Piper PA-44-180 Seminole Standardization Manual

Revision 3 7/21/2016
Piper PA-44-180 Seminole
Standardization Manual
This manual is to be utilized in conjunction with the manufacturers approved
POH/AFM and the Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3A). This manual
should be used as a reference for approximate power settings and Leading Edge
Aviation standard procedures. Adjustments in suggested power settings may be
required to attain desired speeds. This manual should be used for training
purposes only and final authority will be with the Pilot in Command.
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Normal Takeoff and Climb
Objective: To develop the students ability to safely take the aircraft off the ground
and depart to take off area during normal conditions.
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Visually note wind direction and speed.
Taxi onto the runway, aligning the nose wheel with the centerline.
Apply full throttle.
Maintain directional control with rudder pedals.
Announce “Engine instruments in the green, airspeed is alive, _____
RPM/”MP.”
6.
Rotate at 75 KIAS.
7.
Pitch for 88 KIAS with reference to the natural horizon.
8.
Maintain an initial climb speed of 88 KIAS.
9.
Retract landing gear at positive rate of climb.*
a.
A verbal call out will be made when the landing gear pump has turned
off.
10. To depart the pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45° turn in the
direction of the traffic pattern.
11. At 1000’ AGL, complete the climb checklist.
*Note: The hand used to retract the landing gear should be placed promptly back on the
throttles after the landing gear switch has been placed in the retract position.
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Crosswind Takeoff and Climb
Objective: To develop the students ability to safely take the aircraft off the ground
and depart the takeoff area during crosswind conditions.
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
Visually note wind direction and speed.
Taxi onto the runway, aligning the aircraft with the centerline.
Apply FULL ailerons into the wind with the elevator placed in the neutral
position.
4.
Apply full throttle.
5.
Maintain directional control with the rudder pedals.
6.
Announce “Engine instruments in the green, airspeed is alive, _____
RPM/”MP.”
7.
Adjust the ailerons to keep wings level during the ground role.
8.
Rotate firmly at 75 KIAS.*
9.
Establish a wind correction angle in order to maintain a ground track which
is aligned with the runway centerline.
10. Pitch for 88 KIAS with reference to the natural horizon.
11. Maintain an initial climb speed of 88 KIAS.
12. Retract landing gear at positive rate of climb.**
a.
A verbal call out will be made when the landing gear pump has turned
off.
12. To depart the pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45° turn in the
direction of the traffic pattern.
13. At 1000’ AGL, complete the climb checklist.
*Note: The aircraft should be positively rotated to preclude the possibility of skidding the
main gear tires as might be encountered during a gradual rotation. Make a coordinated
turn to maintain ground track.
**Note: The hand used to retract the landing gear should be placed promptly back on
the throttles after the landing gear switch has been placed in the retract position.
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Short Field Takeoff and Climb
Objective: To teach the student to obtain maximum performance during the
takeoff phase so as to minimize runway length required for takeoff.
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Visually note wind direction and speed.
Taxi onto the runway, aligning the nose wheel with the centerline.
Hold the brakes firmly to prevent the aircraft from rolling.
Smoothly apply full throttle.
Announce “Engine instruments in the green, _____ RPM/”MP.”
Smoothly release the brakes and announce “Airspeed is alive.”
Maintain directional control with rudder pedals.
Lift off at 70 KIAS*.
Pitch up to maintain 75 KIAS* until obstacles are cleared.
Retract landing gear once safely airborne and positive rate of climb is
assured.**
b.
A verbal call out will be made when the landing gear pump has turned
off.
11. After obstacle clearance is assured, pitch for an attitude which will allow
the aircraft to accelerate to either Vx or Vy as appropriate.
12. To depart the pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45° turn in the
direction of the traffic pattern.
13. At 1000’ AGL, complete the climb checklist.
*Note: Lift off speed and climb speed are dependent on weight. Consult the
performance section of the POH.
**Note: The hand used to retract the landing gear should be placed promptly back on
the throttles after the landing gear switch has been placed in the retract position.
Note: Flaps will be retracted for this maneuver.
