aircraft operating instructions

AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Pipistrel Virus 912 S-LSA Glider
SERIAL NUMBER: 0359
PIPISTREL LSA s.r.l.
Via Aquileia 75
34170 Gorizia, Italy, EU
REGISTRATION: N66PV
4/25/2011
AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PG
1. Purpose:
5
2. General Information:
5
2.1 Read this before your first flight!
5
2.2 Manufacturer.
5
2.3 Warnings, cautions, and notes.
5
2.4 Revision tracking, filing, and identifying.
6
2.5 Online updates, service notice tracking.
6
2.6 Schematics of Virus 212 S-LSA Glider.
8
3. Aircraft and Systems Descriptions:
9
3.1 Operating weights and loading (occupants, baggage, fuel, ballast).
9
3.2 Propeller.
10
3.3 Fuel and fuel capacity.
10
3.4 Oil.
10
3.5 Engine.
10
4. Operating Limitations:
11
4.1 Stalling speeds at maximum takeoff weight (VS, VS0, and VS1).
11
4.2 Flap extended speed range (VS0 to VFE).
11
4.3 Maximum maneuvering speed (VA).
11
4.4 Never exceed speed (VNE).
11
4.5 Maximum aerotow speed (VT).
11
4.6 Maximum winch tow speed (VW).
11
4.7 Maximum landing gear extended operating speed (VLO).
11
4.8 Never exceed speed (VNE).
11
4.9 Crosswind and wind limitations for takeoff and landing.
11
4.10 Load factors.
11
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
4.11 Prohibited maneuvers.
11
5. Weight and Balance Information:
12
5.1 Installed equipment list.
12
5.2 Center of gravity (CG) range and determination.
13
6. Performance:
14
6.1 Gliders:
6.1.1 Crosswind and wind limitations for takeoff and landing.
6.2 Powered Gliders:
14
14
14
6.2.1 Takeoff distances.
14
6.2.2 Rate of climb.
14
6.2.3 Climbing speeds.
14
6.2.4 Maximum RPM.
14
6.2.5 Time limit for the use of takeoff power.
14
6.2.6 Fuel consumption and total usable fuel volume.
14
6.2.7 Crosswind and wind limitations for takeoff and landing.
14
6.2.8 Speeds for extracting and retracting powerplant.
14
7. Emergency Procedures:
15
7.1 Engine Failure:
15
7.1.1 Engine failure during takeoff run.
15
7.1.2 Engine failure immediately after takeoff.
15
7.1.3 Engine failure in flight (forced landing).
15
7.2 In-flight start.
16
7.3 Smoke and Fire:
16
7.3.1 Fire on the ground.
16
7.3.2 Fire during takeoff.
16
7.3.3 Fire in flight.
16
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
7.3.4 Smoke in Cockpit.
7.4 Landing emergencies:
17
17
7.4.1 Emergency landing (landing out).
17
7.4.2 Precautionary landing.
17
7.4.3 Landing with a flat tire.
17
7.4.4 Landing with defective landing gear.
17
7.4.5 Water landing (ditching).
18
7.5 Spin Recovery.
18
7.6 Other Emergencies.
18
7.6.1 Stall Recovery.
18
7.6.2 Vibration.
18
7.6.3 Carburetor icing.
19
7.6.4 Icing, pneumatic instrument failure.
19
7.6.5 Bird strike.
19
7.6.6 Structural failure.
19
7.6.7 Electric failure.
19
7.6.8 Use of GRS whole plane rescue system.
20
8. Normal Procedures:
20
8.1 Preflight check.
20
8.2 Powered glider normal procedures:
27
8.2.1 Ground engine starting.
27
8.2.2 Taxiing.
28
8.2.3 Normal takeoff.
29
8.2.4 Engine extraction and retraction.
31
8.2.5 Best rate of climb speed (VY).
31
8.2.6 In-flight starting of engine.
31
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
8.2.7 In-flight shutdown of engine.
31
8.2.8 Ground shutdown of engine.
32
8.3 Cruise.
32
8.4 Approach
32
8.5 Normal landing.
33
8.6 Information on stalls, spins, and any other useful pilot information.
34
9. Aircraft Ground Handling and Servicing:
38
9.1 Servicing fuel, oil, and coolant.
38
9.2 Towing and tie-down instructions.
39
10. Required Placards and Markings:
42
10.1 Airspeed indicator range markings.
42
10.2 Operating limitations on instrument panel, if applicable.
42
10.3 Passenger Warning—“This aircraft was manufactured in accordance 42
with Light Sport Aircraft airworthiness standards and does not conform to standard
category airworthiness requirements.”
