your site, it is very important that one exist and that backups
9-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
be done frequently and regularly. It is difficult to recover from data loss if a good backup
strategy has not been implemented.
Only you can determine the best backup policy for your system, but the following general
guidelines should help:
• Make sure you can recover from major losses.
Can your system continue to run after any single fixed disk failure? Can you recover
your system if all the fixed disks should fail? Could you recover your system if you lost
your backup diskettes or tape to fire or theft? If data were lost, how difficult would it be to
re–create it? Think through possible, even unlikely, major losses, and design a backup
policy that would enable you to recover your system after any of them.
• Check your backups periodically.
Backup media and their hardware can be unreliable. A large library of backup tapes or
diskettes is useless if data cannot be read back onto a fixed disk. To make certain that
your backups are usable, display the table of contents from the backup tape periodically
(using restore –T or tar –t for archive tapes). If you use diskettes for your backups and
have more than one diskette drive, read diskettes from a drive other than the one on
which they were created. You may want the security of repeating each level 0 backup
with a second set of media. If you use a streaming tape device for backups, you can use
the tapechk command to perform rudimentary consistency checks on the tape.
• Keep old backups.
Develop a regular cycle for reusing your backup media; however, you should not reuse
all of your backup media. Sometimes it may be months before you or some other user of
your system notices that an important file is damaged or missing. You should save old
backups for such possibilities. For example, you could have the following three cycles of
backup tapes or diskettes:
– Once per week, recycle all daily diskettes except the Friday diskette.
– Once per month, recycle all Friday diskettes except for the one from the last Friday of
the month. This makes the last four Friday backups always available.
– Once per quarter, recycle all monthly diskettes except for the last one. Keep the last
monthly diskette from each quarter indefinitely, perhaps in a different building.
•
Check file systems before backing up.
A backup made from a damaged file system may be useless. Before making your
backups, it is good policy to check the integrity of the file system with the fsck command.
• Ensure files are not in use during a backup.
Your system should not be in use when you make your backups. If the system is in use,
files can change while they are being backed up, and the backup copy will not be
accurate.
• Back up your system before major changes are made to the system.
It is always good policy to back up your entire system before any hardware testing or
repair work is performed or before you install any new devices, programs, or other
system features.
Note: The backup of named pipes (FIFO special files) works fine whether they are
closed or open. However, the restoration fails when the backup is done on open named
pipes. When restoring a FIFO special file, its inode is all that is required to recreate it
since it contains all its characteristic information. The content of the named pipe is not
relevant for restored. Therefore, the file size during backup should be zero (all the FIFOs
closed) before the backup is made.
Attention: System backup and restore procedures require that the system be restored
on the same type of platform from which the backup was made. In particular, the CPU
and I/O planar boards must be of the same type. The backup and restore procedures
Backup and Restore
9-3
described herein were tested for operation on the IBM ESCALA platform and may not
operate as described on other platforms.
Understanding Backup Media
Several types of backup media are available. The types of backup media available to your
specific system configuration depend upon your software and hardware. The types most
frequently used are 8–mm tape, 9–track tape, and the 3.5–inch diskette.
For backing up individual files and file systems, diskettes are the standard medium. Unless
you specify a different device using the backup –f command, the backup command
automatically writes its output to /dev/rfd0, which is the diskette drive. To back up to the
default tape device, use /dev/rmt0.
Attention: Running the backup command results in the loss of all material previously
stored on the selected output medium.
Restoring Data
Once data has been properly backed up, there are several different methods of restoring
the data based upon the type of backup command you used.
You need to know how your backup or archive was created to restore it properly. Each
backup procedure gives information about restoring data. For example, if you use the
backup command, you can specify a backup either by file system or by name. That backup
must be restored the way it was done, by file system or by name.
Several commands restore backed up data, such as:
9-4
restore
Copies files created by the backup command.
rrestore
Network command that copies file systems backed up on a remote
machine to the local machine.
cpio
Copies files into and out of archive storage.
tar
Manipulates archives. Used only for directories.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Developing a Backup Strategy
There are two methods of backing up large amounts of data:
• Complete system backup
• Incremental backup
To understand these two types of backups and which one is right for a site or system, it is
important to have an understanding of file system structure and data placement. Once you
have decided on a strategy for data placement, you can develop a backup strategy for that
data. See ”Implementing Scheduled Backups” in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide:
Operating System and Devices for an example of a backup strategy that includes weekly
complete system backups and daily incremental backups.
File System Structure
It is important to understand the difference between a file system and a directory. A file
system is a section of hard disk that has been allocated to contain files. This section of hard
disk is accessed by mounting the file system over a directory. Once the file system is
mounted, it looks just like any other directory to the end user. However, because of the
structural differences between the file systems and directories, the data within these entities
can be managed separately.
When the operating system is installed for the first time, it is loaded into a directory
structure, as shown in the /root File System Tree illustration.
The directories on the right (/usr, /tmp, /var, and /home) are all file systems so they have
separate sections of the hard disk allocated for their use. These file systems are mounted
automatically when the system is booted, so the end user does not see the difference
between these file systems and the directories listed on the left (/bin, /dev, /etc, and /lib).
System Data Versus User Data
Data is defined as programs or text and for this discussion is broken down into two classes:
• System data, which makes up the operating system and its extensions. This data should
always be kept in the system file systems, namely / (root), /usr, /tmp, /var, and so on.
• User data is typically local data that individuals need to complete their specific tasks. This
data should be kept in the /home file system or in file systems that are created
specifically for user data.
User programs and text should not be placed in file systems designed to contain system
data. For example, a system manager might create a new file system and mount it over a
/local.
Backup and Restore
9-5
Backing Up
In general, backups of user and system data are kept in case data is accidentally removed
or in case of a disk failure. It is easier to manage backups when user data is kept separate
from system data. These are the reasons for keeping system data separate from user data:
• User data tends to change much more often than operating system data. Backup images
are much smaller if the system data is not backed up into the same image as the user
data. The number of users affects the storage media and frequency required for backup.
• It is quicker and easier to restore user data when it is kept separate. Restoring the
operating system along with the user data requires extra time and effort. The reason is
that the method used to recover the operating system data involves booting the system
from removable media (tape or CD–ROM) and installing the system backup.
To back up the system data, unmount all user file systems, including /home with the
umount command. If these file systems are in use, you will not be able to unmount them. It
is worth scheduling the backups at low usage times so they can be unmounted; if the user
data file systems remain mounted, they will be backed up along with the operating system
data. To ensure that only the operating system file systems are mounted, enter the following
command:
mount
The only mounted file systems should be /, /usr, /var, and /tmp, and the output of the
mount command should be similar to the following:
node
mounted
mounted over vfs
date
options
/dev/hd4
/
jfs
Jun 11 10:36
rw,log=/dev/hd8
/dev/hd2
/usr
jfs
Jun 11 10:36
rw,log=/dev/hd8
/dev/hd9var
/var
jfs
Jun 11 10:36
rw,log=/dev/hd8
/dev/hd
/tmp
jfs
Jun 11 10:36
rw,log=/dev/hd8
Once you are certain that all user file systems are unmounted, refer to ”Backing Up Your
System” for information on backing up the operating system data.
When you finish backing up the operating system, mount the user file system using the smit
mount command. Next, you can back up files, file systems, or other volume groups,
depending on your needs. Procedures on these backups are covered later in the chapter.
Replicating a System (Cloning)
Cloning allows you to save configuration data along with user or system data. For example,
you might want to replicate a system or volume group; this is sometimes called cloning. You
can then install this image onto another system and can use it just like the first system. The
mksysb command is used to clone the rootvg volume group, which contains the operating
system, while the savevg command is used to clone a volume group. Procedures for
backing up both your system and user volume groups are discussed later in the chapter.
9-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Backing up User Files or File Systems
Three procedures can be used to back up files and file systems: the Web-based System
Manager fast path wsm fs, the SMIT fast paths smit backfile or smit backfilesys, and the
backup command.
You can use the SMIT interface for backing up single and small file systems by name, such
as /home on your local system. Note that SMIT cannot make archives in any other format
than that provided by the backup command. Also, not every flag of the backup command is
available through SMIT, as that would make the SMIT dialog convoluted and confusing.
SMIT may hang if multiple tapes or disks are needed during the backup (see ”Backing Up
by Name” in the backup command).
Use the backup command when you want to back up large and multiple file systems. You
can sepcify a level number to control how much data is backed up (full, 0; incremental, 1–9).
Using the backup command is the only way you can specify the level number on backups.
The backup command creates copies in one of the two following backup formats:
• Specific files backed up by name using the –i flag with the backup command.
• Entire file systems backed up by i–node using the –Level and FileSystem parameters.
One advantage of i–node backup is that the backup is defragmented when restored.
Attention: Backing up by i–node does not work properly for files that have UID (user ID)
or GID (group ID) greater than 65535. These files are backed up with UID or GID
truncated and will, therefore, have the wrong UID or GID attributes when restored.
Backing up by name works properly for files that have a UID or GID greater than 65535.
Backup and Restore
9-7
Backing Up the System Image and User–Defined Volume
Groups
A backup image serves two purposes. One is to restore a corrupted system using the
system’s own backup image. The other is to transfer installed and configured software from
one system to others. You can backup the system or volume groups using Web-based
System Manager, SMIT, or command procedures.
The rootvg volume group is a hard disk, or group of disks, containing start up files, the
Base Operating System (BOS), configuration information, and any optional software
products. A user–defined volume group (also called nonrootvg volume group) typically
contains data files and application software.
The Web-based System Manager and SMIT procedures use the mksysb command to
create a backup image that can be stored either on tape or in a file. If you choose tape, the
backup program writes a boot image to the tape, which makes it suitable for installing.
Notes:
1. Bootable tapes cannot be made on or used to boot a PowerPC Personal Computer.
2. If you choose the SMIT method for backup, you must first install the sysbr fileset in the
bos.sysmgt software package. See Installing Optional Software and Service Updates in
the AIX Installation Guide for information on how to install software packages and
options.
Configuring before the Backup
Configure the source system before creating a backup image of it. If, however, you plan to
use a backup image for installing other, differently configured target systems, create the
image before configuring the source system.
The source system is the system from which you created the backup copy. The target
system is the system on which you are installing the backup copy.
The installation program automatically installs only the device support required for the
hardware configuration of the installed machine. Therefore, if you are using a system
backup to install other machines, you may need to install additional devices on the source
system before making the backup image and using it to install one or more target systems.
Use the Web-based System Manager fast path, wsm devices,SMIT fast path, smit
devinst, to install additional device support on the source system.
• If there is sufficient disk space on the source and target systems, install all device
support.
• If there is limited disk space on the source and target systems, selectively install all
device support.
For information on installing optional software, see ”Installing Optional Software and
Service Updates” in the AIX Installation Guide.
A backup transfers the following configurations from the source system to the target
system:
• Paging space information
• Logical volume information
• rootvg volume group information
• Placement of logical partitions (if the Create Map Files field is set to yes in the
Web-based System Manager or SMIT menu).
Refer to the section on customizing the BOS install program ”Customizing the BOS Install
Program” in the AIX Installation Guide for information about how to set installation
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
parameters to enable you to bypass menu prompts when you install the target machine
from a system backup.
Mounting and Unmounting File Systems
The ”Backing Up Your System” procedure in the AIX 4.3 System Management Guide:
Operating System and Devices backs up only mounted file systems in the rootvg volume
group. You must, therefore, mount all file systems you want to back up before starting.
Similarly, you must unmount file systems you do not want backed up.
This backup procedure backs up files twice if a local directory is mounted over another
local directory in the same file system. For example, if you mount /tmp over /usr/tmp, the
files in the /tmp directory will be backed up twice. This duplication might exceed the number
of files a file system can hold, which can cause a future installation of the backup image to
fail.
Security Considerations
If you install the backup image on other systems, you might not, for security reasons, want
passwords and network addresses copied to the target systems. Also, copying network
addresses to a target system creates duplicate addresses that can disrupt network
communications.
Restoring a Backup Image
When installing the backup image, the system checks whether the target system has
enough disk space to create all the logical volumes stored on the backup. If there is enough
space, the entire backup is recovered. Otherwise, the installation halts and the system
prompts you to choose more destination hard disks.
File systems created on the target system will be the same size as they were on the source
system, unless the SHRINK variable was set to yes in the image.data file before the
backup image was made. An exception is the /tmp directory, which can be increased to
allocate enough space for the bosboot command. For information about setting variables,
refer to the image.data file in AIX Files Reference.
When it finishes installing the backup image, the installation program reconfigures the
Object Data Manager (ODM) on the target system. If the target system does not have
exactly the same hardware configuration as the source system, the program may modify
device attributes in the following target system files:
• All files in /etc/objrepos beginning with ”Cu”
• All files in the /dev directory.
For more information about installing (or restoring) a backup image, see Installing BOS
from a System Backup in the AIX Installation Guide.
Backup and Restore
9-9
9-10
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 10. System Environment
The system environment is primarily the set of variables that define or control certain
aspects of process execution. They are set or reset each time a shell is started. From the
system–management point of view, it is important to ensure the user is set up with the
correct values at log in. Most of these variables are set during system initialization. Their
definitions are read from the /etc/profile file or set by default.
Topics discussed in this chapter are:
• Profiles Overview, on page 10-2
• List of Time Data Manipulation Services, on page 10-3
• Understanding AIX Support for the X/Open UNIX95 Specification, on page 10-4
• Enabling Dynamic Processor Deallocation, on page 10-5
System Environment
10-1
Profiles Overview
The shell uses two types of profile files when you log in to the operating system. It evaluates
the commands contained in the files and then executes the commands to set up your
system environment. The files have similar functions except that the /etc/profile file controls
profile variables for all users on a system whereas the .profile file allows you to customize
your own environment.
The following profile and system environment information is provided:
• /etc/profile File
• .profile File
• Changing the System Date and Time in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating
System and Devices.
• Changing the Message of the Day AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating
System and Devices.
• List of Time Data Manipulation Services, on page 10-3
/etc/profile File
The first file that the operating system uses at login time is the /etc/profile file. This file
controls system–wide default variables such as:
• Export variables
• File creation mask (umask)
• Terminal types
• Mail messages to indicate when new mail has arrived.
The system administrator configures the profile file for all users on the system. Only the
system administrator can change this file.
.profile File
The second file that the operating system uses at login time is the .profile file. The .profile
file is present in your home ($HOME) directory and enables you to customize your individual
working environment. The .profile file also overrides commands and variables set in the
/etc/profile file. Since the .profile file is hidden, use the li –a command to list it. Use the
.profile file to control the following defaults:
• Shells to open
• Prompt appearance
• Environment variables (for example, search path variables)
• Keyboard sound
The following example shows a typical .profile file:
PATH=/usr/bin:/etc:/home/bin1:/usr/lpp/tps4.0/user:/home/gsc/bin::
epath=/home/gsc/e3:
export PATH epath
csh
This example has defined two paths (PATH and epath), exported them, and opened a C
shell (csh).
You can also use the .profile file (or if it is not present, the profile file) to determine login
shell variables. You can also customize other shell environments. For example, use the
.chsrc and .kshrc files to tailor a C shell and a Korn shell, respectively, when each type
shell is started.
10-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
List of Time Data Manipulation Services
The time functions access and reformat the current system date and time. You do not need
to specify any special flag to the compiler to use the time functions.
Include the header file for these functions in the program. To include a header file, use the
following statement:
#include <time.h>
The time services are the following:
adjtime
Corrects the time to allow synchronization of the system
clock.
ctime, localtime, gmtime, mktime, difftime, asctime, tzset
Converts date and time to string representation.
getinterval, incinterval, absinterval, resinc, resabs, alarm, ualarm, getitimer,
setitimer
Manipulates the expiration time of interval timers.
gettimer, settimer, restimer, stime, time
Gets or sets the current value for the specified systemwide
timer.
gettimerid
Allocates a per–process interval timer.
gettimeofday, settimeofday, ftime
Gets and sets date and time.
nsleep, usleep, sleep
Suspends a current process from execution.
reltimerid
Releases a previously allocated interval timer.
System Environment
10-3
Understanding AIX Support for the X/Open UNIX95
Specification
The operating system is designed to support the X/Open UNIX95 Specification for portability
of UNIX–based operating systems. Many new interfaces, and some current ones, have
been added or enhanced to meet this specification and AIX has become even more open
and portable for applications.
At the same time, compatibility with previous AIX releases is preserved. This is
accomplished by the creation of a new environment variable, which can be used to set the
system environment on a per–system, per–user, or per–process basis.
The default AIX environment is one that maintains compatibility with previous AIX releases.
To obtain an environment designed to conform to the UNIX95 specification, the environment
variable XPG_SUS_ENV must be assigned the value ON. If XPG_SUS_ENV is set to any
other value, or is unset, the default AIX behavior will be used.
When XPG_SUS_ENV is set, every program in that environment will operate in the
UNIX95–specified operating system environment. It is possible that some applications
compiled for the AIX environment (perhaps for an earlier version of AIX) will not operate
correctly when XPG_SUS_ENV is set.
10-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Enabling Dynamic Processor Deallocation
Starting with machine type 7044 model 270, the hardware of all systems with more than two
processors will be able to detect correctable errors, which are gathered by the firmware.
These errors are not fatal and, as long as they remain rare occurrences, can be safely
ignored. However, when a pattern of failures seems to be developing on a specific
processor, this pattern may indicate that this component is likely to exhibit a fatal failure in
the near future. This prediction is made by the firmware based–on–failure rates and
threshold analysis.
AIX, on these systems, implements continuous hardware surveillance and regularly polls the
firmware for hardware errors. When the number of processor errors hits a threshold and the
firmware recognizes that there is a distinct probability that this system component will fail,
the firmware returns an error report to AIX. In all cases, AIX logs the error in the system
error log. In addition, on multiprocessor systems, depending on the type of failure, AIX
attempts to stop using the untrustworthy processor and deallocate it. This feature is called
Dynamic Processor Deallocation.
At this point, the processor is also flagged by the firmware for persistent deallocation for
subsequent reboots, until maintenance personnel replaces the processor.
Potential Impact to Applications
This processor decallocation is transparent for the vast majority of applications, including
drivers and kernel extensions. However, you can use AIX published interfaces to determine
whether an application or kernel extension is running on a multiprocessor machine, find out
how many processors there are, and bind threads to specific processors.
The interface for binding processes or threads to processors uses logical CPU numbers.
The logical CPU numbers are in the range [0..N–1] where N is the total number of CPUs. To
avoid breaking applications or kernel extensions that assume no ”holes” in the CPU
numbering, AIX always makes it appear for applications as if it is the ”last” (highest
numbered) logical CPU to be deallocated. For instance, on an 8–way SMP, the logical CPU
numbers are [0..7]. If one processor is deallocated, the total number of available CPUs
becomes 7, and they are numbered [0..6]. Externally, it looks like CPU 7 has disappeared,
regardless of which physical processor failed. In the rest of this description, the term CPU is
used for the logical entity and the term processor for the physical entity.
Applications or kernel extensions using processes/threads binding could potentially be
broken if AIX silently terminated their bound threads or forcefully moved them to another
CPU when one of the processors needs to be deallocated. provides programming
interfaces so that those applications and kernel extensions can be notified that a processor
deallocation is about to happen. When these applications and kernel extensions get this
notification, they are responsiblefor moving their bound threads and associated resources
(such as timer request blocks) away form the last logical CPU and adapt themselves to the
new CPU configuration.
If, after notification of applications and kernel extensions, some of the threads are still bound
to the last logical CPU, the deallocation is aborted. In this case AIX logs the fact that the
deallocation has been aborted in the error log and continues using the ailing processor.
When the processor ultimately fails, it creates a total system failure. Thus, it is important for
applications or kernel extensions binding threads to CPUs to get the notification of an
impending processor deallocation, and act on this notice.
Even in the rare cases where the deallocation cannot go through, still gives advanced
warning to system administrators. By recording the error in the error log, it gives them a
chance to schedule a maintenance operation on the system to replace the ailing component
before a global system failure occurs.
System Environment
10-5
Processor Deallocation:
The typical flow of events for processor deallocation is as follows:
1. The firmware detects that a recoverable error threshold has been reached by one of the
processors.
2. AIX logs the firmware error report in the system error log, and, when executing on a
machine supporting processor deallocation, start the deallocation process.
3. AIX notifies non–kernel processes and threads bound to the last logical CPU.
4. AIX waits for all the bound threads to move away from the last logical CPU. If threads
remain bound, AIX eventually times out (after ten minutes)and aborts the deallocation
5. Otherwise, AIX invokes the previously registered High Availability Event Handlers
(HAEHs). An HAEH may return an error that will abort the deallocation.
6. Otherwise, AIX goes on with the deallocation process and ultimately stops the failing
processor.
In case of failure at any point of the deallocation, AIX logs the failure with the reason why
the deallocation was aborted. The system administrator can look at the error log, take
corrective action (when possible) and restart the deallocation. For instance, if the
deallocation was aborted because at least one application did not unbind its bound threads,
the system administrator could stop the application(s), restart the deallocation (which should
go through this time) and restart the application.
System Administration
Turning Processor Deallocation On and Off
Dynamic Processor Deallocation can be enabled or disabled by changing the value of the
cpuguard attribute of the ODM object sys0. The possible values for the attribute are
enable and disable.
The default, in this version of AIX, is that the dynamic processor deallocation is disabled
(the attribute cpuguard has a value of disable). System administrators who want to take
advantage of this feature must enable it using either the Web-based System Manager
system menus, the SMIT System Environments menu, or the chdev command.
Note: If processor deallocation is turned off, AIX still reports the errors in the error log
and you will see the error indicating that AIX was notified of the problem with a CPU
(CPU_FAILURE_PREDICTED, see the following format).
Restarting an Aborted Processor Deallocation
Sometimes the processor deallocation fails because, for example, an application did not
move its bound threads away from the last logical CPU. Once this problem has been fixed,
by either unbinding (when it is safe to do so) or stopping the application, the system
administrator can restart the processor deallocation process using the ha_star command.
The syntax for this command is:
ha_star –C
where –C is for a CPU predictive failure event.
Processor State Considerations
Physical processors are represented in the ODM data base by objects named procn where
n is the physical processor number (n is a decimal number). Like any other ”device”
represented in the ODM database, processor objects have a state (Defined/Available) and
attributes. The state of a proc object is always Available as long as the corresponding
10-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
processor is present, regardless of whether it is usable by AIX. The state attribute of a proc
object indicates if the processor is used by AIX and, if not, the reason. This attribute can
have three values:
enable
The processor is used by AIX.
disable
The processor has been dynamically deallocated by AIX.
faulty
The processor was declared defective by the firmware at boot time.
In the case of CPU errors, if a processor for which the firmware reports a predictive failure is
successfully deallocated by AIX, its state goes from enable to disable. Independently of AIX,
this processor is also flagged as defective in the firmware. Upon reboot, it will not be
available to AIX and will have its state set to faulty. But the ODM proc object is still marked
Available. Only if the defective CPU was physically removed from the system board or CPU
board (if it were at all possible) would the proc object change to Defined.
Examples:
Processor proc4 is working correctly and used by AIX:
# lsattr –EH –l proc4
attribute value description
state
type
#
enable
PowerPC_RS64–III
user_settable
Processor state False
Processor type False
Processor proc4 gets a predictive failure and gets deallocated by AIX:
# lsattr –EH –l proc4
attribute value
description
state
type
#
disable
PowerPC_RS64–III
user_settable
Processor state False
Processor type False
At the next system boot, processor proc4 is reported by firmware as defective and not
available to AIX:
# lsattr –EH –l proc4
attribute value
description
state
type
#
faulty
PowerPC_RS64–III
user_settable
Processor state False
Processor type False
System Environment
10-7
But in all three cases, the status of processor proc4 is Available:
# lsdev –CH –l proc4
name
status
proc4
#
Available
location
description
00–04
Processor
Error Log Entries
Following are examples wth descriptions of error logentries:
errpt short format – summary
Three different error log messages are associated with CPU deallocation.
Following is an example of entries displayed by the errpt command
(without options):
# errpt
IDENTIFIER
TIMESTAMP
RESOURCE_NAME
DESCRIPTION
804E987A
1008161399
CPU DEALLOCATED
8470267F
1008161299
CPU DEALLOCATION ABORTED
1B963892
1008160299
CPU FAILURE PREDICTED
#
T
C
I
O
proc4
T
S
proc4
P
H
proc4
– If processor deallocation is enabled, a CPU FAILURE PREDICTED message is
always followed by either a CPU DEALLOCATED message or a CPU DEALLOCATION
ABORTED message.
– If processor deallocation is not enabled, only the CPU FAILURE PREDICTED
message is logged. Enabling processor deallocation any time after one or more CPU
FAILURE PREDICTED messages have been logged initiates the deallocation
process and results in a success or failure error log entry, as described above, for
each processor reported failing.
errpt long format – detailed description
Following is the form of output obtained with errpt –a:
– CPU_FAIL_PREDICTED
Error description: Predictive Processor Failure
This error indicates that the hardware detected that a processor has a high probability to
fail in a near future. It is always logged whether or not processor deallocation is enabled.
DETAIL DATA: Physical processor number, location
10-8
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Example: error log entry – long form
LABEL:
IDENTIFIER:
CPU_FAIL_PREDICTED
1655419A
Date/Time:
Thu Sep 30 13:42:11
Sequence Number:53
Machine Id:
00002F0E4C00
Node Id:
auntbea
Class:
H
Type:
PEND
Resource Name: proc25
Resource Class: processor
Resource Type: proc_rspc
Location:
00–25
Description
CPU FAILURE PREDICTED
Probable Causes
CPU FAILURE
Failure Causes
CPU FAILURE
Recommended Actions
ENSURE CPU GARD MODE IS ENABLED
RUN SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS.
Detail Data
PROBLEM DATA
0144
1000
1100
1999
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
4942
2E31
2D50
0002
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
...
...
0000
0930
0000
0000
4D00
312D
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
...
003A
8E00
4019
0000
0000
0000
0000
5531
4332
0000
0000
0000
0000
00000000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
...
...
9100
1842
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
– CPU_DEALLOC_SUCCESS
Error Description: A processor has been successfully deallocated upon detection of a
predictive processor failure.
