FortiGate-800 Administration Guide

Administration Guide
FortiGate 800
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Version 2.80 MR8
4 February 2005
01-28008-0008-20050204
USB
© Copyright 2005 Fortinet Inc. All rights reserved.
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transmitted, or translated in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical or
otherwise, for any purpose, without prior written permission of Fortinet Inc.
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Version 2.80 MR8
4 February 2005
01-28008-0008-20050204
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Contents
Table of Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 13
About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls...................................................................................
Antivirus protection .......................................................................................................
Web content filtering .....................................................................................................
Spam filtering ................................................................................................................
Firewall..........................................................................................................................
VLANs and virtual domains...........................................................................................
Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)................................................................................
VPN...............................................................................................................................
High availability .............................................................................................................
Secure installation, configuration, and management ....................................................
Document conventions .....................................................................................................
FortiGate documentation ..................................................................................................
Fortinet Knowledge Center ...........................................................................................
Comments on Fortinet technical documentation...........................................................
Related documentation .....................................................................................................
FortiManager documentation ........................................................................................
FortiClient documentation .............................................................................................
FortiMail documentation................................................................................................
FortiLog documentation ................................................................................................
Customer service and technical support...........................................................................
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Web-based manager............................................................................................ 25
Button bar features ...........................................................................................................
Contact Customer Support ...........................................................................................
Online Help ...................................................................................................................
Easy Setup Wizard .......................................................................................................
Console Access ............................................................................................................
Logout ...........................................................................................................................
Web-based manager pages..............................................................................................
Web-based manager menu ..........................................................................................
Lists...............................................................................................................................
Icons .............................................................................................................................
Status bar......................................................................................................................
Organization of this manual ..............................................................................................
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System Status ...................................................................................................... 33
Status................................................................................................................................
Viewing system status ..................................................................................................
Changing unit information .............................................................................................
Session list........................................................................................................................
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Changing the FortiGate firmware......................................................................................
Upgrading to a new firmware version ...........................................................................
Reverting to a previous firmware version......................................................................
Installing firmware images from a system reboot using the CLI ...................................
Testing a new firmware image before installing it .........................................................
Installing and using a backup firmware image ..............................................................
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System Network ................................................................................................... 55
Interface ............................................................................................................................
Interface settings...........................................................................................................
Configuring interfaces ...................................................................................................
Zone..................................................................................................................................
Zone settings ................................................................................................................
Management .....................................................................................................................
DNS ..................................................................................................................................
Routing table (Transparent Mode) ....................................................................................
Routing table list ...........................................................................................................
Transparent mode route settings ..................................................................................
VLAN overview .................................................................................................................
FortiGate units and VLANs ...........................................................................................
VLANs in NAT/Route mode ..............................................................................................
Rules for VLAN IDs.......................................................................................................
Rules for VLAN IP addresses .......................................................................................
Adding VLAN subinterfaces ..........................................................................................
VLANs in Transparent mode.............................................................................................
Rules for VLAN IDs.......................................................................................................
Transparent mode virtual domains and VLANs ............................................................
Transparent mode VLAN list.........................................................................................
Transparent mode VLAN settings.................................................................................
FortiGate IPv6 support......................................................................................................
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System DHCP ....................................................................................................... 81
Service ..............................................................................................................................
DHCP service settings ..................................................................................................
Server ...............................................................................................................................
DHCP server settings ...................................................................................................
Exclude range ...................................................................................................................
DHCP exclude range settings.......................................................................................
IP/MAC binding .................................................................................................................
DHCP IP/MAC binding settings ....................................................................................
Dynamic IP........................................................................................................................
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System Config...................................................................................................... 89
System time ...................................................................................................................... 89
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Options.............................................................................................................................. 90
HA ..................................................................................................................................... 92
HA overview.................................................................................................................. 92
HA configuration ........................................................................................................... 95
Configuring an HA cluster ........................................................................................... 101
Managing an HA cluster.............................................................................................. 105
SNMP.............................................................................................................................. 108
Configuring SNMP ...................................................................................................... 109
SNMP community ....................................................................................................... 110
FortiGate MIBs............................................................................................................ 112
FortiGate traps ............................................................................................................ 113
Fortinet MIB fields ....................................................................................................... 115
Replacement messages ................................................................................................. 117
Replacement messages list ........................................................................................ 117
Changing replacement messages .............................................................................. 118
FortiManager................................................................................................................... 119
System Admin .................................................................................................... 121
Administrators .................................................................................................................
Administrators list........................................................................................................
Administrators options ................................................................................................
Access profiles................................................................................................................
Access profile list ........................................................................................................
Access profile options .................................................................................................
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System Maintenance ......................................................................................... 127
Backup and restore.........................................................................................................
Backing up and Restoring...........................................................................................
Update center .................................................................................................................
Updating antivirus and attack definitions ....................................................................
Enabling push updates ...............................................................................................
Support ...........................................................................................................................
Sending a bug report ..................................................................................................
Registering a FortiGate unit ........................................................................................
Shutdown ........................................................................................................................
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System Virtual Domain...................................................................................... 143
Virtual domain properties ................................................................................................
Exclusive virtual domain properties ............................................................................
Shared configuration settings .....................................................................................
Administration and management ................................................................................
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Virtual domains ...............................................................................................................
Adding a virtual domain ..............................................................................................
Selecting a virtual domain...........................................................................................
Selecting a management virtual domain.....................................................................
Configuring virtual domains ............................................................................................
Adding interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, and zones to a virtual domain .....................
Configuring routing for a virtual domain ......................................................................
Configuring firewall policies for a virtual domain .........................................................
Configuring IPSec VPN for a virtual domain ...............................................................
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Router ................................................................................................................. 153
Static ...............................................................................................................................
Static route list ............................................................................................................
Static route options .....................................................................................................
Policy ..............................................................................................................................
Policy route list............................................................................................................
Policy route options.....................................................................................................
RIP ..................................................................................................................................
General .......................................................................................................................
Networks list................................................................................................................
Networks options ........................................................................................................
Interface list.................................................................................................................
Interface options .........................................................................................................
Distribute list ...............................................................................................................
Distribute list options...................................................................................................
Offset list .....................................................................................................................
Offset list options ........................................................................................................
Router objects.................................................................................................................
Access list ...................................................................................................................
New access list ...........................................................................................................
New access list entry ..................................................................................................
Prefix list .....................................................................................................................
New Prefix list .............................................................................................................
New prefix list entry.....................................................................................................
Route-map list.............................................................................................................
New Route-map ..........................................................................................................
Route-map list entry....................................................................................................
Key chain list...............................................................................................................
New key chain.............................................................................................................
Key chain list entry......................................................................................................
Monitor ............................................................................................................................
Routing monitor list .....................................................................................................
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CLI configuration.............................................................................................................
get router info ospf ......................................................................................................
get router info protocols ..............................................................................................
get router info rip.........................................................................................................
config router ospf .......................................................................................................
config router static6.....................................................................................................
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Firewall................................................................................................................ 201
Policy ..............................................................................................................................
How policy matching works.........................................................................................
Policy list .....................................................................................................................
Policy options..............................................................................................................
Advanced policy options .............................................................................................
Configuring firewall policies ........................................................................................
Policy CLI configuration ..............................................................................................
Address...........................................................................................................................
Address list .................................................................................................................
Address options ..........................................................................................................
Configuring addresses ................................................................................................
Address group list .......................................................................................................
Address group options ................................................................................................
Configuring address groups........................................................................................
Service ............................................................................................................................
Predefined service list.................................................................................................
Custom service list......................................................................................................
Custom service options...............................................................................................
Configuring custom services.......................................................................................
Service group list ........................................................................................................
Service group options .................................................................................................
Configuring service groups .........................................................................................
Schedule .........................................................................................................................
One-time schedule list ................................................................................................
One-time schedule options .........................................................................................
Configuring one-time schedules .................................................................................
Recurring schedule list................................................................................................
Recurring schedule options ........................................................................................
Configuring recurring schedules .................................................................................
Virtual IP .........................................................................................................................
Virtual IP list ................................................................................................................
Virtual IP options.........................................................................................................
Configuring virtual IPs.................................................................................................
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IP pool.............................................................................................................................
IP pool list ...................................................................................................................
IP pool options ............................................................................................................
Configuring IP pools....................................................................................................
IP Pools for firewall policies that use fixed ports.........................................................
IP pools and dynamic NAT .........................................................................................
Protection profile .............................................................................................................
Protection profile list....................................................................................................
Default protection profiles ...........................................................................................
Protection profile options ............................................................................................
Configuring protection profiles ....................................................................................
Profile CLI configuration..............................................................................................
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User ..................................................................................................................... 247
Setting authentication timeout.........................................................................................
Local ...............................................................................................................................
Local user list ..............................................................................................................
Local user options.......................................................................................................
RADIUS ..........................................................................................................................
RADIUS server list ......................................................................................................
RADIUS server options...............................................................................................
LDAP...............................................................................................................................
LDAP server list ..........................................................................................................
LDAP server options ...................................................................................................
User group ......................................................................................................................
User group list.............................................................................................................
User group options......................................................................................................
CLI configuration.............................................................................................................
peer.............................................................................................................................
peergrp........................................................................................................................
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VPN...................................................................................................................... 259
Phase 1...........................................................................................................................
Phase 1 list .................................................................................................................
Phase 1 basic settings ................................................................................................
Phase 1 advanced settings.........................................................................................
Phase 2...........................................................................................................................
Phase 2 list .................................................................................................................
Phase 2 basic settings ................................................................................................
Phase 2 advanced options..........................................................................................
Manual key......................................................................................................................
Manual key list ............................................................................................................
Manual key options .....................................................................................................
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Concentrator ................................................................................................................... 271
Concentrator list.......................................................................................................... 271
Concentrator options................................................................................................... 272
Ping Generator................................................................................................................ 272
Ping generator options................................................................................................ 273
Monitor ............................................................................................................................ 273
Dialup monitor............................................................................................................. 274
Static IP and dynamic DNS monitor............................................................................ 275
PPTP............................................................................................................................... 275
PPTP range ................................................................................................................ 276
L2TP .............................................................................................................................. 276
L2TP range ................................................................................................................. 277
Certificates ...................................................................................................................... 277
Local certificate list...................................................................................................... 278
Certificate request....................................................................................................... 278
Importing signed certificates ...................................................................................... 280
CA certificate list ......................................................................................................... 280
Importing CA certificates............................................................................................. 280
VPN configuration procedures ........................................................................................ 281
IPSec configuration procedures.................................................................................. 281
PPTP configuration procedures .................................................................................. 283
L2TP configuration procedures................................................................................... 283
CLI configuration............................................................................................................. 284
ipsec phase1............................................................................................................... 284
ipsec phase2............................................................................................................... 286
ipsec vip ...................................................................................................................... 287
IPS ....................................................................................................................... 291
Signature......................................................................................................................... 292
Predefined................................................................................................................... 292
Custom........................................................................................................................ 296
Anomaly .......................................................................................................................... 298
Anomaly CLI configuration.......................................................................................... 301
Configuring IPS logging and alert email.......................................................................... 302
Default fail open setting .................................................................................................. 302
Antivirus ............................................................................................................. 303
File block......................................................................................................................... 304
File block list ............................................................................................................... 305
Configuring the file block list ....................................................................................... 306
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Quarantine ...................................................................................................................... 306
Quarantined files list ................................................................................................... 306
Quarantined files list options....................................................................................... 307
AutoSubmit list ............................................................................................................ 308
AutoSubmit list options ............................................................................................... 308
Configuring the AutoSubmit list................................................................................... 308
Config.......................................................................................................................... 309
Config.............................................................................................................................. 310
Virus list ...................................................................................................................... 310
Config.......................................................................................................................... 310
Grayware .................................................................................................................... 311
Grayware options........................................................................................................ 311
CLI configuration............................................................................................................. 313
system global av_failopen........................................................................................... 313
system global optimize................................................................................................ 314
config antivirus heuristic.............................................................................................. 314
config antivirus quarantine .......................................................................................... 315
config antivirus service http......................................................................................... 316
config antivirus service ftp........................................................................................... 318
config antivirus service pop3....................................................................................... 320
config antivirus service imap ....................................................................................... 321
config antivirus service smtp ....................................................................................... 323
Web filter............................................................................................................. 325
Content block .................................................................................................................. 327
Web content block list ................................................................................................. 327
Web content block options.......................................................................................... 327
Configuring the web content block list ........................................................................ 328
URL block ....................................................................................................................... 328
Web URL block list...................................................................................................... 329
Web URL block options .............................................................................................. 329
Configuring the web URL block list ............................................................................. 330
Web pattern block list.................................................................................................. 330
Web pattern block options .......................................................................................... 331
Configuring web pattern block .................................................................................... 331
URL exempt .................................................................................................................... 331
URL exempt list........................................................................................................... 332
URL exempt list options .............................................................................................. 332
Configuring URL exempt............................................................................................. 332
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Category block ................................................................................................................
FortiGuard managed web filtering service ..................................................................
Category block configuration options..........................................................................
Configuring web category block..................................................................................
Category block reports................................................................................................
Category block reports options ...................................................................................
Generating a category block report.............................................................................
Category block CLI configuration................................................................................
Script filter .......................................................................................................................
Web script filter options...............................................................................................
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Spam filter .......................................................................................................... 339
FortiShield....................................................................................................................... 341
FortiShield Spam filtering............................................................................................ 341
FortiShield options ...................................................................................................... 343
Configuring the FortiShield cache............................................................................... 343
FortiShield CLI configuration....................................................................................... 344
IP address....................................................................................................................... 345
IP address list ............................................................................................................. 345
IP address options ...................................................................................................... 345
Configuring the IP address list .................................................................................... 345
DNSBL & ORDBL ........................................................................................................... 346
DNSBL & ORDBL list.................................................................................................. 347
DNSBL & ORDBL options........................................................................................... 347
Configuring the DNSBL & ORDBL list ........................................................................ 347
Email address ................................................................................................................. 348
Email address list........................................................................................................ 348
Email address options................................................................................................. 348
Configuring the email address list............................................................................... 348
MIME headers................................................................................................................. 349
MIME headers list ....................................................................................................... 350
MIME headers options ................................................................................................ 350
Configuring the MIME headers list.............................................................................. 351
Banned word................................................................................................................... 351
Banned word list ......................................................................................................... 352
Banned word options .................................................................................................. 352
Configuring the banned word list ................................................................................ 353
Using Perl regular expressions ....................................................................................... 353
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Log & Report ...................................................................................................... 357
Log config .......................................................................................................................
Log Setting options .....................................................................................................
Alert E-mail options.....................................................................................................
Log filter options..........................................................................................................
Configuring log filters ..................................................................................................
Enabling traffic logging................................................................................................
Log access......................................................................................................................
Disk log file access .....................................................................................................
Viewing log messages ................................................................................................
Searching log messages.............................................................................................
CLI configuration.............................................................................................................
fortilog setting..............................................................................................................
syslogd setting ............................................................................................................
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FortiGuard categories ....................................................................................... 377
Glossary ............................................................................................................. 383
Index .................................................................................................................... 389
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Introduction
FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls support network-based deployment of application-level
services, including antivirus protection and full-scan content filtering. FortiGate
Antivirus Firewalls improve network security, reduce network misuse and abuse, and
help you use communications resources more efficiently without compromising the
performance of your network. FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls are ICSA-certified for
firewall, IPSec, and antivirus services.
This chapter introduces you to FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls and the following topics:
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About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
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Document conventions
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FortiGate documentation
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Related documentation
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Customer service and technical support
About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
The FortiGate Antivirus Firewall is a dedicated easily managed security device that
delivers a full suite of capabilities that include:
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application-level services such as virus protection and content filtering,
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network-level services such as firewall, intrusion detection, VPN, and traffic
shaping.
The FortiGate Antivirus Firewall uses Fortinet’s Accelerated Behavior and Content
Analysis System (ABACAS™) technology, which leverages breakthroughs in chip
design, networking, security, and content analysis. The unique ASIC-based
architecture analyzes content and behavior in real-time, enabling key applications to
be deployed right at the network edge, where they are most effective at protecting
your networks. The FortiGate series complements existing solutions, such as hostbased antivirus protection, and enables new applications and services while greatly
lowering costs for equipment, administration, and maintenance.
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About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
Introduction
The FortiGate-800 model provides the
levels of performance, reliability, and
flexibility demanded by large enterprises.
With high throughput, a total of 8 network
connections (4 user-defined), 802.1Q VLAN support, and stateful failover HA, the
FortiGate-800 is the choice for mission critical applications. The flexibility, reliability,
and easy management of the FortiGate-800 makes it a natural choice for enterprise
applications.
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Antivirus protection
FortiGate ICSA-certified antivirus protection scans web (HTTP), file transfer (FTP),
and email (SMTP, POP3, and IMAP) content as it passes through the FortiGate unit.
FortiGate antivirus protection uses pattern matching and heuristics to find viruses. If a
virus is found, antivirus protection removes the file containing the virus from the
content stream and forwards a replacement message to the intended recipient.
For extra protection, you can configure antivirus protection to block specified file types
from passing through the FortiGate unit. You can use the feature to stop files that
might contain new viruses.
FortiGate antivirus protection can also identify and remove known grayware
programs. Grayware programs are usually unsolicited commercial software programs
that get installed on PCs, often without the user’s consent or knowledge. Grayware
programs are generally considered an annoyance, but these programs can cause
system performance problems or be used for malicious means.
If the FortiGate unit contains a hard disk, infected or blocked files and grayware files
can be quarantined. The FortiGate administrator can download quarantined files so
that they can be virus scanned, cleaned, and forwarded to the intended recipient. You
can also configure the FortiGate unit to automatically delete quarantined files after a
specified time.
The FortiGate unit can send email alerts to system administrators when it detects and
removes a virus from a content stream. The web and email content can be in normal
network traffic or encrypted IPSec VPN traffic.
ICSA Labs has certified that FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls:
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detect 100% of the viruses listed in the current In The Wild List (www.wildlist.org),
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detect viruses in compressed files using the PKZip format,
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detect viruses in email that has been encoded using uuencode format,
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detect viruses in email that has been encoded using MIME encoding,
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log all actions taken while scanning.
Web content filtering
FortiGate web content filtering can scan all HTTP content protocol streams for URLs,
URL patterns, and web page content. If there is a match between a URL on the URL
block list, or a web page contains a word or phrase that is in the content block list, the
FortiGate unit blocks the web page. The blocked web page is replaced with a
message that you can edit using the FortiGate web-based manager.
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Introduction
About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
FortiGate web content filtering also supports FortiGuard web category blocking. Using
web category blocking you can restrict or allow access to web pages based on
content ratings of web pages.
You can configure URL blocking to block all or some of the pages on a web site. Using
this feature, you can deny access to parts of a web site without denying access to it
completely.
To prevent unintentionally blocking legitimate web pages, you can add URLs to an
exempt list that overrides the URL blocking and content blocking lists. The exempt list
also exempts web traffic this address from virus scanning.
Web content filtering also includes a script filter feature that can block unsecure web
content such as Java applets, cookies, and ActiveX.
Spam filtering
FortiGate spam filtering can scan all POP3, SMTP, and IMAP email content for spam.
You can configure spam filtering to filter mail according to IP address, email address,
mime headers, and content. Mail messages can be identified as spam or clear.
FortiShield is an antispam system from Fortinet that includes an IP address black list,
a URL black list, and spam filtering tools. The IP address black list contains IP
addresses of email servers known to be used to generate Spam. The URL black list
contains URLs of websites found in Spam email.
You can also add the names of known third-party DNS-based Blackhole List (DNSBL)
and Open Relay Database List (ORDBL) servers. These services contain lists of
known spam sources.
If an email message is found to be spam, the FortiGate unit adds an email tag to the
subject line of the email. The recipient can use their mail client software to filter
messages based on the email tag. Spam filtering can also be configured to delete
SMTP email messages identified as spam.
Firewall
The FortiGate ICSA-certified firewall protects your computer networks from Internet
threats. ICSA has granted FortiGate firewalls version 4.0 firewall certification,
providing assurance that FortiGate firewalls successfully screen and secure corporate
networks against a range of threats from public or other untrusted networks.
After basic installation of the FortiGate unit, the firewall allows users on the protected
network to access the Internet while blocking Internet access to internal networks.
You can configure the firewall to put controls on access to the Internet from the
protected networks and to allow controlled access to internal networks.
FortiGate policies include a range of options that:
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control all incoming and outgoing network traffic,
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control encrypted VPN traffic,
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apply antivirus protection and web content filtering,
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block or allow access for all policy options,
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control when individual policies are in effect,
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accept or deny traffic to and from individual addresses,
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About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
Introduction
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control standard and user defined network services individually or in groups,
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require users to authenticate before gaining access,
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include traffic shaping to set access priorities and guarantee or limit bandwidth for
each policy,
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include logging to track connections for individual policies,
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include Network Address Translation (NAT) mode and Route mode policies,
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include mixed NAT and Route mode policies.
The FortiGate firewall can operate in NAT/Route mode or Transparent mode.
NAT/Route mode
In NAT/Route mode, the FortiGate unit is a Layer 3 device. This means that each of its
interfaces is associated with a different IP subnet and that it appears to other devices
as a router. This is how a firewall is normally deployed.
In NAT/Route mode, you can create NAT mode policies and Route mode policies.
•
NAT mode policies use network address translation to hide the addresses in a
more secure network from users in a less secure network.
•
Route mode policies accept or deny connections between networks without
performing address translation.
Transparent mode
In Transparent mode, the FortiGate unit does not change the Layer 3 topology. This
means that all of its interfaces are on the same IP subnet and that it appears to other
devices as a bridge. Typically, the FortiGate unit is deployed in Transparent mode to
provide antivirus and content filtering behind an existing firewall solution.
Transparent mode provides the same basic firewall protection as NAT mode. The
FortiGate unit passes or blocks the packets it receives according to firewall policies.
The FortiGate unit can be inserted in the network at any point without having to make
changes to your network or its components. However, some advanced firewall
features are available only in NAT/Route mode.
VLANs and virtual domains
Fortigate Antivirus Firewalls support IEEE 802.1Q-compliant virtual LAN (VLAN) tags.
Using VLAN technology, a single FortiGate unit can provide security services to, and
control connections between, multiple security domains according to the VLAN IDs
added to VLAN packets. The FortiGate unit can recognize VLAN IDs and apply
security policies to secure network and IPSec VPN traffic between each security
domain. The FortiGate unit can also apply authentication, content filtering, and
antivirus protection to VLAN-tagged network and VPN traffic.
The FortiGate unit supports VLANs in NAT/Route and Transparent mode. In
NAT/Route mode, you enter VLAN subinterfaces to receive and send VLAN packets.
FortiGate virtual domains provide multiple logical firewalls and routers in a single
FortiGate unit. Using virtual domains, one FortiGate unit can provide exclusive firewall
and routing services to multiple networks so that traffic from each network is
effectively separated from every other network.
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About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
You can develop and manage interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, zones, firewall policies,
routing, and VPN configuration for each virtual domain separately. For these
configuration settings, each virtual domain is functionally similar to a single FortiGate
unit. This separation simplifies configuration because you do not have to manage as
many routes or firewall policies at one time.
Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
The FortiGate Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) combines signature and anomaly
based intrusion detection and prevention. The FortiGate unit can record suspicious
traffic in logs, can send alert email to system administrators, and can log, pass, drop,
reset, or clear suspicious packets or sessions. Both the IPS predefined signatures and
the IPS engine are upgradeable through the FortiProtect Distribution Network (FDN).
You can also create custom signatures.
VPN
Using FortiGate virtual private networking (VPN), you can provide a secure
connection between widely separated office networks or securely link telecommuters
or travellers to an office network.
FortiGate VPN features include the following:
•
Industry standard and ICSA-certified IPSec VPN, including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IPSec VPN in NAT/Route and Transparent mode,
IPSec, ESP security in tunnel mode,
DES, 3DES (triple-DES), and AES hardware accelerated encryption,
HMAC MD5 and HMAC SHA1 authentication and data integrity,
AutoIKE key based on pre-shared key tunnels,
IPSec VPN using local or CA certificates,
Manual Keys tunnels,
Diffie-Hellman groups 1, 2, and 5,
Aggressive and Main Mode,
Replay Detection,
Perfect Forward Secrecy,
XAuth authentication,
Dead peer detection,
DHCP over IPSec,
Secure Internet browsing.
•
PPTP for easy connectivity with the VPN standard supported by the most popular
operating systems.
•
L2TP for easy connectivity with a more secure VPN standard, also supported by
many popular operating systems.
•
Firewall policy based control of IPSec VPN traffic.
•
IPSec NAT traversal so that remote IPSec VPN gateways or clients behind a NAT
can connect to an IPSec VPN tunnel.
•
VPN hub and spoke using a VPN concentrator to allow VPN traffic to pass from
one tunnel to another through the FortiGate unit.
•
IPSec Redundancy to create a redundant AutoIKE key IPSec VPN connection to a
remote network.
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About FortiGate Antivirus Firewalls
Introduction
High availability
Fortinet achieves high availability (HA) using redundant hardware and the FortiGate
Clustering Protocol (FGCP). Each FortiGate unit in an HA cluster enforces the same
overall security policy and shares the same configuration settings. You can add up to
32 FortiGate units to an HA cluster. Each FortiGate unit in an HA cluster must be the
same model and must be running the same FortiOS firmware image.
FortiGate HA supports link redundancy and device redundancy.
FortiGate units can be configured to operate in active-passive (A-P) or active-active
(A-A) HA mode. Active-active and active-passive clusters can run in either NAT/Route
or Transparent mode.
An active-passive (A-P) HA cluster, also referred to as hot standby HA, consists of a
primary FortiGate unit that processes traffic, and one or more subordinate FortiGate
units. The subordinate FortiGate units are connected to the network and to the
primary FortiGate unit but do not process traffic.
Active-active (A-A) HA load balances virus scanning among all the FortiGate units in
the cluster. An active-active HA cluster consists of a primary FortiGate unit that
processes traffic and one or more secondary units that also process traffic. The
primary FortiGate unit uses a load balancing algorithm to distribute virus scanning to
all the FortiGate units in the HA cluster.
Secure installation, configuration, and management
The first time you power on the FortiGate unit, it is already configured with default IP
addresses and security policies. Connect to the web-based manager, set the
operating mode, and use the Setup wizard to customize FortiGate IP addresses for
your network, and the FortiGate unit is ready to protect your network. You can then
use the web-based manager to customize advanced FortiGate features.
You can also create a basic configuration using the FortiGate front panel control
buttons and LCD.
Web-based manager
Using HTTP or a secure HTTPS connection from any computer running Internet
Explorer, you can configure and manage the FortiGate unit. The web-based manager
supports multiple languages. You can configure the FortiGate unit for HTTP and
HTTPS administration from any FortiGate interface.
You can use the web-based manager to configure most FortiGate settings. You can
also use the web-based manager to monitor the status of the FortiGate unit.
Configuration changes made using the web-based manager are effective immediately
without resetting the firewall or interrupting service. Once you are satisfied with a
configuration, you can download and save it. The saved configuration can be restored
at any time.
Command line interface
You can access the FortiGate command line interface (CLI) by connecting a
management computer serial port to the FortiGate RS-232 serial console connector.
You can also use Telnet or a secure SSH connection to connect to the CLI from any
network that is connected to the FortiGate unit, including the Internet.
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Introduction
Document conventions
The CLI supports the same configuration and monitoring functionality as the
web-based manager. In addition, you can use the CLI for advanced configuration
options that are not available from the web-based manager.
This Administration Guide contains information about basic and advanced CLI
commands. For a more complete description about connecting to and using the
FortiGate CLI, see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
Logging and reporting
The FortiGate unit supports logging for various categories of traffic and configuration
changes. You can configure logging to:
•
report traffic that connects to the firewall,
•
report network services used,
•
report traffic that was permitted by firewall policies,
•
report traffic that was denied by firewall policies,
•
report events such as configuration changes and other management events,
IPSec tunnel negotiation, virus detection, attacks, and web page blocking,
•
report attacks detected by the IPS,
•
send alert email to system administrators to report virus incidents, intrusions, and
firewall or VPN events or violations.
Logs can be sent to a remote syslog server or a WebTrends NetIQ Security Reporting
Center and Firewall Suite server using the WebTrends enhanced log format. Some
models can also save logs to an optional internal hard drive. If a hard drive is not
installed, you can configure most FortiGate units to log the most recent events and
attacks detected by the IPS to the system memory.
Document conventions
This guide uses the following conventions to describe CLI command syntax.
•
Angle brackets < > to indicate variables.
For example:
execute restore config <filename_str>
You enter:
execute restore config myfile.bak
<xxx_str> indicates an ASCII string that does not contain new-lines or carriage
returns.
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Document conventions
Introduction
<xxx_integer> indicates an integer string that is a decimal (base 10) number.
<xxx_octet> indicates a hexadecimal string that uses the digits 0-9 and letters
A-F.
<xxx_ipv4> indicates a dotted decimal IPv4 address.
<xxx_v4mask> indicates a dotted decimal IPv4 netmask.
<xxx_ipv4mask> indicates a dotted decimal IPv4 address followed by a dotted
decimal IPv4 netmask.
<xxx_ipv6> indicates a dotted decimal IPv6 address.
<xxx_v6mask> indicates a dotted decimal IPv6 netmask.
<xxx_ipv6mask> indicates a dotted decimal IPv6 address followed by a dotted
decimal IPv6 netmask.
•
Vertical bar and curly brackets {|} to separate alternative, mutually exclusive
required keywords.
For example:
set opmode {nat | transparent}
You can enter set opmode nat or set opmode transparent.
•
Square brackets [ ] to indicate that a keyword or variable is optional.
For example:
show system interface [<name_str>]
To show the settings for all interfaces, you can enter show system interface.
To show the settings for the internal interface, you can enter show system
interface internal.
•
A space to separate options that can be entered in any combination and must be
separated by spaces.
For example:
set allowaccess {ping https ssh snmp http telnet}
You can enter any of the following:
set allowaccess ping
set allowaccess ping https ssh
set allowaccess https ping ssh
set allowaccess snmp
In most cases to make changes to lists that contain options separated by spaces,
you need to retype the whole list including all the options you want to apply and
excluding all the options you want to remove.
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Introduction
FortiGate documentation
FortiGate documentation
Information about FortiGate products is available from the following guides:
•
FortiGate QuickStart Guide
Provides basic information about connecting and installing a FortiGate unit.
•
FortiGate Installation Guide
Describes how to install a FortiGate unit. Includes a hardware reference, default
configuration information, installation procedures, connection procedures, and
basic configuration procedures. Choose the guide for your product model number.
•
FortiGate Administration Guide
Provides basic information about how to configure a FortiGate unit, including how
to define FortiGate protection profiles and firewall policies; how to apply intrusion
prevention, antivirus protection, web content filtering, and spam filtering; and how
to configure a VPN.
•
FortiGate online help
Provides a context-sensitive and searchable version of the Administration Guide in
HTML format. You can access online help from the web-based manager as you
work.
•
FortiGate CLI Reference Guide
Describes how to use the FortiGate CLI and contains a reference to all FortiGate
CLI commands.
•
FortiGate Log Message Reference Guide
Describes the structure of FortiGate log messages and provides information about
the log messages that are generated by FortiGate units.
•
FortiGate High Availability Guide
Contains in-depth information about the FortiGate high availability feature and the
FortiGate clustering protocol.
•
FortiGate IPS Guide
Describes how to configure the FortiGate Intrusion Prevention System settings and
how the FortiGate IPS deals with some common attacks.
•
FortiGate VPN Guide
Explains how to configure VPNs using the web-based manager.
Fortinet Knowledge Center
The most recent Fortinet technical documentation is available from the Fortinet
Knowledge Center. The knowledge center contains short how-to articles, FAQs,
technical notes, product and feature guides, and much more. Visit the Fortinet
Knowledge Center at http://kc.forticare.com.
Comments on Fortinet technical documentation
Please send information about any errors or omissions in this document, or any
Fortinet technical documentation, to techdoc@fortinet.com.
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Related documentation
Introduction
Related documentation
Additional information about Fortinet products is available from the following related
documentation.
FortiManager documentation
•
FortiManager QuickStart Guide
Explains how to install the FortiManager Console, set up the FortiManager Server,
and configure basic settings.
•
FortiManager System Administration Guide
Describes how to use the FortiManager System to manage FortiGate devices.
•
FortiManager System online help
Provides a searchable version of the Administration Guide in HTML format. You
can access online help from the FortiManager Console as you work.
FortiClient documentation
•
FortiClient Host Security User Guide
Describes how to use FortiClient Host Security software to set up a VPN
connection from your computer to remote networks, scan your computer for
viruses, and restrict access to your computer and applications by setting up firewall
policies.
•
FortiClient Host Security online help
Provides information and procedures for using and configuring the FortiClient
software.
FortiMail documentation
•
FortiMail Administration Guide
Describes how to install, configure, and manage a FortiMail unit in gateway mode
and server mode, including how to configure the unit; create profiles and policies;
configure antispam and antivirus filters; create user accounts; and set up logging
and reporting.
•
FortiMail online help
Provides a searchable version of the Administration Guide in HTML format. You
can access online help from the web-based manager as you work.
•
FortiMail Web Mail Online Help
Describes how to use the FortiMail web-based email client, including how to send
and receive email; how to add, import, and export addresses; and how to configure
message display preferences.
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Introduction
Customer service and technical support
FortiLog documentation
•
FortiLog Administration Guide
Describes how to install and configure a FortiLog unit to collect FortiGate and
FortiMail log files. It also describes how to view FortiGate and FortiMail log files,
generate and view log reports, and use the FortiLog unit as a NAS server.
•
FortiLog online help
Provides a searchable version of the Administration Guide in HTML format. You
can access online help from the web-based manager as you work.
Customer service and technical support
For antivirus and attack definition updates, firmware updates, updated product
documentation, technical support information, and other resources, please visit the
Fortinet Technical Support web site at http://support.fortinet.com.
You can also register Fortinet products and service contracts from
http://support.fortinet.com and change your registration information at any time.
Technical support is available through email from any of the following addresses.
Choose the email address for your region:
amer_support@fortinet.com For customers in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Latin
America and South America.
apac_support@fortinet.com For customers in Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong, Singapore,
Malaysia, all other Asian countries, and Australia.
eu_support@fortinet.com
For customers in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, Mainland
Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.
For information about our priority support hotline (live support), see
http://support.fortinet.com.
When requesting technical support, please provide the following information:
•
your name
•
your company’s name and location
•
your email address
•
your telephone number
•
your support contract number (if applicable)
•
the product name and model number
•
the product serial number (if applicable)
•
the software or firmware version number
•
a detailed description of the problem
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Customer service and technical support
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Introduction
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Web-based manager
Using HTTP or a secure HTTPS connection from any computer running a web
browser, you can configure and manage the FortiGate unit. The web-based manager
supports multiple languages. You can configure the FortiGate unit for HTTP and
HTTPS administration from any FortiGate interface.
Figure 1: Web-based manager screen
You can use the web-based manager to configure most FortiGate settings. You can
also use the web-based manager to monitor the status of the FortiGate unit.
Configuration changes made using the web-based manager are effective immediately
without resetting the firewall or interrupting service. Once you are satisfied with a
configuration, you can back it up. The saved configuration can be restored at any
time.
For information about connecting to the web-based manager, see “Connecting to the
web-based manager” in the Installation Guide for your unit.
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Button bar features
Web-based manager
This chapter includes:
•
Button bar features
•
Web-based manager pages
Button bar features
The button bar in the upper right corner of the web-based manager provides access to
several important FortiGate features.
Figure 2: Web-based manager button bar
Contact Customer Support
Online Help
Easy Setup Wizard
Console Access
Logout
Contact Customer Support
The Contact Customer Support button opens the Fortinet support web page in a new
browser window. From this page you can
26
•
Register your FortiGate unit (Product Registration). Fortinet will email you your
username and password to log in to the customer support center.
•
Log in to the Customer Support Center.
•
Visit the FortiProtect Center.
•
Download virus and attack definition updates.
•
Find out about training and certification programs.
•
Read about Fortinet and its products.
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Web-based manager
Button bar features
Online Help
The Online Help button opens web-based help for the current web-based manager
page. There are hyperlinks to related topics and procedures related to the controls on
the current web-based manager page.
Figure 3: Online Help window
You can view other parts of the help system as you like. The help system includes a
navigation pane with table of contents, index and a text search function.
Easy Setup Wizard
The FortiGate setup wizard provides an easy way to configure basic initial settings for
the FortiGate unit. The wizard walks through the configuration of a new administrator
password, FortiGate interfaces, DHCP server settings, internal servers (web, FTP,
etc.), and basic antivirus settings. For detailed instructions on the initial setup of your
FortiGate unit, see the Installation Guide for your unit.
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Button bar features
Web-based manager
Console Access
An alternative to the web-based manager user interface is the text-based command
line interface (CLI). There are some options that are configurable only from the CLI.
The Console Access button opens a Java-based terminal application. The
management computer must have Java version 1.3 or higher installed.
For information on how to use the CLI, see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
Figure 4: Console access
Connect
Connect to the FortiGate unit using the CLI.
Disconnect
Disconnect from the FortiGate unit.
Clear screen
Clear the screen.
Logout
The Logout button immediately logs you out of the web-based manager. Log out
before you close the browser window. If you simply close the browser or leave the
web-based manager, you remain logged-in until the idle timeout (default 5 minutes)
expires.
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Web-based manager
Web-based manager pages
Web-based manager pages
The web-based manager interface consists of a menu and pages, many of which
have multiple tabs. When you select a menu item, such as System, it expands to
reveal a submenu. When you select one of the submenu items, the associated page
opens at its first tab. To view a different tab, select the tab.
The procedures in this manual direct you to a page by specifying the menu item, the
submenu item and the tab, like this:
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
Figure 5: Parts of the web-based manager
Tabs
Page
Button bar
Menu
Status
bar
Web-based manager menu
The menu provides access to configuration options for all major features of the
FortiGate unit.
System
Configure system facilities, such as network interfaces, virtual domains,
DHCP services, time and set system options.
Router
Configure the router.
Firewall
Configure firewall policies and protection profiles that apply the network
protection features. Also configure virtual IP addresses and IP pools.
User
Configure user accounts for use with firewall policies that require user
authentication. Also configure external authentication servers.
VPN
Configure virtual private networks.
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Web-based manager pages
Web-based manager
IPS
Configure the intrusion prevention system.
Antivirus
Configure antivirus protection.
Web Filter
Configure web filtering.
Spam Filter
Configure email spam filtering.
Log & Report
Configure logging. View log messages.
Lists
Many of the web-based manager pages are lists. There are lists of network interfaces,
firewall policies, administrators, users, and so on.
Figure 6: Example of a web-based manager list
Delete
Edit
The list shows some information about each item and the icons in the rightmost
column enable you to take action on the item. In this example, you can select Delete
to remove the item or select Edit to modify the item.
To add another item to the list, you select Create New. This opens a dialog box in
which you define the new item. The dialog box for creating a new item is similar to the
one for editing an existing item.
Icons
The web-based manager has icons in addition to buttons to enable you to interact with
the system. There are tooltips to assist you in understanding the function of the icon.
Pause the mouse pointer over the icon to view the tooltip. The following table
describes the icons that you will see in the web-based manager.
Icon
30
Name
Description
Change
Password
Change the administrator password. This icon appears in the
Administrators list if your access profile enables write permission
on Admin Users.
Clear
Clear a log file.
Column
Settings
Select log columns to display.
Delete
Delete an item. This icon appears in lists where the item is
deletable and you have write permission on the page.
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Web-based manager
Web-based manager pages
Download
or Backup
Download a log file or back up a configuration file.
Edit
Edit a configuration. This icon appears in lists where you have
write permission on the page.
Go
Do a search.
Insert Policy Create a new policy to precede the current one.
before
Move to
Move item in list.
Next page
View next page of list.
Previous
page
View previous page of list.
Restore
Restore a configuration from a file.
View
View a configuration. This icon appears in lists instead of the
Edit icon when you do not have write permission on that page.
Status bar
The status bar is at the bottom of the web-based manager screen.
Figure 7: Status bar
The status bar shows
•
how long the FortiGate unit has been operating since the last time it was restarted
•
the virtual domain to which the current page applies
Virtual domain information is not shown if there is only one virtual domain. For
information about virtual domains, see “System Virtual Domain” on page 143.
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Organization of this manual
Web-based manager
Organization of this manual
This manual describes the web-based manager pages in the same order as the webbased manager menu. There is a chapter for each item in the System menu, followed
by a chapter for each of the remaining top-level menu items.
32
System Status
Router
Spam filter
System Network
Firewall
Log & Report
System DHCP
User
FortiGuard categories
System Config
VPN
System Admin
IPS
System Maintenance
Antivirus
System Virtual Domain
Web filter
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System Status
You can connect to the web-based manager and view the current system status of the
FortiGate unit. The status information that is displayed includes the system status, unit
information, system resources, and session log.
This chapter includes:
•
Status
•
Session list
•
Changing the FortiGate firmware
Status
View the system status page, also known as the system dashboard, for a snap shot of
the current operating status of the FortiGate unit. All FortiGate administrators with
read access to system configuration can view system status information.
On HA clusters, the Status page shows the status of the primary unit. To view status
information for all members of the cluster, go to System > Config > HA and select
Cluster Members. For more information, see “HA configuration” on page 95.
FortiGate administrators whose access profiles contain system configuration write
privileges can change or update FortiGate unit information. For information on access
profiles, see “Access profiles” on page 125.
•
Viewing system status
•
Changing unit information
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Status
System Status
Viewing system status
Figure 8: System status
Automatic Refresh Select to control how often the web-based manager updates the system
status display.
Interval
Go
Select to set the selected automatic refresh interval.
Refresh
Select to manually update the system status display.
System status
34
UP Time
The time in days, hours, and minutes since the FortiGate unit was last
started.
System Time
The current time according to the FortiGate unit internal clock.
Log Disk
Displays hard disk capacity and free space if the FortiGate unit contains a
hard disk or Not Available if no hard disk is installed. The FortiGate unit uses
the hard disk to store log messages and quarantine files infected with a virus
or blocked by antivirus file blocking.
Notification
Contains reminders such as “Change Password” or “Product Registration”.
Select the reminder to see the detailed reminder message.
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System Status
Status
Unit Information
Admin users and administrators whose access profiles contain system configuration
read and write privileges can change or update the unit information. For information
on access profiles, see “Access profiles” on page 125.
Host Name
The host name of the current FortiGate unit.
Firmware Version
The version of the firmware installed on the current FortiGate unit.
Antivirus Definitions The current installed version of the FortiGate Antivirus Definitions.
Attack Definitions
The current installed version of the FortiGate Attack Definitions used by
the Intrusion Prevention System (IPS).
Serial Number
The serial number of the current FortiGate unit. The serial number is
specific to the FortiGate unit and does not change with firmware
upgrades.
Operation Mode
The operation mode of the current FortiGate unit.
Recent Virus Detections
Time
The time at which the recent virus was detected.
Src / Dst
The source and destination addresses of the virus.
Service
The service from which the virus was delivered; HTTP, FTP, IMAP,
POP3, or SMTP.
Virus Detected
The name of the virus detected.
Content Summary
The Content Summary shows information about Content Archiving, configured in
firewall protection profiles. The Details pages provide a link to either the FortiLog unit
or to the Log & Report > Log Config > Log Setting page where you can configure
logging to a FortiLog unit.
Reset
Select to reset the count values in the table to zero.
HTTP
The number of URLs visited. Select Details to see the list of URLs, the
time they were accessed and the IP address of the host that accessed
them.
Email
The number of email sent and received. Select Details to see the date
and time, the sender, the recipient and the subject of each email.
FTP
The number of URLs visited and the number of files uploaded and
downloaded. Select Details to see the FTP site URL, date, time, user
and lists of files uploaded and downloaded.
Interface Status
All interfaces in the FortiGate unit are listed in the table.
Interface
The name of the interface.
IP / Netmask
The IP address and netmask of the interface (NAT/Route mode only).
Status
The status of the interface; either up (green up arrow) or down (red
down arrow).
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Status
System Status
System Resources
CPU Usage
The current CPU status. The web-based manager displays CPU usage
for core processes only. CPU usage for management processes (for
example, for HTTPS connections to the web-based manager) is
excluded.
Memory Usage
The current memory status. The web-based manager displays memory
usage for core processes only. Memory usage for management
processes (for example, for HTTPS connections to the web-based
manager) is excluded.
Hard Disk Usage
The current hard disk (local disk) status. The web-based manager
displays hard disk usage for core processes only. CPU usage for
management processes (for example, for HTTPS connections to the
web-based manager) is excluded.
Active Sessions
The number of communications sessions being processed by the
FortiGate unit.
Network Utilization
The total network bandwidth being used through all FortiGate interfaces
and the percentage of the maximum network bandwidth that can be
processed by the FortiGate unit.
History
Select History to view a graphical representation of the last minute of
CPU, memory, sessions, and network usage. This page also shows the
virus and intrusion detections over the last 20 hours.
Figure 9: Sample system resources history
History
The history page displays 6 graphs representing the following system resources and
protection:
CPU Usage History
CPU usage for the previous minute.
Memory Usage History Memory usage for the previous minute.
36
Session History
Session history for the previous minute.
Network Utilization
History
Network utilization for the previous minute.
Virus History
The virus detection history over the last 20 hours.
Intrusion History
The intrusion detection history over the last 20 hours.
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System Status
Status
Recent Intrusion Detections
Time
The time at which the recent intrusion was detected.
Src / Dst
The source and destination addresses of the attack.
Service
The service from which the attack was delivered; HTTP, FTP, IMAP,
POP3, or SMTP.
Attack Name
The name of the attack.
Changing unit information
Administrators with system configuration write access can use the unit information
area of the System Status page:
•
To change FortiGate host name
•
To update the firmware version
•
To update the antivirus definitions manually
•
To update the attack definitions manually
•
To change to Transparent mode
•
To change to NAT/Route mode
To change FortiGate host name
The FortiGate host name appears on the Status page and in the FortiGate CLI
prompt. The host name is also used as the SNMP system name. For information
about the SNMP system name, see “SNMP” on page 108.
The default host name is FortiGate-800.
Note: If the FortiGate unit is part of an HA cluster, you should set a unique name to distinguish
the unit from others in the cluster.
1
Go to System > Status > Status.
2
In the Host Name field of the Unit Information section, select Change.
3
In the New Name field, type a new host name.
4
Select OK.
The new host name is displayed in the Host Name field, and in the CLI prompt, and is
added to the SNMP System Name.
To update the firmware version
For information on updating the firmware, see “Changing the FortiGate firmware” on
page 40.
To update the antivirus definitions manually
Note: For information about configuring the FortiGate unit for automatic antivirus definitions
updates, see “Update center” on page 130.
1
Download the latest antivirus definitions update file from Fortinet and copy it to the
computer that you use to connect to the web-based manager.
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Status
System Status
2
Start the web-based manager and go to System > Status > Status.
3
In the Antivirus Definitions field of the Unit Information section, select Update.
4
In the Update File field, type the path and filename for the antivirus definitions update
file, or select Browse and locate the antivirus definitions update file.
5
Select OK to copy the antivirus definitions update file to the FortiGate unit.
The FortiGate unit updates the antivirus definitions. This takes about 1 minute.
6
Go to System > Status to confirm that the Antivirus Definitions Version information
has updated.
To update the attack definitions manually
Note: For information about configuring the FortiGate unit for automatic attack definitions
updates, see “Update center” on page 130.
1
Download the latest attack definitions update file from Fortinet and copy it to the
computer that you use to connect to the web-based manager.
2
Start the web-based manager and go to System > Status > Status.
3
In the Attack Definitions field of the Unit Information section, select Update.
The Intrusion Detection System Definitions Update dialog box appears.
4
In the Update File field, type the path and filename for the attack definitions update
file, or select Browse and locate the attack definitions update file.
5
Select OK to copy the attack definitions update file to the FortiGate unit.
The FortiGate unit updates the attack definitions. This takes about 1 minute.
6
Go to System > Status > Status to confirm that the Attack Definitions Version
information has updated.
To change to Transparent mode
After you change the FortiGate unit from the NAT/Route mode to Transparent mode,
most of the configuration resets to Transparent mode factory defaults, except for HA
settings (see “HA” on page 92).
To change to Transparent mode:
38
1
Go to System > Status > Status.
2
In the Operation Mode field of the Unit Information section, select Change.
3
In the Operation Mode field, select Transparent.
4
Select OK.
The FortiGate unit changes operation mode.
5
To reconnect to the web-based manager, connect to the interface configured for
Transparent mode management access and browse to https:// followed by the
Transparent mode management IP address.
By default in Transparent mode, you can connect to the internal interface. The default
Transparent mode management IP address is 10.10.10.1.
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Session list
Note: If the web-based manager IP address was on a different subnet in NAT/Route mode, you
may have to change the IP address of your computer to the same subnet as the management
IP address.
To change to NAT/Route mode
After you change the FortiGate unit from the NAT/Route mode to Transparent mode,
most of the configuration resets to Transparent mode factory defaults, except for HA
settings (see “HA” on page 92).
To change to NAT/Route mode:
1
Go to System > Status > Status.
2
In the Operation Mode field of the Unit Information section, select Change.
3
In the Operation Mode field, select NAT/Route.
4
Select OK.
The FortiGate unit changes operation mode.
5
To reconnect to the web-based manager, you must connect to the interface
configured by default for management access.
By default in NAT/Route mode, you can connect to the internal interface. The default
internal interface IP address is 192.168.1.99.
Note: If the management IP address was on a different subnet in Transparent mode, you may
have to change the IP address of your computer to the same subnet as the interface configured
for management access.
Session list
The session list displays information about the communications sessions currently
being processed by the FortiGate unit. You can use the session list to view current
sessions.
Figure 10: Sample session list
From IP
Set source IP address for list filtering
From Port
Set source port for list filtering
To IP
Set destination IP address for list filtering
To Port
Set destination port for list filtering
Apply Filter
Select to filter session list
Virtual Domain Select a virtual domain to list the sessions being processed by that virtual
domain. Select All to view sessions being processed by all virtual domains.
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Total Number of Total number of sessions currently being conducted through the FortiGate
unit.
Sessions
Refresh icon. Select to update the session list
Page up icon. Select to view previous page in the session list
Page down icon. Select to view the next page in the session list.
Protocol
The service protocol of the connection, for example, udp, tcp, or icmp.
From IP
The source IP address of the connection.
From Port
The source port of the connection.
To IP
The destination IP address of the connection.
To Port
The destination port of the connection.
Expire
The time, in seconds, before the connection expires.
Policy ID
The number of the firewall policy allowing this session or blank if the session
involves only one FortiGate interface (admin session, for example).
Delete icon. Select to stop an active communication session.
To view the session list
1
Go to System > Status > Session.
The web-based manager displays the total number of active sessions in the FortiGate
unit session table and lists the top 16.
2
To navigate the list of sessions, select Page Up or Page Down.
3
Select Refresh to update the session list.
4
If you are logged in as an administrative user with read and write privileges or as the
admin user, you can select Delete to stop an active session.
Changing the FortiGate firmware
FortiGate administrators whose access profiles contain system configuration read and
write privileges and the FortiGate admin user can change the FortiGate firmware.
After you download a FortiGate firmware image from Fortinet, you can use the
procedures listed in Table 1 to install the firmware image on your FortiGate unit.
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Table 1: Firmware upgrade procedures
Procedure
Description
Upgrading to a new
firmware version
Use the web-based manager or CLI procedure to upgrade to a new
FortiOS firmware version or to a more recent build of the same
firmware version.
Reverting to a
previous firmware
version
Use the web-based manager or CLI procedure to revert to a
previous firmware version. This procedure reverts the FortiGate
unit to its factory default configuration.
Installing firmware
Use this procedure to install a new firmware version or revert to a
images from a system previous firmware version. To use this procedure you must connect
to the CLI using the FortiGate console port and a null-modem
reboot using the CLI
cable. This procedure reverts the FortiGate unit to its factory
default configuration.
Testing a new
Use this procedure to test a new firmware image before installing it.
firmware image before To use this procedure you must connect to the CLI using the
FortiGate console port and a null-modem cable. This procedure
installing it
temporarily installs a new firmware image using your current
configuration. You can test the firmware image before installing it
permanently. If the firmware image works correctly you can use
one of the other procedures listed in this table to install it
permanently.
Installing and using a
backup firmware
image
If the FortiGate unit is running BIOS version v3.x, you can install a
backup firmware image. Once the backup firmware image is
installed you can switch to this backup image when required.
Upgrading to a new firmware version
Use the following procedures to upgrade the FortiGate unit to a newer firmware
version.
Upgrading the firmware using the web-based manager
Note: Installing firmware replaces the current antivirus and attack definitions with the definitions
included with the firmware release that you are installing. After you install new firmware, use the
procedure “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133 to make sure that antivirus
and attack definitions are up to date.
To upgrade the firmware using the web-based manager
1
Copy the firmware image file to your management computer.
2
Log into the web-based manager as the admin administrative user.
Note: To use this procedure you must login using the admin administrator account, or an
administrator account that has system configuration read and write privileges.
3
Go to System > Status.
4
Under Unit Information > Firmware Version, select Update.
5
Type the path and filename of the firmware image file, or select Browse and locate the
file.
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System Status
6
Select OK.
The FortiGate unit uploads the firmware image file, upgrades to the new firmware
version, restarts, and displays the FortiGate login. This process takes a few minutes.
7
Log into the web-based manager.
8
Go to System > Status and check the Firmware Version to confirm that the firmware
upgrade is successfully installed.
9
Update antivirus and attack definitions. For information about updating antivirus and
attack definitions, see “Update center” on page 130.
Upgrading the firmware using the CLI
To use the following procedure you must have a TFTP server that the FortiGate unit
can connect to.
Note: Installing firmware replaces your current antivirus and attack definitions with the
definitions included with the firmware release that you are installing. After you install new
firmware, use the procedure “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133 to make
sure that antivirus and attack definitions are up to date. You can also use the CLI command
execute update_now to update the antivirus and attack definitions.
To upgrade the firmware using the CLI
1
Make sure that the TFTP server is running.
2
Copy the new firmware image file to the root directory of the TFTP server.
3
Log into the CLI.
Note: To use this procedure you must login using the admin administrator account, or an
administrator account that has system configuration read and write privileges.
4
Make sure the FortiGate unit can connect to the TFTP server.
You can use the following command to ping the computer running the TFTP server.
For example, if the IP address of the TFTP server is 192.168.1.168:
execute ping 192.168.1.168
5
Enter the following command to copy the firmware image from the TFTP server to the
FortiGate unit:
execute restore image <name_str> <tftp_ipv4>
Where <name_str> is the name of the firmware image file and <tftp_ip> is the IP
address of the TFTP server. For example, if the firmware image file name is
FGT_300-v280-build183-FORTINET.out and the IP address of the TFTP server
is 192.168.1.168, enter:
execute restore image FGT_300-v280-build183-FORTINET.out
192.168.1.168
The FortiGate unit responds with the message:
This operation will replace the current firmware version!
Do you want to continue? (y/n)
6
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The FortiGate unit uploads the firmware image file, upgrades to the new firmware
version, and restarts. This process takes a few minutes.
7
Reconnect to the CLI.
8
To confirm that the new firmware image is successfully installed, enter:
get system status
9
Use the procedure “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133 to update
antivirus and attack definitions, or from the CLI, enter:
execute update_now
Reverting to a previous firmware version
Use the following procedures to revert your FortiGate unit to a previous firmware
version.
Reverting to a previous firmware version using the web-based
manager
The following procedures revert the FortiGate unit to its factory default configuration
and deletes IPS custom signatures, web content lists, email filtering lists, and changes
to replacement messages.
Before beginning this procedure you can:
•
Back up the FortiGate unit configuration.
•
Back up the IPS custom signatures.
•
Back up web content and email filtering lists.
For information, see “Backing up and Restoring” on page 128.
If you are reverting to a previous FortiOS version (for example, reverting from FortiOS
v2.80 to FortiOS v2.50), you might not be able to restore the previous configuration
from the backup configuration file.
Note: Installing firmware replaces the current antivirus and attack definitions with the definitions
included with the firmware release that you are installing. After you install new firmware, use the
procedure “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133 to make sure that antivirus
and attack definitions are up to date.
To revert to a previous firmware version using the web-based manager
1
Copy the firmware image file to the management computer.
2
Log into the FortiGate web-based manager.
Note: To use this procedure you must login using the admin administrator account, or an
administrator account that has system configuration read and write privileges.
3
Go to System > Status.
4
Under Unit Information > Firmware Version, select Update.
5
Type the path and filename of the firmware image file, or select Browse and locate the
file.
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System Status
6
Select OK.
The FortiGate unit uploads the firmware image file, reverts to the old firmware version,
resets the configuration, restarts, and displays the FortiGate login. This process takes
a few minutes.
7
Log into the web-based manager.
8
Go to System > Status and check the Firmware Version to confirm that the firmware
is successfully installed.
9
Restore your configuration.
For information about restoring your configuration, see “Backup and restore” on
page 127.
10
Update antivirus and attack definitions.
For information about antivirus and attack definitions, see “To update antivirus and
attack definitions” on page 133.
Reverting to a previous firmware version using the CLI
This procedure reverts the FortiGate unit to its factory default configuration and
deletes IPS custom signatures, web content lists, email filtering lists, and changes to
replacement messages.
Before beginning this procedure you can:
•
Back up the FortiGate unit system configuration using the command execute
backup config.
•
Back up the IPS custom signatures using the command execute backup
ipsuserdefsig
•
Back up web content and email filtering lists.
For information, see “Backing up and Restoring” on page 128.
If you are reverting to a previous FortiOS version (for example, reverting from FortiOS
v2.80 to FortiOS v2.50), you might not be able to restore your previous configuration
from the backup configuration file.
Note: Installing firmware replaces the current antivirus and attack definitions with the definitions
included with the firmware release that you are installing. After you install new firmware, use the
procedure “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133 to make sure that antivirus
and attack definitions are up to date. You can also use the CLI command execute
update_now to update the antivirus and attack definitions.
To use the following procedure you must have a TFTP server that the FortiGate unit
can connect to.
To revert to a previous firmware version using the CLI
1
Make sure that the TFTP server is running.
2
Copy the firmware image file to the root directory of the TFTP server.
3
Log into the FortiGate CLI.
Note: To use this procedure you must login using the admin administrator account, or an
administrator account that has system configuration read and write privileges.
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4
Make sure the FortiGate unit can connect to the TFTP server.
You can use the following command to ping the computer running the TFTP server.
For example, if the TFTP server's IP address is 192.168.1.168:
execute ping 192.168.1.168
5
Enter the following command to copy the firmware image from the TFTP server to the
FortiGate unit:
execute restore image <name_str> <tftp_ipv4>
Where <name_str> is the name of the firmware image file and <tftp_ip> is the IP
address of the TFTP server. For example, if the firmware image file name is
FGT_300-v280-build158-FORTINET.out and the IP address of the TFTP server
is 192.168.1.168, enter:
execute restore image FGT_300-v280-build158-FORTINET.out
192.168.1.168
The FortiGate unit responds with the message:
This operation will replace the current firmware version!
Do you want to continue? (y/n)
6
Type y.
The FortiGate unit uploads the firmware image file. After the file uploads, a message
similar to the following is displayed:
Get image from tftp server OK.
Check image OK.
This operation will downgrade the current firmware version!
Do you want to continue? (y/n)
7
Type y.
The FortiGate unit reverts to the old firmware version, resets the configuration to
factory defaults, and restarts. This process takes a few minutes.
8
Reconnect to the CLI.
9
To confirm that the new firmware image has been loaded, enter:
get system status
10
To restore your previous configuration if needed, use the command:
execute restore config <name_str> <tftp_ipv4>
11
Update antivirus and attack definitions.
For information, see “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133, or from
the CLI, enter:
execute update_now
Installing firmware images from a system reboot using the CLI
This procedure installs a specified firmware image and resets the FortiGate unit to
default settings. You can use this procedure to upgrade to a new firmware version,
revert to an older firmware version, or re-install the current firmware version.
Note: This procedure varies for different FortiGate BIOS versions. These variations are
explained in the procedure steps that are affected. The version of the BIOS running on the
FortiGate unit is displayed when you restart the FortiGate unit using the CLI through a console
connection.
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System Status
For this procedure you:
•
access the CLI by connecting to the FortiGate console port using a null-modem
cable,
•
install a TFTP server that you can connect to from the FortiGate internal interface.
The TFTP server should be on the same subnet as the internal interface.
Before beginning this procedure you can:
•
Back up the FortiGate unit configuration.
For information, see “Backing up and Restoring” on page 128.
•
Back up the IPS custom signatures.
For information, see “Backing up and restoring custom signature files” on
page 297.
•
Back up web content and email filtering lists.
For information, see “Web filter” on page 325 and “Spam filter” on page 339.
If you are reverting to a previous FortiOS version (for example, reverting from FortiOS
v2.80 to FortiOS v2.50), you might not be able to restore your previous configuration
from the backup configuration file.
Note: Installing firmware replaces the current antivirus and attack definitions with the definitions
included with the firmware release that you are installing. After you install new firmware, use the
procedure “To update antivirus and attack definitions” on page 133 to make sure that antivirus
and attack definitions are up to date.
To install firmware from a system reboot
46
1
Connect to the CLI using the null-modem cable and FortiGate console port.
2
Make sure that the TFTP server is running.
3
Copy the new firmware image file to the root directory of the TFTP server.
4
Make sure that the internal interface is connected to the same network as the TFTP
server.
5
To confirm that the FortiGate unit can connect to the TFTP server, use the following
command to ping the computer running the TFTP server. For example, if the IP
address of the TFTP server is 192.168.1.168, enter:
execute ping 192.168.1.168
6
Enter the following command to restart the FortiGate unit:
execute reboot
The FortiGate unit responds with the following message:
This operation will reboot the system !
Do you want to continue? (y/n)
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7
Type y.
As the FortiGate units starts, a series of system startup messages is displayed.
When one of the following messages appears:
•
FortiGate unit running v2.x BIOS
Press Any Key To Download Boot Image.
...
•
FortiGate unit running v3.x BIOS
Press any key to display configuration menu.....
......
Immediately press any key to interrupt the system startup.
Note: You have only 3 seconds to press any key. If you do not press a key soon enough, the
FortiGate unit reboots and you must log in and repeat the execute reboot command.
If you successfully interrupt the startup process, one of the following messages
appears:
•
FortiGate unit running v2.x BIOS
Enter TFTP Server Address [192.168.1.168]:
Go to step 9.
•
FortiGate unit running v3.x BIOS
[G]:
[F]:
[B]:
[Q]:
[H]:
Get firmware image from TFTP server.
Format boot device.
Boot with backup firmware and set as default.
Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware.
Display this list of options.
Enter G,F,B,Q,or H:
8
Type G to get the new firmware image from the TFTP server.
The following message appears:
Enter TFTP server address [192.168.1.168]:
9
Type the address of the TFTP server and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Enter Local Address [192.168.1.188]:
10
Type an IP address that the FortiGate unit can use to connect to the TFTP server.
The IP address can be any IP address that is valid for the network that the interface is
connected to. Make sure you do not enter the IP address of another device on this
network.
The following message appears:
Enter File Name [image.out]:
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System Status
Enter the firmware image filename and press Enter.
The TFTP server uploads the firmware image file to the FortiGate unit and messages
similar to the following are displayed:
•
FortiGate unit running v2.x BIOS
Do You Want To Save The Image? [Y/n]
Type Y.
•
FortiGate unit running v3.x BIOS
Save as Default firmware/Run image without saving:[D/R]
or
Save as Default firmware/Backup firmware/Run image without
saving:[D/B/R]
12
Type D.
The FortiGate unit installs the new firmware image and restarts. The installation might
take a few minutes to complete.
Restoring the previous configuration
Change the internal interface address if required. You can do this from the CLI using
the command:
config system interface
edit internal
set ip <address_ipv4mask>
set allowaccess {ping https ssh telnet http}
end
After changing the interface address, you can access the FortiGate unit from the
web-based manager and restore the configuration.
•
To restore the FortiGate unit configuration, see “Backup and restore” on page 127.
•
To restore IPS custom signatures, see “Backing up and restoring custom signature
files” on page 297.
•
To restore web content filtering lists, see “Backup and restore” on page 127.
•
To restore email filtering lists, see “Backup and restore” on page 127.
•
To update the virus and attack definitions to the most recent version, see
“Updating antivirus and attack definitions” on page 132.
If you are reverting to a previous firmware version (for example, reverting from
FortiOS v2.80 to FortiOS v2.50), you might not be able to restore your previous
configuration from the backup up configuration file.
Testing a new firmware image before installing it
You can test a new firmware image by installing the firmware image from a system
reboot and saving it to system memory. After completing this procedure the FortiGate
unit operates using the new firmware image with the current configuration. This new
firmware image is not permanently installed. The next time the FortiGate unit restarts,
it operates with the originally installed firmware image using the current configuration.
If the new firmware image operates successfully, you can install it permanently using
the procedure “Upgrading to a new firmware version” on page 41.
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For this procedure you:
•
access the CLI by connecting to the FortiGate console port using a null-modem
cable,
•
install a TFTP server that you can connect to from the FortiGate internal interface.
The TFTP server should be on the same subnet as the internal interface.
To test a new firmware image
1
Connect to the CLI using a null-modem cable and FortiGate console port.
2
Make sure the TFTP server is running.
3
Copy the new firmware image file to the root directory of the TFTP server.
4
Make sure that the internal interface is connected to the same network as the TFTP
server.
You can use the following command to ping the computer running the TFTP server.
For example, if the TFTP server's IP address is 192.168.1.168:
execute ping 192.168.1.168
5
Enter the following command to restart the FortiGate unit:
execute reboot
6
As the FortiGate unit reboots, press any key to interrupt the system startup.
As the FortiGate units starts, a series of system startup messages are displayed.
When one of the following messages appears:
•
FortiGate unit running v2.x BIOS
Press Any Key To Download Boot Image.
...
•
FortiGate unit running v3.x BIOS
Press any key to display configuration menu.....
......
7
Immediately press any key to interrupt the system startup.
Note: You have only 3 seconds to press any key. If you do not press a key soon enough, the
FortiGate unit reboots and you must log in and repeat the execute reboot command.
If you successfully interrupt the startup process, one of the following messages
appears:
•
FortiGate unit running v2.x BIOS
Enter TFTP Server Address [192.168.1.168]:
Go to step 9.
•
FortiGate unit running v3.x BIOS
[G]:
[F]:
[Q]:
[H]:
Get firmware image from TFTP server.
Format boot device.
Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware.
Display this list of options.
Enter G,F,Q,or H:
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8
Type G to get the new firmware image from the TFTP server.
The following message appears:
Enter TFTP server address [192.168.1.168]:
9
Type the address of the TFTP server and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Enter Local Address [192.168.1.188]:
10
Type an IP address that can be used by the FortiGate unit to connect to the FTP
server.
The IP address must be on the same network as the TFTP server, but make sure you
do not use the IP address of another device on this network.
The following message appears:
Enter File Name [image.out]:
11
Enter the firmware image file name and press Enter.
The TFTP server uploads the firmware image file to the FortiGate unit and messages
similar to the following appear.
•
FortiGate unit running v2.x BIOS
Do You Want To Save The Image? [Y/n]
Type N.
•
FortiGate unit running v3.x BIOS
Save as Default firmware/Run image without saving:[D/R]
or
Save as Default firmware/Backup firmware/Run image without
saving:[D/B/R]
12
Type R.
The FortiGate image is installed to system memory and the FortiGate unit starts
running the new firmware image but with its current configuration.
13
You can log into the CLI or the web-based manager using any administrative account.
14
To confirm that the new firmware image has been loaded, from the CLI enter:
get system status
You can test the new firmware image as required.
Installing and using a backup firmware image
If the FortiGate unit is running BIOS version v3.x, you can install a backup firmware
image. Once the backup firmware image is installed you can switch to this backup
image when required.
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•
Installing a backup firmware image
•
Switching to the backup firmware image
•
Switching back to the default firmware image
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Installing a backup firmware image
To run this procedure you:
•
access the CLI by connecting to the FortiGate console port using a null-modem
cable,
•
install a TFTP server that you can connect to from the FortiGate as described in
the procedure “Installing firmware images from a system reboot using the CLI” on
page 45.
To install a backup firmware image
1
Connect to the CLI using the null-modem cable and FortiGate console port.
2
Make sure that the TFTP server is running.
3
Copy the new firmware image file to the root directory of your TFTP server.
4
To confirm that the FortiGate unit can connect to the TFTP server, use the following
command to ping the computer running the TFTP server. For example, if the IP
address of the TFTP server is 192.168.1.168:
execute ping 192.168.1.168
5
Enter the following command to restart the FortiGate unit:
execute reboot
As the FortiGate unit starts, a series of system startup messages are displayed.
When of the following message appears:
Press any key to enter configuration menu.....
......
6
Immediately press any key to interrupt the system startup.
Note: You have only 3 seconds to press any key. If you do not press a key soon enough, the
FortiGate unit reboots and you must log in and repeat the execute reboot command.
If you successfully interrupt the startup process, the following message appears:
[G]: Get firmware image from TFTP server.
[F]: Format boot device.
[B]: Boot with backup firmware and set as default.
[Q]: Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware.
[H]: Display this list of options.
Enter G,F,B,Q,or H:
7
Type G to get the new firmware image from the TFTP server.
The following message appears:
Enter TFTP server address [192.168.1.168]:
8
Type the address of the TFTP server and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Enter Local Address [192.168.1.188]:
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System Status
Type an IP address that can be used by the FortiGate unit to connect to the FTP
server.
The IP address can be any IP address that is valid for the network that the interface is
connected to. Make sure you do not enter the IP address of another device on this
network.
The following message appears:
Enter File Name [image.out]:
10
Enter the firmware image file name and press Enter.
