Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer - Alcatel

Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
(Release 2.1)
Applications and Planning Guide
365-372-331
Issue 2.1
March 2005
Copyright  2005 Lucent Technologies
All Rights Reserved
Copyright © 2005 Lucent Technologies. All Rights Reserved.
This material is protected by the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. It may not be reproduced, distributed, or altered in any fashion by
any entity (either internal or external to Lucent Technologies), except in accordance with applicable agreements, contracts or licensing, without the express
written consent of the Customer Training and Information Products organization and the business management owner of the material.
For permission to reproduce or distribute, please contact the following:
Product Development Manager
1-888-LTINFO6 (1-888-584-6366)
Notice
Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this document was complete and accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject to
change.
Mandatory Customer Information
Interference Information: Part 15 of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Rules.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residence is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be
required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Security statement
In rare instances, unauthorized individuals make connections to the telecommunications network through the use of remote access features. In such an event,
applicable tariffs require that the customer pay all network charges for traffic. Lucent Technologies cannot be responsible for such charges and will not make
any allowance or give any credit for charges that result from unauthorized access.
Trademarks
WaveStar and Metropolis family of products including DMX, DMXtend, DMXpress, DMXplore, EON, BandWidth Manager, TDM 2.5G, TDM 10G, OLS
40G, and OLS 400G are registered trademarks of Lucent Technologies.
5ESS, 7R/E, SNMS, DDM-2000 OC-3 Multiplexer, DDM-2000 OC-12 Multiplexer, DDM-2000 FiberReach Multiplexer, and FT-2000 Lightwave System
are registered trademarks of Lucent Technologies.
ANSI is a registered trademark of American National Standards Institute, Inc.
Common Language is a registered trademark, and CLEI, CLLI, and CLFI are trademarks of Telcordia Technologies, Inc.
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Ordering information
The ordering number for this document is 365-372-331. To order this document, call 1-888-582-3688. For more ordering information, refer to "How to Order
Documents" in the section "About This Document" and to Chapter 7, "Ordering".
Support telephone numbers
Technical Support Telephone Numbers
For SONET technical assistance, call Lucent Technologies’ Technical Support Services (TSS) at 1-866-LUCENT8 (866-582-3688). This phone number is
monitored 24 hours a day.
Information Product Support Telephone Number
You can also use this telephone number to provide comments on the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer or to suggest enhancements..
Contents
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
About this information product
Intended audience
xxii
How to use this information product
xxii
Conventions used
xxiii
How to comment
xxiv
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1
System Overview
Overview of the Metropolis® Portfolio
1-2
Metropolis® Metro Access Solutions
1-4
Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
1-5
Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
1-7
Introduction to the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
1-8
Feature Release Plan
1-13
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2
Features
Hardware Features
2-2
In-service Upgrades
2-4
Topologies
2-5
Networking Capabilities
2-6
Cross-connection Types
2-8
Operations Features
2-10
Synchronization Features
2-13
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3
Network Topologies
Service Applications
3-2
Small or Medium-sized Business Access
3-3
Wireless Optical Buildout
3-5
Ethernet Extension
3-7
Hitless Bandwidth Provisioning with LCAS
3-9
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4
Product Description
Shelf Description
4-2
Circuit Packs
4-6
Circuit Pack Descriptions
4-8
Control
4-13
Power Specifications
4-15
Cabling
4-16
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5
System Planning and Engineering
Physical Arrangements
Shelf Configurations
5-3
Cabinet Arrangements
5-6
Cabling
5-7
Environmental Considerations
5-8
Cross-connections
Cross-Connect Types
5-10
Allowable Cross-Connects
5-11
Synchronization
Network Synchronization Environment
5-17
Synchronization Features
5-19
Network Configurations
5-21
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Synchronization Messaging
5-24
Sync Messaging Feature Details and Options
5-25
Sync Messaging Examples
5-28
Frequently Asked Network Timing Distribution Questions
5-32
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Maintenance
Three-tiered Operations
6-3
IAO LAN Ports (detail)
6-8
Operations Philosophy
6-12
Lucent Technologies Operations
Interworking (OI)
6-14
Multi-Vendor Operations Interworking
6-16
Data Communications Channel (DCC)
6-17
Software Download (Generic)
6-20
Maintenance Signaling
6-24
Fault Detection, Isolation, and Reporting
6-25
Loopbacks and Tests
6-26
WaveStar® CIT
Protection Switching
Line Protection Switching
6-33
Path Protection Switching (Path Switched Rings)
6-34
Equipment Protection
6-35
Performance Monitoring
Performance Monitoring Parameters
6-37
Performance Monitoring Data Storage
6-44
Performance Parameter Thresholds
6-45
TCA Transmission to OS
6-46
SNMP Parameters and Traps
6-47
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Provisioning
Default Provisioning
6-51
Remote Provisioning
6-52
Cross-connect Provisioning
6-53
Automatic Provisioning on Circuit Pack Replacement
6-54
Port-state Provisioning
6-56
Channel-state Provisioning
6-57
Reports
Alarm and Status Reports
6-59
Performance Monitoring Reports
6-61
Maintenance History Reports
6-62
State Reports
6-63
Provisioning Reports
6-64
Version/Equipment List
6-65
Administration
Software Upgrades
6-67
IP Access for Network Management
6-68
Time and Date Synchronization
6-73
Office Alarms Interface
6-75
Remote NE Status
6-77
Network Size
6-80
Directory Services
6-81
Security
6-85
Password Administration (CIT and System)
6-87
User-setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
6-92
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7
Ordering
Introduction
7-2
Engineering Drawings
7-3
Software and Documentation
7-4
Miscellaneous Equipment and Tools
7-7
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8
Product Support
Worldwide Services
8-2
Training
8-4
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Reliability and Quality
Lucent’s Quality Policy
9-2
Reliability Program and Specifications
9-3
Failure Rates
9-5
Sparing Information
9-7
Sparing Graph
9-8
International Standards Organization (ISO) Certification
9-10
Warranty
9-11
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10
Technical Specifications
Electrical Interfaces
DS1 (VLNC5, VLNC6, VLNC25, VLNC26)
10-4
DS3 (VLNC5 and VLNC25, 2 ports)
10-5
10/100T (10/100 Mbps) Ethernet (VLNC15 and VLNC30)
10-6
Optical Interfaces
OC-3 OLIU (VLNC5 and VLNC6)
10-9
OC-12 OLIU (VLNC25 and VLNC26)
10-10
SONET Optical Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs
10-11
SONET Optical Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs
10-15
Lightguide Jumpers and Buildouts
10-19
Ethernet Optical Specifications
10/100T (100BASE-T)/ Fast-E (100BASE-LX)
Electrical/Optical Ethernet Private Line (VLNC30)
10-21
Allowed SFP Optics
10-22
100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Specification
10-23
System Peformance
SONET Overhead Bytes
10-27
Wander/Jitter
10-28
Signal Performance
10-29
Synchronization
10-30
Protection Switching
10-31
Transient Performance
10-32
Transmission Delay
10-33
Operations Interfaces
Craft Interface Terminal (CIT)
10-35
TL1/LAN
10-37
Personal Computer Specifications for Software Download
10-38
LEDs, Indicators, and Office Alarms
10-39
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User-setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
10-40
Physical Specifications
Physical Specifications
10-42
Environmental Specifications
10-43
Power Specifications
10-45
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A
Ethernet
Introduction to Ethernet Services
A-2
Ethernet Circuit Packs
A-7
Ethernet Transport
A-11
Tagging Modes
A-25
Quality of Service
A-26
Ethernet Service Management
A-27
Ethernet Service Configurations
A-30
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B
Performance Monitoring
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
B-2
OC-N Performance Parameters
B-9
STS-N Performance Parameters
B-11
VT1.5 Performance Parameters
B-13
DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
B-15
DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
B-22
Ethernet Performance Monitoring Parameters
B-27
SNMP Parameters and Traps
B-29
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Introduction
C-2
Area Address Assignment
C-4
Level 2 Router Assignment
C-6
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IS-IS Level 2 Routing Remote Provisioning Sequence
C-7
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Provisioning Confirmation
C-9
Maximum Number of OSI Nodes
C-11
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
C-13
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D
Physical, Electrical, and
Shelf Description
D-3
Physical Requirements
D-6
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
D-10
Environmental Requirements and Objectives
D-15
Test Verification and Qualification
D-17
References
D-18
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
GL
Glossary
GL-1
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List of Figures
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1
System Overview
1-1
Next-generation Loop Access
1-7
1-2
DMXplore Wall-mount Front View
1-9
1-3
DMXplore Rack-mount Front View with Mounting Bracket
1-9
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3
Network Topologies
3-1
DMXplore providing enterprise access
3-3
3-2
Wireless Optical Buildout
3-5
3-3
Ethernet Extension
3-7
3-4
Hitless Bandwidth Provisioning: 1st Span
3-9
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4
Product Description
4-1
Wall-mount Shelf Front View
4-3
4-2
DMXplore Rack-mount Front View with Mounting Bracket
4-4
4-3
SYSCTL Circuit Pack
4-14
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5
System Planning and Engineering
5-1
Two-way add/drop
5-11
5-2
Pass-through cross-connection on High-speed interface
5-12
5-3
Free Running - Ring Network
5-22
5-4
Line Timing - Ring Network
5-23
5-5
Automatic Synchronization Reconfiguration,
Part A and B
5-29
Automatic Synchronization Reconfiguration,
Part C and D
5-30
Automatic Synchronization Reconfiguration
Part E and F
5-31
5-6
5-7
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
6-1
Three-Tiered Operations
6-3
6-2
DMXplore Operations Interfaces
6-7
6-3
IAO LAN Port Applications
6-10
6-4
Remote Operations Philosophy
6-13
6-5
Default User/Network Side Designation on a UPSR
6-18
6-6
CIT Direct Local Access
6-29
6-7
WaveStar® CIT Access via DCC
6-30
6-8
Remote WaveStar® CIT Access via modem
6-31
6-9
DS1/DS3 Performance Monitoring
6-37
6-10 TL1 Translation Device
6-69
6-11 Encapsulated IP Packets
6-70
6-12 FTAM-FTP Gateway
6-72
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Reliability and Quality
9-1
Sparing Graph for a 10-Day Lead Time
9-9
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A
Ethernet
A-1
VLNC15 Fast Ethernet (Private Line) Circuit Pack
A-8
A-2
VLNC30 Fast Ethernet (Private Line) Circuit Pack
A-10
A-3 Ethernet Transport Through DMXplore
A-11
A-4 GFP Frame Format
A-12
A-5 Virtual Concatenation Group
A-14
A-6 Link Aggregation
A-16
A-7 Local Flow Control of Ingress Traffic
A-17
A-8 End-to-End Flow Control (VLNC15/30)
A-18
A-9 Buffer Architecture (VLNC15/30)
A-24
A-10 Ethernet Private Line Service over Protected UPSR
A-31
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C
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
C-1 Network with Level 2 Routers
C-3
C-2 Assigning Areas
C-14
C-3 Assigning Subdomains
C-15
C-4 Redundant Routes with the Level 2 Subdomain
C-16
C-5 Recommended Level 2 Router Assignments
C-17
C-6 Recommended Area Assignments
C-18
C-7 Recommended Placement of Level 2 Routers
C-19
C-8 Recommended Navis™
Optical EMS Access via OSI LAN/
WAN C-21
C-9 Level 2 Router Assignments on an OSI LAN
C-22
C-10 OSI LAN Redundancy
C-23
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D
Physical, Electrical, and
D-1 DMX Shelf Side/Front View with Mounting Bracket
D-3
D-2 DMXtend Shelf Side/Front View with Mounting Bracket
D-3
D-3 DMXplore Wall-mount
Shelf Side/Front View with Mounting Bracket
D-4
D-4 DMXplore Rack-mount
Side/Front View with Mounting Bracket
D-4
D-5 Mounting Bracket Positions on DMX Shelf
D-7
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
F I G U R E S
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List of Tables
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4
Product Description
4-1
Circuit Packs in DMXplore Shelf
4-6
4-2
DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
4-15
4-3
Shelf Current Drains
4-15
4-4
Cables
4-16
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5
System Planning and Engineering
5-1
Circuit Packs in DMXplore Shelf
5-4
5-2
All Allowable Add/drop Cross-connections
5-13
5-3
Default Cross-connections
5-14
5-4
All Allowable Pass-through Cross-connections
5-15
5-5
Sync Messages with the S1 Byte
5-26
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
6-1
SYSCTL faceplate LEDs
6-5
6-2
IAO LAN Compatibility
6-11
6-3
DCC Compatibility
6-19
6-4
Remote Software Download Compatibility
6-22
6-5
PM Parameters
6-40
6-6
SNMP Parameters supported
6-48
6-7
SNMP Traps supported
6-49
6-8
DMXplore Time and Date Synchronization Compatibility
6-74
6-9
Remote NE Status Compatibility
6-79
6-10 Characters NOT Allowed in a WaveStar® CIT Password
6-88
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6-11 Characters Allowed in a WaveStar® CIT Password
6-89
6-12 Characters NOT Allowed in a DMXplore
Password and User ID
6-90
6-13 Characters Allowed in a DMXplore Password and User ID
6-91
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
Ordering
7-1
Orderable Software
7-5
7-2
Orderable Documentation
7-6
7-3
Lightguide Build-outs
7-7
7-4
Miscellaneous Accessories2
7-8
7-5
Approved SFP Transceivers for VLNC30
7-9
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Reliability and Quality
9-1
Circuit Pack Failure RatesNotes
9-5
9-2
Equipment Failure Rates
9-6
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10
Technical Specifications
10-1 Transmission Interface Standards
10-2
10-2 SONET Optical System Specifications
10-11
10-3 SONET Optical Transmitter Information
10-12
10-4 SONET Optical Receiver Information
10-12
10-5 SONET Optical Specifications and Link Budgets
10-13
10-6 SONET Optical System Specifications
10-15
10-7 SONET Optical Transmitter Information
10-16
10-8 SONET Optical Receiver Information
10-16
10-9 SONET Optical Specifications and Link Budgets
10-17
10-10 SFP Optics for VLNC30
10-22
10-11 100BASE-LX Operating Range Single-Mode Fiber
10-23
10-12 100BASE-LX Transmit Specifications
10-23
10-13 100BASE-LX Receive Specifications
10-24
10-14 100BASE-LX Link Budgets and Penalties
10-25
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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10-15 Transmission Delay in Microseconds
10-33
10-16 DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
10-45
10-17 Shelf Current Drains
10-45
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A
Ethernet
A-1 Supported Configurations and Cross-Connection Types
A-28
A-2 VCGs Available on Ethernet Circuit Packs
A-29
A-3 Supported Ethernet Services
A-30
A-4 Typical Ethernet Service Configurations
A-30
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B
Performance Monitoring
B-1 Data Registers
B-2
B-2 SONET OC-N Performance Parameters
B-9
B-3 SONET STS-N Performance Parameters
B-11
B-4 SONET VT1.5 Performance Parameters
B-13
B-5 DS3 Performance Parameters
B-15
B-6 DS3 Signal formats, PM signal formats, and VM modes
B-19
B-7 DS1 Performance Parameters
B-23
B-8 CV-PFE parameter increments
B-25
B-9 Ethernet Performance Parameters
B-27
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
C-1 Area Addresses
C-4
C-2 Maximum Number of Nodes with Level 2 Routers
C-11
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D
Physical, Electrical, and
D-1 Metropolis® Dimensions and Weight
D-6
D-2 DMX Shelf Power Supply Requirements
D-10
D-3 DMX 20 Amp High Capacity Shelf Power Supply RequirementsD-10
D-4 DMX Shelf Current Drains
D-11
D-5 DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
D-12
D-6 DMXtend Shelf Current Drains
D-12
D-7 DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
D-13
D-8 DMXplore Shelf Current Drains
D-13
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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About this information product
Purpose
This applications and planning guide (APG) provides the following
information for the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer:
•
Features
•
Applications
•
Operation
•
Engineering
•
Support
•
Specifications
•
Ordering
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Intended audience
How to use this
information product
This applications and planning guide is intended for network planners
and engineers. However, it is also for anyone who needs specific
information regarding the features, applications, operation,
engineering, and ordering of the DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
The following is a brief description of the contents of each chapter in
this document:
•
"About This Document" describes the purpose, intended audience,
reason for reissue, and organization of this document. This section
references related documentation and explains how to order, make
comments, or recommend changes to this document.
•
Chapter 1, "System Overview," describes the DMXplore Access
Multiplexer. This introductory section also lists the features
included in the releases covered by this document.
•
Chapter 2, "Features," briefly describes the features listed in
Chapter 1. These features are described in more detail in Chapter
3, "Network Topologies," Chapter 4, "Product Description," and
Chapter 6, "Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and
Provisioning."
•
Chapter 3, "Applications and Configurations," describes how the
DMXplore Access Multiplexer shelf can be used in a service
provider or end-user’s network.
•
Chapter 4, "Product Description," describes the DMXplore Access
Multiplexer hardware, including the shelf, circuit packs, cables,
and power.
•
Chapter 5, "System Planning and Engineering," summarizes
physical arrangement, cross-connection, and synchronization
information to help you plan procurement and deployment of the
DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
•
Chapter 6, "Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and
Provisioning," defines the maintenance philosophy, outlining the
various features available to monitor and maintain the DMXplore
Access Multiplexer.
•
Chapter 7, "Ordering," provides equipment ordering information
for the DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
•
Chapter 8, "Product Support," describes how Lucent Technologies
supports the DMXplore Access Multiplexer. This chapter includes
information about engineering and installation services, technical
support, documentation support, and training available from
Lucent Technologies.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Conventions used
•
Chapter 9, "Reliability and Quality," provides the Lucent
Technologies quality policy and describes the reliability program.
•
Chapter 10, "Technical Specifications," lists the technical
specifications for the DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
•
Appendix A, “Performance Monitoring,” primarily lists the
performance monitoring parameters for the Metropolis®
DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
•
Appendix B, “IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines,” provides
guidelines for L2 routing on the Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer.
•
Glossary provides definitions for telecommunication acronyms
and terms.
•
Index supplies users with specific subjects and corresponding
page numbers to find necessary information.
Bold
typeface signifies emphasis.
Italic typeface denotes a particular product line or information product.
Bold Courier typeface
signifies a command.
For the remainder of this information product, "DMXplore" is used in
place of Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer in most cases.
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Electronic documentation
Documentation for the DMXplore Access Multiplexer is now available
in electronic form, on compact disk read only memory (CD-ROM).
CD-ROM has many advantages over traditional paper documentation,
including cost savings and search and retrieve capability.
Ordering information
CD-ROM documentation is available by annual subscription (on
standing order). To order, call your Technical Information Resource
Manager, your Lucent Technologies Account Executive, or the Lucent
Technologies Customer Information Center (1-888-582-3688).
Pricing information
For pricing information or a list of all documents that are available on
CD-ROM, contact your Lucent Technologies Network Systems
Account Executive or the Lucent Technologies Customer Education
and Training hotline (1-800-334-0404).
Technical information
For technical information, call Lucent Technologies Documentation
Support (1-888-LTINFO6).
How to comment
Fax
Fax comments to (407) 767-2760.
Phone
You may also report errors or request changes to this document by
calling the toll-free number, 1-888-LTINFO6 (1-888-584-6366). When
calling, be sure to have the nine-digit document number ready.
Email
Comments may be sent via email to ctiphotline@lucent.com.
World Wide Web
Comments may also be sent by filling out a web-based form at
www.lucent-info.com.
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How to order
To order additional copies of this document or to request placement on
the standing order list, refer to the information below.
Commercial customers
A check, money order, purchase order number, or charge card number
is required with all orders. Make checks payable to Lucent
Technologies. Lucent Technologies entities should use Form 1-80.80
FA, available through the Customer Information Center (CIC). RBOC/
BOC customers should process orders through your Company
Documentation Coordinator.
Internet orders
Hardware, software, and documentation may be ordered on the world
wide web. For more information, visit Lucent on the web at
www.lucentdocs.com.
From Canada: email orders to cicorders@lucent.com.
Mail orders
To order documentation by mail, send correspondence to the address
below:
Lucent Technologies
Customer Information Center
Attention: Order Entry Section
2855 North Franklin Road
P.O. Box 19901
Indianapolis, IN 46219
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Within US: 1-888-LUCENT-8 (1-888-582-3688)
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(Toll) 1-317-322-6411
FAX orders
Within US (24 hrs/day, toll free): 1-800-566-9568
International: 1-317-322-6699
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
1
System Overview
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter introduces the Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer system and provides brief descriptions of the other
Metropolis® products in order to demonstrate how DMXplore fits into
the portfolio.
Contents
The following topics are included in this chapter:
Overview of the Metropolis® Portfolio
1-2
1-2
Metropolis® Metro Access Solutions
1-4
1-4
Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
11-5
-5
Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
1-7
1-7
Introduction to the Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer
11-8
-8
Feature Release Plan
1 - 13
1-13
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System Overview
Overview of the Metropolis® Portfolio
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
Metropolitan, "metro," networks are the communications networks that
link homes and businesses to larger, long-distance core networks.
These networks are complex because they are filled with both old and
new networking equipment and must carry all types of service traffic,
including voice, data and video.
Driven by the exponential growth of the Internet, requirements for
metropolitan optical transport networks are changing quickly from pure
circuit networks to hybrid networks. This evolution requires metro
access networks to aggregate the local loop or last-mile bandwidth in
order to integrate with the high-speed core/backbone networks. These
requirements are driving metropolitan network evolution from
traditional SONET multiplexers into more flexible, higher-speed, dataaware platforms-- a necessity for optical edge solutions.
Solution
Lucent Technologies is helping service providers to cost-effectively
deploy solutions that can accommodate a multitude of services, such as
voice, private line, Ethernet, IP, frame relay, and ATM. The Metropolis® portfolio offers a seamless evolution to next-generation metro solutions that can eliminate the bottleneck in the metropolitan network,
allowing service providers to deliver new high-speed, revenue-generating services such as gigabit Ethernet, virtual private networks (VPN),
storage area networks and digital subscriber lines (DSL).
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
Overview of the Metropolis® Portfolio
Portfolio
System Overview
Lucent designed its Metropolis® portfolio so customers can choose the
solution that best accommodates their existing networks, allowing them
to bring new services to market quickly and cost effectively.
Metropolis® includes two categories of next-generation products based
on the most common types of metro networks:
•
Next-Generation SONET-- Metropolis DMX, DMXtend, and
DMXplore Access Multiplexers-- which leverages existing optical
equipment while providing a solid foundation for future
bandwidth, gigabit Ethernet (GbE) and IP services growth.
•
MetroWDM-- Metropolis EON (Enhanced Optical Networking)-a metro core DWDM solution for regional traffic.
Each of the Metropolis® solutions can interwork with Lucent’s new
multiservice data switches and existing IP and ATM equipment to
provide an end-to-end broadband network that links to long-distance or
other metro networks.
Low Cost Access
Metropolis®
DMXtend
Metropolis®
DMXplore
DSLAM Access Transport
(Stinger)
Globe Aggregation and Transport
(Optical Edge Service)
Multiservice TDM
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Bulk Carrier/to carrier
Interconnect
(Wavelength Service)
SONET/SDH Metropolitan Access/
Ethernet® Transport
Digital Video Services
(WaveStar® DVS)
Metropolis®
DMX/ADM
TDM to IP Services Migration
High Margin Ethernet Services
WaveStar®
TDM 2.5G/10G
Metro EON
(40G/80G)
High Security Multiservices
Access (PSAX, Stinger,
GX SSQ, Springtide)
Low Cost Last Mile Aggregation
Scaleability from 2.5G to
10G to 40G and Beyond
GX 550
WaveStar®
OLS 1.6T
®
WaveStar
OLS 1.6T
WaveStar®
OLS 1.6T
Metropolitan Core
Multiservice
Edge Node
Optical Core - Long Haul
®
2.5G = WaveStar TDM 2.5G (OC-48) 2F
®
10G = WaveStar TDM 10G (OC-192) 2F
40G = WaveStar® OLS 40G
DMX = Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
ADM = Metropolis® ADD/Drop Multiplexer
nc-dmx-111
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System Overview
Metropolis® Metro Access Solutions
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section provides a brief description of each of the following
products which comprise the Metropolis portfolio:
•
Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
•
Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
•
Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
System Overview
®
Metropolis DMX Access Multiplexer
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The Metropolis DMX Access Multiplexer product provides a solution
for service providers with an embedded SONET base who are seeking
to migrate to next generation technology and to new next-generation
carriers who are seeking to provide SONET and Ethernet services over
the proven reliability of SONET transport from speeds of DS-1 to OC192. The Metropolis DMX solution helps add revenue opportunities
through the addition of new services, and reduces costs through the
consolidation of multiple technologies in one network element.
Interfaces
Metropolis DMX supports a wide array of wideband and broadband
transport, including traditional SONET transport of DS1, E1, DS3, EC1, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48, and OC-192 signals, as well as 10/100/1000
Mbps Ethernet LAN and FICON/ESCON/Fibre-Channel SAN
transport. This single-shelf product can be equipped to serve many
diverse network applications and supports a variety of operations
interfaces for current and evolving network operations needs.
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Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
Service Applications
System Overview
The DMX Access Multiplexer provides a wide range of service
applications transporting voice, data, and SAN from the access edge of
the network to the core of the network. These applications range from
traditional SONET applications to advanced data transport
applications.
Large
Business
PBX/Switch
Router
- Voice
- Broadband Data
- 100/1000 Ethernet
Voice
Switch
DCS
®
Access
Routers
Metropolis
DMX
Medium
Business
Switch
Router
OC-48 U
PSR
Metropolis®
DMX
OC-48/192 UPSR
Application
Services
LAN
Core
Router(s)
®
Metropolis
DMX
FR/ATM
Edge
Switches
Broadband
(ATM,TDM)
Ethernet
Metropolis®
DMX
DSLAM
- Voice
- Wideband Data (TDM,
ATM, FR,PPP)
- 10/100 Ethernet
Metropolis®
DMX
PSTN
Internet
Access
Routers
ATM
Core
Switch
ATM
Service Node/CO
CMTS
xDSL
HFC
Residential/SOHO
Customer
ATM
Concentrator
Access Node
DMX = Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
nc-dmx2-029
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
System Overview
Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction to DMXtend
The DMXtend Access Multiplexer is a single shelf network
multiplexer designed primarily for access transport, business access,
and regional interoffice applications transporting voice and data at the
OC-3/12/48 level using a unidirectional path switched ring (UPSR).
DMXtend supports an OC-3/12/48 UPSR and high speed OC-3/12/48
linear (1+1) applications.
DMXtend supports a wide array of wideband and broadband transport,
including traditional SONET transport of DS1, E1, DS3, EC-1, OC-3,
OC-12, and OC-48 as well as 10/100/1000 Mbps LAN and FICON/
ESCON/Fibre-Channel transport. The shelf can be equipped to serve
many diverse network applications and supports a variety of operations
interfaces for current and evolving network operations needs.
The figure below shows the DMXtend providing loop access for the
various interfaces listed above, and interworking with DDM (could
also be FT-2000) to enable a network transition to next-generation,
higher capacity services, and shows how the DMXtend can interwork
with embedded, legacy equipment.
Figure 1-1
Next-generation Loop Access
Access Loop
DS1/3
10/100/1000
MbPS
Metropolis®
DMXtend
Metropolis®
DMXtend
For TR-008 DLC
DS1/3
10/100/1000
MbPS
Metropolis®
DMXtend
OC-48
DS1/3
Fiber
Reach
Central
Office
DDM
STS-1
BRK A 20A
Metropolis® DMX
LNW6
DDM
LNW16
Sx:x
12DS3/EC1
28DS1
LNW1
Sx:x
Sx:x
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
12DS3/
EC1
12DS3/
EC1
1G SX
BLANK
LUCENT
FAULT
ACTIVE
28DS1
Sx:x
SYSCTL
LUCENT
FAULT
ACTIVE
28DS1
177D
Sx:x
OC-48
1310 LR
LUCENT
LUCENT
ON
LNW26
LNW67
1G SX
12DS3/EC1
LUCENT
LUCENT
Class 5
Switch
"5ESS"
BRK B 20A
ON
Sx:x
Sx:x
28DS1
OC-3
LNW16
LNW6
Sx:x
LUCENT
DS1/3
DS1s
DCS
LUCENT
FAULT
CR
MJ
MN
ABN
FE
OC-48
177D
BLANK
NE
ACO
OLIU
LNW26
Sx:x
LNW36
LNW36
Sx:x
OC-48
1310 LR
LUCENT
LNW46
LNW46
Sx:x
Sx:x
OC-3
OC-12
1310LR
LUCENT
OC-3
Sx:x
OC-12
OC-3
LUCENT
1310LR
LUCENT
LUCENT
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
OC-48
OLIU
ACO
TEST
OC-3
OLIU
OUT IN
OC-3
OC-12
OC-12
OLIU
OLIU
OLIU
OUT IN
IND
OUT IN
OUT IN
OC-3
A1
A2
B1
B2
G1
OUT IN
SEL
UPD/
INT
1
LAN
RS
232
2
CIT
M1
CTL
G2
M2
DMX
®
Metropolis
DMXtend
DDM
1
1
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
4
4
C1
C2
OUT IN
D1
OUT IN
For TR-303 DLC
D2
DS3,OC-3
FR/ATM
Edge
Switch (es)
OC-12
DDM
DS1/3
10/100 MbPS
OC-3
DDM
®
Metropolis
DMXtend
DMX = Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
NC-DMXtend-002
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System Overview
Introduction to the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore is ideal for Fiber to the Business (FTTB) and end-user
access applications. It has been designed with an extremely small
footprint to enable seamless integration as a piece of customer premise
equipment (CPE). Supporting OC-3/12 high-speed with DS1 and DS3
and Ethernet tributary interfaces, DMXplore is well equipped to serve
as a next-generation CPE providing voice and data services to a
variable number of end users.
DMXplore is designed with a modular architecture to support protected
or unprotected DS1/DS3 and 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Private Line
transport applications using OC-3/12 high-speed interfaces. This
modular architecture supports separate working and protection circuit
packs, thus allowing the continuation of service in the event of failures.
For simpler installation and turnup DMXplore has been designed with
a default set of cross connections. This allows for a “plug and play”
option when installing the DMXplore. The default application that the
system comes provisioned with is 1+1. Yet, it also supports UPSR
applications. In Release 2.1, the user can provision whether or not the
default cross-connections will be established when the DMXplore is
installed.
DMXplore features multi-function cards supporting OC-3/12 highspeed interfaces as well as the switch fabric and circuitry servicing the
DS1/DS3 ports seen in the right of the figure. These multi-function
cards can be upgraded in-service to enable support of both DS1 and
DS3 signals rather than just DS1.
The shelf can be equipped to serve many diverse network applications
and supports a variety of operations interfaces for current and evolving
network operations needs.
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
System Overview
Front View Wall-mount
Below is a front view of the wall-mount DMXplore shelf with front
access.
Figure 1-2 DMXplore Wall-mount Front View
®
Metropolis DMXplore
PWR-A
VLNC6
VLNC6
S1:1
S1:1
XX:x
XX:x
Lucent
Lucent
-48V-A
RTN-A
RTN COM
GRD
PWR-B
RTN-B
-48V-B
ON
ON
1
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
3
2
4
C GROUP
OUT
2
1
3
IN
IN
IN
OUT
OUT
1
B GROUP
3
2
4
FAULT
CR/MJ
10.5
Inches
MN/ABN
UPDA
TE
5
ACO
9
7
6
8
A/D GROUP
11
10
12
LAN
CIT
RS-232
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
13
15
14
MDO
MDI
16
ALARM
VLNC1
S1:1
SYSCTL
Lucent
CTL
7.5
inches
MA-DMXplore-007
Figure 1-3 DMXplore Rack-mount Front View with Mounting
Bracket
FAN
FAULT
FAULT
CRMJ
FAULT
UPDNT
ACTIVE
MNAGN
FAULT
IN
ACO/TST
ACTIVE
OUT
FAULT
IN
ACTIVE
OUT
BAR CODE
Front View Rack-mount
LAN
RS232
CIT
A
PWR ON
B
PWR ON
3
Lucent
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System Overview
Functionality
There are 4 circuit pack slots in each shelf:
•
1 Control slot for the SYSCTL. The SYSCTL provides an RS-232
CIT port and a LAN CIT port for operations access.
•
2 Main slots for high-speed OC-3/12 optical line interface unit
combo cards that also house the switch fabric/circuitry supporting
the DS1 and/or DS3 interfaces located in the recessed access panel
at the right of the figure above.
•
1 LAN slot for support of 10/100 Mbps Ethernet cards (both
electrical and optical interfaces).
•
At the right of the first figure above can be seen the recessed
access panel of the DMXplore wall-mount shelf. The rack-mount
shelf provides access at the rear of the shelf.
•
The DMXplore front and rear access panels contain the following
interfaces:
- 4 miscellaneous discrete inputs (MDI) and 4 miscellaneous
discrete outputs (MDO)
- 16 DS1 interfaces
- 2 DS3 interfaces
- 4 10/100BASE-T Fast Ethernet interfaces
- 2 power feeds (-48VDC A & B feeders)
- Optional AC power converter available
- 1 office alarm interface (CR, MJ, MN/Audible, Visual).
Release 2.1 supports the following circuit packs:
•
System Controller-- SYSCTL (VLNC1)
•
OC-3 1310 Long Reach (LR) with support for 16 DS1s (VLNC6)
•
OC-3 1310 Long Reach (LR) with support for 16 DS1s and 2
DS3s (VLNC5)
•
OC-12 1310 Long Reach (LR) with support for 16 DS1s
(VLNC26)
•
OC-12 1310 Long Reach (LR) with support for 16 DS1s and 2
DS3s (VLNC25)
•
10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Private Line, 4 ports (VLNC15)
•
Optical/Electrical 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Private Line, 2
optical 100BASE-LX ports and 4 10/100BASE-TX electrical
ports (VLNC30)
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System Overview
Capacity
The DMXplore provides a VT1.5 and STS-1 cross-connect fabric for a
variety of signals. The DMXplore’s main switch fabric is contained in
each of the high-speed (network-side interface) circuit packs, located in
the MAIN slots of the DMXplore shelf. These MAIN slots have the
capacity to house OC-3/12 high-speed interfaces.
Listed below is the number of signals that DMXplore can transport
using the capabilities of the VLNC6/26, VLNC5/25, VLNC15, and
VLNC30 packs available through Release 2.1:
•
16 DS1s
•
2 DS3s (DS3 on VLNC5 and VLNC25 only)
•
4 10/100BASE-TX Ethernet Private Line
•
2 100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Private Line (VLNC30 only)
•
1 OC-3 (protected/unprotected)
•
1 OC-12 (protected/unprotected)
DS1 and DS3 interfaces are also equipment protected by the MAIN
packs.
Shelf size
The DMXplore wall-mount shelf has the following characteristics:
•
Width: 7.5 inches
•
Height: 10.5 inches
•
Depth (front to back): 12.0 inches
The DMXplore rack-mount shelf has the following characteristics:
•
Width: 17.3 inches (includes integral fan unit)
•
Height: 3.5 inches
•
Depth (front to back): 13.5 inches
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System Overview
Operations
DMXplore is representative of ten years of Lucent’s innovation and
experience in network operations, control, and maintenance. Utilizing
Level 1 and Level 2 Target Identifier (TID) Address Resolution
Protocol (TARP), a consistent and standard form of address resolution
is in place, enabling the DMXplore network to be easily monitored and
maintained.
DMXplore also supports standard interworking using the Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer protocol stack over the
DCC. The OSI seven-layer protocol stack refers to the OSI reference
model, a logical framework for network operations standardized by the
ISO. This provides for large networks up to 1000 NEs via level 1 and
level 2 routing.
DMXplore is designed for easy installation and operation. DMXplore
comes equipped with cross-connections that default to preprovisioned,
fixed mapping for 1+1 applications. This results in a “plug-and-play”
option for initial installation. In Release 2.1, the user can provision
whether or not the default cross-connections will be established when
the DMXplore is installed.
Users also have the option of provisioning their own cross-connections
and can provision the system to UPSR instead of 1+1.
Centralized operation is supported by a full set of single-ended
operations (SEO), control, and maintenance features. Integrated test
capabilities and default provisioning simplify installation.
Basic maintenance tasks can be performed using faceplate LED
displays and controls, while a craft interface terminal (CIT) or a remote
OS gives access to sophisticated maintenance, provisioning, and
reporting features.
Built-in maintenance capabilities support both installation and system
operation. A DMXplore can be tested and installed without external
test equipment.
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System Overview
Feature Release Plan
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Release 2.1 Features
This section outlines the major features through Release 2.1 for
DMXplore. The feature release plan will be updated for each future
release of the system.
Below is a list of important features that are included in Release 2.1.
This list is subject to change without notice.
•
Optical/Electrical Ethernet Private Line Pack (2 optical 100BASE-LX
ports and 4 electrical 10/100BASE-TX ports-- (VLNC30)
The VLNC30 circuit pack has support for two optical 100BASELX Ethernet ports. These ports use SFP optics. The VLNC30 also
supports four 10/100BASE-TX ports. It provides data transport at
the rate of 10/100 Mbps using standard encapsulation according to
ITU G.7041 for Generic Framing Procedure (GFP), ITU G.707 for
Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) at the STS-1 and VT1.5 level with
LCAS. The VLNC30 can transmit signals across spans as long as
100 meters for electrical interfaces and 10,000 meters for optical
interfaces. VLNC30 circuit pack is designed specifically to
support Fast Ethernet Private Line applications. Each VLNC30
circuit pack can support 6 private lines. The VLNC30 is an
unprotected pack.
•
Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) optics
The Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) optics are used on the
VLNC30 pack. SFP optics are “pluggable” optics. This means that
the optics are purchased separately from the circuit pack and
equipped or “plugged-in” only as additional interfaces become
necessary. This makes DMXplore interface density more scalable
and can save customers money initially.
•
Client Signal Fail
DMXplore supports the Client Signal Fail on all Ethernet VCGs.
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Feature Release Plan
System Overview
•
Locked DSn cross-connections
In the “locked” mode, DMXplore does not select the best signal
from both rotations of a UPSR. Instead, traffic is added and
dropped (locked) from one rotation of the ring only
(provisionable). The main advantage of locked DS1/DS3 crossconnections is the lack of UPSR switching which also results in
the ability to reuse timeslots around a UPSR.
With DMXplore, the following cross-connections may coexist
within the same STS-1: VT add/drop, VT pass-through, VT
locked to Side 1, and VT locked to Side 2.
•
Provisionable Default mapping
DMXplore comes fully provisioned with a default set of crossconnections for 1+1 applications. This provides the option of a
very quick and simple installation and turn-up. In Release 2.1, it
becomes possible to disable all default cross-connections.
Release 2.0 Features
Below is a list of important features that are included in this release.
•
10/100 Mbps Ethernet Private Line interface-- (VLNC15)
The VLNC15 circuit pack has support for four 10/100 Mbps ports
and provides data transport at the rate of 10/100 Mbps using
standard encapsulation according to ITU G.7041 for Generic
Framing Procedure (GFP), ITU G.707 for Virtual Concatenation
(VCAT) at the STS-1 and VT1.5 level with LCAS. The VLNC15
can transmit signals across spans as long as 100 meters. VLNC15
circuit pack is designed specifically to support Fast Ethernet
Private Line applications. Each VLNC15 circuit pack can support
4 private lines. The VLNC15 is an unprotected pack.
•
OC-12/16DS1/2DS3 Main pack-- high-speed optical interface
(VLNC25)
The DMXplore OC-12 high-speed interface can be protected by
1+1 or UPSR switching. The VLNC25 provides 1 long-reach,
1310nm, OC-12 interface supporting STS-1 and VT1.5 path
switching. The OC-12 OLIU can interface with other OC-12 rings
in the network and can also be used as an interface for OC-12
linear optical extensions. Fiber access is provided via 2 LC-type
connectors on the VLNC25 faceplate. The VLNC25 also houses
the switch fabric/circuitry for the shelf and supports 2 DS3 and 16
DS1 interfaces. The VLNC25 is OSP hardened.
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Feature Release Plan
System Overview
•
OC-12/16DS1 Main pack-- high-speed optical interface (VLNC26)
The DMXplore OC-12 high-speed interface can be protected by
1+1 or UPSR switching. The VLNC26 provides 1 long-reach,
1310nm, OC-12 interface supporting VT1.5 and STS-1 path
switching. The OC-12 OLIU can interface with other OC-12 rings
in the network and can also be used as an interface for OC-12
linear optical extensions. Fiber access is provided via 2 LC-type
connectors on the VLNC26 faceplate. The VLNC26 also houses
the switch fabric for the shelf and supports 16 DS1 interfaces. The
VLNC26 is OSP hardened.
•
In-service upgrades
The DMXplore’s combo cards support in-service upgrades,
allowing you to go from supporting OC-3 to OC-12 for instance,
without loss of service.
DMXplore supports an in-service upgrades from the VLNC6 to
VLNC5, VLNC5 to VLNC25, from the VLNC6 to VLNC26, and
the VLNC26 to VLNC25.
•
Rack-mount shelf
A rack-mount version of the DMXplore shelf is available in
Release 2.0. This shelf is designed to fit in a standard 7 foot bay of
either 19 or 23 inches in width. It provides all of the interfaces
currently located on the access panel of the wall-mount shelf, but
at the rear of the shelf.
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Feature Release Plan
System Overview
•
High-speed OC-12 UPSR
The VLNC25 and VLNC26 support 1 high-speed UPSR. This is a
standards compliant UPSR protected configuration. DMXplore is
the only SONET CPE of its kind to offer UPSR protection
switching, allowing for more network flexibility.
•
OC-12 1+1 protection
The linear application mode is a standards compliant 1+1
protected configuration, providing unidirectional, non-revertive
line switching.
•
OC-3/12 high-speed single- and dual-homed arcs
Single or dual-homed OC-3 or OC-12 UPSR at VT1.5, STS-1, or
STS-3c (STS-3c pass-throughs only when using the high-speed
OC-12 circuit packs) level.
•
High-speed OC-12 unprotected
In order to achieve an unprotected UPSR configuration, simply
leave Main2 unpopulated and provision the port on the pack in
Main1 as UPSR.
•
•
R2.0 Ethernet Features (supported by VLNC15)
–
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) per ITU G.7042
–
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) per ITU G.7041
–
Ethernet MAC address table search and support
–
STS-1 and VT1.5 VCAT
VLNC15 Utilization of Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP)
DMXplore allows SNMP to be used in provisioning/monitoring
alarms and traps relative to the Ethernet circuit packs.
•
Telcordia support of LCAS, VCAT, and diverse routing
•
FTP/FTAM Gateway
Also referred to as FTTD (File Transfer Translation Device), the
FTTD allows DMXplore to function as a Gateway Network
Element (GNE) that can facilitate the download of files located at
FTP servers to remote NEs connected to the DMXplore.
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System Overview
•
Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
In normal ARP usage for an Ethernet LAN, the sending system
broadcasts an ARP request on the physical LAN. The ARP request
contains the target IP address and asks the system with this IP
address to respond with its physical Ethernet address. All systems
on the LAN receive the request, but only the system which
recognizes the target IP address as its own will send a point-topoint ARP reply to the sending system. The broadcast ARP
request on a physical LAN only reaches systems which are
attached to this physical LAN. If the sending system and the target
system are on different physical networks, the target system will
not receive the ARP request and thus can not respond to it. Proxy
ARP lets a system, called ARP subnet gateway, answer ARP
requests received from one of its physical (LAN) networks for a
target system which is not attached to this physical network.
To allow SNMP manager/NTP server located in the IP-based
access Data Communication Network (DCN) to communicate
with NEs located in the OSI-based DCN, DMX supports IP
tunneling solution to encapsulate and route IP packets over OSIbased embedded DCN. The provisioning of static routes on the
external router(s) is required to route the IP packets from the
access DCN to the embedded DCN. The Proxy ARP support on
the Gateway Network Element (GNE) will eliminate this need of
static routes on the external router(s).
•
Holdover, free running, and OC-3/12 line timing (from high-speed
packs in M1 and M2)
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Feature Release Plan
Highlighted Features From
Past Releases
System Overview
Below is a list of important features included past releases of the
DMXplore.
•
OC-3/16DS1/2DS3 Main pack-- high-speed optical interface
(VLNC5)
DMXplore OC-3 long-reach (55 km), high-speed interface can be
protected by 1+1 or UPSR switching. The VLNC5 provides 1 OC3 interface supporting VT1.5 and STS-1 path switching. The OC3 OLIU can interface with other OC-3 rings in the network and
can also be used as an interface for OC-3 linear optical extensions.
Fiber access is provided via one pair of LC-type connectors on the
VLNC5 faceplate. The VLNC5 also houses the switch fabric for
the shelf and supports 16DS1s and 2 DS3s interfaces.
•
OC-3/16DS1 Main pack-- high-speed optical interface (VLNC6)
DMXplore OC-3 long-reach (55 km), high-speed interface can be
protected by 1+1 or UPSR switching. The VLNC6 provides 1 OC3 interface supporting VT1.5 and STS-1 path switching. The OC3 OLIU can interface with other OC-3 rings in the network and
can also be used as an interface for OC-3 linear optical extensions.
Fiber access is provided via one LC-type connector on the
VLNC6 faceplate. The VLNC6 also houses the switch fabric for
the shelf and supports 16 DS1 interfaces.
•
DS3s 1+1 protected
(or unprotected)
2 DS3 add/drop capacity per VLNC5 pack.
•
DS1s 1+1 protected
(or unprotected)
16 DS1 add/drop capacity with the VLNC5 and VLNC6.
•
High-speed OC-3 UPSR
The VLNC5 and VLNC6 support 1 high-speed, standards
compliant UPSR. DMXplore is the only SONET CPE of its kind
to offer UPSR protection switching, allowing for more network
flexibility.
•
1+1 protection
The linear application mode is a standards compliant 1+1
protected configuration, providing unidirectional, non-revertive
line switching.
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Feature Release Plan
System Overview
•
Protected or unprotected interfaces
DMXplore interfaces can be equipment protected, network
(SONET) protected, or unprotected. In order to have network
protection the MAIN packs must be equipment protected.
Equipment protection is accomplished by virtue of circuit pack
redundancy in MAIN1 and MAIN2 slots. This allows for traffic
restoration and circuit pack replacement without loss of service.
SONET protection is accomplished via UPSR and 1+1
capabilities.
•
Default mapping
DMXplore comes fully provisioned with a default set of crossconnections for 1+1 applications. This provides the option of a
very quick and simple installation and turn-up.
•
Timing options
DMXplore supports Line timing from the OC-3 high-speed
interface, as well as holdover and free running timing modes.
Holdover and free running modes are guaranteed to function at or
above SONET Minimum Clock (SMC-- 20 ppm).
•
SONET Standard DCC and TARP
Many of the traditional SONET maintenance, provisioning,
operations, control, and synchronization features are included in
DMXplore. The flexible SONET standard provides a formidable
foundation for DMXplore to build upon. DMXplore is compatible
with any other-vendor NEs that support TARP, OSI, IAO LAN,
and TL1 as specified in Telcordia Technologies GR-253.
DMXplore supports 2 DCC terminations.
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Feature Release Plan
System Overview
•
4 MDIs/4 MDOs
DMXplore provides 4 Miscellaneous Discrete Inputs (MDIs) and
4 Miscellaneous Discrete Outputs (MDOs) for remote monitoring
of other office equipment.
•
Environmentally hardened
DMXplore is environmentally hardened for outside plant
applications (OSP).
•
NEBS Level 3
DMXplore conforms to all specifications for NEBS Level 3
compliance.
•
FCC Class A
DMXplore conforms to all specifications for FCC Class A
Compliance (FCC Part 15, GR-1089-CORE).
•
Performance monitoring
DMXplore allows standard performance monitoring over all
SONET interfaces.
•
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Provides access from Navis OMS or PC-CIT over TCP/IP LAN to
a DMXplore and connected DMX, DDM-2000, and other NEs
that support DMX product family operations interworking.
•
WaveStar CIT
The CIT manages the DMX system through the LAN/Serial ports,
providing TL1 messaging, software download, and full
operations, maintenance, and provisioning functions through a
Graphic User Interface (GUI).
•
Remote software download
DMXplore can download system software from a remote location
to enable the remote upgrade of DMXplore software by
technicians located at another physical location.
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2
Features
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter briefly highlights the features of the DMXplore Access
Multiplexer. These features are more thoroughly described in Chapter
3, “Network Topologies,” Chapter 4, “Product Description,” Chapter 5,
“System Planning and Engineering”, and Chapter 6, “Operations,
Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning,” as applicable.
Contents
The following topics are included in this chapter:
Hardware Features
2-2
2-2
In-service Upgrades
2-4
2-4
Topologies
22-5
-5
Networking Capabilities
2-6
2-6
Cross-connection Types
2-8
2-8
Operations Features
2 - 10
2-10
Synchronization Features
2 - 13
2-13
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Features
Hardware Features
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section briefly describes the major hardware features supported
through Release 2.1 of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
It also lists some circuit packs planned for future releases of
DMXplore.
Below is a list of the sections included in Hardware Features:
•
Network interface circuit packs (those housed in the MAIN slots
of the DMXplore shelf)
•
Ethernet circuit packs
•
Rack mount version of the DMXplore shelf
Important! For more detailed information on the capabilities of
these circuit packs, refer to the section entitled “Circuit Packs” in
Chapter 4. For technical specifications refer to Chapter 10.
Multi-function Network
Interface Circuit Packs
This section briefly details the network interface circuit packs available
for Release 2.1 and some of the packs available in future releases of the
DMXplore. “Network Interface” is used to refer to the high-speed
circuit packs, housed in the MAIN slots of the DMXplore shelf, and
used to provide the connection to the core-side of the network.
OC-3/12 Network Interface (high-speed) Circuit Packs
The DMXplore supports the following OC-3/12 network interface
cards:
•
VLNC5-- OC-3/16DS1/2DS3 (1310nm, long-reach, OSP
hardened, includes support for 16 DS1 interfaces and 2 DS3
interfaces)
•
VLNC6-- OC-3/16DS1 (1310nm, long-reach, OSP hardened,
includes support for 16 DS1 interfaces)
•
VLNC25-- OC-12/16DS1/2DS3 (1310nm, long-reach, OSP
hardened, includes support for 16 DS1 and 2DS3 interfaces)
•
VLNC26-- OC-12/16DS1 (1310nm, long-reach, OSP hardened,
includes support for 16 DS1 interfaces)
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Hardware Features
Ethernet Interface Circuit
Packs
Features
DMXplore supports the following Ethernet interface circuit packs in
R2.1:
•
Fast Ethernet-- VLNC15 (support for 4 ports, 10/100BASE-TX)
•
Fast Ethernet (R2.1)-- VLNC30 (support for 2 100BASE-LX
optical and 4 10/100BASE-TX electrical ports)
Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) optics
The Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) optics are used on the
VLNC30 pack. SFP optics are “pluggable” optics. This means that the
optics are purchased separately from the circuit pack and equipped or
“plugged-in” only as additional interfaces become necessary. This
makes DMXplore interface density more scalable and can save
customers money initially.
Rack Mount Shelf
A rack mount version of the DMXplore shelf is available in
Release 2.0. This shelf is designed to fit in a standard 7 foot bay of
either 19 or 23 inches in width. It provides all of the interfaces currently
located on the access panel of the wall mount shelf, but at the rear of
the shelf.
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Features
In-service Upgrades
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section briefly describes the in-service upgrades available in
Release 2.1 of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
In-service electrical
upgrade from DS1 to
DS1/DS3 interface and/or
OC-12
DMXplore supports an in-service electrical upgrade through an
upgrade of the MAIN network interface circuit packs in order to
support different combinations of DS1 and DS3 interfaces and to
enable an in-service switch from OC-3 to OC-12.
•
In-service electrical upgrade from DS1 to DS1/DS3:
--VLNC6 to VLNC5
--VLNC26 to VLNC25
•
In-service optical upgrade from OC-3 to OC-12:
--VLNC5 to VLNC25
--VLNC6 to VLNC26
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Features
Topologies
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section briefly describes the major topologies supported through
Release 2.1 of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer. Note
that the DMXplore can also operate unprotected.
High-speed (Network
interface) Linear optical
extensions
DMXplore supports 1+1 protected linear optical extensions. 1+1
protection is the default protection scheme and comes provisioned on
every shelf, but the user may provision UPSR switching if desired. The
high-speed linear optical extension may connect the DMXplore shelf,
by way of OC-3/12 network interfaces in the MAIN slots, to an OC-12,
OC-48 or OC-192 node with OC-3/12 tributary interfaces or to an
OC-3/12 node through the network interface. This feature performs
linear switching based on line layer defects.
High-speed (Network
interface) OC-3/12 UPSR
DMXplore supports UPSR on both the STS-1 and VT1.5 level. When
both Main slots are equipped with VLNC6, VLNC5, VLNC26, or
VLNC25 OLIUs circuit packs, a switch fabric supports the low-speed
interfaces. Each circuit pack establishes both an east-to-west and a
west-to-east rotation on the ring. A UPSR ring provides a very valuable
and reliable foundation for services protecting against fiber cuts and
node failures.
Single- and dual-homed
ring extensions
The DMXplore supports high-speed OC-3/12 extensions, including
single- and dual- homed ring extensions. A DDM-2000 OC-3, OC-12,
DMX or DMXtend Multiplexer may be the add/drop multiplexer on the
high-speed ring.
Fast Ethernet Private Line
DMXplore Fast Ethernet (10/100 Mbps) private lines enable premium
data transport services offering 10/100 Mbps transport with optional
bandwidth provisioning up to 100Mbps (variable bandwidth
provisioning of 1, 2, or 3 STS1s. With the VLNC15 and VLNC30,
DMXplore also allows Fast Ethernet provisioning at the VT1.5 level.
Fast Ethernet private lines provide the user the ability to transport
frames completely transparently between two DMXplore NEs. No
VLAN knowledge or packet-layer provisioning is required by the user
in this application. Simple, SONET cross-connect provisioning is all
that is required. These Fast Ethernet capabilities allow the DMXplore
to provide dedicated bandwidth for individual customers and fast
SONET-layer restoration.
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Features
Networking Capabilities
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section briefly describes the major networking capabilities
supported through Release 2.1 of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer.
VT1.5 granularity
DMXplore supports VT1.5 granularity. Full VT granularity is
supported for the OC-n interfaces on the Main packs. VT
cross-connections are supported to the DS1 ports and the VLNC15 and
VLNC30. Cross-connections are supported on up to 9 of the 12
available STS1s on the VLNC15 and VLNC30 packs. VT
cross-connections are supported on up to 6 STS1 on the VLNC15 and
VLNC30.
Enhanced Ethernet
Features
Release 2.0 incorporated many hardware and software-based features
of DMXplore Ethernet circuit packs. As these are hardware-based
features, they require the use of the VLNC15 or VLNC30 circuit packs.
Client Signal Fail
•
TCAs on Ethernet PM error counts
•
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) per ITU G.7042
•
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) per ITU G.7041
•
VT1.5 and STS-1 VCAT with LCAS
Release 2.1 contains support for Client Signal Fail. Client Signal Fail
can be monitored on all Ethernet VCGs.
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Networking Capabilities
DS1/DS3 Terminal
Loopbacks
DS1/DS3 Facility
Loopbacks
Ethernet Loopbacks
Features
DMXplore supports DS1/DS3 terminal loopbacks. A terminal
loopback connects the entire signal that is about to be passed-through
the low-speed interface to the DSX back toward the cross-connect
fabric to the high-speed optical line. AIS is the output to the DSX.
Terminal loopbacks are used for installation and maintenance
procedures to test the integrity of near and far- end interfaces as well as
fibers and system circuitry.
DMXplore supports DS1/DS3 facility loopbacks. Facility loopbacks
are used for installation and maintenance procedures to test the
integrity of near and far- end interfaces as well as fibers and system
circuitry.
DMXplore supports loopbacks on Ethernet interfaces. Ethernet
loopbacks may be used during installation and maintenance procedures
to test the integrity of near and far- end interfaces as well as fibers and
system circuitry.
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Features
Cross-connection Types
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore has cross-connect capabilities offering users flexibility
in directing traffic flow through systems to support a wide variety of
customer applications using two-way cross-connections.
Making cross-connections
Cross-connections are made by specifying the SONET rate (VT1.5 or
STS-n), the end point addresses (AIDs), and the cross-connection type
(for example, two-way). Each single cross-connection command
establishes a two-way cross-connection.
For simpler installation and turnup DMXplore has been designed with
a default set of cross-connections and a default 1+1 application (1+1
protection). The default cross-connections are only applicable to the
1+1 application. This allows for a “plug and play” option when
installing the DMXplore.
In Release 2.1, it becomes possible to disable all default
cross-connections.
Manual cross-connect
rates
The following lists the signals that can be cross-connected:
•
VT1.5
•
STS-1
•
STS-3c
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Cross-connection Types
Add/Drop
Features
An add/drop cross-connection is any connection between a high-speed
(network) interface and a low-speed (tributary) interface.
Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
A Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR) is self-healing ring
configuration in which traffic is sent onto both rotations (both fibers) of
the ring in opposite directions. “Path-switched” means that if the
working signal fails, the path switches to the protection signal.
Protection switching is done independently for each SONET path.
UPSRs operate in an integrated, single-ended fashion-- negating the
need for complex network-level coordination in the effort to restore
traffic.