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Traffic Pattern Operations
Objective: To develop the ability to conduct safe and efficient arrival and
departure procedures that uncontrolled airports.
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
Complete the Descent Checklist if appropriate.
Determine the active runway and estimate the crosswind component.
Pattern altitude must be established at least 2 miles prior to entering the
downwind.
4.
Slow the aircraft to 110 KIAS (approximately 17” MP and 2500 RPM).
5.
Establish a 45° entry to the midpoint of the downwind leg.
6.
Adjust speed and course as appropriate to maintain proper spacing from
aircraft already established in the traffic pattern.
7.
Turn downwind at approximately 1/2 to 1 mile from the active runway.
8.
Prior to midfield, extend the landing gear and perform the Before Landing
checklist.
a.
The hand used to extend the gear should remain on the landing gear
switch until the pump has shut off and all three landing gear lights are
illuminated.
b.
An increase in MP may be required to maintain 110 KIAS with the
landing gear extended.
9.
When abeam the point of intended landing, reduce the throttle to 15” MP,
set flaps to 10°, and adjust the pitch attitude to maintain approximately a
500 FPM descent rate.
10. When the touchdown point is positioned 45° behind the wing of the aircraft,
turn onto the base leg and lower the flaps to 25° while maintaining
approximately a 500 FPM descent rate and approximately 90 KIAS.
11. Turn onto the final leg with the airplane aligned on the runway centerline
and lower the flaps as appropriate.
12. Refer to the appropriate landing procedure.
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Flow Check
Objective: To ensure that the aircraft is in a condition appropriate for either the
subsequent maneuver or cruise.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Set the fuel selectors to ON.
Set the cowl flaps as required to ensure proper engine temperatures
during the maneuver.
a.
If the CHT is approaching 435° (top of the green arc), open the cowl
flaps.
b.
If the maneuver to be performed requires low or idle power, the cowl
flaps should be closed prior to throttle closure.
3.
Ensure that the primers are in the locked position.
4.
Verify that the carb heat levers are in the appropriate position.
5.
Set power to the appropriate setting.
6.
Adjust the mixtures via the EGT gauges to 125° rich of peak.
a.
This should be done every time an altitude change of 2,000’ or more
has been accomplished.
7.
Extend/retract the landing gear as appropriate.
8.
Extend/retract the flaps as appropriate.
9.
Turn on/off the electric fuel pumps as appropriate.
10. Mags and switches as appropriate.
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Clearing Procedure
Objective: To teach the students to exercise conscientious and continuous
surveillance of the airspace in which the airplane is being operated and configure
the aircraft for maneuvering flight.
Procedure:
First 90° clearing turn:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Perform the flow check.
Visually scan the area to the left and right of the aircraft.
Pick a visual landmark off the wing tip in the direction of turn to roll out on.
Lower the wings and direction of turn to clear for traffic and enter a 30°
bank.
Continuously scan the area ABOVE, BELOW, and AHEAD of the flight
path.
After 90° of turn is completed, roll out wings level on your selected
landmark.
Second 90° clearing turn:
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Visually scan the area to the left and right of the aircraft.
Pick a visual landmark off the wing tip in the direction of turn to roll out on.
Enter a 30° bank in the same or opposite direction as the first 90° of
heading change.
Continuously scan the area ABOVE, BELOW, and AHEAD of the
flightpath.
After 90° of turn is completed, roll out wings level on your selected
landmark.
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Maneuvering During Slow Flight
Objective: To teach the student to recognize changes in aircraft flight
characteristics and control effectiveness at critically slow airspeeds in various
configurations.
Procedure:
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 3000’
AGL.
2.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
a.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
3.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
4.
Extend the gear at or below 140 KIAS for a landing configuration.
5.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
6.
Below 111 KIAS, extend flaps incrementally.
7.
When the airspeed is approximately 10 KIAS above the target airspeed,
add power.
1.
Configuration
Target Speed
Power Setting*
Cruise
57 KIAS
18” MP
Landing
55 KIAS
20” MP
*Power settings may vary based upon aircraft loading and density altitude.
8.
9.
10.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
11.