The TFTP server uploads the firmware image file to the FortiGate unit and the
following message is displayed.
Save as Default firmware/Backup firmware/Run image without
saving:[D/B/R]
11
Type B.
The FortiGate unit saves the backup firmware image and restarts. When the FortiGate
unit restarts it is running the previously installed firmware version.
Switching to the backup firmware image
Use this procedure to switch the FortiGate unit to operating with a backup firmware
image that you previously installed. When you switch the FortiGate unit to the backup
firmware image, the FortiGate unit operates using the configuration that was saved
with that firmware image.
If you install a new backup image from a reboot, the configuration saved with this
firmware image is the factory default configuration. If you use the procedure
“Switching back to the default firmware image” on page 53 to switch to a backup
firmware image that was previously running as the default firmware image, the
configuration saved with this firmware image is restored.
To switch to the backup firmware image
1
Connect to the CLI using the null-modem cable and FortiGate console port.
2
Enter the following command to restart the FortiGate unit:
execute reboot
As the FortiGate units starts, a series of system startup messages are displayed.
When the following message appears:
Press any key to enter configuration menu.....
......
3
Immediately press any key to interrupt the system startup.
Note: You have only 3 seconds to press any key. If you do not press a key soon enough, the
FortiGate unit reboots and you must log in and repeat the execute reboot command.
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System Status
Changing the FortiGate firmware
If you successfully interrupt the startup process, the following message appears:
[G]: Get firmware image from TFTP server.
[F]: Format boot device.
[B]: Boot with backup firmware and set as default.
[Q]: Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware.
[H]: Display this list of options.
Enter G,F,B,Q,or H:
4
Type B to load the backup firmware image.
The FortiGate unit loads the backup firmware image and restarts. When the FortiGate
unit restarts, it is running the backup firmware version and the configuration is set to
factory default.
Switching back to the default firmware image
Use this procedure to switch the FortiGate unit to operating with the backup firmware
image that had been running as the default firmware image. When you switch to this
backup firmware image, the configuration saved with this firmware image is restored.
To switch back to the default firmware image
1
Connect to the CLI using the null-modem cable and FortiGate console port.
2
Enter the following command to restart the FortiGate unit:
execute reboot
As the FortiGate units starts, a series of system startup messages are displayed.
When the following message appears:
Press any key to enter configuration menu.....
......
3
Immediately press any key to interrupt the system startup.
Note: You have only 3 seconds to press any key. If you do not press a key soon enough, the
FortiGate unit reboots and you must log in and repeat the execute reboot command.
If you successfully interrupt the startup process, the following message appears:
[G]: Get firmware image from TFTP server.
[F]: Format boot device.
[B]: Boot with backup firmware and set as default.
[Q]: Quit menu and continue to boot with default firmware.
[H]: Display this list of options.
Enter G,F,B,Q,or H:
4
Type B to load the backup firmware image.
The FortiGate unit loads the backup firmware image and restarts. When the FortiGate
unit restarts it is running the backup firmware version with a restored configuration.
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Changing the FortiGate firmware
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System Status
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
System Network
System network settings control how the FortiGate unit connects to and interacts with
your network. Basic network settings start with configuring FortiGate interfaces to
connect to your network and configuring the FortiGate DNS settings.
More advanced network settings include adding VLAN subinterfaces and zones to the
FortiGate network configuration.
•
Interface
•
Zone
•
Management
•
DNS
•
Routing table (Transparent Mode)
•
VLAN overview
•
VLANs in NAT/Route mode
•
VLANs in Transparent mode
•
FortiGate IPv6 support
Interface
In NAT/Route mode, go to System > Network > Interface to configure FortiGate
interfaces and to add and configure VLAN subinterfaces.
Note: Unless stated otherwise, in this section the term interface can refer to a physical
FortiGate interface or to a FortiGate VLAN subinterface.
•
For information about VLANs in NAT/Route mode, see “VLANs in NAT/Route
mode” on page 72.
•
For information about VLANs in Transparent mode, see “VLANs in Transparent
mode” on page 74.
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Interface
System Network
Figure 11: Interface list
Create New
Select Create New to create a VLAN.
Virtual Domain
Select a virtual domain to display the interfaces added to this virtual domain.
Only available if you have added a virtual domain.
Name
The names of the physical interfaces available to your FortiGate unit.
• Interface names indicate the default function of the interface (for
example, internal and external)
• Interface names indicate that the interface can be connected to any
network (for example, port1, port2, and portx)
• By default, interface names that include ha are configured with an HA
heartbeat device priority (see “Priorities of Heartbeat Device” on page 98)
If you have added VLAN subinterfaces, they also appear in the name list,
below the physical interface that they have been added to. See “VLAN
overview” on page 71.
IP
The current IP address of the interface.
Netmask
The netmask of the interface.
Access
The administrative access configuration for the interface.
See “To control administrative access to an interface” on page 65 for
information about administrative access options.
Status
The administrative status for the interface.
If the administrative status is a green arrow, the interface is up and can
accept network traffic. If the administrative status is a red arrow, the
interface is administratively down and cannot accept traffic. To change the
administrative status, select Bring Down or Bring Up. For more information,
see “To bring down an interface that is administratively up” on page 62 and
“To start up an interface that is administratively down” on page 62.
Delete, edit, and view icons.
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Interface
Interface settings
Interface settings displays the current configuration of a selected FortiGate interface
or VLAN subinterface. Use interface settings to configure a new VLAN subinterface or
to change the configuration of a FortiGate interface or VLAN subinterface.
You cannot change the name, interface or VLAN ID of an existing interface.
Figure 12: Interface settings
See the following procedures for configuring interfaces:
•
To bring down an interface that is administratively up
•
To start up an interface that is administratively down
•
To add interfaces to a zone
•
To add an interface to a virtual domain
•
To change the static IP address of an interface
•
To configure an interface for DHCP
•
To configure an interface for PPPoE
•
To configure support for dynamic DNS services
•
To add a secondary IP address
•
To add a ping server to an interface
•
To control administrative access to an interface
•
To change the MTU size of the packets leaving an interface
•
To configure traffic logging for connections to an interface
Name
The name of the Interface.
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Interface
System Network
Interface
Select the name of the physical interface to add the VLAN subinterface to. All VLAN
subinterfaces must be associated with a physical interface. Once created, the VLAN is
listed below its physical interface in the Interface list.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID that matches the VLAN ID of the packets to be received by this
VLAN subinterface. You cannot change the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN
subinterface.
The VLAN ID can be any number between 1 and 4096 and must match the VLAN ID
added by the IEEE 802.1Q-compliant router or switch connected to the VLAN
subinterface.
For more information on VLANs, see “VLAN overview” on page 71.
Virtual Domain
Select a virtual domain to add the interface or VLAN subinterface to this virtual
domain. Virtual domain is only available if you have added a virtual domain.
For more information on virtual domains, see “System Virtual Domain” on page 143.
Addressing mode
Select Manual, DHCP, or PPPoE to set the addressing mode for this interface.
Manual
Select Manual and enter an IP address and netmask for the interface. The IP address
of the interface must be on the same subnet as the network the interface is connecting
to.
Note: Where you can enter both an IP address and a netmask in the same field, you can use
the short form of the netmask. For example, 192.168.1.100/255.255.255.0 can also be entered
as 192.168.1.100/24.
Two interfaces cannot have the same IP address and cannot have IP addresses on
the same subnet.
DHCP
If you configure the interface to use DHCP, the FortiGate unit automatically
broadcasts a DHCP request. You can disable Connect to server if you are configuring
the FortiGate unit offline and you do not want the FortiGate unit to send the DHCP
request.
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System Network
Interface
Distance
Enter the administrative distance for the default gateway retrieved from
the DHCP server. The administrative distance, an integer from 1-255,
specifies the relative priority of a route when there are multiple routes
to the same destination. A lower administrative distance indicates a
more preferred route. The default distance for the default gateway is 1.
Retrieve default
gateway from server
Enable Retrieve default gateway from server to retrieve a default
gateway IP address from the DHCP server. The default gateway is
added to the static routing table.
Override internal DNS Enable Override internal DNS to use the DNS addresses retrieved
from the DHCP server instead of the DNS server IP addresses on the
DNS page.
Connect to server
Enable Connect to Server so that the interface automatically attempts
to connect to a DHCP server. Disable this option if you are configuring
the interface offline.
Status
Displays DHCP status messages as the FortiGate unit connects to the
DHCP server and gets addressing information. Select Status to refresh
the addressing mode status message.
initializing
No activity.
connecting The interface is attempting to connect to the DHCP server.
connected
The interface retrieves an IP address, netmask, and other settings
from the DHCP server.
failed
The interface was unable to retrieve an IP address and other
information from the DHCP server.
PPPoE
If you configure the interface to use PPPoE, the FortiGate unit automatically
broadcasts a PPPoE request. You can disable connect to server if you are configuring
the FortiGate unit offline and you do not want the FortiGate unit to send the PPPoE
request.
FortiGate units support many of the PPPoE RFC features (RFC 2516) including
unnumbered IPs, initial discovery timeout that times and PPPoE Active Discovery
Terminate (PADT).
Figure 13: PPPoE settings
User Name
The PPPoE account user name.
Password
The PPPoE account password.
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Interface
System Network
Unnumbered IP
Specify the IP address for the interface. If your ISP has assigned you a
block of IP addresses, use one of them. Otherwise, this IP address can be
the same as the IP address of another interface or can be any IP address.
Initial Disc
Timeout
Initial discovery timeout. The time to wait before retrying to start a PPPoE
discovery. Set Initial Disc to 0 to disable.
Initial PADT
timeout
Initial PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate (PADT) timeout in seconds. Use
this timeout to shut down the PPPoE session if it is idle for this number of
seconds. PADT must be supported by your ISP. Set initial PADT timeout to
0 to disable.
Distance
Enter the administrative distance for the default gateway retrieved from the
PPPoE server. The administrative distance, an integer from 1-255,
specifies the relative priority of a route when there are multiple routes to the
same destination. A lower administrative distance indicates a more
preferred route. The default distance for the default gateway is 1.
Retrieve default
gateway from
server
Enable Retrieve default gateway from server to retrieve a default gateway
IP address from a PPPoE server. The default gateway is added to the static
routing table.
Override internal Enable Override internal DNS to replace the DNS server IP addresses on
the DNS page with the DNS addresses retrieved from the PPPoE server.
DNS
Connect to server Enable Connect to Server so that the interface automatically attempts to
connect to a PPPoE server. Disable this option if you are configuring the
interface offline.
Status
Displays PPPoE status messages as the FortiGate unit connects to the
PPPoE server and gets addressing information. Select Status to refresh the
addressing mode status message.
initializing
No activity.
connecting The interface is attempting to connect to the PPPoE server.
connected
The interface retrieves an IP address, netmask, and other settings from the
PPPoE server.
failed
The interface was unable to retrieve an IP address and other information
from the PPPoE server.
DDNS
Enable or disable updates to a Dynamic DNS (DDNS) service. When the FortiGate
unit has a static domain name and a dynamic public IP address, select DDNS Enable
to force the unit to update the DDNS server each time the address changes. In turn,
the DDNS service updates Internet DNS servers with the new IP address for the
domain.
Dynamic DNS is available only in NAT/Route mode.
Server
Select a DDNS server to use. The client software for these services is built into the
FortiGate firmware. The FortiGate unit can only connect automatically to a DDNS
server for the supported clients.
Domain
The domain name to use for the DDNS service.
Username The user name to use when connecting to the DDNS server.
Password The password to use when connecting to the DDNS server.
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System Network
Interface
Ping server
Add a ping server to an interface if you want the FortiGate unit to confirm connectivity
with the next hop router on the network connected to the interface. Adding a ping
server is required for routing failover. See “To add a ping server to an interface” on
page 65.
The FortiGate unit uses dead gateway detection to ping the Ping Server IP address to
make sure that the FortiGate unit can connect to this IP address. To configure dead
gateway detection, see “To modify the dead gateway detection settings” on page 92.
Administrative access
Configure administrative access to an interface to control how administrators access
the FortiGate unit and the FortiGate interfaces to which administrators can connect.
You can select the following administrative access options:
HTTPS
To allow secure HTTPS connections to the web-based manager through this
interface.
PING
If you want this interface to respond to pings. Use this setting to verify your
installation and for testing.
HTTP
To allow HTTP connections to the web-based manager through this interface.
HTTP connections are not secure and can be intercepted by a third party.
SSH
To allow SSH connections to the CLI through this interface.
SNMP
To allow a remote SNMP manager to request SNMP information by connecting to
this interface. See “Configuring SNMP” on page 109.
TELNET
To allow Telnet connections to the CLI through this interface. Telnet connections
are not secure and can be intercepted by a third party.
MTU
To improve network performance, you can change the maximum transmission unit
(MTU) of the packets that the FortiGate unit transmits from any interface. Ideally, this
MTU should be the same as the smallest MTU of all the networks between the
FortiGate unit and the destination of the packets. If the packets that the FortiGate unit
sends are larger, they are broken up or fragmented, which slows down transmission.
Experiment by lowering the MTU to find an MTU size for best network performance.
To change the MTU, select Override default MTU value (1500) and enter the
maximum packet size. For manual and DHCP addressing mode the MTU size can be
from 576 to 1500 bytes. For PPPoE addressing mode the MTU size can be from 576
to 1492 bytes.
Note: In Transparent mode, if you change the MTU of an interface, you must change the MTU
of all interfaces to match the new MTU.
Log
Select Log to record logs for any traffic to or from the interface. To record logs you
must also enable traffic log for a logging location and set the logging severity level to
Notification or lower. Go to Log & Report > Log Config to configure logging locations
and types. For information about logging see “Log & Report” on page 357.
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Configuring interfaces
Use the following procedures to configure FortiGate interfaces and VLAN
subinterfaces.
•
To bring down an interface that is administratively up
•
To add interfaces to a zone
•
To add an interface to a virtual domain
•
To change the static IP address of an interface
•
To configure an interface for DHCP
•
To configure an interface for PPPoE
•
To add a secondary IP address
•
To configure support for dynamic DNS services
•
To add a ping server to an interface
•
To control administrative access to an interface
•
To change the MTU size of the packets leaving an interface
•
To configure traffic logging for connections to an interface
To add a VLAN subinterface
See “To add a VLAN subinterface in NAT/Route mode” on page 73.
To bring down an interface that is administratively up
You can bring down physical interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces. Bringing down a
physical interface also brings down the VLAN subinterfaces associated with it.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
The interface list is displayed.
2
Select Bring Down for the interface that you want to stop.
To start up an interface that is administratively down
You can start up physical interfaces and VLAN subinterfaces. Starting a physical
interface does not start the VLAN subinterfaces added to it.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
The interface list is displayed.
2
Select Bring Up for the interface that you want to start.
To add interfaces to a zone
If you have added zones to the FortiGate unit, you can use this procedure to add
interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces to the zone. To add a zone, see “To add a zone” on
page 67. You cannot add an interface to a zone if you have added firewall policies for
the interface. Delete firewall policies for the interface and then add the interface to the
zone.
62
1
Go to System > Network > Zone.
2
Choose the zone to add the interface or VLAN subinterface to and select Edit.
3
Select the names of the interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces to add to the zone.
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System Network
Interface
4
Select OK to save the changes.
To add an interface to a virtual domain
If you have added virtual domains to the FortiGate unit, you can use this procedure to
add an interface or VLAN subinterface to a virtual domain. To add a virtual domain,
see “To add a virtual domain” on page 147. You cannot add an interface to a virtual
domain if you have added firewall policies for the interface. Delete firewall policies for
the interface and then add the interface to the virtual domain.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose the interface or VLAN subinterface to add to a virtual domain and select Edit.
3
From the Virtual Domain list, select the virtual domain that you want to add the
interface to.
4
Select OK to save the changes.
5
Repeat these steps to add more interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces to virtual domains.
To change the static IP address of an interface
You can change the static IP address of any FortiGate interface.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
Set Addressing Mode to Manual.
4
Change the IP address and Netmask as required.
5
Select OK to save your changes.
If you changed the IP address of the interface to which you are connecting to manage
the FortiGate unit, you must reconnect to the web-based manager using the new
interface IP address.
To configure an interface for DHCP
You can configure any FortiGate interface to use DHCP.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
In the Addressing Mode section, select DHCP.
4
Select the Retrieve default gateway and DNS from server check box if you want the
FortiGate unit to obtain a default gateway IP address and DNS server IP addresses
from the DHCP server.
5
Select the Connect to Server check box if you want the FortiGate unit to connect to
the DHCP server.
6
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit attempts to contact the DHCP server from the interface to set the
IP address, netmask, and optionally the default gateway IP address, and DNS server
IP addresses.
7
Select Status to refresh the addressing mode status message.
8
Select OK.
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To configure an interface for PPPoE
Use this procedure to configure any FortiGate interface to use PPPoE. See “PPPoE”
on page 59 for information on PPPoE settings.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
In the Addressing Mode section, select PPPoE.
4
Enter your PPPoE account User Name and Password.
5
Enter an Unnumbered IP if required by your PPPoE service.
6
Set the Initial Disc Timeout and Initial PADT Timeout if supported by your ISP.
7
Select the Retrieve default gateway from server check box if you want the FortiGate
unit to obtain a default gateway IP address from the PPPoE server.
8
Select the Override Internal DNS check box if you want the FortiGate unit to obtain a
DNS server IP address from the PPPoE server.
9
Select the Connect to Server check box if you want the FortiGate unit to connect to
the PPPoE server.
10
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit attempts to contact the PPPoE server from the interface to set the
IP address, netmask, and optionally default gateway IP address and DNS server IP
addresses.
11
Select Status to refresh the addressing mode status message.
12
Select OK.
To add a secondary IP address
You can use the CLI to add a secondary IP address to any FortiGate interface. The
secondary IP address cannot be on the same subnet as the primary interface, any
other interface or any other secondary IP address.
From the FortiGate CLI, enter the following commands:
config system interface
edit <intf_str>
config secondaryip
edit 0
set ip <second_ip> <netmask_ip>
Optionally, you can also configure management access and add a ping server to the
secondary IP address:
set allowaccess ping https ssh snmp http telnet
set gwdetect enable
Save the changes:
end
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System Network
Interface
To configure support for dynamic DNS services
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Select the interface to the Internet and then select Edit.
3
Select DDNS Enable.
4
From the Server list, select one of the supported dynamic DNS services.
5
In the Domain field, type the fully qualified domain name of the FortiGate unit.
6
In the Username field, type the user name that the FortiGate unit must send when it
connects to the dynamic DNS server.
7
In the Password field, type the associated password.
8
Select OK.
To add a ping server to an interface
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
Set Ping Server to the IP address of the next hop router on the network connected to
the interface.
4
Select the Enable check box.
5
Select OK to save the changes.
To control administrative access to an interface
For a FortiGate unit running in NAT/Route mode, you can control administrative
access to an interface to control how administrators access the FortiGate unit and the
FortiGate interfaces to which administrators can connect.
Controlling administrative access for an interface connected to the Internet allows
remote administration of the FortiGate unit from any location on the Internet. However,
allowing remote administration from the Internet could compromise the security of
your FortiGate unit. You should avoid allowing administrative access for an interface
connected to the Internet unless this is required for your configuration. To improve the
security of a FortiGate unit that allows remote administration from the Internet:
•
Use secure administrative user passwords,
•
Change these passwords regularly,
•
Enable secure administrative access to this interface using only HTTPS or SSH,
•
Do not change the system idle timeout from the default value of 5 minutes (see “To
set the system idle timeout” on page 91).
To configure administrative access in Transparent mode, see “To configure the
management interface” on page 68.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
Select the Administrative Access methods for the interface.
4
Select OK to save the changes.
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Zone
System Network
To change the MTU size of the packets leaving an interface
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
Select Override default MTU value (1500).
4
Set the MTU size.
Note: You cannot set the MTU of a VLAN larger than the MTU of its physical interface. Nor can
you set the MTU of a physical interface smaller than the MTU of any VLAN on that interface.
To configure traffic logging for connections to an interface
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface and select Edit.
3
Select the Log check box to record log messages whenever a firewall policy accepts a
connection to this interface.
4
Select OK to save the changes.
Zone
You can use zones to group related interfaces and VLAN subinterfaces. Grouping
interfaces and VLAN subinterfaces into zones simplifies policy creation. If you group
interfaces and VLAN subinterfaces into a zone, you can configure policies for
connections to and from this zone, rather than to and from each interface and VLAN
subinterface.
You can add zones, rename and edit zones, and delete zones from the zone list.
When you add a zone, you select the names of the interfaces and VLAN subinterfaces
to add to the zone.
Zones are added to virtual domains. If you have added multiple virtual domains to
your FortiGate configuration, make sure you are configuring the correct virtual domain
before adding or editing zones.
Figure 14: Zone list
Create New
Select Create New to create a zone.
Name
The names of the zones that you have added.
Block intra-zone
traffic
Displays Yes if traffic between interfaces in the same zone is blocked and
No if traffic between interfaces in the same zone is not blocked.
Interface Members The names of the interfaces added to the zone.
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System Network
Zone
Zone settings
Figure 15: Zone options
Name
Enter the name to identify the zone.
Block intra-zone
traffic
Select Block intra-zone traffic to block traffic between interfaces or VLAN
subinterfaces in the same zone.
Interface members Enable check boxes to select the interfaces that are part of this zone.
To add a zone
1
If you have added a virtual domain, go to System > Virtual Domain > Current
Virtual Domain and select the virtual domain to which you want to add the zone.
2
Go to System > Network > Zone.
3
Select Create New.
4
In the New Zone dialog box, type a name for the zone.
5
Select the Block intra-zone traffic check box if you want to block traffic between
interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces in the same zone.
6
Select the names of the interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces to add to the zone.
7
Select OK.
To delete a zone
You can only delete zones that have the Delete icon beside them in the zone list.
1
If you have added a virtual domain, go to System > Virtual Domain > Current
Virtual Domain and select the virtual domain from which to delete the zone.
2
Go to System > Network > Zone.
3
Select Delete to remove a zone from the list.
4
Select OK to delete the zone.
To edit a zone
1
If you have added a virtual domain, go to System > Virtual Domain > Current
Virtual Domain and select the virtual domain in which to edit the zone.
2
Go to System > Network > Zone.
3
Select Edit to modify a zone.
4
Select or deselect Block intra-zone traffic.
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Management
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5
Select the names of the interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces to add to the zone.
6
Clear the check box for the names of the interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces to remove
from the zone.
7
Select OK.
Management
Configure the management interface in Transparent mode to set the management IP
address of the FortiGate unit. Administrators connect to this IP address to administer
the FortiGate unit. The FortiGate also uses this IP address to connect to the FDN for
virus and attack updates (see “Update center” on page 130).
You can also configure interfaces to control how administrators connect to the
FortiGate unit for administration. See “To control administrative access to an
interface” on page 65.
Controlling administrative access to a FortiGate interface connected to the Internet
allows remote administration of the FortiGate unit from any location on the Internet.
However, allowing remote administration from the Internet could compromise the
security of the FortiGate unit. You should avoid allowing administrative access for an
interface connected to the Internet unless this is required for your configuration. To
improve the security of a FortiGate unit that allows remote administration from the
Internet:
•
Use secure administrative user passwords,
•
Change these passwords regularly,
•
Enable secure administrative access to this interface using only HTTPS or SSH,
•
Do not change the system idle timeout from the default value of 5 minutes (see “To
set the system idle timeout” on page 91).
Figure 16: Management
Management
IP/Netmask
Enter the management IP address and netmask. This must be a valid IP
Default
Gateway
Enter the default gateway address.
address for the network that you want to manage the FortiGate unit
from.
Management Select the virtual domain from which you want to perform system
Virtual Domain management.
To configure the management interface
1
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DNS
2
Enter the Management IP/Netmask.
3
Enter the Default Gateway.
4
Select the Management Virtual Domain.
5
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit displays the following message:
Management IP address was changed. Click here to redirect.
6
Click on the message to connect to the new Management IP.
DNS
Several FortiGate functions, including Alert E-mail and URL blocking, use DNS. You
can add the IP addresses of the DNS servers to which your FortiGate unit can
connect. DNS server IP addresses are usually supplied by your ISP.
Figure 17: DNS
Primary DNS Server
Enter the primary DNS server IP address.
Secondary DNS Server Enter the secondary DNS server IP address.
To add DNS server IP addresses
1
Go to System > Network > DNS.
2
Change the primary and secondary DNS server IP addresses as required.
3
Select Apply to save the changes.
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Routing table (Transparent Mode)
System Network
Routing table (Transparent Mode)
In Transparent mode, you can configure routing to add static routes from the
FortiGate unit to local routers.
Routing table list
Figure 18: Routing table
Create New Select Create New to add a new route.
#
Route number.
IP
The destination IP address for this route.
Mask
The netmask for this route.
Gateway
The IP address of the next hop router to which this route directs traffic.
Distance
The the relative preferability of this route. 1 is most preferred.
Delete icon. Select to remove a route.
View/edit icon. Select to view or edit a route.
Move To icon. Select to change the order of a route in the list.
Transparent mode route settings
Figure 19: Transparent mode route options
Destination IP Enter the destination IP address and netmask for this route.
/Mask
Gateway
Enter the IP address of the next hop router to which this route directs traffic
Distance
The the relative preferability of this route. 1 is most preferred.
To add a Transparent mode route
1
Go to System > Network > Routing Table.
2
Select Create New to add a new route.
3
Set the Destination IP and Mask to 0.0.0.0.
For the default route, set the Destination IP and Mask to 0.0.0.0.
Note: Only one default route can be active at a time. If two default routes are added to the
routing table, only the default route closest to the top of the routing table is active.
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VLAN overview
4
Set Gateway to the IP address of the next hop routing gateway.
For an Internet connection, the next hop routing gateway routes traffic to the Internet.
5
Select OK to save the route.
VLAN overview
A VLAN is group of PCs, servers, and other network devices that communicate as if
they were on the same LAN segment, even though they may not be. For example, the
workstations and servers for an accounting department could be scattered throughout
an office, connected to numerous network segments, but they can still belong to the
same VLAN.
A VLAN segregates devices logically instead of physically. Each VLAN is treated as a
broadcast domain. Devices in VLAN 1 can connect with other devices in VLAN 1, but
cannot connect with devices in other VLANs. The communication among devices on a
VLAN is independent of the physical network.
A VLAN segregates devices by adding 802.1Q VLAN tags to all of the packets sent
and received by the devices in the VLAN. VLAN tags are 4-byte frame extensions that
contain a VLAN identifier as well as other information.
VLANs allow highly flexible, efficient network segmentation, enabling users and
resources to be grouped logically, regardless of physical locations.
Figure 20: Basic VLAN topology
Internet
Untagged
packets
Esc
Enter
Firewall or
Router
VLAN trunk
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
POWER
VLAN 1
VLAN 1 network
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VLAN 2
VLAN 2 network
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VLANs in NAT/Route mode
System Network
FortiGate units and VLANs
In a typical VLAN configuration, 802.1Q-compliant VLAN layer-2 switches or layer-3
routers or firewalls add VLAN tags to packets. Packets passing between devices in
the same VLAN can be handled by layer 2 switches. Packets passing between
devices in different VLANs must be handled by a layer 3 device such as router,
firewall, or layer 3 switch.
Using VLANs, a single FortiGate unit can provide security services and control
connections between multiple security domains. Traffic from each security domain is
given a different VLAN ID. The FortiGate unit can recognize VLAN IDs and apply
security policies to secure network and IPSec VPN traffic between security domains.
The FortiGate unit can also apply authentication, protection profiles, and other firewall
policy features for network and VPN traffic that is allowed to pass between security
domains.
VLANs in NAT/Route mode
Operating in NAT/Route mode, the FortiGate unit functions as a layer 3 device to
control the flow of packets between VLANs. The FortiGate unit can also remove VLAN
tags from incoming VLAN packets and forward untagged packets to other networks,
such as the Internet.
In NAT/Route mode, the FortiGate units support VLANs for constructing VLAN trunks
between an IEEE 802.1Q-compliant switch (or router) and the FortiGate unit. Normally
the FortiGate unit internal interface connects to a VLAN trunk on an internal switch,
and the external interface connects to an upstream Internet router untagged. The
FortiGate unit can then apply different policies for traffic on each VLAN that connects
to the internal interface.
In this configuration, you add VLAN subinterfaces to the FortiGate internal interface
that have VLAN IDs that match the VLAN IDs of packets in the VLAN trunk. The
FortiGate unit directs packets with VLAN IDs, to subinterfaces with matching VLAN
IDs.
You can also define VLAN subinterfaces on all FortiGate interfaces. The FortiGate
unit can add VLAN tags to packets leaving a VLAN subinterface or remove VLAN tags
from incoming packets and add a different VLAN tags to outgoing packets.
Rules for VLAN IDs
In NAT/Route mode, two VLAN subinterfaces added to the same physical interface
cannot have the same VLAN ID. However, you can add two or more VLAN
subinterfaces with the same VLAN IDs to different physical interfaces. There is no
internal connection or link between two VLAN subinterfaces with same VLAN ID. Their
relationship is the same as the relationship between any two FortiGate network
interfaces.
Rules for VLAN IP addresses
IP addresses of all FortiGate interfaces cannot overlap. That is, the IP addresses of all
interfaces must be on different subnets. This rule applies to both physical interfaces
and to VLAN subinterfaces.
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VLANs in NAT/Route mode
Note: If you are unable to change your existing configurations to prevent IP overlap, enter the
CLI command config system global and set ip-overlap enable to allow IP address
overlap. If you enter this command, multiple VLAN interfaces can have an IP address that is
part of a subnet used by another interface. This command is recommended for advanced users
only.
Figure 21 shows a simplified NAT/Route mode VLAN configuration. In this example,
FortiGate internal interface connects to a VLAN switch using an 802.1Q trunk and is
configured with two VLAN subinterfaces (VLAN 100 and VLAN 200). The external
interface connects to the Internet. The external interface is not configured with VLAN
subinterfaces.
When the VLAN switch receives packets from VLAN 100 and VLAN 200, it applies
VLAN tags and forwards the packets to local ports and across the trunk to the
FortiGate unit. The FortiGate unit is configured with policies that allow traffic to flow
between the VLANs and from the VLANs to the external network.
Figure 21: FortiGate unit in Nat/Route mode
FortiGate
VLAN switch
Esc
POWER
Fa0/3
Fa0/9
Enter
Internal
192.168.110.126
Fa0/24
External
172.16.21.2
802.1Q Trunk
VLAN 100
VLAN 100 network
10.1.1.0
VLAN 200
VLAN 200 network
10.1.2.0
Internet
10.1.1.2
10.1.2.2
Adding VLAN subinterfaces
The VLAN ID of each VLAN subinterface must match the VLAN ID added by the IEEE
802.1Q-compliant router. The VLAN ID can be any number between 1 and 4096.
Each VLAN subinterface must also be configured with its own IP address and
netmask.
Note: A VLAN must not have the same name as a virtual domain or zone.
You add VLAN subinterfaces to the physical interface that receives VLAN-tagged
packets.
To add a VLAN subinterface in NAT/Route mode
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Select Create New to add a VLAN subinterface.
3
Enter a Name to identify the VLAN subinterface.
4
Select the physical interface that receives the VLAN packets intended for this VLAN
subinterface.
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VLANs in Transparent mode
System Network
5
Enter the VLAN ID that matches the VLAN ID of the packets to be received by this
VLAN subinterface.
6
Select the virtual domain to which to add this VLAN subinterface.
See “System Virtual Domain” on page 143 for information about virtual domains.
7
Select the name of a zone if you want this VLAN subinterface to belong to a zone.
You can only select a zone that has been added to the virtual domain selected in the
previous step. See “Zone” on page 66 for information about zones.
8
Configure the VLAN subinterface settings as you would for any FortiGate interface.
See “Interface settings” on page 57.
9
Select OK to save your changes.
The FortiGate unit adds the new VLAN subinterface to the interface that you selected
in step 4.
To add firewall policies for VLAN subinterfaces
Once you have added VLAN subinterfaces you can add firewall policies for
connections between VLAN subinterfaces or from a VLAN subinterface to a physical
interface.
1
Go to Firewall > Address.
2
Select Create New to add firewall addresses that match the source and destination IP
addresses of VLAN packets.
See “Address” on page 211.
3
Go to Firewall > Policy.
4
Add firewall policies as required.
VLANs in Transparent mode
In Transparent mode, the FortiGate unit can apply firewall policies and services, such
as authentication, protection profiles, and other firewall features, to traffic on an IEEE
802.1 VLAN trunk. You can insert the FortiGate unit operating in Transparent mode
into the trunk without making changes to your network. In a typical configuration, the
FortiGate internal interface accepts VLAN packets on a VLAN trunk from a VLAN
switch or router connected to internal VLANs. The FortiGate external interface
forwards tagged packets through the trunk to an external VLAN switch or router which
could be connected to the Internet. The FortiGate unit can be configured to apply
different policies for traffic on each VLAN in the trunk.
For VLAN traffic to be able to pass between the FortiGate Internal and external
interface you would add a VLAN subinterface to the internal interface and another
VLAN subinterface to the external interface. If these VLAN subinterfaces have the
same VLAN IDs, the FortiGate unit applies firewall policies to the traffic on this VLAN.
If these VLAN subinterfaces have different VLAN IDs, or if you add more than two
VLAN subinterfaces, you can also use firewall policies to control connections between
VLANs.
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VLANs in Transparent mode
If the network uses IEEE 802.1 VLAN tags to segment your network traffic, you can
configure a FortiGate unit operating in Transparent mode to provide security for
network traffic passing between different VLANs. To support VLAN traffic in
Transparent mode, you add virtual domains to the FortiGate unit configuration. A
virtual domain consists of two or more VLAN subinterfaces or zones. In a virtual
domain, a zone can contain one or more VLAN subinterfaces.
When the FortiGate unit receives a VLAN tagged packet at an interface, the packet is
directed to the VLAN subinterface with matching VLAN ID. The VLAN subinterface
removes the VLAN tag and assigns a destination interface to the packet based on its
destination MAC address. The firewall policies for this source and destination VLAN
subinterface pair are applied to the packet. If the packet is accepted by the firewall,
the FortiGate unit forwards the packet to the destination VLAN subinterface. The
destination VLAN ID is added to the packet by the FortiGate unit and the packet is
sent to the VLAN trunk.
Figure 22: FortiGate unit with two virtual domains in Transparent mode
VLAN Switch or router
FortiGate unit
VLAN1
VLAN2
Internal
VLAN1
VLAN2
VLAN3
VLAN trunk
root virtual domain
VLAN1
VLAN1
New virtual domain
VLAN2
VLAN2
VLAN3
VLAN3
External
VLAN1
VLAN2
VLAN3 VLAN Switch
VLAN trunk or router
Internet
VLAN3
Figure 23 shows a FortiGate unit operating in Transparent mode and configured with
three VLAN subinterfaces. In this configuration the FortiGate unit could be added to
this network to provide virus scanning, web content filtering, and other services to
each VLAN.
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Figure 23: FortiGate unit in Transparent mode
VLAN 1
VLAN ID = 100
VLAN 2
VLAN ID = 200
VLAN
switch
VLAN 3
VLAN ID = 300
POWER
VLAN
Trunk
FortiGate unit
operating in
Transparent mode
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
VLAN 3
Internal
Esc
Enter
External
VLAN 1
VLAN VLAN 2
Trunk VLAN 3
VLAN
switch
POWER
Untagged
packets
Router
Internet
Rules for VLAN IDs
In Transparent mode two VLAN subinterfaces added to the same physical interface
cannot have the same VLAN ID. However, you can add two or more VLAN
subinterfaces with the same VLAN IDs to different physical interfaces. There is no
internal connection or link between two VLAN subinterfaces with same VLAN ID. Their
relationship is the same as the relationship between any two FortiGate network
interfaces.
Transparent mode virtual domains and VLANs
VLAN subinterfaces are added to and associated with virtual domains. By default the
FortiGate configuration includes one virtual domain, named root, and you can add as
many VLAN subinterfaces as you require to this virtual domain.
You can add more virtual domains if you want to separate groups of VLAN
subinterfaces into virtual domains. For information on adding and configuring virtual
domains, see “System Virtual Domain” on page 143
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VLANs in Transparent mode
Transparent mode VLAN list
In Transparent mode, go to System > Network > Interface to add VLAN
subinterfaces.
Figure 24: Sample Transparent mode VLAN list
Create New
Select Create New to add a VLAN subinterface to a FortiGate interface.
Virtual Domain Select a virtual domain to display the VLAN interfaces added to this virtual
domain.
Name
The name of the interface or VLAN subinterface.
Access
The administrative access configuration for the interface. See “To control
administrative access to an interface” on page 65 for information about
administrative access options.
Status
The administrative status for the interface.
If the administrative status is a green arrow, the interface is up and can accept
network traffic. If the administrative status is a red arrow, the interface is
administratively down and cannot accept traffic. To change the administrative
status, see “To bring down an interface that is administratively up” on page 62
and “To start up an interface that is administratively down” on page 62.
Delete icon. Select to delete a VLAN subinterface.
View/Edit icon. Select to view or edit an interface or VLAN subinterface.
Transparent mode VLAN settings
VLAN settings displays the current configuration of a selected FortiGate interface or
VLAN subinterface. Use VLAN settings to configure a new VLAN subinterface or to
change the configuration of a FortiGate interface or VLAN subinterface.
Figure 25: VLAN settings
See “Interface settings” on page 57 for descriptions of all VLAN settings.
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System Network
To add a VLAN subinterface in Transparent mode
The VLAN ID of each VLAN subinterface must match the VLAN ID added by the IEEE
802.1Q-compliant router or switch. The VLAN ID can be any number between 1 and
4096. You add VLAN subinterfaces to the physical interface that receives VLANtagged packets.
Note: A VLAN must not have the same name as a virtual domain or zone.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Select Create New to add a VLAN subinterface.
3
Enter a Name to identify the VLAN subinterface.
4
Select the physical interface that receives the VLAN packets intended for this VLAN
subinterface.
5
Enter the VLAN ID that matches the VLAN ID of the packets to be received by this
VLAN subinterface.
6
Select the virtual domain to which to add this VLAN subinterface.
See “System Virtual Domain” on page 143 for information about virtual domains.
7
Enable or disable using a Dynamic DNS service (DDNS). If the FortiGate unit uses a
dynamic IP address, you can arrange with a DDNS service provider to use a domain
name to provide redirection of traffic to your network whenever the IP address
changes.
8
Configure the administrative access, MTU, and log settings as you would for any
FortiGate interface.
See “Interface settings” on page 57 for more descriptions of these settings.
9
Select OK to save your changes.
The FortiGate unit adds the new subinterface to the interface that you selected.
10
Select Bring up to start the VLAN subinterface.
To add firewall policies for VLAN subinterfaces
Once you have added VLAN subinterfaces you can add firewall policies for
connections between VLAN subinterfaces or from a VLAN subinterface to a physical
interface.
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1
Go to Firewall > Address.
2
Select Create New to add firewall addresses that match the source and destination IP
addresses of VLAN packets.
See “Address” on page 211.
3
Go to Firewall > Policy.
4
Add firewall policies as required.
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FortiGate IPv6 support
FortiGate IPv6 support
You can assign both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address to any interface on a FortiGate unit.
The interface functions as two interfaces, one for IPv4-addressed packets and
another for IPv6-addressed packets.
FortiGate units support static routing, periodic router advertisements, and tunneling of
IPv6-addressed traffic over an IPv4-addressed network. All of these features must be
configured through the Command Line Interface (CLI). See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for information on the following commands:
Table 2: IPv6 CLI commands
Feature
CLI Command
Interface configuration, including periodic config system interface
router advertisements
See the keywords beginning with “ip6”.
config ip6-prefix-list
Static routing
config router static6
IPv6 tunneling
config system ipv6_tunnel
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
System DHCP
You can configure DHCP server or DHCP relay agent functionality on any FortiGate
interface or VLAN subinterface.
A FortiGate interface can act as either a DHCP server or as a DHCP relay agent. An
interface cannot provide both functions at the same time.
Note: To configure DHCP server or DHCP relay functionality on an interface, the FortiGate unit
must be in NAT/Route mode and the interface must have a static IP address.
This section describes:
•
Service
•
Server
•
Exclude range
•
IP/MAC binding
•
Dynamic IP
Service
Go to System > DHCP > Service to configure the DHCP service provided by each
FortiGate interface. You can configure each interface to be a DHCP relay or a DHCP
server or you can turn off DHCP services.
Figure 26: DHCP service list
Interface
List of FortiGate interfaces.
Service
The DHCP service provided by the interface (none, DHCP Relay, or DHCP
Server).
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Service
System DHCP
DHCP service settings
Go to System > DHCP > Service and select an edit or view icon to view to modify the
DHCP service configuration for an interface.
Figure 27: View or edit DHCP service settings for an interface
Interface
The name of the interface.
None
No DHCP services provided by the interface.
DHCP Relay Agent Select to configure the interface to be a DHCP relay agent.
Type
Select the type of DHCP relay agent.
Regular
Configure the interface to be a DHCP relay agent for computers on the
network connected to this interface. See “To configure an interface as a
regular DHCP relay agent” on page 82.
IPSEC
Configure the interface to be a DHCP relay agent only for remote VPN
clients with an IPSec VPN connection to this interface that uses DHCP
over IPSec.
DHCP Server IP
If you select DHCP Relay Agent, enter the IP address of the DHCP server
used by the computers on the network connected to the interface.
DHCP Server
Select DHCP Server if you want the FortiGate unit to be the DHCP server.
See “To configure an interface to be a DHCP server” on page 83.
To configure an interface as a regular DHCP relay agent
In a DHCP relay configuration, the FortiGate interface configured for DHCP relay
forwards DHCP requests from DHCP clients through the FortiGate unit to a DHCP
server. The FortiGate unit also returns responses from the DHCP server to the DHCP
clients. The DHCP server must have a route to the FortiGate unit that is configured as
the DHCP relay so that the packets sent by the DHCP server to the DHCP client arrive
at the FortiGate performing DHCP relay.
82
1
Go to System > DHCP > Service.
2
Select Edit for the interface that you want to be a DHCP relay agent.
3
Select DHCP Relay Agent.
4
Set type to Regular.
5
Enter the DHCP Server IP address.
6
Select OK.
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System DHCP
Server
To configure an interface to be a DHCP server
You can configure a DHCP server for any FortiGate interface. As a DHCP server, the
interface dynamically assigns IP addresses to hosts on the network connected to the
interface. You can also configure a DHCP server for more than one FortiGate
interface.
1
Go to System > DHCP > Service.
2
Select Edit beside the interface to which you want to add a DHCP server.
3
Select DHCP Server.
4
Select OK.
5
Add a DHCP server configuration for this interface.
See “To configure a DHCP server for an interface” on page 84.
Server
You can configure one or more DHCP servers for any FortiGate interface. As a DHCP
server, the interface dynamically assigns IP addresses to hosts on a network
connected to the interface.
You can add more than one DHCP server to a single interface to be able to provide
DHCP services to multiple networks. For more information, see “To configure multiple
DHCP servers for an interface” on page 85.
Figure 28: DHCP Server list
Create New
Add a new DHCP server.
Name
Name of the DHCP server.
Interface
The interface for which the DHCP server is configured.
Default Gateway
The DHCP server configuration default gateway
Delete
Delete a DHCP server configuration.
Edit/View icon
View or modify a DHCP server configuration.
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Server
System DHCP
DHCP server settings
Figure 29: Server options
Name
Enter a name for the DHCP server configuration.
Interface
Select the interface for which to configure the DHCP server.
Domain
Enter the domain that the DHCP server assigns to DHCP clients.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default gateway that the DHCP server
assigns to DHCP clients.
IP Range
Enter the starting IP and ending IP for the range of IP addresses that this
DHCP server assigns to DHCP clients.
Network Mask
Enter the netmask that the DHCP server assigns to DHCP clients.
Lease Time
Select Unlimited for an unlimited lease time or enter the interval in days,
hours, and minutes after which a DHCP client must ask the DHCP server
for new settings. The lease time can range from 5 minutes to 100 days.
DNS Server
Enter the IP addresses of up to 3 DNS servers that the DHCP server
assigns to DHCP clients.
WINS Server
Add the IP addresses of one or two WINS servers that the DHCP server
assigns to DHCP clients.
Option
Up to three custom DHCP options that can be sent by the DHCP server.
Code is the DHCP option code in the range 1 to 255. Option is an even
number of hexadecimal characters and is not required for some option
codes. For detailed information about DHCP options, see RFC 2132,
DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions.
To configure a DHCP server for an interface
After configuring an interface to be a DHCP server (using the procedure “To configure
an interface to be a DHCP server” on page 83), you must configure a DHCP server for
the interface.
1
84
Go to System > DHCP > Server.
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System DHCP
Exclude range
2
Select Create New.
3
Add a name for the DHCP server.
4
Select the interface
5
Configure the DHCP server.
The IP range must match the subnet address of the network from which the DHCP
request was received. Usually this would be the subnet connected to the interface for
which you are added the DHCP server.
6
Select OK to save the DHCP server configuration.
To configure multiple DHCP servers for an interface
If an interface is connected to a network that includes routers connected to different
subnets, you can:
1
Configure computers on the subnets to get their IP configuration using DHCP.
The IP range of each DHCP server must match the subnet addresses.
2
Configure the routers for DHCP relay.
3
Add multiple DHCP servers to the interface, one for each subnet.
When a computer on one of the connected subnets sends a DHCP request it is
relayed to the FortiGate interface by the router, using DHCP relay. The FortiGate unit
selects the DHCP server configuration with an IP range that matches the subnet
address from which the DHCP request was received and uses this DHCP server to
assign an IP configuration to the computer that made the DHCP request. The DHCP
configuration packets are sent back to the router and the router relays them to the
DHCP client.
Exclude range
Add up to 16 exclude ranges of IP addresses that FortiGate DHCP servers cannot
assign to DHCP clients. Exclude ranges apply to all FortiGate DHCP servers.
Figure 30: Exclude range list
Create New
Select Create New to add an exclude range.
#
The ID number of each exclude range. ID numbers are assigned
sequentially by the web-based manager. When you add or edit exclude
ranges from the CLI you must specify the ID number.
Starting IP
The starting IP of the exclude range.
Ending IP
The ending IP of the exclude range.
Delete
Delete an exclude range.
Edit/View icon
View or modify an exclude range.
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IP/MAC binding
System DHCP
DHCP exclude range settings
The range cannot exceed 65536 IP addresses.
Figure 31: Exclude range settings
Starting IP
Enter the starting IP of an exclude range.
Ending IP
Enter the ending IP of an exclude range.
To add an exclusion range
1
Go to System > DHCP > Exclude Range.
2
Select Create New.
3
Add the starting IP and ending IP.
4
Select OK to save the exclusion range.
IP/MAC binding
If you have added DHCP servers, you can use DHCP IP/MAC binding to reserve an
IP address for a particular device on the network according to the MAC address of the
device. When you add the MAC address and an IP address to the IP/MAC binding list,
the DHCP server always assigns this IP address to the MAC address. IP/MAC binding
pairs apply to all FortiGate DHCP servers.
Figure 32: IP/MAC binding list
Create New
Select Create New to add a DHCP IP/MAC binding pair.
Name
The name for the IP and MAC address pair.
IP Address
The IP address for the IP and MAC address pair. The IP address must be
within the configured IP range.
MAC Address The MAC address of the device.
Delete icon. Delete an IP/MAC binding pair.
Edit/View icon. View or modify an IP/MAC binding pair.
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Dynamic IP
DHCP IP/MAC binding settings
Figure 33: IP/MAC binding options
Name
Enter a name for the IP/MAC address pair.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for the IP and MAC address pair. The IP address must
be within the configured IP range.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the device.
To add a DHCP IP/MAC binding pair
1
Go to System > DHCP > IP/MAC Binding.
2
Select Create New.
3
Add a name for the IP/MAC pair.
4
Add the IP address and MAC address.
5
Select OK to save the IP/MAC pair.
Dynamic IP
You can view the list of IP addresses that the DHCP server has assigned, their
corresponding MAC addresses, and the expiry time and date for these addresses.
Interface
Select to display its dynamic IP list.
IP
The IP addresses that the DHCP server has assigned.
MAC
The corresponding MAC addresses for the dynamic IP addresses.
Expire
The expiry time and date for the dynamic IP addresses and their corresponding
MAC addresses.
To view the dynamic IP list
1
Go to System > DHCP > Dynamic IP.
2
Select the interface for which you want to view the list.
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System Config
Use the System Config page to make any of the following changes to the FortiGate
system configuration:
•
System time
•
Options
•
HA
•
SNMP
•
Replacement messages
•
FortiManager
System time
Go to System > Config > Time to set the FortiGate system time.
For effective scheduling and logging, the FortiGate system time must be accurate.
You can either manually set the FortiGate system time or you can configure the
FortiGate unit to automatically keep its system time correct by synchronizing with a
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server.
Figure 34: System time
System Time
The current FortiGate system date and time.
Refresh
Select Refresh to update the display of the current FortiGate system date
and time.
Time Zone
Select the current FortiGate system time zone.
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System Config
Automatically
adjust clock for
daylight saving
changes
Select the Automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes check
box if you want the FortiGate system clock to be adjusted automatically
when your time zone changes to daylight saving time and back to
standard time.
Set Time
Select Set Time to set the FortiGate system date and time to the correct
date and time.
Synchronize with
NTP Server
Select Synchronize with NTP Server to configure the FortiGate unit to
use NTP to automatically set the system date and time. For more
information about NTP and to find the IP address of an NTP server that
you can use, see http://www.ntp.org.
Server
Enter the IP address or domain name of the NTP server that the
FortiGate unit can use to set its time and date.
Syn Interval
Specify how often the FortiGate unit should synchronize its time with the
NTP server. A typical Syn Interval would be 1440 minutes for the
FortiGate unit to synchronize its time once a day.
To manually set the FortiGate date and time
1
Go to System > Config > Time.
2
Select Refresh to display the current FortiGate system date and time.
3
Select your Time Zone from the list.
4
Optionally, select Automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes check box.
5
Select Set Time and set the FortiGate system date and time.
6
Set the hour, minute, second, month, day, and year as required.
7
Select Apply.
To use NTP to set the FortiGate date and time
1
Go to System > Config > Time.
2
Select Synchronize with NTP Server to configure the FortiGate unit to use NTP to
automatically set the system time and date.
3
Enter the IP address or domain name of the NTP server that the FortiGate unit can
use to set its time and date.
4
Specify how often the FortiGate unit should synchronize its time with the NTP server.
5
Select Apply.
Options
Go to System > Config > Options to set the following options:
•
90
Timeout settings including the idle timeout and authentication timeout
•
The language displayed by the web-based manager
•
Front control buttons and LCD PIN protection
•
Dead gateway detection interval and failover detection
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System Config
Options
Figure 35: System config options
Idle Timeout
Set the idle time out to control the amount of inactive time before the
administrator must log in again. The maximum admintimeout is 480
minutes (8 hours). To improve security keep the idle timeout at the
default value of 5 minutes.
Auth Timeout
Set the firewall user authentication timeout to control how long an
authenticated connection can be idle before the user must authenticate
again. The maximum authtimeout is 480 minutes (8 hours). The
default Auth Timeout is 15 minutes.
For more information, see “Setting authentication timeout” on page 248.
Language
Select a language for the web-based manager to use. Choose from
English, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or French.
LCD Panel
Select the PIN Protection check box and type a 6-digit PIN.
Administrators must enter the PIN to use the control buttons and LCD.
See “To set PIN protection for the LCD panel” on page 92.
Detection Interval
Set the dead gateway detection failover interval. Enter a number in
seconds to specify how often the FortiGate unit pings the target.
Fail-over Detection Set the ping server dead gateway detection failover number. Enter the
number of times that ping fails before the FortiGate unit assumes that the
gateway is no longer functioning.
To set the system idle timeout
1
Go to System > Config > Options.
2
For Idle Timeout, type a number in minutes.
3
Select Apply.
To set the Auth timeout
1
Go to System > Config > Options.
2
For Auth Timeout, type a number in minutes.
3
Select Apply.
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System Config
To select a language for the web-based manager
1
Go to System > Config > Options.
2
From the Languages list, select a language for the web-based manager to use.
3
Select Apply.
Note: You should select the language that the management computer operating system uses.
To set PIN protection for the LCD panel
1
Go to System > Config > Options.
2
In the LCD Panel section, select the PIN Protection check box.
3
Type a 6-digit PIN.
4
Select Apply.
To modify the dead gateway detection settings
Modify dead gateway detection to control how the FortiGate unit confirms connectivity
with a ping server added to an interface configuration. For information about adding a
ping server to an interface, see “To add a ping server to an interface” on page 65.
1
Go to System > Config > Options.
2
For Detection Interval, type a number in seconds to specify how often the FortiGate
unit tests the connection to the ping target.
3
For Fail-over Detection, type a number of times that the connection test fails before
the FortiGate unit assumes that the gateway is no longer functioning.
4
Select Apply.
HA
Go to System > Config > HA to configure the FortiGate unit for High Availability (HA)
mode operation.
•
HA overview
•
HA configuration
•
Configuring an HA cluster
•
Managing an HA cluster
HA overview
FortiGate HA consists of two or more FortiGate units operating as an HA cluster. To
the network, the HA cluster appears to function as a single FortiGate unit, processing
network traffic and providing normal security services such as firewalling, VPN, IPS,
virus scanning, web filtering, and spam filtering services.
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HA
Inside the cluster the individual FortiGate units are called cluster units. These cluster
units share state and configuration information. If one cluster unit fails, the other units
in the cluster automatically replace that unit, taking over the work that the failed unit
was doing. The cluster continues to process network traffic and provide normal
FortiGate services with virtually no interruption.
Every cluster contains one primary cluster unit (also called primary units) and one or
more subordinate cluster units (also called subordinate units). The primary unit
controls how the cluster operates. The roles that the primary and subordinate units
play in the cluster depend on the mode in which the cluster operates. See “HA modes”
on page 94.
The ability of an HA cluster to continue providing firewall services after a failure, is
called failover. FortiGate HA failover means that your network does not have to rely on
one FortiGate unit to continue functioning. You can install additional units and form an
HA cluster. Other units in the cluster will take over if one of the units fails.
A second HA feature, called load balancing, can be used to increase firewall
performance. A cluster of FortiGate units can increase overall network performance
by sharing the load of processing network traffic and providing security services. The
cluster appears to your network to be a single device, adding increased performance
without changing your network configuration.
The FortiGate Clustering Protocol (FGCP)
Fortinet achieves high availability (HA) using redundant hardware and the FortiGate
Clustering Protocol (FGCP). Each FortiGate unit in an HA cluster enforces the same
overall security policy and shares the same configuration settings. You can add up to
32 FortiGate units to an HA cluster. Each FortiGate unit in an HA cluster must be the
same model and must be running the same FortiOS firmware image.
The FortiGate units in the cluster use ethernet interfaces to communicate cluster
session information, synchronize the cluster configuration, synchronize the cluster
routing table, and report individual cluster member status. In the cluster, these
ethernet interfaces are called heartbeat devices and the communication between
cluster units is called the HA heartbeat. Using the HA heartbeat, cluster units are
constantly communicating HA status information to make sure that the cluster is
operating properly.
FortiGate HA and the FGCP support link failover, device failover, and HA heartbeat
failover.
Link failover
If one of the links to a FortiGate unit in an HA cluster fails, all functions, all
established firewall connections, and all IPSec VPN sessionsa are maintained
by the other FortiGate units in the HA cluster. For information about link
failover, see “Monitor priorities” on page 100.
Device failover If one of the FortiGate units in an HA cluster fails, all functions, all established
firewall connections, and all IPSec VPN sessions are maintained by the other
FortiGate units in the HA cluster.
HA heartbeat
failover
You can configure multiple interfaces to be HA heartbeat devices. If an
interface functioning as an HA heartbeat device fails, the HA heartbeat is
transferred to another interface also configured as an HA heartbeat device.
a.HA does not provide session failover for PPPoE, DHCP, PPTP, and L2TP services.
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HA modes
FortiGate units can be configured to operate in active-passive (A-P) or active-active
(A-A) HA mode. Active-active and active-passive clusters can run in either NAT/Route
or Transparent mode.
An active-passive (A-P) HA cluster, also referred to as failover HA, consists of a
primary unit that processes traffic, and one or more subordinate units. The
subordinate units are connected to the network and to the primary unit but do not
process traffic.
When a cluster is operating in active-passive mode, in addition to the operating mode
(NAT or Transparent) the front panel LCD of all cluster units displays (a-p). On the
primary unit the LCD displays primary. One the subordinate units, the LCD displays
slave <priority_id>. The priority_id is the priority that the subordinate unit
has in the cluster. If there are three units in the Cluster the LCD displays are:
• primary (a-p)
• slave 1 (a-p)
• slave 2 (a-p)
Active-active (A-A) HA load balances network traffic to all of the cluster units. An
active-active HA cluster consists of a primary unit that processes traffic and one or
more subordinate units that also process traffic. The primary unit uses a load
balancing algorithm to distribute processing to all of the cluster units in the HA cluster.
By default a FortiGate HA active-active cluster load balances virus scanning sessions
among all cluster units. All other traffic is processed by the primary unit. Using the CLI,
you can configure the cluster to load balance all network traffic among all cluster units.
See “To switch between load balancing virus scanning sessions and all sessions” on
page 104.
When a cluster is operating in active-active mode, in addition to the operating mode
(NAT or Transparent) the front panel LCD of all cluster units displays (a-a). On the
primary unit the LCD displays primary. One the subordinate units, the LCD displays
slave <priority_id>. The priority_id is the priority that the subordinate unit
has in the cluster. If there are three units in the Cluster the LCD displays are:
• primary (a-a)
• slave 1 (a-a)
• slave 2 (a-a)
For more information about FortiGate HA and the FGCP, see the FortiGate High
Availability Guide and the Fortinet Knowledge Center.
FortiGate HA compatibility with DHCP and PPPoE
FortiGate HA is not compatible with PPP protocols such as DHCP or PPPoE. If one or
more FortiGate unit interfaces is dynamically configured using DHCP or PPPoE you
cannot switch to operating in HA mode. Also, if you are operating a FortiGate HA
cluster, you cannot change a FortiGate interface in the cluster to be configured
dynamically using DHCP or PPPoE.
Configuring a FortiGate interface to be a DHCP server or a DHCP relay agent is not
affect by HA operation. For information about DHCP server and relay, see “System
DHCP” on page 81.
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System Config
HA
PPTP and L2TP are supported in HA mode. You can configure PPTP and L2TP
settings (see “PPTP range” on page 276 and “L2TP range” on page 277) you can also
add firewall policies to allow PPTP and L2TP pass through. However, during an HA
failover event, any active PPTP and L2TP sessions are lost and must be restarted
after the failover.
HA configuration
Go to System > Config > HA and use the options described below to configure HA.
•
Standalone Mode
•
High Availability
•
Cluster Members
•
Mode
•
Group ID
•
Unit Priority
•
Override Master
•
Password
•
Schedule
•
Priorities of Heartbeat Device
•
Heartbeat device IP addresses
•
Monitor priorities
Figure 36: HA configuration
Standalone Mode
Standalone mode is the default operation mode. If Standalone mode is selected the
FortiGate unit is not operating in HA mode.
Select Standalone Mode if you want to stop a cluster unit from operating in HA mode.
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High Availability
Select High Availability to operate the FortiGate unit in HA mode. After selecting High
Availability, complete the remainder of the HA configuration.
Cluster Members
When the cluster is operating, you can select Cluster Members to view the status of all
FortiGate units in the cluster. Status information includes the cluster ID, status, up
time, weight, and monitor information. For more information, see “To view the status of
each cluster member” on page 106.
Mode
All members of the HA cluster must be set to the same HA mode.
Active-Active
Load balancing and failover HA. Each cluster unit actively processes
connections and monitors the status of the other cluster units. The primary unit
controls load balancing among all of the cluster units.
Active-Passive Failover HA. The primary unit processes all connections. All other cluster units
passively monitor the cluster status and remain synchronized with the primary
unit.
For more information about HA mode, see “HA modes” on page 94.
Group ID
The group ID range is from 0 to 63. All cluster units must have the same group ID.
When the FortiGate units are switched to HA mode, all of the interfaces of all of the
cluster units acquire the same virtual MAC address. This virtual MAC address is set
according to the group ID. Table 3 lists the virtual MAC address set for each group ID.
Table 3: HA group ID and MAC address
Group ID
MAC Address
0
00-09-0f-06-ff-00
1
00-09-0f-06-ff-01
2
00-09-0f-06-ff-02
3
00-09-0f-06-ff-03
…
...
63
00-09-0f-06-ff-3f
If you have more than one HA cluster on the same network, each cluster should have
a different group ID. If two clusters on the same network have the same group ID, the
duplicate MAC addresses can cause addressing conflicts on the network.
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Unit Priority
Optionally set the unit priority of the cluster unit. Each cluster unit can have a different
unit priority. The unit priority is not synchronized among cluster members. Each
cluster unit can have a different unit priority. During HA negotiation, the unit with the
highest unit priority becomes the primary unit. The unit priority range is 0 to 255. The
default unit priority is 128.
You can use the unit priority to control the order in which cluster units become the
primary unit when a cluster unit fails. For example, if you have three FortiGate units in
a cluster you can set the unit priorities as shown in Table 4. Cluster unit A will always
be the primary unit because it has the highest priority. If cluster unit A fails, cluster
unit B becomes the primary unit because cluster unit B has a higher unit priority than
cluster unit C.
Table 4: Example unit priorities for a cluster of three cluster units
Cluster unit
Unit priority
A
200
B
100
C
50
In a functioning cluster, if you change the unit priority of the current primary unit to a
lower priority, when the cluster renegotiates a different cluster unit becomes the
primary unit.
Override Master
Configure a cluster unit to always override the current primary unit and become the
primary unit. Enable override master for the cluster unit that you have given the
highest unit priority. Enabling override master means that this cluster unit always
becomes the primary unit.
In a typical FortiGate cluster configuration, the primary unit is selected automatically.
In some situations, you might want to control which unit becomes the primary unit.
You can configure a FortiGate unit as the permanent primary unit by setting a high
unit priority and by selecting override master. With this configuration, the same cluster
unit always becomes the primary unit.
If override master is enabled and the primary unit fails, another cluster unit becomes
the primary unit. When the cluster unit with override master enabled rejoins the cluster
it overrides the current primary unit and becomes the new primary unit. When this
override occurs, all communication sessions through the cluster are lost and must be
re-established.
Override master is not synchronized to all cluster units.
In a functioning cluster, if you select override master for a cluster unit the cluster renegotiates and may select a new primary cluster unit.
Password
Enter a password for the HA cluster. The password must be the same for all cluster
units. The maximum password length is 15 characters.
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If you have more than one FortiGate HA cluster on the same network, each cluster
must have a different password.
Schedule
If you are configuring an active-active cluster, select a load balancing schedule.
None
No load balancing. Select None when the cluster interfaces are connected
to load balancing switches.
Hub
Load balancing if the cluster interfaces are connected to a hub. Traffic is
distributed to cluster units based on the Source IP and Destination IP of
each packet processed by the cluster.
LeastConnection
Least connection load balancing. If the cluster units are connected using
switches, select Least Connection to distribute network traffic to the cluster
unit currently processing the fewest connections.
Round-Robin
Round robin load balancing. If the cluster units are connected using
switches, select Round-Robin to distribute network traffic to the next
available cluster unit.
Weighted
Round-Robin
Weighted round robin load balancing. Similar to round robin, but weighted
values are assigned to each of the units in a cluster based on their capacity
and on how many connections they are currently processing. For example,
the primary unit should have a lower weighted value because it handles
scheduling and forwards traffic. Weighted round robin distributes traffic
more evenly because units that are not processing traffic will be more likely
to receive new connections than units that are very busy. To configure
weighted round robin weights, see “To configure weighted-round-robin
weights” on page 104.
Random
Random load balancing. If the cluster units are connected using switches,
select Random to randomly distribute traffic to cluster units.
IP
Load balancing according to IP address. If the cluster units are connected
using switches, select IP to distribute traffic to cluster units based on the
Source IP and Destination IP of the packet.
IP Port
Load balancing according to IP address and port. If the cluster units are
connected using switches, select IP Port to distribute traffic to cluster units
based on the source IP, source port, destination IP, and destination port of
the packet.
By default a FortiGate HA active-active cluster load balances virus scanning sessions
among all cluster units. All other traffic is processed by the primary unit. Using the CLI,
you can configure the cluster to load balance all network traffic among all cluster units.
See “To switch between load balancing virus scanning sessions and all sessions” on
page 104.
Priorities of Heartbeat Device
Enable or disable HA heartbeat communication and set the heartbeat priority for each
interface in the cluster.
By default, HA heartbeat communication is set for two interfaces. You can disable the
HA heartbeat for either of these interfaces or enable HA heartbeat for other interfaces.
In most cases you can maintain the default heartbeat device configuration as long as
you can connect the heartbeat device interfaces together.
The heartbeat priority must be set for at least one cluster interface. If heartbeat
communication is interrupted the cluster stops processing traffic.
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System Config
HA
To enable HA heartbeat communication for an interface, enter a priority for the
interface. To disable HA heartbeat communication for an interface, delete the priority
for the interface.
The HA heartbeat priority range is 0 to 512. The interface with the highest priority
handles all HA heartbeat traffic. If this interface fails or becomes disconnected, the
interface with the next highest priority handles all HA heartbeat traffic.
The cluster units use the ethernet interfaces configured with HA heartbeat priorities for
HA heartbeat communication. The HA heartbeat communicates cluster session
information, synchronizes the cluster configuration, synchronizes the cluster routing
table, and reports individual cluster member status. The HA heartbeat constantly
communicates HA status information to make sure that the cluster is operating
properly.
You can enable heartbeat communications for physical interfaces, but not for VLAN
subinterfaces.
Enabling the HA heartbeat for more interfaces increases reliability. If an interface fails,
the HA heartbeat can be diverted to another interface.
HA heartbeat traffic can use a considerable amount of network bandwidth. If possible,
enable HA heartbeat traffic on interfaces only used for HA heartbeat traffic or on
interfaces connected to less busy networks.
Table 5: Default heartbeat device configuration
FortiGate model
Default heartbeat device
Default priority
FortiGate-800 and 800F
Port 1
50
HA
100
Change the heartbeat device priorities as required to control the interface that is used
for heartbeat traffic and the interface to which heartbeat traffic reverts if the interface
with the highest heartbeat priority fails or is disconnected.
Setting the heartbeat priority for more interfaces increases the reliability of the cluster.
To optimize bandwidth use, you can route most heartbeat traffic to interfaces that
handle less network traffic. You can also create a failover path by setting heartbeat
priorities so that you can control the order in which interfaces are used for heartbeat
traffic.
Heartbeat device IP addresses
You do not need to assign IP addresses to heartbeat device interfaces for them to be
able to process heartbeat packets. The cluster assigns virtual IP addresses to the
heartbeat device interfaces. The primary cluster unit heartbeat device interface is
assigned the IP address 10.0.0.1 and the subordinate unit heartbeat device interface
is assigned the IP address 10.0.0.2. A third cluster unit would be assigned the IP
address 10.0.0.3 and so on.
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For best results, isolate each heartbeat device on its own network. Heartbeat packets
contain sensitive information about the cluster configuration. Also, heartbeat packets
may use a considerable amount of network bandwidth and it is preferable to isolate
this traffic from your user networks. The extra bandwidth used by heartbeat packets
could also reduce the capacity of the interface to process network traffic.
For most FortiGate models if you do not change the heartbeat device configuration,
you would isolate the HA interfaces of all of the cluster units by connecting them all to
the same switch. If the cluster consists of two FortiGate units you can connect the
heartbeat device interfaces directly using a crossover cable.
HA heartbeat and data traffic are supported on the same FortiGate interface. In
NAT/Route mode, if you decide to use the heartbeat device interfaces for processing
network traffic or for a management connection, you can assign the interface any IP
address. This IP address does not affect the heartbeat traffic.
In Transparent mode, you can connect the interface to your network and enable
management access. You would then establish a management connection to the
interface using the Transparent mode management IP address.
Monitor priorities
Enable or disable monitoring a FortiGate interface to verify that the interface is
functioning properly and connected to its network. If a monitored interface fails or is
disconnected from its network the interface leaves the cluster. The cluster reroutes
the traffic being processed by that interface to the same interface of another cluster
unit that still has a connection to the network. This other cluster unit becomes the new
primary cluster unit.
If you can re-establish traffic flow through the interface (for example, if you re-connect
a disconnected network cable) the interface rejoins the cluster. If Override Master is
enabled for this FortiGate unit (see “Override Master” on page 97), this FortiGate unit
becomes the primary unit in the cluster again.
Note: Only monitor interfaces that are connected to networks.
Note: You can monitor physical interfaces, but not VLAN subinterfaces.
Increase the priority of interfaces connected to higher priority networks or networks
with more traffic. The monitor priority range is 0 to 512.
If a high priority interface on the primary unit fails, one of the other cluster units
becomes the new primary unit to provide better service to the high priority network.
If a low priority interface fails on one cluster unit and a high priority interface fails on
another cluster unit, a unit in the cluster with a working connection to the high priority
interface would, if it becomes necessary to negotiate a new primary unit, be selected
instead of a unit with a working connection to the low priority interface.
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•
Configuring an HA cluster
•
Managing an HA cluster
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Configuring an HA cluster
Use the following procedures to create an HA cluster consisting of two or more
FortiGate units. These procedures describe how to configure each of the FortiGate
units for HA operation and then how to connect the FortiGate units to form a cluster.
Once the cluster is connected you can configure it in the same way as you would
configure a standalone FortiGate unit.
