Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup

Data ONTAP® 8.0 7-Mode
Data Protection
Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
NetApp Inc.
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Part number 210-04732_A0
February 2010
Table of Contents | 3
Contents
Copyright information ............................................................................... 11
Trademark information ............................................................................. 13
About this guide .......................................................................................... 15
Audience .................................................................................................................... 15
Accessing Data ONTAP man pages .......................................................................... 16
Terminology .............................................................................................................. 16
Where to enter commands ......................................................................................... 17
Keyboard and formatting conventions ...................................................................... 18
Special messages ....................................................................................................... 19
How to send your comments ..................................................................................... 19
Data protection using tape ......................................................................... 21
Advantages and disadvantages of tape backup .......................................................... 21
Types of tape backup supported by Data ONTAP .................................................... 22
How to initiate a dump or SMTape backup ............................................................... 22
Difference between dump backup and SMTape backup ........................................... 23
Considerations before choosing a tape backup method ............................................. 23
Tape drive management ............................................................................. 25
What tape devices are ................................................................................................ 25
Tape device name format .......................................................................................... 26
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices ...................................................... 28
Displaying tape device statistics ................................................................................ 28
Displaying supported tape devices ............................................................................ 29
What assigning tape aliases is ................................................................................... 30
What physical path names are ....................................................................... 31
What worldwide names are ........................................................................... 32
Displaying existing aliases of tape drives .................................................................. 33
Displaying information about tape drives or libraries ............................................... 33
Assigning tape aliases ................................................................................................ 34
Removing tape aliases ............................................................................................... 35
Propagating tape aliases to multiple storage systems ................................................ 35
UNIX shell scripts for propagating tape aliases ............................................ 36
How to add Fibre Channel-attached tape drives and libraries ................................... 36
4 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
How to display tape drive and tape library information ............................................ 37
Displaying information about tape drives ..................................................... 37
Displaying information about tape medium changers ................................... 38
Displaying information about tape drive connections to the storage
system ...................................................................................................... 38
Controlling tape drives .............................................................................................. 39
Moving a tape to the end of data ................................................................... 40
Moving forward to a file ................................................................................ 41
Moving backward to the beginning of a file .................................................. 41
Rewinding a tape ........................................................................................... 42
Taking a tape drive offline ............................................................................. 42
Displaying status information ........................................................................ 43
Qualified tape drives .................................................................................................. 44
Format of the tape configuration file ............................................................. 44
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive dynamically .................. 46
How to use a nonqualified tape drive ........................................................................ 46
Displaying information about nonqualified tape drives ................................ 47
Tape drive information required for emulation ............................................. 47
Emulating a qualified tape drive .................................................................... 48
What tape reservations are ......................................................................................... 49
Enabling tape reservations ............................................................................. 49
Disabling tape reservations ............................................................................ 50
NDMP management ................................................................................... 51
What the advantages of NDMP are ........................................................................... 51
What NDMP security is ............................................................................................. 52
Specifying NDMP access by host or interface .............................................. 53
Specifying the NDMP authentication type .................................................... 53
Enabling or disabling NDMP connection logging ........................................ 54
Specifying the NDMP password length ........................................................ 55
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators .......... 55
How to manage NDMP ............................................................................................. 56
Enabling and disabling NDMP services ........................................................ 56
Specifying a preferred network interface ...................................................... 57
Turning off a data connection specification .................................................. 57
Displaying the general status information about NDMP sessions ................ 58
Displaying detailed NDMP session information ........................................... 58
Table of Contents | 5
Optimizing NDMP communication performance ......................................... 59
Terminating an NDMP session ...................................................................... 60
What NDMP debug messages are ............................................................................. 60
Enabling the NDMP debug log messages ..................................................... 61
Displaying the NDMP debug log level .......................................................... 61
Changing NDMP debug log messages .......................................................... 62
Displaying an NDMP session log file ........................................................... 62
Why you need to specify the NDMP version ............................................................ 62
Displaying the NDMP version ...................................................................... 63
Specifying the NDMP version ....................................................................... 63
NDMP extensions supported by Data ONTAP ......................................................... 63
Tape backup using NDMP services ........................................................................... 64
Common NDMP tape backup topologies ...................................................... 64
Considerations when using NDMP ............................................................... 65
Tape devices and configurations you can use with the storage system ......... 66
Preparing for basic NDMP backup application management ....................... 67
What environment variables do ..................................................................... 68
Data backup using the dump engine ......................................................... 69
How a dump backup works ....................................................................................... 70
What the dump engine backs up ................................................................................ 70
What increment chains are ........................................................................................ 71
How to specify tape devices for the backup .............................................................. 73
What the /etc/dumpdates file is ................................................................................. 73
What the blocking factor is ........................................................................................ 74
How to use the dump backup .................................................................................... 75
How to minimize backup time and data loss ................................................. 75
How to decrease tape backup time ................................................................ 76
How to minimize the number of tape drives ................................................. 76
What to label on the backup tapes ................................................................. 76
Considerations before using the dump backup .......................................................... 77
Determining the amount of backup data ........................................................ 77
Estimating the number of tapes for the backup ............................................. 77
When to restart a dump backup ................................................................................. 78
How a dump restore works ........................................................................................ 79
What the dump engine restores ................................................................................. 79
Considerations before restoring data ......................................................................... 80
6 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
How to prepare the destination for a dump restore ................................................... 81
How to perform a dump backup and restore using NDMP services ......................... 81
Environment variables supported for dump .................................................. 82
Enabling or disabling enhanced DAR functionality ...................................... 91
What the ndmpcopy command does .............................................................. 92
Displaying file history statistics .................................................................... 95
How to perform a dump backup using the CLI ......................................................... 96
What the dump command syntax is ............................................................... 97
Where to enter the dump command ............................................................... 99
Specifying the backup level ......................................................................... 100
Improving incremental dump performance ................................................. 101
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file ................................................................. 101
Specifying a local tape device ..................................................................... 102
Specifying a tape device on a remote storage system ................................. 102
Specifying the dump path ............................................................................ 104
Specifying a list of files for backup ............................................................. 104
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree ...................................................... 106
Excluding specified files and directories ..................................................... 106
Omitting ACLs from a backup .................................................................... 108
Specifying a name for a backup .................................................................. 108
Specifying a blocking factor ........................................................................ 109
Specifying the tape file size ......................................................................... 110
Appending backups to tapes ........................................................................ 111
Verifying the files backed up by a dump command backup ....................... 111
Checking the status of a dump backup ........................................................ 111
Finding out whether a backup has to be restarted ....................................... 114
How to get details about a specific backup ................................................. 115
Restarting a dump command backup ........................................................... 116
Deleting restartable dump command backups ............................................. 117
How to perform a dump restore using the CLI ........................................................ 117
Restore command syntax ............................................................................. 118
What restore types are ................................................................................. 118
What modifiers are ...................................................................................... 119
Where to enter the restore command ........................................................... 120
Executing a restore command ...................................................................... 120
Restoring incremental backups .................................................................... 121
Table of Contents | 7
Restoring each volume backed up as separate subtrees or qtrees ................ 121
Restoring individual files and directories .................................................... 122
Specifying a full restore ............................................................................... 122
What a table-of-contents restore is .............................................................. 123
Specifying a resume restore ......................................................................... 124
Specifying tape devices in the restore command ......................................... 125
Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape .......................................... 126
Specifying the restore destination ................................................................ 127
Specifying the blocking factor during restore ............................................. 127
Displaying detailed status output ................................................................. 128
Ignoring inode limitations ........................................................................... 129
Specifying automatic confirmations ............................................................ 130
Specifying no ACLs to be restored .............................................................. 130
Specifying not to restore qtree information ................................................. 131
Specifying a test restore ............................................................................... 132
Restore examples: Restoring using a remote tape drive .............................. 132
Restore examples: Multiple tape restores .................................................... 133
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine ...................................... 135
How SMTape backup works ................................................................................... 135
What tape seeding is ................................................................................................ 136
Features of SMTape ................................................................................................. 136
Limitations of SMTape ............................................................................................ 136
How to perform an SMTape backup and restore using NDMP services ................. 137
Environment variables supported for SMTape ............................................ 137
How to back up and restore using the SMTape commands .................................... 138
Backing up data to tape using SMTape ....................................................... 139
Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume ........................... 140
Displaying the image header of a tape ......................................................... 141
Restoring data from tape using SMTape ..................................................... 142
Aborting a backup or restore operation using smtape abort command ....... 143
Continuing a backup or restore after reaching the end of tape .................... 143
Displaying the status of backup and restore operations .............................. 144
When to remove the SnapMirror status entries ........................................... 145
What event logging is ................................................................................ 149
What the dump and restore event log message format is ........................................ 149
What logging events are .............................................................................. 150
8 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
What dump events are ................................................................................. 150
What restore events are ................................................................................ 152
What the SMTape event log message format is ...................................................... 153
What SMTape CLI backup and restore events are ...................................... 154
What SMTape backup events are ................................................................ 154
What SMTape restore events are ................................................................. 155
Enabling or disabling event logging ........................................................................ 156
Error messages for tape backup and restore ......................................... 159
Backup and restore error messages .......................................................................... 159
Resource limitation: no available thread ..................................................... 160
Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape argument list ....... 160
Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list ..................................... 160
Tape reservation preempted ......................................................................... 160
Could not initialize media ............................................................................ 161
Too many concurrent backups running ....................................................... 161
Media error on tape write ............................................................................ 161
Tape write failed .......................................................................................... 161
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error ................................ 162
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected ........................... 162
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media ........................ 162
Tape write error ........................................................................................... 162
Media error on tape read .............................................................................. 162
Tape read error ............................................................................................. 163
Already at the end of tape ............................................................................ 163
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size. .......................................... 163
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2 ..................... 163
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB ............... 163
NDMP error messages ............................................................................................. 164
Network communication error ..................................................................... 164
Message from Read Socket : error_string ................................................... 164
Message from Write Direct: error_string .................................................... 164
Read Socket received EOF .......................................................................... 164
Dump error messages .............................................................................................. 165
No default tape device list ........................................................................... 165
Invalid/offline volume ................................................................................. 165
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump ................................................ 166
Table of Contents | 9
Failed to determine snapshot type ............................................................... 166
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state ............................................... 166
Unable to locate bitmap files ....................................................................... 166
Failed to locate the specified restartable dump ........................................... 166
Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump .......................... 167
Unable to locate snapshot ............................................................................ 167
Invalid inode specified on restart ................................................................. 167
Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump ............................................... 167
Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump ................................. 167
Destination volume is read-only .................................................................. 168
Destination qtree is read-only ...................................................................... 168
IB restore in progress ................................................................................... 168
Could not access volume in path: volume_name ........................................ 168
No files were created ................................................................................... 168
SMTape error messages ........................................................................................... 169
Internal assertion .......................................................................................... 170
Job aborted due to shutdown ....................................................................... 170
Job not found ............................................................................................... 170
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete ....................................................... 170
Invalid volume path ..................................................................................... 170
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported .............................................. 170
Volume is currently in use by other operations ........................................... 171
Volume offline ............................................................................................. 171
Volume not restricted .................................................................................. 171
Tape is currently in use by other operations ................................................ 171
Invalid input tape ......................................................................................... 171
Too many active jobs ................................................................................... 172
Failed to allocate memory ........................................................................... 172
Failed to get data buffer ............................................................................... 172
Failed to create job UUID ........................................................................... 172
Failed to create snapshot .............................................................................. 172
Failed to find snapshot ................................................................................. 172
Failed to lock snapshot ................................................................................ 173
Failed to access the named snapshot ........................................................... 173
Failed to softlock qtree snapshots ................................................................ 173
Failed to delete softlock ............................................................................... 173
10 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Failed to delete snapshot .............................................................................. 173
Image header missing or corrupted ............................................................. 174
Chunks out of order ..................................................................................... 174
Tapes out of order ........................................................................................ 174
Already read volume_name tape_number ................................................... 174
Mismatch in backup set ID .......................................................................... 174
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small ........................ 175
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone ........................... 175
Aborting: Source has 32-bit format and destination has 64-bit format ....... 175
Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS volume size
on this platform. Aborting ...................................................................... 175
Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting ...................... 176
Index ........................................................................................................... 177
Copyright information | 11
Copyright information
Copyright © 1994–2010 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.
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Trademark information | 13
Trademark information
All applicable trademark attribution is listed here.
NetApp, the Network Appliance logo, the bolt design, NetApp-the Network Appliance Company,
Cryptainer, Cryptoshred, DataFabric, DataFort, Data ONTAP, Decru, FAServer, FilerView,
FlexClone, FlexVol, Manage ONTAP, MultiStore, NearStore, NetCache, NOW NetApp on the Web,
SANscreen, SecureShare, SnapDrive, SnapLock, SnapManager, SnapMirror, SnapMover,
SnapRestore, SnapValidator, SnapVault, Spinnaker Networks, SpinCluster, SpinFS, SpinHA,
SpinMove, SpinServer, StoreVault, SyncMirror, Topio, VFM, and WAFL are registered trademarks
of NetApp, Inc. in the U.S.A. and/or other countries. gFiler, Network Appliance, SnapCopy,
Snapshot, and The evolution of storage are trademarks of NetApp, Inc. in the U.S.A. and/or other
countries and registered trademarks in some other countries. The NetApp arch logo; the StoreVault
logo; ApplianceWatch; BareMetal; Camera-to-Viewer; ComplianceClock; ComplianceJournal;
ContentDirector; ContentFabric; Data Motion; EdgeFiler; FlexShare; FPolicy; Go Further, Faster;
HyperSAN; InfoFabric; Lifetime Key Management, LockVault; NOW; ONTAPI; OpenKey, RAIDDP; ReplicatorX; RoboCache; RoboFiler; SecureAdmin; SecureView; Serving Data by Design;
Shadow Tape; SharedStorage; Simplicore; Simulate ONTAP; Smart SAN; SnapCache;
SnapDirector; SnapFilter; SnapMigrator; SnapSuite; SohoFiler; SpinMirror; SpinRestore; SpinShot;
SpinStor; vFiler; VFM Virtual File Manager; VPolicy; and Web Filer are trademarks of NetApp, Inc.
in the U.S.A. and other countries. NetApp Availability Assurance and NetApp ProTech Expert are
service marks of NetApp, Inc. in the U.S.A.
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business
Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. A complete and current list of
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RealSystem, RealText, and RealVideo are registered trademarks and RealMedia, RealProxy, and
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All other brands or products are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders and
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NetCache is certified RealSystem compatible.
About this guide | 15
About this guide
You can use your product more effectively when you understand this document's intended audience
and the conventions that this document uses to present information.
This guide describes how to protect, back up, restore, and copy data between storage systems that run
Data ONTAP software.
Note: This guide applies to systems running Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode, including V-Series
systems. The 7-Mode in the Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode product name means that this release has
the features and functionality you are used to if you have been using the Data ONTAP 7.0, 7.1,
7.2, or 7.3 release families. If you are a Data ONTAP 8.0 Cluster-Mode user, use the Data ONTAP
8.0 Cluster-Mode guides plus any Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode guides for functionality you might
want to access with 7-Mode commands through the nodeshell.
Next topics
Audience on page 15
Accessing Data ONTAP man pages on page 16
Terminology on page 16
Where to enter commands on page 17
Keyboard and formatting conventions on page 18
Special messages on page 19
How to send your comments on page 19
Audience
This document is written with certain assumptions about your technical knowledge and experience.
This guide is for system administrators who are familiar with operating systems that run on the
storage system clients, such as UNIX, Linux, Solaris, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP,
and Windows Vista.
It also assumes that you are familiar with how to configure the storage system and how the NFS,
CIFS, and HTTP protocols are used for file sharing or transfers. This guide does not cover basic
system or network administration topics, such as IP addressing, routing, and network topology; it
emphasizes the characteristics of the storage system.
16 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Accessing Data ONTAP man pages
You can use the Data ONTAP manual (man) pages to access technical information.
About this task
Data ONTAP manual pages are available for the following types of information. They are grouped
into sections according to standard UNIX naming conventions.
Types of information
Man page section
Commands
1
Special files
4
File formats and conventions
5
System management and services
8
Step
1. View man pages in the following ways:
•
Enter the following command at the console command line:
man command_or_file_name
•
Click the manual pages button on the main Data ONTAP navigational page in the FilerView
user interface.
Note: All Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode man pages are stored on the system in files whose
names are prefixed with the string "na_" to distinguish them from other man pages. The
prefixed names sometimes appear in the NAME field of the man page, but the prefixes are
not part of the command, file, or service.
Terminology
To understand the concepts in this document, you might need to know how certain terms are used.
Storage terms
array LUN
Refers to storage that third-party storage arrays provide to storage systems
running Data ONTAP software. One array LUN is the equivalent of one disk on
a native disk shelf.
About this guide | 17
LUN (logical
unit number)
Refers to a logical unit of storage identified by a number.
native disk
Refers to a disk that is sold as local storage for storage systems that run Data
ONTAP software.
native disk shelf
Refers to a disk shelf that is sold as local storage for storage systems that run
Data ONTAP software.
storage
controller
Refers to the component of a storage system that runs the Data ONTAP
operating system and controls its disk subsystem. Storage controllers are also
sometimes called controllers, storage appliances, appliances, storage engines,
heads, CPU modules, or controller modules.
storage system
Refers to the hardware device running Data ONTAP that receives data from and
sends data to native disk shelves, third-party storage, or both. Storage systems
that run Data ONTAP are sometimes referred to as filers, appliances, storage
appliances, V-Series systems, or systems.
third-party
storage
Refers to the back-end storage arrays, such as IBM, Hitachi Data Systems, and
HP, that provide storage for storage systems running Data ONTAP.
Where to enter commands
You can use your product more effectively when you understand how this document uses command
conventions to present information.
You can perform common administrator tasks in one or more of the following ways:
Note: Data ONTAP commands shown in this document are for Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode and the
Data ONTAP 7.x release families. However, some of these commands might also be available at
the nodeshell prompt on systems running Data ONTAP 8.0 Cluster-Mode. See the Data ONTAP
8.0 Cluster-Mode Administration Reference for more information.
•
•
You can enter commands either at the system console or from any client computer that can obtain
access to the storage system using a Telnet or Secure Shell (SSH) session.
In examples that illustrate command execution, the command syntax and output shown might
differ from what you enter or see displayed, depending on your version of the operating system.
You can enter commands either at the switch console or from any client that can obtain access to
the switch using a Telnet session.
In examples that illustrate command execution, the command syntax and output shown might
differ from what you enter or see displayed, depending on your version of the operating system.
18 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Keyboard and formatting conventions
You can use your product more effectively when you understand how this document uses keyboard
and formatting conventions to present information.
Keyboard conventions
Convention
What it means
The NOW site Refers to NetApp On the Web at http://now.netapp.com/.
Enter, enter
•
•
Used to refer to the key that generates a carriage return; the key is named
Return on some keyboards.
Used to mean pressing one or more keys on the keyboard and then pressing the
Enter key, or clicking in a field in a graphical interface and then typing
information into the field.
hyphen (-)
Used to separate individual keys. For example, Ctrl-D means holding down the
Ctrl key while pressing the D key.
type
Used to mean pressing one or more keys on the keyboard.
Formatting conventions
Convention
What it means
Italic font
•
•
Monospaced font
•
Words or characters that require special attention.
Placeholders for information that you must supply.
For example, if the guide says to enter the arp -d hostname command,
you enter the characters "arp -d" followed by the actual name of the host.
Book titles in cross-references.
•
•
•
•
Command names, option names, keywords, and daemon names.
Information displayed on the system console or other computer monitors.
Contents of files.
File, path, and directory names.
Bold monospaced Words or characters you type. What you type is always shown in lowercase
font
letters, unless your program is case-sensitive and uppercase letters are
necessary for it to work properly.
About this guide | 19
Special messages
This document might contain the following types of messages to alert you to conditions that you
need to be aware of.
Note: A note contains important information that helps you install or operate the system
efficiently.
Attention: An attention notice contains instructions that you must follow to avoid a system crash,
loss of data, or damage to the equipment.
How to send your comments
You can help us to improve the quality of our documentation by sending us your feedback.
Your feedback is important in helping us to provide the most accurate and high-quality information.
If you have suggestions for improving this document, send us your comments by e-mail to
doccomments@netapp.com. To help us direct your comments to the correct division, include in the
subject line the name of your product and the applicable operating system. For example, FAS6070—
Data ONTAP 7.3, or Host Utilities—Solaris, or Operations Manager 3.8—Windows.
Data protection using tape | 21
Data protection using tape
You use tape backup and recovery to create tape archives and to retrieve data from tape archives.
You back up data from disk to tape for the following reasons:
•
•
•
You can store the backup tapes at an off-site archive to protect the data against natural disasters.
You can restore data from tape if an application or a user inadvertently corrupts or deletes files
that cannot be recovered using the Snapshot copy feature.
You can restore data from tape after you reinstall the file system on the storage system (for
example, when migrating to larger disks or converting a single-volume storage system to a
multivolume storage system).
Next topics
Advantages and disadvantages of tape backup on page 21
Types of tape backup supported by Data ONTAP on page 22
How to initiate a dump or SMTape backup on page 22
Difference between dump backup and SMTape backup on page 23
Considerations before choosing a tape backup method on page 23
Advantages and disadvantages of tape backup
Data backed up to tape requires fewer resources to maintain. However, restoring data from tape
might take a long time.
Following are the advantages of tape backup over online storage:
•
•
•
Tape backups require fewer resources to maintain.
You can place the archives in a more secure place than you can place a storage system.
You can recover data from any release of Data ONTAP.
Following are the disadvantages of tape archives over online storage:
•
•
Restoring data from tape takes a long time.
Finding a particular file or directory on tape is time consuming.
22 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Types of tape backup supported by Data ONTAP
Data ONTAP supports two types of tape backup: the dump backup and the SMTape backup.
Tape backup using dump
Dump is a Snapshot copy-based backup to tape, in which your file system data is backed up to tape.
The Data ONTAP dump engine backs up files, directories, and the applicable ACL information to
tape. Dump supports level-0, differential, and incremental backups.
Tape backup using SMTape
SMTape is a Snapshot copy-based high performance disaster recovery solution that backs up blocks
of data to tape. You can use SMTape to perform volume backups to tapes. However, you cannot
perform a backup at the qtree or subtree level. Also, you can perform only a level-0 backup and not
incremental or differential backups.
Related concepts
What dump is on page 0
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine on page 135
Difference between dump backup and SMTape backup on page 23
How to initiate a dump or SMTape backup
You can initiate a dump or SMTape backup by using the Data ONTAP CLI commands or through
NDMP-compliant backup applications.
When you use a backup application to back up your data, you must choose the backup type when
initiating a backup.
You can perform a CLI-based dump backup or restore using the Data ONTAP dump and restore
commands.
Similarly, you can perform a CLI-based SMTape backup or restore using the Data ONTAP smtape
backup and smtape restore commands.
Related concepts
Data backup using the dump engine on page 69
Data backup using the SMTape engine on page 0
Data protection using tape | 23
Difference between dump backup and SMTape backup
The SMTape backup provides faster backup performance when compared to a dump backup.
The following table lists the differences between an SMTape backup and a dump backup.
SMTape backup
Dump backup
Backs up blocks of data to tape.
Backs up files and directories.
Supports only level-0 backup.
Supports level-0, incremental, and differential
backups.
Does not support single file restore.
Supports single file restore.
Capable of backing up multiple Snapshot copies
in a volume.
Capable of backing up only the base Snapshot
copy.
Preserves deduplication while backing up and
restoring data.
Does not preserve deduplication while backing
up data.
Considerations before choosing a tape backup method
You must consider your business requirements before choosing a tape backup method.
You should use dump backup and restore if you want the following features:
•
A backup and recovery solution that helps you to
•
•
• Perform direct access recovery (DAR) of files and directories.
• Back up some, but not all, subdirectories or files in a specific path.
• Exclude specific files and directories during a backup.
To perform incremental and differential backups and restores.
Preserve your backups for several years.
You should use SMTape backup and restore, if you want the following features:
•
•
A disaster recovery solution that provides high performance.
To use tape backup to perform an initial full-volume transfer of a source SnapMirror volume to a
remote destination storage system and then perform incremental transfers over the network.
In such cases, you can perform an SMTape backup of the SnapMirror volume to a tape, ship the
tape to the remote location and restore the contents to a target volume, and set up a SnapMirror
relationship. Once the SnapMirror relationship is established, the incremental backups are
performed over the network. You can also use this method to establish a SnapMirror relationship
between source and destination storage systems over a low-bandwidth connection.
24 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
To preserve the deduplication on the backed up data during the restore operation.
To back up large volumes.
If you use the dump engine to back up volumes with a large number of small files, your backup
performance might be affected. This is because, the dump engine performs a file system level
backup and has to traverse through the files and directories to backup the volumes. These
volumes can be more efficiently backed up to tape using SMTape.
Tape drive management | 25
Tape drive management
You need to manage tape drives when you back up data from the storage system to tape or when you
restore data from tape to the storage system.
When you back up data to tape, the data is stored in tape files. File marks separate the tape files and
the files have no names. You specify a tape file by its position on the tape. You write a tape file using
a tape device. When you read the tape file, you must specify a device that has the same compression
type that you used to write it.
Next topics
What tape devices are on page 25
Tape device name format on page 26
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices on page 28
Displaying tape device statistics on page 28
Displaying supported tape devices on page 29
What assigning tape aliases is on page 30
Displaying existing aliases of tape drives on page 33
Displaying information about tape drives or libraries on page 33
Assigning tape aliases on page 34
Removing tape aliases on page 35
Propagating tape aliases to multiple storage systems on page 35
How to add Fibre Channel-attached tape drives and libraries on page 36
How to display tape drive and tape library information on page 37
Controlling tape drives on page 39
Qualified tape drives on page 44
How to use a nonqualified tape drive on page 46
What tape reservations are on page 49
What tape devices are
A tape device is a representation of a tape drive. It is a specific combination of rewind type and
compression capability of a tape drive.
A tape device is created for each combination of rewind type and compression capability. Therefore,
a tape drive or tape library can have several tape devices associated with it. You must specify a tape
device to move, write, or read tapes.
When you install a tape drive or tape library on a storage system, Data ONTAP creates tape devices
associated with the tape drive or tape library.
Data ONTAP detects tape drives and tape libraries and assigns logical numbers and tape devices to
them. Data ONTAP detects the Fibre Channel tape drives and libraries when they are connected to
26 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
the Fibre Channel interface ports. Data ONTAP detects these drives when their interfaces are enabled
subsequently.
There are two types of tape devices:
•
•
A local tape device on the storage system, which performs a tape operation
A remote tape device on a storage system or Solaris machine that fulfills the following criteria:
•
Is not the machine that is performing a tape operation, but is connected through the network to
a host that is performing the tape operation
Is running the RMT (remote magnetic tape) protocol (which is a bundled component of Data
ONTAP)
Has a trust relationship with the storage system that is performing the tape operation
•
•
Note: SMTape does not support remote tape backups and restores.
Note: You cannot use tape devices associated with tape libraries (medium changers) on a remote
Solaris system.
Tape device name format
Each tape device has an associated name that appears in a defined format. The format includes
information about the type of device, its alias, and compression type.
The format of a tape device name is as follows:
[remote_host:]rewind_type st alias_number compression_type
remote_host is optional. You specify a remote host storage system if you want to use a tape drive
attached to that host. You must follow the remote host name with a colon (:).
rewind_type is the rewind type.
The following list describes the various rewind type values:
r
Data ONTAP rewinds the tape after it finishes writing the tape file.
nr Data ONTAP does not rewind the tape after it finishes writing the tape file. Use this rewind
type when you want to write multiple tape files on the same tape.
ur This is the unload/reload rewind type. When you use this rewind type, the tape library unloads
the tape when it reaches the end of a tape file, and then loads the next tape, if there is one.
Use this rewind type only under the following circumstances:
•
•
The tape drive associated with this device is in a tape library or is in a medium changer that
is in the library mode.
The tape drive associated with this device is attached to a storage system.