Linear 1+1
The linear application mode is a standards-compliant 1+1 protected
configuration, providing unidirectional, non-revertive line switching.
Locked DSn
Cross-Connection
(R2.1)
In the “locked” mode, DMXplore does not select the best signal from
both rotations of a UPSR. Instead, traffic is added and dropped (locked)
from one rotation of the ring only (provisionable). The main advantage
of locked DS1/DS3 cross-connections is the lack of UPSR switching
which also results in the ability to reuse timeslots around a UPSR.
DMXplore also allows the mixing of both locked and unlocked VTs
within the same STS-1. With DMXplore, the following
cross-connections may coexist within the same STS-1: VT add/drop,
VT pass-through, VT locked to Side 1, and VT locked to Side 2.
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Features
Operations Features
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
WaveStar CIT with GUI
This section briefly describes the major Operations-related features
supported through Release 2.1 of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer. It also includes descriptions of features that will be
supported in future releases of DMXplore.
The PC-CIT manages the DMXplore system through the serial RS-232
or IAO/LAN port, providing TL1 messaging, software download, and
full operations and provisioning capability via a Graphical User
Interface (GUI) or TL1 command builder. The PC-CIT can run a
full-featured GUI or TL1 scripts. Using the GUI, a crafts person can
access all DMXplore software functions and context-sensitive help.
The TL1 command builder is a flexible TL1 command builder that
supports full TL1 management through LAN or RS-232 interfaces. It
provides a simple list of TL1 commands and prompts to help complete
them more quickly.
The PC-CIT is not used to download release software to the system (the
PC is used, but not the CIT software). Release software can be copied
to other NEs remotely, provided the initial download of DMXplore
release software has occurred on each system.
Performance monitoring
TL1 management
Performance monitoring (PM) data will be reported on the VT1.5,
STS-1, STS-3c, DS1, DS3, Fast Ethernet, OC-3, and OC-12 levels.
TL1 messaging is supported via the RS-232 and LAN interfaces. The
WaveStar CIT, when used in conjunction with the TL1 command
builder, provides full TL1 management through the RS-232 or LAN
interfaces.
Software download over
DCC
This feature enables software (upgrade) to be downloaded to remote
NEs from a central office site or any DMX/DMXtend connected to the
DMXplore via the data communications channel (DCC).
Proxy ARP
In normal ARP usage for an Ethernet LAN, the sending system
broadcasts an ARP request on the physical LAN. The ARP request
contains the target IP address and asks the system with this IP address to
respond with its physical Ethernet address. All systems on the LAN
receive the request, but only the system which recognizes the target IP
address as its own will send a point-to-point ARP reply to the sending
system. The broadcast ARP request on a physical LAN only reaches
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Operations Features
Features
systems which are attached to this physical LAN. If the sending system
and the target system are on different physical networks, the target
system will not receive the ARP request and thus can not respond to it.
Proxy ARP lets a system, called ARP subnet gateway, answer ARP
requests received from one of its physical (LAN) networks for a target
system which is not attached to this physical network.
To allow SNMP manager/NTP server located in the IP-based access
Data Communication Network (DCN) to communicate with NEs
located in the OSI-based DCN, DMXplore supports IP tunneling
solution to encapsulate and route IP packets over OSI-based embedded
DCN. The provisioning of static routes on the external router(s) is
required to route the IP packets from the access DCN to the embedded
DCN. The Proxy ARP support on the Gateway Network Element
(GNE) will eliminate this need of static routes on the external router(s).
OSI seven-layer protocol
stack
This feature provides interworking using the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer protocol stack over the data
communications channel (DCC). The OSI seven-layer protocol stack
refers to the OSI reference model, a logical structure for network
operations standardized by the International Standards Organization
(ISO).
Support of Simple Network
Management Protocol
DMXplore makes use of Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP). SNMP is the most common protocol used by data network
management applications to query a management agent using a
supported Management Information Base (MIB). SNMP operates at the
OSI Application layer. The IP-based SNMP is the basis of most
network management software, to the extent that today the phrase
“managed device” implies SNMP compliance. The DMXplore
provides limited SNMP support of certain reports and traps. For more
information, see the section entitled “SNMP Parameters and Traps” in
Chapter 6 of this document. SNMP is supported on all Ethernet circuit
packs.
Remote NE Status
This feature partitions a subnetwork into maintenance domains (alarm
groups). An Alarm Group is a set of NEs that share status information.
Alarm groups can be nodes in a ring or any other logical grouping such
as a maintenance or geographical group. Each Level 1 area can be
identified as a separate Alarm Group, as long as it does not exceed 50
nodes. You must provision one NE in an Alarm Group as an alarm
gateway NE (AGNE) to support office alarms and a summary alarm
information of remote NEs in the local alarm report. More than one
AGNE can be provisioned per alarm group, but this is not
recommended.
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Operations Features
Features
Security
TARP
SONET
TIRKS/NMA/TEMS
compatibility
Security features include 1-999 day password aging, customized login
proprietary messages, and up to 150 users.
DMXplore is compatible with any other-vendor NEs that support
Target ID Address Resolution Protocol (TARP), OSI, IAO LAN, and
TL1 as specified in Telcordia Technologies GR-253.
Many of the traditional SONET maintenance, provisioning, operations,
control, and synchronization features are included in the DMXplore.
The flexible SONET standard provides a formidable foundation for the
DMXplore to build upon.
DMXplore is supported by Telcordia™ OSs TIRKS, NMA, and TEMS
(Release 2.1 will be supported in 12/05).
Multivendor Operations
Interworking
DMXplore supports interoperability with many vendors’ equipment;
particularly those that support GR-253 standards-based SONET.
Product Family
2000/WaveStar Product
Family Interworking
DMXplore supports TARP interoperability with Product Family 2000
nodes such as the FT-2000 OC-48 Lightwave System, the DDM-2000
OC-3/OC-12 Multiplexer, and the DDM-2000 FiberReach Multiplexer.
DMXplore also provides interoperability with all WaveStar Product
Family nodes supporting TARP.
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Features
Synchronization Features
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Synchronization features
Synchronization is an important part of all SONET products.
DMXplore is designed for high performance and reliable
synchronization and can be used in a number of synchronization
environments.
DMXplore supports three synchronization reference configurations:
•
Line Timing from
incoming OC-3/12 signal (for small COs or
remote sites).
•
Free Running
from the multiplexer’s internal SMC (SONET
Minimum Clock) Timing Generator (no synchronization inputs).
•
Holdover
using the multiplexer’s internal SMC oscillator to
maintain the last known good reference frequency.
These timing modes are supported by the embedded SMC in the MAIN
circuit pack. The basic timing modes can be combined into various
network configurations.
Internal timing functions such as reference interfaces, the on-board
clock elements, and timing distribution, are provided by the SMC
Timing Generator. The timing generator distributes clock and frame
signals, derived from the 20 ppm generator, to the rest of the system.
Line timing mode
In line timing mode, the timing generator derives local shelf timing
from the incoming service OC-n signal in the MAIN 1 or MAIN 2 slot.
If one of the OC-n (OC-3/12) references is corrupted or unavailable,
the timing generator will make a protection switch to the other
reference without causing timing degradations. If all OC-n timing
signals are lost (for example, due to a cable cut), the timing generator
will switch to holdover mode. The timing generator will normally
switch back to the line timing mode when a good reference is available,
but it can be provisioned to require a manual switch.
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Synchronization Features
Free running mode
Holdover mode
Features
In free running mode, no mode switching is performed. The timing
generator derives timing from the internal timing generator. This
oscillator provides +/-20 ppm accuracy. Only one NE in a network
should be provisioned in the free running mode. All other NEs in the
subnetwork should be line timed to this free running system to avoid
performance degradation.
When a system is line timed, in the case of unprotected synchronization
reference failure, the 20 ppm timing generator will switch to holdover
mode and continue to provide system timing, using the internal
oscillator to maintain the last known good reference frequency.
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Network Topologies
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
The Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer (DMXplore) supports
a wide range of service applications and a variety of network
topologies economically and efficiently.
Contents
The following sections are included in this chapter:
Service Applications
3-2
3-2
Small or Medium-sized Business Access
3-3
3-3
Wireless Optical Buildout
3-5
3-5
Ethernet Extension
3-7
3-7
Hitless Bandwidth Provisioning with LCAS
3-9
3-9
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Network Topologies
Service Applications
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The following sections detail some useful service applications
supported by the DMXplore shelf. This set of applications is not meant
to imply a limit to the DMXplore’s capabilities, but merely to show
some scenarios for which the unit is quite useful.
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365-372-331
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Network Topologies
Small or Medium-sized Business Access
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore provides a low-cost solution for offering high-speed
access to small to medium-sized enterprise end customers. The
DMXplore can provide businesses with reliable transport for both
voice and data service using DS1, DS3, and 10/100 Mbps Ethernet over
SONET protected OC-3 or OC-12 lines.
Description
The DMXplore is optimized for low-cost, small footprint entry into
end-user environments. The DMXplore can be placed in an office
building, medical facility, hotel, college dormitory, or any building
housing a moderate amount of distinct end users. In its ability to
provide a flexible mix of DS1, DS3, and 10/100 Mbps interfaces, the
DMXplore is ideal as a collection point for multiple lines within a
diverse MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit), providing a variety of both voice
and data services.
Figure 3-1 DMXplore providing enterprise access
DMXplore provides:
- DS1/-3
- 10/100 Mbp Ethernet
DMXplore
DMXplore
Metropolis®
DMXtend
Metropolis
DMX
®
OC
-12
DMXplore
Metropolis
DMX
DMXplore
®
UP
SR
OC-3
UPSR
Metropolis
DMXtend
OC-3 UPSR/1+1
®
Metropolis
DMXpress
Metropolis
DMX
®
®
OC-48/192 UPSR
Metro Core
DMX = Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
MA-DMXplore-11
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3 - 3
Small or Medium-sized Business Access
Application advantage
Network Topologies
Using the DMXplore in this application results in the following
advantages:
•
DMXplore is designed as an ultra-compact, full-service
TDM/Ethernet CPE, eliminating the need for larger NEs or
data-specific switches and routers within the building. This is
extremely advantageous as the cost of renting space in high-rise
basements for telecommunications equipment is high.
•
Low-cost fiber terminations directly to the business.
•
Flexible service offerings.
•
Service flexibility with a 16 port DS1/ two port DS3 circuit pack,
a 4 port Fast Ethernet (10/100 Mbps) pack, and a Fast Ethernet
pack supporting 2 100BASE-LX optical ports and 4
10/100BASE-TX electrical ports; all of which are meant to
facilitate cost-effective and steady growth.
•
Easily managed solution: if the DMXplore is connected to the
DMX/DMXtend, Lambda Unite, or WaveStar 2.5G/10G the
remotely located DMXplore can be managed from the central
office using the Wavestar CIT.
•
Reliable SONET protection of both voice and data services.
•
Integrated Ethernet switching and Ethernet compatibility with
BLEC/enterprise switches.
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Network Topologies
Wireless Optical Buildout
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Description
The DMXplore is environmentally hardened for outside and wireless
cabinet deployment using OC-3/12 high-speed interfaces.
The DMXplore can be deployed in outside cabinets at such places as
wireless/cellular sites, allowing for cost-effective aggregation of DS1,
DS3, 10/100 Mbps Ethernet, and OC-3/12 signals and reliable, SONET
protected transport of these services to Hub nodes at the CO in a
scalable, compact, and easily managed NE.
In this application, DMXplore is line-timed from an NE that is timed
from an external timing reference. For example, DMX is a Stratum 3
timed device from which the DMXplore is line-timed.
Figure 3-2 Wireless Optical Buildout
DMXplore
OC-3
DMXplore
OC-3
Central
Office
Hub Node
DMX
DMX
OC-192/48/12
Optical
Core/PSTN
DMX
OC-3
DMX
DMXplore
DMXplore
LAN
DS1/DS3
4
DMX = Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
®
DMXplore = Metropolis DMXplore Access Multiplexer
MA-DMXplore-021
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3 - 5
Wireless Optical Buildout
Application advantage
Network Topologies
Using the DMXplore in this application results in the following
advantages:
•
Cost-effective transport of wireless service in an environmentally
hardened unit designed for outside deployment.
•
Compact size of DMXplore provides for reduced cost, space, and
heat generation at antenna sites.
•
Easily managed monitoring of equipment at antenna site (such as
doors, fire alarms, heating or cooling systems, etc.) through the
miscellaneous discrete interfaces on the DMXplore (4 MDIs and 4
MDOs).
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Network Topologies
Ethernet Extension
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore provides a low-cost solution for offering high-speed
access to small to medium-sized enterprise end customers. The
DMXplore can provide businesses with reliable transport for both
voice and data service using DS1, DS3, and 10/100 Mbps Ethernet over
SONET protected OC-3 or OC-12 lines.
Description
The figure below shows DMXplores in a few different offices within the
same high-rise building. With its OC-3/12 MAIN optics, the DMXplore
is perfect for the application pictured below because it can serve as a collection point for various individual business groups collocated in the
same office, business unit, floor, or building. It can then transmit traffic
either to a DMX/DMXtend/DMXpress located in the basement or in a
wiring closet, or directly to a service provider’s site outside of the building. Applications include T1 (DS1), T3 (DS3), and 10/100 Mbps
Ethernet.
With its Ethernet private line capabilities, DMXplore can provide
secure lines for vital business data within a private LAN. Furthermore,
because DMXplore employs transparent Ethernet switching through
SONET networks, the integrity and security of the private LAN that
enterprises enjoy on-site is preserved through the larger network. Thus,
multiple offices using DMXplore at different sites can be connected by
the same, secure Ethernet private line.
Figure 3-3 Ethernet Extension
DMXplore
10/100 Mbps
and/or
TDM
METRO
CO/POP
DMXplore
OC-3/12
1+1/
UPSR
Metropolis®
DMXtend
OC-3/12/48
UPSR/ 1+1
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
DMX = Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
Metropolis®
DMX
MA-DMXplore-019
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Ethernet Extension
Application Advantage
Network Topologies
DMXplore is designed as an ultra-compact, full-service TDM/Ethernet
CPE, eliminating the need for larger NEs or data specific switches and
routers within the building. This is extremely advantageous as the cost
of renting space in high-rise basements for telecommunications
equipment is high.
Using the DMXplore in this application results in the following
advantages:
•
Enhances fiber up the riser distribution within the building.
•
Offers low-cost Ethernet and TDM private line transport.
•
Enables next generation Ethernet over SONET services such as
VLANs, Transparent LANs, and Ethernet private lines.
•
Supports both electrical and optical Ethernet interfaces.
•
Low-cost multi-service optical BLEC/Enterprise network.
•
Strong transmission capability of high-speed (OC-3/12) interfaces
compensates for poor quality fiber within the building.
•
Reliable, SONET protection of both voice and data services.
•
Integrated Ethernet switching and Ethernet compatibility with
BLEC/enterprise switches.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Network Topologies
Hitless Bandwidth Provisioning with LCAS
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Description
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) enables in-service (or
non-service affecting) bandwidth increases/decreases for Ethernet
links.
DMXplore supports standard LCAS per ITU G.7041. Bandwidth
changes to Ethernet links are done one span at a time. Without LCAS,
provisioning a bandwidth change on the first span of a packet ring takes
down Ethernet service around the rest of the ring until the entire ring is
set to operate at the same capacity.
With LCAS, planned increases and/or decreases of bandwidth are
hitless (that is, they do not affect service). As the figure below
illustrates, when capacity changes to each span around the packet ring
are provisioned, service is not interrupted. While the span between
nodes A&B is set to 15 VTs, the remaining spans continue to function
at 10 VTs.
Figure 3-4 Hitless Bandwidth Provisioning: 1st Span
Capacity of span one changed
to 15 VT 1.5s in-service. The
rest of the packet ring continues
to function.
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Central Office
10 VT 1.5s
15 VT 1.5s
TDM
Ethernet
OC-3/12
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Metropolis®
DMXplore
10 VT 1.5s
10 VT 1.5s
Metropolis
DMXplore
®
JK-E-10-xplore.eps
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Hitless Bandwidth Provisioning with LCAS
Application Advantages
Network Topologies
As the global market for communication services is in continuous flux,
both advances in technology and changes in state, regional, and
national economies exert various pressures on your network.
Accordingly, capacity changes to your network are necessary on a
regular basis.
LCAS enables you to meet the challenges of today’s market without
affecting service. With LCAS, you are not in danger of violating
stringent Enterprise customer SLAs. You can also deploy you SONET
network according to long-term growth forecasts, and get the most out
of the ability to adjust private line and packet ring capacity within your
SONET lines.
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4
Product Description
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter provides a detailed view of the DMXplore Access
Multiplexer architecture. After introducing the DMXplore shelf, this
chapter describes the system circuit packs, control, power, and cabling.
Contents
The following hardware is described in this chapter:
Shelf Description
44-2
-2
Circuit Packs
4-6
4-6
Circuit Pack Descriptions
44-8
-8
Control
44-13
- 13
Power Specifications
4 - 15
4-15
Cabling
4 - 16
4-16
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4 - 1
Product Description
Shelf Description
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Size
The DMXplore is a single-shelf multiplexer that offers OC-3/DS1 and
OC-3/DS1/DS3, OC-12/DS1, OC-12/DS1/DS3 multi-function circuit
packs, an Ethernet Private Line (10/100 Mbps Ethernet), and the
System Controller (SYSCTL).
The DMXplore wall-mount shelf has the following characteristics:
•
Width: 7.5 inches
•
Height: 10.5 inches
•
Depth (front to back): 12.0 inches
The DMXplore rack-mount shelf has the following characteristics:
Capacity
•
Width: 17.3 inches (includes integral fan unit)
•
Height: 3.5 inches
•
Depth (front to back): 13.5 inches
The DMXplore provides a VT1.5 and STS-1 cross-connect fabric for a
variety of signals. The DMXplore’s main switch fabric is contained in
each of the high-speed (network-side interface) circuit packs, located in
the MAIN slots of the DMXplore shelf. These MAIN slots have the
capacity to house OC-3/12 high-speed interfaces.
Listed below is the number of signals that DMXplore can transport
using the capabilities of the VLNC6/26, VLNC5/25, VLNC15, and
VLNC30 packs available through Release 2.1:
•
16 DS1s
•
2 DS3s (DS3 on VLNC5 and VLNC25 only)
•
4 10/100BASE-TX Ethernet Private Line
•
2 100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Private Line (VLNC30 only)
•
1 OC-3 (protected/unprotected)
•
1 OC-12 (protected/unprotected)
DS1 and DS3 interfaces are also equipment protected by the MAIN
packs.
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Shelf Description
Product Description
Front view
The figure below shows the front of the DMXplore wall-mount shelf
equipped with the following:
•
OC-3/DS1 Main circuit packs (VLNC6) in the MAIN1 and
MAIN2 slot (VLNC5, VLNC25, and VLNC26 could also
populate the MAIN slots)
•
System Controller (SYSCTL) in the CTL slot (VLNC1)
•
The Fast Ethernet Private Line (VLNC15) Ethernet pack occupies
Function Group C (the VLNC30 can also populate Group C)
Figure 4-1 Wall-mount Shelf Front View
®
Metropolis DMXplore
PWR-A
VLNC6
VLNC6
S1:1
S1:1
XX:x
XX:x
Lucent
Lucent
-48V-A
RTN-A
RTN COM
GRD
PWR-B
RTN-B
-48V-B
ON
ON
1
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
3
2
4
C GROUP
OUT
2
1
3
IN
IN
IN
OUT
OUT
1
B GROUP
3
2
4
FAULT
CR/MJ
10.5
Inches
MN/ABN
UPDA
TE
5
ACO
9
7
6
8
A/D GROUP
11
10
12
LAN
CIT
RS-232
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
13
MDI
14
15
MDO
16
ALARM
VLNC1
S1:1
SYSCTL
Lucent
CTL
7.5
inches
MA-DMXplore-007
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Shelf Description
Product Description
FAN
FAULT
FAULT
CRMJ
FAULT
MNAGN
ACTIVE
UPDNT
FAULT
IN
ACO/TST
ACTIVE
OUT
FAULT
IN
ACTIVE
OUT
BAR CODE
Figure 4-2 DMXplore Rack-mount Front View with Mounting
Bracket
LAN
RS232
CIT
A
PWR ON
B
PWR ON
3.5
Lucent
17.3”
Front view description
As shown in the figures above, the DMXplore contains 1 Function Unit
slot, 2 Main slots, and one CTL slot.
Function Unit slot
The Function Unit is designed to house the Fast Ethernet Private Line
circuit pack (VLNC15 or VLNC30) and is mapped directly to the four,
GRP C RJ-45 connectors on the access panel of the wall-mount shelf or
at the rear of the rack-mount shelf (the optical ports of the VLNC30 are
on the faceplate of the pack).
Main slots (MAIN1 and MAIN2)
The Main slots are reserved for service and protection main OC-3 or
OC-12 circuit packs. The SMC (20 ppm) timing generator and main
TDM switch fabrics are embedded in both circuit packs.
Control slot
The CTL slot is reserved for the non-redundant VLNC1, System
Controller (SYSCTL) circuit pack.
Fan Unit
DMXplore wall-mount unit is convection cooled and therefore does
not require a Fan Unit. The rack-mount unit contains a plug-in Fan
Unit.
Circuit Pack Blanks
Any unused slot in the DMXplore must be equipped with an
appropriate CP blank in order to meet radiated emission requirement
per GR-1089.
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Shelf Description
Access panel description
Product Description
As shown in the Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2 above, the DMXplore
contains LAN and RS-232 jacks for communication on the front of the
SYSCTL.
The access panel (located on the right of the wall-mount shelf and at
the rear of the rack-mount) contains the following, additional cabling
inputs listed from the top down:
•
two power connections (-48 VDC) with 2 power-on LEDs (PWRA and PWR-B)
•
four 10/100T ports mapped directly to the Function Group C slot
•
two DS3 coaxial receive ports and two transmit ports
•
16 DS1 inputs/outputs
•
4 MDIs and 4 MDOs
•
two audible and visual “Critical/Major” and “Minor” office alarm
closures
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Product Description
Circuit Packs
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Available circuit packs
The table below contains a list of each circuit pack supported by the
DMXplore, indicates which slots they are able to be housed in, and in
what release each circuit pack is available.
Table 4-1
Circuit Packs in DMXplore Shelf
Circuit Pack
Apparatus
Code
Slot(s)
Release
Comments
System Controller
(SYSCTL)
VLNC1
CTL
1.0
Extended temperature certification
for outside cabinet deployment
(OSP Hardened)
OC-3/16DS1 &
2DS3 multifunction pack
(1 OC-3 port)
VLNC5
MAIN1,
MAIN2
1.0.1
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 and 2 DS3 ports
OC-3/16DS1 multifunction pack
(1 OC-3 port)
VLNC6
MAIN1,
MAIN2
1.0
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 ports
OC-12/16DS1 &
2DS3 multifunction pack
(1 OC-12 port)
VLNC25
MAIN1,
MAIN2
2.0
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 and 2 DS3 ports
OC-12/16DS1
multi-function pack
(1 OC-12 port)
VLNC26
MAIN1,
MAIN2
2.0
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 ports
10/100T (support
for 4 ports)
VLNC15
Function
Group C
2.0
Support for the 4 10/100T ports on
the access panel, supports Ethernet
Private Lines, OSP hardened
VLNC30
Function
Group C
2.1
Support for the 4 10/100T ports on
the access panel and 2 100BASELX ports on the faceplate (via SFP
optics). Supports Ethernet Private
Lines, OSP hardened
Private Line
10/100
Private Line
(2 optical ports and
4 electrical ports)
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
Circuit Packs
Product Description
Circuit Pack
Apparatus
Code
Slot(s)
Release
Comments
Apparatus Blank
199M
MAIN 1,
MAIN 2
1.0
Filler plates to be used in
unpopulated MAIN slots of the
DMXplore shelf. For use when
running unprotected.
Apparatus Blank
199L
Function
Group C
1.0
Filler plates to be used in
unpopulated Group C slot of the
shelf when Ethernet service is not
being supported.
NOTE
Changes may be made to planned or future offerings at any time, and
without notice.
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Product Description
Circuit Pack Descriptions
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
System Controller (VLNC1)
This section briefly describes DMXplore circuit packs.
The SYSCTL provides communication with other circuit packs in the
DMXplore unit. The SYSCTL supports all DMXplore operations
interfaces, including IAO LAN (OSI or TCP/IP), TL1, CIT, office
alarms, and miscellaneous discretes.
The SYSCTL faceplate has 2 push-button switches (ACO and
UPDATE), alarm/status LEDs and a dual RJ45 CIT connector. The
SYSCTL provides redundancy by duplicating all cross-connect
information on the OLIU circuit packs. Transmission is not affected if
the SYSCTL fails or is removed while the shelf is in service.
The SYSCTL circuit pack provides a microprocessor, nonvolatile
memory to store the generic program software and provisioning
database, and additional memory for system operation.
The SYSCTL supports Wavestar CIT front access to the DMXplore via
the IAO LAN and a serial RS-232 port.
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Circuit Pack Descriptions
OC-3/16DS1 OLIU (VLNC6)
Product Description
The OC-3 OLIU (VLNC6) high-speed circuit pack is a one-port, longreach, 1310 nm optical line interface unit supporting VT1.5 and STS-1
path switching. The VLNC6 can be provisioned for UPSR or 1+1
protection schemes and can interface with other OC-3 rings, OC-3
linear optical extensions, as well as single- and dual-homed ring
extensions. Fiber access is provided via one pair of LC-type connectors
on the VLNC6 faceplate.
The VLNC6 occupies the MAIN1 and/or MAIN2 slots on the
DMXplore shelf.
DS1 support on the VLNC6 circuit pack
The VLNC6 multi-function pack supports 16 DS1 ports located on the
access panel of the DMXplore shelf. The 16 DS1 ports can be crossconnected to VT1.5 timeslots when the system is operating with a
UPSR or 1+1 OC-3 high-speed interface. 16 DS1 signals are equipment
protected when both MAIN slots have circuit packs in them. Line
build-outs and DS1 signal encoding are software provisionable.
VLNC6 supports the transport of DS1 signals coded in either alternate
mark inversion (AMI) or bipolar 8-zero substitution (B8ZS) modes.
The signals received from the DS1 ports on the access panel are
mapped into SONET STS-1 signals within the VLNC6 board and then
routed to the high-speed OC-3 ports on the VLNC6 circuit pack.
OC-3/16DS1/2DS3 OLIU
(VLNC5)
The VLNC5 is available in Release 1.0.1. The OC-3 OLIU (VLNC5)
high-speed circuit pack is a one-port, long-reach, 1310 nm optical line
interface unit supporting VT1.5 and STS-1 path switching. The
VLNC5 can be provisioned for UPSR or 1+1 protection schemes and
can interface with other OC-3 rings, OC-3 linear optical extensions, as
well as single- and dual-homed ring extensions. Fiber access is
provided via one pair of LC-type connectors on the VLNC5 faceplate.
The VLNC5 occupies the MAIN1 and/or MAIN2 slots on the
DMXplore shelf.
DS1 and DS3 support on the VLNC5 circuit pack
The VLNC5 multi-function pack supports 16 DS1 ports and 2 DS3
ports located on the access panel of the DMXplore shelf. The 16 DS1
and 2 DS3 ports can be cross-connected to STS-1 (also VT1.5 for DS1)
timeslots when the system is operating with a UPSR or 1+1 OC-3 highspeed interface. 16 DS1 and 2 DS3 signals are equipment protected.
Line build-outs and DS1/DS3 signal encoding are software
provisionable. VLNC5 supports the transport of DS1/DS3 signals
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Circuit Pack Descriptions
Product Description
coded in either Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) or Bipolar 8-Zero
Substitution (B8ZS) modes for DS1 signals and B3ZS for DS3 signals.
The signals received from the DS1/DS3 ports on the access panel are
mapped into SONET STS-1 (also VT1.5 for DS1) signals within the
VLNC5 board and then routed to the high-speed OC-3 ports on the
VLNC5 circuit pack.
OC-12/16DS1/2DS3 OLIU
(VLNC25)
The VLNC25 is available in Release 2.0. The OC-12 multi-function
(VLNC25) high-speed circuit pack is a one-port, long-reach, 1310 nm
optical line interface unit supporting VT1.5 and STS-1 path switching.
The VLNC25 can be provisioned for UPSR or 1+1 protection schemes
and can interface with other OC-12 rings, OC-12 linear optical
extensions, as well as single- and dual-homed ring extensions. Fiber
access is provided via one pair of LC-type connectors on the VLNC25
faceplate.
The VLNC25 occupies the MAIN1 and/or MAIN2 slots on the
DMXplore shelf. This pack is OSP hardened.
DS1 and DS3 support on the VLNC25 circuit pack
The VLNC25 multi-function pack supports 16 DS1 ports and 2 DS3
ports located on the access panel of the DMXplore shelf. The 16 DS1
and 2 DS3 ports can be cross-connected to STS-1 (also VT1.5 for DS1)
timeslots when the system is operating with a UPSR or 1+1 OC-12
high-speed interface. 16 DS1 and 2 DS3 signals are equipment
protected. Line build-outs and DS1/DS3 signal encoding are software
provisionable. VLNC25 supports the transport of DS1/DS3 signals
coded in either Alternate Mark Inversion (AMI) or Bipolar 8-Zero
Substitution (B8ZS) modes for DS1 signals and B3ZS for DS3 signals.
The signals received from the DS1/DS3 ports on the access panel are
mapped into SONET STS-1 (also VT1.5 for DS1) signals within the
VLNC25 board and then routed to the high-speed OC-12 ports on the
VLNC25 circuit pack.
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Circuit Pack Descriptions
OC-12/16DS1 OLIU
(VLNC26)
Product Description
The OC-12 multi-function (VLNC26) high-speed circuit pack is a oneport, long-reach, 1310 nm optical line interface unit supporting VT1.5
and STS-1 path switching. The VLNC26 can be provisioned for UPSR
or 1+1 protection schemes and can interface with other OC-12 rings,
OC-12 linear optical extensions, as well as single- and dual-homed ring
extensions. Fiber access is provided via one pair of LC-type connectors
on the VLNC26 faceplate.
The VLNC26 occupies the MAIN1 and/or MAIN2 slots on the
DMXplore shelf. This pack is OSP hardened.
DS1 support on the VLNC26 circuit pack
The VLNC26 multi-function pack supports 16 DS1 ports located on the
access panel of the DMXplore shelf. The 16 DS1 ports can be crossconnected to VT1.5 timeslots when the system is operating with a
UPSR or 1+1 OC-12 high-speed interface. 16 DS1 signals are
equipment protected when both MAIN slots have circuit packs in them.
Line build-outs and DS1 signal encoding are software provisionable.
VLNC26 supports the transport of DS1 signals coded in either alternate
mark inversion (AMI) or bipolar 8-zero substitution (B8ZS) modes.
The signals received from the DS1 ports on the access panel are
mapped into SONET STS-1 signals within the VLNC26 board and then
routed to the high-speed OC-12 ports on the VLNC26 circuit pack.
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Circuit Pack Descriptions
10/100T (VLNC15)
100BASE-TX Ethernet
interface
Product Description
The VLNC15 circuit pack is available in Release 2.0 and supports four
10/100 Mbps ports, providing data transport at the rate of 10/100 Mbps
using standard Ethernet switching (IEEE 802.1), standard
encapsulation according to ITU G.7041 for Generic Framing Procedure
(GFP), ITU G.707 for Virtual Concatenation (VCAT). The VLNC15
can transmit signals across spans as long as 100 meters. VLNC15
circuit pack is designed specifically to support Fast Ethernet Private
Line applications. Each VLNC15 circuit pack can support 4 private
lines. The VLNC15 supports VT1.5, STS-1, and STS-3c crossconnections. The VLNC15 is an unprotected pack.
The VLNC15 may occupy Function Group C of the DMXplore shelf.
Optical/Electric 10/100
(VLNC30) Ethernet
interface (R2.1)
The VLNC30 circuit pack is available in Release 2.1 and supports 2
optical 100BASE-LX ports and four 10/100BASE-TX electrical ports,
providing data transport at the rate of 10/100 Mbps using standard
Ethernet switching (IEEE 802.1), standard encapsulation according to
ITU G.7041 for Generic Framing Procedure (GFP), ITU G.707 for
Virtual Concatenation (VCAT). The VLNC30 can transmit signals
across spans as long as 100 meters for electrical interfaces and 10,000
meters for optical interfaces. VLNC30 circuit pack is designed
specifically to support Fast Ethernet Private Line applications. Each
VLNC15 circuit pack can support 4 private lines. The VLNC30
supports VT1.5, STS-1, and STS-3c cross-connections. The VLNC30
is an unprotected pack.
The VLNC30 may occupy Function Group C of the DMXplore shelf.
The VLNC30 also uses Small Form Pluggable (SFP) optics. SFP optics
are “pluggable” in the sense that they can be plugged into a circuit pack
as they become necessary. This allows customers to grow their network
incrementally, only realizing the full cost for optics as the need to
provision service on (and thus receive revenue from) them becomes
necessary. LNW30 packs are purchased and shipped with no sockets
populated with functioning optics. The ports remain empty until the
customer decides to place optics in them.
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Product Description
Control
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore provides extensive control features, accessible through a
number of technician and operations system (OS) interfaces. In
addition to accessing local DMXplore NEs through direct interfaces,
technicians and OSs can use the operations features supported via the
DCC in the optical signals to access remote NEs. Control functions are
supported by the SYSCTL circuit pack.
Three-tiered operations
interface
DMXplore maintenance procedures are built on three levels of system
information and control. The first tier is provided by the LEDs,
displays, and push-button switches located on the faceplate of the
SYSCTL circuit pack. The second tier uses the Wavestar CIT to
provision and retrieve detailed reports of performance monitoring,
alarm and status, and system configuration for both local and remote
NEs. The third tier uses the OS interfaces such as TL1 and TL1 over
IAO LAN (TCP/IP or OSI) or CIT to monitor performance, gather
alarm information, and configure the system. Also, the IAO LAN
interface provisioned for TCP/IP supports software download and
provisionable database backup/restore via FTP.
SYSCTL faceplate
The faceplate of the SYSCTL circuit pack contains indicators that
provide system-level information and control functions. The condition
of the individual transmission circuit packs can be determined using
faceplate LEDs.
The figure on the following page shows the SYSCTL faceplate. There
are LEDs and two push-button switches for Update and ACO.
There are two alarm/status LEDs on the SYSCTL faceplate, listed
below:
•
Critical (CR)/Major (MJ)
•
Minor (MN)/Abnormal (ABN)
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Control
Product Description
Figure 4-3 SYSCTL Circuit Pack
FAULT
CR/MJ
MN/ABN
UPDATE
ACO
LAN
CIT
RS232
VLNC1
S1:1
SYSCTL
Lucent
Embedded operations
channel
Access and control extends beyond the local DMXplore to remote
DMXplores via the SONET section DCC. DMXplore supports 2 DCC
channels.
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Product Description
Power Specifications
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power supply
The table below lists DMXplore power requirements.
Table 4-2
DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
Item
Description
Voltage range
-40 to -57 volts
Power Feeders
-48VDC (A and B)
External fuses required (1 per
feed)
Two, 2A fuses
DMXplore uses on-board power conversion eliminating the need for
slots for bulk power converters. Two independent -48VDC office
power feeders (A and B) enter the shelf through a terminal block and
are filtered and distributed to the circuit packs. Power conversion is
performed via modular power converters located on the circuit packs.
Within each circuit pack, the two -48VDC feeders are diode ored,
fused, filtered, and connected to the board-mounted power modules.
This provides the required redundancy in case of the loss of one feeder.
The two green power LEDs are located to the left of the input power
terminal block.
Current drains
The following table provides the maximum and average current drain
requirements for a shelf.
Table 4-3
Shelf
Shelf Current Drains
Current Drains per Feeder in Amperes
List 1/ Wall-mount
DMXplore Shelf
List 2/ Rack-mount
Average
@ −48V
Maximum
@ −48V
Average
@ −40V
Maximum
@ −40V
1.04 Amps
1.25 Amps
1.25 Amps 1.5 Amps
NOTE: The heat dissipation of the DMXplore is 60 watts.
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Product Description
Cabling
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Cable types
This section briefly describes cabling information, including the
number of particular cables required. For information regarding
available cable lengths and ordering comcodes, refer to Chapter 7.
The table below lists available cables along with the required number
(if any).
Table 4-4
Cables
Cable Assembly Description
Quantity per Shelf
See Note
Power
2 twisted pair cables
per shelf
1
DS1 (RJ-45 Transmit and
Receive)
Up to 16 as required
2
DS3 (receive and transmit are
not bundled)
Up to 4 per MAIN slot
housing a VLNC5/25
circuit pack (as
required)
3
Office Alarm
1 Kit (26 AWG, 30’, 8
conductors)
4
Miscellaneous Discrete
1 Kit (26 AWG, 30’, 8
conductors)
4
LAN 10/100 BaseT (Crossover)
1 per shelf (as required)
5, 6
LAN 10/100 BaseT (Straight
Through)
1 per shelf (as required)
5, 6
LAN 100 BASE-TX
Up to 4 per shelf (as
required)
6
Wavestar CIT Interface
1 per shelf (as required)
6
Table notes
1. One cable assembly supports both the -48VDC and -48VDC (A and
B) main power feeders on the DMXplore shelf. A cable assembly
kit is available (12 AWG, 30’). Wires are stripped and connected
directly to the field wiring terminal block on the shelf.
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Cabling
Product Description
2. One DS1 Cable Assembly is required for each DS1 channel in service. 1 cable is needed for recieve and the other for transmit interfaces. The cables can be RJ-45 to RJ-45 or RJ-45 to blunt cut cable for
connection to DSX panel. Lengths up to 550’.
3. One DS3 cable is required for each DS3 circuit in service. 1 cable is
needed for receive and the other for transmit interfaces. Populate in
pairs (1 receive and 1 transmit), as required up to a total of 4. Lengths
up to 250’.
4. Same cable is used for MDI/MDO and Alarm (26 AWG, 30’, 8
conductors). 3 cable kits are required per shelf (MDI/MDO/Alarms).
5. The Crossover cable is used when connecting to a PC. The Straight
Through cable is used when connecting with a hub.
6. The same cable is used for LAN operations and CIT interface as for
10/100 BASE-TX transmission.
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Cabling
Product Description
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5
System Planning and
Engineering
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section summarizes basic system planning and engineering
information to plan procurement and deployment of the DMXplore.
There are a number of considerations that should be kept in mind when
planning the DMXplore’s role in the network. Projected customer
requirements will determine initial capacity needed, as well as
evolution to higher capacities. The advanced networking capabilities of
the DMXplore offer many economic and planning benefits, and certain
guidelines should be followed to maximize these benefits. Physical
installation considerations will be guided by the installation location
(central office, uncontrolled, or customer locations). Initial network
configuration will determine synchronization requirements.
Synchronization should be planned on a network basis considering
items like topology, reliability, internetwork connectivity, and service
evolution.
Contents
The following sections are included in this chapter:
Physical Arrangements
5-2
5-2
Cross-connections
5-9
5-9
Synchronization
55-16
- 16
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System Planning and Engineering
Physical Arrangements
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section describes the possible physical arrangements of the
DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
Contents
The following physical arrangement considerations are covered in this
section:
Shelf Configurations
5-3
5-3
Cabinet Arrangements
5-6
5-6
Cabling
55-7
-7
Environmental Considerations
55-8
-8
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System Planning and Engineering
Shelf Configurations
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Requirements
DMXplore is designed to provide a variety of wideband and broadband
voice and data services. The following paragraphs outline the specific
packs that may be used in the Function Unit groups for certain
applications.
The OC-3/12Main OLIUs must always be located in the MAIN1 and
MAIN2 slots on the shelf. If the shelf is to operate unprotected, only
MAIN1 need be populated. The SYSCTL (VLNC1) must always be
located in the CTL slot.
Function unit
The Function slot is designed to house the Ethernet circuit pack
(VLNC15 and VLNC30) and is mapped directly to the 4 FN GRP C
connectors. This slot must be populated by an apparatus blank when
not being used.
Main slots (MAIN1 and MAIN2)
The Main slots are reserved for service and protection main OC-3/12
circuit packs. The +/-20 ppm timing generator (SMC) and main TDM
switch fabrics are embedded in both circuit packs.
Control slot
The control slot is reserved for the System Controller (SYSCTL)
circuit pack.
Fan Unit
The DMXplore rack-mount shelf contains an integral fan unit. Due to
the horizontal orientation of circuit packs in the rack-mount shelf, a fan
unit is necessary to dissipate heat.
The DMXplore wall-mount unit is convection cooled.
Circuit Pack Blanks
Any unused slot in the DMXplore must be equipped with an
appropriate CP blank in order meet radiated emission requirement per
GR-1089.
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Shelf Configurations
System Planning and Engineering
Available circuit packs
The table below contains a list of each circuit pack supported by the
DMXplore, indicates which slots they are able to be housed in, and in
what release each circuit pack is available.
Table 5-1
Circuit Packs in DMXplore Shelf
Circuit Pack
Apparatus
Code
Slot(s)
Release
Comments
System Controller
(SYSCTL)
VLNC1
CTL
1.0
Extended temperature certification
for outside cabinet deployment
(OSP Hardened)
OC-3/16DS1 &
2DS3 multifunction pack
(1 OC-3 port)
VLNC5
MAIN1,
MAIN2
1.0.1
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 and 2 DS3 ports
OC-3/16DS1 multifunction pack
(1 OC-3 port)
VLNC6
MAIN1,
MAIN2
1.0
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 ports
OC-12/16DS1 &
2DS3 multifunction pack
(1 OC-12 port)
VLNC25
MAIN1,
MAIN2
2.0
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 and 2 DS3 ports
OC-12/16DS1
multi-function pack
(1 OC-12 port)
VLNC26
MAIN1,
MAIN2
2.0
High-speed, long- reach, 1310 nm,
OSP Hardened optics with support
for 16 DS1 ports
10/100T (support
for 4 ports)
VLNC15
Function
Group C
2.0
Support for the 4 10/100T ports on
the access panel, supports Ethernet
Private Lines, OSP hardened
VLNC30
Function
Group C
2.1
Support for the 4 10/100T ports on
the access panel and 2 100BASELX ports on the faceplate (via SFP
optics). Supports Ethernet Private
Lines, OSP hardened
Private Line
10/100
Private Line
(2 optical ports and
4 electrical ports)
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Shelf Configurations
System Planning and Engineering
Circuit Pack
Apparatus
Code
Slot(s)
Release
Comments
Apparatus Blank
199M
MAIN 1,
MAIN 2
1.0
Filler plates to be used in
unpopulated MAIN slots of the
DMXplore shelf. For use when
running unprotected.
Apparatus Blank
199L
Function
Group C
1.0
Filler plates to be used in
unpopulated Group C slot of the
shelf when Ethernet service is not
being supported.
NOTE
Changes may be made to planned or future offerings at any time, and
without notice.
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System Planning and Engineering
Cabinet Arrangements
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore can be used in outside plant (OSP) applications. OSP
configurations are available as the circuit packs are OSP hardened.
DMXplore has been designed with a very small footprint (7.5”W,
10.5”H, 12”D wall-mount, and 17.3”W, 3.5”H, 13.5”D rack-mount).
For more information on the DMXplore shelf design, refer to Chapter 4
and Appendix D of this document.
Important! Minimum airflow requirement of 200 fpm is
required when using the DMXplore wall-mount in OSP
applications. The DMXplore rack-mount contains fans within the
shelf itself to regulate airflow.
The DMXplore may offer complete cabinet deployment kits in the
future. More specific information on this possibility will be included in
this section as it becomes available.
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System Planning and Engineering
Cabling
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
For more information
Lucent offers a full complement of transmission cables and optical
jumpers. All interfaces to the DMXplore wall-mount shelf are frontaccess, and all service interfaces are connectorized. Rear access cabling
is available with the rack-mount version of the DMXplore shelf.
For more information regarding cable ordering, refer to Chapter 7,
“Ordering.” For more information on required cables and cable
arrangements, refer to Chapter 4, “Product Description.”
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System Planning and Engineering
Environmental Considerations
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore meets NEBS Level 3 standards for use in central office
environments as specified in GR-63-CORE and GR-1089-CORE.
DMXplore also meets standards for uncontrolled environments as
specified in GR-63-CORE and GR-499-CORE. For detailed
specifications, refer to Chapter 10, “Technical Specifications.”
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System Planning and Engineering
Cross-connections
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section provides cross-connection information for the DMXplore
Access Multiplexer. For cross-connect provisioning information, refer
to Chapter 6, “Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and
Provisioning.”
Contents
The following cross-connect information is included in this section:
Cross-Connect Types
5-10
5 - 10
Allowable Cross-Connects
5 - 11
5-11
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System Planning and Engineering
Cross-Connect Types
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore has cross-connect capabilities offering users flexibility
in directing traffic flow through systems to support a wide variety of
customer applications using two-way and mltpt (multi-point [data
specific] is a future feature) cross-connections.
Making cross-connections
Cross-connections are made by specifying the SONET rate (VT1.5 or
STS-n), the end point addresses (AIDs), and the cross-connection type.
Each single cross-connection command establishes a two-way crossconnection.
For simpler installation and turnup DMXplore has been designed with
a default set of cross connections. This allows for a “plug and play”
option when installing the DMXplore. The default cross connections
are supported and connected to 1+1 protected high-speed interface. In
Release 2.1 it becomes possible to disable all default cross-connections
simultaneously.
Manual cross-connect
rates
The following lists the signals that can be cross-connected:
•
VT1.5
•
STS-1
•
STS-3c
Important! The OC-3/12 circuit packs can add/drop a single
STS-3c to Function Group C, while the OC-12 packs can passthrough all four STS-3(c)s.
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System Planning and Engineering
Allowable Cross-Connects
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section describes the DMXplore two-way add/drop and passthrough cross-connections.
Add/Drop
An add/drop cross-connection is any connection between a high-speed
(network) interface and a low-speed (tributary) interface.
Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
A Unidirectional Path Switched Ring (UPSR) is a self-healing ring
configuration in which traffic is sent onto both rotations (both fibers) of
the ring in opposite directions. “Path-switched” means that if the
working signal fails, the path switches to the protection signal.
Protection switching is done independently for each SONET path.
UPSRs operate in an integrated, single-ended fashion-- negating the
need for complex network-level coordination in the effort to restore
traffic. DMXplore also supports locked cross connections to DS1 and
DS3 interfaces where the best signal from both rotations of a UPSR is
not selected. Instead, traffic is added and dropped (locked) from one
rotation of the ring only (provisionable).
The figure below shows a high-level schematic of a two-way add/drop
cross-connection.
Figure 5-1 Two-way add/drop
DS1,DS3
Ethernet
(b) Two-way drop terminated path
NC-DMXplore-015
Linear 1+1
The linear application mode is a standards compliant 1+1 protected
configuration, providing unidirectional, non-revertive line switching.
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Allowable Cross-Connects
Pass-through
System Planning and Engineering
A pass-through cross-connection is made between two ring interfaces
in the MAIN1 and 2 slots, allowing the signal to be “passed-through” a
ring node on the same timeslot.
The figure below shows a pass-through cross-connection on the highspeed interface (OC-3/12).
Figure 5-2 Pass-through cross-connection on High-speed
interface
Main TDM Fabric
OC-N
OC-N
Two-way pass-through path
nc-dmx-160
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Allowable Cross-Connects
All Allowable UPSR/1+1
Add/Drop Cross connections
System Planning and Engineering
The table below contains a list of add/drop cross-connections supported
by DMXplore in Release 2.1. The cross-connections in the table below
are all add/drop cross-connections.
Table 5-2
All Allowable Add/drop Cross-connections
From
To
High-Speed (HS) OC-3 OLIU (UPSR)
2waypr STS-1 --------------------->
DS1, DS3, 10/100 FE
2waypr STS-3c --------------------->
10/100 FE
2wayprVT1.5 -------------------->
DS1, 10/100 FE
HS OC-3 OLIU (1+1)
2waypr STS-1 --------------------->
DS1, DS3, 10/100 FE
2waypr STS-3c --------------------->
10/100 FE
2wayprVT1.5 -------------------->
DS1, 10/100 FE
HS OC-12 OLIU (UPSR)
2waypr STS-1 --------------------->
DS1, DS3, 10/100 FE
2waypr STS-3c --------------------->
10/100 FE
2wayprVT1.5 -------------------->
DS1, 10/100 FE
HS OC-12 OLIU (1+1)
2waypr STS-1 --------------------->
DS1, DS3, 10/100 FE
2waypr STS-3c --------------------->
10/100 FE
2wayprVT1.5 -------------------->
DS1, 10/100 FE
Notes
1. At most, only one STS-3c cross-connection can be made using the VLNC15/
VLNC30 and the MAIN cards that are currently available.
2. A single STS-3c add/drop cross-connection is supported to the VLNC15/VLNC30.
3. The maximum cross-connectable bandwidth between the VLNC15/30 and the
VLNC25/26 is 9 STS-1s. This includes the STS-1s used for VT, STS-1, and STS-3c
cross-connections.
4. The number of STS-1s that may be connected to the VLNC15/30 is provisionable
from 0-6. Thus the total number of VTs is 168.
5. Virtual concatenation at the VT and STS1 levels is supported for cross-connections
to the VLNC15/30.
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Allowable Cross-Connects
System Planning and Engineering
Default Cross -connections
(Add/Drop)
The table below contains a list of the default cross-connections that
DMXplore comes provisioned with. DMXplore is provisioned with a
set of add/drop cross-connections to facilitate a plug-and-play startup
upon installation. This set of cross-connections is applicable only to the
default, 1+1 OC-n port application.
Table 5-3
Main Slot
Equipage
Default Cross-connections
Default Cross-Connection
VT1.5
Release
STS-1
VLNC5
OC-3/
16DS1/
2DS3
m-1-1-x-y <-> a-1-x-y
for x=1..4 (VTG) and y=1..4
(VT1.5)
m-1-2<--> b-1
R1.0.1
m-1-3<--> b-2
VLNC6
OC-3/
16DS1
m-1-1-x-y <--> a-1-x-y
for x=1..4 (VTG) and y=1..4
(VT1.5)
NONE
R1.0
m-1-2<--> b-1
R2.0
VLNC25
OC-12/
16DS1/
2DS3
m-1-1-x-y <-> a-1-x-y
for x=1..4 (VTG) and y=1..4
(VT1.5)
m-1-3<--> b-2
VLNC26
OC-12/
16DS1
m-1-1-x-y <--> a-1-x-y
for x=1..4 (VTG) and y=1..4
(VT1.5)
NONE
R2.0
NOTE
The user has the ability to enable or disable default cross-connections via the
defaultxconns parameter of the ENT-SYS command. When enabled default crossconnections are established when a system, equipped with at least one main pack, is
initialized via the INIT-SYS command with aid=ALL and ph=9, or when a main pack
is inserted in a system in which there is no expected pack in either main slot. (See
RTRV-EQPT.) When disabled, default cross-connections are not established under
any conditions. Note, executing the INIT-SYS command with aid=ALL and ph=9,
removes any existing cross-connections.
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Allowable Cross-Connects
System Planning and Engineering
All Allowable Pass-through
Cross -connections
The table below contains a list of pass through cross-connections
supported by DMXplore in Release 2.0. The cross-connections in the
table below are all pass-through cross-connections.
Table 5-4
All Allowable Pass-through Cross-connections
From
To
High-Speed (HS) OC-3 OLIU (UPSR)
Release 1
2waypr STS-1 --------------------->
OC-3 (UPSR1)
2wayprVT1.5 -------------------->
OC-3 (UPSR1)
High-Speed (HS) OC-12 OLIU (UPSR)
Release 2
2waypr STS-1 --------------------->
OC-12 (UPSR1)
2waypr STS-3c --------------------->
OC-12 (UPSR1,2)
2wayprVT1.5 -------------------->
OC-12 (UPSR1)
NOTES
1. This is a direct pass-through connection: from a particular timeslot on
one side of the ring to the same timeslot on the other side of the same
ring.
2. OC-3 packs do not support STS-3c pass-throughs. OC-12 packs
support pass-throughs of all four STS-3(c)s.
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System Planning and Engineering
Synchronization
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section describes synchronization features and functions for the
DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
Contents
The following synchronization topics are discussed in this section:
Network Synchronization Environment
5 - 17
5-17
Synchronization Features
5 - 19
5-19
Network Configurations
5 - 21
5-21
Synchronization Messaging
5 - 24
5-24
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System Planning and Engineering
Network Synchronization Environment
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Published sources
Careful consideration should be given to proper design of the SONET
network’s synchronization environment. Proper synchronization
engineering minimizes timing instabilities, maintains quality
transmission network performance, and limits network degradation due
to unwanted propagation of synchronization network faults. The
synchronization features of the DMXplore are designed to complement
the existing and future synchronization network and allow it not only to
make use of network timing but also to take on an active role in
facilitating network synchronization.
A number of published sources give generic recommendations on
setting up a synchronization network. The DMXplore is designed to
operate in a network that complies with recommendations stated in
GR-253-CORE and GR-436-CORE.
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Network Synchronization Environment
Recommendations
System Planning and Engineering
The following are some key recommendations from the documents
listed above. For further detailed explanation, the sources should be
consulted directly.
1.
A node can only receive the synchronization reference signal from
another node that contains a clock of equivalent quality
(+/-20 ppm).
2.
The facilities with the greatest availability (absence of outages)
should be selected for synchronization facilities.
3.
Where possible, all primary and secondary synchronization
facilities should be diverse, and synchronization facilities with the
same cable should be minimized.
4.
The total number of nodes in series from the Stratum 1 source
should be minimized. For example, the primary synchronization
network would ideally look like a star configuration with the
Stratum 1 source at the center. The nodes connected to the star
would branch out in decreasing Stratum level from the center.
5.
No timing loops may be formed in any combination of primary
and secondary facilities.
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System Planning and Engineering
Synchronization Features
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Synchronization features
Synchronization is an important part of all SONET products.
DMXplore is designed for high performance and reliable
synchronization and can be used in a number of synchronization
environments.
DMXplore supports the provisioning of two synchronization reference
configurations:
•
Line Timing from
incoming OC-3/12 signal (for small COs or
remote sites).
•
from the multiplexer’s internal SMC (SONET
Minimum Clock) Timing Generator (no synchronization inputs).
Free Running
These timing modes are supported by the embedded +/-20 ppm
generator (SMC) in the MAIN circuit pack. The basic timing modes
can be combined into various network configurations.
Internal timing functions such as reference interfaces, the on-board
clock elements, and timing distribution, are provided by the +/-20 ppm
Timing Generator. The timing generator distributes clock and frame
signals, derived from the +/-20 ppm generator, to the rest of the system.
Line timing mode
In line timing mode, the timing generator derives local shelf timing
from the incoming service OC-n signal in the MAIN 1 or MAIN 2 slot.
If one of the OC-n (OC-3/12) references is corrupted or unavailable,
the timing generator will make a protection switch (provisionable as
revertive or nonrevertive) to the other reference without causing timing
degradations. If all OC-n timing signals are lost (for example, due to a
cable cut), the timing generator will switch to holdover mode. The
timing generator will normally switch back to the line timing mode
when a good reference is available, but it can be provisioned to require
a manual switch.
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Synchronization Features
System Planning and Engineering
Free running mode
In free running mode, no mode switching is performed. The timing
generator derives timing from internal timing generator. This oscillator
provides +/-20 ppm accuracy. Only one DMXplore in a subnetwork
should be provisioned in the free running mode. All other DMXplore
NEs in the subnetwork should be line timed to this free running system
to avoid performance degradation.
Holdover mode
When a system is line timed, in the case of unprotected synchronization
reference failure, the +/-20 ppm timing generator will switch to
“holdover mode” and continue to provide system timing, using the
internal oscillator to maintain the last known good reference frequency.
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System Planning and Engineering
Network Configurations
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Free running configuration
The following pages detail the two different network configuration
types: free running and line timing.
The free running/line timing network can operate without an external
clock source. This configuration may be useful for initial access
transport and customer location applications, and also meets the needs
of an end-office trunk facility. This configuration cannot be used to
provide OC-n timing distribution or where SONET interconnections to
other SONET networks are needed.
One DMXplore synchronizes its transmitted OC-n signals from the
internal +/-20 ppm timing generator. The other DMXplore systems
recover timing from the incoming OC-n signal and use this timing for
their transmitted signals.
Because the free running/line timed DMXplore network is
asynchronous, additional jitter may be experienced on the
demultiplexed DS1s/DS3s. Certain interconnected equipment may be
sensitive to such jitter and this configuration should not be used in
cases where it would cause a problem for that equipment.
Important! If the network is self-contained and the DS1/DS3
synchronizer/desynchronizers are using the same reference
(derived from the free running SMC +/-20 ppm timing generator)
then there is no additional jitter due to pointer adjustments
because there will be no timing adjustments.
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Network Configurations
System Planning and Engineering
The figure below shows free running configuration in a ring network.
Figure 5-3 Free Running - Ring Network
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Line-Timed
20ppm
OC-3/12
20ppm
Note
Note
OC-3/12
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Line-Timed
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Free Running
OC-3/12
20ppm
Note
Note: DS1/DS3
®
DMXplore = Metropolis DMXplore Access Multiplexer
OC-3/12
20ppm
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Line-Timed
Note
MA-DMXplore-020
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
Network Configurations
System Planning and Engineering
Line timing configuration
The external/line timing configuration integrates access transport and
customer location networks into the digital synchronization network.