•
To configure a FortiGate unit for HA operation
•
To connect a FortiGate HA cluster
•
To add a new unit to a functioning cluster
•
To configure weighted-round-robin weights
•
To switch between load balancing virus scanning sessions and all sessions
To configure a FortiGate unit for HA operation
Each FortiGate unit in the cluster must have the same HA configuration. Use the
following procedure to configure each FortiGate unit for HA operation.
Note: The following procedure does not include steps for configuring heartbeat devices and
interface monitoring. Both of these HA settings should be configured after the cluster is up and
running.
1
Power on the FortiGate unit to be configured.
2
Connect to the web-based manager.
3
Give the FortiGate unit a unique host name.
See “To change FortiGate host name” on page 37. Use host names to identify
individual cluster units.
4
Go to System > Config > HA.
5
Select HA.
6
Select the HA mode.
7
Select a Group ID for the cluster.
The Group ID must be the same for all FortiGate units in the HA cluster.
8
Optionally change the Unit Priority.
See “Unit Priority” on page 97.
9
If required, select Override master.
See “Override Master” on page 97.
10
Enter and confirm a password for the HA cluster.
11
If you are configuring Active-Active HA, select a schedule.
See “Schedule” on page 98.
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12
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit negotiates to establish an HA cluster. When you select apply you
may temporarily lose connectivity with the FortiGate unit as the HA cluster negotiates
and because the FGCP changes the MAC address of the FortiGate unit interfaces
(see “Group ID” on page 96). To be able to reconnect sooner, you can update the
ARP table of your management PC by deleting the ARP table entry for the FortiGate
unit.
13
If you are configuring a NAT/Route mode cluster, power off the FortiGate unit and
then repeat this procedure for all the FortiGate units in the cluster. Once all of the units
are configured, continue with “To connect a FortiGate HA cluster” on page 102.
14
If you are configuring a Transparent mode cluster, reconnect to the web-based
manager.
You may have to wait a few minutes before you can reconnect.
15
Go to System > Status.
16
Select Change to Transparent Mode and select OK to switch the FortiGate unit to
Transparent mode.
17
Power off the FortiGate unit.
18
Repeat this procedure for all of the FortiGate units in the cluster then continue with
“To connect a FortiGate HA cluster” on page 102.
To connect a FortiGate HA cluster
Use the following procedure to connect a cluster operating in NAT/Route mode or
Transparent mode. Connect the cluster units to each other and to your network. You
must connect all matching interfaces in the cluster to the same hub or switch. Then
you must connect these interfaces to their networks using the same hub or switch.
Fortinet recommends using switches for all cluster connections for the best
performance.
Inserting an HA cluster into your network temporarily interrupts communications on
the network because new physical connections are being made to route traffic through
the cluster. Also, starting the cluster interrupts network traffic until the individual
cluster units are functioning and the cluster completes negotiation. Cluster negotiation
normally takes just a few seconds. During system startup and negotiation all network
traffic is dropped.
1
102
Connect the cluster units.
•
Connect the internal interfaces of each cluster unit to a switch or hub connected to
your internal network.
•
Connect the external interfaces of each cluster unit to a switch or hub connected to
your external network.
•
Optionally connect the DMZ interfaces of each cluster unit to a switch or hub
connected to your DMZ network.
•
Optionally connect ports 1 to 4 of each cluster unit to switches or hubs connected
to other networks.
•
Connect the HA interfaces of the cluster units to another switch or hub.
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Figure 37: HA network configuration
Internal Network
Internal
External
INTERNAL
Esc
Enter
EXTERNAL
DMZ
HA
1
2
3
4
CONSOLE
USB
PWR
8
HA
Hub or
Switch
Hub or
Switch
HA
INTERNAL
Esc
Enter
EXTERNAL
DMZ
HA
1
2
3
4
CONSOLE
USB
Router
PWR
8
Internal
External
Internet
2
Power on all of the cluster units.
As the cluster units start, they negotiate to choose the primary unit and the
subordinate units. This negotiation occurs with no user intervention and normally just
takes a few seconds.
You can now configure the cluster as if it is a single FortiGate unit.
To add a new unit to a functioning cluster
1
Configure the new cluster unit for HA operation with the same HA configuration as the
other units in the cluster.
2
If the cluster is running in Transparent mode, change the operating mode of the new
cluster unit to Transparent mode.
3
Connect the new cluster unit to the cluster.
4
Power on the new cluster unit.
When the unit starts it negotiates to join the cluster. After it joins the cluster, the cluster
synchronizes the new unit configuration with the configuration of the primary unit.
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System Config
To configure weighted-round-robin weights
By default, in active-active HA mode the weighted round-robin schedule assigns the
same weight to each cluster unit. From the CLI you can use the following command to
configure a weight value for each cluster unit.
config system ha
set weight <priority-id_integer> <weight_integer>
end
The weight value sets the maximum number of connections that are sent to a cluster
unit before a connection can be sent to the next cluster unit. You can set weight
values to control the number of connections processed by each cluster unit. For
example, you might want to reduce the number of connections processed by the
primary cluster unit by increasing the weight assigned to the subordinate units.
Weight values are entered as two values; the priority order of the unit in the cluster (in
the range 0 to 31) followed by its weight (also in the range 0 to 31). For example, if
you have a cluster of three units, you can enter the following commands to configure
the weight values for each unit:
Table 6: Example weights for three cluster units
Cluster unit priority
Weight
0
1
1
3
2
3
config system ha
set weight 0 1
set weight 1 3
set weight 2 3
end
This command has the following results:
•
The first connection is processed by the primary unit (priority 0, weight 1)
•
The next three connections are processed by the first subordinate unit (priority 1,
weight 3)
•
The next three connections are processed by the second subordinate unit (priority
2, weight 3)
The subordinate units process more connections than the primary unit, and both
subordinate units, on average, process the same number of connections.
To switch between load balancing virus scanning sessions and all sessions
By default a FortiGate HA cluster load balances virus scanning sessions among all of
the cluster units. All other traffic is processed by the primary unit. Using the CLI, you
can configure the cluster to load balance all network traffic among all cluster units.
To configure load balancing all communication sessions, enter the command:
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HA
config system ha
set load-balance-all enable
end
Managing an HA cluster
The configurations of all of the FortiGate units in the cluster are synchronized so that
the FortiGate units can function as a cluster. Because of this synchronization, you
manage the HA cluster instead of managing the individual cluster units. You manage
the cluster by connecting to the web-based manager using any cluster interface
configured for HTTPS administrative access. You can also manage the cluster by
connecting to the CLI using any cluster interface configured for SSH administrative
access.
You can also use SNMP to manage the cluster by configuring a cluster interface for
SNMP administrative access. Using an SNMP manager you can get cluster
configuration information and receive traps. For a list of HA MIB fields, see “HA MIB
fields” on page 115 and “FortiGate HA traps” on page 114.
You can change the cluster configuration by connecting to the cluster and changing
the configuration of the primary unit. The cluster automatically synchronizes all
configuration changes to the subordinate units in the cluster as the changes are
made.
The only configuration change that is not synchronized is the FortiGate host name.
You can give each cluster unit a unique host name to help to identify cluster members.
Individual cluster units are also identified by their serial number.
You can identify the role of a cluster unit from the front panel LCD. On the primary unit
the LCD displays primary. One the subordinate units, the LCD displays slave
<priority_id>. The priority_id is the priority that the subordinate unit has in
the cluster. If there are three units in the Cluster the LCD displays are:
• primary (a-a)
• slave 1 (a-a)
• slave 2 (a-a)
You can use the web-based manager to monitor the status and logs of individual
cluster members. See “To view the status of each cluster member” on page 106 and
“To view and manage logs for individual cluster units” on page 107.
You can manage individual cluster units by using SSH to connect to the CLI of the
cluster. From the CLI you can use the execute ha manage command to connect to
the CLI of each unit in the cluster. You can also manage individual cluster units by
using a null-modem cable to connect to the primary cluster unit. From there you can
also use the execute ha manage command to connect to the CLI of each unit in the
cluster. See “To manage individual cluster units” on page 108 for more information.
•
To view the status of each cluster member
•
To view and manage logs for individual cluster units
•
To monitor cluster units for failover
•
To manage individual cluster units
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System Config
To view the status of each cluster member
1
Connect to the cluster and log into the web-based manager.
2
Go to System > Config > HA.
3
Select Cluster Members.
A list of cluster members appears. The list includes the cluster ID of each cluster
member as well as status information for each cluster member.
Figure 38: Example cluster members list (active-active cluster)
Refresh every
Select to control how often the web-based manager updates the system
status display.
Go
Select to set the selected refresh interval.
Back to HA
Close the cluster members list and return to the HA configuration page.
configuration page
106
Cluster ID
Use the cluster ID to identify each FortiGate unit in the cluster. The
cluster ID matches the FortiGate unit serial number.
Status
Indicates the status of each cluster unit. A green check mark indicates
that the cluster unit is operating normally. A red X indicates that the
cluster unit cannot communicate with the primary unit.
Up Time
The time in days, hours, minutes, and seconds since the cluster unit was
last started.
Monitor
Displays system status information for each cluster unit.
CPU Usage
The current CPU status of each cluster unit. The web-based manager
displays CPU usage for core processes only. CPU usage for
management processes (for example, for HTTPS connections to the
web-based manager) is excluded.
Memory Usage
The current memory status of each cluster unit. The web-based manager
displays memory usage for core processes only. Memory usage for
management processes (for example, for HTTPS connections to the
web-based manager) is excluded.
Active Sessions
The number of communications sessions being processed by the each
cluster unit.
Total Packets
The number of packets that have been processed by the cluster unit
since it last started up.
Virus Detected
The number of viruses detected by the cluster unit.
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HA
Network Utilization The total network bandwidth being used by all of the cluster unit
interfaces.
Total Bytes
The number of bytes that have been processed by the cluster unit since it
last started up.
Intrusion Detected The number of intrusions or attacks detected by the cluster unit.
To view and manage logs for individual cluster units
1
Connect to the cluster and log into the web-based manager.
2
Go to Log&Report > Log Access.
The Traffic log, Event log, Attack log, Antivirus log, Web Filter log, and Email Filter log
for the primary unit are displayed.
The HA Cluster pull-down list displays the serial number of the FortiGate unit for which
logs are displayed.
3
Select the serial number of one of the cluster units to display the logs for that cluster
unit.
You can view, search and manage logs saved to memory or logs saved to the hard
disk, depending on the configuration of the cluster unit.
To monitor cluster units for failover
If the primary unit in the cluster fails, the units in the cluster renegotiate to select a new
primary unit. Failure of the primary unit results in the following:
•
If SNMP is enabled, the new primary FortiGate unit sends the trap message “HA
switch”. This trap indicates that the primary unit in an HA cluster has failed and has
been replaced with a new primary unit.
•
The cluster contains fewer FortiGate units. The failed primary unit no longer
appears on the Cluster Members list.
•
The host name and serial number of the primary cluster unit changes.
•
The new primary unit logs the following messages to the event log:
HA slave became master
Detected HA member dead
If a subordinate unit fails, the cluster continues to function normally. Failure of a
subordinate unit results in the following:
•
The cluster contains fewer FortiGate units. The failed unit no longer appears on the
Cluster Members list.
•
The master unit logs the following message to the event log:
Detected HA member dead
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System Config
To manage individual cluster units
This procedure describes how to log into the primary unit CLI and from there to
connect to the CLI of subordinate units. You log into the subordinate unit using the
ha_admin administrator account. This built-in administrator account gives you read
and write permission on the subordinate unit.
1
Use SSH to connect to the cluster and log into the CLI.
Connect to any cluster interface configured for SSH administrative access to log into
the cluster.
You can also use a direct cable connection to log into the primary unit CLI. To do this
you must know which unit is the primary unit.
2
Enter the following command followed by a space and type a question mark (?):
execute ha manage
The CLI displays a list of all the subordinate units in the cluster. Each cluster unit is
numbered, starting at 1. The information displayed for each cluster unit includes the
unit serial number and the host name of the unit.
3
Complete the command with the number of the subordinate unit to log into. For
example, to log into subordinate unit 1, enter the following command:
execute ha manage 1
Press Enter to connect to and log into the CLI of the selected subordinate unit. If this
subordinate unit has a different host name, the CLI prompt changes to this host name.
You can use CLI commands to manage this subordinate unit.
4
Enter the following command to return to the primary unit CLI:
exit
You can use the execute ha manage command to log into the CLI of any of the
other subordinate units in the cluster.
SNMP
You can configure the FortiGate SNMP agent to report system information and send
traps (alarms or event messages) to SNMP managers. Using an SNMP manager, you
can access SNMP traps and data from any FortiGate interface or VLAN subinterface
configured for SNMP management access.
The FortiGate SNMP implementation is read-only. SNMP v1 and v2c compliant SNMP
managers have read-only access to FortiGate system information and can receive
FortiGate traps. To monitor FortiGate system information and receive FortiGate traps
you must compile Fortinet proprietary MIBs as well as Fortinet-supported standard
MIBs into your SNMP manager.
RFC support includes support for most of RFC 2665 (Ethernet-like MIB) and most of
RFC 1213 (MIB II) (for more information, see “FortiGate MIBs” on page 112).
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System Config
SNMP
This section describes:
•
Configuring SNMP
•
SNMP community
•
FortiGate MIBs
•
FortiGate traps
•
Fortinet MIB fields
Configuring SNMP
Go to System > Config > SNMP v1/v2c to configure the SNMP agent.
Figure 39: Configuring SNMP
SNMP Agent
Enable the FortiGate SNMP agent.
Description
Enter descriptive information about the FortiGate unit. The description
can be up to 35 characters long.
Location
Enter the physical location of the FortiGate unit. The system location
description can be up to 35 characters long.
Contact
Enter the contact information for the person responsible for this FortiGate
unit. The contact information can be up to 35 characters long.
Apply
Save changes made to the description, location, and contact information.
Create New
Select Create New to add a new SNMP community.
Communities
The list of SNMP communities added to the FortiGate configuration. You
can add up to 3 communities.
Name
The name of the SNMP community.
Queries
The status of SNMP queries for each SNMP community. The query
status can be enabled or disabled.
Traps
The status of SNMP traps for each SNMP community. The trap status
can be enabled or disabled.
Enable
Select Enable to activate an SNMP community.
Delete icon
Select Delete to remove an SNMP community.
Edit/View icon
View or modify an SNMP community.
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System Config
SNMP community
An SNMP community is a grouping of equipment for network administration purposes.
Add SNMP communities so that SNMP managers can connect to the FortiGate unit to
view system information and receive SNMP traps. You can add up to three SNMP
communities. Each community can have a different configuration for SNMP queries
and traps. Each community can be configured to monitor the FortiGate unit for a
different set of events. You can also add the IP addresses of up to 8 SNMP managers
to each community.
Figure 40: SNMP community options (part 1)
Figure 41: SNMP community options (part 2)
110
Community Name
Enter a name to identify the SNMP community.
Hosts
Identify the SNMP managers that can use the settings in this SNMP
community to monitor the FortiGate unit.
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SNMP
IP Address
The IP address of an SNMP manager than can use the settings in this
SNMP community to monitor the FortiGate unit. You can also set the IP
address to 0.0.0.0 to so that any SNMP manager can use this SNMP
community.
Interface
Optionally select the name of the interface that this SNMP manager uses
to connect to the FortiGate unit. You only have to select the interface if
the SNMP manager is not on the same subnet as the FortiGate unit. This
can occur if the SNMP manager is on the Internet or behind a router.
Add
Select Add to add more SNMP managers. You can add up to 8 SNMP
managers to a single community. Select the Delete icon to remove an
SNMP manager.
Queries
Enter the Port number (161 by default) that the SNMP managers in this
community use for SNMP v1 and SNMP v2c queries to receive
configuration information from the FortiGate unit. Select the Enable
check box to activate queries for each SNMP version.
Traps
Enter the Local and Remote port numbers (162 by default) that the
FortiGate unit uses to send SNMP v1 and SNMP v2c traps to the SNMP
managers in this community. Select the Enable check box to activate
traps for each SNMP version.
SNMP Event
Enable each SNMP event for which the FortiGate unit should send traps
to the SNMP managers in this community.
To configure SNMP access to an interface in NAT/Route mode
Before a remote SNMP manager can connect to the FortiGate agent, you must
configure one or more FortiGate interfaces to accept SNMP connections. See “To
control administrative access to an interface” on page 65.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose an interface that an SNMP manager connects to and select Edit.
3
For Administrative Access, select SNMP.
4
Select OK.
To configure SNMP access to an interface in Transparent mode
Before a remote SNMP manager can connect to the FortiGate agent, you must
configure one or more FortiGate interfaces to accept SNMP connections. See “To
configure the management interface” on page 68.
1
Go to System > Network > Management.
2
Choose an interface that the SNMP manager connects to and select SNMP.
3
Select Apply.
To enable SNMP and configure basic SNMP settings
1
Go to System > Config > SNMP v1/v2c.
2
Select the Enable check box to enable the FortiGate SNMP Agent.
3
Configure the following SNMP settings: Description, Location, and Contact.
4
Select Apply.
5
Add one or more SNMP communities.
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System Config
To add an SNMP community
1
Go to System > Config > SNMP v1/v2c.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a Community Name to identify the SNMP community.
4
Configure Hosts, Queries, Traps, and SNMP Events.
5
Select OK.
FortiGate MIBs
The FortiGate SNMP agent supports FortiGate proprietary MIBs as well as standard
RFC 1213 and RFC 2665 MIBs. RFC support includes support for the parts of RFC
2665 (Ethernet-like MIB) and the parts of RFC 1213 (MIB II) that apply to FortiGate
unit configuration.
The FortiGate MIBs are listed in Table 7. You can obtain these MIB files from Fortinet
technical support. To be able to communicate with the SNMP agent, you must
compile all of these MIBs into your SNMP manager.
Your SNMP manager might already include standard and private MIBs in a compiled
database that is ready to use. You must add the Fortinet proprietary MIBs to this
database. If the standard MIBs used by the Fortinet SNMP agent are already
compiled into your SNMP manager you do not have to compile them again.
Table 7: FortiGate MIBs
MIB file name or RFC Description
fortinet.2.80.mib
The Fortinet MIB is a proprietary MIB that includes detailed FortiGate
system configuration information. Add this MIB to your SNMP
manager to monitor all FortiGate configuration settings. For more
information about FortiGate MIB fields, see “FortiGate MIBs” on
page 112.
fortinet.trap.2.80.mib
The Fortinet trap MIB is a proprietary MIB that is required for your
SNMP manager to receive traps from the FortiGate SNMP agent. For
more information about FortiGate traps, see “FortiGate traps” on
page 113.
RFC-1213 (MIB II)
The FortiGate SNMP agent supports MIB II groups with the following
exceptions.
No support for the EGP group from MIB II (RFC 1213, section 3.11
and 6.10).
Protocol statistics returned for MIB II groups (IP/ICMP/TCP/UDP/etc.)
do not accurately capture all FortiGate traffic activity. More accurate
information can be obtained from the information reported by the
Fortinet MIB.
RFC-2665 (Ethernetlike MIB)
The FortiGate SNMP agent supports Ethernet-like MIB information
with the following exception.
No support for the dot3Tests and dot3Errors groups.
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System Config
SNMP
FortiGate traps
The FortiGate agent can send traps to SNMP managers that you have added to
SNMP communities. For SNMP managers to receive traps, you must load and
compile the Fortinet trap MIB (file name fortinet.trap.2.80.mib) onto the SNMP
manager.
All traps include the trap message as well as the FortiGate unit serial number.
Table 8: Generic FortiGate traps
Trap message
Description
ColdStart
WarmStart
LinkUp
LinkDown
Standard traps as described in RFC 1215.
Table 9: FortiGate system traps
Trap message
Description
CPU usage high
(SysCpuHigh)
CPU usage exceeds 90%.
Disk low
On a FortiGate unit with a hard drive, hard drive usage exceeds
90%.
<FortiGate_serial_no>
<interface_name>
The configuration of an interface of a FortiGate unit changes. The
trap message includes the name of the interface and the serial
number of the FortiGate unit.
HA state
HA state changes. The trap message includes the previous state, the
new state and a flag indicating whether the unit is the master.
HA switch
The primary unit in an HA cluster fails and is replaced with a new
primary unit.
Memory low
(SysMemLow)
Memory usage exceeds 90%.
The <interface_name>
Interface IP is changed
to <new_IP>
(Serial No.:
<FortiGate_serial_no>)
(IntfIpChange)
The IP address of an interface of a FortiGate unit changes. The trap
message includes the name of the interface, the new IP address of
the interface, and the serial number of the FortiGate unit. This trap
can be used to track interface IP address changes for interfaces
configured with dynamic IP addresses set using DHCP or PPPoE.
Table 10: FortiGate VPN traps
Trap message
Description
VPN tunnel is up
(VpnTunnelUp)
An IPSec VPN tunnel starts up and begins processing network
traffic.
VPN tunnel down
(VpnTunnelDown)
An IPSec VPN tunnel shuts down.
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Table 11: FortiGate IPS traps
Trap message
Description
Syn flood attack.
(IdsSynFlood)
NIDS attack prevention detects and provides protection from a
syn flood attack.
Port scan attack.
(IdsPortScan)
NIDS attack prevention detects and provides protection from a
port scan attack.
Table 12: FortiGate antivirus traps
Trap message
Description
Virus detected
(AvVirus)
The FortiGate unit detects a virus and removes the infected file from an
HTTP or FTP download or from an email message.
Table 13: FortiGate logging traps
Trap message
Description
Log full
(SysLogFull)
On a FortiGate unit with a hard drive, hard drive usage exceeds 90%. On a
FortiGate unit without a hard drive, log to memory usage has exceeds 90%.
Table 14: FortiGate HA traps
114
Trap message
Description
Primary unit
switch
(HaSwitch)
The different unit in the HA cluster became the primary unit.
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System Config
SNMP
Fortinet MIB fields
The Fortinet MIB contains fields reporting current FortiGate unit status information.
The tables below list the names of the MIB fields and describe the status information
available for each one. You can view more details about the information available
from all Fortinet MIB fields by compiling the fortinet.2.80.mib file into your SNMP
manager and browsing the Fortinet MIB fields.
Table 15: System MIB fields
MIB field
Description
model
FortiGate model number, for example, 400 for the FortiGate-400.
serial
FortiGate unit serial number.
version
The firmware version currently running on the FortiGate unit.
versionAv
The antivirus definition version installed on the FortiGate unit.
versionNids
The attack definition version installed on the FortiGate unit.
haMode
The current FortiGate High-Availability (HA) mode (standalone, A-A, A-P)
opMode
The FortiGate unit operation mode (NAT or Transparent).
cpuUsage
The current CPU usage (as a percent).
memUsage
The current memory utilization (in MB).
sesCount
The current IP session count.
Table 16: HA MIB fields
MIB field
Description
groupId
HA group ID.
priority
The clustering priority of the individual FortiGate unit in a cluster.
override
The master-override setting (enable or disable) for an individual FortiGate unit in
a cluster.
autoSync
Auto config synchronization flag.
schedule
Load balancing schedule for A-A mode.
stats
Statistics for all of the units in the HA cluster.
index
The index number of the FortiGate unit.
serial
The FortiGate unit serial number.
cpuUsage
The current FortiGate unit CPU usage as a percent.
memUsage The current FortiGate unit memory usage (in MB).
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
netUsage
The current FortiGate unit network utilization (in Mbps).
sesCount
The number of active sessions being processed by the FortiGate
unit.
pktCount
The number of packets processed by the FortiGate unit.
byteCount
The number of bytes processed by the FortiGate unit
idsCount
The number of attacks detected by the IPS running on the
FortiGate unit in the last 20 hours.
avCount
The number of viruses detected by the antivirus system running
on the FortiGate unit in the last 20 hours.
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Table 17: Administrator accounts
MIB field
Description
index
The index number of the administrator account added to the FortiGate unit.
name
The user name of an administrator account added to the FortiGate unit.
addr
Up to three trusted host IP addresses for the administrator account.
mask
Up to three trusted host netmasks for the administrator account.
perm
The access profile assigned to the account.
Table 18: Local users
MIB field
Description
index
The index number of the local user added to the FortiGate unit.
name
The user name of the local user added to the FortiGate unit.
auth
The authentication type of for the local user. Can be password, LDAP, or
RADIUS.
state
Whether the local user is enabled or disable.
Table 19: Virtual domains
MIB field
Description
index
The index number virtual domain added to the FortiGate unit.
name
The name of the virtual domain added to the FortiGate unit. Each FortiGate
unit includes at least one virtual domain named root.
auth
The authentication type of for the local user. Can be password, LDAP, or
RADIUS.
state
Whether the local user is enabled or disable.
Table 20: Active IP sessions
116
MIB field
Description
index
The index number of the active IP session.
proto
The IP protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP, and so on) of the IP session.
fromAddr
The source IP address of the active IP session.
fromPort
The source port of the active IP session.
toPort
The destination IP address of the active IP session.
toAddr
The destination port of the active IP session.
expiry
The expiry time or time-to-live in seconds for the session.
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System Config
Replacement messages
Replacement messages
Change replacement messages to customize alert email and information that the
FortiGate unit adds to content streams such as email messages, web pages, and FTP
sessions. The FortiGate unit adds replacement messages to a variety of content
streams. For example, if a virus is found in an email message, the file is removed from
the email and replaced with a replacement message. The same applies to pages
blocked by web filtering and email blocked by spam filtering.
Replacement messages list
Figure 42: Replacement messages list
Name
The type of replacement message. You can change messages added to email,
web pages in http traffic, messages that are displayed to ftp users, alert mail
messages, messages added to smtp email, and messages added to web
pages blocked by web filter category blocking.
Description
Description of the replacement message type. The web-based manager
describes where each replacement message is used by the FortiGate unit.
Edit/View icon. Select to change a replacement message.
To change a replacement message
1
Go to System > Config > Replacement Messages.
2
Select the category of replacement message to edit by clicking on the blue triangle for
that category.
3
For the replacement message that you want to change, select Edit.
4
Edit the content of the message.
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Replacement messages
System Config
Changing replacement messages
Figure 43: Sample HTTP virus replacement message
Replacement messages can be text or HTML messages. You can add HTML code to
HTML messages. In addition, replacement messages can include replacement
message tags. When users receive the replacement message, the replacement
message tag is replaced with content relevant to the message. Table 21 lists the
replacement message tags that you can add.
Table 21: Replacement message tags
Tag
Description
%%FILE%%
The name of a file that has been removed from a content stream.
This could be a file that contained a virus or was blocked by
antivirus file blocking. %%FILE%% can be used in virus and file block
messages.
%%VIRUS%%
The name of a virus that was found in a file by the antivirus system.
%%VIRUS%% can be used virus messages
%%QUARFILENAME%%
The name of a file that has been removed from a content stream
and added to the quarantine. This could be a file that contained a
virus or was blocked by antivirus file blocking.
%%QUARFILENAME%% can be used in virus and file block messages.
Quarantining is only available on FortiGate units with a local disk.
%%URL%%
The URL of a web page. This can be a web page that is blocked by
web filter content or URL blocking. %%URL%% can also be used in
http virus and file block messages to be the URL of the web page
from which a user attempted to download a file that is blocked.
%%CRITICAL_EVENT%% Added to alert email critical event email messages.
%%CRITICAL_EVENT%% is replaced with the critical event message
that triggered the alert email.
118
%%PROTOCOL%%
The protocol (http, ftp, pop3, imap, or smtp) in which a virus was
detected. %%PROTOCOL%% is added to alert email virus messages.
%%SOURCE_IP%%
The IP address of the request originator who would have received
the blocked file. For email this is the IP address of the user’s
computer that attempted to download the message from which the
file was removed.
%%DEST_IP%%
The IP address of the request destination from which a virus was
received. For email this is the IP address of the email server that
sent the email containing the virus. For HTTP this is the IP address
of web page that sent the virus.
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FortiManager
Table 21: Replacement message tags (Continued)
Tag
Description
%%EMAIL_FROM%%
The email address of the sender of the message from which the file
was removed.
%%EMAIL_TO%%
The email address of the intended receiver of the message from
which the file was removed.
%%NIDSEVENT%%
The IPS attack message. %%NIDSEVENT%% is added to alert email
intrusion messages.
%%SERVICE%%
The name of the web filtering service.
%%CATEGORY%%
The name of the content category of the web site.
%%FORTINET%%
The Fortinet logo.
FortiManager
Configure the FortiGate unit for IPSec communication between the FortiGate unit and
a FortiManager server. When you enable this feature, all communication between the
FortiGate unit and the FortiManager server takes place using VPN.
Figure 44: FortiManager configuration
Enable FortiManager Enable secure IPSec VPN communication between the FortiGate unit
and a FortiManager Server.
FortiManager ID
The remote ID of the FortiManager IPSec tunnel.
FortiManager IP
The IP Address of the FortiManager Server.
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System Config
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System Admin
When the FortiGate unit is first installed, it is configured with a single administrator
account with the user name admin. From this administrator account, you can add and
edit administrator accounts. You can also control the access level of each of these
administrator accounts and control the IP address from which the administrator
account can connect to the FortiGate unit.
Each administrator account belongs to an access profile. The access profile
separates FortiGate features into access control categories for which you can enable
read and/or write access. The following table lists the web-based manager pages that
each access control category controls:
Table 22: Access profile control of access to Web-based manager pages
Access control
Affected web-based manager pages
System Configuration
System > Status
System > Network
System > DHCP
System > Config
System > Maintenance > Backup
System > Maintenance > Support
Log & Report
Log & Report > Log Config
Log & Report > Log Access
Security Policy
Router
Firewall
VPN
IPS
Anti-Virus
Web Filter
Auth Users
User
Admin Users
System > Admin
FortiProtect Update
System > Maintenance > Update Center
System Shutdown
System > Maintenance > Shutdown
Read access enables the administrator to view the web-based manager page. The
administrator needs write access to change the settings on the page.
The access profile has a similar effect on administrator access to CLI commands. The
following table shows which commands are available in each access control category
with read and write permission. If the get command is listed, the show command is
also available.
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Table 23: Access profile control of access to CLI commands
122
Access
control
Available commands (read-only)
Available commands (write)
System
Configuration
get system
except accprofile, admin
and autoupdate
get router
execute enter
execute ping
execute ping-options
execute ping6
execute traceroute
config system
except accprofile, admin
and autoupdate
config router
execute date
execute dhcpclear
execute enter
execute ha
execute ping
execute ping-options
execute ping6
execute restore
execute router
execute time
execute traceroute
Log & Report
get alertemail
get log
execute enter
config alertemail
config log
execute enter
Security
Policy
get antivirus
get firewall
get ips
get spamfilter
get vpn
get webfilter
execute enter
execute vpn
config antivirus
config firewall
config ips
config spamfilter
config vpn
config webfilter
execute enter
execute vpn
Auth Users
get user
execute enter
config user
exec enter
Admin Users
get system admin
get system accprofile
execute enter
config system admin
config system accprofile
execute enter
FortiProtect
Update
get system autoupdate
execute backup
execute enter
config system autoupdate
execute backup
execute enter
execute update_now
System
Shutdown
execute enter
execute
execute
execute
execute
execute
execute
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factoryreset
formatlogdisk
reboot
restore
shutdown
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System Admin
Administrators
This chapter describes:
•
Administrators
•
Access profiles
Administrators
Use the admin account or an account with system configuration read and write
privileges to add new administrator accounts and control their permission levels.
Administrators list
Figure 45: Administrators list
Create New
Add an administrator account.
Name
The login name for an administrator account.
Trusted hosts
The trusted host IP address and netmask from which the administrator
can log in.
Permission
The permission profile for the administrator.
Edit or View icon
Select to edit or view the administrator account.
Delete icon
Select to delete the administrator account.
You cannot delete the default admin administrator account.
Change Password Select to change the password for the administrator account.
icon
Administrators options
Figure 46: Administrator account configuration
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Administrators
System Admin
Administrator
Enter the login name for the administrator account.
Password
Type a password for the administrator account.
For improved security, the password should be at least 6 characters long.
Confirm
Password
Type the password for the administrator account a second time to confirm
that you have typed it correctly.
Trusted Host #1 Optionally, type the trusted host IP address and netmask from which the
Trusted Host #2 administrator can log in to the FortiGate unit. You can specify up to three
Trusted Host #3 trusted hosts.
Setting trusted hosts for all of your administrators can enhance the security of
your system. For more information, see “Using trusted hosts” on page 124.
Access Profile The access profile for the administrator. For more information on access
profiles, see “Access profile list” on page 125.
To configure an administrator account
1
Go to System > Admin > Administrators.
2
Select Create New to add an administrator account or select the Edit icon to make
changes to an existing administrator account.
3
Type a login name for the administrator account.
4
Type and confirm a password for the administrator account.
5
Optionally type a Trusted Host IP address and netmask from which the administrator
can log into the web-based manager.
6
Select the access profile for the administrator.
7
Select OK.
Figure 47: Change an administrator password
To change an administrator password
1
Go to System > Admin > Administrators.
2
Select the Change Password icon next to the administrator account you want to
change the password for.
3
Enter and confirm the new password.
4
Select OK.
Using trusted hosts
Setting trusted hosts for all of your administrators increases the security of your
network by further restricting administrative access. In addition to knowing the
password, an administrator must connect only through the subnet or subnets you
specify. You can even restrict an administrator to a single IP address if you define only
one trusted host IP address with a netmask of 255.255.255.255.
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Access profiles
When you set trusted hosts for all administrators, the FortiGate unit does not respond
to administrative access attempts from any other hosts. This provides the highest
security. If you leave even one administrator unrestricted, the unit accepts
administrative access attempts on any interface that has administrative access
enabled, potentially exposing the unit to attempts to gain unauthorized access.
The trusted hosts you define apply both to the web-based manager and to the CLI
when accessed through telnet or SSH. CLI access through the console connector is
not affected.
Note: If you set trusted hosts and want to use the Console Access feature of the web-based
manager, you must also set 127.0.0.1/255.255.255.255 as a trusted host. For more
information on the Console Access feature, see “Console Access” on page 28.
Access profiles
Go to System > Admin > Access Profile to add access profiles for FortiGate
administrators. Each administrator account belongs to an access profile. You can
create access profiles that deny access or allow read-only or both read and write
access to FortiGate features.
When an administrator has only read access to a feature, the administrator can
access the web-based manager page for that feature but cannot make changes to the
configuration. There are no Create or Apply buttons and lists display only the
View (
) icon instead of icons for Edit, Delete or other modification commands.
Access profile list
Figure 48: Access profile list
Create New
Add a new access profile.
Profile Name
The name of the access profile.
Delete icon
Select to delete the access profile.
You cannot delete an access profile that has administrators assigned to it.
You cannot ever delete the prof_admin access profile.
Edit icon
Select to modify the access profile.
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Access profiles
System Admin
Access profile options
Figure 49: Access profile option
Profile Name
Enter the name of the access profile.
Access Control Access Control lists the items that can be controlled by the access profile.
Allow Read All
Select Allow Read All to give an administrator read privilege on all the items
under Access Control.
Allow Write All
Select Allow Write All to give an administrator write privilege on all the items
under Access Control.
System
Configuration
Select Read to allow an administrator to view system status, interface, virtual
domain, HA, routing, option, SNMP, time, and replacement message
features. To allow an administrator to modify these features, enable both
Read and Write.
Log & Report
Select Read to allow an administrator to view log setting, log access, and
alert email features. To allow an administrator to modify these features,
enable both Read and Write.
Security Policy Select Read to allow an administrator to view the firewall, VPN, IPS, and
antivirus features. To allow an administrator to modify these features, enable
both Read and Write.
Auth Users
Select Read to allow an administrator to view the authorized users feature.
To allow an administrator to modify this feature, enable both Read and Write.
Admin Users
Select Read to allow an administrator to view the administrative users
feature. To allow an administrator to modify this feature, enable both Read
and Write.
FortiProtect
Update
Select Read to allow an administrator to view the FortiProtect Distribution
Network update feature. To allow an administrator to modify this feature,
enable both Read and Write.
System
Shutdown
Select both Read and Write to allow an administrator to access the system
shutdown, reboot and reset to factory default functions.
To configure an access profile
126
1
Go to System > Admin > Access Profile.
2
Select Create New to add an access profile, or select Edit to modify an existing
access profile.
3
Enter a name for the access profile.
4
Select Read or Read and Write access to features as required.
5
Select OK.
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System Maintenance
Use the web-based manager to maintain the FortiGate unit.
Backup and restore
You can back up system configuration, VPN certificate, web and spam filtering files to
the management computer. You can also restore system configuration, VPN
certificate, web and spam filtering files from previously downloaded backup files.
Figure 50: Backup and restore list
Category
The list of files that can be backed up and restored.
Latest Backup
The date and time of the last backup.
The Restore/Upload, Backup and Reset to factory default icons.
All Configuration Files
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Restore or back up all the configuration files.
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System settings
System
Configuration
Restore or back up the FortiGate system configuration file.
Reset the FortiGate unit to factory defaults. This procedure deletes
all changes that you have made to the FortiGate configuration and
reverts the system to its original configuration, including resetting
interface addresses. This procedure does not change the firmware
version or the antivirus or attack definitions.
Debug Log
Download debug log.
Web Filtering
Web Content
Block
Restore or back up the Web Content Block list.
Web URL Block Restore or back up the Web URL Block list.
List
Web URL
Exempt List
Restore or back up the Web URL Exempt list.
Spam Filtering
IP Address
Restore or back up the spam filter IP Address list.
RBL & ORDBL
Restore or back up the spam filter DNSBL and ORDBL list.
Email Address
Restore or back up the spam filter Email Address list.
MIME Headers
Restore or back up the spam filter MIME Headers list.
Banned Word
Restore or back up the spam filter Banned word list.
IPS Signatures
IPS User-Defined Upload or download IPS signatures.
Signatures
VPN certificates
All Certificates
Restore or back up all VPN certificates in a single passwordprotected file. See “To restore VPN certificates” and “To back up
VPN certificates” on page 129.
Backing up and Restoring
To back up all configuration files
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Backup & Restore.
2
For All Configuration Files, select the Backup icon.
3
Enter a password.
4
Select OK .
5
Save the file.
To restore all configuration files
128
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Backup & Restore.
2
For All Configuration Files, select the Restore icon.
3
Enter the password you used when backing up All Configuration Files.
4
Enter the path and filename of the configuration file, or select Browse and locate the
file.
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Backup and restore
5
Select OK to restore all configuration files to the FortiGate unit.
The FortiGate unit restarts, loading the new configuration files.
6
Reconnect to the web-based manager and review your configuration to confirm that
the uploaded configuration files have taken effect.
To back up individual categories
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Backup & Restore.
2
Select the Backup icon for the type of file you want to back up.
3
Save the file.
To restore individual categories
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Backup & Restore.
2
Select the Restore icon for the type of file you want to restore.
3
Enter the path and filename of the file, or select Browse and locate the file.
4
Select OK.
If you restore the system configuration, the FortiGate unit restarts, loading the new
system settings. You should then reconnect to the web-based manager and review
your configuration to confirm that the uploaded system settings have taken effect.
5
Select Return. (This step does not apply if you restore the system configuration.)
To back up VPN certificates
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Backup & Restore.
2
For VPN Certificates, All Certificates, select the Backup icon.
3
Enter a password and select OK.
Retain the password. You will need it to restore the certificates.
4
Save the file.
To restore VPN certificates
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Backup & Restore.
2
For VPN Certificates, All Certificates, select the Restore icon.
3
Enter the password used when creating the backup file.
4
Enter the path and filename of the backup file, or select Browse and locate the file.
5
Select OK.
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Update center
System Maintenance
Update center
You can configure the FortiGate unit to connect to the FortiProtect Distribution
Network (FDN) to update the antivirus (including grayware), Spam Filter and attack
definitions and engines.
Before the FortiGate unit can receive antivirus and attack updates, it must be able to
connect to the FortiProtect Distribution Network (FDN). The FortiGate unit uses
HTTPS on port 443 to connect to the FDN. The FortiGate unit must be able to route
packets to the Internet using port 443. For information about configuring scheduled
updates, see “To enable scheduled updates” on page 133.
You can also configure the FortiGate unit to allow push updates. Push updates are
provided to the FortiGate unit from the FDN using HTTPS on UDP port 9443. To
receive push updates, the FDN must be able to route packets to the FortiGate unit
using UDP port 9443. For information about configuring push updates, see “To enable
push updates” on page 135.
The FDN is a world-wide network of FortiProtect Distribution Servers (FDSs). When
the FortiGate unit connects to the FDN it connects to the nearest FDS. To do this, all
FortiGate units are programmed with a list of FDS addresses sorted by nearest time
zone according to the time zone configured for the FortiGate unit.
The FortiGate unit supports the following antivirus and attack definition update
features:
•
User-initiated updates from the FDN,
•
Hourly, daily, or weekly scheduled antivirus and attack definition and antivirus
engine updates from the FDN,
•
Push updates from the FDN,
•
Update status including version numbers, expiry dates, and update dates and
times,
•
Push updates through a NAT device.
To receive scheduled updates and push updates, you must register the FortiGate unit
on the Fortinet support web page.
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Figure 51: Update center
FortiProtect
Distribution
Network
The status of the connection to the FortiProtect Distribution Network (FDN).
A green indicator means that the FortiGate unit can connect to the FDN. You
can configure the FortiGate unit for scheduled updates. See “To enable
scheduled updates” on page 133.
A red-yellow flashing indicator means that the FortiGate unit cannot connect
to the FDN. Check your configuration. For example, you may need to add
routes to the FortiGate routing table or configure your network to allow the
FortiGate unit to use HTTPS on port 443 to connect to the Internet. You may
also have to connect to an override FortiProtect server to receive updates.
See “To add an override server” on page 133.
Push Update
A green indicator means that the FDN can connect to the FortiGate unit to
send push updates. You can configure the FortiGate unit to receive push
updates. See “To enable push updates” on page 135.
A red-yellow flashing indicator means that the FDN cannot connect to the
FortiGate unit to send push updates. Push updates may not be available if
you have not registered the FortiGate unit (see “To register a FortiGate unit”
on page 140), if there is a NAT device installed between the FortiGate unit
and the FDN (see “Enabling push updates through a NAT device” on
page 136), or if your FortiGate unit connects to the Internet using a proxy
server (see “To enable scheduled updates through a proxy server” on
page 134).
Refresh
When you select Refresh, the FortiGate unit tests its connection to the FDN.
The test results are displayed at the top of the System Update page.
Use override
If you cannot connect to the FDN or if your organization provides antivirus
server address and attack updates using their own FortiProtect server, you can configure an
override server.
Select the Use override server address check box and enter the IP address
of a FortiProtect server.
If after applying the override server address, the FortiProtect Distribution
Network setting changes to available, the FortiGate unit has successfully
connected to the override server. If the FortiProtect Distribution Network
stays set to not available, the FortiGate unit cannot connect to the override
server. Check the FortiGate configuration and the network configuration to
make sure you can connect to the override FortiProtect server from the
FortiGate unit.
Update
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The antivirus (including grayware), Spam filter, and attack definitions and
engines for which update information is displayed.
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Version
The version numbers of the definition files and engines currently installed on
the FortiGate unit.
Expiry date
The expiry date of your license for definition and engine updates.
Last update
attempt
The date and time on which the FortiGate unit last attempted to download
definition and engine updates.
Last update
status
The result of the last update attempt. No updates means the last update
attempt was successful but no new updates were available. Update
succeeded or similar messages mean the last update attempt was
successful and new updates were installed. Other messages can indicate
that the FortiGate was not able to connect to the FDN and other error
conditions.
Allow Push
Update
Select this check box to allow automatic updates of the FortiGate unit.
Use override
push IP
Select this check box and enter the override IP address and port number.
Override push IP addresses and ports are used when there is a NAT device
between the FortiGate Unit and the FDN.
The FortiGate unit sends the override push IP address and Port to the FDN.
The FDN will now use this IP address and port for push updates to the
FortiGate unit on the internal network. If the External IP Address or External
Service Port change, add the changes to the Use override push configuration
and select Apply to update the push information on the FDN. For more
information, see “Enabling push updates through a NAT device” on
page 136.
Scheduled
Update
Select this check box to enable scheduled updates.
Every
Attempt to update once every 1 to 23 hours. Select the number of hours
between each update request.
Daily
Attempt to update once a day. You can specify the hour of the day to check
for updates. The update attempt occurs at a randomly determined time within
the selected hour.
Weekly
Attempt to update once a week. You can specify the day of the week and the
hour of the day to check for updates. The update attempt occurs at a
randomly determined time within the selected hour.
Update Now
Select Update Now to manually initiate an update.
Apply
Select Apply to save update settings.
Updating antivirus and attack definitions
Use the following procedures to configure the FortiGate unit to connect to the
FortiProtect Distribution Network (FDN) to update the antivirus (including grayware)
definitions, attack definitions and engines.
To make sure the FortiGate unit can connect to the FDN
132
1
Go to System > Config > Time and make sure the time zone is set to the time zone
for the region in which your FortiGate unit is located.
2
Go to System > Maintenance > Update center.
3
Select Refresh.
The FortiGate unit tests its connection to the FDN. The test results are displayed at
the top of the System Update page.
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To update antivirus and attack definitions
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Update center.
2
Select Update Now to update the antivirus and attack definitions and engines.
If the connection to the FDN or override server is successful, the web-based manager
displays a message similar to the following:
Your update request has been sent. Your database will be updated
in a few minutes. Please check your update page for the status
of the update.
After a few minutes, if an update is available, the System Update Center page lists
new version information for antivirus definitions, the antivirus engine, attack definitions
or the attack engine. The System Status page also displays new dates and version
numbers for antivirus and attack definitions. Messages are recorded to the event log
indicating whether the update was successful or not.
Note: Updating antivirus and attack definitions can cause a very short disruption in traffic
currently being scanned while the FortiGate unit applies the new signature database. To
minimize this possibility, schedule updates for times of light traffic.
To enable scheduled updates
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Update center.
2
Select the Scheduled Update check box.
3
Select one of the following to check for and download updates.
4
Every
Once every 1 to 23 hours. Select the number of hours and minutes between
each update request.
Daily
Once a day. You can specify the time of day to check for updates.
Weekly
Once a week. You can specify the day of the week and the time of day to check
for updates.
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit starts the next scheduled update according to the new update
schedule.
Whenever the FortiGate unit runs a scheduled update, the event is recorded in the
FortiGate event log.
To add an override server
If you cannot connect to the FDN, or if your organization provides antivirus and attack
updates using their own FortiProtect server, you can use the following procedure to
add the IP address of an override FortiProtect server.
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Update center.
2
Select the Use override server address check box.
3
Type the fully qualified domain name or IP address of a FortiProtect server.
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4
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit tests the connection to the override server.
If the FortiProtect Distribution Network setting changes to available, the FortiGate unit
has successfully connected to the override server.
If the FortiProtect Distribution Network stays set to not available, the FortiGate unit
cannot connect to the override server. Check the FortiGate configuration and network
configuration for settings that would prevent the FortiGate unit from connecting to the
override FortiProtect server.
To enable scheduled updates through a proxy server
If your FortiGate unit must connect to the Internet through a proxy server, you can use
the config system autoupdate tunneling command to allow the FortiGate
unit to connect (or tunnel) to the FDN using the proxy server. Using this command you
can specify the IP address and port of the proxy server. As well, if the proxy server
requires authentication, you can add the user name and password required for the
proxy server to the autoupdate configuration. The full syntax for enabling updates
through a proxy server is:
config system autoupdate tunneling
set address <proxy-address_ip>
set port <proxy-port>
set username <username_str>
set password <password_str>
set status enable
end
For example, if the IP address of the proxy server is 67.35.50.34, its port is 8080, the
user name is proxy_user and the password is proxy_pwd, enter the following
command:
config system autoupdate tunneling
set address 67.35.50.34
set port 8080
set username proxy_user
set password proxy_pwd
set status enable
end
For more information about the config system autoupdate tunneling
command, see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
The FortiGate unit connects to the proxy server using the HTTP CONNECT method,
as described in RFC 2616. The FortiGate unit sends an HTTP CONNECT request to
the proxy server (optionally with authentication information) specifying the IP address
and port required to connect to the FDN. The proxy server establishes the connection
to the FDN and passes information between the FortiGate unit and the FDN.
The CONNECT method is used mostly for tunneling SSL traffic. Some proxy servers
restrict the CONNECT to well known ports for HTTPS and perhaps some other similar
services. FortiGate autoupdates use the standard HTTPS port 443 to connect to the
FDN, so your proxy server should not need additional configuration to allow the
connection.
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There are no special tunneling requirements if you have configured an override server
address to connect to the FDN.
Enabling push updates
The FDN can push updates to FortiGate units to provide the fastest possible response
to critical situations. You must register the FortiGate unit before it can receive push
updates. See “To register a FortiGate unit” on page 140.
When you configure a FortiGate unit to allow push updates, the FortiGate unit sends a
SETUP message to the FDN. The next time a new antivirus engine, new antivirus
definitions, new attack definitions or new attack engine are released, the FDN notifies
all FortiGate units that are configured for push updates that a new update is available.
Within 60 seconds of receiving a push notification, the FortiGate unit requests an
update from the FDN.
Note: Push updates are not supported if the FortiGate unit must use a proxy server to connect
to the FDN. For more information, see “To enable scheduled updates through a proxy server”
on page 134.
When the network configuration permits, configuring push updates is recommended in
addition to configuring scheduled updates. On average the FortiGate unit receives
new updates sooner through push updates than if the FortiGate unit receives only
scheduled updates. However, scheduled updates make sure that the FortiGate unit
receives the latest updates.
Enabling push updates is not recommended as the only method for obtaining updates.
The FortiGate unit might not receive the push notification. Also, when the FortiGate
unit receives a push notification it makes only one attempt to connect to the FDN and
download updates.
To enable push updates
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Update center.
2
Select Allow Push Update.
3
Select Apply.
Push updates when FortiGate IP addresses change
The SETUP message that the FortiGate unit sends when you enable push updates
includes the IP address of the FortiGate interface that the FDN connects to. If your
FortiGate unit is running in NAT/Route mode, the SETUP message includes the
FortiGate external IP address. If your FortiGate unit is running in Transparent mode,
the SETUP message includes the FortiGate management IP address. The FDN must
be able to connect to this IP address for your FortiGate unit to be able to receive push
update messages. If your FortiGate unit is behind a NAT device, see “Enabling push
updates through a NAT device” on page 136.
Whenever the external IP address of the FortiGate unit changes, the FortiGate unit
sends a new SETUP message to notify the FDN of the address change. As long as
the FortiGate unit sends this SETUP message and the FDN receives it, the FDN can
maintain the most up-to-date external IP address for the FortiGate unit.
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The FortiGate unit sends the SETUP message if you change the external IP address
manually or if you have set the external interface addressing mode to DHCP or
PPPoE and your DHCP or PPPoE server changes the IP address.
If you have redundant connections to the Internet, the FortiGate unit also sends the
SETUP message when one Internet connection goes down and the FortiGate unit
fails over to the other Internet connection.
In Transparent mode if you change the management IP address, the FortiGate unit
also sends the SETUP message to notify the FDN of the address change.
Enabling push updates through a NAT device
If the FDN can connect to the FortiGate unit only through a NAT device, you must
configure port forwarding on the NAT device and add the port forwarding information
to the push update configuration. Using port forwarding, the FDN connects to the
FortiGate unit using either port 9443 or an override push port that you specify.
Note: You cannot receive push updates through a NAT device if the external IP address of the
NAT device is dynamic (for example, set using PPPoE or DHCP).
General procedure
Use the following steps to configure the FortiGate NAT device and the FortiGate unit
on the internal network so that the FortiGate unit on the internal network can receive
push updates:
1
Add a port forwarding virtual IP to the FortiGate NAT device.
2
Add a firewall policy to the FortiGate NAT device that includes the port forwarding
virtual IP.
3
Configure the FortiGate unit on the internal network with an override push IP and port.
Note: Before completing the following procedure, you should register the internal network
FortiGate unit so that it can receive push updates.
To add a port forwarding virtual IP to the FortiGate NAT device
Configure a FortiGate NAT device to use port forwarding to forward push update
connections from the FDN to a FortiGate unit on the internal network.
136
1
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
2
Select Create New.
3
Type a name for the virtual IP.
4
In the External Interface section, select the external interface that the FDN connects
to.
5
In the Type section, select Port Forwarding.
6
In the External IP Address section, type the external IP address that the FDN
connects to.
7
Type the External Service Port that the FDN connects to.
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Update center
8
In the Map to IP section, type the IP address of the FortiGate unit on the internal
network.
If the FortiGate unit is operating in NAT/Route mode, enter the IP address of the
external interface.
If the FortiGate unit is operating in Transparent mode, enter the management IP
address.
9
Set the Map to Port to 9443.
10
Select OK.
To add a firewall policy to the FortiGate NAT device
1
Add a new external to internal firewall policy.
2
Configure the policy with the following settings:
3
Source
External_All
Destination
The virtual IP added above.
Schedule
Always
Service
ANY
Action
Accept
NAT
Selected.
Select OK.
To configure the FortiGate unit on the internal network
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Update center.
2
Select the Allow Push Update check box.
3
Select the Use override push check box.
4
Set IP to the external IP address added to the virtual IP.
5
Set Port to the external service port added to the virtual IP.
6
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit sends the override push IP address and port to the FDN. The FDN
now uses this IP address and port for push updates to the FortiGate unit on the
internal network.
If the external IP address or external service port changes, add the changes to the
Use override push configuration and select Apply to update the push information on
the FDN.
7
You can select Refresh to make sure that push updates work.
Push Update changes to Available.
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Support
System Maintenance
Support
You can use the Support page to report problems with the FortiGate unit to Fortinet
Support or to register your FortiGate unit with the FortiProtect Distribution Server
(FDS).
Figure 52: Support
Report Bug
Select Report Bug to submit problems with the FortiGate unit to Fortinet
Support.
FDS Registration Select FDS Registration to register the FortiGate unit with FortiNet.
Sending a bug report
Use the Report Bug form to send bug information to Fortinet support.
Figure 53: Bug report
Contact
Information
Enter the contact information so that FortiNet support can reply to your bug
report. Items marked with an * are required.
Bug Description* Enter a description of the problem you have encountered with the FortiGate
unit.
Send diagnostic Send diagnostic information about the FortiGate unit, including its current
configuration, to Fortinet for analysis.
information
Send email by
Submit the bug report using the default mail relay.
default mail-relay
Test
Test the default mail relay.
Send email by
Submit the bug report using a customized mail relay.
customized mailrelay
138
SMTP Server
The SMTP server to use for sending bug report email.
User Name
A valid user name on the specified SMTP server.
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Support
Password
If the SMTP server requires authentication, enter the password required.
Authentication
Select No if the SMTP server does not require authentication. Select Yes if
the SMTP server does require authentication.
To report a bug
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Support.
2
Select Report Bug.
3
Fill out the Report Bug form.
4
Select Submit.
To configure a customized mail relay
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Support.
2
Select Report Bug.
3
Select Send email by customized mail-relay.
4
Enter the SMTP server information, user name, whether or not to use authentication,
and the password if required.
Registering a FortiGate unit
After purchasing and installing a new FortiGate unit, you can register the unit using
the web-based manager by going to the System Update Support page, or by using a
web browser to connect to http://support.fortinet.com and selecting Product
Registration.
Registration consists of entering your contact information and the serial numbers of
the FortiGate units that you or your organization purchased. You can register multiple
FortiGate units in a single session without re-entering your contact information.
Once registration is completed, Fortinet sends a Support Login user name and
password to your email address. You can use this user name and password to log on
to the Fortinet support web site to:
•
View your list of registered FortiGate units
•
Register additional FortiGate units
•
Add or change FortiCare Support Contract numbers for each FortiGate unit
•
View and change registration information
•
Download virus and attack definitions updates
•
Download firmware upgrades
•
Modify registration information after an RMA
Soon you will also be able to:
•
Access Fortinet user documentation
•
Access the Fortinet knowledge base
All registration information is stored in the Fortinet Customer Support database. This
information is used to make sure that your registered FortiGate units can be kept up to
date. All information is strictly confidential. Fortinet does not share this information
with any third-party organizations for any reason.
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Support
System Maintenance
Owners of a new FortiGate unit are entitled to 90 days of technical support services.
To continue receiving support services after the 90-day expiry date, you must
purchase a FortiCare Support Contract from an authorized Fortinet reseller or
distributor. Different levels of service are available so you can purchase the support
that you need. For maximum network protection, Fortinet strongly recommends that
all customers purchase a service contract that covers antivirus and attack definition
updates. See your Fortinet reseller or distributor for details of packages and pricing.
To activate the FortiCare Support Contract, you must register the FortiGate unit and
add the FortiCare Support Contract number to the registration information. You can
also register the FortiGate unit without purchasing a FortiCare Support Contract. In
that case, when you purchase a FortiCare Support Contract you can update the
registration information to add the support contract number.
A single FortiCare Support Contract can cover multiple FortiGate units. You must
enter the same service contract number for each of the FortiGate models covered by
the service contract.
To register a FortiGate unit
Before registering a FortiGate unit, you require the following information:
•
Your contact information including:
•
•
•
•
•
•
First and last name
Company name
Email address (Your Fortinet support login user name and password will be
sent to this email address.)
Address
Contact phone number
A security question and an answer to the security question.
This information is used for password recovery. The security question should be a
simple question that only you know the answer to. The answer should not be easy
to guess.
•
The product model and serial number for each FortiGate unit that you want to
register.
The serial number is located on a label on the bottom of the FortiGate unit.
You can view the Serial number from the web-based manager by going to
System > Status.
The serial number is also available from the CLI using the get system status
command.
FortiCare Support Contract numbers, if you purchased FortiCare Support Contracts
for the FortiGate units that you want to register.
140
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Support.
2
Select FDS Registration.
3
Enter your contact information on the product registration form.
4
Provide a security question and an answer to the security question.
5
Select the model number of the Product Model to register.
6
Enter the Serial Number of the FortiGate unit.
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System Maintenance
Shutdown
7
If you have purchased a FortiCare Support Contract for this FortiGate unit, enter the
support contract number.
8
Select Finish.
If you have not entered a FortiCare Support Contract number (SCN) you can return to
the previous page to enter the number. If you do not have a FortiCare Support
Contract, you can select Continue to complete the registration.
If you have entered a support contract number, a real-time validation is performed to
verify that the SCN information matches the FortiGate unit. If the information does not
match you can try entering it again.
A web page is displayed that contains detailed information about the Fortinet technical
support services available to you for the registered FortiGate unit.
9
Your Fortinet support user name and password is sent to the email address provided
with your contact information.
Shutdown
You can use the Maintenance page to log out, restart and shut down the FortiGate
unit.
Figure 54: System shut down
To log out of the system
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Shutdown.
2
Select Logout.
3
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit logs out.
To restart the system
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Shutdown.
2
Select Reboot.
3
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit restarts.
To shut down the system
You can restart the FortiGate unit after shutdown only by turning the power off and
then on.
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Shutdown.
2
Select Shutdown.
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Shutdown
System Maintenance
3
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit shuts down and all traffic flow stops.
To reset the FortiGate unit to factory defaults
Use the following procedure to reset system settings to the values set at the factory.
This procedure does not change the firmware version or the antivirus or attack
definitions.
!
142
Caution: This procedure deletes all changes that you have made to the FortiGate configuration
and reverts the system to its original configuration, including resetting interface addresses.
1
Go to System > Maintenance > Shutdown.
2
Select Reset to factory default.
3
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit restarts with the configuration that it had when it was first powered
on.
4
Reconnect to the web-based manager and review the system configuration to confirm
that it has been reset to the default settings.
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
System Virtual Domain
FortiGate virtual domains provide multiple logical firewalls and routers in a single
FortiGate unit. Using virtual domains, one FortiGate unit can provide exclusive firewall
and routing services to multiple networks so that traffic from each network is
effectively separated from every other network.
You can develop and manage interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, zones, firewall policies,
routing, and VPN configuration for each virtual domain separately. For these
configuration settings, each virtual domain is functionally similar to a single FortiGate
unit. This separation simplifies configuration because you do not have to manage as
many routes or firewall policies at one time.
When a packet enters a virtual domain on the FortiGate unit, it is confined to that
virtual domain. In a given domain, you can only create firewall policies for connections
between VLAN subinterfaces or zones in the virtual domain. Packets never cross the
virtual domain border.
The remainder of FortiGate functionality is shared between virtual domains. This
means that there is one IPS configuration, one antivirus configuration, one web filter
configuration, one protection profile configuration, and so on shared by all virtual
domains. As well, virtual domains share firmware versions, antivirus and attack
databases, and user databases. For a complete list of shared configuration settings,
see “Shared configuration settings” on page 145.
Virtual domains are functionally similar in NAT/Route and in Transparent mode. In
both cases interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, zones, firewall policies, routing, and VPN
configurations are exclusive to each virtual domain and other configuration settings
are shared. A major difference between NAT/Route and Transparent mode is that in
Transparent mode, interfaces, and VLAN interfaces do not have IP addresses and
routing is much simpler.
The FortiGate unit supports 2 virtual domains: root and one addition virtual domain.
This chapter describes:
•
Virtual domain properties
•
Virtual domains
•
Configuring virtual domains
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Virtual domain properties
System Virtual Domain
Virtual domain properties
By default, each FortiGate unit runs a virtual domain named root. This virtual domain
includes all of the FortiGate physical interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, zones, firewall
policies, routing settings, and VPN settings.
Once you add a virtual domain you can configure it by adding VLAN subinterfaces,
zones, firewall policies, routing settings, and VPN settings. You can also move
physical interfaces from the root virtual domain to other virtual domains and move
VLAN subinterfaces from one virtual domain to another.
This process works the same way in NAT/Route and in Transparent mode.
Exclusive virtual domain properties
The following configuration settings are exclusively part of a virtual domain and are
not shared between virtual domains.
•
System settings
•
•
•
•
•
Routing configuration
•
•
•
•
Policies (see “To add firewall policies to a virtual domain” on page 150)
Addresses (see “To add firewall addresses to a virtual domain” on page 151)
Service groups
IP pools (are associated with an interface) (see “To add IP pools to a virtual
domain” on page 151)
Virtual IPs (are associated with an interface) (see “To add Virtual IPs to a virtual
domain” on page 151)
VPN (see “To configure VPN for a virtual domain” on page 152)
•
•
•
•
144
Router configuration in NAT/Route mode (see “To configure routing for a virtual
domain in NAT/Route mode” on page 150)
Routing table configuration in Transparent mode (see “To configure the routing
table for a virtual domain in Transparent mode” on page 150)
Firewall settings
•
•
•
•
•
Physical interfaces (see “To add physical interfaces to a virtual domain” on
page 148)
VLAN subinterfaces (see “To add VLAN subinterfaces to a virtual domain” on
page 149)
Zones (see “To add zones to a virtual domain” on page 149)
Management IP (Transparent mode) (see “To select a management virtual
domain and add a management IP” on page 148)
IPSec
PPTP
L2TP
Certificates
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System Virtual Domain
Virtual domain properties
Shared configuration settings
The following configuration settings are shared by all virtual domains. Even if you
have configured multiple virtual domains, there are no changes to how you configure
the following settings.
•
Unit configuration
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Network configuration
•
•
Host Name
Firmware Version
Antivirus Definitions and engine
Attack Definitions and engine
Serial Number
Operation Mode
DNS settings
DHCP configuration
DHCP settings are applied per interface no matter which virtual domain the
interface has been added to
•
System Config
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Time
Options
HA
SNMP v1/v2c
Replacement messages
FortiManager configuration
System Admin
•
•
Administrators
Access profiles
•
System Maintenance
•
Firewall
•
•
•
•
Update Center
Services (predefined and custom) but not service groups
Schedules
Protection Profiles
•
Users and authentication
•
IPS
•
Antivirus
•
Web filter
•
Spam filter
•
Log and report
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Virtual domains
System Virtual Domain
Administration and management
In addition to the global properties, virtual domains share a common administrative
model. Administrators have access to all of the virtual domains on the FortiGate unit.
Administrators logging into the CLI or web-based manager always log into the root
domain and then must enter the virtual domain that they want to administer.
Management systems such as SNMP, logging, alert email, updates using the FDN,
and setting system time using NTP use addresses and routing in the root virtual
domain to communicate with the network and can only connect to network resources
that can communicate with the root virtual domain.
You can select a different management virtual domain if you want these systems to
communicate with network resources that can connect to a different virtual domain.
Virtual domains
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains to view and add virtual domains.
Figure 55: Virtual domain list
Create New
Add a new virtual domain.
Current
The name of the current virtual domain. Select Change to choose a different
domain. The default virtual domain is root.
Management
The name of the virtual domain used for system management. Select Change
to choose a different domain.
Max. Virtual
Domains
Shows the maximum number of virtual domains for this FortiGate unit.
Name
The name of the virtual domain.
Current
A check mark icon in this column indicates that this is the current domain.
Management
A check mark icon in this column indicates that this is the domain used for
system management.
Delete icon. Select to delete a virtual domain. You cannot delete the root virtual
domain or a domain that is used for system management.
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System Virtual Domain
Virtual domains
See the following procedures for configuring virtual domains:
•
To add VLAN subinterfaces to a virtual domain
•
To view the interfaces in a virtual domain
•
To add zones to a virtual domain
•
To select a management virtual domain and add a management IP
•
To configure routing for a virtual domain in NAT/Route mode
•
To configure the routing table for a virtual domain in Transparent mode
•
To add firewall policies to a virtual domain
•
To add firewall addresses to a virtual domain
•
To add IP pools to a virtual domain
•
To add Virtual IPs to a virtual domain
•
To configure VPN for a virtual domain
Adding a virtual domain
To add a virtual domain
1
Go to System > Virtual domain.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a virtual domain Name.
The virtual domain must not have the same name as a VLAN or zone.
4
Select OK.
Selecting a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route and Transparent mode.
To select a virtual domain to configure
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain to configure.
4
Select OK.
The footer of the web-based manager page displays the selected virtual domain name
if the information and configuration options on the page are exclusive to the virtual
domain. Otherwise, the footer displays “Virtual Domain: all”. See “Exclusive virtual
domain properties” on page 144.
Selecting a management virtual domain
In NAT/Router mode, you select a virtual domain to be used for system management.
In Transparent mode, you must also define a management IP. The interface that you
want to use for management access must have Administrative Access enabled. See
“To control administrative access to an interface” on page 65.
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To select a management virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route mode only.
1
Go to System > Virtual Domain > Virtual Domains.
2
Select Change beside the listed Management virtual domain.
3
Choose the management domain and select OK.
Note: You cannot delete a management virtual domain. You must first select a different domain
for system management.
To select a management virtual domain and add a management IP
The following procedure applies to Transparent mode only.
1
Go to System > Network > Management.
2
Enter the Management IP/Netmask.
3
Enter the Default Gateway.
4
Select the Management Virtual Domain.
5
Select Apply.
The FortiGate unit displays the following message:
Management IP address was changed. Click here to redirect.
6
Click on the message to connect to the new Management IP.
Configuring virtual domains
The following procedures explain how to configure virtual domains:
•
Adding interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, and zones to a virtual domain
•
Configuring routing for a virtual domain
•
Configuring firewall policies for a virtual domain
•
Configuring IPSec VPN for a virtual domain
Adding interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, and zones to a virtual domain
To add physical interfaces to a virtual domain
A virtual domain must contain at least two interfaces. These can be physical
interfaces or VLAN interfaces.
By default all physical interfaces are in the root virtual domain and the following
procedure describes how to move a physical interface from one virtual domain to
another. You cannot remove a physical interface from a virtual domain if firewall
policies have been added for it. Delete the firewall policies or remove the interface
from the firewall policies first. If the interface has been added to a zone, it is removed
from the zone when you move it to a different virtual domain.
1
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Go to System > Network > Interface.
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2
Set Virtual domain to All or to the name of the virtual domain that currently contains
the interface.
3
Select Edit for the physical interface you want to move.
4
Choose the Virtual Domain to which to move the interface.
5
Select OK.
The physical interface moves to the virtual domain. Firewall IP pools and virtual IP
added for this interface are deleted. You should manually delete any routes that
include this interface.
To add VLAN subinterfaces to a virtual domain
A virtual domain must contain at least two interfaces. These can be physical
interfaces or VLAN interfaces. VLAN subinterfaces are usually not in the same virtual
domain as the physical interfaces that they are added to.
To add a new VLAN to a virtual domain in NAT/Route mode, see “To add a VLAN
subinterface in NAT/Route mode” on page 73. To add a new VLAN to a virtual domain
in Transparent mode, see “To add a VLAN subinterface in Transparent mode” on
page 78.
The following procedure describes how to move a VLAN subinterface from one virtual
domain to another. You cannot remove a VLAN subinterface from a virtual domain if
firewall policies have been added for it. Delete the firewall policies or remove the
VLAN subinterface from the firewall policies first. If the VLAN subinterface has been
added to a zone, it is removed from the zone when you move it to a different virtual
domain.
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Set Virtual domain to All or to the name of the virtual domain that currently contains
the VLAN subinterface.
3
Select Edit for the VLAN subinterface you want to move.
4
Choose the Virtual Domain to which to move the VLAN subinterface.
5
Select OK.
The VLAN subinterface moves to the virtual domain. Firewall IP pools and virtual IP
added for this VLAN subinterface are deleted. You should manually delete any routes
that include this VLAN subinterface.
To view the interfaces in a virtual domain
1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Choose the Virtual domain you want to view.
The interfaces added to this virtual domain are listed.
To add zones to a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route and Transparent mode.
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain to add zones to.
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4
Select OK.
5
Go to System > Network > Zone.
6
Select Create new.
See “Zone” on page 66. Any zones that you add are added to the current virtual
domain.
Configuring routing for a virtual domain
To configure routing for a virtual domain in NAT/Route mode
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure routing.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to Router.
6
Configure routing for the current virtual domain as required.
See “Router” on page 153. Network traffic entering this virtual domain is routed only
by the routing configuration for the current virtual domain.
To configure the routing table for a virtual domain in Transparent mode
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure routing.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to System > Network > Routing Table.