This message is logged by AIX when processor deallocation is enabled, and when the
CPU has been successfully deallocated.
DETAIL DATA: Logical CPU number of deallocated processor.
System Environment
10-9
Example: error log entry – long form:
CPU_DEALLOC_SUCCESS
804E987A
LABEL:
IDENTIFIER:
Date/Time:
Thu Sep 30 13:44:13
Sequence Number:63
Machine Id:
00002F0E4C00
Node Id:
auntbea
Class:
O
Type:
INFO
Resource Name: proc24
Description
CPU DEALLOCATED
Recommended Actions
MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED BECAUSE OF CPU FAILURE
Detail Data
LOGICAL DEALLOCATED CPU NUMBER
0
The preceding example shows that proc24 was successfully deallocated and was logical
CPU 0 when the failure occurred.
– CPU_DEALLOC_FAIL
Error Description: A processor deallocation, due to a predictive processor failure, was
not successful.
This message is logged by AIX when CPU deallocation is enabled, and when the CPU
has not been successfully deallocated.
DETAIL DATA: Reason code, logical CPU number, additional information depending of
the type of failure.
The reason code is a numeric hexadecimal value. The possible reason codes are:
10-10
2
One or more processes/threads remain bound to the last logical
CPU. In this case, the detailed data give the PIDs of the offending
processes.
3
A registered driver or kernel extension returned an error when
notified. In this case, the detailed data field contains the name of
the offending driver or kernel extension (ASCII encoded).
4
Deallocating a processor would cause the machine to have less
than two available CPUs. AIX does not deallocate more than N–2
processors on an N–way machine to avoid confusing applications
or kernel extensions using the total number of available processors
to determine whether they are running on a Uni Processor (UP)
system where it is safe to skip the use of multiprocessor locks, or a
Symmetric Multi Processor (SMP).
200 (0xC8)
Processor deallocation is disabled (the ODM attribute cpuguard
has a value of disable). You would normally not see this error
unless you start ha_star manually.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Examples: error log entries – long format
Example 1:
LABEL:
CPU_DEALLOC_ABORTED
IDENTIFIER:
8470267F
Date/Time:
Thu Sep 30 13:41:10
Sequence Number:50
Machine Id:
00002F0E4C00
Node Id:
auntbea
Class:
S
Type:
TEMP
Resource Name: proc26
Description
CPU DEALLOCATION ABORTED
Probable Causes
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
Failure Causes
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
Recommended Actions
MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED BECAUSE OF CPU FAILURE
SEE USER DOCUMENTATION FOR CPU GARD
Detail Data
DEALLOCATION ABORTED CAUSE
0000 0003
DEALLOCATION ABORTED DATA
6676 6861 6568 3200
The preceding example shows that the deallocation for proc26 failed. The reason code
3 means that a kernel extension returned an error to the kernel notification routine. The
DEALLOCATION ABORTED DATA above spells fvhaeh2, which is the name the
extension used when registering with the kernel.
System Environment
10-11
Example 2:
LABEL:
CPU_DEALLOC_ABORTED
IDENTIFIER:
8470267F
Date/Time:
Thu Sep 30 14:00:22
Sequence Number:71
Machine Id:
00002F0E4C00
Node Id:
auntbea
Class:
S
Type:
TEMP
Resource Name: proc19
Description
CPU DEALLOCATION ABORTED
Probable Causes
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
Failure Causes
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
Recommended Actions
MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED BECAUSE OF CPU FAILURE;
SEE USER DOCUMENTATION FOR CPU GARD
Detail Data
DEALLOCATION ABORTED CAUSE
0000 0002
DEALLOCATION ABORTED DATA
0000 0000 0000 4F4A
The preceding example shows that the deallocation for proc19 failed. The reason code
2 indicates thread(s) were bound to the last logical processor and did not unbind upon
receiving the SIGCPUFAIL signal. The DEALLOCATION ABORTED DATA shows that
these threads belonged to process 0x4F4A.
Options of the ps command ( –o THREAD, –o BND ) allow listings of all threads or
processes, with the number of the CPU they are bound to when applicable.
10-12
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Example 3:
LABEL:
IDENTIFIER:
CPU_DEALLOC_ABORTED
8470267F
Date/Time:
Thu Sep 30 14:37:34
Sequence Number:106
Machine Id:
00002F0E4C00
Node Id:
auntbea
Class:
S
Type:
TEMP
Resource Name: proc2
Description
CPU DEALLOCATION ABORTED
Probable Causes
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
Failure Causes
SOFTWARE PROGRAM
Recommended Actions
MAINTENANCE IS REQUIRED BECAUSE OF CPU FAILURE
SEE USER DOCUMENTATION FOR CPU GARD
Detail Data
DEALLOCATION ABORTED CAUSE
0000 0004
DEALLOCATION ABORTED DATA
0000 0000 0000 0000
The preceding example shows that the deallocation of proc2 failed because there were
two or fewer active processors at the time of failure (reason code 4).
System Environment
10-13
10-14
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 11. National Language Support
Many system variables are used to establish the language environment of the system.
These variables and their supporting commands, files, and other tools, are referred to as
National Language Support (NLS).
Topics covered in this chapter are:
• National Language Support Overview, on page 11-2
• Locale Overview, on page 11-4
• Understanding Locale, on page 11-5
• Understanding Locale Categories, on page 11-9
• Understanding Locale Environment Variables, on page 11-10
• Understanding the Locale Definition Source File, on page 11-12
• Understanding the Character Set Description (charmap), on page 11-13
• Changing Your Locale, on page 11-14
• Converters Overview, on page 11-16
National Language Support
11-1
National Language Support Overview
National Language Support (NLS) provides commands and Standard C Library subroutines
for a single worldwide system base. An internationalized system has no built–in
assumptions or dependencies on language–specific or cultural–specific conventions such
as:
• Code sets
• Character classifications
• Character comparison rules
• Character collation order
• Numeric and monetary formatting
• Date and time formatting
• Message–text language
All information pertaining to cultural conventions and language is obtained at process run
time.
The following capabilities are provided by NLS to maintain a system running in an
international environment:
• Localization of information
• Separation of messages from programs
• Conversion between code sets
Localization of Information
An internationalized system processes information correctly for different locations. For
example, in the United States, the date format, 9/6/1990, is interpreted to mean the sixth
day of the ninth month of the year 1990. The United Kingdom interprets the same date
format to mean the ninth day of the sixth month of the year 1990. The formatting of
numerical and monetary data is also country–specific, for example, the U.S. dollar and the
U.K. pound. A locale is defined by these language–specific and cultural–specific
conventions for processing information.
All locale information must be accessible to programs at run time so that data is processed
and displayed correctly for your cultural conventions and language. This process is called
localization; it consists of developing a database containing locale–specific rules for
formatting data and an interface to obtain the rules. For more information about localization,
see ”Locale Overview”, on page 11-4.
Separation of Messages from Programs
To facilitate translations of messages into various languages and to make the translated
messages available to the program based on a user’s locale, it is necessary to keep
messages separate from the programs and provide them in the form of message catalogs
that a program can access at run time. To aid in this task, commands and subroutines are
provided by the message facility. For more information, see ”Message Facility Overview” in
AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Conversion between Code Sets
A character is any symbol used for the organization, control, or representation of data. A
group of such symbols used to describe a particular language make up a character set. A
code set contains the encoding values for a character set. It is the encoding values in a
code set that provide the interface between the system and its input and output devices.
11-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Historically, the effort was directed at encoding the English alphabet. It was sufficient to use
a 7–bit encoding method for this purpose because the number of English characters is not
large. To support larger alphabets, such as the Asian languages (for example, Chinese,
Japanese, and Korean), additional code sets were developed that contained multibyte
encodings.
The following code sets are supported:
• Industry–standard code sets are provided by means of the ISO8859 family of code sets,
which provide a range of single–byte code set support that includes Latin–1, Latin–2,
Arabic, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Greek, and Turkish. The IBM–eucJP code set is the
industry–standard code set used to support the Japanese locale.
• Personal Computer (PC) based code sets IBM–850 and IBM–943 (and IBM–932) are
supported. IBM–850 is a single–byte code set used to support Latin–1 countries (U.S.,
Canada, and Western Europe). IBM–943 and IBM–932 are multibyte code sets used to
support the Japanese locale.
• A Unicode(TM) environment based on the UTF–8 codeset is supported for all supported
language/territories. UTF–8 provides character support for most of the major languages
of the world and can be used in environments where multiple languages must be
processed simultaneously.
As more code sets are supported, it becomes important not to clutter programs with the
knowledge of any particular code set. This is known as code set independence . To aid in
code set independence, NLS supplies converters that translate character encoding values
found in different code sets. Using these converters, a system can accurately process data
generated in different code set environments. For more information, see ”Converters
Overview”, on page 11-16.
National Language Support
11-3
Locale Overview
An internationalized system has no built–in assumptions or dependencies on code set,
character classification, character comparison rules, character collation order, monetary
formatting, numeric punctuation, date and time formatting, or the text of messages. A locale
is defined by these language and cultural conventions. All of the information pertaining to
language–specific and cultural–specific conventions is obtained at process run time.
All locale information must be accessible to programs at run time so that data is processed
and displayed correctly for your language–specific and cultural–specific conventions. The
National Language Support (NLS) system provides these localization capabilities. NLS
provides a database containing locale–specific rules for formatting data and an interface to
obtain these rules.
11-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Locale
A locale is made up of the language, territory, and code set combination used to identify a
set of language conventions. These conventions include information on collation, case
conversion, and character classification, the language of message catalogs, date–and–time
representation, the monetary symbol, and numeric representation.
Locale information contained in locale definition source files must first be converted into a
locale database by the localedef command. The setlocale subroutine can then access this
information and set locale information for applications. To deal with locale data in a logical
manner, locale definition source files are divided into six categories. Each category contains
a specific aspect of the locale data. The LC_* environment variables and the LANG
environment variable can be used in specifying the desired locale.
Locale Naming Conventions
Each locale is named by its locale definition source file name. These files are named for the
language, territory, and code set information they describe. The following format is used for
naming a locale definition file:
language[_territory][.codeset][@modifier]
For example, the locale for the Danish language spoken in Denmark using the ISO8859–1
code set is da_DK.ISO8859–1. The da stands for the Danish language and the DK stands
for Denmark. The short form of da_DK is sufficient to indicate this locale. The same
language and territory using the IBM–850 code set is indicated by either Da_DK.IBM–850
or the short form Da_DK.
System–defined locale definition files are provided to show the format of locale categories
and their keywords. The /usr/lib/nls/loc directory contains the locale definition files for
system–defined locales. The C, or POSIX, locale defines the ANSI C–defined standard
locale inherited by all processes at startup time. The other system–defined locale definition
source files are:
Locale
Language
Country
Code Set
Ar_AA
Arabic
Arabic Countries
IBM–1046
ar_AA
Arabic
Arabic Countries
IS08859–6
be_BY
Byelorussian
Belarus
ISO8859–5
bg_BG
Bulgarian
Bulgaria
IS08859–5
ca_ES
Catalan
Spain
IS08859–15
cs_CZ
Czech
Czech Republic
IS08859–2
Da_DK
Danish
Denmark
IBM–850
da_DK
Danish
Denmark
ISO8859–1
da_DK
Danish
Denmark
ISO8859–15
De_CH
German
Switzerland
IBM–850
de_CH
German
Switzerland
ISO8859–1
de_CH
German
Switzerland
ISO8859–15
De_DE
German
Germany
IBM–850
de_DE
German
Germany
ISO8859–1
de_DE
German
Germany
ISO8859–15
el_GR
Greek
Greece
ISO8859–7
en_AU
English
Australia
ISO8859–15
National Language Support
11-5
11-6
Locale
Language
Country
Code Set
en_BE
English
Belgium
ISO8859–15
En_GB
English
Great Britain
IBM–850
en_GB
English
Great Britain
ISO8859–1
en_GB
English
Great Britain
ISO8859–15
En_US
English
United States
IBM–850
en_US
English
United States
ISO8859–1
en_US
English
United States
ISO8859–15
en_ZA
English
South Africa
ISO8859–15
Es_ES
Spanish
Spain
IBM–850
es_ES
Spanish
Spain
ISO8859–1
es_ES
Spanish
Spain
ISO8859–15
Et_EE
Estonian
Estonia
IBM–922
ET_EE
Estonian
Estonia
UTF–8
Fi_FI
Finnish
Finland
IBM–850
fi_FI
Finnish
Finland
ISO8859–1
fi_FI
Finnish
Finland
ISO8859–15
Fr_BE
French
Belgium
IBM–850
fr_BE
French
Belgium
ISO8859–1
fr_BE
French
Belgium
ISO8859–15
Fr_CA
French
Canada
IBM–850
fr_CA
French
Canada
ISO8859–1
fr_CA
French
Canada
ISO8859–15
Fr_FR
French
France
IBM–850
fr_FR
French
France
ISO8859–1
fr_FR
French
France
ISO8859–15
Fr_CH
French
Switzerland
IBM–850
fr_CH
French
Switzerland
ISO8859–1
fr_CH
French
Switzerland
ISO8859–15
hr_HR
Croatian
Croatia
ISO8859–2
hu_HU
Hungarian
Hungary
ISO8859–2
Is_IS
Icelandic
Iceland
IBM–850
is_IS
Icelandic
Iceland
ISO8859–1
is_IS
Icelandic
Iceland
ISO8859–15
it_CH
Italian
Switzerland
ISO8859–15
It_IT
Italian
Italy
IBM–850
it_IT
Italian
Italy
ISO8859–1
it_IT
Italian
Italy
ISO8859–15
lw_IL
Hebrew
Israel
IBM–856
iw_IL
Hebrew
Israel
ISO8859–8
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Locale
Language
Country
Code Set
Ja_JP
Japanese
Japan
IBM–943
ja_JP
Japanese
Japan
IBM–eucJP
ko_KR
Korean
Korea
IBM–eucKR
Lt_LT
Lithuanian
Lithuania
IBM–921
LT_LT
Lithuanian
Lithuania
UTF–8
Lv_LV
Latvian
Latvia
IBM–921
LV_LV
Latvian
Latvia
UTF–8
mk_MK
Macedonian
Former Yugoslav
Republic of
Macedonia
ISO–8859–5
Nl_BE
Dutch
Belgium
IBM–850
nl_BE
Dutch
Belgium
ISO8859–1
nl_BE
Dutch
Belgium
ISO8859–15
Nl_NL
Dutch
Netherlands
IBM–850
nl_NL
Dutch
Netherlands
ISO8859–1
nl_NL
Dutch
Netherlands
ISO8859–15
No_NO
Norwegian
Norway
IBM–850
no_NO
Norwegian
Norway
ISO8859–1
no_NO
Norwegian
Norway
ISO8859–15
pl_PL
Polish
Poland
ISO8859–2
pt_BR
Portuguese
Brazil
ISO8859–1
pt_BR
Portuguese
Brazil
ISO8859–15
Pt_PT
Portuguese
Portugal
IBM–850
pt_PT
Portuguese
Portugal
ISO8859–1
pt_PT
Portuguese
Portugal
ISO8859–15
ro_RO
Romanian
Romania
ISO8859–2
ru_RU
Russian
Russia
ISO8859–5
sh_SP
Serbian Latin
Yugoslavia
ISO8859–2
sl_SI
Slovene
Slovenia
ISO8859–2
sk_SK
Slovak
Slovakia
ISO8859–2
sq_AL
Albanian
Albania
ISO8859–1
sq_AL
Albanian
Albania
ISO8859–15
sr_SP
Serbian Cyrillic
Yugoslavia
ISO8859–5
Sv_SE
Swedish
Sweden
IBM–850
sv_SE
Swedish
Sweden
ISO8859–1
sv_SE
Swedish
Sweden
ISO8859–15
th_TH
Thai
Thailand
TIS–620
TH_TH
Thai
Thailand
UTF–8
tr_TR
Turkish
Turkey
ISO8859–9
Uk_UA
Ukrainian
Ukraine
IBM–1124
National Language Support
11-7
Locale
Language
Country
Code Set
Vi_VN
Vietnamese
Vietnam
IBM–1129
VI_VN
Vietnamese
Vietnam
UTF–8
Zh_CN
Simplified Chinese
People’s Republic of
China
GBK
zh_CN
Simplified Chinese
People’s Republic of
China
IBM–eucCN
ZH_CN
Chinese
People’s Republic of
China
UTF–8
zh_TW
Chinese (trad)
Republic of China
IBM–eucTW
Zh_TW
Chinese (trad)
Republic of China
big5
Installation Default Locale
The installation default locale refers to the locale selected at installation. For example, when
prompted, a user can specify the French language as spoken in Canada during the
installation process. The code set automatically defaults to the ISO8859–1 code set. With
this information, the system sets the value of the default locale, specified by the LANG
environment variable, to fr_CA ( fr for ISO8859–1 French and CA for Canada). Every
process uses this locale unless the LC_* or LANG environment variables are modified. The
default locale can be changed by using the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT)
Manage Language Environment menu.
11-8
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding Locale Categories
A locale category is a particular grouping of language–specific and
cultural–convention–specific data. For instance, data referring to date–and–time formatting,
the names of the days of the week, names of the months, and other time–specific
information is grouped into the LC_TIME category. Each category uses a set of keywords
that describe the particulars of that locale subset.
The following standard categories can be defined in a locale definition source file:
LC_COLLATE
Defines character–collation or string–collation information.
LC_CTYPE
Defines character classification, case conversion, and
other character attributes.
LC_MESSAGES
Defines the format for affirmative and negative responses.
LC_MONETARY
Defines rules and symbols for formatting monetary numeric
information.
LC_NUMERIC
Defines rules and symbols for formatting nonmonetary
numeric information.
LC_TIME
Defines a list of rules and symbols for formatting time and
date information.
Note: Locale categories can only be modified by editing the locale definition source file;
they should not be confused with the environment variables of the same name, which
can be set from the command line.
National Language Support
11-9
Understanding Locale Environment Variables
National Language Support (NLS) uses several environment variables to influence the
selection of locales. You can set the values of these variables to change search paths for
locale information:
LANG
Specifies the installation default locale.
Note: The LANG value is established at installation. (This is the
locale every process will use unless the LC_* environment
variables are set). The LANG environment variable can be
changed by using the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT).
The C and POSIX locales offer the best performance.
LC_ALL
Overrides the value of the LANG environment variable and the
values of any other LC_* environment variables.
LC_COLLATE
Specifies the locale to use for LC_COLLATE category information.
The LC_COLLATE category determines character–collation or
string–collation rules governing the behavior of ranges, equivalence
classes, and multicharacter collating elements.
LC_CTYPE
Specifies the locale to use for LC_CTYPE category information. The
LC_CTYPE category determines character handling rules governing
the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data characters (that
is, single–byte versus multibyte characters), the classification of
characters (for example, alpha, digit, and so on), and the behavior of
character classes.
LC__FASTMSG
Specifies that default messages should be used for the C and
POSIX locales and that NLSPATH will be ignored when
LC__FASTMSG is set to true; otherwise, POSIX compliant
message handling will be performed. The default value will be
LC__FASTMSG=true in /etc/environment.
LC_MESSAGES
Specifies the locale to use for LC_MESSAGES category
information. The LC_MESSAGES category determines rules
governing affirmative and negative responses and the locale
(language) for messages and menus.
LC_MONETARY
Specifies the locale to use for LC_MONETARY category
information. The LC_MONETARY category determines the rules
governing monetary–related formatting.
LC_NUMERIC
Specifies the locale to use for LC_NUMERIC category information.
The LC_NUMERIC category determines the rules governing
nonmonetary numeric formatting.
LC_TIME
Specifies the locale to use for LC_TIME category information. The
LC_TIME category determines the rules governing date and time
formatting.
LOCPATH
Specifies the search path for localized information, including binary
locale files, input methods, and code–set converters.
Note: All setuid and setgid programs ignore the LOCPATH
environment variable.
NLSPATH
Specifies the search path for locating message catalog files. This
environment variable is used by the Message Facility component of
the NLS subsystem. Refer to the catopen Subroutine for more
information about expected format of the NLSPATH variable.
The environment variables that affect locale selection can be grouped into three priority
classes:
11-10AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Locale Environment Variable Hierarchy
Priority Class
Environment Variables
High
LC_ALL
LC_COLLATE
LC_CTYPE
Medium
LC_MESSAGES
LC_MONETARY
LC_NUMERIC
LC_TIME
Low
LANG
The behavior of an internationalized program is affected by the locale environment variables
in the following manner:
• If the LC_ALL environment variable is set, the value of the LC_ALL variable is used for
all categories. For example, if the LC_ALL environment variable is equal to en_US and
the LANG environment variable is equal to fr_FR, the locale is set to en_US.
• If the LC_ALL environment variable is not set, the values specified for medium–priority
environment variables are used. For example, if the LANG environment variable is set to
en_US and the LC_TIME environment variable is set to fr_FR, then the LC_TIME
category will be loaded from the fr_FR locale database. The LC_TIME environment
variable does not affect the behavior of any other category.
• If individual LC_* environment variables are not set, the value of the LANG environment
variable specifies the locale for all remaining categories.
• If the LANG variable is not set, the locale for all remaining categories defaults to the C
locale.
National Language Support
11-11
Understanding the Locale Definition Source File
Unlike environment variables, which can be set from the command line, locales can only be
modified by editing and compiling a locale definition source file.
If a desired locale is not part of the library, a binary version of the locale can be compiled by
the localedef command. Locale behavior of programs is not affected by a locale definition
source file unless the file is first converted by the localedef command, and the locale object
is made available to the program. The localedef command converts source files containing
definitions of locales into a run–time format and copies the run–time version to the file
specified on the command line, which usually is a locale name. Internationalized commands
and subroutines can then access the locale information. For information on preparing
source files to be converted by the localedef command, see ”Locale Definition Source File
Format” in AIX Files Reference.
11-12AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Understanding the Character Set Description (charmap)
Source File
Using the character set description (charmap) source file, you can assign symbolic names
to character encodings.
Developers of character set description (charmap) source files are free to choose their own
symbolic names, provided that these names do not conflict with the standardized symbolic
names that describe the portable character set.
The charmap file resolves problems with the portability of sources, especially locale
definition sources. The standardized portable character set is constant across all locales.
The charmap file provides the capability to define a common locale definition for multiple
code sets. That is, the same locale definition source can be used for code sets with different
encodings of the same extended characters.
A charmap file defines a set of symbols that are used by the locale definition source file to
refer to character encodings. The characters in the portable character set can optionally be
included in the charmap file, but the encodings for these characters should not differ from
their default encodings.
The charmap files are located in the /usr/lib/nls/charmap directory.
National Language Support
11-13
Changing Your Locale
Changing the NLS Environment
You can change the NLS environment using the Web-based System Manager Users
application or the Manage Language Environment SMIT interface to:
• Change the default language environment.
• Change the keyboard map for the next system restart.
• Manage fonts.
• Convert the code set of message catalogs.
• Convert the code set of flat text files.
You can also use the setmaps command to set the code set map of a terminal.
Changing the Default Language Environment
The setting of the LANG environment variable (the ”LANG = <name>” string in the
/etc/environment file) designates the default locale, which is a language–territory–code–set
combination. The default locale provides formats for default collation, character
classification, case conversion, numeric and monetary formatting, date–and–time
formatting, and affirmative or negative responses. The default locale includes reference to
the code set.
Changing the Default Keyboard Mapping for the Next System Restart
If more than one code set is supported for a given language–territory combination, multiple
low–function terminal (LFT) keyboard mappings exist. The selected keyboard mapping has
to match the code set of the selected language environment.
Managing Fonts
Users can perform such tasks as selecting the active font and selecting the font to load for
the next system restart. The selected font has to support the same code set as the selected
language environment and LFT keyboard mapping.
Converting the Code Set of Message Catalogs
Message catalogs are shipped in one code set for each translated language–territory
combination. The code set of the message catalog has to match the code set of the locale.
Converting the Code Set of Flat Text Files
User–defined flat files of one code set can be converted to another code set when
appropriate (IBM–850 to ISO8859–1, for example).
Typical User Scenarios
There are several NLS–related scenarios some users may encounter on the system. This
section lists common scenarios with suggested actions to be taken.
• User keeps default code set
The user may be satisfied with the default code set for language–territory combinations
even where more than one code set is supported. The user may keep the default code
set if the current user environment uses that code set, or if the user is new and has no
code set preference.
The language–territory selected at system installation time will be defaulted to the
appropriate locale based on the default code set. The default keyboard mappings,
default font, and message catalogs are all established around the default code set. This
scenario requires no special action from the user.
• User changes code set from the default code set
11-14AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Users of a Latin–1 or Japanese locale may want to migrate their data and NLS
environment to a different (nondefault) code set. This can be done in the following
fashion:
– When the user has existing data that requires conversion
Flat text files that require conversion to the preferred code set may be converted
through the Web-based System Manager Users application, the Manage the
Language Environment SMIT menu, or the iconv utility. User–defined structured files
require conversion through user–written conversion tools that use the iconv library
functions to convert the desired text fields within the structured files.
– When the user wants to change to the other code set
Where more than one code set is supported for a language–territory combination, the
user may change to a nondefault locale by using:
– The Web-based System Manager Users application
– The Manage Language Environment SMIT menu
– The chlang, chkbd, and chfont commands
National Language Support
11-15
Converters Overview
National Language Support (NLS) provides a base for internationalization to allow data to
be changed from one code set to another. You may need to convert text files or message
catalogs. There are several standard converters for this purpose.
When a program sends data to another program residing on a remote host, the data can
require conversion from the code set of the source machine to that of the receiver. For
example, when communicating with an IBM VM system, the system converts its ISO8859–1
data to EBCDIC. Code sets define character and control function assignments to code
points. These coded characters must be converted when a program receives data in one
code set but displays it in another code set.
There are two interfaces for doing conversions:
• iconv command
Allows you to request a specific conversion by naming the from and to code sets.
• libiconv functions
Allow applications to request converters by name.
The system provides a library of converters that is ready to use. You supply the name of the
converter you want to use. The converter libraries are found in the following directories:
/usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv/* and /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconvTable/*.
In addition to code set converters, the converter library also provides a set of network
interchange converters. In a network environment, the code sets of the communications
systems and the protocols of communication determine how the data should be converted.
