Graphic Design Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator

Graphic Design
with
Adobe Photoshop
and Illustrator
Jerry Weers
September 2013
COPYRIGHT ©2013 Jerry Weers
Contents
Adobe Photoshop Basics
Graphic File Formats
3
The Photoshop Workspace
7
Raster Graphics
Vector Graphics
Compound Formats
Image Size and Resolution
Tools Panel
Creating a New Document
Moving Around the Document
3
4
4
5
9
10
10
Layers11
The Layers Panel
11
Layer Styles
15
Blending Modes
16
Cropping19
Resizing and Transforming
19
Resizing20
Transforming22
Selections23
The Select Menu
Paths Panel
Additional Selection Methods
Layer Masks
Refining Selection Edges
23
28
29
30
31
Adjustments33
The Adjustments Menu
Adjustment Layers
The Adjustments Panel
The Properties Panel
Additional Adjustments
Posterization with more color control
33
34
34
35
45
49
Retouching51
Retouch Tools
Retouch Filters
Smart Objects
52
56
58
Typography59
Type Categories
Type in Photoshop
Designing with Type
Basic Color Theory
Color Wheel
Attributes of Color
Color in Photoshop
60
62
64
65
65
68
69
Adobe Illustrator Basics
The Illustrator Workspace
Tools Panel
Creating a New Document
75
77
78
Objects79
Creating Objects
Stroke and Fill
Stroke Panel
Gradient Panel
79
82
82
83
Selecting and Grouping Objects
85
Transforming Objects
89
Grouping Objects
Arranging Objects
86
87
Transform Panel
89
Transform Tools
90
Liquify Tools
92
Pathfinder Panel
93
Align Panel
95
Envelope Distort
96
Blend96
Modifying Paths
98
Clipping Mask
99
Image Trace
100
Text101
Type Tools
101
Symbols103
Symbols Panel
Option Bar
Symbol Tools
103
104
104
Design Basics
Elements and Principles of Design
Elements of Design
Principles of Design
109
110
111
Appendix
Photoshop and Illustrator Keyboard Shortcuts117
Photoshop and Illustrator Best Practices
118
Saving and Exporting Files
120
Using a Photoshop Image in Illustrator
122
Using an Illustrator Image in Photoshop
122
Printing in Photoshop and Illustrator
123
Save for Web
Saving a PDF
120
121
Adobe
Photoshop
Basics
2
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Graphic File Formats
Raster Graphics
A raster graphics image, or bitmap, is basically a rectangular grid of pixels
with each pixel represented by a color. The bits per pixel, or color depth,
determines the number of possible colors each pixel can represent.
Most raster graphics use a compressed file format, with the amount of compression potentially affecting both the file size and the quality of the image. There
are two types of compression, lossless and lossy. Lossless compression uses
algorithms to compress the file size without any loss of image quality. Lossy
compression makes a trade-off of some image quality for a smaller file size.
Raster File Formats
BMP (Windows Bitmap) is a file format used within the Windows operating system. A BMP is uncompressed and therefore a large file.
PCT (Macintosh Picture), like BMP, is uncompressed and rarely used.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), which has a file extension of
JPG or JPEG, uses lossy compression. The amount of compression can be
specified, allowing for reduction in file size with minimal visible loss of image
quality. JPEG is a good format for continuous tone images, like photographs,
and consequently is used by most digital cameras.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) uses lossless compression and can
include areas of transparency in the image. GIF has an 8-bit color depth,
allowing only 256 colors, and because of that limitation is better used for
images with large areas of flat color, like diagrams, logos or clipart. It is not
appropriate for photos, but can be used for simple animations.
1
raster graphics
color depth
lossless compression
lossy compression
BMP
PCT
GIF
JPEG
TIFF
PNG
PSD
vector graphics
scalable
WMF
SVG
AI
compound graphics
EPS
PDF
image size
document size
resolution
ppi
TIFF (Tag Image File Format), which uses a file extension of tif or tiff, can
be either lossy or lossless and offers great flexibility in how the image is saved.
It is a file format preferred by many commercial printers.
PNG (Portable Network Graphics) can be either lossy or lossless, can
support transparency, and has 24-bit color depth, or 16 million colors.
PSD (Photoshop Document) is Adobe Photoshop’s native file format.
GRAPHIC FILE FORMATS
3
Vector Graphics
Vector graphics are images that are composed of vectors or lines that have a
direction, a start, and an end point. Because vector graphics contain geometric
descriptions, they have the advantage over raster graphics of scaling smoothly
to any size.
Vector File Formats
WMF (Windows Metafile) is a vector format used in Windows clipart.
SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) is a vector file format that can be used in
web applications.
AI (Adobe Illustrator) is the native file format for Adobe Illustrator.
Enlarged raster graphic
Compound Formats
There are some graphic file formats that can contain both raster and vector
information.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) files contain a PostScript description of the
graphic data within them. EPS files are unique in that they can be used for
vector graphics, raster images, type or even entire pages.
PDF (Portable Document Format) is a file format developed by Adobe to
be independent of software applications, hardware or operating systems. It
contains a document layout description, including graphics, text, fonts and
other display information.
Enlarged vector graphic
When enlarged, raster graphics
become blocky and pixelated,
while vector graphics retain their
smooth edges scaled to any size.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Image Size and Resolution
Image size refers to the pixel dimensions of a rasterized image. For
example, a digital photograph might be 2000 pixels high by 3000
pixels wide, containing a total of 6 million pixels (2000 x 3000). A
camera that takes photos of that size is referred to as a 6-megapixel
camera–mega meaning million.
Document size refers to the printed size of an image. A 2000 by 3000
pixel photograph could be printed in a variety of document sizes–2
inches x 3 inches, 4 inches x 6 inches, 8 inches by 12 inches. As the
printed size of the image increases, the quality or resolution of the
printed image decreases. Resolution is measured in ppi, or pixels per
inch. A 2000-pixel-wide image, when printed at width of 2 inches, has
a resolution of 1000 ppi (2000 ÷ 2). Printed at 4 inches, the resolution
is 500 ppi (2000 ÷ 4), and at 8 inches, the resolution is 250 ppi (2000
÷ 8). There is a relationship between image width, print width and
resolution. Changing one affects the others.
image
pixel width
÷
print width
in inches
=
pixels per inch
resolution
When working in Photoshop, it is important to set up the document with
a resolution appropriate for its ultimate usage. If the document will be
printed on a computer printer, 150 ppi should be the minimum resolution,
with 300 ppi being preferable. If the document is going to a commercial
printer, 300 ppi or above is needed.
300ppi resolution
100ppi resolution
50ppi resolution
GRAPHIC FILE FORMATS
5
The Application Bar
The Tools Panel
6
The Document Window
The Options Bar
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Workspace Switcher
The Panels Dock
The Photoshop
Workspace
The Photoshop workspace is made up of six primary parts.
Application Bar
Across the top of the workspace is the Application bar, which contains the
menu. Many of the menu commands can also be accessed from individual
panel menus, from right-click context-sensitive menus, or with keyboard
shortcuts
Tools Panel
The Tools panel, which by default is located vertically along the left side of
the workspace, contains tools for editing and creating images. Tools with
similar functions are grouped together.
2
workspace
application bar
tools panel
option bar
document window
panels dock
workspace switcher
foreground color
background color
Options Bar
The Options bar is located just below the Application bar. It contains setting
controls for the currently selected tool from the Tools panel.
Document Window
The Document Window displays the images that are being edited. The individual documents can either be free-floating or tabbed. Information about
the currently selected document can be found at the lower left corner of the
Document Window and on the document tab at the top.
Panels Dock
The Panels Dock contains the currently active panels, which can be docked,
either individually or in groups. They can be collapsed to create more working space in the Document Window, or they can be pulled loose from the
dock to be free-floating. Any panel that is not currently active can be opened
from the Windows menu.
Workspace Switcher
The Workspace Switcher contains a variety of workspace layout presets.
From the menu you can select a particular workspace, or you can save your
current panel layout as a user-defined workspace. The workspace presets are
also available from the Windows menu.
THE PHOTOSHOP WORKSPACE
7
Selection Tools
Crop and Slice Tools
Measuring Tools
Retouching Tools
Painting Tools
Vector Tools
Navigation Tools
Default Colors
Foreground Color
Swap Foreground/Background
Background Color
Quick Mask Mode
Screen Mode
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Tools Panel
By default the Tools panel appears
as a single vertical row of icons along
the left side of the screen, but you can
convert it to a shorter double row of
icons by clicking the double arrows
at the top of the panel. The Tab key
toggles the Tools panel and all of the
other panels on and off, creating a
larger workspace.
The Tools panel contains a variety of
tools organized into basic categories
like selection tools, painting tools,
retouching tools, etc. The keyboard
shortcut for each tool appears in
parenthesis to the right of the tool’s
name when you hover your mouse
over the tool. Each visible tool in
the Tools panel is part of a group of
hidden tools, which are accessible by
clicking and holding on the small
triangle to the lower right of each
tool, or by Shift-clicking the tool’s
shortcut key.
Foreground and Background
Color Swatches
Located at the bottom of the Tools
Panel are the foreground and background color swatches. Click one
of the swatches to open the Color
Picker and select a new foreground
or background color. Click the small
icon to the upper left of the swatches
to select the default colors, which are
black foreground and white background. Click the curved arrow to
the upper right of the swatches to
swap foreground and background
colors, or use the keyboard shortcut,
X.
THE PHOTOSHOP WORKSPACE
9
Creating a New Document
When you open a photo or image in Photoshop, it automatically becomes a
document in your Document Window. But if you want to begin with a blank
document, you can open the New Document dialog from the File menu or
using the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-N. If you previously copied an image to the
clipboard, those dimensions will automatically be entered when the dialog
opens.
Choose a general paper
category preset.
Assign a name for the document
or accept the default.
Then choose a particular size
within that category.
Or type in a custom
height and width.
Choose a resolution and color mode
based on how the document will
eventually be used.
Choose either a color for the
background of the document,
or in most instances choose
transparent, which Photoshop
will represent with a checkerboard pattern.
In most cases, the defaults for the
advanced settings will work.
If you have used custom settings
for this document, you can save
them as a preset.
When you are satisfied with
your settings, click OK to
create the new document.
Moving Around the Document
The Hand tool moves you around the document. The spacebar is the
keyboard shortcut for the Hand tool.
The Zoom tool magnifies the image, or it zooms out if you hold down
the Alt key. Alt used with the mouse wheel will zoom in and out as well.
While zoomed in on a document, Ctrl with the mouse wheel will move left
and right. Shift and the mouse wheel will move up and down.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Layers
The Layers Panel
Separating content onto different layers allows changes to be made to one
layer without affecting the rest of the document. These layers are displayed in
the Layers Panel, where they can be organized, rearranged and manipulated
in various ways.
Layer Panel Menu
Filters
Layer Opacity
Blending Mode
Layer Fill
Locks
Layer Group
Layer Visibility
3
layers panel
blending mode
layer visibility
layer opacity
layer style
layer mask
adjustment layer
text layer
layer group
layer locks
blending modes
background layer
layer comp
Text Layer
Current Layer
Locked Layer
Link Layers
Delete Layer
Add Layer Style
Create Adjustment Layer
Add Layer Mask
Create New Layer
Create New Group
Blending mode determines how the layer will combine with the layers below it.
Normal is the default blending mode.
The Opacity slider modifies the opacity of everything on the layer.
The Fill slider modifies the opacity of the layer contents only, leaving any layer
styles unaffected.
Lock
Locks transparent pixels.
Locks all image pixels in the layer.
Locks contents of the layer from being moved.
Lock all properties of the layer.
LAYERS
11
Background layer
In Photoshop a background layer is a unique layer with special characteristics. The contents of the background layer cannot be moved. It can have no
transparent pixels, so if something is deleted from the background layer, that
content is not replaced with transparency, but with the current color in the
background color swatch. And finally, the background layer cannot be moved
above another layer, but must always remain the bottom layer in the stack.
To avoid these limitations, a background layer can be renamed to any other
name, and it will become a normal layer.
Selecting layers
To select a single layer, click on the layer in the Layers panel.
To select multiple consecutive layers, click the first layer and then Shift-click
the last layer.
To select multiple nonconsecutive layers, click the first layer, and then Ctrlclick on each additional layer somewhere outside the layer’s thumbnail.
To select similar layers (for example, all of the layers containing type), select
a layer and choose Similar Layers from the Select menu.
Selecting a layer’s contents
Ctrl-click a layer’s icon in the Layers panel to create a selection from the
layer’s nontransparent content.
Creating a new layer
To create a new layer, select New Layer from the Layers panel menu, or click
the New Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers panel. The new layer will be
created above the currently selected layer.
Duplicating a layer
To duplicate or copy a layer, select the layer in the Layers panel, and from the
Layers panel menu, choose Duplicate Layer, or drag the layer to the New
Layer icon at the bottom of the Layers panel. The duplicate layer will be
created above the original layer.
To copy a layer into a different document, select a different destination document in the Duplicate Layer dialog.
Deleting a layer
To delete a layer, select the layer and choose Delete Layer from the Layers
panel menu. Choose Delete Hidden Layers to delete all layers not currently
visible.
Grouping layers
As the number of layers in the Layers panel increases, working with them can
become cumbersome. A way to organize the layers is to gather multiple layers
into a group.
From the Layers panel, choose New Group. Type a name for the group and
12
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
click OK. The new group will be created above the currently selected layer.
Now you can click-drag individual layers into the new group. Or alternately,
you can select multiple layers in the Layers panel, and then from the Layers
panel menu choose New Group from Layers. Type a name for the group
and click OK.
Linking layers
Linking layers allows the content of the layers to be moved or transformed
as a group.
To link layers, select the layers and then choose Link Layers from the Layers
panel menu.
To unlink layers, select the layers and choose Unlink Layers from the Layers
panel menu.
To select all of the layers in a group of linked layers, click one of the layers and
then choose Select Linked Layers from the Layers panel menu.
Locking a layer
To lock a layer’s contents and protect them from being changed, select the
layer and click one of the Lock icons at the top of the Layers panel. Click the
icon again to unlock the layer.
Showing or hiding a layer
To hide a layer, click the layer’s eye icon. Click the box again to show the
layer.
Alt-clicking a layer’s eye icon will display only that layer, hiding all other
layers. Alt-clicking it again will return all layers to their previous state.
Renaming a layer
To rename a layer, double-click the layer’s name in the Layers palette and type
a new name, or select the layer in the Layers panel, then from the Layers panel
menu choose Layer Properties. Type a new layer name.
Rearranging layers
To move or rearrange a layer, click and hold while you drag the layer to a new
position in the list.
Merging layers
From the Layers panel menu select Merge Down to merge the currently
selected layer with the layer directly below it, or Merge Visible to merge all
currently visible layers. Merge Layers merges all currently selected layers, and
Flatten Image merges all layers in the document.
Changing layer opacity
To change the opacity or transparency of a layer, select the layer and use the
Opacity slider at the top of the Layers panel. The Fill slider also modifies the
transparency of a layer’s contents, but without affecting any layer effects that
may have been applied to the layer.
LAYERS
13
Text layers
Using the Type tool creates a new Type layer which is different than other
layers because its contents are vector-based. This means that if the image is
resized, the type will be resized without loss of quality. To convert a Type
layer to an ordinary layer, right-click the layer and choose Rasterize Type,
which will convert the type from vectors to pixels, also making it uneditable
as type.
Aligning layers
To align the contents of two or more layers, select the layers in the Layers
panel. Then from the main menu bar choose Layer > Align > Top Edges, Left
Edges, etc.
To align the contents of one or more layers to a selection, create a selection in
your image, then in the Layers panel select the layers you want to align to the
selection. From the menu bar choose Layer > Align Layers to Selection > Top
Edges, Left Edges, etc.
Layer comps
The look of an image can be changed dramatically by altering the arrangement and visibility of its layers. A snapshot of the current configuration of the
Layers palette can be saved for later use with the help of the Layer Comps
panel.
To save the current layer composition, choose New Layer Comp from the
Layer Comps panel menu, type a name for the new layer comp and then click
OK. Or you can click the New Layer Comp icon at the bottom of the Layer
Comps panel.
To return to a previously created layer comp, click its icon in the Layer Comps
panel.
Note: Many layer options are also available by selecting Layer in the main
menu bar or by right-clicking on a layer in the Layers panel. Some of these
commands also have keyboard shortcuts.
14
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Layer Styles
There are a variety of layer styles or special effects that can be applied to a
layer. They can be found in the Layers menu or by clicking the layer style icon
at the bottom of the Layers panel. Select any layer style and the Layers Style
dialog will open. From there you will have access to all of the available layer
styles.
The styles are listed in the left-hand
column. Any style that is currently
applied to the active layer in the
Layers panel will have a checkmark.
The currently selected style will have
a dark background, and the settings
for that style will appear in the center
section of the dialog.
Make sure the Preview box is
checked to see how any changes you
make to the styles will look in your
image, though the changes are not
actually applied until you click OK.
Any layer that has a layer style applied to it will have an fx icon. Clicking the
icon will toggle between hiding and revealing the list of applied styles.
To temporarily turn off a style, click the visibility icon to the left of the style.