6
Configure the routing table for the current virtual domain as required.
See “Routing table (Transparent Mode)” on page 70. Network traffic entering this
virtual domain is routed only by the static routes added to the current virtual domain.
Configuring firewall policies for a virtual domain
To add firewall policies to a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route and Transparent mode.
150
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure firewall policies.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to Firewall > Policy.
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Configuring virtual domains
6
Select Create new to add firewall policies to the current virtual domain.
See “Policy” on page 202. You can only add firewall policies for the physical
interfaces, VLAN subinterfaces, or zones added to the current virtual domain. The
firewall policies that you add are only visible when you are viewing the current virtual
domain. Network traffic accepted by the interfaces and VLAN subinterfaces added to
this virtual domain is controlled by the firewall policies added to this virtual domain
To add firewall addresses to a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route and Transparent mode.
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure firewall addresses.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to Firewall > Address.
6
Add new firewall addresses, address ranges, and address groups to the current virtual
domain. See “Address” on page 211.
To add IP pools to a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route mode.
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure firewall IP pools.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to Firewall > IP Pool.
6
Add new IP pools as required for the current virtual domain. See “IP pool” on
page 233.
To add Virtual IPs to a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route mode.
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure virtual IPs.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
6
Add new virtual IPs as required for the current virtual domain. See “Virtual IP” on
page 228.
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System Virtual Domain
Configuring IPSec VPN for a virtual domain
To configure VPN for a virtual domain
The following procedure applies to NAT/Route and Transparent mode.
152
1
Go to System > Virtual domain > Virtual domains.
2
Select Change following the current virtual domain name above the table.
3
Choose the virtual domain for which to configure VPN.
4
Select OK.
5
Go to VPN.
6
Configure IPSec VPN, PPTP, L2TP, and certificates as required. See “VPN” on
page 259.
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Router
This chapter describes how to configure FortiGate routing and RIP. It contains the
following sections:
•
Static
•
Policy
•
RIP
•
Router objects
•
Monitor
•
CLI configuration
Static
A static route specifies where to forward packets that have a particular destination IP
address. Static routes control traffic exiting the FortiGate unit—you can specify
through which interface the packet will leave and to which device the packet should be
routed.
You configure routes by defining the destination IP address and netmask of packets
that the FortiGate unit is intended to intercept, and specifying a (gateway) IP address
for those packets. The gateway address specifies the next hop router to which traffic
will be routed.
You can decrease the distance value of a static route to indicate that the route is
preferable compared to another static route that specifies a different gateway to the
same destination network. Routes having lower administrative distances are
preferable and are selected first when two or more routes to the same destination
network are available.
The FortiGate unit routes packets using a best match algorithm (the order of static
routes in the list is ignored). To select a route for a packet, the FortiGate unit checks
the destination address of the packet and searches through the routing table for the
best matching destination address. If a match is found, the packet is forwarded to the
specified gateway. If no match is found, the FortiGate unit routes the packet to the
gateway specified in the default route. The value 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 (all destinations) is
reserved for the default route. To route packets according to the default route, you
must specify a gateway address and outbound interface for the default route.
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Static
Router
For example, consider Figure 56, which shows a FortiGate unit connected to a router.
To ensure that all outbound packets destined to any network beyond the router are
routed to the correct destination, you must edit the default configuration and make the
router the default gateway for the FortiGate unit.
Figure 56: Making a router the default gateway
Internet
Router
192.168.10.1
external
FortiGate_1
Esc
Enter
Internal network
192.168.20.0/24
To route outbound packets from the internal network to destinations that are not on
network 192.168.20.0/24, you would edit the default static route and include the
following settings:
•
Destination IP/mask: 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
•
Gateway: 192.168.10.1
•
Device: Name of the interface connected to network 192.168.10.0/24 (e.g.
external).
•
Distance: 10
The Gateway setting specifies the IP address of the next hop router interface to the
FortiGate external interface. The interface behind the router (192.168.10.1) is
the default gateway for FortiGate_1.
In some cases, there may be routers behind the FortiGate unit. If the destination IP
address of a packet is not on the local network but is on a network behind one of those
routers, the FortiGate routing table must include a static route to that network. For
example, in Figure 57, the FortiGate unit must be configured with static routes to
interfaces 192.168.10.1 and 192.168.10.2 in order to forward packets to Network_1
and Network_2 respectively.
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Figure 57: Destinations on networks behind internal routers
Internet
FortiGate_1
Esc
Enter
internal
Router_1
192.168.10.1
Network_1
192.168.20.0/24
dmz
Router_2
192.168.10.2
Network_2
192.168.30.0/24
To route packets from Network_1 to Network_2, Router_1 must be configured to use
the FortiGate internal interface as its default gateway. On the FortiGate unit, you
would create a new static route with these settings:
Destination IP/mask: 192.168.30.0/24
Gateway: 192.168.10.2
Device: dmz
Distance: 10
To route packets from Network_2 to Network_1, Router_2 must be configured to use
the FortiGate dmz interface as its default gateway. On the FortiGate unit, you would
create a new static route with these settings:
Destination IP/mask: 192.168.20.0/24
Gateway: 192.168.10.1
Device: internal
Distance: 10
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Static
Router
Static route list
Figure 58: Static routes
Create New Add a new static route.
#
The sequence number for this route.
IP
The destination IP address for this route.
Mask
The netmask for this route.
Gateway
The IP address of the first next hop router to which this route directs traffic.
Device
The name of the FortiGate interface through which to route traffic.
Distance
The administrative distance for the route.
Delete, Edit, Delete, edit, or move a static route in the list.
and Move to
icons
Static route options
Figure 59: Static route configuration
Destination
IP/Mask
Enter the destination IP address and netmask for this route. The value
0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0 is reserved for the default route.
Gateway
Enter the IP address of the first next hop router to which this route directs
traffic.
Device
Select the name of the FortiGate interface through which to route traffic.
Distance
Enter the administrative distance for the route. Using administrative distance
you can specify the relative priorities of different routes to the same
destination. A lower administrative distance indicates a more preferred route.
Distance can be an integer from 1-255.
To add or edit a static route
156
1
Go to Router > Static > Static Route.
2
Select Create New to add a new route or select the edit icon beside an existing route
to edit that route.
3
Enter the Destination IP address and netmask for the route.
4
Add the Gateway IP address.
5
For Device, select the FortiGate interface through which to route traffic for this route.
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6
If required, change the administrative Distance.
7
Select OK.
To move static routes
1
Go to Router > Static > Static Route.
2
Select the Move to icon beside the route you want to move.
Current Order shows the existing number for this route.
Figure 60: Move a static route
3
For Move to, select either Before or After and type the number that you want to place
this route before or after.
4
Select OK.
The route is displayed in the new location on the static route list.
Policy
Using policy routing you can configure the FortiGate unit to route packets based on:
•
Source address
•
Protocol, service type, or port range
•
Incoming or source interface
The FortiGate unit starts at the top of the policy routing list and attempts to match the
packet with a policy. The policy route supplies the next hop gateway as well as the
FortiGate interface to be used by the traffic. If no policy route matches the packet, the
FortiGate unit routes the packet using the regular routing table.
Policy route list
Figure 61: Policy routes
Create New Add a new policy route.
#
The sequence number for this policy route.
Incoming
The policy route attempts to match packets received on this interface.
Outgoing
The policy route sends packets out this interface.
Source
The policy route matches packets that have this source IP address and netmask.
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Policy
Router
Destination The policy route matches packets that have this destination IP address and
netmask.
Delete and Delete or edit a policy route.
Edit icons
Policy route options
Figure 62: Policy route configuration
Protocol
Match packets that have this protocol number.
Incoming Interface Match packets that are received on this interface.
Source Address /
Mask
Match packets that have this source IP address and netmask.
Destination
Address / Mask
Match packets that have this destination IP address and netmask.
Destination Ports
Match packets that have this destination port range. To match a single
port, enter the same port number for both From and To.
Outgoing Interface Send packets that match this policy route, out this interface.
Gateway Address
Send packets that match this policy route to this next hop router.
To add a policy route
158
1
Go to Router > Policy Route.
2
Select Create New to add a new policy route or select the edit icon beside an existing
policy route to edit that policy route.
3
Optionally enter a Protocol number.
4
Select the Incoming Interface.
5
Enter the Source Address / Mask and the Destination Address / Mask.
6
Optionally enter the Destination Ports.
7
Select the Outgoing Interface.
8
Enter the Gateway Address.
9
Select OK.
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RIP
RIP
The FortiGate implementation of the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) supports both
RIP version 1 as defined by RFC 1058, and RIP version 2 as defined by RFC 2453.
RIP version 2 enables RIP messages to carry more information, and to support simple
authentication and subnet masks.
RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol intended for small, relatively homogeneous,
networks. RIP uses hop count as its routing metric. Each network is usually counted
as one hop. The network diameter is limited to 15 hops.
General
Figure 63: RIP General settings
RIP Version
Enable sending and receiving RIP version 1 packets, RIP version 2
packets, or both for all RIP-enabled interfaces. You can override this
setting on a per interface basis. See “Interface options” on page 162.
Default Metric
For non-default routes in the static routing table and directly connected
networks the default metric is the metric that the FortiGate unit advertises
to adjacent routers. This metric is added to the metrics of learned routes.
The default metric can be a number from 1 to 16.
Enable Defaultinformationoriginate
Advertise a default static route into RIP.
RIP Timers:
RIP timer defaults are effective in most configurations. All routers and
access servers in the network should have the same RIP timer settings.
Update
The time interval in seconds between RIP updates.
Garbage
The time in seconds that must elapse after the timeout interval for a route
expires, before RIP deletes the route. If RIP receives an update for the
route after the timeout timer expires but before the garbage timer expires
then the entry is switched back to reachable.
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Timeout
The time interval in seconds after which a route is declared unreachable.
The route is removed from the routing table. RIP holds the route until the
garbage timer expires and then deletes the route. If RIP receives an
update for the route before the timeout timer expires, then the timeout
timer is restarted. If RIP receives an update for the route after the timeout
timer expires but before the garbage timer expires then the entry is
switched back to reachable. The value of the timeout timer should be at
least three times the value of the update timer.
Redistribute:
Advertise routes learned from static routes, or a direct connection to the
destination network.
Connected
Advertise routes learned from directly connected networks.
Metric
Enter the metric to be used for the redistributed connected routes.
Route-map
Enter the name of the route map to use for the redistributed connected
routes. For information on how to configure route maps, see “Route-map
list” on page 170.
Static
Advertise routes learned from static routes.
Metric
Enter the metric to be used for the redistributed static routes.
Route-map
Enter the name of the route map to use for the redistributed static routes.
For information on how to configure route maps, “Route-map list” on
page 170.
To configure RIP general settings
1
Go to Router > RIP > General.
2
Select the default RIP Version.
3
Change the Default Metric if required.
4
Select Enable Default-information-originate if the configuration requires advertising a
default static route into RIP.
5
Only change the RIP timers if required.
RIP timer defaults are effective in most configurations. All routers and access servers
in the network should have the same RIP timer settings.
6
Select Apply.
To configure RIP route redistribution
160
1
Go to Router > RIP > General.
2
Select Connected or Static or both.
3
Enter the Default Metric to be used for the redistributed routes.
4
Select a Route-map name.
5
Select Apply.
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Networks list
Identify the networks for which to send and receive RIP updates. If a network is not
specified, interfaces in that network will not be advertised in RIP updates.
Figure 64: RIP Networks list
Create New Add a new RIP network.
IP/Netmask The IP address and netmask for the RIP network.
Delete and Delete or edit a RIP network definition.
Edit icons
Networks options
Figure 65: RIP Networks configuration
To configure a RIP network definition
1
Go to Router > RIP > Networks.
2
Select Create New to add a new RIP network definition or select the Edit icon to edit
an existing RIP network definition.
3
Enter the IP address and netmask for the network.
4
Select OK.
Interface list
Configure RIP version 2 authentication, RIP version send and receive for the specified
interface, and configure and enable split horizon.
Authentication is only available for RIP version 2 packets sent and received by an
interface. Set authentication to None if Send Version or Receive Version are set to 1
or 1 2.
Figure 66: RIP interface list
Create New
Add a new RIP interface.
Interface
The FortiGate interface name.
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Send Version
The RIP send version for this interface.
Receive Version
The RIP receive version for this interface.
Split-Horizon
The split horizon type.
Authentication
The authentication type.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a RIP interface definition.
Interface options
Figure 67: RIP interface configuration
162
Interface
The FortiGate interface name.
Send Version
RIP routing messages are UDP packets that use port 520.
Select 1 to configure RIP to send RIP version 1 messages from an
interface.
Select 2 to configure RIP to send RIP version 2 messages from an
interface.
Select Both to configure RIP to send both RIP version 1 and RIP version
2 messages from an interface.
Setting the Send Version here overrides the default RIP version for this
interface.
Receive Version
RIP routing messages are UDP packets that use port 520.
Select 1 to configure RIP to listen for RIP version 1 messages on an
interface.
Select 2 to configure RIP to listen for RIP version 2 messages on an
interface.
Select Both to configure RIP to listen for both RIP version 1 and RIP
version 2 messages on an interface.
Setting the Receive Version here overrides the default RIP version for
this interface.
Split-Horizon
Configure RIP to use either regular or poisoned reverse split horizon on
this interface.
Select Regular to prevent RIP from sending updates for a route back out
the interface from which it received that route.
Select Poisoned reverse to send updates with routes learned on an
interface back out the same interface but with the routes marked as
unreachable.
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Authentication
Select the authentication used for RIP version 2 packets sent and
received by this interface. If you select None, no authentication is used. If
you select Text, the authentication key is sent as plain text. If you select
MD5, the authentication key is used to generate an MD5 hash.
Both text mode and MD5 mode only guarantee the authenticity of the
update packet, not the confidentiality of the routing information in the
packet.
In text mode the key is sent in clear text over the network. Text mode is
usually used only to prevent network problems that can occur if an
unwanted or misconfigured router is mistakenly added to the network.
Password
Enter a password (key) to use for authentication for RIP version 2
packets sent and received by this interface. Enter a password here when
you only want to configure one key. The key can be up to 35 characters
long.
Key-chain
Enter the name of the key chain to use for authentication for RIP version
2 packets sent and received by this interface. Use key chains when you
want to configure multiple keys. For information on how to configure key
chains, see “Key chain list” on page 172.
To configure a RIP interface
1
Go to Router > RIP > Interface.
2
Select the edit icon beside an Interface to configure that interface.
3
Select a Send Version if you want to override the default send version for this
interface.
4
Select a Receive Version if you want to override the default receive version for this
interface.
5
Select the Split-Horizon check box to enable split horizon.
6
Select either Regular or Poisoned reverse to set the split horizon type.
7
Select the Authentication mode.
8
Select Password and enter a password (key) if this interface is using RIP version 2
and if you are configuring only one key for this interface and do not want to use a key
chain.
9
Select Key-chain and select the key chain to use if this interface is using RIP version 2
and you want to use key chains for authentication for this interface.
10
Select OK.
Distribute list
Use distribute lists to filter incoming or outgoing updates using an access list or a
prefix list. If you do not specify an interface, the filter will be applied to all interfaces in
the current virtual domain.
Note: By default, all distribute lists for the root virtual domain are displayed. If you create
additional virtual domains, the distribute lists belonging to the current virtual domain only are
displayed. To view the settings associated with a different virtual domain, go to System > Virtual
Domain > Virtual Domains and select the virtual domain.
You must configure the access list or prefix list that you want the distribute list to use
before you configure the distribute list. For more information on configuring access
lists and prefix lists, see “Access list” on page 166 and “Prefix list” on page 168.
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Figure 68: RIP Distribute list
Create New
Add a new distribute list.
Direction
The direction for the filter.
Filter
The type of filter and the filter name.
Interface
The interface to use this filter on. If no interface name is displayed, this
distribute list is used for all interfaces.
Enable
The status of this distribute list.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a RIP distribute list.
Distribute list options
Figure 69: RIP Distribute list configuration
Direction
Set the direction for the filter. Select In to filter incoming packets. Select
Out to filter outgoing packets.
prefix-list
Select prefix-list to use a prefix list for this distribute list. Select the name
of the prefix list to use for this distribute list.
access-list
Select access-list to use an access list for this distribute list. Select the
name of the access list to use for this distribute list.
Interface
Select the name of the interface to apply this distribute list to. If you do
not specify an interface, this distribute list will be used for all interfaces.
Enable
Select Enable to enable the distribute list.
To configure a distribute list
164
1
Go to Router > RIP > Distribute List.
2
Select Create New to add a new distribute list or select the edit icon beside an existing
distribute list to edit that distribute list.
3
Set Direction to In or Out.
4
Select either prefix-list or access-list.
5
Select the prefix list or access list to use for this distribute list.
6
Select an interface to apply this distribute list to, or select the blank entry to apply this
distribute list to all interfaces.
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7
Select or clear the Enable check box to enable or disable this distribute list.
8
Select OK.
Offset list
Use offset lists to add the specified offset to the metric of a route.
Note: By default, all offset lists for the root virtual domain are displayed. If you create additional
virtual domains, the offset lists belonging to the current virtual domain only are displayed. To
view the settings associated with a different virtual domain, go to System > Virtual Domain >
Virtual Domains and select the virtual domain.
Figure 70: RIP Offset list
Create New
Add a new offset list.
Direction
The direction for the offset list.
Access-list
The access list to use for this offset list.
Offset
The offset number to add to the metric for this offset list.
Interface
The interface to match for this offset list.
Enable
The status of this offset list.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a RIP offset list.
Offset list options
Figure 71: RIP Offset list configuration
Direction
Select In to apply the offset to the metrics of incoming routes. Select out
to apply the offset to the metrics of outgoing routes.
Access-list
Select the access list to use for this offset list. The access list is used to
determine which routes to add the metric to.
Offset
Enter the offset number to add to the metric. Enter a number from 1 to 16.
Interface
Select the interface to match for this offset list.
Enable
Select Enable to enable this offset list.
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Router objects
Router
To configure an offset list
1
Go to Router > RIP > Offset List.
2
Select Create New to add a new offset list or select the edit icon beside an existing
offset list to edit that offset list.
3
Set Direction to In or Out.
4
Enter the offset number.
5
Select the interface to match for this offset list.
6
Check or clear the Enable check box to enable or disable this offset list.
7
Select OK.
Router objects
Router objects are a set of tools used by routing protocols and features.
Access list
Access lists are filters used by FortiGate routing features.
Each rule in an access list consists of a prefix (IP address and netmask), the action to
take for this prefix (permit or deny), and whether to match the prefix exactly or to
match the prefix and any more specific prefix.
The FortiGate unit attempts to match a packet against the rules in an access list
starting at the top of the list. If it finds a match for the prefix it takes the action specified
for that prefix. If no match is found the default action is deny.
For an access list to take effect it must be called by another FortiGate routing feature
such as RIP or OSPF.
Figure 72: Access list
166
Create New
Add a new access list name. An access list and a prefix list cannot have
the same name.
Name
The access list name.
Action
The action to take for the prefix in an access list entry.
Prefix
The prefix in an access list entry.
Delete, Add
access-list entry,
and Edit icons
Delete, add, or edit an access list.
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New access list
Figure 73: Access list name configuration
To add an access list name
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Access List.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the access list.
4
Select OK.
New access list entry
Figure 74: Access list entry configuration
list Entry
The access list name and the number of this entry.
Action
Set the action to take for this prefix to Permit or Deny.
Prefix
Select Match any to match any prefix. Select Match a network address
and enter the prefix (IP address and netmask) for this access list rule.
Exact match
By default, access list rules are matched on the prefix or any more
specific prefix. Enable Exact match to match only the configured prefix.
To configure an access list entry
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Access List.
2
Select the Add access-list entry icon to add a new access list entry or select the edit
icon beside an existing access list entry to edit that entry.
3
Select Permit or Deny for the Action to take for the prefix in this access list entry.
4
Select either Match any or Match a network address.
5
If you selected Match a network address, enter the IP address and netmask that
define the prefix for this access list entry.
6
Select Exact match if required.
7
Select OK.
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Router
Prefix list
A prefix list is an enhanced version of an access list that allows you to control the
length of the prefix netmask.
Each rule in a prefix list consists of a prefix (IP address and netmask), the action to
take for this prefix (permit or deny), and maximum and minimum prefix length settings.
The FortiGate unit attempts to match a packet against the rules in a prefix list starting
at the top of the list. If it finds a match for the prefix, it takes the action specified for that
prefix. If no match is found the default action is deny.
For a prefix list to take effect it must be called by another FortiGate routing feature
such as RIP or OSPF.
Figure 75: Prefix list
Create New
Add a new prefix list name. An access list and a prefix list cannot have
the same name.
Name
The prefix list name.
Action
The action to take for the prefix in a prefix list entry.
Prefix
The prefix in a prefix list entry.
GE
The greater than or equal to number.
LE
The less than or equal to number.
Delete, Add prefix- Delete, add, or edit a prefix list.
list entry, and Edit
icons
New Prefix list
Figure 76: Prefix list name configuration
To add a prefix list name
168
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Prefix List.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the prefix list.
4
Select OK.
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Router objects
New prefix list entry
Figure 77: Prefix list entry configuration
list Entry
The prefix list name and the number of this entry.
Action
Set the action to take for this prefix to Permit or Deny.
Prefix
Select Match any to match any prefix. Select Match a network address
and enter the prefix (IP address and netmask) for this prefix list entry. The
length of the netmask should be less than the setting for Greater or equal
to.
Greater or equal to Match prefix lengths that are greater than or equal to this number. The
setting for Greater or equal to should be less than the setting for Less or
equal to. The setting for Greater or equal to should be greater than the
netmask set for Prefix.The number can be from 0 to 32.
Less or equal to
Match prefix lengths that are less than or equal to this number. The
setting for Less or equal to should be greater than the setting for Greater
or equal to. The number can be from 0 to 32.
To configure a prefix list entry
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Prefix List.
2
Select the Add prefix-list entry icon to add a new prefix list entry or select the edit icon
beside an existing prefix list entry to edit that entry.
3
Select Permit or Deny for the Action to take for the prefix in this prefix list entry.
4
Select either Match any or Match a network address.
5
If you selected Match a network address, enter the IP address and netmask that
define the prefix for this prefix list entry.
6
Select Greater or equal to and enter a number from 0 to 32 to match prefix lengths
that are greater than or equal to this number.
7
Select Less or equal to and enter a number from 0 to 32 to match prefix lengths that
are less than or equal to this number.
8
Select OK.
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Router objects
Router
Route-map list
Route maps are a specialized form of filter. Route maps are similar to access lists, but
have enhanced matching criteria, and in addition to permit or deny actions can be
configured to make changes as defined by set statements.
The FortiGate unit attempts to match the rules in a route map starting at the top of the
list. If it finds a match it makes the changes defined in the set statements and then
takes the action specified for the rule. If no match is found in the route map the default
action is deny. If no match statements are defined in a rule, the default action is to
match everything. If multiple match statements are defined in a rule, all the match
statements must match before the set statements can be used.
For a route map to take effect it must be called by another FortiGate routing feature
such as RIP.
Figure 78: Route map list
Create New
Add a new route map name.
Name
The route map name.
Action
The action to take for this entry in the route map.
Route-map rules
The rules for a route map entry.
Delete, Add route- Delete, add, or edit a route map.
map entry, and Edit
icons
New Route-map
Figure 79: Route map name configuration
To add a route map name
170
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Route-map.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the route map.
4
Select OK.
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Route-map list entry
Figure 80: Route map entry configuration
Route-map entry
The route map name and the ID number of this route map entry.
Action
Select Permit to permit routes that match this entry. Select Deny to deny
routes that match this entry.
Match:
The criteria to match.
Interface
Match a route with the selected destination interface.
Address
Match a route if the destination address is included in the selected
access list or prefix list.
Next-hop
Match a route that has a next hop router address included in the selected
access list or prefix list.
Metric
Match a route with the specified metric. The metric can be a number from
1 to 16.
Route Type
Match a route that has the external type set to 1 or 2.
Tag
Match a route that has the specified tag.
Set:
The set criteria.
Next-hop
Set the next hop router address for a matched route.
Metric
Set a metric value of 1 to 16 for a matched route.
Metric Type
Set a metric value of 1 to 16 for a matched route.
Tag
Set a tag value for a matched route.
To configure a route map entry
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Route Map.
2
Select the Add route-map entry icon to add a new route map entry or select the edit
icon beside an existing route map entry to edit that entry.
3
Select Permit or Deny for the Action to take for this route map entry.
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4
Under Match, select the criteria to match.
5
Under Set, select the criteria to change.
6
Select OK.
Key chain list
RIP version 2 uses authentication keys to ensure that the routing information
exchanged between routers is reliable. For authentication to work both the sending
and receiving routers must be set to use authentication, and must be configured with
the same keys.
A key chain is a list of one or more keys and the send and receive lifetimes for each
key. Keys are used for authenticating routing packets only during the specified
lifetimes. The FortiGate unit migrates from one key to the next according to the
scheduled send and receive lifetimes. The sending and receiving routers should have
their system dates and times synchronized, but overlapping the key lifetimes ensures
that a key is always available even if there is some difference in the system times. See
“System time” on page 89 for information on setting the FortiGate system date and
time.
Figure 81: Key chain list
Create New
Add a new key chain.
Key-chain
The key chain name.
Accept Lifetime
The time period in which to accept a key.
Send Lifetime
The time period in which to send a key.
Start End
The start and end times for the accept and send lifetimes.
Delete, Add keychain entry, and
Edit icons
Delete, add, or edit a key chain.
New key chain
Figure 82: Key chain name configuration
To add a key chain name
1
172
Go to Router > Router Objects > Key-chain.
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2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the key chain.
4
Select OK.
Key chain list entry
Figure 83: Key chain entry configuration
Key-chain entry
The key chain name and the ID number for this key chain entry.
Key
The key (password) can be up to 35 characters long.
Accept Lifetime
Set the time period during which the key can be received.
Send Lifetime
Set the time period during which the key can be sent.
Start
For both accept and send lifetimes, set the start time and date for this
entry in the key chain.
End
For both accept and send lifetimes, set the end time. The end time can be
a specified date and time, a duration in seconds (1 to 2147483646), or
infinite for a key that never expires.
To configure a key chain entry
1
Go to Router > Router Objects > Key-chain.
2
Select the Add key-chain entry icon to add a new key chain entry or select the Edit
icon beside an existing key chain entry to edit that entry.
3
Enter a key.
4
Under Accept Lifetime, select the required hour, minute, second, year, month and day
to start using this key for received routing updates.
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Router
5
Under Accept Lifetime, select Infinite, Duration or End time.
•
If you selected Duration, enter the time in seconds that this key should be active.
•
If you selected End time, select the required hour, minute, second, year, month
and day to stop using this key for received routing updates.
6
Under Send Lifetime, select the required hour, minute, second, year, month and day
to start using this key for sending routing updates.
7
Under Send Lifetime, select Infinite, Duration or End time.
8
•
If you selected Duration, enter the time in seconds that this key should be active.
•
If you selected End time, select the required hour, minute, second, year, month
and day to stop using this key for sending routing updates.
Select OK.
Monitor
Display the FortiGate routing table.
Routing monitor list
Figure 84: Routing monitor
Type
FIlter the display to show routes of the selected type.
Network
FIlter the display to show routes for the specified network.
Gateway
FIlter the display to show routes using the specified gateway.
Apply Filter
FIlter the routes according to the criteria you have specified.
Type
The type of route. Type refers to how the FortiGate unit learned the route.
Subtype
The subtype for the route.
Network
The network for the route.
Distance
The administrative distance of the route.
Metric
The metric for the route.
Gateway
The gateway used by the route.
Interface
The interface used by the route.
Up Time
How long the route has been available.
To filter the routing monitor display
174
1
Go to Router > Monitor > Routing Monitor.
2
Select a type of route to display or select all to display routes of all types.
For example, select Connected to display all the directly connected routes, or select
RIP to display all the routes learned from RIP.
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3
Specify the network for which to display routes.
4
Specify a gateway to display the routes using that gateway.
5
Select Apply Filter.
Note: You can configure Type, Network, and Gateway filters individually or in any combination.
CLI configuration
This guide only covers Command Line Interface (CLI) commands, keywords, or
variables (in bold) that are not represented in the web-based manager. For complete
descriptions and examples of how to use CLI commands see the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide.
get router info ospf
Use this command to display information about OSPF.
Command syntax
get router info ospf <keyword>
router info ospf command keywords and variables
Keywords
border-routers
database
interface
neighbor
route
status
virtual-links
Description
Show OSPF routing table entries that have an Area
Border Router (ABR) or Autonomous System
Boundary Router (ASBR) as a destination.
Show the entries in the OSPF routing database.
Show the status of the FortiGate interfaces and
whether OSPF is enabled for each interface.
Show information about OSPF neighbors.
Show the OSPF routing table.
Show the status of the OSPF process.
Show information about OSPF virtual links.
Availability
All models.
All models.
All models.
All models.
All models.
All models.
All models.
Examples
get router info ospf database
get router info ospf interface
get router info protocols
Show the current state of active routing protocols.
Command syntax
get router info protocols
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get router info rip
Use this command to display information about RIP.
Command syntax
get router info rip <keyword>
router info rip command keywords and variables
Keywords
database
interface
Description
Show the entries in the RIP routing database.
Show the status of the FortiGate interfaces and
whether RIP is enabled for each interface.
Availability
All models.
All models.
Examples
get router info rip database
get router info rip interface
config router ospf
Use this command to configure open shortest path first (OSPF) on the FortiGate unit.
OSPF is an open protocol based on the shortest path first algorithm. OSPF is a link
state protocol capable of routing larger networks than the simpler distance vector RIP
protocol. An OSPF autonomous system (AS) or routing domain is a group of areas
connected to a backbone area. A router connected to more than one area is an area
border router (ABR). Routing information is contained in a link state database. Routing
information is communicated between routers using link state advertisements (LSAs).
More information on OSPF can be found in RFC 2328.
Command syntax pattern
config router ospf
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config router ospf
unset <keyword>
end
get router ospf
show router ospf
The config router ospf command has 7 subcommands.
config area
config distribute-list
config neighbor
config network
config ospf-interface
config redistribute
config summary-address
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Note: In the following table, only the router-id keyword is required. All other keywords are
optional.
ospf command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
abr-type {cisco |
ibm | shortcut |
standard}
database-overflow
{disable | enable}
database-overflowmax-lsas
<lsas_integer>
database-overflowtime-to-recover
<seconds_integer>
defaultinformation-metric
<metric_integer>
defaultinformationmetric-type {1 | 2}
defaultinformationoriginate {always
| disable |
enable}
defaultinformation-routemap <name_str>
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Description
Default
Availability
Specify the behavior of a FortiGate unit
acting as an OSPF area border router
(ABR) when it has multiple attached areas
and has no backbone connection.
Selecting the ABR type compatible with
the routers on your network can reduce or
eliminate the need for configuring and
maintaining virtual links. For more
information, see RFC 3509.
Enable or disable dynamically limiting link
state database size under overflow
conditions. Enable this command for
FortiGate units on a network with routers
that because of limited resources may not
be able to maintain a complete link state
database.
If you have enabled databaseoverflow, set the limit for the number of
external link state advertisements (LSAs)
that the FortiGate unit can keep in its link
state database before entering the
overflow state. The lsas_integer must
be the same on all routers attached to the
OSPF area and the OSPF backbone. The
valid range for lsas_integer is 0 to
4294967294.
Enter the time, in seconds, after which the
FortiGate unit will attempt to leave the
overflow state. If seconds_integer is
set to 0, the FortiGate unit will not leave
the overflow state until restarted. The valid
range for seconds_integer is 0 to
65535.
Specify the metric for the default route set
by the default-informationoriginate command. The valid range for
metric_integer is 1 to 16777214.
Specify the OSPF external metric type for
the default route set by the defaultinformation-originate command.
cisco
All models.
disable
All models.
10000
All models.
300
All models.
10
All models.
2
All models.
Enter enable to advertise a default route
into an OSPF routing domain.
Use always to advertise a default route
even if the FortiGate unit does not have a
default route in its routing table.
disable
All models.
If you have set default-information- null
originate to always, and there is no
default route in the routing table, you can
configure a route map to define the
parameters that OSPF uses to advertise
the default route.
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ospf command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and
variables
default-metric
<metric_integer>
Description
Specify the default metric that OSPF
should use for redistributed routes. The
valid range for metric_integer is 1 to
16777214.
distance
Configure the administrative distance for
<distance_integer> all OSPF routes. Using administrative
distance you can specify the relative
priorities of different routes to the same
destination. A lower administrative
distance indicates a more preferred route.
The valid range for distance_integer
is 1 to 255.
passive-interface OSPF routing information is not sent or
received through the specified interface.
<name_str>
rfc1583-compatible Enable or disable RFC 1583 compatibility.
{disable | enable} RFC 1583 compatibility should be enabled
only when there is another OSPF router in
the network that only supports RFC 1583.
When RFC 1583 compatibility is enabled,
routers choose the path with the lowest
cost. Otherwise, routers choose the lowest
cost intra-area path through a nonbackbone area.
router-id
Set the router ID. The router ID is a unique
number, in IP address dotted decimal
<address_ipv4>
format, that is used to identify an OSPF
router to other OSPF routers. The router
ID should not be changed while OSPF is
running.
A router ID of 0.0.0.0 is not allowed.
Change the default shortest path first
spf-timers
(SPF) calculation delay time and
<delay_integer>
frequency.
<hold_integer>
The delay_integer is the time, in
seconds, between when OSPF receives
information that will require an SPF
calculation and when it starts an SPF
calculation. The valid range for
delay_integer is 0 to 4294967295.
The hold_integer is the minimum time,
in seconds, between consecutive SPF
calculations. The valid range for
hold_integer is 0 to 4294967295.
OSPF updates routes more quickly if the
SPF timers are set low; however, this uses
more CPU. A setting of 0 for spf-timers
can quickly use up all available CPU.
Default
Availability
10
All models.
110
All models.
No
default.
All models.
disable
All models.
0.0.0.0
All models.
5 10
All models.
Example
This example shows how to set the OSPF router ID to 1.1.1.1:
config router ospf
set router-id 1.1.1.1
end
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This example shows how to display the OSPF settings.
get router ospf
This example shows how to display the OSPF configuration.
show router ospf
config area
Access the config area subcommand using the config router ospf
command. Use this command to set OSPF area related parameters.
Routers in an OSPF autonomous system (AS) or routing domain are organized into
logical groupings called areas. Areas are linked together by area border routers
(ABRs). There must be a backbone area that all areas can connect to. You can use a
virtual link to connect areas that do not have a physical connection to the backbone.
Routers within an OSPF area maintain link state databases for their own areas.
config area command syntax pattern
Note: Any IP address is a valid area ID. An area ID of 0.0.0.0 indicates the backbone area.
config area
edit <id_ipv4>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config area
edit <id_ipv4>
unset <keyword> <variable>
end
config area
delete <id_ipv4>
end
config area
edit <id_ipv4>
get
end
config area
edit <id_ipv4>
show
end
The config area command has 3 subcommands.
config filter-list
config range
config virtual-link
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Note: All area keywords are optional.
area command keywords and variables
Keywords and
Description
variables
authentication
Set the authentication type.
{md5 | none | text} Use the authentication keyword to
define the authentication used for OSPF
packets sent and received in this area. If
you select none, no authentication is
used. If you select text, the
authentication key is sent as plain text. If
you select md5, an authentication key is
used to generate an MD5 hash.
Both text mode and MD5 mode only
guarantee the authenticity of the OSPF
packet, not the confidentiality of the
information in the packet.
In text mode the key is sent in clear text
over the network. Text mode is usually
used only to prevent network problems
that can occur if an unwanted or
misconfigured router is mistakenly
added to the area.
If you configure authentication for
interfaces, the authentication configured
for the area is not used. Authentication
passwords or keys are defined per
interface. See “config ospf-interface” on
page 192.
default-cost
Enter the metric to use for the summary
default route in a stub area or not so
<cost_integer>
stubby area (NSSA). A lower default
cost indicates a more preferred route.
The valid range for cost_integer is 1
to 16777214.
nssa-defaultEnter enable to advertise a default
route in a not so stubby area. Affects
informationNSSA ABRs or NSSA Autonomous
originate
System Boundary Routers only.
{disable | enable}
nssa-defaultSpecify the metric for the default route
set by the nssa-defaultinformationinformation-originate keyword.
originate-metric
<metric_integer>
Specify the OSPF external metric type
nssa-defaultfor the default route set by the nssainformationdefault-information-originate
originate-metrickeyword.
type
{1 | 2}
nssaEnable or disable redistributing routes
into a NSSA area.
redistribution
{disable | enable}
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Default
Availability
none
All models.
10
All models.
disable
All models.
10
All models.
2
All models.
enable
All models.
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CLI configuration
area command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and
variables
nssa-translatorrole {always |
candidate | never}
shortcut {default
| disable |
enable}
stub-type
{no-summary |
summary}
type
{nssa | regular |
stub}
Description
Default
Availability
A NSSA border router can translate the candidate All models.
Type 7 LSAs used for external route
information within the NSSA to Type 5
LSAs used for distributing external route
information to other parts of the OSPF
routing domain. Usually a NSSA will
have only one NSSA border router
acting as a translator for the NSSA.
You can set the translator role to
always to ensure this FortiGate unit
always acts as a translator if it is in a
NSSA, even if other routers in the NSSA
are also acting as translators.
You can set the translator role to
candidate to have this FortiGate unit
participate in the process for electing a
translator for a NSSA.
You can set the translator role to never
to ensure this FortiGate unit never acts
as the translator if it is in a NSSA.
Use this command to specify area
disable All models.
shortcut parameters.
Enter no-summary to prevent an ABR summary
sending summary LSAs into a stub area.
Enter summary to allow an ABR to send
summary LSAs into a stub area.
regular
Set the area type:
• Select nssa for a not so stubby area.
• Select regular for a normal OSPF
area.
• Select stub for a stub area.
All models.
All models.
Example
This example shows how to configure a stub area with the id 15.1.1.1, a stub type of
summary, a default cost of 20, and MD5 authentication.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
set type stub
set stub-type summary
set default-cost 20
set authentication md5
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
get
end
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This example shows how to display the configuration for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
show
end
config filter-list
Access the config filter-list subcommand using the config area
subcommand.
Use filter lists to control the import and export of LSAs into and out of an area. You
can use access or prefix lists for OSPF area filter lists. For more information, see
“Access list” on page 166 and “Prefix list” on page 168.
config filter-list command syntax pattern
config filter-list
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config filter-list
edit <id_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config filter-list
delete <id_integer>
end
config filter-list
edit <id_integer>
get
end
config filter-list
edit <id_integer>
show
end
Note: Both keywords are required.
filter-list command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
direction
{in | out}
list
<name_str>
182
Description
Default Availability
Set the direction for the filter. Enter in to filter
out
incoming packets. Enter out to filter outgoing
packets.
Enter the name of the access list or prefix list to use null
for this filter list.
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CLI configuration
Example
This example shows how to use an access list named acc_list1 to filter packets
entering area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
config filter-list
edit 1
set direction in
set list acc_list1
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
get
end
This example shows how to display the configuration for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
show
end
config range
Access the config range subcommand using the config area command.
Use the area range command to summarize routes at an area boundary. If the
network numbers in an area are contiguous, the ABR advertises a summary route that
includes all the networks within the area that are within the specified range.
config range command syntax pattern
The range id_integer can be 0 to 4294967295.
config range
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config range
edit <id_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config range
delete <id_integer>
end
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config range
edit <id_integer>
get
end
config range
edit <id_integer>
show
end
Note: Only the prefix keyword is required. All other keywords are optional.
range command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
advertise
{disable | enable}
prefix
<address_ipv4mask>
substitute
<address_ipv4mask>
substitute-status
{disable | enable}
Description
Default
Enable or disable advertising the specified enable
range.
Specify the range of addresses to
summarize.
Availability
All models.
0.0.0.0 All models.
0.0.0.0
Enter a prefix to advertise instead of the
0.0.0.0 All models.
prefix defined for the range. The prefix
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 is not allowed.
Enable or disable using a substitute prefix. disable All models.
Example
This example shows how to set the prefix for range 1 of area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
config range
edit 1
set prefix 1.1.0.0 255.255.0.0
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
get
end
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CLI configuration
This example shows how to display the configuration for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
show
end
config virtual-link
Access the config virtual-link subcommand using the config area
command.
Use virtual links to connect an area to the backbone when the area has no direct
connection to the backbone. A virtual link allows traffic from the area to transit a
directly connected area to reach the backbone. The transit area cannot be a stub
area. Virtual links can only be set up between two area border routers (ABRs).
config virtual link command syntax pattern
config virtual-link
edit <name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config virtual-link
edit <name_str>
unset <keyword>
end
config virtual-link
delete <name_str>
end
config virtual-link
edit <name_str>
get
end
config virtual-link
edit <name_str>
show
end
Note: Only the peer keyword is required. All other keywords are optional.
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virtual-link command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
authentication
{md5 | none |
text}
Description
Set the authentication type.
Use the authentication
keyword to define the
authentication used for OSPF
packets sent and received over this
virtual link. If you select none, no
authentication is used. If you select
text, the authentication key is
sent as plain text. If you select md5,
an authentication key is used to
generate an MD5 hash.
Both text mode and MD5 mode
only guarantee the authenticity of
the OSPF packet, not the
confidentiality of the information in
the packet.
In text mode the key is sent in clear
text over the network. Text mode is
usually used only to prevent
network problems that can occur if
an unwanted or misconfigured
router is mistakenly added to the
area.
authentication-key Enter the password to use for text
authentication.
<password_str>
The authentication-key must
be the same on both ends of the
virtual link.
The maximum length for the
authentication-key is 15
characters.
dead-interval
The time, in seconds, to wait for a
<seconds_integer> hello packet before declaring a
router down. The value of the
dead-interval should be four
times the value of the hellointerval.
Both ends of the virtual link must
use the same value for deadinterval.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to 65535.
hello-interval
The time, in seconds, between
<seconds_integer> hello packets.
Both ends of the virtual link must
use the same value for hellointerval.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to 65535.
md5-key
Enter the key ID and password to
use for MD5 authentication. Both
<id_integer>
ends of the virtual link must use the
<key_str>
same key ID and key.
The valid range for id_integer is
1 to 255. key_str is an
alphanumeric string of up to 16
characters.
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Default
Availability
none
All models.
No
default.
All models.
authentication
must be set to
text.
40
All models.
10
All models.
No
default.
All models.
authentication
must be set to md5.
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CLI configuration
virtual-link command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and
variables
peer
<address_ipv4>
retransmitinterval
<seconds_integer>
transmit-delay
<seconds_integer>
Description
Default
Availability
The router id of the remote ABR.
0.0.0.0 All models.
0.0.0.0 is not allowed.
The time, in seconds, to wait before 5
All models.
sending a LSA retransmission. The
value for the retransmit interval
must be greater than the expected
round-trip delay for a packet. The
valid range for seconds_integer
is 1 to 65535.
The estimated time, in seconds,
1
All models.
required to send a link state update
packet on this virtual link.
OSPF increments the age of the
LSAs in the update packet to
account for transmission and
propagation delays on the virtual
link.
Increase the value for transmitdelay on low speed links.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to 65535.
Example
This example shows how to configure a virtual link.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
config virtual-link
edit vlnk1
set peer 1.1.1.1
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
get
end
This example shows how to display the configuration for area 15.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config area
edit 15.1.1.1
show
end
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config distribute-list
Access the config distribute-list subcommand using the config router
ospf command.
Use this command to use an access list to filter the networks in routing updates.
Routes not matched by any of the distribute lists will not be advertised.
You must configure the access list that you want the distribute list to use before you
configure the distribute list. For more information on configuring access lists, see
“Access list” on page 166.
config distribute-list command syntax pattern
config distribute-list
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config distribute-list
edit <id_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config distribute-list
delete <id_integer>
end
config distribute-list
edit <id_integer>
get
end
config distribute-list
edit <id_integer>
show
end
Note: Both keywords are required.
distribute-list command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
access-list
<name_str>
protocol
{connected | rip
| static}
188
Description
Default
Availability
Enter the name of the access list to use for
this distribute list.
null
All models.
Advertise only the routes discovered by the connected
specified protocol and that are permitted by
the named access list.
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CLI configuration
Example
This example shows how to configure a distribute list numbered 2 to use an access
list named acc_list1 for all static routes.
config router ospf
config distribute-list
edit 2
set access-list acc_list1
set protocol static
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for distribute list 2.
config router ospf
config distribute-list
edit 2
get
end
This example shows how to display the configuration for distribute list 2.
config router ospf
config distribute-list
edit 2
show
end
config neighbor
Access the config neighbor subcommand using the config router ospf
command.
Use this command to manually configure an OSPF neighbor on nonbroadcast
networks. OSPF packets are unicast to the specified neighbor address. You can
configure multiple neighbors.
config neighbor command syntax pattern
config neighbor
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config neighbor
edit <id_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config neighbor
delete <id_integer>
end
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config neighbor
edit <id_integer>
get
end
config neighbor
edit <id_integer>
show
end
Note: Only the ip keyword is required. All other keywords are optional.
neighbor command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
cost
<cost_integer>
Description
Enter the cost to use for this neighbor.
The valid range for cost_integer is 1
to 65535.
ip <address_ipv4>
Enter the IP address of the neighbor.
poll-interval
Enter the time, in seconds, between hello
packets sent to the neighbor in the down
<seconds_integer>
state. The value of the poll interval must
be larger than the value of the hello
interval. The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to 65535.
priority
Enter a priority number for the neighbor.
<priority_integer> The valid range for priority_integer
is 0 to 255.
Default
Availability
10
All models.
0.0.0.0 All models.
10
All models.
1
All models.
Example
This example shows how to manually add a neighbor.
config router ospf
config neighbor
edit 1
set ip 192.168.21.63
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for neighbor 1.
config router ospf
config neighbor
edit 1
get
end
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Router
CLI configuration
This example shows how to display the configuration for neighbor 1.
config router ospf
config neighbor
edit 1
show
end
config network
Access the config network subcommand using the config router ospf
command.
Use this command to identify the interfaces to include in the specified OSPF area. The
prefix keyword can define one or multiple interfaces.
config network command syntax pattern
config network
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config network
edit <id_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config network
delete <id_integer>
end
config network
edit <id_integer>
get
end
config network
edit <id_integer>
show
end
network command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
area <id_ipv4>
prefix
<address_ipv4mask>
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Description
Default
Availability
The ID number of the area to be
associated with the prefix.
Enter the IP address and netmask for
the OSPF network.
0.0.0.0
All models.
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
All models.
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Router
Example
Use the following command to enable OSPF for the interfaces attached to networks
specified by the IP address 10.0.0.0 and the netmask 255.255.255.0 and to add these
interfaces to area 10.1.1.1.
config router ospf
config network
edit 2
set area 10.1.1.1
set prefix 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for network 2.
config router ospf
config network
edit 2
get
end
This example shows how to display the configuration for network 2.
config router ospf
config network
edit 2
show
end
config ospf-interface
Access the config ospf-interface subcommand using the config router
ospf command.
Use this command to change interface related OSPF settings.
config ospf-interface command syntax pattern
Note: The <interface-name_str> variable in the syntax pattern below represents a
descriptive name for this OSPF configuration. To set the FortiGate interface that this
configuration will apply to, use the interface <name_str> keyword and variable in the table
below.
config ospf-interface
edit <interface-name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config ospf-interface
edit <interface-name_str>
unset <keyword>
end
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CLI configuration
config ospf-interface
delete <interface-name_str>
end
config ospf-interface
edit <interface-name_str>
get
end
config ospf-interface
edit <interface-name_str>
show
end
Note: The interface and ip keywords are required. All other keywords are optional.
ospf-interface command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
authentication
{md5 | none | text}
authentication-key
<password_str>
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Description
Default
Use the authentication
none
keyword to define the
authentication used for OSPF
packets sent and received by
this interface. If you select
none, no authentication is
used. If you select text, the
authentication key is sent as
plain text. If you select md5,
the authentication key is used
to generate an MD5 hash.
Both text mode and MD5
mode only guarantee the
authenticity of the update
packet, not the confidentiality
of the routing information in the
packet.
In text mode the key is sent in
clear text over the network.
Text mode is usually used only
to prevent network problems
that can occur if an unwanted
or misconfigured router is
mistakenly added to the
network.
If you configure authentication
for the interface, authentication
for areas is not used.
All routers on the network must
use the same authentication
type.
Enter the password to use for No default.
text authentication.
The authentication-key
must be the same on all
neighboring routers.
The maximum length for the
authentication-key is 15
characters.
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Availability
All models.
All models.
authentication
must be set to
text.
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ospf-interface command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and variables
cost <cost_integer>
database-filter-out
{disable | enable}
dead-interval
<seconds_integer>
Description
Default
Specify the cost (metric) of the 10
link. The cost is used for
shortest path first calculations.
Enable or disable flooding
disable
LSAs out of this interface.
The time, in seconds, to wait
for a hello packet before
declaring a router down. The
value of the dead-interval
should be four times the value
of the hello-interval.
All routers on the network must
use the same value for deadinterval.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to
65535.
hello-interval
The time, in seconds, between
hello packets.
<seconds_integer>
All routers on the network must
use the same value for
hello-interval.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to
65535.
interface <name_str> Enter the name of the interface
to associate with this OSPF
configuration.
ip <address_ipv4>
Enter the IP address of the
interface named by the
interface keyword.
It is possible to apply different
OSPF configurations for
different IP addresses defined
on the same interface.
The IP address 0.0.0.0 is
not allowed.
md5-key
Enter the key ID and password
to use for MD5 authentication
<id_integer>
You can add more than one
<key_str>
key ID and key pair per
interface. However, you cannot
unset one key without
unsetting all of the keys.
The key ID and key must be
the same on all neighboring
routers.
The valid range for
id_integer is 1 to 255.
key_str is an alphanumeric
string of up to 16 characters.
mtu <mtu_integer>
Change the Maximum
Transmission Unit (MTU) size
included in database
description packets sent out
this interface. The valid range
for mtu_integer is 576 to
65535.
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All models.
All models.
40
All models.
10
All models.
null
All models.
0.0.0.0
All models.
No default. All models.
authentication
must be set to
md5.
1500
All models.
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Router
CLI configuration
ospf-interface command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and variables
mtu-ignore
{disable | enable}
network-type
{broadcast | nonbroadcast
| point-tomultipoint
| point-to-point}
priority
<priority_integer>
retransmit-interval
<seconds_integer>
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Description
Use this command to control
the way OSPF behaves when
the MTU in the sent and
received database description
packets does not match.
When mtu-ignore is
enabled, OSPF will stop
detecting mismatched MTUs
and go ahead and form an
adjacency.
When mtu-ignore is
disabled, OSPF will detect
mismatched MTUs and not
form an adjacency.
mtu-ignore should only be
enabled if it is not possible to
reconfigure the MTUs so that
they match.
Specify the type of network to
which the interface is
connected.
OSPF supports four different
types of network. This
command specifies the
behavior of the OSPF interface
according to the network type.
If you specify the nonbroadcast keyword, you
must also configure neighbors
using “config neighbor” on
page 189.
Set the router priority for this
interface.
Router priority is used during
the election of a designated
router (DR) and backup
designated router (BDR).
An interface with router priority
set to 0 can not be elected DR
or BDR. The interface with the
highest router priority wins the
election. If there is a tie for
router priority, router ID is
used.
Point-to-point networks do not
elect a DR or BDR; therefore,
this setting has no effect on a
point-to-point network.
The valid range for
priority_integer is 0 to
255.
The time, in seconds, to wait
before sending a LSA
retransmission. The value for
the retransmit interval must be
greater than the expected
round-trip delay for a packet.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to
65535.
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disable
Availability
All models.
broadcast All models.
1
All models.
5
All models.
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ospf-interface command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and variables
status
{disable | enable}
transmit-delay
<seconds_integer>
Description
Enable or disable OSPF on
this interface.
Default
enable
The estimated time, in
1
seconds, required to send a
link state update packet on this
interface.
OSPF increments the age of
the LSAs in the update packet
to account for transmission
and propagation delays on the
interface.
Increase the value for
transmit-delay on low
speed links.
The valid range for
seconds_integer is 1 to
65535.
Availability
All models.
All models.
Example
This example shows how to assign an OSPF interface configuration named test to
the interface named internal and how to configure text authentication for this
interface.
config router ospf
config ospf-interface
edit test
set interface internal
set ip 192.168.20.3
set authentication text
set authentication-key a2b3c4d5e
end
end
This example shows how to display the settings for the OSPF interface configuration
named test.
config router ospf
config ospf-interface
edit test
get
end
This example shows how to display the configuration for the OSPF interface
configuration named test.
config router ospf
config ospf-interface
edit test
show
end
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Router
CLI configuration
config redistribute
Access the config redistribute subcommand using the config router
ospf command.
Use the config redistribute command to advertise routes learned from RIP,
static routes, or a direct connection to the destination network.
config redistribute command syntax pattern
config redistribute {connected | static | rip}
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config redistribute {connected | static | rip}
unset <keyword>
end
get router ospf
show router ospf
redistribute command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables Description
metric
Enter the metric to be used for the
redistributed routes. The
<metric_integer>
metric_integer range is from 1 to
16777214.
metric-type {1 | 2} Specify the external link type to be used
for the redistributed routes.
routemap <name_str> Enter the name of the route map to use
for the redistributed routes. For
information on how to configure route
maps, see “Route-map list” on page 170.
status {disable |
Enable or disable redistributing routes.
enable}
tag <tag_integer>
Specify a tag for redistributed routes.
The valid range for tag_integer is 0 to
4294967295.
Default
10
Availability
All models.
2
All models.
null
All models.
disable All models.
0
All models.
Example
This example shows how to enable route redistribution from RIP, using a metric of 3
and a route map named rtmp2.
config router ospf
config redistribute rip
set metric 3
set routemap rtmp2
set status enable
end
end
This example shows how to display the OSPF settings.
get router ospf
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CLI configuration
Router
This example shows how to display the OSPF configuration.
show router ospf
config summary-address
Access the config summary-address subcommand using the config router
ospf command.
Use this command to summarize external routes for redistribution into OSPF. This
command works only for summarizing external routes on an Autonomous System
Boundary Router (ASBR). For information on summarization between areas, see
“config range” on page 183. By replacing the LSAs for each route with one aggregate
route, you reduce the size of the OSPF link-state database.
config summary-address command syntax pattern
config summary-address
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config summary-address
edit <id_integer>>
unset <keyword>
end
config summary-address
delete <id_integer>
end
get router ospf
show router ospf
Note: Only the prefix keyword is required. All other keywords are optional.
summary-address command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
advertise
{disable | enable}
prefix
<address_ipv4mask>
tag <tag_integer>
198
Description
Default
Advertise or suppress the summary route enable
that matches the specified prefix.
Availability
All models.
Enter the prefix (IP address and netmask) 0.0.0.0 All models.
to use for the summary route. The prefix 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 is not allowed.
Specify a tag for the summary route.
0
All models.
The valid range for tag_integer is 0 to
4294967295.
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Router
CLI configuration
Example
This example shows how to summarize routes using the prefix 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0.
config router ospf
config summary-address
edit 5
set prefix 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
end
end
This example shows how to display the OSPF settings.
get router ospf
This example shows how to display the OSPF configuration.
show router ospf
config router static6
Use this command to add, edit, or delete static routes for IPv6 traffic. Add static routes
to control the destination of traffic exiting the FortiGate unit. You configure routes by
adding destination IP addresses and netmasks and adding gateways for these
destination addresses. The gateways are the next hop routers to which to route traffic
that matches the destination addresses in the route.
The FortiGate unit assigns routes using a best match algorithm. To select a route for a
packet, the FortiGate unit searches through the routing table for a route that best
matches the destination address of the packet. If a match is not found, the FortiGate
unit routes the packet using the default route.
Command syntax pattern
config router static6
edit <sequence_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config router static6
edit <sequence_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config router static6
delete <sequence_integer>
end
get router static6 [<sequence_integer>]
show router static6 [<sequence_integer>]
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CLI configuration
Router
static6 command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables Description
device
The name of the FortiGate interface
<interface-name_str> through which to route traffic.
dst
<destinationaddress_ipv6mask>
gateway
<gatewayaddress_ipv6>
The destination IPV6 address and
netmask for this route.
Enter ::/0 for the destination IPV6
address and netmask to add a default
route.
The IPV6 address of the first next hop
router to which this route directs traffic.
Default Availability
All models.
null
NAT/Route
mode only.
::/0
All models.
NAT/Route
mode only.
::
All models.
NAT/Route
mode only.
Example
This example shows how to add an IPV6 static route that has the sequence number 2.
config router static6
edit 2
set dev internal
set dst 12AB:0:0:CD30::/60
set gateway 12AB:0:0:CD30:123:4567:89AB:CDEF
end
This example shows how to display the list of IPV6 static route numbers.
get router static6
This example shows how to display the settings for IPV6 static route 2.
get router static6 2
This example shows how to display the IPV6 static route configuration.
show router static6
This example shows how to display the configuration for IPV6 static route 2.
show router static6 2
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Firewall
Firewall policies control all traffic passing through the FortiGate unit. Firewall policies
are instructions that the FortiGate unit uses to decide what to do with a connection
request. When the firewall receives a connection request in the form of a packet, it
analyzes the packet to extract its source address, destination address, and service
(by port number).
For the packet to be connected through the FortiGate unit, the source address,
destination address, and service of the packet must match a firewall policy. The policy
directs the firewall action on the packet. The action can be to allow the connection,
deny the connection, require authentication before the connection is allowed, or
process the packet as an IPSec VPN packet.
Each policy can be individually configured to route connections or apply network
address translation (NAT) to translate source and destination IP addresses and ports.
You can add IP pools to use dynamic NAT when the firewall translates source
addresses. You can use policies to configure port address translation (PAT) through
the FortiGate.
You can add protection profiles to firewall policies to apply different protection settings
for traffic that is controlled by firewall policies. You can use protection profiles to:
•
Configure antivirus protection for HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, and SMTP policies
•
Configure web filtering for HTTP policies
•
Configure web category filtering for HTTP policies
•
Configure spam filtering for IMAP, POP3, and SMTP policies
•
Enable IPS for all services
•
Enable content archiving to a FortiLog unit for all services
You can also enable traffic logging for a firewall policy so that the FortiGate unit logs
all connections that use this policy.
This chapter describes:
•
Policy
•
Address
•
Service
•
Schedule
•
Virtual IP
•
IP pool
•
Protection profile
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Policy
Firewall
Policy
Go to Firewall > Policy to add firewall policies to control connections and traffic
between FortiGate interfaces, zones, and VLAN subinterfaces.
The firewall matches policies by searching for a match starting at the top of the policy
list and moving down until it finds the first match. You must arrange policies in the
policy list from more specific to more general. For example, the default policy is a very
general policy because it matches all connection attempts. When you create
exceptions to that policy, you must add them to the policy list above the default policy.
No policy below the default policy will ever be matched.
This section describes:
•
How policy matching works
•
Policy list
•
Policy options
•
Advanced policy options
•
Configuring firewall policies
How policy matching works
When the FortiGate unit receives a connection attempt at an interface, it selects a
policy list to search through for a policy that matches the connection attempt. The
FortiGate unit chooses the policy list based on the source and destination addresses
of the connection attempt.
The FortiGate unit then starts at the top of the selected policy list and searches down
the list for the first policy that matches the connection attempt source and destination
addresses, service port, and time and date at which the connection attempt was
received. The first policy that matches is applied to the connection attempt. If no policy
matches, the connection is dropped. So, as a general rule, always order your firewall
policies from most specific to most general.
Note: Policies that require authentication must be added to the policy list above matching
policies that do not; otherwise, the policy that does not require authentication is selected first.
Policy list
You can add, delete, edit, re-order, enable, and disable policies in the policy list.
Figure 85: Sample policy list
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Firewall
Policy
The policy list has the following icons and features.
Create new
Select Create New to add a firewall policy.
ID
The policy identifier. Policies are numbered in the order they are
added to the policy list.
Source
The source address or address group to which the policy applies.
See “Address” on page 211.
Dest
The destination address or address group to which the policy
applies. “Address” on page 211.
Schedule
The schedule that controls when the policy should be active. See
“Schedule” on page 224.
Service
The service to which the policy applies. See “Service” on
page 216.
Action
The response to make when the policy matches a connection
attempt.
Enable
Enable or disable the policy. Enabling the policy makes it
available for the firewall to match it to incoming connections.
source -> destination (n) Policy list headings indicating the traffic to which the policy
applies. The list heading is in the format Source -> Destination (n)
where n is the number of policies in the list.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Insert Policy before icon. Add a new policy above the
corresponding policy (the New Policy screen appears).
Move to icon. Move the corresponding policy before or after
another policy in the list.
Figure 86: Move to options
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Policy
Firewall
Policy options
Policy options are configurable when creating or editing a firewall policy.
Figure 87: Standard policy options
Interface / Zone
Select the source and destination interface or zone for the firewall policy. Interfaces
and zones are listed and configured in System > Network. See “Interface” on page 55
for information about interfaces. See “Zone” on page 66 for information about zones.
Source
Select the name of the source interface or zone for the policy. The source
interface or zone receives the packets to be matched by the policy.
Destination
Select the name of the destination interface or zone for the policy. Packets
matched by the policy exit the FortiGate unit from the destination interface
or zone.
Address Name
Select the source and destination firewall addresses for the firewall policy. Before
adding addresses to a policy, you must add them to the FortiGate firewall
configuration. To add firewall addresses, see “Address” on page 211.
Source
Select the name of a firewall address or address group that matches the
source address of the packets to be matched with this policy.
Destination
Select the name of a firewall address or address group that matches the
destination address of the packets to be matched with this policy.
For NAT/Route mode policies where the address on the destination network is hidden
from the source network using NAT, the destination can also be a virtual IP that maps
the destination address of the packet to a hidden destination address. See “Virtual IP”
on page 228.
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Firewall
Policy
Schedule
Select a schedule that controls when the policy is available to be matched with
connections. See “Schedule” on page 224.
Service
Select the name of a service or service group that matches the service or protocol of
the packets to be matched with this policy. You can select from a wide range of
predefined services or add custom services and service groups. See “Service” on
page 216.
Action
Select how you want the firewall to respond when the policy matches a connection
attempt.
ACCEPT
Accept connections matched by the policy. You can also configure NAT,
protection profiles, log traffic, traffic shaping, authentication, and differentiated
services. You can also add a comment to the policy.
DENY
Select deny to reject connections matched by the policy. The only other policy
options that you can configure are log traffic (to log the connections denied by
this policy) and differentiated services. You can also add a comment to the
policy.
ENCRYPT
Select encrypt to make this policy an IPSec VPN policy. An IPSec VPN policy
causes the FortiGate unit to accept IPSec packets. When encrypt is selected
the VPN Tunnel Options appear. You can also configure protection profiles, log
traffic, traffic shaping, and differentiated services. You can also add a comment
to the policy. You cannot configure NAT or add authentication to an encrypt
policy. For more information, see “Adding firewall policies for IPSec VPN
tunnels” on page 282.
VPN Tunnel
Select a VPN tunnel for an ENCRYPT policy. You can select an AutoIKE key or
Manual Key tunnel.
Allow Inbound
Select Allow inbound so that traffic from the remote network or host can start
the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Allow outbound Select Allow outbound if traffic from the local network can start the tunnel.
Inbound NAT
Select Inbound NAT to translate the source address of incoming packets to
the FortiGate internal IP address.
Outbound NAT Select Outbound NAT to translate the source address of outgoing packets to
the FortiGate external IP address.
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Policy
Firewall
NAT
Select NAT to enable Network Address Translation for the policy. NAT translates the
source address and port of packets accepted by the policy. If you select NAT, you can
also select Dynamic IP Pool and Fixed Port. NAT is not available in Transparent
mode.
Dynamic IP Pool Select Dynamic IP Pool to translate the source address to an address
randomly selected from an IP Pool. An IP Pool can be a single IP address or
an IP address range. An IP pool list appears if IP Pool addresses have been
added to the destination interface or zone.
Select ANY IP Pool to cause the FortiGate unit to select any IP address in
any IP Pool added to the destination interface or zone.
Select the name of an IP Pool added to the destination interface or zone
cause the FortiGate unit to translate the source address to one of the
addresses defined by this IP Pool.
You cannot select Dynamic IP Pool if the destination interface, VLAN
subinterface or if one of the interfaces or VLAN subinterfaces in the
destination zone is configured using DHCP or PPPoE.
For information about adding IP Pools, see “IP pool” on page 233.
Fixed Port
Select Fixed Port to prevent NAT from translating the source port.
Some applications do not function correctly if the source port is changed. In
most cases, if you select Fixed Port, you would also select Dynamic IP pool.
If you do not select Dynamic IP pool, a policy with Fixed Port selected can
only allow one connection at a time.
Protection Profile
Select a protection profile to configure how antivirus, web filtering, web category
filtering, spam filtering, IPS, and content archiving are applied to a firewall policy. For
information about adding and configuring Protection profiles, see “Protection profile”
on page 235.
If you are configuring authentication in the advanced settings, you do not need to
choose a protection profile since the user group chosen for authentication are already
tied to protection profiles. For more information about adding authentication to firewall
policies, see “Authentication” on page 207.
Log Traffic
Select Log Traffic to record messages to the traffic log whenever the policy processes
a connection. You must also enable traffic log for a logging location (syslog,
WebTrends, local disk if available, memory, or FortiLog) and set the logging severity
level to Notification or lower. For information about logging see “Log & Report” on
page 357.
Advanced
Select advanced to show advanced policy options.
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Firewall
Policy
Advanced policy options
When configuring a firewall policy, select Advanced to configure advanced firewall
policies.
Figure 88: Advanced policy options
Authentication
You must add users and a firewall protection profile to a user group before you can
select Authentication. For information about adding and configuring user groups, see
“User group” on page 253.
Select Authentication and select one or more user groups to require users to enter a
user name and password before the firewall accepts the connection.
Figure 89: Selecting user groups for authentication
You can select Authentication for any service. Users can authenticate with the firewall
using HTTP, Telnet, or FTP. For users to be able to authenticate you must add an
HTTP, Telnet, or FTP policy that is configured for authentication. When users attempt
to connect through the firewall using this policy they are prompted to enter a firewall
username and password.
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Policy
Firewall
If you want users to authenticate to use other services (for example POP3 or IMAP)
you can create a service group that includes the services for which you want to
require authentication, as well as HTTP, Telnet, and FTP. Then users could
authenticate with the policy using HTTP, Telnet, or FTP before using the other
service.
In most cases you should make sure that users can use DNS through the firewall
without authentication. If DNS is not available users cannot connect to a web, FTP, or
Telnet server using a domain name.
Note: Policies that require authentication must be added to the policy list above matching
policies that do not; otherwise, the policy that does not require authentication is selected first.
Traffic Shaping
Traffic Shaping controls the bandwidth available to and sets the priority of the traffic
processed by the policy. Traffic Shaping makes it possible to control which policies
have the highest priority when large amounts of data are moving through the
FortiGate device. For example, the policy for the corporate web server might be given
higher priority than the policies for most employees’ computers. An employee who
needs unusually high-speed Internet access could have a special outgoing policy set
up with higher bandwidth.
If you set both guaranteed bandwidth and maximum bandwidth to 0 (zero), the policy
does not allow any traffic.
Guaranteed
Bandwidth
Maximum
Bandwidth
Traffic Priority
You can use traffic shaping to guarantee the amount of bandwidth available
through the firewall for a policy. Guarantee bandwidth (in Kbytes) to make
sure that there is enough bandwidth available for a high-priority service.
You can also use traffic shaping to limit the amount of bandwidth available
through the firewall for a policy. Limit bandwidth to keep less important
services from using bandwidth needed for more important services.
Select High, Medium, or Low. Select Traffic Priority so that the FortiGate unit
manages the relative priorities of different types of traffic. For example, a
policy for connecting to a secure web server needed to support e-commerce
traffic should be assigned a high traffic priority. Less important services
should be assigned a low priority. The firewall provides bandwidth to lowpriority connections only when bandwidth is not needed for high-priority
connections.
Differentiated Services
Differentiated Services describes a set of end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS)
capabilities. End-to-end QoS is the ability of a network to deliver service required by
specific network traffic from one end of the network to another. By configuring
differentiated services you configure your network to deliver particular levels of service
for different packets based on the QoS specified by each packet.
Differentiated Services (also called DiffServ) is defined by RFC 2474 and 2475 as
enhancements to IP networking to enable scalable service discrimination in the IP
network without the need for per-flow state and signalling at every hop. Routers that
can understand differentiated services sort IP traffic into classes by inspecting the DS
field in IPv4 header or the Traffic Class field in the IPv6 header.
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Policy
You can use the FortiGate Differentiated Services feature to change the DSCP
(Differentiated Services Code Point) value for all packets accepted by a policy. The
network uses these DSCP values to classify, mark, shape, and police traffic, and to
perform intelligent queuing. DSCP features are applied to traffic by configuring the
routers on your network to apply different service levels to packets depending on the
DSCP value of the packet.
You can configure policies to apply DSCP values for both original (or forward) traffic
and reverse (or reply) traffic. These values are optional and may be enabled
independently from each other. When both are disabled, no changes to the DS field
are made.
Original
(forward) DSCP
value
Reverse (reply)
DSCP value
Set the DSCP value for packets accepted by the policy. For example, for an
Internal->External policy the value is applied to outgoing packets as they
exit the external interface and are forwarded to their destination.
Set the DSCP value for reply packets. For example, for an
Internal->External policy the value is applied to incoming reply packets
before they exit the internal interface and returned to the originator.
Comments
You can add a description or other information about the policy. The comment can be
up to 63 characters long, including spaces.
Configuring firewall policies
Use the following procedures to add, delete, edit, re-order, disable, and enable a
firewall policy.