Interchange converters are used to convert data sent from one system to another.
Conversions done from one internal code set to another require code set converters.
Whether data must be converted from a sender’s code set to a receiver’s code set, or 8–bit
data must be converted into 7–bit data form, a uniform interface is required. The iconv
subroutines provide this interface.
Standard Converters
There are standard converters for use with the iconv command and subroutines. The
following list describes the different types of converters.
For a list of converters, see AIX General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging
Programs.
Converter Type
• Table converter
Converts single–byte stateless code sets. Performs a table translation from one byte to
another byte.
• Multibyte converter
Provides conversions between multibyte code sets; for example, between Japanese PC
Code (IBM–943 and IBM–932) or Japanese AIX Code (IBM–eucJP) and IBM Japanese
Host Code Sets (IBM–930 and IBM–939).
Interchange Converter Types
• 7–bit converter
Converts between internal code sets and standard interchange formats (7–bit).
• 8–bit converter
Converts between internal code sets and standard interchange formats (8–bit).
• Compound text converter
Converts between compound text and internal code sets.
11-16AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
• uucode converter
Provides the same mapping as the uuencode and uudecode commands.
• Miscellaneous converters
Used by some of the converters listed above.
Understanding iconv Libraries
The iconv facility consists of a set of functions that contain the data and logic to convert
from one code set to another. The utility also includes the iconv command, which converts
data. A single system can have several converters. The LOCPATH environment variable
determines the converter that the iconv subroutines use.
Note: All setuid and setgid programs ignore the LOCPATH environment variable.
Universal UCS Converter
UCS–2 is a universal 16–bit encoding (see the code set overview in AIX General
Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs) that can be used as an
interchange medium to provide conversion capability between virtually any code sets. The
conversion can be accomplished using the Universal UCS Converter, which converts
between any two code sets XXX and YYY as follows:
XXX <–> UCS–2 <–> YYY
The XXX and YYY conversions must be included in the supported List of UCS–2
Interchange Converters, and must be installed on the system.
The universal converter is installed as the file
/usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv/Universal_UCS_Conv. A new conversion can be supported by
creating a new link with the appropriate name in the /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv directory. For
example, to support new converters between IBM–850 and IBM–437, you can execute the
following commands:
ln –s /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv/Universal_UCS_Conv
/usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv/IBM–850_IBM–437
ln –s /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv/Universal_UCS_Conv
/usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv/IBM–437_IBM–850
Attention: If a converter link is created for incompatible code sets (for example,
ISO8859–1 and IBM–eucJP), and if the source data contains characters that don’t exist
in the target code set, significant data loss can result.
The conversion between multibyte and wide character code depends on the current
locale setting. Do not exchange wide character codes between two processes, unless
you have knowledge that each locale that might be used handles wide character codes
in a consistent fashion. Most AIX locales use the Unicode character value as a wide
character code, except locales based on the IBM–850 and IBM–eucTW codesets.
National Language Support
11-17
11-18AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 12. Process Management
The process is the entity that the operating system uses to control the use of system
resources. AIX Version 4 introduces the use of threads to control processor–time
consumption, but most of the system management tools still require the administrator to
refer to the process in which a thread is running, rather than to the thread itself.
See the AIX 4.3 System User’s Guide: Operating System and Devices for basic information
on managing your own processes; for example, restarting or stopping a process that you
started or scheduling a process for a later time. This guide also defines terms that describe
processes, such as daemons and zombies.
For task procedures, see Process Management in the AIX 4.3 System Management
Concepts: Operating System and Devices.
AIX contains tools to:
• Observe the creation, cancellation, identity, and resource consumption of processes.
– ps is used to report process IDs, users, CPU–time consumption, and other attributes.
– who –u reports the shell process ID of logged–on users.
– svmon is used to report process real–memory consumption. (See Performance
Toolbox 1.2 and 2.1 for AIX: User’s Guide for information on the svmon command.)
– acct mechanism writes records at process termination summarizing the process’s
resource use. (See how to set up an accounting system in ”Accounting Overview”, on
page 15-2.)
• Control the priority level at which a process contends for the CPU.
– nice causes a command to be run with a specified process priority. (See AIX 4.3
System User’s Guide: Operating System and Devices.)
– renice changes the priority of a given process.
• Terminate processes that are out of control.
– kill sends a termination signal to one or more processes.
• Tune the operating system’s process–management mechanisms.
– schedtune permits changes to the process scheduler parameters. (See AIX
Performance Tuning Guide for information on the schedtune command.)
Process Management
12-1
12-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 13. Workload Management
AIX Workload Management (WLM) is designed to provide the system administrator
increased control over how the scheduler and the virtual memory manager (VMM) allocate
resources to processes. You can use WLM to prevent different classes of jobs from
interfering with each other and to allocate resources based on the requirements of different
groups of users.
WLM is primarily intended for use with large systems. Large systems are often used for
server consolidation, in which workloads from many different server systems (such as
printer, database, general user, and transaction processing systems)are combined into a
single large system to reduce the cost of system maintenance. These workloads often
interfere with each other and have different goals and service agreements.
WLM also provides isolation between user communities with very different system
behaviors. This can prevent effective starvation of workloads with certain behaviors (for
example, interactive or low CPU usage jobs) by workloads with other behaviors (for
example, batch or high memory usage jobs).
WLM gives you the ability to create different classes of service for jobs, and specify
attributes for those classes. These attributes specify minimum and maximum amounts of
CPU and physical memory resources to be allocated to a class. You can then classify jobs
automatically to classes using class assignment rules. These rules are based on the name
of the user or group of the process or the pathname of the applications.
Workload Management
13-1
Managing Resources with WLM
WLM monitors and regulates the CPU utilization and physical memory consumption of the
threads and processes active on the system. You can set minimum or maximum limits by
class for each resource managed by WLM. In addition, a target value for each resource per
class may be given. This target is representative of the amount of the resource that would
be optimal for the jobs in the class. The processes are automatically assigned to a class by
WLM upon execution, using a set of class assignment rules provided by the system
administrator.
This new version of WLM allows WLM to start in active mode, where WLM does monitoring
and regulation of CPU and memory (the normal operating mode), or in passive mode,
where WLM only classifies processes and monitors resource utilization without interfering
with the standard &Symbol.AIX; resource allocation algorithms. This mode is primarily
interesting when setting up new WLM configuration:
• To test the classification and assignment rules by checking (using ps) that the various
applications correctly end up in the class they were supposed to be in without changing
the behavior of the system.
• To obtain a base line of the application’s resource utilization ”without WLM,” using the
wlmstat command. This should provide a reference for system administrators and help
them decide how to apply resource shares and limits (when needed) to favor critical
applications and/or restrict the resource usage of less important work, in order to meet
their business goals.
Minimum and Maximum Resource Limits
The different resources can be limited by the the following values:
• The minimum percentage of the resource that must be made available when requested.
The possible values are integers from 0 to 100. If unspecified, the default value is 0.
• The maximum percentage of a resource that can be made available, even if there is no
contention for the resource. The possible values are integers from 1 to 100. If
unspecified, the default value is 100.
Resource limit values are specified in the resource limit file by resource type within stanzas
for each class. The limits are specified as a minimum to maximum range, separated by a
hyphen (–) with whitespace ignored. Each limit value is followed by a percent sign (%).
WLM does not place hard constraints on the values of the resource limits. The following are
the only constraints:
• The minimum range must be less than or equal to the maximum range.
• The sum of the minimum of all classes within a tier cannot exceed 100.
WLM enforces the maximum range to ensure that a class or process within a class is not
given more resource than the specified value. Note that in the case of a memory constraint,
swapping performance can become very poor for processes within the constrained class.
Memory minimums for other classes should be used before imposing a memory maximum
for any class.
A minimum value constraint on a class means that processes within the class are always
allowed to get resources up to the minimum. WLM cannot guarantee that processes actually
reach their minimum limit. This depends on how the processes use their resources and on
other limits that may be in effect. For example, a class may not be able to reach its minimum
CPU entitlement because it cannot get enough memory.
13-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Target Shares
The target for use of different types of resources is specified by shares. The shares are
specified as relative amounts of usage between different classes. If unspecified, the default
share is 1. One way of thinking about shares is as a self–adapting percentage.
For example, a system has 3 classes, A, B and C defined, whose targets are respectively
50, 30 and 20.
• If all 3 classes are active, the total number of shares for the active classes is 100. Their
targets, expressed as percentages is 50%, 30% and 20% .
• If A is not active, the total number of shares is 50 (so each share represents 2%). The
target percentages for B and C are 60% and 40%.
• If only one class is active, its target is 100%.
In this example, the sum of the shares for the 3 classes was 100 simply to make the sample
calculation easier. A target can be any number between 1 and 65535.
The target represents a percentage of resources, which can vary widely, depending on how
many classes are active at any given time. However, WLM makes sure that the dynamic
value of the target remains compatible with the minimum and maximum values for the class.
If the calculated percentage is below the minimum, WLM uses the minimum as the target. If
the percentage is above the maximum range, WLM uses the maximum as the target. If the
percentage is between the minimum and maximum, WLM uses the calculated value.
Tier Value
The tier value for a class is the importance of the class relative to other classes. The tier
value 0 is the most important; the value 9 is the least important.
Workload Management
13-3
Examples of Classification and Limits
Several methods exist for classifying a process, and all operate concurrently. A top–down
strictest first matching algorithm is used to provide for maximum configuration flexibility. You
can organize process groupings by user with special cases for programs with certain
names, by pathname with special cases for certain users, or any other arrangement.
Example with CPU limits
This example examines CPU allocation, with the assumption that each class can consume
all the CPU it is given.
Two classes, A and B, are in the same tier. CPU limits for A are [30% – 100%]. CPU limits
for B are [20% – 100%]. When both classes are running and are using sufficient CPU, WLM
first makes sure that they both get their minimum percentages of each second (averaged
over several seconds). Then WLM distributes the remaining CPU cycles according to any
CPU target share values.
If the CPU target shares for A and B are 60% and 40% respectively, then the CPU utilization
for A and B stabilize at 60% and 40% respectively.
A third class, C, is added. this class is a group of CPU bound jobs and should run with about
half (or more) of the available CPU. Class C has limits of [20% – 100%] and CPU target
shares of 100%. If C is in the same tier as A and B, then when C is starting, A and B see
their CPU allocation decrease steeply and the three classes stabilize at 30%, 20% and 50%,
respectively. Their targets in this case are also the minimum for A and B.
A system administrator may not want batch jobs to eat up 50% of the CPU when other jobs,
possibly of higher priority, are also running. In a situation like the above example, C is
placed in a lower priority tier. C then receives whatever CPU is left over by A and B. In the
above example, C would receive no CPU, since A and B were each capable of absorbing
100% of the CPU. In most situations, however, A and B, in a high priority tier could be
composed of interactive or transaction–oriented jobs, which do not use all of the CPU all of
the time. C then receives some share of the CPU, for which it competes with other classes
in the same or lower tiers.
Example with memory limits
This example examines memory allocation to groups of processes with varying memory
targets. Three groups of processes must run: a group of interactive processes that need to
run whenever they are used (PEOPLE), a batch job that always runs in the background
(BATCH1), and a second more important batch job that runs every night (BATCH0).
PEOPLE has a specified memory minimum of 20%, a memory target of 50 shares and a
class tier value of 1. A 20% minimum limit ensures that the desktop applications in this class
resume fairly quickly when users touch their keyboards.
BATCH1 has a memory minimum of 50%, a memory target of 50 shares and a tier value of
3.
BATCH0 has a memory minimum of 80%, a memory target of 50 shares and a tier value of
2.
Classes PEOPLE and BATCH1 have a total memory minimum limit of 70. Under normal
operation (when BATCH0 is not running) both of these classes are allowed to get all of their
reserved memory. They share the rest of the memory in the machine about half and half,
even though they are in different tiers. At midnight when BATCH0 is started, the memory
minimum total reaches 150. WLM ignores the minimum requirements for the lowest tiers
until processes in the upper tiers exit. BATCH0 takes memory from the BATCH1 50%
reserve, but not from the PEOPLE 20% reserve. After BATCH0 is done, memory reserves
for tier 3 processes are honored again and the system returns to its normal memory
balance.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Setting Up WLM
WLM offers a fine level of control over resource allocation. However, it is easy to set up
conflicting values for the various parameters and obtain undesirable system behaviors. The
following tips can help you avoid creating conflicts:
• Know your user base and their basic computing needs when defining classes and class
assignment rules.
• Know the resource needs of the main applications. A way to determine what their
resource usage could be to start WLM in passive mode once you have defined your
classes and the associated classification rules. wlmstat will then give you snapshots of
the resource utilization, per class, when the resource allocation is not regulated by WLM.
• Prefer targets over minimum and maximum limits. Targets give the system greater
flexibility than hard limits, and targets can help prevent starving applications.
• Try to balance the load using only targets and monitor the system with the wlmstat
command. Apply minimum limits for classes that do not receive sufficient share.
• Prioritize some jobs by using tiers.
• Use maximum only as a last resort to restrain applications that consume large quantities
of share. Maximum can also be used to place hard limits on users’ resource consumption
(for example, for accounting purposes).
Specifying WLM Properties
You can specify the properties for the WLM subsystem by using either a Web-based System
Manager graphical user interface, SMIT, an ASCII–oriented user interface, or by creating flat
ASCII files. The Web-based System Manager and SMIT interfaces record the information in
the same flat ASCII files. These files are called the WLM property files and are named
classes, description, rules, limits, and shares. The WLM property files can only be
loaded by the root user.
You can define multiple sets of property files, defining different configurations of workload
management. These configurations are usually located in subdirectories of /etc/wlm. A
symbolic link /etc/wlm/current points to the directory containing the current configuration
files. This link is updated by the wlmcntrl command when WLM starts with a specified set of
configuration files.
Workload Management
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 14. System Resource Controller and
Subsystems
This chapter provides an overview of the System Resource Controller (SRC) and the
various subsystems it controls. For task procedures, see System Resource Controller and
Subsystems in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
System Resource Controller Subsystems
14-1
System Resource Controller Overview
The System Resource Controller (SRC) provides a set of commands and subroutines to
make it easier for the system manager and programmer to create and control subsystems.
A subsystem is any program or process or set of programs or processes that is usually
capable of operating independently or with a controlling system. A subsystem is designed
as a unit to provide a designated function.
The SRC was designed to minimize the need for operator intervention. It provides a
mechanism to control subsystem processes using a common command line and the C
interface. This mechanism includes the following:
• Consistent user interface for start, stop, and status inquiries
• Logging of the abnormal termination of subsystems
• Notification program called at the abnormal system termination of related processes
• Tracing of a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver
• Support for control of operations on a remote system
• Refreshing of a subsystem (such as after a configuration data change)
The SRC is useful if you want a common way to start, stop, and collect status information on
processes.
Subsystem Components
A subsystem can have one or more of the following properties:
• Is known to the system by name
• Requires a more complex execution environment than a subroutine or nonprivileged
program
• Includes application programs and libraries as well as subsystem code
• Controls resources that can be started and stopped by name
• Requires notification if a related process is unsuccessful to perform cleanup or to recover
resources
• Requires more operational control than a simple daemon process
• Needs to be controlled by a remote operator
• Implements subservers to manage specific resources
• Does not put itself in the background
A few subsystem examples are ypserv, ntsd, qdaemon, inetd, syslogd, and sendmail.
Note: Refer to each specific subsystem for details of its SRC capabilities.
Use the lssrc –a command to list active and inactive subsystems on your system.
Subsystem Group
A subsystem group is a group of any specified subsystems. Grouping subsystems together
allows the control of several subsystems at one time. A few subsystem group examples are
TCP/IP, SNA Services, Network Information System (NIS), and Network File Systems
(NFS).
Subserver
A subserver is a program or process that belongs to a subsystem. A subsystem can have
multiple subservers and is responsible for starting, stopping, and providing status of
subservers. Subservers can be defined only for a subsystem with a communication type of
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
IPC message queues and sockets. Subsystems using signal communications do not
support subservers.
Subservers are started when their parent subsystems are started. If you try to start a
subserver and its parent subsystem is not active, the startsrc command starts the
subsystem as well.
SRC Hierarchy
The System Resource Controller has a hierarchical structure (see figure). The hierarchy
begins with the operating system followed by a subsystem group (such as tcpip), which
contains a subsystem (such as the inetd daemon), which in turn can own several
subservers (such as the ftp daemon and the finger command).
List of SRC Administration Commands
srcmstr daemon
Starts the System Resource Controller.
startsrc command
Starts a subsystem, subsystem group, or subserver.
stopsrc command
Stops a subsystem, subsystem group, or subserver.
refresh command
Refreshes a subsystem.
traceson command
Turns on tracing of a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or
a subserver.
tracesoff command
Turns off tracing of a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or
a subserver.
lssrc command
Gets status on a subsystem.
System Resource Controller Subsystems
14-3
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 15. System Accounting
This chapter provides an overview of the system accounting utility, which allows you to
collect and report on individual and group use of various system resources.
System Accounting
15-1
Accounting Overview
This accounting information can be used to bill users for the system resources they utilize,
and to monitor selected aspects of the system’s operation. To assist with billing, the
accounting system provides the resource–usage totals defined by members of the adm
group, and, if the chargefee command is included, factors in the billing fee.
The accounting system also provides data to assess the adequacy of current resource
assignments, set resource limits and quotas, forecast future needs, and order supplies for
printers and other devices.
The following information should help you understand how to implement the accounting
utility in your system:
• Collecting and Reporting System Data, on page 15-2
• Collecting Accounting Data, on page 15-2
• Reporting Accounting Data, on page 15-4
• Accounting Commands, on page 15-5
• Accounting Files, on page 15-7
Collecting and Reporting System Data
For data to be collected automatically, a member of the adm group needs to follow the
procedures described in ”Setting Up an Accounting System” in AIX 4.3 System
Management Guide: Operating System and Devices. These procedures enable the cron
daemon to run the commands that generate data on:
• Amount of time each user spends logged in to the system
• Usage of the processing unit, memory, and I/O resources
• Amount of disk space occupied by each user’s files
• Usage of printers and plotters
• Number of times a specific command is given
The system writes a record of each session and process after they are completed. These
records are converted into total accounting (tacct) records arranged by user and merged
into a daily report. Periodically, the daily reports are combined to produce totals for the
defined fiscal period. Methods for collecting and reporting the data and the various
accounting commands and files are discussed in the following sections.
Although most of the accounting data is collected and processed automatically, a member of
the adm group can enter certain commands from the keyboard to obtain specific
information. These commands are discussed in ”Keyboard Commands”, on page 15-6.
Collecting Accounting Data
There are several types of accounting data: connect–time data, process data, disk–usage
data, printer–usage data, and fee data. Each is described in the following paragraphs.
Connect–Time Accounting
Connect–time data is collected by the init command and the login command. When you log
in, the login program writes a record in the /etc/utmp file. This record includes your user
name, the date and time of the login, and the login port. Commands, such as who, use this
file to find out which users are logged into the various display stations. If the /var/adm/wtmp
connect–time accounting file exists, the login command adds a copy of this login record to
it.
When your login program ends (normally when you log out), the init command records the
end of the session by writing another record in the /var/adm/wtmp file. Logout records differ
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
from login records in that they have a blank user name. Both the login and logout records
have the form described in the utmp.h file.
The acctwtmp command also writes special entries in the /var/adm/wtmp file concerning
system shutdowns and startups.
For more information, see ”Connect–Time Reports”, on page 15-4.
Process Accounting
The system collects data on resource usage for each process as it runs. These data
include:
• User and group numbers under which the process runs
• First eight characters of the name of the command
• Elapsed time and processor time used by the process
• Memory use
• Number of characters transferred
• Number of disk blocks read or written on behalf of the process
The accton command records these data in a specified file, usually the /var/adm/pacct file.
Related commands are the startup command, the shutacct command, the dodisk
command, the ckpacct command, and the turnacct command.
For more information, see ”Reporting Accounting Data”, on page 15-4.
Disk–Usage Accounting
Much accounting information is collected as the resources are consumed. The dodisk
command, run as specified by the cron daemon, periodically writes disk–usage records for
each user to the /var/adm/acct/nite/dacct file. To accomplish this, the dodisk command
calls other commands. Depending upon the thoroughness of the accounting search, the
diskusg command or the acctdusg command can be used to collect data. The acctdisk
command is used to write a total accounting record. The total accounting record, in turn, is
used by the acctmerg command to prepare the daily accounting report.
The dodisk command charges a user for the links to files found in the user’s login directory
and evenly divides the charge for each file between the links. This spreads the cost of using
a file over all who use it and removes the charges from users when they relinquish access
to a file.
For more information, see ”Disk–Usage Accounting Report”, on page 15-3.
Printer–Usage Accounting
The collection of printer–usage data is a cooperative effort between the enq command and
the queuing daemon. The enq command enqueues the user name, job number, and the
name of the file to be printed. After the file is printed, the qdaemon command writes an
ASCII record to a file, usually the /var/adm/qacct file, containing the user name, user
number, and the number of pages printed. You can sort these records and convert them to
total accounting records.
For more information, see ”Printer–Usage Accounting Report”, on page 15-2.
Fee Accounting
You can enter the chargefee command to produce an ASCII total accounting record in the
/var/adm/fee file. This file will be added to daily reports by the acctmerg command.
For more information, see ”Fee Accounting Report”, on page 15-2.
System Accounting
15-3
Reporting Accounting Data
After the various types of accounting data are collected, the records are processed and
converted into reports.
Accounting commands automatically convert records into scientific notation when numbers
become large. A number is represented in scientific notation in the following format:
Basee+Exp
OR
Basee–Exp
which is the number equal to the Base number multiplied by 10 to the +Exp or –Exp power.
For example, the scientific notation 1.345e+9 is equal to 1.345x109, or 1,345,000,000. And
the scientific notation 1.345e–9 is equal to 1.345x10–9 or, .000000001345.
Connect–Time Reports
The runacct command calls two commands, acctcon1 and acctcon2, to process the login,
logout, and system–shutdown records that collect in the /var/adm/wtmp file. The acctcon1
command converts these records into session records and writes them to the
/var/adm/acct/nite/lineuse file. The acctcon2 command then converts the session records
into a total accounting record, /var/adm/logacct, that the acctmerg command adds to daily
reports.
If you run the acctcon1 command from the command line, you must include the –l flag to
produce the line–use report, /var/adm/acct/nite/lineuse. To produce an overall session
report for the accounting period, /var/adm/acct/nite/reboots, use the acctcon1 command
with the –o flag.
The lastlogin command produces a report that gives the last date on which each user
logged in.
Process Accounting Reports
Two commands process the billing–related data that was collected in the /var/adm/pacct or
other specified file. The acctprc1 command translates the user ID into a user name and
writes ASCII records containing the chargeable items (prime and non–prime CPU time,
mean memory size, and I/O data). The acctprc2 command transforms these records into
total accounting records that are added to daily reports by the acctmerg command.
Process accounting data also provides information that you can use to monitor system
resource usage. The acctcms command summarizes resource use by command name.
This provides information on how many times each command was run, how much processor
time and memory was used, and how intensely the resources were used (also known as the
hog factor). The acctcms command produces long–term statistics on system utilization,
providing information on total system usage and the frequency with which commands are
used.
The acctcom command handles the same data as the acctcms command, but provides
detailed information about each process. You can display all process accounting records or
select records of particular interest. Selection criteria include the load imposed by the
process, the time period when the process ended, the name of the command, the user or
group that invoked the process, and the port at which the process ran. Unlike other
accounting commands, acctcom can be run by all users.
Disk–Usage Accounting Report
The disk–usage records collected in the /var/adm/acct/nite/dacct file are merged into the
daily accounting reports by the acctmerg command.
Printer–Usage Accounting Report
The ASCII record in the /var/adm/qacct file can be converted to a total accounting record to
be added to the daily report by the acctmerg command.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Fee Accounting Report
If you used the chargefee command to charge users for services such as file restores,
consulting, or materials, an ASCII total accounting record is written in the /var/adm/fee file.
This file is added to the daily reports by the acctmerg command.
Daily Reports
Raw accounting data on connect–time, processes, disk usage, printer usage, and fees to
charge are merged into daily reports by the acctmerg command. Called by the runacct
command as part of its daily operation, the acctmerg command produces the following:
/var/adm/acct/nite/dacct
An intermediate report that is produced when one of the
input files is full.
/var/adm/acct/sum/tacct
A cumulative total report in tacct format. This file is used by
the monacct command to produce the ASCII monthly
summary.
The acctmerg command can convert records between ASCII and binary formats and merge
records from different sources into a single record for each user.
Monthly Report
Called by the cron daemon, the monacct command produces the following:
/var/adm/acct/fiscal
A periodic summary report produced from the
/var/adm/acct/sum/tacct report by the monacct
command. The monacct command can be configured to
run monthly or at the end of a fiscal period.
Accounting Commands
The accounting commands function several different ways. Some commands:
• Collect data or produce reports for a specific type of accounting: connect–time, process,
disk usage, printer usage, or command usage.
• Call other commands. For example, the runacct command, which is usually run
automatically by the cron daemon, calls many of the commands that collect and process
accounting data and prepare reports. To obtain automatic accounting, you must first
configure the cron daemon to run the runacct command. See the crontab command for
more information about how to configure the cron daemon to submit commands at
regularly scheduled intervals.
• Perform maintenance functions and ensure the integrity of active data files.
• Enable members of the adm group to perform occasional tasks, such as displaying
specific records, by entering a command at the keyboard.
• Enable a user to display specific information. There is only one user command, the
acctcom command, which displays process accounting summaries.
Commands That Run Automatically
Several commands usually run by the cron daemon automatically collect accounting data.
runacct
Handles the main daily accounting procedure. Normally initiated by
the cron daemon during non–prime hours, the runacct command
calls several other accounting commands to process the active data
files and produce command and resource usage summaries, sorted
by user name. It also calls the acctmerg command to produce daily
summary report files, and the ckpacct command to maintain the
integrity of the active data files.