Tape drive management | 27
•
Sufficient tapes for the operation that you are performing are available in the library tape
sequence defined for this tape drive.
Note: If you record a tape using a no-rewind device, you must rewind the tape before you read it.
st is the standard designation for a tape drive.
alias_number is the alias that Data ONTAP assigns to the tape drive. When Data ONTAP detects
a new tape drive, it assigns an alias to it. You can modify an alias using the storage alias
command. An alias assigned by Data ONTAP or modified by the user persists through reboots.
compression_type is a drive-specific code for the density of data on the tape and the type of
compression.
The following list describes the various values for compression_type:
a
Highest compression
h
High compression
l
Low compression
m
Medium compression
Examples
•
•
nrst0a specifies a no-rewind device on tape drive 0 using the highest compression.
remfiler:nrst0a specifies a no-rewind device on tape drive 0 on the remote host
remfiler that uses the highest compression.
Attention: When using the urst device with the dump or restore command, ensure that
you use tape libraries and that there are sufficient tapes in the library sequence. Otherwise,
the tape drives involved terminate the command sequence or overwrite the same tape
multiple times.
Example of a listing of tape devices
The following example shows the tape devices associated with HP Ultrium 2-SCSI:
Tape drive (fc202_6:2.126L1) HP
rst0l - rewind device,
nrst0l - no rewind device,
urst0l - unload/reload device,
rst0m - rewind device,
nrst0m - no rewind device,
urst0m - unload/reload device,
rst0h - rewind device,
nrst0h - no rewind device,
urst0h - unload/reload device,
rst0a - rewind device,
Ultrium
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
2-SCSI
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (400GB w/comp)
28 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
nrst0a urst0a -
no rewind device,
format is: HP (400GB w/comp)
unload/reload device, format is: HP (400GB w/comp)
The following list describes the abbreviations in the preceding example:
•
•
GB—Gigabytes; this is the capacity of the tape.
w/comp—With compression; this shows the tape capacity with compression.
Related tasks
Assigning tape aliases on page 34
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices
Data ONTAP software supports a maximum of 64 simultaneous tape drive connections for each
storage system in any mix of Fibre Channel or SCSI attachment.
Tape drives can be devices in tape libraries or stand-alone devices. Virtual Tape Libraries, such as
NetApp VTL and their tape drives, are treated as actual tape drives; therefore, Data ONTAP supports
a maximum of 64 simultaneous connections.
Note: Though a storage system can detect 64 tape drive connections, only 16 concurrent backup or
restore sessions with local tapes are allowed.
Displaying tape device statistics
The tape device statistics help understand tape performance and check usage pattern. You reset the
statistics reading and restart the process of displaying the statistics whenever you want.
Step
1. To display the statistics for a specified tape device, enter the following command:
storage stats tape tape_name
tape_name is the name of a tape device.
Example
filerA> storage stats tape nrst0l
Bytes Read: 71471104
Bytes Written: 382147584
Command
Num issued Max (ms)
---------------- -------WRITE - Total
2518
1927
44-48KB
897
372
60-64KB
421
1927
128-132KB
800
131
Min (ms)
-------2
2
3
8
Avg (ms)
-------24
6269
6
6531
13
4796
19
6761
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
Tape drive management | 29
508KB+
READ - Total
60-64KB
64-68KB
WEOF
FSF
BS
FSR
BSR
REWIND
400
1092
92
1000
5
1
0
2
1
9
481
1570
1390
1570
2827
13055
0
1390
23
67606
32
5
5
5
2787
13055
0
5
23
94
83
14
25
13
2810
13055
0
697
23
22260
6242
4582
2493
4958
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
Displaying supported tape devices
You can view a list of tape devices supported by a storage system using the storage show tape
supported command. You can use a tape device only if it is listed in the output of this command.
Step
1. To display a list of the tape drives supported by the storage system, enter the following command:
storage show tape supported [-v]
The -v option gives you more detailed information about each tape drive.
Examples
filer1>storage show tape supported
Supported Tapes
-----------------------Exabyte 8500C 8mm
Exabyte 8505 8mm
Exabyte 8900 8mm
Exabyte 8500 8mm
Exabyte Mammoth-2 8mm
Digital DLT2000
Quantum DLT2000
Sun DLT2000
storage show tape supported -v
IBM ULTRIUM-TD1
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x40
0x00
0x40
0x00
0x40
0x00
0x40
0x01
IBM 03590B
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
LTO
LTO
LTO
LTO
Format
Format
Format
Format
100
100
100
200
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
30 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
------- ----------0x29
0x00
0x29
0x00
0x29
0x00
0x29
0xFF
B
B
B
B
Format
Format
Format
Format
10
10
10
20
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
IBM 03590E
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x2A
0x00
0x2A
0x00
0x2A
0x00
0x2A
0xFF
E
E
E
E
Format
Format
Format
Format
20
20
20
40
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
IBM 03590H
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x2C
0x00
0x2C
0x00
0x2C
0x00
0x2C
0xFF
H
H
H
H
Format
Format
Format
Format
30
30
30
60
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
Certance Ultrium 2 Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
Certance Ultrium 3 Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
Dynamically Qualified
LTO-1
LTO-1
LTO-2
LTO-2
100GB
200GB cmp
200GB
400GB cmp
Dynamically Qualified
LTO-1(ro)/2 1/200GB
LTO-1(ro)/2 2/400GB cmp
LTO-3 400GB
LTO-3 800GB cmp
What assigning tape aliases is
Aliasing binds a tape or a medium changer device address, or a WWN, to a persistent, but modifiable
alias name.
Aliasing simplifies the process of device identification. The following table describes how tape
aliasing enables you to ensure that a tape drive (or tape library or medium changer) is always
associated with a single alias name.
Tape drive management | 31
Scenario
Reassigning of the alias
When the system reboots
The tape drive is automatically reassigned its previous
alias.
When a tape device moves to another
port
The alias can be adjusted to point to the new address.
When more than one system uses a
particular tape device
The user can set the alias to be the same for all the systems.
Assigning tape aliases provides a correspondence between the logical names of backup devices (for
example, st0 or mc1) and a name permanently assigned to a port, a tape drive, or a medium changer.
Note: st0 and st00 are different logical names.
You can use tape aliases as parameters to the dump, restore, smtape backup, and smtape
restore commands.
Note: Logical names and WWNs are used only to access a device. After the device is accessed, it
returns all error messages using the physical path name.
There are two types of names available for aliasing: PPNs and WWNs.
Next topics
What physical path names are on page 31
What worldwide names are on page 32
Related tasks
Assigning tape aliases on page 34
Removing tape aliases on page 35
What physical path names are
Physical path names (PPNs) are the numerical address sequences that Data ONTAP assigns to tape
drives and tape libraries based on the SCSI-2/3 adapter or switch (specific location) they are
connected to, on the storage system. PPNs are also known as electrical names.
PPNs of direct-attached devices use the following format:
host_adapter. device_id_lun
For example, the PPN 8.6 indicates that the host adapter number is 8, the device ID is 6, and the
logical unit number (LUN) is 0.
Note: The LUN value is displayed only for tape and medium changer devices whose LUN values
are not zero; that is, if the LUN value is zero the lun part of the PPN is not displayed.
PPNs of switch-attached devices use the following format:
32 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
switch:port_id. device_id_lun
For example, the PPN MY_SWITCH:5.3L2 indicates that the tape drive connected to port 5 of a
switch called MY_SWITCH is set with SCSI ID 3 and has the LUN 2.
The LUN is determined by the drive itself. Fibre Channel, SCSI tape drives and libraries, and disks
have PPNs.
In the following example, the dump command is using the tape device name of a tape drive:
dump 0f /dev/nrst0a /vol/vol0
In the following example, the dump command is using the PPN of the tape drive:
dump 0f /dev/nr.MY_SWITCH:5.6.a /vol/vol0
PPNs of tape drives and libraries do not change unless the name of the switch changes, the tape drive
or library moves, or the tape drive or library is reconfigured. PPNs remain unchanged after reboot.
For example, if a tape drive named MY_SWITCH:5.3L2 is removed and a new tape drive with the
same SCSI ID and LUN is connected to port 5 of the switch MY_SWITCH, the new tape drive
would be accessible using MY_SWITCH:5.3L2.
What worldwide names are
Tape drives and libraries are assigned worldwide names (WWNs) at the time of manufacture. WWNs
are similar to the media access control (MAC) addresses on Ethernet cards. All Fibre Channel
devices have WWNs, but SCSI-attached devices do not have WWNs.
Accessing a tape drive or library using the WWN allows multiple storage systems to track the same
device. Depending on whether a tape drive is connected to a Fibre Channel switch or hub, or is
directly attached to a Fibre Channel adapter, different storage systems can have different PPNs for
the same device. Using the WWN in these cases eliminates any confusion.
Also, if you rename a switch or move a tape drive in the storage system, the WWN of the tape drive
or library does not change. The scripts or backup programs do not need to change the name of the
tape drive or library to which they are backing up.
The WWN of a tape device uses the following format:
WWN[#:###:######:######]L##
# is a hexadecimal character and L## is the LUN of the device. If the LUN is 0, the L## part of the
string is not displayed.
Each WWN consists of eight bytes, and the format for the WWN is not case-sensitive.
Example of a dump command that uses the logical name of a tape drive
dump 0f /dev/nrst0a /vol/vol0
Tape drive management | 33
Example of a dump command that uses the worldwide name of a tape drive
dump 0f /dev/nr.WWN[2:000:00e08b:01523e].a /vol/vol0
Displaying existing aliases of tape drives
You can determine the existing aliases of tape drives using the storage alias command.
Step
1. To determine the existing aliases of tape drives, enter the following command:
storage alias
Example
filer1>storage alias
Alias
Mapping
---------------------------------------st0
MY_SWITCH:5.3L3
st2
MY_SWITCH:5.4L6
mc1
2:4e3:38fe3f:758eab
mc348
MY_SWITCH:5.3L0
In this example, the display shows that there are two tape drives and two medium changers
attached to the storage system. Tape drives st0 and st2 and medium changer mc348 are attached
to port 5 of the switch MY_SWITCH. Medium changer mc1 has the WWN 2:4e3:38fe3f:758eab.
Displaying information about tape drives or libraries
Information about tape drives and tape libraries helps you to assign tape aliases.
Step
1. To display information about tape drives and tape libraries (medium changers), enter the
following command:
storage show {tape | mc} [{alias | PPN | WWN}]
alias is the logical name of the tape drive or medium changer.
PPN is the physical path name.
WWN is the worldwide name.
Examples
filer1>storage show tape
Tape Drive:
MY_SWITCH:5.3L4
34 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Description:
Serial Number:
World Wide Name:
Alias Name(s):
Tape Drive:
Description:
Serial Number:
World Wide Name:
Alias Name(s):
Quantum DLT7000
12345679
WWN[2:333:444444:555555]L4
st0 st1 st2 st3
MY_SWITCH:5.3L5
Quantum DLT7000
12345678
WWN[2:777:888888:999999]L5
st10 st11 st12 st13
filer1>storage show tape st0
Tape Drive:
MY_SWITCH:5.3L4
Description:
Quantum DLT7000
Serial Number:
12345679
World Wide Name:
WWN[2:333:444444:555555]L4
Alias Name(s):
st0 st1 st2 st3
filer1>storage show tape MY_SWITCH:5.3L4
Tape Drive:
MY_SWITCH:5.3L4
Description:
Quantum DLT7000
Serial Number:
12345679
World Wide Name:
WWN[2:333:444444:555555]L4
Alias Name(s):
st0 st1 st2 st3
Assigning tape aliases
You can assign aliases to tape drives or medium changers using the storage alias command.
Step
1. To assign an alias to a tape drive or medium changer, enter the following command:
storage alias [alias {PPN | WWN}]
alias is the logical name of the tape drive or medium changer to which you want to add the
alias.
PPN is the physical path name to which you want to assign the tape drive or medium changer.
WWN is the WWN to which you want to assign the tape drive or medium changer.
Examples
storage alias st0 MY_SWITCH:5.3L3
The tape device st0 is assigned to the physical path name MY_SWITCH:5.3L3.
storage alias mc80 WWN[2:4e3:38fe3f:758eab]
The medium changer mc80 is assigned to the worldwide name WWN[2:4e3:38fe3f:758eab].
Tape drive management | 35
Removing tape aliases
You can remove aliases from tape drives or medium changers, or both, using the storage unalias
command.
Step
1. To remove an alias from a tape drive or medium changer, enter the following command:
storage unalias {alias | -a | -m | -t}
alias is the logical name of the tape drive or medium changer from which you want to remove
the alias.
-a removes all aliases.
-m removes the aliases from all medium changers.
-t removes the aliases from all tape drives.
Examples
storage unalias st0
storage unalias mc80
Propagating tape aliases to multiple storage systems
If you need to use the same set of tape drives to back up more than one storage system, you can save
the tape alias information in a file. You can then propagate the aliases to multiple storage systems.
Steps
1. To propagate tape aliases to multiple storage systems, create a file named tape_alias
containing the tape alias information.
Example
storage
storage
storage
storage
unalias -a
alias st0 8.6
alias st1 8.7
alias mc0 8.1
2. Copy the file to the root volume of each storage system.
3. Execute the following command on each storage system:
source /vol/root_volume_name/tape_alias
root_volume_name specifies the root volume.
36 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
All the storage systems contain the same configuration information.
Note: To ensure that multiple storage systems assign the same alias to a tape drive or medium
changer, you can type the same set of storage alias commands on each storage system.
UNIX shell scripts for propagating tape aliases
UNIX users can use a shell script to propagate the source script information to the storage systems.
You can use a shell script similar to the following one to propagate the source script information to
the storage systems.
#!/bin/sh
# Check for the source file
if [ "$#" != "1" ]
then
echo "Usage: $0 <source_file>"
exit 1
fi
if [ ! -r $1 ]
then
echo "Cannot open source file \"$1\""
exit 1
fi
while [ 1 ]
do
echo Hit ctrl-c to terminate program when all filers have been
entered.
# Gather up filer and passwd from user
printf "File Server: "
read FILER
printf "Password: "
read PASSWD
stty -echo
stty echo
printf "\n"
# Now issue the commands in the source script to
# the remote filer.
while read cmd
do
echo Issuing command \"$cmd\" to filer $FILER
rsh $FILER -l root:$PASSWD "$cmd" < /dev/null
done < $1
printf "\n"
done
How to add Fibre Channel-attached tape drives and libraries
You can add Fibre Channel-attached tape drives and libraries to storage systems dynamically
(without taking the storage systems offline).
When you add a new medium changer, the storage system detects its presence and adds it to the
configuration. If the medium changer is already referenced in the alias information, no new logical
Tape drive management | 37
names are created. If the library is not referenced, the storage system creates a new alias for the
medium changer.
How to display tape drive and tape library information
You can view information about tape drives, tape medium changers, and tape drive connections to
the storage system.
You can use this information to verify that the storage system detects the tape drive associated with
the tape device. You can also verify the available tape device names associated with the tape drive.
You can view information about qualified and nonqualified tape drives, tape libraries, and tape drive
connections to the storage system.
Next topics
Displaying information about tape drives on page 37
Displaying information about tape medium changers on page 38
Displaying information about tape drive connections to the storage system on page 38
Displaying information about tape drives
You can view information about the tape drives on a storage system, such as the slot on the storage
system and the tape drive's SCSI ID.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
sysconfig -t
Example
filer1>sysconfig -t
Tape drive (0b.1) Exabyte 8900
rst0l - rewind device,
nrst0l - no rewind device,
urst0l - unload/reload device,
rst0m - rewind device,
nrst0m - no rewind device,
urst0m - unload/reload device,
rst0h - rewind device,
nrst0h - no rewind device,
urst0h - unload/reload device,
rst0a - rewind device,
8mm
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
EXB-8500
EXB-8500
EXB-8500
EXB-8500C
EXB-8500C
EXB-8500C
EXB-8900
EXB-8900
EXB-8900
EXB-8900C
5.0GB(readonly)
5.0GB(readonly)
5.0GB(readonly)
(w/compression)
(w/compression)
(w/compression)
10.0GB
10.0GB
10.0GB
(w/compression)
38 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
nrst0a urst0a -
no rewind device,
format is: EXB-8900C (w/compression)
unload/reload device, format is: EXB-8900C (w/compression)
The numbers following “Tape drive” show the slot on the storage system that the drive is
attached to, followed by the drive’s SCSI ID. In the preceding example, the Exabyte 8900 has
SCSI ID 1 and is attached to a controller in slot 0b.
Note: Compression capacity in the display is an estimate; actual capacity depends on how
much the data being written to the tape can be compressed.
Displaying information about tape medium changers
You can view the details about a tape medium changer, such as the slot to which it is attached in the
storage system.
Step
1. To view details about tape medium changers, enter the following command:
sysconfig -m
Example
filer1>sysconfig -m
Medium changer (UC060000834:49.126)
mc0 - medium changer device
EXABYTE
EXB-440
Note: If the autoload option of the medium changer is set to On, the medium changer
information might not appear.
Displaying information about tape drive connections to the storage system
You can view the information about a tape drive connection to the storage system. You can view
information such as the SCSI ID, Vendor ID, Product ID, and firmware version.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
sysconfig -v
Example
This example shows a tape medium changer with SCSI ID 6 and a tape drive with SCSI ID 4
attached to slot 6 of the storage system. The SCSI firmware is 2.26, and the SCSI adapter
clock rate is 60 MHz.
slot 6: SCSI Host Adapter 6 (QLogic ISP 1040B)
Firmware Version 2.26
Clock Rate 60MHz.
Tape drive management | 39
6: BHTi
Quad 7
4: QUANTUM DLT7000
1.41
1B41
Controlling tape drives
You can control tape drives using the mt command. You can use the command to move and position
the tape.
You can use the mt command to perform any of the following tasks:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Move a tape to the end of data to append a backup.
Skip forward over files to access a particular tape file.
Skip backward over files to access a particular tape file.
Append a backup to save the tape if you have small backups.
Rewind a tape to get to the beginning of the tape after using a no-rewind device.
Take a tape drive offline to service it.
Display status information to find out whether a tape drive is online, offline, in use, or not in use.
The syntax of the mt command is as follows:
mt {-f|-t} device command [count]
Variables and options Description
-f and -t
Indicate that the next parameter is a device. These options are
interchangeable.
device
Is a tape device.
command
Is a command that controls the tape drives.
count
Specifies the number of times to execute a command that supports
multiple operations.
The command option can be any one of the following.
Command Task
eom
Position the tape to the end of the data or the end of the medium if the tape is full.
fsf
Move the tape forward, skipping a specified number of files.
bsf
Move the tape backward, skipping a specified number of files.
fsr
Move the tape forward and position the tape on the end-of-tape side of the records.
bsr
Move the tape backwards and position the tape on the beginning-of-tape side of the
records.
40 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Command Task
rewind
Rewind the tape.
offline
Rewind the tape and unload the tape medium, if possible.
status
Display information about a device and the drive associated with it.
Note: Use a no-rewind (nrst) devices for all tape status and movement operations. Using other
rewind types can produce unwanted results.
Attention: When you use a unload/reload (urst) device with the mt command, you must use tape
libraries for the backup and there must be enough tapes in the tape library. Otherwise, the tape
drives involved terminate the command sequence or overwrite the same tape multiple times.
Next topics
Moving a tape to the end of data on page 40
Moving forward to a file on page 41
Moving backward to the beginning of a file on page 41
Rewinding a tape on page 42
Taking a tape drive offline on page 42
Displaying status information on page 43
Moving a tape to the end of data
You move a tape to the end of data if you want to append data on a tape.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
mt -f device eom
device is the name of a no-rewind tape device.
Example
mt -f nrst0a eom
Note: If you use a rewind or unload/reload tape device, this command rewinds the device,
moves the tape to the beginning of data, and unloads it, if possible.
Tape drive management | 41
Moving forward to a file
You move forward to access a particular tape file further along the tape. You can skip over a
specified number of file marks and stop at the end-of-tape side of a file mark. This puts the tape drive
head at the beginning of a file.
Step
1. To move forward to the beginning of a tape file, enter the following command:
mt -f device fsf n
device is the name of a tape device used on the tape.
n is the number of tape file marks you want to skip over going forward. The tape moves forward
to the beginning of the nth file from its current file location.
Example
If you enter the following command in the middle of the third file on the tape, it moves the
tape to the beginning of the eighth file on the tape:
mt -f nrst0a fsf 5
Moving backward to the beginning of a file
You move backward to access a particular tape file positioned towards the beginning of tape from the
current position.
Steps
1. Enter the following command:
mt -f device bsf n
device is the name of a tape device used on the tape.
n is the number of tape file marks you want to skip over going backward.
The tape moves backward to the end of the nth file from its current file location.
2. Enter the following command:
mt -f device fsf 1
The tape moves forward one file mark to the beginning of the desired file.
Example
If you enter the following commands in the middle of file 5 on the tape, the tape moves to the
beginning of file 2 on the tape:
42 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
mt -f nrst0a bsf 4
mt -f nrst0a fsf 1
Rewinding a tape
If you use a no-rewind tape device to back up the data, the tape device does not automatically rewind
the tape after the backup. To restore data backed up using such a tape device, you should rewind the
tape when you load the tape drive.
Step
1. To rewind a tape, enter the following command:
mt -f device rewind
device is the name of a tape device used on the tape.
Example
mt -f nrst0a rewind
Related concepts
Tape device name format on page 26
Taking a tape drive offline
You take a drive offline to remove or change the tape cartridge. This operation rewinds the tape
cartridge and ejects it from the tape drive. The device is still available to the system, but is not ready
for I/O or tape movement.
About this task
You use a urst tape device to unload and reload a tape cartridge during a backup or restore operation.
When you use a urst device, Data ONTAP waits for you to insert the new cartridge before continuing
the operation. However, when you want to remove the current cartridge when no other operation is
ongoing, you must use the mt offline command with an nrst tape device.
Step
1. To rewind the tape and take the tape drive offline by unloading the tape, enter the following
command:
mt -f device offline
device is the name of a tape device.
Tape drive management | 43
Example
mt -f nrst0a offline
Related concepts
Tape device name format on page 26
Displaying status information
You display status information to find out whether you can read with a device or to verify that a tape
drive is not in use.
Step
1. To display status information about a tape device and the drive associated with it, enter the
following command:
mt -f device status
device is the name of the tape device.
Example
filer1>mt -f nrst0a status
Tape drive: CERTANCEULTRIUM 3
Status: ready, write enabled
Format: LTO-3 800GB cmp
fileno = 0 blockno = 0 resid = 0
The following list describes the output of the command:
Tape drive
The model of the tape drive.
Status
Whether the tape drive is ready and write-enabled.
Format
The tape drive type, total capacity in gigabytes, and whether data
compression is used.
fileno
The current tape file number; numbering starts at 0.
blockno
The current block number.
resid
The number of bytes that the drive attempted to write or read, but could
not because it reached the end of the tape.
44 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Qualified tape drives
A qualified tape drive is a tape drive that has been tested and found to work properly on storage
systems. A qualified tape drive appears in the Data ONTAP kernel’s internal tape qualification list or
is represented by a valid tape configuration file in the controller's /etc/tape_config directory.
You can add support for tape drives to existing Data ONTAP releases using the tape configuration
file. You can also view the current list of supported tape drives at the NOW Web site.
To add support to Data ONTAP for a tape drive that was qualified after the release of the Data
ONTAP version you are using, copy the corresponding tape configuration file into the controller's /
etc/tape_config directory.
Only qualified tape drives are listed in the tape qualification list and the tape libraries are not listed.
For example, the tape library IBM TS3500 is not listed. However, the IBM LTO 4 tape drives that
the IBM TS3500 contains are listed.
You can display information about qualified and nonqualified tape drives, tape libraries, and tape
drive connections to the storage system.
Next topics
Format of the tape configuration file on page 44
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive dynamically on page 46
Related information
http://www.netapp.com/us/solutions/a-z/data-protection-devices.html
http://now.netapp.com/NOW/download/tools/tape_config/
Format of the tape configuration file
The /etc/tape_config directory contains a sample tape configuration file. This file includes the
details of the requirements for a tape configuration file, a list of the default SCSI command timeout
values used by the tape drive, and an example of a tape configuration file.
The following table displays the format of the tape configuration file.
Item
Size
Description
vendor_id (string)
up to 8
bytes
The vendor ID as reported by the SCSI Inquiry
command.
product_id (string)
up to 16
bytes
The product ID as reported by the SCSI Inquiry
command.
Tape drive management | 45
Item
Size
Description
id_match_size (number)
The number of bytes of the product ID to be used for
matching to detect the tape drive to be identified,
beginning with the first character of the product ID in
the Inquiry data.
vendor_pretty (string)
up to 16
bytes
If this parameter is present, it is specified by the string
displayed by sysconfig -v or sysconfig -t;
otherwise, INQ_VENDOR_ID is displayed.
product_pretty (string)
up to 16
bytes
If this parameter is present, it is specified by the string
displayed by sysconfig -v or sysconfig -t;
otherwise, INQ_PRODUCT_ID is displayed.
Note: The vendor_pretty and product_pretty fields are optional, but if one of these fields has a
value, the other must also have a value.
The following table explains the description, density code, and compression algorithm for the various
compression types such as, l, m, h, and a.
Item
Size
Description
{l | m | h |
a}_description= (string)
up to 16
bytes
The string to print for sysconfig -t that
describes characteristics of the particular density
setting.
{l | m | h | a}_density=
(hex codes)
The density code to be set in the SCSI mode page
block descriptor corresponding to the desired
density code for l, m, h, or a.
{l | m | h | a}_algorithm=
(hex codes)
The compression algorithm to be set in the SCSI
Compression Mode Page corresponding to the
density code and the desired density
characteristic.
The following table describes the optional fields available in the tape configuration file.
Field
Description
autoload=
(Boolean yes/no)
Set this field to yes if the tape drive has an automatic loading feature; that
is, after you insert a tape cartridge, the tape drive becomes ready without
the need to execute a SCSI load (start/stop unit) command. The default
for this field is no.
46 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Field
Description
cmd_timeout_0x
Individual timeout value. Use this field only if you want to specify a
different timeout value from the one being used as a default by the tape
driver. The sample file lists the default SCSI command timeout values
used by the tape driver. The timeout value can be expressed in minutes
(m), seconds (s), or milliseconds (ms).
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive dynamically
The storage system qualifies a tape drive dynamically by matching its vendor_id and product_id
with the information contained in the tape qualification table.
The storage system’s /etc/tape_config directory is created automatically when the storage
system boots. When a tape configuration file is added to this directory, the storage system checks the
file’s format at the next boot time or the next time any tape is accessed. If the format is valid, the
information is entered into the internal tape qualification table.
Information about the tape persists as long as the file is in the directory or until the file is altered.
If the format is incorrect, an error message similar to one of the following is printed to the console
and system log:
Dynamic Tape Qualification file: /etc/tape_config/filename has missing or
badly formatted required key(s). Dynamic Tape Qualification file: /etc/
tape_config/filename has a format error in the information appended to the
required key.
When you connect a tape drive to the storage system, the storage system looks for a vendor_id and
product_id match between information obtained during the tape discovery process and
information contained in the internal tape qualification table. If the storage system discovers a match,
it marks the tape drive as qualified and can access the tape drive. If the storage system cannot find a
match, the tape drive remains in the unqualified state and is not accessed.
How to use a nonqualified tape drive
You can use a nonqualified tape drive (one that is not on the list of qualified tape drives) on a storage
system if it can emulate a qualified tape drive. It is then treated as though it were a qualified tape
drive.
For a nonqualified tape drive to emulate a qualified tape drive, you must enter the nonqualified tape
drive information in the /etc/cloned_tapes file. This file enables the storage system to register
the drive as a clone of a qualified drive.
Next topics
Displaying information about nonqualified tape drives on page 47
Tape drive management | 47
Tape drive information required for emulation on page 47
Emulating a qualified tape drive on page 48
Displaying information about nonqualified tape drives
To make use of a nonqualified tape drive, you must determine whether it emulates any of the
qualified tape drives.