Maintain target airspeed +5 KIAS, -0 KIAS.
Turns, climbs, and descents should be practiced.
To recover:
Smoothly apply full power.
Adjust the pitch and trim accordingly to maintain altitude.
Retract the flaps to 25°.
Retract the landing gear (if extended).
Retract the remaining flaps gradually between Vx and Vy.
After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the flow check.
Warning: In the event of loss of directional control, close both throttles immediately and
perform the spin recovery procedure.
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Steep Turns
Objective: To develop smoothness, coordination, orientation, division of attention,
and control techniques while executed high-performance turns.
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
a.
5.
6.
7.
a.
b.
c.
8.
9.
10.
a.
b.
11.
12.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
Perform this maneuver at or below maneuvering speed.
17” MP and 2500 RPM should yield approximately 110 KIAS.
Note the pitch attitude for level flight.
Roll into the specified bank angle (Private 45°, Commercial 50°).
As the aircraft rolls through 30° of bank:
Add power to maintain airspeed (2-3” MP).
Increase back pressure to maintain altitude.
Note the position of the nose relative to the horizon.
Trim should be used to relieve back pressure.
Begin rolling out of your turn approximately 1/2 the bank angle before your
reference point.
As the aircraft rolls through 30° of bank:
Reduce the power to maintain airspeed (17” MP and 2500 RPM)
Decrease back pressure to maintain altitude.
Repeat steps 6-10 for the turn in the opposite direction*.
After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the flow check.
*Note: Private Pilots do not need to connect the first and second turn. The first turn may
be made after which, the student may take time to set up for the second turn.
Commercial pilots must complete the second turn immediately after the first.
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Power-Off Stall
Objective: To teach the student to recognize the indications of an imminent or full
stall during power off situations and to make prompt, positive, and effective
recoveries with a minimum loss of altitude.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
11.
12.
13.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery is completed at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
Extend the gear at or below 140 KIAS.
Below 111 KIAS, extend flaps incrementally.
Adjust pitch to maintain altitude as flaps are extended.
Maintain altitude until 88 KIAS and then establish a stabilized descent
attitude at 88 KIAS.
Reduce power to idle while increasing pitch to Vy attitude.
Announce each of the three indications of a stall.
At the stall:
Verbally announce the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude sufficiently to break the stall.
Use the rudder to maintain directional control.
Maintain neutral ailerons.
Add full power.
Set flaps to 25°.
Retract the landing gear.
Adjust the pitch to an attitude that allows a positive rate of climb and an
increase in airspeed to Vy.
As the aircraft accelerates through 88 KIAS, retract the flaps.
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
Note: This maneuver should be practiced at bank angles of 0-20°.
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Power-On Stall
Objective: To teach the students to recognize the indications of an imminent or
full stall during power on situations and to make prompt, positive, and effective
recoveries with a minimum loss of altitude.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
11.
12.
13.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery is completed at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
Extend the landing gear at or below 140 KIAS.
Adjust pitch to maintain altitude.
At 75 KIAS, increase throttle to full power and retract landing gear.
Slowly increase pitch to an attitude which will induce a stall.
Verbally announce each of the three indications of a stall.
At the stall:
Verbally announce the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude sufficiently to break the stall.
Use the rudder to maintain directional control.
Maintain neutral ailerons.
Verify full power.
Verify flaps up.
Adjust the pitch to an attitude that allows a positive rate of climb and an
increase in airspeed to Vy.
As the aircraft accelerates through 88 KIAS, lower the pitch to Vy attitude.
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
Note: This maneuver should be practiced at bank angles of 0-20°.
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Secondary Stall
Objective: To teach the student to recognize the effects of improper control
usage after initiating recovery from a stall.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
7.
8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
9.
10.
11.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller controls should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
Set up as either a Power-On or Power-Off Stall.
Verbally announce each of the three indications of a stall.
At the stall:
Verbally announce the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude sufficiently to break the stall.
Use the rudder to maintain directional control.
Maintain neutral ailerons.
Add or maintain full power.
Before recovery, increase pitch attitude for a secondary stall.