To add a firewall policy
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select Create New.
You can also select the Insert Policy before icon beside a policy in the list to add the
new policy above that policy.
3
Select the source and destination interfaces.
4
Select the source and destination addresses.
5
Configure the policy.
For information about configuring the policy, see “Policy options” on page 204.
6
Select OK to add the policy.
7
Arrange policies in the policy list so that they have the results that you expect.
For information about arranging policies in a policy list, see “How policy matching
works” on page 202.
To delete a policy
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the policy you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
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To edit a policy
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the policy you want to edit.
3
Edit the policy as required.
4
Select OK.
To change the position of a policy in the list
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select the Move To icon beside the policy you want to move.
3
Select the position for the policy.
4
Select OK.
To disable a policy
Disable a policy to temporarily prevent the firewall from selecting the policy. Disabling
a policy does not stop active communications sessions that have been allowed by the
policy.
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Clear the Enable check box beside the policy you want to disable.
To enable a policy
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select Enable.
Policy CLI configuration
The natip keyword for the firewall policy command is used in encrypted
(VPN) policies. A natip address cannot be added using the web-based manager. You
can configure complete firewall policies using from the CLI. See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for descriptions of all firewall policy keywords.
Note: This command has more keywords than are listed in this Guide. See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for a complete list of commands and keywords.
Command syntax pattern
config firewall policy
edit <id_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
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firewall policy command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables Description
Default
http_retry_count
Define the number of times to retry
0
establishing an HTTP connection when
<retry_integer>
the connection fails.
natip
<address_ipv4mask>
Availability
All models.
Configure natip for a firewall policy
0.0.0.0 All models.
with action set to encrypt and with
0.0.0.0 Encrypt
outbound NAT enabled. Specify the IP
policy, with
address and subnet mask to translate
outbound
the source address of outgoing
NAT
packets.
enabled.
Set natip for peer to peer VPNs to
control outbound NAT IP address
translation for outgoing VPN packets.
If you do not use natip to translate IP
addresses, the source addresses of
outbound VPN packets are translated
into the IP address of the FortiGate
external interface. If you use natip, the
FortiGate unit uses a static mapping
scheme to translate the source
addresses of VPN packets into
corresponding IP addresses on the
subnet that you specify. For example, if
the source address in the encryption
policy is 192.168.1.0/24 and the natip is
172.16.2.0/24, a source address of
192.168.1.7 will be translated to
172.16.2.7
Address
You can add, edit, and delete firewall addresses as required. You can also organize
related addresses into address groups to simplify policy creation.
A firewall address can be configured with a name, an IP address, and a netmask, or a
name and IP address range.
You can enter an IP address and netmask using the following formats.
•
x.x.x.x/x.x.x.x, for example 64.198.45.0/255.255.255.0
•
x.x.x.x/x, for example 64.195.45.0/24
You can enter an IP address range using the following formats.
•
x.x.x.x-x.x.x.x, for example 192.168.110.100-192.168.110.120
•
x.x.x.[x-x], for example 192.168.110.[100-120]
•
x.x.x.*, for example 192.168.110.* to represent all addresses on the subnet
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Address
Firewall
This section describes:
•
Address list
•
Address options
•
Configuring addresses
•
Address group list
•
Address group options
•
Configuring address groups
Address list
You can add addresses to the list and edit existing addresses. The FortiGate unit
comes configured with the default ‘All’ address which represents any IP address on
the network.
Figure 90: Sample address list
The address list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add a firewall address.
Name
The name of the firewall address.
Address
The IP address and mask or IP address range of the firewall.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Address options
Add an address representing an IP address and subnet mask or an IP address range.
Figure 91: Address options
Address has the following options:
Address Name
212
Enter a name to identify the firewall address. Addresses, address groups,
and virtual IPs must all have unique names to avoid confusion in firewall
policies.
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Address
Type
Select the type of address. Each type reveals the corresponding fields to
configure.
IP Range/Subnet Enter the firewall IP address, forward slash, and subnet mask or enter an IP
address range separated by a hyphen
An IP/Mask address can represent:
•
The address of a subnet (for example, for a class C subnet,
IP address: 192.168.20.0 and Netmask: 255.255.255.0).
•
A single IP address (for example, IP Address: 192.168.20.1 and
Netmask: 255.255.255.255)
•
All possible IP addresses (represented by IP Address: 0.0.0.0 and Netmask:
0.0.0.0)
An IP address can be:
•
The IP address of a single computer (for example, 192.45.46.45).
•
The IP address of a subnetwork (for example, 192.168.1.0 for a class C subnet).
•
0.0.0.0 to represent all possible IP addresses
The netmask corresponds to the type of address that you are adding. For example:
•
The netmask for the IP address of a single computer should be 255.255.255.255.
•
The netmask for a class A subnet should be 255.0.0.0.
•
The netmask for a class B subnet should be 255.255.0.0.
•
The netmask for a class C subnet should be 255.255.255.0.
•
The netmask for all addresses should be 0.0.0.0
An IP Range address represents:
•
A range of IP addresses in a subnet (for example, 192.168.20.1 to 192.168.20.10)
Note: IP address: 0.0.0.0 and Netmask: 255.255.255.255 is not a valid firewall address.
Configuring addresses
To add an address
1
Go to Firewall > Address.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name to identify the address.
4
Enter the IP address and netmask or the IP address range.
5
Select OK.
To edit an address
Edit an address to change its IP information. You cannot edit the address name.
1
Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the address you want to edit.
3
Make any required changes.
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Firewall
Note: To change the address name you must delete the address and add it again with a new
name. To avoid confusion in firewall policies, an address and a virtual IP cannot have the same
name.
4
Select OK.
To delete an address
Deleting an address removes it from the address list. To delete an address that has
been added to a policy, you must first remove the address from the policy.
1
Go to Firewall > Address > Address.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the address you want to delete.
You cannot delete default addresses.
3
Select OK.
Address group list
You can organize related addresses into address groups to make it easier to
configure policies. For example, if you add three addresses and then configure them
in an address group, you can configure a single policy using all three addresses.
Note: If an address group is included in a policy, it cannot be deleted unless it is first removed
from the policy.
Figure 92: Sample address group list
The address group list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add an address group.
Group Name
The name of the address group.
Members
The addresses in the address group.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
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Address group options
Address group options are configurable when creating or editing an address group.
Figure 93: Address group options
Address group has the following options:
Group Name
Enter a name to identify the address group. Addresses, address groups, and
virtual IPs must all have unique names to avoid confusion in firewall policies.
Available
Addresses
The list of configured and default firewall addresses. Use the arrows to move
addresses between the lists.
Members
The list of addresses in the group. Use the arrows to move addresses
between the lists.
Configuring address groups
To organize addresses into an address group
1
Go to Firewall > Address > Group.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a group name to identify the address group.
4
Select an address from the Available Addresses list and select the right arrow to move
the address into the group.
5
Repeat step 4 as required to add more addresses to the group.
6
Select OK.
To delete an address group
If an address group is included in a policy, it cannot be deleted unless it is first
removed from the policy.
1
Go to Firewall > Address > Group.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the address group you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
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Service
Firewall
To edit an address group
1
Go to Firewall > Address > Group.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the address group you want to modify.
3
Make any required changes.
Note: To change the address group name you must delete the address group and add it with a
new name.
4
Select OK.
Service
Use services to determine the types of communication accepted or denied by the
firewall. You can add any of the predefined services to a policy. You can also create
custom services and add services to service groups.
This section describes:
•
Predefined service list
•
Custom service list
•
Custom service options
•
Configuring custom services
•
Service group list
•
Service group options
•
Configuring service groups
Predefined service list
Figure 94: Predefined service list
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Service
The predefined services list has the following icons and features.
Name
The name of the predefined services.
Detail
The protocol for each predefined service.
Table 24 lists the FortiGate predefined firewall services. You can add these services
to any policy.
Table 24: FortiGate predefined services
Service name
Description
ANY
Match connections on any port. A connection all
that uses any of the predefined services is
allowed through the firewall.
all
GRE
Generic Routing Encapsulation. A protocol
that allows an arbitrary network protocol to be
transmitted over any other arbitrary network
protocol, by encapsulating the packets of the
protocol within GRE packets.
47
AH
Authentication Header. AH provides source
host authentication and data integrity, but not
secrecy. This protocol is used for
authentication by IPSec remote gateways set
to aggressive mode.
51
ESP
Encapsulating Security Payload. This service
is used by manual key and AutoIKE VPN
tunnels for communicating encrypted data.
AutoIKE key VPN tunnels use ESP after
establishing the tunnel using IKE.
50
AOL
AOL instant messenger protocol.
tcp
5190-5194
BGP
Border Gateway Protocol routing protocol.
BGP is an interior/exterior routing protocol.
tcp
179
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) udp
allocates network addresses and delivers
configuration parameters from DHCP servers
to hosts.
67
DNS
Domain name service for translating domain
names into IP addresses.
tcp
53
udp
53
FINGER
A network service that provides information
about users.
tcp
79
FTP
FTP service for transferring files.
tcp
21
GOPHER
Gopher communication service. Gopher
organizes and displays Internet server
contents as a hierarchically structured list of
files.
tcp
70
H323
H.323 multimedia protocol. H.323 is a
standard approved by the International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) that defines
how audiovisual conferencing data is
transmitted across networks.
tcp
1720, 1503
HTTP
HTTP is the protocol used by the word wide
web for transferring data for web pages.
tcp
80
HTTPS
HTTP with secure socket layer (SSL) service tcp
for secure communication with web servers.
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Port
443
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Service
Firewall
Table 24: FortiGate predefined services (Continued)
218
Service name
Description
Protocol
Port
IKE
IKE is the protocol to obtain authenticated
keying material for use with ISAKMP for
IPSEC.
udp
500
IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol is a
protocol used for retrieving email messages.
tcp
143
InternetInternet Locator Service includes LDAP, User tcp
Locator-Service Locator Service, and LDAP over TLS/SSL.
389
IRC
Internet Relay Chat allows people connected tcp
to the Internet to join live discussions.
6660-6669
L2TP
L2TP is a PPP-based tunnel protocol for
remote access.
1701
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is a set tcp
of protocols used to access information
directories.
389
NetMeeting
NetMeeting allows users to teleconference
using the Internet as the transmission
medium.
1720
NFS
Network File System allows network users to tcp
access shared files stored on computers of
different types.
111, 2049
NNTP
Network News Transport Protocol is a
protocol used to post, distribute, and retrieve
USENET messages.
tcp
119
NTP
Network time protocol for synchronizing a
computer’s time with a time server.
tcp
123
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing
protocol. OSPF is a common link state
routing protocol.
PC-Anywhere
PC-Anywhere is a remote control and file
transfer protocol.
ICMP_ANY
Internet Control Message Protocol is a
message control and error-reporting protocol
between a host and gateway (Internet).
PING
TIMESTAMP
tcp
tcp
89
udp
5632
ICMP echo request/reply for testing
connections to other devices.
icmp
8
ICMP timestamp request messages.
icmp
13
INFO_REQUEST ICMP information request messages.
icmp
15
INFO_ADDRESS ICMP address mask request messages.
icmp
17
POP3
Post office protocol is an email protocol for
downloading email from a POP3 server.
tcp
110
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is a
protocol that allows corporations to extend
their own corporate network through private
tunnels over the public Internet.
tcp
1723
QUAKE
For connections used by the popular Quake
multi-player computer game.
udp
26000,
27000,
27910,
27960
RAUDIO
For streaming real audio multimedia traffic.
udp
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Service
Table 24: FortiGate predefined services (Continued)
Service name
Description
Protocol
Port
RLOGIN
Rlogin service for remotely logging into a
server.
tcp
513
RIP
Routing Information Protocol is a common
distance vector routing protocol.
udp
520
SIPMSNmessenger
Session Initiation Protocol is used by
Microsoft Messenger to initiate an interactive,
possibly multimedia session.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to send tcp
mail between email servers on the Internet.
25
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol is a
set of protocols for managing complex
networks
tcp
161-162
udp
161-162
Secure Shell is a service for secure
connections to computers for remote
management.
tcp
22
udp
22
SYSLOG
Syslog service for remote logging.
udp
514
TALK
A protocol supporting conversations between udp
two or more users.
517-518
TCP
All TCP ports.
tcp
0-65535
TELNET
Telnet service for connecting to a remote
computer to run commands.
tcp
23
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is a simple file
transfer protocol similar to FTP but with no
security features.
udp
69
UDP
All UDP ports.
udp
0-65535
UUCP
Unix to Unix copy utility, a simple file copying udp
protocol.
540
VDOLIVE
For VDO Live streaming multimedia traffic.
tcp
7000-7010
WAIS
Wide Area Information Server is an Internet
search protocol.
tcp
210
WINFRAME
For WinFrame communications between
computers running Windows NT.
tcp
1494
X-WINDOWS
For remote communications between an
X-Window server and X-Window clients.
tcp
6000-6063
SSH
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Firewall
Custom service list
Add a custom service if you need to create a policy for a service that is not in the
predefined service list.
Figure 95: Sample custom service list
The custom services list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select a protocol and then Create New to add a custom service.
Service Name
The name of the custom service.
Detail
The protocol and port numbers for each custom service.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Custom service options
Different options appear depending on the protocol type of custom service you want to
define. Choose from TCP, UDP, ICMP, or IP.
TCP and UDP custom service options
Figure 96: TCP and UDP custom service options
Name
The name of the TCP or UDP custom service.
Protocol Type
Select the protocol type of the service you are adding: TCP or UDP. TCP
and UDP options are the same.
Source Port
Specify the Source Port number range for the service by entering the low
and high port numbers. If the service uses one port number, enter this
number in both the low and high fields.
Destination Port Specify the Destination Port number range for the service by entering the
low and high port numbers. If the service uses one port number, enter this
number in both the low and high fields.
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Service
ICMP custom service options
Figure 97: ICMP custom service options
Name
The name of the ICMP custom service.
Protocol Type
Select the protocol type of the service you are adding (ICMP).
Type
Enter the ICMP type number for the service.
Code
Enter the ICMP code number for the service if required.
IP custom service options
Figure 98: IP custom service options
Name
The name of the IP custom service.
Protocol Type
Select the protocol type of the service you are adding: IP.
Protocol Number The IP protocol number for the service.
Configuring custom services
To add a custom TCP or UDP service
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the new custom TCP or UDP service.
4
Select TCP or UDP as the Protocol Type.
5
Specify Source and Destination Port number ranges for the service by entering the
low and high port numbers. If the service uses one port number, enter this number in
both the low and high fields.
6
Select OK.
You can now add this custom service to a policy.
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Firewall
To add a custom ICMP service
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the new custom ICMP service.
4
Select ICMP as the Protocol Type.
5
Enter the ICMP type number and code number for the service.
6
Select OK.
You can now add this custom service to a policy.
To add a custom IP service
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the new custom IP service.
4
Select IP as the Protocol Type.
5
Enter the IP protocol number for the service.
6
Select OK.
You can now add this custom service to a policy.
To delete a custom service
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the service you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a custom service
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Custom.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the service you want to edit.
3
Modify the custom service as required.
Note: To change the custom service name you must delete the service and add it with a new
name.
4
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Service
Service group list
To make it easier to add policies, you can create groups of services and then add one
policy to allow or block access for all the services in the group. A service group can
contain predefined services and custom services in any combination. You cannot add
service groups to another service group.
Figure 99: Sample service group list
The service group list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add a service group.
Group Name
The name to identify the service group.
Members
The services added to the service group.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Service group options
Service group options are configurable when creating or editing a service group.
Figure 100:Service group options
Service group has the following options.
Group Name
Enter a name to identify the address group.
Available
Services
The list of configured and predefined services. Use the arrows to move
services between the lists.
Members
The list of services in the group. Use the arrows to move services between
the lists.
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Schedule
Firewall
Configuring service groups
To organize services into a service group
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a group name to identify the service group.
4
Select a service from the Available Services list and select the right arrow to move the
service into the group.
5
Select OK.
To delete a service group
If a service group is included in a policy, it cannot be deleted unless it is first removed
from the policy.
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the service group you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a service group
1
Go to Firewall > Service > Group.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the service group you want to modify.
3
Make any required changes.
Note: To change the service group name you must delete the service group and add it with a
new name.
4
Select OK.
Schedule
Use schedules to control when policies are active or inactive. You can create one-time
schedules and recurring schedules.
You can use one-time schedules to create policies that are effective once for the
period of time specified in the schedule. Recurring schedules repeat weekly. You can
use recurring schedules to create policies that are effective only at specified times of
the day or on specified days of the week.
This section describes:
224
•
One-time schedule list
•
One-time schedule options
•
Configuring one-time schedules
•
Recurring schedule list
•
Recurring schedule options
•
Configuring recurring schedules
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Schedule
One-time schedule list
You can create a one-time schedule that activates or deactivates a policy for a
specified period of time. For example, your firewall might be configured with the
default policy that allows access to all services on the Internet at all times. You can
add a one-time schedule to block access to the Internet during a holiday period.
Figure 101:Sample one-time schedule list
The one-time schedule list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add a one-time schedule.
Name
The name of the one-time schedule.
Start
The start date and time for the schedule.
Stop
The stop date and time for the schedule.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
One-time schedule options
Figure 102:One-time schedule options
One-time schedule has the following options.
Name
Enter the name to identify the one-time schedule.
Start
Enter the start date and time for the schedule.
Stop
Enter the stop date and time for the schedule.
Configuring one-time schedules
To add a one-time schedule
1
Go to Firewall > Schedule > One-time.
2
Select Create New.
3
Type a name for the schedule.
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4
Select the start date and time for the schedule.
Set start and stop time to 00 for the schedule to be active for the entire day. One-time
schedules use a 24-hour clock.
5
Set the Stop date and time for the schedule.
6
Select OK.
To delete a one-time schedule
1
Go to Firewall > Schedule > One-time.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the one-time schedule you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a one-time schedule
1
Go to Firewall > Schedule > One-time.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the one-time schedule you want to modify.
3
Modify the schedule as required.
Note: To change the one-time schedule name you must delete the schedule and add it with a
new name.
4
Select OK to save the changes.
Recurring schedule list
You can create a recurring schedule that activates or deactivates policies at specified
times of the day or on specified days of the week. For example, you might want to
prevent game play during working hours by creating a recurring schedule.
Note: If you create a recurring schedule with a stop time that occurs before the start time, the
schedule starts at the start time and finishes at the stop time on the next day. You can use this
technique to create recurring schedules that run from one day to the next. You can also create a
recurring schedule that runs for 24 hours by setting the start and stop times to the same time.
Figure 103:Sample recurring schedule list
The recurring schedule list has the following icons and features.
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Create New
Select Create New to add a recurring schedule.
Name
The name of the recurring schedule.
Day
The initials of the days of the week on which the schedule is active.
Start
The start time of the recurring schedule.
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Schedule
Stop
The stop time of the recurring schedule.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Recurring schedule options
Figure 104:Recurring schedule options
Recurring schedule has the following options.
Name
Enter the name to identify the recurring schedule.
Select
Select the days of the week that you want the schedule to be active.
Start
Select the start time for the recurring schedule.
Stop
Select the stop time for the recurring schedule.
Configuring recurring schedules
To add a recurring schedule
1
Go to Firewall > Schedule > Recurring.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the schedule.
4
Select the days of the week that you want the schedule to be active.
5
Set the Start and Stop time for the recurring schedule.
Recurring schedules use a 24-hour clock.
6
Select OK.
To delete a recurring schedule
1
Go to Firewall > Schedule > Recurring.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the recurring schedule you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a recurring schedule
1
Go to Firewall > Schedule > Recurring.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the recurring schedule you want to modify.
3
Modify the schedule as required.
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Virtual IP
Firewall
Note: To change the one-time schedule name you must delete the schedule and add it with a
new name.
4
Select OK.
Virtual IP
Use virtual IPs to access IP addresses on a destination network that are hidden from
the source network by NAT security policies. To allow connections between these
networks, you must create a mapping between an address on the source network and
the real address on the destination network. This mapping is called a virtual IP.
For example, if the computer hosting your web server is located on your DMZ
network, it could have a private IP address such as 10.10.10.3. To get packets from
the Internet to the web server, you must have an external address for the web server
on the Internet. You must then add a virtual IP to the firewall that maps the external IP
address of the web server to the actual address of the web server on the DMZ
network. To allow connections from the Internet to the web server, you must then add
an external->DMZ firewall policy and set Destination to the virtual IP.
You can create three types of virtual IPs:
Static NAT
Used to translate an address on a source network to a hidden address on a
destination network. Static NAT translates the source address of return
packets to the address on the source network.
Port Forwarding
Used to translate an address and a port number on a source network to a
hidden address and, optionally, a different port number on a destination
network. Using port forwarding you can also route packets with a specific
port number and a destination address that matches the IP address of the
interface that receives the packets. This technique is called port forwarding
or port address translation (PAT). You can also use port forwarding to
change the destination port of the forwarded packets.
Dynamic port
forwarding
Similar to port forwarding, dynamic port forwarding is used to translate any
address and a specific port number on a source network to a hidden
address and, optionally a different port number on a destination network.
Note: The maximum number of virtual IPs is 1024.
This section describes:
228
•
Virtual IP list
•
Virtual IP options
•
Configuring virtual IPs
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Virtual IP
Virtual IP list
Figure 105:Sample virtual IP list
The virtual IP list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add a virtual IP.
Name
The name of the virtual IP.
IP
The external IP address mapped to an address on the destination network.
Service Port
The external port number of the service from the IP.
Map to IP
The real IP address on the destination network.
Map to Port
The port number added to packets when they are forwarded (not required).
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Virtual IP options
Different options appear depending on the type of virtual IP you want to define.
Choose from Static NAT or port forwarding.
Figure 106:Virtual IP options; static NAT
Figure 107:Virtual IP options; port forwarding
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Virtual IP
Firewall
Virtual IP has the following options.
Name
Enter the name to identify the virtual IP. Addresses, address groups, and
virtual IPs must all have unique names to avoid confusion in firewall
policies.
External Interface Select the virtual IP external interface from the list.
Type
Select Static NAT or Port Forwarding.
External IP
Address
Enter the external IP address that you want to map to an address on the
destination network. To configure dynamic port forwarding, set the external
IP address to 0.0.0.0.
External Service
Port
Enter the external service port number that you want to configure port
forwarding for. (Port forwarding only.)
Map to IP
Enter the real IP address on the destination network.
Map to Port
Enter the port number to be added to packets when they are forwarded.
(Port forwarding only.)
Protocol
Select the protocol (TCP or UDP) that you want the forwarded packets to
use. (Port forwarding only.)
Configuring virtual IPs
To add a static NAT virtual IP
1
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the virtual IP.
4
Select the virtual IP External Interface from the list.
The external interface is connected to the source network and receives the packets to
be forwarded to the destination network. You can select any firewall interface or a
VLAN subinterface. You can set the virtual IP external interface to any FortiGate
interface. Table 25 on page 231 contains example virtual IP external interface settings
and describes the policies to which you can add the resulting virtual IP.
5
Select Static NAT.
6
Enter the External IP Address that you want to map to an address on the destination
network.
For example, if the virtual IP provides access from the Internet to a web server on a
destination network, the external IP address must be a static IP address obtained
from your ISP for your web server. This address must be a unique address that is not
used by another host and cannot be the same as the IP address of the external
interface selected in step 4. However, the external IP address must be routed to the
selected interface. The virtual IP address and the external IP address can be on
different subnets.
7
Enter the Map to IP address to which to map the external IP address. For example,
the IP address of a web server on an internal network.
Note: The firewall translates the source address of outbound packets from the host with the
Map to IP address to the virtual IP External IP Address, instead of the firewall external address.
8
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Select OK.
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Virtual IP
You can now add the virtual IP to firewall policies.
Table 25: Virtual IP external interface examples
External Interface Description
internal
To map an internal address to an address on a network connected to
another interface, VLAN subinterface, or zone. If you select internal, the
static NAT virtual IP can be added to policies for connections from the
internal interface or any zone containing the internal interface, to any
other interface, VLAN subinterface, or zone.
external
To map an external address to an address on a network connected to
another interface, VLAN subinterface, or zone. If you select external, the
static NAT virtual IP can be added to policies for connections from the
external interface or any zone containing the external interface, to any
other interface, VLAN subinterface, or zone.
To add port forwarding virtual IPs
1
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the port forwarding virtual IP.
4
Select the virtual IP External Interface from the list.
The external interface is connected to the source network and receives the packets to
be forwarded to the destination network.
You can select any firewall interface or a VLAN subinterface.
5
Select Port Forwarding.
6
Enter the External IP Address that you want to map to an address on the destination
interface.
You can set the external IP address to the IP address of the external interface
selected in step 4 or to any other address.
For example, if the virtual IP provides access from the Internet to a server on your
internal network, the external IP address must be a static IP address obtained from
your ISP for this server. This address must be a unique address that is not used by
another host. However, this address must be routed to the external interface selected
in step 4. The virtual IP address and the external IP address can be on different
subnets.
7
Enter the External Service Port number for which you want to configure port
forwarding.
The external service port number must match the destination port of the packets to be
forwarded. For example, if the virtual IP provides access from the Internet to a web
server, the external service port number is 80 (the HTTP port).
8
Enter the Map to IP address to which to map the external IP address. For example,
the IP address of a web server on an internal network.
9
Enter the Map to Port number to be added to packets when they are forwarded.
If you do not want to translate the port, enter the same number as the External Service
Port.
10
Select OK.
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Virtual IP
Firewall
To add a dynamic port forwarding virtual IP
1
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the dynamic port forwarding virtual IP.
4
Select the virtual IP External Interface from the list.
The external interface is connected to the source network and receives the packets to
be forwarded to the destination network.
You can select any firewall interface or a VLAN subinterface.
5
Select Port Forwarding.
6
Set the External IP Address to 0.0.0.0.
The 0.0.0.0 External IP Address matches any IP address.
7
Enter the External Service Port number for which you want to configure dynamic port
forwarding.
The external service port number must match the destination port of the packets to be
forwarded. For example, if the virtual IP provides PPTP passthrough access from the
Internet to a PPTP server, the external service port number should be 1723 (the PPTP
port).
8
Enter the Map to IP address to which to map the external IP address. For example,
the IP address of a PPTP server on an internal network.
9
Enter the Map to Port number to be added to packets when they are forwarded.
If you do not want to translate the port, enter the same number as the External Service
Port.
10
Select OK.
To delete a virtual IP
1
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the virtual IP you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a virtual IP
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1
Go to Firewall > Virtual IP.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the virtual IP you want to modify.
3
Select OK.
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IP pool
IP pool
An IP pool (also called a dynamic IP pool) is a range of IP addresses added to a
firewall interface. You can enable Dynamic IP Pool in a firewall policy to translate the
source address of outgoing packets to an address randomly selected from the IP pool.
An IP pool list appears when the policy destination interface is the same as the IP pool
interface.
You can add an IP pool if you want to add NAT mode policies that translate source
addresses to addresses randomly selected from the IP pool rather than being limited
to the IP address of the destination interface.
If you add an IP pool to the internal interface, you can select Dynamic IP pool for
policies with the internal interface as the destination. For example, you can add IP
pools to External->Internal and DMZ->Internal policies.
You can add multiple IP pools to any interface and select the IP pool to use when
configuring a firewall policy.
You can enter an IP address range using the following formats.
•
x.x.x.x-x.x.x.x, for example 192.168.110.100-192.168.110.120
•
x.x.x.[x-x], for example 192.168.110.[100-120]
This section describes:
•
IP pool list
•
IP pool options
•
Configuring IP pools
•
IP Pools for firewall policies that use fixed ports
•
IP pools and dynamic NAT
IP pool list
Figure 108:Sample IP pool list
The IP pool list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add an IP pool.
Start IP
The start IP defines the start of an address range.
End IP
The end IP defines the end of an address range.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
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IP pool
Firewall
IP pool options
Figure 109:IP pool options
Virtual IP has the following options.
Interface
Select the interface to which to add an IP pool.
Name
Enter a name for the IP pool.
IP Range/Subnet Enter the IP address range for the IP pool.
Configuring IP pools
To add an IP pool
1
Go to Firewall > IP Pool.
2
Select the interface to which to add the IP pool.
You can select a firewall interface or a VLAN subinterface.
3
Select Create New.
4
Enter the IP Range for the IP pool.
The IP range defines the start and end of an address range. The start of the range
must be lower than the end of the range. The start and end of the range must be on
the same subnet as the IP address of the interface to which you are adding the IP
pool.
5
Select OK.
To delete an IP pool
1
Go to Firewall > IP Pool.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the IP pool you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a IP pool
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1
Go to Firewall > IP Pool.
2
For the IP pool that you want to edit, select Edit beside it.
3
Modify the IP pool as required.
4
Select OK to save the changes.
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Protection profile
IP Pools for firewall policies that use fixed ports
Some network configurations do not operate correctly if a NAT policy translates the
source port of packets used by the connection. NAT translates source ports to keep
track of connections for a particular service. You can select fixed port for NAT policies
to prevent source port translation. However, selecting fixed port means that only one
connection can be supported through the firewall for this service. To be able to
support multiple connections, you can add an IP pool to the destination interface, and
then select dynamic IP pool in the policy. The firewall randomly selects an IP address
from the IP pool and assigns it to each connection. In this case the number of
connections that the firewall can support is limited by the number of IP addresses in
the IP pool.
IP pools and dynamic NAT
You can use IP pools for dynamic NAT. For example, your organization might have
purchased a range of Internet addresses but you might have only one Internet
connection on the external interface of your FortiGate unit.
You can assign one of your organization’s Internet IP addresses to the external
interface of the FortiGate unit. If the FortiGate unit is operating in NAT/Route mode, all
connections from your network to the Internet appear to come from this IP address.
If you want connections to originate from all your Internet IP addresses, you can add
this address range to an IP pool for the external interface. Then you can select
Dynamic IP Pool for all policies with the external interface as the destination. For each
connection, the firewall dynamically selects an IP address from the IP pool to be the
source address for the connection. As a result, connections to the Internet appear to
be originating from any of the IP addresses in the IP pool.
Protection profile
Use protection profiles to apply different protection settings for traffic that is controlled
by firewall policies. You can use protection profiles to:
•
Configure antivirus protection for HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, and SMTP policies
•
Configure web filtering for HTTP policies
•
Configure web category filtering for HTTP policies
•
Configure spam filtering for IMAP, POP3, and SMTP policies
•
Enable IPS for all services
•
Configure content archiving for HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, and SMTP policies
Using protection profiles, you can customize types and levels of protection for different
firewall policies.
For example, while traffic between internal and external addresses might need strict
protection, traffic between trusted internal addresses might need moderate protection.
You can configure policies for different traffic services to use the same or different
protection profiles.
You can add Protection profiles to NAT/Route mode and Transparent mode policies.
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Protection profile
Firewall
This section describes:
•
Protection profile list
•
Default protection profiles
•
Protection profile options
•
Configuring protection profiles
•
Profile CLI configuration
Protection profile list
Figure 110:Sample list showing the default protection profiles
The Protection Profile list has the following icons and features.
Create New
Select Create New to add a protection profile.
Delete
Remove a protection profile from the list.
Edit
Modify an existing protection profile.
Note: You cannot delete a protection profile (the Delete icon is not visible) if it is selected in a
firewall policy or included in a user group.
Default protection profiles
The FortiGate unit comes preconfigured with four protection profiles.
236
Strict
To apply maximum protection to HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, and SMTP traffic.
You may not wish to use the strict protection profile under normal
circumstances but it is available if you have extreme problems with viruses
and require maximum screening.
Scan
To apply virus scanning to HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, and SMTP traffic.
Quarantine is also selected for all content services. On FortiGate models
with a hard disk, if antivirus scanning finds a virus in a file, the file is
quarantined on the FortiGate hard disk. If required, system administrators
can recover quarantined files.
Web
To apply virus scanning and web content blocking to HTTP traffic. You can
add this protection profile to firewall policies that control HTTP traffic.
Unfiltered
To apply no scanning, blocking or IPS. Use the unfiltered content profile if
you do not want to apply content protection to content traffic. You can add
this protection profile to firewall policies for connections between highly
trusted or highly secure networks where content does not need to be
protected.
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Protection profile
Protection profile options
Figure 111:Adding a protection profile
You can configure the following options when creating or editing a protection profile.
Profile Name
Enter a name for the profile. (New profiles only.)
Anti-Virus
See “Configuring antivirus options” on page 237.
Web Filtering
See “Configuring web filtering options” on page 238.
Web Category Filtering
See “Configuring web category filtering options” on page 239.
Spam Filtering
See “Configuring spam filtering options” on page 240.
IPS
See “Configuring IPS options” on page 241.
Content Archive
See “Configuring content archive options” on page 241.
Configuring antivirus options
Figure 112:Protection profile antivirus options
The following options are available for antivirus through the protection profile. See
“Antivirus” on page 303 for more antivirus configuration options.
Virus Scan
Enable or disable virus scanning (for viruses and worms) for each
protocol (HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP). Grayware, if enabled in
Antivirus > Config > Grayware, is included with the Virus Scan.
Heuristic, if enabled in the CLI, is also included with the Virus Scan.
File Block
Enable or disable file pattern blocking for each protocol. You can
block files by name, by extension, or any other pattern, giving you
the flexibility to block files that may contain harmful content.
Quarantine (log disk
required)
Enable or disable quarantining for each protocol. You can
quarantine suspect files to view them or submit files to Fortinet for
analysis.
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Protection profile
Firewall
Pass fragmented emails Enable or disable passing fragmented email for mail protocols
(IMAP, POP3, SMTP). Fragmented email cannot be scanned for
viruses.
Oversized file/email
Select block or pass for files and email that exceed configured
thresholds for each protocol. To configure the oversized file
threshold, go to Antivirus > Config > Config. The maximum
threshold for scanning in memory is 10% of the FortiGate unit RAM.
Note: For email scanning, the oversize threshold refers to the final
size of the email after encoding by the email client, including
attachments. Email clients may use a variety of encoding types and
some encoding types translate into larger file sizes than the original
attachment. The most common encoding, base64, translates 3
bytes of binary data into 4 bytes of base64 data. So a file may be
blocked or logged as oversized even if the attachment is several
megabytes less than the configured oversize threshold.
Add signature to
outgoing emails
Create and enable a signature to append to outgoing email (SMTP
only).
Configuring web filtering options
Figure 113:Protection profile web filtering options
The following options are available for web filtering through the protection profile. See
“Web filter” on page 325 for more web filter configuration options.
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Web Content Block
Enable or disable web page blocking for HTTP traffic based on the
banned words and patterns in the content block list.
Web URL Block
Enable or disable web page filtering for HTTP traffic based on the
URL block list.
Web Exempt List
Enable or disable web page filtering for HTTP traffic based on the
URL exempt list. Exempt URLs are not scanned for viruses.
Web Script Filter
Enable or disable blocking scripts from web pages for HTTP traffic.
Web resume download
block
Enable to block downloading parts of a file that have already been
partially downloaded. Enabling this option will prevent the
unintentional download of virus files hidden in fragmented files.
Note that some types of files, such as PDF, fragment files to
increase download speed and enabling this option can cause
download interruptions.
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Protection profile
Configuring web category filtering options
Figure 114:Protection profile web category filtering options (FortiGuard)
The following options are available for web category filtering through the protection
profile. See “Category block” on page 333 for more category blocking configuration
options.
Enable category block (HTTP Enable FortiGuard category blocking.
only)
Block unrated websites
(HTTP only)
Block any web pages that have not been rated by the web
filtering service.
Provide details for blocked
HTTP 4xx and 5xx errors
(HTTP only)
Display a replacement message for 4xx and 5xx HTTP errors.
If the error is allowed through then malicious or objectionable
sites could use these common error pages to circumvent web
category blocking.
Rate images by URL (blocked Enable using FortiGuard to rate images based on the image
images will be replaced with URL. Images that should be blocked are replaced with a blank
image on the original web page. FortiGuard has ratings for gif,
blanks) (HTTP only)
jpeg, tiff, png, and bmp images.
Allow websites when a rating Allow web pages that return a rating error from the web
filtering service.
error occurs (HTTP only)
Category
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The FortiGuard web filtering service provides many categories
by which to filter web traffic. You can set the action to take on
web pages for each category. Choose from allow, block, or
monitor. FortiGuard categories are described in “FortiGuard
categories” on page 377.
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Firewall
Configuring spam filtering options
Figure 115:Protection profile spam filtering options
The following options are available for spam filtering through the protection profile.
See “Spam filter” on page 339 for more spam filter configuration options.
IP address FortiShield
check
Enable or disable the FortiShield spam filtering IP address blacklist.
FortiShield extracts the SMTP mail server source address and
sends the IP address to a FortiShield server to see if this IP
address matches the list of known spammers. If the IP address is
found, FortiShield terminates the session. If FortiShield does not
find a match, the mail server sends the email to the recipient.
See “FortiShield” on page 341 for more information about this
service.
URL FortiShield check
Enable or disable the FortiShield spam filtering URL blacklist.
FortiShield checks the body of email messages to extract any URL
links. These URL links are sent to a FortiShield server to see if any
of them is listed. Typically Spam messages contain URL links to
advertisements (also called spamvertizing). If a URL match is
found, FortiShield terminates the session. If FortiShield does not
find a match, the mail server sends the email to the recipient.
See “FortiShield” on page 341 for more information about this
service.
IP address BWL check
Black/white list check. Enable or disable checking incoming IP
addresses against the configured spam filter IP address list. (SMTP
only.)
RBL & ORDBL check
Enable or disable checking traffic against configured DNS-based
Blackhole List (DNSBL) and Open Relay Database List servers.
HELO DNS lookup
Enable or disable looking up the source domain name (from the
SMTP HELO command) in the Domain Name Server.
E-mail address BWL
check
Enable or disable checking incoming email addresses against the
configured spam filter email address list.
Return e-mail DNS check Enable or disable checking that the domain specified in the reply-to
or from address has an A or MX record.
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MIME headers check
Enable or disable checking source MIME headers against the
configured spam filter MIME header list.
Banned word check
Enable or disable checking source email against the configured
spam filter banned word list.
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Protection profile
Spam Action
The action for the spam filter to take. Tagged allows you to append
a custom tag to the subject or header of email identified as spam.
For SMTP, if you have virus scan or splice (CLI) enabled, you will
only be able to discard spam email. (Note that splice is enabled
automatically when you enable virus scanning.) Discard
immediately drops the connection. Without splice or scanning
enabled, you can chose to tag or discard SMTP spam.
You can tag email by adding a custom word or phrase to the subject
or inserting a MIME header and value into the email header. You
can choose to log any spam action in the event log.
Append to
Choose to append the tag to the subject or MIME header of the
email identified as spam.
Append with
Enter a word or phrase (tag) to append to email identified as spam.
The maximum length is 63 characters.
Note: Some popular email clients cannot filter messages based on the MIME header. Check
your email client features before deciding how to tag spam.
Configuring IPS options
Figure 116:Protection profile IPS options
The following options are available for IPS through the protection profile. See “IPS” on
page 291 for more IPS configuration options.
IPS Signature
Enable or disable signature based intrusion detection and
prevention for all protocols.
IPS Anomaly
Enable or disable anomaly based intrusion detection and
prevention for all protocols.
Configuring content archive options
Figure 117:Protection profile content archive options
The following options are available for content archive through the protection profile.
Display content metainformation on the system
dashboard
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Enable to have meta-information for each type of traffic display
in the Content Summary section of the FortiGate status page.
There you can view statistics for HTTP traffic, FTP traffic, and
Email traffic (IMAP, POP3, and SMTP combined).
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Protection profile
Firewall
Archive content
meta-information
Enable or disable archiving content meta-information to a
FortiLog unit for each protocol. Content meta-information can
include date and time, source and destination information,
request and response size, and scan result. Content archive is
only available if FortiLog is enabled under Log&Report > Log
Config > Log Settings.
Configuring protection profiles
To add a protection profile
If the default protection profiles do not provide the settings you require, you can create
custom protection profiles.
1
Go to Firewall > Protection Profile.
2
Select Create New.
3
Enter a name for the profile.
4
Configure the protection profile options.
5
Select OK.
Note: If both Virus Scan and File Block are enabled, the FortiGate unit blocks files that match
enabled file patterns before they are scanned for viruses.
To delete a protection profile
1
Go to Firewall > Protection Profile.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the protection profile you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
To edit a protection profile
1
Go to Firewall > Protection Profile.
2
Select the Edit icon beside the protection profile you want to modify.
3
Modify the profile as required.
Note: To change the one-time schedule name you must delete the schedule and add it with a
new name.
4
Select OK.
To add a protection profile to a policy
You can enable protection profiles for firewall policies with action set to allow or
encrypt and with service set to ANY, HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP, or a service
group that includes these services.
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1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select a policy list to which you want to add a protection profile.
For example, to enable network protection for files downloaded from the web by
internal network users, select an internal to external policy list.
3
Select Create New to add a policy or select Edit for the policy you want to modify.
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Protection profile
4
Select protection profile.
5
Select a protection profile from the list.
6
Configure the remaining policy settings, if required.
7
Select OK.
8
Repeat this procedure for any policies for which you want to enable network
protection.
Profile CLI configuration
Note: This guide only describes Command Line Interface (CLI) commands, keywords, or
variables (in bold) that are not represented in the web-based manager. For complete
descriptions and examples of how to use CLI commands see the FortiGate CLI Reference
Guide.
Use this command to add, edit or delete protection profiles. Use protection profiles to
apply different protection settings for traffic controlled by firewall policies.
Command syntax pattern
config firewall profile
edit <profilename_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config firewall profile
edit <profilename_str>
unset <keyword>
end
config firewall profile
delete <profilename_str>
end
get firewall profile [<profilename_str>]
show firewall profile [<profilename_str>]
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Protection profile
Firewall
firewall profile command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
ftp
{block
content-archive
no-content-summary
oversize
quarantine scan
splice}
http
{bannedword block
catblock
chunkedbypass
content-archive
no-content-summary
oversize
quarantine
rangeblock scan
scriptfilter
urlblock
urlexempt}
244
Description
Default
Availability
Select the actions that this profile will
splice
All models.
use for filtering FTP traffic for a policy.
• Enter splice to enable the
FortiGate unit to simultaneously
buffer a file for scanning and upload
the file to an FTP server. If a virus is
detected, the FortiGate unit stops the
upload and attempts to delete the
partially uploaded file from the FTP
server. To delete the file successfully,
the server permissions must be set
to allow deletes. When downloading
files from an FTP server the
FortiGate unit sends 1 byte every 30
seconds to prevent the client from
timing out during scanning and
download. If a virus is detected, the
FortiGate unit stops the download.
The user must then delete the
partially downloaded file. There
should not be enough content in the
file to cause any harm. Enabling
splice reduces timeouts when
uploading and downloading large
files. When splice is disabled for ftp,
the FortiGate unit buffers the file for
scanning before uploading it to the
FTP server. If the file is clean, the
FortiGate unit will allow the upload to
continue.
Enter all the actions you want this
profile to use. Use a space to separate
the options you enter. If you want to
remove an option from the list or add
an option to the list, you must retype
the list with the option removed or
added.
Select the actions that this profile will
No default. All models.
use for filtering HTTP traffic for a
policy.
• Enter chunkedbypass to allow web
sites that use chunked encoding for
HTTP to bypass the firewall.
Chunked encoding means the HTTP
message body is altered to allow it to
be transferred in a series of chunks.
Use this feature at your own risk.
Malicious content could enter your
network if you allow web content to
bypass the firewall.
Enter all the actions you want this
profile to use. Use a space to separate
the options you enter. If you want to
remove an option from the list or add
an option to the list, you must retype
the list with the option removed or
added.
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Firewall
Protection profile
firewall profile command keywords and variables (Continued)
Keywords and
variables
smtp
{bannedword block
content-archive
fragmail
no-content-summary
oversize
quarantine scan
spamemailbwl
spamfsip spamfsurl
spamhdrcheck
spamhelodns
spamipbwl
spamraddrdns
spamrbl splice}
Description
Default
Availability
Select the actions that this profile will
fragmail All models.
use for filtering SMTP traffic for a
splice
policy.
• Enter splice to enable the
FortiGate unit to simultaneously scan
an email and send it to the SMTP
server. If the FortiGate unit detects a
virus, it terminates the server
connection and returns an error
message to the sender, listing the
virus name and infected file name. In
this mode, the SMTP server is not
able to deliver the email if it was sent
with an infected attachment.
Throughput is higher when splice is
enabled. When splice is disabled, the
FortiGate unit scans the email first. If
the FortiGate unit detects a virus, it
removes the infected attachment,
adds a customizable message, and
sends the email to the SMTP server
for delivery. Selecting enable for the
splice keyword returns an error
message to the sender if an
attachment is infected. The receiver
does not receive the email or the
attachment. When splice is disabled
for SMTP, infected attachments are
removed and the email is forwarded
(without the attachment) to the
SMTP server for delivery to the
recipient.
Enter all the actions you want this
profile to use. Use a space to separate
the options you enter. If you want to
remove an option from the list or add
an option to the list, you must retype
the list with the option removed or
added.
This example shows how to display the settings for the firewall profile
command.
get firewall profile
This example shows how to display the settings for the spammail profile.
get firewall profile spammail
This example shows how to display the configuration for the firewall profile
command.
show firewall profile
This example shows how to display the configuration for the spammail profile.
show firewall profile spammail
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Protection profile
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
User
You can control access to network resources by defining lists of authorized users,
called user groups. To use a particular resource, such as a network or a VPN tunnel,
the user must belong to one of the user groups that is allowed access. The user then
must correctly enter a user name and password to prove his or her identity. This is
called authentication.
You can configure authentication in:
•
any firewall policy with Action set to ACCEPT
•
IPSec, PPTP and L2TP VPN configurations
When the user attempts to access the resource, the FortiGate unit requests a user
name and password. The FortiGate unit can verify the user’s credentials locally or
using an external LDAP or RADIUS server.
Authentication expires if the user leaves the connection idle for longer than the
authentication timeout period.
You need to determine the number and membership of your user groups appropriate
to your authentication needs.
To set up user groups
1
If external authentication is needed, configure RADIUS or LDAP servers. See
“RADIUS” on page 249 and “LDAP” on page 251.
2
Configure local user identities in User > Local. For each user, you can choose
whether the password is verified by the FortiGate unit, by a RADIUS server or by an
LDAP server. See “Local” on page 248.
3
Create user groups in User > User Group. Add local users as appropriate. See “User
group” on page 253.
You can also add a RADIUS or LDAP server to a user group. In this case, all users in
the external server’s database can authenticate.
This chapter describes:
•
Setting authentication timeout
•
Local
•
RADIUS
•
LDAP
•
User group
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Setting authentication timeout
User
Setting authentication timeout
Authentication timeout controls how long an authenticated firewall connection can be
idle before the user must authenticate again.
To set authentication timeout
1
Go to System > Config > Options.
2
In Auth Timeout, type a number, in minutes.
The default authentication timeout is 15 minutes.
Local
Go to User > Local to add local user names and configure authentication.
Local user list
Figure 118:Local user list
Create New
Add a new local username.
User Name
The local user name.
Type
The authentication type to use for this user.
The Delete and Edit icons.
Local user options
Figure 119:Local user options
248
User Name
Enter the user name.
Disable
Select Disable to prevent this user from authenticating.
Password
Select Password to require the user to authenticate using a password. Enter
the password that this user must use to authenticate. The password should
be at least six characters long.
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User
RADIUS
LDAP
Select LDAP to require the user to authenticate to an LDAP server. Select
the name of the LDAP server to which the user must authenticate. You can
only select an LDAP server that has been added to the FortiGate LDAP
configuration. See “LDAP” on page 251.
Radius
Select Radius to require the user to authenticate to a RADIUS server. Select
the name of the RADIUS server to which the user must authenticate. You
can only select a RADIUS server that has been added to the FortiGate
RADIUS configuration. See “RADIUS” on page 249.
To add a user name and configure authentication
1
Go to User > Local.
2
Select Create New to add a new user name or select the Edit icon to edit an existing
configuration.
3
Type the User Name.
4
Select the authentication type for this user.
5
Select OK.
To delete a user name from the internal database
You cannot delete user names that have been added to user groups. Remove user
names from user groups before deleting them.
1
Go to User > Local.
2
Select the Delete icon for the user name that you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
Note: Deleting the user name deletes the authentication configured for the user.
RADIUS
If you have configured RADIUS support and a user is required to authenticate using a
RADIUS server, the FortiGate unit contacts the RADIUS server for authentication. The
default port for RADIUS traffic is 1812. If your RADIUS server is using port 1645 you
can use the CLI to change the default RADIUS port. For more information see the
config system global command entry in the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
RADIUS server list
Figure 120:RADIUS server list
Create New
Add a new RADIUS server.
Name
The RADIUS server name.
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RADIUS
User
Server Name/IP The domain name or IP address of the RADIUS server.
The Delete and Edit icons.
RADIUS server options
Figure 121:RADIUS configuration
Name
Enter a name to identify the RADIUS server.
Server Name/IP Enter the domain name or IP address of the RADIUS server.
Server Secret
Enter the RADIUS server secret.
To configure the FortiGate unit for RADIUS authentication
1
Go to User > RADIUS.
2
Select Create New to add a new RADIUS server or select the Edit icon to edit an
existing configuration.
3
Enter the Name of the RADIUS server.
4
Enter the domain name or IP address of the RADIUS server.
5
Enter the RADIUS server secret.
6
Select OK.
To delete a RADIUS server
You cannot delete a RADIUS server that has been added to a user group.
250
1
Go to User > RADIUS.
2
Select the Delete icon beside the RADIUS server name that you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
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User
LDAP
LDAP
If you have configured LDAP support and a user is required to authenticate using an
LDAP server, the FortiGate unit contacts the LDAP server for authentication. To
authenticate with the FortiGate unit, the user enters a user name and password. The
FortiGate unit sends this user name and password to the LDAP server. If the LDAP
server can authenticate the user, the user is successfully authenticated with the
FortiGate unit. If the LDAP server cannot authenticate the user, the connection is
refused by the FortiGate unit.
The FortiGate unit supports LDAP protocol functionality defined in RFC2251 for
looking up and validating user names and passwords. FortiGate LDAP supports all
LDAP servers compliant with LDAP v3.
FortiGate LDAP support does not extend to proprietary functionality, such as
notification of password expiration, that is available from some LDAP servers.
FortiGate LDAP support does not supply information to the user about why
authentication failed.
LDAP server list
Figure 122:LDAP server list
Create New
Add a new LDAP server.
Server Name/IP The domain name or IP address of the LDAP server.
Port
The port used to communicate with the LDAP server.
Common Name The common name identifier for the LDAP server. 20 characters maximum.
The common name identifier for most LDAP servers is cn. However some
Identifier
servers use other common name identifiers such as uid.
Distinguished
Name
The distinguished name used to look up entries on the LDAP server. It
reflects the hierarchy of LDAP database object classes above the Common
Name Identifier.
The Delete and Edit icons.
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LDAP
User
LDAP server options
Figure 123:LDAP server configuration
Name
Enter a name to identify the LDAP server.
Server Name/IP Enter the domain name or IP address of the LDAP server.
Server Port
Enter the port used to communicate with the LDAP server.
By default LDAP uses port 389.
Common Name Enter the common name identifier for the LDAP server.
Identifier
The common name identifier for most LDAP servers is cn. However some
servers use other common name identifiers such as uid.
Distinguished
Name
Enter the distinguished name used to look up entries on the LDAP server.
Enter the base distinguished name for the server using the correct X.500 or
LDAP format. The FortiGate unit passes this distinguished name unchanged
to the server.
For example, you could use the following base distinguished name:
ou=marketing,dc=fortinet,dc=com
where ou is organization unit and dc is domain component.
You can also specify multiple instances of the same field in the distinguished
name, for example, to specify multiple organization units:
ou=accounts,ou=marketing,dc=fortinet,dc=com
To configure the FortiGate unit for LDAP authentication:
1
Go to User > LDAP.
2
Select Create New to add a new LDAP server, or select the Edit icon to edit an
existing configuration.
3
Enter the name of the LDAP server.
4
Enter the domain name or IP address of the LDAP server.
5
Enter the port used to communicate with the LDAP server.
6
Enter the common name identifier for the LDAP server.
7
Enter the distinguished name used to look up entries on the LDAP server.
8
Select OK.
To delete an LDAP server
You cannot delete an LDAP server that has been added to a user group.
252
1
Go to User > LDAP.
2
Select Delete beside the LDAP server name that you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
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User
User group
User group
To enable authentication, you must add user names, RADIUS servers, and LDAP
servers to one or more user groups. You can then assign a firewall protection profile
to the user group. You can configure authentication as follows:
•
Firewall policies that require authentication:
You can choose the user groups that are allowed to authenticate with these
policies.
•
IPSec VPN Phase 1 configurations for dialup users:
Only users in the selected user group can authenticate to use the VPN tunnel.
•
XAuth for IPSec VPN Phase 1 configurations:
Only user groups in the selected user group can be authenticated using XAuth.
•
The FortiGate PPTP configuration:
Only users in the selected user group can use PPTP.
•
The FortiGate L2TP configuration:
Only users in the selected user group can use L2TP.
When you add user names, RADIUS servers, and LDAP servers to a user group, the
order in which they are added determines the order in which the FortiGate unit checks
for authentication. If user names are first, then the FortiGate unit checks for a match
with these local users. If a match is not found, the FortiGate unit checks the RADIUS
or LDAP server. If a RADIUS or LDAP server is added first, the FortiGate unit checks
the server and then the local users.
User group list
Figure 124:User group list
Create New
Add a new user group.
Group Name
The name of the user group.
Members
The users, RADIUS servers, or LDAP servers in a user group.
Protection Profile The protection profile associated with this user group.
The Delete and Edit icons.
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User group
User
User group options
Figure 125:User group configuration
Group Name
Enter the name of the user group.
Available Users
The list of users, RADIUS servers, or LDAP servers that can be added to
a user group.
Members
The list of users, RADIUS servers, or LDAP servers added to a user
group.
Protection Profile
Select a protection profile for this user group.
To configure a user group
254
1
Go to User > User Group.
2
Select Create New to add a new user group, or select the Edit icon to edit an existing
configuration.
3
Enter a Group Name to identify the user group.
4
To add users to the user group, select a user from the Available Users list and select
the right arrow to add the name to the Members list.
5
To add a RADIUS server to the user group, select a RADIUS server from the
Available Users list and select the right arrow to add the RADIUS server to the
Members list.
6
To add an LDAP server to the user group, select an LDAP server from the Available
Users list and select the right arrow to add the LDAP server to the Members list.
7
To remove users, RADIUS servers, or LDAP servers from the user group, select a
user, RADIUS server, or LDAP server from the Members list and select the left arrow
to remove the name, RADIUS server, or LDAP server from the group.
8
Select a protection profile from the Protection Profiles list.
9
Select OK.
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User
CLI configuration
To delete a user group
You cannot delete a user group that is included in a firewall policy, a dialup user
phase 1 configuration, or a PPTP or L2TP configuration.
1
Go to User > User Group.
2
Select Delete beside the user group that you want to delete.
3
Select OK.
CLI configuration
This guide only covers Command Line Interface (CLI) commands that are not
represented in the web-based manager. For complete descriptions and examples of
how to use CLI commands see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
peer
Use this command to add or edit the peer certificate information.
Command syntax pattern
config user peer
edit <name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
config user peer
edit <name_str>
unset <keyword>
config user peer
delete <name_str>
get user peer [<name_str>]
show user peer [<name_str>]
radius command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
ca
cn
cn-type {FDQN | email
| ipv4 | string}
subject
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Description
Enter the peer Certificate Authority
(CA).
Enter the peer certificate common
name.
Enter the peer certificate common
name type.
Enter the peer certificate name
constraints.
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Availability
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No default. All models.
string
All models.
No default. All models.
255
CLI configuration
User
Example
This example shows how to add the branch_office peer.
config user peer
edit branch_office
set ca
set cn
set cn-type
end
This example shows how to display the list of configured peers.
get user peer
This example shows how to display the settings for the peer branch_office.
get user peer branch_office
This example shows how to display the configuration for all the peers.
show user peer
This example shows how to display the configuration for the peer branch_office.
show user peer branch_office
peergrp
Use this command to add or edit a peer group.
Command syntax pattern
config user peergrp
edit <name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
config user peergrp
edit <name_str>
unset <keyword>
config user peergrp
delete <name_str>
get user peergrp [<name_str>]
show user peergrp [<name_str>]
radius command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
member <name_str>
[<name_str> [<name_str>
[<name_str> ... ]]]
256
Description
Enter the names of peers to add
to the peer group. Separate
names by spaces. To add or
remove names from the group
you must re-enter the whole list
with the additions or deletions
required.
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User
CLI configuration
Example
This example shows how to add peers to the peergrp EU_branches.
config user peergrp
edit EU_branches
set member Sophia_branch Valencia_branch
Cardiff_branch
end
This example shows how to display the list of configured peer groups.
get user peergrp
This example shows how to display the settings for the peergrp EU_branches.
get user peergrp EU_branches
This example shows how to display the configuration for all the peers groups.
show user peergrp
This example shows how to display the configuration for the peergrp EU_branches.
show user peergrp EU_branches
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CLI configuration
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User
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
VPN
FortiGate units support the following protocols to authenticate and encrypt traffic:
•
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
•
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
•
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
This chapter contains information about the following VPN topics:
•
Phase 1
•
Phase 2
•
Manual key
•
Concentrator
•
Ping Generator
•
Monitor
•
PPTP
•
L2TP
•
Certificates
•
VPN configuration procedures
•
CLI configuration
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Phase 1
VPN
Phase 1
The basic phase 1 settings associate IPSec phase 1 parameters with a remote
gateway and determine:
•
whether the various phase 1 parameters will be exchanged in multiple rounds with
encrypted authentication information (main mode) or in a single message with
authentication information that is not encrypted (aggressive mode)
•
whether a preshared key or digital certificates will be used to authenticate the
identities of the two VPN peers
•
whether a peer identifier, certificate distinguished name, or group name will be
used to identify the remote peer or client when a connection attempt is made
In phase 1, the two VPN peers exchange keys to establish a secure communication
channel between them. The advanced P1 Proposal parameters select the encryption
and authentication algorithms that are used to generate the keys. Additional advanced
phase 1 settings can be selected to ensure the smooth operation of phase 1
negotiations.
To configure phase 1 settings
1
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Phase 1.
2
Follow the general guidelines in these sections:
•
“Phase 1 list” on page 260
•
“Phase 1 basic settings” on page 261
•
“Phase 1 advanced settings” on page 263
For information about how to choose the correct phase 1 settings for your particular
situation, refer to the FortiGate VPN Guide.
Note: The procedures in this section assume that you want the FortiGate unit to generate
unique IPSec encryption and authentication keys automatically. In situations where a remote
VPN peer requires a specific IPSec encryption and/or authentication key, you must configure
the FortiGate unit to use manual keys instead. For more information, see “Manual key” on
page 268.
Phase 1 list
Figure 126:IPSec VPN Phase 1 list
260
Create New
Select Create New to create a new phase 1 configuration.
Gateway Name
The names of existing phase 1 configurations.
Gateway IP
The IP address or domain name of a remote peer, or Dialup for a dialup
client.
Mode
Main or Aggressive.
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VPN
Phase 1
Encryption
Algorithm
The names of the encryption and authentication algorithms used by each
phase 1 configuration.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a phase 1 configuration.
Phase 1 basic settings
Figure 127:Phase 1 basic settings
Gateway Name Type a name for the remote VPN peer or client. Enter a name that reflects the
origination of the remote connection.
Remote
Gateway
IP Address
Select the nature of the remote connection:
• If a remote peer with a static IP address will be connecting to the FortiGate
unit, select Static IP Address and type the IP address of the remote VPN
end point into the IP Address field.
•
If one or more dialup clients with dynamic IP addresses will be connecting
to the FortiGate unit, select Dialup User.
•
If a remote peer that has a domain name and subscribes to a dynamic
DNS service will be connecting to the FortiGate unit, select Dynamic DNS
and type the domain name of the remote peer into the Dynamic DNS field.
If Static IP Address is selected, type the IP address of the remote peer.
Dynamic DNS
If Dynamic DNS is selected, type the domain name of the remote peer.
Mode
Select Main or Aggressive.
• In Main mode, the phase 1 parameters are exchanged in multiple rounds
with encrypted authentication information.
•
In Aggressive mode, the phase 1 parameters are exchanged in single
message with authentication information that is not encrypted. You must
select Aggressive if the FortiGate unit participates in a dynamic DNS
configuration.
Authentication Select Preshared Key or RSA Signature.
Method
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Phase 1
VPN
Pre-shared Key If Preshared Key is selected, type the preshared key that the FortiGate unit
will use to authenticate itself to the remote peer during phase 1 negotiations.
You must define the same value at the remote peer. The key must contain at
least 6 printable characters and should only be known by network
administrators. For optimum protection against currently known attacks, the
key should consist of a minimum of 16 randomly chosen alphanumeric
characters.
262
Certificate
Name
If RSA Signature is selected, select the name of the digital certificate that the
FortiGate unit will use to authenticate itself to the remote peer during phase 1
negotiations.
Peer Options
These options are available to authenticate remote dialup clients or VPN
peers with peer IDs or certificate names, depending on the Remote Gateway
and Mode settings.
• Select Accept any peer ID to accept the local ID of any remote client or
VPN peer.
•
If the remote peer has a domain name and subscribes to a dynamic DNS
service, select Accept this peer ID and type the fully qualified domain
name of the remote peer. This value must be identical to the value in the
Local ID field of the phase 1 remote gateway configuration on the remote
peer.
•
To grant access to selected remote peers or clients based on a peer ID,
select Accept this peer ID and type the identifier. This value must be
identical to the value in the Local ID field of the phase 1 remote gateway
configuration on the remote peer or client.
•
To grant access to dialup users based on the name of a dialup group,
select Accept peer ID in dialup group and select the name of the group
from the list.
•
To grant access to selected remote peers or clients based on a certificate
distinguished name, select Accept this peer certificate only and select the
name of the certificate from the list. The certificate must be added to the
FortiGate configuration through the config user peer CLI command
before it can be selected. For more information, see the “config user”
chapter of the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
•
To grant access to selected remote peers or clients based on the name of
a certificate group, select Accept this peer certificate group only and select
the name of the group from the list. The group must be added to the
FortiGate configuration through the config user peer and config
user peergrp CLI commands before it can be selected. For more
information, see the “config user” chapter of the FortiGate CLI Reference
Guide.
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VPN
Phase 1
Phase 1 advanced settings
Figure 128:Phase 1 advanced settings
P1 Proposal
Select the encryption and authentication algorithms that will be used to
generate keys for protecting negotiations.
Add or delete encryption and authentication algorithms as required. Select a
minimum of one and a maximum of three combinations. The remote peer
must be configured to use at least one of the proposals that you define.
You can select any of the following symmetric-key algorithms:
• DES-Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses a 56bit key.
•
3DES-Triple-DES, in which plain text is encrypted three times by three
keys.
•
AES128-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
•
AES192-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
• AES256-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
You can select either of the following message digests to check the
authenticity of messages during phase 1 negotiations:
• MD5-Message Digest 5, the hash algorithm developed by RSA Data
Security.
•
SHA1-Secure Hash Algorithm 1, which produces a 160-bit message
digest.
To specify a third combination, use the add button beside the fields for the
second combination.
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Phase 1
VPN
DH Group
264
Select one or more Diffie-Hellman groups from DH group 1, 2, and 5.
When using aggressive mode, DH groups cannot be negotiated.
• If both VPN peers have static IP addresses and use aggressive mode,
select a single DH group. The setting on the FortiGate unit must be
identical to the setting on the remote peer or client.
•
When the VPN peer or client has a dynamic IP address and uses
aggressive mode, select up to three DH groups on the FortiGate unit and
one DH group on the remote peer or dialup client. The setting on the
remote peer or client must be identical to one of the selections on the
FortiGate unit.
•
If the VPN peer or client employs main mode, you can select multiple DH
groups. At least one of the settings on the remote peer or client must be
identical to the selections on the FortiGate unit.
Keylife
Type the amount of time (in seconds) that will be allowed to pass before the
IKE encryption key expires. When the key expires, a new key is generated
without interrupting service. The keylife can be from 120 to 172800 seconds.
Local ID
If you are using peer IDs for authentication, enter the peer ID that the local
FortiGate unit will use to authenticate itself to remote VPN peers.
If you are using certificates for authentication, select the distinguished name
(DN) of the local certificate.
XAuth
If you select Enable as Client, type the user name and password that the
FortiGate unit will need to authenticate itself to the remote peer.
To select Enable as Server, you must first create user groups to identify the
remote peers and dialup clients that need access to the network behind the
FortiGate unit. You must also configure the FortiGate unit to forward
authentication requests to an external RADIUS or LDAP authentication
server. For information about these topics, see the “Users and Authentication”
chapter of the FortiGate Administration Guide. Select a Server Type setting to
determine the type of encryption method to use between the FortiGate unit,
the XAuth client and the external authentication server, and then select the
user group from the User Group list.
Nat-traversal
Enable this option if a NAT device exists between the local FortiGate unit and
the VPN peer or client. The local FortiGate unit and the VPN peer or client
must have the same NAT traversal setting (both selected or both cleared).
Keepalive
Frequency
If you enabled NAT traversal, enter a keepalive frequency setting. The value
represents an interval from 0 to 900 seconds.
Dead Peer
Detection
Enable this option to reestablish VPN tunnels on idle connections and clean
up dead IKE peers if required.
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Phase 2
You configure phase 2 settings to specify the parameters for creating and maintaining
a VPN tunnel between the FortiGate unit and the remote peer or client. In most cases,
you only need to configure the basic phase 2 settings.
To configure phase 2 settings
1
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Phase 2.
2
Follow the general guidelines in these sections:
•
“Phase 2 list” on page 265
•
“Phase 2 basic settings” on page 266
•
“Phase 2 advanced options” on page 266
For information about how to choose the correct phase 2 settings for your particular
situation, refer to the FortiGate VPN Guide.
Note: The procedures in this section assume that you want the FortiGate unit to generate
unique IPSec encryption and authentication keys automatically. In situations where a remote
VPN peer requires a specific IPSec encryption and/or authentication key, you must configure
the FortiGate unit to use manual keys instead. For more information, see “Manual key” on
page 268.
Phase 2 list
Figure 129:IPSec VPN Phase 2 list
Create New
Select Create New to create a new phase 2 tunnel configuration.
Tunnel Name
The names of existing tunnel configurations.
Remote Gateway
The names of the phase 1 configurations that are associated with the
tunnel configurations.
Lifetime (sec/kb)
The tunnel key lifetime.
Status
The current status of the tunnel. If Down, the tunnel is not processing
traffic. If Up, the tunnel is currently processing traffic. Unknown is
displayed for dialup tunnels.
Timeout
If the tunnel is processing VPN traffic, the Timeout value specifies
amount of time left before the next phase 2 key exchange. When the
phase 2 key expires, a new key is generated without interrupting service.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a phase 2 configuration.
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Phase 2
VPN
Phase 2 basic settings
Figure 130:Phase 2 basic settings
Tunnel Name
Type a name to identify the tunnel configuration.
Remote
Gateway
Select the phase 1 configuration to assign to this tunnel. See “Phase 1” on
page 260. The phase 1 configuration describes how remote peers or clients
will be authenticated on this tunnel, and how the connection to the remote
peer or client will be secured.
Concentrator
If the tunnel will be included in a hub-and-spoke configuration, you may select
the concentrator from the list. The hub must be added to the FortiGate
configuration before it can be selected here. See “Concentrator” on page 271.
Phase 2 advanced options
Figure 131:Phase 2 advanced settings
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Phase 2
P2 Proposal
Select the encryption and authentication algorithms that will be used to
change data into encrypted code.
Add or delete encryption and authentication algorithms as required. Select a
minimum of one and a maximum of three combinations. The remote peer
must be configured to use at least one of the proposals that you define.
You can select any of the following symmetric-key algorithms:
• NULL-Do not use an encryption algorithm.
•
DES-Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses a 56bit key.
•
3DES-Triple-DES, in which plain text is encrypted three times by three
keys.
•
AES128-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
•
AES192-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
•
AES256-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
You can select either of the following message digests to check the
authenticity of messages during an encrypted session:
• NULL-Do not use a message digest.
•
MD5-Message Digest 5, the hash algorithm developed by RSA Data
Security.
•
SHA1-Secure Hash Algorithm 1, which produces a 160-bit message
digest.
To specify one combination only, set the Encryption and Authentication
options of the second combination to NULL. To specify a third combination,
use the add button beside the fields for the second combination.
Enable replay
detection
Optionally enable or disable replay detection. Replay attacks occur when an
unauthorized party intercepts a series of IPSec packets and replays them
back into the tunnel.
Enable perfect Enable or disable PFS. Perfect forward secrecy (PFS) improves security by
forcing a new Diffie-Hellman exchange whenever keylife expires.
forward
secrecy (PFS)
DH Group
Select one Diffie-Hellman group (1, 2, or 5). The remote peer or client must be
configured to use the same group.
Keylife
Select the method for determining when the phase 2 key expires: Seconds,
KBytes, or Both. If you select both, the key expires when either the time has
passed or the number of KB have been processed. The range is from 120 to
172800 seconds, or from 5120 to 2147483648 KB.
Autokey Keep Enable the option if you want the tunnel to remain active when no data is
being processed.
Alive
DHCP-IPSec
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If the FortiGate unit will relay DHCP requests from dialup clients to an external
DHCP server, you can select DHCP-IPsec Enable to enable DHCP over
IPSec services. The DHCP relay parameters must be configured separately.
For more information, see “System DHCP” on page 81.
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Manual key
VPN
Internet
browsing
If the tunnel will support an Internet-browsing configuration, select the
browsing interface from the list.
Quick Mode
Identities
Enter the method for choosing selectors for IKE negotiations:
• To choose a selector from a firewall encryption policy, select Use selectors
from policy.