Steps
1. If the storage system has accessed the tape drive through the dump or mt command, go directly to
Step 3. If the storage system has not accessed the tape drive through the dump or mt command, go
to Step 2.
2. To access the tape drive, enter the following command:
mt -f device status
device is any device that contains the tape drive number that you think is assigned to the tape
drive.
Example
mt -f nrst1a status
3. Enter the following command:
sysconfig -t
If the storage system has registered a tape drive as emulating a qualified tape drive, it displays a
message similar to the following:
Tape drive (6.5) DLT9000 emulates Digital DLT7000.
If the storage system has not registered a tape drive as emulating a qualified tape drive, it displays
a message similar to the following:
Tape drive (6.5) DLTXXXX (Non-qualified tape drive)
Tape drive information required for emulation
To emulate a qualified tape drive, you must know certain specific information about your
nonqualified tape drive.
The required information is as follows:
•
•
•
Which qualified tape drive the nonqualified tape drive can emulate.
The vendor ID string, which is a SCSI string and should be in the SCSI section of your tape drive
manual.
The product ID string, which is a SCSI string and should be in the SCSI section of your tape drive
manual.
48 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Emulating a qualified tape drive
You can use a nonqualified tape drive by making it emulate a qualified tape drive.
Steps
1. Ensure that you have a tape adapter available on the storage system.
2. Disable the adapter port to which the tape drive will be attached.
3. Connect the tape drive to the storage system according the tape drive manufacturer’s instructions.
4. Turn on the tape drive and wait for the tape drive to complete its power-on activities.
5. Enable the adapter interface. When the adapter is enabled, it will discover the device.
An error message is displayed, which tells you that the tape drive is unsupported.
6. Enter the following command:
sysconfig -t
This command creates the /etc/cloned_tapes file, if it does not exist already. Observe the
vendor ID and product ID of the nonqualified devices.
Note: The cloned tapes emulation method cannot be used if the product ID contains spaces.
For example, the product ID Ultrium 4-SCSI cannot be used for cloning because it has a space
between Ultrium and 4. In such a case, you must use a configuration file.
7. Open the storage system’s /etc/cloned_tapes file in a text editor on a client that can access it.
8. For each nonqualified tape drive, create a line with the following format in the /etc/
cloned_tapes file:
[clone_vendor_ID] clone_product_ID EMULATES [vendor_ID] product_ID
clone_vendor_ID is the vendor of the nonqualified tape drive.
clone_product_ID is the model number of the nonqualified tape drive.
vendor_ID is the vendor of a qualified tape drive that you want the nonqualified tape drive to
emulate.
product_ID is the model number of a qualified tape drive that you want the nonqualified tape
drive to emulate.
Example
The following entry in the /etc/cloned_tapes file enables the storage system to treat the
nonqualified Quantum DLT9000 tape drive as a clone of the qualified Quantum DLT7000 tape
drive:
QUANTUM DLT9000 EMULATES QUANTUM DLT7000
9. Enter the following command:
Tape drive management | 49
sysconfig -t
The system reads the cloned_tapes file and puts emulation into effect. Verify that the new
device appears as an emulated device.
Related concepts
Qualified tape drives on page 44
What tape reservations are
Multiple storage systems can share access to tape drives, medium changers, bridges, or tape libraries.
Tape reservations ensure that only one storage system accesses a device at any particular time by
enabling either the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism or SCSI Persistent Reservations for all Fibre
Channel-attached tape drives, medium changers, bridges, and tape libraries.
Note: All of the systems that share devices in a Fibre Channel library, whether switches are
involved or not, must use the same reservation method.
The SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism for reserving devices works well under normal conditions.
However, during the interface error recovery procedures, the reservations can be lost. If this happens,
initiators other than the reserved owner can access the device.
Reservations made with SCSI Persistent Reservations are not affected by error recovery mechanisms,
such as loop reset; however, not all devices implement SCSI Persistent Reservations correctly.
Next topics
Enabling tape reservations on page 49
Disabling tape reservations on page 50
Enabling tape reservations
You can enable tape reservation using the options tape.reservations command. By default,
tape reservation is turned off.
Step
1. To use either the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism or SCSI Persistent Reservations, enter the
following command:
options tape.reservations {scsi | persistent}
scsi selects the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism.
persistent selects SCSI Persistent Reservations.
50 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Disabling tape reservations
Enabling the tape reservations option can cause problems if tape drives, medium changers, bridges,
or libraries do not work properly. If tape commands report that the device is reserved when no other
storage systems are using the device, this option should be disabled.
Step
1. To turn off tape reservations, enter the following command:
options tape.reservations off
NDMP management | 51
NDMP management
The Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) is a standardized protocol for controlling backup,
recovery, and other transfers of data between primary and secondary storage devices, such as storage
systems and tape libraries.
By enabling NDMP protocol support on a storage system, you enable that storage system to carry out
communications with NDMP-enabled commercial network-attached backup applications (also called
Data Management Applications or DMAs), data servers, and tape servers participating in backup or
recovery operations. NDMP also provides low-level control of tape devices and medium changers.
Next topics
What the advantages of NDMP are on page 51
What NDMP security is on page 52
How to manage NDMP on page 56
What NDMP debug messages are on page 60
Why you need to specify the NDMP version on page 62
NDMP extensions supported by Data ONTAP on page 63
Tape backup using NDMP services on page 64
What the advantages of NDMP are
Accessing data protection services through backup applications that support NDMP offers a number
of advantages.
•
•
•
•
•
NDMP backup applications provide sophisticated scheduling of data protection operations across
multiple storage systems.
They also provide media management and tape inventory management services to eliminate or
minimize manual tape handling during data protection operations.
NDMP backup applications support data cataloging services that simplify the process of locating
specific recovery data.
Direct access recovery (DAR) optimizes the access of specific data from large backup tape sets.
NDMP supports multiple topology configurations, allowing efficient sharing of secondary storage
(tape library) resources through the use of three-way network data connections.
NDMP backup applications typically provide user-friendly interfaces that simplify the
management of data protection services.
52 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
What NDMP security is
Data ONTAP provides features for preventing or monitoring unauthorized use of NDMP connections
to your storage system.
You can restrict the set of backup application hosts permitted to start NDMP sessions on a storage
system. You can specify the authentication method to use (text or challenge) in order to allow NDMP
requests. You can enable or disable monitoring of NDMP connection requests.
All non-root NDMP users on the root vFiler unit and all NDMP users on vFiler units are required to
use NDMP passwords that are distinct from the password of the user. This password can be
generated using the ndmpd password userid command.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.0, NDMP users must have the login-ndmp capability to be able to
successfully authenticate NDMP sessions. A predefined role named backup, by default, has the
login-ndmp capability. To provide a user with the login-ndmp capability, the backup role can be
assigned to the group to which the user belongs. However, when a group is assigned the backup role,
all users within the group get the login-ndmp capability. Therefore, it is best to group all NDMP
users in a single group that has the backup role.
Data ONTAP also generates an NDMP-specific password for administrators who do not have root
privilege on the target storage system.
Data ONTAP provides a set of commands that enable you to manage and monitor the security of
NDMP connections to the storage system.
The following are the commands that monitor the security of NDMP connections to storage systems.
•
•
•
•
•
The options ndmpd.access command enables you to restrict which hosts can run NDMP
sessions with the storage system.
The options ndmpd.authtype command enables you to specify the authentication method
(plaintext, challenge, or both) through which users are allowed to start NDMP sessions with the
storage system.
The options ndmpd.connectlog command allows you to enable or disable logging of NDMP
connections attempts with the storage system.
The options ndmpd.password_length command allows you specify an 8- or 16-character
NDMP password.
The ndmpd password command generates a secure NDMP password for administrators who do
not have root privileges on the storage system. This password allows them to carry out NDMP
operations through an NDMP-compliant backup application. For the NDMP password to be
generated, the NDMP user must have the login-ndmp capability.
Next topics
Specifying NDMP access by host or interface on page 53
Specifying the NDMP authentication type on page 53
NDMP management | 53
Enabling or disabling NDMP connection logging on page 54
Specifying the NDMP password length on page 55
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators on page 55
Specifying NDMP access by host or interface
You can use the options ndmpd.access command to specify the hosts or interfaces through
which NDMP sessions are permitted. Conversely, you can also specify hosts or interfaces to block
from NDMP sessions.
Steps
1. Start a console session on the storage system to which you want to restrict NDMP access.
2. Enter the following command:
options ndmpd.access {all|legacy|host[!]=hosts|if [!]interfaces}
all is the default value, which permits NDMP sessions with any host.
legacy restores previous values in effect before a Data ONTAP version upgrade.
Note: In the case of Data ONTAP 6.2, the legacy value is equal to all.
host=hosts is a parameter string that allows a specified host or a comma-separated list of hosts
to run NDMP sessions on this storage system. The hosts can be specified by either the host name
or by an IPv4 address.
host!=hosts is a parameter string that blocks a specified host or a comma-separated list of
hosts from running NDMP sessions on this storage system. The hosts can be specified by either
the host name or by an IPv4 address.
if=interfaces is a parameter string that allows NDMP sessions through a specified interface
or a comma-separated list of interfaces on this storage system.
if!=interfaces is a parameter string that blocks NDMP sessions through a specified interface
or a comma-separated list of interfaces on this storage system.
Specifying the NDMP authentication type
Data ONTAP supports two methods for authenticating NDMP access to a storage system: plaintext
and challenge. You can use the options ndmpd.authtype command to specify whether a storage
system will accept plaintext, challenge, or both to authenticate NDMP session requests.
Steps
1. Start a console session on the storage system whose NDMP authentication method you want to
specify.
2. Enter the following command:
54 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
options ndmpd.authtype {challenge|plaintext|plaintext,challenge}
challenge sets the challenge authentication method, generally the preferred and more secure
authentication method.
plaintext sets the plaintext authentication method, in which the login password is transmitted
as clear text.
plaintext,challenge sets both challenge and plaintext authentication methods.
Note: If you are carrying out NDMP operations through a backup application, the
authentication type or types you specify on this command line must include the types supported
by that backup application.
Enabling or disabling NDMP connection logging
Data ONTAP can log NDMP connection attempts in the /etc/messages file. These entries enable
an administrator to determine whether and when authorized or unauthorized individuals are
attempting to start NDMP sessions. The default is off.
Steps
1. Start a console session on the storage system on which you want to enable or disable NDMP
connection monitoring.
2. Enter the following command:
options ndmpd.connectlog.enabled {on|off}
Note: The value you set for this option will persist across storage system reboots.
3. If you want to check attempted NDMP connection activity, use your UNIX or Windows Admin
host to view your storage system’s /etc/messages file.
Entries recording attempted NDMP connections or operations will display the following fields:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Time
Thread
NDMP request and action (allow or refuse)
NDMP version
Session ID
Source IPv4 address (address from where the NDMP request originated)
Destination IPv4 address (address of the storage system receiving the NDMP request)
Source port (through which the NDMP request was transmitted)
Storage system port (through which the NDMP request was received)
NDMP management | 55
Example
Friday Sept 13:16:45:17GMT ndmpd.access allowed for version =4,
sessid=34, from src ip = 172.29.19.40, dst ip =172.29.19.95, src port
= 63793, dst port = 10000.
Specifying the NDMP password length
Administrators who have an account on a storage system but do not have root status on that storage
system must input a special NDMP-specific password when carrying out NDMP-related operations
on the storage system. This password is a system-generated string derived from that administrator’s
regular storage system account password.
About this task
The NDMP password can be either 8 or 16 characters long. The default value is 16 characters.
Step
1. To specify the NDMP password length, enter the following command on the storage system
console:
options ndmpd.password_length length
length is either 8 or 16. If you enter a value other than 8 or 16, the storage system prompts you
with the following message:
options ndmpd.password_length: Length must be either 8 or 16
Note: If this option is set to 8, all NDMP applications managing backups for the storage system
must use an 8-character password for authentication.
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators
An administrator without root privileges uses the NDMP-specific password for any NDMP backup
and restore operation that requires password input in either a backup application or CLI environment.
Steps
1. Start a console session on the storage system you want to access.
2. Enter the following command:
ndmpd password username
username is the user name of the administrator.
The system returns an 8- or 16- character string, depending on the password length set using the
ndmpd.password_length command. For example:
56 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
filer>ndmp password barbaraD
filer>ndmp password: QM12N%$cnaFWPBVe
You use this password in any current or future NDMP operation that requires password input.
Note: This NDMP-specific password is valid until you change the password to your regular
account.
3. If you change the password to your regular storage system account, repeat this procedure to
obtain your new system-generated NDMP-specific password.
How to manage NDMP
You can enable or disable NDMP services, specify a preferred network interface, turn off a data
connection specification, optimize performance, or terminate a session by using a set of ndmpd
commands. You can also view the status of NDMP sessions using the ndmpd command.
Next topics
Enabling and disabling NDMP services on page 56
Specifying a preferred network interface on page 57
Turning off a data connection specification on page 57
Displaying the general status information about NDMP sessions on page 58
Displaying detailed NDMP session information on page 58
Optimizing NDMP communication performance on page 59
Terminating an NDMP session on page 60
Enabling and disabling NDMP services
Enabling NDMP service on your storage system allows NDMP-compliant data protection
applications to communicate with the storage system.
Step
1. To enable or disable NDMP service, enter the following command:
ndmpd {on|off}
Use on to enable NDMP.
Use off to disable NDMP.
After you disable the NDMP service, the storage system continues processing all requests on
already established sessions, but rejects new sessions.
Note: This setting is persistent across reboots.
NDMP management | 57
Specifying a preferred network interface
You can specify the preferred storage system network interface to be used when establishing an
NDMP data connection to another storage system.
About this task
By default, an NDMP data connection uses the same network interface as the NDMP control
connection established by the NDMP backup application. However, to establish a data connection
between NDMP-enabled storage systems over an alternate network, you need to specify the storage
system’s interface through which the alternate network will be accessed.
For example, a UNIX or NT resident NDMP backup application and multiple storage systems can be
interconnected through a corporate network. The same storage systems can also be interconnected
through an isolated private network. To minimize load on the corporate network, the options
ndmpd.preferred_interface command can be used to direct all NDMP data connections over
the isolated private network.
Step
1. To specify the preferred network interface to be used for NDMP data connections, enter the
following command:
options ndmpd.preferred_interface interface
interface identifies the network interface to be used for all NDMP data connections. Any
network interface providing TCP/IP access can be specified. If no parameter is specified, the
command returns the name of the interface currently configured for data connections. If no
interface is currently set, it reports disable.
You can find the available network interfaces by using the ifconfig -a command.
Note: The preferred network interfaces that are set using the options
ndmpd.preferred_interface command are persistent across storage system reboots.
Turning off a data connection specification
You can disable a preferred network interface specification and force the NDMP default interface to
be used for data connections.
Step
1. To disable a preferred network interface specification and force the NDMP default interface to be
used for data connections, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.preferred_interface disable
Note: The default value is disable.
58 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Displaying the general status information about NDMP sessions
You can view the general status information to determine whether the NDMP session is operating as
expected.
Step
1. To display general NDMP status information, enter the following command:
ndmpd status [session]
session is the specific session number for which you want the status. To display the status of all
current sessions, do not enter any value for session.
Example
In the following example, the command displays information about session 4:
filerA> ndmpd status 4
ndmpd ON.
Session: 4
Active
version:
3
Operating on behalf of primary host.
tape device:
not open
mover state:
Idle
data state:
Idle
data operation: None
Displaying detailed NDMP session information
You can view detailed NDMP session information to help you debug errors encountered during an
NDMP session.
Step
1. To display detailed NDMP session information, enter the following command:
ndmpd probe [session]
session is the number of the session you want to probe. To display the detailed information
about all sessions, do not enter any value for session.
Example of detailed status information
In the following example, the command shows a detailed status of session 4:
filerA> ndmpd probe 4
ndmpd ON.
Session: 4
isActive:
TRUE
NDMP management | 59
protocol version:
3
effHost:
Local
authorized:
FALSE
client addr:
10.10.10.12.47154
spt.device_id:
none
spt.ha:
-1
spt.scsi_id:
-1
spt.scsi_lun:
-1
tape.device:
rst0a
tape.mode:
Read/Write
mover.state:
Active
mover.mode:
Read
mover.pauseReason
N/A
mover.haltReason
N/A
mover.recordSize:
10240
mover.recordNum:
315620
mover.dataWritten:
3231948800
mover.seekPosition:
0
mover.bytesLeftToRead: 0
mover.windowOffset:
0
mover.windowLength:
-1
mover.position:
0
mover.connect.addr_type:LOCAL
data.operation:
Backup
data.state:
Active
data.haltReason:
N/A
data.connect.addr_type: LOCAL
data.bytesProcessed:
3231989760
Optimizing NDMP communication performance
You can optimize the performance of the NDMP socket through which the storage system
communicates with the DMA.
About this task
You can optimize performance for either minimal transmission delay or throughput. By default, the
performance is optimized for overall throughput, in which the packets are grouped in time blocks of
200 ms. If the communication performance is optimized for minimal transmission delay, the queued
packets are sent immediately.
Step
1. To optimize NDMP communication performance, enter the following command:
options ndmp.tcpnodelay.enable {on|off}
on optimizes for minimal transmission delay.
off optimizes for overall throughput.
60 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Terminating an NDMP session
If an NDMP session is not responding, you can terminate it using the ndmpd kill command. The
ndmp kill command allows nonresponding sessions to be cleared without the need for a reboot.
Step
1. To terminate an NDMP session, enter the following command:
ndmpd kill session
session is the specific NDMP session you want to terminate.
Note: If you want to terminate all NDMP sessions, use the ndmpd killall command.
What NDMP debug messages are
NDMP debug messages provide a detailed description of all active NDMP sessions. The amount of
information displayed by a debug message is determined by the ndmpd debug level specified by the
user. By default, debug messages are disabled.
Debug messages can be output to the storage system console, the NDMP session log file, or both.
The ndmpd debug command is used to specify where debug messages will be output. By default,
debug messages are output to both the storage system console and the NDMP session log.
The NDMP session log files are stored in the /etc/log directory. The file name is
ndmpdlog.yyyymmdd, where yyyy is the year, mm is the month, and dd is the date. For example, the
session log file generated on December 5, 2008, is named ndmpdlog.20081205. The session log
file can contain information about one or more NDMP sessions.
If multiple NDMP sessions take place on the same day, Data ONTAP saves the information about all
sessions to the same session log file. Before generating a fresh NDMP session log file, Data ONTAP
deletes all files more than eight days old. Data ONTAP keeps a maximum of eight session log files:
one each for the previous seven days and the current day.
Next topics
Enabling the NDMP debug log messages on page 61
Displaying the NDMP debug log level on page 61
Changing NDMP debug log messages on page 62
Displaying an NDMP session log file on page 62
NDMP management | 61
Enabling the NDMP debug log messages
To update the NDMP session log files stored in the /etc/log directory, you have to enable the
NDMP debug logging.
Step
1. To enable NDMP debug logging, enter the following command:
ndmpd debug n
n specifies the debug level from 0 to 70. To turn off the debug messages, use 0. To turn on the
debug messages, use a nonzero value. The default level is 0.
The following list describes the debug levels that are supported:
10 Displays connections being made and connections being closed.
30 Displays information regarding the actual NDMP messages such as the message type,
sequence numbers, and timestamps. This level also prints out the NDMP errors and some of
the relevant fields of the NDMP message.
50 Same as level 30, but includes the display of environment variables as well as any
exceptions issued by the NDMP server implementation.
70 Same as level 50, but includes the display of tape and SCSI command descriptor blocks
(CDBs) sent.
Note: CDBs are used for low-level tape and medium changer control.
Displaying the NDMP debug log level
You can display the currently set NDMP debug levels using the ndmpd debug command.
Step
1. To see the NDMP debug levels currently set, enter the following command:
ndmpd debug
The current NDMP debug level and toggles are displayed.
Example
filerA> ndmpd debug
ndmpd debug verbose: 0
ndmpd debug stack trace: false
ndmpd debug screen trace: true
ndmpd debug file trace: true
62 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Changing NDMP debug log messages
You can use the ndmp debug command to display the debug messages on the storage system
console, to write the debug messages into the NDMP debug log file, or to print stack traces for any
exceptions issued by the NDMP server implementation.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
ndmpd {debug stack|screen|file}
stack toggles stack trace printouts on or off.
screen toggles printouts to the storage system console on or off.
file toggles printouts to the NDMP log file on or off.
Displaying an NDMP session log file
You can display an NDMP session log file from a UNIX environment or an NT environment.
Step
1. Depending on your operating system, choose one of the following methods of displaying an
NDMP session log file:
•
•
In a UNIX environment, mount the root volume of the storage system to a UNIX client and
view the contents of the NDMP session log file using the cat or more UNIX commands or a
text editor.
In an NT environment, map the root volume of the storage system to the NT system and view
the contents of the NDMP session log file using WordPad, Notepad, or an equivalent textviewing application.
Why you need to specify the NDMP version
Data ONTAP provides full support for NDMP versions 2, 3, and 4. Data ONTAP is shipped with the
NDMP version set to 4, as both the default version and the maximum version. The storage system
and the backup application must agree on a version of NDMP to be used for each NDMP session.
When the backup application connects to the storage system, the storage system sends the default
version back. The application can choose to use that default version and continue with the session.
However, if the backup application uses an earlier version, it begins version negotiation, asking if
each version is supported, to which the storage system responds with a yes or a no.
NDMP management | 63
Next topics
Displaying the NDMP version on page 63
Specifying the NDMP version on page 63
Displaying the NDMP version
The ndmp version command displays the highest version of NDMP that the storage system is
currently set to use.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
ndmpd version
The highest version that NDMP currently allows to be used is displayed.
Specifying the NDMP version
You can use the ndmpd version command to control the highest and default NDMP version
allowed.
About this task
If you know that your backup application does not support NDMP version 4 and does not negotiate
versions, you can use this command to specify the highest version that Data ONTAP supports, so that
the application can operate correctly.
The NDMP version that is set using the ndmpd version command is persistent across storage
system reboots.
Step
1. To specify the NDMP version you want, enter the following command:
ndmpd version n
n is the version you want to specify. The options available are 2, 3, and 4. The default highest
version is 4.
NDMP extensions supported by Data ONTAP
NDMP version 4 provides a mechanism for creating NDMP v4 protocol extensions without requiring
modifications to the core NDMP v4 protocol.
Following are some of the NDMP v4 extensions supported by Data ONTAP:
•
Restartable backup. This extension not supported by SMTape.
64 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
•
SnapVault management
SnapMirror management
Snapshot extension
To benefit from these NDMP v4 extensions, the NDMP backup applications must support these
extensions.
Related information
http://www.ndmp.org/
Tape backup using NDMP services
You can use NDMP-enabled commercial backup applications to perform network-based tape backup
and recovery.
Next topics
Common NDMP tape backup topologies on page 64
Considerations when using NDMP on page 65
Tape devices and configurations you can use with the storage system on page 66
Preparing for basic NDMP backup application management on page 67
What environment variables do on page 68
Common NDMP tape backup topologies
NDMP supports a number of topologies and configurations between backup applications and storage
systems or other NDMP servers providing data (file systems) and tape services.
Storage system-to-local-tape
In the simplest configuration, a backup application backs up data from a storage system to a tape
subsystem attached to the storage system. The NDMP control connection exists across the network
boundary. The NDMP data connection that exists within the storage system between the data and
tape services is called an NDMP local configuration.
Storage system-to-tape attached to another storage system
A backup application can also back up data from a storage system to a tape library (a medium
changer with one or more tape drives) attached to another storage system. In this case, the NDMP
data connection between the data and tape services is provided by a TCP/IP network connection.
This is called an NDMP three-way storage system-to-storage system configuration.
NDMP management | 65
Storage system-to-network attached tape library
NDMP-enabled tape libraries provide a variation of the three-way configuration. In this case, the tape
library attaches directly to the TCP/IP network and communicates with the backup application and
the storage system through an internal NDMP server.
Storage system-to-data server-to-tape (or data server-to-storage system-to-tape)
NDMP also supports storage system-to-data-server and data-server-to-storage system three-way
configurations, although these variants are less widely deployed. Storage system-to-server allows
storage system data to be backed up to a tape library attached to the backup application host or to
another data server system. The server-to-storage system configuration allows server data to be
backed up to a storage system-attached tape library.
Considerations when using NDMP
You have to take into account a list of considerations when starting the NDMP service on your
storage system.
•
•
•
•
Data ONTAP supports a maximum of 16 concurrent backups, restores, or both on a local tape
drive.
This includes backups initiated by NDMP as well as by the storage system’s dump, restore, and
smtape commands.
However, a storage system supports a maximum of 32 dump or restore sessions and 32 smtape
sessions.
NDMP supports a maximum of 128 concurrent sessions on NearStore and 40 on other systems.
NDMP backup applications require specification of a target system password.
To enable successful authentication by NDMP services on the storage system, you must use
either the storage system’s root password or a system-generated NDMP-specific password (to
authenticate a non-root user or administrator).
NDMP services can generate file history data at the request of NDMP backup applications.
File history is used by backup applications to enable optimized recovery of selected subsets of
data from a backup image. File history generation and processing might be time-consuming and
CPU-intensive for both the storage system and the backup application.
Note: SMTape does not support file history.
If your data protection needs are limited to disaster recovery, where the entire backup image will
be recovered, you can disable file history generation to reduce backup time. See your backup
application documentation to determine if it is possible to disable NDMP file history generation.
Note: When your data protection needs are limited to disaster recovery, it is recommended that
you use SMTape to back up data.
66 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Tape devices and configurations you can use with the storage system
You can use different types of tape devices and configurations on your storage system.
The storage system can read from or write to these devices when using NDMP:
•
•
•
•
Stand-alone tape drives or tapes within a tape library attached to the storage system
Tape drives or tape libraries attached to the workstation that runs the backup application
Tape drives or tape libraries attached to a workstation or storage system on your network
NDMP-enabled tape libraries attached to your network
When you use NDMP to back up the storage system to attached tape libraries, you need to set the
tape library autoload setting to Off. If the autoload setting is On, the storage system uses the tape
library the same way it uses a stand-alone tape drive and does not allow medium changer operations
to be controlled by the NDMP backup application.
Naming conventions for tape libraries
Historically, the following names were always used to refer to tape libraries:
•
•
mcn or /dev/mcn
sptn or /dev/sptn
In a specific tape library name, n is a number. For example, mc0, spt0, /dev/mc0, and /dev/spt0 all
refer to the same library.
Now, tape libraries can also be aliased to WWNs.
To view the tape libraries recognized by your system, use the sysconfig -m command on the
storage system console. To see what names are currently assigned to any libraries, use the storage
show mc command on the storage system. Tape aliasing is also used to refer to tape drives, and you
can see the aliases of tape drives using the storage show tape command.
Examples
The following is an example of an output from the storage show mc command:
filerA> storage show mc
Media Changer:
2.3
Description:
SPECTRA 10000
Serial Number:
7030290500
World Wide Name:
WWN[2:000:0090a5:00011c]
Alias Name(s):
mc0
Device State:
available (does not support reservations)
NDMP management | 67
Preparing for basic NDMP backup application management
To enable a storage system for basic management by a commercial NDMP backup application, you
must enable the storage system’s NDMP support and specify the backup application’s configured
NDMP version, host IP address, and authentication method.
About this task
If an operator without root privileges to the storage system is using a backup application, that user
must use a storage system-generated NDMP-specific password to carry out backup operations on that
storage system.
Steps
1. To enable NDMP, enter the following command at the console command line of the target
storage system:
ndmpd on
2. To specify the NDMP version to support on your storage system, enter the following command:
ndmpd version {2|3|4}
Note: The version must match the version configured for your NDMP backup application.
3. To specify a restricted set of NDMP backup application hosts that can connect to the storage
system, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.access hosts
hosts is a comma-separated list of host names or IP addresses of nodes permitted to start NDMP
sessions with the storage system.
Note: By default, all hosts have NDMP access.