At the stall:
Verbally announce the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude sufficiently to break the stall.
Use the rudder to maintain directional control.
Maintain neutral ailerons.
Add or maintain full power.
Set flaps to 25° and retract the landing gear (if extended).
Adjust the pitch to an attitude that allows a positive rate of climb and an
increase in airspeed to Vy.
As the aircraft accelerates, lower the pitch to Vy attitude and incrementally
retract flaps 25°(if extended).
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
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Elevator Trim Stall
Objective: To teach the student the effects of not maintaining positive airplane
control during a go-around.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a.
7.
8.
a.
9.
10.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
11.
12.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller controls should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
Extend the landing gear at or below 140 KIAS.
Extend flaps as appropriate to conform with maximum flaps speeds.
Adjust pitch to maintain altitude as flaps are extended.
Maintain altitude until 88 KIAS and then establish a stabilized approach
attitude at 88 KIAS and trim to maintain attitude.
Add full power:
Allow the pitch to increase to approximately Vx pitch attitude.
Verbally announce each of the three indications of a stall.
When the stall is imminent:
Verbally announce the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude sufficiently to break the stall.
Use the rudder to prevent a spin.
Maintain neutral ailerons.
Set flaps to 25°.
Retract the landing gear.
Trim the aircraft.
Adjust the pitch to an attitude that allows a positive rate of climb and an
increase in airspeed to Vy.
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
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Cross-Control Stall
Objective: To teach the student the effects of not maintaining positive airplane
control during a go-around.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
11.
12.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller controls should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
Extend the landing gear at or below 140 KIAS.
At 88 KIAS, reduce power to idle.
Roll into a left or right bank not to exceed 30°.
Apply excessive rudder in the direction of turn and use opposite aileron to
maintain bank angle.
Pitch the nose up above the horizon.
Verbally announce each of the three indications of a stall.
When the stall is imminent:
Verbally announce the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude slightly below a level pitch attitude.
Use coordinated control inputs to maintain directional control and level
the wings.
Add full power.
Retract the landing gear.
Adjust the pitch to an attitude that allows a positive rate of climb and an
increase in airspeed to Vy.
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
Note: Never perform this maneuver with flaps extended.
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Accelerated Stall
Objective: To show the student that a stall is a function of angle of attack rather
than airspeed.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
5.
a.
b.
c.
6.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
7.
8.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 3000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller controls should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
Extend the landing gear at or below 140 KIAS.
At 69 KIAS (1.2 times Vs):
Adjust pitch to maintain altitude.
Establish 45° of bank.
Smoothly increase back pressure until the onset of the stall (buffet).
At the buffet:
Verbally announce the onset of the stall.
Lower the pitch attitude slightly below a level pitch attitude.
Use coordinated control inputs to maintain directional control and level
the wings.
Add full power.
Retract the landing gear.
Adjust the pitch to an attitude that allows a positive rate of climb and an
increase in airspeed to Vy.
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
Note: Never perform this maneuver with flaps extended.
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Spins
This maneuver is not authorized in the Seminole
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Rectangular Course
Objective: To teach the student to plan and correct for the effects of wind while
maneuvering the aircraft over a predetermined ground path.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
Perform this maneuver at or below maneuvering speed.
a.
17” MP and 2500 RPM should yield approximately 110 KIAS.
3.
Determine the wind direction.
4.
Select a rectangular area from which an emergency landing can be made
should the need arise.
5.
Plan to enter the maneuver for either a left or right pattern.
6.
Enter the maneuver at 800-1000’ AGL.
7.
Enter the downwind on a 45° angle.
8.
Throughout the maneuver, establish a crab angle to maintain a uniform
distance around the rectangular reference area at approximately 1/2 mile.
9.
Very the bank angle as appropriate based upon groundspeed to maintain a
constant radius during the turns.
10. At least one lap of the rectangle is required though more may be
completed for practice purposes.
11. After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the flow check.
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Turns Around A Point
Objective: To teach the student to plan and correct for the effects of wind while
maneuvering the aircraft over a predetermined ground path.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
Perform this maneuver at or below maneuvering speed.
a.