This application is ideal for networks where only one location has a
building integrated timing supply (BITS) clock. The network is
synchronized to a local central office clock via DS1 references.
Important! Note: it is either a DMX or DMXtend system that is
externally timed, NOT a DMXplore.
The DMXplore is line timed from the DMX or DMXtend system. The
local office clock from which the DMX or DMXtend is timed should
be Stratum 3 or better, with timing traceable to a primary reference
source. The DMX/DMXtend times its transmitted OC-n signals from
the internal oscillator that is locked on the external reference. The
remote DMXplore recovers timing from the incoming OC-n signal and
uses this timing for its transmitted signals.
In a ring topology, synchronization messaging allows automatic
synchronization reconfiguration in the event of a fiber or equipment
failure.
The figure below shows line timing in a ring configuration.
Figure 5-4 Line Timing - Ring Network
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Line-Timed
TG3
OC-3/12
TG3
Note
Note
OC-3/12
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Line-Timed
Metropolis®
DMX
External-Timed
OC-3/12
TG3
Note
Note: DS1/DS3
®
DMXplore = Metropolis DMXplore Access Multiplexer
TG3
OC-3/12
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Line-Timed
Note
MA-DMXplore-013
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System Planning and Engineering
Synchronization Messaging
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore provides a synchronization messaging feature to ensure the
integrity of network synchronization during both normal and abnormal
conditions. Through the use of synchronization messaging, the current
quality of the timing source can be conveyed from one DMXplore
Multiplexer to the next. This capability allows the DMXplore to
automatically change its timing reference in order to always maintain
the highest quality timing available.
Applications
The applications that are currently supported with the synchronization
messaging feature can be divided into two categories:
Automatic synchronization
reconfiguration
Synchronization
provisioning integrity
•
Automatic synchronization reconfiguration
•
Synchronization provisioning integrity.
SONET was designed to operate optimally in a synchronous
environment. Although plesiochronous and asynchronous operation
can be supported through the use of pointer adjustments, transmission
quality may be affected by the generation of additional jitter and
wander due to pointer adjustments in some applications. Because of
this, it is desirable to maintain synchronous operation whenever
possible. Through the use of synchronization messages, the quality of
the different timing references can be made available at each
DMXplore NE. The DMXplore system can be optioned to determine
the best timing reference available and switch to that reference.
Through this mechanism, the synchronous operation of the subnetwork
can be maintained. The switching of timing references is hitless, and
the synchronization messages also allow it to be done without creating
timing loops in the process.
A welcome side benefit of synchronization messaging is that it helps
prevent provisioning errors. Provisioned timing loops on DMXplore
systems will be quickly detected through the synchronization
messaging algorithm and prevented by forcing the system into
holdover. The system can then be reprovisioned correctly.
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System Planning and Engineering
Sync Messaging Feature Details and Options
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
As mentioned previously, SONET sync messaging is used to
communicate the quality of the subnetwork timing throughout the
subnetwork. This is done using bits 5-8 of the S1 byte in the SONET
overhead. If a DMXplore shelf is deriving timing from a given OC-n
interface, and sync messaging is enabled on that interface, the system
interprets the received message to determine the system’s timing status.
DMXplore also transmits over the particular OC-n interface, and all
other OC-n interfaces that are enabled for sync messaging, the
appropriate message indicating the quality of its timing and its
usability.
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Sync Messaging Feature Details and Options
Sync messages using
S1 byte
System Planning and Engineering
The following table lists the associated internal timing status that are
associated with sync messages (using the S1 byte) received from the
OC-n interface when sync messaging is enabled. Messages are listed
from low to high quality.
Table 5-5
Sync Messages with the S1 Byte
Received Message
Active
Timing Mode
(Note)
Quality
Level
Don’t Use (DUS)
Holdover
9
Traceable Stratum 4 (ST4)
Holdover
8
Traceable SONET Clock w/S3-TG
(SMC)
Holdover
7
Traceable Stratum 3 (ST3)
OK to use
6
Traceable Stratum 3E (ST3E)
OK to use
5
Traceable Transit Node Clock
(TNC)
Ok to use
4
Traceable Stratum 2
OK to use
3
Sync Trace Unknown (STU)
OK to use
2
PRS Traceable
OK to use
1
Note:
This column applies only when provisioned for line timing mode.
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
Sync Messaging Feature Details and Options
Disabling sync messaging
System Planning and Engineering
Sync messaging using the SONET S1 byte can be disabled on a per
OC-n interface basis. A DON’T USE message is transmitted on bits 5-8
of the S1 byte if this is done.
“Don’t use”
The DON’T USE message is sent to indicate that its timing is not suitable
for synchronization (for example, back towards the line timing source).
Line timing
When DMXplore is configured for line timing, the DON’T USE message
is sent on the OC-n interfaces towards the NE from which the timing is
being derived. The message received on the OC-n interface is sent on
all other OC-n interfaces where sync messaging is enabled.
Automatic synchronization
reconfiguration
With automatic synchronization reconfiguration, the DMXplore
shelves receive and compare the incoming sync messages on the OC-n
interfaces available for line timing to select the highest quality
synchronization reference available. If the received quality levels are
the same on the references available for timing, the active line timing
reference takes precedence. This feature guarantees the non-revertive
operation of reconfiguration.
The existence of automatic synchronization reconfiguration does not
affect OC-n line protection switching.
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System Planning and Engineering
Sync Messaging Examples
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
In this section, some detailed examples are given to show specifically
how the sync messages propagate through network and assist in the
recovery from a fiber failure. Through these examples, one can extend
the same concept to any other network that may include different
topologies, number of sites, failure locations, and number of BITS
clocks. Some examples are depicted in a linear configuration because
the particular sync messaging concept is more easily conveyed in linear
terms. Those concepts can be applied to DMXplore ring networks.
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
Sync Messaging Examples
Synchronization
reconfiguration in an
access ring
System Planning and Engineering
Figure 5-5a illustrates an access ring operating in its normal
configuration. The DMXtend shelf at the CO is externally timed, and
each of the other DMXplore shelves are line timed in a
counterclockwise direction. The STU message is sent to indicate where
timing is traceable to an external BITS and where it is valid to be used.
The DON’T USE message is sent on the interface that is being used as
the line timing reference and, thus, where using that timing would
create a timing loop. Sync messaging and automatic synchronization
have both been enabled for this network.
In Figure 5-5b, a fiber has been cut between sites A and B.
Immediately, the DMXplore shelf at site B enters holdover and sends
out the STU message to site C. The DMXplore shelf at site B cannot
switch to line time from site C because it is receiving the DON’T USE
message on that interface.
Figure 5-5 Automatic Synchronization Reconfiguration,
Part A and B
b) Failure Occurs,
Site B Changes Message
a) Before Failure
PRS
Traceable
PRS
Traceable
BITS
BITS
STU
STU
STU
STU
DMXtend
STU
DUS
Site A STU
Site B
STU
DMXtend
DUS
STU
Site A STU
STU
Site D
Site B
Site C DUS
STU
Site D
STU
STU
DUS Site C
STU
STU
STU
DUS
STU
Sync Flow
= DMXtend
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
Xplore-055
= DMXplore
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
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Sync Messaging Examples
System Planning and Engineering
In Figure 5-6c, the DMXplore shelf at site C detects the incoming
Traceable Stratum 3 message and sends the message to site D. The
DMXplore shelf at site C cannot switch to line timing from the other
rotation because it is receiving the DON’T USE message on that
interface.
In Figure 5-6d, the DMXplore shelf at site D detects the incoming
Traceable Stratum 3 message. The STU message is a better quality
message than the SONET Minimum Clock message, so the DMXplore
shelf at site D switches to line timing from site A. After the switch
occurs, the DON’T USE message is sent back to site A, and the STU
message is retransmitted to site C.
Figure 5-6 Automatic Synchronization Reconfiguration,
Part C and D
d) Site D Reconfigures
c) Site C Changes Message
PRS
Traceable
PRS
Traceable
BITS
BITS
STU
DMXtend
DMXtend
Site A STU
Site B
SMC
DUS
SMC
Site A STU
SMC
STU
Site B
Site D
Site C
DUS
STU
STU
DUS
SMC
SMC
SMC
DUS
Site D
DUS Site C
STU
SMC
SMC
Sync Flow
= DMXtend
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
Xpllore-056
= DMXplore
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
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Sync Messaging Examples
System Planning and Engineering
In Figure 5-7e, the DMXplore shelf at site C detects the incoming STU
message from site D. The STU message is a better quality message than
the SONET Minimum Clock message being received from site B, so
the DMXplore shelf at site C switches to line time from site D. After
the switch occurs, the DON’T USE message is sent back to site D, and
the STU message is retransmitted to site B.
In Figure 5-7, the DMXplore shelf at site B detects the incoming STU
message from site C. The STU message is a better quality message than
the internal holdover capability, so the DMXplore shelf at site B
switches to line time from site C. After the switch occurs, the DON’T
USE message is sent back to site C, and the STU message is forwarded
to site A. When the failure clears, the synchronization remains in the
new configuration unless it is manually switched back.
Figure 5-7 Automatic Synchronization Reconfiguration
Part E and F
f) Site B Reconfigures
e) Site C Reconfigures
PRS
Traceable
PRS
Traceable
BITS
BITS
STU
STU
DUS
DUS
DMXtend
DMXtend
Site A STU
SMC
Site B
STU
SMC
STU
Site C
Site A STU
Site B
Site D
SMC
STU
DUS
DUS
DUS
DUS
Site D
STU
STU Site C
DUS
DUS
DUS
DUS
Sync Flow
= DMXtend
DMXtend = Metropolis® DMXtend Access Multiplexer
MA-DMXtend-057
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System Planning and Engineering
Frequently Asked Network Timing Distribution Questions
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
1
The following are some frequently asked questions about network
timing distribution.
Why does Telcordia say that DS1s carried over SONET should not be
used for timing?
Telcordia has provided this recommendation because there are several
limitations. Telcordia says that DS1s carried over SONET must be used
in applications such as switch remotes and will be acceptable, provided
pointer adjustments are not created.
2
Can pointer adjustments be prevented?
Neither random nor periodic pointer adjustments will occur if the
DMXplore shelf is provisioned for line timing.
3
How do I time DMXplore at a remote site?
Line time.
4
Why are there more issues related to timing with SONET equipment
than there are with asynchronous equipment?
SONET equipment was designed to work ideally in a synchronous
network. When the network is not synchronous, mechanisms such as
pointer processing and bit-stuffing must be used and jitter/wander
increases.
5
Can DS3 signals be used to carry DS1 timing signals without the worry
of having the network synchronous?
Yes, although this option is more expensive.
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6
Operations, Administration,
Maintenance, and Provisioning
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter describes the operations, administration, maintenance, and
provisioning (OAM&P) functions for the Metropolis® DMXplore
Access Multiplexer (DMXplore).
Contents
The following sections are included in this chapter:
Maintenance
6-2
6-2
WaveStar® CIT
6 - 27
6-27
Protection Switching
6 - 32
6-32
Performance Monitoring
6 - 36
6-36
Provisioning
6 - 50
6-50
Reports
6 - 58
6-58
Administration
6 - 66
6-66
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6 - 1
Overview
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Maintenance
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section describes the maintenance philosophy of the DMXplore
Access Multiplexer.
Contents
The following maintenance topics are discussed in this section:
Three-tiered Operations
6-3
6-3
IAO LAN Ports (detail)
6-8
6-8
Operations Philosophy
6 - 12
6-12
Lucent Technologies Operations Interworking (OI)
6 - 14
6-14
Multi-Vendor Operations Interworking
6 - 16
6-16
Data Communications Channel (DCC)
6 - 17
6-17
Software Download (Generic)
6 - 20
6-20
Database Backup and Restore
6 - 23
6-23
Maintenance Signaling
6 - 24
6-24
Fault Detection, Isolation, and Reporting
66-25
- 25
Loopbacks and Tests
6 - 26
6-26
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Three-tiered Operations
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The figure below, shows the three-tiered operations procedures for
DMXplore. The DMXplore operations procedures are built on three
levels of system information and control, spanning operations needs
from summary-level status to detailed reporting.
Figure 6-1 Three-Tiered Operations
TIER 3:
OS Access
X.25 or IAO LAN (TCP/IP or OSI)
Operations Center
TIER 2: PC-CIT
TIER 1:
Metropolis® DMXplore
SYSCTL LEDs and Pushbuttons
Circuit Pack Fault and Active LEDs
Serial
or
IAO LAN
Remote Maintenance
and Provisioning
Alarm Surveillance
Performance Monitoring
Automated Service
Provisioning
Remote Control
Routine Operations and Maintenance
Enhanced Maintenance and Provisioning
Fault Verification
Detailed Reports
Circuit Pack Replacement
Manual Controls
Default Provisioning
Provisioning
Security
Software DoWnload/
Database Backup and Restoration
Security
Software DoWnload/
Database Backup and Restoration
nc-dmx-016
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Three-tiered Operations
SYSCTL Faceplate
(Operations Tier 1)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Office alarms are provided by a set of discrete relays that control office
visual alarms. Separate relays handle critical/major alarms (CR/MJ)
and minor (MN) alarms. These relays are located on the access panel at
the right of the wall-mount shelf, or at the rear of the rack-mount shelf.
The first operations tier consists of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and
push buttons on the SYSCTL faceplate. These allow routine tasks to be
performed without a craft interface terminal (CIT) or any test
equipment. The SYSCTL faceplate provides system-level alarm and
status information for the local and remote terminals. The circuit pack
faceplate FAULT LEDs allow fast and easy fault isolation to a
particular circuit pack.
The SYSCTL faceplate LEDs default to show local system
information. The highest active alarm level is shown by the red LEDs
for CR and MJ alarms. Yellow LEDs are shown for MN and ABN
alarms. A green PWR ON LED shows that the power is on and the
terminal is receiving a -48V source.
The Update/Initialize (UPD/INIT) button addresses the local system.
The recessed UPD/INIT button serves several functions during
installation and circuit pack replacement. During the first 10 seconds
after powering up the SYSCTL circuit pack, depressing this button
initializes the nonvolatile memory with provisioning and state
information. Secondly, after removing a circuit pack or low-speed
input, depressing this button updates the system equipment list to show
the slot or signal is now unequipped.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Three-tiered Operations
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The SYSCTL faceplate’s remote display functions serve the
single-ended maintenance needs of access transport applications. When
any alarm or status condition exists at a remote DMXplore shelf, that
alarm can be viewed in the Alarm List on the CIT.
The following table details the various LEDs and push-button switches
and describes their functions.
Table 6-1
SYSCTL faceplate LEDs
LED/Push-button
Indicator name
Function
FAULT
Fault
Indicates isolated circuit pack failure
CR/MJ
Critical/major
Indicates critical/major alarm for local
system.
MN/ABN
Minor/Abnormal
Indicates minor or abnormal conditions
UPD/INIT
Update/Initialize
Updates the local system.
ACO
Alarm Cut-off
Glows green to indicate that the DMXplore
is active and that there is some alarm, but
the office alarm relay has been cut.
Local craft interfaces
(Operations Tier 2)
The local craft interfaces include the PC-CIT, which may be utilized in
a variety of ways.
DMXplore has a serial port for PC-CIT access, at the front of the shelf.
TL1 is supported for both serial ports, but software download is
supported via the front serial port only.
DMXplore also has one LAN port for PC-CIT (and/or OS) access. It is
located on the faceplate of the SYSCTL circuit pack. Both TL1 over
OSI and TL1 over TCP/IP are supported via this LAN ports. Software
download via FTAM or FTP is also supported.
PC-CIT (TL1 over TCP/IP)
The PC-CIT is a small CIT interface that provides a flexible TL1
command instructor. The PC-CIT connects to a DMXplore using the
front serial port or the front IAO LAN port. The PC-CIT supports
TCP/IP (or OSI) through the front IAO LAN interface.
The PC-CIT is used for report generation, as well as command and
system response. Access to the system is provided via serial or IAO
LAN interfaces.
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Three-tiered Operations
Operations System (OS)
TL1/LAN Interfaces
(Operations Tier 3)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The third operations tier consists of the remote OS interfaces.
The DMXplore supports TL1 alarm surveillance and performance
monitoring with OSs such as Telcordia’s Network Monitoring and
Analysis (NMA). The DMXplore supports service provisioning with
memory administration OSs such as Navis OMS or Telcordia’s
TEAMS. The TL1 message set used has been updated to offer full
remote reporting capabilities.
The OS can use more than one NE as a GNE to provide redundancy
and/or to distribute TL1 message volume across multiple links to the
OS. The TL1 GNE serves as a single interface to the OS for the NEs in
the same subnetwork. The TL1 GNE receives operations information
from all the NEs through the DCC and reports this information, as well
as its own information, to the OS. The operations information is in the
form of TL1 messages. Through the GNE, the OS can send TL1
commands to any NE in the subnetwork. Metropolis® DMXplore, as
well as other-vendor NEs that adhere to GR-253-CORE, can serve as
the TL1 GNE for the DMXplore.
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Three-tiered Operations
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
LAN CIT (IAO LAN) and RS232 CIT (Serial)
The LAN CIT and RS-232 CIT interface provide a connection to the
CIT. The LAN CIT can be used for OSI or TCP/IP based
communications. OAM&P activities such as loopbacks and testing,
protection switching, provisioning, PM, retrieving reports, and security
on any and all DMXplore NEs in a subnetwork are provided by the CIT
or RS-232 interface. These interfaces are located on the SYSCTL.
The following figure shows how the DMXplore works with the various
operations interfaces.
Figure 6-2 DMXplore Operations Interfaces
Local Operations
Interfaces
TL1/EIA-232D Asynch
CIT/
Management
System
TL1/OSI
over SONET DCC
TL1/TCP-IPor TL1/0SI
IEEE 802.3 LAN
Remote NE
Metropolis®
DMXplore
LEDs
Switches
Office Alarms
TL1 over OSI supports TARP
Protocol per GR-253-CORE
* LAN could also interface with LAN on another NE
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
MA-DMXplore-014
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
IAO LAN Ports (detail)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore supports a front IAO LAN port. The IAO LAN port is
recommended for convenient, local WaveStar® CIT access. When, for
example, the WaveStar® CIT is directly connected to the IAO LAN
port, a LAN crossover cable is required (to connect the transmit
wire-pair at one end to the receive wire-pair at the other end, and vice
versa).
The DMXplore IAO LAN port supports 10/100BaseT Ethernet (per
Telcordia Technologies GR-253, ANSI/IEEE 802.2 and 802.3, and
ISO 8802.2 and 8802.3) over four-wire twisted pair using an RJ-45
connector. The IAO LAN port automatically adapts its rate to 10 Mb/s
or 100 Mb/s to match the capability of the other nodes on the same IAO
LAN, with 10 Mb/s as the default rate.
OSI on the IAO LAN
When the OSI protocol stack is used on an IAO LAN port, the term
“OSI LAN” is sometimes used. The OSI LAN is effectively an
extension of the DCC. All remote operations supported over the DCC
are also supported over the OSI LAN. The term “DCC connectivity” is
used throughout this document to mean DCC and/or OSI LAN
connectivity.
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IAO LAN Ports
TCP/IP on the IAO LAN
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The IAO LAN port also supports the TCP/IP protocol stack. TCP/IP
communications on the IAO LAN port can be enabled or disabled. By
default, TCP/IP is disabled on the IAO LAN port.
When the TCP/IP protocol stack is used on an IAO LAN port, the term
“TCP/IP LAN” is sometimes used.
DMXplore supports TL1 over TCP/IP for the IAO LAN. As a TL1
responder, DMXplore TCP/IP GNE accepts incoming TL1 connections
to the following TCP ports with corresponding TL1 encodings.
Port 3081: Length-Value Encoding. With length-value encoding,
each TL1 message is encapsulated into the TCP data stream as follows:
•
Version number (1 byte, value set to 3)
•
Reserved (1 byte, value set to 0)
•
Length (2 bytes, value set to length in bytes of TL1 message + 4)
•
TL1 Message (variable length
The length-value encoding is the preferred encoding for machine
machine interactions.
Port 3082: Raw Encoding. Each raw encoded TL1 message is
encapsulated into the TCP data stream of length 1 - 4096 bytes. The
TL1 message must be parsed to find the boundary between successive
TL1 messages (see Telcordia GR-831 CORE for the syntax of TL1
messages).
Port 3083: Telnet Encoding. The telnet encoding is a variation on the
raw encoding. It encapsulates TL1 messages in a TCP stream and uses
Telnet for transmitting text over TCP/IP.
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6 - 9
IAO LAN Ports
OSI or TCP/IP on the same
IAO LAN
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
It is generally recommended that the IAO LAN port be used for OSI or
TCP/IP, but not both protocols simultaneously on the same IAO LAN
port.
The figure below provides examples of common applications using the
IAO LAN ports.
Figure 6-3 IAO LAN Port Applications
Operations Center
OSs
Remote Location
PC-CIT
10/100 BaseT
Ethernet
LAN Hub
PC-CIT
CO
PC-CIT
DMXplore
10/100 BaseT
Ethernet
Front IAO
LAN Hub
LAN Port
TCP/IP
SYSCTL
IP WAN
OC-48
UPSR
with
DCC
Remote or Colocated Site
PC-CIT
DMXplore
OSI
SYSCTL
Front IAO
LAN Port
nc-dmx-003
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
IAO LAN Ports
IAO LAN compatibility
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The following table documents DMXplore IAO LAN communications
compatibility with other products and the applicable OSI and/or TCP/IP
protocol stacks. (WaveStar® CIT and OS access applications
compatibility via the IAO LAN is covered separately later.)
Table 6-2
IAO LAN Compatibility
DMXplore
Product
OSI
TCP/IP
DMXplore
yes
yes
DMX
yes
yes
DMXpress
yes
yes
DMXtend
yes
yes
DDM-2000 OC-3
yes
yes
DDM-2000 OC-12
yes
yes
FiberReach
-
-
FT-2000 ADR
-
-
WaveStar® TDM 2.5G/10G (2-Fiber)
yes
yes
WaveStar® BandWidth Manager
yes
yes
Lambda Unite
yes
yes
WaveStar® CIT
yes
yes
Navis™ Optical Element
Management System
(formerly SNMS)
yes
yes
Navis™ Ethernet Management
System
yes
yes
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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6 - 11
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Operations Philosophy
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore has incorporated an operations philosophy that is
optimized for operations in the access transport environment. This
allows operation and maintenance of remote NEs from a single
location. Similarly, a technician working at a remote site can gain
access to other NEs. In addition, OSs are available to allow operation
of the DMXplore NEs from a centralized operations center.
The DMXplore uses the SONET data communications channel (DCC)
to provide remote PC-CIT access, remote CO alarms, remote alarm
reports, and remote OS access. The terms remote operations,
single-ended operations (SEO), and Operations Interworking (OI) are
synonymous.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Operations Philosophy
SEO capability
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The figure below shows the SEO capability that provides remote access
to all DMXplore systems in a subnetwork from a single DMXplore
location. This minimizes the need for technician travel because most
maintenance, provisioning, and administration can be performed on all
NEs with DCC connectivity by accessing any one NE. The SEO
capability can be disabled between NEs to create maintenance
boundaries (for example, interoffice applications) or for security
reasons.
Figure 6-4 Remote Operations Philosophy
Remote
Operation
Center
IAO LAN,
TCP/IP LAN, or
Tl1
Single Span
Single-Ended Operations
®
Metropolis® DMXplore
Serial PC/CIT
or
IAOLAN
CIT
Metropolis DMXplore
OC-3/12
SYSCTL
OC-3/12
OC-3/12
®
Metropolis ® DMXplore
Metropolis DMXplore
OC-3/12
Legend:
SONET
DCC enabled
nc-dmx-014
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Lucent Technologies Operations
Interworking (OI)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
OI Support
OI provides the capability to access, operate, administer, maintain, and
provision remote Lucent NEs from any Lucent NE in a subnetwork or
from a centralized OS. OI among the Lucent 2000, WaveStar®, and
Metropolis® Product Families uses Target ID Address Resolution
Protocol (TARP) and is applicable for the DMXplore.
The following Lucent Technologies products support OI:
•
DDM-2000 OC-12 Multiplexer, R7.0 and later
•
DDM-2000 FiberReach Multiplexer, R3.0 and later
•
DDM-2000 OC-3 Multiplexer, R13.0 and later
•
FT-2000 OC-48 Add/Drop-Rings Terminal, R9.1 and later
•
All WaveStar® Product Family systems
•
All Metropolis® DMX Product Family systems
The Lucent OI is available among NEs that are connected through the
SONET DCC or IAO LAN. With this feature, users can perform
OAM&P activities on a centralized basis, saving travel time and
money.
OI features including the following:
•
Remote OS access via TL1 over TCP/IP
•
Remote login
•
Remote office alarms
•
Remote software download and copy
For more information on OI, refer to Lucent Technologies WaveStar
Product Family Operations Interworking Guide, 365-372-303.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Lucent Technologies Operations Interworking
(OI)
Alarm Groups
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
An alarm group is a set of NEs that share status information between
themselves, such as alarms, LEDs, and ACO status. The set of remote
NEs that an NE can exchange status information with is determined by
the value of the local alarm group parameter. This parameter is
provisioned at each local NE and specifies whether that local NE does
or does not exchange remote NE status with other Lucent NEs in the
same SONET subnetwork. In DMXplore, all NEs are defaulted into the
same alarm group (number 255).
Alarm groups can be nodes in a ring, nodes of a linear extension, or any
other logical grouping such as a maintenance group or geographical
group.
All members of the same alarm group share NE status information but
do not share information with other alarm groups.
Alarm Group Functions
Depending on provisioning, a member of an alarm group can:
•
Know the alarm/status of all members of the same alarm group.
•
List a report of the summary alarm or status condition of other
NEs in the group.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Multi-Vendor Operations Interworking
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
TARP
To support multi-vendor OI, the DMXplore supports Target ID
Address Resolution Protocol (TARP).
TARP provides NSAP-TID translations and is the established
multi-vendor standard for SONET NEs that support TL1 OS interfaces.
DMXplore supports the TARP Data Cache (TDC) function to reduce
the frequency of TARP propagation throughout the subnetwork and to
improve performance.
Compatibility
The DMXplore is developed to be compatible with any other-vendor
NEs that support TARP, OSI, IAO LAN, and TL1 as specified in
Telcordia Technologies GR-253. In addition, DMXplore’s TARP
Manual Adjacency feature enables it to operate in networks that
include CMISE-based NEs which may not support TARP propagation.
DMXplore supports user provisioning of several OSI parameters to
allow users to adjust their operations subnetwork, if necessary. For
example, to support subnetwork partitioning of large subnetworks,
DMXplore supports user provisioning of NSAP area addresses and
Level 2 Intermediate System (IS) functionality.
The DMXplore’s compatibility with other-vendor NEs will be tested
by independent third parties such as Telcordia Technologies on behalf
of the SONET Interoperability Forum (SIF).
OI Applications Supported
The DMXplore supports the following Lucent proprietary OI applications between Lucent NEs in multi-vendor subnetworks:
•
Remote CIT login
•
Remote software download and copy
•
Remote NE-to-NE automatic time/date synchronization and
start-up.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Data Communications Channel (DCC)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Provisioning the DCC
DCC enable/disable
DCC protection mode
To support remote operations over the DCC embedded in the SONET
section overhead of the optical signal, the DCC itself must be
provisioned as indicated in the following paragraphs.
By default, the DCC is enabled on all optical ports. DCC
communications can be enabled or disabled on each port
independently.
The DCC protection mode is determined by the transmission protection
mode assigned to the high-speed (main OLIUs) optical port (per the
application parameter). The protection mode can be linear (1+1)
identical, or distinct (UPSR). 1+1 is the default for the high-speed
optical ports.
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Data Communications Channel (DCC)
User side and network side
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The operation of each DCC span also depends on one end of the span
being designated the “User” side and the other end being designated the
“Network” side. The DCC User/Network side assignments are
provisionable.
By default, the high-speed port dcc-m1-1 is designated the “Network”
side and dcc-m2-1 is designated the “User” Side. If each DMXplore on
a high-speed ring application is connected to its neighbor with a
fiber-pair between ports main-1 and main-2, the default UPSR
side/Network side assignments are sufficient.
Figure 6-5 shows the User and Network side designations for
DMXplores on a high-speed UPSR.
Figure 6-5 Default User/Network Side Designation on a UPSR
M1
User Side
®
Metropolis
DMXplore
M2
Network Side
OC-3 OLIU
M2
Network Side
Metropolis®
DMXplore
M1
User Side
UPSR
OC-3 OLIU
M1
User Side
Metropolis®
DMXplore
OC-3 OLIU
M2
Network Side
DMXplore= Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Xplore-047
DCC compatibility
DMXplore supports the optical interfaces with DCC communications
compatibility as shown in the following table. DMXplore supports
Section DCC running the OSI protocol stack.
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Data Communications Channel (DCC)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Table 6-3
DCC Compatibility
DMXplore
Product
Optical Interfaces
Supported
High-Speed Main
Slots
OC-3
DMXplore
®
Metropolis DMX
High-Speed
OC-3
High-Speed
OC-192
UPSR, 1+1
OC-48
Low-Speed
OC-48
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
High-Speed
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
Low-Speed
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
Metropolis
DMXpress
High-Speed
OC-48
DDM-2000 OC-3
High-Speed
®
Metropolis
DMXtend
®
DDM-2000 OC-12
FiberReach
FT-2000 ADR
WaveStar® TDM
2.5G/10G (2-Fiber)
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
Low-Speed
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
High-Speed
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
Low-Speed
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
High-Speed
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR
High-Speed
OC-48
Low-Speed
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
High-Speed
OC-48
Low-Speed
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
WaveStar
BandWidth Manager,
Release 4.0
High-Speed
OC-48
Low-Speed
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
Lambda Unite
High-Speed
®
OC-192
OC-48
Low-Speed
OC-12
UPSR, 1+1
OC-3
UPSR, 1+1
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Software Download (Generic)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Local software download
DMXplore supports local and remote software downloads.
DMXplore supports the following local software downloads.
•
Local software download from a WaveStar® CIT connected to the
CIT RS-232 (RS-232 serial) port on the SYSCTL circuit pack
faceplate
•
Local software installation via File Transfer Protocol (FTP) from
a WaveStar® CIT connected to the CIT LAN (IAO LAN) port on
the SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate. Software installation via FTP
requires the following:
–
FTP Client software is enabled on the NE
–
IP parameters are provisioned on the NE.
Important! Serial Download (TERM) is not supported in the
Windows XP Operating System. Therefore, FTP must be used to
install software when using the Windows XP Operating System.
Remote software download
Remote software download reduces the need to travel to remote sites
when the software version of multiple DMXplore systems is being
upgraded throughout a network.
•
Remote software download from a local PC connected to the CIT
RS-232 (RS-232 serial) port on the SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate
to a remote:
–
DMXplore
–
Metropolis® DMX
–
Metropolis® DMXpress
–
DDM-2000 OC-3
–
DDM-2000 OC-12
–
FiberReach
Important! Both the local and remote NEs must have an active
software generic.
•
Software copy from the local DMXplore to a remote:
–
DMXplore
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Software Download (Generic)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Important! The software must be in the dormant area of
DMXplore. Both the local and remote NEs must have an active
software generic.
Impact of software
download and activation
•
Remote software download via FTP to DMXplore. Both the FTP
gateway network element (GNE) and remote NE must have an
active software generic.
•
Remote software download via an FTAM-FTP gateway to
DMXplore. The FTAM-FTP gateway is also referred to as the file
transfer translation device (FTTD).
Local software downloads temporarily disrupt operations
communications because a system controller reset is involved, but the
dormant software is not activated immediately.
Remote software download or copy of compressed dormant software is
accomplished without any disruption of operations communications
(that is, no system controller resets), because the dormant software is
not activated immediately.
The dormant software may be applied at any time the user specifies, for
example, the same time for all NEs to be upgraded. Activation of the
dormant NE software generic requires the DMXplore system controller
to reset, thus temporarily disrupting operations communications.
Remote software download
compatibility
The following table lists DMXplore remote software download
compatibility with other products.
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6 - 21
Software Download (Generic)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Table 6-4
Remote Software Download Compatibility
Product
Digital signature capability
From PC Connected to:
DMXplore
Front Serial or LAN Port
DMXplore
yes
Metropolis® DMX
yes
Metropolis® DMXtend
yes
Metropolis® DMXpress
yes
DDM-2000 OC-3
yes
DDM-2000 OC-12
yes
FiberReach
yes
DMXplore verifies software downloads using a digital signature. When
FTP over TCP/IP is used for a software download, a digital signature is
transmitted with the software download and verified by the network
element. If the verification fails, DMXplore reports an autonomous
message and the software download fails. The digital signature is
discarded after verification.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Database Backup and Restore
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section describes the database backup and restore feature in
DMXplore.
The DMXplore uses the following connections to perform database
backup and restore:
•
A direct IP connection
Database backup
•
OSI connectivity to an FTP GNE.
•
FTAM Backup and Restore
DMXplore can back up all provisionable data via a local or remote FTP
file transfer. Data can be backed up to a remote operations system via
an FTAM-FTP gateway. The FTAM-FTP gateway is also referred to as
the file transfer translation device (FTTD).
The backup database is stored on a WaveStar® CIT, and Navis™
Optical Element Management System (Navis™ Optical EMS), or
another FTP server.
Database restore
In the event of a catastrophic failure, DMXplore can restore all
provisionable data (from the backup file) via local or remote FTP. Data
can be restored from a remote operations system via an FTAM-FTP
gateway. The FTAM-FTP gateway is also referred to as the file transfer
translation device (FTTD).
The backup database maybe stored on a WaveStar® CIT, and Navis™
Optical Element Management System (Navis™ Optical EMS), or
another FTP server.
Automatic database
backup
DMXplore supports automatic database backups. This allows users to
establish a backup interval, date, and time. The database backups may
be saved on the WaveStar® CIT or another FTP server.
The user can also specify the number of backups to destination files
before overwriting those same files with subsequent backups. To
eliminate the scenario of multiple DMXplore systems initiating
automatic backups simultaneously, DMXplore does not support a
default scheduled backup date/time; the user must provision their own
date/time. For information about the Configuration>Software>Configure
Auto Backup Interval command, refer to the Wavestar CIT help.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Maintenance Signaling
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alarm Indication Signals
Alarm indication signals (AIS) are maintenance signals that notify
downstream equipment that a defect or equipment failure has been
detected.
Compliance
Maintenance signaling is compliant with SONET (Telcordia
Technologies GR-253) and asynchronous (Telcordia Technologies
TR-TSY-000191) network requirements. Alarm indication signals
comply with GR-253 section 6.2.1.2.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Fault Detection, Isolation, and Reporting
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore continuously monitors incoming signals and internal
system conditions. Incoming SONET signals are monitored for loss of
signal (LOS), loss of frame (LOF), loss of pointer (LOP), line AIS,
path AIS (only rings will be switched due to path AIS), bit error ratio
(BER) thresholds and unequipped signals. The BER threshold
crossings are detected for DS1, DS3, OC-3, OC-12, STS-1, and STS-3c
signals.
Fault Detection
When an internal fault is detected, automatic diagnostics isolate the
faulty circuit pack. Faults are reported to local technicians and
operations systems so that technician dispatch and repair decisions can
be made.
Fault Isolation
Fault Reporting
All fault conditions detected by the system are stored and made
available to be reported, on demand, through the CIT. In addition, a
history of past alarm and status conditions and CIT events is
maintained and available for on-demand reporting. Each event is
real-time and date stamped.
The system also automatically and autonomously reports all detected
alarm and status conditions through the office alarm relays, SYSCTL
and circuit pack faceplate and equipment LEDs, and TL1
message-based OS interface.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Loopbacks and Tests
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore allows technicians to perform loopback tests on all
low- and high-speed interfaces. Low-speed DS1 and DS3 electronic
loopbacks, directed toward the high-speed line (terminal loopback), are
individually controllable from the CIT or the OS interface. Active
electronic loopbacks are reported in the alarm and status report. DS1
and DS3 facility loopbacks toward the DSX are also available.
Manual Optical (OC-n)
Loopbacks
Front access to the optical connectors on the optical line interface unit
(OLIU) circuit pack allows easy manual optical loopback. This
loopback is performed by connecting a fiber jumper from the MAIN
circuit pack output to its input. In some cases a lightguide buildout
assembly is required to prevent receiver overload when performing
loopbacks.
Software Controlled
Electrical Loopbacks
There are three software-controlled electrical loopbacks. The first is
DS1/DS3 and Ethernet terminal loopbacks. A terminal loopback
connects the entire signal that is about to be passed-through the
low-speed interface to the DSX (in the case of DS1/3 signals) back
toward the cross-connect fabric to the high-speed optical line. AIS is
the output to the DSX. Terminal loopbacks are used for installation and
maintenance procedures to test the integrity of near and far- end
interfaces as well as fibers and system circuitry.
The second loopback is the DS1 or DS3 Facility Loopback and it
connects the DS1 or DS3 transmit side input to the DS1 or DS3
receiver side output.
The third is an electrically-operated OC-12 facility loopback.
Internal Testing
Capabilities
Technicians can use the internal testing capabilities for installation and
manual troubleshooting. The DS1 and DS3 test signal generators and
detectors are integrated into the system, eliminating the need for
external test equipment to perform transmission tests.
The DMXplore also allows technicians to test specific system
components.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
WaveStar® CIT
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section describes the WaveStar® CIT.
Contents
The information provided in this section includes:
Introduction to the WaveStar® CIT
6-28
6 - 28
WaveStar® CIT Access
6 - 29
6-29
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Introduction to the WaveStar® CIT
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
What is the WaveStar® CIT?
The WaveStar® CIT is the primary tool used to interface with
DMXplore. It is a personal computer (PC) with the WaveStar® CIT
user-interface software installed.
The WaveStar® CIT supports the following user interface options:
•
Graphical user interface (GUI)
•
TL1 command builder
•
TL1 cut-through
The WaveStar® CIT is referred to as the “WaveStar® CIT” because the
DMXplore user-interface software is integrated with the WaveStar®
CIT software for the WaveStar® products.
WaveStar® CIT functionality
TL1 interface
The WaveStar® CIT provides an easy-to-use interface and security
features to prevent unauthorized access. The WaveStar® CIT supports
the following:
•
Local access control based on login and password
•
OSI neighbor discovery for easy access to the local NE(s)
•
User provisioning of cross-connections, equipment, ethernet
services, software management, protection provisioning, and fault
management
•
Reports on NE equipage, cross-connections, alarms, and states
The interface between the WaveStar® CIT and the DMXplore supports
TL1 messages. This interface allows the WaveStar® CIT to issue TL1
commands and receive responses, as well as receive TL1 alarm reports
from autonomous events that are detected by the DMXplore.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
WaveStar® CIT Access
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WaveStar® CIT access
methods
The WaveStar® CIT can access a network element using the following:
•
Front IAO LAN port supporting OSI or TCP/IP communications
•
WaveStar® CIT direct local
access
Front serial port
The recommended method for temporary local access is to connect the
WaveStar® CIT to DMXplore via the CIT LAN port on the system
controller (SYSCTL) circuit pack faceplate.
The WaveStar® CIT can also be connected to the serial CIT RS-232 port
on the SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate.
Figure 6-6 CIT Direct Local Access
OSI or TCP/IP
Front IAO LAN Port
SYSCTL
Metropolis®
DMXplore
Serial
Front Serial Port
DMXplore= Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Xplore-048
Important! When the WaveStar® CIT is directly connected to
the CIT LAN port (not to an Ethernet LAN hub), a LAN crossover
cable is required.
WaveStar® CIT access via
TCP/IP LAN
For security reasons (and per SIF standards), neither local nor remote
TCP/IP access via the DMXplore IAO LAN ports is allowed by
default.
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WaveStar® CIT Access
WaveStar® CIT remote
access using DCC
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
A WaveStar® CIT with direct physical access to a local DMXplore can
also be used to access remote NEs with DCC connectivity to the local
DMXplore. WaveStar® CIT remote access over DCC is functionally
equivalent to WaveStar® CIT direct access.
Figure 6-7 WaveStar® CIT Access via DCC
WaveStar®
CIT
IAO LAN (OSI or TCP/IP)
or front serial ports
Metropolis®
DMXplore
OC-3
UPSR
with
DCC
Metropolis®
DMXplore
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Xplore-050
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WaveStar® CIT Access
Remote access to the front
serial port
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
DMXplore can also be accessed remotely via dialup modems, but not
by the WaveStar® CIT software. The serial port when equipped with
the recommended cable is configured as DTE to allow a permanent
modem connection.
A PC with a terminal emulation software package, such as
HyperTerminal, can be used for access to DMXplore’s serial port via
dialup modems. The PC can use its internal modem or an external
modem (shown). This form of access supports TL1 messages only, and
can be used to access remote NEs with DCC connectivity to the
DMXplore with the modem connection.
Figure 6-8 Remote WaveStar® CIT Access via modem
WaveStar®
CIT
Serial
Modem
Modem
SYSCTL
Serial Port
Metropolis®
DMXplore
OC-3
UPSR
with
DCC
Metropolis®
DMXplore
DMXplore = Metropolis®DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Xplore-052
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Protection Switching
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section describes the types and functions of protection switching
in the DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
Contents
The following protection switching topics are discussed in this section:
Line Protection Switching
6-33
6 - 33
Path Protection Switching (Path Switched Rings)
6 - 34
6-34
Equipment Protection
6 - 35
6-35
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Line Protection Switching
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Line protection switching (1+1) occurs automatically in response to
detected faults, as well as in response to external commands from
technicians at a local or remote CIT or OS. DMXplore provides
SONET standard line protection switching on high-speed optical
interfaces as a user-provisionable option.
1+1 Facility Protection
The high-speed OC-3/12 circuit packs have one bidirectional port (2
unidirectional lines), with its own selector. DMXplore provides
non-revertive, unidirectional 1+1 line switching protection in
accordance with Telcordia GR-253.
Protection switching
priorities
DMXplore uses standard protection switching priorities as follows:
•
Lockout of protection
•
Forced switch
•
Automatic switch: signal fail
•
Automatic switch: signal degrade
•
Manual switch.
DMXplore uses unidirectional 1+1 nonrevertive line switching.
Automatic protection switch procedures as specified by the SONET
standards are used.
Automatic line switching
Automatic line switches are initiated by signal fail and signal degrade
conditions on the received OC-n signal. This signal’s BER is calculated
from violations in the SONET line overhead B2 parity byte. Signal fail
is declared for incoming loss of signal, loss of frame, line AIS, or a
BER exceeding a provisionable 10-3 to 10-5 threshold, while a BER
exceeding a provisionable 10-5 to 10-9 threshold causes the signal
degrade condition. A line protection switch is completed within 50
milliseconds of the onset of a hard failure such as a fiber cut.
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Path Protection Switching (Path Switched Rings)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore supports path switched ring applications using the path
protection switching schemes described in Telcordia Technologies
GR-1400. This scheme offers 60-millisecond restoration times and
simple network administration for access applications. The ring facility
consists of two fibers, with service and protection traffic travelling in
opposite rotations around the ring. Each input is bridged and
transmitted in both directions around the ring. The receiving end
terminal monitors the quality of both signals and selects the best signal
to drop.
UPSR configurations
DMXplore supports the following OC-3/12 path switched ring
configurations:
•
VT1.5/STS-1/STS-3c
Path protection switching is non-revertive. STS-n path switching is
triggered by incoming line LOP, AIS, and unequipped or STS-1 path
BER exceeding a provisionable 10-3 to 10-5 threshold or signal degrade
threshold. The system also supports VT path protection switching
based on VT AIS, LOP, unequipped, and signal degrade.
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Equipment Protection
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Protection switching
priorities
Equipment protection switching results from the failure of a MAIN,
high-speed (network interface) circuit pack. If the circuit pack in
MAIN1 fails, the system automatically switches all signals to the pack
in slot MAIN2.
The following protection switching priorities on equipment are
user-controllable through TL1 commands:
•
manual switch.
If protection is not desired, SONET interfaces can be provisioned for
no protection by not equipping the adjacent slot.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Performance Monitoring
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section lists and describes performance monitoring parameters,
SNMP traps and parameters, data storage, thresholds, and TCA
transmission. This section is only meant to serve as a high-level
overview to the performance monitoring capabilities of the DMXplore.
For detailed information such as OC-N, STS-N, VT1.5, Ethernet, EC-1
DS1 and DS3 performance monitoring parameters, please refer to
Appendix B of this document, entitled “Appendix B: Performance
Monitoring”.
Contents
The following performance monitoring information is included in this
section:
Performance Monitoring Parameters
6-37
6 - 37
Performance Monitoring Data Storage
6 - 44
6-44
Performance Parameter Thresholds
6 - 45
6-45
TCA Transmission to OS
66-46
- 46
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Performance Monitoring Parameters
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section lists and describes performance monitoring parameters,
data storage, thresholds, and TCA transmission.
The DMXplore uses performance monitoring (PM) to support
proactive maintenance of the network and tariffed service performance
verification. Proactive maintenance refers to the process of detecting
degrading conditions not severe enough to initiate protection switching
or alarming but indicative of an impending hard or soft failure. Hard
and soft failures result in reactive maintenance. PM conditions are
reported on both SONET and Electrical interfaces.
Proactive Maintenance
Proactive maintenance consists of monitoring performance parameters
associated with the SONET sections, lines and paths within the SONET
network.
The following figure shows DS1 line and path and DS3 line and path
performance monitoring. The DMXplore monitors DS3 line and path
parameters from the DSX-3 and DS3 path parameters from the optical
path.
Figure 6-9 DS1/DS3 Performance Monitoring
DS3 Path
OC-n Section, Line. Path
DS1/DS3 Line, Path
DSX-1
DMXplore
DSX-3
Input
OC-3
STS-n Path
VT1.5 Path
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
MA-DMXplore-018
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Performance Monitoring
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Line parameter
A line is a physical transport vehicle that provides the means of moving
digital information between two points in a network. The line is
characterized by an OC-n, DS1, or DS3 transmission medium and its
specific coding type. A line is bounded by its two end points, known as
line terminations. A line termination is the point where the
electrical/optical signal is generated and transmitted, or received and
decoded.
Path parameter
A path is a framed stream between two points in a network and
represents signal transport at a specified rate, independent of the
equipment and media providing the physical means of transporting the
signal. A path is defined by its two end points, called path terminations,
where its frame structure is generated and decoded. A path may be
carried wholly within one transport segment (line), or it may span a
sequential arrangement of two or more transport segments.
Threshold Reporting
Line and Path TCA reporting may be enabled or disabled by the
TCAMD parameter. This is provisionable, individually, at the port,
line, or path level.
DS1 performance
monitoring
Tariffed service verification consists of monitoring performance
parameters that can be associated with the customer’s end-to-end
service. The DMXplore system provides this capability for DS1
services with the DS1 performance monitoring feature. Based on ANSI
T1.403, DMXplore provides both Superframe Format (SF) and
extended superframe format (ESF). With the SF format the F-bits are
used for framing only and near-end PM is provided. With ESF format,
the F-bits and the extended superformat are used. The ESF format
retrieves performance messages written into the ESF data link by the
customer’s terminal equipment. From these ESF messages, the
DMXplore can determine and report near-end and far-end error
performance of the entire DS1 link. DS1 PM parameters are
thresholded and reported to indicate degraded performance, and the
counts are retrieved by the message-based operations system to
determine if the service is operating within tariffed limits.
DS3 performance
monitoring
DMXplore provides DS3 performance monitoring with three DS3 path
PM options: P-bit (parity bit), adjusted F&M bit (frame and multiframe
bit), and C-bit.
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Performance Monitoring
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
P-Bit
When FMT is set to P-bit, P-bit errors are used as the basis for
determining code violation counts. When provisioned for P-bit, the
system calculates and provides counts of DS3 P-bit coding violations
(CV), errored seconds (ES), and unavailable seconds (UAS) incoming
from the fiber. Quarter-hour and day registers are provided with
provisionable threshold crossing alerts (TCAs) on a per-shelf basis.
Severely errored frame seconds (SEFS) are also monitored.
Because P-bits can be corrected at nodes provisioned for VMR along a
DS3 path, the DS3 P-bit PM data may not provide a complete report of
the end-to-end DS3 path errors.
Adjusted F&M Bit
When FMT is set to FM-bit, F & M bits are used as the basis for
determining code violation counts. Adjusted F&M bit performance
monitoring provides an alternative method for determining and
accumulating DS3 path performance data based on an error estimation
technique using errors on the F&M framing bits to approximate the
actual error counts in the DS3 path payload. F&M bits are not corrected
at nodes provisioned for VMR along a DS3 path. When provisioned for
adjusted F&M bit, the system calculates and provides estimated counts
of DS3 adjusted F&M bit coding violations (CV), errored seconds
(ES), severely errored seconds (SES), and unavailable seconds (UAS)
incoming from the fiber.
Quarter-hour and current day registers are provided with provisionable
threshold crossing alerts (TCAs) on a per-shelf basis. Severely errored
frame/AIS seconds (SAS-P) are also monitored.
C-Bit
When FMT is set to cbit, C-bit errors are used as the basis for
determining code violation counts.
The system provides counts of DS3 C-Bit parity coding violations
(CV-P), errored seconds (ES-P), severely errored seconds (SES-P), and
unavailable seconds (UAS-P) incoming from the DSX-3 and the fiber.
The type of performance monitoring is provisioned per DS3 service by
a CIT command.
For C-bit PM, the DS3 service can be provisioned in violation monitor
(VM) or violation monitor and removal (VMR) modes. In VM mode,
the C-bit errors are not corrected as in the P-bit option.
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Performance Monitoring
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Quarter-hour and day registers are provided with provisionable
threshold crossing alerts (TCAs). The TCAs are provisionable on a
per-shelf basis. Severely errored frame seconds (SEFS) counts are also
provided.
PM parameters
The table below, lists the performance monitoring parameters for the
SONET and electrical interfaces.
Table 6-5
Facility
DS1 Path
PM Parameters
Parameter definition
CV-P (SF) (Coding Violation count - Path)
CV-P (ESF) (Coding Violation count - Path)
CV-PFE (ESF) (Coding Violation count - Path Far End)
ES-P (Errored Second count - Path),
ES-PFE (Errored Second count - Path Far End)
SES-P (Severely Errored Second count - Path),
SES-PFE (Severely Errored Second count - Path Far End)
UAS-P (Unavailable Second Count - Path),
UAS-PFE (Unavailable Second Count - Path Far End)
SAS-P (SEF/AIS defects Second count - Path),
SEFS-PFE (Severely Errored Frame Second count - Path Far End)
DS1 Line
ES-L (Errored Second count - Line),
DS3 Path
CV-P (Coding Violation count - Path),
CV-PFE (Coding Violation count - Path Far End)
ES-P (Errored Second count - Path),
ES-PFE (Errored Second count - Path Far End)
SES-P (Severely Errored Second count - Path),
SES-PFE (Severely Errored Second count - Path Far End)
UAS-P (Unavailable Second Count - Path),
UAS-PFE (Unavailable Second Count - Path Far End)
SAS-P (SEF/AIS defects Second count - Path),
SAS-PFE (SEF/AIS defects Second count - Path Far End)
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Performance Monitoring
Facility
DS3 Line
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Parameter definition
CV-L (Coding Violation count - Line)
ES-L (Errored Second count - Line)
SES-L (Severely Errored Second count - Line)
STS-n Path
B3 SES-P (Severely Errored Second count - Path),
B3 UAS-P (Unavailable Second Count - Path),
B3 CV-P (Coding Violation count - Path),
VT1.5 Path
B1 ES-P (Errored Second count - Path)
V5 SES-P (Severely Errored Second count - Path),
V5 UAS-P (Unavailable Second Count - Path),
OC-n Line
B2 ES-L (Errored Second count - Line),
B2 SES-L (Severely Errored Second count - Line),
B2 UAS-L (Unavailable Second Count - Line),
PJCDiff-P (Count of the absolute difference between generated and
detected pointer justifications - Path)
PSC-L (Protection Switch Count - Line)
B2 CV-L (Coding Violation count - Line),
OC-n Section
SEFS (Severely Errored Frame Second count - Section)
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Performance Monitoring
Ethernet performance
monitoring
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
DMXplore provides PM capabilities for the 10/100Mbps Ethernet
interfaces. PM data is collected at each LAN and WAN interface in the
network for both incoming and outgoing directions. The WAN
interface provides a connection to a SONET Virtual Concatenation
Group (VCG).
Listed below are the five PM parameters that provide PM data on all
Ethernet interfaces:
•
Dropped Frames (errors)
This parameter counts the number incoming ethernet frames
dropped at a LAN/WAN port due to a frame check sequence
(FCS) error or another defect in the frame.
•
Incoming Number of Bytes
This parameter counts the total number of bytes incoming to a
LAN/WAN port.
•
Incoming Number of Frames
This parameter counts the total number of ethernet frames
incoming to a LAN/WAN port.
•
Outgoing Number of Bytes
This parameter counts the total number of outgoing bytes
transmitted by a specified LAN/WAN port.
•
Outgoing Number of Frames
This parameters counts the total number of outgoing frames
transmitted by a specified LAN/WAN port.
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Performance Monitoring
Performance Monitoring
Reports
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
TCA summary report
The DMXplore provides a report that lists the number of SONET, DS1,
DS3, and Fast Ethernet performance-monitoring parameters that have
crossed their thresholds. This report provides a snapshot of the system
performance level. If there is signal degradation, it is quickly
pinpointed so that corrective action may be taken before customers are
affected, thus supporting proactive maintenance. Threshold-crossing
alerts (TCAs) are reported on Ethernet interfaces.
This report provides separate parameter summaries for each signal
level in the system, including SONET section, line, and path and
Electrical line and path (DS1/3 and Fast Ethernet). The parameter
summaries show the user which performance status to request if they
want further information.
Performance Status Reports
These reports provide detailed information on the current and previous
8 hours in quarter-hour (15-minute) increments, as well as the current
and previous day’s performance. Threshold crossing alerts are clearly
identified and the time the performance registers were last initialized is
also shown. Any registers that may have been affected by this
initialization are marked. There are separate reports for section, line,
and path parameters, as well as Ethernet parameters.
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Performance Monitoring Data Storage
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Quarter-hour and Current
Day Registers
The DMXplore provides current quarter-hour and current day registers
for all accumulated performance parameters. The previous 8 hours of
quarter-hour and previous day registers are also provided.
Access
The DMXplore system can initialize these registers through the CIT or
OS, locally or remotely at any time, as well as retrieve and report their
contents.
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Performance Parameter Thresholds
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Provisioning
The current quarter-hour and current day thresholds for each parameter
type are provisionable, using the CIT, on a per-shelf basis. If values
other than the defaults are used, only one value for each parameter type
needs to be set.
Threshold-Crossing Alerts
(TCAs)
Whenever the current quarter-hour or the current day threshold for a
given parameter is exceeded, DMXplore generates a threshold-crossing
alert (TCA) that is entered into the performance monitoring exception
report and reported to the OS through the TL1 interface and GUI.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
TCA Transmission to OS
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
TL1 over TCP/IP Access
The TCA information may be reported to the OS using the TL1
message-based OS interfaces. TCAs can be used to trigger proactive
maintenance activity at the OS.
The TL1 interfaces should be used to derive full benefit from
DMXplore’s performance monitoring capabilities. The full set of PM
data stored by DMXplore (TCAs and the contents of PM registers) is
provided through the TL1 interface.
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Support of Simple Network
Management Protocol
(R2.0)
DMXplore makes use of Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP). SNMP is the most common protocol used by data network
management applications to query a management agent using a
supported Management Information Base (MIB). SNMP operates at the
OSI Application layer. The IP-based SNMP is the basis of most
network management software, to the extent that today the phrase
“managed device” implies SNMP compliance.
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
Parameters Supported
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The DMXplore supports all of the following SNMP parameters.
Table 6-6
SNMP Parameters supported
SNMP Parameters
Administration Status (RFC2863)
Operational Status (RFC2863)
Total Bytes Received (RFC2863)
Frames Received (RFC2863)
Multicast Frames Received (RFC2863)
Broadcast Frames Received (RFC2863)
Received Frames Dropped (RFC2863)
Received Error Frames (RFC2863)
Bytes Sent (RFC2863)
Unicast Frames Sent (RFC2863)
Multicast Frames Sent (RFC2863)
Broadcast Frames Sent (RFC2863)
Traps Enabled or Disabled (RFC2863)
Time of Last Counter Discontinuity (RFC2863)
Fragments (RFC2358/RFC2665)
CRC Errors (RFC2358/RFC2665)
Collision (RFC2358/RFC2665)
Late Collision (RFC2358/RFC2665)
Oversize Frames (RFC2358/RFC2665)
MAC Receive Errors (RFC2358/RFC2665)
Duplex Status (RFC2358/RFC2665)
Flow Control Default Mode (RFC2358/RFC2665)
Flow Control Operational Mode (RFC2358/RFC2665)
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
Traps Supported
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The DMXplore supports all of the following SNMP traps.