4. Specify the authentication type (plaintext, challenge, or plaintext and challenge) required for an
NDMP connection to this storage system. For example:
options ndmpd authtype plaintext,challenge
This setting must include the authentication type supported by the NDMP backup application.
Note: The challenge authentication type is the default for this option.
5. If operators without root privilege on the storage system are carrying out tape backup operations
through the NDMP backup application, make sure they have a user administration account on the
storage system.
a. If the operator does not have a user administration account on the storage system, enter the
following command:
useradmin useradd username
68 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
b. If you want to know the system-generated NDMP-specific password, enter the following
command:
ndmpd password username
Use this user name and password to connect to the storage system to carry out NDMP backup and
restore operations.
Related tasks
Enabling and disabling NDMP services on page 56
Specifying a preferred network interface on page 57
Specifying NDMP access by host or interface on page 53
Specifying the NDMP authentication type on page 53
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators on page 55
What environment variables do
Environment variables are used to communicate information about a backup or restore operation
between an NDMP-enabled backup application and a storage system.
For example, if a user specifies that a backup application should back up /vol/vol0/etc, the
backup application sets the FILESYSTEM environment variable to /vol/vol0/etc. Similarly, if a
user specifies that a backup should be a level 1 backup, the backup application sets the LEVEL
environment variable to 1 (one).
Note: The setting and examining of environment variables are typically transparent to backup
administrators; that is, the backup application sets them automatically.
A backup administrator rarely specifies environment variables; however, you might want to change
the value of an environment variable from that set by the backup application to characterize or work
around a functional or performance problem. For example, an administrator might want to
temporarily disable file history generation to determine if the backup application's processing of file
history information is contributing to performance issues or functional problems.
Many backup applications provide a means to override or modify environment variables or to specify
additional environment variables. For information, see your backup application documentation.
Related concepts
Environment variables supported for dump on page 82
Environment variables supported for SMTape on page 137
Data backup using the dump engine | 69
Data backup using the dump engine
Dump is a Snapshot copy-based backup and recovery solution from Data ONTAP that helps you to
back up files and directories from a Snapshot copy to a tape device and restore the backed up data to
a storage system.
You can back up your file system data, such as directories, files, and their associated security settings
to a tape device by using the dump backup. You can backup an entire volume, an entire qtree, or a
subtree that is neither an entire volume nor an entire qtree.
You can perform a dump backup or restore by using NDMP-compliant backup applications or by
using the Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode dump and restore CLI commands.
When you perform a dump backup, you can specify the Snapshot copy to be used for a backup. If
you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, a base Snapshot copy is created for the backup.
You can perform level-0, incremental, or differential backups to tape by using the dump engine.
Next topics
How a dump backup works on page 70
What the dump engine backs up on page 70
What increment chains are on page 71
How to specify tape devices for the backup on page 73
What the /etc/dumpdates file is on page 73
What the blocking factor is on page 74
How to use the dump backup on page 75
Considerations before using the dump backup on page 77
When to restart a dump backup on page 78
How a dump restore works on page 79
What the dump engine restores on page 79
Considerations before restoring data on page 80
How to prepare the destination for a dump restore on page 81
How to perform a dump backup and restore using NDMP services on page 81
How to perform a dump backup using the CLI on page 96
How to perform a dump restore using the CLI on page 117
70 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
How a dump backup works
A dump backup writes file system data from disk to tape using a predefined process. It is optimized
for data restoration to a storage system using the dump restore.
You can back up an entire volume, an entire qtree, or a subtree that is neither an entire volume nor an
entire qtree.
The following table describes the process that Data ONTAP uses to back up the object indicated by
the dump path.
Stage Action
1
For less than full volume or full qtree backups, Data ONTAP traverses directories to
identify the files to be backed up. If you are backing up an entire volume or qtree, Data
ONTAP combines this stage with Stage 2.
2
For a full volume or full qtree backup, Data ONTAP identifies the directories in the
volumes or qtrees to be backed up.
3
Data ONTAP writes the directories to tape.
4
Data ONTAP writes the files to tape.
5
Data ONTAP writes the ACL information (if applicable) to tape.
The dump backup uses a Snapshot copy of your data for the backup. Therefore, you do not have to
take the storage system or volume offline before initiating the backup.
The dump backup names each Snapshot copy it creates as snapshot_for_backup.n, where n is an
integer starting at 0. Each time the dump backup creates a Snapshot copy, it increments the integer by
1. The storage system resets the integer to 0 when it is rebooted.
When Data ONTAP performs multiple dump backups simultaneously, the dump engine creates
multiple Snapshot copies. For example, if Data ONTAP is running two dump backups
simultaneously, you find the following Snapshot copies in the volumes from which data is being
backed up: snapshot_for_backup.0 and snapshot_for_backup.1
Note: When you are backing up from a Snapshot copy, the dump engine does not create an
additional Snapshot copy.
What the dump engine backs up
The dump engine can back up a file, directory, qtree, or an entire volume to a tape.
In addition to backing up data in files, the dump engine can back up the following information about
each file, as applicable:
Data backup using the dump engine | 71
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
UNIX GID, owner UID, and file permissions
UNIX access, creation, and modification time
File type
File size
DOS name, DOS attributes, and creation time
Access Control Lists (ACLs)
Qtree information
LUN and LUN clones
You can back up only an entire LUN object; you cannot back up a single file within the LUN
object. Similarly, you can restore an entire LUN object but not a single file within the LUN.
Note: The dump engine backs up LUN clones as independent LUNs.
When you back up data to tape, the dump command does not back up the LUN clones that are
inconsistent. For all other LUN clones, the dump command locks their backing Snapshot copies to
ensure that they do not become inconsistent during the backup.
When you back up a qtree SnapMirror destination to tape, only the data on the qtree is backed up.
The associated metadata is not backed up. Therefore, when you try to restore the qtree, only the data
on that qtree is restored. Information about the qtree SnapMirror relationships is not available in the
backup and therefore is not restored.
If you dump a file that has only Windows NT permissions and restore it to a UNIX-style qtree or
volume, the file gets the default UNIX permissions for that qtree or volume.
If you dump a file that has only UNIX permissions and restore it to an NTFS-style qtree or volume,
the file gets the default Windows permissions for that qtree or volume.
Other dumps and restores preserve permissions.
What increment chains are
An increment chain consists of a series of incremental backups of the same path. Because you can
specify any level of backup at any time, you must understand increment chains to be able to perform
backups and restores effectively.
There are two types of increment chains:
•
•
A consecutive increment chain is a sequence of incremental backups that starts with level 0 and is
raised by 1.
A nonconsecutive increment chain is one in which incremental backups skip levels or have levels
that are out of sequence, such as 0, 2, 3, 1, 4, or more commonly, 0,1,1,1 or 0,1,2,1,2.
Incremental backups base themselves on the most recent lower-level backup. For example, the
sequence of backup levels 0, 2, 3, 1, 4 gives two increment chains: 0, 2, 3 and 0, 1, 4. The following
table explains the bases of the incremental backups.
72 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Back-up Increment
order
level
Increment
chain
Base
Files backed up
1
0
Both
Files on the storage
system
All files in the back up
path
2
2
0, 2, 3
The level-0 backup
Files in the backup path
created since the level-0
backup
3
3
0, 2, 3
The level-2 backup
Files in the backup path
created since the level-2
backup
4
1
0, 1, 4
The level-0 backup,
because that is the most
recent level that is lower
than the level-1 backup
Files in the backup path
created since the level-0
backup, including files that
are in the level-2 and
level-3 backups
5
4
0, 1, 4
The level-1 backup,
because it is both of a
lower level and more
recent than the level-0,
level-2, or level-3
backups
Files created since the
level-1 backup
An incremental backup has certain limitations:
•
During an incremental backup, the dump command backs up only files that have a timestamp later
than the backup timestamp stored in the /etc/dumpdates file or the BASE_DATE environment
variable.
Dump is a timestamp-based backup. During an incremental backup, the dump command
determines the changed or modified files since the previous backup, using the timestamp stored in
the /etc/dumpdates file or in the BASE_DATE environment variable. In Data ONTAP, there
can be instances where files are replaced with their earlier version, for example, when using
snapmirror resync and snap restore.
•
If you attempt an incremental backup of a volume SnapMirror destination after breaking the
SnapMirror relationships, you might lose data.
In these cases, you must perform a level-0 backup instead.
Data backup using the dump engine | 73
How to specify tape devices for the backup
You must specify at least one tape device to do a backup. If you specify more than one tape device,
each tape device in the list is used in the order listed to write a tape file.
You can specify two types of tape devices: local and remote.
If the backup requires more tape devices than the number specified, the last tape device is used for all
remaining tape files.
Attention: If you specify more than one rewind device on the same tape drive, the storage system
displays a warning and terminates the dump command.
Note that the storage system device names might not be valid on remote tape drive hosts. For tape
drives attached to remote hosts, use tape device names that follow the host naming conventions.
What the /etc/dumpdates file is
The /etc/dumpdates file enables you to keep track of backups.
It records the following information:
•
The name of the backup, which can be one of the following:
•
•
If you use the n option, the name you supply
If you use the Q option, the volume you are backing up followed by the notation /
all_non_quota_files
•
•
• If you use neither, the dump path
The level of the backup
The time of the Snapshot copy used for the backup
Reasons to update the /etc/dumpdates file
You update the /etc/dumpdates file for the following reasons:
•
•
You plan to perform incremental backups. The storage system uses the data in the /etc/
dumpdates file to determine what to include in incremental backups.
You want to keep the history of a backup.
Principles applying to the /etc/dumpdates file
The following principles apply to the /etc/dumpdates file:
•
If the /etc/dumpdates file does not exist when you try to update it, the storage system creates
it.
74 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
You can edit the /etc/dumpdates file manually, if needed.
A new backup of the same path and level overwrites the old entry.
Example
An /etc/dumpdates file lists one backup per line. Each line contains the name of the
backup, followed by the level of the backup, then the date of the backup.
/vol/vol1/ 0 Tue Jul 24 22:07:48 2001
/vol/vol0/ 0 Tue Jul 24 21:06:53 2001
/vol/vol0/etc 0 Tue Jul 24 19:06:15 2001
my_named_dump 0 Tue Jul 24 20:40:09 2001
/vol/vol0/all_non_quota_files 0 Tue Jul 24 20:54:06 2001
/vol/vol0/home 0 Tue Jul 24 21:06:39 2001
/vol/vol1/ 1 Tue Jul 24 22:08:09 2001
/vol/vol1/ 2 Tue Jul 24 22:08:20 2001
my_named_dump 1 Tue Jul 24 22:12:26 2001
/vol/vol0/home 5 Tue Jul 24 22:12:45 2001
What the blocking factor is
A tape block is 1,024 bytes of data. During a tape backup or restore, you can specify the number of
tape blocks that are transferred in each read/write operation. This number is called the blocking
factor.
Data ONTAP 8.0 supports a blocking factor between the range of 4 KB to 256 KB. The default
blocking factor is 63 KB.
On a remote host that is not a storage system, you can use a blocking factor from 4 through 256,
provided that the host supports the blocking factor that you select.
If you plan to restore a backup to a system other than the system that did the backup, the restore
system must support the blocking factor that you used for the backup. For example, if you use a
blocking factor of 128, the system on which you restore that backup must support a blocking factor
of 128.
During an NDMP backup, the MOVER_RECORD_SIZE determines the blocking factor. Data
ONTAP allows a maximum value of 256 KB for MOVER_RECORD_SIZE.
Related information
http://www.ndmp.org/
Data backup using the dump engine | 75
How to use the dump backup
To use the dump engine for a successful backup, you have to follow certain recommendations.
To reduce the risk of encountering an error that requires restarting the dump backup, avoid backing
up too much data in a single dump backup.
However, if the dump backup encounters an error, you might be able to correct the error and proceed
from the point where the backup operation terminated.
If the storage system console appears to be hung during a backup, it is because a backup can take a
long time. The console becomes responsive and the prompt returns when the backup is completed.
If you suspect that a backup might have errors, you should verify the backup by performing a test
restore.
Next topics
How to minimize backup time and data loss on page 75
How to decrease tape backup time on page 76
How to minimize the number of tape drives on page 76
What to label on the backup tapes on page 76
Related tasks
Specifying a test restore on page 132
How to minimize backup time and data loss
You can minimize both the time required to perform a backup and the possibility of data loss by
following certain guidelines.
The shorter the time for the dump backup to finish, the more incremental backups you can perform.
Follow these guidelines to minimize the backup time and data loss:
•
Perform frequent incremental backups to minimize the amount of unrecoverable data in case of
errors.
Note: There is a disadvantage to having a large number of incremental backups. When you
restore data, you must restore from all the incremental backup tapes, which requires running
multiple restores and manipulating multiple tape sets.
•
•
Use local tape drives.
The storage system can write faster to a local tape drive than to a tape drive attached to a remote
system.
Organize data to be backed up.
The dump backup runs faster if the dump path specifies one of the following:
•
A full volume
76 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
Full qtrees
A full volume excluding qtrees
How to decrease tape backup time
You can decrease the tape backup time in various ways.
Follow these guidelines to decrease tape backup time:
•
•
•
•
•
Divide large volumes into smaller volumes or qtrees.
For example, if you divide a 500-GB volume into three qtrees, you can back up each qtree to a
separate tape drive or run separate full backups on three different nights.
Limit the amount of data in a volume or qtree to be backed up to 200 GB.
Schedule the backups in appropriate rotations.
Schedule backups when the load on the storage system is moderate.
Do not divide a backup into more than 15 qtrees.
How to minimize the number of tape drives
Data ONTAP supports the RMT protocol and therefore several storage systems can share the same
tape drive. You can minimize the number of such shared tape drives.
Attach the tape drive to the storage system with the most data to back up. Follow these guidelines if
multiple storage systems back up to the same tape drive:
•
•
Use a private network for the backup so that the traffic load on the network does not slow down
the backup process.
Schedule the dump backup on each storage system so that it starts only when no other storage
systems are using the tape drive.
What to label on the backup tapes
For ease of use during a restore, you must label the backup tapes with certain information.
You have to label the backup tapes with the following information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The dump path of each backup on a tape
The level of each backup on a tape
The date of each backup
The blocking factor
This must match for backups and restores.
Tape file contents of a multifile tape
A brief description of the contents of each tape file on a multifile tape helps you locate a desired
tape file for restoring.
The sequence of tape files on a multifile tape
Data backup using the dump engine | 77
•
This enables you to specify which file to restore. To specify a tape file, you must know the
location of the tape file in the sequence of tape files.
The Data ONTAP version of each backup
Considerations before using the dump backup
Before backing up data using the dump command, you must have a clear idea of how much data you
will be backing up and how many tapes you will need to store the data.
Next topics
Determining the amount of backup data on page 77
Estimating the number of tapes for the backup on page 77
Determining the amount of backup data
Before you enter the dump command, it is helpful to estimate the amount of backup data so that you
can determine the number of tape files and the number of tapes required for the backup.
Step
1. For each item that you want to back up, enter the following command:
df path_name
path_name is the name of the path.
Note: For multiple items, such as multiple volumes, add the data for each item to determine the
total amount of data to be backed up.
Estimating the number of tapes for the backup
You must estimate the number of tapes required for the backup before executing the dump command.
This estimate helps you to ensure that the dump command does not fail because it runs out of tapes. It
also helps you to load the required number of tapes in the tape drives or libraries in advance for an
unattended backup.
About this task
If you initiate the dump command from the console and have not loaded enough tapes, Data ONTAP
prompts you to load additional tapes. However, if you initiate the dump command from a Remote
Shell connection and have not loaded enough tapes, you do not see the prompts from Data ONTAP
and the dump command terminates.
78 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Steps
1. Determine the capacity of the tape device you are using for the backup by entering the following
command:
sysconfig -t
2. Determine the amount of data to be backed up.
3. Divide the amount of data by the capacity of the tape.
4. If your estimate indicates that your data will nearly fill the last tape, add a tape to the estimate.
This avoids a backup failure if the backup exceeds your estimate. This is especially important
when using compression, because compression rates vary based on the data.
Related tasks
Determining the amount of backup data on page 77
When to restart a dump backup
A dump backup sometimes does not finish because of internal or external errors, such as tape write
errors, power outages, accidental user interruptions, or internal inconsistency on the storage system.
If your backup fails for one of these reasons, you can restart it.
You can choose to interrupt and restart a backup to avoid periods of heavy traffic on the storage
system or to avoid competition for other limited resources on the storage system, such as a tape drive.
You can interrupt a long backup and restart it later if a more urgent restore (or backup) requires the
same tape drive. Restartable backups persist across reboots.
Starting with Data ONTAP 7.2.3, you can restart dumps of volumes containing qtree SnapMirror
destinations.
Dumps of volumes containing qtree SnapMirror destinations read data from multiple Snapshot copies
and write them onto a tape. When such a dump operation is aborted and left in a restartable state, the
associated Snapshot copies are locked. These Snapshot copies are released after the backup context is
deleted. To view the list of locked Snapshot copies, run the backup status command.
Example
filer> backup status
2
State: RESTARTABLE
Type:
ndmp
Path: /vol/vol1
Level:
0
Snapshot: filer(0101184236)_vol1_filer_svp-dst.0
Snapshot: snapshot_for_backup.9 [Dec 27 00:41]
Options:
b=63, X
Devices:
[none]
Data backup using the dump engine | 79
Completed:
1 tapefile(s)
Last Update: Thu Dec 27 00:41:23 2007
The backup status output provides the following information:
State
The state of the dump: ACTIVE or RESTARTABLE.
Type
The type of invocation of dump: CLI or NDMP.
Path
The dump path.
Level
The level of the dump (0 through 9).
Snapshot
The Snapshot copies of the path that is being backed up.
Options
All the options specified for the backup and their respective parameters.
Devices
The current device to which the dump is writing.
Completed
The number tape files that have already been copied.
Last Update
The time and date of the last completed update.
Related tasks
Restarting a dump command backup on page 116
How a dump restore works
A dump restore writes file system data from tape to disk using a predefined process.
The process in the following table shows how the dump restore works.
Stage Action
1
Data ONTAP catalogs the files that need to be extracted from the tape.
2
Data ONTAP creates directories and empty files.
3
Data ONTAP reads a file from tape, writes it to disk, and sets the permissions (including
ACLs) on it.
4
Data ONTAP repeats stages 2 and 3 until all the specified files are copied from the tape.
What the dump engine restores
The dump engine enables you to recover all the information that you backed up.
The dump engine can recover the following data:
80 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
•
Contents of files and directories
UNIX file permissions
ACLs
If you restore a file that has only UNIX file permissions into an NTFS qtree or volume, the file
has no Windows NT ACLs. The storage system uses only the UNIX file permissions on this file
until you create a Windows NT ACL on it.
Attention: Data ONTAP 7.3 and later releases support more than 192 Access Control Entries
(ACEs) per ACL, whereas earlier versions support only a maximum of 192. Therefore, any
data migration from Data ONTAP 7.3 or later releases to an earlier release will result in loss of
ACLs.
•
•
•
•
Qtree information
Qtree information is used only if a qtree is restored to the root of a volume. Qtree information is
not used if a qtree is restored to a lower directory, such as /vol/vol0/subdir/lowerdir, and
it ceases to be a qtree.
All other file and directory attributes
Windows NT streams
LUNs
A LUN must be restored to a volume level or a qtree level for it to remain as a LUN. If it is
restored to a directory, it is restored as a file because it does not contain any valid metadata.
You can restore data from previous versions of Data ONTAP using the dump engine. If you want to
perform an incremental restore to a storage system running Data ONTAP 6.2 or later using data
backed up from a storage system running a version of Data ONTAP earlier than 6.2, you can do one
of the following:
•
•
Perform a level 0 restore and incremental restores before you upgrade to Data ONTAP 6.2 or
later.
Perform a level 0 restore and incremental restores after you upgrade to Data ONTAP 6.2 or later.
Performing a level 0 restore, upgrading Data ONTAP software, and then performing incremental
restores will not restore the incremental backups because the data is in a different format from the
level 0 restore. In such a case, you have to repeat the level 0 restore before you can restore
incremental backups.
Considerations before restoring data
Before performing a dump restore, you need to ensure that you have the required information and
prepare the destination for the restore.
Before restoring data, you must have the following information:
•
•
•
The level of the restore
The tape device you used for each tape file in the backup that you are restoring
The path into which you are restoring the material
Data backup using the dump engine | 81
•
The blocking factor used during the backup
Required tape drives and tapes
You must meet the following requirements for the restore operation to be successful:
•
•
If you are doing an incremental restore, you require all the tapes in the backup chain.
You require a tape drive that is available and compatible with the tape to be restored from.
Required space on the destination storage system
You need about 100 MB more space on the destination storage system than the amount of data to be
restored.
Attention: The restore operation will not start if there are insufficient inodes and space available.
If you use the F option to force a restore to occur, the restore operation will fill up the available
space and then abort.
How to prepare the destination for a dump restore
If you are restoring the backup to its original path, you do not need to prepare the target volume,
qtree, or subtree. If you are restoring the backup to a different destination, you must prepare the
location.
If you are restoring a volume, you must create a new volume. If you are restoring a qtree or a
directory, you must rename or move files that are likely to have the same names as files you are
restoring.
Attention: If a restored file has the same name as an existing file, the existing file is overwritten
by the restored file. However, the directories are not overwritten.
How to perform a dump backup and restore using NDMP
services
You can perform a dump backup or restore by using NDMP-compliant backup applications.
Data ONTAP provides a set of environment variables that enable you to perform a tape backup and
restore using NDMP services. The dump engine-based restore using NDMP also supports enhanced
direct access recovery (DAR), which enables directory DAR and DAR of files with NT streams.
You can also transfer file system data between storage systems by using the ndmpcopy command.
Next topics
Environment variables supported for dump on page 82
Enabling or disabling enhanced DAR functionality on page 91
82 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
What the ndmpcopy command does on page 92
Displaying file history statistics on page 95
Environment variables supported for dump
Data ONTAP supports environment variables for dump, which have an associated default value.
However, you can manually modify these default values.
If you manually modify the values set by the backup application, the application might behave
unpredictably. This is because the dump or restore operations might not be doing what the backup
application expected them to do. But in some cases, judicious modifications might help in identifying
or working around problems.
The following table contains descriptions of what the environment variables supported by Data
ONTAP do if they are used.
Note: In most cases, variables that have Y or N values also accept T or F values, respectively.
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
ACL_START
return_only
none
Created by the backup operation, the
ACL_START variable is an offset value
used by a direct access restore or
restartable NDMP backup operation. The
offset value is the byte offset in the dump
file where the ACL data (Pass V) begins
and is returned at the end of a backup.
For a direct access restore operation to
correctly restore backed up data, the
ACL_START value must be passed to
the restore operation when it begins. An
NDMP restartable backup operation uses
the ACL_START value to tell the
backup application where the
nonrestartable portion of the backup
stream begins.
Data backup using the dump engine | 83
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
BASE_DATE
0,-1, or
DUMP_DATE value
-1
Specifies the start date for incremental
backups. There is no equivalent option
for the dump command. When set to -1,
the BASE_DATE incremental specifier
is disabled. When set to 0 on a level 0
backup, incremental backups are
enabled. Subsequent to the initial
backup, the value of the DUMP_DATE
variable from the previous incremental
backup is assigned to the BASE_DATE
variable. These variables are an
alternative to the /etc/dumpdates file
for controlling incremental backups.
DEBUG
Y or N
N
Specifies that debugging information is
printed.
Note: There is no command line
equivalent for the DEBUG variable.
DIRECT
Y or N
N
Specifies that a restore should fastforward directly to the location on the
tape where the file data resides instead of
scanning the entire tape. For direct
access recovery to work, the backup
application must provide positioning
information. If this variable is set to Y,
the backup application will specify the
file or directory names and the
positioning information.
DMP_NAME
string
none
Specifies the name for a multiple subtree
backup. The DMP_NAME variable is
equivalent to the n option of the dump
command. This variable is mandatory for
multiple subtree backups.
84 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
DUMP_DATE
return_value
none
You do not change this variable directly.
It is created by the backup if the
BASE_DATE variable is set to a value
other than -1. The DUMP_DATE
variable is derived by prepending the 32bit level value to a 32-bit time value
computed by the dump software. The
level is incremented from the last level
value passed into the BASE_DATE
variable. The resulting value is used as
the BASE_DATE value on a subsequent
incremental backup.
N
Specifies if enhanced DAR functionality
is instantiated. Enhanced DAR
functionality supports directory DAR,
and DAR of files with NT Streams. It
provides performance improvements.
Enhanced DAR during restore is possible
only if the following conditions are met:
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED Y or N
•
•
•
•
Data ONTAP supports enhanced
DAR (Data ONTAP 6.4 or later)
File history is enabled (HIST=Y)
during the backup
The ndmpd.offset_map.enable
option is set to "on"
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
variable is set to "Y" during restore
Data backup using the dump engine | 85
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
EXCLUDE
pattern_string none
Specifies files or directories that are
excluded when backing up data. The
EXCLUDE variable is equivalent to the
X option of the dump command. The
exclude list is a comma-separated list of
file or directory names. If the name of a
file or directory matches one of the
names in the list, it is excluded from the
backup. The following are rules for
specifying names in the exclude list:
•
•
•
•
The exact name of the file or
directory must be used.
An asterisk (*) is a wildcard
character. The asterisk must be either
the first or the last character of the
string. Each string can have up to two
asterisks.
A comma in a file or directory name
must be preceded with a backslash.
The exclude list can contain up to 32
names.
EXTRACT
Y or N
N
Specifies that subtrees of a backed-up
data set are to be restored. The
EXTRACT variable is equivalent to the
x option of the restore command. The
backup application specifies the names
of the subtrees to be extracted. If a file
name specified matches a directory
whose contents were backed up, the
directory is recursively extracted.
EXTRACT_ACL
Y or N
Y
Specifies that ACLs from the backed up
file are restored on a restore operation.
The EXTRACT_ACL variable is
equivalent to the A option of the
restore command. The default is to
restore ACLs when restoring data, except
for DARs (DIRECT=Y).
FILESYSTEM
string
none
Specifies the path name of the root of the
data that is being backed up. For
example, /vol/vol0/etc.
86 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
FORCE
Y or N
N
Specifies that a restore operation
continues, regardless of inode
limitations. The FORCE variable is
equivalent to the F option of the
restore command. When this variable
is set to N, if the restore operation
determines that there are fewer free
inodes than the number of files it needs
to create, it aborts. Setting the variable to
Y causes the restore operation to proceed
on the assumption that new files
overwrite older files and that the file
system will not run out of inodes. If the
restore operation runs out of inodes, the
restore operation aborts during its run.
HIST
Y or N
N
Specifies that file history information is
sent to the backup application. Most
commercial backup applications set the
HIST variable to Y. If you want to
increase the speed of a backup operation,
or you want to troubleshoot a problem
with the file history collection, you can
set this variable to N.
Note: You should not set the HIST
variable to Y if the backup application
does not support file history.
IGNORE_CTIME
Y or N
N
Specifies that a file is not incrementally
backed up if only its ctime value has
changed since the previous incremental
backup. Some applications, such as virus
scanning software, change the ctime
value of a file within the inode, even
though the file or its attributes have not
changed. As a result, an incremental
backup might back up files which have
not changed. The IGNORE_CTIME
variable should be specified only if
incremental backups are taking an
unacceptable amount of time or space
because the ctime value was modified.
Data backup using the dump engine | 87
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
IGNORE_QTREES
Y or N
N
Specifies that the restore operation does
not restore qtree information from
backed up qtrees. The
IGNORE_QTREES variable is
equivalent to the Q option of the
restore command.
LEVEL
0-9
0
Specifies the backup level. Level 0
copies the entire data set. Incremental
backup levels, specified by values above
0, copy all files new or modified since
the last incremental backup. For
example, a level 1 backs up new or
modified files since the level 0 backup, a
level 2 backs up new or modified files
since the level 1 backup, and so on.