17” MP and 2500 RPM should yield approximately 110 KIAS.
3.
Determine the wind direction.
4.
Select a reference point from which an emergency landing can be made
should the need arise.
5.
Enter the maneuver at 800-1000’ AGL.
6.
Recommended entry for the maneuver is on the downwind.*
7.
Begin the turn once the wing is abeam the point.
8.
Very the bank angle as appropriate based upon groundspeed to maintain a
constant radius during the turns.
a.
The steepest bank angle should not exceed 45°.
9.
At least one lap of the maneuver is required though more may be
completed for practice purposes.
10. After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the flow check.
*Note: At the discretion of the flight instructor, entries other than those made on the
downwind shall be practiced to verify the understanding of the relationship between
groundspeed and required bank angle.
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S-Turns Across A Road
Objective: To teach the student to plan and correct for the effects of wind while
maneuvering the aircraft over a predetermined ground path.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
Perform this maneuver at or below maneuvering speed.
a.
17” MP and 2500 RPM should yield approximately 110 KIAS.
3.
Determine the wind direction.
4.
Select a reference line that is perpendicular to the wind which allows for a
single-engine landing to a suitable landing field if the need arises.
5.
Enter the maneuver at 800-1000’ AGL.
6.
Enter the maneuver on the downwind.
7.
Begin the turn back towards the reference line once the wing is abeam the
reference line.
8.
Very the bank angle as appropriate based upon groundspeed to maintain a
constant radius during the turns.
a.
Adjust the pitch attitude to maintain altitude.
b.
The steepest bank angle should not exceed 45°.
9.
The wings should be level and in transit to the opposite direction turn as
the aircraft crosses the reference line.
10. Repeat steps 7-9 in the opposite direction.
11. After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the flow check.
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Loss of 02 Emergency Descent
Objective: To develop the student’s ability to descend the airplane as rapidly as
possible, within the limitations of the airplane.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Brief passengers on the maneuver.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
a.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
3.
Reduce power to idle.
4.
Extend the gear at or below 140 KIAS and close the cowl flaps.
5.
Lower the pitch of the aircraft while rolling into a 45° bank.
6.
Adjust the pitch of the aircraft to maintain 140 KIAS.
7.
Roll out of the maneuver after 90° of heading change by first rolling wings
level and then pitching up.
8.
Use a 30° S-turn to clear the area.
9.
Smoothly advance the throttle to 15” MP in order to slow down to Vlo or
slower.
10. Retract the landing gear at or below 109 KIAS.
11. After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the flow check.
Note: Enriching of the mixtures may be required at the end of the maneuver PRIOR to
advancing the throttle.
Note: This maneuver is permitted only on dual flights.
Note: Recover no lower than 500’ AGL.
Caution: Do NOT exceed Vno unless in smooth air. Use Va when necessary.
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Engine Fire Emergency Descent
Objective: To develop the students ability to descend the airplane as rapidly as
possible, within the limitation of the airplane.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Brief passengers on the maneuver.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
a.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
3.
Simulate the Engine Fire checklist
4.
Reduce power to idle.
5.
Extend the gear at or below 140 KIAS and close the cowl flaps.
6.
Lower the pitch of the aircraft while rolling into a 45° bank.
7.
Adjust the pitch of the aircraft to maintain 140 KIAS.
8.
Roll out of the maneuver after 90° of heading change by first rolling wings
level and then pitching up.
9.
Use a 30° S-turn to clear the area.
10. Smoothly advance the throttle to 15” MP in order to slow down to Vlo or
slower.
11. Retract the landing gear at or below 109 KIAS.
12. After the maneuver is complete, trim the aircraft for cruise and complete
the cruise checklist.
Note: Enriching of the mixture may be required at the end of the maneuver before
advancing the throttle.
Note: This maneuver is permitted only on dual flights.
Note: Recover no lower than 500’ AGL.
Caution: Do NOT exceed Vno unless in smooth air. Use Va when necessary.
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Diversion
Objective: To develop skills necessary for plotting a new course and determining
a new ETA while en route.
Procedure:
1.