To edit the style, double-click the style name, and the Layer Styles dialog will
open, allowing you to make adjustments to any of the currently applied styles
or to add new styles if you would like. Layer styles are totally nondestructive
and can be modified or deleted at any time.
Layer styles can also be copied from one layer to another when you want
exactly the same effects applied. In the Layers panel, right-click on the layer
that has styles applied to it. From the menu select Copy Layer Style. Alternately you can select the layer, and then choose Copy Layer Style from the
Layers panel menu. To apply the copied styles to a new layer, right-click on
the layer in the Layers panel and choose Paste Layer Style, or choose Paste
Layer Style from the Layers panel menu.
LAYERS
15
Blending Modes
Blending modes, which are found in the drop-down box at the top of the
Layers panel, determine if and how Photoshop combines the current layer
with the layer below it. The blending modes fall into some general categories.
Independent Modes
Normal, which is the default mode, has no effect on the underlying layer.
Dissolve creates a grainy effect in areas of less than 100% opacity.
Darkening Modes
Darkening modes darken underlying layer. White areas have no effect.
Lightening Modes
Lightening modes lighten the underlying layer. Black areas have no effect.
Contrast Modes
Contrast modes lighten highlights and darken shadows in underlying layers.
Mid-gray has no effect.
Comparative Modes
Comparative modes compare the colors of the blend layer and the base layer
and subtract one from the other.
HSL Modes
In these modes the underlying layer is influenced by a one of the color characteristic of the blend layer.
16
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Blending Mode Examples
Amongst the many blending modes,
there are a few that are used much
more than any of the others.
The Blend Layer
The Base Layer
Normal Blending Mode has no effect on the
underlying base layer. The base layer is only
visible where the blend layer is transparent.
Normal Blending Mode
Multiply Blending Mode multiplies the colors
of the blend layer with the base layer, essentially
darkening it. Black areas in the blend layer
remain black. White areas disappear, having no
effect on the base layer.
Multiply Blending Mode
Screen Blending Mode combines lighter
areas from the blend and base layers, creating a darker image. White in the blend
layer remains white and black has no effect.
Screen Blending Mode
Overlay Blending Mode uses the light areas
of the blend layer to lighten the base layer
and dark areas to darken the base layer. 50%
gray has no effect on the base layer.
Overlay Blending Mode
Color Blending Mode applies the hue and
saturation of the blend layer to the base
layer.
Color Blending Mode
Luminosity Blending Mode applies the
light and dark values of the blend layer to
the base layer.
Luminosity Blending Mode
LAYERS
17
When applying a blending mode to a layer, the effects can
be reduced by lowering the opacity of the layer as a whole,
or by adding a layer mask to apply the effects only to certain
areas.
Blending modes are not only available in the layers panel, but also as
an option in many of the layer styles.
Even some of the tools have a blending mode setting.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Resizing and
Transforming
Photoshop offers a variety of ways to modify the size, shape and rotation of an
image. Some are available as tools in the Tools panel. Others are found in the
Edit and the Image menus. Generally modifications made to an individual
layer or a portions of a layer are found in the Edit menu, while changes made
to the image as a whole are found in the Image menu.
Cropping
Crop Tool
The Crop tool allows the most control and has the added benefit
of being nondestructive. The settings available in the tool’s Option
bar allow freeform cropping, cropping to a particular aspect ratio, or cropping to a specific size. If your photo needs straightening, you can do that
with the Crop tool as well. And for the option to change your crop later,
make sure that Delete Cropped Pixels is not checked, and your crop will be
nondestructive.
4
crop tool
crop command
trim command
image size
pixel dimensions
document size
canvas size
free transform
scale
rotate
skew
distort
perspective
warp
Crop Command
For a quick crop, make a selection using the Rectangular Marquee tool and
then select Crop from the Image menu.
Trim Command
The Trim command, also found in the Image menu, crops the image based
on transparent or colored pixels around the edge of the image.
RESIZING AND TRANSFORMING
19
Resizing
Photoshop offers a several ways of resizing a part or all of your image. Because
Photoshop deals primarily with raster graphics, you should always be aware
that resizing an image larger can result in a loss of quality due to pixelization.
Image Size
The Image Size command, which is found under the Image menu, opens the
Image Size dialog. This is by far the best way to resize an image because of the
settings and options available.
The Height and Width options available in the Pixel Dimensions group
refer to the actual pixel size of the
image. Any change in dimensions
here will actually add or subtract
pixels from the image.
The Document Size controls the
size and resolution of the printed
document. As you make changes
to the document size, if you don’t
want pixel dimensions to change as
well, uncheck Resample Image box.
Then any changes made to the document width and height will only
change the resolution.
Constrain Proportions make sure
the aspect ratio of the image is maintained as it is resized.
With Scale Styles checked, any Layer Styles applied to the image will resize
along with the image.
At the bottom of the dialog is a dropdown box offering a number of algorithms for resizing the image. Bicubic Automatic works in most cases, but
you have the option of making a choice based the type of resizing you are
doing.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Canvas Size
Canvas Size is very different from Image Size. Canvas Size does not resize the image
itself, but only the canvas or document area on which the image sits. Increasing
the Canvas Size will add extra space around the image, while decreasing Canvas
Size will crop some of the edges of the image.
Smaller Canvas Size
Original Image
Larger Canvas Size
The Canvas Size dialog is accessed from the Image menu.
Current Size displays the current size of the canvas.
New Size is where the new dimensions for the canvas are entered. The
size can be entered as an absolute
dimension, or with the Relative box
checked, you can specify the amount
you would like added to the size of
the canvas. Use a negative number
to subtract from the canvas size.
You can add the amount in a variety of measurement scales including
inches, centimeters, or even as a
percentage.
If you don’t want to add or subtract
canvas size equally from all sides,
use the Anchor diagram to select
the portion of the image you would
like anchored to the canvas, and any
changes in canvas size will happen
away from that point.
If Canvas extension color is grayed out, any canvas added around your
image will be transparent. But if you have a layer named Background in your
Layers panel, transparency will not be an option. You will have to choose
a canvas extension color from the dropdown box, or click the small white
square to the right of the box to open the Color Picker to select a color.
RESIZING AND TRANSFORMING
21
Transforming
Free Transform
Resize
Rotate
One additional way of resizing is using the Free Transform command,
which is found in the Edit menu or with the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-T. Free
Transform works differently than Image Size, because it doesn’t resize the
image as a whole. It only changes the size of the contents of the currently
active layer in the Layers panel or any portion of that layer that is currently
selected.
When the Free Transform command is used, a box with a set of handles
appears around the selected area of the image. Click and drag one of the
handles to resize the selection. To constrain the aspect ratio of the image,
drag from one of the corner handles while holding down the Sift key. To
resize from the center of the selection, hold down the Alt key.
Beside resizing, you can also rotate the image while using the Free Transform
command. Move the cursor just outside one of the corners of the transform
box until it turns into a curved double-headed arrow. Click and drag in a
circular motion to rotate the selection. A degree measurement will appear
next to the cursor showing how far you have rotated. Hold down the Shift
key to rotate in 15° increments.
Skew
Place the cursor in the interior of the transform box and it turns into a Move
tool so that you can reposition the selected area.
When you have finished with your modifications, you must press the Enter
key to make the changes permanent, or the Esc key to discard them.
Transform
Distort
While Free Transform offers several types of modifications, if you want even
more options, use the Transform submenu, found under the Edit menu.
Scale and Rotate work just as they do with Free Transform.
With Skew you can reshape the selection by clicking and dragging any one
of the corner or side handles either vertically or horizontally, but not both.
Perspective
Distort works like Skew, but allows you to change the shape by dragging the
corners in any direction.
Perspective can correct camera distortion by adjusting either the left and
right sides or the top and bottom of the image simultaneously.
Warp creates a rectangular grid over the selection, which can be manipulated
to warp the image in either subtle or very dramatic ways. For a similar but
even more powerful warp tool, try Puppet Warp from the Edit menu.
Warp
22
The Transform submenu also offers some presets to Rotate 90° or 180° or
to Flip Horizontally or Vertically. To rotate or flip the entire canvas, go to
Image Rotation under the Image menu.
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Selections
One of the most important Photoshop skills is the ability to select a portion
of an image. Once isolated, that selection can be modified in numerous
ways without affecting the rest of the image. Not every selection method
works well in all circumstances, so becoming proficient with Photoshop’s
wide variety of selection techniques can save time and improve work quality.
The Select Menu
All – selects all of the pixels on the active layer
Deselect – deselects any currently selected area
Reselect – reselects the most recently made selection
Inverse – reverses the selection
All Layers – selects all layers in the Layers panel
Deselect Layers – deselects any currently selected layers in the layers panel
Find Layers – makes the search box on in the Layers panel active
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selection
marquee tool
lasso tool
quick selection tool
magic wand tool
anti-alias
contiguous
feather
pen tool
anchor point
Bézier curve
paths panel
color range
quick mask mode
layer mask
refine edge
Color Range – makes a selection based on a color choice
Refine Mask – opens Refine Mask to fine tune the currently selected layer mask
Modify
Border – selects only the border of the selected area
Smooth – cleans up stray pixels
Expand – increases the size of the selection by a specified number of pixels
Contract – decreases the size of the selection by a specified number of pixels
Feather – softens the edges of a selection
Grow – increases the selection to include similar colors in adjacent areas
Similar – increases the selection to include similar colors throughout the image
Transform Selection – resizes, rotates, distorts or moves the selection
Edit in Quick Mask Mode – switches the current selection to quick mask mode
Load Selection – loads a previously saved selection
Save Selection – saves the current selection as a channel
New 3D Extrusion – creates an editable 3D object from the current selection
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Selection Tools
When a tool is selected from the Tools panel, a group of options or settings for
that tool appear in the Option bar across the top of the screen. These settings
can make a great deal of difference in how the tool performs, so it’s usually a
good idea to check the options before you begin using a tool.
Marquee Tools
The Rectangular Marquee tool makes rectangular selections. Constrain the
selection to a perfect square by holding down the Shift key. The rectangle can
be drawn from the center rather than the corner by holding down the Alt key.
The Elliptical Marquee tool makes elliptical selections. Constrain the ellipse
to a perfect circle by holding down the Shift key. The ellipse can be drawn
from the center rather than the corner by holding down the Alt key.
The Single Row and Single Column Marquee tools make a horizontal or
vertical selection that is only one pixel wide.
In Photoshop a selected area is
denoted with a moving dotted-line
border, also know as marching ants.
Besides being able to select simple rectangular and elliptical shapes, the
Marquee tool has many other uses as well. When a selection is made, no
changes can be made to the image outside of the selected area, so a selection
can be used to restrict a filter or color adjustment to a particular portion of
an image. Or the Marquee tool can be used to create a shape by making a
selection and filling it with a color. And you can also use it to quickly copy
or delete an area.
The first group of options on the Control panel is available for all the selection tools. Depending on which button from this group is active, a selection
made with the marquee tool will either Replace a previous selection, Add to
the selection, Subtract from the selection, or select the area of Intersection
between the two selections.
Feather softens the edge of the selection by the specified number of pixels,
but the feather amount has to be entered before the selection is made. To
feather after a selection is made, go to Select | Modify | Feather.
The Anti-alias option will smooth the jagged edges of rounded shapes by
creating a more gradual transition between the two areas of color.
Style determines the size and shape of a selection.
Normal allows you to create any size or shape selection you want.
Fixed Ratio allows you to make a selection of any size, but limited to the
specified ratio.
Fixed Size constrains the selection to the exact size specified.
Refine Edge opens the Refine Edge dialog where you can fine tune your
selection. For more information see the Refine Edge section.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Lasso Tools
The Lasso tool is used to make a freehand selection around an irregular
shaped area. Hold down the mouse button and drag around the area you
want to select. To complete the selection, just release the mouse button. It is
difficult to use the lasso in a very accurate way, but it is a good tool for making
a quick rough selection.
The Polygonal Lasso tool uses multiple clicks of the mouse to create a selection made up of straight line segments. So rather than drawing around a
selection as you do with the lasso tool, you click your way around the perimeter of the selection. To complete the selection, move your mouse over the
start point, and when a circle appears next to the pointer, click. You can
also complete the selection without moving over the start point by doubleclicking or by pressing the Enter key. To abort a selection you have begun,
press Escape.
The Magnetic Lasso tool tries to cling to the edge of the object you are
selecting by looking for areas of high contrast. Click and release, and then
as you drag around the area you want to select, the tool will fasten a series
of anchor points to any edge that it detects. To complete the selection, move
over the start point and click, or press the Enter key. To abort a selection,
press Escape.
While making the selection with the Magnetic Lasso tool, you can click to
manually place an anchor point, or hit Delete to remove the last point.
To switch temporarily to the Lasso tool, press Alt and drag with the mouse.
For the Polygonal Lasso tool, press Alt and click.
The Lasso and Polygonal Lasso tools have the same Control panel options as
the Marquee tool, but the Magnetic Lasso tool has a few additional settings.
Width specifies the distance from the pointer in which the tool will try to
detect an edge.
Contrast, which is expressed as a percentage, is the amount of edge contrast
the tool looks for when placing its points. With a higher value the tool detects
sharper contrast, while with a lower value it is sensitive to more subtle contrast.
Frequency is the rate at which the tool fastens points to the edge. With a
higher value it drops anchors along the border more quickly.
If you are using a graphics tablet, click the Stylus Pressure button. Increased
pressure on the stylus will narrow the detection width.
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25
Quick Selection Tool
The Quick Selection tool paints a selection using an adjustable round brush.
As you drag with the brush, the selection expands, automatically detecting
edges within the image.
Available options for the Quick Selection tool are Add to and Subtract from
selection as well as a setting for Brush Size. Hold down the Alt key to temporarily switch between Add and Subtract.
Sample All Layers will detect edges in all visible layers of the document
rather than just the current layer.
Auto-Enhance will attempt to remove jaggedness in the selection by automatically applying some the options manually available in the Refine Edge
dialog.
Magic Wand Tool
A single click of the Magic Wand selects all areas of a similar color.
Selection options for the Magic Wand include Replace, Add to, Subtract
from and Intersect. While using the tool, you can switch to the Add tool by
holding down the Shift key, or to the Subtract tool by holding down the Alt
key.
Sample Size specifies what size sample is used in determining what color to
look for in the image.
Tolerance specifies how close to the original sample a color must be to be
selected. A higher number results in a broader selection of colors.
Anti-alias makes a selection with a smoother edge.
Contiguous selects only adjacent areas with the same color.
Sample All Layers looks for the color in all visible layers of the document
rather than just the current layer.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Pen Tools
The Pen tool is one of the most precise ways of making a selection by first
creating a path and then converting the path to a selection.
Clicking repeatedly with the Pen tool creates a path made up of a series of
anchor points connected by straight line segments. If you move back over the
starting point, a small circle will appear next to the pen icon, and you can
click to close the path.
Click with the Add Anchor Point tool on any line segment to add an anchor
point. Click with the Delete Anchor Point tool on any anchor point to
remove it from the path. Use the Direct Selection tool to move anchor points.
Rather than just clicking, you can click and drag with the Pen tool to create
a curved line segment or what is called a Bézier curve. The new anchor point
will contain a pair of adjustable handles, which can be manipulated using the
Direct Selection tool to adjust the size and shape of the curve. A curve created
with fewer anchor points is smoother and easier to edit.
Anchor Points and Line Segments
The Convert Point tool converts between angled and Bézier curve anchor
points.
With a combination of angled line segments, Bézier curves and a little practice, you can create any shaped path that you want.
The first of the Pen tool options is Drawing Mode.
• Shape mode creates a vector shape on a new shape layer in the Layers panel.
• Paths mode draws a temporary work path in the Paths panel. This is the
mode you would use if you wanted to create a selection.
Bézier Curve
Selection converts the work path into a selection.
Mask converts the work path into a vector mask attached to the currently
selected layer in the Layers panel.
Shape convert the work path into a vector shape layer in the Layers panel.
The next set of options are used to combine paths in various ways, align or
distribute paths, or rearrange the stacking order of paths.
Rubber Band draws a line between the last anchor point and the cursor,
giving a visual preview of how the next line segment will look.
Auto Add/Delete, turns the Pen tool into an Add Anchor Point tool when it
moves over a line segment, or into a Delete Anchor Point tool when it moves
over an anchor point.
Align Edges aligns vector objects to the pixel grid for crisper, sharper edges.
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27
Paths Panel
A path made with the Pen tool appears as a Work Path in the
Paths Panel. A Work Path is temporary and disappears when
a new path is begun. To keep a path permanently, it must
be saved using the Save Path command from the Path panel
menu. From that menu you can also duplicate, delete, fill
or stroke a path. Many of the same commands are available
using the icons along the bottom of the Path panel.
Fills the currently selected path with the current foreground
color.
Uses the foreground color to add a stroke to the selected path
using the current brush settings.
Converts the current path into a selection.
Converts the current selection into a work path.
Adds a layer mask to the layer selected in the Layers panel.
Creates a new empty path.
Deletes the current path.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Additional Selection Methods
Color Range
The Color Range command, which is found in the Select menu, is used to
select areas of an image with the same color and tonal value.
Select has a number of options.
• Sample Colors makes the selection by sampling with the dropper tools.