LIST
Y or N
N
Specifies that backed-up file names and
inode numbers be listed as they are
restored. The LIST variable is equivalent
to the t option of the restore
command.
LIST_QTREES
Y or N
N
Specifies that backed-up qtrees be listed
as are restored. The LIST_QTREES
variable is equivalent to the T option of
the restore command.
MULTI_SUBTREE_ NAMES
string
none
Specifies that the backup is a multiple
subtree backup. The
MULTI_SUBTREE_NAMES variable is
equivalent to the l option of the dump
command. Multiple subtrees are
specified in the string which is a
newline-separated, null-terminated list of
subtree names. Subtrees are specified by
path names relative to their common root
directory, which must be specified as the
last element of the list. If you use this
variable, you must also use the
DMP_NAME variable.
88 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
NDMP_UNICODE_ FH
Y or N
N
Specifies that a Unicode name is
included in addition to the NFS name of
the file in the file history information.
This option is not used by most backup
applications and should not be set unless
the backup application is designed to
receive these additional file names. The
HIST variable must also be set.
NDMP_VERSION
return_only
none
You should not modify the
NDMP_VERSION variable. Created by
the backup operation, the
NDMP_VERSION variable returns the
NDMP version. Data ONTAP sets the
NDMP_VERSION variable during a
backup for internal use and to pass to a
backup application for informational
purposes. The NDMP version of an
NDMP session is not set with this
variable.
NO_ACLS
Y or N
N
Specifies that ACLs not be copied when
backing up data. The NO_ACLS variable
is equivalent to the A option of the dump
command. Ordinarily a backup using the
dump command writes out metadata
related to Windows ACLs. The
NO_ACLS variable stops this
information from being backed up.
Data backup using the dump engine | 89
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
NON_QUOTA_TREE
Y or N
N
Specifies that files and directories in
qtrees be ignored when backing up data.
The NON_QUOTA_TREE variable is
equivalent to the Q option of the dump
command. When set to Y, items in qtrees
in the data set specified by the
FILESYSTEM variable are not backed
up. This variable has an effect only if the
FILESYSTEM variable specifies an
entire volume. The
NON_QUOTA_TREE variable only
works on a level-0 backup and does not
work if the
MULTI_SUBTREE_NAMES variable is
specified.
NOWRITE
Y or N
N
Specifies that the restore operation not
write data to the disk. The NOWRITE
variable is equivalent to the N option of
the restore command. This variable is
used for debugging.
90 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
RECURSIVE
Y or N
Y
Specifies that directory entries during a
DAR restore be expanded. The DIRECT
and ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
environment variables must be enabled
(set to Y) as well. If the RECURSIVE
variable is disabled (set to N), only the
permissions and ACLs for all the
directories in the original source path are
restored from tape, not the contents of
the directories. If the RECURSIVE
variable is N or the
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS variable is
Y, the recovery path must end with the
original path.
Note: If the RECURSIVE variable is
disabled and if there are more than one
recovery path, all the recovery paths
must be contained within the longest
of the recovery paths. Otherwise, an
error message is displayed.
For example, the following are valid
recovery paths as all the recovery
paths are within foo/dir1/deepdir/
myfile :
•
•
•
•
/foo
/foo/dir
/foo/dir1/deepdir
/foo/dir1/deepdir/myfile
The following are invalid recovery
paths:
•
•
•
•
•
/foo
/foo/dir
/foo/dir1/myfile
/foo/dir2
/foo/dir2/myfile
Data backup using the dump engine | 91
Environment variable
Valid values
Default Description
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS
Y or N
N
Specifies that full recovery path will
have their permissions and ACLs
restored after the DAR. DIRECT and
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED must
be enabled (set to Y) as well. If
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS is Y,
recovery path must end with the original
path. If directories already exist on the
destination volume, their permissions
and ACLs will not be restored from tape.
UPDATE
Y or N
Y
Updates the /etc/dumpdates file.
Enabling or disabling enhanced DAR functionality
Enhanced direct access recovery (DAR) functionality provides support for directory DAR and DAR
of files with NT Streams. This feature is supported only for the NDMP-initiated dump backup and
restore and provides improved restore performance. This feature is not supported in SMTape backup
and restore.
About this task
By default, enhanced DAR functionality is enabled in Data ONTAP; however, you can enable or
disable it using the options ndmpd.offset_map.enable command.
Note: You should enable or disable this functionality before you initiate the NDMP dump
operation.
Because an offset map has to be created and written onto tape, enabling enhanced DAR functionality
might impact the backup performance.
Step
1. To enable enhanced DAR functionality on your storage system, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.offset_map.enable [on|off]
on enables enhanced DAR functionality.
off disables enhanced DAR functionality
Related concepts
Considerations when using NDMP on page 65
92 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
What the ndmpcopy command does
The ndmpcopy command enables a storage system administrator to transfer file system data between
storage systems that support NDMP v3 or v4 and the UFS dump format.
The ndmpcopy command functions as a simple NDMP data management application (backup
application) that performs data transfers by initiating a backup operation on the source storage
system and a recovery operation on the destination storage system. The command establishes control
connections to the storage systems and facilitates data connection establishment. After connections
are established, it facilitates data transfer. You can use host names or IPv4 addresses of source and
destination storage systems in the ndmpcopy command.
Using the ndmpcopy command, you can perform both full and incremental data transfers; however,
incremental transfers are limited to a maximum of two levels (one full and up to two incremental
backups). You can transfer full or partial volumes, qtrees, directories, or individual files.
You cannot perform a block-level transfer using the ndmpcopy command.
Next topics
Copying data using ndmpcopy on page 92
Examples of the ndmpcopy command on page 93
Copying data using ndmpcopy
You can invoke the ndmpcopy command at the command line of the source storage system, the
destination storage system, or a storage system that is neither the source nor the destination of the
data transfer. You can also invoke ndmpcopy on a single storage system that is both the source and
the destination of the data transfer. The command can also be entered from a storage system that is
not the source or the destination.
Step
1. To copy data within a storage system or between storage systems using ndmpcopy, enter the
following command:
ndmpcopy [options][source_filer:]source_path
[destination_filer:]destination_path
options can be one or more of the following:
•
-sa username:[password] is the source authorization that specifies the user name and
password for connecting to the source storage system.
Note: For a user without root privilege, you must specify the user's system-generated
NDMP-specific password and not the regular storage system account password.
•
-da username:[password ] is the destination authorization that specifies the user name and
password for connecting to the destination storage system.
Data backup using the dump engine | 93
•
•
-st {md5|text} sets the source authentication type to be used when connecting to the source
storage system.
-dt {md5|text} sets the destination authentication type to be used when connecting to the
destination storage system.
Note: md5 is the default authentication type used. The md5 authentication type exchanges
the user name and password in encrypted form. The text authentication type exchanges the
user name and password in clear text.
•
•
•
•
-l sets the dump level used for the transfer to the specified value of level. Valid values for
level are 0, 1, and 2, where 0 indicates a full transfer and 1 or 2 an incremental transfer. The
default is 0.
-d enables generation of ndmpcopy debug log messages. ndmpcopy debug log files appear in
the root volume /etc/log directory. The ndmpcopy debug log file names are in the form
ndmpcopy.yyyymmdd.
-f enables forced mode. This mode enables overwriting system files in the /etc directory on
the root volume.
-h prints the help message.
source_filer and destination_filer can be host names or IP addresses.
source_path and destination_path are the absolute path names of the directories to be used
during the data transfer.
Related tasks
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators on page 55
Related references
Examples of the ndmpcopy command on page 93
Examples of the ndmpcopy command
You can migrate data from the source path to a destination path on the same storage system or to a
different destination path on a remote host. You can also migrate data from a source path on a remote
host to a destination path on the same host or to a destination path on a remote host.
In these examples, myhost is used for a local storage system and remotehost1 and remotehost2
are used for remote storage systems. If you specify host names when you use the ndmpcopy
command, the storage system running the ndmpcopy command should be able to resolve these
names to their IP addresses.
Example of migrating data from a source path to a different destination path on
the same storage system
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) to a different
destination path (destination_path) on the same storage system (myhost).
94 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -da username:password
myhost:/vol/vol0/source_path myhost:/vol/vol0/destination_path
The following shorter form of the command achieves the same purpose:
myhost>ndmpcopy /vol/vol0/source_path
/vol/vol0/destination_path
Because you are running the ndmpcopy command on myhost and the source and destination
storage system are the same as myhost, you can omit the source and destination storage
system names on the ndmpcopy command line. When your ndmpcopy command is running
on the same storage system as the source storage system or destination storage system, you can
also omit the -sa or -da options.
Example of migrating data from a source path to a different destination path on
a remote host
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) to a different
destination path (destination_path) on remotehost1.
myhost>ndmpcopy -da username:password /vol/vol0/source_path
remotehost1:/vol/vol0/destination_path
The destination storage system must be specified in this case, because it is a remote storage
system. The destination authorization is needed, but not the source authorization.
Example of migrating data from a source path on remote host to a destination
path on the local storage system
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) on remotehost2 to a
destination path (destination_path) on myhost.
myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -st text
remotehost2:/vol/vol0/source_path /vol/vol0/destination_path
The source authentication type specified by -st is text. The ndmpcopy command tool running
on myhost will authenticate with the source storage system using text authentication.
Example of migrating data from a source path on a remote host to a destination
path on another remote host
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) on remotehost1 to
a destination path (destination_path) on remotehost2.
Data backup using the dump engine | 95
myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -da username:password -l 1
remotehost1:/vol/vol0/source_path
remotehost2:/vol/vol0/destination_path
The -l 1 option is used to do a level 1 transfer.
Example of overwriting the /etc directory during the root volume migration
Without the -f option, the /etc directory and its contents on the root volume of
remotehost1 are protected from being overwritten with the/etc directory from myhost.
This helps prevent unintentional changing of the system characteristics after the root volume
migration is completed.
myhost>ndmpcopy -da username:password /vol/rootvol
remotehost1:/vol/rootvol
To intentionally overwrite the/etc directory during the root volume migration, use the -f flag
as in the following example.
myhost>ndmpcopy -da username:password -f /vol/rootvol
remotehost1:/vol/rootvol
Displaying file history statistics
You can view detailed statistics about file history performance of currently active dump sessions
using the stat show ndmp command. SMTape does not support file history and therefore SMTape
initiated backups do not have any file history statistics associated with them.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
stats show ndmp
The output of the stats show ndmp command includes the following statistics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Total number of directory file history entries generated
Total number of normal file history entries generated
Total number of messages sent to the file history thread
Minimum, maximum, and average delay times for adding file history entries
Minimum, maximum, and average delay times for the file history thread to send messages to
the NDMP thread
Total number of file history flush calls
Minimum, maximum, and average flush times
Total number of times the dump thread had to block because of slow processing by the file
history thread
Maximum number of outstanding buffers to the file history thread
96 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Sample output of the stat show ndmp command
filer*> stats show ndmp
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
ndmp:Session
01:dir_buffers_sent:19
01:node_buffers_sent:0
01:dir_send_was_blocked:2
01:node_send_was_blocked:0
01:dir_flush_calls:0
01:node_flush_calls:0
01:num_node_entries:2731
01:num_dir_entries:104362
01:num_dir_entries_2fh:104362
01:dir_entry_2fh_min_latency:0ms
01:dir_entry_2fh_max_latency:200ms
01:dir_entry_2fh_ave_latency:0ms
01:dir_entry_2fh_tot_latency:419ms
01:num_node_entries_2fh:2731
01:node_entry_2fh_min_latency:0ms
01:node_entry_2fh_max_latency:1ms
01:node_entry_2fh_ave_latency:0ms
01:node_entry_2fh_tot_latency:1ms
01:num_dir_entries_2ndmp:36
01:dir_entry_2ndmp_min_latency:19ms
01:dir_entry_2ndmp_max_latency:212ms
01:dir_entry_2ndmp_ave_latency:61ms
01:dir_entry_2ndmp_tot_latency:2598ms
01:num_node_entries_2ndmp:0
01:node_entry_2ndmp_min_latency:0ms
01:node_entry_2ndmp_max_latency:0ms
01:node_entry_2ndmp_ave_latency:0ms
01:node_entry_2ndmp_tot_latency:0ms
01:max_queue_depth:16
01:fh_queue_full_cnt:2
At the end of the backup session, the file history statistics is updated in the etc/log/backup
file.
How to perform a dump backup using the CLI
You can perform a file system backup of your data to tape by using the dump command.
Next topics
What the dump command syntax is on page 97
Where to enter the dump command on page 99
Specifying the backup level on page 100
Improving incremental dump performance on page 101
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file on page 101
Specifying a local tape device on page 102
Data backup using the dump engine | 97
Specifying a tape device on a remote storage system on page 102
Specifying the dump path on page 104
Specifying a list of files for backup on page 104
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree on page 106
Excluding specified files and directories on page 106
Omitting ACLs from a backup on page 108
Specifying a name for a backup on page 108
Specifying a blocking factor on page 109
Specifying the tape file size on page 110
Appending backups to tapes on page 111
Verifying the files backed up by a dump command backup on page 111
Checking the status of a dump backup on page 111
Finding out whether a backup has to be restarted on page 114
How to get details about a specific backup on page 115
Restarting a dump command backup on page 116
Deleting restartable dump command backups on page 117
What the dump command syntax is
The Data ONTAP dump command has a defined syntax that consists of a set of options.
You can enter the dump command any time the tape devices you want to use are free to back up data
in a specified path. After the dump command is finished, the data in the path is written to the tape.
You can run up to eight dump commands (depending on the hardware you are using) in parallel on up
to eight tape drives, one command per drive. Parallel backups increase throughput.
The dump command syntax is as follows:
dump options parameters dump_path
The following list describes the various dump command options.
backup
level
Level 0 is a full backup; levels 1 through 9 are for incremental backups.
A
Does not back up ACLs.
b
The blocking factor.
Parameter: The number of 1-KB blocks in each write operation. For a storage
system, the range is 4 through 64, and the default is 63.
B
Specifies the number of tape blocks to be written to a tape file before starting a new
tape file.
Parameter: The number of tape blocks in a tape file.
f
Specifies the tape device for the backup. (mandatory)
98 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Parameter: At least one tape device name as a parameter. Separate additional tape
device names with commas.
l
Backs up only specific files and directories in the dump path. You must use the n
option when using the l option.
n
Specifies to provide a name for the backup to be recorded in the /etc/dumpdates
file. It takes a string as a parameter. It is required if you use the l option.
Q
Backs up all data in the specified volume that does not reside in a qtree.
u
Updates the /etc/dumpdates file. You must use this option if you plan to perform
incremental backups in the future.
X
Excludes specified files from the backup.
Parameter: A string that specifies the exclusion prefixes or suffixes.
Note: Not all options are mandatory, and some do not have any parameters.
The following list describes the rules for entering the dump command:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
You can list one or more options. You must list all options together; do not separate the options
by commas or spaces.
You can list the options in any order.
You must include a backup level and a tape file in the options.
parameters can be one parameter or a list of parameters, each of which is associated with an
option.
List all parameters in the same order as their corresponding options.
Separate each parameter with one or more spaces.
If the parameter is a list, use commas to separate the items in the list.
dump_path is the complete path name of the volume, directory, or qtree batch file to be backed
up by the dump command.
Always precede the volume name by /vol/ even if the volume is a root volume, because
between different levels of backups, you could have changed the root volume.
Example of a dump command
dump 0fb rst0a 63 /vol/vol0/
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line. Its parameter
is rst0a.
b
Specifies that a blocking factor is supplied in the command line.
63
The blocking factor.
Data backup using the dump engine | 99
/vol/vol0/
The dump path. This command backs up to tape all files and directories in
the vol0 volume.
Related concepts
What increment chains are on page 71
How to specify tape devices for the backup on page 73
Related tasks
Specifying the backup level on page 100
Omitting ACLs from a backup on page 108
Specifying a blocking factor on page 109
Specifying the tape file size on page 110
Specifying a list of files for backup on page 104
Specifying a name for a backup on page 108
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree on page 106
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file on page 101
Excluding specified files and directories on page 106
Where to enter the dump command
You can enter the dump command through a Remote Shell connection, such as through the rsh
command, through a Telnet session accessing the storage system console, or through the storage
system console directly.
Note: Other than potential problems associated with any remote connection, console access
through a Telnet session and direct console connection to the storage system behave the same way.
Benefits of entering the dump command through a Remote Shell connection
Entering the dump command through a Remote Shell connection gives you these benefits:
•
•
•
•
When the dump command is in progress, you can still use the console to manage the storage
system. If the dump command entered on the console is backing up a large number of files, you
cannot use the console for a long time.
You can start multiple dump commands using the rsh command.
Data ONTAP is less likely to inadvertently terminate the dump command, especially if it is run in
the background from a Solaris system. If you enter a dump command on the storage system
console, it could be terminated by Ctrl-C entered on a host connected to the storage system using
a Telnet session.
You can automate storage system backups through shell scripts and crontab entries.
Benefits of entering the dump command at the console
If you enter the dump command at the console, you can read and respond to screen messages and
prompts displayed by the command. For example, the command might prompt you for another tape
100 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
to complete the backup, whereas a dump command entered through a Remote Shell connection does
not generate any messages when the command needs user intervention, and terminates instead.
Specifying the backup level
You can specify a backup level for your dump command, based on which all files or only the most
recently changed files are to be backed up to tape.
About this task
A level-0 backup is a full backup. A full backup backs up all the data in the dump path.
Backups at levels from 1 through 9 are incremental backups. An incremental backup backs up only
the items in the dump path that have been created or changed since the most recent backup of a lower
level.
Step
1. To specify the backup level, include the level number as an option. The range is 0 through 9.
Example
The following command performs a full backup of the /vol/vol1/users/tom/specs
directory. After the dump command finishes, the tape drive rewinds the tape.
dump 0uf rst0a /vol/vol1/users/tom/specs
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
u
Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol1/users/
tom/specs
The directory to be backed up.
Note: Incremental updates do not run unless the baseline transfer has updated the
dumpdates file.
Related tasks
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file on page 101
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree on page 106
Data backup using the dump engine | 101
Improving incremental dump performance
Data ONTAP 7.3 and later provide an improved incremental dump performance, if you enable the
i2p option on the volume to be backed up. You can accomplish this by setting the volume option
no_i2p to off.
Step
1. To enable the i2p option on a particular volume, enter the following command:
vol options volume_name no_i2p off
volume_name is the name of the volume being backed up.
Note: By default, i2p is enabled.
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file
To keep track of the backups, update the /etc/dumpdates file.
Step
1. To update the /etc/dumpdates file, include the u option in the dump command line.
Example
The following command backs up the /vol/vol0 volume and adds the backup information to
the /etc/dumpdates file:
dump 0fu rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
u
Updates the /etc/dumpdates file.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol0
The directory to be backed up.
If the command is issued on Monday, April 16, 2001, at 45 seconds after 1:12 p.m., the
following line is added to the /etc/dumpdates file:
/vol/vol0/ 0 Mon Apr 16 13:12:45 2001
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Related references
What the /etc/dumpdates file is on page 73
Specifying a local tape device
You can use a local tape device to back up the data.
Step
1. To specify local tape devices for a backup, use the f option and provide one or more tape devices,
separated by commas, as a parameter to the f option.
Note: You cannot combine local and remote tape devices in a single command, and you can
write to only one remote machine in a command.
Example
The following command specifies to write one tape file with one device:
dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
/vol/vol0
The dump path.
Specifying a tape device on a remote storage system
You can use tape devices attached to a remote storage systems for a backup.
Step
1. To use a tape device on a remote storage system for the backup, use the f option and provide one
or more tape devices, separated by commas, as a parameter to the f option.
Do not repeat the remote machine name.
Note: You cannot combine local and remote tape devices in a single command, and you can
write to only one remote machine in a command.
Example
The following command performs a backup to a tape drive attached to a remote storage system
named sales1. The tape drive does not rewind the tape.
Data backup using the dump engine | 103
dump 0f sales1:nrst0a /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
sales1
The name of the storage system that the tape drive is attached to.
nrst0a
The tape drive does not rewind the tape.
/vol/vol1
The volume to be backed up.
Examples: Tape drive attached to a Solaris system
You can perform a backup to a tape drive attached to a Solaris system.
The following command performs a backup to a tape drive on a Solaris system. The tape drive
rewinds the tape.
dump 0f ritchie:/dev/rmt/0 /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
ritchie
The name of the Solaris machine to which the tape drive is connected.
/dev/rmt/0 The name of the tape drive. Tape drive names vary according to the type of Solaris
system you use.
/vol/vol1
The volume to be backed up.
The following command performs a backup to a tape drive on a Solaris system with a 2-GB limit.
The size of the backup is greater than 2 GB but less than 4 GB, so the backup must be broken up into
two tape files.
dump 0fB thompson:/dev/rmt/0n,/dev/rmt/0n 2097151 /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
A tape device is supplied in the command line.
B
Specifies that the maximum tape file size allowed is supplied in the command line.
thompson
The name of the Solaris machine to which the tape drive is connected.
/dev/rmt/0n The name of the remote tape drive.
2097151
The maximum tape file size allowed. This is equal to 2 GB.
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/vol/vol1
The volume to be backed up.
Specifying the dump path
The dump path specifies one volume, qtree, or subtree to back up. (A subtree is a directory in a
volume or qtree.)
About this task
You can specify a dump path by specifying a volume, qtree, or subtree to back up all the data in it.
The volume, qtree, or subtree can be in either of the following locations:
•
•
The active file system—for example, /vol/volname/home
A Snapshot copy—for example, /vol/volname/.snapshot/weekly.0/home
Step
1. To specify a single dump path, put the path name of the volume, qtree, or subtree that you want to
back up at the end of the dump command.
Example
The following command contains the dump path /vol/vol0:
dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol0
The dump path.
Specifying a list of files for backup
You can back up some, but not all, subdirectories or files in the dump path using a single dump
command.
About this task
You can specify for backup a list of one or more files. However, the files must all be in the same
dump path. It is easier to specify a list rather than using a dump command for each subdirectory or
file. It also helps you avoid starting multiple dump commands.
Data backup using the dump engine | 105
Steps
1. Use the n and l options in the command line.
2. Include a name for the backup as a parameter to the n option.
3. Put the path name of the volume, qtree, or subtree that you want to back up at the end of the dump
command.
4. Enter the dump command line.
5. In response to prompts, enter each name as a path name relative to the dump path in the dump
command.
Note: Do not specify a parent directory (..) or a directory that is a symbolic link.
6. To end the list, press the Enter key.
Example
The following example shows the prompts and path name entry when you back up a list of
files or directories. The example ends the list of path names with a blank line.
dump 0ufnl rst0a user.1.3.5 /vol/vol1/home
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
u
Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
n
Specifies that a name for the backup is supplied.
l
Specifies that the names of individual files and directories to be
backed up will be entered interactively.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
user.1.3.5
The name of the backup.
/vol/vol1/home
The directory that contains the files to be backed up.
The output of the preceding dump command is as follows:
DUMP: creating "snapshot_for_backup.0" snapshot.
creating....................................................
DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Tue Jun 4 12:47:14 2001
DUMP: Date of last level 0 dump: Tue May 28 4 12:45:51 2001
DUMP: Dumping /vol/vol0/home to nrst0a
DUMP: mapping (Pass I) [regular files]
DUMP: Reading file names from standard input
user1
106 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
user3/jdoe
user5/rroe/src
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree
You can back up all data in a specified volume that is not in a qtree. The specified volume is the
dump path. You use this method if you back up on a qtree basis and want to back up the remaining
data in a volume. Usually, the data in qtrees changes frequently, while the remaining data, such as
configuration files, changes rarely.
About this task
You cannot do incremental backups using this method.
Step
1. To back up all non-qtree data in a specified volume, use the Q option in the command line.
Example
The following command backs up all items in /vol/vol0 that are not in a qtree:
dump 0fQ rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
Q
Excludes items in qtrees.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol0
The dump path.
Excluding specified files and directories
You can exclude a list of files and directories from a backup. You can also specify a pattern based on
which you can exclude files and directories from a backup. For example, you can exclude the files
that end with .core.
About this task
The rules for constructing a string for excluding files are as follows:
•
•
A string can be a file name.
You can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard character.
Data backup using the dump engine | 107
•
•
•
•
The wildcard character must be the first or last character of the string. Each string can contain up
to two wildcard characters. For example, you can specify *.core, core.*, or *core.*, but not
core*.1.
If you have more than one string, you must separate the strings with a comma.
You cannot have a comma in the file name or pattern.
You can specify up to 32 strings.
Steps
1. To exclude files from a backup, use the X option in the command line.
2. Include a string or comma-separated list of strings as a parameter for the X option.
Example
The following command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume, but excludes
the files that meet certain requirements:
dump 0ufX rst0a tmp,*.o,core*,*backup*, /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
u
Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command
line.
X
Specifies that an exclude list is specified.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
tmp,*.o,core*,*backup*
The exclude list specifies files as follows:
•
•
•
•
/vol/vol1
tmp specifies that the file name is tmp.
*.o specifies that the file name ends in .o (for example,
program.o).
core* specifies that the file name begins with the core
string (for example, core.small).
*backup* specifies that the file name contains the
backup string (for example, spec.backup.1).
The volume to be backed up.
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Omitting ACLs from a backup
You can omit ACLs from a backup. This provides a slight performance enhancement.
About this task
You omit ACLs in two situations:
•
•
You plan to restore to a volume in an environment that does not support ACLs.
You are backing up files or directories that do not contain ACLs.
Step
1. To omit ACLs from a backup, include the A option in the dump command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume. The A option
means that the backup does not include any ACL information.
dump 0Af rst0a /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
A
Specifies not to back up ACLs.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol1
The volume to be backed up.
Specifying a name for a backup
You can name a backup using the n. You can record this backup name in the /etc/dumpdates
using the u option.
About this task
You specify a name for a backup in two situations:
•
•
You are specifying a list of directories or files in the backup with the l option.
You want to monitor the backup history.
Data backup using the dump engine | 109
Steps
1. To specify a name for the backup, include the n option in the dump command line.
2. Include a name for the backup as a parameter to the n option.
Example
The following command gives the name thisbackup to a backup:
dump 0fn rst0a thisbackup /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
n
Specifies to name this backup.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
thisbackup
The name of the backup.
/vol/vol0
The dump path.
An output similar to the following appears in the/etc/dumpdates file:
thisbackup 0 Tue Jul 24 20:40:09 2001
Specifying a blocking factor
You can specify a blocking factor using the b option in the dump command line.
Step
1. To specify a blocking factor for a backup, include the b option in the dump command line.
Example
The following command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume. This command
writes 32 KB of data at a time, enabling you to restore the data from systems that limit each
write to 32 KB.
dump 0ufb rst0a 32 /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
u
Records the backup in the/etc/dumpdates file.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
110 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
b
Specifies that a blocking factor is provided.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
32
The blocking factor is 32, so writes 32 KB of data at a time.
/vol/vol1
The volume to be backed up.
Specifying the tape file size
You can specify the maximum size of the tape file in terms of tape blocks in a dump command. If
you do a remote backup or plan to restore the backup on a system other than the storage system that
was backed up, you might need to specify a tape file size.
About this task
Suppose you want the maximum tape file to be 2 GB; you must specify 2,097,151. This implies that
the largest tape file can contain 2,097,151 tape blocks, which are 1 kilobyte each. The tape file size
must be equal to or greater than the blocking factor; otherwise, the dump process terminates.
Some systems support only tape files of a limited size; for example, some Solaris systems do not
support tape files larger than 2 GB.
Steps
1. To specify a tape file size, include the B option in the dump command line.
2. Include the tape file size, in KB, in the dump command as a parameter to the B option. The size
applies to all tape files in the backup.
Example
The following command backs up the /vol/vol0 volume using a tape file size of 2,097,151,
so that a tape file is no larger than 2 GB:
dump 0fB rst0a 2097151 /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0
Does a full backup.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
B
Specifies that the file size is given in the command line.
rst0a
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
2097151
The file size is 2,097,151 KB.
/vol/vol1
The volume to be backed up.