Table 6-7
SNMP Traps supported
SNMP Traps
Link Up (RFC2863)
Link Down (RFC2863)
Loss of Signal on GbE or FE LAN Port (Ethernet Private MIB)
Incoming VCG Fail (VCG Private MIB)
Incoming VCG Loss of Alignment (VCG Private MIB)
Incoming VCG Loss of Frame Delineation (VCG Private MIB)
Incoming VCG Data Type Mismatch (VCG Private MIB)
Incoming STS -1 Loss of Frame (VCG Private MIB)
Incoming STS-1 Sequence Number Mismatch (VCG Private MIB)
Circuit Pack Not Allowed (Equipment Private MIB)
Illegal Circuit Pack Type (Equipment Private MIB)
FE-LAN Circuit Pack Failed (Equipment Private MIB)
GbE-LAN Circuit Pack Failed (Equipment Private MIB)
Circuit Pack Removed (Equipment Private MIB)
Circuit pack Inserted (Equipment Private MIB)
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Provisioning
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
Provisioning
Contents
This section describes the many types of provisionable parameters
available in DMXplore.
Provisioning is the modification of certain programmable parameters
that define how the node functions with various installed entities.
Provisioning requests may alter auto provisioned values of an entity
that already exists. Parameter modifications may be initiated locally or
remotely with a WaveStar® CIT or an OS. Parameter modifications
may be applied to the node via the intraoffice local area network
(IAO LAN), serial port, or any data communications channel (DCC).
The provisioned data is maintained in NVM and/or hardware registers.
The provisionable parameters and values (current and original) are
maintained in the nonvolatile memory.
The provisionable parameters described in this section include:
Default Provisioning
66-51
- 51
Remote Provisioning
66-52
- 52
Cross-connect Provisioning
6 - 53
6-53
Automatic Provisioning on Circuit Pack Replacement
6 - 54
6-54
Port-state Provisioning
66-56
- 56
Channel-state Provisioning
6 - 57
6-57
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Default Provisioning
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section describes the many types of provisionable parameters
available in DMXplore.
The DMXplore allows the user to customize many system
characteristics through provisioning features. Provisioning parameters
are set by software controls.
Default values
Default Cross-connections
Installation provisioning is minimized with thoughtfully chosen default
values set in the factory. Every parameter has a factory default value.
These factory defaults for software parameters are maintained in the
SYSCTL circuit pack, and a single command is provided to restore all
default values. All provisioning data is stored in nonvolatile memory to
prevent data loss during power failures and maintenance operations.
DMXplore comes fully provisioned with a default set of
cross-connections for 1+1 applications. This provides the option of a
very quick and simple installation and turn-up. In Release 2.1,
DMXplore allows the user to disable all default cross-connections
simultaneously, before turn-up.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Remote Provisioning
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Remote Provisioning
Software control allows remote provisioning of DMXplore NEs. This
feature is provided especially for provisioning parameters likely to
change in service, in support of centralized operations practices.
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Cross-connect Provisioning
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Cross-Connect
Provisioning
The DMXplore can be provisioned for signal routing. Depending on
the application, VT1.5 and STS-n signal cross-connections may be
established to route traffic in a specific manner. All cross-connections
are bidirectional. Thus, each connection goes from HS to LS within the
MAIN pack or from HS to HS in the case of pass-through
cross-connections.
VT1.5 and STS-n signals may be cross-connected in several ways. For
bidirectional drop services, the cross-connection is used to connect a
like signal in the high-speed MAIN slot to any available time slot in
low-speed 10/100 Mbps, DS1 or DS3 interfaces.
STS-n cross-connections to Ethernet interfaces are also available.
The bidirectional pass-through cross-connect is used to pass VT1.5 or
STS-n signals through the NE all on the same timeslot in the Main
circuit packs.
For simpler installation and turnup DMXplore has been designed with
a default set of cross connections. This allows for a “plug and play”
option when installing the DMXplore. The default cross connections
are supported and connected to 1+1 protected high-speed interface.
For more info
For more information on cross-connections, refer to Chapter 5,
“System Planning and Engineering.”
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Automatic Provisioning on Circuit Pack Replacement
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Replacement of a failed circuit pack is simplified by automatic
provisioning of the set circuit pack values. The SYSCTL circuit pack
maintains a provisioning map of the entire shelf, so when a
transmission pack is replaced, the SYSCTL circuit pack automatically
downloads the correct values (those that were previously provisioned)
to the new circuit pack. Likewise, if the SYSCTL circuit pack is ever
replaced, the correct provisioning data from every other circuit pack in
the shelf is automatically uploaded to the new SYSCTL circuit pack's
nonvolatile memory.
Auto provisioning
Auto provisioning is the ability of an NE to detect the presence of
equipment, validate it, and then assign default original values.
Nonvolatile memory (NVM) and/or hardware registers maintain the
parameter values. Auto-provisioning allows an NE to be set up initially
with minimal user intervention. Auto-provisioning also supports a self
inventory function which allows operations center personnel to learn
about and track activities at a remotely located NE.
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Automatic Provisioning on Circuit Pack Replacement
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Automatic provisioning on circuit pack replacement
Replacement of a failed circuit pack is simplified by automatic
provisioning of the original circuit pack values. The SYSCTL circuit
pack maintains a provisioning map of the entire shelf, so when a
transmission circuit pack is replaced, the SYSCTL circuit pack
automatically downloads the correct values to the new circuit pack.
Likewise, if the SYSCTL circuit pack is ever replaced, the correct
provisioning data from every other circuit pack in the shelf is
automatically uploaded to the new SYSCTL circuit pack's nonvolatile
memory. However, if a SYSCTL circuit pack is replaced, some
user-provisioned data is lost, unless the data is backed up before
replacement.
Items auto provisioned
Some items that are auto-provisioned include the following:
•
System target identifier (TID) (which can be changed at initial
start-up)
Equipment removal
•
Default threshold-crossing alert (TCA) profiles
•
Circuit packs
•
Synchronization default mode
The NE detects and reports the removal of equipment. The removal of
equipment does not cause the NE to delete any entities. Removal of a
piece of equipment may result in equipment alarms and insertion of
maintenance signals when the state related data is updated. However,
removal of equipment does not necessarily mean that the provisioning
of the shelf slot has changed. The user must execute specific commands
to remove an entity from the system database.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Port-state Provisioning
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Port state provisioning is a feature provided on DMXplore NEs that
can help suppress alarm reporting and performance monitoring by
supporting multiple states for DS1, DS3, and EC-1 ports.
The states supported are as follows:
•
Automatic (AUTO)
Port states
•
In-service (IS)
•
Not monitored (NMON)
Ports without signals (undriven) are in the automatic state until
changed to the in-service state when a signal is present. Commands
allow a user to retrieve and change the state of a port to the
not-monitored state or from the not-monitored state to the automatic
state.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Channel-state Provisioning
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Automatic channel state provisioning is a capability provided on
DMXplore NEs that suppresses reporting of transient alarms and
events during provisioning by supporting multiple states (AUTO, IS,
NMON) for VT1.5, STS-1, or STS-3c channels.
Automatic Channel State
Provisioning
While an end-to-end circuit is being set up, particularly during VT1.5,
STS-1, or STS-3c-n cross-connect provisioning, several transient
maintenance signals result. Without automatic channel state
provisioning, these are reported as alarms and events. The technicians
are expected to ignore these transient alarms and initiate corrective
action only if the alarms persist after the provisioning is completed. To
avoid the confusion created by this, DMXplore provides automatic
channel state provisioning.
Channel States
A VT1.5, STS-1, or STS-3c channel is kept in the default automatic
(AUTO) state until the reception of a valid signal (a framed non-AIS or
non-LOP). A channel state transition from the AUTO state is based on
the absence of all monitored path level defects in that channel. While in
AUTO state, no alarms or events are reported on the channel. On
receiving a valid signal, the channel automatically changes to the
in-service (IS) state, where it resumes normal alarm and event
reporting. An additional state, not-monitored (NMON), is also
supported in which alarm and event reporting is suppressed regardless
of the validity of the signal being received on the channel. The user can
submit commands to manually change a channel from IS or AUTO to
NMON, and from NMON to AUTO. A user cannot manually change
from AUTO or NMON to IS. In a UPSR ring, the state will go from
AUTO to IS as soon as a good signal is received on either side of the
ring.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Reports
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section describes reports generated by DMXplore.
Contents
Reports described in this section include:
Alarm and Status Reports
66-59
- 59
Performance Monitoring Reports
6 - 61
6-61
Maintenance History Reports
6 - 62
6-62
State Reports
6 - 63
6-63
Provisioning Reports
66-64
- 64
Version/Equipment List
66-65
- 65
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Alarm and Status Reports
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alarm and Status Reports
The system provides an alarm report that lists all the active alarm and
status conditions, including a remote alarm status feature that
summarizes alarms in other NEs in an alarm group. A description of the
condition (for example, controller failure, incoming high-speed signal
failure, synchronization hardware, etc.) is included in the report along
with a time stamp indicating when the condition was detected, its
severity, and whether it is service affecting or not. The option to display
specified subsets of alarm conditions is provided (for example, critical
alarms only).
Status conditions include:
•
Manually initiated abnormal conditions (for example, forced
switch, loopbacks, system testing)
•
Incoming AIS detected
A description of the status condition (for example, DS1 loopback
active, DS3 facility loopback active, and so on) is included in the report
along with a time stamp indicating when the condition began.
Maintenance History
Reports
A maintenance history report contains the following past conditions:
•
Alarms
•
Status
•
Protection switching
•
User interface commands (for example, provisioning, loopback
request, manual protection, and so on.)
The maintenance history report contains time stamps indicating when
each condition was detected and when it cleared, as well as when the
command was entered. Note that any system reset clears all records in
the log.
Refer to the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer User
Operations Guide, 365-372-332, for details on the history log.
State Reports
The state report shows the protection state of all interfaces installed in
the system and the state of the individual low/high-speed channels.
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Alarm and Status Reports
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Interface States
For 1+1 protected OC-n lines, the interface state is reported as “active”
or “standby.”
Path States
The state of the individual VT1.5 /STS-n channels and paths may be one
of the following:
•
Not monitored (NMON)
•
In service (IS)
•
Auto (AUTO).
The system reports this information on all cross-connected paths.
Port States
Provisioning Reports
Version/Equipment List
Information Provided
The state of individual ports, including those contained in multiport
interfaces (DS1 and DS3), may be NMON, IS, or AUTO.
The DMXplore provides a variety of provisioning reports that contain
the current values of all electronically-provisionable parameters. For
more information on the provisioning reports generated, refer to the
Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer User Operations Guide,
109-454-025.
The DMXplore system provides a full inventory report on all hardware
and software installed in local and remote systems.
The version/equipment list provides the following information:
•
Circuit pack name
•
Slot/Socket ID
•
10-character CLEI code
•
6-digit equipment catalog item (ECI)
•
7-character apparatus code
•
6-character series number
•
12-character serial number (includes date and location of
manufacture)
•
6-digit program version (software generic) code
•
Program version for dormant area.
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Performance Monitoring Reports
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
TCA summary report
DMXplore provides a report that lists the number of SONET
performance-monitoring parameters that have crossed their thresholds.
This report provides a snapshot of the system performance level. If
there is signal degradation, it is quickly pinpointed so that corrective
action may be taken before customers are affected, thus supporting
proactive maintenance.
This report provides separate parameter summaries for each signal
level in the system, including SONET section, line, and path, as well as
dropped/incoming/outgoing ethernet bytes and frames. The parameter
summaries show the user which performance status to request if they
want further information.
Performance status reports
These reports provide detailed information on the current and previous
8 hours in quarter-hour (15-minute) increments, as well as the current
and previous day’s performance. Threshold crossing alerts are clearly
identified and the time the performance registers were last initialized is
also shown. Any registers that may have been affected by this
initialization are marked. There are separate reports for section, line,
and path parameters, as well as Ethernet parameters.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Maintenance History Reports
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Summary
A maintenance history report contains the following past conditions:
•
alarms
•
status
•
protection switching
•
user interface commands (e.g., provisioning, loopback request,
etc.)
The maintenance history report contains time stamps indicating when
each condition was detected and when it cleared, as well as when the
command was entered. Note that any system controller reset clears all
records in the log.
Reference
See the DMXplore Access Multiplexer User Operations Guide,
365-372-325, for details on the history log.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
State Reports
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Circuit pack states
Path states
The state report shows the protection state of all circuit packs installed
in the system and the state of the individual low/high-speed channels.
The circuit pack state is reported as “active” or “standby.”
The state of the individual VT1.5 /STS-n channels and paths may be one
of the following:
•
not monitored (NMON)
•
in service (IS)
•
auto (AUTO).
The system reports this information on all interfaces. AUTO refers to a
slot that is available for automatic provisioning. For VT1.5/STS-n
channels and paths, the AUTO state would transition to the IS state if a
good signal is detected.
Port states
The state of individual ports may be NMON, IS, or AUTO.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Provisioning Reports
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The DMXplore provides a variety of provisioning reports that contain
the current values of all electronically-provisionable parameters and
hardware-selectable parameters. For more information on the
provisioning reports generated, refer to the DMXplore Access
Multiplexer User Operations Guide, 365-372-301.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Version/Equipment List
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Information provided
The DMXplore system provides a full inventory report on all hardware
and software currently installed.
The version/equipment list provides the following information:
•
Circuit pack name
•
Slot/Socket ID
•
10-character CLEI code
•
6-digit equipment catalog item (ECI)
•
7-character apparatus code
•
6-character series number
•
12-character serial number (includes date and location of
manufacture)
•
6-digit program version (software generic) code
•
Program version for dormant area.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Administration
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section provides information on system administration.
Contents
System administration considerations included in this section are:
Software Upgrades
6-67
6 - 67
IP Access for Network Management
6 - 68
6-68
Time and Date Synchronization
6 - 73
6-73
Office Alarms Interface
6 - 75
6-75
Remote NE Status
6 - 77
6-77
Network Size
6 - 80
6-80
Directory Services
6 - 81
6-81
Security
6 - 85
6-85
Password Administration (CIT and System)
6 - 87
6-87
User-setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
6 - 92
6-92
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Software Upgrades
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore provides an in-service software installation capability to
update the generic program in local and remote systems. Upgrades are
distributed on CD-ROMs containing the new software and an
installation program. These software upgrades are the primary
mechanism to add new feature enhancements to the in-service
DMXplore network. All software upgrades are “in-service” and do not
affect any provisionable parameters. For example, cross-connections
are left unchanged by the software upgrade.
Software download
In the DMXplore system, software download takes place in two stages.
In the first stage, the new generic software is downloaded into a
dormant “flash” area as a compressed file. In the second stage, the new
generic is uncompressed and moved into an active “flash” space.
During this process, the old release continues to run from random
access memory (RAM). Installation is not service-affecting, so down
time is limited to the reboot time.
Local installation
procedure
The procedure is straightforward. The technician connects a personal
computer (PC) to the RS-232 front serial port on the local DMXplore,
starts the installation program, and is prompted with a few warnings
before the upgrade installation actually begins. After the technician
confirms to proceed, the PC takes over the process and completes the
installation.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
IP Access for Network Management
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
For network management purposes, the DMXplore supports the
following types of IP Access:
•
DMXplore can serve as a TL1 Translation Device (T-TD) by
acting as a gateway network element that allows Navis™ Optical
EMS and/or WaveStar® CIT to communicate to other network
elements (NEs) through an IP access network. This capability
allows you to send TL1 commands from Navis™ Optical EMS or
WaveStar® CIT located on a TCP/IP based network to various
NEs connected on an OSI network.
•
DMXplore can functionally encapsulate IP packets within OSI
packets to be transmitted through the OSI network to the proper
NE. Thus DMXplore supports IP based protocols such as FTP by
providing end-to-end IP connectivity between OS and NE. This
capability is called IP tunneling. IP tunneling is required to
support remote database backup/restore in between DMXplore
systems.
•
DMXplore can also serve as a File Transfer Translation Device
(FTTD) by acting as an FTAM-FTP gateway network element.
The FTAM-FTP gateway network element translates FTAM over
OSI presentation to FTP over TCP/IP. The FTAM-FTP gateway
supports software downloads, database backups, and database
restores.
•
DMXplore will support Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) for data network applications once Ethernet service
becomes available. DMXplore provides limited support for
certain reports and traps (alarms and events autonomous
messages).
•
DMXplore also supports Network Time Protocol (NTP) using IP
tunneling to synchronize the time and date to a standard time
reference.
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IP Access for Network Management
TL1 Translation
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
DMXplore can copy the application information within an IP packet
into an OSI packet. This translation is performed at the application
layer. When acting as a TL1 translation device, DMXplore system
must be provisioned with a list of possible OSs. If an OS is not on the
list residing within the system, a connection from that OS will not be
accepted. When DMXplore is used as a TL1 translation device it is
referred to as the T-TD GNE (Gateway Network Element).
Figure 6-10 TL1 Translation Device
PC-CIT
NavisTM
Optical
EMS
TCP/IP
TL1
TCP/IP
TL1
TCP/IP
WAN
TCP/IP
TL1
®
OSI
Metropolis
DMXplore
T-TD GNE
Metropolis®
DMXplore
IP to OSI
Translation
OSI
Metropolis®
DMXplore
OC-3
Compatible
NE
OSI
Compatible
NE
Metropolis®
DMXplore
OSI
Compatible
NE
DMXplore = Metropolis®DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Xplore-020
An IP fringe application, where an IP based OS located in the IP access
DCN manages an IP managed NE (non DMXplore) on the fringe of
DMXplore OSI-based embedded DCN. The IP application initiated at
the OS terminates at the IP managed NE. Note that if the IP managed NE
is not directly connected to the DMXplore remote NE via the
LAN, but can be reached via additional routers, some static routes have
to be provisioned manually on the routers.
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IP Access for Network Management
Encapsulating IP Packets
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The DMXplore GNE acts as the tunnel entrance, i.e., the interface
between IP and CLNP. When an IP packet is received from the LAN
interface of the GNE, if it is not destined for the GNE, the received IP
packet is encapsulated into CLNP PDU(s) as simple CLNP user data,
loosing any IP protocol meanings (such as IP addressing and life time),
as shown in the figure below.
Figure 6-11 Encapsulated IP Packets
IP Packet
IP Header
Encapsulated
CLNP Header
IP Header
Encapsulated
and
(if necessary)
Segmented
CLNP Header
IP Header User Data
CLNP Header
User Data
User Data
IP Header User Data
For the CLNP PDU that contains the encapsulated IP packet, the CLNP
source address is the NSAP of the NE where the IP packet is
encapsulated (tunnel entrance), and the CLNP destination address is the
NSAP of the NE where the IP packet will be de-capsulated (tunnel
exit). The CLNP PDU then is routed via the ISO-10589 “IS to IS
intra-domain information exchange protocol (IS-IS)” within the
embedded OSI DCN. Therefore, the IP tunneling over CLNP is
transparent for the IP world. The CLNP world is only used to carry the
IP traffic and there is no possible connections between the OSI
applications and the IP applications. The IP tunnel serves as a normal
point-to-point link for the IP traffic between two NSAP entities (the
tunnel entrance and tunnel exit). Note that because the IP traffic flows
in both directions between two NSAP entities, the tunnel entrance
entity also serves as the tunnel exit entity, and vice versa.
In the tunnel entrance, the way to associate an IP destination address in
the IP packet with an OSI NSAP address (the NSAP of tunnel exit
entity) can be derived by the static user provisioned information or by
the automatic distributed tunnel routing information, called Tunnel
Auto Provisioning (TAP).
Tunnel Auto Provisioning (TAP)
In the OSI networks, the network elements use the ISO-10589 “IS to IS
intra-domain information exchange protocol (IS-IS)” to exchange the
topology information. The knowledge by every network element of the
whole network topology at a given time allows the computation of the
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IP Access for Network Management
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
optimal route to any possible destination on the network. The IS-IS
protocol provides for the inclusion of optional variable length fields in
all IS-IS packets. This allows additional IP specific information to be
added to the OSI IS-IS routing packets.
The topological information between network elements (or called
intermediate systems) is communicated by sending a specific IS-IS
PDU called LSP (Link-State PDU). In the LSP optional fields, the NEs
send (advertise) information about the IP subnets that can be reached
via that NE. By default, this will be locally attached subnet, but other
subnets can also be provisioned for the advertisement.
The advertising of IP information using the LSP options can be enabled
or disabled via the user interfaces. Based on the specification of the
IS-IS protocol, any intermediate systems that could not recognize the
encoded optional fields shall just ignore and pass through these fields
unchanged. This makes it possible that the NEs that advertise both OSI
and IP routing information can seamlessly interwork with the NEs that
advertise the OSI routing information only.
With automatic distribution of IP routing information via IS-IS LSP, a
NE, which learned such information, then can associate an IP
destination address of an IP packet with an OSI NSAP address, and
uses this NSAP address as the destination address of CLNP PDU(s)
which encapsulates the IP packet.
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IP Access for Network Management
FTAM-FTP gateway
network element
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
DMXplore can serve as a File Transfer Translation Device (FTTD) by
acting as an FTAM-FTP gateway network element. The FTAM-FTP
gateway network element translates FTAM over OSI presentation to
FTP over TCP/IP. The FTAM-FTP gateway supports software
downloads, database backups, and database restores.
The figure below shows a DMXplore provisioned as an FTAM-FTP
gateway network element. The FTAM-FTP gateway network element
allows remote DMXplore network elements to request software
downloads and database restores from an FTP server. The FTAM-FTP
gateway network element also allows remote DMXplore network
elements to backup databases to an FTP server.
Figure 6-12 FTAM-FTP Gateway
FTP
Server
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
WAN
TCP/IP
OSI
Metropolis®
DMXplore
or
DMXplore
FTAM-FTP
GateWay
OC-3
UPSR
Compatible
NE
OSI
OSI
Metropolis®
DMXplore
or
Compatible
NE
Metropolis®
DMXplore
or
OSI
Compatible
NE
DMXplore = Metropolis®DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Xplore-046
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Time and Date Synchronization
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Synchronizing the time and date among all NEs in a network is useful
to correlate events reported by different NEs.
The time and date is synchronized:
•
Manually using the WaveStar® CIT Administration > Set Date and
Time command.
Provisioning
•
Automatically from another NE via the DCC.
•
Automatically by the OS
In a new installation, it is recommended that the time and date be
manually provisioned in at least the first DMXplore in each ring. Each
subsequent DMXplore that is added to the network tries to learn the
current time and date from one of the existing NEs automatically.
After start-up (or any subsequent controller resets), the DMXplore's
time and date revert back to the last time and date before the reset.
DMXplore waits 5 minutes, in case other NEs are also resetting (for
example, as part of a software upgrade of the network), before starting
to check with other NEs for the current time and date. If necessary, the
DMXplore checks with all remote NEs for the current time and date.
The DMXplores allow up to 2 minutes for each remote NE to respond
before checking with the next remote NE for the current time and date,
and keep checking until a valid current time and date is found.
The DMXplore accepts a provisioned time and date value or any
remote NE date later than 00-01-01 as a valid current time and date.
Network Time Protocol
Network Time Protocol (NTP) assures accurate synchronization of the
DMXplore with reference to radio and/or atomic clocks located on the
Internet.
Considerations
The automatic time and date synchronization is intended to achieve
time and date synchronization among compatible NEs with DCC
connectivity in a network, but such synchronization can not be
guaranteed at start-up for all network configurations or over the course
of time.
TL1 command responses and autonomous messages include
DMXplore’s current time and date.
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Time and Date Synchronization
Time and date
synchronization
compatibility
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The following table lists DMXplore Time and Date Synchronization
compatibility with other products.
Table 6-8
DMXplore Time and Date Synchronization
Compatibility
Products
DMXplore
DMXplore
yes
Metropolis® DMX
yes
Metropolis® DMXpress
yes
Metropolis® DMXtend
yes
DDM-2000 OC-3
yes
DDM-2000 OC-12
yes
FiberReach
yes
FT-2000 ADR
yes
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Office Alarms Interface
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Description
The office alarms interface is a set of discrete relays controlling audible
and visible office alarms. CR (critical) and MJ (major) alarm conditions
are reported through one pair of relays. MN (minor) alarm conditions
are reported through another pair of relays.
Steady state current
The steady state current for office alarm connections must not exceed
1.0 Amp at 60 Volts or 1.8 Amps at 30 Volts. The maximum transient
currents (20 msec duration) during initial contact closure must not
exceed 9 Amps at 60 Volts or 18 Amps at 30 Volts.
Provisionable alarm delay
and alarm clear delay
DMXplore provides provisionable incoming signal alarm delay and
alarm clear delay. The alarm clear delay only applies to equipment
alarms. It does not apply to signal failures. The office alarms are not
activated unless an incoming signal condition of greater duration than
the alarm delay occurs. When a failure clears, a provisionable alarm
clear delay prevents premature clearing of the alarm.
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Office Alarms Interface
Multiple alarms
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
When multiple alarm conditions occur, the highest-level office alarm
(audible and visible) is activated. When the highest-level alarm
condition clears, the office alarm “bumps down” to the next highest
level alarm condition.
If enabled, the Remote NE Status feature includes alarms at other NEs
in the same alarm group as the local NE to determine when to activate
the local office alarm and the appropriate alarm level.
Alarm cut-off
The audible office alarms are silenced through activation of the alarm
cut-off (ACO) function. Visible alarms are not extinguished by the
ACO function.
If the ACO function has been activated to silence the active audible
alarm and a “bump down” occurs, the audible alarm remains silent (that
is, the lower level visible alarm is activated, but the corresponding
audible alarm is not reactivated). If another alarming condition occurs
while the ACO is active, the audible alarm is activated even if the new
condition is a lower level. For example, if a major (MJ) alarm was
active and silenced using the ACO function and a minor (MN)
alarming condition occurs, the audible alarm will sound.
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Remote NE Status
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
If enabled, the Remote NE Status feature reflects the summary
alarm/status level for both the local and remote NEs in the same alarm
group as the local NE with the following local indications.
Office alarms
The local office visual alarm always shows the highest alarm level. The
local office audible alarm is activated in response to each new alarm
occurrence among the local and remote NEs. Thus alerting on-site craft
of problems in the network with an indication of the severity.
SYSCTL faceplate LEDs
The CR, MJ, or MN LED on the local SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate
shows the highest alarm level among the local and remote NEs. The FE
LED on the local SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate is illuminated if any
remote NE has an active alarm, abnormal status (indicated by the ABN
LED), or “activity” status condition, thus identifying the local NE to
query further. (Although not dependent on the Remote NE Status
feature, the Near-End LED on the local SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate
is only illuminated if the local NE itself has an active alarm, abnormal
status, or “activity” status condition.)
Remote NE status and
alarm/status retrieval
The local NE can retrieve the highest alarm/status level of each NE in a
network with an active alarm, abnormal status, or “activity” status
condition, thus identifying the remote NE to further query.
Determination of the highest alarm/status level of each NE includes the
alarm/status level of active miscellaneous discrete alarm/status inputs.
The Remote NE Status feature can be used to expedite maintenance
activities for NEs that report TL1 autonomous alarm/status messages to
a maintenance OS at an operations center.
The Remote NE Status feature may be enabled or disabled. By default,
the Remote NE Status feature is disabled.
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Remote NE Status
Alarm group
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
By default, all DMXplore systems are assigned to alarm group 255.
This is typically sufficient for small networks of up to 50 nodes. All
NEs with DCC connectivity that have the same alarm group number
are members of the same alarm group. All alarm group members share
summary alarm/status information with each other but not with NEs in
different alarm groups. To take advantage of the remote activation of
local office alarms, in particular, at least one member of the alarm
group should be located in a central office.
In large networks, with IS-IS Level 2 Routing and multiple Level 1
areas, each alarm group must be confined to within a single Level 1
area only. For example, a network with three different Level 1 areas
would require a minimum of three alarm groups, that is, one alarm
group for each Level 1 area. If desired, multiple alarm groups can be
defined within a Level 1 area, also. The maximum number of NEs in an
alarm group is limited by the maximum number of nodes in a Level 1
area.
Alarm gateway NE (AGNE)
By default, no NE is enabled as an AGNE. Even if the default alarm
group number for all NEs is used, at least one NE in each alarm group
must be enabled as an AGNE. Any NE in an alarm group can be
enabled as an AGNE, for example, an AGNE does not need to be
located in a central office, in fact, it is recommended that an AGNE
should not also be a TL1 TCP/IP GNE, TL1/X.25 GNE, or IS-IS Level
2 Router.
A second NE in each alarm group may be enabled as a backup AGNE,
if required. It is recommended that the maximum number of AGNEs
per alarm group be limited to at most two to assure good performance.
Instead of having every NE exchange alarm/status information with
every other NE in the same alarm group directly, only the AGNE
receives alarm/status information from every NE directly, and the
AGNE distributes the accumulated alarm/status information for all the
NEs to every NE in the alarm group.
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Remote NE Status
Provisioning sequence
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
If there is no AGNE, each NE in an alarm group reports an AGNE Communications Failure alarm; therefore, the following provisioning sequence
is recommended:
1. Provision one or two (at most) NEs as the AGNE
2.
•
Enable the Remote NE Status parameter
•
Enable the network element as an Alarm Gateway
•
Provision the alarm group number, if different than the
default.
Provision the other NEs in the same alarm group
•
Enable the Remote NE Status parameter
•
Provision the alarm group number, if different than the
default.
For more information about the Administration>Set NE command, refer
to the WaveStar® CIT help.
Remote NE status
compatibility
The following table lists DMXplore remote NE status compatibility
with other products.
Table 6-9
Remote NE Status Compatibility
Product
DMXplore
Metropolis® DMXplore
yes
Metropolis® DMX
yes
Metropolis® DMXpress
yes
Metropolis® DMXtend
yes
DDM-2000 OC-3
yes
DDM-2000 OC-12
yes
FiberReach
yes
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Network Size
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Maximum number of OSI
nodes
There is no inherent limit to the total number of NEs in a SONET
transmission network, but there is a limit to the number of nodes that
can be part of the same OSI domain, that is, with OSI LAN and/or DCC
connectivity for operations communications among the NEs.
The maximum number of OSI nodes supported is 50, unless IS-IS
Level 2 Routing is used, in which case, up to 256 OSI nodes are
supported. Each DMXplore counts as one OSI node.
To simplify administration and minimize provisioning, the number of
nodes included in the same OSI domain should be limited to no more
than 50, whenever practical, by disabling all OSI LAN and DCC
between some logical groupings of NEs.
IS-IS level 2 routing
IS-IS Level 2 Routing involves the assignment of NEs to multiple areas
of less than 50 nodes each. Level 2 routers support OSI
communications between the NEs in different areas. Both the
assignment of NEs to areas and the enabling of NEs as Level 2 routers
is accomplished by provisioning.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Directory Services
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
What are directory
services?
OS and WaveStar® CIT users access remote DMXplores using the
remote DMXplore Target Identifier (TID, name) but remote
DMXplores are addressed on the DCC using Network Service Access
Point Address (NSAP). Therefore, a method to provide TID-to-NSAP
(name-to-address) and NSAP-to-TID (address-to-name) translations is
necessary. Target Identifier Address Resolution Protocol (TARP)
provides this capability.
For SONET NEs that support TCP/IP and TL1/X.25 OS interfaces,
TARP is the de facto directory services standard to support
multi-vendor OI compatibility. TARP is specified in Telcordia
GR-253-CORE, SONET Transport Systems: Common Criteria.
TID provisioning
Each NE in a network must be provisioned with a unique TID. The
DMXplore’s default TID is “LT-DMXPLORE”. The terms TID and
source identifier (SID) are generally used interchangeably.
Important! Some other-vendor NEs may require that all TIDs
adhere to specific rules, for example, that each TID start with an
alphabetic character and/or that each TID consist of at least 6-to-7
characters.
To be compatible with WaveStar products, DMXplore TIDs
should not include special characters “%” and “#”. Even though
DMXplore TID provisioning allows those special characters,
T1.245 SONET Directory Services (SDS) does not support those
special characters.
NSAP provisioning
By default, each DMXplore has a unique Network Service Access
Point (NSAP) address, thus no NSAP provisioning is necessary in
small networks. If the network size exceeds 50 OSI nodes, NSAP
provisioning is required.
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TARP provisioning
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Although TARP functions automatically without any user provisioning,
using standard default values, DMXplore allows provisioning of the
following TARP parameters. All TARP parameters are provisionable:
•
Lifetime
•
Manual Adjacency
•
Timers
•
Loop Detection Buffer (LDB) Flush Timer
•
TARP Data Cache (TDC) Enable/Disable
•
TDC TID-NSAP Entries.
It is recommended that the TARP default values always be used.
TARP TID-to-NSAP
translations
The three operations that depend on TARP TID-to-NSAP translations
are:
1. TL1 OS access
2.
WaveStar® CIT access
3.
Remote (Software) Install Program/Copy Program.
When a TL1 TCP/IP or TL1/X.25 Gateway Network Element (GNE)
receives a TL1 login request for a TL1-RNE, the TL1 login request
includes the TL1-RNE’s TID. The TL1-GNE relies on TARP to
determine the TL1-RNE’s NSAP. The TL1-GNE needs the NSAP to
establish an OSI association with the TL1-RNE. The TL1 login request
is forwarded to the TL1-RNE over that OSI association.
The local DMXplore serves as a TL1-GNE and uses TARP as
described above for WaveStar® CIT access via DMXplore’s serial
ports or TCP/IP. When accessing DMXplore via OSI LAN, the
WaveStar® CIT (or OS) performs the TL1-GNE function and uses
TARP in a similar manner, also. The local DMXplore uses TARP as
described above to support remote Install Program/Copy Program.
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TARP propagation
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
The first time a TL1-GNE (or local DMXplore) requires a TARP
TID-to-NSAP translation for each remote NE, the TL1-GNE originates
a TARP query. The TARP query is propagated to all NEs in the same
OSI routing area, and if no response is received from within the area,
up to two additional TARP queries are propagated throughout the OSI
domain. Each NE forwards the TARP queries to each of its neighboring
OSI nodes (that is, adjacencies), except the neighbor from which the
TARP query was received.
When the TARP query reaches the remote NE with the requested TID,
that remote NE responds to the originating NE with the remote NE’s
NSAP address. If there is no response to any of the TARP queries for a
TID, after the third query times out, an error response (for example,
TL1- GNE unknown TID or TID not found) is returned to the originating NE.
TARP NSAP-to-TID
translations
When a DMXplore is commanded to perform this translation, it knows
the NSAPs of the remote NEs to be included in the responses but relies
on TARP to determine the corresponding TIDs.
To ensure that the responses to these commands always include the
most up-to-date network information, real-time TARP queries are
originated instead of relying on the TARP Data Cache or TDC
(although the TDC is updated, as appropriate, based on the responses to
these NSAP-to-TID queries).
Because the NSAPs are known, these TARP queries are addressed
directly to each remote NE (TARP propagation is not necessary). Each
remote NE responds to the originating NE with the remote NE’s TID.
TARP data cache
In order to reduce the frequency of TARP propagation, and to improve
the performance of the affected operations, DMXplore supports a TDC
option. By default, the TDC is enabled.
Each DMXplore maintains its own TDC, independently. The TDC
consists of TID-NSAP translations. Each DMXplore automatically
updates its own TDC based on the responses to previous TARP queries.
The TDC may also be updated upon receipt of an unsolicited,
automatic notification from another NE in the same OSI domain of a
TID or NSAP change.
DMXplore checks its TDC to see if it already has a required
TID-to-NSAP translation before originating a TARP query. If a
translation is not found in the TDC, the response to that TARP query is
used to update the originating DMXplore’s TDC. DMXplore assures
that its TDC maintains only one TID-NSAP translation for each unique
TID. DMXplore supports TDC sizes of up to 110 TID-NSAP
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translations. If the TDC is disabled or DMXplore’s system controller is
reset, the contents of the TDC are deleted.
TDC accuracy
In the unlikely event that a TDC includes an inaccurate TID-to-NSAP
translation, DMXplore confirms that both the NSAP and TID of the
remote DMXplore are correct before a remote operation proceeds. If
there is a mismatch, an error response (for example, TL1-RNE unknown
TID, Inconsistent TID, or Association Setup Failure) is returned to the
originating NE.
To correct such a situation, delete the subject TID (L4tdctid) from the
TDC, then re-request the remote operation for the subject TID. The
subsequent TARP query results in an accurate TID-to-NSAP
translation, and the TDC is updated accordingly. A broader solution is
to disable and re-enable the TDC in which case all TDC entries are
deleted.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Security
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Capabilities
User types
DMXplore provides security capabilities to protect against
unauthorized access to the system.
Four types of users (with tiered restriction levels) are allowed access to
the system with a valid user ID and password:
•
Privileged users can execute all commands
A privileged user has access to all the system functional
capabilities. Only the privileged users have access to the security
and access functions. These functions include assigning/changing
user ID/passwords for other users, setting target identifier (TID)
names, resetting the system, and system initialization functions.
A privileged user can terminate the login session of other
individual users (including other privileged users) or terminate all
login sessions of non-privileged users.
•
General users have access to all the system functional capabilities
except security, access, system initialization and software
installation functions.
•
Maintenance users can only execute commands that access the
system, extract reports and execute maintenance functions through
a specific set of commands. No privileged commands may be
executed by maintenance users.
•
Reports-only users can only execute commands that retrieve
reports from the system.
Security can be set to a “lockout” state, which blocks non-privileged
users from logging in to the system.
System initialization
When the system is first initialized, three privileged default user IDs
and passwords are provided. Up to 147 user IDs and passwords can be
added, deleted, and/or changed by any of the privileged users. Timeouts
are provisionable on a per-user basis.
User IDs and passwords
The WaveStar® CIT always asks the user for the NE user ID and
password with the first NE connection. The user ID and password can
be saved for subsequent connections, but the user ID and password can
not be saved past the current WaveStar® CIT session. User ID and
password parameters must be administered on a per-NE basis. You
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
may have a different user ID and/or password on one NE than you have
on other NEs.
Each time the number of invalid sequential login attempts reach or
exceed the provisionable user ID lockout threshold, the network
element reports a Security Alert alarm.
Inactivity timeout period
The inactivity timeout period is the number of minutes after which a
user with an inactive session is logged out. A provisionable inactivity
timeout period is supported on a per-user basis.
Password aging
The password aging interval is the number of days allowed before a
user’s password expires. When a user’s password expires, the user is
prompted to select a new password prior to login. The values for the
password aging interval are zero (0) or a range from 7 to 999 days. A
value of zero (0) disables password aging. The default value is 0.
Password aging does not apply to privileged users’ passwords.
WaveStar® CIT default user
IDs and passwords
NE default user IDs and
passwords
Two default Privileged user IDs and passwords are initially installed in
the WaveStar® CIT are LUC01 and LUC02 (LUC-zero-one, and
LUC-zero-two). Their associated passwords are LUC+01, LUC+02,
(LUC-plus sign-zero-one, LUC-plus sign-zero-two), respectively.
Three default Privileged user IDs and passwords are initially installed
in the NE is LUC01, LUC02, or LUC03 (LUC-zero-one,
LUC-zero-two, and LUC-zero-three). The default password is
DMXPLR2.5G.
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Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Password Administration (CIT and System)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
WaveStar® CIT user
ID/password administration
System administration includes performing the following:
•
Changing passwords
•
Changing notifications
•
Performing security administration
•
Viewing NE administration
•
Setting TIDs
•
Setting NE defaults
•
Performing a LAN reset
•
Provisioning data communications
•
Viewing OSI routing map
The Administration > Security > User Provisioning command on the
WaveStar® CIT View menu allows a privileged user to create, change,
or delete another user ID or password.
Important! Any changes made to a user’s provisioning takes
place the next time the user logs in. If the user is currently logged
in, no changes take place until that user logs off and logs back in.
Valid WaveStar® CIT user IDs
A valid WaveStar® CIT user ID must be a minimum of one character to
a maximum of ten characters (no character restrictions).
Valid WaveStar® CIT passwords
A valid WaveStar® CIT password must comply with the following:
•
Length must be a minimum of six characters to a maximum of ten
characters
•
Must begin with a letter
•
Must contain at least three non-alphabetic characters (symbol or
number)
•
At least one of the non-alphabetic characters must be a symbol
•
When changing a password, the new password must be different
than the previous password by at least one character.
Important!
User passwords are case-sensitive.
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Password Administration (CIT and System)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Characters NOT allowed in a WaveStar® CIT password
The following table lists the characters that are not allowed in a
WaveStar® CIT password.
Table 6-10 Characters NOT Allowed in a WaveStar® CIT
Password
Character
Description
Character
Description
Space
“
Quotation mark
@
Commercial at
&
Ampersand
,
Comma
;
Semicolon
:
Colon
_
horizontal bar
(underscore)
=
Equals sign
?
Question mark
Characters allowed in a WaveStar® CIT password
The following table lists the characters that are allowed in a WaveStar®
CIT password.
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Password Administration (CIT and System)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Table 6-11 Characters Allowed in a WaveStar® CIT Password
Character
Description
Character
Description
A... Z
Uppercase letters *
Asterisk
a... z
Lowercase letters [
Left square
bracket
0... 9
Digits
]
Right square
bracket
'
Apostrophe
^
Caret
-
Hyphen
`
Grave accent
(
Left parenthesis
{
Left curly brace
)
Right parenthesis }
Right curly brace
.
Period (full stop) |
Vertical bar
/
Slash (Solidus)
<
Less than
+
Plus sign
>
Greater than
!
Exclamation
mark
~
Tilde
%
Percent sign
#
Number sign
Changing your own WaveStar® CIT password
The WaveStar® CIT Administration > Change Password command
allows any user to change his or her own WaveStar® CIT password.
Only privileged users can change another user’s ID or password.
The Change Password screen is also automatically invoked
immediately after the login screen if a user’s password has expired. The
user is prevented from performing any other function until the
password is successfully changed. This screen is also invoked the first
time a login is attempted for a new user ID.
DMXplore user
ID/password administration
The Administration > Security > User Provisioning command on the
network element System View menu allows a privileged user to create,
change, or delete another network element user ID or password.
Important! Any changes made to a user’s provisioning takes
place the next time the user logs in. If the user is currently logged
in, no changes take place until that user logs off and logs back in.
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Password Administration (CIT and System)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Valid DMXplore user IDs
A valid user ID must be a minimum of five allowed characters to a
maximum of ten allowed characters.
Valid DMXplore passwords
A valid password must comply with the following conditions:
•
Length must be a minimum of six characters to a maximum of ten
characters
•
Must contain at least one alphabetic character and at least three
non-alphabetic characters (symbol or number)
•
At least one of the non-alphabetic characters must be number and
at least one must be a symbol
•
When changing a password, the new password must be different
than the previous password by at least one character.
Important!
User passwords are case-sensitive.
Characters NOT allowed in a DMXplore password and user ID
The following table lists the characters that are not allowed in a
password and user ID.
Table 6-12 Characters NOT Allowed in a DMXplore Password
and User ID
Character
Description
Character
Description
Space
“
Quotation mark
@
Commercial at
;
Semicolon
,
Comma
*
Asterisk
:
Colon
!
Exclamation
Mark
=
Equals sign
?
Question mark
\
Back slash
Characters allowed in a DMXplore password and user ID
The following table lists the characters that are allowed in a password
and user ID.
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Password Administration (CIT and System)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
Table 6-13 Characters Allowed in a DMXplore Password and
User ID
Character
Description
Character
Description
A... Z
Uppercase letters ^
Caret
a... z
Lowercase letters `
Grave accent
0... 9
Digits
{
Left curly brace
'
Apostrophe
}
Right curly brace
-
Hyphen
|
Vertical bar
(
Left parenthesis
<
Less than
)
Right parenthesis >
Greater than
.
Period (full stop) ~
Tilde
/
Slash (Solidus)
%
Percent sign
+
Plus sign
#
Number sign
[
Left square
bracket
&
Ampersand
]
Right square
bracket
_
Horizontal bar
(underscore)
Changing your own password
From the network element System View, the Administration > Change
Password command allows any user to change his or her own
password. Only privileged users can change another user’s ID or
password.
When a user changes their own password, the new password must be
different in at least three character positions from the current password.
The original password, or a significant substring of it, must not be part
of the new password.
•
If the current and new passwords are the same length, then the
characters in at least 3 character positions must be different.
•
If the current and new passwords are different lengths, then for
every possible contiguous substring of the length of the shorter
password within the longer password, the characters in at least
three character positions must be different between the shorter
password and the character substring within the longer password.
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User-setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Description
This section describes the miscellaneous discrete environmental
alarm/status input points and (external) control output points.
The user-setable miscellaneous discrete interface allows users to
monitor and control equipment collocated with DMXplore through a
set of discrete input and output points. There are 4 miscellaneous
discrete inputs to monitor environmental conditions such as open doors
or high temperature, and 4 miscellaneous discrete outputs to control
equipment such as fans and generators.
Local miscellaneous discrete input points are included in the
determination of the summary alarm/status level for each NE. But even
if the Remote NE Status feature is enabled, the alarm/status of
individual miscellaneous discrete inputs/outputs is not exchanged
among NEs.
Miscellaneous discrete
input alarm level
The alarm level to be associated with each miscellaneous discrete input
point is provisionable. By default, each miscellaneous discrete input is
a minor alarm.
If a miscellaneous discrete input point is provisioned as an alarm
(minor, major, or critical), TL1 autonomous message REPT ALM ENV is
used to report the alarm occurrence. This identifies the remote NE to
further query.
If a miscellaneous discrete input point is provisioned as not alarmed
(that is, status), TL1 autonomous message REPT EVT COM is used to
report the condition. This identifies the need to retrieve any active
miscellaneous discrete status conditions.
Miscellaneous discrete
input description
The description to be associated with each miscellaneous discrete input
alarm or status point may be provisioned. The provisioned description
appears as the almmsg or conddescr parameter value in applicable TL1
messages. The default description for each miscellaneous discrete input
point is environment1, environment2, and so forth.
Miscellaneous discrete
output description
The description to be associated with each miscellaneous discrete
output control point may be provisioned. The default description for
each miscellaneous discrete output point is control1, control2, and so
forth. Control points for miscellaneous discrete outputs may be
operated and then released.
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User-Setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
Reference
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
For information about the Configuration>Misc. Discretes command, refer
to the WaveStar® CIT help. For detailed wiring information, refer to
the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer Installation Manual,
365-372-327 and Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Application Schematic, SD8C500-01.
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7
Ordering
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter contains information on ordering Metropolis DMXplore
Access Multiplexer equipment and software. The information in this
chapter tells you where to go for ordering information, and provides
important sparing information and FIT rates relative to both circuit
packs and other equipment.
Contents
Ordering topics included in this chapter are:
Introduction
7-2
7-2
Engineering Drawings
77-3
-3
Software and Documentation
77-4
-4
Miscellaneous Equipment and Tools
7-7
7-7
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Ordering
Introduction
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Lucent has created a set of engineering drawings to facilitate the
ordering of all products in the future. These drawings are updated for
each planned Release, and contain all of the information needed to
order DMXplore equipment. The information contained in the
engineering drawings will not be duplicated here in the interest of
keeping all information current and consistent at all times. This chapter
will explain how to make sure you are using the most current version of
the engineering drawing and where to order it.
Software and Documentation ordering information is not included in
the engineering drawings and is therefore included in this chapter. This
chapter also contains important information regarding sparing
information and FIT rates for all DMXplore equipment. Any
information about particular pieces of equipment (for example, the uses
of various cables versus other) is meant to convey useful information
that may or may not be contained in the engineering drawings. This
information is meant to be used in conjunction with engineering
drawings, but not to replace them.
How to order
Equipment and software orders may be placed via Lucent’s online
ordering process. For more information, contact your Account
Executive.
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Engineering Drawings
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Where to Obtain
Engineering Drawings
In the interest of ensuring that ordering information is always
consistent and up-to-date, Lucent has created a set of engineering
drawing meant to contain all information needed to order a DMXplore
system.
Due to the fact that the engineering drawing is likely to be updated
more frequently than the Applications and Planning Guide, the only
way to order the most current version of the engineering drawing is
from CIC.
Whenever ordering equipment, first ensure that you have the most
current version of ED8C947-10. You may do so by contacting CIC
through one of the methods detailed below.
How to order Engineering
Drawings
The most up-to-date version of the Engineering drawing
(ED8C947-10) may be obtained through CIC. There are 2 ways to
obtain material from CIC.
If you are a Lucent employee and are on the Lucent internal web:
•
•
Go to www.lucentdocs.com and follow the link for Drawings.
Enter the drawing number in the proper field (ED8C947-10).
•
Verify that the drawing you have is the same Issue number as
the drawing on the site.
•
If it is not the same issue, follow the steps on the CIC website
for ordering a new drawing.
•
If it is the same issue, the drawing is sufficient to help you
configure an order.
Contact CIC by phone: 1-888-582-3688
If you are a non-Lucent employee/outside customer contact CIC by
phone: 1-888-582-3688 OR
•
Go to http://www.lucent8.com/cgi-bin/CIC_store.cgi?
•
Click on Drawings in the menu at the left of the screen.
•
Enter the drawing number (ED8C947-10) in the field provided.
•
Click on Search.
•
Choose the media by which you wish to receive the drawing and
purchase the drawing.
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Ordering
Software and Documentation
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Software ordering
information
This section provides Release 2.1 software ordering information.
Listed below are some need-to-know items before ordering DMXplore
software:
•
Order one set of software for each shelf ordered. Software orders
must be placed in addition to the hardware order to receive
software.
•
It may be desirable to have backup CD-ROMs for all releases on
hand for backup or initial downloading.
•
The software ordering table includes cross-references to comcodes
where available.
•
DMXplore software CD includes CIT software.
•
Initial Release software includes a CD containing the current
documentation to accompany the DMXplore. Hardcopies of the
most current documentation are available through CIC.
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Ordering
Available software
The table below lists the DMXplore software that may currently be
ordered.
Table 7-1
Orderable Software
Comcode
Product Release
Description
109574087
R2.1
Initial Installation Software (CD-ROM and SRD)
109574095
R2.1
R2.1 Spare Software CDROM
109574103
R2.1
R2.1 Software Upgrade from R1.0.0 (CDROM)
109574111
R2.1
R2.1 Software Upgrade from R1.0.1 (CDROM)
109574129
R2.1
R2.1 Software Upgrade from R2.0 (CDROM)
109574061
R2.1
Documentation CDROM
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Ordering
Available documentation
The table below lists documentation that may currently be ordered.
Documents that come with a shelf assembly order or a software order
are noted.
Table 7-2
Orderable Documentation
Document
Number
Comcode
Title
365-372-331
109454066
DMXplore Access Multiplexer Applications and
Planning Guide
365-372-332
109454025
DMXplore Access Multiplexer User Operations
Guide (Note 1)
365-372-333
109454033
DMXplore Access Multiplexer Alarm Messages
and Trouble Clearing Guide
NA
109483867
DMXplore Access Multiplexer Software Release
Description (Note 2)
365-372-334
109454041
DMXplore Access Multiplexer Installation
Manual
365-372-335
109454058
DMXplore Access Multiplexer Command
Manual
365-372-303
TBS
WaveStar Product Family Operations
Interworking Guide
Important! Use the telephone number for CIC, provided on
page 3 of this Chapter, to obtain the correct comcodes for the
desired documents. The comcode for the User Documentation CD
is supplied, but it is recommended that CIC be called to verify that
the correct version of the CD is being ordered.
Table notes
1.The DMXplore Access Multiplexer User Operations Guide (in CDROM form) is shipped with the shelf assembly. The document may be
ordered separately as well.
2.The DMXplore Access Multiplexer Software Release Description and
User Documentation CD-ROM are shipped with a software order. The
document and CD-ROM may not be ordered separately.
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Ordering
Miscellaneous Equipment and Tools
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Lightguide build-outs
DMXplore utilizes Lucent’s state-of-the-art AllWave ADVANTAGETM
Fiber Optic Attenuators. These attenuators reduce optical power from
the transmitter that can otherwise result in over-saturation of the
receiver, have low reflection to meet stringent system requirements,
and are backward compatible with existing transmission systems.
Unique to the AllWave ADVANTAGE optical connectivity solution
(OCS), the new LCTM optic attenuators are designed to provide flat
spectral loss across the full spectrum. LC optical attenuators are ideal
for networks deploying AllWave fiber, metropolitan networks,
applications supported by conventional single-mode optical fiber,
multiservice network protocols, and DWDM networks.
The table below lists the available LC-type lightguide build-out
attenuators for the DMXplore.
Table 7-3
Lightguide Build-outs
Description
Comcode
See note
1
LC Build-Out Attenuators
5 dB
108279381
10 dB
108279431
15 dB
108279480
20 dB
108279530
AllWave ADVANTAGETM Fiber Optic
Identification Kit
108622929
2
Table notes
1.The LC build-out attenuators listed are connector style PC (polished
connectors) at the fiber end. These attenuators must be used on the
receive side in all cases.
2.The AllWave ADVANTAGE Fiber Optic Identification Kit includes
labels for fiber optic apparatus products to identify Lucent AllWave
Fiber paths. An instruction sheet is included with recommendations on
how to install and use the labels.
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Ordering
Accessories
The table below shows the miscellaneous accessories available for
DMXplore.
Table 7-4
Miscellaneous Accessories2
Product
Model/Description
Comcode
ITE#
Installation
Order #
Optical Fiber
Scope
Noyes OFS 300-200X
408197028
ITE-7129
33712900
2.5mm Universal
Adapter Cap
For use with the Noyes
OFS 300-200X
408197044
ITE-7129D1
33712901
1.25mm Universal
Adapter Cap
For use with the Noyes
OFS 300-200X
408197069
ITE-7129D2
33712902
Video Fiber Scope1
Noyes VFS-1
TBD
TBD
TBD
Individual,
presaturated
alcohol wipes
99% pure isopropyl
alcohol
901375147
ITE-7136
33713600
CLETOP Cleaning
Cassette
Type A Reel
901375154
ITE-7137
33713700
CLETOP Cleaning
Cassette
Replacement Reel
Type A Reel
901375014
ITE-7137 D1
33713701
Luminex Stick port
cleaners
1.25 mm
901375030
ITE-7134
33713400
Luminex Stick port
cleaners
2.5 mm
901375022
ITE-7135
33713500
Luminex Stick port
cleaners
5.5” x 5.5”
408201226
R6033
23603300
Table notes
1.This equipment may not be necessary at all locations. It is to be used
when the ports need to be verified for cleanliness. If care is exercised
when cleaning fibers, the video scope may not be needed.
2.The equipment and material listed above has been tested and is proven
effective. Substitution of equipment or materials is at the discretion of
the user and is not recommended.
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Ordering
SFP Optics
DMXplore utilizes small-form pluggable (SFP) optics on the VLNC30
packs. To ensure proper optical performance, mechanical fit,
compliance with EMC, and compliance with laser safety standards, the
Lucent specified SFP transceivers listed in the table below must be
used.
Only the Lucent specified SFP transceivers listed below are compatible
with DMXplore software. If non-Lucent specified SFP transceivers are
installed in DMXplore, the system will reject that transceiver, and that
optical port will become inoperable (until approved parts are installed).
Laser Safety CAUTION!
Use only the Lucent specified Class 1 transceivers listed in the table
below.
Table 7-5
Apparatus Code
100BASE-LX-I1
Approved SFP Transceivers for VLNC30
Comcode
109527812
Description
Optical Fast Ethernet SFP,
LC-type connectors (FE-1310SM)
Circuit
Packs
VLNC30
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8
Product Support
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter describes the support services available to Lucent
Technologies’ customers.
Lucent Technologies offers a number of services to assist customers
with Engineering, Installation and Technical Support of their networks.
Additionally, Lucent Technologies offers product-specific training
courses.
Contents
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
Worldwide Services
8-2
8-2
Training
88-4
-4
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Product Support
Worldwide Services
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Engineering Services
Installation Services
Lucent Worldwide Services provides a full life-cycle of services and
solutions to help you plan, design, implement, and operate your
network in today's rapidly changing and complex environment.
Engineering Services provide information and technical support to
customers during the planning, implementation, and placement of
equipment into new or existing networks. We determine the best, most
economical equipment solution for a customer and help ensure
equipment is configured correctly for the customer’s network needs,
works as specified, and is ready for installation on delivery. These
services consist of the following:
•
Equipment engineering
•
Software engineering
•
Site records
•
Engineering consulting
•
Additional engineering services (Network Realignment, System
Capacity Planning, System Health Assessment, etc...)
Lucent Technologies offers Installation Services focused on providing
the technical support and resources customers need to efficiently and
cost-effectively install their network equipment. We offer a variety of
options that provide extensive support and deliver superior execution to
help ensure the system hardware is installed, tested, and functioning as
engineered and specified. Installation Services provides a complete
flexible solution tailored to meet customers' specific needs. These
services consist of the following:
•
Equipment installation
•
Specialized equipment installation
•
Network connectivity services
•
Installation support services
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Worldwide Services
Product Support
Technical Support
Lucent Technologies provides the following Technical Support
Services:
•
Remote Technical Support (RTS) - remote technical support to
troubleshoot and resolve system problems.
•
On-site Technical Support (OTS) - on-site assistance with
operational issues and remedial maintenance.
•
Repair and Replacement (R&R) - technical support services for
equipment repair/return or parts replacement.
•
Lucent On-Line Customer Support - online access to information
and services that can help resolve technical support requests.
Important! Technical Support Services are available 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week.
Customers inside the United States and Canada
Technical Support Services can be reached at 1-866-LUCENT8
(866-582-3688): Prompt 1.
Customers outside the United States
Technical Support Services can be reached at +1-630-224-4672:
Prompt 2.