System Accounting
15-5
ckpacct
Handles pacct file size. It is advantageous to have several smaller
pacct files if you must restart the runacct procedure after a failure in
processing these records. The ckpacct command checks the size of
the /var/adm/pacct active data file, and if the file is larger than 500
blocks, the command invokes the turnacct switch command to turn
off process accounting temporarily. The data is transferred to a new
pacct file, /var/adm/pacctx. (x is an integer that increases each time
a new pacct file is created.) If the number of free disk blocks falls
below 500, the ckpacct command calls the turnacct off command
to turn off process accounting.
dodisk
Calls the acctdisk command and either the diskusg command or
the acctdusg command to write disk–usage records to the
/var/adm/acct/nite/dacct file. This data is later merged into the daily
reports.
monacct
Produces a periodic summary from daily reports.
sa1
Collects and stores binary data in the /var/adm/sa/sadd file, where
dd is the day of the month.
sa2
Writes a daily report in the /var/adm/sa/sadd file, where dd is the
day of the month. The command removes reports from the
/var/adm/sa/sadd file that have been there longer than one week.
Other commands are run automatically by procedures other than the cron daemon:
startup
When added to the /etc/rc file, the startup command initiates startup
procedures for the accounting system.
shutacct
Records the time accounting was turned off by calling the acctwtmp
command to write a line to /var/adm/wtmp file. It then calls the
turnacct off command to turn off process accounting.
Keyboard Commands
A member of the adm group can enter the following commands from the keyboard:
ac
Prints connect–time records. This command is provided for
compatibility with Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) systems.
acctcom
Displays process accounting summaries. This command is also
available to users.
acctcon1
Displays connect–time summaries. Either the –l flag or the –o flag
must be used.
accton
Turns process accounting on and off.
chargefee
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Charges the user a predetermined fee for units of work performed.
The charges are added to the daily report by the acctmerg
command.
fwtmp
Converts files between binary and ASCII formats.
last
Displays information about previous logins. This command is
provided for compatibility with Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
systems.
lastcomm
Displays information about the last commands that were executed.
This command is provided for compatibility with Berkeley Software
Distribution (BSD) systems.
lastlogin
Displays the time each user last logged in.
pac
Prepares printer/plotter accounting records. This command is
provided for compatibility with Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
systems.
prctmp
Displays a session record.
prtacct
Displays total accounting files.
sa
Summarizes raw accounting information to help manage large
volumes of accounting information. This command is provided for
compatibility with Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) systems.
sadc
Reports on various local system actions, such as buffer usage, disk
and tape I/O activity, TTY device activity counters, and file access
counters.
time
Prints real time, user time, and system time required to execute a
command.
timex
Reports in seconds the elapsed time, user time, and execution time.
sar
Writes to standard output the contents of selected cumulative activity
counters in the operating system. The sar command reports only on
local activities.
Accounting Files
There are two main accounting directories: the /usr/sbin/acct directory, where all the C
language programs and shell procedures needed to run the accounting system are stored,
and the /var/adm directory, which contains the data, report and summary files.
The accounting data files belong to members of the adm group, and all active data files
(such as wtmp and pacct) reside in the adm home directory /var/adm.
System Accounting
15-7
Data Files
Files in the /var/adm directory are:
/var/adm/diskdiag
Diagnostic output during the execution of disk accounting
programs.
/var/adm/dtmp
Output from the acctdusg command.
/var/adm/fee
Output from the chargefee command, in ASCII tacct
records.
/var/adm/pacct
Active process accounting file.
/var/adm/wtmp
Active process accounting file.
/var/adm/Spacct .mmdd
Process accounting files for mmdd during the execution of
the runacct command.
Report and Summary Files
Report and summary files reside in a /var/adm/acct subdirectory. You must create the
following subdirectories before the accounting system is enabled. See ”Setting Up an
Accounting System” for more information.
/var/adm/acct/nite
Contains files that the runacct command reuses daily.
/var/adm/acct/sum
Contains the cumulative summary files that the runacct
command updates daily.
/var/adm/acct/fiscal
Contains the monthly summary files that the monacct
command creates.
runacct Command Files
The following report and summary files, produced by the runacct command, are of
particular interest:
/var/adm/acct/nite/lineuse
Contains usage statistics for each terminal line on the
system. This report is especially useful for detecting bad
lines. If the ratio between the number of logouts and
logins exceeds about 3 to 1, there is a good possibility
that a line is failing.
/var/adm/acct/nite/daytacct
Contains the total accounting file for the previous day.
/var/adm/acct/sum/tacct
Contains the accumulation of each day’s nite/daytacct
file and can be used for billing purposes. The monacct
command restarts the file each month or fiscal period.
/var/adm/acct/sum/cms
Contains the accumulation of each day’s command
summaries. The monacct command reads this binary
version of the file and purges it. The ASCII version is
nite/cms.
/var/adm/acct/sum/daycms
Contains the daily command summary. An ASCII version
is stored in nite/daycms.
/var/adm/acct/sum/loginlog
Contains a record of the last time each user ID was used.
/var/adm/acct/sum/rprtmmdd This file contains a copy of the daily report saved by the
runacct command.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Files in the /var/adm/acct/nite Directory
active
Used by the runacct command to record progress and print warning
and error messages. The file active.mmdd is a copy of the active file
made by the runacct program after it detects an error.
cms
ASCII total command summary used by the prdaily command.
ctacct.mmdd
Connect total accounting records.
ctmp
Connect session records.
daycms
ASCII daily command summary used by the prdaily command.
daytacct
Total accounting records for one day.
dacct
Disk total accounting records, created by the dodisk command.
accterr
Diagnostic output produced during the execution of the runacct
command.
lastdate
Last day the runacct executed, in date +%m%d format.
lock1
Used to control serial use of the runacct command.
lineuse
tty line usage report used by the prdaily command.
log
Diagnostic output from the acctcon1 command.
logmmdd
Same as log after the runacct command detects an error.
reboots
Contains beginning and ending dates from wtmp, and a listing of
system restarts.
statefile
Used to record the current state during execution of the runacct
command.
tmpwtmp
wtmp file corrected by the wtmpfix command.
wtmperror
Contains wtmpfix error messages.
wtmperrmmdd
Same as wtmperror after the runacct command detects an error.
wtmp.mmdd
Previous day’s wtmp file.
Files in the /var/adm/acct/sum Directory
cms
Total command summary file for the current fiscal period, in binary
format.
cmsprev
Command summary file without the latest update.
daycms
Command summary file for the previous day, in binary format.
lastlogin
File created by the lastlogin command.
pacct.mmdd
Concatenated version of all pacct files for mmdd. This file is
removed after system startup by the remove command.
rprtmmdd
Saved output of the prdaily command.
tacct
Cumulative total accounting file for the current fiscal period.
tacctprev
Same as tacct without the latest update.
tacctmmdd
Total accounting file for mmdd.
wtmp.mmdd
Saved copy of the wtmp file for mmdd. This file is removed after
system startup by the remove command.
System Accounting
15-9
Files in the /var/adm/acct/fiscal Directory
cms?
Total command summary file for the fiscal period, specified by ?, in
binary format.
fiscrpt?
A report similar to that of the prdaily command for fiscal period,
specified by ?, in binary format.
tacct?
Total accounting file for fiscal period, specified by ?, in binary format.
Accounting File Formats
Accounting file output and formats are summarized in the following.
15-10
wtmp
Produces the active process accounting file. The format of the wtmp
file is defined in the utmp.h file.
ctmp
Produces connect session records. The format is described in the
ctmp.h file.
pacct*
Produces active process accounting records. The format of the
output is defined in the /usr/include/sys/acct.h file.
Spacct*
Produces process accounting files for mmdd during the execution of
the runacct command. The format of these files is defined in the
sys/acct.h file.
daytacct
Produces total accounting records for one day. The format of the file
is defined in the tacct file format.
sum/tacct
Produces binary file that accumulates each day’s command
summaries. The format of this file is defined in the
/usr/include/sys/acct.h header file.
ptacct
Produces concatenated versions of pacct files. The format of these
files are defined in the tacct file.
ctacct
Produces connect total accounting records. The output of this file is
defined in the tacct file.
cms
Produces total accounting command summary used by the prdaily
command, in binary format. The ASCII version is nite/cms.
daycms
Daily command summary used by the prdaily command, in binary
format. The ASCII version is nite/daycms.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 16. Web-based System Manager
Web-based System Manager is a graphical user interface (GUI) application for performing
system administration tasks such as viewing users and groups, installed software, and
printers and devices; managing logical volumes, users and groups, and resources;
mounting and unmounting file systems; configuring the network; and many other tasks. You
can manage systems from a locally attached display or remotely from another AIX system
or personal computer equipped with a web browser.
The Web-based System Manager GUI provides point–and–click control of objects, which
provides an alternative to learning and using AIX commands or SMIT.
For a detailed explanation and procedures for using Web-based System Manager, see
Using Web-based System Manager in AIX 4.3 Quick Beginnings. For procedures for
installing and configuring Web-based System Manager, see Setting Up and Running
Web-based System Manager in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and
Devices.
Web–based System Manager
16-1
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 17. System Management Interface Tool
This chapter provides a brief overview of the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT)
panels, on page 17-2
System Management Interface Tool
17-1
System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) Overview
Although Web-based System Manager is the primary interface for AIX system
management, the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) provides an alternative,
natural–language, task–oriented interface. The SMIT facility runs in two interfaces, ASCII
(nongraphical) or AIXwindows (graphical).
SMIT steps you through the desired task with the use of menus, selectors, and dialogs,
thereby freeing you from the details of complex command syntax, valid parameter values,
and system command spelling. In addition, SMIT creates log files that you can use to
duplicate system configuration or to learn how to use specific commands.
Note: In a networked environment, you can use Distributed SMIT as discussed in the
Distributed SMIT 2.2 for AIX: Guide and Reference.
In the SMIT interface, main menu selections lead to submenus, helping to narrow the
scope of choice to a particular task. To skip the main menu and directly access a submenu
or dialog, you can use the smit command with a Fast Path parameter. To learn more about
SMIT, you can:
• Start SMIT, then select Using SMIT (Information Only) from the SMIT Main Menu.
• In the SMIT dialogs, select On Context (Ctrl+F1) from the Help menu and move the
cursor over the particular menu item or field about which you want more information.
The following table lists some basic SMIT tasks:
Basic SMIT Tasks
17-2
Task
SMIT Fast Path
Selection (ASCII)
Selection
(AIXwindows)
Enter SMIT
smit
Exit SMIT
F12
F12 or Exit SMIT
option from Exit
menu
Show command
F6
F6 or Command
option from Show
menu
Show fast path
F8
F8 or FastPath
option from Show
menu
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 18. The CDE Desktop
With the CDE Desktop (CDE), you can access networked devices and tools without having
to be aware of their location. You can exchange data across applications by simply dragging
and dropping objects.
System administrators will find many tasks that previously required complex command line
syntax can now be done more easily and similarly from platform to platform. They can also
maximize their investment in existing hardware and software by configuring centrally and
distributing applications to users. They can centrally manage the security, availability, and
interoperability of applications for the users they support.
Note: The AIX Common Desktop Environment (CDE) 1.0. Help volumes, web–based
documentation, and hardcopy manuals may refer to the desktop as CDE Desktop, the
AIXwindows desktop, the CDE desktop, AIX CDE 1.0, or simply, the desktop.
For additional information and procedures for using CDE, see Managing the CDE Desktop
in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
The AIX Common Desktop Environment
18-1
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 19. Documentation Library Service
The Documentation Library Service allows you to read and search online HTML
documents. It provides a library application that displays in your web browser. Within the
library application, you can click on links to open documents for reading. You can also type
words into the search form in the library application. The library service searches for the
words and presents a search results page that contains links that lead to the documents
that contain the target words.
To launch the library application, type the docsearch command or select the CDE help
icon, click on the Front Panel Help icon, then click on the Documentation Library icon.
The documentation search service allows you to access only the documents on your
documentation server that are registered with the library and that have been indexed. You
cannot read or search the internet or all the documents on your computer. Indexing creates
a specially compressed copy of a document or collection of documents. It is this index that
is searched rather than the original documents. This technique provides significant
performance benefits. When a phrase you are searching for is found in the index, the
documentation search service presents a results page that contains links to select and open
the document that contains the search phrase.
You can register your own company’s HTML documents into the library so that all users can
access and search the documents using the library application. Before your documents can
be searched, you must create indexes of the documents. For more information on adding
your own documents to the library, see Documents and Indexes.
With the exception of the library’s search engine, the library’s components are installed with
the base operating system. To use the library service, it must be configured. You can
configure a computer to be a documentation server and install documents on that computer;
or you can configure a computer to be a client that gets all of its documents from a
documentation server. If the computer is to be a documentation server, the search engine
and documentation must also be manually installed.
It is highly recommended that the library service be fully configured since it is the library
service for the operating system manuals and the Web–based System Manager
documentation. Even if you do not need the operating system manuals, you should still
configure the documentation library service since it is expected that other applications may
use it as the library function for their own online documentation. For instructions on how to
install and configure the documentation library service, see Installing and Configuring the
Documentation Library Service and Installing AIX Documentation in AIX 4.3 Installation
Guide.
For additional information, see the following topics in the AIX 4.3 System Management
Guide: Operating System and Devices:
• Changing the Configuration
• Working with Documents and Indexes
• Advanced Topics
• Problem Determination
Documentation Library Service
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 20. Power Management
Power Management is a technique that enables hardware and software to minimize system
power consumption. It is especially important for products that operate with batteries and
desktop products.
Power Management tasks can be performed by using:
• the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT)
• commands
• the Power Management application
For a list of the Power Management tasks and that you can perform and their procedures,
see Using Power Management in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System
and Devices.
The following section, Power Management Limitation Warnings, contains important
information for all users of Power Management.
Power Management
20-1
Power Management Limitation Warnings
Users of Power Management need to be aware of the following limitations:
Changing configuration during suspend/hibernation
Altering the system configuration, such as memory size, devices,
and so on, while the system is in the suspend or hibernation state
can cause unpredictable results. This could cause loss of data, file
system corruption, system crashes, or a failure to resume from the
suspend or hibernation state.
Non–PM–aware
device drivers
If a device driver is installed that is not Power Management–aware,
unpredictable results could occur when resuming from suspend or
hibernation. If a non–PM–aware device driver is to be installed, the
suspend and hibernation states must never be used. The following
command can be run with root authority to disable the suspend and
hibernation states effective on the next system boot.
The following command frees the hibernation logical volume and
disallows future selections of the suspend or hibernation states:
/usr/lib/boot/disable_hibernation
If you want to reenable these functions, the following command will
enable the suspend and hibernation states effective on the next
system boot, provided the hardware platform supports such states:
/usr/lib/boot/enable_hibernation
Booting from CD–ROM or other media after hibernation
Accessing the rootvg from maintenance mode such as CD–ROM
boot when a valid hibernation image exists can result in loss of data
and file system corruption.
Maintenance modes should only be used after normal system
shutdown or power–off, not after a hibernation power–off.
20-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Network connections during suspend/hibernation
Network connections are disconnected during the suspend and
hibernation states. These connections may have to be
re–established by the user after resuming. Since locally cached data
won’t be available to other nodes on the network during this time and
network activity cannot be monitored by the local node during this
time, it is recommended that the suspend and hibernation states not
be used when using network interfaces such as TCP/IP, NFS, AFS,
DCE, SNA, OSI, NetWare, NetBIOS, and so on.
The following command frees the hibernation logical volume and
disallows future selections of the suspend or hibernation states:
/usr/lib/boot/disable_hibernation
If you want to reenable these functions, the following command will
enable the suspend and hibernation states effective on the next
system boot, provided the hardware platform supports such states:
/usr/lib/boot/enable_hibernation
Power Button
Behavior
When Power Management is enabled, the power button is software
controlled. If there is some sort of system problem, the software
necessary to make the requested Power Management state
transition using the power switch may not be able to run. In such a
situation, or whenever necessary, it should always be possible to turn
off the power immediately by pressing the power button three times
quickly (within a two second period). This will override whatever state
transition has been selected for the power switch, and will require a
full reboot.
In addition, if the Power Management daemon (/usr/bin/pmd) is
never started (by an entry in /etc/inittab by default), the power switch
will act as if there was no power management. A single button press
will turn off the system. If /usr/bin/pmd is started and then killed, the
first two button presses will be ignored, and the third will turn off the
system. These button presses can be over any period of time as long
as /usr/bin/pmd is not restarted.
Power Management
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 21. Devices
Devices include hardware components such as, printers, drives, adapters, buses, and
enclosures, as well as pseudo–devices, such as the error special file and null special file.
This chapter provides an overview of the following methods used by the operating system to
manage these devices:
• Device Nodes
• Location Codes
• PCI Hot Plug Management
Device Nodes
Devices are organized into clusters known as nodes. Each node is a logical subsystem of
devices, where lower–level devices have a dependency on upper–level devices in
child–parent relationships. For example, the system node is the highest of all nodes and
consists of all the physical devices in the system. The system device is the top of the node
and below that is the bus and adapters that have a dependency on the higher–level system
device. The bottom of the hierarchy are devices where no other devices are connected.
These devices have dependencies on all devices above it in the hierarchy.
Parent–child dependencies are used at boot time to configure all devices that make up a
node. Configuration occurs from the top node down and any device having a dependency
on a higher–level device will not be configured until the higher–level device is configured.
Device Classes
Managing devices requires the operating system to comprehend what device connections
are allowed. The operating system classifies devices hierarchically into three groups:
• Functional classes
• Functional subclasses
• Device types
Functional classes consist of devices that perform the same function. Printers, for example,
comprise a functional class. Functional classes are grouped into subclasses according to
certain device similarities. For example, printers have a serial or parallel interface. Serial
printers are one subclass and parallel printers are another. Device types are classified
according to their model and manufacturer.
Device classes define valid parent–child connections for the operating system. The
hierarchy defines the possible subclasses that can be connected for each of the possible
child connection locations. For example, the term RS–232 8–port adapter specifies that only
devices belonging to the RS–232 subclass can be connected to any of the adapter’s eight
ports.
Device classes and their hierarchical dependencies are maintained in an Object Data
Manager (ODM) Device Configuration database.
Device Configuration Database
Device information is contained in a predefined database or a customized database that
makes up the device configuration database.
The predefined database contains configuration data for all possible devices supported by
the system. The hierarchical device class information is contained in this database.
Devices
21-1
The customized database contains configuration data for all currently defined and
configured devices in the system. A record is kept of each device currently connected to
your system.
The Configuration Manager is a program that automatically configures devices on your
system during system boot and run time. The Configuration Manger uses the information
from the predefined and customized databases during this process, and updates the
customized database afterwards.
Device States
Devices that are connected to the system can be in one of four states:
Undefined
The device is unknown to the system.
Defined
Specific information about the device is recorded in the customized
database, but it is unavailable to the system.
Available
A defined device is coupled to the operating system, or the defined
device is configured.
Stopped
The device is unavailable but remains known by its device driver.
If a tty device and a printer alternately use the same tty connector, both a tty device and a
printer are defined on the same parent and port in the device configuration database. Only
one of these devices can be configured at a time. When the tty connector is configured, the
printer specific setup information is retained until it is configured again. The device is not
removed, it is in the defined state. Maintaining a device in defined state retains customized
information for a device that is not currently in use, either before it is first made available or
while it is temporarily removed from the system.
If a device driver exists for a device, the device can be made available through the device
driver.
Some devices, in particular TCP/IP pseudo–devices, need the stopped state.
Device Management
You can use the Web-based System Manager Devices application, SMIT, or operating
system commands to perform device management tasks such as deleting or adding a
device.
21-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Location Codes
The location code is a path from the CPU drawer or system unit through the adapter, signal
cables, and the asynchronous distribution box (if there is one) to the device or workstation.
This code is another way of identifying physical devices.
The location code consists of up to four fields of information depending on the type of
device. These fields represent drawer, slot, connector, and port. Each of these fields
consists of two characters.
A drawer’s location code consists of only the drawer field and is simply a two–character
code. An adapter’s location code consists of the drawer and slot fields and has the format
AA–BB, where AA corresponds to the drawer’s location and BB indicates the bus and slot
that contains the adapter. Other devices have location codes of formats AA–BB–CC or
AA–BB–CC–DD, where AA–BB is the location code of the adapter to which the device is
connected, CC corresponds to the connecter on the adapter to which the device is
connected, and DD corresponds to a port number or SCSI device address.
For information on finding the labels with the location codes on the hardware, see your
operator guide.
Adapter Location Codes
The location code for an adapter consists of two pairs of digits with the format AA–BB,
where AA identifies the location code of the drawer containing the adapter and BB identifies
the I/O bus and slot containing the card.
A value of 00 for the AA field means that the adapter is located in the CPU drawer or system
unit, depending on the type of system. Any other value for the AA field indicates that the
card is located in an I/O expansion drawer. In this case, the AA value identifies the I/O bus
and slot number in the CPU drawer that contains the asynchronous expansion adapter. The
first digit identifies the I/O bus with 0 corresponding to the standard I/O bus and 1
corresponding to the optional I/O bus. The second digit identifies the slot number on the
indicated I/O bus.
The first digit of the BB field identifies the I/O board containing the adapter card. If the card
is in the CPU drawer or system unit, this digit will be 0 for the standard I/O bus and 1 for the
optional I/O bus. If the card is in an I/O expansion drawer, this digit is 0. The second digit
identifies the slot number on the indicated I/O bus (or slot number in the I/O expansion
drawer) that contains the card.
A location code of 00–00 is used to identify the standard I/O board.
Examples:
00–05
Identifies an adapter card in slot 5 of the standard I/O board and is located
in either the CPU drawer or the system unit, depending on the type of
system.
00–12
Identifies an adapter in slot 2 of the optional I/O bus and is located in the
CPU drawer.
18–05
Identifies an adapter card located in slot 5 of an I/O expansion drawer. The
drawer is connected to the asynchronous expansion adapter located in
slot 8 of the optional I/O bus in the CPU drawer.
Devices
21-3
Printer/Plotter Location Codes
Location codes of 00–00–S1–00 or 00–00–S2–00 indicate the printer or plotter device is
connected to the standard I/O board serial ports s1 or s2. A location code of 00–00–0P–00
indicates the parallel printer is connected to the standard I/O board parallel port.
Any other location code indicates the printer or plotter is connected to an adapter card other
than the standard I/O board. For these printers and plotters, the location code format is
AA–BB–CC–DD, where AA–BB indicates the location code of the controlling adapter.
AA
A value of 00 for the AA field indicates the adapter card is located in the
CPU drawer or system unit depending on the type of system. Any other
value for the AA field indicates the card is located in an I/O expansion
drawer; in which case, the first digit identifies the I/O bus and the second
digit identifies the slot number on the bus, in the CPU drawer, that contains
the asynchronous expansion adapter to which the I/O expansion drawer is
connected.
BB
The first digit of the BB field identifies the I/O bus containing the adapter
card. If the card is in the CPU drawer or system unit, this digit is 0 for the
standard I/O bus and 1 for the optional I/O bus. If the card is in an I/O
expansion drawer, this digit is 0. The second digit identifies the slot number
on the I/O bus (or slot number in the I/O expansion drawer) that contains
the card.
CC
The CC field identifies the connector on the adapter card where the
asynchronous distribution box is connected. Possible values are 01, 02,
03, and 04.
DD
The DD field identifies the port number on the asynchronous distribution
box where the printer or plotter is attached.
tty Location Codes
Location codes of 00–00–S1–00 or 00–00–S2–00 indicate the tty device is connected to
the standard I/O serial ports s1 or s2.
Any other location code will indicate the tty device which is connected to an adapter card
other than the standard I/O board. For these devices, the location code format is
AA–BB–CC–DD, where AA–BB indicates the location code of the controlling adapter card.
21-4
AA
A value of 00 for the AA field indicates the adapter card is located in the
CPU drawer or system unit depending on the type of system. Any other
value for the AA field indicates the card is located in an I/O expansion
drawer. In this case, the first digit identifies the I/O bus, and the second
digit identifies the slot number on the bus in the CPU drawer that contains
the asynchronous expansion adapter where the I/O expansion drawer is
connected.
BB
The first digit of the BB field identifies the I/O bus containing the adapter
card. If the card is in the CPU drawer or system unit, this digit will be 0 for
the standard I/O bus and 1 for the optional I/O bus. If the card is in an I/O
expansion drawer this digit is 0. The second digit identifies the slot number
on the I/O bus (or slot number in the I/O expansion drawer) that contains
the card.
CC
The CC field identifies the connector on the adapter card where the
asynchronous distribution box is connected. Possible values are 01, 02,
03, and 04.
DD
The DD field identifies the port number on the asynchronous distribution
box where the tty device is attached.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
SCSI Device Location Codes
All SCSI devices including:
• CD–ROMs
• Disks
• Initiator devices
• Read/write optical drives
• Tapes
• Target mode
The location code format is AA–BB–CC–S,L. The AA–BB fields identify the location code of
the SCSI adapter controlling the SCSI device.
AA
A value of 00 for the AA field indicates the controlling adapter card is
located in the CPU drawer or system unit, depending on the type of
system.
BB
The BB field identifies the I/O bus and slot containing the card. The first
digit identifies the I/O bus. It is 0 for the standard I/O bus and 1 for the
optional I/O bus. The second digit is the slot on the indicated I/O bus
containing the card. A value of 00 for the BB field indicates the standard
SCSI controller.
CC
The CC field identifies the card’s SCSI bus that the device is attached to.
For a card that provides only a single SCSI bus, this field will be set to 00.
Otherwise, a value of 00 indicates a device attached to the card’s internal
SCSI bus and a value of 01 indicates a device attached to the card’s
external SCSI bus.
S,L
The S,L field identifies the SCSI ID and logical unit number (LUN) of the
SCSI device. The S value indicates the SCSI ID and the L value indicates
the LUN.
Direct–Bus–Attached Disk Location Codes
For a direct–attached disk device, the location code format is AA–BB. The AA field is a value
of 00, that indicates the disk is located in the system unit. The BB field indicates the I/O bus
and slot number where the disk is attached. The first digit is always 0, which indicates the
disk is attached to the standard I/O bus. The second digit identifies the slot number on the
standard I/O bus to which the disk is attached.
Serial–Linked Disk Location Codes
The location code for serial–linked disk drives is of the format AA–BB–CC–DD, where AA–BB
indicates the location code of the controlling adapter card.
The individual fields are interpreted as follows:
AA
A value of 00 for the AA field indicates the controlling adapter card is
located in the CPU drawer or system unit, depending on the type of
system.