Data backup using the dump engine | 111
Appending backups to tapes
If you are backing up small volumes, qtrees, or files, you can put several backups on one tape to
conserve tapes. Also, adding each backup to the tape after the previous backup ensures that backups
are sequential.
Steps
1. To append a backup to a tape, move the tape to the desired location using the mt command.
2. Execute the dump command.
Attention: Use no-rewind device names to ensure that the tape is not rewound and that
previous backups are not overwritten.
Related references
Controlling tape drives on page 39
Verifying the files backed up by a dump command backup
You can verify a backup initiated by the dump command to ensure that all the files you wanted to
back up are on the tape.
Steps
1. From your client, preserve the output to the console by using a utility such as a script.
2. List all the files in a backup by entering the following command:
restore tf rst0a
3. Compare the list to what you intended to back up.
4. For more detailed verification, use the N option of the restore command.
Checking the status of a dump backup
During a lengthy dump session, you are advised to monitor the progress and check the status of the
session. This helps you to determine if the backup is proceeding as expected.
Step
1. To check the status of a dump command, enter the following command:
stat show dump
The output of the stat show dump command displays the following statistics about the data set
and progress:
•
The number of directories that will be dumped
112 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
•
•
•
The number of files that will be dumped
The number of NT STREAMS
The number of ACLs
The average directory size
The average file size
The following are the progress statistics listed by the command:
•
•
•
•
The number of directories dumped in Phase 3
The amount of directory data, in KB, currently written to tape in Phase 3
The number of inodes dumped in Phase 4
The amount of inode data, in KB, currently written to tape in Phase 4
Example
The following is an example of the stat show dump command output:
filer1>stat show dump
dump:id_0:p1-ino:6097
dump:id_0:p1-dir:412
dump:id_0:p1-str-ino:0
dump:id_0:p1-str-dir:0
dump:id_0:p1-acl:0
dump:id_0:p3-dir:413
dump:id_0:p3-write:487
dump:id_0:p4-ino:1962
dump:id_0:p4-write:135043
Statistics shown in the preceding example are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
id_0 is the instance name for dump statistics. The number part of the instance name specifies
the dump ID.
p1-ino shows the total number of regular inodes that will be dumped.
p1-dir shows the total number of directory inodes that will be dumped.
p1-str-ino shows the total number of NT stream inodes that will be dumped.
p1-str-dir shows the total number of NT stream directories that will be dumped.
p1-acl shows the total number of ACL inodes that will be dumped.
p3-dir shows the total number of directory inodes that have been written in Phase 3.
p3-write shows the total number of kilobytes (KB) of directory tape data that have been
written in Phase 3.
p4-ino shows the total number of inodes that have been dumped in Phase 4.
p4-write shows the total number of kilobytes (KB) of inode tape data that have been written in
Phase 4.
The following is an example of statistics shown in the backup log:
dmp
...
dmp
dmp
204
... /vol/compat/(3) Start (Level 0)
... /vol/compat/(3) End (126 MB)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (reg inodes: 1574 other inodes: 1061 dirs: 200 nt dirs: 54 nt inodes:
acls: 49)
Data backup using the dump engine | 113
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 1 time: 261)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: directories dumped: 255)
.. /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: wafl directory blocks read: 291)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: average wafl directory blocks per inode: 1)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: average tape blocks per inode: 2)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3 throughput (MB sec): read 0 write 0)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Percent of phase3 time spent for: reading inos 0% dumping ino 93%)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Percent of phase3 dump time spent for: convert-wafl-dirs 4% lev0-ra 1%)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3 averages (usec): wafl load buf time 27 level 0 ra time 62)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: inodes dumped: 2839)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: wafl data blocks read: 55502)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: average wafl data blocks per inode: 19)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: average tape data blocks per inode: 75)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4 throughput (MB sec): read 51 write 50)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Percent of phase4 time spent for: reading inos 3% dumping inos 94%)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Tape write times (msec): average: 0 max: 1863)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Tape changes: 1)
Statistics shown in the backup log example are as follows:
•
reg inodes, other inodes, dirs, nt dirs, nt inodes, acls—The total
number of regular inodes, other inodes such as symlinks or char devices, directory inodes,
NT STREAMS inodes, and ACL inodes that will be dumped.
•
Phase 3:directories dumped
—The total number of directory inodes dumped in Phase 3.
•
Phase 3: wafl directory blocks read
—The total number of WAFL directory blocks read.
•
Phase 3: average wafl directory block per inode
—The average size of directories that were dumped.
•
Phase 3: average tape blocks per inode
—The average number of dump tape blocks (1K) for each directory inode.
•
Phase 3 throughput (MB sec)
•
Percent of phase3 time spent for: reading inos and dumping inos
—The read and write throughputs, in MBps, for Phase 3.
—An indication of where time is spent in Phase 3.
•
Percent of phase3 dump time spent for: convert-wafl-dirs and lev0ra
•
Phase 3 averages (usec): wafl load buf time and level 0 ra time
—An indication of where time is spent in Phase 3.
—An indication of how long it takes to read a WAFL directory block and how long it took
to read ahead for these blocks.
•
Phase 4: inodes dumped
—The total number of inodes dumped in Phase 4.
•
Phase 4: wafl data blocks read
•
Phase 4: average wafl data blocks per inode
—The total number of WAFL data blocks read.
—An indication of the average size of files that were dumped.
•
Phase 4: average tape data blocks per inode
—The average number of dump tape blocks (1K) for each inode.
•
Phase 4 throughput (MB sec)
—The read and write throughputs, in MBps, for Phase 4.
•
Percent of phase4 time spent for: reading inos and dumping inos
114 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
—An indication of where time is spent in Phase 4.
•
Percent of phase4 dump time spent for:wafl read iovec and lev0-ra
•
Phase 4 averages (usec): wafl read iovec time and level 0 ra time
—An indication of where time is spent in Phase 4.
—An indication of how long it takes to read a file block and how long it took to read ahead
for these blocks.
•
Tape write times (msec): average and max
—An indication of how long it took to write out a tape block.
•
Tape changes
—The number of tape changes.
Finding out whether a backup has to be restarted
To find out whether a backup initiated by the dump command is proceeding as expected or has
aborted, you can run the backup status command.
Step
1. To know the status of a backup, enter the following command:
backup status
Following is an example of the backup status command's output:
filer1>backup status
ID State
Type
-- -------1 ACTIVE
dump
2 ACTIVE
dump
4 ACTIVE
NDMP
6 RESTARTABLE dump
Device
-----nrst0a
nrst0a
urst1a
Start Date
---------Nov 28 00:22
Nov 28 00:22
Nov 28 00:22
Nov 27 00:22
Level
----0
3
1
3
Path
---/vol/vol0
/vol/vol1
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the dump table:
ID
The unique ID assigned to the dump and the index in the software’s
internal dump table. As soon as a dump completes, its ID number is
deallocated and returned to the pool of available slots. The total number
of entries in the dump table is limited to 32.
State
The state of the dump: ACTIVE or RESTARTABLE.
Type
The type of invocation of dump: CLI or NDMP.
Device
The current device to which the dump is writing.
Start Date
The date on which the backup began.
Level
The level of the dump (0 through 9).
Data backup using the dump engine | 115
Path
The dump path.
How to get details about a specific backup
To get more detailed information about a specific backup initiated by the dump command, you can
supply the dump ID at the end of the backup status command.
Following are the examples of the backup status command.
Example 1
filer> backup status 2
State:
ACTIVE
Path:
/vol/vol0/src
Options:
b=63, u
Devices:
rst1a,rst2a,rst3a
Completed:
3 tape files
Last Update: Mon Nov 26 00:14:35 2001
Type:
Level:
dump
0
The following list describes the output of the command:
Options
All the options specified for the backup and their respective parameters.
Completed
The number of tape files that have already been copied.
Last Update
The time and date of the last completed update.
Example 2
filer> backup status 2
State:
RESTARTABLE
Type:
ndmp
Path:
/vol/vol1
Level: 0
Snapshot:
filer(0101184236)_vol1_filer_svp-dst.0
Snapshot:
snapshot_for_backup.9 [Dec 27 00:41]
Options:
b=63, X
Devices:
[none]
Completed:
1 tapefile(s)
Last Update: Thu Dec 27 00:41:23 2007
The preceding example displays the following additional information:
Snapshot
The Snapshot copies of the path that is being backed up.
116 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Restarting a dump command backup
To restart an aborted backup, you must use the R option in the dump command.
Step
1. To restart a dump process that has been shown to be restartable, enter the following command
from the storage system:
dump R[f comma-separated_device-list] {path |ID}
f is an option that enables you to supply a device list.
comma-separated_device-list lets you direct the dump stream to output devices other than
those originally designated in the failed dump. A restarted dump process uses this device list in
the same way a regular dump would. Any device list that is valid to a regular dump will be valid
in this case.
If a device list is not specified, the command defaults to the remainder of the devices listed but
not yet consumed by the failed dump.
For example, suppose the following device list was supplied to the previous dump, which failed
while writing to rst2a: rst0a,rst1a,rst2a,rst3a,rst4a.
The command will use rst3a,rst4a to complete the backup. However, if the original device list
contained any non-rewinding (nrst) devices or any devices not supported, users are required to
supply a new device list at the restart of the dump.
path is the path that is listed in the dump table (the output of the backup status command). If
there are multiple entries (that is, entries with exactly the same path) the command prompts you
to use the ID to restart the backup.
ID is the unique ID displayed by the backup status command.
You can use either path or ID in most cases.
Result
The command starts rewriting the dump stream from the beginning of the tape file in which the
previous dump was interrupted.
Related tasks
Checking the status of a dump backup on page 111
Data backup using the dump engine | 117
Deleting restartable dump command backups
You can delete a restartable dump using the dump ID.
Step
1. To delete a restartable backup, enter the following command:
backup terminate ID
ID is the unique ID in the dump table that the backup status command displays.
To prevent restartable backups from accumulating on a storage system and taking up
unreasonable amounts of disk space, the dump command automatically checks the snap reserve
every 10 minutes. If the snap reserve is over 100 percent, the oldest restartable backups are
deleted until snap reserve usage drops below 100 percent or until there are no more restartable
backups to delete.
How to perform a dump restore using the CLI
You can use the restore command to restore data backed up to tape using the dump backup.
Next topics
Restore command syntax on page 118
What restore types are on page 118
What modifiers are on page 119
Where to enter the restore command on page 120
Executing a restore command on page 120
Restoring incremental backups on page 121
Restoring each volume backed up as separate subtrees or qtrees on page 121
Restoring individual files and directories on page 122
Specifying a full restore on page 122
What a table-of-contents restore is on page 123
Specifying a resume restore on page 124
Specifying tape devices in the restore command on page 125
Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape on page 126
Specifying the restore destination on page 127
Specifying the blocking factor during restore on page 127
Displaying detailed status output on page 128
Ignoring inode limitations on page 129
Specifying automatic confirmations on page 130
118 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Specifying no ACLs to be restored on page 130
Specifying not to restore qtree information on page 131
Specifying a test restore on page 132
Restore examples: Restoring using a remote tape drive on page 132
Restore examples: Multiple tape restores on page 133
Restore command syntax
The restore command consists of a set of options that include the restore types and the modifiers.
There are a set of rules that you have to follow when you enter the restore command:
•
•
•
•
Specify only one restore type.
Specify multiple options without intervening spaces.
Enter the parameters for each option in the order that you specify the options. Separate each
parameter from the next with a space.
If the destination for each file is the same as the location from which it was backed up, you do not
need to explicitly specify a destination.
The restore command syntax is as follows:
restore options [parameters] [files ...]
options can be one restore type with modifiers.
What restore types are
A restore type specifies the type of restore you are performing.
For a restore from tape, you must specify only one restore type. The following table summarizes the
restore types.
Restore type
Description
Option
Restart
Restarts data recovery after an interruption.
R
Qtree table of contents Lists qtree names and qtree information in a restore.
T
Full
Rebuilds the file system or subtree. If you are applying
incrementals, you must specify this option.
r
File table of contents
Lists file names in a restore.
t
File
Extracts an individual file or subtree from the backup.
x
Related tasks
Specifying a resume restore on page 124
Specifying table-of-contents restores on page 124
Specifying a full restore on page 122
Data backup using the dump engine | 119
Restoring individual files and directories on page 122
What modifiers are
Modifiers specify optional actions.
The following list describes the various modifiers:
A Specifies not to restore ACLs.
D Specifies the directory into which the files are restored.
Parameter: The directory into which you are restoring files. Without a parameter, the files are
restored to the directory from which they were backed up.
F Forces restore to continue regardless of inode limitations.
N Reads backup tapes without writing to the storage system.
Q Ignores qtree information.
b Specifies the blocking factor.
Parameter: The blocking factor that you used in the backup that you are restoring
f
Specifies the tape device for each tape file.
Parameter: The name of one or more tape devices, separated by commas
s Specifies the relative position of a tape file if multiple tape files exist on a tape. File numbering
starts at 1 from the current tape position.
Parameter: The tape file number
v Specifies that the restore will display the inode number of each file restored.
y Specifies that the restore will not prompt the user if it encounters an error.
Related tasks
Specifying no ACLs to be restored on page 130
Specifying the restore destination on page 127
Ignoring inode limitations on page 129
Specifying a test restore on page 132
Specifying not to restore qtree information on page 131
Specifying the blocking factor during restore on page 127
Specifying tape devices in the restore command on page 125
Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape on page 126
Displaying detailed status output on page 128
Specifying automatic confirmations on page 130
120 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Where to enter the restore command
You can enter the restore command through a Remote Shell connection, such as RSH, or on the
console.
Benefits of entering the restore command through a Remote Shell
Entering the restore command through a Remote Shell connection gives you the following
benefits:
•
•
•
When the restore command is in progress, you can still use the console to manage the storage
system.
You can start multiple restore commands through a Remote Shell connection if other tape
drives are available.
It is less likely that someone will inadvertently terminate the restore command, especially if it
is run in the background from a UNIX system. However, if you enter the restore command on
the console, it could be terminated by pressing Ctrl-C on a host connected to the storage system
using Telnet.
Benefit of entering the restore command on the console
The benefit of entering the restore command on the console is that you can read and respond to
screen messages displayed by the command. For example, the command might prompt you for
another tape to complete the recovery.
Executing a restore command
You have to perform a series of steps to execute a restore command.
Steps
1. Place the tape containing the first tape file of the backup in the tape drive that you specify.
2. Enter the restore command.
3. If prompted, insert the next tape of the backup that you are restoring into the appropriate tape
drive.
4. Repeat Step 3 until the restore is complete.
Data backup using the dump engine | 121
Restoring incremental backups
Incremental restores build on each other the way incremental backups build on the initial level-0
backup. Therefore, to restore an incremental backup, you need all the backup tapes from the level-0
backup through the last backup that you want to restore.
About this task
If you attempt an incremental restore to a storage system running Data ONTAP 6.2 or later from a
storage system running a version earlier than Data ONTAP 6.2, the restore will fail. This is because
there is a formatting code change between the two code releases. You need to run the full backup
again after you have upgraded to Data ONTAP 6.2 or later.
Steps
1. Restore the level-0 backup.
2. Follow the prompts. You might be asked to remove or insert tapes.
3. Restore each incremental backup in the increment chain that you want to restore, starting with the
lowest-level backup and going to the last backup that you want to restore.
Attention: During an incremental restore operation, a temporary directory
labeled .restore_do_not_touch_xxxxxxx will appear in the active file system. Do not edit
or delete this directory. The system will delete this directory after the current incremental
restore operation is completed.
4. After all the incremental restores are completed, delete the restore_symboltable file from the
root of the destination directory.
Related concepts
What increment chains are on page 71
Related tasks
Specifying the backup level on page 100
Restoring each volume backed up as separate subtrees or qtrees
You can restore an entire storage system even if you used separate dump commands to back up files,
directories, and qtrees that make up each volume.
Steps
1. To restore each volume backed up as separate subtrees or qtrees, create the desired volumes.
2. Restore each backup to the appropriate volume.
122 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Restoring individual files and directories
You can restore one or more directories or files from a backup.
Steps
1. Use the X option in the restore command line.
2. At the end of the command line, include the path names relative to the dump path of the files or
directories that you want to restore. Separate path names with a space.
Note: If you do not have a path in the command line, the restore command restores all data
on the tape.
Example
The following command restores the /src directory and puts it in the location from which it
was backed up:
restore Xf rst0a /src
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
X
Restores a specified file.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
/src
The directory to be restored.
Specifying a full restore
A full restore rebuilds the file system, qtree, or subtree that was in the backup that a tape file
contains.
Step
1. To specify a full restore, use the r option in the restore command line.
Example
The following command performs a full restore to the original location.
restore rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
Data backup using the dump engine | 123
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
What a table-of-contents restore is
You can display a table of contents of the files or qtrees in a tape file. This is useful in determining
what files or qtrees are on a tape and their locations. For qtrees, the restore lists the qtree properties.
A table-of-contents restore takes much less time than a full restore because only the list of files in the
backup is read. However, it uses a lot of CPU time because of the extensive output produced.
Why Remote Shell is preferred for a table-of-contents restore
In general, you should run a table-of-contents restore from a Remote Shell connection because an
enormous output is generated. Usually, you can control the output more easily when it is sent to a
client console rather than to the storage system console. Also, client consoles are more flexible and
enable you to save the output.
Also, you rarely need to change tapes with a table-of-contents restore. The command needs to read
only the directory information from the tape and none of the files or qtrees. Because directory
information tends to constitute a small part of a backup, it is almost always located on one tape. Also,
table-of-contents restores work with multiple tape files specified on the command line.
Types of table-of-contents restores
You can specify two types of tables of contents: file and qtree. These are explained in the following
table.
Type Description
Option
File
t
Lists all the file names in a backup.
If you specify path names, only the files in the path names are listed.
Qtree Lists qtrees and their settings for security style and Windows NT oplocks for all
qtrees.
If you specify qtree names, the information for only those qtrees is listed if they
are in the backup.
You cannot combine the two types in a single command.
T
124 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Specifying table-of-contents restores
Use the t or T option in the restore command to specify a table-of-contents restore.
Step
1. To specify a table-of-contents restore, use the T or t option in the restore command line, with
files as parameter. If there is no parameter, the entire content of a backup is listed.
Example
The following command lists all files in a backup:
restore tf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of this command line:
t
Lists all the files.
Note: Option T lists all qtree names.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying a resume restore
If an entire tape file restore is stopped, you can resume the restore and avoid restoring again what has
already been restored. However, there are some restrictions on this operation.
About this task
You must consider the following restrictions on resuming a restore:
•
•
•
•
You can resume only restores that you started with the r or R options.
You can resume a restore command only if the backup consists of multiple tape files.
You can resume a restore command only if the command is for a full restore.
If the restore command is for extracting an individual file or subtree from a backup (that is, if you
use the x option), or for a table-of-contents restore, you cannot resume the restore.
You can resume a restore only if you received a message similar to the following during the
restore:
RESTORE: Fri Aug 31 22:22:35 2001: Writing data to files.
Steps
1. In the restore command line, use the R option first instead of the r option. It does not take a
parameter.
Data backup using the dump engine | 125
2. Enter the rest of the same restore command that was interrupted. However, include only the
tape files that were not restored.
3. Follow the prompts.
Example
The following command resumes a restore:
restore Rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
R
Resumes a restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying tape devices in the restore command
When you perform a backup, you specified one or more tape devices. The files written by these
devices can be on one or more tapes. When restoring, you have to list the tape devices in the same
order that you used in the backup.
About this task
You must use the same compression type to restore a backup as you did to perform the backup;
however, you can use a different rewind type and device number. For example, you can use rst1a and
tape drive 1 to restore a backup done on nrst0a, provided that the two tape drives use the same kind
of tape.
Steps
1. To specify the tape devices for restores, use the f option in the restore command line.
2. List the tape devices as a parameter to the f option in the same order that you used in the backup.
Separate multiple tape devices with a comma.
Note: If you do not specify at least one tape device, the restore command terminates.
The restore command restores from tape files consecutively, using the tape devices in the order
that they appear in the command line.
Example
The following command specifies the rst0a device for a backup:
restore rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
126 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape
You can have more than one tape file on a tape. Tape files do not have names. You can restore a
single tape file on a tape that contains more than one tape file. You do this by moving the tape to the
beginning of the file that is to be restored.
Steps
1. Use the f option in the restore command line.
2. Use the same tape compression type as a parameter to the f option that you used in the backup.
3. Use the s option in the restore command line to select the appropriate backup.
4. Include the relative position of the tape file that you are restoring as a parameter to the s option in
the command line.
Note: Count the relative position from the current tape position. It is best to rewind the tape
and start from its beginning.
Example
From a tape that has been rewound, the following command restores the third tape file from
the beginning of that tape. It then rewinds the tape.
restore rfs rst0a 3
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
s
Selects a tape file.
rst0a
The tape device.
3
Specifies to use the third tape file.
Data backup using the dump engine | 127
Specifying the restore destination
The destination acts as the root of the backup that you are restoring. You specify a different restore
destination if you are restoring the backed up data to a different location.
About this task
For example, if you created a backup and then installed multiple volumes on the storage system, you
might specify a different volume or directory when you perform a restore.
If you do not specify a restore destination, the files are restored to the locations from which they were
backed up.
Note: You should specify a restore destination even if you are restoring to the same destination
from which you backed up. This ensures the files are restored where you want them to go and are
traceable to that location.
Steps
1. To specify the restore destination, use the D option in the restore command line.
2. Include the absolute path name of the restore destination as a parameter to the D option.
Example
The following command restores a backup and puts it in the/vol/destination volume:
restore rfD rst0a /vol/destination
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
D
Specifies that a destination is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
/vol/destination
The destination is the /vol/destination volume.
Specifying the blocking factor during restore
The blocking factor specifies the number of tape blocks that are transferred in each write operation.
A tape block is 1 kilobyte of data. When you restore, you must use the same blocking factor that you
used for the backup. The default blocking factor is 63.
Steps
1. To specify the blocking factor, use the b option in the restore command line.
128 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
2. Include the blocking factor as a parameter to that option.
Example
The following command restores a backup and puts it in the /vol/destination volume:
restore rfb rst0a 63 /vol/destination
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
b
Specifies that a blocking factor is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
63
The blocking factor.
/vol/destination
The restore destination.
Displaying detailed status output
You can get information about the progress of a restore on a file-by-file basis. If you have a restore
problem, this output can be useful for your own diagnostics, as well as for technical support. Because
of the volume of information that needs to be processed by a console, getting detailed output can
slow down a restore considerably.
Step
1. To get status information about each file recovered, use the v option in the restore command
line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup and produces status information about each file
recovered:
restore rfv rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
v
Produces information about each file recovered.
Data backup using the dump engine | 129
rst0a
The tape device.
The elements of this command line are described in the following table.
Ignoring inode limitations
If you are sure that the restore consists mostly of files to be updated rather than new files, you can
instruct the storage system to ignore the inode limitations.
About this task
What inodes are: Inodes are data structures that contain information about files. The number of
files, and therefore the number of inodes per volume, is determined by the maxfiles command. For
information about setting the maximum number of files per volume and displaying inode
information, see the Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Storage Management Guide.
How the restore command handles inodes: The restore command assumes that the files being
restored are added to the number of files on the storage system, and, therefore, that the inodes are
added to the storage system. When the total of inodes in the restore and on a storage system exceeds
the number of inodes that are allowed on a storage system, the restore is terminated.
However, if a restore updates an existing file, the inode count remains the same. Therefore, if you are
sure that the restore consists mostly of files to be updated rather than new files, you can instruct the
storage system to ignore the calculations of the restore command.
Note: During a restore, if the inode count exceeds the maximum number of inodes allowed, the
restore is terminated.
Step
1. To specify a restore to ignore inode limitations, use the F option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup and ignores the inode limitations:
restore rfF rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
F
Specifies to ignore inode limitations.
rst0a
The tape device.
130 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Specifying automatic confirmations
An automatic confirmation automatically answers all restore questions with a "yes." You usually use
this mode on restores that are run using a Remote Shell connection.
About this task
A Remote Shell connection does not let you interact with the restore command; therefore, if the
restore command requires user input and is run using a Remote Shell connection, it usually
terminates. Specifying confirmation mode enables such restores to be completed in most cases. Even
with the y option, however, the restore command fails if it encounters hard media errors or
unclean drives.
Attention: This option is not advisable for critical restores because it can cause silent failure.
Step
1. To specify automatic confirmations, use the y option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup with automatic confirmations:
restore rfy rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
y
Specifies automatic confirmations.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying no ACLs to be restored
You can exclude ACLs from a restore. This provides a slight performance enhancement.
About this task
You can exclude ACLs in two situations:
•
•
You plan to restore to an environment that does not support ACLs.
The backup has no files or directories that contain ACLs.
Data backup using the dump engine | 131
Step
1. To exclude ACLs from a restore, include the A option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup, but does not restore ACLs:
restore rfA rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
A
Specifies not to restore ACLs.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying not to restore qtree information
You can omit qtree information from a restore. In such cases, the qtrees are restored as ordinary
directories.
Step
1. To omit qtree information from a restore, include the Q option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup, but does not restore the qtree information:
restore rfQ rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
Q
Specifies not to restore qtrees.
rst0a
The tape device.
132 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Specifying a test restore
You can test a restore by performing a restore that reads the tape, but does not write to the storage
system.
About this task
You can do a test restore in the following situations:
•
•
•
•
To verify a backup tape that is old and might have deteriorated
To verify that the set of tapes you have is complete
To verify a backup tape that you believe was not written properly
To quickly ensure that a block size works, if the block size is unknown
Note: Because a test restore depends on the speed of reading from tape, it takes almost the same
time as an actual restore.
Step
1. To specify a test restore, include the N option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command performs a test restore of a backup:
restore rfN rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
N
Specifies a test restore.
rst0a
The tape device.
Restore examples: Restoring using a remote tape drive
You can perform a storage system restore using a tape drive attached to a remote storage system or a
tape drive attached to a Solaris system.
Example of a storage system restore using a tape drive attached to a remote
storage system
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
Data backup using the dump engine | 133
dump 0f sales1:rst0a /vol/vol1
The following command performs a restore from a tape drive attached to a remote storage
system named sales1. The tape drive then rewinds the tape.
restore rf sales1:rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
sales1
The name of the storage system.
rst0a
The restore is done using the rst0a tape device.
Example of a storage system restore using a tape drive attached to a Solaris
system
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f ritchie:/dev/rmt/0 /vol/vol1
The following command performs a restore from a tape drive on a Solaris system:
restore rf ritchie:/dev/rmt/0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Indicates that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
ritchie
The name of the Solaris machine to which the tape drive is connected.
/dev/rmt/0
The name of the tape device.
Restore examples: Multiple tape restores
There are different types of multiple tape restores, such as multiple tapes on a single-tape drive,
multiple tapes on two single-tape drives, and multiple tapes on a tape library.
Example of restore from multiple tapes on a single-tape drive
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol
The following command restores the /vol/vol1 volume from the two tapes it took to back it
up. You are prompted for the next tape when the first tape is restored.
restore rf rst0a
134 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The restore is done using the rst0a tape device; the restore command prompts
for the second tape.
Example of restore from multiple tapes on two single-tape drives
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f rst0a,rst1a /vol/vol1
The first tape is in tape drive 0 and the second tape is in tape drive 1.
The following command restores the /vol/vol1 volume from the two tapes it took to back it
up. It uses the tape in the second tape drive when the first tape is restored.
restore rf rst0a,rst1a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The restore is done using the rst0a tape device for the first tape.
rst1a
The restore is done using the rst1a tape device for the second tape.
Example of a restore from multiple tapes on a tape library
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol1
The following command restores the /vol/vol1 volume from the two tapes used to back it
up. It unloads the first tape and loads the second tape.
restore rf urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
urst0a, urst0a
The tape drive unloads and loads each tape.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 135
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
SMTape is a high performance disaster recovery solution from Data ONTAP that backs up blocks of
data to tape. It is Snapshot copy-based backup to tape feature. This feature is available only in the
Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode or later releases.