• Reds, Yellows, Greens, Cyans, Blues, Magentas selects a particular hue.
• Highlights, Midtones or Shadows selects by tonal value
• Skin Tones attempts to select skin tones
Once you have chosen your selection method, there are a number of adjustments to help you fine tune the selection.
Fuzziness is similar to the Magic Wand’s Tolerance setting. Increasing Fuzziness results in a broader selection of colors. The advantage Fuzziness has over
the Magic Wand’s Tolerance setting is that you can see results as you make
the adjustment.
If Localized Color Clusters is selected, a Range slider is available. The
Range slider is useful if there are colors in your image that are similar to your
chosen color that you do not want to be a part of the selection. A lower Range
percentage limits the distance from the sampled area that the color will be
selected.
Invert will invert the selection.
Selection Preview will show the selected portion of your image against
Grayscale, a White Matte, a Black Matte, or a Quick Mask.
Quick Mask Mode
Make a selection in Quick Mask mode using any of the painting tools. While
you can create the entire selection using Quick Mask, it is most useful for fine
tuning a selection made with one of Photoshop’s other selection methods.
To switch into Quick Mask mode, click the button below the color swatches
at the bottom of the Tools panel. In Quick Mask mode everything that is
selected appears normally, but everything that is not selected is masked with a
50% red color overlay. You can use the brush or other drawing tool to increase
the selected area by painting with white, or you can paint with black to add
to the masked areas of the image. Painting with gray will partially select an
area. Use the X key to quickly switch between white and black as you work.
When you have finished, click the button again to leave Quick Mask mode.
Everything that was selected will have marching ants around them. You can
switch in and out of Quick Mask mode as often as you like, and you can
switch from any of the selection tools into Quick Mask mode to work on a
selection.
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29
Layer Masks
After making a selection, if your next step is to delete that portion of the
image, consider using a Layer Mask instead. A Layer Mask is a selection that
is linked to a layer, allowing only the selected portion of the layer’s contents
to be visible. It has the same visual result as deleting part of the image, but
without actually affecting the original content. This makes a Layer Mask
nondestructive, giving you the option in the future to change your mind
and remove the Layer Mask, or even to make further modifications to the
selection.
Creating a layer mask
Click on a layer, and then select a portion of the layer’s content using any
of your available selection tools and techniques, including Marquee, Magic
Wand, Lasso, Color Range, etc.
Click the Add Layer Mask button at the bottom of the Layers panel, or from
the menu choose Layer | Layer Mask | Reveal Selection.
In the Layers panel next to the layer thumbnail you should now have a Layer
Mask thumbnail connected by a link icon. To make additional modifications
to the Layer Mask, click the Layer Mask thumbnail. Then draw, paint or fill
on your image using any available tool. White areas are visible, black areas are
hidden or transparent, and gray areas have varying degrees of transparency.
Clicking the link icon between the two thumbnails will temporarily break
the link, allowing you to reposition the mask independent of the layer. To
temporarily turn the Layer Mask off and on, Shift-click the Layer Mask icon.
The Masks Properties Panel
With a Layer Mask selected, the Properties panel offers some additional
options for adjusting the Layer Mask.
Density changes the opacity of the masked areas of the image.
Feather adds a feathering to the edge of the mask.
Refine offers several options for adjusting the Layer Mask.
Mask Edge opens the Refine Mask dialog, which is essentially the same
as the Refine Selection dialog.
Color Range opens the Color Range dialog.
Invert inverts the selection.
There are four additional buttons along the bottom of the panel.
converts the Layer Mask back into a selection.
permanently applies the Layer Mask to the image.
toggles the visibility of the Layer Mask on and off.
deletes the Layer Mask.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Refining Selection Edges
Photoshop’s various selection tools will do a fairly good job of making a selection in most situations, but even in the best of circumstances, there is often
a need for a little fine tuning; and with a more challenging situation, like
selecting hair, some major adjustments are necessary. This is where the Refine
Edge adjustments come in handy.
1. Begin by making an initial selection with one of Photoshop’s selection
tools, either selecting the area you want to keep, or selecting the background area you want to remove and then inverting the selection. Avoid
selecting areas that contain a foreground and background mixture, for
example, wispy hair with the background showing through.
2. With the selection tool still active, click the Refine Edge button on the
tool’s Option Bar to open the Refine Edge dialog.
3. Under View Mode, select Black and White, which will display selected
areas as white and non-selected areas as black.
4. Check the Smart Radius box.
5. Increase the Radius slider until you see a better selection along the difficult edges. If you begin to see destruction in the properly selected areas,
back down a little on the Radius slider.
6. If you see some areas that the selection missed, you can paint over them
with the Refine Radius Tool, which should be active by default.
7. Under Adjust Edge, use the Smooth, Feather, Contrast and Shift Edge
sliders to further refine your selection, if necessary.
8. Under Output, check the Decontaminate Colors box, which will
desaturate any of the original background color along the edges. Use the
Amount slider to increase or decrease the desaturation.
9. For Output To, specify what to do with your newly refined selection
by choosing New Layer with Layer Mask or one of the other output
options.
10. If you would like Photoshop to remember these settings the next time you
open the Refine Edge dialog, check the Remember Settings box.
11. Click OK.
12. You should now have a copy of your original layer with a layer mask.
13. Alt-click the layer mask to show your mask as a black and white image.
14. Examine it carefully and use the brush to paint with black or white to
repair any areas that were selected incorrectly.
15. At this point you can create a new layer and fill it with a different background color to check the results of your refined selection.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Adjustments
The Adjustments Menu
A wide assortment of tools for modifying the exposure or color of an image
are available from Photoshop’s Image|Adjustments menu. Keep in mind
that corrections made using the commands and dialogs in the adjustments
menu are permanent. A much better option is to apply adjustments nondestructively using the adjustments panel to create an adjustment layer.
These adjustments can be applied
nondestructively using an adjustments layer from the adjustments
panel.
These adjustments are not available
as an adjustment layer.
6
adjustments menu
adjustment layer
adjustments panel
properties panel
brightness/contrast
levels
histogram
curves
exposure
vibrance
hue/saturation
colorize
color balance
black & white
photo filter
channel mixer
color lookup
invert
posterize
threshold
gradient map
selective color
shadows/highlights
HDR toning
variations
desaturate
match color
replace color
equalize
To apply these nondestructively, first
convert the layer to a smart object,
and then apply the adjustment from
the Image|Adjustment menu.
ADJUSTMENTS
33
Adjustment Layers
An Adjustment Layer is a non-destructive method of applying an adjustment
to an image. It’s non-destructive because the adjustment can easily be modified or even completely removed later without any damage to the original file.
The Adjustments Panel
Adjustment Layers are created using the Adjustments panel. Clicking on a
particular adjustment in the Adjustments panel creates an Adjustment Layer
above the currently selected layer in the Layers panel.
Included with the Adjustment Layer is a Layer Mask, which you can use to
apply the adjustment to selective parts of the image. Paint with white on the
Layer Mask in the areas of the image where you would like the adjustment
applied, and with black where you do not want it applied. You can paint with
gray on the layer mask to apply the adjustment to a greater or lesser degree
depending on the lightness or darkness of the gray value. The lighter the gray
is, the more the adjustment will be applied.
You can also determine the strength with which the adjustment is applied by
using the Layer panel’s Opacity slider to increase or decrease the opacity of
the adjustment layer.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
The Properties Panel
When an Adjustment Layer is created, the Properties panel opens automatically, and contains the controls for the
currently selected adjustment. Across the top and bottom of the properties panel are controls common to all of the
adjustments. In addition, many of the adjustments have a set of presets available as well as an auto button, which will
automatically adjust the image.
Displays the controls for the currently selected adjustment.
Displays the controls for the adjustment’s Layer Mask.
Applies the Adjustment layer only to the layer directly
below it in the Layers panel.
Temporarily shows the image before the adjustment
was applied.
Resets the adjustment’s defaults.
Toggles the visibility of the Adjustment layer on and
off in the Layers panel.
Deletes the Adjustment Layer
Brightness/Contrast
Brightness/Contrast makes basic overall tonal adjustments to
an image.
Auto: The auto button automatically makes adjustments to
the brightness and contrast of the image.
Brightness: Moving the slider to the right lightens values and
expands image highlights. Moving the slider to the left darkens image values and expands shadows.
Contrast: Moving the slider to the right increases the overall tonal range of values in the image. Moving it to the left
decreases the tonal range.
Use Legacy: In more recent versions of Photoshop the brightness/contrast adjustments were redesigned to work more accurately. With Use Legacy, the adjustment will work as it did in
the earlier versions of Photoshop, which in most situations is
not a good idea.
ADJUSTMENTS
35
Levels
Levels adjusts the brightness, contrast and tonal range of an
image.
Preset offers some standard adjustments, which you can try as
a starting point when adjusting your image.
From the Channels menu you can choose to apply the adjustment to the image as a whole or to an individual channel.
Auto will make the adjustments automatically.
Before adjustment
In the center of the properties panel is a histogram, which
is a visual representation of the tonal values in the photograph. The far left side of the histogram shows the amount
of pure black in the image, the right shows pure white, and
the midtones are displayed in the middle. If an image has no
blacks or no whites, that part of the histogram will appear flat.
You can correct the lack of black or white tones by moving
the black-point slider on the left or the white-point slider on
the right past the flat area of the histogram (Figure 2), which
will stretch the tonal range of the photograph to cover the
full range of values from black to white. The midtone slider
moves automatically but can be adjusted manually to push the
midtones in either a darker or lighter direction.
Alternately, you can click on locations in the photograph with
the dropper tools to set the black point or the white point of
the histogram. You can adjust the white balance of a photograph that has a color cast by clicking with the gray point
dropper on an area of the photo that should be colorless.
Using the sliders on the histogram widens the tonal range and
increases the contrast. To narrow the tonal range and decrease
the contract in a photograph, adjust the Output Level sliders.
After adjustment
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Curves
Curves, like levels, adjusts a photograph’s tonal range, which
initially is displayed as a straight diagonal line on a graph with
the lower left representing the amount of light in the shadow
areas, and the upper right the amount of light in the highlights.
In addition, it includes a histogram with the same black- and
white-point sliders found in levels.
But unlike levels, which can only adjust the black point, white
point and midtone point, you can use curves to make adjustments anywhere along the tonal range by adding a point and
moving it up to lighten or down to darken. The grayscale strip
along the bottom of the graph shows the initial value and the
scale along the left shows the new light or dark value as you
move a point up or down.
You can add and move points in a variety of ways. You can
click on the line to add a point and then drag it up or down.
You can click on the image with the Dropper tools to create
a new black point or white point. You can use the On-Image
Adjustment tool to select a tonal area on the image and then
slide up or down to lighten or darken it. Or you can draw with
the Pencil tool to modify the curve. You can also move points
up or down using the arrow keys on the keyboard. Clicking on
the Smooth tool will smooth the shape of the curve.
As with levels, these adjustments can be made to the image as
a whole or to an individual channel by selecting it from the
Channels menu.
A gentle s-shaped curve increases contrast by
lightening the light areas and darkening the dark
area.
ADJUSTMENTS
37
Exposure
Exposure is yet another method of adjusting the tonal values
of a photograph.
The Exposure slider primarily adjusts the highlights, ignoring
the darkest shadows.
Offset darkens the shadow and midtone values, leaving the
highlights alone.
Gamma Correction adjusts the image’s midtone values.
You can use the Dropper Tools to adjust exposure.
• The Black-Point Dropper sets the offset making the pixel
you click the black point.
• The White-Point Dropper sets the exposure making the
pixel you click the white point.
• The Gray-Point Dropper sets exposure making the pixel
you click the midpoint.
Vibrance
Using the vibrance adjustment sliders is rather straight forward.
Moving the sliders to the right increases color saturation and
to the left decreases. But each slider gives very different results.
Vibrance selectively adjusts the saturation of the image,
increasing the saturation of some colors more than others. It
tends to apply less saturation to colors that are already saturated. It also protects skin tones from becoming overly saturated.
Saturation applies saturation evenly to all colors.
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Hue/Saturation
With Hue/Saturation you can adjust the hue, the saturation
and the lightness of all the colors in an image or of a specific
range of colors.
Unlike the Color Balance adjustment, which merely boosts a
particular color throughout an image, with Hue/Saturation
you can select and make changes to a particular color or range
of colors.
There are three different characteristics of a color that you can
modify.
Hue is the basic color family. So you can change a color from
red to green or from blue to yellow.
Saturation is how intense or dull a color is. So you can make
a color more or less vibrant.
Lightness is the value of a color, or how light or dark it is
relative to black and white. So you can make a color darker
or lighter.
You can use the Hue, Saturation and Lightness sliders as they
are, and the changes will apply to the image as a whole. Or
you can select an individual color from the drop-down list.
Alternately, you can use the On-Image Adjustment tool to
select a color directly on the image, and then slide up and
down to increase and decrease the saturation. Click and drag
while holding Ctrl to change the hue.
Once you have made a selection, you use the Add or Subtract
Droppers to increase or decrease the number of colors being
modified.
There are two rainbow color bars at the bottom of the panel.
The bottom bar represents the original colors in the image,
and the top bar shows the changed colors. Once an initial
color selection has been made, you can expand or contract it
using the controls on the color bars.
Colorize creates a image that is monochromatically colored
using the Hue, Saturation and Lightness sliders.
ADJUSTMENTS
39
Color Balance
Color Balance changes the mixture of colors in an image for
an overall color correction.
A Tone selection will apply the changes to either the Highlights, Midtones or Shadows of the image. For the most
noticeable effect make the changes to the midtones, though
you can make changes to each area individually.
Use the sliders to alter the balance between Cyan and Red, or
Magenta and Green, or Yellow and Blue. As one increases,
the other decreases.
Preserve Luminosity prevents any color adjustments from
affecting the tonal balance of the image.
Black & White
The Black & White adjustment converts a color image to
black-and-white with the ability to emphasis or de-emphasize
areas of the photo based on their original colors.
When the adjustment layer is initially created, the photo is
converted to black-and-white using Photoshop’s default
settings. You can then use the sliders to lighten or darken areas
selectively. You can temporarily turn off the visibility of the
adjustment layer to see the original colors in the image, then
back on to make the adjustment.
With the On-Image Adjustment tool you can click directly
on the photograph and slide to lighten or darken all areas of
that color in the image.
With Tint selected the black-and-white photo will be colorized, tinted with the color you choose using Photoshop’s color
picker.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Photo Filter
Photo Filter simulates the effect of adding a color filter to a
camera lens.
Filter offers a set of filter presets.
Color lets you choose a color using Photoshop’s color picker.
Density determines how strongly the filter is applied.
Preserve Luminosity prevents any color adjustments from
affecting the tonal balance of the image.
Channel Mixer
Channel Mixer lets you adjust an image by remixing its color
channels. With the Channel Mixer you can convert color
images to grayscale, create tinted images, repair a poor quality
channel, and many special effects.
To convert an image to grayscale while retaining the image’s
current color mode, click Monochrome. Then adjust the
channel sliders to get the tonal effect you want. Try to keep
the total percentage of the three sliders to about 100%.
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41
Color Lookup
The Color Lookup adjustment uses a color lookup table
or LUT to remap the colors of your image to another set of
colors to produce a creative effect. Lookup tables are seen most
frequently in the film industry.
3DLUT File, Abstract and Device Link are the three available sets of lookup tables. The 3DLUT File category has the
most choices. 3D refers to how the lookup table uses Photoshop’s three RGB color channels to remap the colors in the
image.
Click a radio button to choose a set and then from the dropdown menu select a particular lookup table.
Invert
The Invert adjustment inverts the colors of an image. There
are no options available for this adjustment.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Posterize
Posterize reduces the number of colors in the image, creating
a poster-like effect.
The Levels slider determines the number of colors per channel. For example, with a setting of 4, an RGB image would
be reduces to a total of 12 colors—4 red, 4 green and 4 blue.
Threshold
Threshold converts color or grayscale images to high-contrast
black-and-white. The slider under the histogram sets the
threshold between the tonal levels that are converted to black
and those that are converted to white.
ADJUSTMENTS
43
Selective Color
Selective Color can modify the amount of a process color in
a particular color selectively without affecting the other colors.
Although selective color uses CMYK to adjust the colors, it
also can be used on an RGB image.
From the Colors menu, select the color you want to modify.
Then use the Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black sliders to
change the color.
Relative adds or subtracts color relative to the amount of that
color already present.
Absolute modifies the color in absolute terms.
For example, if a color began with 50% magenta, moving
the slider to 20% with relative selected would increase the
magenta another 20% of the original 50%, or by 10% for a
total of 60%. With absolute selected the increase would be an
actual 20% for a total of 70%.
Using relative would has no effect on a pure white color.
Gradient Map
Gradient Map takes the tonal range of an image and maps it
to the colors of a gradient fill based on the illuminance values
of the original image. The shadows are mapped to one end of
the gradient and the highlights to the other. The midtones are
mapped to the middle section of the gradient.
Dither adds random noise to minimize the effects of banding
on the gradient fill.
Reverse switches the direction of the gradient map.
Drop down the gradient box to select one of the gradient
presets, or double-click the box to create your own gradient
using the gradient editor.