•
To disable selector negotiation, select Use wildcard selectors.
•
To specify the firewall encryption policy source and destination IP
addresses, select Specify a selector and then select the names of the
source and destination addresses from the Source address and Dest
address lists. You may optionally specify source and destination port
numbers and/or a protocol number.
Manual key
If required, you can manually define cryptographic keys for establishing an IPSec VPN
tunnel. You would define manual keys in situations where:
•
Prior knowledge of the encryption and/or authentication key is required (that is,
one of the VPN peers requires a specific IPSec encryption and/or authentication
key).
•
Encryption and authentication needs to be disabled.
In both cases, you do not specify IPSec phase 1 and phase 2 parameters; you define
manual keys on the VPN > IPSEC > Manual Key tab instead.
If one of the VPN peers uses specific authentication and encryption keys to establish
a tunnel, both VPN peers must be configured to use the same encryption and
authentication algorithms and keys.
Note: It may not be safe or practical to define manual keys because network administrators
must be trusted to keep the keys confidential, and propagating changes to remote VPN peers in
a secure manner may be difficult.
It is essential that both VPN peers be configured with matching encryption and
authentication algorithms, matching authentication and encryption keys, and
complementary Security Parameter Index (SPI) settings.
Each SPI identifies a Security Association (SA). The value is placed in ESP
datagrams to link the datagrams to the SA. When an ESP datagram is received, the
recipient refers to the SPI to determine which SA applies to the datagram. An SPI
must be specified manually for each SA. Because an SA applies to communication in
one direction only, you must specify two SPIs per configuration (a local SPI and a
remote SPI) to cover bidirectional communications between two VPN peers.
!
Caution: If you are not familiar with the security policies, SAs, selectors, and SA databases for
your particular installation, do not attempt the following procedure without qualified assistance.
To specify manual keys for creating a tunnel
1
268
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Manual Key and select Create New.
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Manual key
2
Follow the guidelines in these sections:
•
“Manual key list” on page 269
•
“Manual key options” on page 269
Manual key list
Figure 132:IPSec VPN Manual Key list
Create New
Select Create New to create a new manual key configuration.
Remote Gateway
The IP address of the remote peer or client.
Encryption
Algorithm
The names of the encryption algorithms used in the configuration.
Authentication
Algorithm
The names of the authentication algorithms used in the configuration.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a manual key configuration.
Manual key options
VPN Tunnel Name Type a name for the VPN tunnel.
Local SPI
Type a hexadecimal number (up to 8 characters, 0-9, a-f) that represents
the SA that handles outbound traffic on the local FortiGate unit. The valid
range is from 0xbb8 to 0xffffffff. This value must match the Remote
SPI value in the manual key configuration at the remote peer.
Remote SPI
Type a hexadecimal number (up to 8 characters, 0-9, a-f) that represents
the SA that handles inbound traffic on the local FortiGate unit. The valid
range is from 0xbb8 to 0xffffffff. This value must match the Local
SPI value in the manual key configuration at the remote peer.
Remote Gateway
Type the IP address of the public interface to the remote peer. The
address identifies the recipient of ESP datagrams.
Encryption
Algorithm
Select one of the following symmetric-key encryption algorithms:
• DES-Digital Encryption Standard, a 64-bit block algorithm that uses a
56-bit key.
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•
3DES-Triple-DES, in which plain text is encrypted three times by three
keys.
•
AES128-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 128-bit key.
•
AES192-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 192-bit key.
•
AES256-A 128-bit block algorithm that uses a 256-bit key.
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Manual key
VPN
Figure 133:Adding a manual key VPN tunnel
Encryption Key
Authentication
Algorithm
If you selected:
• DES, type a 16-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f).
•
3DES, type a 48-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f) separated
into three segments of 16 characters.
•
AES128, type a 32-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f)
separated into two segments of 16 characters.
•
AES192, type a 48-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f)
separated into three segments of 16 characters.
•
AES256, type a 64-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f)
separated into four segments of 16 characters.
Select one of the following message digests:
• MD5-Message Digest 5 algorithm, which produces a 128-bit message
digest.
•
SHA1-Secure Hash Algorithm 1, which produces a 160-bit message
digest.
Authentication Key If you selected:
• MD5, type a 32-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f) separated
into two segments of 16 characters.
•
Concentrator
270
SHA1, type 40-character hexadecimal number (0-9, a-f) separated
into one segment of 16 characters and a second segment of 24
characters.
If the tunnel will be included in a hub-and-spoke configuration, you may
select the concentrator from the list. The hub must be added to the
FortiGate configuration before it can be selected here. See
“Concentrator” on page 271.
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Concentrator
Concentrator
In a hub-and-spoke configuration, connections to a number of remote peers radiate
from a single, central FortiGate unit. Site-to-site connections between the remote
peers do not exist; however, VPN tunnels between any two of the remote peers can
be established through the FortiGate unit “hub”.
In a hub-and-spoke network, all VPN tunnels terminate at the hub. The peers that
connect to the hub are known as “spokes”. The hub functions as a concentrator on the
network, managing all VPN connections between the spokes. VPN traffic passes from
one tunnel to the other through the hub.
You define a concentrator to include spokes in the hub-and-spoke configuration.
To define a concentrator
1
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Concentrator.
2
Follow the guidelines in these sections:
•
“Concentrator list” on page 271
•
“Concentrator options” on page 272
Concentrator list
Figure 134:IPSec VPN concentrator list
Create New
Select Create New to define a new concentrator for an IPSec hub-andspoke configuration.
Concentrator Name The names of existing IPSec VPN concentrators.
Members
The tunnels that are associated with the concentrator.
Delete and Edit
icons
Delete or edit a concentrator configuration.
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Ping Generator
VPN
Concentrator options
Figure 135:Creating a concentrator for a hub-and-spoke configuration
Concentrator
Name
Type a name for the concentrator.
Available
Tunnels
A list of defined IPsec VPN tunnels. Select a tunnel from the list and then
select the right-pointing arrow. Repeat these steps until all of the tunnels
associated with the spokes are included in the concentrator.
Members
A list of tunnels that are members of the concentrator. To remove a tunnel
from the concentrator, select the tunnel and select the left-pointing arrow.
Ping Generator
The ping generator generates traffic in an IPSec VPN tunnel to keep the tunnel
connection open when no traffic is being generated inside the tunnel. For example,
the ping generator is useful in scenarios where a dialup client or dynamic DNS peer
connects from an IP address that changes periodically—traffic may be suspended
while the IP address changes. You may also use the ping generator to troubleshoot
network connectivity inside a VPN tunnel.
You can configure settings to generate ping commands through two tunnels
simultaneously. The ping interval is fixed at 40 seconds.
The source and destination IP addresses refer to the source and destination
addresses of IP packets that are to be transported through the VPN tunnel. When
source and destination addresses of 0.0.0.0 are entered, no ping traffic is
generated between the source and destination.
To configure the ping generator
272
1
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Ping Generator.
2
Select Enable.
3
In the Source IP 1 field, type the private IP address or subnet address from which
traffic may originate locally (for example, 192.168.20.12 or 192.168.20.0
respectively).
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Monitor
4
In the Destination IP 1 field, enter the IP address of a remote computer:
•
For a peer-to-peer configuration, the destination address is the private IP address
of a server or host behind the remote VPN peer (for example, 172.16.5.1/32).
•
For a dialup-client or Internet-browsing configuration where the remote VPN client
is configured to acquire a virtual IP address, the destination address must
correspond to the virtual IP address that can be acquired.
5
If you want to enable a second ping generator, repeat Steps 3 and 4 for the Source IP
2 and Destination IP 2 settings.
6
Select Apply.
Ping generator options
Figure 136:Ping generator
Enable
Select the option to ping the specified destination address using the
specified source address.
Source IP 1
Enter the IP address from which traffic may originate locally.
Destination IP 1
Enter the IP address of the remote computer to ping.
Source IP 2
If you want to generate traffic on a second VPN tunnel simultaneously,
enter a second IP address from which traffic may originate locally.
Destination IP 2
Enter the IP address of the second computer to ping
Monitor
You can use the monitor to view activity on IPSec VPN tunnels and start or stop those
tunnels. The display provides a list of addresses, proxy IDs, and timeout information
for all active tunnels.
To view active tunnels
1
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Monitor.
To interpret the display, see the following sections:
•
“Dialup monitor” on page 274
•
“Static IP and dynamic DNS monitor” on page 275
To establish or take down a VPN tunnel
1
Go to VPN > IPSEC > Monitor.
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Monitor
VPN
2
In the list of tunnels, select the Bring down tunnel or Bring up tunnel button in the row
that corresponds to the tunnel that you want to bring down or up.
If you take down an active tunnel while a dialup client such as FortiClient is still
connected, FortiClient will continue to show the tunnel connected and idle. The dialup
client must disconnect before another tunnel can be initiated.
Dialup monitor
The list of dialup tunnels provides information about the status of tunnels that have
been established for dialup clients. The list displays the IP addresses of dialup clients
and the names of all active tunnels. The number of tunnels shown in the list can
change as dialup clients connect and disconnect.
Figure 137:Dialup monitor
Flush dialup
tunnels icon
Stop all dialup tunnels and stop the traffic passing through all dialup tunnels.
Dialup users may have to reconnect to establish new VPN sessions.
Name
The name of the tunnel.
Remote gateway The IP address and UDP port of the remote gateway.
Username
The peer ID, certificate name, or XAuth user name of the dialup client (if a
peer ID, certificate name, or XAuth user name was assigned to the dialup
client for authentication purposes).
Timeout
The time before the next key exchange. The time is calculated by
subtracting the time elapsed since the last key exchange from the keylife.
Proxy ID Source The IP address of the host, server, or private network behind the FortiGate
unit. A network range may be displayed if the source address in the firewall
encryption policy was expressed as a range of IP addresses.
Proxy ID
Destination
The virtual IP (VIP) address of the dialup client. A range of VIP addresses
may be displayed if the destination address in the firewall encryption policy
was expressed as a range of VIP addresses.
Bring up tunnel Start or stop the current dialup tunnel. If you stop the tunnel, the dialup user
and Bring down may have to reconnect to establish a new VPN session.
tunnel icons
Page up and
Display the previous or next page of dialup-tunnel status listings.
Page down icons
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PPTP
Static IP and dynamic DNS monitor
The list of tunnels provides information about VPN connections to remote peers that
have static IP addresses or domain names. You can use this list to view status and IP
addressing information for each tunnel configuration. You can also start and stop
individual tunnels from the list.
Figure 138:Static IP and dynamic DNS monitor
Name
The name of the tunnel.
Remote gateway The IP address and UDP port of the remote gateway. For dynamic DNS
tunnels, the IP address is updated dynamically.
Timeout
The time before the next key exchange. The time is calculated by
subtracting the time elapsed since the last key exchange from the keylife.
Proxy ID Source The IP address of the host, server, or private network behind the FortiGate
unit. A network range may be displayed if the source address in the firewall
encryption policy was expressed as a range of IP addresses.
Proxy ID
Destination
The IP address of the remote peer.
Bring up tunnel Start or stop the selected VPN tunnel. If you stop the tunnel, the remote
and Bring down VPN peer may have to reconnect to establish a new VPN session.
tunnel icons
Page up and
Display the previous or next page of VPN-tunnel status listings.
Page down icons
PPTP
FortiGate units support PPTP to tunnel PPP traffic between two VPN peers. Windows
or Linux PPTP clients can establish a PPTP tunnel with a FortiGate unit that has been
configured to act as a PPTP server. As an alternative, you can configure the FortiGate
unit to forward PPTP packets to a PPTP server on the network behind the FortiGate
unit.
For information about how to perform these tasks, see “PPTP configuration
procedures” on page 283.
To enable PPTP and specify the PPTP address range
1
Go to VPN > PPTP > PPTP Range.
2
Enable PPTP and specify the address range.
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L2TP
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PPTP range
The PPTP address range is the range of addresses reserved for remote PPTP clients.
When the remote PPTP client connects, the FortiGate unit assigns an IP address from
a reserved range of IP addresses to the client PPTP interface. The PPTP client uses
the assigned IP address as its source address for the duration of the connection.
Figure 139:PPTP range
Enable PPTP
You must add a user group before you can select the option.
Starting IP
Type the starting address in the range of reserved IP addresses.
Ending IP
Type the ending address in the range of reserved IP addresses.
User Group
Select the name of the PPTP user group that you defined.
Disable PPTP
Select the option to disable PPTP support.
L2TP
A FortiGate unit can be configured to act as an L2TP network server. The FortiGate
implementation of L2TP enables a remote dialup client to establish an L2TP tunnel
with the FortiGate unit directly.
For information about how to perform the related tasks, see “L2TP configuration
procedures” on page 283.
To enable L2TP and specify the L2TP address range
276
1
Go to VPN > L2TP > L2TP Range.
2
Enable L2TP and specify the address range.
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L2TP range
The L2TP address range specifies the range of addresses reserved for remote clients.
When a remote client connects to the FortiGate unit, the client is assigned an IP
address from this range. Afterward, the FortiGate unit uses the assigned address to
communicate with the remote client.
Figure 140:L2TP range
Enable L2TP
You must add a user group before you can enable the option.
Starting IP
Type the starting address in the range of reserved IP addresses.
Ending IP
Type the ending address in the range of reserved IP addresses.
User Group
Select the name of the L2TP user group that you defined.
Disable L2TP
Select the option to disable L2TP support.
Certificates
Digital certificates are downloadable files that you can install on the FortiGate unit and
on remote peers and clients for authentication purposes.
An X.509 digital certificate contains information that has been digitally signed by a
trusted third party known as a certificate authority (CA). Because CAs can be trusted,
the certificates issued by a CA are deemed to be trustworthy.
To view and manage local certificates
1
Go to VPN > Certificates > Local Certificates.
2
Follow the guidelines in these sections:
•
“Local certificate list” on page 278
•
“Certificate request” on page 278
•
“Importing signed certificates” on page 280
To import and view CA certificates
1
Go to VPN > Certificates > CA Certificates.
2
For more information, see “CA certificate list” on page 280 and “Importing CA
certificates” on page 280.
For detailed information and step-by-step procedures related to obtaining and
installing digital certificates, see the FortiGate VPN Guide.
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Certificates
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Local certificate list
Figure 141:Certificate list
Generate
Select to generate a local certificate request. See “Certificate request” on
page 278.
Import
Select to import a signed local certificate. See “Importing signed certificates”
on page 280.
Name
The names of existing local certificates and pending certificate requests.
Subject
The Distinguished Names (DNs) of local signed certificates.
Status
The status of the local certificate. PENDING designates a certificate request
that should be downloaded and signed.
View Certificate
Detail icon
Select to display certificate details such as the certificate name, issuer,
subject, and valid certificate dates. See Figure 142.
Delete icon
Delete a certificate from the FortiGate configuration.
Download icon
Select to save a copy of the certificate request to a local computer. Send the
request to your CA to obtain a certificate for the FortiGate unit.
Figure 142:Certificate details
Certificate request
To obtain a personal or site certificate, you must send a request to a CA that provides
digital certificates that adhere to the X.509 standard. The FortiGate unit provides a
way for you to generate the request. The generated request includes information such
as the FortiGate unit’s public static IP address, domain name, or email address.
To generate a certificate request
278
1
Go to VPN > Certificates > Local Certificates.
2
Select Generate.
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Certificates
Figure 143:Generating a certificate signing request
Certification Name
Type a certificate name. Typically, this would be the name of the
FortiGate unit.
Subject Information
Enter the information needed to identify the FortiGate unit. Preferably
use an IP address or domain name. If this is impossible (such as with
a dialup client), use an email address.
• For Host IP, enter the public IP address of the FortiGate unit being
certified.
•
For Domain name, enter the fully qualified domain name of the
FortiGate unit being certified. Do not include the protocol
specification (http://) or any port number or path names.
•
For E-mail, enter the email address of the owner of the FortiGate
unit being certified. Typically, email addresses are entered only
for clients, not gateways.
Organization Unit
Name of your department.
Organization
Legal name of your company or organization.
Locality (City)
Name of the city or town where the FortiGate unit is installed.
State/Province
Name of the state or province where the FortiGate unit is installed.
Country
Select the country where the FortiGate unit is installed.
e-mail
Contact email address. The CA may choose to deliver the digital
certificate to this address.
Key Type
Only RSA is supported.
Key Size
Select 1024 Bit, 1536 Bit or 2048 Bit. Larger keys are slower to
generate but more secure. Not all IPSec VPN products support all
three key sizes.
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Importing signed certificates
Your CA will provide you with a signed certificate to install on the FortiGate unit. When
you receive the signed certificate from the CA, save the certificate on a PC that has
management access to the FortiGate unit.
To install a signed personal or site certificate
1
Go to VPN > Certificates > Local Certificates.
2
Select Import.
Figure 144:Importing a signed certificate
3
Browse to the location on the management PC where the certificate has been saved,
select the certificate, and then select OK.
4
Select OK.
CA certificate list
Follow the CA instructions to download their root certificate, and then install the root
certificate on the FortiGate unit. The installed CA certificates are displayed in the CA
certificate list.
Figure 145:CA certificate list
Import
Select to import a CA root certificate. See “Importing CA certificates” on
page 280.
Name
The names of existing CA root certificates. The FortiGate unit assigns
unique names (CA_Cert_1, CA_Cert_2, CA_Cert_3, and so on) to the
CA certificates when they are imported.
Subject
Information about the CA.
View Certificate
Detail icon
Select to display certificate details.
Delete icon
Delete a CA certificate from the FortiGate configuration.
Download icon
Select if you want to save a copy of the CA root certificate to a local
computer.
Importing CA certificates
After you download the root certificate of the CA, save the certificate on a PC that has
management access to the FortiGate unit.
To import a CA root certificate
1
280
Go to VPN > Certificates > CA Certificates.
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2
Select Import.
Figure 146:Importing a CA certificate
3
Browse to the location on the management PC where the certificate has been saved,
select the certificate, and then select OK.
4
Select OK.
VPN configuration procedures
The FortiGate VPN Guide uses a task-based approach to provide all of the
procedures needed to create different types of VPN configurations. The guide
contains the following chapters:
•
“Configuring IPSec VPNs” describes how to set up various IPSec VPN
configurations.
•
“Configuring PPTP VPNs” describes how to configure a PPTP tunnel between a
FortiGate unit and a PPTP client.
•
“Configuring L2TP VPNs” describes how to configure the FortiGate unit to operate
as an L2TP network server.
•
“Monitoring and Testing VPN Tunnels” outlines some general monitoring and
testing procedures for VPNs.
General high-level procedures are presented here. For details, see the FortiGate VPN
Guide.
IPSec configuration procedures
The following configuration procedures are common to all IPSec VPNs:
1
Define the phase 1 parameters that the FortiGate unit needs to authenticate remote
peers and establish a secure a connection. See “Phase 1” on page 260.
2
Define the phase 2 parameters that the FortiGate unit needs to create a VPN tunnel
with a remote peer. See “Phase 2” on page 265.
3
Define source and destination addresses for the IP packets that are to be transported
through the VPN tunnel, and create the firewall encryption policy, which defines the
scope of permitted services between the IP source and destination addresses. See
“Adding firewall policies for IPSec VPN tunnels” on page 282.
Note: Perform Steps 1 and 2 to have the FortiGate unit generate unique IPSec encryption and
authentication keys automatically. In situations where a remote VPN peer requires a specific
IPSec encryption and/or authentication key, you must configure the FortiGate unit to use
manual keys instead of performing Steps 1 and 2. For more information, see “Manual key” on
page 268.
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VPN
Adding firewall policies for IPSec VPN tunnels
Firewall policies control all IP traffic passing between a source address and a
destination address. A firewall encryption policy is needed to allow the transmission of
encrypted packets, specify the permitted direction of VPN traffic, and select the VPN
tunnel that will be subject to the policy. A single encryption policy is needed to control
both inbound and outbound IP traffic through a VPN tunnel.
Before you define the policy, you must first specify the IP source and destination
addresses.
To define an IP source address
1
Go to Firewall > Address and select Create New.
2
In the Address Name field, type a name that represents the local network, server(s),
or host(s) from which IP packets may originate on the private network behind the local
FortiGate unit.
3
In the IP Range/Subnet field, type the corresponding IP address and subnet mask (for
example, 172.16.5.0/24 for a subnet, or 172.16.5.1/32 for a server or host) or
IP address range (for example, 192.168.10.[80-100]).
4
Select OK.
To define an IP destination address
1
Go to Firewall > Address and select Create New.
2
In the Address Name field, type a name that represents the remote network, server(s),
or host(s) to which IP packets may be delivered.
3
In the IP Range/Subnet field, type the corresponding IP address and subnet mask (for
example, 192.168.20.0/24 for a subnet, or 192.168.20.2/32 for a server or
host), or IP address range (for example, 192.168.20.[10-25]).
4
Select OK.
To define the firewall encryption policy
282
1
Go to Firewall > Policy and select Create New.
2
Include appropriate entries as follows:
Interface/Zone
Source
Select the local interface to the internal (private) network.
Destination
Select the local interface to the external (public) network.
Address Name
Source
Select the name that corresponds to the local network, server(s), or
host(s) from which IP packets may originate.
Destination
Select the name that corresponds to the remote network, server(s), or
host(s) to which IP packets may be delivered. The name may correspond
to a VIP-address range for dialup clients.
Schedule
Keep the default setting (always) unless changes are needed to meet
specific requirements.
Service
Keep the default setting (ANY) unless changes are needed to meet your
specific requirements.
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VPN configuration procedures
Action
Select ENCRYPT.
VPN Tunnel
Select the name of the phase 2 tunnel configuration to which this policy
will apply.
Select Allow inbound if traffic from the remote network will be allowed to
initiate the tunnel.
Select Allow outbound if traffic from the local network will be allowed to
initiate the tunnel.
Select Inbound NAT to translate the source IP addresses of inbound
decrypted packets into the IP address of the FortiGate internal interface.
Select Outbound NAT to translate the source address of outbound
encrypted packets into the IP address of the FortiGate public interface.
3
You may enable a protection profile, and/or event logging, or select advanced settings
to shape traffic or differentiate services. See the “Firewall” chapter of the FortiGate
Administration Guide.
4
Select OK.
5
Place the policy in the policy list above any other policies having similar source and
destination addresses.
PPTP configuration procedures
If the FortiGate unit will act as a PPTP server, perform the following tasks on the
FortiGate unit:
1
Create a PPTP user group containing one user for each PPTP client. See “User” on
page 247.
2
Enable PPTP on the FortiGate unit and specify the range of addresses that can be
assigned to PPTP clients when they connect. See “PPTP range” on page 276.
3
Configure the PPTP server.
4
Configure the PPTP clients.
To perform Steps 3 and 4, see the FortiGate VPN Guide.
To arrange for PPTP packets to pass through the FortiGate unit to an external PPTP
server instead, you must:
1
Create a PPTP user group containing one user for each PPTP client. See “User” on
page 247.
2
Enable PPTP on the FortiGate unit and specify the range of addresses that can be
assigned to PPTP clients when they connect. See “PPTP range” on page 276.
3
Configure PPTP pass through on the FortiGate unit.
4
Configure the PPTP clients.
To perform Steps 3 and 4, see the FortiGate VPN Guide.
L2TP configuration procedures
To configure a FortiGate unit to act as an L2TP network server, perform the following
tasks on the FortiGate unit:
1
Create an L2TP user group containing one user for each remote client. See “User” on
page 247.
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2
Enable L2TP on the FortiGate unit and specify the range of addresses that can be
assigned to remote clients when they connect. See “L2TP range” on page 277.
3
Configure the L2TP server.
4
Configure the remote clients.
To perform Steps 3 and 4, see the FortiGate VPN Guide.
CLI configuration
This section provides information about features that must be configured through CLI
commands. CLI commands provide additional network options that cannot be
configured through the web-based manager. For complete descriptions and examples
of how to use CLI commands, see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
•
ipsec phase1
•
ipsec phase2
•
ipsec vip
ipsec phase1
In the web-based manager, the Dead Peer Detection option can be enabled when you
define advanced Phase 1 options. The config vpn ipsec phase1 CLI command
supports additional options for specifying a long and short idle time, a retry count, and
a retry interval.
Command syntax pattern
config vpn ipsec phase1
edit <name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config vpn ipsec phase1
edit <name_str>
unset <keyword>
end
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ipsec phase1 command keywords and variables
Keywords and
Description
variables
dpd-idlecleanup
The DPD long idle setting when dpd is set
<seconds_integer> to enable. Set the time, in seconds, that a
link must remain unused before the local
VPN peer pro-actively probes its state. After
this period of time expires, the local peer
will send a DPD probe to determine the
status of the link even if there is no traffic
between the local peer and the remote
peer. The dpd-idlecleanup range is 100
to 28 800 and must be greater than the
dpd-idleworry setting.
dpd-idleworry
The DPD short idle setting when dpd is set
<seconds_integer> to enable. Set the time, in seconds, that a
link must remain unused before the local
VPN peer considers it to be idle. After this
period of time expires, whenever the local
peer sends traffic to the remote VPN peer it
will also send a DPD probe to determine
the status of the link. The dpd-idleworry
range is 1 to 300.
To control the length of time that the
FortiGate unit takes to detect a dead peer
with DPD probes, use the dpdretrycount
and dpd-retryinterval keywords.
dpd-retrycount
The DPD retry count when dpd is set to
enable. Set the number of times that the
<retry_integer>
local VPN peer sends a DPD probe before
it considers the link to be dead and tears
down the security association (SA). The
dpd-retrycount range is 0 to 10.
To avoid false negatives due to congestion
or other transient failures, set the retry
count to a sufficiently high value for your
network.
dpd-retryinterval The DPD retry interval when dpd is set to
<seconds_integer> enable. Set the time, in seconds, that the
local VPN peer waits between sending DPD
probes. The dpd-retryinterval range
is 1 to 60.
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300
seconds
All models.
dpd must
be set to
enable.
10
seconds
All models.
dpd must
be set to
enable.
3
All models.
dpd must
be set to
enable.
5
seconds
All models.
dpd must
be set to
enable.
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Example
Use the following command to edit an IPSec VPN phase 1 configuration with the
following characteristics:
•
Phase 1 configuration name: Simple_GW
•
Remote peer address type: Dynamic
•
Encryption and authentication proposal: des-md5
•
Authentication method: psk
•
Pre-shared key: Qf2p3O93jIj2bz7E
•
Mode: aggressive
•
Dead Peer Detection: enable
•
Long idle: 1000
•
Short idle: 150
•
Retry count: 5
•
Retry interval: 30
config vpn ipsec phase1
edit Simple_GW
set Type dynamic
set proposal des-md5
set authmethod psk
set psksecret Qf2p3O93jIj2bz7E
set mode aggressive
set dpd enable
set dpd-idlecleanup 1000
set dpd-idleworry 150
set dpd-retrycount 5
set dpd-retryinterval 30
end
ipsec phase2
Use the config vpn ipsec phase2 CLI command to add or edit an IPSec VPN
phase 2 configuration.
Command syntax pattern
config vpn ipsec phase2
edit <name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config vpn ipsec phase2
edit <name_str>
unset <keyword>
end
config vpn ipsec phase2
delete <name_str>
end
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get vpn ipsec phase2 [<name_str>]
show vpn ipsec phase2 [<name_str>]
ipsec phase2 command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
bindtoif
<interface-name_str>
single-source
{disable | enable}
Description
Bind the tunnel to the specified
network interface. Type the name of
the local FortiGate interface.
Enable or disable all dialup clients to
connect using the same phase 2
tunnel definition.
Default
null
Availability
All models.
disable All models.
ipsec vip
A FortiGate unit can act as a proxy by answering ARP requests locally and forwarding
the associated traffic to the intended destination host over an IPSec VPN tunnel. The
feature is intended to enable IPSec VPN communications between two hosts that
coordinate the same private address space on physically separate networks. The IP
addresses of both the source host and the destination host must be unique. The
ipsec vip command lets you specify the IP addresses that can be accessed at the
remote end of the VPN tunnel. You must configure IPSec virtual IP (VIP) addresses at
both ends of the IPSec VPN tunnel.
Adding an IPSec VIP entry to the VIP table enables a FortiGate unit to respond to
ARP requests destined for remote servers and route traffic to the intended
destinations automatically. Each IPSec VIP entry is identified by an integer. An entry
identifies the name of the FortiGate interface to the destination network, and the IP
address of a destination host on the destination network. Specify an IP address for
every host that needs to be accessed on the other side of the tunnel—you can define
a maximum of 32 IPSec VIP addresses on the same interface.
Note: The interface to the destination network must be associated with a VPN tunnel through a
firewall encryption policy (action must be set to encrypt). The policy determines which VPN
tunnel will be selected to forward traffic to the destination. When you create IPSec VIP entries,
check the encryption policy on the FortiGate interface to the destination network to ensure that
it meets your requirements.
For more information, see “Configuring IPSec virtual IP addresses” on page 288.
Command syntax pattern
config vpn ipsec vip
edit <vip_integer>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config vpn ipsec vip
edit <vip_integer>
unset <keyword>
end
config vpn ipsec vip
delete <vip_integer>
end
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get vpn ipsec vip [<vip_integer>]
show vpn ipsec vip [<vip_integer>]
ipsec vip command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
ip <address_ipv4>
Description
The IP address of the destination
host on the destination network.
out-interface
The name of the FortiGate interface
<interface-name_str> to the destination network.
Default
0.0.0.0
Availability
All models.
null
All models.
Example
The following commands add IPSec VIP entries for two remote hosts that can be
accessed by a FortiGate unit through an IPSec VPN tunnel on the external
interface of the FortiGate unit. Similar commands must be entered on the FortiGate
unit at the other end of the IPSec VPN tunnel.
config vpn ipsec vip
edit 1
set ip 192.168.12.1
set out-interface external
next
edit 2
set ip 192.168.12.2
set out-interface external
end
Note: Typing next lets you define another VIP address without leaving the vip shell.
This example shows how to display the settings for the vpn ipsec vip command.
get vpn ipsec vip
This example shows how to display the settings for the VIP entry named 1.
get vpn ipsec vip 1
This example shows how to display the current configuration of all existing VIP
entries.
show vpn ipsec vip
Configuring IPSec virtual IP addresses
Use the FortiGate unit’s IPSec VIP feature to enable hosts on physically different
networks to communicate with each other as if they were connected to the same
private network. This feature can be configured manually through CLI commands.
When the destination IP address in a local ARP request matches an entry in the
FortiGate unit’s virtual IP (VIP) table, the FortiGate unit responds with its own MAC
address and forwards traffic to the correct destination at the other end of the VPN
tunnel afterward.
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CLI configuration
Consider the following example, which shows two physically separate networks. The
IP addresses of the computers on both networks are in the 192.168.12.0/24 range,
but no two IP addresses are the same. An IPSec VPN has been configured between
FortiGate_1 and FortiGate_2. The FortiGate configuration permits Host_1 on the
Finance network to transmit data to Host_2 on the HR network through the IPSec
VPN tunnel.
Figure 147:A typical site-to-site configuration using the IPSec VIP feature
HR Network
192.168.12.0/24
Host_2
192.168.12.2
FortiGate_1
Esc
Enter
external
Internet
external
Esc
Enter
FortiGate_2
Host_1
192.168.12.1
Finance Network
192.168.12.0/24
When Host_1 attempts to send a packet to Host_2 for the first time, Host_1 issues an
ARP request locally for the MAC address of Host_2. However, because Host_2
resides on a remote network, it does not respond. Instead, the FortiGate unit
responds with its own MAC address. From that point, Host_1 adds the MAC address
of the FortiGate unit to its ARP cache and the FortiGate unit will act as a proxy for
Host_2.
In the above example, the private IP addresses between the two sites have been
coordinated to protect against ambiguous routing (no two IP addresses are the same).
Setting up a configuration like this involves performing the following tasks at
FortiGate_1 and FortiGate_2.
To enable IPSec VPN communication between two network hosts that coordinate the
same private address space on physically separate networks, perform the following
tasks at the local and remote FortiGate units:
1
On both FortiGate units, define the gateway/tunnel on which to transmit VPN traffic to
the remote location (see “Phase 1” on page 260 and “Phase 2” on page 265).
2
On both FortiGate units, define the firewall encrypt policy that is needed to select and
enable communication through the defined VPN gateway/tunnel (see “Adding firewall
policies for IPSec VPN tunnels” on page 282).
3
Using CLI commands to configure the local FortiGate unit, add VIP entries to define
which IP addresses can be accessed at the remote end of the VPN tunnel (see “ipsec
vip” on page 287). For example, to enable access to Host_2 on the HR network from
Host_1 on the Finance network, enter the following CLI commands on FortiGate_1:
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config vpn ipsec vip
edit 1
set ip 192.168.12.2
set out-interface external
end
4
Using CLI commands to configure the remote FortiGate unit, add VIP entries to define
which IP addresses can be accessed at the local end of the VPN tunnel (see “ipsec
vip” on page 287). For example, to enable access to Host_1 on the Finance network
from Host_2 on the HR network, enter the following CLI commands on FortiGate_2:
config vpn ipsec vip
edit 1
set ip 192.168.12.1
set out-interface external
end
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IPS
The FortiGate Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) combines signature and anomaly
intrusion detection and prevention with low latency and excellent reliability. The
FortiGate unit can record suspicious traffic in logs, can send alert email to system
administrators, and can log, pass, drop, reset, or clear suspicious packets or
sessions. You can adjust some IPS anomaly thresholds to work best with the normal
traffic on the protected networks. You can also create custom signatures to customize
the FortiGate IPS for diverse network environments.
You can configure the IPS globally and then enable or disable all signatures or all
anomalies in individual firewall protection profiles. Table 26 describes the IPS settings
and where to configure and access them. To access protection profile IPS options go
to Firewall > Protection Profile, select edit or Create New, and select IPS. See
“Protection profile options” on page 237.
Table 26: IPS and Protection Profile IPS configuration
Protection Profile IPS options
IPS setting
IPS Signature
IPS > Signature
Enable or disable IPS signatures for all
network services.
View and configure a list of predefined
signatures.
Create custom signatures based on the
network requirements.
IPS Anomaly
IPS > Anomaly
Enable or disable IPS anomalies for all
network services.
View and configure a list of predefined
anomalies.
Protection profile configuration
For information about adding protection profiles to firewall policies, see “To add a
protection profile to a policy” on page 242.
IPS updates and information
FortiProtect services are a valuable customer resource and include automatic updates
of virus and IPS (attack) engines and definitions through the FortiProtect Distribution
Network (FDN). The FortiProtect Center also provides the FortiProtect virus and
attack encyclopedia and the FortiProtect Bulletin.
Visit the FortiProtect Center at http://www.fortinet.com/FortiProtectCenter/.
To set up automatic and push updates see “Update center” on page 130.
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This chapter describes:
•
Signature
•
Anomaly
•
Configuring IPS logging and alert email
•
Default fail open setting
Signature
The FortiGate IPS matches network traffic against patterns contained in attack
signatures. Attack signatures reliably protect your network from known attacks.
Fortinet’s FortiProtect infrastructure ensures the rapid identification of new threats and
the development of new attack signatures.
You can configure the FortiGate unit to automatically check for and download an
updated attack definition file containing the latest signatures, or you can manually
download the updated attack definition file. You can also configure the FortiGate unit
to allow push updates of updated attack definition files as soon as they are available
from the FortiProtect Distribution Network. For details, see “Update center” on
page 130.
When the FortiGate unit installs an updated attack definition file, it checks to see if the
default configuration for any existing signatures has changed. If the default
configuration has changed, the changes are preserved.
In addition to an extensive list of predefined attack signatures, you can also create
your own custom attack signatures for the FortiGate unit. See “Adding custom
signatures” on page 297.
Predefined
Predefined signatures are arranged into groups based on the type of attack. By
default, all signature groups are enabled while some signatures within groups are not.
Check the default settings to ensure they meet the requirements of your network
traffic.
You can enable or disable signature groups or individual signatures. Disabling
unneeded signatures can improve system performance and reduce the number of log
messages and alert emails that the IPS generates. For example, the IPS detects a
large number of web server attacks. If you do not provide access to a web server
behind your FortiGate unit, you can disable all web server attack signatures.
Some signature groups include configurable parameters. The parameters that are
available depend on the type of signatures in the signature group. When you
configure these parameters for a signature group, the parameters apply to all of the
signatures in the group.
For each signature, you can configure the action the FortiGate IPS takes when it
detects an attack. The FortiGate IPS can pass, drop, reset or clear packets or
sessions.
You can also enable or disable logging of the attack.
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Signature
Predefined signature list
You can enable or disable groups of predefined signatures and configure the settings
for individual predefined signatures from the predefined signature list.
Figure 148:A portion of the predefined signature list
Group Name
The signature group names.
Enable
The status of the signature group. A white check mark in a green circle
indicates the signature group is enabled. A white X in a grey circle indicates
the signature group is disabled.
Logging
The logging status for individual signatures. Click on the blue triangle to
show the signature group members. A white check mark in a green circle
indicates logging is enabled for the signature. A white X in a grey circle
indicates logging is disabled for the signature.
Action
The action set for individual signatures. Click on the blue triangle to show
the signature group members. Action can be Pass, Drop, Reset, Reset
Client, Reset Server, Drop Session, Clear Session, or Pass Session. See
Table 27.
Revision
The revision number for individual signatures. To show the signature group
members, click on the blue triangle.
Modify
The Configure and Reset icons. Reset only appears when the default
settings have been modified. Selecting Reset restores the default settings.
Table 27 describes each possible action you can select for predefined signatures.
Table 27: Actions to select for each predefined signature
Action
Description
Pass
The FortiGate unit lets the packet that triggered the signature pass
through the firewall. If logging is disabled and action is set to Pass, the
signature is effectively disabled.
Drop
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the signature. Fortinet
recommends using an action other than Drop for TCP connection based
attacks.
Reset
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the signature, sends a
reset to both the client and the server, and removes the session from the
FortiGate session table. Used for TCP connections only. If you set this
action for non-TCP connection based attacks, the action will behave as
Clear Session. If the Reset action is triggered before the TCP connection
is fully established it acts as Clear Session.
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Table 27: Actions to select for each predefined signature
Reset Client
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the signature, sends a
reset to the client, and removes the session from the FortiGate session
table. Used for TCP connections only. If you set this action for non-TCP
connection based attacks, the action will behave as Clear Session. If the
Reset Client action is triggered before the TCP connection is fully
established it acts as Clear Session.
Reset Server
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the signature, sends a
reset to the server, and removes the session from the FortiGate session
table. Used for TCP connections only. If you set this action for non-TCP
connection based attacks, the action will behave as Clear Session. If the
Reset Server action is triggered before the TCP connection is fully
established it acts as Clear Session.
Drop Session
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the signature and drops
any other packets in the same session.
Clear Session
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the signature, removes
the session from the FortiGate session table, and does not send a reset.
Pass Session
The FortiGate unit lets the packet that triggered the signature and all other
packets in the session pass through the firewall.
Configuring predefined signatures
To enable or disable predefined signature groups
1
Go to IPS > Signature > Predefined.
2
Select the Configure icon next to the predefined signature group that you want to
enable or disable.
Figure 149:Enabling or disabling a predefined signature group
3
Select the enable box to enable the predefined signature group or clear the enable
box to disable the predefined signature group.
4
Select OK.
To configure predefined signature settings
1
Go to IPS > Signature > Predefined.
2
Select the blue triangle next to a signature group name to display the members of that
group.
3
Select the Configure icon for the signature you want to configure.
Figure 150:Configuring predefined IPS signatures
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Signature
4
Select the Enable box to enable the signature or clear the Enable box to disable the
signature.
5
Select the Logging box to enable logging for this signature or clear the Logging box to
disable logging for this signature.
6
Select the Action for the FortiGate unit to take when traffic matches this signature.
(See Table 27.)
7
Select OK.
To restore the recommended settings of a signature
1
Go to IPS > Signature > Predefined.
2
Select the blue triangle next to a signature group name to display the members of that
group.
3
Select the Reset icon for the signature you want to restore to recommended settings.
The Reset icon is displayed only if the settings for the signature have been changed
from recommended settings.
4
Select OK.
Configuring parameters for dissector signatures
The following predefined dissector signatures have configurable parameters.
•
http_decoder
•
im
•
p2p
•
rpc_decoder
•
tcp_reassembler
Figure 151:Example of dissector signature parameters: tcp_reassembler
Figure 152:Example of dissector signature parameters: p2p
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idle_timeout
If a session is idle for longer than this number of seconds, the session will
not be maintained by tcp_reassembler.
min_ttl
A packet with a higher ttl number in its IP header than the number specified
here is not processed by tcp_reassembler.
port_list
A comma separated list of ports. The dissector can decode these TCP ports.
bad_flag_list
A comma separated list of bad TCP flags.
reassembly_
direction
Valid settings are from-server, from-client, or both.
codepoint
A number from 0 to 63. Used for differentiated services tagging. When the
action for p2p and im signatures is set to Pass, the FortiGate unit checks the
codepoint. If the codepoint is set to a number from 1 to 63, the codepoint for
the session is changed to the specified value. If the codepoint is set to -1
(the default) no change is made to the codepoint in the IP header.
Custom
You can create custom IPS signatures. The custom signatures you create are added
to a single Custom signature group.
Custom signatures provide the power and flexibility to customize the FortiGate IPS for
diverse network environments. The FortiGate predefined signatures cover common
attacks. If you are using an unusual or specialized application or an uncommon
platform, you can add custom signatures based on the security alerts released by the
application and platform vendors.
You can also use custom signatures to block or allow specific traffic. For example to
block traffic containing pornography, you can add custom signatures similar to the
following:
F-SBID (--protocol tcp; --flow established; --content "nude cheerleader"; --no_case)
When you add the signature set action to Drop Session.
For more information on custom signature syntax see the FortiGate IPS Custom
Signatures Technical Bulletin.
Note: Custom signatures are an advanced feature. This document assumes the user has
previous experience creating intrusion detection signatures.
Custom signature list
Figure 153:The custom signature group
Enable custom Select the Enable custom signature box to enable the custom signature
group or clear the Enable custom signature box to disable the custom
signature
signature group.
Create New
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Signature
Clear all custom Remove all the custom signatures from the custom signature group.
signatures
Reset to
recommended
settings?
Reset all the custom signatures to the recommended settings.
Name
The custom signature names.
Revision
The revision number for each custom signature. The revision number is a
number you assign to the signature when you create or revise it.
Enable
The status of each custom signature. A white check mark in a green circle
indicates the signature is enabled. A white X in a grey circle indicates the
signature is disabled.
Selecting the box at the top of the Enable column enables all the custom
signatures. Clearing the box at the top of the Enable column disables all the
custom signatures.
Logging
The logging status of each custom signature. A white check mark in a green
circle indicates logging is enabled for the custom signature. A white X in a
grey circle indicates logging is disabled for the custom signature.
Action
The action set for each custom signature. Action can be Pass, Drop, Reset,
Reset Client, Reset Server, Drop Session, Clear Session, or Pass Session.
Modify
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Adding custom signatures
To add a custom signature
1
Go to IPS > Signature > Custom.
2
Select Create New to add a new custom signature or select the Edit icon to edit an
existing custom signature.
Figure 154:Edit custom signature
3
Enter a name for the custom signature.
You cannot edit the name of an existing custom signature.
4
Enter the custom signature.
5
Select the action to be taken when a packet triggers this signature. (See Table 27 for
action descriptions.)
6
Select the Logging box to enable logging for the custom signature or clear the Logging
box to disable logging for the custom signature.
Backing up and restoring custom signature files
For information on backing up and restoring the custom signature list, see “Backing up
and Restoring” on page 128.
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!
Caution: Restoring the custom signature list overwrites the existing file.
Anomaly
The FortiGate IPS uses anomaly detection to identify network traffic that does not fit
known or preset traffic patterns. The FortiGate IPS identifies the four statistical
anomaly types for the TCP, UDP, and ICMP protocols.
Flooding
If the number of sessions targeting a single destination in one second is
over a threshold, the destination is experiencing flooding.
Scan
If the number of sessions from a single source in one second is over a
threshold, the source is scanning.
Source session
limit
If the number of concurrent sessions from a single source is over a
threshold, the source session limit is reached.
Destination
session limit
If the number of concurrent sessions to a single destination is over a
threshold, the destination session limit is reached.
You can enable or disable logging for each anomaly, and you can control the IPS
action in response to detecting an anomaly. In many cases you can also configure the
thresholds that the anomaly uses to detect traffic patterns that could represent an
attack.
Note: It is important to know the normal and expected traffic on your network before changing
the default anomaly thresholds. Setting the thresholds too low could cause false positives, and
setting the thresholds too high could miss some attacks.
You can also use the command line interface (CLI) to configure session control based
on source and destination network address. See “Anomaly CLI configuration” on
page 301.
The anomaly detection list can be updated only when the FortiGate firmware image is
upgraded.
Anomaly list
Figure 155:The Anomaly list
298
Name
The anomaly names.
Enable
The status of the anomaly. A white check mark in a green circle indicates the
anomaly is enabled. A white X in a grey circle indicates the anomaly is
disabled.
Logging
The logging status for each anomaly. A white check mark in a green circle
indicates logging is enabled for the anomaly. A white X in a grey circle
indicates logging is disabled for the anomaly.
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Anomaly
Action
The action set for each anomaly. Action can be Pass, Drop, Reset, Reset
Client, Reset Server, Drop Session, Clear Session, or Pass Session.
Modify
The Edit and Reset icons. If you have changed the settings for an anomaly,
you can use the Reset icon to change the settings back to the
recommended settings.
Configuring an anomaly
Each anomaly is preset with a recommended configuration. By default all anomaly
signatures are enabled. You can use the recommended configurations or you can
modify the recommended configurations to meet the needs of your network.
For more information on minimum, maximum, and recommended thresholds for the
anomalies with configurable thresholds, see the FortiGate IPS Anomaly Thresholds
and Dissector Values Technical Bulletin.
Figure 156:Editing the portscan IPS anomaly
Figure 157:Editing the syn_fin IPS anomaly
Name
The anomaly name.
Enable
Select the Enable box to enable the anomaly or clear the Enable box to
disable the anomaly.
Logging
Select the Logging box to enable logging for the anomaly or clear the
Logging box to disable logging for the anomaly.
Action
Select an action for the FortiGate unit to take when traffic triggers this
anomaly.
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Pass
The FortiGate unit lets the packet that triggered the anomaly pass
through the firewall. If logging is disabled and action is set to Pass, the
anomaly is effectively disabled.
Drop
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the anomaly. Fortinet
recommends using an action other than Drop for TCP connection based
attacks.
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Reset
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the anomaly, sends a
reset to both the client and the server, and removes the session from
the FortiGate session table. Used for TCP connections only. If you set
this action for non-TCP connection based attacks, the action will behave
as Clear Session. If the Reset action is triggered before the TCP
connection is fully established it acts as Clear Session.
Reset
Client
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the anomaly, sends a
reset to the client, and removes the session from the FortiGate session
table. Used for TCP connections only. If you set this action for non-TCP
connection based attacks, the action will behave as Clear Session. If the
Reset Client action is triggered before the TCP connection is fully
established it acts as Clear Session.
Reset
Server
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the anomaly, sends a
reset to the server, and removes the session from the FortiGate session
table. Used for TCP connections only. If you set this action for non-TCP
connection based attacks, the action will behave as Clear Session. If the
Reset Server action is triggered before the TCP connection is fully
established it acts as Clear Session.
Drop
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the anomaly and
Session drops any other packets in the same session.
Clear
The FortiGate unit drops the packet that triggered the anomaly, removes
Session the session from the FortiGate session table, and does not send a reset.
Pass
The FortiGate unit lets the packet that triggered the anomaly and all
Session other packets in the session pass through the firewall.
threshold
Traffic over the specified threshold triggers the anomaly.
To configure the settings of an anomaly
1
Go to IPS > Anomaly.
2
Select the Edit icon for the signature you want to configure.
3
Select the Enable box to enable the anomaly or clear the Enable box to disable the
anomaly.
4
Select the Logging box to enable logging for this anomaly or clear the Logging box to
disable logging for this anomaly.
5
Select an action for the FortiGate unit to take when traffic triggers this anomaly.
6
Enter a new threshold value if required.
7
Select OK.
To restore the default settings of an anomaly
1
Go to IPS > Anomaly.
2
Select the Reset icon for the anomaly you want to restore to defaults.
The Reset icon is displayed only if the settings for the anomaly have been changed
from defaults.
3
300
Select OK.
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Anomaly
Anomaly CLI configuration
Note: This guide only covers Command Line Interface (CLI) commands that are not
represented in the web-based manager. For complete descriptions and examples of how to use
CLI commands see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
(config ips anomaly) config limit
Note: This command has more keywords than are listed in this Guide. See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for a complete list of commands and keywords.
Access the config limit subcommand using the config ips anomaly
<name_str> command. Use this command for session control based on source and
destination network address. This command is available for tcp_src_session,
tcp_dst_session, icmp_src_session, icmp_dst_session,
udp_src_session, udp_dst_session.
You cannot edit the default entry. Addresses are matched from more specific to
more general. For example, if you define thresholds for 192.168.100.0/24 and
192.168.0.0/16, the address with the 24 bit netmask will be matched first.
Command syntax pattern
config limit
edit <name_str>
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config limit
edit <name_str>
unset <keyword>
end
config limit
delete <name_str>
limit command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
ipaddress
<address_ipv4mask>
threshold
<threshold_integer>
Description
The ip address and netmask of the
source or destination network.
Default Availability
No
All models.
default.
Set the threshold that triggers this
anomaly.
No
All models.
default.
Example
Use the following command to configure the limit for the tcp_src_session
anomaly.
config ips anomaly tcp_src_session
config limit
edit subnet1
set ipaddress 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
set threshold 300
end
end
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Configuring IPS logging and alert email
IPS
Configuring IPS logging and alert email
Whenever the IPS detects or prevents an attack, it generates an attack message. You
can configure the FortiGate unit to add the message to the attack log and to send an
alert email to administrators. You can configure how often the FortiGate unit sends
alert email. You can also reduce the number of log messages and alerts by disabling
signatures for attacks that your system is not vulnerable to (for example, web attacks
when you are not running a web server). For more information on FortiGate logging
and alert email, see “Log & Report” on page 357.
Default fail open setting
If for any reason the IPS should cease to function, it will fail open by default. This
means that crucial network traffic will not be blocked and the Firewall will continue to
operate while the problem is resolved.
You can change the default fail open setting using the CLI:
config sys global
set ips-open [enable | disable]
end
Enable ips_open to cause the IPS to fail open and disable ips_open to cause the
IPS to fail closed.
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Antivirus
Antivirus provides configuration access to most of the antivirus options you enable
when you create a firewall protection profile. While antivirus settings are configured for
system-wide use, you can implement specific settings on a per profile basis.
Table 28 describes the antivirus settings and where to configure and access them. To
access protection profile antivirus options go to Firewall > Protection Profile, select
edit or Create New, and select Anti-Virus. See “Protection profile options” on
page 237.
Table 28: Antivirus and Protection Profile antivirus configuration
Protection Profile antivirus options
Antivirus setting
Virus Scan
Antivirus > Config > Virus List
Enable or disable virus scanning for each
protocol (HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP).
View a read-only list of current viruses.
File Block
Antivirus > File Block
Enable or disable file blocking for each
protocol.
Configure file patterns to block, enable or
disable blocking for each protocol.
Quarantine
Antivirus > Quarantine
Enable or disable quarantining for each
View and sort the list of quarantined files,
protocol. Quarantine is only available on units configure file patterns to upload automatically
with a local disk.
to Fortinet for analysis, and configure
quarantining options in AntiVirus.
Pass fragmented emails
Enable or disable passing fragmented emails.
Fragmented emails cannot be scanned for
viruses.
Oversized file/email
Antivirus > Config > Config
Configure the FortiGate unit to block or pass
oversized files and emails for each protocol.
Set the size thresholds for files and emails for
each protocol in Antivirus. Go to Antivirus >
Config > Grayware to enable blocking
grayware programs.
Add signature to outgoing emails
Create and enable a signature to append to
outgoing emails (SMTP only).
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File block
Antivirus
Protection profile configuration
For information about configuring Protection Profiles, see “Protection profile” on
page 235. For information about adding protection profiles to firewall policies, see “To
add a protection profile to a policy” on page 242.
Order of antivirus operations
Antivirus processing includes various modules and engines that perform separate
tasks. The FortiGate unit performs antivirus processing in the order the features
appear in the web-based manager menu: file block, virus scan, and grayware,
followed by heuristics, which is configurable only through the CLI.
Virus list updates and information
FortiProtect services are an excellent resource and include automatic updates of virus
and IPS (attack) engines and definitions, as well as the local spam DNSBL, through
the FortiProtect Distribution Network (FDN). The FortiProtect Center also provides the
FortiProtect virus and attack encyclopedia and the FortiProtect Bulletin.
Visit the FortiProtect Center at http://www.fortinet.com/FortiProtectCenter/.
To set up automatic and push updates see “Update center” on page 130.
This chapter describes:
•
File block
•
Quarantine
•
Config
•
CLI configuration
File block
Configure file blocking to remove all files that are a potential threat and to prevent
active computer virus attacks. You can block files by name, by extension, or any other
pattern, giving you the flexibility to block potentially harmful content.
Note: File block entries are not case sensitive. For example, adding *.exe to the file block list
also blocks any files ending in .EXE.
For standard operation, you can choose to disable file blocking in the Protection
Profile, and enable it only to temporarily block specific threats as they occur. You can
also enable or disable file blocking by protocol for each file pattern you configure.
The FortiGate unit blocks files that match a configured file pattern and displays a
replacement message instead. The FortiGate unit also writes a message to the virus
log and sends an alert email if configured to do so.
If both file block and virus scan are enabled, the FortiGate unit blocks files that match
enabled file patterns and does not scan these files for viruses.
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File block
This section describes:
•
File block list
•
Configuring the file block list
File block list
The file block list is preconfigured with a default list of file patterns:
•
executable files (*.bat, *.com, and *.exe)
•
compressed or archive files (*.gz, *.rar, *.tar, *.tgz, and *.zip)
•
dynamic link libraries (*.dll)
•
HTML application (*.hta)
•
Microsoft Office files (*.doc, *.ppt, *.xl?)
•
Microsoft Works files (*.wps)
•
Visual Basic files (*.vb?)
•
screen saver files (*.scr)
•
program information files (*.pif)
•
control panel files (*.cpl)
Figure 158:Default file block list
File block list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a new file pattern to the file block list.
Apply
Select Apply to apply any changes to the file block configuration.
Pattern
The current list of blocked file patterns. You can create a pattern by using
? or * wildcard characters.
Check All
Select a check box beside a file pattern to enable blocking that pattern for
all types of traffic. Select a check box beside a service (HTTP, FTP, IMAP,
POP3, and SMTP) to enable blocking all file patterns for that service.
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HTTP
Displays a check mark if file blocking is enabled to block the file pattern in
HTTP traffic.
FTP
Displays a check mark if file blocking is enabled to block the file pattern in
FTP traffic.
IMAP
Displays a check mark if file blocking is enabled to block the file pattern in
IMAP traffic.
POP3
Displays a check mark if file blocking is enabled to block the file pattern in
POP3 traffic.
SMTP
Displays a check mark if file blocking is enabled to block the file pattern in
SMTP traffic.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring the file block list
To add a file name or file pattern to the file block list
1
Go to Anti-Virus > File Block.
2
Enter the file name or file pattern you want to add.
3
Select Create New.
4
Select the protocols for which you want to block the file, or select Check All.
5
Select Apply.
Quarantine
FortiGate units with a local disk can quarantine blocked and infected files. You can
view the file names and status information about the file in the quarantined file list.
You can also submit specific files and add file patterns to the AutoSubmit list so they
will automatically be uploaded to Fortinet for analysis.
This section describes:
•
Quarantined files list
•
Quarantined files list options
•
AutoSubmit list
•
AutoSubmit list options
•
Configuring the AutoSubmit list
•
Config
Quarantined files list
The quarantined files list displays information about each file that is quarantined
because of virus infection or file blocking. You can sort the files by any one of file
name, date, service, status, duplicate count (DC), or time to live (TTL). You can also
filter the list to view only quarantined files with a specific status or from a specific
service.
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Quarantine
Figure 159:Sample quarantined files list
Quarantined files list options
The quarantined files list has the following features and displays the following
information about each quarantined file:
Apply
Select Apply to apply the sorting and filtering selections to the quarantined
files list.
Sort by:
Sort the list. Choose from: status, service, file name, date, TTL, or duplicate
count. Click apply to complete the sort.
Filter:
Filter the list. Choose from status (infected, blocked, or heuristics) or
service (IMAP, POP3, SMTP, FTP, or HTTP). Click apply to complete the
filtering. Heuristics mode is configurable through the CLI only. See “CLI
configuration” on page 313.
File Name
The processed file name of the quarantined file. When a file is quarantined,
all spaces are removed from the file name, and a 32-bit checksum is
performed on the file. The file is stored on the FortiGate hard disk with the
following naming convention: <32bit CRC>.<processed filename>
For example, a file named Over Size.exe is stored as
3fc155d2.oversize.exe.
Date
The date and time that the file was quarantined, in the format dd/mm/yyyy
hh:mm. This value indicates the time that the first file was quarantined if the
duplicate count increases.
Service
The service from which the file was quarantined (HTTP, FTP, IMAP, POP3,
SMTP).
Status
The reason the file was quarantined: infected, heuristics, or blocked.
Status
Description
Specific information related to the status, for example, “File is infected with
“W32/Klez.h”” or “File was stopped by file block pattern.”
DC
Duplicate count. A count of how many duplicates of the same file were
quarantined. A rapidly increasing number can indicate a virus outbreak.
TTL
Time to live in the format hh:mm. When the TTL elapses, the FortiGate unit
labels the file as EXP under the TTL heading. In the case of duplicate files,
each duplicate found refreshes the TTL.
Upload status
Y indicates the file has been uploaded to Fortinet for analysis, N indicates
the file has not been uploaded.
The Delete icon.
The Download icon. Download the corresponding file in its original format.
The Submit icon. Upload a suspicious file to Fortinet for analysis.
Note: Duplicates of files (based on the checksum) are not stored, only counted. The TTL value
and the duplicate count are updated each time a duplicate of a file is found.
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AutoSubmit list
You can configure the FortiGate unit to automatically upload suspicious files to
Fortinet for analysis. You can add file patterns to the AutoSubmit list using wildcard
characters (* or ?). File patterns are applied for AutoSubmit regardless of file blocking
settings.
You can also upload files to Fortinet based on status (blocked or heuristics) or submit
individual files directly from the quarantined files list. The FortiGate unit uses
encrypted email to autosubmit files to an SMTP server through port 25.
Figure 160:Sample AutoSubmit list
AutoSubmit list options
AutoSubmit list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a new file pattern to the AutoSubmit list.
File Pattern
The current list of file patterns that will be automatically uploaded. You can
create a pattern by using ? or * wildcard characters. Enable the check box
to enable all file patterns in the list.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring the AutoSubmit list
To add a file pattern to the AutoSubmit list
1
Go to Anti-Virus > Quarantine > AutoSubmit.
2
Select Create New.
Figure 161:Adding a file pattern
3
Enter the file pattern or file name you want to automatically upload to Fortinet for
analysis.
4
Select Enable.
5
Select OK.
Note: To enable automatic uploading of the configured file patterns you must go to Anti-Virus >
Quarantine > Config, select Enable AutoSubmit, and select Use File Pattern.
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Quarantine
Config
Go to Config to set quarantine configuration options including whether to quarantine
blocked or infected files and from which service. You can also configure the time to
live and file size values, and enable AutoSubmit settings.
Figure 162:Quarantine configuration
Quarantine configuration has the following options:
Options
Quarantine Infected Files: Select the protocols from which to quarantine
infected files identified by antivirus scanning.
Quarantine Suspicious Files: Select the protocols from which to quarantine
suspicious files identified by heuristics.
Quarantine Blocked Files. Select the protocols from which to quarantine
blocked files identified by antivirus file blocking. The Quarantine Blocked
Files option is not available for HTTP or FTP because a file name is blocked
before downloading and cannot be quarantined.
Age limit
The time limit in hours for which to keep files in quarantine. The age limit is
used to formulate the value in the TTL column of the quarantined files list.
When the limit is reached the TTL column displays EXP. and the file is
deleted (although a record is maintained in the quarantined files list).
Entering an age limit of 0 (zero) means files are stored on disk indefinitely
depending on low disk space action.
Max filesize to
quarantine
The maximum size of quarantined files in MB. Setting the maximum file size
too large may affect performance.
Low disk space Select the action to take when the local disk is full: overwrite the oldest file or
drop the newest file.
Enable
AutoSubmit
Enable AutoSubmit: enables the AutoSubmit feature. Select one or both of
the options below.
Use file pattern: Enables the automatic upload of files matching the file
patterns in the AutoSubmit list.
Use file status: Enables the automatic upload of quarantined files based on
their status. Select either heuristics or block pattern.
Heuristics is configurable through the CLI only. See “CLI configuration” on
page 313.
Apply
Select Apply to save the configuration.
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Config
Antivirus
Config
Config displays a list of the current viruses blocked by the FortiGate unit. You can also
configure file and email size limits, and grayware blocking.
This section describes:
•
Virus list
•
Config
•
Grayware
•
Grayware options
Virus list
The virus list displays the current viruses blocked in alphabetical order. You can view
the entire list or parts of the list by selecting the number or alphabet ranges. You can
update this list manually or set up the FortiGate unit to receive automatic updates
daily or whenever required. To manually upload a virus list update see “Changing unit
information” on page 37. To find out how to use the Fortinet Update Center, see
“Update center” on page 130.
Figure 163:Virus list (partial)
Config
Oversize threshold configuration refers to the size limits you can apply to scan files
and email in memory.
The maximum file size allowed in memory is usually 10% of the FortiGate RAM size.
For example, a FortiGate unit with 256 MB of RAM could have a memory oversize
threshold range of 1 to 25 MB. The range for each FortiGate unit is displayed in the
web-based manager as shown in Figure 164.
Note: For email scanning, the oversize threshold refers to the final size of the email after
encoding by the email client, including attachments. Email clients may use a variety of encoding
types and some encoding types translate into larger file sizes than the original attachment. The
most common encoding, base64, translates 3 bytes of binary data into 4 bytes of base64 data.
So a file may be blocked or logged as oversized even if the attachment is several megabytes
less than the configured oversize threshold.
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Config
Figure 164:Example threshold configuration
You can enable oversized file blocking in a firewall protection profile. To access
protection profiles go to Firewall > Protection Profile, select Anti-Virus > Oversized
File/Email and choose to pass or block oversized email and files for each protocol.
Further file size limits for uncompressed files can be configured as an advanced
feature via the CLI. See “CLI configuration” on page 313.
Grayware
Grayware programs are unsolicited commercial software programs that get installed
on computers, often without the user’s consent or knowledge. Grayware programs are
generally considered an annoyance, but these programs can cause system
performance problems or be used for malicious means.
The FortiGate unit scans for known grayware executable programs in each category
you enable. The category list and contents are added or updated whenever your
FortiGate unit receives a virus update package. New categories may be added at any
time and will be loaded with the virus updates. By default, all new categories are
disabled. Grayware is enabled in a protection profile when Virus Scan is enabled.
Grayware options
Grayware categories are populated with known executable files. Each time the
FortiGate unit receives a virus and attack definitions update, the grayware categories
and contents are updated.
Figure 165:Sample grayware options
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Config
Antivirus
The categories may change or expand when the FortiGate unit receives updates. In
the example above you can choose to enable the following grayware categories.
Enabling a grayware category blocks all files listed in the category.
312
Adware
Select enable to block adware programs. Adware is usually embedded
in freeware programs and causes ads to pop up whenever the program
is opened or used.
Dial
Select enable to block dialer programs. Dialers allow others to use the
PC modem to call premium numbers or make long distance calls.
Game
Select enable to block games. Games are usually joke or nuisance
games that you may want to block from network users.
Joke
Select enable to block joke programs. Joke programs can include
custom cursors and programs that appear to affect the system.
P2P
Select enable to block peer to peer communications programs. P2P,
while a legitimate protocol, is synonymous with file sharing programs
that are used to swap music, movies, and other files, often illegally.
Spy
Select enable to block spyware programs. Spyware, like adware, is
often included with freeware. Spyware is a tracking and analysis
program that can report your activities, such as web browsing habits, to
the advertiser’s web site where it may be recorded and analyzed.
Keylog
Select enable to block keylogger programs. Keylogger programs can
record every keystroke made on a keyboard including passwords, chat,
and instant messages.
Hijacker
Select enable to block browser hijacking programs. Browser hijacking
occurs when a ‘spyware’ type program changes web browser settings,
including favorites or bookmarks, start pages, and menu options.
Plugin
Select enable to block browser plugins. Browser plugins can often be
harmless Internet browsing tools that are installed and operate directly
from the browser window. Some toolbars and plugins can attempt to
control or record and send browsing preferences.
NMT
Select enable to block network management tools. Network
management tools can be installed and used maliciously to change
settings and disrupt network security.
RAT
Select enable to block remote administration tools. Remote
administration tools allow outside users to remotely change and monitor
a computer on a network.
Misc
Select enable to block any programs included in the miscellaneous
grayware category.
BHO
Select enable to block browser helper objects. BHOs are DLL files that
are often installed as part of a software package so the software can
control the behavior of Internet Explorer 4.x and higher. Not all BHOs
are malicious, but the potential exists to track surfing habits and gather
other information.
Toolbar
Select enable block custom toolbars. While some toolbars are
harmless, spyware developers can use these toolbars to monitor web
habits and send information back to the developer.
Download
Select enable to block download programs. Download components are
usually run at Windows startup and are designed to install or download
other software, especially advertising and dial software.
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CLI configuration
CLI configuration
Note: This guide only covers Command Line Interface (CLI) commands that are not
represented in the web-based manager. For complete descriptions and examples of how to use
CLI commands see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
system global av_failopen
Antivirus failopen is a safeguard feature that determines the behavior of the FortiGate
antivirus system if it becomes overloaded in high traffic.
The antivirus system operates in one of two modes, depending on available memory.
If the free memory is greater than 30% of the total memory then the system is in
nonconserve mode. If the free memory drops to less than 20% of the total memory,
then the system enters conserve mode. When the free memory once again reaches
30% or greater of the total memory, the system returns to nonconserve mode.
For more information see the Antivirus failopen and optimization Fortinet Knowledge
Center article.
Command syntax pattern
config system global
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config system global
unset <keyword>
end
get system global
show system global
Keywords and variables
av_failopen
{off | one-shot |
pass}
Description
Default
Set the action to take if there off
is an overload of the antivirus
system.
Enter pass to bypass the
antivirus system when
memory is low. Antivirus
scanning resumes when low
memory condition is resolved.
Enter one-shot to bypass
the antivirus system when
memory is low. You must
enter off or pass to restart
antivirus scanning.
Availability
Models
numbered
3000 and
higher.
Example
This example shows how to set av_failopen to use one-shot and bypass the antivirus
system when memory is low.
config system global
set av_failopen one-shot
end
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system global optimize
The optimize feature configures CPU settings to ensure efficient operation of the
FortiGate unit for either antivirus scanning or straight throughput traffic. When
optimize is set to antivirus, the FortiGate unit uses symmetric multiprocessing to
spread the antivirus tasks to several CPUs, making scanning faster.
For more information see the Antivirus failopen and optimization Fortinet Knowledge
Center article.
Command syntax pattern
config system global
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config system global
unset <keyword>
end
get system global
show system global
Keywords and variables
optimize {antivirus |
throughput}
Description
Optimize the firmware for
either antivirus performance
or throughput performance.
Default
No default.
Availability
All models.
Example
This example shows how to set the FortiGate unit to optimize operations for antivirus
scanning.
config system global
set optimize antivirus
end
config antivirus heuristic
The FortiGate heuristic antivirus engine performs tests on files to detect virus-like
behavior or known virus indicators. Heuristic scanning is performed last, after file
blocking and virus scanning have found no matches. In this way, heuristic scanning
may detect new viruses, but may also produce some false positive results.
The heuristic engine is enabled by default to pass suspected files to the recipient and
send a copy to quarantine. Once configured in the CLI, heuristic is enabled in a
protection profile when Virus Scan is enabled.
Use the heuristic command to change the heuristic scanning mode.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus heuristic
set <keyword> <variable>
end
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Antivirus
CLI configuration
config antivirus heuristic
unset <keyword>
end
get antivirus heuristic
show antivirus heuristic
Table 29: antivirus heuristic command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
Description
Default Availability
mode
pass
All models.
Enter pass to enable heuristics
{pass | block | disable} but pass detected files to the
recipient. Suspicious files are
quarantined if quarantine is
enabled.
Enter block to enable heuristics
and block detected files. A
replacement message is
forwarded to the recipient. Blocked
files are quarantined if quarantine
is enabled.
Enter disable to disable
heuristics.
Example
This example shows how to disable heuristic scanning.
config antivirus heuristic
set mode disable
end
This example shows how to display the settings for the antivirus heuristic
command.
get antivirus heuristic
This example shows how to display the configuration for the antivirus heuristic
command.
show antivirus heuristic
config antivirus quarantine
The quarantine command also allows configuration of heuristic related settings.
Note: This command has more keywords than are listed in this Guide. See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for a complete list of commands and keywords.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus quarantine
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config antivirus quarantine
unset <keyword>
end
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Antivirus
get antivirus quarantine
show antivirus quarantine
antivirus quarantine command keywords and variables
Keywords and variables
Description
drop_heuristic
Do not quarantine files found by
{ftp http imap pop3 smtp} heuristic scanning in traffic for the
specified protocols.
store_heuristic
Quarantine files found by heuristic
{ftp http imap pop3 smtp} scanning in traffic for the specified
protocols.
Default
imap
smtp
pop3
http
ftp
No
default.