Web Site
For additional information regarding Worldwide Services, refer to the
Lucent Technologies’ web-site at http://www.lucent.com/products
1.
Click on Browse the catalog
2.
Click on Worldwide Services Solutions
3.
Select the desired service to display:
•
Engineering and Installation
•
Technical Support Services
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Product Support
Training
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Registering for a course
Lucent Technologies offers a formal training curriculum to
complement your product needs.
To review the available courses or to enroll in a training course at one
of Lucent’s corporate training centers,
•
•
Suitcasing
Within the United States,
–
Visit https://www.lucent-product-training.com
–
Call 1-888-LUCENT8 (888-582-3688): Prompt 2.
Outside the continental United States,
–
Visit https://www.lucent-product-training.com
–
Contact your in-country training representative
–
Call: +1-407-767-2798
–
Fax: +1-407-767-2677
To arrange for a suitcase session at your facility,
•
Within the United States, call 1-888-LUCENT8 (888-582-3688):
Prompt 2.
•
Outside the continental United States,
–
Contact your in-country training representative
–
Call: +1-407-767-2798
–
Fax: +1-407-767-2677
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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9
Reliability and Quality
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Contents
The following reliability and quality information is included in this
chapter:
Lucent’s Quality Policy
99-2
-2
Reliability Program and Specifications
9-3
9-3
Failure Rates
99-5
-5
Sparing Information
99-7
-7
International Standards Organization (ISO) Certification
9 - 10
9-10
Warranty
9 - 11
9-11
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Reliability and Quality
Lucent’s Quality Policy
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Quality Policy
Quality plan
We will safeguard the customers' trust by building the
capability to execute flawlessly on the promises we make.
This Lucent Technologies Quality Policy guided the development of
the DMXplore Access Multiplexer and will continue affecting this
product throughout its life cycle. The primary tool ensuring product
quality is the Quality Plan.
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Reliability and Quality
Reliability Program and Specifications
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Design and development
Manufacturing and field
deployment
Environmental Stress
Testing
Transmission downtime
The reliability program provides enhanced reliability and is
implemented as an integral part of the Lucent Technologies’ Process
Management Architecture (PMA) process. The reliability program is
comprehensive, and includes activities such as setting and ensuring
compliance with customer-focused system-reliability requirements,
ensuring component qualification is consistent with use environment
and system design, assuring satisfactory component-attachment
reliability, predicting failure rates of Field Replaceable Units (FRUs),
making sparing recommendations, assessing reliability architecture,
modeling system reliability, assuring satisfactory system-downtime
performance, reducing hardware failure rates through Environmental
Stress Testing (EST), and tracking field returns.
During the design and development stage, reliability predictions,
qualification and selection of components, definition of quality
assurance audit standards, and prototyping of critical areas of the
system ensure built-in reliability.
During manufacturing and field deployment, techniques such as
environmental stress testing, production quality audits, field-return
tracking, failure-mode analysis, and feedback and corrective-action
further enhance the ongoing reliability improvement efforts on the
DMXplore Access Multiplexer.
DMXplore circuit packs are subjected to an Environmental Stress
Testing (EST) program. The purpose of the program is to improve
reliability by reducing early life failures and implementing root-cause
analysis and corrective action on circuit packs that fail EST.
DMXplore satisfies a stringent set of reliability specifications. Some of
the critical specifications include Telcordia Technologies downtime
requirements and objectives for multiplexers. Telcordia Technologies
requirements state that the downtime of a two-way channel within a
SONET multiplexer, due to hardware failure, shall be less than 1.75
minutes per year in a Central Office (CO) environment and 5.25
minutes per year in a Remote Terminal (RT) environment. The
corresponding objectives for these parameters are 0.25 minutes per
year in a CO environment and 0.75 minutes per year in an RT
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Reliability Program and Specifications
Reliability and Quality
environment. These requirements and objectives appear in Telcordia
Technologies GR-418-CORE.
These requirements and objectives apply to all system elements needed
to process a two-way channel, including the core system as well as the
high-speed and low-speed interfaces. System-reliability analysis
employing Markov modeling is used to determine the system
downtimes. As specified in Telcordia Technologies GR-418-CORE,
this analysis assumes a mean time to repair of 2 hours for the CO
environment and 4 hours for the RT environment. Individual Field
Replacable Unit (FRU) failure rates used in the model were determined
using the method described in Telcordia Technologies SR-332,
“Reliability Prediction Procedure for Electronic Equipment (RPP).”
FRUs are system elements that can be replaced in the field, including
items such as circuit packs, removable optical interfaces, housings,
cooling units, and removable LEDs.
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Failure Rates
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Circuit pack failure rates
The table below provides failure-rate predictions for all circuit packs
available through R2.1. These failure rates were determined per
Telcordia SR-332. System-inlet air of 25oC is assumed in the
predictions for the CO environment. Failure-rate predictions are
estimates; actual values may vary.
Table 9-1
Circuit Pack
Circuit Pack Failure RatesNotes
Apparatus Code
Slot(s)
Release
Failure Rate
in CO
(FIT)
FIT in RT
(FIT)
System Controller (SYSCTL)
VLNC1
CTL
1.0
3271.49
3271.49
OC-3/16DS1 combo pack
(1 OC-3 port)
VLNC6
MAIN1, MAIN2 1.0
9320.85
9320.85
OC-3/16DS1/2DS3 combo
pack (1 OC-3 port)
VLNC5
MAIN1, MAIN2 1.01
9350
9350
OC-12/16DS1 combo pack
(1 OC-12 port)
VLNC26
MAIN1, MAIN2 2.0
TBS
TBS
OC-12/16DS1/2DS3 combo
pack (1 OC-12 port)
VLNC25
MAIN1, MAIN2 2.0
TBS
TBS
Fast Ethernet Private Line
(10/100 Mbps)
VLNC15
Function Group 2.0
C
TBS
TBS
100BASE-LX/
10/100BASE-TX
Private Line
VLNC30
Function Group 2.1
C
TBS
TBS
545
1090
100BASE-LX
SFP Optics
These FIT rates are subject to change.
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Failure Rates
Equipment failure rates
Reliability and Quality
The table below provides the steady-state equipment failure rates for
DMXplore Fan Unit. The Fan Unit is only used in the rack-mount
version of the DMXplore shelf. The wall-mount version of the
DMXplore shelf is convection cooled and does not require a fan unit.
Table 9-2
Equipment Failure Rates
Equipment
Fan Unit (Rack mount shelf)
Failure Rate (FIT)
1500
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Reliability and Quality
Sparing Information
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section provides guidelines and a procedure to determine the
number of spares needed at each location. The number of spares for
each field replaceable unit (FRU) must be determined and maintained
separately, based on that FRU’s in-service population at each given
location.
Lead Time
Lead time, or turnaround time is the elapsed time between a known
FRU failure at a given service location and the arrival of a repaired (or
new) FRU at the location where spare circuit packs are stocked to
maintain a spare FRU level consistent with the population in service.
Important! The number of spares for each code must be
determined and maintained separately, based on the in-service
population of the code at each location.
Lead time should not be confused with mean time to repair, which
is the elapsed time between discovery of the failure of an inservice FRU and when a replacement is put into service.
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Reliability and Quality
Sparing Graph
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
This section provides guidelines and a procedure to determine the
number of spares needed at each location. The number of spares for
each circuit pack or port unit code must be determined and maintained
separately, based on that code’s in-service population at each given
location.
Using the sparing graph
Use the following procedure to determine how many spare circuit
packs, port units, or other pieces of equipment are required for each
code at each location to maintain 99.9% service continuity, given a 10day lead time.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
1
Locate the failure rate for the unit under consideration using the tables
above.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
2
Refer to the figure on the following page and select the curve that
represents the nearest failure rate. Interpolation may be necessary.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
3
Follow the curve until it intersects the vertical line that represents the
number of units in service at the given location. Interpolation may be
necessary.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
4
Refer to the horizontal line immediately above the intersection. The
number associated with this line is the minimum number of spares
recommended for that location.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
5
Repeat steps 1-4 for each circuit pack, port unit, and type of equipment
listed in the tables above.
E
ND OF STEPS
...........................................................................................................................................................................
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Sparing Graph
Reliability and Quality
Example of using the graph
If there are 100 VLNC5 OC-3 OLIUs (failure rate of 9350) in service at
a given location and your lead time is 10 days, then you should order
and stock 4 spare OC-3 OLIUs port units for that location.
Sparing graph for 10-day lead time
Use the graph below to plan the number of spares necessary for the
circuit packs and equipment used in DMXplore.
Figure 9-1 Sparing Graph for a 10-Day Lead Time
CP FITs (in thousands)
10 8 6 4
9 75 3
30
2
28
26
Number of Circuit Pack/Equipment Spares
24
22
20
18
1
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1
2 3
10 20 30
102
103
Number of Circuit Pack/Equipment in Service
4
4
10 2x10
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Reliability and Quality
International Standards Organization (ISO) Certification
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Various business units within Lucent Technologies have been certified
to ISO 9001 and TL 9000 in past years. Lucent Technologies is in the
process of moving to one quality management system for the entire
company. The first phase of the One Lucent Management System
(LMS) achieved TL 9000 certification in 2004; work continues to
incorporate all Lucent Technologies’ businesses into this system.
Management and development of the DMXplore products is planned to
be incorporated into LMS and thus TL 9000 in summer, 2004.
ISO 9001
TL 9000 is a telecommunications industry-specific set of requirements
and measurements for software, hardware and services. TL 9000 is
built on existing industry standards, including ISO 9001.
Conformance to TL 9000 constitutes conformance to corresponding
ISO 9001 requirements. TL 9000 consolidates various industry
requirements and customer requests for measurements; it reduces
problems caused by multiple requirements and audits; and it
standardizes reporting and use of supplier performance data via defined
measurements. TL 9000 requires well-documented and implemented
controls for design development, production, delivery, installation, and
service. Its purpose is to ensure manufacturers produce products with
consistently high levels of quality and service.
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Reliability and Quality
Warranty
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Hardware warranty
Lucent Technologies provides a one year hardware warranty on the
DMXplore Access Multiplexer, effective from the date the unit is
shipped.
Lucent Technologies provides two contacts for hardware failure
emergencies. The Repair and Return line is to be used whenever a piece
of equipment has failed to the point that it requires repairs, or must be
replaced. The only times the Hotline is to be used is in the event of a
service outage or during the initial installation and turn-up of the
DMXplore.
•
Repair and Return: 1-800-255-1402
•
Emergency Hotline: 1-800-869-6757
Lucent also provides one year of access to LWS On-Line Customer
Support web-site (http://www.lucent.com/solutions/lws.html). Any
3rd- party vendor warranty terms will be pass-through from original
vendor.
Software warranty
Lucent Technologies offers a 90 day warranty for defect resolution. All
warranties pertain to the deployment of a release and do not apply to
individual software licenses. For more warranty information, contact
your local Lucent Technologies Account Executive.
Lucent’s warranty on any software release will not exceed 90 days for
defect resolution. All warranties pertain to the deployment of a release
and do not apply to individual software licenses.
For more warranty information, contact your local Lucent
Technologies Account Executive.
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Warranty
Reliability and Quality
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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10
Technical Specifications
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section contains the technical specifications for the DMXplore
Access Multiplexer.
Contents
This chapter contains the following sections:
Electrical Interfaces
10 - 3
10-3
Optical Interfaces
10 - 8
10-8
Ethernet Optical Specifications
10 - 20
10-20
System Peformance
10 - 26
10-26
Operations Interfaces
10
- 34
10-34
Physical Specifications
10 - 41
10-41
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Overview
Technical Specifications
Transmission interface
standards
The table below lists the transmission interface standards for electrical,
optical, and Ethernet interfaces.
Table 10-1 Transmission Interface Standards
Interface
Standard
Comments
DS1/DS3
ANSI T1.231-1997
B8ZS/AMI option, SF/ESF (DS1)
GR-499-CORE, Issue 2, 1998
VMR, VM, or clear channel (DS3)
OC-3/12
GR-253-CORE, Issue 3, 2000
GR-496-CORE, Issue 1, 1998
GR-1400-CORE, Issue 3, 2001
ANSI T1.231-1997
100BASE-TX,
100BASE-LX
IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.1D and 802.1Q
ITU G.7041, ITU G.707
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Technical Specifications
Electrical Interfaces
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section contains the technical specifications for the low-speed
electrical interfaces.
Contents
This section provides information on the following interfaces:
DS1 (VLNC5, VLNC6, VLNC25, VLNC26)
10-4
10 - 4
DS3 (VLNC5 and VLNC25, 2 ports)
10 - 5
10-5
10/100T (10/100 Mbps) Ethernet (VLNC15 and VLNC30)
10 - 6
10-6
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Technical Specifications
DS1 (VLNC5, VLNC6, VLNC25, VLNC26)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Electrical specification
The DS1 low-speed interface transmits and receives a standard
electrical DS1 signal as specified in GR-499-CORE (1.544 Mb/s
nominal rate, DSX-1 interconnect specification). Line coding is
provisionable per DS1 port to alternate mark inversion (AMI) or AMI
with bipolar 8-zero substitution (B8ZS).
Format specification
The VLNC5/6/25/26 format is setable to SF, ESF, and UF (unframed)
for the DS1 ports.
Alarms
The following parameters are monitored on the VLNC5/6/25/26 DS1
interfaces:
•
Loss of signal (LOS)
•
Loss of frame (LOF)
•
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
•
Bit error rate threshold (BER) based on line coding violations
(CV-L)
The alarm level for the monitored parameters can be provisioned to
critical (CR), major (MJ), minor (MN), or status. B8ZS and AMI
coding violation failure thresholds are user setable to 10-3, 10-6, 10-7,
10-8.
DS1 Transmission Length
Loopbacks
Line build-outs (LBOs)
Performance monitoring
When transmitting DS1 signals to a DSX panel, the Approximate Span
Length is 655 feet.
The following loopbacks are supported on the VLNC5/6/25/26
interfaces:
•
Per-port DS1 facility loopback
•
Per-port DS1 terminal loopback
Line build-outs are software-provisionable. The maximum distance
depends on the cable type (maximum 655 feet).
For a detailed list of PM parameters and thresholds, refer to the section
in this chapter entitled “SONET and Electrical PM Parameters”.
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Technical Specifications
DS3 (VLNC5 and VLNC25, 2 ports)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Electrical specification
(DS3)
The low-speed DS3 interfaces transmit/receive a standard electrical
DS3 signal as specified in GR-499-CORE, Section 9 (44.736 Mb/s rate,
DSX-3 interconnect specification, bipolar 3-zero substitution (B3ZS)
encoding). However, the signal does not have to contain a standard
DS3 frame.
DS3 Transmission Length
When transmitting DS3 signals to a DSX panel, the Approximate Span
Length is 450 feet.
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Technical Specifications
10/100T (10/100 Mbps) Ethernet (VLNC15 and VLNC30)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
VLNC15
The VLNC15 circuit packs provides a 4-port, 100BASE-TX, IEEE
802.3-compliant interface that is capable of spanning distances of 100
meters. The 10/100BASE-TX port performs protocol-transparent
filtering and bridging of incoming media access control (MAC) frames.
MAC frames with a destination address on the local bus are filtered by
the VLNC15 circuit packs to prevent unnecessary transmission of
frames over the wide area network (WAN). The VLNC15 interface
auto-negotiates mode (full/half duplex) and speed (10/100 Mbps) when
interfacing with other 802.3-compliant devices over twisted pair media.
The VLNC15 circuit packs is not equipment protected. However,
facility protection can be provided through the WAN via SONET
(UPSR, or 1+1).
VLNC30
The VLNC30 circuit packs provide four 100BASE-TX, IEEE
802.3-compliant electrical interfaces that are capable of spanning
distances of 100 meters. The VLNC30 also provides two optical
100BASE-LX IEEE 802.3-compliant (100 Mbps) fast Ethernet
interfaces that are capable of spanning distances of 10,000 meters. The
10/100T port performs protocol transparent filtering and bridging of
incoming media access control (MAC) frames. MAC frames with a
destination address on the local bus are filtered by the 10/100T circuit
packs to prevent unnecessary transmission of frames over the wide area
network (WAN). The 10/100T interface auto-negotiates mode (full/half
duplex) and speed (10/100 Mbps) when interfacing with other
802.3-compliant devices over twisted pair media. The VLNC30 circuit
pack must be housed in slot 1 of Function Unit C and is not equipment
protected. However, facility protection can be provided through the
WAN via SONET (UPSR, BLSR, or 1+1) and/or through the IEEE
802.1W spanning tree algorithm.
Optical Specification
(VLNC30 only)
The VLNC30 utilizes 100BASE-LX SFP optics. These SFP optics can
be ordered and plugged into the VLNC30 as their capacity becomes
needed. Refer the sections entitled 100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet
Specification and Allowed SFP Optics below for the detailed
specifications of these optics.
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10/100T (10/100 Mbps) Ethernet (VLNC15 and VLNC30)
Format specification
Performance monitoring
Technical Specifications
The 10/100T circuit packs comply with the following formatting
standards:
•
Maximum frame size, including any added VLAN tags, is 1536
bytes
•
standard IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
•
Ethernet to SONET Mapping, (G.7041 (GFP) and G.707 (Virtual
Concatenation)
•
Protection (SONET and/or 802.1W) and Ethernet Bridging
(802.1D)
Performance monitoring capabilities are available on the 10/100T
circuit packs.
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Technical Specifications
Optical Interfaces
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section contains technical specifications for the DMXplore optical
interfaces.
Contents
The following optical interfaces are discussed in this section:
OC-3 OLIU (VLNC5 and VLNC6)
10-9
10 - 9
OC-12 OLIU (VLNC25 and VLNC26)
10 - 10
10-10
SONET Optical Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs
10 - 11
10-11
SONET Optical Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs
10 - 15
10-15
Lightguide Jumpers and Buildouts
10 - 19
10-19
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Technical Specifications
OC-3 OLIU (VLNC5 and VLNC6)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Optical specification
The OC-3 optics meet or exceed SONET OC-3, long-reach
specifications (SONET LR-1 DFB). The distributed feedback (DFB)
laser transmitter supplies a 1310 nm, scrambled non-return-to-zero
(NRZ) coded signal (155.52 Mb/s).
The VLNC5 and VLNC6 long-reach OC-3 interface supports span
lengths up to 55 km and is OSP hardened. Refer to the SONET Optical
Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs (10-18) section in this chapter for detailed
system, transmitter, receiver, and link budget specifications.
Alarms
Performance monitoring
The following parameters are monitored on the OC-3 interface:
•
LOS
•
LOF
•
AIS-L
•
RFI-L (FERF)
•
Signal degrade (BER)
•
Signal fail (BER)
SONET section, line, and path performance monitoring complies with
the standards outlined in GR-253-CORE. For detailed PM parameter
thresholds on the OC-3 interface, refer to Appendix B.
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Technical Specifications
OC-12 OLIU (VLNC25 and VLNC26)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Optical specification
The OC-12 optics meet or exceed SONET OC-12, long-reach
specifications (SONET LR-1 DFB). The distributed feedback (DFB)
laser transmitter supplies a 1310 nm, scrambled non-return-to-zero
(NRZ) coded signal (622.08 Mb/s).
The VLNC25 and VLNC26 long-reach OC-12 interface supports span
lengths up to 53 km and is OSP hardened. Refer to the SONET Optical
Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs section in this chapter for detailed
system, transmitter, receiver, and link budget specifications.
Alarms
Performance monitoring
The following parameters are monitored on the OC-12 interface:
•
LOS
•
LOF
•
AIS-L
•
RFI-L (FERF)
•
Signal degrade (BER)
•
Signal fail (BER).
SONET section, line, and path performance monitoring complies with
the standards outlined in GR-253-CORE. For detailed PM parameter
thresholds on the OC-12 interface, refer to Appendix B.
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Technical Specifications
SONET Optical Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
System specifications
The following tables present the optical specifications for the OC-12
VLNC25 and VLNC26 OLIUs.
The table below lists the VLNC25 and VLNC26 OLIU system
specifications.
Table 10-2 SONET Optical System Specifications
System Information
VLNC25 and
VLNC26
Optical Line Rate
622.08 Mb/s
Optical Line Coding
Scrambled NRZ
Optical Wavelength
1310 nm
Performance
SONET LR-1
(Long Reach)
Temperature Range
OSP Hardened
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SONET Optical Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs
Transmitter specifications
Technical Specifications
The table below lists the VLNC25 and VLNC26 OLIU transmitter
information.
Table 10-3 SONET Optical Transmitter Information
Receiver specifications
Transmitter Info.
VLNC25 and
VLNC26
Optical Device
Temperature Controller
None
FDA Classification
Class I
Optical Source
Distributed
Feed-Back (DFB)
Laser
Faceplate Optical
Connector
LC connector
The table below lists the VLNC25 and VLNC26 OLIU receiver
information.
Table 10-4 SONET Optical Receiver Information
Receiver Information
VLNC25 and
VLNC26
Optical Detector
InGaAsP PIN
Faceplate Optical Connector
LC connector
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SONET Optical Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs
Link budgets
Technical Specifications
The table below lists the VLNC25 and VLNC26 OLIU link budgets.
Table 10-5 SONET Optical Specifications and Link Budgets
Parameter
VLNC25 and VLNC26
(Note 1)
OC-12 LR-1
Minimum Wavelength
1280 nm
Maximum Wavelength
1335 nm
Maximum Spectral Width (∆λ20)
1.0 nm
Minimum Side Mode Suppression Ratio
(SSMR)
30 dB
Maximum RMS Spectral Width (σ)
NA
Maximum Transmitter Power
+2.0 dBm
Minimum Transmitter Power
-2.5 dBm
Maximum Received Power (1x10-12
BER)
-7.0 dBm
Minimum Received Power
(1x10-12 BER)
-30.5 dBm
Minimum System Gain (see Note 2)
28.0 dB
Optical Path Penalty (see Note 3)
1.0 dB
Connector Loss (see Note 4)
1.5 dB
Unallocated Margin (see Note 5)
1.5 dB
Minimum Loss Budget
9.0 dB
Maximum Loss Budget (see Note 6)
24.0 dB
Approximate Span Length (see Note 7)
53 km
Notes
1. All terminology consistent with GR-253-CORE, Issue 3. All values
given are worst-case end-of-life (EOL). Optical specifications meet
or exceed equivalent GR-253-CORE requirements.
2. The System Gain includes connector loss at the transmitter and
receiver points S and R in GR-253-CORE, Issue 3.
3. Optical path penalty includes effects of dispersion, reflection, and
jitter that occur on the optical path. The optical path penalty for 1310
nm optics is 1.0 dB maximum.
4. One additional connector (0.75 dB) on each end is assumed to connect
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SONET Optical Specifications: OC-12 OLIUs
Technical Specifications
station cable to outside plant.
5. Additional unallocated margin, or safety margin, can be 0-3 dB.
Typically, a 1.5 dB value is assumed.
6. For all packs where the Minimum Loss Budget (MLB) is 0, no
attenuator is required for loopbacks. For all packs where the MLB is
greater than 0, an attenuator is required. The value of the LBO shall
be equal to or greater than the MLB. The MLB is found in the table
above.
7. The approximate span length values are calculated per an attenuation
assumption. As a general rule, for attenuation-limited systems, an
attenuation of 0.45 dB/km is used for 1310 nm optics. This estimate
includes typical cable loss (0.40 dB/km) and up to 11 splice losses (0.2
dB per splice). For 1310 nm OC-12 systems, dispersion is not a limiting
factor, and the applications are attenuation-limited. Approximate Span
Lengths can be calculated more precisely based on particular fiber and
splice characteristics and local engineering rules.
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Technical Specifications
SONET Optical Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
System specifications
The following tables present the optical specifications for the OC-3
VLNC5 and VLNC6 OLIUs.
The table below lists the VLNC5 and VLNC6 OLIU system
specifications.
Table 10-6 SONET Optical System Specifications
System Information
VLNC5 and
VLNC6
Optical Line Rate
155.52 Mb/s
Optical Line Coding
Scrambled NRZ
Optical Wavelength
1310 nm
Performance
SONET LR-1
(Long Reach)
Temperature Range
OSP Hardened
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SONET Optical Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs
Transmitter specifications
Technical Specifications
The table below lists the VLNC5 and VLNC6 OLIU transmitter
information.
Table 10-7 SONET Optical Transmitter Information
Receiver specifications
Transmitter Info.
VLNC5 and
VLNC6
Optical Device
Temperature Controller
None
FDA Classification
Class I
Optical Source
Distributed
Feed-Back (DFB)
Laser/ Fabry Perot
(FP)
Faceplate Optical
Connector
LC connector
The table below lists the VLNC5 and VLNC6 OLIU receiver
information.
Table 10-8 SONET Optical Receiver Information
Receiver Information
VLNC5 and
VLNC6
Optical Detector
InGaAsP PIN
Faceplate Optical Connector
LC connector
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SONET Optical Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs
Link budgets
Technical Specifications
The table below lists the VLNC5 and VLNC6 OLIU link budgets.
Table 10-9 SONET Optical Specifications and Link Budgets
Parameter
VLNC5 and VLNC6
(Note 1)
OC-3 LR-1
Minimum Wavelength
1280 nm
Maximum Wavelength
1335 nm
Maximum Spectral Width (∆λ20)
1.0 nm
Maximum RMS Spectral Width (σ)
NA
Minimum Side Mode Suppression Ratio
(SSMR)
30 dB
Maximum Transmitter Power
0.0 dBm
Minimum Transmitter Power
-5.0 dBm
Maximum Received Power (1x10-12
BER)
0.0 dBm
Minimum Received Power
(1x10-12 BER)
-34.0 dB
Minimum System Gain (see Note 2)
29.0 dB
Optical Path Penalty (see Note 3)
1.0 dB
Connector Loss (see Note 4)
1.5 dB
Unallocated Margin (see Note 5)
1.5 dB
Minimum Loss Budget
0.0 dB
Maximum Loss Budget (see Note 6)
25.0
Approximate Span Length (see Note 7)
55 km
Notes
1. All terminology consistent with GR-253-CORE, Issue 3. All values
given are worst-case end-of-life (EOL). Optical specifications meet
or exceed equivalent GR-253-CORE requirements.
2. The System Gain includes connector loss at the transmitter and
receiver points S and R in GR-253-CORE, Issue 3.
3. Optical path penalty includes effects of dispersion, reflection, and
jitter that occur on the optical path. The optical path penalty for 1310
nm optics is 1.0 dB maximum.
4. One additional connector (0.75 dB) on each end is assumed to connect
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SONET Optical Specifications: OC-3 OLIUs
Technical Specifications
station cable to outside plant.
5. Additional unallocated margin, or safety margin, can be 0-3 dB.
Typically, a 1.5 dB value is assumed.
6. For all packs where the Minimum Loss Budget (MLB) is 0, no
attenuator is required for loopbacks. For all packs where the MLB is
greater than 0, an attenuator is required. The value of the LBO shall
be equal to or greater than the MLB. The MLB is found in the table
above.
7. The approximate span length values are calculated per an attenuation
assumption. As a general rule, for attenuation-limited systems, an
attenuation of 0.45 dB/km is used for 1310 nm optics. This estimate
includes typical cable loss (0.40 dB/km) and up to 11 splice losses
(0.2 dB per splice). For 1310 nm OC-12 systems, dispersion is not a
limiting factor, and the applications are attenuation-limited.
Approximate Span Lengths can be calculated more precisely based
on particular fiber and splice characteristics and local engineering
rules.
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Technical Specifications
Lightguide Jumpers and Buildouts
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Single-mode jumpers
Reference
The DMXplore provides standard LC-type connectors on all optical
interfaces. 5 dB, 10 dB, 15 dB, and 20 dB attenuating build-outs are
supported.
The OC-3 lightguide interfaces use single-mode jumpers for
connecting to and from the outside plant LGX panel and the
DMXplore.
For more information, including a complete list of available jumpers
and build-outs, refer to the Miscellaneous Equipment and Tools
section in Chapter 7, Ordering.
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Technical Specifications
Ethernet Optical Specifications
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section contains technical specifications for the optical interfaces
on the Ethernet circuit packs (VLNC30).
Contents
The following optical interfaces are discussed in this section:
10/100T (100BASE-T)/ Fast-E (100BASE-LX)
Electrical/Optical Ethernet Private Line (VLNC30)
10
- 21
10-21
Allowed SFP Optics
10 - 22
10-22
100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Specification
10
- 23
10-23
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Technical Specifications
10/100T (100BASE-T)/ Fast-E (100BASE-LX) Electrical/Optical
Ethernet Private Line (VLNC30)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Description
The VLNC30 circuit packs provide four 100BASE-TX, IEEE
802.3-compliant electrical interfaces that are capable of spanning
distances of 100 meters. The VLNC30 also provides two optical
100BASE-LX IEEE 802.3-compliant (100 Mbps) fast Ethernet
interfaces. The 10/100T port performs protocol transparent filtering
and bridging of incoming media access control (MAC) frames. MAC
frames with a destination address on the local bus are filtered by the
10/100T circuit packs to prevent unnecessary transmission of frames
over the wide area network (WAN). The 10/100T interface
auto-negotiates mode (full/half duplex) and speed (10/100 Mbps) when
interfacing with other 802.3-compliant devices over twisted pair media.
The VLNC30 circuit pack must be housed in slot 1 of Function Unit C
and is not equipment protected. However, facility protection can be
provided through the WAN via SONET (UPSR or 1+1) and/or through
the IEEE 802.1W spanning tree algorithm.
Optical Specification
The VLNC30 utilizes 100BASE-LX SFP optics. These SFP optics can
be ordered and plugged into the VLNC30 as their capacity becomes
needed. Refer the sections entitled 100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet
Specification and Allowed SFP Optics below for the detailed
specifications of these optics.
Performance monitoring
Performance monitoring capabilities are available on the LNW74
circuit packs. A detailed list of monitored parameters can be found in
Appendix B.
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Technical Specifications
Allowed SFP Optics
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore utilizes small-form pluggable (SFP) optics on the VLNC30
circuit packs. To ensure proper optical performance, mechanical fit,
compliance with EMC, and compliance with laser safety standards, the
Lucent specified SFP transceivers listed in the table below must be
used.
Only the Lucent specified SFP transceivers listed below are compatible
with DMXplore software. If non-Lucent specified SFP transceivers are
installed in DMXplore, the system will reject that transceiver, and that
optical port will become inoperable (until approved parts are installed).
Allowed Optics
The table below lists the SFP optics that may be used in the VLNC30
circuit packs.
Table 10-10 SFP Optics for VLNC30
Apparatus Code
Comcode
Description
Description
100BASE-LX-I1
109527812
Optical Fast Ethernet SFP,
LC-type connectors (FE-1310SM)
LNW74/70
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Technical Specifications
100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Specification
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
System specifications
Operating range
The 100BASE-LX SFPs can be used on the VLNC30.
The following are the 100BASE-LX system specifications:
•
Optical Line Rate: 125 MBd+/- 50 ppm
•
Optical Line Coding: 4B/5B
•
Performance: Long-reach.
The table below shows the operating range for the 100BASE-LX
optical Ethernet interface. A 100BASE-LX compliant transceiver
supports 10 µm fiber media types.
Table 10-11 100BASE-LX Operating Range Single-Mode Fiber
Transmitter specifications
Fiber Type
Minimum Range (meters)
10 µm SMF
2 to 10,000
The 100BASE-LX transmitter meets these specifications defined in
IEEE 802.3. The table below describes some of the transmit
specifications for 100BASE-LX.
Table 10-12 100BASE-LX Transmit Specifications
Description
10 µm SMF
Transmitter type
Longwave Laser
Signaling speed (range)
125 +/- 50 ppm
MBd
Wavelength (range)
1260 to 1360
nm
Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80% response time)
3.5
ns
RMS spectral width (max)
7.7
nm
Average launch power (max)
-8
dBm
Average launch power (min)
-15
dBm
Average launch power of OFF transmitter
(max)
-45
dBm
Extinction ratio (min)
10
dB
Unit
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100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Specification
Receiver specifications
Technical Specifications
The 100BASE-LX receiver meets these specifications defined in IEEE
802.3. The table below describes some of the receiver specifications for
100BASE-LX.
Table 10-13 100BASE-LX Receive Specifications
Description
10 µm SMF
Unit
Signaling speed (range)
125 +/- 50 ppm
MBd
Wavelength (range)
1260 to 1360
nm
Average receive power (max)
-14
dBm
Receive sensitivity
-31
dBm
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100BASE-LX Optical Ethernet Specification
Link budgets
Technical Specifications
The worst-case power budget and link penalties for a 100BASE-LX
channel are shown in the table below.
Table 10-14 100BASE-LX Link Budgets and Penalties
Parameter
10 µm
SMF
Unit
Link power budget
8.0
dB
Operating distance
10,000
m
Channel insertion loss (Note 1)
4.57
dB
Link power penalties (Note 1)
3.27
dB
Unallocated margin in link power budget
0.16
dB
(Note 1)
Table notes
1. A wavelength of 1270 nm is used to calculate the channel insertion
loss, link power penalties, and unallocated margin.
Format specification
Performance monitoring
The 100BASE-LX Ethernet interface complies with the following
formatting standards:
•
Maximum frame size, including any added VLAN tags, is 1536
bytes
•
standard IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
•
Ethernet to SONET Mapping, (G.7041 (GFP) and G.707 (Virtual
Concatenation))
•
Protection (SONET and/or 802.1W) and Ethernet Bridging
(802.1D)
Performance monitoring capabilities are available on the 100BASE-LX
interface. A detailed list of monitored parameters can be found in
Appendix B.
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Technical Specifications
System Peformance
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section provides performance specifications for the DMXplore
Access Multiplexer.
Contents
The following performance specifications are discussed in this section:
SONET Overhead Bytes
10 - 27
10-27
Wander/Jitter
10 - 28
10-28
Signal Performance
10 - 29
10-29
Synchronization
10 - 30
10-30
Protection Switching
10 - 31
10-31
Transient Performance
10 - 32
10-32
Transmission Delay
10 - 33
10-33
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Technical Specifications
SONET Overhead Bytes
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore uses SONET transport and path overhead bytes as specified
in GR-253-CORE.
V4 byte
The reserved V4 byte in the VT1.5 superframe is sometimes used for
internal error detection in a DMXplore shelf. This internal usage of the
V4 byte may cause the value of a transmitted V4 byte to vary. The
DMXplore always ignores the value of the V4 byte received from
another network element as required by GR-253-CORE.
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Technical Specifications
Wander/Jitter
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Maximum time interval
error (MTIE)
Wander requirements
For SONET optical interfaces, the maximum time interval error
(MTIE) does not exceed 60 nanoseconds phase variation when timed
with a wander-free reference.
Wander transfer, tolerance, and generation requirements are met as
specified in GR-253-CORE.
Jitter requirements
Jitter transfer, tolerance, and generation requirements are met as
specified in GR-253-CORE and GR-499-CORE.
Short-term stability
The SONET interfaces meet the T1.101 OC-N output short-term
stability mask as specified in GR-253-CORE, Section 5.
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Technical Specifications
Signal Performance
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The following specifications apply to the standard networks defined in
GR-499-CORE, Issue 3.
DS1 rate
For systems interfacing at the DS1 rate, the number of errored seconds
during a 7-hour, one-way loopback test, is less than 10.
DS3 rate
For systems interfacing at the DS3 rate, the number of errored seconds
during a 2-hour, one-way loopback test, is less than 29.
BER
Burst-errored seconds
The BER is less than 2x10-10 for both the DS1 and DS3 rates.
Burst-errored seconds are excluded.
The frequency of burst-errored seconds, other than those caused by
protection switching induced by hard equipment failures, averages less
than 4 per day.
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Technical Specifications
Synchronization
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Timing modes
The embedded SONET Minimum Clock (SMC) (at +/-20 ppm) meets
the specifications of GR-253-CORE, SONET Transport Systems
Generic Criteria. The timing generator function is embedded in the 1x1
protected optical interface circuit packs in the MAIN slot pair.
The timing generator supports two timing modes:
•
Line timing
Locked to recovered clock from an OC-n signal (from Main
OC-3/12 only).
•
Free running
Timing derived from high-stability temperature-compensated
voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (TCVCXO) with a long-term
accuracy of +/-20ppm and temperature stability of
-40o C to +65o C.
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Technical Specifications
Protection Switching
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1+1 networks
DMXplore complies with SONET 1+1 unidirectional nonrevertive
protection switching requirements as specified in GR-253-CORE.
Automatic line switches are initiated by signal fail and signal degrade
conditions on the received OC-3/12 optical signal and are completed
within 50 milliseconds of a signal failure. The signal’s BER is
calculated from violations of the SONET line overhead B2 parity bytes.
Signal fail is declared for incoming LOS, LOF, line AIS, or a BER
exceeding 10-3, while a BER exceeding a provisionable threshold
between 10-3 and 10-5 causes a signal degrade to be declared. The user
can control switching through protection switching commands.
High-speed UPSR
networks
Path protection rings feed a SONET payload (STS or virtual tributary
[VT]) from the ring entry point, simultaneously in both rotations of the
ring, to the signal’s ring exit point. The node that terminates the signal
from the ring monitors both ring rotations and is responsible for
selecting the signal that has the highest quality based on loss of pointer
(LOP), path AIS (AIS-P), unequipped signal (UNEQ), signal fail BER
(SF) (STS paths only) and signal degrade BER (SD). Line level faults
such as LOS and LOF result in downstream AIS-P faults which in turn
may result in path switching. On pass-through paths, all detected hard
failures (LOS, LOF, LOP, line AIS, or STS-1 path AIS) result in AIS
insertion in the outgoing VT and STS signals. This allows the
terminating node to be aware of the failure and to switch to protection.
Protection switching is completed within 50 milliseconds of failure
detection.
Under normal conditions, both incoming SONET path signals to the
switch selection point are of high quality, and the signal can be selected
from either ring. A failure or transmission degradation on one of the
rings requires that the other ring path be selected. The DMXplore
provides nonrevertive switching to minimize the impact on critical
customer services by giving the service provider control, when and if
the critical service should revert to a particular ring. A manual path
protection switching command allows switching back to the original
path for ease of ring maintenance.
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Technical Specifications
Transient Performance
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power loss restart
After system shutdown due to power loss, the system will exhibit a
2-second error free transmission interval which begins within 1 minute
of restoration of power.
Transmission start-up on
signal application
The system, after having no signal applied for greater than 1 minute at
the DSX-n interface, will exhibit a 2-second error free transmission
interval which begins within 5 seconds of the reapplication of a signal.
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Technical Specifications
Transmission Delay
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
One-way transmission
delay
The table below, lists the worst-case maximum one-way transmission
delay (microseconds) between DMXplore interfaces. DMXplore is a
hybrid box combing features of an add/drop mux (ADM) and a digital
cross-connection system (DCS). Consequently the specified maximum
delay is a summation of the requirements for these two functions.
Actual transmission delays are likely to be less than specified.
Table 10-15 Transmission Delay in Microseconds
Interface
OC-n
DS1
DS3
Cross-Connect
VT
STS-n
VT
STS-1
STS-1
OC-n
130
80
180
180
155
DS1
180
180
-
-
-
DS3
N/A
155
-
-
-
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Technical Specifications
Operations Interfaces
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section presents the operation interfaces that are required to
support technician access to the system and allow alarms and status
information generated by the system to be reported. The operation
interfaces include the CIT interface, IAO LAN (via OSI or TCP/IP),
SYSCTL faceplate LEDs, and equipment indicators. DMXplore
supports office alarms, user-definable miscellaneous discretes, and
TL1.
Contents
The following operation interfaces are discussed in this section:
Craft Interface Terminal (CIT)
10-35
10 - 35
TL1/LAN
10 - 35
10-35
Personal Computer Specifications for Software Download
10 - 38
10-38
LEDs, Indicators, and Office Alarms
10 - 39
10-39
User-setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
10 - 40
10-40
Physical Specifications
10 - 42
10-42
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Technical Specifications
Craft Interface Terminal (CIT)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Minimum requirements
The WaveStar CIT is the primary tool used to interface with the
DMXplore. It is a personal computer (PC) with the DMXplore
user-interface software installed. The WaveStar CIT is compatible with
PCs running Microsoft Windows NT and Windows 2000. The CIT also
provides a user-friendly TL1 command builder interface.
It is anticipated that most customers will dedicate a lap-top PC to run
the WaveStar CIT applications software. However, a properly
configured desktop PC will also suffice.
The following list shows the minimum requirements for the
customer-provided PC with recommended Windows operating system.
•
Microsoft Windows 2000, NT 4.0, or XP Operating System with
service pack 4. The customer is responsible for ensuring that the
PC remains virus -free.
•
Pentium 266 MHz processor; Pentium III 500 MHz processor is
recommended for optimum performance
•
128 MB RAM minimum: 256 MB RAM minimum for 5 system
view
•
One-gigabyte hard-disk drive with at least 150 megabytes of free
space. The DMXplore PC-CIT application requires 50 MB, and
the installation requires 30MB. In addition, each copy of the NE
generic requires an additional 60 MB.
•
CD-ROM drive
•
SVGA monitor 800x 600 resolution (1024 x 768 recommended)
•
10 BASE-T LAN interface
Pin Designations/signals are:
–
-1 TD+
–
-2 TD-
–
-3 RD+
–
-6 RD-
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Craft Interface Terminal (PC-CIT)
PC-CIT and Windows
requirements
Technical Specifications
The following table illustrates the Windows operating system
requirements for DMXplore PC-CITs.
DMXplore
port/
Windows
Guidelines
Serial Port
OSI/TCP-IP LAN
Port
Windows NT
X
X
Windows 2000
X
--
Windows XP
--
X
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Technical Specifications
TL1/LAN
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
TL1 translation device
(T-TD Gateway)
Front IAO LAN interface
SONET DCC
DMXplore supports a TL1 over TCP/IP interface or TL1 over OSI
LAN interface for communication between a DMXplore NE and an
Element Management System (EMS) of a Network Management
System (NMS). TL1 over TCP/IP LAN complies with requirements
specified in IEEE 802.3 and NSIF-AR-9806-088R11.
The T-TD is a device that translates TL1 messages over a TCP/IP
connection to a TL1 over OSI association, providing a TL1 TCP-OSI
gateway. The T-TD, when used in conjunction with the PC-CIT, is an
open system interconnection (OSI) proxy that accepts TCP/IP
connections and sets up matching OSI connections. This requires the
support of the TCP/IP stack and the seven-layer OSI stack.
The DMXplore provides an RJ45-compatible front IAO LAN interface
that is intended for use with a local PC.
The SONET DCC provides TL1 over OSI connections with remote
NEs in a subnetwork.
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10 - 37
Technical Specifications
Personal Computer Specifications for Software Download
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Specifications
Compatible modems
The PC used for software download should have:
•
Windows XP, NT or 2000
•
CD-ROM drive for CD-ROM download.
A compatible modem must meet the following minimum requirements:
•
300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19,200 or 115,000 baud
•
Full duplex
•
8 data bits
•
No parity bits
•
1 start bit
•
1 stop bit
•
No flow control.
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
Technical Specifications
LEDs, Indicators, and Office Alarms
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
SYSCTL Faceplate
In addition to the FAULT LED, which is lit if the SYSCTL detects its
own failure, there are also three alarm/status LEDs on the SYSCTL
faceplate, listed below:
•
Critical (CR)/Major (MJ)
•
Minor (MN)/Abnormal (ABN)
There are LEDs and two push-button switches for Update (UPDATE)
and ACO (ACO).
Equipment indicators
Office Alarms
A red LED FAULT indicator is provided on all circuit packs. A green
LED ACTIVE indicator is provided on all circuit packs to indicate
which circuit packs are actively carrying traffic.
The office alarms interface is a set of discrete relays that control office
audible and visual alarms. Separate relays handle CR/MJ (both critical
and major alarms are reported through one pair of relays) and MN
alarms. Each contact closure is rated at 1 A, 60 V maximum. The CR
and MJ alarms can be wire-ORed. The CR alarm relays are fail safe
against unprotected power failures.
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Technical Specifications
User-setable Miscellaneous Discrete Interface
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The user-setable miscellaneous discrete interface allows an operations
system (OS) to control and monitor equipment collocated with the
DMXplore through a set of input and output contact closures.
Miscellaneous discrete environmental inputs can monitor conditions
like open doors or high temperature; miscellaneous discrete outputs
control equipment such as fans and generators. The status of the
miscellaneous discrete environmental inputs can be queried on demand
via the WaveStar CIT. DMXplore collects miscellaneous discrete
alarms and automatically sends them to the operations system (OS).
External customer
equipment
Any external customer equipment to be monitored by DMXplore must
provide the electrical equivalent of a contact closure across the
corresponding environmental input wiring pairs. The contact closure
must be capable of passing at least 10 mA of drive current.
Power source
The power source to enable the control of external customer equipment
may have a voltage range from a minimum of 3 V to a maximum of
72 V. DMXplore provides a unidirectional opto-isolator connection
across each corresponding control output wiring pair. The load current
across each control output wiring pair must be limited by the external
customer equipment and must not exceed 35 mA.
Reference
For detailed wiring information, refer to the Metropolis® DMXplore
Access Multiplexer Installation Manual, 365-372-334.
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Technical Specifications
Physical Specifications
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section provides DMXplore physical characteristics, including
environmental and power specifications.
Contents
The following specifications are included in this section:
Physical Specifications
10-42
10 - 42
Environmental Specifications
10 - 43
10-43
Power Specifications
10 - 45
10-45
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Technical Specifications
Physical Specifications
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Shelf physical
characteristics
The DMXplore wall-mount shelf has the following characteristics:
•
Width: 7.5 inches
•
Height: 10.5 inches
•
Depth (front to back): 12.0 inches
The DMXplore rack-mount shelf has the following characteristics:
•
Width: 17.3 inches (includes integral fan unit)
•
Height: 3.5 inches
•
Depth (front to back): 13.5 inches
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Technical Specifications
Environmental Specifications
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Temperature and humidity
The DMXplore is environmentally (OSP, Outside Plant) hardened and
will function at temperatures of -40oC to +65oC and humidity of 5 to 95
percent (noncondensing) in all TDM applications when equipped with
either the VLNC5, VLNC6, VLNC15, VLNC25, VLNC26, and
VLNC30 circuit pack.
Therefore, the DMXplore shelf meets Telcordia Technologies’
Network Equipment Building System (“NEBS Generic Equipment
Requirements,” GR-63-CORE) requirements for use in CO
environments.
Important! Minimum airflow requirement of 200 fpm is
required in OSP applications.
EMC requirements
The DMXplore has been tested and found to comply with the limits for
a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial
environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate
radio-frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance
with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residence is likely to
cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to
correct the interference at the user’s own expense.
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Environmental Specifications
Earthquake requirements
Fire resistance
Underwriters Laboratories
Canadian Standards
Association
Technical Specifications
DMXplore meets the earthquake requirements defined in Telcordia
Technologies GR-63-CORE and Pacific Bell Standard
PBS-000-102PT.
DMXplore meets ignitability requirements specified in ANSI
T1.307-1997. In addition, the DMXplore meets the fire resistance
requirements of UL 60950, 3rd Edition.
The DMXplore is UL recognized for restricted access installations in
business and customer premises applications installed in accordance
with Articles 110-16 and 110-17 of the National Electric Code,
ANSI/NFPA Number 70-87. Other installations exempt from the
requirements of the National Electric Code may be engineered
according to the accepted practices of the local telecommunications
utility.
The DMXplore has been certified by the Canadian Standards
Association per standard CAN/CSA-C22.2 Number 60950-00.
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Technical Specifications
Power Specifications
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Power supply
The table below lists DMXplore power requirements.
Table 10-16 DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
Item
Description
Voltage range
-40 to -57 volts
Power Feeders
-48VDC
External fuses required (1 per
feed)
Two, 2A fuses
DMXplore uses on-board power conversion eliminating the need for
slots for bulk power converters. Two independent -48VDC office
power feeders (A and B) enter the shelf through a terminal block and
are filtered and distributed to the circuit packs. Power conversion is
performed via modular power converters located on the circuit packs.
Within each circuit pack, the two 48VDC feeders are diode ored, fused,
filtered, and connected to the board-mounted power modules. This
provides the required redundancy in case of the loss of one feeder. The
two green power LEDs are located to the left of the input power
terminal block.
Current drains
The following table provides the maximum and average current drain
requirements for a shelf.
Table 10-17 Shelf Current Drains
Shelf
Current Drains per Feeder in Amperes
List 1
Average
@ −48V
DMXplore Shelf
List 2
Maximum
@ −48V
1.04 Amps 1.25 Amps
Average
@ −40V
Maximum
@ −40V
1.25 Amps 1.5 Amps
NOTE: The heat dissipation of the DMXplore is 60 watts.
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Power Specifications
Technical Specifications
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10 - 46
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
A: Ethernet
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Purpose
This section describes the Ethernet implementation for the Metropolis®
DMXplore Access Multiplexer (DMXplore).
Contents
The following topics are covered:
Introduction to Ethernet Services
A
-2
A-2
Ethernet Circuit Packs
A
-7
A-7
Ethernet Transport
A
- 11
A-11
Tagging Modes
A
- 25
A-25
Quality of Service
A
- 26
A-26
Ethernet Service Management
A
- 27
A-27
Ethernet Service Configurations
A
- 30
A-30
A - 1
: Ethernet
Introduction to Ethernet Services
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Ethernet services
Ethernet services are what network operators provide their subscribers.
DMXplore supports Private Line.
The Private services are transported over their own dedicated SONET
timeslots. If present, Ethernet switching functions may or may not be
shared.
Private Line services are point-to-point in nature while Private LAN
services are multipoint. Private LAN services always involve internal
Ethernet switching while Private Line services do not.
Private line
Private Line service provides a dedicated link between two locations.
The Ethernet ports and SONET bandwidth are dedicated to the
subscriber and not shared. Private line service is characterized by
minimal provisioning - typically just the SONET cross-connection. A
subclass, Fractional Private Line, is distinguished by less than
Ethernet-line-rate SONET connectivity. It is a form of rate control that
also improves efficiency by only consuming the required SONET
bandwidth in STS-1 increments. For more information about how
STS-1 tributaries can be virtually concatenated to provide Fractional
Private Line service, refer to “Virtual concatenation” (A-14)
Another characteristic of Private Line service is little or no Layer 2
functionality. With Fast Ethernet, the physical layer must be terminated
precluding transparency of auto-negotiation. In addition, performance
of the Fractional Private Line may be improved by enabling flow
control, a Layer 2 function. For more information about flow control,
refer to “Flow control” (A-17).
For more information about Ethernet circuit packs, refer to “Ethernet
Circuit Packs” (A-7).
A - 2
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Introduction to Ethernet Services
Network topologies and
configurations
: Ethernet
Network topologies consist of two layers: the packet layer and the
underlying SONET layer. Packet networks can be created over a
variety of SONET topologies, and have different properties as a result.
For example, a Private Line service uses a point-to-point packet
topology, but may be carried over a SONET ring, which may in turn be
configured with UPSR protection or no SONET protection.
The following packet topologies are supported:
•
Point-to-point
•
Multipoint
•
Hub-and-spoke.
Point-to-Point
The point-to-point topology is used to join two nodes. For example, a
business may connect to an ISP via a point-to-point connection.
Because of its simplicity point-to-point configurations have a variety of
protection options available. They may use any of the SONET layer
protection mechanisms. They may also forgo SONET protection and
use data-layer protection such as Link Aggregation.
Multipoint
In a multipoint network all points converse with each other. Note that
connecting three locations by two point-to-point connections is not the
same as if done by a multipoint connection. The location in the middle
of the point-to point connections would have to provide external
switching to enable the outer locations to converse with each other.
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A - 3
Introduction to Ethernet Services
: Ethernet
One useful case of multipoint configurations is a packet ring. In a
closed-ring configuration all nodes converse. An internal spanning tree
may be configured for protection and loop prevention. This is
independent of any spanning tree protocol that may be running on the
subscriber's network. The spanning tree breaks one link, necessary in
Ethernet bridging to avoid a loop. In the case of a link failure, the
spanning tree algorithm restores connectivity by moving its break to
coincide with the failed link.
A special case of multipoint configuration is where one node acts as a
hub and all other nodes converse only with it. This hub configuration
differs from a hub-and-spoke network only in that the spokes share
bandwidth to reach the hub. It is more efficient and may be more
practical because it conserves hub ports; only two VCG (WAN) ports
are needed, regardless of the number of spokes. (In a packet ring
configuration the broken link is placed between the two nodes most
remote from the hub; because those nodes don't converse, there is no
loss of useful bandwidth.) Both this topology and the hub-and-spoke
described next are sometimes called point-to-multipoint.
Hub-and-spoke
The hub-and-spoke network is a hybrid between point-to-point and
multipoint. Each node connects to the hub via a dedicated link; but, the
links terminate on an embedded switch at the hub. In a typical
back-haul application, the switch aggregates the traffic into a single
Ethernet link for hand off. As in the multipoint hub network, tags are
used to identify and direct traffic to and from the hub.
Applications
Ethernet applications are examples of what users can do with the
services and topologies described in previous sections. The user can be
the owner of the equipment or a client of the owner. For example, an
ISP can have a private network or buy the services from an LEC to
construct the application.
LAN interconnect
LAN extension
ISP access
Internet access
LAN Interconnect
Two or more enterprise LANs are interconnected. The LANs may be
point-to-point Private Line connections, in which case Ethernet
switching services are not provided. If Virtual Private Lines are
A - 4
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Introduction to Ethernet Services
: Ethernet
desired, Ethernet switching is required. Even so, in a three-node LAN
Interconnect application composed of Virtual Private Lines the middle
node has two termination ports, one for each neighbor. This is different
from a three-node LAN Extension (next application) using Virtual
Private LAN in which the middle node may have only one (effectively
a hub) port.
LAN Extension
Sometimes called intranet or Layer 2 VPN, this extends an enterprise
LAN to multiple locations via embedded Ethernet switching. Either
Private LAN or Virtual Private LAN may be used.
Transparent LAN is a common form of LAN Extension in which the
subscriber's traffic is transported without regard to the presence of
subscriber VLAN tags. Transparency is achieved by the use of Port
Tags, avoiding the need for the provider to administer VLANs with
subscribers. The Port Tag is effectively a customer ID; only ports in the
network assigned a particular customer ID will exchange traffic.
In Non-Transparent LANs, greater flexibility is available when the
subscriber's 802.1Q tags are used for traffic management (802.1Q
mode). For example, the priority bits within the tag can be used to give
a portion of the subscriber's traffic, for example VoIP, preferential
treatment through the network versus its file transfer or internet traffic.
Although in a Virtual Private LAN service a Non-transparent LAN
application requires the administration of VLAN Id's among customers,
in a Private LAN where no other customers share the embedded
Ethernet switch this is not necessary.
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Introduction to Ethernet Services
: Ethernet
ISP Access
In this application an ISP uses a provider's network to collect internet
traffic. It is also an example of a trunking application, where traffic
from multiple customers is handed off to the ISP router on a single
trunk link for efficiency. The Virtual Private LAN service may be used
to efficiently transport the best-effort internet traffic. It is typically done
using the 802.1Q mode for separating the ISP's clients' traffic. If the
ISP's router supports stacked VLANs then it can be done in Transparent
Mode The trunk link may be GbE while the access links may be 10 or
100 Mb/s Ethernet.
Internet Access
In this application the ISP owns the network. In this case the clients'
traffic is untagged. The ISP adds tags for customer separation using the
802.1Q mode. The ISP administers the tags directly, there is no third
party involved.
Video Distribution
Video distribution can be accomplished using Ethernet Multicasting. A
Private LAN service is used to guarantee the bandwidth. Video traffic,
generated at the head end, is sent using a multicast address. Transparent
mode or 802.1Q mode may be used. At each node the traffic is dropped
to its user and also duplicated and sent to the rest of the Private LAN.
Because of the duplication process, the maximum throughput is only
half the line rate, for example 500 Mb/s on GbE links.
An alternative is to use SONET drop-and-continue cross-connections
to implement multicasting. This is a variation of the Private LAN
service. Although it is limited to one-way video distribution, it supports
full line rate throughput.
A - 6
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Ethernet
Ethernet Circuit Packs
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Circuit Pack
10/100-PL
100BASE-LX/
10/100BASE-TX
Private Line
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
DMXplore supports the following Ethernet circuit packs:
Code
VLNC15
VLNC30
Compatible
Shelf Slots
Description
LAN Slot (C)
4 external 10/100Base-TX
Private Line Ethernet ports
LAN Slot (C)
4 external 10/100Base-TX
Private Line Ethernet ports
and 2 optical 100BASE-LX
ports on the faceplate of the
card.
A - 7
Ethernet Circuit Packs
10/100-PL Private Line Fast
Ethernet circuit pack
(VLNC15)
: Ethernet
The 10/100-PL Private Line Fast Ethernet (VLNC15) circuit pack
provides point-to-point (Ethernet Private Line Service) data transport at
the 10/100 Mb/s rate. The 10/100-PL circuit pack supports generic
framing procedure (GFP) encapsulation.
The 10/100-PL circuit pack supports up to 4 VCG ports.
The 10/100-PL circuit pack supports STS-1, STS-3c, and VT1.5 mode.
Up to 168 VT1.5s may be used between 0 and 63 assigned to any VCG.