44
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Additional Adjustments
There are a few adjustments in Photoshop that are not available as an adjustment layer. These can be applied permanently from the Image | Adjustments menu, or nondestructively by converting the layer to a Smart Object before
applying the adjustment.
Shadows/Highlights
Shadows/Highlights corrects the lighting in over- or underexposed areas of an image without affecting the rest of the
photograph. An example would be a heavily backlit photo
where the foreground is too dark.
When the Shadows/Highlights dialog opens, the adjustment
is made automatically, but can be modified if it’s applied
incorrectly. If the only controls visible are the shadows and the
highlights sliders, click Show More Options.
Adjust the Amount sliders for Shadows or Highlights until
you get the effect you want.
Tonal Width increases or decreases the range of tones adjusted
in the shadows or the highlights.
Adjustments are made based on the luminance of surrounding
pixels. Radius determines how wide that pixel area should be.
Color Correction allows you to correct the color, but only in
areas that have been adjusted.
Midtone Contrast as well as Black Clip and White Clip
affect the contrast of the image.
HDR Toning
HDR Toning involves 32-bit high dynamic range photos, a
subject beyond the scope of this course.
ADJUSTMENTS
45
Variations
Variations lets you view your original image against a selection of color
and tonal variations and then pick
the one you feel is best.
In the upper left are a pair of
images—your original photo next
to your current variation selection
choice.
In the larger box below is your
current selection choice surrounded
by six color variations, which increase
green, yellow, red, magenta, blue
or cyan. If you click on one of the
variation, it becomes your current
pick. You can keep clicking until
the photo’s color is balanced to your
satisfaction.
The variations are applied to the
Shadows, Midtone, Highlights or
Saturation of the image depending on which radio button you have
selected.
The Fine/Coarse slider determines
how great the color variation is
compared to the current pick.
Coarser means a more substantial
variation.
Show Clipping will give a visual
indication of when you choices have
reached the maximum level for a
particular color.
To the right, the current pick is positioned between lighter and darker
variations of the image.
Desaturate
The Desaturate command converts a color image to grayscale values, but
leaves the image in the same color mode. There are no options or settings for
this adjustment and no dialog box. The adjustment is just applied.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Match Color
The Match Color command is used to make the colors more
consistent between two images, two layers or two selections. It
matches the colors from the source image to the target image.
Make sure your target image is active with any area or layer
that you are targeting already selected when you open the
match color dialog.
From the Source menu in the Image Statistics section, select
your source image from the drop-down menu. If your source
is a particular layer in the image, select it from the Layer dropdown menu. If your source is a selected area of the image,
check the box next to Use Selection in Source to Calculate
Colors.
If your target is a selected area of the target image, check the
box next to Use Selection in Source to Calculate Adjustment.
In the Destination Image section, check the box next to
Neutralize to automatically remove a color cast in the target
image.
Use the Luminance slider to increase or decrease the brightness in the target image.
Us the Color Intensity slider to adjust the saturation in the
target image.
Use the Fade slider to control the amount of adjustment
applied to the target image. Move the slider to the right to
lessen the amount of adjustment.
Target image
Source image
Target image after adjustment
ADJUSTMENTS
47
Replace Color
Replace Color will allow you to select one color in an image
and replace it with another color.
Make sure the Selection button is clicked beneath the image
in the replace color dialog. In you image, click on the color you
want to replace. It will appear as white in the dialog image.
In the Replacement section, either click on the colored Result
box and choose a replacement color, or adjust the Hue, Saturation and Lightness sliders to make your color selection.
If the new color does not completely replaced your original
color, select the Plus Dropper tool and click on those areas
that were missed. You can also increase the Fuzziness slider to
replace more of the color in your image.
If areas that you did not want changed are being recolored, use
the Negative Dropper tool, or decrease the Fuzziness slider.
If you only want to replace a color in one portion of your
image without affecting that color in the rest of the photograph, you may have to make a rough selection of the area you
want replaced before opening the Replace Color dialog.
The photograph with the replaced color
The original photograph
Equalize
The Equalize commands redistributes the brightness values of
the pixels in the image more evenly across the tonal range from
white to black. The lightest and darkest pixels are remapped
to the white and black ends of the grayscale, and intermediate
value pixels are distributed evenly in between. This adjustment
has no options. It is just automatically applied.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Posterization with more color control
Method 1
• Open a photograph.
• Above it add a Channel Mixer adjustment layer and set it to Monochrome.
• Above that layer add a Posterize adjustment layer and select the number
of levels.
• Go back to the Channel Mixer and adjust the Channel sliders to get the
balance of tonal values that you want.
• Above the top layer add a Gradient Map adjustment layer. Double-click
on the gradient to open the Gradient Editor. Add additional color stops to
equal your selected number of levels of posterization. Change the colors of
the stops to whatever you want. Adjust their positions.
• Readjust the Channel Mixer again, if necessary.
Method 2
• Open a photograph.
• Create a Black & White adjustment layer above that layer and adjust the
sliders to enhance the grayscale image.
• Above that layer add a Posterize adjustment layer and select the number
of levels.
• Above the top layer add a Gradient Map adjustment layer. Double-click
on the gradient to open the Gradient Editor. Add additional color stops to
equal your selected number of levels of posterization. Change the colors of
the stops to whatever you want. Adjust their positions.
• Readjust the Black & White sliders again, if necessary.
ADJUSTMENTS
49
50
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Retouching
Photoshop’s retouching tools can be used to address a wide variety of problem
issues in a photograph, from removing blemishes or red eye in a portrait to
repairing a damaged antique family photograph. But as with most things in
Photoshop, there are many ways of doing retouching, and depending on the
circumstance, some are better than others.
Copy and Paste
Many times retouching involves covering an item you want removed with
something else. The most basic way of doing this is using copy and paste.
Make a selection of the area you want to copy using the Marquee tool or some
other selection method. Copy the selection to the clipboard by choosing Copy
from the Edit menu, or by using the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-C. Then paste
the copied selection by choosing Paste from the Edit menu, or by using the
keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-V. Photoshop will automatically paste to a new layer.
Select the new layer and use the Move tool to reposition the pasted material.
If the edges of the pasted area are too crisp, feather the initial selection before
copying it to soften the transition from the pasted area to the original photo.
RETOUCHING
7
copy
paste
clone stamp tool
spot healing brush tool
healing brush tool
patch tool
content-aware move tool
red eye tool
dodger tool
burn tool
sponge tool
blur tool
sharpen tool
smudge tool
gaussian blur
unsharp mask
dust and scratches
liquify
smart object
smart filter
51
Retouch Tools
Clone Stamp Tool
Like using cut and paste, the Clone Stamp tool also copies from one area of
the image and pastes into another, but with many more options to control
its behavior. Hold down the Alt key and click with the Clone Stamp tool
to sample from the image. Then move to a new area and click to paste the
sample, or click and drag to paste the sample over a larger area.
The Clone Stamp is essentially a brush, so from the Option bar you can
change both the size and the hardness of the brush. You can choose how the
Clone Stamp blends with the image beneath by selecting a Mode, and you
can change the Opacity and Flow of the stamped sample. Aligned determines whether clicking and dragging draws continuously or starts over from
the original sampled point each time you click. And Sample specifies if the
sample is taken from the current layer or from all layers of the image.
Spot Healing Brush Tool
The Spot Healing Brush tool makes repairs in a single click by automatically
sampling from around clicked location and using that information to make
adjustments inside the location.
The same Brush and Mode options are available. For Type you can choose
Proximity Match if the surrounding area is relatively uniform. If the
surrounding area is patterned, select Content-Aware. You can choose to
Sample All Layers or only the currently active layer.
Healing Brush Tool
The Healing Brush tool uses Alt-click to sample, but only borrows the
texture from the sampled area. Then with clicking or click-dragging it pastes
the texture without modifying the color or value of the new location.
The options are similar to those of the Clone Stamp tool.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Patch Tool
Use the Patch tool to select the area you want to repair, and then click and
drag from the center of the selected area to pull in a replacement. You can
make the initial selection with the Patch tool itself or with any other selection
method.For the most seamless integration with the surrounding area, use the
Content-aware Patch, and use the Adaptation option to control how strictly
the background texture is preserved.
The Content-Aware Move Tool
The Content-Aware Move tool is similar to the Patch tool, but rather than
selecting an area to be patched, you select an area to be moved. The hole left
behind is repaired and the selection itself is seamlessly blended into its new
location.
The options for the Content-Aware Move tool are the same as for the Patch
tool.
Red Eye Tool
The Red Eye tool remove red eye caused by the camera flash. Select and
repair the red area of the eye by clicking it with the Red Eye tool.
There are only two options for the Red Eye tool. Pupil Size tells Photoshop es
what percentage of the eye should be considered the pupil. Darken Amount
indicates how much to darken the eye.
RETOUCHING
53
Dodge Tool
The Dodge tool is used to lighten areas of a photo.
Range selects Highlights, Midtones or Shadows to lighten. Exposure sets
the strength of the lightening. Protect Tones will do more subtle dodging,
protecting the images tones and hues.
Burn Tool
The Burn tool is used to darken areas of a photo.
Range selects Highlights, Midtones or Shadows to darken. Exposure sets
the strength of the darkening. Protect Tones will do more subtle burning,
protecting the images tones and hues.
Sponge Tool
The Sponge tool is used to saturate or desaturate areas of a photo.
Use Mode to select either Saturation or Desaturation. Flow specifies the
strength of the tool. Vibrance allows each color to be saturated fully but stops
saturation before clipping occurs, which is when saturation falls outside the
printable range.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Blur Tool
The Blur tool blurs or makes an area look out of focus.
The amount of blur depends on the Strength setting in the Option bar.
Sharpen Tool
The Sharpen tool does the opposite of the Blur tool. It sharpens by increasing
contrast in areas where you paint.
The amount of sharpening is controlled by the Strength setting in the Option
Bar.
Smudge Tool
The Smudge tool blends areas where you paint.
Like the Blur and Sharpen tools, the Smudge tool has a Strength setting.
There is also a Finger Painting option, which adds a little of the foreground
color with every mouse click.
RETOUCHING
55
Retouch Filters
There are a number of Photoshop filters, found in the Filters menu, that are
useful for retouching photographs. Generally, you will not want to apply the
filter to an entire image. By making an initial selection before opening the
filter, you can limit the correction to that area. Alternately, you can duplicate
the layer and apply the filter to the duplicate. Then use a Layer Mask to paint
the affect onto your photo using white or remove it using black.
Gaussian Blur
The Gaussian Blur filter, found under Filters in the Blur submenu, blurs a
selection by an amount that is adjusted using the Radius slider.
Unsharp Mask
The Unsharp Mask dialog displays a preview of a portion of your image as
you sharpen. Use the Plus and Minus buttons to zoom the preview in or out.
If you have Preview checked, you will see changes in the image itself as you
do your sharpening.
The Amount slider controls how much sharpening is applied.
The Radius slider determines how many pixels away from an edge will be
sharpened. A higher value means more sharpening.
The Threshold slider controls how much edge contrast is necessary before
sharpening is applied. A threshold value of zero will sharpen all pixels. Less
sharpening occurs as the value is increased.
Dust & Scratches
The Dust & Scratches filter is found in the Noise submenu. Like the Spot
Healing Brush, it removes dust, scratches and other small dissimilar areas in
an image.
The Radius slider controls the size spot that Photoshop removes.
The Threshold slider specifies how dissimilar that spot must be to be eliminated.
Keep the Radius as low as possible and the Threshold as high as possible to
avoid removing important detail from the photo.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Liquify
The Liquify filter has a variety of tools that can push, pull, twist and distort
an image in very drastic ways that are often quite humorous. But it is also
capable of making subtle adjustments that can be very useful when retouching a photo.
Liquify has a variety of tools, each capable of a very specific effect.
The Forward Warp tool can push and pull edges, which can be useful
in minimizing a double chin or trimming a waistline. A larger brush makes
more general adjustments, while a small brush only affects very specific areas.
The Reconstruct tool will undo previously made changes.
The Twirl tool will twist an area in a clockwise direction, or counterclockwise if you hold down the Alt key.
The Pucker tool pulls the surrounding area in toward the cursor.
The Bloat tool expands the areas under the cursor outward.
The Push Left tool moves pixels to the left when you move the cursor
vertically upward and to the right when you push downward. It moves pixels
upward when you move to the right and downward when you move to the
left. It pushes pixels outward if you move in a clockwise direction and inward
if you move counterclockwise.
The Freeze Mask tool paints a mask over any area you would like to
protect from being affected by the Liquify tools.
The Thaw Mask tool erases the mask from areas that were previously
protected.
There are a variety of option settings having to do with the brush setup, as
well as the mask. Most are fairly intuitive to use.
RETOUCHING
57
Smart Objects
Most filters can be applied to a layer nondestructively by first converting the
layer to a Smart Object. Right-click on the layer and select Convert to Smart
Object or choose Convert to Smart Object from the Layers panel menu. The
layer will now appear with a special symbol in the lower right-hand corner
of the layer icon. Now when you apply a filter to the layer, it will appear as
a Smart Filter in a sub layer with its own mask. The Smart Filter can be
turned off and on, opened at any time and readjusted, or even deleted.
Think of a Smart Object as a container in which the information from the
original layer is placed. The filter is applied to the Smart Object, but the
source material inside remains protected.
To change the source material, double-click on the Smart Object. It will
open as a separate document with a psb extension. Once you have made any
modifications to the document, close it. You will be prompted to save the file,
after which the changes will be reflected in the Smart Object.
Besides filters, there are other types of adjustments that can be applied nondestructively to a Smart Object. The Shadows/Highlights adjustment, which
appears under the Image | Adjustments menu, when applied to a Smart
Object will appear as a Smart Filter. Of course, any of the other adjustments
that appear in the Adjustments Panel can be applied to a Smart Object just
as they would be to a normal layer. In addition, Free Transform and the
other transform commands found in the Edit | Transform menu can be
applied non-destructively to a Smart Object. The transformation will not
appear in the list of Smart Filters beneath the smart object, but if applied a
second time, the particular transform command will be recalculated from the
original source file, essentially making it non-destructive.
One limitation of Smart Objects is that there is only a single Layer Mask
for the entire list of Smart Filters, so any masking will apply to all of the
filters. A way to work around this issue is to apply a single Smart Filter to a
Smart Object and make adjustments to the filter using the Layer Mask. Then
convert that Smart Object to a Smart Object, essentially nesting one Smart
Object inside another. Now apply a second filter to the new Smart Object
and make adjustments using its Layer Mask. You can do multiple layers of
Smart Object nesting. To make modifications to one of the previous Smart
Objects or even to the original source material, you will have to double-click
each Smart Object in sequence until you find the Smart Object you wish to
modify. When you have made the changes, you will have to close and save
each psb document to return to the outer Smart Object container.
Smart Objects add a layer of complexity to a document, but if you are using
filters or transformations that you might want to readjust later, it is worth the
extra effort to be able to work non-destructively.
58
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Typography
ascender line
baseline
descender line
counter
bowl
ascender
Typography
terminal
serif
loop
descender
x-height
bar
stem
The Anatomy of Type
Ascender is the portion of lowercase characters that extends above the x-height.
Ascender line marks the top of lowercase ascenders.
Bar is the horizontal stroke on letters like A, H, T, e, f, t
Baseline is the horizontal line on which the main body of a character rests.
Bowl is the curved stroke surrounding a counter.
Counter is the enclosed or partially enclosed space within a letter.
Descender is the portion of lowercase characters that extends below the baseline.
Descender line marks the bottom of lowercase descenders.
Serif is the small stroke on the end of the arm, stem and tail of a character.
Stem is the main vertical stroke of a letter.
Terminal is the end of a stroke that does not terminate in a serif.
X-height is the height of lowercase characters without ascenders and descenders.
8
serif
sans serif
type category
oldstyle
modern
slab serif
script
decorative
typeface
type style
character weight
character width
leading
tracking
kerning
type tool
character panel
paragraph panel
rasterize type
type on a path
proximity
alignment
repetition
contrast
Serif and Sans Serif
While identifying each of these subtle characteristics of type may not be necessary to actually use type, it is important to understand that each typeface has a
unique design, and that every typeface does not work in every situation.
One of the most distinguishing characteristics of type that it would be important
to recognize is the use of serifs. Most typefaces fall into one of two categories,
serif, which have small strokes at the end of the lines forming the character, and
sans serif, which means, without serifs. Generally, a serif font is used for body
text, because the serifs help with the legibility of the small text, and a sans serif
font is used for larger titles, because it makes a simpler, bolder statement.
TYPOGRAPHY
59
Type Categories
• Diagonal stress
• Lowercase serifs are slanted
• Moderate thick/thin transition in
the strokes
• Vertical stress
• Lowercase serifs are horizontal and
thin
• Extreme thick/thin transition in
the strokes
• Vertical stress
• Little or no thick/thin contrast in
the strokes
• Lowercase serifs are horizontal and
thick
• No stress
• No thick/thin contrast in the
strokes
• No serifs
This category can include typefaces
that look like calligraphy or hand
printing with letters that may or may
not connect.
Decorative fonts are distinctive and
can be fun, but they should be used
sparingly.