BB
The BB field identifies the I/O bus and slot containing the card. The first
digit identifies the I/O bus. It is 0 for the standard I/O bus and 1 for the
optional I/O bus. The second digit is the slot on the indicated I/O bus that
contains the card.
Devices
21-5
CC
The CC field identifies the connector on the adapter card where the
controller drawer is attached. Possible values are 00, 01, 02, and 03.
DD
The DD field identifies the logical unit number (LUN) of the disk. This
corresponds to the slot in the drawer where the disk resides.
Diskette Drive Location Codes
Diskette drives have location codes of either 00–00–0D–01 or 00–00–0D–02, indicating
that they are attached to the standard I/O planar’s diskette ports 0 or 1.
Dials/LPFKeys Location Codes
For a graphics input adapter attached Dials/LPFKeys device, the location code format is
AA–BB–CC.
The individual fields are interpreted as follows:
AA
A value of 00 for the AA field indicates the controlling adapter card is
located in the CPU drawer or system unit, depending on the type of
system.
BB
The BB field identifies the I/O bus and slot containing the card. The first
digit identifies the I/O bus. It is 0 for the standard I/O bus and 1 for the
optional I/O bus. The second digit is the slot on the indicated I/O bus that
contains the card.
CC
The CC field indicates the card connector where the device is attached.
The value will be either 01 or 02, depending on whether the device is
attached is port 1 or port 2 on the card.
Note: Serially attached Dials/LPFKeys devices do not indicate location codes. This is
because these devices are considered to be attached to a tty device. The tty device is
specified by the user during Dials/LPFKeys definition.
Multiprotocol Port Location Codes
The location code for a multiprotocol port is of the format AA–BB–CC–DD where AA–BB
indicates the location code of the multiprotocol adapter card.
The individual fields are interpreted as follows:
21-6
AA
A value of 00 for the AA field indicates the multiprotocol adapter card is
located in the CPU drawer or system unit, depending on the type of
system.
BB
The BB field identifies the I/O bus and slot containing the card. The first
digit identifies the I/O bus. It is 0 for the standard I/O bus and 1 for the
optional I/O bus. The second digit is the slot on the indicated I/O bus that
contains the card.
CC
The CC field identifies the connector on the adapter card to which the
multiprotocol distribution box is connected. The value is always 01.
DD
The DD field identifies the physical port number on the multiprotocol
distribution box. Possible values are 00, 01, 02, and 03.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
PCI Hot Plug Management
This section provides an overview of hot plug management, specifically PCI Hot Plug
Support for PCI adapters. For information about using the PCI hot plug features and
procedures for unconfiguring, adding, removing, and replacing adapters, see Managing Hot
Plug Connectors in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
For information about the commands you can use to display information about PCI hot plug
slots and to add, replace, or remove PCI hot plug adapters, see:
• The lsslot command, in the AIX Commands Reference, Volume 3. This command
displays a list of all the hot plug slots and their characteristics.
• The drslot command, in the AIX Commands Reference, Volume 2. This command
prepares a hot plug slot for adding or removing a hot plug adapter.
Overview
PCI Hot Plug Management consists of user interfaces that allow you to manage hot plug
connectors, also known as dynamic reconfiguration connectors, or slots. A connector
defines the type of slot, for example, PCI. A slot is a unique identifier. Dynamic
reconfiguration is the ability of the system to adapt to changes in the hardware and firmware
configuration while it is still running.
PCI Hot Plug Support for PCI Adapters is a specific subset of the dynamic reconfiguration
function that provides the capability of adding, removing, and replacing PCI adapter cards
while the host system is running and without interrupting other adapters in the system. You
can also display information about PCI hot plug slots.
Different hot plug connector types require different operations to perform various hot plug
management functions. For example, adding a SCSI device requires different operations
than when you add a PCI adapter card.
Note: Although PCI hot plug management provides the capability of adding, removing,
and replacing PCI adapters without powering off the system or rebooting the operating
system, not all devices in hot plug slots can be managed in this fashion. For example,
the hard disk that makes up the rootvg volume group or the I/O controller to which it is
attached cannot be removed or replaced without powering off the system because it is
necessary for running the operating system.
Some adapters cannot be hot plugged and should not be removed while the system unit is
running. To determine whether an adapter can be hot plugged, refer to the list of supported
PCI adapters in the PCI Adapter Placement Reference, which is shipped with system units
that support PCI hot plug.
Adding a PCI Hot Plug Adapter
You can insert a new PCI adapter into an available PCI slot while the operating system is
running. This can be another adapter of the same type currently installed or a different type
of PCI adapter. New resources are made available to the operating system and applications
without having to reboot the operating system. Some reasons for adding an adapter could
include:
• Adding additional function or capacity to your existing hardware and firmware.
• Migrating PCI adapters from a system that no longer requires the function provided by
those adapters.
• nstalling a new system for which adapter cards become available after the initial
configuration of optional hardware subsystems, including PCI adapters, and the
installation and boot of the operating system.
For steps on how to add a PCI hot plug adapter, see Adding a PCI Hot Plug Adapter in the
AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices
Devices
21-7
Removing a PCI Hot Plug Adapter
You can remove a PCI hot plug adapter from its I/O drawer or enclosure without shutting
down the operating system or turning off the system power. Removing an adapter makes
the resources provided by the adapter unavailable to the operating system and applications.
Before you remove the adapter, you must ensure that any resources using the adapter are
not in use when you remove it. Some reasons for removing an adapter could include:
• Removing existing I/O subsystems.
• Removing an adapter that is no longer required or is failing and a replacement card is not
available.
• Migrating an adapter to another system when the function is no longer required on the
system from which it is being removed.
For steps on how to remove a PCI hot plug adapter, see Removing or Replacing a PCI Hot
Plug Adapter in the AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Replacing a PCI Hot Plug Adapter
You can exchange a defective or failing PCI hot plug adapter with another of the same type
without shutting down the operating system or turning off the system power. Because the
adapter is of the same type, the existing device driver is able to support the replacement
adapter. The replace function retains the configuration information about the replaced
adapter and compares this information to the card that replaced it. Device configuration and
configuration information about devices below the adapter are utilized in configuring the
replacement device.
Some reasons for replacing an adapter could include:
• Temporarily replacing the card to aid in determining a problem or to isolate a failing FRU.
• Replacing a flawed, failing, or intermittently failing adapter with a functional card.
• Replacing a failing redundant adapter in an HACMP or multi–path to storage
configuration.
For steps on how to replace a PCI hot plug adapter, see Removing or Replacing a PCI Hot
Plug Adapter in the AIX 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices.
Resource Utilization
Before you can remove or replace a hot plug device, it must be unconfigured. The
associated device driver must free any system resources that it has allocated for the device.
This includes unpinning and freeing memory, undefining interrupt and EPOW handlers,
releasing DMA and timer resources, and any other required steps. The driver must also
ensure that interrupts, bus memory, and bus I/O are disabled on the device.
It is expected that the system administrator will perform the following tasks before and after
the removal process:
• Terminate and restore applications, daemons, or processes using the device.
• Unmount and remount filesystems.
• Remove and recreate device definitions and perform other operations necessary to free
up a device in use.
• Put the system into a safe state to be serviced.
• Obtain and install any required device drivers.
Note: If you add an adapter using a PCI hot plug replace or add operation, it and its child
devices may not be available for specification as a boot device using the bootlist
command. You may have to reboot the machine to make all potential boot devices
known to the operating system.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
In some cases, the system administrator may also perform the following tasks:
• Prepare a PCI hot plug adapter to be inserted, removed, or replaced.
• Identify slots or PCI adapters that are involved in the hot plug operation.
• Remove or insert PCI hot plug adapters.
Attention: Before you attempt to remove or insert PCI hot plug adapters, refer to the PCI
Adapter Placement Reference, shipped with system units that support hot plug, to
determine whether your adapter can be hot plugged. Refer to your system unit
documentation for instructions for installing or removing adapters.
Unconfiguring a Device from the System
The remove and replace operations fail unless the device connected to the identified slot
has been unconfigured and is in the defined state. You can do this with the rmdev
command. Before placing the adapter in the defined state, close all applications that are
using the adapter, otherwise, the command will be unsuccessful.
Unconfiguring Communications Adapters
This section provides an overview of the process for unconfiguring PCI communications
adapters. This includes Ethernet, Token–ring, FDDI, and ATM adapters. For procedural
information, see Unconfiguring Communications Adapters in the AIX Version 4.3 System
Management Guide:Operating System and Devices.
If your application is using TCP/IP protocol, you must remove the TCP/IP interface for the
adapter from the network interface list before you can place the adapter in the defined state.
Use the netstat command to determine whether your adapter is configured for TCP/IP and
to check the active network interfaces on your adapter.
An Ethernet adapter can have two interfaces: Standard Ethernet (enX) or IEEE 802.3 (etX).
X is the same number in the entX adapter name. Only one of these interfaces can be using
TCP/IP at a time. For example, Ethernet adapter ent0 can have en0 and et0 interfaces.
A Token ring adapter can have only one interface: Token–ring (trX). X is the same number in
the tokX adapter name. For example, Token–ring adapter tok0 has a tr0 interface.
An ATM adapter can have only one atm interface: ATM (atX). X is the same number in the
atmX adapter name. For example, ATM adapter atm0 has an at0 interface. However, ATM
adapters can have multiple emulated clients running over a single adapter.
The ifconfig command removes an interface from the network. The rmdev command
unconfigures the PCI device while retaining its device definition in the Customized Devices
Object Class. Once the adapter is in the defined state, you can use the drslot command to
remove the adapter.
Devices
21-9
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Chapter 22. Tape Drives
Topics included in this chapter are:
• Tape Drive Attributes, on page 22-2
• Special Files for Tape Drives, on page 22-14
Basic tasks for Tape Drives are listed in Tape Drives in AIX 4.3 System Management Guide:
Operating System and Devices.
Tape Drives
22-1
Tape Drive Attributes
The following describes tape drive attributes you can adjust to meet the needs of your
system. The attributes can be displayed or changed using the Web-based System Manager
Devices application, SMIT, or commands (in particular, the lsattr and the chdev
commands).
Each type of tape drive only uses a subset of all the attributes.
General Information about Each Attribute
Block Size
The block size attribute indicates the block size to use when reading or writing the tape.
Data is written to tape in blocks of data, with inter–record gaps between blocks. Larger
records are useful when writing to unformatted tape, because the number of inter–record
gaps is reduced across the tape, allowing more data to be written. A value of 0 indicates
variable length blocks. The allowable values and default values vary depending on the tape
drive.
Device Buffers
Setting the Device Buffers attribute (for chdev, the mode attribute) to the yes value
indicates an application is notified of write completion after the data has been transferred to
the data buffer of the tape drive, but not necessarily after the data is actually written to the
tape. If you specify the no value, an application is notified of write completion only after the
data is actually written to the tape. Streaming mode cannot be maintained for reading or
writing if this attribute is set to the no value. The default value is yes.
With the no value, the tape drive is slower but has more complete data in the event of a
power outage or system failure and allows better handling of end–of–media conditions.
Extended File Marks
Setting the Extended File Marks attribute (for chdev, the extfm attribute) to the no value
writes a regular file mark to tape whenever a file mark is written. Setting this attribute to the
yes value writes an extended file mark. For tape drives, this attribute can be set on. The
default value is no. For example, extended filemarks on 8mm tape drives use 2.2MB of tape
and can take up to 8.5 seconds to write. Regular file marks use 184K and take
approximately 1.5 seconds to write.
When you use an 8mm tape in append mode, use extended file marks for better positioning
after reverse operations at file marks. This reduces errors.
Retension
Setting the Retension attribute (for chdev, the ret attribute) to yes instructs the tape drive to
retension a tape automatically whenever a tape is inserted or the drive is reset.
Retensioning a tape means to wind to the end of the tape and then rewind to the beginning
of the tape to even the tension throughout the tape. Retensioning the tape can reduce
errors, but this action can take several minutes. If you specify the no value, the tape drive
does not automatically retension the tape. The default value is yes.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
Density Setting #1 (for chdev, the density_set_1 attribute) sets the density value that the
tape drive writes when using special files /dev/rmt*, /dev/rmt*.1, /dev/rmt*.2, and
/dev/rmt*.3. Density Setting #2 (for chdev, the density_set_2 attribute) sets the density
value that the tape drive writes when using special files /dev/rmt*.4, /dev/rmt*.5,
/dev/rmt*.6, and /dev/rmt*.7. See ”Special Files for Tape Drives”, on page 22-14 for more
information.
The density settings are represented as decimal numbers in the range 0 to 255. A zero (0)
setting selects the default density for the tape drive, which is usually the drive’s high density
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
setting. Specific permitted values and their meanings vary with different types of tape drives.
These attributes do not affect the tape drive’s ability to read tapes written in all densities
supported by the tape drive. It is customary to set Density Setting #1 to the highest density
possible on the tape drive and Density Setting #2 to the second highest density possible on
the tape drive.
Reserve Support
For tape drives that use the Reserve attribute (for chdev, the res_support attribute),
specifying the yes value causes the tape drive to be reserved on the SCSI bus while it is
open. If more than one SCSI adapter shares the tape device, this ensures access by a
single adapter while the device is open. Some SCSI tape drives do not support
reserve/release commands. Some SCSI tape drives have a predefined value for this
attribute so that reserve/release commands are always supported.
Variable Length Block Size
The Variable Length Block Size attribute (for chdev, the var_block_size attribute) specifies
the block size required by the tape drive when writing variable length records. Some SCSI
tape drives require that a nonzero block size be specified in their Mode Select data even
when writing variable length records. The Block Size attribute is set to 0 to indicate variable
length records. Refer to the specific tape drive SCSI specification to determine whether this
is required.
Data Compression
Setting the Data Compression attribute (for chdev, the compress attribute) to yes causes
the tape drive to be in compress mode, if the drive is capable of compressing data. If so,
then the drive writes data to the tape in compressed format so that more data fits on a
single tape. Setting this attribute to no forces the tape drive to write in native mode
(noncompressed). Read operations are not affected by the setting of this attribute. The
default setting is yes.
Autoloader
Setting the Autoloader attribute (for chdev, the autoload attribute) to yes causes
Autoloader to be active, if the drive is so equipped. If so, and another tape is available in the
loader, any read or write operation that advances the tape to the end is automatically
continued on the next tape. Tape drive commands that are restricted to a single tape
cartridge are unaffected. The default setting is yes.
Retry Delay
The Retry Delay attribute sets the number of seconds that the system waits after a
command has failed before reissuing the command. The system may reissue a failed
command up to four times. This attribute applies only to type ost tape drives. The default
setting is 45.
Read/Write Timeout
The Read/Write Timeout or Maximum Delay for a READ/WRITE attribute sets the maximum
number of seconds that the system allows for a read or write command to complete. This
attribute applies only to type ost tape drives. The default setting is 144.
Return Error on Tape Change
The Return Error on Tape Change or Reset attribute, when set, will cause an error to be
returned on open when the tape drive has been reset or the tape has been changed. A
previous operation to the tape drive must have taken place that left the tape positioned
beyond beginning of tape upon closing. The error returned is a –1 and errno is set to EIO.
Once presented to the application, the error condition is cleared. Also, reconfiguring the
tape drive itself will clear the error condition.
Tape Drives
22-3
Attributes for 2.0GB 4mm Tape Drives (Type 4mm2gb)
Block Size
The default value is 1024.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 2.0GB 4mm tape drive, the Retension, Reserve Support,
Variable Length Block Size, Density Setting #1, and Density Setting #2 attributes have
predefined values that cannot be changed. The density settings are predefined because the
tape drive always writes in 2.0GB mode.
Attributes for 4.0GB 4mm Tape Drives (Type 4mm4gb)
Block Size
The default value is 1024.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The user cannot change the density setting of this drive; the device reconfigures itself
automatically depending on the Digital Data Storage (DDS) media type installed, as follows:
Media Type
Device Configuration
DDS
Read–only.
DDS ||||
Read/write in 2.0GB mode only.
DDS2
Read in either density; write in 4.0GB mode only.
non–DDS
Not supported; cartridge will eject.
Data Compression
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 4.0GB 4mm tape drive, the Retension, Reserve Support,
Variable Length Block Size, Density Setting #1, and Density Setting #2 attributes have
predefined values that cannot be changed.
Attributes for 2.3GB 8mm Tape Drives (Type 8mm)
Block Size
The default value is 1024. A smaller value reduces the amount of data stored on a tape.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 2.3GB 8mm tape drive, the Retension, Reserve Support,
Variable Length Block Size, Data Compression, Density Setting #1, and Density Setting #2
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
attributes have predefined values which cannot be changed. The density settings are
predefined because the tape drive always writes in 2.3GB mode.
Attributes for 5.0GB 8mm Tape Drives (Type 8mm5gb)
Block Size
The default value is 1024. If a tape is being written in 2.3GB mode, a smaller value reduces
the amount of data stored on a tape.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following settings apply:
Setting
Meaning
140
5GB mode (compression capable)
21
5GB mode noncompressed tape
20
2.3GB mode
0
Default (5.0GB mode)
The default values are 140 for Density Setting #1, and 20 for Density Setting #2. A value of
21 for Density Setting #1 or #2 permits the user to read or write a noncompressed tape in
5GB mode.
Data Compression
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 5.0GB 8mm tape drive, the Retension, Reserve Support,
and Variable Length Block Size attributes have predefined values which cannot be changed.
Attributes for 20000MB 8mm Tape Drives (Self Configuring)
Block Size
The default value is 1024.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The drive can read and write data cartridges in 20.0GB format. During a Read command,
the drive automatically determines which format is written on tape. During a Write, the
Density Setting determines which data format is written to tape.
The following settings apply:
Tape Drives
22-5
Setting
Meaning
39
20GB mode (compression capable)
0
Default (20.0GB mode)
The default value is 39 for Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2.
Data Compression
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 20.0GB 8mm tape drive, the Retension, Reserve Support,
and Variable Length Block Size attributes have predefined values which cannot be changed.
Attributes for 35GB Tape Drives (Type 35gb)
Block Size
The IBM 7205 Model 311 throughput is sensitive to blocksize. The minimum recommended
blocksize for this drive is 32K Bytes. Any block size less than 32K Bytes restricts the data
rate (backup/restore time). The following table lists recommended block sizes by AIX
command:
AIX Command Supported
Default Block Size (Bytes)
RECOMMENDATION
BACKUP
32K or 51.2K (default)
Uses either 32K or 51.2 K
depending on if ”Backup” is
by name or not. No change
is required.
TAR
10K
There is an error in the
manual that states a 512K
byte block size. Set the
Blocking Parameter to –N64.
MKSYSB
See BACKUP
MKSYSB uses the BACKUP
Command. No change is
required.
DD
n/a
Set the Blocking Parameter
to bs=32K.
CPIO
n/a
Set the Blocking Parameter
to –C64.
Note: You should be aware of the capacity and throughput when you select a blocksize.
Small blocksizes have a significant impact on performance and a minimal impact on
capacity. The capacities of the 2.6GB format (density) and 6.0GB format (density) are
significantly impacted when you use smaller than the recommended blocksizes. As an
example: using a blocksize of 1024 bytes to backup 32GB of data takes approximately
22 hours. Backing up the same 32GB of data using a blocksize of 32K Bytes takes
approximately 2 hours.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following chart shows the Supported Data Cartridge type and Density Settings (in
decimal and hex) for the IBM 7205–311 Tape Drive. When you perform a Restore (Read)
Operation, the tape drive automatically sets the density to match the written density. When
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
you perform a Backup Operation (Write), you must set the Density Setting to match the Data
Cartridge that you are using.
Supported Data
Cartridges
Native Capacity
Compressed
Data Capacity
Web-based
System
Manager or
SMIT Density
Setting
DLTtape III
2.6GB
2.6GB (No
Compression)
23
17h
6.0GB
6.0GB (No
Compression)
24
18h
10.0GB
20.0GB (Default
for drive)
25
19h
DLTtapeIIIxt
15.0GB
30.6GB (Default
for drive)
25
19h
DLTtapeIV
20.0GB
40.0GB
26
1Ah
35.0GB
70.0GB (Default
for drive)
27
1Bh
HEX Density
Setting
Note: If you request an unsupported Native Capacity for the Data Cartridge, the drive
defaults to the highest supported capacity for the Data Cartridge that is loaded into the
drive.
Data Compression
The actual compression depends on the type of data being that is being written. (see above
table) A Compression Ratio of 2:1 is assumed for this Compressed Data Capacity.
Attributes with Fixed Values
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes for 150MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Type 150mb)
Block Size
The default block size is 512. The only other valid block size is 0 for variable length blocks.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
Writing to a 1/4–inch tape can only occur at the beginning of tape (BOT) or after blank tape
is detected. If data exists on the tape, you cannot overwrite the data except at BOT. If you
wish to add data to a tape that has been written and then rewound, you must space forward
until the next file mark is detected, which causes the system to return an error. Only then
can you start writing again.
Retension
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following settings apply:
Tape Drives
22-7
Setting
Meaning
16
QIC–150
15
QIC–120
0
Default (QIC–150), or whatever was the last density setting
by a using system.
The default values are 16 for Density Setting #1, and 15 for Density Setting #2.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 150MB 1/4–inch tape drive, the Extended File Marks,
Reserve Support, Variable Length Block Size, and Data Compression attributes have
predefined values which cannot be changed.
Attributes for 525MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Type 525mb)
Block Size
The default block size is 512. The other valid block sizes are 0 for variable length blocks,
and 1024.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
Writing to a 1/4–inch tape can only occur at the beginning of tape (BOT) or after blank tape
is detected. If data exists on the tape, you cannot overwrite the data except at BOT. If you
want to add data to a tape that has been written and then rewound, you must space forward
until the next file mark is detected, which causes the system to return an error. Only then
can you start writing again.
Retension
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following settings apply:
Setting
Meaning
17
QIC–525*
16
QIC–150
15
QIC–120
0
Default (QIC–525), or whatever was the last density setting
by a using system.
* QIC–525 is the only mode that supports the 1024 block size.
The default values are 17 for Density Setting #1, and 16 for Density Setting #2.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 525MB 1/4–inch tape drive, the Extended File Marks,
Reserve Support, Variable Length Block Size, and Data Compression attributes have
predefined values which cannot be changed.
Attributes for 1200MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Type 1200mb–c)
Block Size
The default block size is 512. The other valid block sizes are 0 for variable length blocks,
and 1024.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
Writing to a 1/4–inch tape can only occur at the beginning of tape (BOT) or after blank tape
is detected. If data exists on the tape, you cannot overwrite the data except at BOT. If you
wish to add data to a tape that has been written and then rewound, you must space forward
until the next file mark is detected, which causes the system to return an error. Only then
can you start writing again.
Retension
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following settings apply:
Setting
Meaning
21
QIC–1000*
17
QIC–525*
16
QIC–150
15
QIC–120
0
Default (QIC–1000), or whatever was the last density
setting by a using system.
* QIC–525 and QIC–1000 are the only modes that support the 1024 block size.
The default values are 21 for Density Setting #1, and 17 for Density Setting #2.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 1200MB 1/4–inch tape drive, the Extended File Marks,
Reserve Support, Variable Length Block Size, and Data Compression attributes have
predefined values which cannot be changed.
Attributes for 12000MB 4mm Tape Drives (Self Configuring)
Block Size
The IBM 12000MB 4mm Tape Drive’s throughput is sensitive to blocksize. The minimum
recommended blocksize for this drive is 32K Bytes. Any block size less than 32K Bytes
restricts the data rate (backup/restore time). The following table lists recommended block
sizes by AIX command:
AIX Command Supported
Default Block Size (Bytes)
RECOMMENDATION
BACKUP
32K or 51.2K (default)
Will use either 32K or 51.2 K
depending on if ”Backup” is
by name or not. No change
is required.
TAR
10K
There is an error in the
manual that states a 512K
byte block size. Set the
Blocking Parameter to –N64.
MKSYSB
See BACKUP
MKSYSB uses the BACKUP
Command. No change is
required.
Tape Drives
22-9
AIX Command Supported
Default Block Size (Bytes)
RECOMMENDATION
DD
n/a
Set the Blocking Parameter
to bs=32K.
CPIO
n/a
Set the Blocking Parameter
to –C64.
Note: You should be aware of the capacity and throughput when you select a blocksize.
Small blocksizes have a significant impact on performance and a minimal impact on
capacity.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following chart shows the Supported Data Cartridge type and Density Settings (in
decimal and hex) for the IBM 12000MB 4mm Tape Drive. When you perform a Restore
(Read) Operation, the tape drive automatically sets the density to match the written density.
When you perform a Backup Operation (Write), you must set the Density Setting to match
the Data Cartridge you are using.
Supported Data
Cartridges
Native Capacity
Compressed
Data Capacity
Web-based
System
Manager or
SMIT Density
Setting
HEX Density
Setting
DDS III
2.0GB
4.0GB
19
13h
DDS2
4.0GB
8.0GB
36
24h
DDS3
12.0GB
24.0GB
37
25h
Note: If you request an unsupported Native Capacity for the Data Cartridge, the drive
defaults to the highest supported capacity for the Data Cartridge that is loaded into the
drive.
Data Compression
The actual compression depends on the type of data being that is being written. (see above
table) A Compression Ratio of 2:1 is assumed for this Compressed Data Capacity.
Attributes with Fixed Values
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Attributes for 13000MB 1/4–Inch Tape Drives (Self configuring)
Block Size
The default block size is 512. The other valid block sizes are 0 for variable length blocks,
and 1024.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
Writing to a 1/4–inch tape can only occur at the beginning of tape (BOT) or after blank tape
is detected. If data exists on the tape, you cannot overwrite the data except at BOT. If you
wish to add data to a tape that has been written and then rewound, you must space forward
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
until the next file mark is detected, which causes the system to return an error. Only then
can you start writing again.
Retension
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following settings apply:
Setting
Meaning
33
QIC–5010–DC*
34
QIC–2GB*
21
QIC–1000*
17
QIC–525*
16
QIC–150
15
QIC–120
0
Default (QIC–5010–DC)*
* QIC–525, QIC–1000, QIC–5010–DC, and QIC–2GB are the only modes that support the
1024 block size.