When VT mapping is selected, the number of STS-1s reserved for the
168 VTs is provisionable from 0-6. Only 3 STS-1s are reserved for
STS-1 VCAT or STS-3cs. Otherwise there is no VT mapping. In this
case, 9 STS-1s are available for STS-1 VCAT or STS-3cs. Each VCG
can use 1 (STS-1) or (STS-1-xv, x=0-3) or 1 (STS-3c), or (VT1.5-xv,
x=0-63) tributaries. Only one VCG can have 1 (STS-3c) at a time (this
is a limitation due to main circuit pack). The circuit pack mode is user
provisionable. In the STS-1 mode the VLNC15 uses standard virtual
concatenation according to ITU G.707 (Figure A-1 shows the
10/100-PL circuit pack). Connections to the 100BASE-TX interface
are via multi-service connectors on the DMXplore system backplane.
The VLNC15 circuit pack is designed specifically to support Fast
Ethernet Private Line applications. Each VLNC15 circuit pack can
support 4 private lines.
Figure A-1
VLNC15 Fast Ethernet (Private Line) Circuit Pack
2
1
3
LAN 1
GFP
VCG1
LAN 2
GFP
VCG2
LAN 3
GFP
VCG3
LAN 4
GFP
VCG4
JK-Xplore-1.eps
Legend:
1
2
3
External Ethernet Port
Generic Framing Procedure
Virtual Concatenation Group
The ports auto-negotiate speed (100 Mb/s) and flow control when
interfacing with other 802.3-compliant devices over twisted pair media.
The ports supports the full duplex mode only.
For detailed information about Ethernet technologies, refer to “Ethernet
Transport” (A-11).
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Circuit Packs
Optical/Electric 10/100
(VLNC30) Ethernet
interface (R2.1)
: Ethernet
The VLNC30 circuit pack is available in Release 2.1 and supports 2
optical 100BASE-LX ports and four 10/100BASE-TX electrical ports,
providing data transport at the rate of 10/100 Mbps using standard
encapsulation according to ITU G.7041 for Generic Framing Procedure
(GFP), and ITU G.707 for Virtual Concatenation (VCAT).
The VLNC30 circuit pack provides point-to-point (Ethernet Private
Line Service) data transport at the 10/100 Mb/s rate.
The VLNC30 circuit pack supports up to 6 VCG ports.
The VLNC30 circuit pack supports STS-1, STS-3c, and VT1.5 mode.
The number of STS-1s reserved for VT access is provisionable from
0-6.
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A - 9
Ethernet Circuit Packs
: Ethernet
When VT mapping is selected, up to 6 STS-1s are reserved for the 168
VTs. Only 3 STS-1s are reserved for STS-1 VCAT or STS-3cs.
Otherwise there is no VT mapping. In this case, 9 STS-1s are available
for STS-1 VCAT or STS-3cs. Each VCG can use 1 (STS-1) or
(STS-1-xv, x=0-3) or 1 (STS-3c), or (VT1.5-xv, x=0-63) tributaries.
Only one VCG can have 1 (STS-3c) at a time (this is a limitation due to
main circuit pack). The circuit pack mode is user provisionable. In the
STS-1 mode the VLNC30 uses standard virtual concatenation
according to ITU G.707(Figure A-2 shows the VLNC30 circuit pack.)
Electrical connections to the 100BASE-TX interface are via
multi-service connectors on the DMXplore system backplane while
optical ports are found on the faceplate of the VLNC30. The VLNC30
circuit pack is designed specifically to support Fast Ethernet Private
Line applications. Each VLNC30 circuit pack can support 6 private
lines.
Figure A-2
VLNC30 Fast Ethernet (Private Line) Circuit Pack
2
1
3
LAN 1
GFP
VCG1
LAN 2
GFP
VCG2
LAN 3
GFP
VCG3
LAN 4
GFP
VCG4
LAN 5
GFP
VCG5
LAN 6
GFP
VCG6
JK-Xplore-5.eps
Legend:
1
2
3
External Ethernet Port
Generic Framing Procedure
Virtual Concatenation Group
The electrical ports auto-negotiate speed (100 Mb/s) and flow control
when interfacing with other 802.3-compliant devices over twisted pair
media. The ports supports the full duplex mode only.
For detailed information about Ethernet technologies, refer to “Ethernet
Transport” (A-11).
A - 10
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Ethernet
Ethernet Transport
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
A DMXplore network accepts Ethernet frames at an ingress port and
transmits them out of one or more egress ports. The egress port(s) can
be on the same network element or on a different network element. If it
is on a different network element, Ethernet frames are transmitted over
a SONET network. To transport an Ethernet frame across the SONET
network, the Ethernet Frame is moved between a LAN port and the
SONET network. (Refer to the following figure.)
Figure A-3 Ethernet Transport Through DMXplore
SONET Network
SONET Interfaces
STS-1
Virtual
Concatenator
(ITU G.707)
STS-1/STS-3c
Virtual
Concatenator
(ITU G.707)
GFP Mapper
(ITUG.7041)
GFP Mapper
(ITUG.7041)
VCG (WAN) Ports
Private Line
Service
Private Line
Service
Ethernet
Circuit
Pack
Physical Ethernet Transceiver
LAN Ports
MA-DMX-343
The following occurs to transport an Ethernet frame over a SONET
network:
•
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
The DMXplore accepts an Ethernet Frame at an ingress LAN
Port.
A - 11
Ethernet Transport
Generic framing procedure
(GFP)
: Ethernet
•
For the VLNC15 or VLNC30 circuit packs (which support only
nonswitched services), the Ethernet frame is sent directly to the
GFP mapper via a VCG port.
•
The generic framing procedure (GFP) mapper encapsulates the
Ethernet frame into a GFP Frame.
•
The Virtual Concatenator maps the Ethernet stream into one or
more SONET tributaries (timeslots). This allows the network to
carry traffic (Ethernet stream) at higher speeds than allowed by a
single SONET tributaries (time slot). The group of virtually
concatenated tributaries is referred to as a Virtual Concatenation
Group (VCG).
•
The VCG is then placed on SONET tributaries and transmitted
over the SONET network.
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) is used to encapsulate Ethernet
frames for transport over a SONET network. The DMXplore uses
frame-based GFP with the core header and no optional extension
headers or Frame Check Sequence (FCS).
To encapsulate an Ethernet frame, the Ethernet preamble and Start of
Frame Delimiter (SFD) fields are removed from the frame. A Type
header and check (tHEC) is added to the Ethernet frame creating a GFP
payload. The GFP payload is then scrambled and a Core header is
added. The GFP frame is then sent to the Virtual Concatenator. The
following figure shows the format of a GFP frame.
Figure A-4 GFP Frame Format
A. Original Ethernet Frame
Octets
7
Octets
Preamble
1
Start of Frame Delimiter (SFD)
6
Destination Address (DA)
6
Source Address (SA)
0 or 4
Stacked VLAN TAG1
0 or 4
2
B. GFP Frame
2
Pay Load Indicator
2
cHEC
2
Type
2
tHEC
802.1Q VLAN TAG1
Raw Ethernet Frame
Core
Header
Payload
Header
Payload2
Length/Type
Data and Pad
4
Frame Check Sequence
Note: 1 - May not be present
2 - Up to 1536 for LNW66, LNW67, and LNW68 circuit packs
Up to 10240 for LNW71 circuit packs
A - 12
MA-DMX-344
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
The GFP fields are described in the following table.
Section
Field
Description
Payload Indicator
(PLI)
Binary number representing the number of
octets in the GFP payload.
Core Header Error
Control (cHEC)
CRC-16 checksum that protects the integrity of
the contents of the Core Header.
Type
The type of information contained in the
Payload field. The value is 01hex.
Type Header Error
Control (tHEC)
CRC-16 checksum that protects the integrity of
the contents of the Type Field.
Core Header
Payload
Header
Payload
The raw Ethernet Frame (that is, the original
Ethernet Frame without the Preamble and SFD.
In the opposite direction when the GFP Mapper receives a GFP frame
from the Virtual Concatenator, it removes the Core Header and, using
the cHEC field, performs a Header Error Check. If the header is
correct, the payload area of the GFP is then descrambled and the Type
field and tHEC in the GFP header are checked for correctness. The
Ethernet frame is extracted and the Preamble and SFD are added.
The GFP mapper at the far end of the network inserts idle GFP frames
when there are no Ethernet frames to send. The near end GFP Mapper
discards any idle GFP frames it receives over the SONET network. The
idle GFP frames are not forwarded to the Ethernet Switch. (The
VLNC15 circuit pack does not contain an Ethernet switch.)
The GFP Mapper contains GFP queues that are used to store Ethernet
frames while they are being processed.
The Generic Framing Procedure is defined in ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303
and ANSI T1X1.105 Sections 7.3.2 and 7.3.3.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
A - 13
Ethernet Transport
Virtual concatenation
: Ethernet
Virtual Concatenation is a standard inverse multiplex scheme for
transporting a payload using multiple channels each of which has a
lower capacity than the payload to be transported. It allows finer
granularity in allocating the transport bandwidth than is available in
standard contiguous concatenation (STS-3c).
The grouped SONET tributaries form a Virtual Concatenation Group
(VCG). A VCG is treated as a single logical serial byte stream whose
payload capacity equals that of the sum of the payload capacities of the
constituent SONET tributaries. The following figure shows a virtual
concatenation group.
Figure A-5 Virtual Concatenation Group
10/100 Mbps Ethernet
Virtual
Concatenation
Up to 3 STS-1s
or 63 VTs
A Virtual Concatenation Group
MA-DMX-345
Individual tributaries in the VCG are independently transported
through the SONET network. Only the initial and final SONET nodes
perform the Virtual Concatenation. Since the VCGs are invisible to the
intermediate SONET nodes, the intermediate nodes only need to
transport normal SONET traffic and do not need to understand VCGs.
This allows the tributaries to be transported through equipment which
does not handle VCGs.
A - 14
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
Differential Delay Buffers
Because the individual tributaries of a virtual concatenation group
(VCAT) can take different paths through the SONET network, they
may experience different delays through the network. VCG ports use
differential delay buffers to accommodate up to 64ms of differential
delay in the VLNC15/30 Ethernet circuit pack.
The table below provides the differential delay buffers for each of the
Ethernet circuit packs.
Circuit Pack
Name
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Delay (in
milliseconds)
VLNC15
64ms
VLNC30
64ms
A - 15
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
Link aggregation
Link aggregation allows multiple physical links between Ethernet
switches to be treated as a single link. This provides for more
bandwidth between the switches than can be transmitted over a single
Ethernet port and it can provide protection from a cable, Ethernet port,
or Ethernet circuit pack failure.
While link aggregation is not currently implemented within
DMXplore, the DMXplore supports link aggregation transparency.
This allows the attached equipment to use link aggregation as shown in
the following figure.
Figure A-6 Link Aggregation
SONET Network
External
Ethernet
Equipment
(Device)
®
Link
Aggregation
Group
External
Ethernet
Equipment
(Device)
Metropolis
DMXplore
Metropolis®
DMXplore
LAN Ports
Located on 1
Or More
Circuit Packs
LAN Ports
Located on 1
Or More
Circuit Packs
Ethernet Links
(10 or 100 or 1000 Mbps)
Link
Aggregation
Group
Ethernet Links
(10 or 100 or 1000 Mbps)
Link Aggregation Group (e.g. Links that are aggregated together)
DMXplore = Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
MA-DMX-357
The figure shows two Ethernet devices running link aggregation
interconnected via Ethernet circuit packs and a SONET Network. The
DMXplore shelves and the SONET network are invisible to the two
Ethernet devices. The Ethernet traffic is transparently transferred
between the external devices. Link aggregation is typically
implemented using two dedicated unprotected point-to-point links
(Ethernet Private Line Service) for each pair of external ports.
Link Aggregation is specified in IEEE 802.3 clause 43, formerly
specified in 802.3ad. Link aggregation transparency does not require
default VLAN ID for the VLNC15/30.
A - 16
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Transport
Flow control
: Ethernet
This section describes how DMXplore controls the flow of Ethernet
traffic. DMXplore supports the following types of flow control:
•
Local flow control
•
End-to-end flow control
Local Flow Control (Ingress Traffic Direction)
If the external equipment delivers Ethernet frames to the Ethernet
circuit pack faster than they can be delivered across the network, the
data buffers in the Ethernet circuit pack fill up. When the data buffers
reach the flow control threshold, the Ethernet circuit pack initiates flow
control. On full duplex links, the Ethernet circuit pack issues a flow
control request to the external equipment, requesting that the flow of
frames be suspended.
Figure A-7 Local Flow Control of Ingress Traffic
Metropolis®
Metropolis®
DMXplore 1
DMXplore 2
Ethernet
Circuit Pack
Ethernet
Circuit Pack
Data
External
Equipment 1
Ethernet
Link
Buffer
SONET
Sub Rate
External
Equipment 2
Flow
Control
Request
When data rate from External Equipment 1 exceeds SONET bandwidth, DMX 1
will invoke flow control toward External Equipment 1
DMXplore = Metropolis DMXplore Access Multiplexer
®
MA-DMX-358
Note that this local flow control mechanism is concerned only with
congestion (full packet buffers) at the local DMXplore. If the
DMXplore at the other end of the SONET network is unable to deliver
the Ethernet frames to the attached external equipment due to flow
control conditions there, that does not directly affect the local flow
control operation at the ingress DMXplore.
Local Flow Control (Egress Traffic Direction)
If the local Ethernet circuit pack attempts to deliver Ethernet frames to
the attached external equipment faster than the external equipment can
accept them, the external equipment may initiate flow control. On full
duplex links, the external equipment issues a flow control request to the
Ethernet circuit pack requesting that the flow of frames be suspended.
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
A - 17
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
End-to-End Flow Control
If the external equipment at the destination of an Ethernet connection
cannot handle the rate of traffic being sent to it, it may be desirable to
apply back pressure across the network to slow down the external
source of the Ethernet traffic. This cross-network back pressure can
only work well, however, when the source of the traffic can be
identified unambiguously. Only the Ethernet Private Line Service
offers this opportunity; thus, it is the only service that supports
End-to-End Flow Control.
End-to-End Flow Control (VLNC15/30 Circuit Pack)
The VLNC15/30 circuit pack implements the following changes
intended to improve the frame loss behavior of end-to-end flow control.
•
When end-to-end flow control is enabled, the VLNC15/30 circuit
pack sends a flow control request across the SONET network
immediately upon receiving a flow control request from external
equipment.
•
The VLNC15/30 circuit pack does not buffer data while waiting
for far-end equipment to respond to end-to-end flow control
requests. Data is transmitted to the client (Refer to the following
figure).
Figure A-8 End-to-End Flow Control (VLNC15/30)
2. A Flow Control
Request is initiated by
External Equipment 1
Metropolis
Flow
Control
Request
External
Equipment 1
Ethernet
Link
®
Metropolis
®
DMXplore 1
DMXplore 2
Ethernet
Circuit Pack
VLNC15/30
Ethernet
Circuit Pack
SONET
Buffer
3b. External Equipment 2
reacts to the to
Flow Control request
Flow
Control
Request
Ethernet
Link
External
Equipment 2
1. Data from
External
Equipment 2
Flow Control Request is generated by External Equipment 1
Flow Control Request is sent immediately to External Equipment 2
External Eqipment 2 stops sending data in time for a loss-less transmission
DMXplore = Metropolis DMXplore Access Multiplexer
®
A - 18
JKXplore-E-7
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
Flow Control Provisioning (VLNC15/30 Circuit Pack)
The VLNC15/30 circuit pack automatically provides both local and
end-to-end flow control if flow control is enabled for a LAN port.
Similarly, disabling flow control for an LAN port disables both forms
of flow control.
The following table shows the flow control settings for the VLNC15/30
circuit pack.
LAN Port
Flow
Control
State
Flow
Control
Status
Use/Comments
DMXplore does not participate in flow control.
The LAN port does not respond to flow control requests.
Disabled
Disabled
The LAN port does not generate flow control requests
due to congestion.
Flow control requests are transported when received.
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Enabled
Enabled
Flow control requirements are sent to the far-end
DMXplore. LAN ports generate flow control
requirements for fractional service.
Drop
Drop
Disables Network-element controlled flow control and
drops end-to-end flow control messages.
A - 19
Ethernet Transport
Physical interface
: Ethernet
Each Ethernet circuit pack contains a transceiver that implements the
physical interface for that circuit pack's line type. For the 10/100 Mbps
circuit packs, this physical interface must be provisioned to or
auto-negotiate to the proper line rate and duplex mode in order to
communicate successfully with the connected equipment.
At the physical layer, many types of LANs can be used for multiple line
rates and duplex modes. For example the LAN port on most PCs can be
connected to a 10BASE-TX (10 Mbps) or a 100BASE-TX (100 Mbps)
LAN. Before data traffic can be transmitted onto a LAN, all ports
connected to the LAN must operate with the same line rate and duplex
mode. LAN ports can either be provisioned with these values or
provisioned to automatically negotiate (auto-negotiate) the values.
Auto-negotiation
In the auto-negotiation process, a LAN port advertises its acceptable
parameters, compares these with the advertised parameters of its link
partner, and then agrees upon a set of parameters with the link partner.
IEEE 802.3 allows the line rate, duplex mode, and flow control mode to
be auto-negotiated. A LAN port not configured to support
auto-negotiation will use provisioned values for these parameters. A
LAN port configured for auto-negotiation that is connected to a LAN
port not configured for auto-negotiation will follow prescribed rules for
parameter settings.
In the DMXplore, auto-negotiation is only available on the electrical
ports.
A - 20
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
Line Rate Operation for VLNC15/30 Circuit Packs
The following table summarizes line rate operation for the VLNC15
Ethernet circuit packs.
DMXplore LAN
Port Rate
Provisioning
10
100
Auto
Connected Equipment
Provisioning
Ethernet
Link Rate
(Note 1)
Auto-Negotiation
Advertised/
Set at
Disabled
10
10
Disabled
100
No Link
Enabled
10
10
Enabled
100
No Link
Enabled
10/100
10
Disabled
10
No Link
Disabled
100
100
Enabled
10
No Link
Enabled
100
100
Enabled
10/100
100
Disabled
10
10
Disabled
100
100
Enabled
10
10
Enabled
100
100
Enabled
10/100
100
Note 1: Both the DMXplore and the connected equipment will try to
determine a common line rate. The link will not come up if both ends have
auto-negotiation enabled and advertise incompatible duplex modes.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
A - 21
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
Flow Control Operation for VLNC15/30 Circuit Packs
The following table summarizes flow control operation for the
VLNC15/30 Ethernet circuit packs.
DMX LAN Port
Provisioning
Connected Equipment
Provisioning
Advertised/
AutoAutoFlow
Set at
Negotiation
Negotiation
Control
(Note 1)
State
Duplex Mode State
DMX
(Note 2)
Connected
Equipment
Comments
(Note 3)
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Disabled
Note 4
Disabled
Enabled
Note 5
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Unknown
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Enabled
Enabled
Unknown
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Disabled
Auto
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Enabled
A - 22
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Transport
: Ethernet
DMX LAN Port
Provisioning
Connected Equipment
Provisioning
Advertised/
AutoAutoFlow
Set at
Negotiation
Negotiation
Control
(Note 1)
State
Duplex Mode State
DMX
(Note 2)
Connected
Equipment
Comments
(Note 3)
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Disabled
Disabled
Unknown
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Enabled
Disabled
Unknown
Inconsistent
Provisioning
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Notes:
1. Flow control will only be enabled if the connected equipment is capable of Symmetric Flow Control.
2. IEEE 802.3 does not define flow control states for half duplex links or when only one side of a link
is provisioned for auto-negotiation. This is the expected behavior of the connected equipment.
3. IEEE 802.3 recommends that equipment be configured for auto-negotiation to avoid inconsistent
provisioning.
4. Flow control will be disabled on VLNC15 LAN ports.
5. Flow control will be enabled on VLNC15 LAN ports.
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
A - 23
Ethernet Transport
Queues and buffers
: Ethernet
Ethernet circuit packs contain small buffer pools that provide storage of
Ethernet frames for brief periods of congestion or until flow control
requests can be honored. These small buffer pools are associated with
the Ethernet switch and the Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
mechanism. The GFP mechanism is described further in “Generic
framing procedure (GFP)” (A-12). A larger buffer pool designed to
handle different path lengths for individual STS-1/VT1.5s is associated
with the virtual concatenation process. Its function is described in more
detail in “Virtual concatenation” (A-14). Two priority-based queues
are provided to allow high priority traffic to be forwarded ahead of low
priority traffic.
VLNC15/30 Circuit Pack Buffers
With no Ethernet switch, the VLNC15/30 Ethernet frame buffers are all
associated with the Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) and virtual
concatenation mechanisms. The following figure shows the
VLNC15/30 circuit pack buffer architecture.
Figure A-9 Buffer Architecture (VLNC15/30)
VCG
Differential Delay Buffers 64ms
(94.5K Bytes/STS-1)
GFP Buffer
Up to 64K Bytes
VCG Ports
LAN Ports
MA-DMX-363
The VLNC15/30 circuit pack provides larger buffer pools to allow for
longer response times to flow control requests. In addition, buffer
storage can be flexibly assigned to Ethernet frames, allowing maximal
usage of the memory available. Each VCG port can buffer 64 Kilobytes
of Ethernet frames in the ingress direction.
A - 24
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Ethernet
Tagging Modes
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore supports the following tagging modes.
•
Private line mode
Private line mode (also know as no tag or repeater mode)
The private line mode (also known as no tag or repeater mode) is used
to establish simple point-to-point connections between two ports with
no Ethernet switching functions applied. No additional Ethernet
provisioning is required after the cross-connection is established.
Private line mode can be used to provide either a full rate or sub-rate
(fractional rate) dedicated Ethernet link across SONET networks. No
preferential treatment for high priority packets is provided. In a
sub-rate service, frames may be dropped due to congestion. Any
correctly formatted Ethernet frame received at a source port is
transmitted out of the destination port.
The private line mode supports the following features:
•
Point-to-point topology with only two LAN ports
•
Protection is provided at the SONET network layer by either
UPSR switching
•
No spanning tree protocol (supports transparency of customer
spanning tree protocol)
•
No VLAN ingress filtering or classification (VLAN tags are not
verified or added)
•
Ethernet PM per port
For packet size info refer to Packet size on
A - 25.
Packet size
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
The following table details packet size.
VLAN Tag
VLAN
Filtering
Spanning
Tree
N/A
No
No
Priority
No
Max. Frame Size
(Bytes)
9636 (tagged)
9632 (untagged)
Applicable
Circuit
Packs
VLNC15/30
A - 25
: Ethernet
Quality of Service
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
QoS services (VLNC15 and
VLNC30)
A - 26
DMXplore supports the following Quality of Service (QoS)
capabilities:
•
Private line service provides dedicated bandwidth between two
points service (best QoS).
•
Fractional rate services provide basic rate shaping with
approximately 50 Mbps or 1.5 Mbps granularity.
The VLNC15 and VLNC30 circuit packs provide 10 Mbps and 100
Mbps private line services. They do not contain an Ethernet Switch.
Each LAN port is connected to its own VCG. 100 Mbps traffic can be
rate-limited by provisioning less SONET bandwidth than required to
carry the full line rate. Traffic is buffered and flow control is invoked
when ingress traffic on a LAN port exceeds the VCG’s SONET
bandwidth. If flow control is disabled or ignored by the external
equipment, Ethernet frames are dropped when the ingress buffer
overflows. The VLNC15 and VLNC30 offer 1.5Mbps VT granularity.
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Ethernet
Ethernet Service Management
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The Ethernet services are managed by provisioning the following:
•
Cross-connections
•
LAN ports
•
VCG (WAN) ports
•
Performance monitoring.
For detailed information about provisionable parameters and their
values, refer to Appendix B: Performance Monitoring.
Cross-connections
The following types of cross-connections are used with Ethernet circuit
packs.
•
2wayPR
For detailed information about supported cross-connections refer to
Chapter 5 of this document and the WaveStar® CIT on line help.
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
A - 27
Ethernet Service Management
: Ethernet
Cross-Connection Types and Supported Configurations
The following table shows the cross-connection types and supported
services.
Table A-1 Supported Configurations and Cross-Connection
Types
Number of Private Lines (VCGs)
SONET
UPSR
1+1
Cross Connection
Type
Ethernet Circuit Pack
VLNC15/30
STS-1 2waypr
0-3
STS-3c 2waypr
1
VT1.5 2waypr
4
STS-1 2waypr
4
STS-3c 2waypr
1
VT1.5
4
Notes:
1. A mix of VT1.5, STS-1, &STS-3c connections allowed; Max of 168 VT1.5
(6 STS-1s) of VT1.5 cross connect capacity.
2. The maximum number of STS1s per VCG is 1-3.
3. Per pack, there's a limit of 1 STS3c drop cross-connect, and 9 STS1s (no
matter whether they're used for VT, STS1 or STS3c cross-connections).
LAN ports
A - 28
All LAN ports have characteristics that must be the same on all sides of
a link. Some characteristics are strictly physical in nature. They can
only be changed by using different equipment. Some examples of these
characteristics are cable type (for example, twisted pair, fiber) and optical type (short reach, long reach). For more information about the
Ethernet circuit packs, refer to “Ethernet Circuit Packs” (A-7).
The Configuration > Provision Equipment WaveStar® CIT command is
used to provision LAN ports. For more information about the
Configuration > Provision Equipment command and LAN port
provisioning, refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Service Management
: Ethernet
The Configuration > Provision Equipment WaveStar® CIT command is
used to provision VCG (WAN) ports. For more information about the
Configuration > Provision Equipment command and VCG (WAN) port
provisioning, refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
VCG (WAN) ports
The following table shows the available VCG (WAN) ports available
on Ethernet circuit packs.
Table A-2
VCGs Available on Ethernet Circuit Packs
Ethernet Circuit Pack
Type
VLNC15/30
Slot
LAN
Performance monitoring
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Tagging Mode
Private Line Mode
Provisionable VCG Ports
All other
OLIUs
Comments
VCG1-VCG4
Each Ethernet port has associated performance monitoring parameters
and counters. The counters are provided for incoming and outgoing
frames. For detailed information about Ethernet performance
monitoring parameters, refer to Appendix B, “ Performance
Monitoring”.
A - 29
: Ethernet
Ethernet Service Configurations
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore supports the Ethernet services shown in the following table.
Table A-3
Service
VCGs (per
Circuit Pack)
Private
Line
1 Private Line
per VCG
Protected
Supported Ethernet Services
Ethernet
Ports
Dedicated
SONET
Capacity
Dedicated
Tagging
Mode
Private
Line
(No tag)
Ethernet
Forwarding
(Switching)
based on
No Ethernet
switching.
Point-to-Point
connection is
preconfigured.
The following table shows the typical Ethernet service configurations.
Table A-4
Typical Ethernet Service Configurations
Protection
Service
Private Line
A - 30
SONET
Spanning
Tree
Yes
Not
Allowed
Ring
Type
Cross-Connect
ion Type
UPSR
2wayPR
Tagging
Mode
Private Line
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Ethernet Service Configurations
Private line service
: Ethernet
Private line service is a point-to-point service with two dedicated LAN
ports and dedicated SONET capacity. Because it is a point-to-point
service, spanning tree protection is not used. Protection is provided at
the SONET layer only.
Ethernet private line service can be provided over SONET UPSRs. The
following figure shows an example of private line service with
protection provided by a SONET UPSR.
Figure A-10 Ethernet Private Line Service over Protected UPSR
Ethernet
Switch
V4
V3 V2 V1
Main 2
Main 1
Main 1
L1
Main 2
V1
V4
Ethernet V2
Switch
V3
L2
V4
Main 2
Main1
Main 2
L1
V3 Ethernet
Switch
V2
L2
V1
Main 1
Type of Ring
- UPSR
Type of Cross-Connection
- 2Way PR
V1
V2 V3 V4
Transport Protection
- UPSR Switching
Ethernet
Switch
= Traffic transmitted clockwise around the ring
= Traffic transmitted counter-clockwise around the ring
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MA-DMX-367
A - 31
Ethernet Service Configurations
A - 32
: Ethernet
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
B: Performance Monitoring
Overview
....................................................................................................
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Purpose
This section lists and describes performance monitoring parameters,
data storage, thresholds, and TCA transmission.
Contents
The following performance monitoring information is included in this
section:
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
B
-2
B-2
OC-N Performance Parameters
B-9
B
-9
STS-N Performance Parameters
B-11
B
- 11
VT1.5 Performance Parameters
B-13
B
- 13
DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
B-15
B
- 15
DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
B-22
B
- 22
Ethernet Performance Monitoring Parameters
B-27
B
- 27
SNMP Parameters and Traps
B-29
B
- 29
B - 1
: Performance Monitoring
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
....................................................................................................
Definition
Performance monitoring (PM) is the in-service, non-intrusive
monitoring and reporting of transmission quality.
PM helps proactive maintenance detect and correct degrading signal
conditions that are not yet severe enough to initiate protection
switching or alarming.
Proactive maintenance
Proactive maintenance is the process of detecting degrading conditions
that are indicative of an impending hard or soft failure, but not severe
enough to initiate alarming.
Reactive maintenance
Hard and soft failures result in reactive maintenance.
Data registers
The following table lists the data registers that are provided for all
performance monitoring parameters.
Table B-1
Data Registers
15-Minute Registers
1-Day (24-Hour) Registers
One current
One current
31 most recent
One previous
DMXplore retrieves and reports the contents of any parameter storage
register. The WaveStar® CIT may be used to initialize (set to zero) the
current 15-minute and/or current 1-day registers locally or remotely.
This capability enables the user to verify that a repair to a failed facility
was successful.
The following events also initialize the data registers to zero:
B - 2
•
System reset is performed
•
Performance monitoring is restarted (PST parameter fluctuates
between IS and (AUTO or NMON)
•
INIT-REG (Initialize Register) TL1 command is executed
•
Facility or terminal loopback is removed
•
Transmission test is completed.
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Introduction to Performance Monitoring
How registers are updated
: Performance Monitoring
The two registers (15 min. and day registers) are updated in the
following manners:
15-minute registers
The registers are updated with a push-down methodology. At 0, 15, 30,
and 45 minutes on the system clock, the contents of the 30th recent
register is moved to the 31st recent register. The contents of each of the
other recent registers are moved to the next higher register. The
contents of the previous register are moved to the first recent register.
The contents of the current register are moved to the previous register.
The new measured value is placed in the current register.
Day registers
At day boundaries (midnight as defined by the local time/date
function), the current day register is written to the previous day storage
register and the current day register is set to zero. The day boundary is
midnight by default, and may not be provisioned to a different time.
PM scheduling
Enabling/disabling
performance monitoring
Performance monitoring can be scheduled to provide quarter hour and
daily reports beginning at different time intervals. In order to schedule
PM reports, PM messaging must be enabled and you must use the
WaveStar® CIT TL1 cut-through mode or the TL1 Command Builder.
PM cannot be scheduled via the WaveStar® CIT Graphical interface.
Performance monitoring can be enabled/disabled for DS1 ports, DS3
ports, STS-n paths, VT1.5 paths, OC-N lines.
DS1 ports
Performance monitoring is enabled/disabled on a DS1 port basis using
the Primary State (PST) parameter of the Configuration > Provision
Equipment command.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as AUTO and a valid signal
(non DS1 LOS) is detected, the PST parameter automatically
transitions to the IS (in service) state. This initializes the data registers
and enables DS1 line and path performance monitoring on the port.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as NMON or AUTO (with no
valid input signal detected), DS1 line and path performance monitoring
are disabled on the port.
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B - 3
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
: Performance Monitoring
DS3 ports
Performance monitoring is enabled/disabled on a DS3 port basis using
the Primary State (PST) parameter of the Configuration > Provision
Equipment command.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as AUTO and a valid signal
(non DS3 LOS) is detected, the PST parameter automatically
transitions to the IS (in service) state. This initializes the data registers
and enables DS3 line and path performance monitoring on the port.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as NMON or AUTO (with no
valid input signal detected), DS3 line and path performance monitoring
are disabled on the port.
STS-n paths
Performance monitoring is enabled/disabled on terminated STS-n paths
using the Primary State (PST) parameter of the Configuration >
Provision Equipment command.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as AUTO and a valid signal
(non LOP-P, SF, UNEQ-P, or AIS-P) is detected, the PST parameter
automatically transitions to the IS (in service) state. This initializes the
data registers and enables terminated STS-n path performance
monitoring.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as NMON or AUTO (with no
valid input signal detected), terminated STS-n path performance
monitoring is disabled.
Intermediate STS-n path performance monitoring may be enabled on
pass through cross-connections.
VT1.5 paths
Performance monitoring is enabled/disabled on terminated VT1.5 paths
using the Primary State (PST) parameter of the Configuration >
Provision Equipment command.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as AUTO and a valid signal
(non AIS-V, LOP-V, UNEQ-V) is detected, the PST parameter
automatically transitions to the IS (in service) state. This initializes the
data registers and enables terminated VT1.5 path performance
monitoring.
When the PST parameter is provisioned as NMON or AUTO (with no
valid input signal detected), terminated VT1.5 path performance
monitoring is disabled.
B - 4
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
: Performance Monitoring
High Speed OC-n lines
Performance monitoring is always enabled on high speed OC-n lines
when a circuit pack is installed and a valid (non LOS) signal detected.
PM during failed conditions
When a trouble condition is detected, DMXplore stops accumulating
PM parameters affected by that failure. PM parameters are inhibited
during unavailable time per GR-253-CORE. All unaffected
performance parameters continue to accumulate during a trouble
condition.
The following performance parameters are not inhibited during
unavailable time.
•
Severely Errored Frame Seconds (SEFS)
•
Unavailable Seconds (UAS)
•
Protection Switch Counts (PSC)
PM during loopbacks
When a loopback is established, DMXplore disables PM data
collection on the associated line or path for the duration of the
loopback. Any attempt to retrieve PM data on the looped back line or
path is denied. When the loopback is removed, DMXplore initializes
the data registers and restarts PM data collection on the line or path.
PM during transmission
tests
When a transmission test is executed, DMXplore disables PM data
collection on the associated port for the duration of the transmission
test. Any attempt to retrieve PM data on the port is denied. When the
transmission test completes, DMXplore initializes the data registers
and restarts PM data collection on the port.
Threshold crossing alerts
(TCAs)
When the value of a current quarter-hour or the current day register
meets or exceeds the corresponding provisioned threshold, DMXplore
generates a threshold-crossing alert (TCA) that is entered into the
performance monitoring exception report and reported to the OS
through the TL1 interface.
In order to view autonomous TCAs, Event Messaging must be enabled.
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B - 5
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
: Performance Monitoring
TL1 access
The TL1 interfaces should be used to derive full benefit from
DMXplore’s performance monitoring capabilities. The full set of PM
data stored by DMXplore (TCAs and the contents of PM registers) is
provided through the TL1 interface.
Enabling/disabling TCA
reporting
TCA reporting can be enabled/disabled for DS1 ports, DS3 ports,
STS-n paths, VT1.5 paths, and OC-N lines.
In order to disable TCAs set the threshold to zero or use the TCAMD
parameter.
DS1 ports
TCA reporting is available when a DS1 circuit pack is installed, a valid
signal is detected, and a cross-connection is established. TCA reporting
is enabled/disabled on a DS1 port basis using the TCA Mode
(TCAMD) parameter of the Configuration > Provision Equipment
command.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as ENABLE, TCAs are
reported for the DS1 line and path.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as DISABLE, TCAs are
not reported for the DS1 line and path.
The port primary state (PST) parameter must be IS (in service) for TCA
reporting. If the port PST parameter is NMON or AUTO, performance
monitoring and TCA reporting are disabled.
DS3 ports
DS3 line TCA reporting is available when a DS3 circuit pack is
installed. DS3 path TCA reporting is available when a DS3 circuit pack
is installed, a valid signal is detected, and a cross-connection is
established. TCA reporting is enabled/disabled on a DS3 port basis
using the TCA Mode (TCAMD) parameter of the Configuration >
Provision Equipment command.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as ENABLE, TCAs are
reported for the DS3 line and path.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as DISABLE, TCAs are
not reported for the DS3 line and path.
The port primary state (PST) parameter must be IS (in service) for TCA
reporting. If the port PST parameter is NMON or AUTO, performance
monitoring and TCA reporting are disabled.
B - 6
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Introduction to Performance Monitoring
: Performance Monitoring
STS-n paths
STS-n terminated and intermediate path TCA reporting is available
when an STS-n cross-connection is established. TCA reporting is
enabled/disabled on an STS-n path basis using the TCA Mode
(TCAMD) parameter of the Configuration > Provision Equipment
command.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as ENABLE, TCAs are
reported for the STS-n terminated and intermediate path.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as DISABLE, TCAs are
not reported for the STS-n terminated and intermediate path.
The STS-n terminated path primary state (PST) parameter must be IS
(in service) for TCA reporting. If the PST parameter is NMON or
AUTO, performance monitoring and TCA reporting of the STS-n
terminated path are disabled. (The PST parameter does not affect
performance monitoring on STS-n intermediate paths.)
VT1.5 paths
VT1.5 terminated path TCA reporting is available when an STS/VT
cross-connection is established. TCA reporting is enabled/disabled on a
path basis using the TCA Mode (TCAMD) parameter of the
Configuration > Provision Equipment command.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as ENABLE, TCAs are
reported for the VT1.5 terminated path.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as DISABLE, TCAs are
not reported for the VT1.5 terminated path.
The VT1.5 terminated path primary state (PST) parameter must be IS
(in service) for TCA reporting. If the PST parameter is NMON or
AUTO, performance monitoring and TCA reporting are disabled.
If/when an STS path is set to NMON, the constituent VT1.5 paths will
also be set to NMON. The customer may then change the VT1.5 path
primary state to AUTO in order to continue reporting TCAs.
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B - 7
Introduction to Performance Monitoring
: Performance Monitoring
OC-n lines
OC-n section and line TCA reporting is available when a circuit pack is
installed. TCA reporting is enabled/disabled on an OC-n line basis
using the TCA Mode (TCAMD) parameter of the Configuration >
Provision Equipment command.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as ENABLE, TCAs are
reported for the OC-n section and line.
When the TCAMD parameter is provisioned as DISABLE, TCAs are
not reported for the OC-n section and line.
Provisioning TCA
parameter thresholds
The current quarter-hour and current day thresholds for each parameter
type are provisionable, on a per-shelf basis. If values other than the
defaults are used, only one value for each parameter type needs to be
set for each signal.
Provisioning an individual performance monitoring parameter
threshold to zero (0) disables reporting the TCAs for that parameter.
For more information about provision performance monitoring
thresholds refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help and the DMXplore
User Operations Guide (UOG).
Retrieving TCAs
B - 8
All TCAs are retrievable either locally or remotely via the WaveStar®
CIT. If provisioned for autonomous TCA reporting, the message-based
operations system interface can communicate TCA reports to the
operations centers.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Performance Monitoring
OC-N Performance Parameters
....................................................................................................
Overview
Monitored parameters
This section describes the performance monitoring parameters that are
applicable to SONET OC-N (OC-3, OC-12) signals.
The following table lists the SONET OC-N section and line
performance parameters that DMXplore monitors, including the
default and ranges for the 15-minute and 1-day (24-hour) registers.
Table B-2
SONET OC-N Performance Parameters
15-Min
Facility
Measured Provisionable Parameter
1-Day
Default
Range
(Note)
Default
Range
(Note)
OC-N Section
SE Frame Seconds (SEFS)
10
0-900
30
0-65535
OC-3 Line
Coding Violations (CV-L), CV-L FE
140
0-16383
1344
0-1048575
OC-12 Line
Coding Violations (CV-L), CV-L FE
560
0-16383
5376
0-1048575
Errored Seconds (ES-L)
40
0-900
900
0-65535
Severely Errored Seconds (SES-L)
30
0-900
90
0-65535
Unavailable Seconds (UAS-L)
30
0-900
90
0-65535
Protection Switch Count Line (PSC-L)
2
0-63
4
0-255
Pointer Justification Count Difference
(PJCDIFF-P)
60
0-1048575
5760
0-16777215
OC-N Line
Note: When an individual performance monitoring parameter threshold is provisioned as zero (0), TCA
reporting for the affected parameter is disabled.
OC-N line parameters
DMXplore monitors the following near end SONET line parameters
for incoming (from the lightguide cross-connect) OC-N signals. The
parameters are measured at the input of the OC-N OLIU circuit pack on
the OC-N line side (also referred to as LGX side).
Coding violations (CV-L)
The Near-End Line Coding Violation (CVL) parameter for each
SONET Line is monitored. The Near-End CVL parameter increments
once for every occurrence of a BIP error detected at the Line layer (i.e.
using the B2 byte in the incoming SONET signal). Up to 8*N BIP
errors can be detected per STS-N frame.
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B - 9
OC-N Performance Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
Errored seconds (ES-L)
The Near-End Line Errored Seconds (ESL) parameter for each SONET
Line is monitored. The Near-End ESL parameter increments once for
every second that contains at least one BIP error detected at the Line
layer (at any point during the second), or an AIS-L defect was present.
Severely errored seconds (SES-L)
The Near-End Line Severely Errored Seconds (SESL) parameter for
each SONET Line is monitored. The Near-End SESL parameter increments once for every second that contains an AIS-L defect.
Unavailable seconds (UAS-L)
The Near-End Line Unavailable Seconds (UASL) parameter for each
SONET Line is monitored. The Near-End UASL parameter increments
once for every second that the Line was considered unavailable (at any
point during the second). A Line becomes unavailable at the onset of 10
consecutive seconds that qualify as Near-End SESLs, and continues to
be unavailable until the onset of 10 consecutive seconds that do not
qualify as Near-End SESLs.
Protection switch count (PSC-L)
The PSC parameter records the number of times that service traffic
switched to or from another line either automatically, by a WaveStar®
CIT command, or operations system command. The Near-End
Protection Switch Counts (PSC-L) parameter for each SONET line
(that supports 1+1 protection switching for that line) is monitored.
Pointer justifications counts difference (PJCDIFF-P)
This is a calculation of the absolute value of the PJC parameters listed
under the headings below. PJCDIFF-P is used to calculate the
difference between calculate the difference between the PPJC-PGEN,
NPJC-PGEN and between PPJC-PDET and NPJC-PDET. DMXplore
monitors the first good cross-connected STS or the provisioned STS.
From this STS, the calculation is to (A) calculate the difference
between the PPJC-PGEN, NPJC-PGEN. (B) Calculate the difference of
the PPJC-PDET, NPJC-PDET. The resulting PJC is the absolute value
of the difference between A and B.
OC-N Line PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > OCn Line command to obtain the OC-N
Line PM Report. For more information about the OC-N line parameters
and the Performance > Reports > OCn Line command, refer to the
WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
B - 10
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Performance Monitoring
STS-N Performance Parameters
....................................................................................................
Overview
Monitored parameters
This section describes the performance monitoring parameters on
terminated (STS-1 and STS-3c) and intermediate STS-N (STS-1 and
STS-3c) paths that are cross-connected through the system.
Intermediate SONET STS-N path performance monitoring applies to
STS-N paths cross-connected to another SONET interface. Terminated
SONET STS-N path performance monitoring applies to STS-N paths
cross-connected to a non-SONET interface (for example, DS3).
The following table lists the SONET STS-N path performance
parameters that DMXplore monitors, including the default and ranges
for the 15-minute and 1-day (24-hour) registers.
Table B-3
SONET STS-N Performance Parameters
15-Min
Facility
Measured Provisionable Parameter
1-Day
Default
Range
(Note)
Default
Range
(Note)
STS-3c Path
Coding Violations (CV-P)
25
0-16383
250
0-1048575
STS-1 Path
Coding Violations (CV-P)
125
0-16383
150
0-1048575
STS-3c Path
Errored Seconds (ES-P)
20
0-900
200
0-65535
STS-1 Path
Errored Seconds (ES-P)
12
0-900
100
0-65535
STS-N Path
Unavailable Seconds (UAS-P)
10
0-900
10
0-65535
Note: When an individual performance monitoring parameter threshold is provisioned as zero (0), TCA
reporting for the affected parameter is disabled.
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B - 11
STS-N Performance Parameters
STS-N path parameters
: Performance Monitoring
DMXplore monitors the following near end SONET STS path
parameters on incoming (from the SONET interface) STS-N signals.
Coding violations (CV-P)
The Near-End STS Path Coding Violations (CVP) parameter for each
SONET path is monitored. The CVP parameter increments once for
each BIP error detected at the STS path layer (the B3 byte of the
incoming SONET STS Path overhead). Up to 8 BIP errors can be
detected per frame.
Errored seconds (ES-P)
The Near-End STS Path Errored Seconds (ESP) parameter for each
SONET path is monitored. The ESP parameter increments once for
each second where one or more STS Path layer BIP errors are detected
or an AIS-P, LOP-P, or UNEQ-P defect is detected.
Currently this product detects 1-bit RDI, but treats it as though it is the
high order bit of a 3-bit ERDI in that it includes UNEQ.
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
The Near-End STS Path Severely Errored Seconds (SESP) parameter
for each SONET path is monitored. The SESP parameter increments
once for each second where K or more STS Path layer BIP errors are
detected or an AIS-P, LOP-P, or UNEQ-P defect is detected. The integer value for K is set by standards and is selectable (values are shown
in Table 8). Currently DMXploredetects 1-bit RDI, but treats it as
though it is the high order bit of a 3-bit ERDI in that it includes UNEQ.
Currently this product detects 1-bit RDI, but treats it as though it is the
high order bit of a 3-bit ERDI in that it includes UNEQ.
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
The Near-End STS Path Unavailable Seconds (UASP) parameter for
each SONET path is monitored. The UASP parameter increments once
for each second where SESP is detected after ten consecutive seconds
with SESP detected. UASP continues to increment once for each
second until ten consecutive seconds without SESP are detected.
STS-N Path PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > STSn Path command to obtain the
STS-N Path PM Report. For more information about the STS-N path
parameters and the Performance > Reports > STSn Path command, refer to
the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
B - 12
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: Performance Monitoring
VT1.5 Performance Parameters
....................................................................................................
Overview
This section describes the terminated SONET VT1.5 performance
monitoring parameters. Terminated SONET VT1.5 path performance
monitoring applies to VT1.5 paths cross-connected to a non-SONET
interface (for example, DS1).
Monitored parameters
The following table lists the SONET VT1.5 path performance
parameters that DMXplore monitors, including the default and ranges
for the 15-minute and 1-day (24-hour) registers.
Table B-4
SONET VT1.5 Performance Parameters
15-Min
Facility
VT1.5 Path
Measured Provisionable Parameter
1-Day
Default
Range
(Note)
Default
Range
(Note)
V5 Errored Seconds (ES-P)
40
0-900
900
0-65535
V5 Severely Errored Seconds (SES-P)
40
0-900
900
0-65535
V5 Unavailable Seconds (UAS-P)
40
0-900
900
0-65535
Note: When an individual performance monitoring parameter threshold is provisioned as zero (0), TCA
reporting for the affected parameter is disabled.
VT1.5 path parameters
DMXplore monitors the following near end SONET VT1.5 path
parameters on incoming (from the SONET interface) VT1.5 signals.
Errored seconds (ES-P)
The Near-End STS Path Errored Seconds (ESP) parameter for each SONET path is monitored. The ESP parameter increments once for each
second where one or more STS Path layer BIP errors are detected or an
AIS-P, LOP-P, or UNEQ-P defect is detected. BIP errors are not monitored for VTs.
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
The Near-End STS Path Severely Errored Seconds (SESP) parameter
for each SONET path is monitored. The SESP parameter increments
once for each second where K or more STS Path layer BIP errors are
detected or an AIS-P, LOP-P, or UNEQ-P defect is detected. Currently
DMXplore detects 1-bit RDI, but treats it as though it is the high order
bit of a 3-bit ERDI in that it includes UNEQ.
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B - 13
VT1.5 Performance Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
The Near-End STS Path Unavailable Seconds (UASP) parameter for
each SONET path is monitored. The UASP parameter increments once
for each second where SESP is detected after ten consecutive seconds
with SESP detected. UASP continues to increment once for each
second until ten consecutive seconds without SESP are detected.
B - 14
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: Performance Monitoring
DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
....................................................................................................
Overview
This section describes the performance monitoring parameters that are
monitored on DS3 signals incoming from the high speed fiber and from
the local DSX-3 cross-connect.
In order to generate DS3 PM reports, the port Primary State must be
IS (in service). (When the PST parameter is provisioned as AUTO and
a valid DS3 signal is detected, the PST parameter automatically
transitions to the IS state.) The VM mode should be off because the
P-bits can be corrected at nodes where the VM Mode is provisioned on,
and the DS3 P-bit PM data may not provide a complete report of the
end-to-end DS3 path errors.
Monitored parameters
The following table lists the DS3 line and path performance parameters
that DMXplore monitors, including the default and ranges for the
15-minute and 1-day (24-hour) registers.
Table B-5
DS3 Performance Parameters
15-Min
Facility
Measured Provisionable Parameter
1-Day
Default
Range
(Note)
Default
Range
(Note)
387
0-16383
3865
0-1048575
DS3 Line Errored Seconds (ES-L), ES-L FE
25
0-900
250
0-65535
Severely Errored Seconds (SES-L)
4
0-900
40
0-65535
Coding Violations (CV-P)
Coding Violations Far End (CV-PFE)
382
0-16383
3820
0-1048575
Errored Seconds (ES-P)
Errored Seconds Far End (ES-PFE)
25
0-900
250
0-65535
Severely Errored Seconds (SES-P)
Severely Errored Seconds Far End (SES-PFE)
4
0-900
40
0-65535
Unavailable Seconds (UAS-P)
Unavailable Seconds Far End (UAS-PFE)
10
0-900
10
0-65535
SE Frame/Alarm Indication Signal Seconds (SAS-P)
SE Frame/Alarm Indication Signal Seconds Far End
(SAS-PFE)
2
0-900
8
0-65535
Coding Violations (CV-L)
DS3 Path
Note: When an individual performance monitoring parameter threshold is provisioned as zero (0), TCA
reporting for the affected parameter is disabled.
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B - 15
DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
DS3 line parameters
: Performance Monitoring
DMXplore monitors the following ingress near end DS3 line
parameters on incoming (from the DSX-3 cross-connect) DS3 signals.
Ingress refers to performance monitoring parameters that are measured
at the input of the DS3 or TMUX circuit pack on the DS3 line side (also
referred to as facility, customer terminal, or DSX side).
Supported performance monitoring signal formats
DMXplore supports DS3 line performance monitoring on DS3 signals
with P-bit parity, FM-bit parity, or CP-bit parity performance
monitoring signal formats.
Coding violations (CV-L)
The near end CV-L parameter increments once for each bipolar
violation (BPV) and excessive zeros (EXZ) detected at the DS3 line
layer.
Errored seconds (ES-L)
The near end ES-L parameter increments once for each second during
which DMXplore detects either one or more bipolar violations (BPVs)
or excessive zeros (EXZ), or one or more LOS defects.
Severely errored seconds (SES-L)
The near end SES-L parameter increments once for each second during
which DMXplore detects either one or more LOS defects, 2444 or
more BPVs at a minimum BER of 7.5 X 10-5, or 45 or more BPVs at a
minimum BER of 1 X 10-6.
DS3 Line PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > DS3 Line command to obtain the DS3
Line PM Report. Ingress near end DS3 line PM is reported with an AID
of the DS3 or TMUX interface and a modifier of T3. For more
information about the DS3 line parameters and the Performance >
Reports > DS3 Line command, refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
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DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
DS3 path performance
monitoring signal format
: Performance Monitoring
DMXplore supports the following DS3 path performance monitoring
signal formats:
•
P-bit parity: The P bits are monitored for detecting code violations
at the near end.
•
FM-bit parity: The F and M bits are monitored for detecting code
violations at the near end.
•
CP-bit parity: CP-bit parity is used for end-to-end DS3 path PM
(near end and far end). The C bits are monitored for code
violations. CP-bit parity is only allowed on DS3 signals with the
C-bit signal format.
P-bit parity
When provisioned for P-bit parity, DMXplore calculates and provides
counts of the following near end DS3 path parameters incoming from
the fiber or DSX-3:
•
Coding violations (CV-P)
•
Errored seconds (ES-P)
•
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
•
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
•
Severely errored frame/alarm indication signal seconds (SAS-P)
FM-bit parity
FM-bit parity provides an alternative method for determining and
accumulating DS3 path performance data based on an error estimation
technique using errors on the F&M framing bits to approximate the
actual error counts in the DS3 path payload.
Adjusted F&M bit performance monitoring estimates the following
near end DS3 path parameters incoming from the fiber or DSX-3:
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•
Coding violations (CV-P)
•
Errored seconds (ES-P)
•
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
•
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
•
Severely errored frame/alarm indication signal seconds (SAS-P)
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DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
CP-bit parity
When provisioned for CP-bit parity, DMXplore calculates and
provides counts of the following DS3 near end and far end path
parameters incoming from the fiber or DSX-3:
B - 18
•
Coding violations (CV-P)
•
Errored seconds (ES-P)
•
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
•
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
•
Severely errored frame/alarm indication signal seconds (SAS-P)
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DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
Violation monitoring and
removal
: Performance Monitoring
The DS3 path performance monitoring signal formats support
provisionable P-bit monitoring and correction (violation monitoring
mode) on the outgoing DS3 signal toward the DS3 facility.
The following table shows the provisionable DS3 signal formats,
performance monitoring signal formats, and VM modes.
Table B-6
DS3 Signal formats, PM signal formats, and VM
modes
DS3 Signal
Format
Performance
Monitoring
Signal
Format
VM Mode
Monitor
P-Bits
On
X
Off
X
Correct
P-Bits
X
P-bit parity
On
C-Bit
X
FM-bit parity
Off
On
X
CP-bit parity
Off
Near end DS3 path
parameters
DMXplore monitors the following ingress and egress near end DS3
path parameters at the local network element. Ingress refers to
parameters that are measured on incoming DS3 signals at the input of
the local DS3 circuit pack on the DS3 line side (also referred to as
facility, customer terminal, or DSX side). Egress refers to parameters
that are measured on incoming DS3 signals at the input of the local
DS3 port unit on the SONET side (also referred to as fiber side).
Coding violations (CV-P)
The near end CV-P parameter increments once for each parity error
detected at the path level. The CV-P parameter applies to all
performance monitoring signal formats.
In the P-bit parity signal format, unidentical P-bits corresponding to the
same DS3 M-frame also increment the CV-P parameter.
For CP-bit parity signal format, the three C-bits in subframe 3 of a
C-bit formatted DS3 frame carry the DS3 path-parity information. At
the DS3 transmitter, the CP bits in the DS3 C-bit frame are set equal to
the two P-bits in frame “n”. These CP bits are then inserted into frame
“n+1”. Since the CP bits are not modified in any way while passing
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DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
through the network, the DS3 high-speed receiver can determine if
errors occurred in the DS3 path. The DS3 receiver computes the parity
of frame “n” and compares that parity with the value received in the CP
bits in frame “n+1”. If the values do not match, DS3 path parity
violations are counted.
Errored seconds (ES-P)
The near end ES-P parameter increments once for each second during
which DMXplore detects either one or more parity errors, one or more
SEF defects, or one or more AIS defects. The ES-P parameter applies
to all performance monitoring signal formats.
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
The near end SES-P parameter increments once for each second during
which DMXplore detects either one or more AIS or SEF defects, 2444
or more BPVs at a minimum BER of 7.5 X 10-5, or 45 or more BPVs at
a minimum BER of 1 X 10-6. The SES-P parameter applies to all
performance monitoring signal formats.
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
A near end UAS-P is a second during which the path is unavailable. A
path is considered unavailable from the beginning of 10 consecutive
severely errored seconds until the beginning of 10 consecutive seconds,
none of which are severely errored. The UAS-P parameter applies to
the P-bit parity and FM-bit parity performance monitoring signal
formats.
Severely errored frame/alarm indication signal seconds (SAS-P)
The SAS-P parameter increments once for each second during which
DMXplore detects either one or more severely errored frame defects,
or one or more AIS defects. The SAS-P parameter applies to all
performance monitoring signal formats.
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DS3 Performance Monitoring Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
Near End DS3 Path PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > DS3 Path command to obtain the DS3
Path PM Report. Ingress near end DS3 path PM is reported with an
AID of the DS3 or TMUX interface and a modifier of T3. Egress near
end DS3 path PM is reported with an AID of the SONET interface and
a modifier of T3. For more information about the DS3 path parameters
and the Performance > Reports > DS3 Path command, refer to the
WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
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: Performance Monitoring
DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
....................................................................................................
B - 22
Overview
This section describes the performance monitoring parameters relevant
to DS1 signals incoming from the fiber or DSX-1.
DS1 ESF format
Tariffed service verification consists of monitoring performance
parameters that can be associated with the customer’s end-to-end
service. Based on ANSI T1.403 extended superframe format (ESF), this
capability retrieves performance messages written into the ESF data
link by the customer’s terminal equipment. From these messages,
DMXplore can determine and report the end-to-end error performance
of the entire DS1 link as seen by the customer. The counts are retrieved
by the message-based operations system to determine if the service is
operating within tariffed limits.
DS1 SF format
Each DS1 circuit pack measures the near-end performance of the
incoming DS1 signals, allowing the service provider to determine if a
good DS1 signal was received from the customer before transporting it
through the network. This information can then aid in sectionalizing
any reported performance problems. The DS1 circuit packs can also
provide this same near-end information for super frame (SF) formatted
(sometimes known as “D4 framing”) DS1 services, but complete
end-to-end performance verification is limited due to the lack of the
PRM in the SF format.