You can use SMTape to perform volume backups to tapes. However, you cannot perform a backup at
the qtree or subtree level. Also, you can perform only a level-0 backup and not incremental backups.
When you perform an SMTape backup, you can specify the name of the Snapshot copy to be backed
up to tape. When you specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, all the Snapshot copies older than the
specified Snapshot copy are also backed up to tape.
If you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, the following happens:
•
If the volume is read-writeable, an auto Snapshot copy is created. That Snapshot copy and all
older Snapshot copies are backed up to tape.
If the volume is read-only, all the Snapshot copies till the latest Snapshot copy are backed up to
tape. Any new Snapshot copies created after the backup has started will not be backed up.
•
You can perform an SMTape backup and restore using NDMP-compliant backup applications or
using the Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode smtape backup and smtape restore CLI commands.
These commands replace the snapmirror store and snapmirror retrieve commands of
earlier releases of Data ONTAP.
Next topics
How SMTape backup works on page 135
What tape seeding is on page 136
Features of SMTape on page 136
Limitations of SMTape on page 136
How to perform an SMTape backup and restore using NDMP services on page 137
How to back up and restore using the SMTape commands on page 138
How SMTape backup works
SMTape backup writes blocks of data to tape in a predefined process.
The following table describes the process that SMTape uses to back up data to tape.
Stage Action
1
Data ONTAP creates a base Snapshot copy for the backup. If a Snapshot copy name is
provided, Data ONTAP uses this Snapshot copy as the base Snapshot copy.
136 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Stage Action
2
Data ONTAP begins transferring blocks of data to tape.
What tape seeding is
Tape seeding is an SMTape functionality that helps you intialize the destination storage system in a
volume SnapMirror relationship.
Consider a scenario in which you want to establish a SnapMirror relationship between a source
system and a destination system over a low-bandwidth connection. Incremental mirroring of
Snapshot copies from the source to the destination is feasible over a lowband width connection.
However, an initial mirroring of the base Snapshot copy would take a long time over a lowbandwidth connection. In such a case, you can perform an SMTape backup of the source volume to a
tape and use the tape to transfer the initial base Snapshot copy to the destination. You can then set up
incremental SnapMirror updates to the destination system using the low-bandwidth connection.
Features of SMTape
SMTape supports certain features that help you optimize your tape backup and restore.
The following are the features of SMTape:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Provides a high performance disaster recovery solution.
Does not require a license.
Supports tape seeding.
Supports backup of Snapshot copies.
Supports deduplicated volumes and preserves deduplication on the restored volumes.
Supports blocking factor in multiples of 4 KB, in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
Supports backup of large aggregate volumes.
Limitations of SMTape
There are certain limitations when you use SMTape to backup your data.
The following are the limitations of SMTape:
•
•
SMTape and VSM transfer cannot run together while backing up a VSM destination.
Restore of a volume from a different aggregate type is not allowed.
The backup image of a regular aggregate cannot be restored to a volume in a larger aggregate.
Similarly, the backup image of a larger aggregate cannot be restored to a volume of a regular
aggregate.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 137
•
•
•
•
•
SMTape supports only level-0 backup and restore.
Target volume must be restricted before starting a restore.
Remote tape is not supported when using the CLI to run SMTape.
Storage systems support only 32 concurrent backup and restore sessions.
Even if another node is taken over, the storage system allows only 32 sessions instead of 64
sessions.
SMTape does not support the following volumes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
• SnapLock volume
• FlexCache volume
• Compressed volume
SMTape backup is not restartable.
SMTape is supported only on NDMP v4.
SMTape does not support multiple backups on a single tape.
SMTape does not support backup or restore of selected files or directories.
SMTape does not support verification of files backed up.
SMTape supports restore of backup images only up to two major Data ONTAP releases.
How to perform an SMTape backup and restore using NDMP
services
You can perform an SMTape-based backup and restore by using NDMP-compliant backup
applications.
Data ONTAP provides a set of environment variables that enable you to perform a block-level tape
backup and restore using NDMP services. However, SMTape does not support DAR and file system
data transfer between storage systems.
Environment variables supported for SMTape
Data ONTAP supports a set of environment variables for SMTape. These variables are used to
communicate information about a SMTape backup or restore operation between an NDMP-enabled
backup application and a storage system.
The following table lists the environment variables supported by Data ONTAP for SMTape backup
and recovery, their valid values, default values, and description.
Environment variable
Valid
values
Default
value
Description
138 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Environment variable
Valid
values
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME
Any valid Invalid
When the
Snapshot
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME
copy that
variable is set to a Snapshot copy, all
is
Snapshot copies including and older
available
than that Snapshot copy are backed up
in the
to tape. This variable is available only
volume
in the SMTape backup context.
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT Y or N
Default
value
N
Description
When the
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT
variable is set to Y, SMTape deletes the
auto-Snapshot copy created after the
backup operation completes.
However, if you specify a Snapshot
copy name for the backup, this
Snapshot copy is not deleted.
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR
Y or N
N
When the
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR variable
is set to Y, it ensures that the
SnapMirror relationship established by
the restore operation is broken after the
operation completes. This variable is
available only in the SMTape restore
context.
Note: After a successful restore, the
restored volume will be in the
restricted state and does not become
writable unless the
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR
variable is set to Y.
How to back up and restore using the SMTape commands
You can perform an SMTape backup and restore by using the Data ONTAP CLI commands. You can
also manage your SMTape-initiated backup and restore by using the CLI commands.
You can back up and restore data by using the smtape backup and smtape restore commands.
You can also display the volume geometry of a traditional volume and the image header of a tape,
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 139
abort or continue a backup or restore operation, and display the status of a backup or restore
operation by using the SMTape CLI commands.
Next topics
Backing up data to tape using SMTape on page 139
Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume on page 140
Displaying the image header of a tape on page 141
Restoring data from tape using SMTape on page 142
Aborting a backup or restore operation using smtape abort command on page 143
Continuing a backup or restore after reaching the end of tape on page 143
Displaying the status of backup and restore operations on page 144
When to remove the SnapMirror status entries on page 145
Backing up data to tape using SMTape
You can perform an SMTape backup using the smtape backup command. You can specify a
Snapshot copy name for the backup, in which case the specified Snapshot copy is used as the base
Snapshot copy for the backup. When you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, a base
Snapshot copy is created and backed up.
Step
1. Enter the following command:
smtape backup [-g volume_geometry] [-b block_size] [-s snapshot_name]
path tape_device
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
g
Applies only to traditional volumes. Specifies that the geometry of the
backup image is supplied in the command line. This option optimizes the
tape for a particular traditional volume destination and increases the restore
performance dramatically.
Note: The geometry of a FlexVol volume is always 1.
volume geometry The volume geometry of the traditional volume. You can determine the
geometry by using the smtape restore -g command on that traditional
volume.
b
Specifies that a blocking factor for the backup is supplied in the command
line. It can be in multiples of 4 KB, in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB. The
default tape record size is 240 KB.
block_size
The blocking factor for the backup.
s
Specifies that the base Snapshot copy is supplied in the command line.
140 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
snapshot_name
The base Snapshot copy that must be used for the backup.
path
The path of the data to be backed up.
tape_device
The tape device to be used for the backup.
If the storage system crashes during the backup session, the auto-Snapshot copy of the volume
being backed up continues to remain in the storage system. This stale Snapshot copy is deleted
when you perform an SMTape backup of the volume again.
A unique job ID in the range of 1 to 99999 is assigned to this backup operation. You can
subsequently use this job ID to check the backup status or to abort the backup operation. Also, an
entry is made in the /etc/log/backup file.
In the following example, the data in /vol/testdata is backed up to the rst0a tape device in
blocks of 256 KB.
filer>smtape backup -b 256 /vol/testdata rst0a
Job 9 started
Related tasks
Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume on page 140
Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume
You can view the volume geometry of a specific traditional volume using the smtape restore
command.
Step
1. To display the volume geometry of a traditional volume, enter the following command:
smtape restore -g path
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
g
Specifies that the volume geometry of the traditional volume be displayed.
path
The path of the traditional volume.
You get an improved restore performance if you use the output of this command while backing
up the data using the smtape backup -g command.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 141
Displaying the image header of a tape
You can display the image header of a tape in a specific tape device using the smtape restore
command.
Step
1. To display the image header of a tape in a tape device, enter the following command:
smtape restore -h tape_device
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
h
Specifies that the header of a tape in a specific tape device be displayed.
tape_device The tape device that has the tape for which the image header is to be displayed.
Note: The image header of tape backups created using the snapmirror store command of
earlier releases of Data ONTAP can be read using the smtape restore -h command.
The following example displays the header image of a tape in the tape drive rst1a.
filer> smtape restore -h rst1a
Tape Number
: 1
WAFL Version
: 21054
BareMetal Version
: 9
Source Filer
: filer
Source Volume
: testdata
Source Volume Capacity
: 51200MB
Source Volume Used Size
: 3407MB
Source Snapshot
:
snapshot_for_smtape.db6bb83a-0b99-11dea2dc-00a
980de1c2.0
Volume Type
: Flexible
Is Aggregate
: no
Is SIS Volume
: no
Backup Set ID
: d7b1812a-0f90-11de-a2dc-00a0980de1c2
Backup Version
: 0:0
Backup Sequence No.
: 0
Backup Mode
: dw-data
Time of Backup
: Wed Mar 11 05:36:12 GMT 2009
Time of Previous Backup
: None
Volume Total Inodes
: 1638399
Volume Used Inodes
: 102
Volume Attrbutes
:/
Number of Snapshots
: 1
Snapshot ID
: 76
Snapshot Time
: Fri Mar 6 04:30:31 GMT 2009
Snapshot Name
:
snapshot_for_smtape.db6bb83a-0b99-11dea2dc-00a
142 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
980de1c2.0
Restoring data from tape using SMTape
You can perform a level-0 restore of a backup image in a specific tape device to a destination volume
using the smtape restore command.
About this task
The smtape restore command works the same way as the SnapMirror to Tape restore and
provides users with the ability to initialize a volume SnapMirror (VSM) destination volume using
backup images from tapes. After the restore, a VSM relationship can be established between the
source volume and the destination volume through the snapmirror commands. Prior to a restore
operation, the volume must be in restricted mode. Any existing data on the volume is overwritten
during the restore. The volume stays restricted during the restore operation and the restored volume
is in the read-only state after a successful restore.
Note: Tape backups created using the snapmirror store command of earlier releases of Data
ONTAP can be restored using the smtape restore command.
Step
1. To restore data from tape to a destination volume, enter the following command:
smtape restore [-b block_size] path tape_device
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
b
Specifies that the tape record size to be used is supplied in the command line.
block_size
The blocking factor that was used during the backup.
path
The path to which the data has to restored.
tape_device The tape device that contains the data to be restored.
A unique job ID in the range of 1 to 99999 is assigned to this restore operation. You can
subsequently use this job ID to check the restore status or to abort the restore operation. Also, an
entry is made in the /etc/log/backup file.
The following example restores the data in rst1a tape drive to the /vol/testdata volume
filer>smtape restore /vol/testdata rst1a
Job 10 started
Related tasks
Backing up data to tape using SMTape on page 139
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 143
Aborting a backup or restore operation using smtape abort command
You can abort a backup or restore operation using the smtape abort command. To abort a backup
or restore operation, you must know its job ID.
Step
1. To abort a backup or restore operation, enter the following command:
smtape abort job_id
Note: To abort an SMTape backup or restore operation initiated through NDMP, you must also
terminate the associated NDMP session.
The specified job is aborted and an entry is made in the /etc/log/backup file.
The following example aborts the SMTape operation with job ID 9.
filer>smtape abort 9
Job 9 aborted
Related tasks
Terminating an NDMP session on page 60
Continuing a backup or restore after reaching the end of tape
You can continue a backup or restore operation after it has reached the end of current tape and is in
the wait state to write output to or accept input from a new tape.
About this task
When an SMTape backup or restore operation reaches the end of tape, and the backup or restore
operation requires more than one tape to complete, one of the following messages is displayed on the
console:
Change tape for smtape backup with job id <job ID>
Change tape for smtape restore with job id <job ID>
To continue your backup or restore operation, you must change the tape and use the smtape
continue command.
Step
1. To continue your backup or restore operation after changing the tape, enter the following
command:
144 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
smtape continue job_id [tape_device]
job_id is the job ID of the backup or restore operation to be continued.
tape_device is the tape device to be used to continue with the backup or restore operation. If
you do not specify a tape device, the current tape device is used.
Displaying the status of backup and restore operations
You can display the status of backup and restore operations using the smtape status command.
You can display the status for a specific job ID or for a specific backup or restore path.
Step
1. To display the status of backup and restore operations, enter the following command:
smtape status [-l] [[-p path] | [job_id]]
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
l
Specifies to display a detailed status.
p
Specifies to display the status of a specific path.
path
The path for which the status must be displayed.
job_id
The job ID for which the status must be displayed.
The following example displays the status of current backup and restore jobs.
filer>smtape status
Job ID Seq No Type
Status Path
Device
Progress
1
0 Backup Active /vol/vol0/ urst0a
2
0 Restore Active /vol/vol1/ urst1a
240 MB
201 MB
The following example displays a detailed status for the backup job ID 3.
filer>smtape status -l 3
Job ID:
3
Sequence No:
0
Type:
Backup
Status:
Active
Path:
/vol/testdata
Device:
rst1a
Progress:
1243360 KB
Job Begin:
Wed Mar 11 06:08:01 GMT 2009
Job End:
Last Update Time:
Wed Mar 11 06:08:14 GMT 2009
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 145
When to remove the SnapMirror status entries
When you perform an SMTape backup or restore, a SnapMirror status entry is created in the storage
system. If you do not want to use SMTape backup for tape seeding, you must remove the SnapMirror
status entries after the backup or restore completes.
How to remove the SnapMirror status entries created during backup
After a successful SMTape backup, the base Snapshot copy and the SnapMirror status entry are
retained in the volume, which can be used to initialize a volume SnapMirror relationship.
Note: In case of a failed backup, the base Snapshot copy is automatically deleted. However, the
SnapMirror status entry is retained.
You can delete a SnapMirror status entry by using the snapmirror release command or by
deleting the Snapshot copy.
How to remove the SnapMirror status entries created during restore
After a successful SMTape restore, a SnapMirror status entry is created in the storage system. This
SnapMirror status entry lists the restored volume and the the base Snapshot copy name that is used to
synchronize the SnapMirror source and destination volumes during tape seeding. To remove this
SnapMirror status entry, you must make the restored volume writable and then delete the base
Snapshot copy. Once the snapshot is deleted, the SnapMirror status entry is automatically removed.
Next topics
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape backup on page 145
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape restore on page 146
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape backup
You can remove the SnapMirror status entry corresponding to the volume you backed up.
Steps
1. To list the SnapMirror status entries, enter the following command:
snapmirror status vol_name
vol_name is the name of the volume that you backed up.
The SnapMirror status of the volume is displayed. In case of a successful SMTape backup, the
source is the volume being backed up and the destination is a Snapshot copy. This Snapshot copy
has a name in the snapmirror_tape_hexchar format, in which hexchar is a set of
hexadecimal characters specific to the Snapshot copy. In case of a failed SMTape backup, the
source is the volume being backed up and the destination is a tape name.
2. To remove the SnapMirror status entry by releasing the SnapMirror relationship, enter one of the
following commands:
146 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
If the backup... Then enter the following commands:
Succeeded
snapmirror release vol_name
snapmirror_tape_hexadecimal_char
Failed
snapmirror release vol_name filer_name:tape_device
vol_name is the volume being backed up.
filer_name is the name of the storage system to which the tape device is attached.
tape_device is the tape device to which the volume is backed up.
The following example removes the SnapMirror status entry for the testdata volume that was
successfully backed up.
filer1>snapmirror status testdata
Snapmirror is on.
Source
Destination
State
filer1:testdata
snapmirror_tape_2b8da4a4-1fa9-11de-842e-000c29d658dc Source
Lag
Status
0:02:31 Idle
filer1>snapmirror release testdata snapmirror_tape_2b8da4a4-1fa9-11de-842e-000c29d658dc
The following example removes the SnapMirror status entry for the testdata2 volume that
failed during the backup.
filer1>snapmirror status testdata2
Snapmirror is on.
Source
Destination
filer1:testdata2
filer1:rst1a
State
Source
Lag
-
Status
Idle
filer1>snapmirror release testdata2 filer1:rst1a
In case of a failed backup, though the SnapMirror status entry is deleted, the SnapMirror
release command displays an error message as shown below:
snapmirror release: testdata2 filer1:rst1a: No release-able destination found that matches those
parameters.
Use 'snapmirror destinations' to see a list of release-able destinations.
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape restore
You can remove the SnapMirror status entry corresponding to the volume you restored.
Steps
1. To list the SnapMirror status entries, enter the following command:
snapmirror status vol_name
vol_name is the name of the volume that you restored.
The SnapMirror status of the volume is displayed. In case of a successful SMTape restore, the
source is a Snapshot copy with a name in the format snapshot_for_smtape.hexchar and the
destination is the restored volume. The hexchar in the Snapshot copy name is a set of
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine | 147
hexadecimal characters specific to that Snapshot copy. In case of a failed SMTape restore, the
source is a tape device name and the destination is the volume that failed to restore.
2. To remove the SnapMirror status entry by releasing the SnapMirror relationship, enter one of the
following commands:
If the restore... Then...
Succeeded
a. To break the SnapMirror relationship, enter the following command:
snapmirror break vol_name
b. To remove the SnapMirror status entry, enter the following command:
snap delete vol_name snapshot_for_smtape.hexadecimal_char
Failed
Destroy the volume.
Note: It is safe to destroy the volume because it is not useful due to the failed restore.
The following example removes the SnapMirror status entry for the testdata volume that was
successfully restored.
filer1>snapmirror status testdata
Snapmirror is on.
Source
Status
snapshot_for_smtape.3fde069c-2639-11de-90f6-00a0980c225b.0
Destination
State
Lag
filer1:testdata
Snapmirrored
00:15:12
filer1>snapmirror break testdata
snapmirror break: Destination testdata is now writable.
Volume size is being retained for potential snapmirror resync.
If you would like to grow the volume and do not expect to resync,
set vol option fs_size_fixed to off.
filer1>snap delete testdata snapshot_for_smtape.3fde069c-2639-11de-90f6-00a0980c225b.0
Wed Apr 8 18:57:41 PDT [fsr-u29: wafl.snap.delete:info]: Snapshot copy snapshot_for_smtape.
3fde069c-2639-11de-90f6-00a0980c225b.0
on volume testdata was deleted by the Data ONTAP function snapcmd_delete. The unique ID for this
Snapshot copy is (1, 11).
Idle
What event logging is | 149
What event logging is
Data ONTAP automatically logs significant events and the times at which they occur during dump
and restore operations. All dump and restore events are recorded in a log file named backup in the /
etc/log/ directory. By default, event logging is set to On.
You might want to view event log files for the following reasons:
•
•
•
To find out whether a nightly backup was successful
To gather statistics on backup operations
To use information contained in past event log files to help diagnose problems with dump and
restore operations
Log file rotation
Once every week, the log files are rotated. The /etc/log/backup file is copied to /etc/log/
backup.0, the /etc/log/backup.0 file is copied to /etc/log/backup.1, and so on. The
system saves the log files for up to six weeks; therefore, you can have up to seven message files (/
etc/log/backup.0 through /etc/log/backup.5 and the current /etc/log/backup file).
Event log files in takeover mode
If a takeover occurs in an active/active configuration, the set of backup log files for the takeover
storage system remains separate from the backup log files for the failed storage system.
Next topics
What the dump and restore event log message format is on page 149
What the SMTape event log message format is on page 153
Enabling or disabling event logging on page 156
What the dump and restore event log message format is
For each dump and restore event, a message is written to the backup log file.
The format of the dump and restore event log message is as follows:
type timestamp identifier event (event_info)
The following list describes the fields in the event log message format.
•
Each log message begins with one of the type indicators described in the following table.
150 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
•
•
Type
Description
log
Logging event
dmp
Dump event
rst
Restore event
timestamp shows the date and time of the event.
The identifier field for a dump event includes the dump path and the unique ID for the dump.
The identifier field for a restore event uses only the restore destination path name as a unique
identifier. Logging-related event messages do not include an identifier field.
Next topics
What logging events are on page 150
What dump events are on page 150
What restore events are on page 152
What logging events are
The event field of a message that begins with a log specifies the beginning of a logging or the end of
a logging.
It contains one of the events shown in the following table.
Event
Description
Start_Logging Indicates the beginning of logging or that logging has been turned back on after
being disabled.
Stop_Logging Indicates that logging has been turned off.
What dump events are
The event field for a dump event contains an event type followed by event-specific information
within parentheses.
The following table describes the events, their descriptions, and the related event information that
might be recorded for a dump operation.
Event
Description
Event information
Start
A dump or NDMP dump begins
Dump level and the type of dump
Restart
A dump restarts
Dump level
End
Dumps completed successfully
Amount of data processed
Abort
The operation aborts
Amount of data processed
What event logging is | 151
Event
Description
Event information
Options
Specified options are listed
All options and their associated values,
including NDMP options
Tape_open
The tape is open for read/write
The new tape device name
Tape_close
The tape is closed for read/write
The tape device name
Phase-change A dump is entering a new processing
phase
The new phase name
Error
A dump has encountered an unexpected
event
Error message
Snapshot
A Snapshot copy is created or located
The name and time of the Snapshot
copy
Base_dump
A base dump entry in the etc/dumpdates
files has been located
The level and time of the base dump
(for incremental dumps only)
Example of a dump output
The following is an example of the output for a dump operation:
dmp Thu Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Start (Level 0)
dmp Thu Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Options (b=63, B=1000000, u)
dmp Thu Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Snapshot
(snapshot_for_backup.6, Sep 20 01:11:21 GMT)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_open (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (I)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:24 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (II)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:24 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (III)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:26 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (IV)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:19 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_close (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:20 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_open (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:54 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (V)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:54 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_close (nrst0a)
152 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
dmp Sep 20 01:14:54 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) End (1224 MB)
There are five phases in a dump operation (map files, map directories, dump directories, dump
files, and dump ACLs).
The log file for a dump operation begins with either a Start or Restart event and ends with
either an End or Abort event.
What restore events are
The event field for a restore event contains an event type followed by event-specific information in
parentheses.
The following table provides information about the events, their descriptions, and the related event
information that can be recorded for a restore operation.
Event
Description
Event information
Start
A restore or NDMP restore begins
Restore level and the type of restore
Restart
A restore restarts
Restore level
End
Restores completed successfully
Number of files and amount of data
processed
Abort
The operation aborts
Number of files and amount of data
processed
Options
Specified options are listed
All options and their associated values,
including NDMP options
Tape_open
The tape is open for read/write
The new tape device name
Tape_close
The tape is closed for read/write
The tape device name
Phase-change Restore is entering a new processing
phase
The new phase name
Error
Error message
Restore encounters an unexpected
event
Example
The following is an example of the output for a restore operation:
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Start (level 0)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Options (r)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_open (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:23 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Phase_change (Dirs)
What event logging is | 153
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:24 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Phase_change (Files)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:39:33 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_close (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:39:33 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_open (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:44:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_close (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:44:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ End (3516 files, 1224 MB)
There are two phases in a restore operation (restore directories and restore files).
The log file for a restore operation begins with either a Start or Restart event and ends with
either an End or Abort event.
Example
The following is an example of the output of an aborted restore operation:
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:54 GMT /rst_vol/ Start (Level 0)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:54 GMT /rst_vol/ Options (r)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:54 GMT /rst_vol/ Tape_open (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:55 GMT /rst_vol/ Phase_change (Dirs)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:56 GMT /rst_vol/ Phase_change (Files)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:23:40 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Error (Interrupted)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:23:40 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_close (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:23:40 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Abort (3516 files, 598 MB)
What the SMTape event log message format is
For each SMTape event, a message is written to the backup log file in a specified format.
The format of the SMTape event log message is as follows:
job_id time_stamp vol_path event(event_info)
The following list describes the fields in the event log message format.
•
•
•
•
•
The job_id field shows the unique ID allocated to the SMTape backup or restore job.
The time_stamp field shows the date and time at which SMTape backup or restore event
occured.
The vol_path is the volume path associated with the SMTape backup or restore job.
The eventfield shows the event name.
The event_info field shows the event specific information.
154 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Next topics
What SMTape CLI backup and restore events are on page 154
What SMTape backup events are on page 154
What SMTape restore events are on page 155
What SMTape CLI backup and restore events are
The event field for an SMTape backup or restore event begins with a CLI event type followed by
event-specific information within parentheses.
The following table describes the CLI events and their descriptions recorded for an SMTape backup
and restore operation initiated from the CLI. The event information for these events is the tape device
name.
Event
Description
CLI-Backup
The SMTape backup operation is initiated using the smtape backup command.
CLI-Restore
The SMTape restore operation is initiated using the smtape restore command
CLI-Abort
The SMTape backup or restore operation is aborted by using the smtape abort
command.
CLI-Continue The SMTape backup or restore operation is continued after a tape change using the
smtape continue command.
What SMTape backup events are
The event field for an SMTape backup event contains an event type followed by event-specific
information within parentheses.
The following table describes the events, their descriptions, and the related event information that are
recorded for an SMTape backup operation.
Event
Description
Event information
BKP-Start
An SMTape CLI or NDMP
backup begins
The level of backup and the backup set ID that
identifies the backup session.
BKP-Params
The parameters for the
backup job
Parameters of the backup operation, such as the
origin of the command that specifies whether the
command was initiated from NDMP or CLI, the
tape record size used in the backup, and the tape
device name.
BKP-DW-Start
Data warehouse begins for
the backup job
Does not have any event information.
What event logging is | 155
Event
Description
Event information
BKP-DW-End
Data warehouse ends for the
backup job
Time taken to complete the backup job and the
number of blocks backed up to tape.
BKP-Tape-Stats The tape statistics for the
backup job
The backup statistics, such as the wait time, the
wait count, total count, and the available count.
BKP-End
The backup job ends
The amount of data backed up to tape, the time
taken for the backup, and the performance in GB/
hour.
BKP-Abort
The backup job aborts
A message indicating the reason for aborting the
backup job.
BKP-Tape-Chg The backup job is waiting for The job ID of the backup operation that waits for
a tape change
a tape change.
BKP-Continue
The backup operation
continues after a tape change
The job ID of the backup operation that continues
after a tape change.
BKP-Warning
The backup operation has
encountered an unexpected
event
The reason for the unexpected event.
Example of an SMTape backup output
The following is an example of the output for an SMTape backup operation:
(null) Tue May
5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata CLI-Backup (rst9a)
1 Tue May 5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-Start (level 0 backup of Backup Set ID
f99f17ac-3b32-11de-9682-00a0980c225b)
1 Tue May 5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-Params (originator=CLI mode=dw-data tape_record_size=240KB
tape=rst9a all_snapshots tape_seeding)
1 Tue May
5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-DW-Start
1 Tue May
5 11:27:04 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-DW-End (phase completed in 0:12:04; 9214285 blocks moved)
1 Tue May 5 11:27:04 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-Tape-Stats (wait_time=684s wait_count=128990
total_count=153951 avail_count=130809/17974/4906/262)
1 Tue May 5 11:27:04 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-End (backed up 36.857 GB bytes in 0:12:04;
performance=183.267 GB/hour)
What SMTape restore events are
The event field for an SMTape restore event contains an event type followed by event-specific
information within parentheses.
The following table describes the SMTape restore events, their descriptions, and the related event
information that are recorded for an SMTape restore operation.
156 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Event
Description
Event information
RST-Start
An SMTape CLI or NDMP
restore begins
The restore set ID that identifies the restore session.
RST-Params
The parameters for the
restore job
Parameters of the restore operation, such as the
origin of the command that specifies whether the
command was initiated from NDMP or CLI, the
tape record size for the restore, and the tape device
name.
RST-End
A restore job completed
successfully
The amount of data restored from tape, the time
taken for the restore, and the performance in GB/
hour.