Availability
FortiGate
models
numbered
200 and
higher.
FortiGate
models
numbered
200 and
higher.
config antivirus service http
Use this command to configure how the FortiGate unit handles antivirus scanning of
large files in HTTP traffic and what ports the FortiGate unit scans for HTTP.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus service http
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config antivirus service http
unset <keyword>
end
get antivirus service [http]
show antivirus service [http]
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CLI configuration
antivirus service http command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
memfilesizelimit
<MB_integer>
port
<port_integer>
uncompsizelimit
<MB_integer>
Description
Default
Set the maximum file size (in megabytes)
10 (MB)
that can be buffered to memory for virus
scanning.
The maximum file size allowed is 10% of the
FortiGate RAM size. For example, a
FortiGate unit with 256 MB of RAM could
have a threshold range of 1 MB to 25 MB.
Note: For email scanning, the oversize
threshold refers to the final size of the email
after encoding by the email client, including
attachments. Email clients may use a variety
of encoding types and some encoding types
translate into larger file sizes than the
original attachment. The most common
encoding, base64, translates 3 bytes of
binary data into 4 bytes of base64 data. So a
file may be blocked or logged as oversized
even if the attachment is several megabytes
less than the configured oversize threshold.
Configure antivirus scanning on a
80
nonstandard port number or multiple port
numbers for HTTP. You can use ports from
the range 1-65535. You can add up to 20
ports.
Set the maximum uncompressed file size
10 (MB)
that can be buffered to memory for virus
scanning. Enter a value in megabytes
between 1 and the total memory size. Enter
0 for no limit (not recommended).
Availability
All models.
All models.
All models.
How file size limits work
The memfilesizelimit is applied first to all incoming files, compressed or
uncompressed. If the file is larger than the limit the file is passed or blocked according
to the user configuration in the firewall profile.
The uncompsizelimit applies to the uncompressed size of the file. If other files are
included within the file, the uncompressed size of each one is checked against the
uncompsizelimit value. If any one of the uncompressed files is larger than the
limit, the file is passed without scanning, but the total size of all uncompressed files
within the original file can be greater than the uncompsizelimit.
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CLI configuration
Antivirus
Example
This example shows how to set the maximum file size that can be buffered to memory
for scanning at 12 MB, the maximum uncompressed file size that can be buffered to
memory for scanning at 15 MB, and how to enable antivirus scanning on ports 70, 80,
and 443 for HTTP traffic.
config antivirus service http
set memfilesizelimit 12
set uncompsizelimit 15
set port 70
set port 80
set port 443
end
This example shows how to display the antivirus HTTP traffic settings.
get antivirus service http
This example shows how to display the configuration for antivirus HTTP traffic.
show antivirus service http
config antivirus service ftp
Use this command to configure how the FortiGate unit handles antivirus scanning of
large files in FTP traffic and how the FortiGate unit handles the buffering and
uploading of files to an FTP server.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus service ftp
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config antivirus service ftp
unset <keyword>
end
get antivirus service [ftp]
show antivirus service [ftp]
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Antivirus
CLI configuration
antivirus service ftp command keywords and variables
Keywords and
Description
variables
memfilesizelimit Set the maximum file size that can be
buffered to memory for virus scanning.
<MB_integer>
The maximum file size allowed is 10% of the
FortiGate RAM size. For example, a
FortiGate unit with 256 MB of RAM could
have a threshold range of 1 MB to 25 MB.
Oversized files can be passed or blocked in a
firewall protection profile.
Note: For email scanning, the
memfilesizelimit refers to the final size of the
email after encoding by the email client,
including attachments. Email clients may use
a variety of encoding types and some
encoding types translate into larger file sizes
than the original attachment. The most
common encoding, base64, translates 3
bytes of binary data into 4 bytes of base64
data. So a file may be blocked or logged as
oversized even if the attachment is several
megabytes less than the memfilesizelimit.
port
Configure antivirus scanning on a
nonstandard port number or multiple port
<port_integer>
numbers for FTP. You can use ports from the
range 1-65535. You can add up to 20 ports.
uncompsizelimit
Set the maximum uncompressed file size that
can be buffered to memory for virus scanning.
<MB_integer>
Enter a value in megabytes between 1 and
the total memory size. Enter 0 for no limit (not
recommended).
Default
Availability
10 (MB) All models.
21
All models.
10 (MB) All models.
How file size limits work
See “How file size limits work” on page 317.
Example
This example shows how to set the maximum file size buffered to memory for
scanning at 25 MB, the maximum uncompressed file size that can be buffered to
memory at 100 MB, and how to enable antivirus scanning on ports 20 and 21 for FTP
traffic.
config antivirus service ftp
set memfilesizelimit 25
set uncompsizelimit 100
set port 20 21
end
This example shows how to display the antivirus FTP traffic settings.
get antivirus service ftp
This example shows how to display the configuration for antivirus FTP traffic.
show antivirus service ftp
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CLI configuration
Antivirus
config antivirus service pop3
Use this command to configure how the FortiGate unit handles antivirus scanning of
large files in POP3 traffic and what ports the FortiGate unit scans for POP3.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus service pop3
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config antivirus service pop3
unset <keyword>
end
get antivirus service [pop3]
show antivirus service [pop3]
antivirus service pop3 command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
memfilesizelimit
<MB_integer>
port
<port_integer>
uncompsizelimit
<MB_integer>
Description
Default
Set the maximum file size that can be
10 (MB)
buffered to memory for virus scanning.
The maximum file size allowed is 10% of the
FortiGate RAM size. For example, a
FortiGate unit with 256 MB of RAM could
have a threshold range of 1 MB to 25 MB.
Note: For email scanning, the
memfilesizelimit refers to the final size of the
email after encoding by the email client,
including attachments. Email clients may
use a variety of encoding types and some
encoding types translate into larger file sizes
than the original attachment. The most
common encoding, base64, translates 3
bytes of binary data into 4 bytes of base64
data. So a file may be blocked or logged as
oversized even if the attachment is several
megabytes less than the memfilesizelimit.
Configure antivirus scanning on a
110
nonstandard port number or multiple port
numbers for POP3. You can use ports from
the range 1-65535. You can add up to 20
ports.
Set the maximum uncompressed file size
10 (MB)
that can be buffered to memory for virus
scanning. Enter a value in megabytes
between 1 and the total memory size. Enter
0 for no limit (not recommended).
Availability
All models.
All models.
All models.
How file size limits work
See “How file size limits work” on page 317.
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Antivirus
CLI configuration
Example
This example shows how to set the maximum file size that can be buffered to memory
for scanning at 20 MB, the maximum uncompressed file size that can be buffered to
memory for scanning at 60 MB, and how to enable antivirus scanning on ports 110,
111, and 992 for POP3 traffic.
config antivirus service pop3
set memfilesizelimit 20
set uncompsizelimit 60
set port 110
set port 111
set port 992
end
This example shows how to display the antivirus POP3 traffic settings.
get antivirus service pop3
This example shows how to display the configuration for antivirus POP3 traffic.
show antivirus service pop3
config antivirus service imap
Use this command to configure how the FortiGate unit handles antivirus scanning of
large files in IMAP traffic and what ports the FortiGate unit scans for IMAP.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus service imap
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config antivirus service imap
unset <keyword>
end
get antivirus service [imap]
show antivirus service [imap]
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CLI configuration
Antivirus
antivirus service imap command keywords and variables
Keywords and
Description
variables
memfilesizelimit Set the maximum file size that can be buffered
to memory for virus scanning.
<MB_integer>
The maximum file size allowed is 10% of the
FortiGate RAM size. For example, a FortiGate
unit with 256 MB of RAM could have a
threshold range of 1 MB to 25 MB.
Note: For email scanning, the memfilesizelimit
refers to the final size of the email after
encoding by the email client, including
attachments. Email clients may use a variety
of encoding types and some encoding types
translate into larger file sizes than the original
attachment. The most common encoding,
base64, translates 3 bytes of binary data into
4 bytes of base64 data. So a file may be
blocked or logged as oversized even if the
attachment is several megabytes less than the
memfilesizelimit.
port
Configure antivirus scanning on a
nonstandard port number or multiple port
<port_integer>
numbers for IMAP. You can use ports from the
range 1-65535. You can add up to 20 ports.
uncompsizelimit Set the maximum uncompressed file size that
can be buffered to memory for virus scanning.
<MB_integer>
Enter a value in megabytes between 1 and the
total memory size. Enter 0 for no limit (not
recommended).
Default
Availability
10 (MB)
All models.
143
All models.
10 (MB)
All models.
How file size limits work
See “How file size limits work” on page 317.
Example
This example shows how to set the maximum file size that can be buffered to memory
for scanning at 25 MB, the maximum uncompressed file size that can be buffered to
memory for scanning at 50 MB, and how to enable antivirus scanning on ports 143
and 993 for IMAP traffic.
config antivirus service http
set memfilesizelimit 25
set uncompsizelimit 50
set port 143
set port 993
end
This example shows how to display the antivirus IMAP traffic settings.
get antivirus service imap
This example shows how to display the configuration for antivirus IMAP traffic.
show antivirus service imap
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Antivirus
CLI configuration
config antivirus service smtp
Use this command to configure how the FortiGate unit handles antivirus scanning of
large files in SMTP traffic, what ports the FortiGate unit scans for SMTP, and how the
FortiGate unit handles interaction with an SMTP server for delivery of email with
infected email file attachments.
Command syntax pattern
config antivirus service smtp
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config antivirus service smtp
unset <keyword>
end
get antivirus service [smtp]
show antivirus service [smtp]
antivirus service smtp command keywords and variables
Keywords and
Description
variables
memfilesizelimit Set the maximum file size that can be
buffered to memory for virus scanning.
<MB_integer>
The maximum file size allowed is 10% of the
FortiGate RAM size. For example, a
FortiGate unit with 256 MB of RAM could
have a threshold range of 1 MB to 25 MB.
Note: For email scanning, the
memfilesizelimit refers to the final size of the
email after encoding by the email client,
including attachments. Email clients may use
a variety of encoding types and some
encoding types translate into larger file sizes
than the original attachment. The most
common encoding, base64, translates 3
bytes of binary data into 4 bytes of base64
data. So a file may be blocked or logged as
oversized even if the attachment is several
megabytes less than the memfilesizelimit.
port
Configure antivirus scanning on a
nonstandard port number or multiple port
<port_integer>
numbers for SMTP. You can use ports from
the range 1-65535. You can add up to 20
ports.
uncompsizelimit Set the maximum uncompressed file size
that can be buffered to memory for virus
<MB_integer>
scanning. Enter a value in megabytes
between 1 and the total memory size. Enter
0 for no limit (not recommended).
Default
Availability
10 (MB)
All models.
143
All models.
10 (MB)
All models.
How file size limits work
See “How file size limits work” on page 317.
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CLI configuration
Antivirus
Example
This example shows how to set the maximum file size that can be buffered to memory
for scanning at 100 MB, the maximum uncompressed file size that can be buffered to
memory for scanning at 1 GB (1000 MB), and how to enable antivirus scanning on
ports 25, and 465 for SMTP traffic.
config antivirus service smtp
set memfilesizelimit 100
set uncompsizelimit 1000
set port 25
set port 465
end
This example shows how to display the antivirus SMTP traffic settings.
get antivirus service smtp
This example shows how to display the configuration for antivirus SMTP traffic.
show antivirus service smtp
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Web filter
Web filter provides configuration access to the Web filtering and Web category filtering
options you enable when you create a firewall Protection Profile.
To access protection profile web filter options go to Firewall > Protection Profile, select
edit or Create New, and select Web Filtering or Web Category Filtering. See
“Protection profile options” on page 237.
Table 30: Web filter and Protection Profile web filtering configuration
Protection Profile web filtering options
Web Filter setting
Web Content Block
Web Filter > Content Block
Enable or disable web page blocking based
on the banned words and patterns in the
content block list for HTTP traffic.
Add words and patterns to block web pages
containing those words or patterns.
Web URL Block
Web Filter > URL Block
Enable or disable web page filtering for HTTP Add URLs and URL patterns to block web
traffic based on the URL block list.
pages from specific sources.
Web Exempt List
Web Filter > URL Exempt
Enable or disable web page filtering for HTTP Add URLs to exempt them from web and virus
traffic based on the URL exempt list. Exempt filtering.
URLs are not scanned for viruses.
Web Script Filter
Web Filter > Script Filter
Enable or disable blocking scripts from web
pages for HTTP traffic.
Select the scripts to block.
Web resume download block
Enable to block downloading parts of a file
that have already been partially downloaded.
Enabling this option prevents the unintentional
download of virus files, but can cause
download interruptions.
Enable category block (HTTP only)
Web Filter > Category Block > Configuration
Enable FortiGuard web filtering.
Enable or disable FortiGuard and enable and
set the size limit for the cache.
Block unrated websites (HTTP only)
Block any web pages that have not been rated
by the FortiGuard.
Allow websites when a rating error occurs
(HTTP only)
Allow web pages that return a rating error
from FortiGuard.
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Web filter
Table 30: Web filter and Protection Profile web filtering configuration
Protection Profile web filtering options
Web Filter setting
Category / Action
FortiGuard web filtering service provides
many categories by which to filter web traffic.
You can set the action to take on web pages
for each category. Choose from allow,
monitor, or reject.
Protection profile configuration
For information about configuring Protection Profiles, see “Protection profile” on
page 235. For information about adding protection profiles to firewall policies, see “To
add a protection profile to a policy” on page 242.
Order of web filter operations
Web filtering includes various modules and engines that perform separate tasks. The
FortiGate unit performs web filtering in the order the filters appear in the web-based
manager menu: content block, URL block, URL exempt, category block (FortiGuard),
and script filter.
This chapter describes:
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•
Content block
•
URL block
•
URL exempt
•
Category block
•
Script filter
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Web filter
Content block
Content block
Control web content by blocking specific words or word patterns. The FortiGate unit
blocks web pages containing banned words and displays a replacement message
instead.
You can use Perl regular expressions or wildcards to add banned word patterns to the
list. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Note: Perl regular expression patterns are case sensitive for Web Filter content block. To make
a word or phrase case insensitive, use the regular expression /i. For example,
/bad language/i blocks all instances of bad language regardless of case. Wildcard
patterns are not case sensitive.
This section describes:
•
Web content block list
•
Web content block options
•
Configuring the web content block list
Web content block list
You can add one or more banned words or patterns to block web pages containing
those words. Banned words can be one word or a text string up to 80 characters long.
The maximum number of banned words in the list is 32.
Figure 166:Sample Web Content Block List, banned words
Note: Enable Web filtering > Web Content Block in your firewall Protection Profile to activate
the content block settings.
Web content block options
Web content block has the following icons and features:
Create new
Select Create New to add a banned word to the web content block list.
total
The number of banned words in the web content block list.
Page up, Page down, and Clear banned word list icons.
Banned word
The current list of banned words and patterns. Select the check box to
enable all the banned words in the list.
Pattern type
The pattern type used in the banned word list entry. Choose from wildcard or
regular expression. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Language
The character set to which the banned word belongs: Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese, French, Japanese, Korean, Thai, or Western.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
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URL block
Web filter
Configuring the web content block list
Figure 167:Adding a banned word to the content block list
When you select Create New or Edit you can configure the following settings for the
banned word.
Banned word
Enter the word or pattern you want to include in the banned word list
Pattern type
Select the pattern type for the banned word. Choose from wildcard or
regular expression. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Language
Select the character set for the banned word. Choose from: Chinese
Simplified, Chinese Traditional, French, Japanese, Korean, Thai, or
Western.
Enable
Select Enable to activate the banned word in the list.
To add or edit a banned word
1
Go to Web Filter > Content Block.
2
Select Create New to add a banned word or select Edit for the banned word you want
to modify.
3
Enter the word or phrase.
If you enter a single word, the FortiGate unit blocks all web pages that contain that
word. If you enter a phrase, the FortiGate unit blocks all web pages containing any
word in the phrase. If you contain the phrase in quotation marks, the FortiGate unit
blocks all web pages containing the exact phrase.
4
Set the pattern type if required.
5
Select the language (character set).
6
Select Enable.
7
Select OK.
URL block
You can block access to specific URLs by adding them to the URL block list. You can
also add patterns using text and regular expressions (or wildcard characters) to block
URLs. The FortiGate unit blocks web pages matching any specified URLs or patterns
and displays a replacement message instead.
Note: Enable Web filtering > Web URL Block in your firewall Protection Profile to activate the
URL block settings.
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Web filter
URL block
Note: URL blocking does not block access to other services that users can access with a web
browser. For example, URL blocking does not block access to ftp://ftp.badsite.com.
Instead, you can use firewall policies to deny FTP connections.
This section describes:
•
Web URL block list
•
Web URL block options
•
Configuring the web URL block list
•
Web pattern block list
•
Web pattern block options
•
Configuring web pattern block
Web URL block list
You can add your own specific URLs to block or you can obtain one of several publicly
available lists of objectionable URLs. You can add the following items to the URL
block list:
•
complete URLs
•
IP addresses
•
partial URLs to block all sub-domains
If you want to use more than one URL block list, simply combine the lists in a text file
and upload them to the FortiGate unit by selecting the Upload URL block list icon.
URLs in a text file must be separated by hard returns to upload correctly.
Figure 168:Sample Web URL block list
Web URL block options
Web URL block has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a URL to the URL block list.
total
The number of URLs in the URL block list.
The Page up, Page down, and Clear URL block list icons.
URL
The current list of blocked URLs. Select the check box to enable all the
URLs in the list.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
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URL block
Web filter
Configuring the web URL block list
Note: Do not use regular expressions in the web URL block list. You can use regular
expressions in the web pattern block list to create URL patterns to block. See “Web pattern
block list” on page 330.
Note: You can type a top-level domain suffix (for example, “com” without the leading period) to
block access to all URLs with this suffix.
To add a URL to the web URL block list
1
Go to Web Filter > URL Block.
2
Select Web URL Block.
3
Select Create New.
Figure 169:Adding a new URL
4
Enter a URL or partial URL to add to the URL block list. (Do not include http://.)
Type a top-level URL or IP address to block access to all pages on a web site. For
example, www.badsite.com or 122.133.144.155 blocks access to all pages at
this web site.
Enter a top-level URL followed by the path and filename to block access to a single
page on a web site. For example, www.badsite.com/news.html or
122.133.144.155/news.html blocks the news page on this web site.
To block all pages with a URL that ends with badsite.com, add badsite.com to
the block list. For example, adding badsite.com blocks access to
www.badsite.com, mail.badsite.com, www.finance.badsite.com, and so
on.
5
Select Enable.
6
Select OK.
Web pattern block list
In addition to blocking specific or partial URLs, you can block all URLs that match
patterns you create using text and regular expressions (or wildcard characters). For
example, badsite.* matches badsite.com, badsite.org, badsite.net and
so on.
FortiGate web pattern blocking supports standard regular expressions. You can add
up to 20 patterns to the web pattern block list.
Note: Enable Web filtering > Web URL Block in your firewall Protection Profile to activate the
web pattern block settings.
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Web filter
URL exempt
Figure 170:Sample web pattern block list
Web pattern block options
Web pattern block has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a new pattern to the web pattern block list.
Pattern
The current list of blocked patterns. Select the check box to enable all the
web patterns in the list.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring web pattern block
To add a pattern to the web pattern block list
1
Go to Web Filter > URL Block.
2
Select Web Pattern Block.
3
Select Create New.
Figure 171:Adding a new pattern
4
Enter a pattern to add to the web pattern block list.
5
Select Enable.
6
Select OK.
URL exempt
Note: URLs in the URL exempt list bypass all security features, including virus scanning.
This section describes:
•
URL exempt list
•
URL exempt list options
•
Configuring URL exempt
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URL exempt
Web filter
URL exempt list
You can configure specific URLs as exempt from web filtering. URLs on the exempt
list are not scanned for viruses. If users on your network download files through the
FortiGate unit from trusted website, you can add the URL of this website to the
exempt list so that the FortiGate unit does not virus scan files downloaded from this
URL.
Figure 172:Sample URL exempt list
Note: Enable Web filtering > Web Exempt List in your firewall Protection Profile to activate the
URL exempt settings.
URL exempt list options
URL exempt list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a URL to the URL exempt list.
total
The number of URLs in the URL exempt list.
Page up icon
Select this icon to scroll the URL exempt list up.
Page down icon
Select this icon to scroll the URL exempt list down.
Clear URL exempt Select this icon to delete the entire URL exempt list.
list icon
URL Exempt List
The current list of exempt URLs. Select the check box to enable all the
URLs in the list.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring URL exempt
To add a URL to the URL exempt list
1
Go to Web Filter > URL Exempt.
2
Select Create New.
Figure 173:Adding a new exempt URL
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3
Enter the URL to add to the URL exempt list.
4
Select Enable.
5
Select OK.
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Web filter
Category block
Category block
You can filter http content by specific categories using the FortiGuard managed web
filtering service.
This section describes:
•
FortiGuard managed web filtering service
•
Category block configuration options
•
Category block reports
•
Category block reports options
•
Generating a category block report
•
Category block CLI configuration
FortiGuard managed web filtering service
FortiGuard is a managed web filtering solution provided by Fortinet. FortiGuard sorts
hundreds of millions of web pages into a wide range of categories that users can
allow, block, or monitor. The FortiGate unit accesses the nearest FortiGuard Service
Point to determine the category of a requested web page and then follows the firewall
policy configured for that user or interface.
FortiGuard categories and ratings
FortiGuard includes over 60 million individual ratings of web sites applying to
hundreds of millions of pages. Pages are rated into 56 categories that users can
allow, block, or monitor. Categories may be added to or updated as the Internet
evolves. Users can also choose to allow, block, or monitor entire groups of categories
to make configuration simpler. Blocked pages are replaced with a message indicating
that the page is not accessible according to the Internet usage policy.
FortiGuard ratings are performed by a combination of proprietary methods including
text analysis, exploitation of the Web structure, and human raters. Users can notify
the FortiGuard Service Points if they feel a web page is not categorized correctly, and
new sites are quickly rated as required.
See “FortiGuard categories” on page 377 for a complete list and description of the
FortiGuard web filter categories.
FortiGuard Service Points
FortiGuard Service Points provide worldwide coverage. By default, the FortiGate unit
communicates with the closest Service Point. If the Service Point becomes
unreachable for any reason, the FortiGate unit contacts another Service Point and
rating information is available within seconds. FortiGuard Service Points are highly
scalable and new Service Points are added as required. The FortiGate unit
communicates with the Service Point over UDP on port 8888. You can change the
FortiGuard hostname if required, using the CLI. See “Category block CLI
configuration” on page 336.
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Web filter
FortiGuard licensing
Every FortiGate unit comes with a free 30-day FortiGuard trial license. FortiGuard
license management is done by Fortinet servers, so there is no need to enter a
license number. The FortiGate unit automatically contacts a FortiGuard Service Point
when you enable FortiGuard category blocking.
When you want to renew your FortiGuard license after the free trial, contact Fortinet
Technical Support.
FortiGuard configuration
Once selected, FortiGuard category blocking is enabled globally. After enabling
FortiGuard you can configure different categories for each firewall protection profile.
Use the procedure “Configuring web category filtering options” on page 239 to
configure FortiGuard category blocking in a protection profile.
Category block configuration options
If you have ordered FortiGuard through Fortinet technical support or are using the free
30-day trial, you only need to enable the service to start configuring and using
FortiGuard.
Figure 174:Category block configuration
You can configure the following options to enable and help maintain FortiGuard web
filtering:
Enable Service Select to enable FortiGuard web filtering.
FortiGuard
Status: Select Check Status to test the connection to the FortiGuard server.
Status should change from a flashing red/yellow indicator to a solid green
indicator when the server is contacted successfully.
License Type: The FortiGuard license type.
Expiration: The date the FortiGuard license expires.
Enable Cache
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Select to enable caching of category ratings for accessed URLs. This
means that the FortiGate unit does not have to contact the server each time
a commonly requested URL is accessed. The cache is configured to use 6%
of the of the FortiGate RAM. When the cache is full, the least recently
accessed URL is deleted.
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Web filter
Category block
TTL
Time to live. The number of seconds to store URL ratings in the cache
before contacting the server again.
To have a
URL’s...
To have a URL's category rating re-evaluated, please click here. Select the
link to have a web site re-evaluated if you think the category rating is
incorrect. You must provide a complete valid URL.
Configuring web category block
To enable FortiGuard web filtering
1
Go to Web Filter > Category Block.
2
Select Enable Service.
3
Select Check status to make sure the FortiGate unit can access the FortiGuard
server.
After a moment, the FortiGuard status should change from Unknown to Available. If
the FortiGuard status is unavailable, wait and try again.
4
Enable and set a TTL (time to live) for the cache.
5
Select Apply.
You can now enable web category blocking and configure categories for any firewall
protection profile you create. See “Configuring web category filtering options” on
page 239 and “FortiGuard categories” on page 377.
Once you select Apply, the FortiGuard license type and expiration date appears on
the configuration screen (Web Filter > Category Block).
Category block reports
Note: Category block reports are only available on FortiGate units with a local disk.
You can generate a text and pie chart format report on web filtering for any profile.
The FortiGate unit maintains statistics for allowed, blocked and monitored web pages
for each category. You can view reports for a range of hours or days, or you can view
a complete report of all activity.
Figure 175:Sample report
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Category block
Web filter
Category block reports options
The following table describes the options for generating reports:
Profile
Select the profile for which you want to generate a report.
Report Type
Select the time frame for which you want to generate the report. Choose
from hour, day, or all historical statistics.
Report Range
Select the time range (24 hour clock) or day range (from six days ago to
today) for which you want the report. For example, if you select report type
hour and enter the range 13 to 16, the results is a category block report for 1
pm to 4 pm today. If you select report type day and enter range 0 to 3, the
result is a category block report for 3 days ago to today.
Get Report
Select Get Report to generate the report.
A generated report includes the following information:
Category
The category for which the statistic was generated.
Allowed
The number of allowed web addresses accessed in the selected time frame.
Blocked
The number of blocked web addresses accessed in the selected time frame.
Monitored
The number of monitored web addresses accessed in the selected time
frame.
Generating a category block report
To generate a category block report
1
Go to Web filter > Category block.
2
Select Reports.
3
Select a profile for which to generate the report.
4
Select a report type.
5
Enter a report range.
6
Select Get Report.
The report is generated, including a pie chart and a list of web pages blocked by
category.
Category block CLI configuration
Use the ftgd_hostname keyword for the webfilter catblock command if you
ever need to change the default hostname (URL) for the FortiGuard Service Point.
The FortiGuard Service Point name cannot be changed using the web-based
manager. You can configure all the FortiGuard settings using from the CLI. See the
FortiGate CLI Reference Guide for descriptions of all webfilter catblock
keywords.
Note: This command has more keywords than are listed in this Guide. See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for a complete list of commands and keywords.
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Web filter
Category block
Command syntax pattern
config webfilter catblock
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config webfilter catblock
unset <keyword>
end
get webfilter catblock
show webfilter catblock
catblock command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
ftgd_hostname
<url_str>
Description
Default
The hostname of the FortiGuard Service Point. guard.fortinet.com
The FortiGate comes preconfigured with the
host name. Use this command only if you need
to change the host name.
Example
This example shows how to change the FortiGuard Service Point name.
config webfilter catblock
set ftgd_hostname guard.example.net
end
This example shows how to display the catblock settings.
get webfilter catblock
This example shows how to display the configuration for the catblock settings.
show webfilter catblock
If the show command returns you to the prompt, the settings are at default.
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Script filter
Web filter
Script filter
You can configure the FortiGate unit to filter certain web scripts. You can filter Java
applets, cookies, and ActiveX controls from web pages.
Figure 176:Script filtering options
Note: Blocking any of these items may prevent some web pages from functioning and
displaying correctly.
Note: Enable Web filtering > Web Script Filter in your firewall Protection Profile to activate the
script filter settings.
Web script filter options
You can configure the following options for script filtering:
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Javascript
Select Javascript to block all Javascript-based pages or applications.
Cookies
Select Cookies to block web sites from placing cookies on individual
computers.
ActiveX
Select ActiveX to block all ActiveX applications.
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Spam filter
Spam filter provides configuration access to the spam filtering options you enable
when you create a firewall protection profile. While spam filters are configured for
system-wide use, you can enable the filters on a per profile basis. Spam filter can be
configured to manage unsolicited commercial email by detecting spam email
messages and identifying spam transmissions from known or suspected spam
servers.
Table 31 describes the spam filter settings and where to configure and access them.
To access protection profile spam filter options go to Firewall > Protection Profile, edit
or Create New, Spam Filtering. See “Protection profile options” on page 237.
Table 31: Spam Filter and Protection Profile spam filtering configuration
Protection Profile spam filtering options
Spam filter setting
IP address FortiShield check
Spam Filter > FortiShield
Enable or disable Fortinet’s antispam service
called FortiShield. FortiShield is Fortinet’s
own DNSBL server that provides spam IP
address and URL blacklists. Fortinet keeps
the FortiShield IP and URLs up-to-date as
new spam source are found.
Enable FortiShield, check the status of the
FortiShield server, view the license type and
expiry date, and configure the cache.
IP address BWL check
Spam Filter > IP Address
Black/white list check. Enable or disable
checking incoming IP addresses against the
configured spam filter IP address list. (SMTP
only.)
Add to and edit IP addresses to the list. You
can configure the action to take as spam,
clear, or reject for each IP address. You can
place an IP address anywhere in the list. The
filter checks each IP address in sequence.
(SMTP only.)
DNSBL & ORDBL check
Spam Filter > DNSBL & ORDBL
Enable or disable checking email traffic
against configured DNS Blackhole List
(DNSBL) and Open Relay Database List
(ORDBL) servers.
Add or remove DNSBL and ORDBL servers to
and from the list. You can configure the action
to take as spam or reject for email identified
as spam from each server (SMTP only).
HELO DNS lookup
Enable or disable checking the source domain
name against the registered IP address in the
Domain Name Server. If the source domain
name does not match the IP address the
email is marked as spam and the action
selected in the protection profile is taken.
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Spam filter
Table 31: Spam Filter and Protection Profile spam filtering configuration
Protection Profile spam filtering options
Spam filter setting
E-mail address BWL check
Spam Filter > E-mail Address
Enable or disable checking incoming email
addresses against the configured spam filter
email address list.
Add to and edit email addresses to the list,
with the option of using wildcards and regular
expressions. You can configure the action to
take as spam or reject for each email address.
You can place an email address anywhere in
the list. The filter checks each email address
in sequence.
Return e-mail DNS check
Enable or disable checking incoming email
return address domain against the registered
IP address in the Domain Name Server. If the
return address domain name does not match
the IP address the email is marked as spam
and the action selected in the protection
profile is taken.
MIME headers check
Spam Filter > MIME Headers
Enable or disable checking source MIME
headers against the configured spam filter
MIME header list.
Add to and edit MIME headers to the list, with
the option of using wildcards and regular
expressions. You can configure the action to
take as spam or clear for each MIME header.
Banned word check
Spam Filter > Banned Word
Enable or disable checking source email
against the configured spam filter banned
word list.
Add to and edit banned words to the list, with
the option of using wildcards and regular
expressions. You can configure the language
and whether to search the email body,
subject, or both. You can configure the action
to take as spam or clear for each word.
Spam Action
The action to take on email identified as
spam. POP3 and IMAP messages are tagged.
Choose Tagged or Discard for SMTP
messages. You can append a custom word or
phrase to the subject or MIME header of
tagged email. You can choose to log any
spam action in the event log.
Append to:
Choose to append the tag to the subject or
MIME header of the email identified as spam.
Append with:
Enter a word or phrase (tag) to append to
email identified as spam. The maximum
length is 63 characters.
Add event into the system log
Enable or disable logging of spam actions to
the event log.
Protection profile configuration
For information about configuring protection profiles, see “Protection profile” on
page 235. For information about adding protection profiles to firewall policies, see “To
add a protection profile to a policy” on page 242.
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Spam filter
FortiShield
Order of spam filter operations
Generally, incoming email is passed through the spam filters in the order the filters
appear in the spam filtering options list in a firewall protection profile (and in Table 31):
FortiShield, IP address, DNSBL & ORDBL, HELO DNS lookup, email address, return
email DNS check, MIME header, and banned word (content block). Each filter passes
the email to the next if no matches or problems are found. If the action in the filter is
Mark as Spam, the FortiGate unit will tag or discard (SMTP only) the email according
to the settings in the protection profile. If the action in the filter is Mark as Clear, the
email is exempt from any remaining filters. If the action in the filter is Mark as Reject,
the email session is dropped. Rejected SMTP email messages are substituted with a
configurable replacement message. See “Replacement messages” on page 117.
The order of spam filter operations may vary between SMTP and IMAP or POP3 traffic
because some filters only apply to SMTP traffic (IP address and HELO DNS lookup).
Also, filters that require a query to a server and a reply (FortiShield and
DNSBL/ORDBL) are run simultaneously. To avoid delays, queries are sent while other
filters are running. The first reply to trigger a spam action will take effect as soon as
the reply is received.
This chapter describes:
•
FortiShield
•
IP address
•
DNSBL & ORDBL
•
Email address
•
MIME headers
•
Banned word
•
Using Perl regular expressions
FortiShield
You can filter Spam with an IP address black list and a URL black list using the
Fortinet FortiShield product.
This section describes:
•
FortiShield Spam filtering
•
FortiShield options
•
Configuring the FortiShield cache
•
FortiShield CLI configuration
FortiShield Spam filtering
FortiShield is an antispam system from Fortinet that includes an IP address black list,
a URL black list, and spam filtering tools. The IP address black list contains IP
addresses of email servers known to be used to generate Spam. The URL black list
contains URLs of website found in Spam email.
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FortiShield
Spam filter
FortiShield compiles the IP address list and URL list from email captured by spam
probes located around the world. Spam probes are email addresses purposely
configured to attract spam and identify known spam sources to create the antispam IP
address and URL address lists. FortiShield combines IP address checks and URL
checks with other spam filter techniques in a two-pass process.
On the first pass, if IP address FortiShield check is selected in the protection profile,
FortiShield extracts the SMTP mail server source address and sends the IP address
to a FortiShield server to see if this IP address matches the list of known spammers. If
URL FortiShield check is selected in the protection profile, FortiShield checks the
body of email messages to extract any URL links. These URL links will be sent to a
FortiShield server to see if any of them is listed. Typically Spam messages contain
URL links to advertisements (also called spamvertizing).
If an IP address or URL match is found, FortiShield terminates the session. If
FortiShield does not find a match, the mail server sends the email to the recipient.
As each email is received, FortiShield performs the second antispam pass by
checking the header, subject, and body of the email for common spam content. If
FortiShield finds spam content, the email is tagged or dropped according to the
configuration in the firewall protection profile.
Both FortiShield antispam processes are completely automated and configured by
Fortinet. With constant monitoring and dynamic updates, FortiShield is always current.
You can enable or disable FortiShield in a firewall protection profile. See “Configuring
spam filtering options” on page 240.
FortiShield Service Points
FortiShield Service Points provide worldwide coverage. By default, the FortiGate unit
communicates with the closest Service Point. If the Service Point becomes
unreachable for any reason, the FortiGate unit contacts another Service Point and
rating information is available within seconds. FortiShield Service Points are highly
scalable and new Service Points are added as required. The FortiGate unit
communicates with the Service Point over UDP on port 8889. You can change the
FortiShield hostname if required, using the CLI. See “FortiShield CLI configuration” on
page 344.
FortiShield licensing
Every FortiGate unit comes with a free 30-day FortiShield trial license. FortiShield
license management is done by Fortinet servers, so there is no need to enter a
license number. The FortiGate unit automatically contacts a FortiShield Service Point
when you enable FortiShield.
When you want to renew your FortiShield license after the free trial, contact Fortinet
Technical Support.
FortiShield configuration
Once selected, FortiShield is enabled globally. After enabling FortiShield you can
enable FortiShield IP address checking and URL checking in each firewall protection
profile.
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Spam filter
FortiShield
Use the procedure “Configuring spam filtering options” on page 240 to configure
FortiShield in a protection profile.
FortiShield options
If you have ordered FortiShield through Fortinet technical support or are using the free
30-day trial, you only need to enable the service to start configuring and using
FortiShield.
Figure 177:FortiShield configuration
You can configure or view the following settings for the FortiShield service:
Enable Service Select to enable the FortiShield service.
Status
Select Check Status to test the connection to the FortiShield server. Status
should change from a flashing red/yellow indicator to a solid green indicator
when the server is contacted successfully.
License Type
The FortiShield license type.
Expiration
The date the FortiShield license expires.
Enable Cache
Select to enable caching the FortiShield IP address and URL block lists.
Enabling the cache can improve performance because the FortiGate unit
does not need to access the server each time the same IP address or URL
appears as the source of an email. The cache is configured to use 6% of the
of the FortiGate RAM. When the cache is full, the least recently used IP
address or URL is deleted.
TTL
Time to live. The number of seconds to store blocked IP addresses and
URLs in the cache before contacting the server again.
Configuring the FortiShield cache
1
Go to Spam Filter > FortiShield.
2
Select Check status to make sure the FortiGate unit can access the FortiShield
server.
After a moment, the FortiShield status should change from Unknown to Available. If
the FortiShield status is unavailable, wait and try again.
3
Enable and set a TTL (time to live) for the cache.
4
Select Apply.
You can now enable FortiShield for any firewall protection profile you create. See
“Configuring spam filtering options” on page 240.
Once you select Apply, the FortiShield license type and expiration date appears on
the configuration screen (Spam Filter > FortiShield).
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FortiShield
Spam filter
FortiShield CLI configuration
Use the hostname keyword for the spamfilter fortishield command if you
ever need to change the default hostname for the FortiShield Service Point. The
FortiShield Service Point name cannot be changed using the web-based manager.
You can configure all the FortiShield settings using from the CLI. See the FortiGate
CLI Reference Guide for descriptions of all spamfilter fortishield keywords.
Note: This command has more keywords than are listed in this Guide. See the FortiGate CLI
Reference Guide for a complete list of commands and keywords.
Command syntax pattern
config spamfilter fortishield
set <keyword> <variable>
end
config spamfilter fortishield
unset <keyword>
end
get spamfilter fortishield
show spamfilter fortishield
fortishield command keywords and variables
Keywords
Description
Default
and variables
hostname
The hostname of the FortiShield Service
antispam.fortigate.com
Point. The FortiGate unit comes
<url_str>
preconfigured with the host name. Use this
command only if you need to change the host
name.
Example
This example shows how to change the FortiShield Service Point name.
config spamfilter fortishield
set hostname shield.example.net
end
This example shows how to display the FortiShield settings.
get spamfilter fortishield
This example shows how to display the configuration for the FortiShield settings.
show spamfilter fortishield
If the show command returns you to the prompt, the settings are at default.
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Spam filter
IP address
IP address
The FortiGate unit uses the IP address list to filter incoming email. The FortiGate unit
compares the IP address of the sender to the list in sequence. If a match is found, the
corresponding protection profile action is taken. If no match is found, the email is
passed on to the next spam filter.
You can enter an IP address and mask in two formats:
•
x.x.x.x/x.x.x.x, for example 62.128.69.100/255.255.255.0
•
x.x.x.x/x, for example 62.128.69.100/24
This section describes:
•
IP address list
•
IP address options
•
Configuring the IP address list
IP address list
You can configure the FortiGate unit to filter email from specific IP addresses. You
can mark each IP address as clear, spam, or reject. You can filter single IP
addresses, or a range of addresses at the network level by configuring an address
and mask.
Figure 178:Sample IP address list
IP address options
IP address list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add an IP address to the IP address list.
Total
The number if items in the list.
The Page up, Page down, and Remove all entries icons.
IP address/Mask
The current list of IP addresses.
Action
The action to take on email from the configured IP address. Actions are:
Mark as Spam to apply the spam action configured in the protection
profile, Mark as Clear to let the email pass to the next filter, or Mark as
Reject (SMTP only) to drop the session.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring the IP address list
To add an IP address to the IP address list
1
Go to Spam Filter > IP Address.
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DNSBL & ORDBL
Spam filter
2
Select Create New.
Figure 179:Adding an IP address
3
Enter the IP address/mask you want to add.
4
If required, select before or after another IP address in the list to place the new IP
address in the correct position.
5
Select the action to take on email from the IP address.
6
Select OK.
DNSBL & ORDBL
Using DNSBLs (DNS-based Blackhole Lists) and ORDBLs (Open Relay Database
Lists) is an effective way to tag or reject spam as it enters your system. These lists act
as domain name servers that match the domain of incoming email to a list of IP
addresses known to send spam or allow spam to pass through. DNSBLs keep track of
reported spam source addresses and ORDBLs keep track of unsecured third party
SMTP servers, known as open relays, which some spammers use to send unsolicited
bulk email.
There are also several free and subscription servers available that provide reliable
access to continually updated DNSBLs and ORDBLs. Check with the service you are
using to confirm the correct domain name for connecting to the server.
The FortiGate unit communicates with DNSBL servers using UDP through port 53.
The FortiGate unit compares the IP address or domain name of the sender to any
database lists you configure. The FortiGate unit checks all the servers in the list
simultaneously. If a match is found, the corresponding protection profile action is
taken. If no match is found, the email is passed on to the next spam filter.
Note: Because the FortiGate unit uses the server domain name to connect to the DNSBL or
ORDBL server, it must be able to look up this name on the DNS server. For information on
configuring DNS, see “DNS” on page 69.
This section describes:
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•
DNSBL & ORDBL list
•
DNSBL & ORDBL options
•
Configuring the DNSBL & ORDBL list
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Spam filter
DNSBL & ORDBL
DNSBL & ORDBL list
You can configure the FortiGate unit to filter email by accessing DNSBL or ORDBL
servers. You can mark a match by each server as spam or reject.
Figure 180:Sample DNSBL & ORDBL list
DNSBL & ORDBL options
DNSBL & ORDBL list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a server to the DNSBL & ORDBL list.
Total
The number of items in the list.
The Page up, Page down, and Remove all entries icons.
DNSBL Server
The current list of servers. Select the check box to enable all the DNSBL
and ORDBL servers in the list.
Action
The action to take on email matched by the DNSBLs and ORDBLs.
Actions are: Mark as Spam to apply the spam action configured in the
protection profile, or Mark as Reject to drop the session.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring the DNSBL & ORDBL list
To add a server to the DNSBL & ORDBL list
1
Go to Spam Filter > DNSBL & ORDBL.
2
Select Create New.
Figure 181:Adding an DNSBL or ORDBL server
3
Enter the domain name of the DNSBL or ORDBL server you want to add.
4
Select the action to take on email matched by the server.
5
Select Enable.
6
Select OK.
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Email address
Spam filter
Email address
The FortiGate unit uses the email address list to filter incoming email. The FortiGate
unit compares the email address or domain of the sender to the list in sequence. If a
match is found, the corresponding protection profile action is taken. If no match is
found, the email is passed on to the next spam filter.
You can use Perl regular expressions or wildcards to add email address patterns to
the list. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
This section describes:
•
Email address list
•
Email address options
•
Configuring the email address list
Email address list
The FortiGate unit can filter email from specific senders or all email from a domain
(such as sample.net). You can mark each email address as clear or spam.
Figure 182:Sample email address list
Email address options
Email address list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add an email address to the email address list.
Total
The number of items in the list.
The Page up, Page down, and Remove all entries icons.
Email address
The current list of email addresses.
Pattern Type
The pattern type used in the email address entry. Choose from wildcard or
regular expression. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Action
The action to take on email from the configured address. Actions are:
Mark as Spam to apply the spam action configured in the protection
profile, or Mark as Clear to let the email pass to the next filter.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
Configuring the email address list
To add an email address or domain to the list
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1
Go to Spam Filter > E-mail Address.
2
Select Create New.
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Spam filter
MIME headers
Figure 183:Adding an email address
3
Enter the email address or pattern you want to add.
4
Select a pattern type for the list entry.
5
If required, select before or after another email address in the list to place the new
email address in the correct position.
6
Select the action to take on email from the configured address or domain.
7
Select OK.
MIME headers
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) headers are added to email to describe
content type and content encoding, such as the type of text in the email body or the
program that generated the email. Some examples of MIME headers include:
•
X-mailer: outgluck
•
X-Distribution: bulk
•
Content_Type: text/html
•
Content_Type: image/jpg
The first part of the MIME header is called the header key, or just header. The second
part is called the value. Spammers will often insert comments into header values or
leave them blank. These malformed headers can fool some spam and virus filters.
You can use the MIME headers list to mark email from certain bulk mail programs or
with certain types of content that are common in spam messages. You can choose to
mark the email as spam or clear for each header you configure.
The FortiGate unit compares the MIME header key-value pair of incoming email to the
list pair in sequence. If a match is found, the corresponding protection profile action is
taken. If no match is found, the email is passed on to the next spam filter.
You can use Perl regular expressions or wildcards to add MIME header patterns to
the list. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Note: MIME header entries are case sensitive.
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This section describes:
•
MIME headers list
•
MIME headers options
•
Configuring the MIME headers list
MIME headers list
You can configure the FortiGate unit to filter email with specific MIME header
key-value pairs. You can mark each MIME header as clear or spam.
Figure 184:Sample MIME headers list
MIME headers options
MIME headers list has the following icons and features:
Create New
Select Create New to add a MIME header to the MIME headers list.
Total
The number of items in the list.
The Page up, Page down, and Remove all entries icons.
Header
The list of MIME headers (keys).
Value
The list of MIME header values for each key.
Pattern Type
The pattern type used in the MIME header list entry. Choose from wildcard
or regular expression. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Action
The action to take on email with the configured MIME header. Actions are:
Mark as Spam to apply the spam action configured in the protection
profile, Mark as Clear to let the email pass to the next filter, or Mark as
Reject (SMTP only) to drop the session.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
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Configuring the MIME headers list
To add a MIME header to the list
1
Go to Spam Filter > MIME headers.
2
Select Create New.
Figure 185:Adding a MIME header
3
Enter the MIME header key.
4
Enter the MIME header value.
5
Select a pattern type for the list entry.
6
Select the action to take on email with that MIME header key-value.
7
Select OK.
Banned word
Control spam by blocking email containing specific words or patterns. The FortiGate
unit searches for banned words in email messages. If a match is found, the
corresponding protection profile action is taken. If no match is found, the email is
passed to the recipient.
You can use Perl regular expressions or wildcards to add banned word patterns to the
list. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Note: Perl regular expression patterns are case sensitive for Spam Filter banned words. To
make a word or phrase case insensitive, use the regular expression /i. For example,
/bad language/i will block all instances of bad language regardless of case. Wildcard
patterns are not case sensitive.
This section describes:
•
Banned word list
•
Banned word options
•
Configuring the banned word list
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Banned word list
You can add one or more banned words to sort email containing those words in the
email subject, body, or both.
Words can be marked as spam or clear. Banned words can be one word or a phrase
up to 127 characters long.
If you enter a single word, the FortiGate unit blocks all email that contain that word. If
you enter a phrase, the FortiGate unit blocks all email containing the exact phrase. To
block any word in a phrase, use Perl regular expressions. See “Using Perl regular
expressions” on page 353.
Figure 186:Sample banned word List
Banned word options
Banned word has the following icons and features:
Create new
Select Create New to add a word or phrase to the banned word list.
Total
The number of items in the list.
The Page up, Page down, and Remove all entries icons.
Pattern
The list of banned words. Select the check box to enable all the banned
words in the list.
Pattern Type
The pattern type used in the banned word list entry. Choose from wildcard or
regular expression. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Language
The character set to which the banned word belongs: Simplified Chinese,
Traditional Chinese, French, Japanese, Korean, Thai, or Western.
Where
The location which the FortiGate unit searches for the banned word: subject,
body, or all.
Action
The selected action to take on email with banned words.
The Delete and Edit/View icons.
When you select Create New or Edit you can configure the following settings for the
banned word.
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Figure 187:Adding a banned word
Pattern
Enter the word or phrase you want to include in the banned word list.
Pattern Type
Select the pattern type for the banned word. Choose from wildcard or
regular expression. See “Using Perl regular expressions” on page 353.
Language
Select the character set for the banned word. Choose from: Chinese
Simplified, Chinese Traditional, French, Japanese, Korean, Thai, or
Western.
Where
Select the location to search for the banned word. Choose from: subject,
body, or all.
Action
Select the action to perform on email containing the banned word. Choose
from: Mark as Spam to apply the spam action configured in the protection
profile, or Mark as Clear to allow the email (since Banned Word is the last
filter).
Enable
Select to enable scanning for the banned word.
Configuring the banned word list
To add or edit a banned word
1
Go to Spam Filter > Banned Word.
2
Select Create New to add a banned word or select Edit for the banned word you want
to modify.
3
Enter the word or phrase.
4
Select the language (character set).
5
Select the location.
6
Select the action to take on email containing the banned word.
7
Select Enable.
8
Select OK.
Using Perl regular expressions
Email address list, MIME headers list, and banned word list entries can include
wildcards or Perl regular expressions.
See http://www.perldoc.com/perl5.8.0/pod/perlre.html for detailed information about
using Perl regular expressions.
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Regular expression vs. wildcard match pattern
In Perl regular expressions, ‘.’ character refers to any single character. It is similar to
the ‘?’ character in wildcard match pattern. As a result:
•
fortinet.com not only matches fortinet.com but also matches fortinetacom,
fortinetbcom, fortinetccom and so on.
To match a special character such as '.' and ‘*’ use the escape character ‘\’. For
example:
•
To mach fortinet.com, the regular expression should be: fortinet\.com
In Perl regular expressions, ‘*’ means match 0 or more times of the character before it,
not 0 or more times of any character. For example:
•
forti*\.com matches fortiiii.com but does not match fortinet.com
To match any character 0 or more times, use ‘.*’ where ‘.’ means any character and
the ‘*’ means 0 or more times. For example, the wildcard match pattern forti*.com
should therefore be fort.*\.com.
Word boundary
In Perl regular expressions, the pattern does not have an implicit word boundary. For
example, the regular expression “test” not only matches the word “test” but also
matches any word that contains the “test” such as “atest”, “mytest”, “testimony”,
“atestb”. The notation “\b” specifies the word boundary. To match exactly the word
“test”, the expression should be \btest\b.
Case sensitivity
Regular expression pattern matching is case sensitive in the Web and Spam filters. To
make a word or phrase case insensitive, use the regular expression /i For example,
/bad language/i will block all instances of “bad language” regardless of case.
Table 32: Perl regular expression formats
354
Expression
Matches
abc
abc (that exact character sequence, but anywhere in the string)
^abc
abc at the beginning of the string
abc$
abc at the end of the string
a|b
either of a and b
^abc|abc$
the string abc at the beginning or at the end of the string
ab{2,4}c
an a followed by two, three or four b's followed by a c
ab{2,}c
an a followed by at least two b's followed by a c
ab*c
an a followed by any number (zero or more) of b's followed by a c
ab+c
an a followed by one or more b's followed by a c
ab?c
an a followed by an optional b followed by a c; that is, either abc or ac
a.c
an a followed by any single character (not newline) followed by a c
a\.c
a.c exactly
[abc]
any one of a, b and c
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Table 32: Perl regular expression formats
[Aa]bc
either of Abc and abc
[abc]+
any (nonempty) string of a's, b's and c's (such as a, abba, acbabcacaa)
[^abc]+
any (nonempty) string which does not contain any of a, b and c (such as defg)
\d\d
any two decimal digits, such as 42; same as \d{2}
/i
makes the pattern case insensitive. For example, /bad language/i blocks
any instance of bad language regardless of case.
\w+
a “word”: a nonempty sequence of alphanumeric characters and low lines
(underscores), such as foo and 12bar8 and foo_1
100\s*mk
the strings 100 and mk optionally separated by any amount of white space
(spaces, tabs, newlines)
abc\b
abc when followed by a word boundary (e.g. in abc! but not in abcd)
perl\B
perl when not followed by a word boundary (e.g. in perlert but not in perl stuff)
\x
tells the regular expression parser to ignore white space that is neither
backslashed nor within a character class. You can use this to break up your
regular expression into (slightly) more readable parts.
/x
used to add regexps within other text. If the first character in a pattern is
forward slash '/', the '/' is treated as the delimiter. The pattern must contain a
second '/'. The pattern between ‘/’ will be taken as a regexp, and anything
after the second ‘/’ will be parsed as a list of regexp options ('i', 'x', etc). An
error occurs If the second '/' is missing. In regular expressions, the leading
and trailing space is treated as part of the regular expression.
Examples
To block any word in a phrase
/block|any|word/
To block purposely misspelled words
Spammers often insert other characters between the letters of a word to fool spam
blocking software.
/^.*v.*i.*a.*g.*r.*a.*$/i
/cr[eéèêë][\+\-\*=<>\.\,;!\?%&§@\^°\$£€\{\}()\[\]\|\\_01]dit/i
To block common spam phrases
The following phrases are some examples of common phrases found in spam
messages.
/try it for free/i
/student loans/i
/you’re already approved/i
/special[\+\-\*=<>\.\,;!\?%&~#§@\^°\$£€\{\}()\[\]\|\\_1]offer/i
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Log & Report
FortiGate units provide extensive logging capabilities for traffic, system and network
protection functions. You can set the severity level of the messages that are logged,
and you can choose the types of events that are logged.
All types of log messages, except traffic and content, can be saved in internal
memory. If a hard disk drive is installed, all types of log messages can be saved to the
hard disk. You can optionally upload hard disk logs to an external server when the log
rolls.
FortiGate units support external logging to a FortiLog unit, WebTrends and other
Syslog servers. For each log location you can configure log setting options including
addressing information, logging severity level and log format. Log filters define the
types of log messages saved to each location.
You can configure the FortiGate unit to send alert email to up to three recipients when
selected events occur. It is not necessary for an event to be logged to trigger an alert
email.
The FortiGate unit will collect and send log messages in alert emails according to the
level and time intervals you configure in the alert email options. All collected
messages are assembled in one alert email which is sent as soon the time interval is
reached for a message at or above the configured level.
For example, if you set the level as Alert and the time interval for Emergency and Alert
to 3 minutes, then all Alert and Emergency log messages collected are sent in a single
email every three minutes. Log filters define the types of log messages sent as alert
emails.
In the following example alert email, the alert email level is set to Alert. The two Alert
level messages collected since the last Alert interval are sent in a single email.
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Figure 188:Example alert email
From: admin@example.com
Sent: Tuesday, April 27, 2004 5:30 PM
To: example@test.com
Subject: Message meets Alert condition
Message meets Alert condition
2004-04-27 13:28:52 device_id=APS3012803033139 log_id=0101023002
type=event subtype=ipsec pri=notice loc_ip=172.16.81.2 loc_port=500
rem_ip=172.16.81.1 rem_port=500 out_if=dmz vpn_tunnel=ToDmz action=negotiate
init=local mode= stage=-112 dir=inbound status=success msg="Initiator: tunnel
172.16.81.1, transform=ESP_3DES, HMAC_SHA1"
Message meets Alert condition
2004-04-27 13:28:54 device_id=APS3012803033139 log_id=0101023004
type=event subtype=ipsec pri=notice loc_ip=172.16.81.2 loc_port=500
rem_ip=172.16.81.1 rem_port=500 out_if=dmz vpn_tunnel=ToDmz action=negotiate
init=local mode=quick stage=2 dir=outbound status=success msg="Initiator: sent
172.16.81.1 quick mode message #2 (DONE)"
For descriptions of log formats and specific log messages see the FortiGate Log
Message Reference Guide.
This chapter describes:
•
Log config
•
Log access
•
CLI configuration
Log config
Use Log Config to configure log storage, alert emails and log filters.
This section describes:
•
Log Setting options
•
Alert E-mail options
•
Log filter options
•
Configuring log filters
•
Enabling traffic logging
Log Setting options
You can enable and configure the storing of log messages to one or more of the
following locations:
.
FortiLog
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A FortiLog unit. The FortiLog unit is a log analyzer and manager that can
combine the log information from various FortiGate units and other firewall
units. To enable content archiving with a firewall Protection profile, you need
to select the FortiLog option and define its IP address.
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Disk
The FortiGate disk (if the FortiGate unit has one).
Memory
The FortiGate system memory. The FortiGate system memory has a limited
capacity and only displays the most recent log entries. Traffic and content
logs cannot be stored in the memory buffer. When the memory is full, the
FortiGate unit begins to overwrite the oldest messages. All log entries are
deleted when the FortiGate unit restarts.
Syslog
A remote computer running a syslog server.
WebTrends
A remote computer running a NetIQ WebTrends firewall reporting server.
FortiGate log formats comply with WebTrends Enhanced Log Format (WELF)
and are compatible with NetIQ WebTrends Security Reporting Center 2.0 and
Firewall Suite 4.1.
Figure 189:Log setting options for all log locations
To configure Log Setting
1
Go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Setting.
2
Select the check box to enable logging to a location.
3
Select the blue arrow beside the location.
The setting options appear.
4
Enter the settings the logging location requires.
5
Repeat steps 2 through 8 to configure other logging locations.
6
Select Apply.
FortiLog settings
IP:
The IP address of the FortiLog unit that manages the logs.
Level:
The FortiGate unit logs all messages at and above the logging severity
level you select. For example, if you select Error, the unit logs Error,
Critical, Alert and Emergency level messages. See Table 33, “Logging
severity levels,” on page 360.
Enable encryption
Select to enable encryption of file transfer.
Local ID:
The identifier for the FortiGate unit. This must match the device name
assigned to this unit on the FortiLog unit.
Pre-shared key
The pre-shared key used for encryption.
Table 33 describes the FortiGate logging severity levels.
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Table 33: Logging severity levels
Level
Description
Emergency
The system has become unstable.
Alert
Immediate action is required.
Critical
Functionality is affected.
Error
An error condition exists and functionality could be affected.
Warning
Functionality could be affected.
Notification
Notification of normal events.
Information
General information about system operations.
Disk settings
Maximum size of log The maximum size of the log file that is saved to the disk. When the log
file
file reaches the specified maximum size, the current log file is saved and
a new active log file is started. The default maximum log file size is 10 MB
and the maximum log file size allowed is 10 GB.
Roll log time
At the specified time of day, the current log file is saved and a new active
log file is started.
Roll Log Frequency
The number of times the current log should be saved and a new active
log started: each minute, hour, or day (as selected in the Unit drop down
list).
Unit
The unit of time that corresponds to the specified Roll Log Frequency:
minute, hour, or day.
Roll log day
The day of the week when the log should be saved and a new log started.
At midnight on the specified day the current log file is saved and a new
active log file is started.
Roll log policy
The policy to follow for saving the current log and starting a new active
log. Overwritten deletes the oldest log entry when the disk is full. Block
traffic stops all network traffic when the disk is full. Do not log stops
logging messages when the disk is full.
Level
The FortiGate unit logs all messages at and above the logging severity
level you select. For example, if you select Error, the unit logs Error,
Critical, Alert and Emergency level messages. See Table 33, “Logging
severity levels,” on page 360.
Log file upload settings
Upload When Rolling Select to upload log files to an FTP server whenever a log file rolls.
Configure settings for the FTP server and select the type of log files to
upload.
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Upload Server IP
Enter the IP address of the FTP server to which to upload the log files.
Port
Enter the port number used by the FTP server. The default port is 21,
which is the standard FTP port.
Username
Enter the user name required to connect to the FTP server.
Password
Enter the password required to connect to the FTP server.
Remote Directory
Enter the name of the path on the FTP server into which to transfer the
log files. If you do not specify a remote directory, the log files are
uploaded to the root directory of the FTP server.
Log files to upload
Select the log files to upload to the FTP server. You can upload the Traffic
Log file, Event Log file, Antivirus Log file, Web Filter Log file, Attack Log
file, Spam Filter Log file, and Content Archive file.
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To configure log file uploading
1
Select the blue arrow to expand Log file upload settings.
2
Select Upload When Rolling.
3
Enter the IP address of the logging server.
4
Enter the port number on the logging server. The default is 21 (FTP).
5
Enter the Username and Password required on the logging server.
6
Enter the remote directory in which to save the log files.
7
Select the types of log files to upload.
8
Select Apply.
Memory settings
Level
The FortiGate unit logs all messages at and above the logging severity
level you select. For example, if you select Error, the unit logs Error,
Critical, Alert and Emergency level messages. See Table 33, “Logging
severity levels,” on page 360.
Syslog settings
Name/IP
The domain name or IP address of the syslog server that stores the logs.
Port
The port number for communication with the syslog server.
Level
The FortiGate unit logs all messages at and above the logging severity
level you select. For example, if you select Error, the unit logs Error,
Critical, Alert and Emergency level messages. See Table 33, “Logging
severity levels,” on page 360.
Facility
Facility indicates the source of a log message. By default, FortiGate
reports Facility as local7. You might want to change Facility to distinguish
log messages from different FortiGate units.
Enable CSV Format If you enable CSV format, the FortiGate unit produces the log in Comma
Separated Value (CSV) format. If you do not enable CSV format the
FortiGate unit produces plain text files.
WebTrends settings
Name/IP
The domain name or IP address of the WebTrends server that stores the
logs.
Level
The FortiGate unit logs all messages at and above the logging severity
level you select. For example, if you select Error, the unit logs Error,
Critical, Alert and Emergency level messages. See Table 33, “Logging
severity levels,” on page 360.
Note: To record traffic log messages, you must set the logging severity level to Notification
when configuring the logging location. Traffic log messages do not generally have a severity
level higher than Notification.
Also, you must enable traffic logging for specific interfaces or firewall policies.
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Alert E-mail options
In Alert E-mail options you specify the mail server and recipients for email messages
and you specify the severity level and frequency of the messages.
Figure 190:Alert email configuration settings
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Authentication
Enable
Select the Authentication Enable check box to enable SMTP
authentication.
SMTP Server
The name/address of the SMTP server for email.
SMTP User
The SMTP user name.
Password
The SMTP password.
Email To
Enter one to three email recipients for alert email.
Test
Select Test to send a test alert email to the configured recipients.
Level
The FortiGate unit sends alert email for all messages at and above the
logging severity level you select.
Emergency
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for emergency level
log messages.
Alert
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for alert level log
messages.
Critical
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for critical level log
messages.
Error
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for error level log
messages.
Warning
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for warning level log
messages.
Notification
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for notification level
log messages.
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Information
The interval to wait before sending an alert e-mail for information level
log messages.
Apply
Select Apply to activate any additions or changes to configuration.
Note: If more than one log message is collected before an interval is reached, the messages
are combined and sent out as one alert email.
You can select specific events to trigger alert email in Log Filter, described in “Log
filter options” on page 363.
To configure alert email
Note: Before configuring alert email make sure you configure at least one DNS server. The
FortiGate unit uses the SMTP server name to connect to the mail server, and must look up this
name on your DNS server.
1
Go to Log&Report > Alert E-mail.
2
Select Enable to enable SMTP Authentication if required.
3
Configure the SMTP server, user, and password information if required.
4
Type up to three email addresses, one per Email To field.
5
Configure the time limit in which to send email for each logging severity level.
6
Select the logging severity level for which you want to send alert email.
7
Select Apply.
Log filter options
For each logging location you enable, you can create a customized log filter based on
the log types described in the following sections.
Note: Log locations must be enabled in Log Setting to be available for selection in the Log
Filter.
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Figure 191:Example traffic and event log filter settings
Traffic log
The Traffic Log records all the traffic to and through the FortiGate interfaces. You can
configure logging for traffic controlled by firewall policies and for traffic between any
source and destination addresses. You can also apply global settings, such as
session or packet log. You can apply the following filters:
Policy allowed
traffic
The FortiGate unit logs all traffic that is allowed according to the firewall
policy settings.
Policy violation
traffic
The FortiGate unit logs all traffic that violates the firewall policy settings.
Note: You can enable traffic logging for specific interfaces or firewall policies. See “Enabling
traffic logging” on page 366 for more information.
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Event log
The Event Log records management and activity events, such as when a
configuration has changed or a routing gateway has been added. You can apply the
following filters:
System Activity
event
The FortiGate unit logs all system-related events, such as ping server
failure and gateway status.
IPSec negotiation
event
The FortiGate unit logs all IPSec negotiation events, such as progress
and error reports.
DHCP service
event
The FortiGate unit logs all DHCP-events, such as the request and
response log.
L2TP/PPTP/PPPoE
service event
The FortiGate unit logs all protocol-related events, such as manager and
socket creation processes.
Admin event
The FortiGate unit logs all administrative events, such as user logins,
resets, and configuration updates.
HA activity event
The FortiGate unit logs all high availability events, such as link, member,
and state information.
Firewall
The FortiGate unit logs all firewall-related events, such as user
authentication event authentication.
Pattern update
event
The FortiGate unit logs all pattern update events, such as antivirus and
IPS pattern updates and update failures.
Anti-virus log
The Anti-virus Log records virus incidents in Web, FTP, and email traffic, such as
when the FortiGate unit detects an infected file, blocks a file type, or blocks an
oversized file or email. You can apply the following filters:
Virus infected
The FortiGate unit logs all virus infections.
Filename blocked
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of blocked files.
File oversized
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of oversized files.
Web filter log
The Web Filter Log records HTTP content blocks, URL blocks, and URL exempt
events. You can apply the following filters:
Content block
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of blocked content (specified in the
banned words list).
URL block
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of blocked URLs (specified in the
URL block list).
URL exempt
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of allowed URLs (specified in the
URL exempt list).
Blocked category
ratings
The FortiGate unit logs all access attempts to URLs blocked because of
web category filtering settings.
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Monitored category The FortiGate unit logs all access attempts to URLs monitored because
of web category filtering settings.
ratings
Category rating
errors
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of web category filtering rating
errors.
Attack log
The Attack Log records attacks detected and prevented by the FortiGate unit. You can
apply the following filters:
Attack Signature
The FortiGate unit logs all detected and prevented attacks based on the
attack signature, and the action taken by the FortiGate unit.
Attack Anomaly
The FortiGate unit logs all detected and prevented attacks based on
unknown or suspicious traffic patterns, and the action taken by the
FortiGate unit.
Spam filter log
The Spam Filter Log records blocking of address patterns and content in IMAP and
POP3 traffic. You can apply the following filters:
SMTP
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of blocked email in SMTP traffic.
POP3
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of blocked email in POP3 traffic.
IMAP
The FortiGate unit logs all instances of blocked email in IMAP traffic.
Configuring log filters
Configure log filters for each location to which you are saving logs.
To configure log filters
1
Go to Log&Report > Log Config > Log Filter.
2
Enable the logging type for each location to which you want to log messages.
3
Select the specific log sub-types to log for each location.
4
Select Apply.
Enabling traffic logging
To enable traffic logging for an interface or VLAN subinterface
You can enable traffic logging for an interface or VLAN subinterface. All connections
to and through the interface are recorded in the traffic log.
Note: To record traffic log messages you must set the logging severity level to Notification when
configuring the logging location. Traffic log messages do not generally have a severity level
higher than Notification.
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1
Go to System > Network > Interface.
2
Select the Edit icon for an interface.
3
Select Log.
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4
Select OK.
5
Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each interface for which you want to enable logging.
6
Make sure you enable traffic logs for a logging location and set the logging severity
level to Notification or lower.
To enable traffic logging for a firewall policy
You can enable traffic logging for a firewall policy. All connections accepted by the
firewall policy are recorded in the traffic log.
1
Go to Firewall > Policy.
2
Select the Edit icon for a policy.
3
Select Log Traffic.
4
Select OK.
5
Make sure you enable traffic log under Log Filter for a logging location and set the
logging severity level to Notification or lower.
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Log access
Log & Report
Log access
Log Access provides access to log messages saved to the FortiGate disk or to the
memory buffer. You can delete, view, search, and navigate logs.
Note: FortiGate units do not save some types of logs to memory. You can view these
log messages with Log Access only if your FortiGate unit contains a hard disk drive.
On its disk, the FortiGate unit saves log messages in files. To view log messages, you
must first select the file to open. You can also delete a file, clear (remove the log
messages from) a file, or download a file in either plain text or CSV format.
You can view the log messages in a memory buffer simply by accessing the buffer.
You cannot delete or download log messages from the memory buffer.
This section describes:
•
Disk log file access
•
Viewing log messages
•
Searching log messages
Disk log file access
You can view, navigate, and download logs saved to the FortiGate disk.
Figure 192:Sample list of logs stored on the FortiGate disk
The following table describes the column headings and the icons you can use to view
and manage the log files when accessing logs saved to the disk.
Type
Select the log location for which you want to view logs: disk or memory. For
some types of logs only disk storage is available.
File name
The name(s) of the log file(s) of that type stored to disk.
Size
The size of the log file in bytes.
Last access time The day of the week, month, day, time, and year the log file was last added
to by the FortiGate unit.
Delete icon. Delete the entire log file. You can’t delete the current log file.
Clear log icon. Delete the log entries from the log file (but not the file).
Download icon. Download the log as a text or CSV file.
View icon. Display the log file through the web-based manager.
To access log files on the FortiGate disk
1
368
Go to Log&Report > Log Access.
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Log access
2
Select the log type you wish to access.
3
Select Disk from the Type list.
4
You can clear or delete, download, or view the log files by selecting the corresponding
icon.
To download log files from the FortiGate disk
When downloading a log file, you can save the log in plain text or CSV format.
1
Go to Log&Report > Log Access.
2
Select the log type you wish to access.
3
Select Disk from the Type list.
4
Select the Download icon for the file you wish to download.
5
Select Download file in normal or CSV format.
6
Select Open to view the log file or Save to save the log file to your computer.
To view and search log messages on the FortiGate disk
1
Go to Log&Report > Log Access.
2
Select the log type you wish to access.
3
Select Disk from the Type list.
4
Select the View icon for the disk file you want to display.
For detailed information about searching logs, see “Searching log messages” on
page 372.
Viewing log messages
You can view and navigate log messages saved to FortiGate hard disk drives or to the
memory buffer.
Figure 193:Viewing log messages
The following table describes the features and icons you can use to navigate and
search the logs when viewing logs through the web-based manager.