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DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
Monitored parameters
: Performance Monitoring
The following table lists the DS1 line and path performance parameters
that DMXplore monitors, including the default and ranges for the
15-minute and 1-day (24-hour) registers.
Table B-7
DS1 Performance Parameters
15-Min
Facility
DS1 Line
Measured Provisionable Parameter
1-Day
Default
Range
(Note)
Default
Range
(Note)
Errored Seconds (ES-L)
65
0-900
648
0-65535
Coding Violations (fmt=SF) (CV-P)
72
0-16383
691
0-1048575
13296
0-16383
132960
0-1048575
65
0-900
648
0-65535
10
0-900
100
0-65535
10
0-900
10
0-65535
2
0-900
17
0-65535
Coding Violations (fmt=ESF) (CV-P)
Coding Violations Far End (CV-PFE)
Errored Seconds (ES-P)
Errored Seconds Far End (ES-PFE)
Severely Errored Seconds (SES-P)
DS1 Path
Severely Errored Seconds Far End
(SES-PFE)
Unavailable Seconds (UAS-P)
Unavailable Seconds Far End (UAS-PFE)
SE Frame/Alarm Indication Signal Seconds
(SAS-P)
SE Frame Seconds Far End (SEFS-PFE)
Note: When an individual performance monitoring parameter threshold is provisioned as zero (0), TCA
reporting for the affected parameter is disabled.
DS1 line parameters
DMXplore monitors the following near end DS1 line parameter on
incoming (from the DSX-1 cross-connect) DS1 signals. The parameter
is measured at the input of the DS1 circuit pack on the DS1 line side
(also referred to as facility, customer terminal, or DSX side).
Errored seconds (ES-L)
The near end ES-L parameter increments once for each second during
which DMXplore detects either one or more bipolar violations (BPVs)
or excessive zeros (EXZ), or one or more LOS defects.
DS1 Line PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > DS1 line command to obtain the DS1
Line PM Report. Near end DS1 line PM is reported with an AID of the
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DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
DS1 interface and a modifier of T1. For more information about the
DS1 line parameter and the Performance > Reports > DS1 line command,
refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
Near end DS1 path
parameters
DMXplore monitors the following near end DS1 path parameters at the
local network element. The parameters are measured at the input of the
local DS1 or TMUX circuit pack on the DS1 line side (also referred to
as facility, customer terminal, or DSX side).
Coding violations (CV-P)
For the SF format, the CV-P parameter increments once for each frame
synchronization bit error (FE) detected at the path level. For the ESF
format, the CV-P parameter increments once for each cyclic
redundancy check error (CRC) detected at the path level.
Errored seconds (ES-P)
For the SF format, he ES-P parameter increments once for each second
during which DMXplore detects FE errors, CS events, SEF defects, or
AIS defects. For the ESF format, he ES-P parameter increments once
for each second during which DMXplore detects CRC errors, CS
events, SEF defects, or AIS defects.
Severely errored seconds (SES-P)
For the SF format, the SES-P parameter increments once for each
second during which DMXplore detects 8 or more FE events (if Ft and
Fs bits are measured) or 4 or more FE events (if only Ft bits are
monitored), or SEF defects, or AIS defects.
Unavailable seconds (UAS-P)
A UAS-P is a second during which the path is unavailable. A path is
considered unavailable from the beginning of 10 consecutive severely
errored seconds until the beginning of 10 consecutive seconds, none of
which are severely errored.
Severely errored frame/alarm indication signal seconds (SAS-P)
The SAS-P parameter increments once for each second during which
DMXplore detects either one or more severely errored frame defects,
or one or more AIS defects. The SAS-P parameter applies to SF and
ESF frame formats.
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DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
Near End DS1 Path PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > DS1 path command to obtain the DS1
Path PM Report. Near end DS1 path PM is reported with an AID of the
DS1 or TMUX interface and a modifier of T1. For more information
about the DS1 path parameters and the Performance > Reports > DS1 path
command, refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
Far end DS1 path
parameters
DMXplore monitors the following far end DS1 path parameters at the
local network element. If the far end network element detects an
incoming error, the far end network element communicates the error
back to the local near end network element using Performance Report
Message (PRM) frames or a Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) signal.
The far end parameters are measured at the input of the local DS1 or
TMUX circuit pack on the DS1 line side (also referred to as facility,
customer terminal, or DSX side).
Important! The format must be set to ESF to monitor the far
end parameters (CV-PFE, ES-PFE, SES-PFE, and UAS-PFE).
Coding violations Far End (CV-PFE)
The CV-PFE parameter increments based on the PRM G bits defined in
the following table.
Table B-8
CV-PFE parameter increments
PRM Bit = 1
CV Count Accumulated
G1
1
G2
5
G3
10
G4
100
G5
319
G6
333
Errored seconds Far End (ES-PFE)
The ES-PFE parameter is a count of one second PRM intervals
containing an RAI or RAI-CI signal, or a 1 in any of the following bits:
G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, SE, or SL.
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DS1 Performance Monitoring Parameters
: Performance Monitoring
Severely errored seconds Far End (SES-PFE)
The SES-PFE parameter is a count of one second PRM intervals
containing an RAI or RAI-CI signal or a 1 in any of the following bits:
G6 or SE.
Unavailable seconds Far End (UAS-PFE)
A UAS-PFE is a second during which the path is unavailable. A path is
considered unavailable from the beginning of 10 consecutive severely
errored seconds until the beginning of 10 consecutive seconds, none of
which are severely errored.
Severely errored frame seconds (SEFS-PFE)
The SEFS-PFE parameter is a count of 1 second PRM intervals that SE
bit is equal to 1.
Far End DS1 Path PM Report
Use the Performance > Reports > DS1 path command to obtain the DS1
Path PM Report. Far end DS1 path PM is reported with an AID of the
DS1 or TMUX interface and a modifier of T1. For more information
about the DS1 path parameters and the Performance > Reports > DS1 path
command, refer to the WaveStar® CIT on-line help.
B - 26
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: Performance Monitoring
Ethernet Performance Monitoring Parameters
....................................................................................................
Overview
TCAs
Monitored parameters
DMXplore provides PM capabilities for the Fast Ethernet and Gigabit
Ethernet interfaces. PM data is collected at each LAN and WAN
interface in the network for both incoming and outgoing directions and
is stored in quarter-hour and day bins. The WAN interface provides a
connection to a SONET Virtual Concatenation Group (VCG).
Provisionable threshold crossing alerts (TCAs) are supported on the
Ethernet interfaces.
The following table lists the Ethernet performance parameters that
DMXplore monitors, including the ranges for the 15-minute and 1-day
(24-hour) registers.
Table B-9
Ethernet Performance Parameters
15-Min
Facility
Ethernet
Monitored Parameter
Default
Range
(Note)
1-Day
Default
Range
(Note)
Ethernet dropped frames (errors)
(EDFE) (Note 1)
70,000
0-7,000,000
900,000
0-90,000,000
Incoming number of bytes (EINB)
70,000
0-7,000,000
900,000
0-90,000,000
Incoming number of frames (EINF)
70,000
0-7,000,000
900,000
0-90,000,000
Outgoing number of bytes
(EONB)
70,000
0-7,000,000
900,000
0-90,000,000
Outgoing number of frames
(EONF)
70,000
0-7,000,000
900,000
0-90,000,000
All of the above monitored types
(ALL)
70,000
0-7,000,000
900,000
0-90,000,000
Notes:
1. Counter can overflow.
Enabling/disabling
Performance monitoring is enabled/disabled via the WaveStar® CIT.
From the System View menu, select Provision > Prov PM Ports, then
navigate to the port.
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Ethernet Performance Monitoring Parameters
Ethernet parameters
: Performance Monitoring
DMXplore monitors several Ethernet parameters.
Ethernet dropped frames (errors) (EDFE)
The EDFE parameter counts the number of incoming Ethernet frames
dropped at a LAN/WAN port due to a frame check sequence (FCS)
error or another defect in the frame.
B - 28
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: Performance Monitoring
SNMP Parameters and Traps
....................................................................................................
Overview
DMXplore supports the following functionality through the Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) interface:
•
Private Ethernet performance monitoring management
information base (MIB) module that specifies Ethernet
performance monitoring and traps using the SONET 15-minute
and 24-hour registers.
•
Standard Ethernet interface MIB module that specifies Ethernet
port performance monitoring counts using the Ethernet continuous
counter (RFC2863)
•
Standard Ethernet performance monitoring MIB module for the
Ethernet-like Interface Types that specifies additional Ethernet
port performance monitoring counts using the Ethernet continuous
counter (RFC2358/RFC2665)
•
Private VCG MIB module that specifies VCG traps
•
Private MIB module for equipment information and equipment
traps.
The MIB files are stored on the user’s PC.
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
Private Ethernet PM MIB
module
: Performance Monitoring
DMXplore supports a private Ethernet PM MIB module for Ethernet
traps and for retrieving Ethernet PM parameters. This private Ethernet
PM MIB module applies to individual Fast Ethernet and Gigabit
Ethernet ports.
Private Ethernet PM MIB Module Parameters
The following table shows the private Ethernet PM MIB module
parameters.
Object
B - 30
Parameter
Definition
dmxEthPmonTypeCurrent
port type
FE or GbE port
dmxEPmonCurrentEinb
Incoming number of bytes
(EINB)
Total Bytes Received
dmxEPmonCurrentEinf
Incoming number of frames
(EINF)
Frames Received or Total Frames
Received
dmxEPmonCurrentEdfe
Dropped frames: congestion
(EDFC)
Dropped Frames
dmxEPmonCurrentEdfe
Dropped frames: errors
(EDFE)
CRC Error + Oversize Frames +
Fragments + Jabber + MAC Rx
Error (Note)
dmxEPmonCurrentEonb
Outgoing number of bytes
(EONB)
Bytes Sent
dmxEPmonCurrentEonf
Outgoing number of frames
(EONF)
Frames Sent
dmxEthPmonIntervalIndex
15 minute bucket index
1 to 32
dmxEthPmonTypeInterval
port type
FE or GbE port
dmxEPmonIntervalEinb
Incoming number of bytes
(EINB)
Total Bytes Received: 15 minute
dmxEPmonIntervalEinf
Incoming number of frames
(EINF)
Frames Received or Total Frames
Received: 15 minute
dmxEPmonIntervalEdfe
Dropped frames: congestion
(EDFC)
Dropped Frames: 15 minute
dmxEPmonIntervalEdfe
Dropped frames: errors
(EDFE)
CRC Error + Oversize Frames +
Fragments + Jabber + MAC Rx
Error: 15 minute
dmxEPmonIntervalEonb
Outgoing number of bytes
(EONB)
Bytes Sent: 15 minute
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
: Performance Monitoring
Object
Parameter
Definition
dmxEPmonIntervalEonf
Outgoing number of frames
(EONF)
Frames Sent: 15 minute
dmxEthPmonDayIndex
day index
current or previous 24 hour period
dmxEthPmonDayType
port type
FE or GbE port
dmxEPmonDayEinb
Incoming number of bytes
(EINB)
Total Bytes Received: 24 hour
dmxEPmonDayEinf
Incoming number of frames
(EINF)
Frames Received or Total Frames
Received: 24 hour
dmxEPmonDayEdfe
Dropped frames: congestion
(EDFC)
Dropped Frames: 24 hour
dmxEPmonDayEdfe
Dropped frames: errors
(EDFE)
CRC Error + Oversize Frames +
Fragments + Jabber + MAC Rx
Error: 24 hour
dmxEPmonDayEonb
Outgoing number of bytes
(EONB)
Bytes Sent: 24 hour
dmxEPmonDayEonf
Outgoing number of frames
(EONF)
Frames Sent: 24 hour
Private Ethernet PM MIB Module Traps
The following table shows the private Ethernet PM MIB module traps.
Object
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Definition
dmxIncFeLanLos
Loss of signal (LOS) on FE LAN port
dmxIncFeLanLosClr
LOS clear on FE LAN port
dmxIncFeLanAnm
Auto-Negotiation Mismatch (ANM) on FE LAN port
dmxIncFeLanAnmClr
ANM clear on FE LAN port
dmxIncGeLanLos
Loss of signal (LOS) on GbE LAN port
dmxIncGeLanLosClr
LOS clear on GbE LAN port
dmxIncGeLanAnm
Auto-Negotiation Mismatch (ANM) on GbE LAN port
dmxIncGeLanAnmClr
ANM clear on GbE LAN port
B - 31
SNMP Parameters and Traps
Standard Ethernet interface
MIB module (RFC2863)
: Performance Monitoring
DMXplore supports the standard Ethernet interface MIB module
defined in RFC2863. This module defines Ethernet traps and
retrievable Ethernet port and PM parameters. This MIB module applies
applies to individual Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Standard Ethernet interface MIB Module Parameters
The following table shows the standard Ethernet interface MIB module
parameters.
Object
Definition
ifIndex
Interface Index
ifDescr
Interface description (mfg, product, version)
ifType
Type of interface
ifMtu
Maximum packet size
ifSpeed
Interface maximum rate (bps) - for GbE circuit pack, this is
“1,000,000,000”, for FE circuit pack, value is based on value of the line
rate parameter. If the line rate is 10M, ifSpeed value is “10,000,000”. If the
line rate parameter is 100M, ifSpeed value is “100,000,000”.
ifPhysAddress
MAC Address
ifAdminStatus
Administration status (up, down or testing) (read only). Value is always
“up”.
ifOperStatus
Operational status (up, down, testing, unknown, dormant, notPresent or
lowerLayerDown). If board/port is removed, value is “notPresent”. If
there is an existing alarm on the port, i.e., Loss of signal (LOS) or
Auto-Negotiation Mismatch (ANM) on the port, then the value is “down”,
else the value is “up”.
ifLastChange
TimeTicks since last re-initialization
ifInOctets
Total Bytes Received
IfInUcastPkts
Frames Received: Broadcast Frames Received - Multicast Frames
Received
ifInMulticastPkts
Multicast Frames Received
ifInBroadcastPkts
Broadcast Frames Received
ifInDiscards
Dropped Frames
ifInErrors
CRC Error + Oversize Frames + Fragments + Jabber + MAC Rx Error
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
: Performance Monitoring
Object
Definition
ifInUnknownProtos
(always 0)
ifOutOctets
Bytes Sent
IfOutUcastPkts
Frames Sent - Out Multicast Frames - Out Broadcast Frames
ifOutMulticastPkts
Out Multicast Frames
ifOutBroadcastPkts
Out Broadcast Frames
IfOutDiscards
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
ifOutErrors
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
ifName
Interface name - (always set to NULL)
ifHCInOctets
Total Bytes Received
ifHCInUcastPkts
Frames Received: Broadcast Frames Received - Multicast Frames
Received
ifHCInMulticastPkts
Multicast Frames Received
ifHCInBroadcastPkts
Broadcast Frames Received
ifHCOutOctets
Bytes Sent
ifHCOutUcastPkts
Frames Sent - Out Multicast Frames - Out Broadcast Frames
ifHCOutMulticastPkts
Out Multicast Frames
ifHCOutBroadcastPkts
Out Broadcast Frames
ifLinkUpDownTrapEnable
Traps enabled or disabled - DMXplore, Metropolis® DMXpress and
Metropolis® DMX supports READ-ONLY
ifHighSpeed
Interface speed (Mbps) - for GbE circuit pack, this is “1,000”, for FE
circuit pack, value is based on line rate parameter. If the line rate is 10M,
ifSpeed value is “10”. If the line rate is 100M, ifSpeed value is “100”.
ifPromiscuousMode
Promiscuous mode (true or false) - DMX, DMXpress and DMXtend
supports READ-ONLY
ifConnectorPresent
Physical connector present (true or false)
ifAlias
Interface alias name - READ-ONLY - - (always set to NULL)
ifCounterDiscontinuity
TimeTimeStamp
Time of last counter discontinuity
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
: Performance Monitoring
Object
Definition
ifInUnknownProtos
(always 0)
ifOutOctets
Bytes Sent
IfOutUcastPkts
Frames Sent - Out Multicast Frames - Out Broadcast Frames
ifOutMulticastPkts
Out Multicast Frames
ifOutBroadcastPkts
Out Broadcast Frames
IfOutDiscards
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
ifOutErrors
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
ifName
Interface name - (always set to NULL)
ifHCInOctets
Total Bytes Received
ifHCInUcastPkts
Frames Received: Broadcast Frames Received - Multicast Frames
Received
ifHCInMulticastPkts
Multicast Frames Received
ifHCInBroadcastPkts
Broadcast Frames Received
ifHCOutOctets
Bytes Sent
ifHCOutUcastPkts
Frames Sent - Out Multicast Frames - Out Broadcast Frames
ifHCOutMulticastPkts
Out Multicast Frames
ifHCOutBroadcastPkts
Out Broadcast Frames
ifLinkUpDownTrapEnable
Traps enabled or disabled - DMXplore, Metropolis® DMXpress and
Metropolis® DMX supports READ-ONLY
ifHighSpeed
Interface speed (Mbps) - for GbE circuit pack, this is “1,000”, for FE
circuit pack, value is based on line rate parameter. If the line rate is 10M,
ifSpeed value is “10”. If the line rate is 100M, ifSpeed value is “100”.
ifPromiscuousMode
Promiscuous mode (true or false) - DMX, DMXpress and DMXtend
supports READ-ONLY
ifConnectorPresent
Physical connector present (true or false)
ifAlias
Interface alias name - READ-ONLY - - (always set to NULL)
ifCounterDiscontinuity
TimeTimeStamp
Time of last counter discontinuity
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: Performance Monitoring
Standard Ethernet interface MIB Module Traps
The following table shows the standard Ethernet interface MIB module
traps.
Object
Standard Ethernet PM MIB
module
(RFC2358/RFC2665)
Definition
linkUp
link up
linkDown
link down
DMXplore supports the standard Ethernet PM MIB module defined in
RFC2358 and RFC2665. This module defines additional retrievable
Ethernet PM parameters. This MIB module applies to individual Fast
Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Standard Ethernet PM MIB Module Parameters
The following table shows the standard Ethernet PM MIB module
parameters.
Object
Definition
ifIndex
Interface Index
dot3StatsAlignmentErrors
Fragments
dot3StatsFCSErrors
CRC Error
dot3StatsSingleCollisionFrames
Collision
dot3StatsMultipleCollisionFrames
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsSQETestErrors
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsDeferredTransmissions
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsLateCollisions
Late Collision
dot3StatsExcessiveCollisions
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsInternalMacTransmitErrors
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsCarrierSenseErrors
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsFrameTooLongs
Oversize Frames
dot3StatsInternalMacReceiveErrors
MAC Rx Error
dot3StatsSymbolErrors
(always 0) (not supported in this release)
dot3StatsDuplex Status
Duplex Status (half duplex (2), full duplex (3) - added by
RFC2665
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SNMP Parameters and Traps
: Performance Monitoring
Object
Definition
dot3ControlFunctionsSupported
pause (0) --802.3 flow control - added by RFC2665
dot3ControlInUnknownOpcodes
(always 0) - added by RFC2665 (not supported in this release)
dot3PauseAdminMode
Flow control default mode (read only) - added by RFC2665
dot3PauseOperMode
Flow control operational mode (disabled (1), enabled transmit &
receive (4)) - added by RFC2665
dot3InPauseFrames
(always 0) - added by RFC2665 (not supported in this release)
dot3OutPauseFrames
(always 0) - added by RFC2665 (not supported in this release)
Private VCG MIB module
DMXplore supports a private VCG MIB module for VCG traps. This
private VCG MIB module applies to individual VCGs.
Private VCG MIB Module Traps
The following table shows the private VCG MIB module traps.
Object
Private MIB module
Definition
dmxIncVcgFail
Incoming VCG fail
dmxIncVcgFailClr
Incoming VCG fail clear
DMXplore supports a private MIB module for retrieving equipment
information parameters and equipment traps. This private MIB module
applies to individual circuit packs.
Private MIB Module Parameters
The following table shows the private MIB module parameters.
Object
B - 36
Definition
dmxCardType
Circuit pack type.
dmxCardAPP
Circuit pack apparatus code
dmxCardSSN
Circuit pack series number
dmxCardCLEI
Common Language Equipment code
dmxCardECI
Equipment Catalog Item code
dmxCardSLN
Circuit pack serial number
dmxSftwVersion
Version of the software currently stored in the circuit pack
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
SNMP Parameters and Traps
: Performance Monitoring
Object
Definition
dmxCardEccMode
Ethernet Cross-connect Mode. This mode only pertains to
the LNW71 Fast Ethernet circuit pack. Values: STS1,
STS3c
dmxCardVlanTagMode
Virtual LAN tagging mode. This parameter is ONLY
reported for slots containing an Ethernet circuit pack.
Values: 802.1TAG (IEEE 802.1Q mode), TRANS
(Transparent mode), NOTAG (No Tag mode)
Private MIB Module Traps
The following table shows the private MIB module traps.
Object
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Definition
dmxCpNotAllowed
Circuit pack not allowed
dmxCpNotAllowedClr
Circuit pack not allowed clear
dmxFACTERM
Illegal circuit pack type
dmxFACTERMClr
Illegal circuit pack type clear
dmxFETERM
FE-LAN circuit pack failed
dmxFETERMClr
FE-LAN circuit pack failed clear
dmxGETERM
GE-LAN circuit pack failed
dmxGETERMClr
GE-LAN circuit pack failed clear
dmxCpRemoved
Circuit pack removed
dmxCpRemovedClr
Circuit pack removed clear
dmxCpInserted
Circuit pack inserted
B - 37
SNMP Parameters and Traps
B - 38
: Performance Monitoring
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
C: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Overview
....................................................................................................
Purpose
This appendix details the guidelines for IS-IS Level 2 Routing in
networks larger than 50 OSI nodes.
Contents
The following topics are included in this appendix:
Introduction
C
-2
C-2
Area Address Assignment
C
-4
C-4
Level 2 Router Assignment
C
-6
C-6
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Remote Provisioning Sequence
C
-7
C-7
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Provisioning Confirmation
C
-9
C-9
Maximum Number of OSI Nodes
C
- 11
C-11
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
C
- 13
C-13
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C - 1
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Introduction
....................................................................................................
Overview
If network sizes of more than 50 OSI nodes are required, hierarchical
routing makes it possible to increase the number of nodes in an OSI
management domain, (for example, NEs with OSI LAN and/or DCC
connectivity for operations communications among the NEs).
Increasing the number OS nodes is achieved through the use of IS-IS
Level 2 Routing.
IS-IS Level 2 Routing involves assigning NEs to multiple areas of 50
nodes or less. Level 2 routers support OSI communications between the
NEs in different areas. Both the assignment of NEs to areas and the
enabling of NEs as Level 2 routers is accomplished by provisioning
(refer to “Area Address Assignment” (C-4) and “Level 2 Router
Assignment” (C-6), respectively).
OSI Node vs. NE
terminology
Each DMXplore is an OSI node, but some other NEs support multiple
OSI nodes within a single NE, so the term “OSI node”, or simply
“node”, is generally used in this context instead of “NE”.
Advantages
The primary advantage of IS-IS Level 2 Routing is to limit the OSI
routing information that needs to be maintained by each node. Each
node within an area maintains routing tables to route OSI LAN and
DCC messages to the other nodes in the same area. If a node needs to
route a message to a node in a different area, the node relies on a
Level 2 router in its own area to route the message to a Level 2 router
in the target area and from that Level 2 router to the target node within
that area.
The Level 2 routers route messages between nodes in different areas.
These messages include all of the NE-NE (and OS-NE) OSI
communications required for the supported OI applications, (for
example, TL1 login messages from TL1-GNEs to TL1-RNEs.)
In addition to maintaining a routing table to route messages to other
nodes in the same area, Level 2 routers need to maintain routing
information for the Level 2 routers in all other areas (but not for all
nodes within each of those other areas).
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C - 2
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Introduction
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Symbols
The graphical examples is this appendix use the symbols that are
defined in the following figure. Figure C-1 illustrates an example
network with nodes assigned to four different areas connected by Level
2 routers.
Figure C-1 Network with Level 2 Routers
Area 1
Level 2 Subdomain
Area 2
Area 4
Area 3
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= Generic Level 2 Router
= SNMS
= OSI LAN
= DCC
= Area
= Level 2 Subdomain
NC-DMX-042
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C - 3
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Area Address Assignment
....................................................................................................
Area address
The area address is the first 26 characters of each DMXplore Network
Services Access Point (NSAP). [DMXplore supports a fixed-length 40character (20-byte) NSAP only.] The first eight characters of the
NSAPs are always the same and cannot be changed. The remaining
18 characters of the NSAP area address are provisionable but only the
Area field should be changed to assign a node to a different area. The
remainder of the NSAP includes the System Identifier field, which is
unique to each node, and the Selector (SEL) field.
The following table provides a break-down of an NSAP.
Table C-1
NSAP Field: AFI
Bytes:
1
Default Value:
(hex)
39
Area Addresses
IDI
Organization
DFI
RES
PAD
ID
IDI
2
840
F
not
provisionable
1
3
80
000000
RD Area
2
2
2
0000 0000 0000
user
provisionable
System
SEL
Identifier
6
1
none
00
not
provisionable
A group of nodes are assigned to an area by changing each node’s
NSAP Area field to the same value. The entire NSAP area address must
be identical for all nodes in an area and different from the NSAP area
addresses for all other areas.
If more than one separate area with the same area address exists,
routing to these areas from other areas would not be predictable and
couldn’t be expected to function properly.
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C - 4
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
Area Address Assignment
Area field
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
The Area field consists of four hexadecimal characters, with a default
value of 0000 (hex). TL1 command ENT-ULSDCC-L3 can be used to
change the Area field.
Area Terminology
Despite the technical differences between the area address and the Area
field described previously, the term area address is commonly used to
refer to the Area field value. Thus, for convenience, the term area
address is used throughout this document.
Multiple area addresses
Multiple area addressing is the capability for a node to be assigned
more than one area address. The provisioning of multiple area
addresses is not supported on DMXplore, directly. However, if
multiple area addresses are provisioned in another node, DMXplore
would recognize its own primary area address plus up to two other area
addresses. The use of multiple area addresses is not recommended.
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: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Level 2 Router Assignment
....................................................................................................
Overview
OSI communications is supported within a network which may consist
of a single area or multiple areas. Level 1 routers provide
interconnectivity between nodes in an area (all DMXplores are Level 1
routers). Level 2 routers provide connectivity between areas.
Guidelines and default
In a network with multiple areas, each area must contain at least one
Level 2 router. An area without a Level 2 router would be isolated from
the rest of the network. The adjacent set of Level 2 routers form the
Level 2 subdomain. For proper OSI routing, every Level 2 router
should have at least one neighbor (via OSI LAN or DCC) that is also a
Level 2 router. At least one of the Level 2 routers in an area must be
adjacent to a Level 2 router in another area, otherwise, the former area
would be isolated from the rest of the network.
Each DMXplore is not a Level 2 router by default. TL1 command
ENT-ULSDCC-L3 can be used to enable any DMXplore as a Level 2
router.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Remote Provisioning Sequence
....................................................................................................
Avoid isolating nodes
An important goal is to avoid isolating any nodes when provisioning
area addresses and Level 2 routers remotely. Isolating a node may
require craft dispatch to the isolated node to recover. To avoid isolating
nodes, the sequence for remote provisioning is established with respect
to the local node to which the WaveStar® CIT is connected or the
TL1-GNE through which Navis™ Optical Element Management
System (Navis™ Optical EMS) is connected. Typically, the local node
or TL1-GNE is provisioned to be a Level 2 router first, but its area
address is not changed initially. This general sequence can be modified
in networks with redundant OSI LAN or DCC connectivity between
and within areas.
1.
The nodes and sub-tending rings that are furthest away from this
local node or TL1-GNE are provisioned first.
2.
Work back toward the local node or TL1-GNE’s sub-tending ring.
3.
Provision the local node or TL1-GNE’s sub-tending ring.
4.
Provision the local node or TL1-GNE last.
If Navis™ Optical EMS is part of the network via an OSI LAN or
WAN interface, provision the area address for the Navis™ Optical
EMS.
Important! Before assigning area addresses and Level 2 routers
in a network, be sure no alarms (especially DCC failure alarms)
exist; otherwise, even the recommended remote provisioning
sequence might result in isolated nodes. To confirm the network
alarm status, it is recommended that a centralized maintenance
center with TL1 OS support be consulted.
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C - 7
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Remote Provisioning Sequence
Provisioning sub-tending
rings
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Always provision new area addresses for a sub-tending ring by starting
with a node that is adjacent to the node that connects this sub-tending
ring to the rest of the network, and then provision the area address for
each sequential adjacent node going around the sub-tending ring.
Provision the area address of the connecting node last, especially if the
connecting node supports multiple sub-tending rings.
For single-homed sub-tending rings, provision the node that will be the
Level 2 router node last; otherwise, nodes in its area could be isolated.
For dual-homed rings, provision one of the nodes that will be Level 2
router first, so that OSI connectivity is established with provisioned
nodes as soon as they complete their controller resets.
Minimizing OSI
communications disruption
Another important goal is to provision the network in such a way that
OSI communications disruption is minimized. Changing a node’s area
address and/or enabling a node as a Level 2 router causes the node to
reset its controller. The reset is immediate and is part of the completion
of the command. In addition to temporarily disrupting OSI
communications, controller resets temporarily disable automatic
transmission protection switching.
As one node is undergoing a controller reset in an area, the next
adjacent node should be provisioned to minimize the overall time
required to provision the nodes in an area and minimize the time that
OSI communications with the nodes in the area are lost.
Changing a node’s area address and enabling a node as a Level 2 router,
if appropriate, should usually both be done with a single command per
node.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Provisioning Confirmation
....................................................................................................
Overview
TL1 RTRV-MAP-NETWORK commands can be used to confirm the area
address and Level 2 router assignments of all nodes with OS LAN or
DCC connectivity in a network.
Small networks
In a small network without IS-IS Level 2 Routing, the RTRV-MAPNETWORK response includes the NSAPs (including the embedded area
address field) of the local node and all remote nodes. This command
may also be useful to confirm the uniqueness of the area addresses
before combining two existing networks into one large network
requiring IS-IS Level 2 Routing.
Large networks
In large networks with IS-IS Level 2 Routing, the RTRV-MAPNETWORK response can vary based on whether or not the local node is
a Level 2 router itself.
1.
If the local node is not a Level 2 router, the response includes only
remote nodes in the same OSI area as the local node and indicates
which remote node is the default Level 2 router for the local node.
The default Level 2 router is the node that the local node would
rely on to route an OSI message outside the local NE’s own area.
When there are multiple Level 2 routers in the same area, not all
nodes in the area would identify the same default Level 2 router
typically.
2.
If the local node is a Level 2 router, user input dictates whether the
response includes:
a.
only remote nodes in the same OSI area as the local node (as
in #1 above) but indicating which of those remote nodes are
Level 2 routers
b.
all remote nodes that are Level 2 routers across all OSI areas.
Thus, with a RTRV-MAP-NETWORK command to one Level 2 router in
each area, all nodes in a large network with IS-IS Level 2 Routing can
be identified. One RTRV-MAP-NETWORK command at at time per area
should suffice and is recommended to avoid unnecessarily burdening
the network with many simultaneous or redundant TARP queries.
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C - 9
IS-IS Level 2 Routing Provisioning Confirmation
Problem isolation
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
TL1 command RTRV-MAP-NEIGHBOR may indicate and help resolve
IS-IS Level 2 Routing provisioning mistakes. This command highlights
any neighbors with which DCC is enabled but OSI communications is
not fully functional. When addressed to a reachable node with an
unreachable neighbor, this command identifies the NSAP area address
and the Level 2 router status, if known, of the unreachable neighbor.
The unreachable neighbor may simply have the wrong area address or
both nodes may need to be enabled as Level 2 routers.
There is no standing alarm or status condition at a node with Level 2
router functionality enabled or disabled. There is no automatic means
of determining whether the area address is consistent with the rest of
the network. The user must confirm that all IS-IS Level 2 Routing rules
have been followed to ensure successful OSI communications among
the nodes in a network.
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C - 10
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Maximum Number of OSI Nodes
....................................................................................................
Rules
Maximum number of nodes
per area and OSI domain
The total number of nodes within an area cannot exceed 50. In each
area with DMXplore enabled as a Level 2 router, the 50-node
maximum is reduced one-for-one by the number of other Level 2
routers in the same OSI domain.
The following table illustrates the relationship between the number of
Level 2 routers and the maximum number of nodes allowed in areas
with DMXplore enabled as a Level 2 router. The maximum number of
nodes is determined by multiplying the number of Level 2 routers by
the maximum number of nodes per area, up to a maximum of 256.
Table C-2
Number of DMXplore
Level 2 Routers
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Maximum Number of Nodes with Level 2 Routers
Maximum Nodes per Area
50
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
Maximum Nodes per OSI
Domain*
50
96*
141*
184*
225*
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 11
Maximum Number of OSI Nodes
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Number of DMXplore
Maximum Nodes per OSI
Maximum Nodes per Area
Level 2 Routers
Domain*
21
29
256
22
28
256
23
27
256
24
26
256
25
25
256
26
24
256
27
23
256
28
22
256
29
21
256
30
20
256
31
19
256
32
18
256
33
17
256
34
16
256
35
15
256
36
14
256
37
13
256
38
12
256
39
11
256
40
10
256
41
9
256
42
8
256
43
7
256
44
6
256
45
5
225*
46
4
184*
47
3
141*
48
2
96*
49
1
49*
* These are theoretical maximum numbers, assuming the number of Level 2 routers equals the number of areas
(that is, one Level 2 router per area) and each area includes the maximum number of nodes allowed per area
with DMXplore enabled as a Level 2 router.
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C - 12
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
....................................................................................................
Overview
To use IS-IS Level 2 Routing, the user must plan and engineer the
provisioning of Level 2 routers and area addresses in the network.
The goal is to create a network with all nodes having OSI LAN or DCC
connectivity with each other so that access to all the nodes can be
gained from any node in the network.
Rules must be followed to assure OSI LAN and DCC message routing.
Guidelines are recommendations that add survivability in the event of a
node, OSI LAN or DCC failure. Rules must be followed. Guidelines
should be followed. There may be customer applications that cannot
adhere to some or all of the guidelines. In most cases, the potential
consequence is that a single failure would at least partially disrupt
operations communications.
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 13
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Rule: OSI LAN or DCC
connectivity within an area
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
All nodes in an area must have OSI LAN or DCC connectivity within
the area to all other nodes in the same area. Otherwise, the area would
be segmented and message routing could not be expected to function
properly. Figure C-2 illustrates a correct and an incorrect example of
assigning nodes to areas.
Figure C-2 Assigning Areas
CORRECT
INCORRECT
Both A and B are isolated
A
B
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= DCC
= Area
nc-dmx-043
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C - 14
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Rule: single Level 2 router
subdomain
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
All Level 2 routers must have OSI LAN or DCC connectivity, either
directly or indirectly via other Level 2 routers, to all other Level 2
routers in the network to form a single Level 2 router subdomain that
provides connectivity to all areas. If more than one Level 2 router
subdomain exists, the network becomes segmented and routing will not
function properly.
Figure C-3 illustrates a correct and two incorrect examples of assigning
a Level 2 router subdomains.
Figure C-3 Assigning Subdomains
CORRECT
INCORRECT
This Level 2 router subdomain
and area are isolated
INCORRECT
This area is isolated
= NE Level 1 Router
= Area
= NE Level 2 Router
= Level 2 Subdomain
= DCC
nc-dmx-044
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 15
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Guideline: redundant
routes within the Level 2
subdomain
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
When practical, redundant routes in the Level 2 subdomain should be
available between all Level 2 routers to ensure that proper routing will
occur in the event of a single failure. To satisfy this guideline, every
Level 2 router has at least two other Level 2 routers as direct neighbors.
Figure C-4 illustrates a recommended example and an example that is
not recommended for redundant routes within the Level 2 subdomain:
Figure C-4 Redundant Routes with the Level 2 Subdomain
RECOMMENDED
This Level 2 IS has
only one neighboring
Level 2 IS
NOT RECOMMENDED
= NE Level 1 Router
= SNMS
= NE Level 2 Router
= OSI LAN/WAN
= DCC
= Generic Level 2 Router
= Area
= Level 2 Subdomain
nc-dmx-045
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C - 16
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Guideline: Level 2 router
assignment in a ring
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
The recommended number of Level 2 routers in a ring may be one of
the following:
•
None
•
One
•
All nodes in the ring
•
Two; for example, when dual-homing or dual ring interworking
(DRI) is used.
Figure C-5 illustrates examples of recommended Level 2 router
assignments in various ring configurations.
Figure C-5 Recommended Level 2 Router Assignments
All Level 2 routers
No Level 2 routers
Two adjacent
Level 2 routers
One Level 2 router
Two adjacent
Level 2 routers (DRI)
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= Generic Level 2 Router
= SNMS
= OSI LAN/WAN
= DCC
nc-dmx-046
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 17
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Guideline: Level 2 router
area assignments in a ring
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
For a ring of Level 2 routers, the recommended area assignments may
be one of the following:
•
All Level 2 routers are part of the same area.
•
Each Level 2 router is part of a different area.
•
A pair of adjacent Level 2 routers are in the same area (for
example, with dual-homing or DRI), with either the other Level 2
routers similarly paired off or individually in different areas.
Figure C-6 illustrates examples of recommended Level 2 router area
assignments in a ring.
Figure C-6 Recommended Area Assignments
same area
different areas
dual homing
different areas
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= DCC
= Area
NC-DMX-047
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C - 18
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Guideline: adjacent Level 2
routers within an area
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
It is recommended that dual Level 2 routers in an area be adjacent to
each other and have a redundant route within the area. Failure to meet
this guideline would result in some messages not being routed properly
in the event of a single failure that divides an area into two separate
islands.
Figure C-7 illustrates a recommended example and two examples that
are not recommended of dual Level 2 routers in an area:
Figure C-7 Recommended Placement of Level 2 Routers
A
B
Failure
Z
RECOMMENDED
If A or B sends a message to Z
and there is a DCC failure between A and Z,
routing will survive the failure.
Failure
A
B
Z
NOT RECOMMENDED
If A or B sends a message to Z
and there is a DCC failure between A and Z,
routing will not be successful.
Failure
B
A
Z
NOT RECOMMENDED
If A or B sends a message to Z
and there is a DCC failure between A and Z,
routing will not be successful.
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= DCC
= Area
nc-dmx-048
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Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 19
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Guideline: Navis™ Optical
EMS own area address and
Level 2 router
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
If Navis™ Optical EMS (or any other OS) access is via OSI LAN (or
WAN), Navis™ Optical EMS should be assigned to a different area
and rely on a generic Level 2 router to communicate with a large
network. (Navis™ Optical EMS is not expected to be a Level 2 router
itself.) This is recommended to avoid routing all messages to/from
Navis™ Optical EMS through a single NE serving as a Level 2 router.
Although not shown in the examples below, Navis™ Optical EMS can
support a second, redundant OSI LAN port. Each Navis™ Optical
EMS OSI LAN port has its own unique NSAP but both must be
assigned the same area address.
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C - 20
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
Figure C-8 illustrates a recommended example, an example that is not
recommended, and an incorrect example of Navis™ Optical EMS
access via OSI LAN/WAN.
Figure C-8 Recommended Navis™ Optical EMS Access via OSI
LAN/WAN
Generic Level 2
TM
Router for Navis
Optical EMS
instead of an NE
RECOMMENDED
TM
All Navis
Optical EMS
messages
through this
one node
NOT RECOMMENDED
TM
Navis Optical
EMS has a
unique area
address but no
Level 2 router
INCORRECT
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= NavisTM Optical EMS
= OSI LAN/WAN
= DCC
= Generic Level 2 Router
= Area
nc-dmx-049
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 21
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Rule: Level 2 routers on an
OSI LAN
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
If an OSI LAN (or WAN) is used to connect between areas, then at
least one node in each area on the OSI LAN must be provisioned to be
a Level 2 router. Otherwise, the areas won’t route to each other via the
OSI LAN.
Figure C-9 illustrates a correct and an incorrect example of Level 2
router assignments on an OSI LAN:
Figure C-9 Level 2 Router Assignments on an OSI LAN
CORRECT
INCORRECT
This area is isolated
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= Generic Level 2 Router
= NavisTM Optical EMS
= OSI LAN/WAN
= DCC
= Area
nc-dmx-050
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C - 22
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
Guideline: OSI LAN
redundancy
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
If an OSI LAN (or WAN) is the only method of connecting between
areas, then at least two Level 2 routers directly connected to the
OSI LAN for each area are recommended for redundancy purposes. A
second, separate OSI LAN hub would provide additional redundancy.
Figure C-10 illustrates a recommended example for providing
redundancy between areas connected solely by OSI LANs:
Figure C-10 OSI LAN Redundancy
RECOMMENDED
= NE Level 1 Router
= NE Level 2 Router
= Generic Level 2 Router
= NavisTM Optical EMS
= OSI LAN/WAN
= DCC
= Area
nc-dmx-051
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
C - 23
Engineering Rules and Guidelines
: IS-IS Level 2 Routing Guidelines
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C - 24
365-372-331
Issue 2.1 March 2005
D
Physical, Electrical, and
Thermal Compatibility
Requirements for OSP
Applications
Overview
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This document details the specific requirements and standards that
must be adhered to when installing the DMX, DMXtend, and
DMXplore in Outside Plant (OSP) cabinets. It describes the physical,
electrical, and thermal requirements necessary to ensure Metropolis®
DMXplore Access Multiplexer equipment operates reliably in OSP
applications.
A cabinet that does not meet the requirements of this document will
negatively affect the performance, reduce service life, and threaten
service continuity of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
products described herein.
This document should be used by equipment suppliers, service
providers and equipment system integrators of network access
equipment.
Important! This document is not intended to be used as a
cabinet-level end-product requirements document. Cabinet level,
end-product requirements (e.g., cabinet level electrical emissions,
needed battery backup, etc) must be agreed to by the system
supplier and customer.
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365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 1
Overview
Appendix D
Definitions
Requirement
Feature or function that is necessary to satisfy the needs of an end user.
A requirement contains the words shall or must.
Objective
Feature or function that is desirable and may be required by an end
user. An objective contains the words should or may.
Metropolis® DMX/DMXtend
Whenever “Metropolis® DMX products/services” is used in this
section, it refers to the DMX, DMXtend, and DMXplore products only.
Contents
The following hardware is described in this chapter:
Shelf Description
D
-3
D-3
Physical Requirements
D-6
D-6
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
D - 10
D-10
Environmental Requirements and Objectives
D - 15
D-15
Test Verification and Qualification
D - 17
D-17
References
D - 18
D-18
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D - 2
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Appendix D
Shelf Description
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
DMX Side/Front View
The figures below illustrate typical shelf configuration for the four
Metropolis® DMX Access Multiplexer products. Meeting the
requirements in this document for the Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer shelves will ensure proper operation of all cabinet
applications.
Figure D-1 DMX Shelf Side/Front View with Mounting Bracket
LNW6
LNW6
Sx:x
LNW16
Sx:x
LNW16
Sx:x
12DS3/EC1
12DS3/EC1
1G SX
LUCENT
LUCENT
LUCENT
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
FAULT
ACTIVE
28DS1
FAULT
ACTIVE
12DS3/
EC1
Sx:x
Sx:x
SYSCTL
BLANK
LUCENT
LUCENT
1310 LR
FAULT
CR
MJ
MN
ABN
FE
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
1G SX
LNW26
177D
Sx:x
OC-48
LUCENT
FAULT
ACTIVE
12DS3/
EC1
LNW1
Sx:x
Sx:x
28DS1
LUCENT
28DS1
LNW26
LNW67
Sx:x
28DS1
LUCENT
OC-48
Sx:x
Sx:x
OC-3
OC-12
OC-12
LUCENT
LUCENT
LUCENT
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
OC-48
OLIU
ACO
TEST
1310LR
FAULT
ACTIVE
1310LR
FAULT
ACTIVE
Heat Baffle
LNW46
Sx:x
OC-3
177D
BLANK
LNW46
LNW36
Sx:x
LUCENT
1310 LR
NE
ACO
OLIU
LNW36
OC-48
LUCENT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
OC-3
OC-3
OC-12
OC-12
OLIU
OLIU
OLIU
OLIU
OUT IN OUT IN
IND
OUT IN
OUT IN
19”
1
1
LAN
2
2
1
1
RS
232
3
3
2
2
4
4
C1
C2
OUT IN
SEL
UPD/
INT
1
2
OUT IN OUT IN
CIT
A1
A2
B1
B2
G1
M1
CTL
G2
M2
D1
D2
Fan Filter
OFF
ON
®
Metropolis DMX
17.6”
13.75"
MA DMX 410
DMXtend Side/Front View
Figure D-2 DMXtend Shelf Side/Front View with Mounting
Bracket
Metropolis® DMXtend
Lucent
Sx:x
SYSCTL
LNW
Lucent
FAULT
CR
MJ
MN
ABN
FE
Fan Unit
Sx:x
SYSCTL
LNW
Lucent
Sx:x
FAULT
SYSCTL
ACTIVE
LNW
FAULT
Lucent
ACTIVE
DS3
OUT IN
FAULT
ACTIVE
FAULT
DS3
DS1
LNW40
M2
Sx:x
OC3/1.3IR1
Lucent
OUT IN
FAULT
ACTIVE
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
A1/B1
FAULT
A2/B2
M1
LNW40
Sx:x
POWER
OC3/1.3IR1
Lucent
FAULT
Sx:x
Lucent
Sx:x
28DS1
Lucent
LNW6
FAULT
OC/3/1.3IR1
ACTIVE
LNW40
Sx:x
FAULT
28DS1
ACTIVE
D1
Sx:x
28DS1
28DS1
LNW6
Lucent
D2
Sx:x
Lucent
OC/3/1.3IR1
LNW40
Sx:x
13.75”
NE
ACO
12DS3/EC1
ACTIVE
Sx:x
Lucent
ACO
TEST
G1
ACTIVE
LNW39
IND
12DS3/EC1
Tray
DS1/DS3/16/31
LAN
G2
DS1
Lucent
CTL
SEL
UPD/
INT
Sx:x
SYSCTL
LNW
Lucent
Sx:x
DS1/DS3/16/31
ON
RS
232
Sx:x
SYSCTL
LNW
Lucent
LNW39
Fiber
BRK B 10A
ON
CIT
Sx:x
SYSCTL
LNW
Lucent
8.75”
BRK A 10A
17.5”
MA-DMXtend-096
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 3
Shelf Description
DMXplore Wall-mount Side/
Front View
Appendix D
Figure D-3 DMXplore Wall-mount Shelf Side/Front View with
Mounting Bracket
®
Metropolis DMXplore
PWR-A
VLNC6
VLNC6
ON
S1:1
S1:1
XX:x
XX:x
Lucent
Lucent
PWR-B
ON
1
FAULT
FAULT
ACTIVE
ACTIVE
-48V-A
RTN-A
RTN COM
GRD
RTN-B
-48V-B
3
2
4
C GROUP
OUT
2
1
3
IN
IN
IN
1
OUT
B GROUP
3
2
4
OUT
FAULT
CR/MJ
10.5”
MN/ABN
UPDATE
5
ACO
9
7
8
6
A/D GROUP
11
12
10
LAN
CIT
RS-232
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
13
MDI
14
15
MDO
16
ALARM
VLNC1
S1:1
SYSCTL
Lucent
CTL
7.5”
12”
MA-DMXplore-042
Figure D-4 DMXplore Rack-mount Side/Front View with
Mounting Bracket
FAN
FAULT
FAULT
CRMJ
FAULT
MNAGN
ACTIVE
UPDNT
FAULT
IN
ACO/TST
ACTIVE
OUT
FAULT
IN
ACTIVE
OUT
BAR CODE
DMXplore Rack-mount
Shelf Side/Front View
LAN
RS232
CIT
A
PWR ON
B
PWR ON
3.5
Lucent
17.3”
MA-DMXplore-043
13.5”
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 4
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Shelf Description
Metropolis® DMXplore
Access Multiplexer Product
Conformance
Appendix D
Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer equipment has been
designed and tested to meet industry requirements for physical,
electrical, thermal and product safety characteristics.
Principal requirements for Metropolis® DMX equipment are as
follows:
•
GR-63, covering physical requirements (earthquake resistance,
thermal shock, fire, etc.)1
•
GR-1089 covering electrical requirements (electromagnetic
interference, electrostatic discharge, grounding, etc.)2
•
CSA-C22.2, No. 60950-00, UL609503 Safety of information
technology equipment.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 5
Appendix D
Physical Requirements
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Cabinet Design and
Equipment Reliability
Outside plant cabinets for use with Metropolis® DMX equipment in
NAR applications shall have demonstrated compliance in accordance
with GR-4874. GR-487 describes cabinet level requirements to ensure a
suitable environment for telecommunications equipment. Typical
requirements covered in this specification include Water and Dust
Intrusion, Wind-Driven Rain, Thermal Shock, Impact Resistance and
Shock and Vibration.
The table below shows the dimensions of the Metropolis® DMX
equipment.
Table D-1
Metropolis® Dimensions and Weight
Dimensions1
Metropolis® Products
DMX
DMXtend
DMXplore
Wall Mount
Rack Mount
Width
17.6
17.5
7.5
17.3
Height
19
8.75
10.5
3.5
Depth
13.752
15
12.0
13.5
Center-to-Center Mounting Hole Width
22.31
22.31
NA3
22.31
Vertical Hole Spacing
A pattern of 0.5 inch spacing.
Mounting Screw Size
(thread forming screw)
Shelf Weight lbs
No. 12x24
38 Empty
57 Full
15 Empty
30 Full
7 Empty
10 Full
1) All dimensions are provided in inches unless otherwise specified
2) 15 inches with interface connectors. 16 inches with connectors and cover.
3) Not applicable for a wall-mounted DMXplore. For a Rack-mount or rack-mounted Wall-mount version of the
DMXplore the center-to-center mounting hole width is 22.31”.
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 6
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Physical Requirements
Mounting Bracket
Positions
Appendix D
The figure below illustrates typical mounting bracket placements on
the DMX shelf.
Figure D-5 Mounting Bracket Positions on DMX Shelf
The DMXtend and DMXplore rack mount shelves offer the same
mounting bracket as DMX. The mounting brackets can be placed
differently depending on customer requirements (6, 5, or 8 inches back
from the front of the shelf).
Equipment Compartment
All doors, covers and faceplates that are part of the Metropolis® DMX
systems design shall be in place when installed in the cabinet to
minimize losses in cooling and maximize resistance to electromagnetic
interference. Apparatus Blanks (see engineering drawings5) are ordered
separately from the shelf and shall be used where no circuit packs are
installed.
Splicing Compartment
Cable access ports shall be provided in the base of the splicing
compartment to permit the entrance of metallic and fiber cables into the
equipment. Ports shall be sized to allow cables to be placed in
accordance with minimum bend radii guidelines, as specified by the
cable supplier.
Battery Compartment
If a battery compartment is provided, it shall be segregated from the
electronics compartment. A seal shall be provided to prevent gases
from seeping into the electronics and splicing compartments. The
compartment shall be vented to the outside.
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D - 7
Physical Requirements
Air Flow
Appendix D
Air Flow Capacity
The fan unit shall supply a sufficient volume of air to cool the
Metropolis® DMX equipment whether using DMX internal fans or
cabinet-level cooling equipment (it is required that Metropolis® DMX
internal fan units be removed when installing the DMX, DMXtend, and
DMXplore in OSP environments). The amount of air required shall be
based upon the environmental conditions and the self heating rates of
the electronic equipment. An air mover shall be functional whenever
circuit packs are in operation including during equipment AC power
outages.
Refer to Environmental Requirements and Objectives: page D-15 for
thermal performance requirements.
Inlet/Exhaust
DMX requires air to enter the bottom of the shelf, flow vertically
upward and exhaust at the top (and rear if an integrated baffle is used).
This direction of flow shall be provided to properly cool the circuit
packs installed in the shelf.
DMXtend and DMXplore rack mount shelves require that air enters at
the right of the shelf and exhausts on the left. The placement of these
shelves should minimize blockage of vertical airflow. DMXtend can
also be vertically mounted with the fan unit at the bottom of the shelf,
allowing vertical airflow.
The DMXplore Wall-mount shelf is convection cooled.
The fan filter must be removed for all Metropolis® DMX shelves in all
cabinets (the heat baffle must also be removed on the DMX shelf). If
the cabinet fan can guarantee at least 200 LFM (linear feet per minute)
through the shelf, then the internal fan is not needed. It is recommended
that the fan be removed in these instances, and used as a spare for non
OSP deployments throughout your network.
Cable and Connector
Interfaces
Cable Placement and Routing
Refer to the Metropolis® DMX product’s respective Installation
Manuals6 for cable placement and routing information. Cables shall be
routed in accordance with the guidelines provided in the Installation
Manuals. Circuit pack cables shall be routed with half of the total
number of cables from each side of the shelf.
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 8
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Physical Requirements
Appendix D
Cable Routing
Cable shall be rated for a minimum temperature of 80o C.
Connector Contacts
All connector contacts that mate to Metropolis® DMX equipment shall
be of similar contact finishes. Lucent Technologies recommends the
use of gold with a minimum of 30 micro-inches.
Installation and
Maintenance
Engineering and Interconnection drawings shall be made available to
Lucent Technologies upon request.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 9
Appendix D
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview of
Power Requirements
DMX Power supply
The power consumption of the Metropolis® DMX products is
dependent on the circuit packs installed and their operating state. These
variables must be taken into account when sizing the power system.
The following table lists DMX shelf power requirements.
Table D-2 DMX Shelf Power Supply Requirements
Item
Description
Voltage range
-40.0V to -60.0V
Power Feeders
two -48V power feeders
[BREAKER (A) and BREAKER (B)]
Circuit Breakers (two per shelf)
30.0 A
The following table lists DMX 20 Amp shelf power requirements.
Table D-3
DMX 20 Amp High Capacity Shelf Power Supply
Requirements
Item
Description
Voltage range
-40.0V to -60.0V
Power Feeders
two -48V power feeders
[BREAKER (A) and BREAKER (B)]
Circuit Breakers (two per shelf)
20.0 A
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 10
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
DMX Current drains
Appendix D
The following table provides the maximum current drain requirements
for a shelf.
Table D-4
DMX Shelf Current Drains
Shelf
Current Drains per Feeder in
Amperes
Maximum
@ −48V
Maximum
@ −40V
DMX Shelf (20 Amp)
14.5
17.5
DMX Shelf (30 Amp)
23.0
27.5
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 11
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
DMXtend Power supply
Appendix D
The table below lists DMXtend power requirements.
Table D-5
DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
Item
Description
Voltage range
-40.0 VDC to -57.0 VDC
Power Feeders
two -48V power feeders
[BREAKER (A) and BREAKER (B)]
Circuit Breakers
DMXtend Current drains
10.0A
The following table provides the maximum current drain requirements
for a shelf.
Table D-6
DMXtend Shelf Current Drains
Shelf
DMXtend Shelf
Current Drains per Feeder in Amperes
Maximum
@ −48V
Maximum
@ −40V
7.1
8.5
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D - 12
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
DMXplore Power supply
The table below lists DMXplore power requirements.
Table D-7
DMXplore Current drains
Appendix D
DMXplore Power Supply Requirements
Item
Description
Voltage range
-40 to -57 volts
Power Feeders
-48VDC (A and B)
Circuit Breakers
Two, 2A fuses
The following table provides the maximum current drain requirements
for a shelf.
Table D-8
DMXplore Shelf Current Drains
Shelf
Current Drains per Feeder in Amperes
List 1
DMXplore Shelf
List 2
Maximum
@ −48V
Maximum @ −40V
1.25 Amps
1.5 Amps
Power Quality
Metropolis® DMX products require a reliable low noise power source
in accordance with GR-9478. This is usually accomplished by float
charging batteries at the input to the Metropolis® DMX shelves.
Batteries are installed to provide back up power in the event of AC
power outages. When deployed in a float charge configuration they
also provide filtering of AC power line drop outs and noise generated
by equipment in the cabinet. In all cases power must be configured to
avoid dropping below or exceeding the voltage limits listed in the
tables above.
Electrical Noise
Care must be taken to insure that electrical noise generated by the
power system, fans, or other equipment does not interfere with the
operation of the Metropolis® DMX products. Electrical noise on the –
48 volt power lines at the shelf must not exceed the voice frequency
and wide-band noise limits in accordance with GR-947.
Interruptions
Momentary AC power line interruptions are accommodated by the
batteries on float charge.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 13
Electrical Requirements and Objectives
Appendix D
Inrush Current
While there is no requirement to limit the rate of power application to
the Metropolis® DMX shelves, the voltage at the shelf must remain
within the specified limits at all times.
Battery Backup
In all cases battery backup power must be configured to avoid dropping
below the voltage limits listed between Table D-2 on page 10 and Table
D-8 on page 13. The preferred method of battery backup is a float
charge configuration. Alternatively, a separate battery and charger
system can be used utilizing a diode “OR” configuration. Systems
employing transfer switches are not recommended unless sufficient
capacitance is installed to carry the system over through the transfer
period.