When diverting to a nearby airport (25 NM or less) and fuel is not critical,
students will be expected to make estimates with a reasonable degree of
accuracy rather than actual computations.
2.
Note the starting position and time.
3.
Determine location of new destination.
4.
Turn into an estimated heading that will avoid any restricted or special use
airspace, obstructions, or adverse weather.
5.
Select some prominent landmarks to aid in flying the new course.
6.
Determine distance and magnetic heading.
7.
Compute ETE, ETA, fuel required, and compass heading.
8.
Amend the flight plan with the appropriate Flight Service Station.
a.
The pilot should check all applicable NOTAMs and TFRs for the
diversion airport as well as the surrounding airspace.
9.
Brief new destination airport information.
Piper PA-44-180 Seminole
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Lost Procedures
Objective: To gain proficiency in determining aircraft position and the corrections
needed to reestablish the aircraft on course.
Procedure:
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
If unable to determine aircrafts position, complete the 6 C’s.
CONFESS - Admit to yourself that you are lost.
CONSERVE - Reduce throttle and lean the mixture to get better fuel
economy.
CLIMB - Climb to avoid obstructions, increase visibility, and improve
radio reception.
CIRCLE - Pick a nearby landmark and stay in its general vicinity.
i.
Use topographical features and/or electronic navigation to determine
your position.
A.
Topographical features:
I.
Align the directional gyro with the magnetic compass.
II.
Turn the sectional chart to match your heading.
III.
Look outside to find prominent landmarks.
IV.
Match the landmarks to the chart.
B.
Electronic Navigation:
I.
Align the directional gyro with the magnetic compass.
II.
If using GPS, select the nearest USABLE airport and initiate
the Direct To function.
III.
If using a ground based Navaid, tune and identify the
appropriate available station or stations and determine
approximate location.
ii.
If location is determined, return to the original course or initiate a
diversion.
COMMUNICATE - Talk to ATC or FSS.
COMPLY - Follow ATC or FSS instructions.
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Normal Approach and Landing
Objective: To develop the students ability to safely and accurately land the
airplane in a designated area.
Procedure:
1.
Fly the traffic pattern following the Traffic Pattern Operations procedure on
page 5 of this document.
2.
On the Final leg:
a.
Set the flaps to 40°.
b.
Adjust pitch and power to maintain the descent to touchdown point at
88 KIAS.
i.
Add 1/2 gust factor as necessary.
3.
Verbally announce “Three in the green, one in the mirror, props full
forward, cleared to land.”
4.
Once landing is assured, begin reducing power so that the throttles reach
the full closed position as the main tires touch the ground within 200’
beyond a specified point.
5.
Hold the nose gear off of the runway with back-pressure.
6.
After the nose wheel has touched the ground, gently apply brakes while
maintaining runway centerline.
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Crosswind Approach and Landing
Objective: To develop the students ability to safely land the aircraft on the ground
during crosswind conditions.
Procedure:
1.
Fly the traffic pattern following the Traffic Pattern Operations procedure on
page 5 of this document.
2.
Note the wind direction and speed.
3.
On the Final leg:
a.
Set the flaps as appropriate to the wind speed.
b.
Ensure that the airspeed is slightly faster than for a normal landing.
i.
Add 1/2 gust factor as necessary.
4.
Verbally announce “Three in the green, one in the mirror, props full
forward, cleared to land.”
5.
Maintain runway centerline and directional control with a “Side Slip.”
6.
Once landing is assured, begin reducing power so that the throttles reach
the full closed position as the main tires touch the ground.
7.
Land on the upwind main tire first within 200’ beyond a specified point and
then set the downwind main tire down on the runway in a controlled and
deliberate manner.
8.
Hold the nose gear off of the runway with back-pressure.
9.
After the nose wheel has touched the ground, gently apply brakes while
maintaining runway centerline.
10. Adjust the ailerons to keep the wings level during the ground roll.
11. Continue the appropriate crosswind correction for all taxi operations.
Note: With less than full flaps, the airplane will be in a higher nose-up attitude.
Note: Commercial students will be required to demonstrate the “Crab and Kick”
technique of Crosswind Landing.