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Type
Select the log location for which you want to view logs: disk or memory.
Go to previous page icon. View to the previous page in the log file.
Go to next page icon. View to the next page in the log file.
View per page
Select the number of log messages displayed on each page.
Line: /
Type the line number of the first line you want to display. The number
following the slash (“/”) is the total number of lines in the log.
Search
Type a search word and select Go.
Advanced Search Select to search log messages by date, time and keywords.
Column settings button. Select to choose columns for log display.
Raw or
Formatted
Select Raw to switch to an unformatted log message display. Select
Formatted to switch to a log message display organized into columns.
To view log messages in the FortiGate memory buffer
1
Go to Log&Report > Log Access.
2
Select the log type you wish to view.
3
Select Memory from the Type list.
The log messages are displayed.
You can change the displayed columns or see the raw log messages, go to the
previous or next log page, or search the log by selecting the corresponding icon.
To view log messages in FortiGate disk drive files
370
1
Go to Log&Report > Log Access.
2
Select the log type you wish to view.
3
Select Disk from the Type list.
The log files are displayed.
4
Select the View icon for the log file you want to open.
The log messages are displayed.
You can change the displayed columns or see the raw log messages, go to the
previous or next log page, or search the log by selecting the corresponding icon.
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Log & Report
Log access
Choosing columns
You can customize your log messages display using the Column Settings window.
The column settings apply only when the formatted (not raw) display is selected.
Figure 194:Column settings for viewing log messages
Available fields The fields that you can add to the log message display.
->
Right arrow button. Select to move selected fields from Available fields list to
Show these fields list.
<-
Left arrow button. Select to move selected fields from the Show these fields
list to the Available fields list.
Show these
fields in this
order
The fields that are displayed as columns in the log messages list. The fields
are listed in order with the first column at the top of the list.
Move up
Move selected field up one position in the Show these fields list.
Move down
Move selected field down one position in the Show these fields list.
The Detailed Information column provides the entire raw log entry and is not needed
unless the log contains information not available in any of the other, more specific
columns.
To change the columns in the log message display
1
While viewing log messages, select the Column Settings icon.
The Column Settings window opens.
2
To add fields, select them in the Available fields list and select the right arrow button.
3
To remove fields, select them in the Show these fields list and select the left arrow
button.
4
To change the position of a column, select the field in the Show these fields list and
then select Move Up or Move Down as necessary.
5
Select OK.
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Log access
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Searching log messages
There are two ways to search log messages: a simple keyword search or an
advanced search that enables you to use multiple keywords and specify a time range.
To perform a simple keyword search
1
Display the log messages you want to search. For more information, see “Viewing log
messages” on page 369.
2
In the Search field, type a keyword and select Go.
The log message list shows only the logs containing the keyword.
To perform an advanced search
1
Display the log messages you want to search. For more information, see “Viewing log
messages” on page 369.
2
Select Advanced Search.
The Log Search window is displayed.
Figure 195:Search for log messages
372
3
If you want to search for log messages in a particular date range, select the From and
To dates.
4
Select one of the following options:
all of the following
The message must contain all of the keywords
any of the following
The message must contain at least one of the keywords
none of the following
The message must contain none of the keywords
5
In the Keywords field, type the keywords for the search.
6
Select OK.
The log message list shows only the logs that meet your log search criteria.
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Log & Report
CLI configuration
CLI configuration
This guide only covers Command Line Interface (CLI) commands and command
keywords that are not represented in the web-based manager. For complete
descriptions of working with CLI commands see the FortiGate CLI Reference Guide.
fortilog setting
Note: The command keywords for fortilog setting that are not represented in the webbased manager are localid and psksecret.
Use this command to configure log settings for logging to a FortiLog unit.
The FortiLog unit is a log analyzer and manager that can combine the log information
from various FortiGate units.
Command syntax pattern
config log fortilog setting
set <keyword> <variable>
config log fortilog setting
unset <keyword>
get log fortilog setting
show log fortilog setting
log fortilog setting command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
encrypt
{enable | disable}
localid <str_id>
psksecret
<str_psk>
Description
Default
Availability
Enter enable to enable encrypted
communication with the FortiLog unit.
disable
All models.
Enter the local ID for an IPSec VPN tunnel
to a FortiLog unit. You can create an IPSec
VPN tunnel if one or more FortiGate units
are sending log messages to a FortiLog
unit across the Internet. Using an IPSec
VPN tunnel means that all log messages
sent by the FortiGate are encrypted and
secure.
Enter the pre-shared key for the IPSec
VPN tunnel to a FortiLog unit. You can
create an IPSec VPN tunnel if one or more
FortiGate units are sending log messages
to a FortiLog unit across the Internet. Using
an IPSec VPN tunnel means that all log
messages sent by the FortiGate are
encrypted and secure.
Enter the IP address of the FortiLog unit.
No
default.
All models.
No
default.
All models.
No
default.
All models.
server
<address_ipv4>
status
Enter enable to enable logging to a
{disable | enable} FortiLog unit.
disable All models.
Note: The IPSec VPN settings for the FortiGate unit must match the VPN settings on the
FortiLog unit.
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CLI configuration
Log & Report
Example
This example shows how to enable logging to a FortiLog unit, set the FortiLog IP
address, add a local ID, and add a pre-shared key for an IPSec VPN tunnel.
config log fortilog setting
set status enable
set server 192.168.100.1
set localid net_host_c
set psksecret J7fram54AhTWmoF5
end
This example shows how to display the log setting for logging to a FortiLog unit.
get log fortilog setting
This example shows how to display the configuration for logging to a FortiLog unit.
show log fortilog setting
If the show command returns you to the prompt, the settings are at default.
syslogd setting
Note: The only command keyword for syslog setting that is not represented in the webbased manager is the facility keyword.
Use this command to configure log settings for logging to a remote syslog server.
You can configure the FortiGate unit to send logs to a remote computer running a
syslog server.
Command syntax pattern
config log syslogd setting
set <keyword> <variable>
config log syslogd setting
unset <keyword>
get log syslogd setting
show log syslogd setting
log syslogd setting command keywords and variables
Keywords and
Description
variables
csv
Enter enable to enable the FortiGate unit
{disable | enable} to produce the log in Comma Separated
Value (CSV) format. If you do not enable
CSV format the FortiGate unit produces
plain text files.
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Availability
disable
All models.
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Log & Report
CLI configuration
log syslogd setting command keywords and variables
Keywords and
variables
facility {alert |
audit | auth |
authpriv | clock |
cron | daemon |
ftp | kernel |
local0 | local1 |
local2 | local3 |
local4 | local5 |
local6 | local7 |
lpr | mail | news
| ntp | syslog |
user | uucp}
port
<port_integer>
server
<address_ipv4>
status
{disable | enable}
Description
Default
Availability
Enter the facility type. Also known as
message category, facility indicates from
which part of the system a log message
originated. Facility can also be used to
route messages to different files. Facility
types are described in Table 34.
local7
All models.
Enter the port number for communication 514
with the syslog server.
All models.
Enter the IP address of the syslog server
that stores the logs.
No default. All models.
Enter enable to enable logging to a
remote syslog server.
disable
All models.
Table 34: Facility types
Facility type
Description
alert
alert messages
audit
audit messages
auth
security/authorization messages
authpriv
security/authorization messages (private)
clock
clock daemon
cron
cron daemon performing scheduled commands
daemon
system daemons running background system processes
ftp
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) daemon
kernel
kernel messages
local0 – local7
reserved for local use
lpr
line printer subsystem
mail
email system
news
network news subsystem
ntp
Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon
syslog
messages generated internally by the syslog daemon
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CLI configuration
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Example
This example shows how to enable logging to a remote syslog server, configure an IP
address and port for the server, and set the facility type to user.
config log syslogd setting
set status enable
set server 220.210.200.190
set port 601
set facility user
end
This example shows how to display the log setting for logging to a remote syslog
server.
get log syslogd setting
This example shows how to display the configuration for logging to a remote syslog
server.
show log syslogd setting
If the show command returns you to the prompt, the settings are at default.
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
FortiGuard categories
FortiGuard is a web filtering solution provided by Fortinet. FortiGuard sorts thousands
of Web pages into a wide variety of categories that users can allow, block, or monitor.
The FortiGate unit accesses the nearest FortiGuard server to determine the category
of a requested Web page and then follows the policy configured for that user or
interface.
Please see “Category block” on page 333 for more information about how FortiGuard
works and how to configure it.
Table 35 describes each FortiGuard category.
Table 35: FortiGuard categories
Category name
Description
Potentially Liable
1. Abused Drugs
Sites that promote or provide information about the
use of prohibited drugs, or the abuse or
unsanctioned use of controlled or regulated drugs;
also, paraphernalia associated with such use or
abuse, and sites that provide information about or
promote the cultivation, preparation, or use of
marijuana.
2. Cult or Occult
Sites that provide information about or promote
religions not specified in Traditional Religions or
other unconventional, cultic, or folkloric beliefs and
practices. Sites that promote or offer methods,
means of instruction, or other resources to affect or
influence real events through the use of spells,
curses, magic powers, satanic or supernatural
beings.
3. Hacking
Sites that provide information about or promote
illegal or questionable access to or use of computer
or communication equipment, software, or
databases.
Proxy Avoidance -- sites that provide information
about how to bypass proxy server features or to gain
access to URLs in any way that bypasses the proxy
server.
URL Translation Sites -- sites that offer online
translation of URLs. These sites access the URL to
be translated in a way that bypasses the proxy
server, potentially allowing unauthorized access.
4. Illegal or Questionable
Sites that provide instruction in or promote
nonviolent crime or unethical or dishonest behavior
or the avoidance of prosecution.
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FortiGuard categories
Table 35: FortiGuard categories
Category name
Description
5. Racism or Hate
Sites that promote the identification of racial groups,
the denigration or subjection of groups, or the
superiority of any group.
6. Violence
Sites that feature or promote violence or bodily
harm, including self-inflicted harm; or that
gratuitously display images of death, gore, or injury;
or that feature images or descriptions that are
grotesque or frightening and of no redeeming value.
Objectionable or Controversial
378
7. Abortion
Sites with neutral or balanced presentation of the
issue.
Pro-Choice -- Sites that provide information about or
are sponsored by organizations that support legal
abortion or that offer support or encouragement to
those seeking the procedure.
Pro-Life -- Sites that provide information about or are
sponsored by organizations that oppose legal
abortion or that seek increased restriction of
abortion.
8. Adult Materials
Sites that display full or partial nudity in a sexual
context, but not sexual activity; erotica; sexual
paraphernalia; sex-oriented businesses as clubs,
nightclubs, escort services; and sites supporting
online purchase of such goods and services.
Sex Education -- Sites that offer information about
sex and sexuality, with no pornographic intent.
9. Advocacy Groups
Sites that promote change or reform in public policy,
public opinion, social practice, economic activities
and relationships.
10. Alcohol and Tobacco
Sites that provide information about, promote, or
support the sale of alcoholic beverages or tobacco
products or associated paraphernalia
11. Gambling
Sites that provide information about or promote
gambling or support online gambling, involving a risk
of losing money.
12. Militancy and Extremist
Sites that offer information about or promote or are
sponsored by groups advocating anti government
beliefs or action.
13. Nudity
Lingerie and Swimsuit -- Sites that offer images of
models in suggestive but not lewd costume, with
semi nudity permitted. Includes classic 'cheesecake,' calendar, and pin-up art and photography.
Includes also sites offering lingerie or swimwear for
sale.
Nudity -- Sites that offer depictions of nude or semi
nude human forms, singly or in groups, not overtly
sexual in intent or effect
14. Pornography
Sites that depict or graphically describe sexual acts
or activity, including exhibitionism; also sites offering
direct links to such sites.
15. Tasteless
Sites with content that is gratuitously offensive or
shocking, but not violent or frightening. Includes
sites devoted in part or whole to scatology and
similar topics or to improper language, humor, or
behavior.
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FortiGuard categories
Table 35: FortiGuard categories
Category name
Description
16. Weapons
Sites that provide information about, promote, or
support the sale of weapons and related items.Sport
Hunting and Gun Clubs -- Sites that provide
information about or directories of gun clubs and
similar groups, including war-game and paintball
facilities.
Potentially Non-productive
17. Advertisement
Sites that provide advertising graphics or other ad
content files.
18. Brokerage and Trading
Sites that support active trading of securities and
management of investments.
19. Freeware and Software Download
Sites whose primary function is to provide freeware
and software downloads.
20. Games
Sites that provide information about or promote
electronic games, video games, computer games,
role-playing games, or online games. Includes
sweepstakes and giveaways.
21. Internet Communication
Web Chat -- Sites that host Web chat services or
that support or provide information about chat via
HTTP or IRC.Instant Messaging -- Sites that enable
instant messaging. Message Boards and Clubs -Sites for online personal and business clubs,
discussion groups, message boards, and list
servers; includes 'blogs' and 'mail magazines.'
Digital post cards - Sites for sending/viewing digital
post cards.
22. Pay to Surf
Sites that pay users to view Web sites,
advertisements, or email
23. Web-based Email
Sites that host Web-based email.
Potentially Bandwidth Consuming
24. File Sharing and Storage
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing -- Sites that provide client
software to enable peer-to-peer file sharing and
transfer. Personal Network Storage and Backup -Sites that store personal files on Internet servers for
backup or exchange.
25. Streaming Media
MP3 -- Sites that support downloading of MP3 or
other sound files or that serve as directories of such
sites.
Internet Radio and TV -- Sites whose primary
purpose is to provide radio or TV programming on
the Internet.
Internet Telephony -- Sites that enable users to
make telephone calls via the Internet or to obtain
information or software for that purpose.
Potentially Security Violating
26. Malicious Web Sites
Sites that contain code that may intentionally modify
end-user systems without their consent and cause
harm.
27. Spyware
Sites or pages that download software that, without
the user's knowledge, generates http traffic (other
than simple user identification and validation).
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Table 35: FortiGuard categories
Category name
Description
General Interest
380
28. Arts and Entertainment
Sites that provide information about or promote
motion pictures, non-news radio and television,
music and programming guides, books, humor,
comics, movie theatres, galleries, artists or review
on entertainment, and magazines.
29. Cultural Institutions
Sites sponsored by museums, galleries, theatres
(but not movie theatres), libraries, and similar
institutions; also, sites whose purpose is the display
of artworks.
30. Education
Educational Institutions -- Sites sponsored by
schools and other educational facilities, by nonacademic research institutions, or that relate to
educational events and activities.
Educational Materials -- Sites that provide
information about or that sell or provide curriculum
materials or direct instruction; also, learned journals
and similar publications. Sites for children
31. Financial Data and Services
Financial Data and Services -- Sites that offer news
and quotations on stocks, bonds, and other
investment vehicles, investment advice, but not
online trading. Includes banks, credit unions, credit
cards, and insurance.
32. Gay or Lesbian or Bisexual Interest
Gay or Lesbian or Bisexual Interest -- Sites that
provide information about or cater to gay, lesbian, or
bisexual lifestyles, including those that support
online shopping, but excluding those that are
sexually or issue-oriented.
33. Health
Sites that provide information or advice on personal
health or medical services, procedures, or devices,
but not drugs. Includes self-help groups.
34. Job Search
Sites that offer information about or support the
seeking of employment or employees.
35. Medicine
Prescribed Medications -- Sites that provide
information about approved drugs and their medical
use.
Supplements and Unregulated Compounds -- Sites
that provide information about or promote the sale or
use of chemicals not regulated by the FDA (such as
naturally occurring compounds).
36. News and Media
Sites that offer current news and opinion, including
those sponsored by newspapers, general-circulation
magazines, or other media.
Alternative Journals -- Online equivalents to
supermarket tabloids and other fringe publications.
37. Personals and Dating
Personals and Dating -- Sites that assist users in
establishing interpersonal relationships, excluding
those intended to arrange for sexual encounters and
excluding those of exclusively gay or lesbian or
bisexual interest.
38. Political Organizations
Political Organizations -- Sites sponsored by or
providing information about political parties and
interest groups focused on elections or legislation.
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FortiGuard categories
Table 35: FortiGuard categories
Category name
Description
39. Reference Materials
Sites that offer reference-shelf content such as
atlases, dictionaries, encyclopedias, formularies,
white and yellow pages, and public statistical data.
40. Religion
Traditional Religions -- Sites that provide information
about or promote Buddhism, Bahai, Christianity,
Christian Science, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism,
Mormonism, Shinto, and Sikhism, as well as
atheism.
41. Search Engines and Portals
Search Engines and Portals -- Sites that support
searching the Web, news groups, or indices or
directories thereof.
42. Shopping and Auction
Sites that support the online purchase of consumer
goods and services except: sexual materials,
lingerie, swimwear, investments, medications,
educational materials, computer software or
hardware, alcohol, tobacco, travel, vehicles and
parts, weapons.
Internet Auctions -- Sites that support the offering
and purchasing of goods between individuals.
Real Estate -- Sites that provide information about
renting, buying, selling, or financing residential real
estate.
43. Social Organizations
Professional and Worker Organizations -- Sites
sponsored by or that support or offer information
about organizations devoted to professional
advancement or workers interests.
Service and Philanthropic Organizations -- Sites
sponsored by or that support or offer information
about organizations devoted to doing good as their
primary activity.
Social and Affiliation Organizations -- Sites
sponsored by or that support or offer information
about organizations devoted chiefly to socializing or
common interests other than philanthropy or
professional advancement.
44. Society and Lifestyles
Sites that provide information about matters of daily
life, excluding entertainment, health, jobs, sex, and
sports.
Restaurants and Dining -- Sites that list, review,
advertise, or promote food, dining, or catering
services.
Hobbies -- Sites that provide information about or
promote private and largely sedentary pastimes, but
not electronic, video, or online games.
Personal Web Sites -- Web pages published and
maintained by individuals for their personal selfexpression and ends.
45. Special Events
Sites devoted to a current event that requires
separate categorization.
46. Sports
Sites that provide information about or promote
sports, active games, and recreation.
47. Travel
Sites that provide information about or promote
travel-related services and destinations.
48. Vehicles
Sites that provide information about or promote
vehicles, including those that support online
purchase of vehicles or parts.
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Table 35: FortiGuard categories
Category name
Description
Business Oriented
49. Business and Economy
Sites sponsored by or devoted to business firms,
business associations, industry groups, or business
in general.
50. Computer Security
Computer Security -- Sites that provide information
about or free downloadable tools for computer
security.
51. Government and Legal
Organizations
Sites sponsored by branches, bureaus, or agencies
of any level of government, except for the armed
forces.Sites that discuss or explain laws of various
government entities.
52. Information Technology
Sites sponsored by or providing information about
computers, software, the Internet, and related
business firms, including sites supporting the sale of
hardware, software, peripherals, and services.
53. Military Organizations
Military -- Sites sponsored by branches or agencies
of the armed services.
Others
382
54. Dynamic Content
Dynamic Content -- URLs that are generated
dynamically by a Web server.
55. Miscellaneous
Content Delivery Networks -- Commercial hosts that
deliver content to subscribing Web sites.
Image Servers -- Web servers whose primary
function is to deliver images. Images (Media) -URLs ending with image file names.
Network Errors -- URLs with hosts that do not
resolve to IP addresses.
Private IP Addresses -- IP addresses defined in RFC
1918, 'Address Allocation for Private Intranets.
56. Web Hosting
Web Hosting -- Sites of organizations that provide
hosting services, or top-level domain pages of Web
communities.
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Glossary
Glossary
address: An IP address (logical address) or the
address of a physical interface (hardware address). An
Ethernet address is sometimes called a MAC address.
See also IP address.
aggressive mode: A way to establish a secure
channel during IPSec phase 1 negotiations when the
VPN peer uses its identity as part of the authentication
process. See also main mode.
AH, Authentication Header: An IPSec security
protocol. Fortinet IPSec uses ESP in tunnel mode, not
AH. See ESP.
ARP, Address Resolution Protocol: A protocol that
resolves a logical IP address to a physical Ethernet
address.
authentication: A process whereby a server
determines whether a client may establish a
connection and access private resources.
CA, Certificate Authority: A company that issues
digital certificates to validate the identity of a person or
entity in an online exchange.
CHAP, Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol: An authentication protocol supported by
PPP. See also PPP.
client: An application that requires and requests
services from a server.
cluster: A group of FortiGate units that act as a single
virtual FortiGate unit to maintain connectivity even if
one of the FortiGate units in the cluster fails.
cluster unit: A FortiGate unit operating in a FortiGate
HA cluster.
connection: A link between computers, applications,
or processes that can be logical, physical, or both.
decryption: A method of decoding an encrypted file
into its original state.
device failover: A hardware or software problem that
causes a FortiGate unit to stop processing network
traffic. If one of the FortiGate units in a cluster fails, all
functions, all established firewall connections, and all
IPSec VPN sessions are maintained by the other
FortiGate units in the HA cluster.
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
DHCP, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: An
Internet protocol that assigns IP addresses to network
clients, usually when the client connects to the Internet.
Diffie-Hellman: An algorithm for establishing a shared
secret key over an insecure medium. See DiffieHellman group.
Diffie-Hellman group: FortiGate units support DiffieHellman groups 1, 2 and 5. The size of the modulus
used to calculate the key varies according to the group:
•
Group 1: 768-bit modulus
•
Group 2: 1024-bit modulus
•
Group 5: 1536-bit modulus
digital certificate: A digital document that guarantees
the identity of a person or entity and is issued by a CA.
DMZ, Demilitarized Zone: An untrusted area of a
private network, usually used to host Internet services
without allowing unauthorized access to an internal
(private) network. Typically, the DMZ contains servers
accessible to Internet traffic, such as Web, FTP, SMTP,
and DNS servers.
DMZ interface: The FortiGate interface that connects
to a DMZ network.
DNS, Domain Name System: A service that converts
symbolic node names to IP addresses. A domain name
server (DNS server) implements the protocol.
DoS, Denial-of-Service: An attempt to disrupt a
service by flooding the network with fake requests that
consume network resources.
DSL, Digital Subscriber Line: A way to access the
Internet at higher speeds using existing copper
telephone lines. Users can maintain a continuous
connection to the Internet and use the phone
simultaneously.
encapsulate: Add a header to a packet to create a unit
of transmission that matches the unit of transmission
on a different network layer.
encryption: A method of encoding a file so that it
cannot be understood. The information must be
decrypted before it can be used.
endpoint: The IP address or port number that defines
one end of a connection.
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ESP, Encapsulated Security Protocol: An IPSec
security protocol that provides encapsulation of
encrypted data—IP packets are embedded in other IP
packets so that the originating source and destination
IP addresses cannot be seen on the Internet.
Ethernet: Can refer to the IEEE 802.3 signaling
protocol, or an Ethernet controller (also known as a
Media Access Controller or MAC).
external interface: The FortiGate interface that
connects to the Internet.
failover: A FortiGate unit taking over the processing of
network traffic for another unit in the cluster that
suffered a device or link failure.
failure: A hardware or software problem that causes a
FortiGate unit or a monitored interface to stop
processing network traffic.
heartbeat failover: If an interface functioning as a
heartbeat device fails, the heartbeat is transferred to
another interface also configured as an HA heartbeat
device.
high availability: The ability that a cluster has to
maintain a connection when there is a device or link
failure. Another unit in the cluster takes over the
connection, without any loss of connectivity. To achieve
high availability, all FortiGate units in the cluster share
session and configuration information.
hop: The segment of packet transmission that occurs
between two routers. A packet may make several hops
as it travels to its destination.
host: A network entity that has an IP address.
FGCP, FortiGate Clustering Protocol: A protocol that
specifies how the FortiGate units in a cluster
communicate to keep the cluster operating.
HTTP, Hypertext Transmission Protocol: The
protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines
how messages are formatted and transmitted, and
what actions Web servers and browsers should take in
response to various commands.
FTP, File Transfer Protocol: A protocol used to
transfer files between computers that have different
operating systems.
HTTPS: The secure HTML protocol for transmitting
encrypted information to web servers using SSL. See
also SSL.
gateway: A combination of hardware and layer-3
(network-layer) software that relays packets from one
network to another.
hub: A device where communication links are brought
together to exchange data between several computers.
hash algorithm: A procedure that renders a text
message as a unique number.
HA virtual MAC address: When operating in HA
mode, all of the interfaces of the primary cluster unit
acquire the same HA virtual MAC address. All
communications with the cluster must use this MAC
address. The HA virtual MAC address is set according
to the group ID.
header: The part of a packet that includes the source
and destination address of the associated data. This
addressing information is used to route packets.
heartbeat: Also called FGCP heartbeat or HA
heartbeat. The heartbeat constantly communicates HA
status and synchronization information to make sure
that the cluster is operating properly.
heartbeat device: An ethernet network interface in a
cluster that is used by the FGCP for heartbeat
communications among cluster units.
384
ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol: An IP
message control protocol that supports error
messages, test packets, and information messages
related to IP. This protocol is used by the ping
generator to send ICMP echo requests to a host.
IKE, Internet Key Exchange: A method of
automatically exchanging IPSec authentication and
encryption keys between two secure servers.
IMAP, Internet Message Access Protocol: An
Internet email protocol that allows access to an email
server from any IMAP-compatible browser.
internal interface: The FortiGate interface that
connects to an internal (private) network.
Internet: The network that encompasses the world. As
a generic term, it refers to any collection of
interdependent networks.
IP, Internet Protocol: The component of TCP/IP that
handles routing.
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Glossary
IP address: The point of attachment to a TCP/IP
network. An IP address is a 32-bit quantity written in
dotted decimal notation (four numbers separated by
periods). See also netmask.
IPSec, Internet Protocol Security: A set of protocols
that support secure exchange of packets at the IP
layer. IPSec is most often used to support VPNs. See
VPN.
ISP, Internet Service Provider: A company that
provides customers with access to the Internet.
KB, kilobyte: A unit of storage (1 024 bytes).
L2TP, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol: A security protocol
that enables ISPs to establish VPN tunnels on behalf of
dialup clients.
LAN, Local Area Network: A computer network that
spans a relatively small area.
Layer 2: The data-link layer of the OSI model. Layer 2
is responsible for transmission, framing, and error
control over a single link.
Layer 3: The network layer of the OSI model. Layer 3
is responsible for examining each network packet and
sending them to the proper destination over the
Internet.
link failover: If a link failure causes an interface on the
primary cluster unit to stop processing network traffic, a
cluster unit that has not experienced the same link
failure becomes the new primary cluster unit. All
functions, all established firewall connections, and all
IPSec VPN sessions fail over to the new primary
cluster unit.
load balancing: Also known as active-active HA. All
units in the cluster process network traffic. The FGCP
employs a technique called unicast load balancing.
The primary cluster unit is associated with the cluster
HA virtual MAC address and cluster IP address. The
primary unit is the only cluster unit to receive packets
sent to the cluster. The primary unit can process
packets itself, or propagate them to subordinate cluster
units according to a load balancing schedule.
main mode: A way to hide the identities of VPN peers
from passive eavesdroppers during IPSec phase 1
negotiations. See also aggressive mode.
MB, Megabyte: A unit of storage (1 048 576 bytes).
MIB, Management Information Base: A database of
objects that can be monitored by an SNMP network
manager.
modem: A device that converts digital signals into
analog signals and back again for transmission over
telephone lines.
monitored interface: An interface that is configured
with a monitor priority. The cluster monitors the
connectivity of this interface for all cluster units. If a
monitored interface fails or becomes disconnected
from its network, the cluster will compensate.
MTU, Maximum Transmission Unit: The largest
physical packet size, measured in bytes, that a network
can transmit. Any packets larger than the MTU are
divided into smaller packets before they are sent.
NAT, Network Address Translation: A way of routing
IPv4 packets transparently. Using NAT, a router or
FortiGate unit between a private and public network
translates private IP addresses to public addresses
and the other way around.
netmask, network mask: Also sometimes called
subnet mask. A 32-bit quantity that indicates which bits
of an IP address refer to the network portion.
NTP, Network Time Protocol: Used to synchronize
the time of a computer to an NTP server. NTP provides
accuracies to within tens of milliseconds across the
Internet relative to coordinated universal time.
OSI, Open Systems Interconnection: A standard that
defines network communication protocols using a
seven-layer model.
local: The near end point (an IP address or port
number) of a connection.
packet: A piece of data transmitted over a packetswitched network. A packet contains a payload, the
source and destination addresses, and a checksum. In
IP networks, packets are often called datagrams.
Packets are passed between the OSI data-link and
network layers.
MAC address, Media Access Control address: A
layer-2 hardware address that uniquely identifies a
network node.
PAP, Password Authentication Protocol: An
authentication protocol supported by PPP. See also
PPP.
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Glossary
ping, packet Internet grouper: A utility for
determining whether the device at a specific IP address
is accessible. The utility sends a packet to the specified
address and waits for a reply.
POP3, Post Office Protocol: A protocol used to
transfer email from a mail server to a mail client across
the Internet. Most email clients use POP.
port: The part of an interface on which application
traffic is carried. By convention, the port number
identifies the type of traffic. For example, port 80 is
used for HTTP traffic.
PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol: A protocol for
transmitting IP packets over serial point-to-point links
(that is, across any DTE/DCE interface).
PPPoE, PPP over Ethernet: A protocol that specifies
how to encapsulate PPP packets over Ethernet.
PPTP, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol: A security
protocol that creates a VPN by encapsulating PPP
packets.
primary unit: Also called the primary cluster unit, this
cluster unit controls how the cluster operates.The
primary cluster unit sends hello packets to all cluster
units to synchronize session information, synchronize
the cluster configuration, and to synchronize the cluster
routing table. The hello packets also confirm for the
subordinate units that the primary unit is still
functioning.
The primary unit also tracks the status of all
subordinate cluster units. When you start a
management connection to a cluster, you connect to
the primary cluster unit.
In an active-passive cluster, the primary cluster unit
processes all network traffic. If a subordinate unit fails,
the primary unit updates the cluster configuration
database.
In an active-active cluster, the primary unit receives all
network traffic and re-directs this traffic to subordinate
cluster units. If a subordinate unit fails, the primary unit
updates the cluster status and redistributes load
balanced traffic to other subordinate units in the cluster.
The FortiGate firmware uses the term “master” to refer
to the primary cluster unit.
386
protocol: A standard format for transmitting data. The
protocol determines the type of error checking to be
used, the data compression method (if any), how the
sending device indicates that it has finished sending a
message, and how the receiving device indicates that it
has received a message.
RADIUS, Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service: A user authentication and network-usage
accounting system. When users dial into an ISP they
enter a user name and password. This information is
passed to a RADIUS server, which authenticates the
user and authorizes access to the network.
remote: The far end point (an IP address or port
number) of a connection.
replay detection: A way to determine whether a replay
attack is underway in an IPSec tunnel. A replay attack
occurs when an unauthorized party intercepts a series
of IPSec packets and changes them in an attempt to
flood a tunnel or access a VPN.
RFC, Request for Comments: Internet Standards
Committee documentation.
RIP, Routing Information Protocol: An Internet
protocol for sharing routing information within an
autonomous system.
router: A hardware device that connects computers on
the Internet together and routes traffic between them. A
router may connect a LAN and/or DMZ to the Internet.
routing: The process of determining which path to use
for sending packets to a destination.
routing table: A list of possible paths that a packet can
take to reach a destination.
SA, Security Association: SAs protect tunneled
packets. They contain the information needed to create
an IPSec VPN tunnel. An SA is uniquely identified by a
security parameter index, an IP destination address,
and a security protocol identifier. The Internet Security
Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP)
is used to manage SAs.
server: An application that answers requests from
clients. Used as a generic term for any device that
provides services to the rest of the network such as
printing, storage, and network access.
SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: A protocol that
supports email delivery services.
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Glossary
SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol: A set
of protocols for managing networks. SNMP agents
store and return data about themselves to SNMP
requesters.
spam: Unsolicited email.
SSH, Secure Shell: An application that enables users
to log into a remote computer and run commands
securely.
SSL, Secure Sockets Layer: An Internet security
protocol that uses private and public encryption keys
and certificates to keeps transactions private.
state synchronization: The part of the FGCP that
maintains connections after failover.
subnet, subnetwork: A logical network comprising
devices whose IP addresses have the same network
prefix. For example, all devices having IP addresses in
the 192.168.10.0/24 range can be accessed on the
same subnet. See also netmask.
subordinate unit: Also called the subordinate cluster
unit, each cluster contains one or more cluster units
that are not functioning as the primary unit.
Subordinate units are always waiting to become the
primary unit. If a subordinate unit does not receive
hello packets from the primary cluster unit, it attempts
to become the primary unit.
In an active-active cluster, subordinate units keep track
of cluster connections, keep their configurations and
routing tables synchronized with the primary unit, and
process network traffic assigned to them by the primary
unit. In an active-passive cluster, subordinate units do
not process network traffic. However, active-passive
subordinate units track cluster connections and keep
their configurations and routing tables synchronized
with the primary unit.
The FortiGate firmware uses the terms “slave” and
“subsidiary unit” to refer to a subordinate cluster unit.
TCP, Transmission Control Protocol: One of the
main protocols in TCP/IP networks. TCP guarantees
delivery of data and also guarantees that packets are
delivered in the same order sent.
trojan horse: A harmful program that disguises itself
as another program.
UDP, User Datagram Protocol: A connectionless
protocol that runs on IP networks and is used primarily
for broadcasting messages throughout the network.
virus: A computer program that replicates and spreads
itself through computers or networks, usually with
harmful intent.
VPN, Virtual Private Network: A secure logical
network created from physically separate networks.
VPNs use encryption and other security mechanisms
to ensure that only authorized users can access the
network and that data transmitted between VPN
devices cannot be intercepted.
worm: A harmful program that replicates itself until it
fills a computer or network, which can shut the system
down.
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FortiGate-800 Administration Guide Version 2.80 MR8
Index
A
address name
firewall address 212
abr-type 177
accept action
firewall policy 205
access-list 188
action
firewall policy 203, 205
Spam filter banned word 352, 353
Spam filter DNSBL and ORDBL 347
Spam filter IP address 345
Spam filter MIME headers 350
action type
Spam filter email address 348
Action, Policy 283
firewall policy 204
Address Name, Policy 282
administrator account
netmask 124
trusted host 124
advanced
firewall policy 206, 207
advertise 184, 198
adware
grayware category 312
age limit
quarantine 309
active sessions
HA cluster members 106
AH
active-active
HA 94
alert email
active-passive
HA 94
ActiveX 338
add signature to outgoing emails
protection profile 238
address
firewall 211
firewall address group 214
firewall address options 212
list 212
See also firewall address 211
address group 214
adding 215
create new 214
deleting 215
editing 216
list 214
options 215
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
service 217
enabling 363
options 362
allow inbound
encrypt policy 205
firewall policy 205
allow outbound
firewall policy 205
allow websites when a rating error occurs (HTTP only)
protection profile 239
allowed
web category report 336
anomaly 298
destination session limit 298
flooding 298
list 298
scan 298
source session limit 298
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Index
antivirus 303
adware grayware 312
av_failopen 313
BHO grayware 312
CLI configuration 313
config 310
configure antivirus heuristic 314
conserve mode 313
dial grayware 312
download grayware 312
failopen 313
file block 304
file block list 305
game grayware 312
grayware 311
grayware options 311
heuristics 314, 315
hijacker grayware 312
joke grayware 312
keylog grayware 312
memfilesizelimit 317, 319, 320, 322, 323
misc grayware 312
NMT grayware 312
nonconserve mode 313
optimize 314
order of antivirus operations 304
oversize threshold configuration 310
P2P grayware 312
plugin grayware 312
protection profile configuration 304
quarantine 306
quarantine files list 306
quarantine files list options 307
RAT grayware 312
scanning large files 316
spy grayware 312
system global av_failopen 313
system global optimize 314
toolbar grayware 312
uncompsizelimit 317, 319, 320, 322, 323
virus information 304
virus list 310
virus list updates 304
antivirus options
protection profile 237
antivirus updates 133
through a proxy server 134
ANY
service 217
AOL
service 217
append to
protection profile 241
append with
protection profile 241
archive content meta-information
protection profile 242
area 191
390
attack updates
scheduling 133
through a proxy server 134
authentication 180, 186, 193
enabling 253
firewall policy 207
timeout 91
Authentication Algorithm 269
Authentication Algorithm, Manual Key 270
Authentication Key, Manual Key 270
Authentication Method 261
authentication-key 186, 193
Autokey Keep Alive 267
autosubmit
enabling 309
autosubmit list
adding file patterns 308
configuring 308
enabling uploading 308
options 308
quarantine files 308
av_failopen 313
antivirus 313
B
back to HA configuration page
HA cluster members 106
back up configuration 128
backup
custom IPS signature 297
bandwidth
guaranteed 208, 209
maximum 208, 209
banned word
adding words to the Spam filter banned word list 353
edit 328
Spam filter 351
web content block 327, 328
banned word (Spam filter)
action 352, 353
enable 353
language 352, 353
pattern 352, 353
pattern type 352, 353
where 352, 353
banned word check
protection profile 240
banned word list
Spam filter 352
banned word options
Spam filter 352
BGP
service 217
BHO
grayware category 312
bindtoif 287
block unrated websites (HTTP only)
protection profile 239
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Index
blocked
web category report 336
border-routers 175
browsing
the Internet through a VPN tunnel 268
C
CA certificates 280
cache
FortiGuard 334
FortiShield 343
categories
FortiGuard 333, 377
category
protection profile 239
web category report 336
category block 333
configuration options 334
reports 335, 336
category blocking 333
Certificate Name 262, 279
clear session
predefined signature action 294
CLI 18
upgrading the firmware 42, 44
web category block 336
CLI configuration
antivirus 313
cluster
configuring an HA cluster 101
managing an HA cluster 105
cluster ID
HA cluster members 106
cluster members
HA 96, 106
clustering
protocol 93
code 221
command line interface 18
comments
firewall policy 209
Concentrator 266, 271
Concentrator list 271
Concentrator name 271
Concentrator options 272
Concentrator, Manual Key 270
config
antivirus 310
config distance 179
config distribute-list 188
config interface 192
config limit 301
config neighbor 189
config network 191
config offset-list 198
config redistribute 197
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
configuration
backup 128
FortiGuard 334
reset to factory default 142
restore 128
configure antivirus heuristic
antivirus 314
configuring
manual key IPSec VPN 268
connecting a FortiGate HA cluster 102
conserve mode
antivirus 313
contact information
SNMP 109
content archive options
protection profile 241
content block
web filter 327
cookies 338
cost 190, 194
CPU usage
HA cluster members 106
Create New 260, 265, 269, 271
create new
firewall policy 203
csv 374
custom service 220
adding 221
adding a TCP or UDP custom service 221
adding an ICMP custom service 222
adding an IP custom service 222
deleting 222
editing 222
ICMP 221
IP 221
list 220
options 220
TCP 220
custom signature
adding 297
backing up and restoring 297
IPS 296
custom TCP service 220
customer service 23
D
database 175
RIP 176
database-filter-out 194
database-overflow 177
database-overflow-max-lsas 177
database-overflow-time-to-recover 177
date
quarantine files list 307
date setting 89
DC
quarantine files list 307
DDNS 65
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Index
Dead Peer Detection 264
dead-interval 186, 194
debug log
back up 128
restore 128
default heartbeat device configuration
HA 99
default-cost 180
default-information-metric 177
default-information-metric-type 177
default-information-originate 177
default-information-route-map 177
default-metric 178
deny action
firewall policy 205
deny split tunneling 268
dest
firewall policy 203
destination address name
firewall policy 204
destination interface/zone
firewall policy 204
destination IP address
example 282
destination port 220
destination session limit
anomaly type 298
device 200
device failover
HA 93
DH Group 267
DH Group, Phase 1 264
DHCP
and IP Pools 206
HA 94
service 217
DHCP-IPSec 267
dial
grayware category 312
dialup VPN
monitor 273, 274
differentiated services
firewall policy 208
original (forward) DSCP value 209
reverse (reply) DSCP value 209
differentiated services code point 208
DiffServ
firewall policy 208
direction 182
disable
firewall policy 210
Disk logging settings 360
disk space
quarantine 309
display content meta-information on the system dashboard
protection profile 241
392
dissector signature
IPS 295
distance 178
DNS
service 217
DNSBL
adding a server to the DNSBL and ORDBL list 347
Spam filter 346
DNSBL list
Spam filter 347
DNSBL options
Spam filter 347
DNSBL server
Spam filter DNSBL and ORDBL 347
download
grayware category 312
quarantine files list 307
dpd-idlecleanup 285
dpd-idleworry 285
dpd-retrycount 285
dpd-retryinterval 285
drop
predefined signature action 293
drop sessiondrop
predefined signature action 294
drop_heuristic 316
DSCP 208
dst 200, 273
dst2 273
duplicates
quarantine files list 307
Dynamic DNS 261
on network interface 60
dynamic DNS
monitor 273, 275
dynamic IP pool
IP pool 248, 249, 251, 253
dynamic IP pool NAT option
firewall policy 206
dynamic NAT
IP pool 235
dynamic port forwarding 228
dynamic port forwarding virtual IP
adding 232
E
email address
action type 348
adding an email address or domain to the Spam filter email
address list 348
pattern type 348
Spam filter 348
email address BWL check
protection profile 240
email address list
Spam filter 348
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Index
email address options
Spam filter 348
email scanning
oversize threshold 310
enable
firewall policy 203, 210
Spam filter banned word 353
enable AutoSubmit
quarantine 309
enable cache
FortiShield 343
enable category block (HTTP only)
protection profile 239
Enable perfect forward secrecy (PFS) 267
Enable replay detection 267
enable service
FortiShield 343
encrypt action
firewall policy 205
encrypt policy
allow inbound 205
inbound NAT 205
outbound NAT 205
VPN tunnel 205
Encryption
for FortiLog unit 359
Encryption Algorithm 261, 269
Encryption Algorithm, Manual Key 269
Encryption Key, Manual Key 270
end IP
IP pool 233
ESP
service 217
exempt
URL exempt list 332
expiration
FortiShield 343
expire
system status 40
external interface
virtual IP 230
external IP address
virtual IP 230
external service port
virtual IP 230
F
facility 375
fail open 302
failopen
antivirus 313
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
failover
HA 93
monitoring cluster units 107
FDN
FortiProtect Distribution Network 130
FDS
FortiProtect Distribution Server 130
FGCP
HA 93
file block
adding a filename or pattern to the list 306
antivirus 304
default list of patterns 305
pattern 305
protection profile 237
file block list
antivirus 305
configuring 306
file name
quarantine files list 307
file pattern
quarantine autosubmit list 308
filename
adding to the file block list 306
filter
quarantine files list 307
FINGER
service 217
firewall 201
address 211
address group options 215
address list 212
address options 212
authentication timeout 91
configuring 201
custom service list 220
custom service options 220
introduction 15
IP pool 233
one-time schedule 225
overview 201
policy 202
policy list 202
policy matching 202
policy options 204
predefined services 216
protection profile 235
recurring schedule 226, 227
schedule 224
service 216
virtual IP 228
virtual IP list 229
virtual IP options 229
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Index
firewall address 211
adding 213
address group 214
address name 212
create new 212
deleting 214
editing 213
IP range/subnet 213
list 212
name 212
options 212
subnet 213
type 213
firewall address group
adding 215
available addresses 215
deleting 215
editing 216
group name 215
members 215
firewall IP pool list 233
firewall IP pool options 234
firewall policies for IPSec VPN
adding 282
firewall policy
accept action 205
action 203, 205
adding 209
adding a protection profile 242
address name 204
advanced 206, 207
allow inbound 205
allow outbound 205
authentication 207
changing the position in the policy list 210
comments 209
configuring 209
create new 203
deleting 209
deny action 205
dest 203
destination address name 204
destination interface/zone 204
differentiated services 208
DiffServ 208
disabling 210
dynamic IP pool NAT option 206
editing 210
enable 203
enabling 210
encrypt action 205
fixed port NAT option 206
guaranteed bandwidth 208, 209
394
firewall policy (continued)
ID 203
inbound NAT 205
insert policy before 203
interface/zone 204
log traffic 206
maximum bandwidth 208, 209
move to 203
moving 210
NAT 206
original (forward) DSCP value 209
outbound NAT 205
protection profile 206
reverse (reply) DSCP value 209
schedule 203, 205
service 203, 205
source 203
source address name 204
source interface/zone 204
traffic priority 208
traffic shaping 208
VPN tunnel 205
firewall protection profile
default protection profiles 236
list 236
options 237
firewall service
AH 217
ANY 217
AOL 217
BGP 217
DHCP 217
DNS 217
ESP 217
FINGER 217
FTP 217
GOHPER 217
GRE 217
H323 217
HTTP 217
HTTPS 217
ICMP_ANY 218
IKE 218
IMAP 218
INFO_ADDRESS 218
INFO_REQUEST 218
Internet-Locator-Service 218
IRC 218
L2TP 218
LDAP 218
NetMeeting 218
NFS 218
NNTP 218
NTP 218
OSPF 218
PC-Anywhere 218
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Index
PING 218
POP3 218
PPTP 218
QUAKE 218
RAUDIO 218
RIP 219
RLOGIN 219
SIP-MSNmessenger 219
SMTP 219
SNMP 219
SSH 219
SYSLOG 219
TALK 219
TCP 219
TELNET 219
TFTP 219
TIMESTAMP 218
UDP 219
UUCP 219
VDOLIVE 219
WAIS 219
WINFRAME 219
X-WINDOWS 219
firmware
installing 45
re-installing current version 45
reverting to an older version 45
upgrading to a new version 41
upgrading using the CLI 42, 44
upgrading using the web-base manager 41, 43
fixed port 206
IP pool 235
fixed port NAT option
firewall policy 206
flooding
anomaly type 298
FortiGate Clustering Protocol
HA 93
FortiGuard 333
cache 334
categories 333, 377
changing the host name 336
CLI configuration 336
configuration 334
configuration options 334
configuring 335
enable service 334
generating a report 336
licensing 334
ratings 333
report allowed 336
report blocked 336
report category 336
report options 336
report profiles 336
report range 336
report type 336
reports 335
service points 333
TTL 335
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Fortilog logging settings 359
fortilog setting 373
Fortinet customer service 23
FortiProtect Distribution Network 130
FortiProtect Distribution Server 130
FortiShield
cache 343
changing the FortiShield hostname 344
CLI configuration 344
communication protocol 342
configuration 342
enable cache 343
enable service 343
expiration 343
license type 343
licensing 342
options 343
service points 342
Spam filter 341
status 343
TTL 343
from IP
system status 40
from port
system status 40, 66
FTP
memfilesizelimit 319
service 217
uncompsizelimit 319
ftp 244
G
game
grayware category 312
gateway 200
Gateway IP 260
Gateway Name 260, 261
go
HA cluster members 106
GOPHER
service 217
grayware
adware 312
antivirus 311
BHO 312
dial 312
download 312
game 312
hijacker 312
joke 312
keylog 312
misc 312
NMT 312
P2P 312
plugin 312
RAT 312
spy 312
toolbar 312
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Index
grayware options
antivirus 311
GRE
service 217
group ID
HA 96
grouping services 223
groups
user 253
guaranteed bandwidth 209
firewall policy 208
traffic shaping 208
H
H323
service 217
HA 92, 93, 96
active-active 94
active-passive 94
add a new unit to a functioning cluster 103
cluster members 96, 106
cluster units 93
configuration 95
configure a FortiGate unit for HA operation 101
configure weighted-round-robin weights 104
configuring and HA cluster 101
connect a FortiGate HA cluster 102
default heartbeat device configuration 99
device failover 93
DHCP 94
failover 93
FGCP 93
group ID 96
HA monitor 106
heartbeat device IP addresses 99
heartbeat failover 93
hub (schedule) 98
introduction 18
IP (schedule) 98
IP Port (schedule) 98
L2TP 94
least-connection schedule 98
link failover 93
load balancing 93
manage individual cluster units 108
manage logs for individual cluster units 107
managing a cluster 105
mode 96
modes 94
396
HA (continued)
monitor cluster units for a failover 107
monitor priorities 100
none (schedule) 98
override master 97
overview 92
password 97
PPP 94
PPPoE 94
PPTP 94
primary cluster unit 93
primary unit 93
priorities of heartbeat device 98
random (schedule) 98
round-robin 98
schedule 98
standalone mode 95
unit priority 97
view the status of each cluster member 106
weighted-round-robin 98
HA cluster members
active sessions 106
back to HA configuration page 106
cluster ID 106
CPU usage 106
go 106
intrusion detected 107
memory usage 106
monitor 106
network utilization 107
refresh every 106
status 106
total bytes 107
total packets 106
up time 106
virus detected 106
header
Spam filter MIME headers 350
heartbeat
failover 93
heartbeat device 93
HA 93
heartbeat device IP addresses
HA 99
hello-interval 186, 194
HELO DNS lookup
protection profile 240
heuristics
antivirus 314, 315
drop_heuristic 316
quarantine 315
store_heuristic 316
High Availability 96
high availability
introduction 18
high availability See HA 92
hijacker
grayware category 312
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Index
HTTP
memfilesizelimit 317
service 217
uncompsizelimit 317
virus scanning large files 316
http 244
HTTPS 18, 25
service 217
hub
HA schedule 98
I
ICMP 218
ICMP custom service 221
adding 222
code 221
protocol type 221
type 221
ICMP_ANY
service 218
ID
firewall policy 203
idle timeout
web-based manager 91
IKE
service 218
IMAP
memfilesizelimit 322
service 218
uncompsizelimit 322
inbound NAT
firewall policy 205
INFO_ADDRESS
service 218
INFO_REQUEST
service 218
insert policy before
firewall policy 203
Interface
IP pool 234
interface 175, 194
administrative status 56, 77
bringing down 62
bringing up 62
RIP 176
starting 62
interface/zone
firewall policy 204
Interface/Zone, Policy 282
Internet browsing
through a VPN tunnel 268
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Internet-Locator-Service
service 218
intrusion detected
HA cluster members 107
intrusion prevention system See Also IPS 291
IP
HA schedule 98
virtual IP 229
ip 190, 194, 288
IP Address 261
IP address
action 345
heartbeat device 99
Spam filter 345
IP address BWL check
protection profile 240
IP address FortiShield check
protection profile 240
IP address list
Spam filter 345
IP address options
Spam filter 345
IP custom service 221
adding 222
protocol number 221
protocol type 221
IP Pool
DHCP 206
PPPoE 206
IP pool 206, 233
adding 234
configuring 234
create new 233
deleting 234
dynamic NAT 235
edit 234
end IP 233
fixed port 235
interface 234
IP range/subnet 234
list 233
name 234
options 234
start IP 233
IP port
HA schedule 98
IP range/subnet
firewall address 213
IP pool 234
IP Range/Subnet, Address 282
ipaddress 301
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397
Index
IPS 17
adding custom signatures 297
anomaly 298
anomaly list 298
configuring predefined signatures 294
custom signatures 296
disabling predefined signatures 294
dissector signatures 295
enabling predefined signatures 294
predefined signature action 293
predefined signature list 293
predefined signatures 292
restoring predefined signature settings 295
signature 292
updates and information 291
IPS anomaly
protection profile 241
IPS options
protection profile 241
IPS See also intrusion prevention system 291
IPS signature
protection profile 241
ipsec vip 287
IPSec VPN
authentication for user group 253
Internet browsing 268
monitor 273
ping generator 272
remote gateway 253
IPv6 79
IRC
service 218
J
Javascript 338
joke
grayware category 312
K
Keepalive Frequency 264
Key Size 279
Key Type 279
Keylife 264, 267
keylog
grayware category 312
L
L2TP 253
configuring gateway 277
enabling 277
HA 94
overview 276
service 218
language
Spam filter banned word 352, 353
web content block 327, 328
web-based manager 91, 92
398
LDAP
service 218
Least-Connection
HA schedule 98
license
FortiGuard 334
license type
FortiShield 343
licensing
FortiShield 342
Lifetime (sec/kb) 265
link failover
HA 93
list 182
load balancing
HA 93
Local certificate list 278
Local certificate options 278
Local ID 264
Local SPI, Manual Key 269
Log & report 357
Log file upload settings 360
Log filter options 363
Log settings 358
log traffic
firewall policy 206
Logging 368
logging 19
predefined signature 293
logs
managing for individual cluster units 107
low disk space
quarantine 309
M
manage cluster units
HA 108
Managing digital certificates 277
Manual Key 268
manual key IPSec configuration
configuration steps 268
Manual key list 269
Manual key options 269
map to IP
virtual IP 229, 230
map to port
virtual IP 229, 230
matching
policy 202
max filesize to quarantine
quarantine 309
maximum bandwidth 208, 209
firewall policy 208
traffic shaping 208
md5-key 186, 194
member 256
Members 271
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Index
memfilesizelimit 317, 319, 320, 322, 323
Memory logging settings 361
memory usage
HA cluster members 106
metric 197
metric-type 197
MIB
FortiGate 112
MIME headers
action 350
adding MIME headers to the Spam filter MIME header list
351
header 350
pattern type 350
Spam filter 349
value 350
MIME headers check
protection profile 240
MIME headers list
Spam filter 350
MIME headers options
Spam filter 350
misc
grayware category 312
Mode 260, 261
mode
HA 94, 96
Transparent 16
monitor
HA 106
HA cluster members 106
IPSec VPN 273
monitor priorities
HA 100
move to
firewall policy 203
mtu 194
MTU size 61
mtu-ignore 195
N
name
IP pool 234
NAT
encrypt policy 205
firewall policy 206
inbound 205
introduction 16
outbound 205
push update 136
NAT/Route mode
introduction 16
natip 211
Nat-traversal 264
neighbor 175
netmask
administrator account 124
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
NetMeeting
service 218
network address translation
introduction 16
network intrusion detection 17
network utilization
HA cluster members 107
network-type 195
next hop router 65
NFS
service 218
NMT
grayware category 312
NNTP
service 218
nonconserve mode
antivirus 313
none
HA schedule 98
nssa-default-information-originate 180
nssa-default-information-originate-metric 180
nssa-default-information-originate-metric-typ 180
nssa-redistribution 180
nssa-translator-role 181
NTP
service 218
NTP server 90
setting system date and time 89
O
one-time schedule
adding 225
configuring 225
create new 225
creating 225
deleting 226
editing 226
list 225
options 225
start 225
stop 225
optimize 314
antivirus 314
options
changing system options 90
ORDBL
Spam filter 346
ORDBL list
adding a server to the DNSBL and ORDBL list 347
Spam filter 347
Spam options 347
order of operations
antivirus 304
web filter 326
original (forward) DSCP value
firewall policy 209
OSPF 176
service 218
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Index
outbound NAT
encrypt policy 205
firewall policy 205
out-interface 288
override master
HA 97
oversize threshold
email scanning 310
oversize threshold configuration
antivirus 310
oversized file/email
protection profile 238
P
P1 Proposal, Phase 1 263
P2 Proposal, Phase 2 267
P2P
grayware category 312
pass
predefined signature action 293
pass fragmented emails
protection profile 238
pass sessiondrop
predefined signature action 294
passive-interface 178
password
HA 97
pattern 331
added to the web pattern block list 331
adding to the file block list 306
default list of file block patterns 305
file block 305
Spam filter banned word 352, 353
Pattern block options 331
pattern type
Spam filter banned word 352, 353
Spam filter email address 348
Spam filter MIME headers 350
web content block 327, 328
PC-Anywhere
service 218
peer 187
Peer option 262
Perl regular expressions
Spam filter 353
Phase 1 260
Phase 1 advanced options 263
Phase 1 basic settings 261
Phase 1 list 260
Phase 2 265
Phase 2 advanced options 266
Phase 2 basic settings 266
Phase 2 list 265
PING
service 218
ping generator
IPSec VPN 272
400
plugin
grayware category 312
policy
accept action 205
action 203, 205
adding 209
address name 204
advanced 206, 207
allow inbound 205
allow outbound 205
authentication 207
changing the position in the policy list 210
comments 209
configuring 209
create new 203
deleting 209
deny action 205
dest 203
destination address name 204
destination interface/zone 204
differentiated services 208
DiffServ 208
disabling 210
dynamic IP pool NAT option 206
editing 210
enable 203
enabling 210
enabling authentication 253
encrypt action 205
firewall 202
fixed port NAT option 206
guaranteed bandwidth 208, 209
ID 203
inbound NAT 205
insert policy before 203
interface/zone 204
IPSec VPN 282
list 202
log traffic 206
matching 202
maximum bandwidth 208, 209
move 210
move to 203
NAT 206
options 204
original (forward) DSCP value 209
outbound NAT 205
protection profile 206
reverse (reply) DSCP value 209
schedule 203, 205
service 203, 205
source 203
source address name 204
source interface/zone 204
traffic priority 208
traffic shaping 208
VPN tunnel 205
policy routing 157
poll-interval 190
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Index
pool
IP pool 233
POP3
memfilesizelimit 320
service 218
uncompsizelimit 320
port 317, 319, 320, 322, 323, 375
port forward
dynamic 228
port forwarding
virtual IP 228
port forwarding virtual IP
adding 231
PPP
HA 94
PPPoE
and IP Pools 206
HA 94
PPTP 253
HA 94
service 218
predefined
IPS signatures 292
predefined services 216
predefined signature
action 293
actions 293
clear session action 294
configuring 294
disabling 294
drop action 293
drop session action 294
enabling 294
list 293
logging 293
pass action 293
pass session action 294
reset action 293
reset client action 294
reset server action 294
restoring recommended settings 295
revision 293
prefix 184, 191, 198
Pre-shared Key 262
Pre-shared key
for FortiLog unit 359
priorities of heartbeat device
HA 98
priority 190, 195
profile 287
category block reports 336
protection 235
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
protection profile 235
add signature to outgoing emails 238
adding 242
adding to a firewall policy 242
allow websites when a rating error occurs (HTTP only) 239
antivirus options 237
append to 241
append with 241
archive content meta-information 242
banned word check 240
block unrated websites (HTTP only) 239
category 239
configuring 242
content archive options 241
default protection profiles 236
deleting 242
display content meta-information on the system dashboard 241
editing 242
email address BWL check 240
enable category block (HTTP only) 239
file block 237
firewall policy 206
HELO DNS lookup 240
IP address BWL check 240
IP address FortiShield check 240
IPS anomaly 241
IPS options 241
IPS signature 241
list 236
MIME headers check 240
options 237
oversized file/email 238
pass fragmented emails 238
provide details for blocked HTTP 4xx and 5xx errors (HTTP only) 239
quarantine 237
rate images by URL (blocked images will be replaced with
blanks) (HTTP only) 239
RBL & ORDBL check 240
return email DNS check 240
scan (default protection profile) 236
spam action 241
spam filtering options 240
strict (default protection profile) 236
unfiltered (default protection profile) 236
URL FortiShield check 240
virus scan 237
web (default protection profile) 236
web category options 239
web content block 238
web exempt list 238
web filtering options 238
web resume download block 238
web script filter 238
web URL block 238
protection profile configuration
web filter 326
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401
Index
protocol 188
service 217
system status 40
virtual IP 230
protocol number 221
protocol type 220, 221
provide details for blocked HTTP 4xx and 5xx errors (HTTP
only)
protection profile 239
Proxy ID Destination 274, 275
Proxy ID Source 274, 275
proxy server 134
push updates 134
push update
configuring 135
external IP address changes 135
management IP address changes 136
through a NAT device 136
through a proxy server 134
Q
QoS 208
QUAKE
service 218
quality of service 208
quarantine
adding file patterns to the autosubmit list 308
age limit 309
antivirus 306
autosubmit list 308
autosubmit list file pattern 308
autosubmit list options 308
configuration 309
configuring the autosubmit list 308
enable AutoSubmit 309
enabling uploading autosubmit file patterns 308
heuristics 315
low disk space 309
max filesize to quarantine 309
options 309
protection profile 237
quarantine files list
antivirus 306
apply 307
date 307
DC 307
download 307
duplicates 307
file name 307
filter 307
options 307
service 307
sort by 307
status 307
status description 307
submit 307
TTL 307
upload status 307
Quick Mode Identities 268
402
R
random
HA schedule 98
range
web category reports 336
RAT
grayware category 312
rate images by URL (replace blocked images with blanks)
protection profile 239
ratings
FortiGuard 333
RAUDIO
service 218
RBL & ORDBL check
protection profile 240
read & write access level
administrator account 89, 123, 127, 131, 138
read only access level
administrator account 89, 123, 124, 127
recurring schedule
adding 227
configuring 227
create new 226
deleting 227
editing 227
list 226
options 227
select 227
start 227
stop 227
refresh every
HA cluster members 106
remote administration 65, 68
Remote Gateway 261, 265, 266, 269
Remote gateway 274, 275
remote peer
manual key IPSec configuration 268
Remote SPI, Manual Key 269
report
FortiGuard 335, 336
generating a web category blocking report 336
web category block 335, 336
report type
category block 336
reporting 19
reset
predefined signature action 293
reset client
predefined signature action 294
reset server
predefined signature action 294
restarting 130
restore
custom IPS signature 297
restore configuration 128
retransmit-interval 187, 195
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Fortinet Inc.
Index
return email DNS check
protection profile 240
reverse (reply) DSCP value
firewall policy 209
reverting
firmware to an older version 45
RFC
2474 208
2475 208
rfc1583-compatible 178
RIP
service 219
RLOGIN
service 219
Round-Robin
HA schedule 98
route 175
routemap 197
router
next hop 65
router-id 178
routing
configuring 70
policy 157
S
scan
anomaly type 298
default protection profile 236
schedule
automatic antivirus and attack definition updates 133
creating one-time 225
firewall 224
firewall policy 203, 205
HA 98
one-time schedule list 225
one-time schedule options 225
recurring schedule list 226
recurring schedule options 227
Schedule, Policy 282
scheduled antivirus and attack updates 134
scheduled updates
through a proxy server 134
scheduling 133
script filter 338
ActiveX 338
cookies 338
Javascript 338
options 338
select
recurring schedule 227
server 373, 375
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
service
AH 217
ANY 217
AOL 217
BGP 217
custom service list 220
custom service options 220
custom TCP 220
DHCP 217
DNS 217
ESP 217
FINGER 217
firewall 216
firewall policy 203, 205
FTP 217
GOPHER 217
GRE 217
group 223
H323 217
HTTPS 217
ICMP_ANY 218
IKE 218
IMAP 218
INFO_ADDRESS 218
INFO_REQUEST 218
Internet-Locator-Service 218
IRC 218
L2TP 218
LDAP 218
NetMeeting 218
NFS 218
NNTP 218
NTP 218
organizing services into groups 224
OSPF 218
PC-Anywhere 218
PING 218
POP3 218
PPTP 218
predefined 216
QUAKE 218
quarantine files list 307
RAUDIO 218
RIP 219
RLOGIN 219
service name 217
SIP-MSNmessenger 219
SMTP 219
SNMP 219
SSH 219
SYSLOG 219
TALK 219
TCP 219
TELNET 219
TFTP 219
TIMESTAMP 218
UDP 219
user-defined TCP 220
UUCP 219
VDOLIVE 219
WAIS 219
01-28008-0008-20050204
403
Index
service (continued)
WINFRAME 219
X-WINDOWS 219
service ftp 318
service group 223
adding 224
create new 223
deleting 224
editing 224
list 223
options 223
service imap 321
service point
FortiGuard 333
service points
FortiShield 342
service pop3 320
service port
virtual IP 229
service smtp 323
Service, Policy 282
set time 90
shortcut 181
signature
adding custom IPS signatures 297
custom IPS signatures 296
dissector 295
IPS 292
single-source 287
SIP-MSNmessenger
service 219
SMTP
memfilesizelimit 323
service 219
uncompsizelimit 323
smtp 245
SNMP
contact information 109
MIBs 112
service 219
traps 113
sort by
quarantine files list 307
source
firewall policy 203
source address name
firewall policy 204
source interface/zone
firewall policy 204
source IP address
example 282
source port 220
source session limit
anomaly type 298
spam action
protection profile 241
404
Spam filter 339
adding a server to the DNSBL and ORDBL list 347
adding an email address or domain to the Spam filter email
address list 348
adding MIME headers to the Spam filter MIME header list
351
adding words to the Spam filter banned word list 353
banned word 351
banned word list 352
banned word options 352
DNSBL 346
DNSBL list 347
DNSBL options 347
email address 348
email address list 348
email address options 348
FortiShield 341
FortiShield options 343
IP address 345
IP address list 345
IP address options 345
MIME headers 349
MIME headers list 350
MIME headers options 350
ORDBL 346
ORDBL list 347
ORDBL options 347
Perl regular expressions 353
Spam filter DNSBL and ORDBL
action 347
DNSBL server 347
spam filtering options
protection profile 240
spf-timers 178
split tunneling
deny 268
spy
grayware category 312
src 273
src2 273
SSH
service 219
SSL
service definition 217
standalone mode
HA 95
start
one-time schedule 225
recurring schedule 227
start IP
IP pool 233
static IP
monitor 273, 275
static NAT virtual IP 228
adding 230
Status 265
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Fortinet Inc.
Index
status 175, 196, 197, 273, 373, 375
FortiShield 343
HA cluster members 106
interface 56, 77
quarantine files list 307
status description
quarantine files list 307
stop
one-time schedule 225
recurring schedule 227
store_heuristic 316
Strict
default protection profile 236
stub-type 181
Subject Information 279
submit
quarantine files list 307
subnet
firewall address 213
substitute 184
substitute-status 184
syn interval 90
synchronize with NTP server 90
SYSLOG
service 219
Syslog logging settings 361
system configuration 89
system date and time
setting 89
system global av_failopen
antivirus 313
system global optimize
antivirus 314
system options
changing 90
T
tag 197, 198
TALK
service 219
TCP
custom service 220
service 219
TCP custom service 220
adding 221
destination port 220
protocol type 220
source port 220
technical support 23
TELNET
service 219
TFTP
service 219
threshold 301
time
setting 89
time zone 90
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
Timeout 265, 274, 275
timeout
firewall authentication 91
idle 91
web-based manager 91
TIMESTAMP
service 218
to IP
system status 40
to port
system status 40
toolbar
grayware category 312
total bytes
HA cluster members 107
total packets
HA cluster members 106
Traffic Priority 208
traffic priority
firewall policy 208
traffic shaping 208
traffic shaping
firewall policy 208
guaranteed bandwidth 208
maximum bandwidth 208
traffic priority 208
transmit-delay 187, 196
Transparent mode 16
traps
SNMP 113
trusted host
administrator account 124
Administrators options 124
security issues 124
TTL
FortiGuard 335
FortiShield 343
quarantine files list 307
Tunnel Name 265, 266
type 181, 221
firewall address 213
virtual IP 230
U
UDP 220
service 219
UDP custom service 220
adding 221
destination port 220
protocol type 220
source port 220
uncompsizelimit 317, 319, 320, 322, 323
Unfiltered
default protection profile 236
unit priority
HA 97
up time
HA cluster members 106
01-28008-0008-20050204
405
Index
update
push 135
updates
virus list 304
upgrade
firmware 41
upgrading
firmware using the CLI 42, 44
firmware using the web-based manager 41, 43
upload status
quarantine files list 307
Uploading a local certificate 280
URL block
add a URL to the web filter block list 330
web filter 328
URL exempt
configuring 332
list 332
options 332
web filter 331
URL FortiShield check
protection profile 240
user groups
configuring 253
user-defined TCP services 220
Username 274
UUCP
service 219
virtual-links 175
virus
virus list information 304
virus list updates 304
virus detected
HA cluster members 106
virus list 310
virus protection
worm protection 14
virus protection See also antivirus 303
virus scan
protection profile 237
VLAN
overview 71
VLAN subinterface
bringing down 62
bringing up 62
starting 62
VPN
introduction 17
VPN certificates
restore 129
upload 129
VPN tunnel
encrypt policy 205
firewall policy 205
VPN Tunnel, Policy 283
VPNs 259
V
W
value
Spam filter MIME headers 350
VDOLIVE
service 219
virtual domain
properties 144
virtual IP 228
adding 230, 231, 232
adding a dynamic port forwarding virtual IP 232
adding a port forwarding virtual IP 231
adding a static NAT virtual IP 230
configuring 230
create new 229
deleting 232
editing 232
external interface 230
external IP address 230
external service port 230
firewall 228
IP 229
list 229
map to IP 229, 230
map to port 229, 230
options 229
port forwarding 228
protocol 230
service port 229
static NAT 228
type 230
WAIS
service 219
Web
default protection profile 236
web category block
changing the host name 336
CLI configuration 336
configuration options 334
configuring 335
generating a report 336
report allowed 336
report blocked 336
report category 336
report options 336
report profiles 336
report range 336
report type 336
reports 335
web category options
protection profile 239
web content block
banned word 327, 328
language 327, 328
pattern type 327, 328
protection profile 238
web filter 327, 328
web content block list
web filter 327
406
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Fortinet Inc.
Index
web content filtering
introduction 14
web exempt list
protection profile 238
web filter 325
add a URL to the web URL block list 330
category block 333
configuring the web content block list 328
configuring the web URL block list 330
content block 327
order of operations 326
protection profile configuration 326
script filter 338
URL block 328
URL exempt 331, 332
URL exempt options 332
web content block list 327
web content block options 327
web pattern block list 330, 331
web URL block list 329
web URL block options 329
web filtering options
protection profile 238
Web pattern block 330
web pattern block 331
adding a pattern 331
configuring 331
list 330
options 331
pattern 331
web resume download block
protection profile 238
FortiGate-800 Administration Guide
web script filter 338
ActiveX 338
cookies 338
Javascript 338
options 338
protection profile 238
web URL block
configuring the web URL block list 330
list 329
options 329
protection profile 238
web URL block list
web filter 329
web-based manager
introduction 18
language 91, 92
timeout 91
WebTrends logging settings 361
weighted round-robin
HA schedule 98
weighted-round-robin
configuring weights 104
where
Spam filter banned word 352, 353
WINFRAME
service 219
X
XAuth 264
X-WINDOWS
service 219
01-28008-0008-20050204
407
Index
408
01-28008-0008-20050204
Fortinet Inc.
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