Oldstyle
Goudy
Modern
Times New Roman Fenice
Bodoni
Slab Serif
Clarendon
Memphis
Rockwell
Sans Serif
Arial
Myriad
Verdana
Script
Vladimir Script
Vivaldi
Cataneo
Decorative
Algerian
60
Garamond
Baskerville
Comic Sans
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Broadway
There is a lot of terminology associated with typography. Terms are sometimes used interchangeably and often incorrectly.
Typeface refers to all the characters of a single design.
Helvetica
Garamond
Bodoni
Typestyles are the style variations within a typeface.
Roman
Bold
Cursive Italic
Oblique Italic
Character Weight is the width of the stroke used in the character.
A A A A A
LightNormal
Semibold
Bold
Black
Character Width is the overall width of the character. Two characters can
have the same weight but different widths, or the same width but different
weights.
A
AAA
Condensed
Semi-condensedNormalSemi-extended
Leading is the space between lines of text. The term “leading” comes from
the days of manual type setting when the space between lines of text was
filled with strips of lead. This paragraph has normal leading.
This paragraph has more leading or more space between each line of text. The
leading normally increases with the size of the font, but special circumstances
sometimes call for a tighter or looser leading.
Tracking is the average space between characters in a block of text.
This line has normal tracking.
This line ha s increa sed track ing.
This line has decreased tracking.
Kerning is the adjustment of horizontal space between individual characters in a line of text. Without kerning, some letter combinations can appear
awkward, especially in larger size text.
TYPOGRAPHY
61
Type in Photoshop
While Photoshop deals primarily with raster graphics, there are a few exceptions, and type is one of them. Type in Photoshop uses vectors, which means
that type is editable and scalable to any size without loss of quality.
Type Tools
To enter type you use the Type tool. Photoshop will automatically create a
special text layer with the type icon to identify it. As long as you don’t merge
the file with any other, the type will remain editable.
The Horizontal Type tool creates normal horizontal text. Click
anywhere in the document and begin typing. To start a new line of text,
press the Enter key. If you want to create an area of text that automatically
wraps, click and drag with the Text tool to create a text box, and then begin
typing. The box can be resized at any time by dragging one of the corner or
side handles.
The Vertical Type tool works the same as the Horizontal tool, except
that it creates vertically stacked type. The far left button on the Option bar
will convert between horizontal and vertical type.
The Horizontal Type Mask tool uses type to make a selection. Click
with the tool anywhere on the document and Photoshop will create a red
quick mask overlay everywhere except where you type. You can resize or reposition the type at any time. When you are finished typing, select any other
tool and you will be left with a selection the shape of your text. Clicking the
Layer Mask button at the bottom of the Layers panel will allow the currently
selected layer to only be visible through the text selection.
The Vertical Type Mask tool works like the Horizontal Type Mask
tool except that it creates a selection from vertically stacked type.
The settings available from the Type tool Option bar allow you to select the
typeface and type style, as well as the size, alignment and color of your text.
The Warped Text button accesses various types of special effects. The Character and Paragraph panel button toggles the Character and Paragraph panel
set on and off.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Character Panel
The Character panel has many of the same settings available on the Type
tool Option bar, as well as controls for leading, tracking, kerning and scaling
of type. From the Character panel you can also create small caps, superscript,
subscript, underlines and strikethroughs.
Paragraph Panel
The Paragraph panel has settings to control alignment and indentation, as
well as spacing before and after a paragraph of text.
Rasterizing Type
Type created in Photoshop remains editable, as long as the type layer is not
merged with another layer, and as long as the typeface used is available. If
you plan to view your document on a computer that might not have the
original typeface installed, you can rasterize the type, which will convert the
type layer to a normal Photoshop layer with pixels. The layer will no longer be
editable as type, but will appear exactly as it did when you created the text. To
rasterize type, right-click on a type layer and select Rasterize Type, or choose
Rasterize Type Layer from the Type menu.
Typing on a Path
If you want your type to flow in something other than a straight line, you can
type your text on a path. You must first create a path using the Path tool or
one of the Shape tools. Then select one of the Type tools and move the cursor
over the path until it turns into the Type on Path icon. Click on the portion
of the path where you would like your text to start, and then begin typing.
Once you have entered type, the path can no longer be modified, but the type
itself will still be editable.
TYPOGRAPHY
63
Designing with Type
The elements and principles of design are applicable when working with type,
just as they are in any design situation, but there are a few design principles
that are particularly relevant when laying out type.
Proximity
Contrast
Alignment
The principle of proximity involves grouping related items together. Rather
than randomly spreading information evenly across a document, items with
related content should be grouped together. For example, the date, time and
location of an event could be grouped together. Even before the information
is read, it has a connection, becomes of how it is visually organized within
the document.
Eliza Jacobson
Graphic Designer
Conversely, unrelated items should not be in close proximity.
Alignment
Unity is achieved by creating some connection between the
elements on a page. Alignment is one way of doing this.
214 Main St.
Pleasant Valley, AR
560-555-1234
jacobsondesign.com
Proximity
Repetition
An underlying grid system is sometimes used to align
elements in a document. A newspaper page is an example of
this. Text and photos can span one or more columns of the
grid, but everything aligns to some portion of the grid.
But even without a grid system, some degree of alignment will help unify a
document. Nothing should be placed on a page randomly. If text at the top of
a document is either left- or right-aligned with text further down the page, it
creates a connection between those elements, which helps organize and unify
the information.
Center aligned text is difficult to read and appears dull and static, so it should
be used very sparingly.
Repetition
Like alignment, repetition of elements creates a connection between them,
unifying the design. In the case of text, that would mean using the same type
face, size, weight or color. Too much repetition can make a layout boring, too
little can make it seem disorganized.
Contrast
Contrast is really the opposite of repetition. It involves creating differences
between elements in a document. This can break the monotony of too much
repetition, but more importantly, contrast can draw attention to an area you
want to emphasize. For greater emphasis, use greater contrast.
Contrast should always be enough that it seems obvious and intentional. For
example, using 11-point type next to 12-point type would look like a mistake
rather than an attempt to create contrast. Avoid trying to create too many
areas of emphasis, which can make your document seem chaotic.
64
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Basic Color Theory
Color Wheel
Most artists today base their understanding of color relationships
on a system developed by Albert Munsell in the early twentieth
century. Munsell’s color wheel divides the color spectrum into
twelve distinct hues.
BASIC COLOR THEORY
9
color wheel
primary colors
secondary colors
tertiary colors
complementary colors
neutral color
tints
shades
analogous colors
monochromatic colors
local color
hue
value
intensity
chroma
saturation
temperature
color mode
rgb
cmyk
grayscale
eyedropper tool
swatches panel
color panel
color picker
hsb
channels panel
65
Primary Colors
The primary colors, red, yellow and blue, are the three basic colors that
cannot be mixed from any others. All other colors can be mixed from these
three.
Secondary Colors
The secondary colors, orange,
green and purple, are each a
mixture of two primary colors.
Tertiary Colors
A tertiary color is a
mixture of a primary and
an adjacent secondary color.
And so on.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Complementary Colors
Colors positioned opposite each other on the color wheel are
complementary colors; for example, red and green, blue and
orange, yellow and purple. Just as black and white have the
greatest value contrast, complementary colors have the greatest
color contrast.
Mixing two complimentary colors or colors
opposite each other on the color wheel will
result in a neutral color.
Monochromatic Colors
Monochromatic colors have the
same hue but vary in value and
intensity.
Analogous Colors
Adjacent hues on the color wheel are
analogous colors.
Tints
The addition of white to a
pure color results in a tint.
Shades
The addition of black
results in a shade.
Local color is the color of an object under normal light.
BASIC COLOR THEORY
67
Attributes of Color
Color has three characteristics or attributes—hue, value, and intensity. Using
these basic characteristics, any color can be described and/or compared with
any other color.
Hue is the name given to a color, like green or orange.
Hue
Value refers to the relative lightness or darkness of a color. Red is
a darker value than yellow.
Lighter
More Intense
Value
Intensity
Darker
Intensity, sometimes called chroma, describes the degree of saturation, strength or purity of a color. Colors on the outer edge of the
color wheel are the most intense. Toward the center of the wheel,
colors are more neutral and less intense. Mixing a color with its
compliment results in a less intense color. The addition of either
Duller white or black to a color to create a tint or a shade will also result
in a less intense color. Do not confuse a color’s intensity with its
value. For example, yellow is lighter in value than brown, but has
much more intensity.
In addition to the basic characteristics of hue, value and intensity,
color can also be described in terms of temperature. While green,
blue, and purple are generally considered to be cool colors, and
red, orange, and yellow are warm, temperature is really a relative
term. Green is warmer than blue, but cooler than yellow.
Warmer
68
Temperature
Cooler
ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Color in Photoshop
Color Modes
When you are working in Photoshop, you will always be working in a particular color mode. You can choose a color mode when you create a new document, or you can change the color mode of a document by choosing Color
Mode from the Image menu.
RGB (red, green, blue), which is the most common color mode in Photoshop,
uses additive color to combine various intensities of red, green and blue light
to form colors. RGB offers a wide range of available colors, know as gamut,
and is the mode used by monitors to display color.
CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) is a subtractive color mode used in
professional printing to recreate color by combining the four colors of ink.
Because CMYK has a smaller color gamut, designers generally work in RGB
and convert to CMYK as the last step in preparing the image for printing.
RGB
CMYK
Grayscale uses different shades of gray to represent an image. An 8-bit image
has 256 levels of gray, and a 16-bit image has 65,536 levels of gray.
Duotone is a grayscale image printed with one to four colors of ink. One
color is monotone, two colors is duotone, three colors tritone, and four colors
quadtone.
Grayscale
Bitmap uses only black or white (no grays) to represent pixel data.
Indexed color mode uses a limited number of colors (up to 256) to represent
an image, creating a smaller file size, but a lesser quality image. It is best used
for images with fewer flat colors, lik a logo. GIF and PNG-8 are file formats
that use indexed colors.
Lab mode represents the widest color gamut, which includes the colors of
both RGB and CMYK, but Lab colors can only be printed on Postscript
Level 2 and Level 3 printers. L refers to the color’s luminance, a is its position
between red and green, and b is its position between yellow and blue.
Multichannel is a highly specialized mode used for complex separations for
professional printing.
BASIC COLOR THEORY
69
Selecting a Color
There are a variety of ways to select a color in Photoshop. If you have an image
open, you can use the Eyedropper tool to sample a color from the image
itself.
The Swatches panel provides a collection of color choices. From the Swatches
panel menu you can add or delete colors, or you can choose from an assortment of color sets.
The Color panel displays a group of sliders in an individual color mode. You
can change which color mode sliders are visible from the Color panel menu.
Adjust the sliders to choose a color, or click somewhere in the color bar along
the bottom of the panel.
Color Picker
By far, the method of selecting a color that offers the most control is the Color
Picker. Open the Color Picker dialog by clicking either the foreground or
the background color swatch in the Tools panel.
If you know the exact color that you want, you can enter the RGB value,
either as a decimal number or, in the lower box, as a hexadecimal number.
You can enter the Lab number, or the CMYK percentages. But if you are
searching for a color, the most intuitive method to make a selection is using
HSB, or Hue, Saturation and Brightness.
Hue selection
Saturation selection
Selecting a Color Using HSB
Click the Hue radio button and then use the vertical rainbow slider in the
middle of the dialog to select a general color family. As you make your hue
choice, notice that the larger box on the left displays all of the saturation
and brightness variations available for that hue with a circle designating the
current color choice. Intense colors are on the right, duller ones on the left,
lighter colors at the top, and darker colors at the bottom. You can click
anywhere in this box to make your selection.
Or you can click the Saturation radio button and use the saturation slider to
adjust the intensity of your color. Then click the Brightness radio button to
adjust the light and dark value of the color. Your new color will appear in the
box at the top of the dialog displayed above the old swatch color.
Add to Swatches will add the new color to the Swatches panel.
Color Libraries will let you select a color from one of Photoshop’s many
saved color collections.
The Only Web Colors check box will limit your color choices to Windows
256 safe colors, which was important when early monitors could only display
256 colors, but is not really relevant today.
Brightness selection
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Channels Panel
The Channels panel separates the image into the individual color channels
based on the document’s color mode. In the case of an RGB image, the first
channel is labeled RGB and is a composite of all three channels. Below that
are the three red, green and blue channels.
If the currently selected layer in the Layers panel has a layer mask applied,
that mask will appear at the bottom of the Channels panel along with any
other saved selections. A selection can be saved to the Channels panel as an
Alpha channel by selecting Save Selection from the Select menu.
To view the color information of a particular channel, turn off the visibility
of all of the other channels. The selected channel will appear as a grayscale
image with the lightest values representing areas with the greatest concentration of that color, and the darkest areas the least. Usually one channel will
show more contrast, another more detail, and another perhaps more noise.
You can use that information when making a selection.
For example, in the images below, the body of the bird shows much more
contrast with the background in the green channel, while the bird’s legs show
more contrast in the blue channel. You can make faster more accurate selections by turning on the channel that shows the greatest amount of contrast in
the area you are trying to select.
Similarly, if you want to sharpen an image using the Unsharp Mask filter,
turn off the layer with the most noise and sharpen the remaining layers. That
way you will sharpen the details without adding more noise.
Red channel
Composite RGB channel
Green channel
Blue channel
BASIC COLOR THEORY
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ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Adobe
Illustrator
Basics
73
The Application Bar
The Tools Panel
The Document Window
The Options Bar
The Scratch Area
74
The Workspace Switcher
The Panels Dock
The Artboard
ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
The Illustrator
Workspace
Although Illustrator is a very different program than Photoshop, the workspace is very similarly organized.
Application Bar
Across the top of the workspace is the Application bar, which contains the
menu.
Tools Panel
The Tools panel, which by default is located vertically along the left side of
the workspace, contains tools for creating and editing artwork.
10
application bar
tools panel
options bar
document window
artboard
scratch area
panels dock
workspace switcher
Options Bar
The Options bar is located just below the Application bar. It contains setting
controls for the currently selected tool from the Tools panel.
Document Window
The Document Window displays the artboards and images that are being
edited.
Artboard
The Artboard is your document in Illustrator. It is the area where you arrange
the objects that make up your artwork. Surrounding the Artboard is the
Scratch Area. You can drag objects on and off the Artboard from the Scratch
Area as you are working. Artwork in the Scratch Area is visible on the screen,
but does not print.
Panels Dock
The Panels Dock contains the currently active panels, which can be docked,
either individually or in groups. They can be collapsed to create more working
space in the Document Window, or they can be pulled loose from the dock
to be free-floating. Any panel that is not currently active can be opened from
the Windows menu.
Workspace Switcher
The Workspace Switcher contains a variety of workspace layout presets.
From the menu you can select a particular workspace, or you can save your
current panel layout as a user-defined workspace. The workspace presets are
also available from the Windows menu.
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75
Selection Tools
Type Tools
Drawing Tools
Painting Tools
Reshaping Tools
Slicing and Cutting Tools
Symbol Tools
Graphing Tools
Navigation Tools
Default Colors
Fill Color
Color Mode
Swap Fill/Stroke
Stroke Color
Screen Mode
Change Screen Mode
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ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Tools Panel
By default the Tools panel appears
as a single vertical row of icons along
the left side of the screen, but you can
convert it to a shorter double row of
icons by clicking the double arrows
at the top of the panel. The Tab key
toggles the Tools panel and all of the
other panels on and off, creating a
larger workspace.
The Tools panel contains a variety of
tools organized into basic categories.
The keyboard shortcut for each tool
appears in parenthesis to the right of
the tool’s name when you hover your
mouse over the tool. Each visible tool
in the Tools panel is part of a group
of hidden tools, which are accessible
by clicking and holding on the small
triangle to the lower right of each
tool.
THE ILLUSTRATOR WORKSPACE
77
Creating a New Document
To create a new document, open the New Document dialog from the File menu or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-N.
Assign a name for the document
or accept the default.
Choose a general paper
category preset.
Choose how many artboards you
want created for your document.
Select a unit of measurement
for the document.
Choose an arrangement and
spacing for multiple artboards.
Choose a standard size.
Choose portrait or
landscape orientation
Or type in a custom
width and height.
Select a bleed amount for the
document as a whole or for
individual sides.
Choose a color mode
for the document.
Choose a resolution
for raster effects
applied to objects.
You can create an
artboard using a saved
template.
78
Once you are satisfied with your settings, click OK
and your document will be created.
ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Objects
In Photoshop you work primarily with raster graphics, which mean you are
dealing with pixels. Because Illustrator deals with vector graphics, you will
be working with objects. An object is a set of anchor points connected by line
segments, creating a path. The object can be a closed path like a circle or a
rectangle, or it might be a open path like a line.
Creating Objects
Illustrator offers a variety of tools for creating objects, but regardless of which
tool you use, the result will always be a vector object made up of anchor
points and line segments.
Pen Tool
The Pen tool can be used to create both geometrically and organically shaped
objects with either straight line segments or Bézier curves. The Pen tool works
the same in Illustrator as it does in Photoshop. For more information on its
use, see the Pen Tools section in the Photoshop chapter on selections.