The default values are 33 for Density Setting #1, and 34 for Density Setting #2.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 13000MB 1/4–inch tape drive, the Extended File Marks,
Reserve Support, and Variable Length Block Size attributes have predefined values which
cannot be changed.
Attributes for 1/2–Inch 9–Track Tape Drives (Type 9trk)
Block Size
The default block size is 1024.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The following settings apply:
Setting
Meaning
3
6250 bits per inch (bpi)
2
1600 bpi
0
Whichever writing density was used previously.
The default values are 3 for Density Setting #1, and 2 for Density Setting #2.
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as a 1/2–inch 9–track tape drive, the Extended File Marks,
Retension, Reserve Support, Variable Length Block Size, and Data Compression attributes
have predefined values which cannot be changed.
Tape Drives
22-11
Attributes for 3490e 1/2–Inch Cartridge (Type 3490e)
Block Size
The default block size is 1024. This drive features a high data transfer rate, and block size
can be critical to efficient operation. Larger block sizes can greatly improve operational
speeds, and in general, the largest possible block size should be used.
Note: Increasing the block value can cause incompatibilities with other programs on your
system. If this occurs, you receive the following error message while running those
programs:
A system call received a parameter that is not valid.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Compression
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Autoloader
This drive features a tape sequencer, an autoloader that sequentially loads and ejects a
series of tape cartridges from the cartridge loader. For this function to operate properly, the
front panel switch should be in the AUTO position and the Autoloader attribute must be set
to yes.
Attributes for Other SCSI Tapes (Type ost)
Block Size
The system default is 512, but this should be adjusted to the default block size for your tape
drive. Typical values are 512 and 1024. 8mm and 4mm tape drives usually use 1024 and
waste space on the tape if the block size attribute is left at 512. 0 indicates variable block
size on some drives.
Device Buffers
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Extended File Marks
The general information for this attribute applies to this tape drive type.
Density Setting #1 and Density Setting #2
The default value is 0 for both of these settings. Other values and their meanings vary for
different tape drives.
Reserve Support
The default value is no. This may be set to yes, if the drive supports reserve/release
commands. If you are unsure, no is a safer value.
Variable Length Block Size
0 is the default value. Nonzero values are used primarily on quarter inch cartridge (QIC)
drives. Refer to the SCSI specification for the particular tape drive for advice.
Retry Delay
This attribute applies exclusively to type ost tape drives
Read/Write Timeout
This attribute applies exclusively to type ost tape drives
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Attributes with Fixed Values
If a tape drive is configured as an Other SCSI tape drive, the Extended File Marks,
Retension, and Data Compression attributes have predefined values which cannot be
changed.
Tape Drives
22-13
Special Files for Tape Drives
Writing to and reading from files on tapes is done by using rmt special files. There are
several special files associated with each tape drive known to the operating system. These
special files are /dev/rmt*, /dev/rmt*.1, /dev/rmt*.2, ... /dev/rmt*.7. The rmt* is the logical
name of a tape drive, such as rmt0, rmt1, and so on.
By selecting one of the special files associated with a tape drive, you make choices about
how the I/O operations related to the tape drive will be performed.
Density
You can select whether to write with the tape drive’s Density
Setting #1 or with the tape drive’s Density Setting #2. The
values for these density settings are part of the attributes of the
tape drive. Because it is customary to set Density Setting #1 to
the highest possible density for the tape drive and Density
Setting #2 to the next highest possible density for the tape drive,
special files that use Density Setting #1 are sometimes referred
to as high density and special files that use Density Setting #2
sometimes are referred to as low density, but this view is not
always correct. When reading from a tape, the density setting is
ignored.
Rewind–on–Close
You can select whether the tape is rewound when the special
file referring to the tape drive is closed. If rewind–on–close is
selected, the tape is positioned at the beginning of the tape
when the file is closed.
Retension–on–Open
You can select whether the tape is retensioned when the file is
opened. Retensioning means winding to the end of the tape and
then rewinding to the beginning of the tape to reduce errors. If
retension–on–open is selected, the tape is positioned at the
beginning of the tape as part of the open process.
The following table shows the names of the rmt special files and their characteristics.
Special File
Rewind on Close
Retension on Open
Density Setting
/dev/rmt*
Yes
No
#1
/dev/rmt*.1
No
No
#1
/dev/rmt*.2
Yes
Yes
#1
/dev/rmt*.3
No
Yes
#1
/dev/rmt*.4
Yes
No
#2
/dev/rmt*.5
No
No
#2
/dev/rmt*.6
Yes
Yes
#2
/dev/rmt*.7
No
Yes
#2
Suppose you want to write three files on the tape in tape drive rmt2. The first file is to be at
the beginning of the tape, the second file after the first file, and the third file after the second
file. Further, suppose you want Density Setting #1 for the tape drive. The following list of
special files, in the order given, could be used for writing the tape.
1. /dev/rmt2.3
2. /dev/rmt2.1
3. /dev/rmt2
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
These particular special files are chosen because:
• /dev/rmt2.3 is chosen as the first file because this file has Retension–on–Open, which
ensures that the first file is at the beginning of the tape. Rewind–on–Close is not chosen
because the next I/O operation is to begin where this file ends. If the tape is already at
the beginning when the first file is opened, using the /dev/rmt2.1 file as the first file
would be faster since time for retensioning the tape is eliminated.
• /dev/rmt2.1 is chosen for the second file because this file has neither
Retension–on–Open nor Rewind–on–Close chosen. There is no reason to go to the
beginning of the tape either when the file is opened or when it is closed.
• /dev/rmt2 is chosen for the third and final file because Retension–on–Open is not
wanted since the third file is to follow the second file. Rewind–on–Close is selected
because there are no plans to do any more writing after the third file on the tape. The
next use of the tape will begin at the beginning of the tape.
Besides controlling tape operations by choosing a particular rmt special file, you can use
the tctl command to control tape operations.
Tape Drives
22-15
22-16
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Appendix A. AIX for BSD System Managers
AIX for BSD System Managers
This appendix is for system administrators who are familiar with 4.3 BSD UNIX or System V
operating systems. This information explains the differences and the similarities between
those systems and AIX.
Topics discussed in this appendix are:
• AIX for BSD System Managers Overview, on page A-2
• Introduction to AIX for BSD System Managers, on page A-3
• Major Differences between 4.3 BSD and AIX, on page A-4
• Accounting for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-7
• Backup for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-9
• Boot and Startup for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-10
• Commands for AIX System Administration for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-11
• Cron for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-15
• Devices for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-16
• File Comparison Table for 4.3 BSD, SVR4, and AIX, on page A-17
• File Systems for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-19
• Finding and Examining Files for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-20
• Paging Space for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-21
• Networking for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-22
• Online Documentation and man Command for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-25
• NFS and NIS (formerly Yellow Pages) for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-26
• Passwords for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-27
• Performance Measurement and Tuning for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-30
• Printers for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-31
• Terminals for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-33
• UUCP for BSD 4.3 System Managers, on page A-34
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-1
AIX for BSD System Managers Overview
The following articles describe general information for 4.3 BSD administrators:
• Introduction to AIX for BSD System Managers, on page A-3
• Major Differences Between 4.3 BSD Systems and AIX, on page A-4
The following articles describes in detail specific system administration topics:
• Accounting, on page A-7
• Backup, on page A-9
• Boot and Startup, on page A-10
• Commands for AIX System Administration, on page A-11
• Cron, on page A-15
• Devices, on page A-16
• File Comparison Table for 4.3 BSD, SVR4, and AIX , on page A-17
• File Systems, on page A-19
• Finding and Examining Files, on page A-20
• Paging Space, on page A-21
• Networking, on page A-22
• Online Documentation and man Command, on page A-25
• NFS and NIS (formerly Yellow Pages), on page A-26
• Passwords, on page A-27
• Performance Measurement and Tuning, on page A-30
• Printers, on page A-31
• Terminals, on page A-33
• UUCP, on page A-34
A-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Introduction to AIX for BSD System Managers
The following hints will help you get started managing the system:
• You should start by logging in as root at the graphics console.
• You should perform system management from the system console until you become
experienced with the system. It is easier to work from the system console than a remote
terminal. Once you are experienced with the system, you can work remotely from an
xterm or an ASCII terminal.
• Several AIX facilities are involved in system management tasks. They include:
– System Management Interface Tool (SMIT). SMIT provides an interface between
system managers and configuration and management commands. SMIT can help
system managers perform most system administration tasks. For more information,
see the ”System Management Interface Tool (SMIT): Overview”, on page 17-2.
– The Object Data Manager (ODM). The ODM provides routines that access objects
from the ODM databases. The ODM databases contain device configuration
information. For more information about how the ODM databases store device
information, see ”Devices Overview for System Management”, on page 21-1.
– The System Resource Controller (SRC). The SRC provides access and control of
daemons and other system resources through a single interface. For more information,
see the ”System Resource Controller Overview”, on page 14-2.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-3
Major Differences between 4.3 BSD and AIX
This article summarizes the major differences between AIX and 4.3 BSD systems. For more
detailed discussions of these topics, see the list of articles in the ”AIX for BSD System
Managers Overview”, on page A-2.
Configuration Data Storage
4.3 BSD usually stores configuration data in ASCII files. Related pieces of information are
kept on the same line and record processing (sorting and searching) can be done on the
ASCII file itself. Records can vary in length and are terminated by a line feed. 4.3 BSD
provides tools to convert some potentially large ASCII files to a database (dbm) format.
Relevant library functions search the pair of dbm files if they exist, but search the original
ASCII file if the dbm files are not found.
Some AIX configuration data is stored in ASCII files, but often in a stanza format. A stanza
is a set of related pieces of information stored in a group of several lines. Each piece of
information has a label to make the contents of the file more understandable.
AIX also supports dbm versions of password and user information. Furthermore, the
/etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/inittab files are examples of AIX files where the
information is stored in traditional form rather than in stanza form.
Other AIX configuration data are stored in files maintained by the Object Data Manager
(ODM). Web-based System Manager or the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) can
manipulate and display information in ODM files. Alternatively, you can use the ODM
commands directly to view these files. To query the ODM files, use the following commands:
• odmget
• odmshow
The following ODM commands alter ODM files:
• odmadd
• odmcreate
• odmdrop
• odmchange
• odmdelete
Attention: Altering ODM files incorrectly may cause the system to fail, and may prevent
you from successfully restarting the system. You should only use ODM commands
directly on ODM files when task–specific commands, such as those generated by
Web-based System Manager or SMIT, are unsuccessful.
Configuration Management
When an AIX system starts up, a set of configuration–specific commands are invoked by the
Configuration Manager. These configuration–specific commands are called methods.
Methods identify the devices on the system and update the appropriate ODM files in the
/etc/objrepos directory.
Device special files in the /dev directly are not preinstalled. Some special files, such as
those for hard disks, are created automatically during the start–up configuration process.
Other special files, such as those for ASCII terminals, must be created by the system
administrator by using the Web-based System Manager Devices application or the SMIT
Devices menu. This information is retained in the ODM for later use by the system.
Disk Management
In AIX, disk drives are referred to as physical volumes. Partitions are referred to as logical
volumes. As in 4.3 BSD, a single physical volume can have multiple logical volumes.
A-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
However, unlike 4.3 BSD, a single volume in AIX can span multiple physical volumes. To do
this, you must make several physical volumes into a volume group and create logical
volumes on the volume group.
AIX commands used for file system and volume management include:
• crfs
• varyonvg
• varyoffvg
• lsvg
• importvg
• exportvg
The following 4.3 BSD commands are also available:
• mkfs
• fsck
• fsdb
• mount
• umount
Differences between the 4.3 BSD version and the AIX version of these commands are
discussed in ”File Systems”, on page A-19.
4.3 BSD maintains a list of file systems in the /etc/fstab file. AIX maintains a stanza for
each file system in the /etc/filesystems file.
The 4.3 BSD file system usually reads in large blocks of 8KB, but can store several small
files in one block using fragments usually consisting of 1KB. The AIX file system does not
support fragments and each file consumes at least one block. The block size is 4KB.
New Commands
To handle new configuration and disk management systems, AIX has about 150 new
commands that are new to 4.3 BSD administrators. For more information, see ”Commands
for AIX System Administration”, on page A-11.
Boot and Startup
AIX supports automatic identification and configuration of devices. Consequently, the boot
and startup process is very different from 4.3 BSD systems. In addition to the kernel, an
image of a boot file system and the previous base device configuration information is loaded
to a RAM disk. In the first phase of startup, sufficient configuration information is loaded and
checked to permit accessing logical volumes. The paging space device is identified to the
kernel and the hard disk root file system is checked. At this time, AIX changes the root file
system from the RAM disk to the hard disk and completes the startup procedure, including
configuring other devices.
User Authorization
4.3 BSD, and versions of AT&T UNIX operating systems prior to SVR4, store all user
authentication information, including encrypted passwords, in the /etc/passwd file.
Traditionally, the /etc/passwd file could be read by all.
On SVR4 systems, encrypted passwords are removed from the /etc/passwd file and stored
in the /etc/shadow file. Only users with root authority and trusted programs (such as the
/bin/login program) can read the /etc/shadow file.
AIX stores encrypted passwords in the /etc/security/passwd file. Other files in the
/etc/security directory are the user and limits files. These three files define the way a user
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-5
is allowed to access the system (such as using the rlogin or telnet commands) and the
user’s resource limits (such as file size and address space).
Printing
Most 4.3 BSD printing commands are supported with minor differences. One difference is
that the /etc/qconfig file is the configuration file in AIX.
The AIX line printing system can interoperate with the 4.3 BSD line printing system, both for
submitting print jobs to 4.3 BSD systems and for printing jobs submitted from a 4.3 BSD
system.
Shells
AIX supports the Bourne shell, C shell and Korn shell. The full path name for the Bourne
shell program is /bin/bsh. The /bin/sh file is a hard link to the /bin/ksh file. This file may be
changed by the administrator.
Notes:
1. AIX has no shell scripts that rely on the /bin/sh. However, many shell scripts from other
systems rely on /bin/sh being the Bourne shell.
2. Although the Bourne shell and Korn shell are similar, the Korn shell is not a perfect
superset of the Bourne shell.
A-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Accounting for BSD 4.3 System Managers
Both the AIX accounting files in the /usr/lib/acct directory and the system activity reporting
tools in the /usr/lib/sa directory are identical to those available with AT&T System V
Release 4 (SVR4) with the addition of 4.3 BSD accounting utilities.
Many of the accounting commands are in the /usr/lib/acct directory. To begin system
accounting, use the /usr/lib/acct/startup command. If accounting is not started, commands
such as lastcomm(1) cannot return information.
AIX provides these 4.3 BSD accounting facilities:
last(1)
Indicates last logins of users and terminals.
lastcomm(1)
Shows in reverse order the last commands executed.
acct(3)
Enables and disables process accounting.
ac(8)
Login accounting.
accton(8)
Turns system accounting on or off.
sa(8)
Generally maintains system accounting files.
AIX also provides these System V Interface Definition (SVID) Issue II accounting commands
and library functions:
acctcms(1)
Produces command usage summaries from accounting records.
acctcom(1)
Displays selected process–accounting record summaries.
acctcon1(1)
Converts login/logoff records to session records.
acctcon2(1)
Converts login/logoff records to total accounting records.
acctdisk(1)
Generates total accounting records from diskusg(1) command
output.
acctmerg(1)
Merges total accounting files into an intermediary file.
accton(1)
Turns on accounting.
acctprc1(1)
Processes accounting information from acct(3) command.
acctprc2(1)
Processes output of acctprc1(1) command into total accounting
records.
acctwtmp(1)
Manipulates connect–time accounting records.
chargefee(1)
Charges to login name.
ckpacct(1)
Checks size of /usr/adm/pacct file.
diskusg(1)
Generates disk accounting information.
dodisk(1)
Performs disk accounting.
fwtmp(1)
Converts binary records (wtmp file) to formatted ASCII.
Note: The wtmp file is in the /var/adm directory.
lastlogin(1)
Updates last date on which each person logged in.
monacct(1)
Creates monthly summary files.
prctmp(1)
Prints session record file produced by acctcon1(1) command.
prdaily(1)
Formats a report of yesterday’s accounting information.
prtacct(1)
Formats and prints any total accounting file.
runacct(1)
Runs daily accounting.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-7
A-8
shutacct(1)
Called by system shutdown to stop accounting and log the
reason.
startup(1)
Called by system initialization to start accounting.
turnacct(1)
Turns process accounting on or off.
wtmpfix(1)
Corrects time/date stamps in a file using wtmp format.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Backup for BSD 4.3 System Managers
The tar and cpio commands can move data between systems. The AIX tar command is not
fully compatible with the 4.3 BSD tar command. The AIX tar command requires the –B
option (blocking input) if it is reading from a pipe. The AT&T cpio command is compatible
with the AIX version.
AIX can read and write in dump and restore command format. For example, the AIX
backup command with the syntax:
backup –0uf Device FilesystemName
is the same as the 4.3 BSD dump command with the syntax:
dump 0uf Device FilesystemName
Similarly, the AIX restore command with the syntax:
restore –mivf Device
is the same as the 4.3 BSD restore command with the syntax:
restore ivf Device
AIX also has the 4.3 BSD rdump and rrestore commands. The only difference between the
two versions is that for AIX each argument must be preceded by a – (dash). For example,
the following command:
rdump –0 –f orca:/dev/rmt0 /dev/hd2
is equivalent to the 4.3 BSD command:
rdump 0f orca:/dev/rmt0 /dev/hd2
The AIX backup command with the following syntax:
backup –0f /dev/rmt0 /dev/hd2
is equivalent to the 4.3 BSD dump command with this syntax:
dump 0f /dev/rmt0 /dev/hd2
Non–IBM SCSI Tape Support
AIX does not directly support non–IBM SCSI tape drives. However, you can add your own
header and interface that use the IBM SCSI driver. For more information, see the
information on adding an unsupported device to the system in AIX Kernel Extensions and
Device Support Programming Concepts.
For more information, see ”Backup Overview for System Management”, on page 9-2.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-9
Boot and Startup for BSD 4.3 System Managers
On 4.3 BSD systems, the init program is the last step in the boot procedure. The main role
of the init program is to create processes for each available terminal port. The available
terminal ports are found by reading the /etc/ttys file.
On System V, the init program is started at system initialization. The init process starts
processes according to entries in the /etc/inittab file.
AIX follows the System V initialization procedure. You can edit the AIX /etc/inittab file by
directly editing the file, using the telinit command, or by using the following AIX commands:
chitab(1)
Changes records in the /etc/inittab file.
lsitab(1)
Lists records in the /etc/inittab file.
mkitab(1)
Makes records in the /etc/inittab file.
rmitab(1)
Removes records in the /etc/inittab file.
Changes made to the /etc/inittab file take effect the next time the system is rebooted, or
when the telinit q command is run.
A-10
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Commands for AIX System Administration for BSD 4.3 System
Managers
This list contains commands that are specifically for administering the AIX environment.
bosboot(1)
Initializes a boot device.
bootlist(1)
Alters the list of boot devices (or the ordering of these devices in
the list) available to the system.
cfgmgr(1)
Configures devices by running the programs in /etc/methods
directory.
chcons(1)
Redirects the system console to device or file, effective next
startup
chdev(1)
Changes a device’s characteristics.
chdisp(1)
Changes the display used by the low–function terminal (LFT)
subsystem.
checkcw(1)
Prepares constant–width text for the troff command.
checkeq(1)
Checks documents formatted with memorandum macros.
checkmm(1)
Checks documents formatted with memorandum macros.
checknr(1)
Checks nroff and troff files.
chfont(1)
Changes the default font selected at boot time.
chfs(1)
Changes attributes of a file system.
chgroup(1)
Changes attributes for groups.
chgrpmem(1)
Changes the administrators or members of a group.
chhwkbd(1)
Changes the low function terminal (LFT) keyboard attributes
stored in the Object Data Manager (ODM) database.
chitab(1)
Changes records in the /etc/inittab file.
chkbd(1)
Changes the default keyboard map used by the low–function
terminal (LFT) at system startup.
chkey(1)
Changes your encryption key.
chlang
Sets LANG environment variable in /etc/environment file for next
login.
chlicense(1)
There are two types of user licensing, fixed and floating. Fixed
licensing is always enabled, and the number of licenses can be
changed through the –u option. Floating licensing can be enabled
or disabled (on or off) through the –f option.
chlv(1)
Changes the characteristics of a logical volume.
chnamsv(1)
Changes TCP/IP–based name service configuration on a host.
chprtsv(1)
Changes a print service configuration on a client or server
machine.
chps(1)
Changes attributes of a paging space.
chpv(1)
Changes the characteristics of a physical volume in a volume
group.
chque(1)
Changes the queue name.
chquedev(1)
Changes the printer or plotter queue device names.
chssys(1)
Changes a subsystem definition in the subsystem object class.
chtcb(1)
Changes or queries the trusted computing base attribute of a file.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-11
A-12
chtz
Changes the system time zone information.
chuser(1)
Changes attributes for the specified user.
chvfs(1)
Changes entries in the /etc/vfs file.
chvg(1)
Sets the characteristics of a volume group.
chvirprt(1)
Changes the attribute values of a virtual printer.
crfs(1)
Adds a file system.
crvfs(1)
Creates entries in the /etc/vfs file.
exportvg(1)
Exports the definition of a volume group from a set of physical
volumes.
extendvg(1)
Adds physical volumes to a volume group.
grpck(1)
Verifies the correctness of a group definition.
importvg(1)
Imports a new volume group definition from a set of physical
volumes.
lsallq(1)
Lists the names of all configured queues.
lsallqdev(1)
Lists all configured printer and plotter queue device names within
a specified queue.
lsdisp(1)
Lists the displays currently available on the system.
lsfont(1)
Lists the fonts available for use by the display.
lsfs(1)
Displays the characteristics of file systems.
lsgroup(1)
Displays the attributes of groups.
lsitab(1)
Lists the records in the /etc/inittab file.
lskbd(1)
Lists the keyboard maps currently available to the low–function
terminal (LFT) subsystem.
lslicense(1)
Displays the number of fixed licenses and the status of floating
licensing.
lslpp(1)
Lists optional program products.
lsnamsv(1)
Shows name service information stored in the database.
lsprtsv(1)
Shows print service information stored in the database.
lsps
Lists paging space and attributes.
lsque(1)
Displays the queue stanza name.
lsquedev(1)
Displays the device stanza name.
lssrc(1)
Gets the status of a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a
subserver.
lsuser(1)
Displays attributes of user accounts.
lsvfs(1)
Lists entries in the /etc/vfs file.
mkcatdefs(1)
Preprocesses a message source file.
runcat(1)
Pipes the output data from the mkcatdefs command to the
gencat command.
mkdev(1)
Adds a device to the system.
mkfont(1)
Adds the font code associated with a display to the system.
mkfontdir(1)
Creates a fonts.dir file from a directory of font files.
mkgroup(1)
Creates a new group.
mkitab(1)
Makes records in the /etc/inittab file.
mklv(1)
Creates a logical volume.
mklvcopy(1)
Adds copies to a logical volume.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
mknamsv(1)
Configures TCP/IP–based name service on a host for a client.
mknotify(1)
Adds a notify method definition to the notify object class.
mkprtsv(1)
Configures TCP/IP–based print service on a host.
mkps(1)
Add an additional paging space to the system.
mkque(1)
Adds a printer queue to the system.
mkquedev(1)
Adds a printer queue device to the system.
mkserver(1)
Adds a subserver definition to the subserver object class.
mkssys(1)
Adds a subsystem definition to the subsystem object class.
mksysb
Backs up mounted file systems in the rootvg volume group for
subsequent reinstallation.
mkszfile
Records size of mounted file systems in the rootvg volume group
for reinstallation.
mktcpip(1)
Sets the required values for starting TCP/IP on a host.
mkuser(1)
Creates a new user account.
mkuser.sys(1)
Customizes a new user account.
mkvg(1)
Creates a volume group.
mkvirprt(1)
Makes a virtual printer.
odmadd(1)
Adds objects to created object classes.
odmchange(1)
Changes the contents of a selected object in the specified object
class.
odmcreate(1)
Produces the .c (source) and .h (include) files necessary for ODM
application development and creates empty object classes.
odmdelete(1)
Deletes selected objects from a specified object class.
odmdrop(1)
Removes an object class.
odmget(1)
Retrieves objects from the specified object classes and places
them into an odmadd input file.
odmshow(1)
Displays an object class definition on the screen.
pwdck(1)
Verifies the correctness of local authentication information.
redefinevg
Redefines the set of physical volumes of the given volume group
in the device configuration database.
reducevg(1)
Removes physical volumes from a volume group. When all
physical volumes are removed from the volume group, the volume
group is deleted.
reorgvg(1)
Reorganizes the physical partition allocation for a volume group.
restbase(1)
Restores customized information from the boot image.
rmdel(1)
Removes a delta from a Source Code Control System (SCCS) file.
rmdev(1)
Removes a device from the system.
rmf(1)
Removes folders and the messages they contain.
rmfs(1)
Removes a file system.
rmgroup(1)
Removes a group.
rmitab(1)
Removes records in the /etc/inittab file.
rmlv(1)
Removes logical volumes from a volume group.
rmlvcopy(1)
Removes copies from a logical volume.
rmm(1)
Removes messages.
rmnamsv(1)
Unconfigures TCP/IP–based name service on a host.
AIX for BSD System Managers
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A-14
rmnotify(1)
Removes a notify method definition from the notify object class.
rmprtsv(1)
Unconfigures a print service on a client or server machine.
rmps(1)
Removes a paging space from the system.
rmque(1)
Removes a printer queue from the system.
rmquedev(1)
Removes a printer or plotter queue device from the system.
rmserver(1)
Removes a subserver definition from the subserver object class.
rmssys(1)
Removes a subsystem definition from the subsystem object class.
rmuser(1)
Removes a user account.
rmvfs(1)
Removes entries in the /etc/vfs file.
rmvirprt(1)
Removes a virtual printer.
savebase(1)
Saves base customized device data in the ODM onto the boot
device.
syncvg(1)
Synchronizes logical volume copies that are not current.
usrck(1)
Verifies the correctness of a user definition.
varyoffvg(1)
Deactivates a volume group.
varyonvg(1)
Activates a volume group.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Cron for BSD 4.3 System Managers
The AIX cron daemon is similar to the System V Release 2 cron daemon. An entry in the
/etc/inittab file starts the cron daemon.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-15
Devices for BSD 4.3 System Managers
A device on a 4.3 BSD system is accessible to an application only when:
• The device is physically installed and functioning.