RST-Tape-Chg The restore job is waiting
for a tape change
The job ID of the restore operation that waits for a
tape change.
RST-Continue
The restore job continues
after a tape change
The job ID of the restore operation that continues
after a tape change.
RST-Abort
The restore job aborts
A message indicating the reason for aborting the
restore job.
Example of an SMTape restore output
The following is an example of the output for an SMTape restore operation:
(null) Thu May
29 Thu May
7 18:41:52 PDT /vol/testdata CLI-Restore (rst8a)
7 18:41:52 PDT /vol/testdata RST-Start (Restore Set ID bc24cbb0-3d03-11de-bef3-00a0980c225b)
29 Thu May 7 18:41:52 PDT /vol/testdata RST-Params (originator=CLI mode=image tape_record_size=240KB
tape=rst8a)
29 Thu May 7 18:42:01 PDT /vol/testdata RST-End (restored 399.840 MB bytes in 0:00:09;
performance=159.936 GB/hour)
Enabling or disabling event logging
You can turn the event logging on or off.
Step
1. To enable or disable event logging, enter the following command:
options backup.log.enable {on | off}
on turns event logging on.
off turns event logging off.
What event logging is | 157
Note: Event logging is turned on by default.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 159
Error messages for tape backup and restore
You might encounter an error message when performing a dump or SMTape-based backup or restore
due to various reasons.
Next topics
Backup and restore error messages on page 159
NDMP error messages on page 164
Dump error messages on page 165
SMTape error messages on page 169
Backup and restore error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using SMTape or
dump.
Next topics
Resource limitation: no available thread on page 160
Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape argument list on page 160
Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list on page 160
Tape reservation preempted on page 160
Could not initialize media on page 161
Too many concurrent backups running on page 161
Media error on tape write on page 161
Tape write failed on page 161
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error on page 162
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected on page 162
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media on page 162
Tape write error on page 162
Media error on tape read on page 162
Tape read error on page 163
Already at the end of tape on page 163
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size. on page 163
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2 on page 163
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB on page 163
160 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Resource limitation: no available thread
Message
Resource limitation: no available thread
Cause
The maximum number of active local tape I/O threads are currently in use. You
can have a maximum of 16 local tapes.
Corrective action Wait for some tape jobs to finish before starting a new backup or restore job.
Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape argument list
Message
Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape
argument list
Cause
You have specified a tape drive name twice in the argument list of the backup or
restore command.
If a tape drive name is duplicated in the dump or smtape backup command, data
is backed up twice to the tape attached to that tape drive. If the tape drive name is
duplicated in the restore or smtape restore command, data is restored twice
to the destination.
Corrective
action
Retry the job without specifying the same tape drive more than once in the tape
argument list.
Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list
Message
Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list
Cause
The tape drive specified for the backup or restore operation is not valid.
Corrective action
Use a valid tape drive and retry the operation.
Use the sysconfig -t command to get a list of valid tape drives.
Tape reservation preempted
Message
Tape reservation preempted
Cause
The tape drive is in use by another operation or the tape has been closed
prematurely.
Corrective action Ensure that the tape drive is not in use by another operation and that the DMA
application has not aborted the job and then retry.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 161
Could not initialize media
Message
Could not initialize media
Cause
You might get this error for one of the following reasons:
Corrective
action
•
•
•
The tape drive used for the backup is corrupt or damaged.
The tape does not contain the complete backup or is corrupt.
The maximum number of active local tape I/O threads are currently in use. You
can have a maximum of 16 local tapes.
•
If the tape drive is corrupt or damaged, retry the operation with a valid tape
drive.
If the tape does not contain the complete backup or is corrupt, you cannot
perform the restore operation.
If tape resources are not available, wait for some of the backup or restore jobs to
finish and then retry the operation.
•
•
Too many concurrent backups running
Message
Too many concurrent backups running
Cause
A maximum number of backup and/or restore jobs are already running.
Corrective action
Retry the operation after some of the currently running jobs have finished.
Media error on tape write
Message
Media error on tape write
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup job.
Tape write failed
Message
Tape write failed
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup job.
162 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
Message
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action
Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected
Message
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected
Cause
The tape used for the backup is corrupted or write-protected.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media
Message
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media
Cause
There is not enough space on the tape to complete the backup.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write error
Message
Tape write error - The previous tape had less than the
required minimum capacity, size MB, for this tape
operation, The operation should be restarted from the
beginning
Cause
The tape capacity is insufficient to contain the backup data.
Corrective action Use tapes with larger capacity and retry the backup job.
Media error on tape read
Message
Media error on tape read
Cause
The tape from which data is being restored is corrupted and might not contain
the complete backup data.
Corrective
action
If you are sure that the tape has the complete backup, retry the restore
operation. If the tape does not contain the complete backup, you cannot perform
the restore operation.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 163
Tape read error
Message
Tape read error
Cause
The tape drive is damaged or the tape does not contain the complete backup.
Corrective action If the tape drive is damaged, use another tape drive. If the tape does not contain
the complete backup, you cannot restore the data.
Already at the end of tape
Message
Already at the end of tape
Cause
The tape does not contain any data or must be rewound.
Corrective action If the tape does not contain data, use the tape that contains the backup and retry
the restore job. Otherwise, rewind the tape and retry the restore job.
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size.
Message
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size.
Cause
The blocking factor specified for the restore operation is smaller than the
blocking factor that was used during the backup.
Corrective
action
Use the same blocking factor that was specified during the backup.
In case of an SMTape restore operation, use the smtape restore -h
tape_drive command to determine the correct blocking factor.
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2
Message
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2
Cause
The blocking factor specified for the local restore is incorrect.
Corrective action Retry the restore job with block_size1 as the blocking factor.
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB
Message
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB
Cause
The blocking factor specified for the backup or restore operation is not within
the permitted range.
Corrective action Specify a blocking factor in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
164 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
NDMP error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using NDMPenabled commercial backup applications.
Next topics
Network communication error on page 164
Message from Read Socket : error_string on page 164
Message from Write Direct: error_string on page 164
Read Socket received EOF on page 164
Network communication error
Message
Network communication error
Cause
Communication to a remote tape in a NDMP 3-way connection has failed.
Corrective action
Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Message from Read Socket : error_string
Message
Message from Read Socket : error_string
Cause
Restore communication from the remote tape in NDMP 3-way connection has
errors.
Corrective action Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Message from Write Direct: error_string
Message
Message from Write Direct: error_string
Cause
Backup communication to a remote tape in a NDMP 3-way connection has an
error.
Corrective action Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Read Socket received EOF
Message
Read Socket received EOF
Cause
Attempt to communicate with a remote tape in a NDMP 3-way connection has
reached the End Of File mark. You might be attempting a 3-way restore from a
backup image with a larger block size.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 165
Corrective
action
Specify the correct block size and retry the restore operation.
Dump error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using the dump
engine.
Next topics
No default tape device list on page 165
Invalid/offline volume on page 165
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump on page 166
Failed to determine snapshot type on page 166
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state on page 166
Unable to locate bitmap files on page 166
Failed to locate the specified restartable dump on page 166
Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump on page 167
Unable to locate snapshot on page 167
Invalid inode specified on restart on page 167
Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump on page 167
Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump on page 167
Destination volume is read-only on page 168
Destination qtree is read-only on page 168
IB restore in progress on page 168
Could not access volume in path: volume_name on page 168
No files were created on page 168
No default tape device list
Message
No default tape device list
Cause
The tape device list specified in the dump command is incorrect.
Corrective action
Specify a valid tape device list in the dump command and retry the backup.
Invalid/offline volume
Message
Invalid/offline volume
Cause
The volume specified in the dump command is offline or has been deleted.
166 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Corrective action If the volume is offline, bring the volume back online and make the volume
writable and then perform the backup. If the volume has been deleted, you
cannot perform the backup.
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump
Message
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump
Cause
The Snapshot copy specified for the backup is not available.
Corrective action
Retry the backup with a different Snapshot copy.
Use the snap list command to see the list of available Snapshot copies.
Failed to determine snapshot type
Message
Failed to determine snapshot type
Cause
The Snapshot copy specified for the backup is not available.
Corrective action
Retry the backup with a different Snapshot copy.
Use the snap list command to see the list of available Snapshot copies.
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state
Message
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state
Cause
The volume being backed up is temporarily in an unmounted state.
Corrective action
Wait for some time and perform the backup again.
Unable to locate bitmap files
Message
Unable to locate bitmap files
Cause
The bitmap files required for the backup operation might have been deleted. In
this case, the backup cannot be restarted.
Corrective action Perform the backup again.
Failed to locate the specified restartable dump
Message
Failed to locate the specified restartable dump
Cause
The dump ID specified for restarting the failed backup is invalid.
Corrective action Restart the backup with the correct dump ID.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 167
Use the backup status command to determine the dump ID of the failed
backup that you are trying to restart.
Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump
Message
Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump.
Cause
The dump operation was initiated through NDMP, but you are attempting to
restart it from CLI.
Corrective action Restart the dump operation through NDMP.
Unable to locate snapshot
Message
Unable to locate snapshot
Cause
The Snapshot copies required for restarting the backup are not available.
Corrective action
Backup cannot be restarted. Perform the backup again.
Invalid inode specified on restart
Message
Invalid inode specified on restart
Cause
The inode specified for the NDMP-initiated backup is invalid.
Corrective action
Try to restart the backup with a valid inode number and offset.
Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump
Message
Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump.
Cause
The registry might be corrupt.
Corrective action
Restart the backup again. If it fails, you must redo the backup.
Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump
Message
Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump.
Cause
The registry might be corrupt.
Corrective action
Restart the backup again. If it fails, you must redo the backup.
168 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Destination volume is read-only
Message
Destination volume is read-only
Cause
The path to which the restore operation is attempted to is read-only.
Corrective action
Try restoring the data to a different location.
Destination qtree is read-only
Message
Destination qtree is read-only
Cause
The qtree to which the restore is attempted to is read-only.
Corrective action
Try restoring the data to a different location.
IB restore in progress
Message
IB restore in progress
Cause
An SMTape restore is currently running. You cannot perform a dump-based
restore when an SMTape restore is running.
Corrective action Retry the restore operation after the SMTape restore operation finishes.
Could not access volume in path: volume_name
Message
Could not access volume in path: volume_name
Cause
The destination volume specified in the restore command does not exist.
Corrective action Try to restore the data to a different volume or create a new volume with the
specified name.
No files were created
Message
No files were created
Cause
A directory DAR was attempted without enabling the enhanced DAR
functionality.
Corrective action Enable the enhanced DAR functionality and retry the DAR.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 169
SMTape error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore using SMTape.
Next topics
Internal assertion on page 170
Job aborted due to shutdown on page 170
Job not found on page 170
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete on page 170
Invalid volume path on page 170
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported on page 170
Volume is currently in use by other operations on page 171
Volume offline on page 171
Volume not restricted on page 171
Tape is currently in use by other operations on page 171
Invalid input tape on page 171
Too many active jobs on page 172
Failed to allocate memory on page 172
Failed to get data buffer on page 172
Failed to create job UUID on page 172
Failed to create snapshot on page 172
Failed to find snapshot on page 172
Failed to lock snapshot on page 173
Failed to access the named snapshot on page 173
Failed to softlock qtree snapshots on page 173
Failed to delete softlock on page 173
Failed to delete snapshot on page 173
Image header missing or corrupted on page 174
Chunks out of order on page 174
Tapes out of order on page 174
Already read volume_name tape_number on page 174
Mismatch in backup set ID on page 174
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small on page 175
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone on page 175
Aborting: Source has 32-bit format and destination has 64-bit format on page 175
Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS volume size on this platform.
Aborting on page 175
Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting on page 176
170 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Internal assertion
Message
Internal assertion
Cause
There is an internal SMTape error.
Corrective action
Report the error and send the etc/log/backup file to technical support.
Job aborted due to shutdown
Message
Job aborted due to shutdown
Cause
The storage system is being rebooted.
Corrective action
Retry the job after the storage system reboots.
Job not found
Message
Job not found
Cause
The backup or restore job is not active.
Corrective action
Check the job number and retry the job.
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete
Message
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete
Cause
The volume does not have enough space and has triggered the autodeletion of
Snapshot copies.
Corrective action Free up space in the volume and retry the job.
Invalid volume path
Message
Invalid volume path
Cause
The specified volume for the backup or restore operation is not found.
Corrective action
Retry the job with a valid volume path and volume name.
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported
Message
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported
Cause
A remote tape drive was specified for the backup or restore job.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 171
Corrective action
SMTape does not support remote tapes. Use a local tape drive for the job.
Volume is currently in use by other operations
Message
Volume is currently in use by other operations
Cause
The volume is currently in use by another SnapMirror operation. You cannot
perform an SMTape operation when another SnapMirror operation is using the
volume.
Corrective action Retry the job after the SnapMirror operation finishes.
Volume offline
Message
Volume offline
Cause
The volume being backed up is offline.
Corrective action
Bring the volume online and retry the backup.
Volume not restricted
Message
Volume not restricted
Cause
The destination volume to which data is being restored is not restricted.
Corrective action
Restrict the volume and retry the restore operation.
Tape is currently in use by other operations
Message
Tape is currently in use by other operations
Cause
The tape drive is in use by another job.
Corrective action
Retry the backup after the currently active job is finished.
Invalid input tape
Message
Invalid input tape
Cause
The signature of the backup image is not valid in the tape header. The tape has
corrupted data or does not contain a valid backup image.
Corrective action Retry the restore job with a valid backup image.
172 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Too many active jobs
Message
Too many active jobs
Cause
A maximum number of SMTape jobs are already running. You can have a
maximum of 32 SMTape jobs running simultaneously.
Corrective action Retry the operation after some of the SMTape jobs have finished.
Failed to allocate memory
Message
Failed to allocate memory
Cause
The system has run out of memory.
Corrective action
Retry the job later when the system is not too busy.
Failed to get data buffer
Message
Failed to get data buffer
Cause
The storage system ran out of buffers.
Corrective action
Wait for some storage system operations to finish and then retry the job.
Failed to create job UUID
Message
Failed to create job UUID
Cause
The storage system could not create an UUID because the system is too busy.
Corrective action Reduce the system load and then retry the job.
Failed to create snapshot
Message
Failed to create snapshot
Cause
The volume already contains the maximum number of Snapshot copies.
Corrective action
Delete some Snapshot copies and then retry the backup operation.
Failed to find snapshot
Message
Failed to find snapshot
Cause
The Snapshot copy specified for the backup is unavailable.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 173
Corrective action Check if the specified Snapshot copy is available. If not, retry with the correct
Snapshot copy.
Failed to lock snapshot
Message
Failed to lock snapshot
Cause
The Snapshot copy is either in use or has been deleted.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy is in use by another operation, wait for that operation to
finish and then retry the backup. If the Snapshot copy has been deleted, you
cannot perform the backup.
Failed to access the named snapshot
Message
Failed to access the named snapshot
Cause
The Snapshot copy might have been deleted.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy was deleted, you cannot perform the backup operation. If
the Snapshot copy exists, retry the job.
Failed to softlock qtree snapshots
Message
Failed to softlock qtree snapshots
Cause
The Snapshot copy is in use or the Snapshot copy has been deleted.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy is in use by another operation, wait for that operation to
finish and then retry the job. If the Snapshot copy has been deleted, you cannot
perform the backup operation.
Failed to delete softlock
Message
Failed to delete softlock
Cause
The system could not remove the softlock for a Snapshot copy.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy is no longer required, delete the softlock manually by
using the registry command.
Failed to delete snapshot
Message
Failed to delete snapshot
174 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
Cause
The auto-Snapshot copy could not be deleted because it is in use by other
operations.
Corrective action Use the snap command to determine the status of the Snapshot copy. If the
Snapshot copy is not required, delete it manually.
Image header missing or corrupted
Message
Image header missing or corrupted
Cause
The tape does not contain a valid SMTape backup.
Corrective action
Retry with a tape containing a valid backup.
Chunks out of order
Message
Chunks out of order
Cause
The backup tapes are not being restored in the correct sequence.
Corrective action
Retry the restore operation and load the tapes in the correct sequence.
Tapes out of order
Message
Tapes out of order
Cause
The first tape of the tape sequence for the restore operation does not have the
image header.
Corrective action Load the tape with the image header and retry the job.
Already read volume_name tape_number
Message
Already read volume_name tape_number
Cause
The tape has already been processed.
Corrective action
Be sure to load the correct tape when changing tapes.
Mismatch in backup set ID
Message
Mismatch in backup set ID
Cause
The tape loaded during a tape change is not a part of the backup set.
Corrective action
Load the correct tape and retry the job.
Error messages for tape backup and restore | 175
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small
Message
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small
Cause
The destination volume for the restore is not large enough for the backed up
data.
Corrective
action
Create a larger volume for the restore job.
Use the smtape restore -h tape_drive command to determine the
volume size of the backup image.
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone
Message
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone
Cause
You might be trying to restore an SMTape backup to a FlexClone volume.
SMTape does not support data restoration to a FlexClone volume.
Corrective action Try to restore the data to a regular FlexVol volume.
Aborting: Source has 32-bit format and destination has 64-bit format
Message
Aborting: Source has 32-bit format and destination has 64-bit
format
Cause
You might be trying to restore a backup image of a regular aggregate to a volume
in a larger aggregate.
The backup image of a regular aggregate cannot be restored to a volume in a
larger aggregate. Similarly, the backup image of a larger aggregate cannot be
restored to a volume of a regular aggregate.
Corrective
action
Restore the backup to a volume in a regular aggregate.
Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS volume size on
this platform. Aborting
Message
Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS
volume size on this platform. Aborting
Cause
The backup image is from a SIS volume (deduplication-enabled volume) that is
larger than the maximum size supported by the restore volume. The maximum
volume size when deduplication is enabled depends on the platform that you are
using.
176 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
For more information on the maximum volume size supported for different storage
systems when deduplication is enabled, refer to the "Space savings with
deduplication" section of the Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Online
Backup and Recovery Guide
Corrective
action
Restore the backup image on a platform that allows larger deduplication-enabled
volumes.
Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting
Message
Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting
Cause
The tape contains an incompatible backup image. The backup image is
generated from a newer version of Data ONTAP.
Corrective action Use the correct Data ONTAP version to restore the backup image.
Index | 177
Index
/etc/tape_config files 44
A
ACLs (access control lists)
excluding from tape restores 130
including in tape backups 70
aliases, tape
on multiple storage systems 35
appending backups to tapes 111
B
backup and restore using NDMP services
dump 81
SMTape 137
backups
copying from tape with restore command 120
creating snapshot_for_backup file for 70
nonconsecutive, contents of 71
parallel 97
backups to tape (dump command)
benefits of entering at console 99
benefits of using Remote Shell 99
estimating tapes required for 77
rules for excluding files from 106
syntax 97
unattended 77
where to enter the command 99
backups to tape (dump)
simultaneous dump 70
C
commands
storage alias (displays tape aliases) 33
storage show (displays tape drive information) 33
compression type
specifying in restores from tape 125
considerations
before choosing a tape backup method 23
before using the dump command 77
D
DAR functionality 91
data backup to tape
using the dump engine 69
dump and SMTape backup
differences 23
dump backup
CIFS attributes, not backed up by 70
decreasing tape backup time 76
leaving volumes online for 70
minimizing backup time and data loss 75
use of Snapshot copies 70
using for backups
minimizing tapes used for 76
dump command
backup levels, defined 100
deleting a restartable dump 117
maximum tape blocks per tape file 110
order of tape devices specified by 73
specifying a blocking factor 109
specifying a dump path 104
specifying backup names 108
specifying files and directories 105
specifying local tape device names 102
specifying tape blocks per tape file 110
specifying to omit ACLs 108
using for backups
labeling backup tapes 76
dump engine
Data ONTAP version compatibility 79
data that can be restored 79
dump error messages
could not access volume in path:volume_name 168
destination qtree is read-only 168
destination volume is read-only 168
dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart
dump. 167
failed to determine snapshot type 166
failed to locate the specified restartable dump 166
failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable
dump. 167
IB restore in progress 168
invalid inode specified on restart 167
invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump. 167
invalid/offline volume 165
no default tape device list 165
no files were created 168
unable to locate bitmap files 166
178 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
unable to locate snapshot 167
unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump 166
volume is temporarily in a transitional state 166
dump events 150
dump restart command (restarts interrupted backup) 116
dumpdates file
principles applying to dumpdates file 73
purpose 73
reasons to update 73
E
emulating a qualified tape drive 48
environment variables
ACL_START 82
BASE_DATE 82
DATA_BLOCK_SIZE 82
DEBUG 82
DIRECT 82
DMP_NAME 82
DUMP_DATE 82
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED 82
EXCLUDE 82
EXTRACT 82
EXTRACT_ACL 82
FILESYSTEM 82
FORCE 82
HIST 82
IGNORE_CTIME 82
IGNORE_QTREES 82
LEVEL 82
LIST 82
LIST_QTREES 82
MULTI_SUBTREE_ NAMES 82
NDMP_UNICODE_ FH 82
NDMP_VERSION 82
NO_ACLS 82
NON_QUOTA_TREE 82
NOWRITE 82
RECOVER_FULL_PATH 82
RECURSIVE 82
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR 137
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT 137
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME 137
UPDATE 82
uses 68
error messages related to, example 46
event log files
effect of takeover mode on 149
viewing, reasons for 149
event log messages
dump and restore
event field 149
format
dump and restore 149
SMTape 153
identifier field
dump and restore 149
job_id field
SMTape 153
SMTape
event field 153
vol_path field 153
start and stop logging events 150
timestamp field
dump and restore 149
SMTape 153
type field
dump and restore 149
event logging
enabling or disabling 156
examples
event log
dump 150
restore 152
SMTape backup 154
SMTape restore 155
examples of ndmpcopy command
migrating data from a source path on a remote host
to a destination path on another remote
host 93
migrating data from a source path on remote host to
a destination path on the local storage
system 93
migrating data from a source path to a different
destination path on a remote host 93
migrating data from a source path to a different
destination path on the same storage
system 93
overwriting the /etc directory during the root
volume migration 93
F
files
backing up using dump 70
excluding data from backup 106
excluding from dump command 106
Index | 179
I
image header of a tape
display 141
increment chains, of backups 71
initiate a tape backup
how to 22
inodes
ignoring limits when restoring files 129
L
levels of backups 100
log files
for backup and restore events 149
LUN (logical unit number) 32
ndmp on 56
ndmpcopy (uses local copy tool) 92
ndmpd debug (outputs debug log file) 61
ndmpd kill (terminates NDMP session) 60
ndmpd on|off (enabling or disabling service) 56
ndmpd probe (displays detailed status) 58
ndmpd status (displays status) 58
ndmpd version (shows max version supported) 63
NDMP error messages
message from Read Socket:error_string 164
message from Write Direct:error_string 164
network communication error 164
read Socket received EOF 164
ndmpcopy command
examples 93
O
M
manage NDMP
how to 56
maximum number of simultaneous tape drives 28
mt command syntax 39
N
NDMP
advantages of 51
copying with local tool (ndmpcopy) 92
debug log file, displaying 61
debug log message, displaying 61
debug messages 60
defined 51
disabling preferred network interface 57
displaying file history performance 95
enabling or disabling service (ndmpd on|off) 56
killing sessions (ndmpd kill command) 60
preparing a storage system for basic management
67
session information
displaying detailed status (ndmpd probe) 58
displaying status (ndmpd status command) 58
setting preferred network interface 57
showing max version supported (ndmpd version
command) 63
tape devices used with 66
using with tape libraries 66
version, need to specify 62
NDMP commands
options
backup.log.enable (turns event logging on or off)
156
ndmp.preferred_interface (sets preferred network )
57
ndmpd.offset_map.enable 91
P
physical path names (PPNs)
format 31
Q
qtrees
excluding data from backup 106
omitting data from dump command 106
qualified tape drives, defined 44
R
remote hosts 26
Remote Shell
using to display table of contents for restores from
tape 123
restartable backups
deleting automatically 117
qualifications 78
restore
incremental backups 121
restore command
180 | Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide
disk space required for 80, 81
information required for using 80, 81
options 119
restoring individual files 122
specifying a full restore 122
specifying a resume restore 124
specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape 126
specifying a test restore 132
specifying automatic confirmations 130
specifying no qtree information 131
specifying table-of-contents restore 124
specifying tape devices 125
specifying the blocking factor 127
specifying to exclude ACLs 130
specifying to ignore inode limitations 129
syntax 118
types of restores 118
using with Remote Shell 120
restore command, executing 120
restore events 152
restoring data from tapes 79
rewind type, specifying for tape devices 26
rules
for restore command 118
for specifying a resume restore 124
S
SMTape
aborting a backup or restore job 143
backup and restore using CLI commands 138
backup to tape using smtape backup command 139
continuing a backup or restore 143
displaying the status of a backup or restore
operation 144
features and limitations 136
removing the snapmirror status entry
after a backup operation 145
after a restore operation 146
restoring data from tape 142
what is 135
SMTape backup
how it works 135
smtape commands
smtape abort 143
smtape backup 139
smtape continue 143
smtape restore 142
smtape restore -h 141
smtape status 144
SMTape error messages
aborting:Destination volume, volume_name, is a
clone 175
aborting:Destination volume, volume_name, is too
small 175
aborting:Source has 32-bit format and destination
has 64-bit format 175
already read volume_name tape_number 174
chunks out of order 174
failed to access the named snapshot 173
Failed to allocate memory 172
failed to create job UUID 172
failed to create snapshot 172
failed to delete snapshot 173
failed to delete softlock 173
failed to find snapshot 172
failed to get data buffer 172
failed to lock snapshot 173
failed to softlock qtree snapshots 173
image header missing or corrupted 174
incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version.
Aborting 176
internal assertion 170
invalid input tape 171
invalid volume path 170
job aborted due to shutdown 170
job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete 170
job not found 170
mismatch in backup set ID 174
source volume size is greater than maximum
supported SIS volume size on this
platform. Aborting 175
tape is currently in use by other operations 171
tapes out of order 174
too many active jobs 172
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported 170
volume is currently in use by other operations 171
volume not restricted 171
volume offline 171
SMTape events
CLI backup and restore 154
backup events 154
restore events 155
SnapMirror status entries
how to handle 145
removing entries
after a backup 145
after a restore 146
storage (aliasing) commands
storage alias (assigns tape alias) 34
Index | 181
storage unalias (removes tape alias) 35
storage systems
adding Fiber Channel-attached drives dynamically
36
displaying information about tape drive
connections to 38
subtrees, defined 104
sysconfig -m command (shows information about tape
medium changers) 38
sysconfig -v command (shows tape drive connections to
storage system) 38
T
tape aliases
definition 30
tape backup and restore error messages
already at the end of tape 163
could not initialize media 161
duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the
tape argument list 160
invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list
160
media error on tape read 162
media error on tape write 161
resource limitation:no available thread 160
tape read error 163
tape record size is too smal 163
tape record size must be in the range between 4KB
and 256KB 163
tape record size should be block_size1 and not
block_size2 163
tape reservation preempted 160
tape write error 162
tape write failed 161
tape write failed - new tape encountered media
error 162
tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of
media 162
tape write failed - new tape is broken or write
protected 162
too many concurrent backups running 161
tape configuration files
how the storage system uses 46
what are 44
tape devices
local, defined 25
on remote Solaris systems 25
remote, defined 25
specifying compression type of 26
what are 25
tape drives
in tape libraries, listing qualified 44
nonqualified
displaying information 47
using 46
showing status (mt -status) 43
tape medium changers, displaying information
about 38
unloading tape after rewind (mt -offline) 42
tape libraries
showing names assigned to 66
tape reservations
what are 49
tape restores
displaying a table of contents (files) 123
displaying detailed status output 128
running a test restore 132
specifying a restore destination 127
specifying automatic confirmations 130
specifying tape devices 125
tape seeding 136
types of tape backup 22
V
volume geometry of a traditional volume
display 140
smtape commands
smtape restore -g 140
W
worldwide names (WWNs) 32
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