Line Segment Tool
Click and drag with the Line Segment tool to create a single straight line
segment. Hold down the Shift key as you drag to constrain the angle of the
line to 45° increments. Hold down the Alt key to draw from the center of the
line segment. Making a single click with the Line Segment tool opens an
Options box, allowing you to specify the length and angle of the line.
11
pen tool
line segment tool
arc tool
pen tool
line segment tool
arc tool
spiral tool
rectangular grid tool
polar grid
rounded rectangle
ellipse tool
polygon tool
star tool
flare tool
pencil tool
smooth tool
path erase tool
paintbrush tool
blob brush tool
eraser tool
stroke
fill
stroke panel
gradient panel
Arc Tool
Click and drag with the Arc tool to create a curved line segment. Holding
down the Shift key as you drag to constrain the arc to one quarter of a circle.
Hold down the Alt key to draw from the center of the arc. Making a single
click with the Arc tool opens an Options box, allowing you to specify the
length of the X- and Y-axis, as well as the slope of the arc.
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79
Spiral Tool
Click and drag the Spiral tool to create a spiral line. For more control over
the spiral, make a single click to open the Options box where you can specify
the radius of the spiral, the decay or tightness of the spiral, and the number of
line segments making up the spiral.
Rectangular Grid Tool
Click and drag the Rectangular Grid tool to create a grid of horizontal and
vertical line segments. Hold down the Shift key to constrain the grid to a
square. Hold the Alt key down to draw from the center. A single click with
the Rectangular Grid tool opens the Options box, where you can specify the
size of the grid and the number of horizontal and vertical divisions.
Polar Grid Tool
Click and drag the Polar Grid tool to create an elliptical grid. Hold down
the Shift key to constrain the grid to a circle and the Alt key to draw from the
center. A single click with the Polar Grid tool opens the Options box, where
you can specify the size of the grid, as well as the number of divisions.
Rectangle Tool
Click and drag with the Rectangle tool to draw a rectangular shape. Hold
down the Shift key to constrain the rectangle to a square, and the Alt key to
draw the shape from the center. A single click opens the Options box where
you can specify the size of the rectangle.
Rounded Rectangle Tool
Click and drag with the Rounded Rectangle tool to draw a rectangle with
rounded corner. Hold down the Shift key to constrain to a square, and the Alt
key to draw from the center. A single click opens the Options box where you
can specify the size of the rectangle and the radius of the corners.
Ellipse Tool
Click and drag with the Ellipse Tool to draw an elliptical shape. Hold down
the Shift key to constrain to a circle, and the Alt key to draw from the center.
A single click for the Options box where you can specify the size of the ellipse.
Polygon Tool
Click and drag with the Polygon tool to create a polygon shape. Hold down
the Shift key to constrain the angle of the polygon, and the Alt key to draw
from the center. A single click opens the Options box where you can specify
the radius of the polygon and the number of sides.
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Star Tool
Click and drag with the Star tool to create a star shape. Hold down the Shift
key to constrain the angle of the star, and the Alt key to draw from the center.
A single click opens the Options box where you can enter the radius of the
points of the star as well as the radius to the base of the points. You can also
specify the number of points on the star.
Flare Tool
Click and drag with the Flare tool to create a lens flare. A single click opens
the Options box where you can adjust the diameter, opacity and brightness of
the flare, as well as a number of other settings. Click the preview box to see
the changes as you make them.
Pencil Tool
The Pencil tool draws freeform lines with a basic path and a simple stroke.
Smooth Tool
Drag along a line with the Smooth tool to smooth rough and irregular areas
along the path.
Path Erase Tool
The Path Erase tool erases areas from a path.
Paintbrush Tool
Like the Pencil tool, the Paintbrush tool draws freeform lines, but is very
configurable. You can choose the shape of the brush from the Brushes panel.
You can load additional brushes, or even create brushes of your own. Doubleclick the Paintbrush tool icon in the Tools Panel to open the Paintbrush tool
options where there are additional settings to control the actions of the brush.
Blob Brush Tool
The Blob Brush tool works like the Paintbrush tool, but where strokes overlap
a single shape is created rather than overlapping paths.
Eraser Tool
The Eraser tool can be used to erase portions of an object. Shift constrains
the tool to horizontal, vertical or diagonal. Double-clicking the Eraser tool in
the Tools panel opens the Options box where you can set the angle, roundness and size of the eraser.
OBJECTS
81
Fill
Stroke
Stroke and Fill
An object can be filled with color, and the path surrounding the object can be
stroked with a colored line in a width of your choice.
At the bottom of the Tools panel are the color swatches, which at first glance
look very much like the swatches in Photoshop, but Illustrator’s swatches
work very differently.
Default
Fill & Stroke
Swap
Fill & Stroke
Fill Color
Stroke Color
Color
None
Gradient
The swatch on the left is the fill color, and the swatch on the right is the stroke
color. To change the fill or stroke color of an object, first select the object by
clicking it, using the Selection tool. Then click on either the Fill or Stroke
swatch to bring it to the front. Double-click the swatch to open the Color
Picker, or alternately, select a color from either the Swatches or Color panel.
If you select a fill and stroke color without selecting an object first, no change
will happen to your image, but the next object you create will use that new
fill and stroke color.
The curved double-headed arrow to the upper right of the Fill and Stroke
swatches will reverse the fill and stroke colors. The icon to the upper left will
select the default colors--a while fill and a black stroke. The three icons below
the swathes select between a solid color, a gradient, or no color.
To copy the fill and stroke colors from one object to another, select the object
you want to recolor. Then click with the eyedropper tool to on a different
object to copy its fill and stroke.
Stroke Panel
In addition to a stroke color, you can also select a stroke weight. That setting
is usually available from the Option bar, but for even more control over your
object’s stroke, use the Stroke panel.
Weight is the thickness of the stroke.
Cap is the style of the style of the stroke at the end of a path, either Butt,
Round or Projecting.
Corner sets either a Miter, a Round or a Bevel Join at the corners of objects.
Limit controls the length of the point on a corner that has a very narrow
angle.
Align Stroke aligns the stroke to the Center, the Inside or the Outside of
the Path.
Dashed Line, when selected, creates a dashed stroke with control over the
size of the dashes and the gaps between, as well as the style of the corners.
Arrowheads will create an arrow on one or both ends of a stroke and scaled
to any size.
Profile offers a variety of stroke shapes. Uniform is the default.
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ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Gradient Panel
Besides applying a solid color fill to an object, you can also fill with a gradient. Click on the fill swatch to bring it to the front, and then click the middle
gradient button below the Fill and Stroke swatches. The object will fill with a
white to black gradient, and the Gradient panel will open. Go to the Gradient
panel menu and make sure Show Options is selected.
Panel Settings
For Type select Linear or Radial. Choose an angle for the gradient. The
default is 0°, which is a horizontal gradient. There is a button to reverse the
direction of the gradient. And if you have selected a radial gradient, you can
set the its aspect ratio. The default is 100%, which makes the width and
height of the gradient the same.
Change a Gradient Color
In the middle of the panel is a bar showing a visual representation of the
gradient. Below the bar are sliders for each of the colors of the gradient. To
change a color, double-click one of the sliders and a color dialog will open.
From the dialog menu, choose a color mode, then select your color. Or click
the Swatches icon on the left and choose one of the saved color swatches. A
third method of changing a gradient color is to open both the Gradient and
Swatches panels at the same time, and then drag a color swatch onto one of
the gradient sliders.
Add Colors to the Gradient
To add an additional color to the gradient, move your cursor below the gradient bar until it becomes a plus sign. Click once to add a new gradient slider.
Then use one of the methods to change the slider to whatever color you want.
Alternately, you can drag a color from the Swatches panel and drop it on the
gradient bar.
Adjusting the Gradient
You can use the color sliders below the gradient bar or the mid-point sliders
above the bar to adjust the transition from one color to another. Select one of
the color sliders and you can enter a numerical location for the slider, as well
as an opacity percentage for the color itself.
OBJECTS
83
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Selecting and
Grouping Objects
Illustrator deals with individual objects, which are by definition separate
from each other, so making a selection is more straightforward in Illustrator
than in Photoshop. There are two primary tools for making selections in
Illustrator--the Selection tool and the Direct Selection tool, and they each
serve very different purposes.
Selection Tool
12
selection tool
direct selection tool
magic wand tool
lasso tool
group
ungroup
nesting objects
The Selection tool is used to select an entire object by clicking on any part
of the object. You can also click and drag a selection box around an object or
any part of an object to select it. To select multiple objects Shift-click each
object, or drag a selection box that touches a portion of each of the objects
you want selected.
Direct Selection Tool
The Direct Selection tool selects individual anchor points or line segments of
an object. You can click an individual anchor point or line segment to select
it, or you can click and drag a selection box around the portion of the object
you want to select. Shift-click to select multiple points.
Magic Wand Tool
Click an object with the Magic Wand tool to select all objects with the same
fill and stroke color.
Lasso Tool
The Lasso tool can draw an irregularly shaped selection around one or more
objects.
SELECTING AND GROUPING OBJECTS
85
Selecting Obscured Objects
Sometimes an object is difficult to select because other objects cover it. To
select an obscured object, select any object and then press Ctrl-Alt-[ to move
down through the stack of objects or press Ctrl-Alt-] to move up through the
stack of objects.
Grouping Objects
To more easily select and manipulate multiple objects, they can be collected
into a group. To create a group, select the objects, then choose the Group
command from the Object menu or from the right-click menu, or use the
keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-G. To ungroup objects, select the group, then choose
the Ungroup command from the Object menu or from the right-click menu,
or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-Shift-G.
Nesting Groups
Several groups can be nested within another group. Select multiple groups,
then choose the Group command. Groups can be nested multiple layers deep.
To ungroup nested groups, use the Ungroup command. You will need to
ungroup each nesting level individually.
Selecting Groups Nested Within Groups
With the Selection tool, double-click a group. The group will be selected with
a thick-thin border around it. You can now move individual objects nested
within the group.
Double-click a nested group to make a selection further into the nested group
structure. Double-click anywhere outside the group to exit this selection
mode.
Isolating Selections Using Lock and Hide
To modify a selected object without affecting neighboring objects, you can
either lock the other objects, which leaves them visible but unselectable, or
you can hide them, which makes them both invisible and unselectable.
To lock objects, select the objects and then choose Object | Lock | Selection or
press Ctrl-2. To lock all non-selected objects press Shift-Alt-Ctrl-2.
To hide objects, select the objects and then choose Object | Hide | Selection
or press Ctrl-3. To hide all non-selected objects, press Shift-Alt-Ctrl-3.
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ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Arranging Objects
In Photoshop, layers play a key role in separating individual elements of a
design, but layers are much less important in Illustrator. Objects are already
distinctly separate from each other, each holding a specific position in the
stacking order. The first object created is at the bottom of the stacking order,
and the last object created is at the top. Sometimes it is necessary to rearrange
that stacking order, and Illustrator offers an easy way to do that.
Select the object that you want to move forward or backward in the stacking
order. From the Object menu, choose Arrange and then one of the options–
Bring to Front, Bring Forward, Send Backward, or Send to Back. You can
also access the Arrange menu by right-clicking, or you can use the keyboard
shortcuts, Ctrl-[ to move the object lower in the stacking order, Ctrl-] to move
the object upward.
SELECTING AND GROUPING OBJECTS
87
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ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Transforming Objects
Illustrator has manual methods to do some basic quick transformations of
objects, as well as some more sophisticated methods that offer more control
and accuracy.
Move, Duplicate, Resize and Rotate
To move an object, click and drag from somewhere in the center of the object.
To duplicate an object, click and drag the object while holding down Alt.
To resize an object, first select it, then drag from one of the corner handles
while holding down the Shift key to constrain its aspect ratio. Clicking a
dragging without holding the Shift key will stretch the object.
To rotate an object, move the cursor just outside one of the corner handles
until it becomes a curved arrow icon. Then click and drag in a circular
motion. The Shift key constrains the rotation to 45° increments.
Transform Panel
For more control when transforming an object, use
the Transform panel. You can use x and y coordinates to position an object, you can resize it to a
specific size, and you can rotate or shear the object a
specified number of degrees.
The diagram on the left side of the panel lets you
specify the point on the object from which all of
these modifications will take place. For example, if
you select the box in the upper right corner of the diagram and then rotate the
object, the upper right corner of the object will remain stationary and the rest
of the object will rotate around that point. Click the link icon to constrain
the aspect ratio of the object as you resize.
Choose Show Options from the Transform panel menu to access two additional transform settings. Scale Strokes and Effects will scale the weight
of the object’s stroke, as well as any special effects as the object is resized.
Checking Align to Pixel Grid will shift the currently selected object to the
nearest vertical and horizontal position on the underlying grid.
TRANSFORMING OBJECTS
13
move
duplicate
resize
rotate
transform panel
rotate tool
reflect tool
scale tool
shear tool
free transform tool
width tool
liquify tools
warp tool
twirl tool
pucker tool
bloat tool
scallop tool
crystallize tool
pathfinder panel
align panel
envelope distort
blend
blend tool
compound path
pen tool
eraser tool
scissors tool
knife
average points
join points
outline stroke
clipping mask
image trace panel
89
Transform Tools
Rotate Tool
With the Selection tool, select the object you want to rotate. Using the Rotate
tool click and drag in a circular motion to rotate the object around its center
axis point. To move the axis point, click once with the tool. Then click and
drag to rotate around the new axis. Hold down the Shift key to rotate in 45°
increments. For greater control, click and drag further from the axis point.
Double-click the Rotate tool icon to enter rotation information in a dialog.
Reflect Tool
Select the object you want to reflect. Click and drag with the Reflect tool to
create a mirror image of the original object. Continue to drag to rotate the
object around its center axis point. Hold down the Shift key as you drag to
position the new object as an exact mirror of the original. Hold down the Alt
key to retain the original object and make the reflected object a duplicate. For
greater control, click and drag further from the axis point. Double-click the
Reflect tool icon to enter reflection information in a dialog.
Scale Tool
Select the object you want to scale. Click and drag with the Scale tool to
resize the object. Hold down the Shift key and drag horizontally or vertically
to scale only along the horizontal or vertical axis. Hold down the Shift key
and drag diagonally to scale while maintaining the objects proportions. Hold
down the Alt key to retain the original object and create a duplicate as you
scale. For greater control, click and drag further from the axis point. Doubleclick the Scale tool icon to enter scaling information in a dialog.
Shear Tool
Select the object you want to shear. Click and drag with the Shear tool
to shear the object. Hold down the Shift key to shear only horizontally or
vertically. Hold down the Alt key to retain the original object and create a
duplicate as you shear. For greater control, click and drag further from the
axis point. Double-click the Shear tool icon to enter shearing information in
a dialog.
Reshape Tool
Select an open path you want to reshape, making sure that all of the points in
the path are selected. With the Reshape tool, click and drag one of the points
in the path. As you drag, the end points will remain stationary and the other
points in the path will adjust in an attempt to maintain the integrity of the
original path. If you initially select fewer points on the path, only those points
will adjust as you use the Reshape tool.
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ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Free Transform Tool
The Free Transform tool offers many of the basic transform functions, like
rotate, reflect, scale and shear, but without some of the subtle adjustments of
the individual tools.
Rotate
Hover the tool outside the perimeter of the object until the cursor
becomes a curved arrow. Then click and drag in a circular motion. Hold
down the Shift key to rotate in 45° increments.
Reflect
Click one of the object’s handles and drag across and past the opposite
side of the object to create a reversed image.
Scale
Click and drag from one of the corners to scale the object. Hold down
the Shift key to maintain the objects proportions. Hold down the Alt key
to resize from the center.
Shear
Click and drag one of the side handles, and then press down the Ctrl key
to shear the object.
Width Tool
With the Width tool you can take a path that has an even weight stroke and
increase or decrease the width of the stroke at one or more spots along the
path. Click with the Width tool at the point on the path where you want to
change its width. Drag perpendicular to the path to change the stroke width.
You can add multiple points and you reposition the points by sliding them
up and down the path.
Transform Menu
Many of the same transformation options are available by selecting Transform from the Object menu, or by right-clicking on a selected object and
choosing Transform. Transform Again repeats the last transformation that
was applied. When a group of objects are selected, Transform Each applies
the transformation to each object individually rather than to the selection
shape as a whole.
TRANSFORMING OBJECTS
91
Liquify Tools
You can use the Liquify tools to distort an object in various ways. The Liquify
tools do not work on text, graphs or linked objects. To change the brush size
or shape for one of the Liquify tools, click and drag while holding down the
Alt key. To access the settings for any one of the tools, double-click its icon
in the Tools panel.
Warp Tool
Twirl Tool
Pucker Tool
Bloat Tool
Scallop Tool
Crystallize Tool
Wrinkle Tool
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Pathfinder Panel
The Pathfinder panel is a set of tools that combine multiple shapes in various
ways. There are two sets of tools--Shape Modes and Pathfinders. They might
appear to work in a similar way, but they actually give subtly different results.
Add/Unite
Subtract/Minus Front
Intersect
Exclude
Shape Modes
The Shape Modes combine two or more shapes into a new individual shape.
Add/Unite
Add combines two or more objects into a single shape, giving it the fill, stroke
and other style attributes of the top shape.
Minus Back
Outline
Crop
Merge
Trim
Divide
Subtract/Minus Front
Subtract cuts from the bottom shape all of the selected shapes above it. It
retains the style attributes of the original bottom shape.