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Short Field Approach and Landing
Objective: To teach the students how to obtain maximum performance from the
aircraft so that the landing may be consistently accomplished with precision in a
short distance.
Procedure:
1.
Fly the traffic pattern following the Traffic Pattern Operations procedure on
page 5 of this document.
2.
On the Final leg:
a.
Set the flaps to 40°.
b.
Adjust pitch and power to maintain the descent to touchdown point at
75 KIAS.
i.
Add 1/2 gust factor as necessary.
3.
Verbally announce “Three in the green, one in the mirror, props full
forward, cleared to land.”
4.
Maintain the predetermined aiming point with pitch and power corrections
until approaching the round out.
5.
At the round out, reduce the power to idle and continue the flare to
touchdown at the predetermined point within 100’ on the main tires first.
6.
In a controlled and deliberate manner, lower the nose gear to the runway.
7.
After the nose wheel has touched the ground, apply full back pressure with
the yoke.
8.
Retract the flaps to zero while verbalizing that the flap lever is being
actuated as opposed to the landing gear switch.
9.
Smoothly apply maximum braking without locking up the wheels and
maintain runway centerline.
Note: This maneuver is NOT complete until the aircraft has come to a COMPLETE stop.
Note: Approach speed should be increased as required (typically half the gust factor) if
turbulence or wind shear conditions exist.
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Go-Around
Objective: To teach the student to discontinue the approach and attempt another
approach under more favorable conditions.
Procedure:
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
2.
3.
4.
Should the decision be made to go-around, the following should be
accomplished in order:
Smoothly increase the throttles to the full open position.
Retract the flaps to 25°.
Retract the landing gear with a positive rate of climb.
Pitch up to an attitude which will obtain 82 KIAS.
Open the cowl flaps.
Retract the remaining flaps incrementally once a positive rate of climb
has been established.
Accelerate to Vy.
At traffic patter altitude, lower pitch to a level flight attitude and adjust
power as necessary (approximately 17” MP and 2500 RPM) to maintain
110 KIAS.
To depart the pattern, continue straight out, or exit with a 45° turn in the
direction of the traffic pattern.
At 1000’ AGL, complete the climb checklist.
Note: The earlier a dangerous situation is recognized, the sooner a decision to reject
the landing and begin a go-around, the safer the maneuver will be.
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Vmc Demo
Objective: To teach the student to recognize the indications of loss of
directional control from the loss of one engine.
Procedure:
1.
2.
a.
3.
4.
a.
5.
6.
a.
7.
8.
a.
b.
c.
9.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
10.
11.
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery takes place at or above 4000’
AGL.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
Verbally acknowledge the landing gear warning horn.
Adjust pitch to maintain altitude.
At 98 KIAS (10 KIAS above Vyse, reduce power to idle on either the left or
right engine.
Increase throttle to full power on the other engine.
Slowly increase pitch to an attitude which will induce a one knot per
second loss in airspeed.
Recover the aircraft when:
Gives the first indication of a stall.
Full deflection of the rudder is achieved.
Directional control is lost.
In order to recover:
Immediately reduce power on the operative engine.
Lower the pitch attitude sufficiently to accelerate.
Use the rudder to maintain directional control.
Increase power on the operative engine above Vmc.
Accelerate and maintain blue line (88 KIAS) with the operating engine.
At the completion of the maneuver, increase the throttle on the inoperative
engine for a normal climb back to altitude.
Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
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Drag Demo
Objective: To demonstrate the effects of various configurations of flaps,
gear and sideslip have on rate of climb during single engine operations.
Procedure:
Perform this maneuver so that the recovery is completed at or above 4000’
AGL.
2.
Complete the flow check and CRAGS.
a.
The propeller control should be placed full forward in the high RPM
position.
3.
Pick a visual reference point to assist in maintaining heading.
4.
Reduce power to 12-13” MP.
5.
Extend the gear at or below 140 KIAS.
6.
Below 111 KIAS, extend flaps incrementally.
a.
Adjust pitch to maintain altitude as flaps are extended.
7.