Alarm Interfaces
Cooling System Failure
A system failure alarm shall be provided for cabinet cooling systems
with forced air ventilation and other heat exchanger systems
High Temperature
A temperature sensor shall be located in the electrical equipment
compartment to provide a high temperature alarm when an internal
cabinet temperature of 65o C is reached. The air temperature shall be
measured at the inlet of the upper-most Metropolis® DMX shelf.
Grounding and Bonding
Grounding must meet the appropriate Telcordia1, UL3, and NEC10
requirements for outside plant and customer premises applications. The
Metropolis® DMX shelves require a single common ground reference.
The Metropolis® DMX shelf frame must be bonded to an earth ground
within the cabinet. Metropolis® DMX shelf mounting screws should be
used to provide a low impedance multipoint electrical connection
through the mounting structure to earth ground. A frame ground wire
located on the shelf shall be connected to the cabinet ground.
I/O Protection
The DS3 interfaces (traffic ports) or other metallic telecom interfaces
shall not leave the cabinet unless connected to telecom devices
providing primary and secondary protection, as per GR-1089 and UL609503 (not applicable for Ethernet packs).
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 14
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Appendix D
Environmental Requirements and Objectives
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Physical Strength
Vibration
The cabinet shall be resistant to continuous low level vibrations from
sources including train and vehicular traffic, rotating machinery,
construction activities, etc. Physical tests shall be performed to assure
the cabinet does not amplify vibrations from these sources such that the
vibration levels transmitted to the equipment do not exceed design
limits. Tests shall be performed in accordance with GR-487 and GR-63
to verify the performance of the cabinet and equipment during
vibratory test conditions.
Thermal Operating
Temperature
Operating Temperature Range
Inlet air to the Metropolis® DMX equipment shall be controlled within
the range of -40°C to +65°C. Ambient air from outside the cabinet
cannot be introduced into the electronics compartment or used in any
way to directly cool the Metropolis® DMX equipment within the
cabinet.
Heat exchange systems for cabinet shall be sized so that maximum inlet
temperature will not exceed 65°C even when the shelf is equipped in
such a way that it approaches the maximum current drains detailed in
Table D-4 DMX Shelf Current Drains, Table D-6 DMXtend Shelf
Current Drains, and Table D-8 DMXplore Shelf Current Drains. Also,
the cabinet shall be sized to ensure that inlet temperature shall not
exceed 65oC given both severe outside ambient temperature and solar
heating relative to the conditions of the region where the shelf is
deployed.
The supplier shall supply performance data upon request for cabinets
cooled by compact heat exchangers or any other method. This
information may include the appropriate factor of safety, or excess
capacity, accounting for normal fouling of the heat exchanger core.
During operation, the time rate of change of the internal air temperature
shall not exceed 30°C/hr as the result of solar heating and radiation
cooling of the enclosure, and power cycling the equipment.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
D - 15
Environmental Requirements and Objectives
Appendix D
Air Velocity
The self-heating of the Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
DMX is dissipated primarily by forced convection cooling as the result
of air blowing vertically between the parallel circuit cards. When DMX
is deployed in OSP cabinets, the air flow (provided by cabinet fans)
shall be no less than 300 LFM (Linear Feet per Minute).
The self-heating of the Metropolis® DMXtend and DMXplore Rackmount is dissipated primarily by forced convection cooling as the result
of air blowing horizontally between the parallel circuit cards. Air flow
for the DMXtend and DMXplore Rack-mount shelves is provided by
fans inside the shelves themselves. Still, it is important that the air flow
caused by cabinet fans not be at such a velocity that it impedes the
proper functioning of the DMXtend and DMXplore shelf fans. The
DMXtend requires an airflow of no less than 200 LFM. The DMXplore
requires a minimum airflow of 100 LFM.
The DMXplore Wall-mount shelf is convection cooled.
Cabinet Condensation
The relative humidity of the internal air of an outside cabinet shall be
maintained in accordance with GR-63. This applies even when the
equipment within the cabinet is in an unpowered condition, e.g., during
installation of equipment. During such times a source of heat, or
desiccant packs, shall be provided for maintaining the necessary
relative humidity level.
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 16
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
Appendix D
Test Verification and Qualification
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer equipment shall be
installed in cabinets that have demonstrated compliance in accordance
with GR-487 and all other specifications as required by this document.
A cabinet that does not meet the requirements of this specification will
negatively affect the performance, reduce service life, and threaten
service continuity of any Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer
system.
Compliance Reports covering cabinet performance to these
specifications shall be made available to Lucent Technologies upon
request.
System Thermal
Performance Verification
For the fully equipped cabinet configuration, a functional test of the
Metropolis® DMXplore Access Multiplexer shelf shall be performed
with all systems powered at their appropriate levels for typical service
applications that approach the maximum current drains detailed in
Table D-4 DMX Shelf Current Drains, Table D-6 DMXtend Shelf
Current Drains, and Table D-8 DMXplore Shelf Current Drains. The
cabinet surfaces shall be respectively heated at the appropriate
maximum solar radiation levels. Absorbed solar heating shall be
estimated using the formulations and methods in accordance with GR487 and the ASHRAE handbook11.
During this testing measure, record, and provide upon request:
•
Power level into the cabinet in amperes
•
Air Velocities in the airflow channels formed by the Metropolis®
DMX, DMXtend, and DMXplore circuit packs in linear ft/min.
•
Air temperature entering and exhausted from the Metropolis®
DMXplore Access Multiplexer shelf (°C)
Three K or T type thermocouples shall be added at the inlet and
exhaust of all circuit pack slots.
Take the average of the three thermocouples for each circuit pack
slot for both inlet and exhaust and record (Tinlet_avg,
Texhaust_avg, TC type, and slot number).
•
Ambient temperature (temperature outside the cabinet and
measured in °C).
•
Solar heating loads on respective cabinet surfaces (°C).
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D - 17
Appendix D
References
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1)
Telcordia Document — Network Equipment - Building System
(NEBS) Requirements: Physical Protection, GR-63, Issue 2, April
2002.
2)
Telcordia Document — Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electrical
Safety - Generic Criteria for Network Telecommunications Equipment,
GR-1089, Issue 3, October 2002.
3)
UL 60950/ CAN/CSA- 22.2 NO. 60950-00 “Safety of Information
Technology Equipment”, December, 2000
4)
Telcordia Document — Generic Requirements for Electronic
Equipment Cabinets, GR-487, Issue 2, March 2000.
5)
Lucent Technologies Document — DMX Access Multiplexer
Engineering Drawing, ED8C871-10, Latest Issue.
Lucent Technologies Document — DMXtend Access Multiplexer
Engineering Drawing, ED8C951-10, Latest Issue.
Lucent Technologies Document — DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Engineering Drawing, ED8C947-10, Latest Issue.
6)
Lucent Technologies Document — DMX Access Multiplexer
Installation Manual, 365-372-300, Latest Issue.
Lucent Technologies Document — DMXtend Access Multiplexer
Installation Manual, 365-372-327, Latest Issue.
Lucent Technologies Document — DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Installation Manual, 365-372-334, Latest Issue.
7)
Lucent Technologies Document — DMX Access Multiplexer
Applications and Planning Guide, 365-372-300, Latest Issue.
Lucent Technologies Document — DMXtend Access Multiplexer
Applications and Planning Guide, 365-372-324, Latest Issue.
Lucent Technologies Document — DMXplore Access Multiplexer
Applications and Planning Guide, 365-372-331, latest Issue.
8)
Telcordia Document — Generic Requirements for a –48 volt
Telecommunications Switchmode Rectifier/ Power Supply, GR-947,
Issue 1, December 1996.
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D - 18
365-372-331
Issue 2.1, March 2005
References
Appendix D
9)
Lucent Technologies Document — Metropolis® DMXplore Access
Multiplexer Access System Engineering Guidelines, TBS, Latest Issue.
10)
National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA-70), National Electrical Code
(NEC), 2002 Edition.
11)
2001 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals — American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta
GA.
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References
Appendix D
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Glossary
Acronyms and Abbreviations
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........
A
ABN
Abnormal (status condition)
ACO
Alarm Cutoff
ACO/SW
Alarm Cutoff and Test
ADM
Add/Drop Multiplexer
AGNE
Alarm Gateway Network Element
AIS
Alarm Indication Signal
AMI
Alternate Mark Inversion
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
APS
Automatic Protection Switch
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ARM
Access Resource Manager
AS&C
Alarm, Status, and Control
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASN.1
Abstract Syntax Notation 1
ASNE
Alarm Server Network Element
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Auto
Automatic
AUXCTL
Auxiliary Control
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B
B3ZS
Bipolar 3-Zero Substitution
B8ZS
Bipolar 8-Zero Substitution
BDFB
Battery Distribution and Fuse Bay
BER
Bit Error Ratio
BIP
Bit Interleaved Parity
BITS
Building Integrated Timing Supply
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
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BRI
Basic Rate Interface
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C
CC
Clear Channel
CCITT
International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee
CEV
Controlled Environment Vault
CD-ROM
Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory
CDTU
Channel and Drop Test Unit
CIT
Craft Interface Terminal
CLEC
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
CLF
Carrier Line Failure Status
CMISE
Common Management Information Service Element
CMOS
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMTS
Cable Modem Termination System
CO
Central Office
CP
Circuit Pack
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G L O S S A R Y
GL-3
CPE
Customer Premises Equipment
CR
Critical (alarm status)
CSA
Carrier Serving Area
CSU
Channel Service Unit
CTL
Control
CTS
Customer Technical Support
CV
Coding Violation
CVFE
Coding Violation Far End
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D
DCC
Data Communications Channel
DCE
Data Communications Equipment
DCS
Data Collection System
DEMUX
Demultiplexer
DLC
Digital Loop Carrier
DNS
Data Networking Services
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
GL-4
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DPLL
Digital Phase-Locked Loop
DRI
Dual Ring Interworking
DS1
Digital Signal Level 1
DS3
Digital Signal Level 3
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
DSLAM
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSNE
Directory Services Network Element
DSX
Digital Cross-Connect Panel
DT
Distant Terminal
DTE
Data Terminating Equipment
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
E
EC-1
Electrical Carrier Level 1
ECI
Equipment Catalog Item
EEPROM
Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EIA
Electronic Industries Association
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GL-5
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
EOOF
Excessive Out of Frame
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EQ
Equipped (memory administrative state)
ES
Errored Seconds
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
ESF
Extended Super Frame
EST
Environmental Stress Testing
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
F
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
FDDI
Fiber Distribution Data Interface
FE
Far End
FE ACTY
Far End Activity
FEBE
Far End Block Error
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
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FE ID
Far End Identification
FEPROM
Flash EPROM
FERF
Far End Receive Failure
FE SEL
Far End Select
FIT
Failures in 10-9 hours of operation.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G
GbE
Gigabit Ethernet
GNE
Gateway Network Element
GR
Telcordia Technologies General Requirement
GTP
General Telemetry Processor
GUI
Graphical User Interface
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
H
HECI
Humans Equipment Catalog Item
HFC
Hybrid Fiber Coaxial
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
I
IAO LAN
Intra-Office Local Area Network
IC
Internal Clock
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ID
Identifier
IEC
International Electrotechnology Commission
IMF
Infant Mortality Factor
INC
Incoming Status
I/O
Input/Output
IP
Internet Protocol
IR
Intermediate Reach
IS
In Service
ISCI
Intershelf control Interface
ISI
Intershelf Interface
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO
International Standards Organization
ISP
Internet Service Provider
IVHS
Intelligent Vehicle Highway System
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
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L
LAN
Local Area Network
LAPD
Link Access Procedure "D"
LBO
Line Build Out
LCN
Local Communications Network
LEC
Local Exchange Carrier
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
LOF
Loss of Frame
LOP
Loss of Pointer
LOS
Loss of Signal
LR
Long Reach
LS
Low Speed
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
M
MD
Mediation Device
MJ
Major Alarm
MM
Multimode
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GL-9
MML
huMan-Machine Language
MN
Minor Alarm
MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group
MSO
Metropolitan Serving Office
MTBF
Mean Time Between Failures
MTBMA
Mean Time Between Maintenance Activities
Mult
Multipling
MUX
Multiplex
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
N
NAP
Network Access Point
NE
Near End
NE
Network Element
NE ACTY
Near-End Activity
NEBS
Network Equipment-Building System
nm
Nanometer (10-9 meters)
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NMA
Network Monitoring and Analysis
NMON
Not Monitored (provisioning state)
NRZ
Nonreturn to Zero
NNI
Network-Network Interface
NSA
Not Service Affecting
NSAP
Network Services Access Point
NTF
No Trouble Found
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
O
OAM&P
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
OC-1
Optical Carrier Level 1 Signal (51.84 Mb/s)
OC-3
Optical Carrier Level 3 Signal (155 Mb/s)
OC-12
Optical Carrier Level 12 Signal (622 Mb/s)
OC-48
Optical Carrier Level 48 Signal
OLIU
Optical Line Interface Unit
OOF
Out of Frame
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GL-11
OOL
Out of Lock
OPS/INE
Operations System/Intelligent Network Element
OS
Operations System
OSGNE
Operations System Gateway Network Element
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection
OSMINE
Operations Systems Modifications for the Integration of Network Elements
OSP
Outside Plant
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
P
P-bit
Performance Bit
PC
Personal Computer
PCU
Power Conversion Unit
PID
Program Identification
PINFET
Positive Intrinsic Negative Field Effect Transistor
PJC
Pointer Justification Count
PLL
Phase-Locked Loop
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PM
Performance Monitoring
PMN
Power Minor Alarm
POH
Path Overhead
POP
Points of Presence
POTS
Plain Old Telephone Service
PRM
Performance Report Message
PROTN
Protection
PRS
Primary Reference Source
PSU
Power Supply Unit
PVC
Permanent Virtual Circuit
PWR
Power
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
R
RAM
Random Access Memory
RDC
Regional Data Center
RPP
Reliability Prediction Procedure (described in Telcordia Technologies TR-NWT00032)
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RT
Remote Terminal
RTAC
Lucent Regional Technical Assistance Center (1-800-225-RTAC)
RZ
Return to Zero
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
S
SA
Service Affecting
SCADA
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SD
Signal Degrade
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SEFS
Severely Errored Frame Seconds
SEO
Single-Ended Operations
SES
Severely Errored Seconds
SF
Super Frame (format for DS1 signal)
SID
System Identification
SLA
Service Level Agreements
SLIM
Subscriber Loop Interface Module
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SM
Single Mode
SONET
Synchronous Optical NETwork
SPE
Synchronous Payload Envelope
SQU
Sync Quality Unknown
SRD
Software Release Description
STS, STS-n
Synchronous Transport Signal
STM
Synchronous Transfer Mode
STS-1 SPE
STS-1 Synchronous Payload Envelope
STS-3c
Synchronous Transport Level 3 Concatenated Signal
STS-12c
Synchronous Transport Level 12 Concatenated Signal
SYSCTL
System Controller (circuit pack)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
T
T1X1 and T1M1
The ANSI committees responsible for telecommunications standards
TA
Telcordia Technologies Technical Advisory
TABS
Telemetry Asynchronous Byte Serial (Protocol)
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TARP
Target ID Address Resolution Protocol
TCA
Threshold-Crossing Alert
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCVCXO
Termperature-Compensated Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillator
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing
TID
Target Identifier
TIRKS
Trunk Integrated Record Keeping System
TG3
Stratum 3 Timing Generator
TL1
Transaction Language 1
TLB
Timing Looped Back
TOP
Task Oriented Practice
TR
Telcordia Technologies Technical Requirement
TSA
Time Slot Assignment
TSI
Time Slot Interchange
TSO
Technical Support Organization
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
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U
UAS
Unavailable Seconds
UNI
User Network Interface
UOC
Universal Optical Connector
UPD/INIT
Update/Intialize
UPSR
Unidirectional Path Switched Rings
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
V
VF
Voice Frequency
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
VLSI
Very Large Scale Integration
VM
Violation Monitor
VMR
Violation Monitor and Removal
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol
VONU
Virtual Optical Network Unit
VPN
Virtual Private Network
VT
Virtual Tributary
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VT1.5
Virtual Tributary 1.5 (1.728 Mb/s)
VT-G
Virtual Tributary Group
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
W
WAN
Wide Area Network
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Glossary
Terms and Definitions
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
0x1
See Ring (0x1) Low-Speed Interface.
1+1
The 1+1 protection switching architecture protects against failures of the optical
transmit/receive equipment and their connecting fiber facility. One bidirectional
interface (two fibers plus associated OLIUs on each end) is designated "service,"
and the other is designated "protection." In each direction, identical signals are
transmitted on the service and protection lines ("dual-fed"). The receiving
equipment monitors the incoming service and protection lines independently, and
selects traffic from one line (the "active" line) based on performance criteria and
technician/OS control. In 1+1 both service and protection lines could be active at
the same time (service in one direction, protection in the other).
1xN, 1x1
1xN protection switching pertains to circuit pack protection that provides a
redundant signal path through the DMXplore (it does not cover protection
switching of an optical facility; se "1+1"). In 1xN switching, a group of N service
circuit packs share a single spare protection circuit pack. 1x1 is a special case of
1xN, with N=1. In 1x1 only one is active at a time.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A
Active
Active identifies a 1+1 protected OC-N line which is currently selected by the
receiver at either end as the payload carrying signal or a 1x1 or 1xN protected
circuit pack that is currently carrying service. (See Standby).
AGNE - Alarm Gateway Network Element
A defined NE in an alarm group through which members of the alarm group
exchange information.
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AIS - Alarm Indication Signal
A code transmitted downstream in a digital network that shows that an upstream
failure has been detected and alarmed.
AMI - Alternate Mark Inversion
A line code that employs a ternary signal to convey binary digits, in which
successive binary ones are represented by signal elements that are normally of
alternating, positive and negative polarity but equal in amplitude, and in which
binary zeros are represented by signal elements that have zero amplitude.
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
A standard 8-bit code used for exchanging information among data processing
systems and associated equipment.
Auto
One possible state of a DS1 or DS3 port. In this state, the port will automatically
be put "in service" if a good signal is detected coming from the DSX panel.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B
B3ZS - Bipolar 3-Zero Substitution
A line coding method that replaces a string of three zeros with a sequence of
symbols having some special characteristic.
B8ZS - Bipolar 8-Zero Substitution
A line coding method that replaces a string of eight zeros with a sequence of
symbols having some special characteristic.
Backbone Ring
A host ring.
BER - Bit Error Rate
The ratio of bits received in error to the total bits sent.
BIP - Bit Interleaved Parity
A method of error monitoring over a specified number of bits, that is BIP-3 or BIP8.
BITS - Building Integrated Timing Supply
A single clock that provides all the DS1 and DS0 synchronization references
required by clocks in a building.
Broadband
Any communications channel with greater bandwidth than a voice channel;
sometimes used synonomously with wideband.
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C
CC - Clear Channel
A provisionable mode for the DS3 output that causes parity violations not to be
monitored or corrected before the DS3 signal is encoded.
CCITT - International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee
An international advisory committee under United Nations’ sponsorship that has
composed and recommended for adoption worldwide standards for international
communications. Recently changed to the International Telecommunications
Union Telecommunications Standards Sector (ITU-TSS).
Channel
A logical signal within a port. For example, for a DS-3 port, there is one STS-1
channel and sometimes 28 VT1.5 channels. See Port.
Channel State Provisioning
A feature that allows a user to suppress reporting of alarms and events during
provisioning by supporting multiple states (automatic, in-service and not
monitored) for VT1.5 and STS-1 channels. See Port State Provisioning.
CLEC - Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
Company that provides local phone services in competition with RBOCs.
CV - Coding Violation
A performance monitoring parameter.
CVFE - Coding Violation Far-End
An indication returned to the transmitting terminal that an errored block has been
detected at the receiving terminal.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D
DACS III-2000
Digital Access and Cross-Connect System that provides clear channel switching at
either the DS3 or the STS-1 rates, eliminating the need for manual DSXs.
DACS IV-2000
Digital Access and Cross-Connect System that provides electronic DS3/STS-1 or
DS1/VT1.5 cross-connect capability, eliminating the need for manual DSXs.
DCC - Data Communications Channel
The embedded overhead communications channel in the SONET line. It is used for
end-to-end communications and maintenance. It carries alarm, control, and status
information between network elements in a SONET network.
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DCE - Data Communications Equipment
In a data station, the equipment that provides the signal conversion and coding
between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the line. The DCE may be separate
equipment or an integral part of the DTE or of intermediate equipment. A DCE
may perform other functions usually performed at the network end of the line.
DDM-2000
Lucent’s network multiplexers that multiplex DS1, DS3, or EC-1 inputs into EC1, OC-1, OC-3, or OC-12 outputs.
Default Provisioning
The parameter values that are preprogrammed as shipped from the factory.
Demultiplexing
A process applied to a multiplexed signal for recovering signals combined within
it and for restoring the distinct individual channels of these signals.
DEMUX - Demultiplexer
The DEMUX direction is from the fiber toward the DSX.
Digital Multiplexer
Equipment that combines time-division multiplexing several digital signals into a
single composite digital signal.
DRI - Dual Ring Interworking
Two ring networks interconnected at two common nodes.
Drop and Continue
A technique that allows redundant signal appearances at two central offices in a
DRI network, allowing protection against central office failures.
DS1
Digital Signal Level 1 (1.544 Mb/s
DS1(28) Circuit Pack
The DS1(28) circuit pack interfaces to the DSX-1 panel.
DS3
Digital Signal Level 3 (44.736 Mb/s).
DS3/EC-1 Circuit Pack
The DS3/EC-1 circuit pack interfaces to the DSX-3 panel.
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DSn - Digital Signal Rate n
One of the possible digital signal rates at DMXplore Multiplexer interfaces: DS1
(1.544 Mb/s) or DS3 (44.736 Mb/s).
DSNE - Directory Services Network Element
A designated network element that is responsible for administering a database that
maps network element names (TIDs) to addresses (NSAPs - network service
access points) in an OSI subnetwork. There can be one DSNE per ring. Can also be
a GNE.
DSX - Digital Cross-Connect Panel
A panel designed to interconnect to equipment that operates at a designated rate.
For example, a DSX-3 interconnects equipment operating at the DS3 rate.
DTE - Data Terminating Equipment
That part of a data station that serves as a data source (originates data for
transmission), a data sink (accepts transmitted data), or both.
Dual Homing
A network topology in which two OC-3 or OC-12 shelves serve a DMXplore
Multiplexer. Each DMXplore Multiplexer ring is interconnected between the two
separate hosts.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
E
EC-1, EC-n - Electrical Carrier
The basic logical building block signal with a rate of 51.840 Mb/s for an EC-1
signal and a rate of n times 51.840 Mb/s for an EC-n signal. An EC-1 signal can be
built in two ways: A DS1 can be mapped into a VT1.5 signal and 28 VT1.5 signals
multiplexed into an EC-1 (VT1.5 based EC-1), or a DS3 can be mapped directly
into an EC-1 (DS3 based EC-1).
ECI - Equipment Catalog Item
The bar code number on the faceplate of each circuit pack used by some inventory
systems.
ES - Errored Seconds
A performance monitoring parameter.
ESF - Extended Super Frame
The format for a DS1 signal.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
F
FE - Far End
Any other network element in a maintenance subnetwork other than the one the
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user is at or working on. Also called remote.
FE ACTY - Far End Activity
An LED on the SYSCTL circuit pack faceplate.
FEBE - Far End Block Error
An indication returned to the near-end transmitting node that an errored block has
been detected at the far end.
FE ID - Far End Identification
The 7-segment display on the faceplate of the SYSCTL circuit pack.
FEPROM - Flash EPROM
A new technology that combines the nonvolatility of EPROM with the in-circuit
reprogrammability of EEPROM (electrically-erasable PROM).
FERF - Far End Receive Failure
An indication returned to the transmitting terminal that the receiving terminal has
detected an incoming section failure.
FE SEL - Far End Select
An LED on the faceplate of the SYSCTL circuit pack.
FIT
Failures in 109 hours of operation.
Free Running
An operating condition of a clock in which its local oscillator is not locked to an
internal synchronization reference and is using no storage techniques to sustain its
accuracy.
FT-2000
Lucent’s SONET Legacy OC-48 Lightwave System.
Function Unit
Refers to any one of a number of different circuit packs that can reside in the C
function unit slots on the DMXplore.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G
GNE - Gateway Network Element
A network element that has an active X.25 link. Can also be a DSNE.
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H
Hairpin Routing
A cross-connection between function units (inter-function unit). For example,
function unit C to function untis A, B, or D. Also, a cross-connection within the
same function unit (intra-function unit). Cross-connections go through Main, but
no bandwidth or time slots are taken from the backbone ring. Eliminates need for
another shelf.
Holdover
An operating condition of a network element in which its local oscillator is not
locked to any synchronization reference but is using storage techniques to maintain
its accuracy with respect to the last known frequency comparison with a
synchronization reference.
HFC - Hybrid Fiber Coaxial
Technology using coaxial and fiber cable to transport data services in addition to
television channels.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
I
IC - Internal Clock
Used in synchronization messaging.
ID
See shelf ID and site ID.
IR - Intermediate Reach
A term used to describe distances of 15 to 40 km between optical transmitter and
receiver without regeneration. See long reach.
IS - In Service
One possible state of a DS1 or DS3 port. Other possible states are "auto"
(automatic) and "nmon" (not monitored).
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
J
Jitter
Timing jitter is defined as short-term variations of the significant instants of a
digital signal from their ideal positions in time.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
L
LBO - Line Build Out
An equalizer network between the DMXplore Multiplexer and the DSX panel. It
guarantees the proper signal level and shape at the DSX panel.
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LED - Light Emitting Diode
Used on a circuit pack faceplate to show failure (red) or service state. It is also used
to show the alarm and status condition of the system.
Line Timing
The capability to directly derive clock timing from an incoming OC-N signal while
providing the user the capability to provision whether switching to an alternate OCN from a different source (as opposed to entering holdover) will occur if the OCN currently used as the timing reference for that NE becomes unsuitable as a
reference. For example, intermediate nodes in a linear network are line timed. See
Loop Timing.
Local
See Near-End.
Locked Cross-Connection
This is a variation of the ring cross-connection that allows the user to lock the path
selector to a specified rotation of the ring. Any signal received from the other
rotation of the ring is ignored.
LOF - Loss of Frame
A failure to synchronize to an incoming signal.
Loop Timing
Loop timing is a special case of line timing. It applies to NEs that have only one
OC-N interface. For example, terminating nodes in a linear network are loop timed.
See Line Timing.
LOP - Loss of Pointer
A failure to extract good data from an STS-1 payload.
LOS - Loss of Signal
The complete absence of an incoming signal.
LR - Long Reach
A term used to describe distances of 40 km or more between optical transmitter and
reciever without regeneration. See Intermediate Reach.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
M
Main
The two slots (MAIN1 and MAIN2) on the DMXplore Multiplexer shelf in which
the Main multi-function OLIU circuit packs are installed.
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Midspan Meet
The capability to interface between two lightwave terminals of different vendors.
This applies to high-speed optical interfaces.
Multiplexing
The process of combining several distinct digital signals into a single composite
digital signal.
Mult - Multipling
The cascading of signals in a bay. In the MULT mode, the DS1 external reference
can be cascaded to other shelves in a bay using Mult cables. Normally starting with
the bottom shelf (Number 1) and working towards the top of the bay.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
N
NE - Near End
The network element the user is at or working on. Also called local.
NE - Network Element
The basic building block of a telecommunications equipment within a
telecommunication network that meets SONET standards. Typical internal
attributes of a network element include: onr or more high- and low-speed
transmission ports, built-in intelligence, synchronization and timing capability, and
access interfaces for use by technicians and/or operation systems. In addition, a
network element may also include a time slot interchanger.
NE ACTY - Near End Activity
An LED on the faceplate of the SYSCTL circuit pack.
NMA - Network Monitoring and Analysis
An operations system designed by Telcordia Technologies which is used to monitor
network facilities.
NMON - Not Monitored
A provisioning state for signals that is not monitored or alarmed.
Node
In SONET, a node is a line terminating element.
Non Revertive
A protection switching mode in which, after a protection switch occurs, the
equipment remains in its current configuration after any failure conditions that
caused a protection switch to occur clear or after any external switch commands
are reset. See Revertive.
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NSAP - Network Services Access Point
An address that identifies a network element. Used for maintenance subnetwork
communication using the OSI protocol.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
O
OC, OC-n - Optical Carrier
The optical signal that results from an optical inversion of an STS signal; that is,
OC-1 from STS-1 and OC-n from STS-n.
OC-1
Optical Carrier Level 1 Signal (51.844 Mb/s).
OC-3
Optical Carrier Level 3 Signal (155 Mb/s).
OC-3c (STS-3c)
Optical Carrier Level 3 Concatenated Signal. Low-speed broadband equivalent to
three STS-1s linked together with a single path overhead.
OC-12
Optical Carrier Level 12 Signal (622 Mb/s).
OC-12c (STS-12c)
Optical Carrier Level 12 Concatenated Signal. High-speed broadband equivalent
to twelve STS-1s linked together with a single path overhead.
Operations Interface
Any interface that provides information on the system performance or control.
These include the equipment LEDs, SYSCTL faceplate, and office alarms.
OS - Operations System
A central computer-based system used to provide operations, administration, and
maintenance functions.
OSI - Open Systems Interconnection
Referring to the OSI reference model, a logical structure for network operations
standardized by the Internation Standards Organization (ISO).
OSGNE - Operations System Gateway Network Element
An OSGNE serves as a single interface to the OS for NEs in the same subnetwork
using X.25 interfaces.
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P
Pass Through
Paths that are cross-connected directly across an intermediate node in a ring
network.
Plesiochronous Network
A network that contains multiple maintenance subnetworks, each internally
synchronous and all operating at the same nominal frequency, but whose timing
may be slightly different at any particular instant. For example, in SONET
networks, each timing traceable to their own Stratum 1 clock are considered
plesiochronous with respect to each other.
PM - Performance Monitoring
Measures the quality of service and identifies degrading or marginally operating
systems (before an alarm would be generated).
Port
The physical, electrical, or optical interface on a system. For example, DS1, DS3,
OC-3, and OC-12. See Channel.
Port State Provisioning
A feature that allows a user to supress alarm reporting and performance monitoring
during provisioning by supporting multiple states (automatic, in-service, and not
monitored) for low-speed ports. See Channel State Provisioning.
Proactive Maintenance
Refers to the process of detecting degrading conditions not severe enough to
initiate protection switching or alarming, but indicative of an impending signal fail
or signal degrade defect (for example, performance monitoring).
Protection Line
As defined by the SONET standard, the protection line is the pair of fibers (one
transmit and one receive) that carry the SONET APS channel (K1 and K2 bytes in
the SONET line overhead). On a DMXplore Multiplexer, a protection line is a pair
of fibers that terminate an OLIU circuit pack in the Main-2.
Product Family 2000
Lucent’s line of SONET standard network products providing total network
solutions.
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
The network that provides public telephone service.
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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
R
Reactive Maintenance
Refers to decting defects/failures and clearing them.
Remote
See Far-End (FE).
Revertive
A protection switching mode in which, after a protection switch occurs, the
equipment returns to the nominal configuration (that is, the service equipment is
active, and the protection equipment is standby) after the clearing of any failure
conditions that caused a protection switch to occur or after any external switch
commands are reset. See Non-Revertive.
Ring
A configuration of nodes comprised of network elements connected in a circular
fashion. Under normal conditions, each node is interconnected with its neighbor
and includes capacity for transmission in either direction between adjacent nodes.
Path switched rings use a head-end bridge and tail-end switch. Line switched rings
actively reroute traffic over a protection line.
RPP - Reliability Prediction Procedure
Described in Telcordia Technologies TR-NWT-00032.
RT - Remote Terminal
An unstaffed equipment enclosure that may have a controlled or uncontrolled
environment.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
S
S3-TG - Stratum 3 Timing Generator
The timing generator circuit pack, located in the OC-48 OLIU circuit pack,
generates clock signals for distribution to the transmit circuits. It operates in the
free-running, loop-timing, phase-lock, and holdover modes.
Self-Healing
Ring architecture in which two or more fibers are used to provide route diversity.
Node failures only affect traffic dropped at the failed node.
SEO - Single-Ended Operations
The maintenance capability that provides remote access to all DMXplore
Multiplexer systems from a single location over the DCC.
Service Line
On a DMXplore Multiplexer system, a service (or "working") line is a pair of fibers
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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(one transmit and one receive) that terminate on an OLIU circuit pack in the Main1 slots. As defined by the SONET standard, the SONET APS channel is not defined
on a service line. See Protection Line.
SES - Severely Errored Seconds
This performance monitoring parameter is a second in which a signal fail occurs,
or more than a preset amount of coding violations (dependent on the type of signal)
occurs.
SF - Super Frame
The format for DS1 signals.
Shelf ID
A switch-settable parameter with values from 1 to 8. Used to log into a selected
shelf in a by using the CIT.
Single Homing
A network topoly in which a single DDM-2000 FiberReach, OC-3 Multiplexer, or
OC-12 Multiplexer serves as a DMXplore Multiplexer.
Standby
Standby identifies a 1+1 protected OC-N line which is not currently selected by the
receiver at either end as the payload carrying signal, or 1x1 or 1xN protected circuit
pack that is not currently carrying service. See Active.
Status
The indication of a short-term change in the system.
STS, STS-n - Synchronous Transport Signal
The basic building block signal with a rate of 51.840 Mb/s for an STS-1 signal and
a rate of n times 51.840 Mb/s for an STS-n signal.
STS-1 SPE - STS-1 Synchronous Payload Envelope
A 125-microsecond frame structure composed of STS path overhead and the STS1 payload.
Subnetwork
Group of SONET network elements that share a SONET data communications
channel.
Synchronization Messaging
SONET synchronization messaging is used to communicate the quality of network
timing, internal timing status, and timing states throughout a subnetwork.
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SYSCTL - System Controller
The system controller circuit pack that provides overall administrative control of
the terminal.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
T
T1X1 and T1M1
The ANSI committees responsible for telecommunications standards.
TCA - Threshold Crossing Alert
A condition set when a performance monitoring counter exceeds a user-selected
threshold. A TCA does not generate an alarm but is available on demand through
the CIT and causes a message to be sent to NMA via the X.25/TL1 interface.
TL1 - Transaction Language 1
A Telcordia Technologies machine-to-machine communications language that is a
subset of ITU-TSS, formerly CCITT’s, human-machine language.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
U
UAS - Unavailable Seconds
In performance monitoring, the count of seconds in which a signal is declared
failed or, in which, 10 consecutively severely errored seconds (SES) occurred, until
the time when 10 consecutive non-SES occur.
Unidirectional
A protection switching mode in which the system at each end of an optical span
monitors both service and protection lines and independently chooses the best
signal (unless overridden by an equipment failure or by an external request, such
as a forced switch or lockout). In a system that uses unidirectional line switching,
both the service and protection lines may be active simultaneously, with one line
carrying traffic in one direction and other line carrying traffic in the other direction.
For a 1+1 protection scheme the K1 and K2 bytes in the SONET line overhead are
used to convey to the far end which line the near-end receiver has chosen, so that
an "active" indication may be made at the far end.
UPD/INIT
A push-button on the SYSCTL faceplate.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
V
VM - Violation Monitor
A mode of the DS3 circuit pack in which it will monitor but not remove P-bit parity
violations on the DS3 signal from the received fiber.
VMR - Violation Monitor and Removal
A mode of the DS3 circuit pack in which it will monitor and remove P-bit parity
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violations on the DS3 signal received from the fiber.
VT - Virtual Tributary
A structure designed for transport and switching of a sub-DS3 payload.
VT1.5
A 1.728 Mb/s virtual tributary.
VT-G - Virtual Tributary Group
A 9-row by 12-column SONET structure (108 bytes) that carries one or more VTs
of the same size. Seven VT groups (756 bytes) are byte-interleaved within the VTorganized STS-1 synchronous payload envelope
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
W
WaveStar Product Family
Lucent’s optical networking products.
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Z
Zero Code Suppression
A technique used to reduce the number of consecutive zeros in a line-codes signal
(B3ZS for DS3 signals and B8ZS for DS1 signals).
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Index
.............................................................................
minor, 6-4
6-4
0x1 application mode, 6-33
6-33
office, 10-39
Capabilities, 6-85
6-85
10/100BASE-TX, 4-12
4-12, A-9
A-9
quad OC-3 thresholding,
10-9, 10-10
capacity, 1-11
1-11, 4-2
4-2
status reports, 6-59
6-59
channel state provisioning,
6-57
10/100T circuit pack
description, 4-12
4-12, A-9
A-9
applications, 3-1
3-2
3-1, 3-2
technical specifications,
10-6, 10-21
Area Address, C-2
C-2, C-4
C-4
12DS3/EC1 circuit pack
arrangements
performance monitoring,
6-38
cabinet, 5-6
5-6
automatic provisioning, 6-54
6-54
.............................................................................
A
7-7, 7-9
7-9
automatic synchronization
reconfiguration, 5-24
5-24
add/drop cross-connection,
2-9, 5-11
5-11
access network, 5-24
5-24
adjusted F&M Bit, 6-38
6-38
administration, 6-1
6-1
software upgrades, 6-67
6-67
autoprovisioning, 6-54-??
.............................................................................
B
alarm gateway network
element (AGNE), 2-11
2-11
alarm groups, 6-15
6-15
alarms, 2-11
2-11
alarm indication signal,
6-24
critical, 6-4
6-4
DS1 thresholding, 10-4
10-4
groups, 6-15
6-15
major, 6-4
6-4
circuit breakers, 4-15
4-15, 10-45,
D-10
Circuit packs, 2-2
2-2, 4-1
4-1
circuit packs, 4-6
4-6
10/100T description,
4-12, A-9
A-9
available, 4-6
5-4
4-6, 5-4
descriptions, 4-8
4-8
LEDs, 6-5
6-5
7-7, 7-9
build-outs, 7-7
7-9, 10-19
quad OC-3 description,
4-9, 4-10
4-10, 4-11
4-11
burst-errored seconds, 10-29
sparing graphs, 9-8
9-8
.............................................................................
C
C-Bit, 6-38
6-38
cabinet
arrangements, 5-6
5-6
outside plant, 5-6
5-6
cables, 5-7
5-7
cable requirements, 4-16
4-16
cabling
lightguide build-outs,
state reports, 6-63
6-63
SYSCTL, 10-39
description, 4-8
4-8
circuit packs (Release 3.0),
1-10
CIT LAN
specifications, 10-37
client signal fail, 1-13
1-13
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I N D E X
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configurations
shelf, 5-3
5-3
environmental
subnetwork, 5-21
5-21
DCC Compatibility, 6-18
6-18
considerations, 5-8
5-8
UPSR, 6-34
6-34
DCC compatibility, 6-18
6-18
earthquake requirements,
10-44
DCC enable/disable, 6-17
6-17
control, 4-13
4-13
Definition, B-2
B-2
dimensions, 1-11
1-11
EMC requirements,
10-43
conventions used, xxiii
xxiii
Directory services, 6-80
6-80
fire resistance, 10-44
course registration, 8-4
8-4
DMX
humidity, 10-43
embedded operations
channel, 4-14
4-14
craft interface terminal, 6-5
6-5,
10-35
cross-connections, 5-9
5-9
product description, D-1
D-1
specifications, 10-43
synchronization, 5-16
5-16
temperature, 10-43
equipment
DMXplore, 4-1
4-5
4-1, 4-5
add/drop, 2-9
5-11
2-9, 5-11
indicators, 10-39
Introduction to
DMXplore, 1-8
1-8
allowable, 5-11
5-11
dual 0x1, 2-9
2-9, 5-11
5-11
DMXplore circuit packs, 4-6
4-6
pass-through, 2-9
2-9, 5-11
5-11
document
LEDs, 10-39
lightguide build-outs,
7-7, 7-9
7-9
ordering, 7-7
7-7
provisioning, 6-53
6-53
CD-ROM, xxiv
xxiv
single 0x1, 2-9
2-9, 5-11
5-11
conventions used, xxiii
xxiii
equipment protection, 6-35
6-35
types of, 5-10
5-10
how to comment, xxiv
xxiv
ethernet, A-1
A-1, A-7
A-7
intended audience, xxii
xxii
Ethernet Circuit Packs, A-7
A-7
current drain, 4-15
4-15, 10-45,
D-11, D-12
D-12, D-13
D-13
DS3, 10-4
10-4, 10-5
10-5
dual 0x1 cross-connection,
2-9, 5-11
5-11
Provisioning the DCC,
6-17
Data communications
channel (DCC), 6-17
6-17
data communications
channel (DCC), 2-10
2-10
data storage, B-2
B-2
DCC
Ethernet, optical, 1-13
1-13
performance monitoring
(PM), B-17-??
6-18
Compatibility, 6-18
specifications, 10-37
performance monitoring,
6-42, B-27
B-27
DS1, 10-4
10-4, 10-5
10-5
Data communications
channel
data communications
channel
10/100T, 10-6
10-6, 10-21
ordering, 7-4
7-4
.............................................................................
User side and network
side, 6-18
6-18
ethernet interfaces
documentation
customized login proprietary
messages, 2-12
2-12
D
engineering services, 8-2
8-2
see Data communications
channel
dual homing, 2-5
2-5
.............................................................................
E
earthquake requirements,
10-44
electrical interfaces, 10-3
10-3
10/100T, 10-6
10-6, 10-21
electronic documentation,
xxiv
external timing mode
specification, 10-30
.............................................................................
F
failure rates
port unit, 9-5
9-5
Features, 1-13
1-13, 1-14
1-14
cross-connection types,
2-8
hardware, 2-2
2-2
in-service upgrades, 2-4
2-4
networking capabilities,
2-6
embedded operations
channel, 4-14
4-14
operations, 2-10
2-10
EMC requirements, 10-43
Release 1.0 and Future
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I N D E X
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Features List, 1-13
1-13
intendend audience, xxii
xxii
topologies, 2-5
2-5
interfaces
features, 2-1
2-1
internal testing, 6-26
6-26
FIT rates
interworking, 6-14
6-14
equipment, 9-6
9-6
IP tunneling, 6-67
6-67
free running mode, 2-14
2-14,
5-20
IS
FTP/IP, 6-67
6-67
G
Graphic User Interface, 2-10
2-10
Growth slots, 4-4
4-4
GUI, 2-10
2-10
.............................................................................
H
hardware
4-5
access panel, 4-5
cabling, 4-16
4-16
circuit packs, 4-6
4-8
4-6, 4-8
control, 4-13
4-13
shelf description, 4-2
4-2,
D-3
history log, 6-62
6-62
holdover mode, 2-14
2-14, 5-20
5-20
specification, 10-30
.............................................................................
I
6-16
6-6, 6-16
IAO LAN, 6-6
IAO LAN compatibility,
6-11
IAO LAN ports, 6-8
6-8
inactivity timeout period,
6-86
inhibit switch, 6-35
6-35
installation services, 8-2
8-2
remote, 6-12
6-12
signaling, 6-24
6-24
three-tiered operations,
6-3
maintenance signaling
compliance, 6-24
6-24
IS-IS level 2 routing, 6-80
6-80
manual switch, 6-35
6-35
.............................................................................
J
Maximum Subnetwork Size,
C-11
jitter, 10-28
jumpers, 10-19
GbE
private line, 2-5
2-5
proactive, 6-37
6-37
Assignment, C-6
C-6, C-7
C-7,
C-9
specification, 10-30
Miscellaneous Discrete
Interfaces, 6-76
6-76, 6-92
6-92
.............................................................................
L
maintenance, 6-1
6-1
history reports, 6-59
6-59,
6-62
IP Access, 6-67
6-67
forced switch, 6-35
6-35
.............................................................................
M
electrical, 10-3
10-3
fire resistance, 10-44
Function Units, 4-4
4-4
.............................................................................
miscellaneous equipment
and tools, 7-7
7-7
7-7,
lightguide build-outs, 7-7
7-9
modems, 10-38
technical specifications,
10-19
Multiple Area Addressing,
C-5
lightguide jumpers
multivendor, 2-12
2-12
technical specifications,
10-19
multi-vendor operations
interworking, 6-16
6-16
line build-outs
DS1, 10-4
10-4
line parameter, 6-38
6-38
line switching, 6-33
6-33
automatic, 6-33
6-33
line timing mode, 2-13
5-19
2-13, 5-19
specification, 10-30
linear optical extensions, 2-5
2-5
OC-48, 2-11
2-11, 6-47
6-47
link budgets
1G LX, 10-25
.............................................................................
N
network
5-16
synchronization, 5-16
synchronization
environment, 5-17
5-17
timing distribution
questions, 5-32
5-32
Network element (NE) login
administration and security
Security, 6-84
6-84
network partitioning, 2-11
2-11
locked DSn, 1-13
1-13
Network size, 6-79
6-79
login, 6-85
6-85
NMA, 2-12
2-12
loopbacks, 6-26
6-26
NSAP, 6-81
6-81
DS1, 10-4
10-4
lucent products, 6-14
6-14
NSAP AREA, C-4
C-4
NSAP provisioning, 6-81
6-81
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I N D E X
IN-3
.............................................................................
O
cross-connection, 2-9
2-9, 5-11
5-11
2-12
OC-192 UPSR, 6-34
6-34
password, 6-85
6-85
configurations, 6-34
6-34
operations interworking,
2-12
password aging, 2-12
2-12
specifications, 10-31
optical
path parameter, 6-38
6-38
OC-192/OC-48
unidirectional path
switched ring, 2-4
2-4, 2-5
2-5
linear extensions, 2-5
2-5
path state reporting, 6-60
6-60
parameters, B-9
B-11,
B-9, B-11
B-13, B-15
B-15, B-23
B-23, B-27
B-27
path state reports, 6-63
6-63
OC-3, 10-9
10-9, 10-10
optical Ethernet, 4-12
10-6
4-12, 10-6
OC-48 UPSR, 6-34
6-34
optical Ethernet,
100BASE-LX, SFPs,
Private Line, 10-21, 10-22,
10-23, A-7
A-7
configurations, 6-34
6-34
specifications, 10-31
OC-N
optical interfaces, 10-8
10-8
performance parameters,
B-9
OLIUs
specifications, 10-11,
10-15
software
ordering, 7-4
7-4
three-tiered, 6-3
6-3
three-tiered operations
interface, 4-13
4-13
software, 7-4
7-4
OS, 6-81
6-81
OSI, 1-12
1-12, 2-11
2-11, 6-16
6-16
specifications, 10-37
OSI on the IAO LAN, 6-8
6-8
OSI or TCP/IP on the same
IAO LAN, 6-10
6-10
operations interfaces, 10-34,
10-38
craft interface terminal,
10-35
LEDs, 10-39
PC/CIT, 10-35
Operations Interworking,
outside plant cabinet, 5-6
5-6
.............................................................................
P
performance monitoring,
6-37, 6-38
6-38
2-10, 6-37
DS3, 6-38
6-38
ethernet interfaces, 6-42
6-42
reports, 6-43
6-43, 6-61
6-61
shelf assembly, 7-3
7-3
PC-CIT, 6-28
6-28
system, 10-26
lightguide build-outs,
7-7, 7-9
7-9
tier3, 6-6
6-6
Office Alarms Interface,
6-75
status reports, 6-61
6-61
ethernet specifications,
B-27
tier 2, 6-5
6-5
Miscellaneous Discrete
Interface, 6-76
6-92
6-76, 6-92
Features and Uses, 6-28
6-28
7-2
how to order, 7-2
miscellaneous equipment
and tools, 7-7
7-7
Operations Interfaces
PC-CIT
performance
documentation
multi-vendor
interworking, 6-16
6-16
PC/CIT, 2-10
6-5, 10-35
2-10, 6-5
SONET specifications,
10-11, 10-15
accessories, 7-8
7-8
interworking, 6-14
6-14
P-Bit, 6-38
6-38
PC-CIT LAN, 6-6
6-6
ordering, 7-1
7-1
alarm groups, 6-15
6-15
path witching, 6-34
6-34
OC-3, 4-9
4-9, 4-10
4-10, 4-11
4-11
optical loopbacks, 6-26
6-26
operations, 1-12
1-12, 6-1
6-1
path switched rings, 6-34
6-34
6-47,
parameters and traps, 6-47
B-29
pass-through
SONET parameters, 6-40
6-40
performance monitoring
(PM)
definition, B-2
B-2
trouble, B-5
B-5
performance monitorning
data storage, 6-44
6-44
line parameter, 6-38
6-38
parameter thresholds,
6-45
path parameter, 6-38
6-38
proactive maintenance,
6-37
performance parameters
B-8
, B-8
OC-N, B-9
B-9, B-11
B-11, B-13
B-13,
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I N D E X
IN-4
B-15, B-23
B-23, B-27
B-27
default, 6-51
6-51
STS, B-11
B-11, B-13
B-13
parameter thresholds,
6-45
personal computer
specifications, 10-38
physical arrangements, 5-2
5-2
cabling, 5-7
5-7
physical specification, 10-42
physical specifications,
10-41
See performance
monitoring
remont, 6-52
6-52
User types, 6-85
6-85
.............................................................................
quad OC-3 circuit pack
description, 4-9
4-9, 4-10
4-10,
4-11
power, 4-15
4-15, 10-45 ,
D-10
PM
System initialization,
6-85
Provisioning the DCC, 6-17
6-17
Q
.............................................................................
R
1-14
Release 2.0, Features, 1-14
Release 2.1, Features, 1-13
1-13
port state provisioning, 6-56
6-56
remote
port state reporting, 6-60
6-60
maintenance, 6-12
6-12
port state reports, 6-63
6-63
provisioning, 6-52
6-52
power
Remote NE-NE Software
Copy, 6-20
6-20, 6-21
6-21
requirements, 4-15
4-15,
10-45, D-10
D-10
reports, 6-59
6-59
procative maintenance, 6-37
6-37
Capabilities, 6-85
6-85
port state, 6-56
6-56
reports, 6-60
6-64
6-60, 6-64
Physical Description, 4-1
4-1
Security, 6-84
6-84
security, 2-12
2-12
default login and
password, 6-86
6-86
service applications, 3-2
3-2
services
worldwide, 8-2
8-2
seven layer protocol stack,
2-11
seven-layer protocol stack,
1-12
shelf
assembly, 7-3
7-3
capacity, 1-11
4-2
1-11, 4-2
configurations, 5-3
5-3
description, 4-2
4-2, D-3
D-3
front view, 4-2
4-2
alarm and status, 6-59
6-59
Function Units, 4-4
4-4
circuit pack states, 6-63
6-63
Growth slots, 4-4
4-4
product description, D-1
D-1
maintenance history,
6-59, 6-62
6-62
physical characterisics,
10-42
Product Family 2000
path states, 6-60
6-60, 6-63
6-63
requirements, 5-3
5-3
performance monitoring,
6-43, 6-61
6-61
size, 1-11
1-11, 4-2
4-2
Product Description, 4-1
4-1
access panel, 4-5
4-5
interworking with, 2-12
2-12
protection switching
signal performance, 10-29
equipment, 6-35
6-35
port states, 6-60
6-60, 6-63
6-63
line, 6-33
6-33
provisioning, 6-60
6-60, 6-64
6-64
single 0x1 cross-connection,
5-11
2-9, 5-11
path, 6-34
6-34
state reports, 6-59
6-59
single homing, 2-5
2-5
priorities, 6-33
6-33
threshold crossing alerts,
6-43
SNMP, 6-47
6-47, B-29
B-29
version/equipment list,
6-65
software download, 2-10
2-10,
6-5
technical specifications,
10-31
provisioning, 6-1
6-1, 6-51
6-51
version/equipment lists,
6-60
auto provisioning, 6-54
6-54
automatic, 6-54
6-54
channel state, 6-57
6-57
cross-connections, 6-53
6-53
.............................................................................
S
6-18
Section DCC, 6-18
Software Download, 6-20
6-20
personal computer
specifications, 10-38
SONET, 2-12
2-12
data communications
channel, 10-37
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I N D E X
IN-5
overhead bytes, 10-27
performance monitoring
parameters, 6-40
6-40
sparing
circuit packs, 9-8
9-8
graphs, 9-8
9-8
specifications
external timing/line
timing, 5-23
5-23
features, 2-13
2-13, 5-19
5-19
free running, 2-14
2-14, 5-20
5-20
free running/line timing,
5-21
functions, 2-13
2-13, 5-19
5-19
environmental, 10-43
holdover, 2-14
5-20
2-14, 5-20
physical, 10-41, 10-42
line timing, 2-13
2-13, 5-19
5-19
technical, 10-1
10-1
provisioning integrity,
5-24
standards
transmission interfaces,
10-2
state reports, 6-59
6-63
6-59, 6-63
status reports
performance, 6-61
6-61
STS performance
parameters, B-11
B-11, B-13
B-13
subnetwork configurations,
5-21
external timing/line
timing, 5-23
5-23
free running/line timing,
5-21
Subnetwork Partitioning
Advantages, C-2
C-2
Guidelines, C-2
C-2
recommendations, 5-18
5-18
sync messaging, 5-24
5-24
cross-connections, 5-9
5-9
.............................................................................
T
1-12, 2-12
2-12, 6-16
6-16,
TARP, 1-12
6-81
Parameters, 6-82
6-82
Provisioning, 6-82
6-82
TARP data cache, 6-83
6-83
Accuracy, 6-84
6-84
TARP NSAP-to-TID
translations, 6-83
6-83
TARP propagation, 6-83
6-83
TARP provisioning, 6-82
6-82
technical specifications,
10-30
TARP TID-to-NSAP
translations, 6-82
6-82
timing modes, 2-13
2-13,
5-19, 10-30
TCP/IP
SYSCTL, 6-4
6-4
SYSCTL circuit pack
control, 4-13
4-13
description, 4-8
4-8
faceplate, 4-13
4-13, 6-4
6-4,
10-39
performance monitoring,
6-46
specifications, 10-37
TCP/IP on the IAO LAN, 6-9
6-9
technical specifications, 10-1
10-1
10/100T, 10-6
10-6, 10-21
DS3, 10-5
10-5
System initialization, 6-85
6-85
electrical interfaces, 10-3
10-3
system overview, 1-1
1-1
OC-3, 10-9
10-9, 10-10
system performance, 10-26
operations interfaces,
10-34
jitter, 10-28
optical interfaces, 10-8
10-8
suitcasing, training courses,
8-4
protection switching,
10-31
super user
signal performance,
10-29
power, 4-15
4-15, 10-45 ,
D-10
SONET overhead bytes,
10-27
protection switching,
10-31
synchronization, 10-30
signal performance,
10-29
WaveStar CIT, 6-86
6-86
sync messaging, 5-24
5-24
automatic
synchronization
reconfiguration, 5-24
5-24
synchronization
provisioning integrity,
5-24
synchronization, 5-16
5-16
environment, 5-17
5-17
transient performance,
10-32
transmission delay, 10-33
wander, 10-28
system planning and
engineering, 5-1
5-1
physical, 10-41
SONET overhead bytes,
10-27
synchronization, 10-30
system performance,
10-26
transient performance,
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I N D E X
IN-6
Ethernet Extension, 3-7
3-7
10-32
transmission delay, 10-33
TEMS, 2-12
2-12
Small or Medium-sized
Business Access, 3-3
3-3
three-tiered operations
interface, 4-13
4-13
Wireless Optical
Buildout, 3-5
3-5
topologies, 3-1
3-1
threshold crossing alerts,
6-45
transient performance, 10-32
reports, 6-43
6-61
6-43, 6-61
transmission
transmission to OS, 6-46
6-46
delay, 10-33
thresholds, B-8
B-8
TID, 6-81
6-81
TID provisioning, 6-81
6-81
interface standards, 10-2
10-2
.............................................................................
U
Time and Date
Synchronization, 6-72
6-72
update/initialize, 6-4
6-4
UPSR, 2-4
2-4, 2-5
2-5, 6-34
6-34
timing
configurations, 6-34
6-34
distribution questions,
5-32
specifications, 10-31
User side and network side,
6-18
timing modes, 2-13
5-19
2-13, 5-19
external timing/line
timing, 5-23
5-23
free running, 2-14
2-14, 5-20
5-20
free running/line timing,
5-21
6-33
unprotected paths, 6-33
User types, 6-85
6-85
.............................................................................
V
V4 byte, 10-27
VLNC10, 2-2
2-2
holdover, 2-14
2-14, 5-20
5-20
VLNC30, 4-12
4-12, 10-6
10-6, 10-21,
10-22, 10-23 , A-7
A-7
line timing, 2-13
5-19
2-13, 5-19
specifications, 10-30
VLNC5, 2-2
2-2, 10-4
10-4, 10-5
10-5,
10-9, 10-10
TIRKS, 2-12
2-12
command builder, 2-10
2-10
VLNC6, 2-2
10-4, 10-5
10-5,
2-2, 10-4
10-9, 10-10
management, 2-10
2-10
VLNC8, 2-2
2-2
messaging, 2-10
2-10
VLNC9, 2-2
2-2
over TCP/IP, 6-46
6-46, 10-37
VT1.5 granularity, 2-6
2-6
TL1
translation device, 10-37
TL1 Translation Device
(T-TD), 2-10
6-67
2-10, 6-67
TL1/X.25, 6-16
6-16
TL1/x.25, 6-6
6-6, 6-46
6-46
tools, 7-7
7-7
.............................................................................
W
wander, 10-28
WaveStar Product Family
interworking with, 2-12
2-12
worldwide services, 8-2
8-2
Topologies
...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Issue 2.1, March 2005
I N D E X
IN-7
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