Intersect
Intersect creates a new shape from the overlapping areas of two selected
shapes. It retains the style attributes of the top shape.
Exclude
Exclude creates a new shape from the non-overlapping areas of two intersecting shapes. It receives the style attributes of the top shape. If more than
two shapes are used, areas where an even number of shapes are overlapping
are deleted, and areas where an odd number of shapes are overlapping are
retained.
TRANSFORMING OBJECTS
93
Pathfinders
The Pathfinders create multiple shapes that are grouped together.
Divide
Divide takes two or more shapes and divides them, making new shapes of
overlapping areas. All new shapes have the style attributes of the topmost
overlapping shape.
Trim
Trim keep all top shapes while trimming all overlapping shapes from the
bottom shape.
Merge
Merge works like trim except that any upper layers that have the same style
attributes as the bottom layer are merged with the bottom layer rather than
being cut out of it.
Crop
Crop only interacts with the top and bottom layers selected. It finds the area
of intersection and applies the style attributes of the bottom shape. In addition, it retains the remainder of the top shape, but without a stroke or fill.
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Outline
Outline takes two or more shapes and cuts them at their points of intersection, leaving open ended paths with no fill and a stroke the color of the
original fill.
Minus Back
Minus Back takes two or more shapes and cuts all of the lower shapes from
the top shape, retaining the original style attributes of the top shape.
Align Panel
The Align panel adjusts the alignment and spacing of objects. From the
Align panel menu, choose Show Options to access all of the panel’s settings.
The buttons in the Align Objects section will align the objects based on
their center point or their top, bottom, right or left edges. All of the selected
objects will align with each other, but how they align with the rest of the
document depends on the setting in the Align To section.
Align to Selection will make the alignment based on the selected area. For
example, center aligning will align all of the selected objects to the center
of the selected area.
Align to Key Object aligns all of the objects to one specific object. To use this option, select Align to Key Object
from the Align To section. Select the objects you want to align, then click once more on the object you want to
be your Key Object. It will appear with a darker selection line around it. Click one of the Align Objects buttons
and all of the objects will align to your selected Key Object.
Align to Artboard will align all objects to the artboard itself.
The buttons in the Distribute Objects section will evenly space objects based on their center point or their top,
bottom, right or left edges.
Align to Selection will leave the objects on the extremities of the selection in place and will distribute the
remaining objects evenly between those two extremes.
Align to Artboard will position the most extreme objects at opposite edges of the artboard and everything else
evenly in between.
Distribute Spacing will distribute the selected objects, spaced at a distance that you specify. This only works if you
choose Align to Key Object and then select the object you want to remain stationary.
TRANSFORMING OBJECTS
95
Envelope Distort
Envelope Distort is used to make distortions to text or any other Illustrator
object. Select the object you want to warp, choose Envelope Distort from the
Object menu, and then select one of the three distortion methods–Make with
Warp, Make with Mesh, or Make with Top Object.
Make with Warp opens the Warp Options where you can select from a set of
presets with adjustable settings.
Make with Mesh applies a mesh grid to the object. Using the Direct Selection tool you can move the points on the grid to control the warp of the
object.
Make with Top Object uses a top shape to warp the object beneath.
Envelope Distort
with the Arc Warp Preset
Envelope Distort
with a Mesh Grid
Envelope Distort
using a Top Object
Blend
The Blend command will make a transition between two objects using a
specified number of steps. The transition can be from one shape to another
or from one color to another. You can also use the blend tool to repeat the
same shape over a specified distance.
To create a blend, first open the Blend Options from the Object menu by
selecting Blend and then Blend Options.
Spacing controls how the transition between the two objects is made.
Smooth Color makes a continuous graded transition of color between
the two objects.
Specified Steps makes a series of evenly spaced transitional steps between
the two objects based on the number you choose.
Specified Distance makes the necessary number of transitional steps
between the two objects to create the spacing that you specify.
Orientation controls the angle of the objects created in the transition.
Align to Page orients the blend perpendicular to the bottom of
the page.
Align to Path orients the blend perpendicular to the path.
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Once you have the options set, select the two objects that you want to blend,
and then from the Object menu choose Blend and then Make.
Modify the Spine of the Blend
By default, the spine of the blend is a straight line, which you can modify
using the Direct Selection tool. You can also substitute a completely different
path by first creating an object with a new path. Then select that object and
the blend object and choose Object | Blend | Replace Spine.
Reverse Spine
To switch the position of the original two objects in the blend, choose Object
| Blend | Reverse Spine.
Original Blend
Reverse Spine
Reverse Front to Back
The blend is created based on the stacking order of the original two objects.
To reverse the stacking order choose Object | Blend | Reverse Front to Back.
Release a Blend
After you have created a blend, you can release the blend back to the original
two objects by choosing Object | Blend | Release.
Reverse Front to Back
Expand a Blend
To expand the blend into individual objects, choose Object | Blend | Expand.
Blend Tool
With the Blend tool you can quickly create a blend based on the current
Blend Options. Select the Blend tool, click one object and then a second
object. A blend will be created between the two.
Examples of Blends
TRANSFORMING OBJECTS
97
Modifying Paths
Compound Paths
The typical object in Illustrator is a closed path, stroked along the perimeter
and filled inside. But sometimes there is a need for a shape with a hole cut
from the middle. Letters like O, B and P are example of this. They are not just
black shapes with a while shape floating above, there is actually a transparent
hole in the middle of the shape. This special shape is called a Compound
Path.
Creating a Compound Path
To create a Compound Path, make two overlapping objects, a large one and
a small one. Make sure the small one is on top in the stacking order. Select
both objects and choose Object | Compound Path | Make, or right-click
and choose Make Compound Path. To release the compound path back to
its original objects, select the path and choose Object | Compound Path |
Release, or right-click and choose Release Compound Path.
Pen Tools
The Pen tools are one of the primary means of creating and modifying path.
For information on the use of the Pen tools, review the Pen Tool section of
the Photoshop chapter on Selections. (p.27)
Eraser Tool
The Eraser tool erases portions of a path. If you erase in the middle of a path,
it becomes two separate paths.
Scissors Tool
Click with the Scissors tool on a line segment or an anchor point to create a
cut in the path.
Knife
The Knife is used to make a freehand cut through a closed shape to make it
into two separate closed shapes.
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Averaging and Joining Points
Two endpoints on the same path or on different paths can be joined using
the Join command. Select the two points with the Direct Selection tool, and
choose Object | Path | Join, or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-J. A new line
segment will be drawn connecting the two points.
If you would prefer to combine the two points rather than connecting them
with a line segment, you must first average the positions of the two points.
Select the two points using the Direct Selection tool and then choose Object
| Path | Average, or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-Alt-J. The Average dialog
will open where you can choose to average the points horizontally, vertically
or both. Make your selection and click OK, and the points will be repositioned. Then use the Join command to combine them.
You can average and join the points in one step using the keyboard shortcut,
Shift-Ctrl-Alt-J.
Outline Stroke
The Outline Stroke command can convert a path with a stroke into a shape.
Create a path and apply a stroke to it. Select the path and choose Object |
Path | Outline Stroke. You should now have a shape with a path around its
perimeter filled with the color of the original path’s stroke
Clipping Mask
A Clipping Mask uses a vector object to mask or clip a part of another object
or group of objects so that they are only visible within the boundaries of the
mask.
Create the object that you will use as the clipping path. Move that object’s
position in the stacking order above the objects you want to mask. Select
the Clipping Mask along with the other objects, and from the Object menu
choose Clipping Mask and then Make. Or use the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-7.
TRANSFORMING OBJECTS
Four stacked
objects
Clipping mask
applied
99
Image Trace
Image Trace is a way to convert a photograph or other raster graphic into a
vector graphic for use in Illustrator. Image Trace will simplify the number of
colors in the image based on the options you choose, and then it will convert
the entire image into individual vector shapes.
Image Trace Panel
Open the raster image you want to convert, and then open the Image Trace
panel. You can select one of the preset buttons at the top, or you can make
your own selections from the many available options.
Preset offers a variety of color presets, grayscale, black-and-white, outline,
and others. Choose the one that seems closest to the result you want.
View determines what image you will see if you have Preview checked.
The views include Tracing Results, Outlines, Image Source, or combinations of two of those. Preview will let you see result as you change the
settings, but it will slow the process down as Illustrator retraces after each
change.
Mode is either Color, Grayscale or Black-and-White.
Palette is the group of colors used to make the tracing.
Colors is an adjustment to increase or decrease the number of colors.
The Advanced section contains more settings to control the amount and
type of simplification Illustrator applies as it traces the image.
Paths determines how accurately each path will represent the original
artwork. A higher percentage is more accurate, but a much more complicated tracing.
Corners controls how rounded or sharp corners are in the tracing. A
lower percentage creates more rounded corners, but simpler shapes.
Original Image
Noise determines the minimum detail size that Image Trace will reproduce.
Method controls whether Image Trace creates shapes that butt up against
each other or shapes that overlap.
The Info area shows the number of Paths, Colors and Anchors that will
be created using the current settings. Don’t let these numbers get too
large or the image file will become unwieldy.
Traced Image
When you are satisfied with the settings, click the Trace button. If Trace
is grayed out, it means the trace has already happened because you were
previewing. Click the Expand button on the Option bar to see the individual
shapes. Ungroup the image if you want to edit individual shapes.
Recolor the Image
Trace with Background Removed
100
You can replace some of the colors in the image by first selecting one shape
filled with the color you want to replace. From the menu choose Select | Same
| Fill Color. Double-click the Fill Swatch and choose a new color.
ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR BASICS
Text
Type Tools
Illustrator offers six type tools. However, many of the tools are redundant.
Most of what you can do with the Area Type tools or the Type on Path tools
can be done with the regular Type tools.
14
Type tool
Area Type tool
Type on a Path
Character panel
Paragraph panel
Outline Stroke
Entering Text at a Point
To enter text at any point on your document, select either the Type tool or
the Vertical Type tool, choose a font face, type size and justification from the
Option bar. Click anywhere on your document and begin typing.
Entering Text in an Area
Click and drag with the Text tool to
create a text box. Then begin typing,
and your text will be entered inside
the box. To turn any closed shape
into a text area, click on its border
with the Type tool and begin typing.
When an object becomes a text area,
it loses its fill and stroke colors.
TEXT
101
Typing on a Path
To type on an open path, click on the path with the Type tool to choose the
insertion point for your type. Begin typing and your type will cling to and
follow the shape of the path. Switch to the Selection tool and you can use
one of the vertical handles in the center, left and right of the text to slide the
text along the path, or to position the text above or below the path. To type
on a closed path, like a circle, you have to use the Type on Path tool so that
Illustrator will know that you are not trying to type within the shape.
Character and Paragraph Panels
There are many settings available on the Options bar when using the Text
tool, but for more options, you can open the Character or the Paragraph
panels. There are links to each panel on the Option bar.
Font Family
Text justification
Font Style
Right indent
Leading
Font Size
Kerning
Tracking
Left indent
Horizontal
Scale
First-line
left indent
Character
Rotation
Vertical Scale
Space before
paragraph
Strikethrough
Baseline Shift
All Caps
Superscript
Small Caps
Underline
Space after
paragraph
Subscript
Create Outlines
Type in Illustrator is a special object that is editable at any time using the
Type tool, but if you would like to be able to modify individual points or line
segments on your text, you must first convert the text into a normal Illustrator object using the Create Outlines command. Select the text using the
Selection tool. Then choose Type | Create Outlines. After you ungroup the set
of letters that make up your text, you will be able to modify individual points
and line segments as you would with any Illustrator object.
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Symbols
Symbols can be a great time saver in Illustrator. You can create a object or
group of objects, save them as a symbol and have access to them in the future.
You can add multiple copies of a symbol to the artboard and then use Illustrator’s many symbol tools to adjust the symbols to give a more random look.
Symbols Panel
Symbols are accessed through the Symbols
panel. From there you can create a new
symbol, edit a symbol, break a link to a
symbol, or open a symbol library. Those
and other options are available from the
Symbols panel menu or by using the icons
along the bottom of the panel.
15
symbol
symbol library
create a symbol
symbol sprayer
symbol shifter
symbol scruncher
symbol sizer
symbol spinner
symbol stainer
symbol screener
symbol styler
Opens the Symbol Libraries Menu.
Places an instance of the currently selected symbol onto the artboard.
Breaks the link to the selected symbol on the artboard, making it a
normal Illustrator object.
Opens the Symbol Options dialog.
Creates a new symbol from the selected object on the artboard.
Deletes the selected symbol from the Symbols panel.
Create a New Symbol
Nearly any object can be made into a symbol. Just create an object or group
of objects, select them, and choose New Symbol from the Symbol panel
menu, or click the New Symbol icon at the bottom of the panel. When the
New Symbol dialog opens, name the symbol, choose a type. Either Movie
Clip or Graphic is fine. The difference is only relevant if you plan to use the
symbol in Flash, but in Illustrator they both work the same.
SYMBOLS
103
Duplicate a Symbol
You can duplicate a symbol by dragging the symbol to the New Symbol icon
at the bottom of the Symbols panel.
Delete a Symbol
Delete a symbol by dragging it to the Delete Symbol icon at the bottom of
the Symbols panel.
Break the Link to a Symbol
You can break the link between a symbol in the Symbols panel and its
instance placed on the artboard by clicking the Break Symbol Link icon
at the bottom of the Symbols panel. After the link has been broken, the
symbol in the panel can be edited without affecting the symbol instance on
the artboard, and the symbol on the artboard can be edited without changing
the symbol in the panel.
Place a Symbol
You can place an instance of the symbol on your artboard by clicking the Place
Symbol Instance icon at the bottom of the Symbols panel. For more accurate
placement, you can drag the symbol from the panel onto the artboard.
Option Bar
When a symbol is selected on the artboard, the Option bar offers a variety of
settings for editing and positioning the symbol.
Symbol Tools
Symbol Sprayer adds symbols, or with the Alt key, subtracts symbols
from the artboard. A single quick click will add one instance of the symbol.
Click and drag to create a group of multiple instances.
Symbol Shifter pushes groups of symbols around in a somewhat
random way. Additionally, hold down the Shift key to move the symbols
forward in the stacking order, or Shift-Alt to move them backwards.
Symbol Scruncher pushes symbols closer together. Hold down the
Alt key to pull them further apart.
Symbol Sizer will increase the size of symbols. Hold down the Alt
key to make them smaller.
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Symbol Spinner will rotate a group of symbols either left or right
depending on the direction you move the cursor.
Symbol Stainer will stain symbols with the current fill color. Alt will
reverse the effect.
Symbol Screener will add transparency to symbols. Hold down Alt
while clicking to reverse the transparency effect.
Symbol Styler adds graphic styles to symbols. Select the Symbol St
yler tool, and then open the Graphics Styles panel. Choose a style from the
panel, and drag the cursor over the group of symbols to add that style. Hold
down the Alt key while clicking or dragging to reverse the style effect.
Symbolism Tools Options
There are a number of settings for each of the Symbol tools that can be
adjusted to control its performance. Double-click on any of the Symbol tools
to open the Symbolism Tools Options. Click on the icon for the particular
tool you want to adjust. At the top of the dialog are adjustments that are
common to most of the tools.
Diameter sets the brush size.
Intensity sets the change rate.
Symbol Set Density sets the amount of symbols placed within a given
area.
Method adjusts the symbol’s instances.
User Defined allows a gradual adjustment based on the cursor’s
location.
R andom adjusts the symbols at a random rate.
Average smooths the symbols gradually.
SYMBOLS
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ADOBE PHOTOSHOP BASICS
Design
Basics
107
108
DESIGN BASICS
Elements and
Principles of Design
Composition involves placing or arranging individual design elements,
like lines, shapes, colors, values and textures, to create a unified work of art,
taking what would otherwise be a random assortment of unrelated pieces and
organizing them in some meaningful way.
Design is about more than just the subject matter in your photos or graphics. Its about more than the meaning of the text that you use. It is not only
about what your message is, but also about how effectively you deliver that
message. A good graphic design will convey its message as simply and clearly
as possible, but in a compelling enough way to make someone stop and take
notice.
Centuries of experience by many diverse artists and their observations about
what makes effective design have been distilled into we refer to as the elements
and principles of design--the elements being the basic ingredients of a design,
and the principles the way in which those elements are used to create great
art.
ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
16
composition
elements of design
line
shape
space
positive space
negative space
color
value
texture
form
principles of design
balance
symmetrical
asymmetrical
golden section
placement
proximity
repetition
rhythm
motion
contrast
emphasis
focal point
center of interest
point of view
unity
diversity
dominance
subordination
simplification
109
Elements of Design
The elements of design are the basic components used by an artist when
creating a work of art. They are line, shape, space, color, value, texture and
form.
Line
A line is a mark that has direction. It can vary in length. It can be thick or
thin, and straight or curved or jagged. It can be used as an outline to define
a shape or space.
Shape
A shape is a two-dimensional area. It can be a geometric shape like a circle or
square, or it can be a more free-form or organic shape.
Space
Space is the area around, between or within shapes. Positive space is the area
of an artwork that is filled with something. Negative space is the empty space.