At 88 KIAS, increase throttle to full power on either the left or right engine.
a.
Reduce power to idle on the other engine.
8.
Maintain a constant heading and 88 KIAS while noting the descent rate.
9.
Reduce flaps to 25° and note the descent rate.
10. Reduce flaps to 10° and note the descent rate.
11. Reduce flaps to 0° and note the descent rate.
12. Retract the landing gear and note the descent or climb rate.
13. Establish a zero sideslip configuration and note the rate of descent or
climb.
14. Set the inoperative engine to zero thrust (12” MP and 2400 RPM) and note
the rate of climb or descent.
15. At the completion of the maneuver, increase the throttle on the inoperative
engine for a normal climb back to altitude.
16. Upon reaching the specified recovery altitude, complete the flow check.
1.
Note: Do not apply full power to the simulated inoperative engine if cylinder head temp
is below the green arc.
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Engine Failure Below Vmc
Objective: To teach recognition and recovery of an engine failure if it occurs
below Vmc.
Procedure:
1.
2.
Detect the engine loss.
Maintain directional control.
a.
Immediately retard both throttles.
b.
Maintain runway alignment with nose wheel steering.
Note: The instructor will fail the engine with a mixture lever at a speed no greater than
40 KIAS. If the student does not retard the throttles in a manner sufficient to prevent a
loss of directional control, the instructor will then retard the other mixture and assume
control of the aircraft.
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Engine Failure After Departure
Objective: To instruct the student on the course of action to be taken after
an engine has failed on the departure leg.
Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
4.
5.
6.
Detect that an engine has failed.
If usable runway is available, reduce power to idle, lower the flaps
and land.
If there is no more usable runway remaining, complete the engine
failure procedure:
Pitch for 88 KIAS.
Maintain directional control.
Perform the “6 ups”:
i.
Mixtures, propellers, and throttles should be pushed full
forward.
ii.
Turn on the fuel pumps.
iii. Retract the landing gear and flaps (Note: If a positive rate of
climb has been determined from the performance charts and
obtained and no usable runway remains, then retract the
landing gear).
Identify the inoperative engine.
Feather the inoperative engine (the instructor will then set the
inoperative engine to zero thrust. 2180 RPM ).
Establish zero sideslip condition.
Declare an emergency.
Configure the operating engine for optimum performance.
Determine if a turn back to the airport can be made based on the
current performance.
If a positive rate of climb can be maintained using shallow turns,
return to the airport. (Note: Use caution turning when the operating
engine is the outside engine).
If unable to maintain a positive rate of climb, determine the most
suitable landing site and prepare for an off airport landing.
Piper PA-44-180 Seminole
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Traffic Pattern
Gear Down and
Verified
17”MP/2500RPM
110 KIAS
Power
Flaps
Downwind
17” MP
0°
Abeam
15” MP
10°
Base
As Required
25°
Final
As Required
40°
Touchdown in a slightly
nose high attitude
100 KIAS
15” MP
10° Flaps
88 KIAS
15” MP
40° Flaps
90 KIAS
15” MP
25° Flaps
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Precision Approach
Final Intercept
Complete Before Landing
Start of Vectors/Cleared to IAF
110 KIAS
Complete Descent Checklist prior to GS intercept
Glide Slope Intercept
5 T’s
15” MP
100 KIAS
Missed Approach
Full Power
Pitch for VY
Retract Flaps and gear at positive
rate of climb
Glide Slope Alive
Flaps to 10° one dot below GS
Gear extended one dot below
GS
Decision Altitude
Autopilot Disconnect
Missed approach if
applicable
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Non-precision Approach
Final Intercept
Complete Before Landing
Start of Vectors/Cleared to IAF
110 KIAS
Complete Descent Checklist Prior to FAF
Glide Slope Intercept
5 T’s
15” MP
100 KIAS
1NM to FAF
Gear extended
MDA
20” MP
100 KIAS
Missed Approach
Full Power
Pitch for VY
Retract Flaps and gear at positive
rate of climb
Decision Altitude
Autopilot Disconnect
Missed approach if
applicable
Piper PA-44-180 Seminole
34
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