• The driver for the device is in the kernel.
• The device special files for the device exist in the /dev directory.
A device on an AIX is accessible to an application only when:
• The device is physically installed and functioning.
• The driver for the device is in the kernel or in a loaded kernel extension.
• The device special files for the device exist in the /dev directory.
• The object database in the /etc/objrepos directory contains entries for the device that
match the physical configuration.
The device specific programs called methods, found in the /etc/methods directory, maintain
the object database. The methods are invoked by the Configuration Manager (accessed
through the cfgmgr command) and other commands.
If a device can no longer be accessed by an application program, it may mean the hardware
is faulty or it may mean that the configuration database in the /etc/objrepos directory is
damaged.
The cfgmgr command processes the configuration database in the /etc/objrepos directory
is processed at startup time by the cfgmgr command (the Configuration Manager).
The pseudocode below shows the Configuration Manager logic:
/* Main */
While there are rules in the Config_Rules database
{
Get the next rule and execute it
Capture stdout from the last execution
Parse_Output(stdout)
}
/* Parse Output Routine */
/* stdout will contain a list of devices found */
Parse_OutPut(stdout)
{
While there are devices left in the list
{
Lookup the device in the database
if (!defined)
Get define method from database and
execute
if (! configured)
{
Get config method from database and
execute
Parse_Output(stdout)
}
}
}
A-16
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
File Comparison Table for 4.3 BSD, SVR4, and AIX
The following table compares file names and functions between the 4.3 BSD, SVR4, and
AIX operating systems.
File Comparison Table
4.3 BSD File
SVR4 File
AIX File
Database
L–Devices
Devices
Devices
no
L–dialcodes
Dialcodes
Dialcodes
no
L.cmds
Permissions
Permissions
no
L.sys
Systems
Systen
no
USERFILE
Permissions
Permissions
no
aliases
mail/namefiles
aliases
aliasesDB/DB
fstab
vfstab
filesystems
no
ftpusers
ftpusers
ftpusers
no
gettytab
Type
(odm/dbm)
dbm
N/A
group
group
group
no
hosts
hosts
hosts
no
hosts.equiv
hosts.equiv
hosts.equiv
no
inetd.conf
inetd.conf
inetd.conf
no
map3270
N/A
map3270
no
motd
motd
motd
no
mtab
mnttab
N/A
no
named.boot
named.boot
named.boot
no
named.ca
named.ca
no
named.hosts
named.data
(See note)
no
named.local
named.local
no
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named.pid
named.pid
named.rev
named.pid
no
named.rev
no
networks
networks
networks
no
passwd
passwd
passwd
no
printcap
qconfig
qconfig
protocols
protocols
no
remote
remote
remote
no
resolv.conf
resolv.conf
resolv.conf
no
sendmail.cf
sendmail.cf
sendmail.cf
sendmail.cfDB
services
no
services
shells
shells
N/A
stab
N/A
syslog.conf
syslog.conf
no
syslog.pid
syslog.pid
no
termcap
terminfo
terminfo
ttys
ttys
N/A
types
utmp
yes
odm
N/A
utmp
utmp
vfont
N/A
vgrindefs
vgrindefs
wtmp
neither
wtmp
wtmp
Note: The file names named.ca, named.hosts, named.local, and named.rev are user
definable in the named.boot file. However, these are the names used for these files in
the AIX documentation.
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
File Systems for BSD 4.3 System Managers
This information offers a brief comparison of AIX file systems to other systems’ file systems,
and an outline of the supported file systems types on AIX systems.
The AIX system uses the /etc/filesystem file to list file system device information, and has
similar commands for mounting and unmounting file systems.
/etc/filesystems File and /etc/fstab File
4.3 BSD systems store lists of block devices and mount points in the /etc/fstab file.
SVR4 systems stores block devices and mount point information in /etc/vfstab file.
AIX stores block device and mount points information in /etc/filesystems file. The crfs,
chfs, and rmfs commands update the /etc/filesystems file.
4.3 BSD system administrators may be interested in the check variable in the
/etc/filesystems file. The check variable can be set to the value True, False or to a
number. For example, you can specify check=2 in the /etc/filesystems file. The number
specifies the pass of the fsck command that will check this file system. The check
parameter corresponds to the fifth field in an /etc/fstab file record.
There is no dump frequency parameter in the /etc/filesystems file.
File System Support on AIX
AIX supports disk quotas.
AIX does not allow mounting of diskettes as file systems.
The syntax of the AIX mount and umount commands differs from 4.3 BSD and from SVR4
versions of these commands. The commands to mount and unmount all file systems at
once are shown for all three systems in the following table:
mount and unmount Commands
Function
AIX Syntax
4.3 BSD Syntax
SVR4 Syntax
mount all file
systems
mount all
mount –a
mountall
unmount all file
systems
umount all
umount –a
umountall
See the ”File Systems Overview”, on page 7-2 for more information.
AIX for BSD System Managers
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Finding and Examining Files for BSD 4.3 System Managers
AIX supports the following 4.3 BSD file commands:
• which
• whereis
• what
• file
AIX does not support the 4.3 BSD fast find syntax of the find command. At this time, there
is no replacement function. The following ffind shell script may be used to simulate the
functionality:
#!/bin/bsh
PATH=/bin
for dir in /bin /etc /lib /usr
do
find $dir –print | egrep $1
done
The syntax for the ffind script is:
ffind FileName
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Paging Space for BSD 4.3 System Managers
The following AIX commands assist in managing paging space (also known as swap
space):
chps(1)
Changes attributes of a paging space.
lsps(1)
List attributes of a paging space.
mkps(1)
Add an additional paging space to the system.
rmps(1)
Removes a paging space from the system.
swapon(1)
Specifies additional devices for paging and swapping.
If a large paging space is required, you should place one paging logical volume for each
hard disk. This allows scheduling of paging across multiple disk drives.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-21
Networking for BSD 4.3 System Managers
This article describes how to use 4.3 BSD ASCII network configurations on an AIX system,
additional AIX commands and command options, name and address resolution on AIX
systems, and differences between 4.3 BSD network management and AIX network
management.
How to Change Default Startup to Permit 4.3 BSD ASCII Configuration
You can administer AIX network interfaces through the SMIT and ODM files, or through 4.3
BSD ASCII configuration files.
To administer network interfaces through 4.3 BSD ASCII configuration files, uncomment the
commands in the /etc/rc.net file below the heading:
# Part II – Traditional
Configuration
Then if you want flat file configuration and SRC support, edit the /etc/rc.net file and
uncomment the hostname, ifconfig, and route commands with the appropriate
parameters.
If you want flat file configuration without SRC support, use the smit setbootup_option fast
path to change the system to BSD–style rc configuration. This option configures the system
to use the /etc/rc.bsdnet file at startup. You will also have to edit the /etc/rc.bsdnet file and
uncomment the hostname, ifconfig, and route commands with the appropriate
parameters.
Additional Options for ifconfig and netstat Commands
The AIX ifconfig command has the following additional options:
mtu
The mtu variable specifies the maximum transmission unit (MTU) used on
the local network (and local subnets) and the MTU used for remote
networks. To maximize compatibility with Ethernet and other networks, set
both the Token–Ring and Ethernet default mtu value to 1500.
allcast
The allcast flag sets the Token–Ring broadcast strategy. Setting the
allcast flag optimizes connectivity through Token–Ring bridges. Clearing
the allcast flag (by specifying –allcast) minimizes excess traffic on the
ring.
The AIX netstat command has the –v flag. The netstat –v command prints driver statistics
such as transmit byte count, transmit error count, receive byte count, and receive error
count.
Additional Network Management Commands
The following additional commands are supported on AIX:
securetcpip
The securetcpip shell script enables controlled access
mode, which provides enhanced network security. It
disallows execution of several unsecured TCP/IP programs,
such as the tftp, rcp, rlogin, and rsh programs. It also
restricts the use of the .netrc file.
gated
The gated command provides MIB support for SNMP.
no
The no command sets network options that include:
dogticks
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AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Sets timer granularity for
ifwatchdog routines.
subnetsarelocal
Determines if packet
address is on the local
network.
ipsendredirects
Specifies whether the kernel
should send redirect signals.
ipforwarding
Specifies whether the kernel
should forward packets.
tcp_ttl
Specifies the time–to–live
for Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) packets.
udp_ttl
Specifies the time–to–live
for User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) packets.
maxttl
Specifies the time–to–live
for Routing Information
Protocol (RIP) packets.
ipfragttl
Specifies the time–to–live
for Internet Protocol (IP)
fragments.
lowclust
Specifies a low water mark
for cluster mbuf pool.
lowmbuf
Specifies a low water mark
for the mbuf pool.
thewall
Specifies the maximum
amount of memory that will
be allocated to the mbuf and
cluster mbuf pool.
arpt_killc
Specifies the time in
minutes before an inactive
complete Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP)
entry will be deleted.
iptrace
The iptrace command provides interface–level packet
tracing for Internet protocols.
ipreport
The ipreport command formats the trace into
human–readable form. An example of using this command
is the following:
iptrace –i en0 /tmp/iptrace.log
# kill iptrace daemon
kill ‘ps ax | grep iptrace | awk ’{ print
$1 }’‘
ipreport /tmp/iptrace.log | more
Name and Address Resolution
The gethostbyname and gethostbyaddr subroutines in the libc library provide support for
Domain Name Service, Network Information Services (NIS, formerly called Yellow Pages),
and the /etc/hosts database. If the /etc/resolv.conf file exists, the name server is always
checked first. If the name is not resolved and NIS is running, NIS is checked. If NIS is not
running, the /etc/hosts file is checked.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-23
Differences between AIX and 4.3 BSD
On AIX systems, the network daemons are started from the /etc/rc.tcpip file, not the
/etc/rc.local file. The /etc/rc.tcpip shell script is invoked from the /etc/inittab file, not the
/etc/rc file.
If the System Resource Controller (SRC) is running, the TCP/IP daemons run under SRC
control. If you do not want the TCP/IP daemons running under SRC control, use the smit
setbootup_option fast path to change the system to BSD–style rc configuration.
These network management functions available on 4.3 BSD are supported by AIX:
• Kernel–level SYSLOG logging facilities
• Xerox Network Systems (XNS) support
• Access rights for UNIX domain sockets
The tn3270 Command
The tn3270 command is a link to the telnet command, but it uses the /etc/map3270 file and
the current TERM environment variable value to provide 3270 keyboard mappings. Thus,
the tn3270 command operates exactly like the BSD version.
If you want to change the escape sequences from the defaults used by the tn3270, telnet,
or tn commands, set the TNESC environment variable before starting these commands.
A-24
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Online Documentation and man Command for BSD 4.3 System
Managers
AIX supports the man –k, apropos, and whatis commands, but the database used by
these commands must first be created with the catman –w command.
The AIX man command first searches for flat text pages in the /usr/man/cat? files. Next, it
searches nroff–formatted pages in /usr/man/man? files. New man pages can be added in
flat text or nroff form.
Notes:
1. The man command text pages are not provided with the system. The catman command
creates the database from these text pages. These pages can be either flat text pages
stored in the /usr/man/cat? files or nroff formatted pages stored the in /usr/man/man?
files.
2. The Text Formatting licensed program must be installed for the nroff command to be
available for the man command to read nroff–formatted man pages.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-25
NFS and NIS (formerly Yellow Pages) for BSD 4.3 System
Managers
Network File System (NFS) and Network Information Services (NIS) daemons are started
from the /etc/rc.nfs file. However, before the NFS and NIS daemons can be started, the
portmap daemon must be started in the /etc/rc.tcpip file. By default, the /etc/rc.nfs file is
not invoked by the /etc/inittab file. If you add a line in the /etc/inittab file to invoke the
/etc/rc.nfs script, it should be invoked after the /etc/rc.tcpip script.
If NIS is active, you should include a root entry prior to the +:: (plus sign, colon, colon) entry
in the /etc/passwd file and a system entry prior to the +:: entry in the /etc/group file. This
allows a system administrator to log in as root and make changes if the system is unable to
communicate with the NIS server.
NFS can be configured by using the Web-based System Manager fast path, wsm network,
or the SMIT fast path, smit nfs. The Web-based System Manager and SMIT menus refer to
NIS (formerly Yellow Pages) as NIS. Many of the NFS and NIS commands are found in the
/etc and /usr/etc directory.
Some NFS environments use an arch command to identify machine families and types of
machines. For example if you are using the ESCALA, we suggest you specify the power
identifier for family (CPU).
A-26
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Passwords for BSD 4.3 System Managers
The following information details the differences between managing passwords in AIX
systems and 4.3 BSD systems.
Setting a User Password
When you use the AIX /bin/passwd command as the root user, you are prompted for the
current root user password. An example of using the AIX /bin/passwd command follows:
# passwd cslater
Changing password for ”cslater”
Enter root’s Password or
cslater’s Old password:
cslater’s New password:
Re–enter cslater’s
new password:
#
The 4.3 BSD version does not prompt for the current root user password. An example of the
4.3 BSD version follows:
# passwd cslater
New password:
Retype new password:
#
Importing a 4.3 BSD Password File
You can import a 4.3 BSD password file by first copying it to the /etc/passwd file and
entering:
pwdck –y ALL
Then the /etc/security/limits file must be updated with a null stanza for any new users. The
usrck command does this, but using the usrck command can cause problems unless the
/etc/group file is imported with the /etc/passwd file.
Note: If the /etc/security/limits file is modified, the stack must not exceed 65,536 bytes.
If it does, running the usrck command may cause problems. Change the stack size to
65,536 and run usrck command again.
You should also run the grpck and usrck command to verify group and user attributes.
Editing the Password File
In AIX, the lsuser, mkuser, chuser, and rmuser commands are provided for managing
passwords. All of these commands can be used by running Web-based System Manager or
SMIT. However, all of these commands deal with only one user at a time.
Note: Using an editor to change several user name entries at one time requires editing
of several files at once, because passwords are stored in /etc/security/passwd file,
authorization information is stored in the /etc/security/user file, and the remaining user
data is stored in the /etc/passwd file.
AIX does not support the vipw command but does support the mkpasswd command.
However, you can still administer passwords on an AIX system in a 4.3 BSD manner. Use
the following procedure:
1. Put a 4.3 BSD password file in the /etc/shadow file.
2. Change the permissions to the file by entering:
chmod 000 /etc/shadow
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-27
3. Place the following vipw shell script in the /etc directory:
#!/bin/bsh
#
# vipw for AIX V3. Uses pwdck for now. May use usrck someday
#
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/etc:/usr/ucb # Add to this if your editor is
# some place else
if [ –f /etc/ptmp ] ; then
echo ”/etc/ptmp exists. Is someone else using vipw?”
exit 1
fi
if [ ! –f /‘which ”$EDITOR” | awk ’{ print $1 }’‘ ] ; then
EDITOR=vi
fi
cp /etc/shadow /etc/ptmp
if (cmp /etc/shadow /etc/ptmp) ; then
$EDITOR /etc/ptmp
else
echo cannot copy shadow to ptmp
exit 1
fi
if (egrep ”^root:” /etc/ptmp >/dev/null) ; then
cp /etc/ptmp /etc/shadow ; cp /etc/ptmp /etc/passwd
chmod 000 /etc/passwd /etc/shadow
pwdck –y ALL 2>1 >/dev/null # return code 114 may change
rc=$?
if [ $rc –eq 114 ]; then
chmod 644 /etc/passwd
rm –f /etc/passwd.dir /etc/passwd.pag
mkpasswd /etc/passwd
# update /etc/security/limits, or ftp
# will fail
else
pwdck –y ALL
fi
else
echo bad entry for root in ptmp
fi
rm /etc/ptmp
4. If you use the vipw shell script or the mkpasswd command, be aware that Web-based
System Manager, SMIT, and the mkuser, chuser, and rmuser commands, do not use
the mkpasswd command. You must run:
mkpasswd /etc/passwd
to update the /etc/passwd.dir and /etc/passwd.pag files.
Attention: Initialization of the IFS variable and the trap statements guard against some
of the common methods used to exploit security holes inherent in the setuid feature.
However, the vipw and passwd shell scripts are intended for relatively open
environments where compatibility is an important consideration. If you want a more
secure environment, use only the standard AIX commands.
A-28
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
5. Put the following passwd shell script in the /usr/ucb directory:
#!/bin/ksh
#
# matches changes to /etc/security/passwd file with changes to
#/etc/shadow
#
IFS=” ”
PATH=/bin
trap ”exit 2” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 21 22 \
23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 60 61 62
if [ –n ”$1” ]; then
USERNAME=$1
else
USERNAME=$LOGNAME
fi
if [ –f /etc/ptmp ]; then
echo password file busy
exit 1
fi
trap ”rm /etc/ptmp; exit 3” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 \
14 15 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 30 31 \
32 33 34 35 36 60 61 62
if (cp /etc/security/passwd /etc/ptmp) ; then
chmod 000 /etc/ptmp else
rm –f /etc/ptmp exit 1
fi
if ( /bin/passwd $USERNAME ) ; then
PW=‘ awk ’ BEGIN { RS = ”” }
$1 == user { print $4 } ’ user=”$USERNAME:” \
/etc/security/passwd ‘
else
rm –f /etc/ptmp
exit 1
fi
rm –f /etc/ptmp
awk –F: ’$1 == user { print $1”:”pw”:”$3 ”:”$4”:”$5”:”$6”:”$7 }
$1 != user { print $0 }’ user=”$USERNAME” pw=”$PW” \
/etc/shadow > /etc/ptmp
chmod 000 /etc/ptmp
mv –f /etc/ptmp /etc/shadow
6. Change the permissions to the passwd script by entering:
chmod 4711 /usr/ucb/passwd
7. Ensure that each user’s PATH environmental variable specifies that the /usr/ucb
directory be searched prior to the /bin directory.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-29
Performance Measurement and Tuning for BSD 4.3 System
Managers
All devices on AIX have attributes associated with them. To view device attributes, enter:
lsattr –E –l DeviceName
Any attributes with the value True can be modified with the command:
chdev –l DeviceName –a attr=value
Attention: Changing device parameters incorrectly can damage your system.
By default, the maximum number of processes per user is 40. The default value may be too
low for users who have many windows open simultaneously. The following command can be
used to change the value systemwide:
hdev –l sys0 –a maxuproc=100
This example changes the maximum number to 100. The new value is set once the system
has rebooted.
To view the current setting of this and other system attributes type:
lsattr –E –l sys0
The maxmbuf attribute is not currently supported by the mbuf services.
AIX supports the vmstat and iostat commands, but not the systat command or load
averages.
A-30
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Printers for BSD 4.3 System Managers
AIX printing is managed by programs and configurations in the /usr/lpd directory. The
design, configuration, queueing mechanism, and daemon processes of the 4.3 BSD and
AIX printer subsystems are different. However, they both use the lpd protocol for remote
printing. Both systems use /etc/hosts.lpd if it exists and /etc/host.equiv otherwise. The
AIX printer subsystem offers a gateway to 4.3 BSD printer subsystems, so AIX systems can
submit print jobs to 4.3 BSD systems and accept print jobs submitted by 4.3 BSD systems.
The /etc/printcap file of 4.3 BSD does not exist in AIX.This file is a combination of spooler
configuration and printer capability data base. Users need to understand the format and
keywords of the printcap file to set up a printer correctly.
The /etc/qconfig file of AIX contains only the spooler configuration information. The printer
capability is defined in the ODM predefined/customized data base. You can use the
mkvirprt (make virtual printer) command to define to the system the capabilities of a
particular printer.
To make the printer lp0 available to print on the remote host viking, put the following in a
4.3 BSD system /etc/printcap file:
lp0|Print on remote printer attached to
viking:Z
:lp=:rm=viking:rp=lp:st=/usr/spool/lp0d
To do the same on an AIX system, put the following in the /etc/qconfig file:
lp0:
device = dlp0
host = viking
rq = lp
dlp0:
backend = /usr/lib/lpd/rembak
For more information about the printer subsystem, see the ”Printer Overview for System
Management”.
AIX supports the following printer commands and library functions:
cancel(1)
Cancels requests to a line printer.
chquedev(1)
Changes the printer or plotter queue device names.
chvirprt(1)
Changes the attribute values of a virtual printer.
disable(1)
Disables a printer queue.
enable(1)
Enables a printer queue.
hplj(1)
Postprocesses troff output for HP LaserJetII with the K cartridge.
ibm3812(1)
Postprocesses troff output for IBM 3812 Mod 2 Pageprinter.
ibm3816(1)
Postprocesses troff output for IBM 3816 Pageprinter.
ibm5587G(1)
Postprocesses troff output for IBM 5587G with 32x32/24x24
cartridge.
lp(1)
Sends requests to a line printer.
lpr(1)
Enqueues print jobs.
lprm(1)
Removes jobs from the line printer spooling queue.
lpstat(1)
Displays line printer status information.
lptest(1)
Generates the line printer ripple pattern.
lsallqdev(1)
Lists all configured printer queue device names within a queue.
lsvirprt(1)
Displays the attribute values of a virtual printer.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-31
A-32
mkque(1)
Adds a printer queue to the system.
mkquedev(1)
Adds a printer queue device to the system.
mkvirprt(1)
Makes a virtual printer.
pac(1)
Prepares printer/plotter accounting records.
piobe(1)
Print Job Manager for the printer backend.
pioburst(1)
Generates burst pages (header and trailer pages) for printer
output.
piocmdout(3)
Subroutine that outputs an attribute string for a printer formatter.
piodigest(1)
Digests attribute values for a virtual printer definition and stores.
pioexit(3)
Subroutine that exits from a printer formatter.
pioformat(1)
Drives a printer formatter.
piofquote(1)
Converts certain control characters destined for PostScript
printers.
piogetstr(3)
Subroutine that retrieves an attribute string for a printer formatter.
piogetvals(3)
Subroutine that initializes Printer Attribute database variables for
printer formatter.
piomsgout(3)
Subroutine that sends a message from a printer formatter.
pioout(1)
Printer backend’s device driver interface program.
piopredef(1)
Creates a predefined printer data stream definition.
proff(1)
Formats text for printers with personal printer data streams.
prtty(1)
Prints to the printer port of the terminal.
qadm(1)
Performs system administration for the printer spooling system.
qconfig(4)
Configures a printer queueing system.
qstatus(1)
Provides printer status for the print spooling system.
restore(3)
Restores the printer to its default state.
rmque(1)
Removes a printer queue from the system.
rmquedev(1)
Removes a printer or plotter queue device from the system.
rmvirprt(1)
Removes a virtual printer.
splp(1)
Changes or displays printer driver settings.
xpr(1)
Formats a window dump file for output to a printer.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Terminals for BSD 4.3 System Managers
Traditionally, 4.3 BSD system managers enable or disable terminal ports by modifying the
/etc/ttys file and sending a HUP signal to the init program.
AIX stores terminal port information in the ODM and starts terminals when the init program
reads the /etc/inittab file. In AIX, you should use the Web-based System Manager Devices
application or SMIT to configure terminal ports.
There is no fixed mapping between the port and the device special file name in the /dev
directory. Consequently, it is confusing to system managers who are new to AIX which port
should be configured. When using SMIT, the first planar serial port (physically labeled s1) is
referred to as location 00–00–S1, adapter sa0, and port s1 in the SMIT menus. The
second planar serial port (physically labeled s2) is referred to as location 00–00–S2,
adapter sa1, and port s2.
Use the penable and pdisable commands to enable and disable a port.
termcap and terminfo
Like System V, AIX uses terminfo entries in /usr/lib/terminfo/?/* files. Users with 4.3 BSD
Systems may find the following commands helpful:
captoinfo(1)
Converts a termcap file to a terminfo file
tic(1)
Translates the terminfo files from source to compiled format.
AIX includes source for many terminfo entries. Some of these may need to be compiled
with the tic command. The termcap file is provided in /lib/libtermcap/termcap.src file.
Dave Regan has donated his program untic to the public domain. This program uncompiles
terminfo entries so that the source form may be modified and recompiled with tic. It is
available from sites that archive comp.sources.unix.
AIX for BSD System Managers
A-33
UUCP for BSD 4.3 System Managers
AIX provides System V Basic Networking Utilities (BNU) which are often referred to as the
HDB UUCP.
Dialers(4)
Lists modems used for BNU remote communications links.
Maxuuxqts(4)
Limits the number of instances of the BNU uuxqt daemons
that can run.
Permissions(4)
Specifies BNU command permissions for remote systems.
Poll(4)
Specifies when the BNU program should poll remote
systems.
Systems(4)
Lists remote computers with which the local system can
communicate.
rmail(1)
Handles remote mail received through BNU.
uucheck(1)
Checks for files and directories required by BNU.
uuclean(1)
Removes files from the BNU spool directory.
uucleanup(1)
Deletes selected files from the BNU spooling directory.
uucpadm(1)
Enters basic BNU configuration information.
uudemon.admin(1)
Provides periodic information on the status of BNU file
transfers.
uudemon.cleanu(1)
Cleans up BNU spooling directories and log files.
uudemon.hour(1)
Initiates file transport calls to remote systems using the
BNU program.
uudemon.poll(1)
Polls the systems listed in the BNU Poll file.
uulog(1)
Provides information about BNU file–transfer activities on a
system.
uupoll(1)
Forces a poll of a remote BNU system.
uuq(1)
Displays the BNU job queue and deletes specified jobs
from the queue.
uusnap(1)
Displays the status of BNU contacts with remote systems.
uustat(1)
Reports the status of and provides limited control over
BNU operations.
AIX also provides the 4.3 BSD uuencode and uudecode commands. The HDB uugetty
command is not supported.
For more information, see the lists of BNU files, file formats, and directories in AIX 4.3
System User’s Guide: Communications and Networks.
A-34
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Appendix B. Managing the InfoExplorer Program
In previous releases of AIX, documentation was shipped as InfoExplorer databases. With
the current version of AIX, documentation is shipped in HTML format for use with a web
browser. InfoExplorer databases are not shipped with the current version of AIX. You will
only be able to browse InfoExplorer databases if you purchased the InfoExplorer feature
with AIX. This chapter is usefull only to customers who purchaed InfoExplorer.