Color
Color is the visual result of the absorption and reflection of light by a particular surface. Color can be described in terms of hue, value and intensity.
Value
Value is the degree of lightness or darkness of a line, shape or color.
Texture
Texture is the surface quality of an object and can be either actual or
perceived. Thickly applied paint on the surface of a canvas is actual texture
that can be experienced by touch, while a painting of a smooth glass bottle or
rough drape might only give the illusion of texture.
Form
Form is a three-dimensional element having length, width and depth. In
two-dimensional art, the illusion of form can be created through the modeling of light and shadow.
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DESIGN BASICS
Principles of Design
If the elements of design are the basic ingredients used by the artist to create
a composition, the principles of design are the guidelines by which those
elements are arranged and combined into a unified work of art.
Balance
Balance is the placement of elements to create a visual sense of equilibrium.
Balance may be either symmetrical, in which both the left and right sides of
the composition are roughly the same, or asymmetrical, in which different
elements on the left and right are balanced through the adjustment of size,
position, value, color, etc.
Symmetrical Balance
A composition that is symmetrically balanced tends to be formal and rather
static. Asymmetrical balance, on the other hand, creates a tension between its
elements that is usually much more exciting.
c
a
Asymmetrical Balance
b
The golden section, sometimes called the golden ratio, is an aesthetically
pleasing proportion that can be expressed mathematically as a/b=b/c.
While its use for centuries in painting and architecture and even its prevalence in nature itself is often somewhat overstated, the golden section does
reinforce the principle of asymmetrical division of space.
Golden Section
Placement
The placement or position of design elements and their proximity to each
other can affect the emotional impact of a composition.
ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
111
Repetition
Repetition can help unify a composition. An element can be repeated in
a way that creates a sense of rhythm
and motion, or the repetition can be
at regular intervals creating a more
static pattern.
Contrast
Contrast is achieved by placing opposites in close proximity. Opposites can
be light and dark values, complementary colors, rough and smooth textures,
or even large and small shapes.
Emphasis
The emphasis in an artwork is an area that draws the viewer’s attention. More
than one part of a composition may have some degree of emphasis, but there
is usually a primary center of interest or focal point.
While there are many methods for positioning a focal point, one is to place
the center of interest at the intersection of two lines that divide the picture
plane vertically and horizontally using the ratio of the golden section. This
method offers four possible locations for a focal point.
Point of View
The choice of a point of view can greatly affect the emotional impact of a
composition. A bird’s eye view creates a sense of detachment, while eye level
is more intimate, and viewing from a lower vantage point can give a feeling
of subordination.
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DESIGN BASICS
Unity and Diversity
One of the goals of any good composition is to create unity—a sense that
all of the elements work together to create a harmonious whole. However,
unity alone is not enough. Without variation within the design elements, a
composition can become monotonous. Finding that balance between unity
and diversity is one of the challenges of composition.
Dominance and Subordination
One way of achieving variation is by using contrasting elements, like light
and dark values, warm and cool colors, complementary colors, large and small
shapes, or even rough and smooth textures. But these contrasting elements
can themselves contribute to the monotony if introduced in equal amounts.
One element should dominate to avoid the static quality of an equal division
where nothing stands out, nothing seems important.
Frequently, the element that dominates the focus is the one that is most
unique. So in a primarily dark composition, a small light area becomes the
center of interest, or in a design filled with circles, a square shape stands out.
Simplification
Understanding composition is essential for the creation of interesting and compelling art and yet is often ignored by
the beginning student who finds improved technique an easier goal to achieve. With a steady hand and a sharpened
pencil or tiny brush, he attempts to render every detail of his subject, usually at the expense of much more important
compositional issues.
Because of its overwhelming possibilities, composition can at times be intimidating. But composition need not be,
and in fact, should not be overly elaborate to be effective. Design principles are used most successfully when they take
a complex subject and present it in a simple direct way.
General to Specific
One way of accomplishing this is
through selectivity, choosing which
items are important to the composition and discarding those that are
unnecessary. It is also possible to
simplify without sacrificing content
merely by rearranging elements.
Similar elements can be grouped
together. For example, several shapes
that have the same dark value can
be overlapped so that visually they
become one larger dark shape. The
smaller shapes are still there as individual items, but compositionally
they now appear as a single design
element.
Once the decision has been made about what the simple compositional idea will be, it is important not to destroy the
idea during the creative process. Begin with the most general part of the compositional structure and work gradually
toward the more specific details, taking care not to lose sight of what originally gave the design its strength.
ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
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Appendix
115
116
APPENDIX
Photoshop and Illustrator Keyboard Shortcuts
Photoshop
Cut
Copy
Paste
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Fit in Window
Zoom In and Out
Scroll Left and Right
Scroll Up and Down
Select All
Deselect
Inverse Selection
Default Foreground / Background Colors
Switch Foreground / Background Colors
Fill with Foreground Color
Fill with Background Color
Hide or Show Toolbox & Palettes
Hide or Show Palettes
Hide or Show Rulers
Cycle Through Open Documents
Display Precise Cursor
Increase Brush Size
Decrease Brush Size
Increase Brush Hardness
Decrease Brush Hardness
Access Hand Tool
Access Eyedropper Tool
Access Move Tool
Constrains a Tool or Action
Performs Action from Center
Undo/Redo Last Action
Free Transform
Shortcut
Ctrl - X
Ctrl - C
Ctrl - V
Ctrl - Plus
Ctrl - Minus
Ctrl - 0
Alt - Wheel
Ctrl - Wheel
Shift - Wheel
Ctrl - A
Ctrl - D
Ctrl - Shift - A
Ctrl - Shift - I
D
X
Alt - Backspace
Ctrl - Backspace
Tab
Shift - Tab
Ctrl - R
Ctrl - Tab
Caps Lock
]
[
Shift - ]
Shift - [
Spacebar
Alt
Crtl
Shift
Alt
Ctrl - Z
Ctrl - T
V
A
Illustrator
Cut
Copy
Paste
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Fit in Window
Zoom In and Out
Scroll Left and Right
Scroll Up and Down
Select All
Deselect
Default Fill and Stroke Colors
Switch Fill and Stroke Colors
Hide or Show Toolbox & Palettes
Hide or Show Palettes
Hide or Show Rulers
Cycle Through Open Documents
Display Precise Cursor
Access Hand Tool
Cycles Selection & Direct Selection Tools
Constrains a Tool or Action
Performs Action from Center
Undo Unlimited Actions
Selection Tool
Direct Selection Tool
117
Photoshop and Illustrator Best Practices
Choose your idea first
When working on a project, come up with your design idea first, and then acquire photos, fonts and other assets that
best communicate that idea. Choosing a photo first and then trying to find an idea that works with that photo is
putting the cart before the horse, and will almost always produce an inferior result.
Do preliminary sketches before beginning work on the computer
While Photoshop and Illustrator are very precise tools for creating a finished design, they are slow and clumsy when
trying out a large number of initial design ideas. So begin the design process by creating many quick thumbnail
sketches using pencil and paper. Only after you have a relatively clear idea of how your finished design might look
should you begin working on the computer.
Use the appropriate software
When deciding whether to use Photoshop or Illustrator for a particular project, do not choose the one with which
you are most comfortable—choose the program that is most appropriate for the task at hand. Photoshop is best for
manipulating photos and other raster graphics with subtle and complex variations of tone. Illustrator is used for creating graphics with simpler shapes and flat colors, like logos.
Work in the correct color mode
Computer monitors and computer printers use RGB color. Commercial printers use CMYK to create their color
separations. So when setting up your Photoshop or Illustrator document, choose the color mode for your design that
is appropriate for its ultimate use.
Check the resolution of images
When importing a raster graphic into a Photoshop or Illustrator project, make sure that the resolution of the image is
high enough. For a project that will be printed on a computer printer, 150ppi is the minimum necessary resolution,
with 300ppi being preferable. For a project that is going to a commercial printer, 300ppi is the minimum. It is acceptable to scale a raster image down in size, but to avoid blocky graphics with jagged edges, never scale to a larger size.
Rename the Photoshop background layer
The first layer in a newly created Photoshop document is named Background by default. Photoshop treats that background layer differently than any other layer, protecting it from certain types of modifications. So it is often a good
idea to rename the background layer before trying to make any changes to it.
Rename Photoshop and Illustrator layers
A little bit of organization at the beginning of a project can save a great deal of headache later. A Photoshop document
can become rather complex, with dozens or sometimes even hundreds of layers. Giving those layers a meaningful
name can make navigating through the document much easier. Layers can be further organized by placing layers that
are intended to work together into individual layer groups. Large numbers of layers are less common in Illustrator
than in Photoshop, but individual Illustrator objects can be renamed as well.
Do not merge Photoshop layers unless necessary
One of the strengths of Photoshop is the ability to separate elements onto different layers where they can be manipulated individually. So merge layers only when absolutely necessary.
Delete unused layers
Sometimes during the design process there are Photoshop layers or Illustrator objects that were created for some
reason but are no longer needed. If those layers or objects are not a part of the finished project and you do not anticipate needing them in the future, you should delete them to simplify the organization of your document.
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Use the correct Photoshop selection method
Photoshop includes a variety of selection tools and methods, each uniquely effective in specific situations. Always use
the selection technique best suited to your image, rather than just using the method with which you are most familiar.
Use Layer Masks
Use layer masks whenever possible. Applying a layer mask to a selection is totally nondestructive and allows for later
modifications to the selection.
Use Adjustment Layers
Use adjustment layers whenever possible. An adjustment layer is completely nondestructive and will make changing
or fine-tuning the adjustment possible at a later point.
Use Smart Objects
When applying a filter to a layer, consider first converting the layer to a smart object. Filters applied to smart objects
are completely nondestructive and will make changing or fine-tuning the filter settings possible at a later point.
Make changes to a Photoshop image in the proper order
The order in which adjustments are made in Photoshop is important. Correct color first, using Hue Saturation, Color
Balance, etc. Correct luminance next, using Levels, Curves, etc. Do resampling or resizing last. If you plan to extract
a portion of the photo using one of Photoshop’s various selection methods, do that selection before resizing as well.
Convert Illustrator text to outlines and rasterize Photoshop text
Fonts are not embedded as part of a project when saving an Illustrator or Photoshop file. Since all computers do not
have the same fonts loaded, Illustrator text objects should be converted to outlines and Photoshop text layers rasterized as a final step for any project that might be opened on another computer, especially if a file is shared between a
PC and a Mac. Keep in mind that text that has been converted to outlines or rasterized is no longer editable. So if
you think you might want to edit the text at some future point, it would be a good idea to duplicate the text object or
text layer so that you have both an editable and a converted version.
Use as few anchor points as possible when creating a path
Fewer points makes a smoother path and makes modifying the path easier as well.
Use the Pathfinder panel to combine objects
Rather than stacking and overlapping a group of Illustrator objects that are meant to represent one shape, use the
modes in the Pathfinder panel to combine them into a single object.
Always be as professional as possible
Even a very good design can appear lacking if it is presented in an unprofessional way. Any hardcopy of a finished
project should be printed on appropriate paper stock with carefully trimmed edges, evenly spaced borders, and of
course, neatly labeled on the back with your name and any other necessary information.
Include a PDF proof of your work
It is a good idea to include a PDF version of your project. PDF is a file format that can be viewed on most computers
and will appear exactly the same regardless of the computer platform or operating system. A press quality PDF can
even be used by most commercial printers to create color separations of your design without the need for your original
Photoshop or Illustrator file.
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Saving and Exporting Files
You can save your Photoshop or Illustrator files by choosing Save from the
File menu to save in the current file format, or Save As to save in a different
format or with a different file name. Many formats will flatten your artwork
or convert it in some way, so regardless of what other format you choose, you
should always save a copy of your work in the program’s native file format to
allow for future editing. The native file formats are PSD for Photoshop and
AI for Illustrator.
In addition to saving in a variety of formats, you can also select Export from
the File menu to export your work in formats that can be opened in other
programs.
File formats in which Photoshop
documents can be saved.
File formats in which Illustrator
documents can be saved.
Save for Web
If you are saving in one of the file formats used on the Internet where file size
is important, you can select the Save for Web option from the File menu.
The dialog that opens gives you a great deal of control over both the file
format and the amount of compression used when saving the image. Choose
from one of the presets or make custom choices.
Click the 2-Up tab to compare the original image with the compressed version.
You can zoom in on the image to see at what point the increased compression
begins to cause a noticeable loss of quality. Below the compressed image
you can see information about the file size and loading speed based on the
currently selected settings.
You can also add metadata and resize the image all in one step.
File formats in which Illustrator
documents can be exported.
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Saving a PDF
Among the formats in which a Photoshop or Illustrator document can be saved, one that is very useful is PDF or
Portable Document Format, because it is independent of hardware, operating systems or even software applications
and is readable by anyone with the freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader. The PDF format is also highly configurable
depending on the planned use of the file.
Saving a Photoshop Document as a PDF
Choose Save As from the File menu. Give the file a
name, and then select Photoshop PDF from the format
dropdown box. After you click Save, you will get a warning box. Just click OK.
The dialog provides many adjustable settings in a variety
of categories listed in the menu on the left. While there
will be times when you may want to explore the custom
settings, most of the time you will be able to use one of
the Adobe PDF Presets at the top of the dialog.
Smallest File Size creates a relatively small file which is
easier to email, but with some sacrifice in quality.
High Quality Print is a good choice for a document to
be printed on a computer printer.
Press Quality is for documents that will be printed by a
commercial printer.
Saving an Illustrator Document as a PDF
Choose Save As from the File menu. Give the file a name,
and then select Adobe PDF from the format dropdown
box. After you click Save, the dialog will open.
As with the Photoshop version, the dialog offers an
assortment of settings categorized in a list on the left,
but in most cases you will probably use one of the Adobe
PDF Presets.
Smallest File Size, High Quality Print, and Press
Quality are all available, but with Illustrator there is one
additional choice.
Illustrator Default creates a PDF file containing all
of the information from the original document, so it is
completely editable in Illustrator.
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Using a Photoshop Image in Illustrator
There are several methods of moving a Photoshop file into Illustrator.
Opening an Image
While in Illustrator, choose Open from the File menu. Select the Photoshop
document you want to open. The Photoshop Import Options dialog will
open. Select one of the choices under Options.
Convert Layers to Objects converts each Photoshop layer into an Illustrator
object on its own layer. Transparency is preserved, including layer masks.
Text layers in Photoshop become fully editable text objects in Illustrator.
Vector shapes in Photoshop are editable vector shapes in Illustrator. However,
adjustment layers and layer styles are not supported.
Flatten Layers to a Single Image merges the Photoshop layers into a single
layer. The look of the image is preserved, including transparency, but the
artwork is no longer editable as individual layers.
Placing an Image
To include a Photoshop file as part of an existing Illustrator document, use the Place command from the File menu.
When you select the Photoshop file you want to place, you will have the option to place it as a linked file by checking
the Link box.
Placing Linked Images flattens the image, though areas of transparency are preserved. Any changes in the
original file will be reflected in the linked version within Illustrator.
Placing Unlinked Images opens the Photoshop Import Options dialog where you will have the option to
Convert Layers to Objects or Flatten Layers to a Single Image.
Dragging an Image
Dragging a Photoshop file into Illustrator will flatten the image into a single layer, but with transparency preserved.
Using an Illustrator Image in Photoshop
Opening an Image
While in Photoshop, choose Open from the File menu. Select the Illustrator
document you want to open. In the Import PDF dialog choose a size and
resolution for the image. The Illustrator image will be flattened into a single
layer, but with transparency preserved.
Placing an Image
To include an Illustrator file as part of an existing Photoshop document, use
the Place command from the File menu. The Illustrator image will be flattened into a single layer with transparency preserved. It will be linked to the
original file, and if edited in Illustrator, the changes will be reflected in the
Photoshop document.
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Printing in Photoshop and Illustrator
Both Photoshop and Illustrator offer extensive settings to control how your document is printed. In both programs
you can access the print dialog by choosing Print from the File menu or by using the keyboard shortcut, Ctrl-P.
Photoshop Print Dialog
On the left is a preview of the printed page with the Photoshop image displayed at the size you specified when initially
setting up the document. The print settings are organized in categories that are accessible by clicking the arrow to the
left of each section.
In the Printer Setup section you can select a printer and
access the settings for that particular printer. You can
also specify the number of copies to be printed as well as
the page orientation.
In the Color Management section you can choose to
have the Printer Manage Color, or if you have previously loaded color profiles for your printer, you can have
Photoshop Manage Color. In which case, you will need
to choose the particular Color Profile to match your
printer with the paper you plan to use.
Position and Size gives you control over the size of the
printed image and its position on the page.
The other sections are more advanced and only used in
special circumstances.
Illustrator Print Dialog
The Illustrator print dialog is also organized by categories, which are accessible through a menu on the upper
left. Below the menu is a preview of the printed page
with the artwork displayed at the size you specified when
initially setting up your artboard.
The most commonly used settings are found in the
General section, where you can choose the number of
copies, as well as the paper size and orientation. You can
choose which Illustrator layers print and how the artwork
is scaled and positioned on the page.
There is a Color Management section offering some of
the same options as in Photoshop.
The other sections are more advanced and only used in
special circumstances.
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