Customizing the InfoExplorer Program
The InfoExplorer program can be set up to access the library from either a CD–ROM or a
fixed disk. Accessing the library from the fixed disk can improve performance, but requires
additional storage space due to the size of the information bases.
To customize the InfoExplorer program for your system, you can set up public notes, on
page B-3 to give users information that is specific to your installation or your information
needs. You can also set up bookmark lists and history files and transfer them to other users
to provide tutorials or similar ordered lists of information.
Managing the InfoExplorer Program
B-1
Understanding the InfoExplorer Information Bases
The InfoExplorer library and code are located in the /usr/lpp/info directory. In this directory
are different subdirectories that contain executables, information bases, fonts, and public
note storage. Following is a listing of these directories:
bin
Contains executables for ASCII and graphics InfoExplorer tools.
The mergenote command, used to combine groups of note files
into a single file, is also located in this directory.
data
Contains the ispaths file that describes the installed information
bases and some system definition files, and provides storage
location for public notes created. See ”Creating InfoExplorer
Public Notes”, on page B-9. Also contains definition files used by
InfoExplorer executables.
data/JP
Contains definition files for MBCS Japanese language
environment.
X11fonts/JP
Contains Japanese fonts used by the InfoExplorer window
interface for MBCS Japanese language environment.
notes
Contains system notes if any are installed.
lib/Language
Contains installed information bases for the national language
specified by the Language directory name. The directory name is
based on the installed language for the system. For example, on a
French Canadian system the directory name would be fr_CF. The
default is the name en_US on U.S. English systems.
lib/Language/library
Contains additional library subdirectories within a library directory.
On a system with multiple languages installed, more than one Language directory can exist
in the /usr/lpp/info/lib directory. For example, on a system that uses German and French,
the information base for German can be installed in the /usr/lpp/info/lib/de_DE directory,
while the information base for French is installed in the /usr/lpp/info/lib/fr_FR directory.
Users can use either language by changing environment variable settings for LANG,
INFOLANG, or INFOLOCALE. For more information, see ”Changing InfoExplorer
Languages”, on page B-8.
Other files that are not in /usr/lpp/info include:
B-2
/usr/bin/info
Contains the shell script that determines whether to
invoke the ASCII or graphical version of
InfoExplorer.
/usr/lib/x11/app–defaults/Info_gr
Contains the application defaults file that contains
system resource definitions.
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Managing InfoExplorer Public Notes
Public notes can be read by any hypertext user. By default, InfoExplorer notes are private,
accessible only to the user who created them. These private notes are saved in the user’s
$HOME/info and $HOME/info/<library>/notes directories.
Users with write access to the /usr/lpp/info/data directory can create public notes, which
are stored in this directory, by converting their private notes to public notes with the
mergenote command.
Managing the InfoExplorer Program
B-3
Accessing InfoExplorer from CD–ROM
The first time you access InfoExplorer databases from your CD–ROM, you must:
• Create a CD–ROM file system.
• Mount the CD–ROM file system.
• Run the linkinfocd script.
Note: You can also install databases from the CD–ROM. Some databases on this
CD–ROM may have already been installed with the operating system or other licensed
products. Run the lslpp command or SMIT to get a list of the database packages
already installed on your system.
The installation application that you use (SMIT or one of the VSM applications) will
create a temporary mount point for the CD–ROM.
Prerequisites
1. You must have root user authority or be a member of the system group to create and
mount the CD–ROM file system and run the linkinfocd script.
Create a CD–ROM File System
1. Set the power switch to On if you are using an external CD–ROM drive.
2. Remove the CD–ROM from the plastic case and place it in the disc caddy or disc tray.
3. Insert the disc caddy containing the Hypertext Information Base Library CD–ROM into
the disc caddy opening or on the disc tray.
4. Use the smit crcdrfs fast path to create the CD–ROM file system. The Add a CDROM
File System menu appears.
5. Press F4 for the DEVICE name field to get a list of the devices available. The DEVICE
NAME overlay appears over the previous screen.
6. Specify the available CD–ROM device you plan to use.
7. Highlight the MOUNT POINT field.
8. Type the following, but do not press Enter until you get to step 10.
/infocd
9. Highlight the Mount AUTOMATICALLY at system restart? field. Select one of the
following choices:
a. Mount InfoExplorer every time the system starts, press the Tab key to specify yes.
b. Mount InfoExplorer manually, use the default value no.
10.Press Enter after you have completed making changes to the entry fields.
11. Press F10 to exit SMIT.
Mount the CD–ROM File System
Mount your CD–ROM to the file system you created by following the steps below:
1. Enter the SMIT fast path at the system prompt:
smit mountfs
The Mount a File System menu appears.
2. Highlight the FILE SYSTEM name field.
Note: The system always mounts the CD–ROM as a read–only file system. You can use
the tab key to select yes or no in the Mount as READ ONLY file system field.
B-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
3. Press F4 to list file system names. The FILE SYSTEM name overlay appears over the
previous menu.
4. Select a line similar to the following:
/dev/cdx /infocd cdrfs
where x is the number of your CD–ROM drive.
5. Press Enter.
6. Select Do to mount the CD–ROM file system.
7. Press F10 to exit SMIT when the Command: status field changes to OK.
The InfoExplorer databases are now mounted and ready to be accessed from the
CD–ROM.
Notes:
1. If the CD–ROM is ejected from the system while it is still mounted, the connection is
broken and you cannot access the information. To remove the CD–ROM from the
system, unmount that file system using the unmount command before ejecting the
CD–ROM. To access the CD–ROM again, you must remount the CD–ROM file system,
using the mount or smit command.
2. You can keep copies of the information bases on your fixed disk, in case your CD–ROM
becomes inaccessible, or you can delete them. For more information, see ”Removing
InfoExplorer Information Bases”, on page B-7.
Run the linkinfocd Script
The linkinfocd script links the database subdirectories from the /infocd CD–ROM file
system to the /usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41 directory. Each database subdirectory is linked
individually, just as each database can be installed separately. This allows you to have
databases installed on your fixed disk drive, databases linked from a mounted CD–ROM, or
a combination of both. The script also links the ispaths file from the /infocd CD–ROM file
system to the /usr/lpp/info/data directory.
The linkinfocd script does the following:
• Checks to see if InfoExplorer (/usr/lpp/info) is installed on the system. If /usr/lpp/info
does not exist, the script exits.
• Checks to see if the /usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41 directory exists and creates it if it is
not found.
• Checks to see if the database subdirectories exist. If the database subdirectory name is
found in /usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41 as:
– A link from the CD–ROM, the script prints a message that the database is already
linked from the CD–ROM.
– A link from elsewhere, the script forces the link from the CD–ROM over the existing
link.
– A directory, the script prints a message that you must deinstall that database if you
want to link it from the mounted CD–ROM.
If the database subdirectory is not found in /usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41 , the script
links that database subdirectory from /infocd/usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41 to
/usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41.
• Checks to see if the /usr/lpp/info/data/ispaths file exists. If the ispaths file name is
found as:
– A link from the CD–ROM, the script prints a message that the ispaths file is already
linked from the CD–ROM.
Managing the InfoExplorer Program
B-5
– A link from elsewhere, the script copies the linked ispaths file to ispaths.linked and
links the ispaths file from the CD–ROM into /usr/lpp/info/data.
– A file, the script copies the existing ispaths to ispaths.orig and links the ispaths file
from the CD–ROM into /usr/lpp/info/data.
If no /usr/lpp/info/data/ispaths file is found, the script links the ispaths file from the
CD–ROM into /usr/lpp/info/data.
To run the linkinfocd script, enter:
/infocd/linkinfocd
B-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Removing InfoExplorer Information Bases
The method you use to remove an information base depends on whether it is installed on
the fixed disk from an installation media or linked from the mounted hypertext CD–ROM.
Prerequisites
You must have write access to the /usr/lpp/info/lib/$LANG directory. $LANG refers to the
language you are using for the InfoExplorer program.
Remove Information Bases Installed on Fixed Disk
To determine what database packages are installed on your system, run the lslpp
command or use SMIT to generate a list. To remove an information base that is installed on
the fixed disk, you must remove the corresponding software option. Refer to ”Maintaining
Optional Software” in the AIX Installation Guide.
Remove Information Bases Linked from CD–ROM
To determine what databases are linked from the hypertext CD–ROM, use the cd command
to change to the /infocd/usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41 directory and run the ls –l command.
Database directories that are linked from the hypertext CD–ROM will have symbolic links to
/infocd listed.
Use the rm command to delete the symbolic links for any unneeded information bases. To
delete the links, use the following form of the rm command:
rm –f /usr/lpp/info/lib/ $LANG / InformationBaseName
For example, to remove the symbolic link for the files information base (AIX Files
Reference) from a system where the language is U.S. English, enter:
rm –f /usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US/aix41/files
Note: Information bases cannot be deleted from the CD–ROM. For performance
enhancements, you may decide to install frequently accessed information bases onto the
fixed disk. Refer to ”Installing Optional Software and Service Updates” in the AIX
Installation Guide.
Managing the InfoExplorer Program
B-7
Changing InfoExplorer Languages
Procedure
On a system with multiple languages installed, each language information base has its own
directory in the /usr/lpp/info/lib directory. For example, the information base for German is
installed in the /usr/lpp/info/lib/de_DE directory, while the information bases for U.S.
English are installed in the /usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US directory.
InfoExplorer determines what languages to use for database content separately from the
language to use for messages (like menu bar entries or button titles). The language used for
messages is determined by the value of the LANG or the LC_MESSAGES environment
variable. If LC_MESSAGES is set, that value is used; otherwise, the value of LANG is used
to determine which messages to use.
InfoExplorer uses several methods for determining the language to use for database
content. The precedence is as follows:
1. If the INFOLANG environment variable is set, then InfoExplorer attempts to read
databases from the /usr/lpp/info/lib/<$INFOLANG> directory.
2. If no libraries are found there or INFOLANG environment variable is not set, then
InfoExplorer uses the INFOLOCALE environment variable. You can specify a list of
locales in the INFOLOCALE environment variable by separating each locale with a
colon. The first locale specified is the first language that InfoExplorer attempts to read.
InfoExplorer continues trying to read databases based on the locales specified in the
INFOLOCALE environment variable until a match is found.
3. If no libraries are found using the INFOLOCALE environment variable, the environment
variable LC_MESSAGES is used.
4. If no libraries are found using the LC_MESSAGES, the LANG environment variable is
used.
5. If no libraries are found, then InfoExplorer defaults to using the libraries installed in
/usr/lpp/info/lib/en_US.
B-8
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Creating InfoExplorer Public Notes
Public notes can be read by any hypertext user. Public notes are created by merging and
relocating private notes files.
Prerequisites
1. You must have write access to the /usr/lpp/info/data directory.
2. You must create and save private notes to a file in the InfoExplorer window or ASCII
interface.
Procedure
Use one of the following methods to create public notes:
• For the default InfoExplorer library, use the mergenote command to merge private notes
files into a single notes file. Designate the /usr/lpp/info/data directory as the location of
the new public notes list.
• For public libraries other than the default, private notes are stored in the
$HOME/info/LibraryName directory. Use the mergenote command to merge private
notes files into a single notes file. Designate the /usr/lpp/info/data/LibraryName directory
as the location of the new public notes list.
Notes:
a. Private notes and note lists are saved in the user’s $HOME/info and
$HOME/info/LibraryName/notes directories.
b. Public notes for the default InfoExplorer library should be placed in the
/usr/lpp/info/data directory.
Bookmarks created by one user can be copied for access by other hypertext users.
Bookmark files are saved in the user’s $HOME/info or $HOME/info/LibraryName directory
with a .bmk extension.
Prerequisites
You must have read and write access to the users $HOME/info directories.
Procedure
1. Use the cp command to copy a bookmark file from one user to another.
For example, to copy bookmark file review.bmk in user sharon’s $HOME directory to
user donna’s $HOME directory, enter:
cd /home/sharon/info
cp review.bmk /home/donna/info
2. In the InfoExplorer program, reset the new user’s default bookmark file using the
Defaults Editor window.
Managing the InfoExplorer Program
B-9
Transferring InfoExplorer Bookmarks from One User to
Another
Bookmarks created by one user can be copied for access by other hypertext users.
Bookmark files are saved in the user’s $HOME/info or $HOME/info/LibraryName directory
with a .bmk extension.
Prerequisites
You must have read and write access to the users $HOME/info directories.
Procedure
1. Use the cp command to copy a bookmark file from one user to another.
For example, to copy bookmark file review.bmk in user sharon’s $HOME directory to
user donna’s $HOME directory, enter:
cd /home/sharon/info
cp review.bmk /home/donna/info
2. In the InfoExplorer program, reset the new user’s default bookmark file using the
Defaults Editor window.
B-10
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
Index
Symbols
.profile file, 10-2
/ (root) file system, 7-6
/dev/rfd0 (diskette drive), 9-4
/dev/rmt0 (streaming tape drive), 9-4
/etc/profile file, 10-2
/export directory, 7-12
/usr/share directory, 7-10
/var file system, 7-11
A
Access Control Lists, controlling command access,
3-13
accounting system, commands, overview, 15-5
accounting system
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-7
collecting data, overview, 15-2
commands
running automatically, 15-5
running from the keyboard, 15-6
connect–time data
collecting, 15-2
reporting, 15-4
disk–usage data, 15-3
reporting, 15-4
fees
charging, 15-3
reporting, 15-5
files
data files, 15-8
formats, 15-10
overview, 15-7
report and summary files, 15-8
runacct command files, 15-8
overview, 15-2
printer–usage data, 15-3, 15-4
process data
collecting, 15-3
reporting, 15-4
reporting data, overview, 15-4
reports
daily, 15-5
monthly, 15-5
adapter location codes, 21-3
administrative roles
authorization, 4-2
overview, users, passwords, manage, backup,
4-1
AIX, overview for BSD system managers, A-1, A-2,
A-3, A-4
accounting, A-7
backup, A-9
boot and startup, A-10
commands, A-11
cron, A-15
devices, A-16
file comparison, A-17
file systems, A-19
finding and examining files, A-20
networking, A-22
NFS and NIS (formerly Yellow Pages, A-26
online documentation and man command,
A-25
paging space, A-21
passwords, A-27
performance, A-30
printers, A-31
terminals, A-33
UUCP, A-34
allocation group size, 7-21
allocations, file zero (kproc), 7-23
auditing
configuration of, 3-18
event detection, 3-16, 3-17
information collection, 3-16
kernel audit trail, 3-16
kernel audit trail mode, 3-19
logging, event selection, 3-18
logging events, description of, 3-18
overview, 3-16
records format, 3-18
availability
for adapter or power supply failure, 6-10
for disk failure, 6-10
B
backup
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-9
authorization, 4-2
commands, list of, 9-2
devices, illustration, 9-4
effect of data compression on, 7-15
effect of fragments on, 7-19
media types, 9-4
methods, 9-2
overview, 9-2
procedure for system and user data, 9-6
replicating a system (cloning), 9-6
restoring data, 9-4
role, 4-1
strategy for managing
developing a, 9-5
guidelines for, 9-2
planning, 9-5
user file systems, 9-7
user files, 9-7
user–defined volume group, system image, 9-8
bookmarks, InfoExplorer, transferring, B-10
boot processing, phases of, 2-4
booting
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-10
understanding
overview, 2-3
RAM file system, 2-9
service, 2-8
Index
X-1
standalone, 2-8
system boot processing, 2-4
BSD, comparison to AIX for system managers, A-1,
A-3, A-4
accounting, A-7
backup, boot and startup, commands, A-2
backup, A-9
boot and startup, A-10
commands, A-11
cron, A-15
devices, A-16
file comparison, A-17
file systems, A-19
finding and examining files, A-20
networking, A-22
NFS and NIS (formerly Yellow Pages, A-26
online documentation and man command,
A-25
paging space, A-21
passwords, A-27
performance, A-30
printers, A-31
terminals, A-33
UUCP, A-34
C
CD–ROM, accessing InfoExplorer from, B-4
character set, 11-2
character set description (charmap) source file,
11-13
charmap (character set description) file, 11-13
code set independence, 11-3
code sets
definition, 11-2
IBM–850, 11-3
IBM–932, 11-3
IBM–eucJP, 11-3
ISO8859 family, 11-3
commands, AIX for BSD System Managers, A-11
connect–time accounting, 15-2
converters
definition, 11-3
overview, 11-16
cron, AIX for BSD System Managers, A-15
cron daemon, generating data with, 15-2
D
data compression, 7-14
effect of on backup/restore, 7-15
fragments, 7-17
performance costs of, 7-16
device
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-16
classes, 21-1
location codes, 21-3
nodes, 21-1
states, 21-2
device drivers, effect of using fragments on size of,
7-19
dials/LPFKeys location codes, 21-6
directories, mounting, 7-25
disk drives (hard drives)
direct–attached, 21-5
X-2
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
serial–linked, location codes, 21-5
disk quota system
implementing, 5-2
overview, 5-2
disk striping, 6-18
disk utilization, effect of fragments on, 7-17
disk–usage accounting, 15-3
diskette drive, location codes, 21-6
diskless workstations, mount security, 7-27
Documentation Library Service, 19-1
DSMIT, 1-2
Dynamic Processor Deallocation, 10-5
E
enabled file systems
create, 7-23
disk image compatibility, 7-23
free space, 7-23
large file geometry, 7-23
sparse files, 7-23
enabling file systems, zero file allocations, 7-23
environment variables, overview, 11-10
F
fee accounting, 15-3
file allocation, sparse, 7-23
file system fragment addressability, 7-21
file systems
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-19
backing up user file systems, 9-7
commands for managing, 7-3, 7-4
data compression, 7-14
file tree
/ (root) file system, 7-6
/export directory, 7-12
/usr file system, 7-8
/usr/share directory, 7-10
/var file system, 7-11
overview, 7-5
fragments, 7-17
i–nodes, 7-17
journaling techniques, 7-2
large files, 7-23
management tasks, 7-2, 7-3
mounting, 7-25
overview, 7-2
types
CD–ROM, 7-2
Journaled File System (JFS), 7-2
Network File Systems (NFS), 7-2
file–system images, 7-19
files
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-17, A-20
mounting, 7-25
fragments
and variable number of i–nodes, 7-17
effect on backup/restore, 7-19
effect on disk utilization, 7-17
limitation for device drivers, 7-19
performance costs of, 7-20
size of
identifying, 7-19
specifying, 7-18
G
groups, example of, 3-14
grpck program, 3-12
H
hot plug management, managing, 21-7
hypertext documentation, B-4
I
i–nodes, 7-18
and fragments, 7-17
number of bytes per (NBPI)
identifying, 7-19
specifying, 7-18
variable number of, 7-18
IBM–850 code set, 11-3
IBM–932 code set, 11-3
IBM–eucJP code set, 11-3
idbgen, 10-3
idfildir, 7-23
InfoExplorer
accessing from CD–ROM, B-4
bookmarks, transferring between users, B-10
customizing, B-1
information bases
overview, B-2
removing, B-7
languages, changing, B-8
public notes, B-3
creating, B-9
information bases, InfoExplorer, B-2
inodes, number of, 7-21
inter–disk allocation strategy, 6-14
intra–disk allocation strategy, 6-17
ISO8859 family of code sets, 11-3
J
JFS (journaled file system)
data compression, 7-14
fragments, 7-17
maximum size of, 7-22
size limitations, 7-21
with variable number of i–nodes, 7-17
JFS (journaled file system) log, size of, 7-21
K
overview, 11-4
understanding, 11-5
locale definition source file, 11-12
location codes
adapter, 21-3
defined, device, 21-3
dials/LPFKeys, 21-6
direct–attached disk, 21-5
diskette drive, 21-6
multiprotocol port, 21-6
printer/plotter, 21-4
SCSI device, 21-5
serial–linked disk, 21-5
tty, 21-4
logical partitions
definition, 6-5
inter–disk allocation strategy, 6-14
logical volume storage, write scheduling policy,
6-13
Logical Volume Manager (LVM), 6-2
definition, 6-6
logical volume storage
definition, 6-3
file systems, 6-5
inter–disk allocation policy, 6-14
intra–disk allocation policy, 6-17
logical partitions, 6-5
logical volumes, 6-5
maximum sizes, 6-6
nonquorum volume groups, 6-8
physical partitions, 6-4
physical volumes, 6-3
quorums, 6-7
volume groups, 6-3
write scheduling policy, 6-13
logical volumes
definition, 6-5
limitations, 6-21
map files, 6-18
strategy for, 6-12
striped, 6-18
volume group policy, 6-20
write–verify policy, 6-19
login files
.profile file, 10-2
/etc/profile file, 10-2
login user ID, 3-5
LVM, 6-2
keyboard, changing attributes, using chhwkbd
command, A-11
M
L
man command, 1-4
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-25
map files, 6-18
message facility, separating messages from
programs, 11-2
mgrsecurity, 3-2
Mirror Write Consistency (MWC), 6-13
mount points, 7-24
mounting
/etc/filesystem automatic mounts, 7-25
automatic mounts, 7-25
diskless workstation mounts
description of, 7-27
Library Service, 19-1
limitations, 20-2
logical volumes, 6-21
Power Management, 20-2
locale
categories, 11-9
changing, 11-14
default at installation, 11-8
definition, 11-2
definition source files, 11-12
environment variables, 11-10
Index
X-3
security, 7-27
file system mounting, 7-25
local, definition, 7-25
overview, 7-24
remote, definition, 7-25
using multiple mounts, 7-25
multiprotocol port, location codes, 21-6
Q
N
Range setting, 6-14
restore
authorization, 4-5
effect of data compression on, 7-15
effect of fragments on, 7-19
role, 4-1
role
authorization, 4-2
overview, users, passwords, manage, backup,
4-1
National Language Support (NLS)
changing NLS environments, 11-14
changing your locale, 11-14
character set description (charmap) source file,
11-13
converters, overview, 11-16
environment variables, 11-10
iconv libraries, 11-17
locale, 11-4
locale categories, 11-9
locale definition source files, 11-12
overview, 11-2
NBPI, 7-18
network, AIX for BSD System Managers, A-22
NFS and NIS, AIX for BSD System Managers,
A-26
NIS, A-26
NLS, 11-2
nonquorum volume groups, 6-8
number of bytes per i–node (NBPI), 7-18
P
paging space
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-21
allocating, 8-3
characteristics for creating, 8-6
commands for managing, 8-6
early allocation mode, 8-3
late allocation mode, 8-3
overview, 8-2
passwords
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-27
authorization to change, 4-1, 4-3
extending restrictions, 3-5
restrictions, 3-4
performance, AIX for BSD System Managers, A-30
physical partitions
definition, 6-4
size, 6-4, 6-10
physical volumes, definition, 6-3
Power Management, 20-2
printer
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-31
location codes, 21-4
printer–usage accounting, 15-3
processes
collecting accounting data on, 15-3
generating accounting reports, 15-4
management of, 12-1
profile
files, 10-2
overview, 10-2
public notes, InfoExplorer, creating, B-9
pwdck program, 3-12
X-4
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
quorums
definition, 6-7
nonquorum volume groups, 6-8
R
S
SCSI devices, location codes, 21-5
security
advanced, 3-10
guidelines, 3-6
introduction
administrative tasks, 3-2
authentication, 3-3
identification, 3-3
user administration, 3-2
secure system, installation of, 3-12
shell environments, customizing, 10-2
shutdown
authorization, 4-1
understanding, 2-10
SMIT
main menu, 17-2
overview, 17-2
Strict setting, 6-15
subserver, description of, 14-2
subsystem, properties of, 14-2
subsystem group, description of, 14-2
system, starting the, 2-2
system accounting
collecting data, overview, 15-2
commands
running automatically, 15-5
running from the keyboard, 15-6
connect–time data, 15-2, 15-4
disk–usage data, 15-4
collecting, 15-3
fees
charging, 15-3
reporting, 15-5
files
data files, 15-8
formats, 15-10
overview, 15-7
report and summary files, 15-8
runnact command files, 15-8
overview, 15-2
printer–usage data
collecting, 15-3
reporting, 15-4
process data
collecting, 15-3
reporting, 15-4
reporting data, overview, 15-4
reports
daily, 15-5
monthly, 15-5
system environment
Dynamic Processor Deallocation, 10-5
profile, 10-2
time data manipulation services, 10-3
X/Open, UNIX95, 10-4
System Management Interface Tool, 17-2
System Resource Controller
commands, list of, 14-3
functions of, 14-2
illustration, 14-3
T
tape drives
attributes, changeable, 22-2, 22-4, 22-5, 22-6,
22-7, 22-8, 22-9, 22-10, 22-11, 22-12
managing, 22-1
special files for, 22-14
TCB, 3-11
tcbck command, checking programs, 3-11, 3-12
terminals, AIX for BSD System Managers, A-33
time data manipulation services, 10-3
trusted command interpreter, description of, 3-15
Trusted Communication Path, description of, 3-14
Trusted Computing Base
auditing of, 3-18
overview, 3-11
tty (teletypewriter), location codes, 21-4
U
UNIX95, vi, 10-4
urck program, 3-12
user, adding, removing, 4-1, 4-3
user account, control of, 3-3
user environments, customizing, 10-2
UUCP, AIX for BSD System Managers, A-34
V
variable number of i–nodes, 7-18
and fragments, 7-17
vary–on process, 6-7
overriding failure of, 6-8
VGDA (volume group descriptor area), 6-7
VGSA (volume group status area), 6-7
Virtual Memory Manager, 8-7
VMM, 8-7
volume group descriptor area (VGDA), 6-7
volume group status area (VGSA), 6-7
volume groups
definition of, 6-3
high availability, 6-9
nonquorum, 6-8
policy implementation, 6-20
quorums, 6-7
strategy for, 6-9
vary–on process, 6-7
when to create separate, 6-9
W
Web–based System Manager, 16-1
write scheduling policy, 6-13
write–verify policy, 6-19
X
X/Open, vi, 10-4
Y
Yellow Pages, A-26
AIX for BSD System Managers, A-26
Z
zero file allocations, 7-23
Index
X-5
X-6
AIX Management Concepts: OS & Devices
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