10.4 “NO INTENTIONAL SPINS,” if applicable.
42
10.5 Empty weight.
42
10.6 Maximum takeoff weight.
42
10.7 Maximum and minimum weight of crew.
43
10.8 Seat for solo operations of two seated gliders.
43
10.9 Allowable baggage weight.
43
10.10 Placards.
44
11. Supplementary Information:
45
11.1 Familiarization flight procedures.
45
11.2 Pilot operating advisories.
47
12 Maintenance Manual—Maintenance manuals containing routine, inspection, and repair maintenance
procedures for the aircraft, engine, and propeller, are provided under separate cover.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
1. PURPOSE. To provide a standard instruction for the safe and efficient use of this Pipistrel Aircraft. By
combining a comprehensive instruction which describes Systems, Performance, Procedures, and
Limitations, this Instruction will provide the owner/pilot with the knowledge required to safely share the
passion of flight for many years.
This aircraft was built In accordance with the specifications of ASTMs F 2564, 2279, 2295, 2316, and 2483.
Additionally, we have used a power plant which complies with ASTM F 2339. Every Pipistrel LSA Glider is
accompanied by an Aircraft Operating Instruction (AOI). The content and format herewith is defined by
F 2564. Additions to F 2564 standards format are included wherever necessary to adequately describe
the safe operation of the aircraft. All flight speeds are given in terms of calibrated airspeeds (CAS),
unless otherwise noted. All specifications and limitations are determined from the specification F 2564.
Capacities, Dimensions, and Performance Measures are framed in terms commonly used in the American
Market. Although US temperatures are normally measured in degrees Fahrenheit, this instruction will
use degrees Centigrade, now commonly used in the US, to avoid confusion with instruments that display
temperatures in degrees Celsius/Centigrade.
2. GENERAL INFORMATION.
2.1 Read this before your first flight! Every pilot must understand the capabilities and
limitations of this light sport glider. The AOI must be read thoroughly. Pay attention to the preflight and daily checks. Maintenance instructions for the aircraft are given in a separate
Maintenance Manual. For maintenance of the Rotax® engine, emergency parachute system and
other installed equipment refer to the original manufacturer´s manuals. Flying the Virus, like any
other motor glider, must include planning for a safe landing due to the possible loss of the engine
power at any time.
This Pipistrel Virus is designed for and capable of day and night VFR flight. Because of its cruising
speed and range, flight into vastly different weather patterns and meteorological conditions can
occur. The entry into bad weather with IFR conditions with VFR aircraft is extremely dangerous.
As the owner or operator of an aircraft you are responsible for the safety of your passenger and
yourself. Do not attempt to operate your Virus in any manner that would endanger the aircraft,
the occupants, or persons on ground.
2.2 Manufacturer.
PIPISTREL LSA s.r.l.
Via Aquileia 75
34170 Gorizia, Italy, EU
2.3 Warnings, Cautions, and Notes.
 WARNING!
Disregarding the following instructions leads to severe deterioration of flight safety and
hazardous situations, including such resulting in injury and loss of life.
 CAUTION!
Disregarding the following instructions leads to serious deterioration of flight safety.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
 NOTE:
An operating procedure, technique, etc., which is considered essential to emphasize.
2.4 Revision tracking, filing, and identifying. Pages to be removed or replaced in the Aircraft
Operating Instructions are determined by the Log of Effective pages located in this section. This
log contains the page number and revision level for each page within the AOI. As revisions to the
AOI occur, the revision level on the effected pages is updated. When two pages display the same
page number, the page with the latest revision shall be used in the AOI. The revision level on the
Log Of Effective Pages shall also agree with the revision level of the page in question. Alternative
to removing and/or replacing individual pages, the owner can also print out a whole new manual
in its current form, which is always available from www.pipistrel.eu. Revised material is marked
with a vertical double-bar that will extend the full length of deleted, new, or revised text added
to new or previously existing pages. This marker will be located adjacent to the applicable text in
the marking on the outer side of the page. The same system is in place when the header, figure,
or any other element inside this AOI was revised. Next to the double-bar, there is also a number
indicative to which revision the change occurred in. A list of revisions is located in section 2.5
below.
2.5 Online updates, service notice tracking. To log into the Owner’s section, receive relevant
updates and information relevant to Service/Airworthiness, go to: www.pipistrel.eu and log in
the top right corner of the page with:
Username: owner1
Password: ab2008
Index of revisions
The table below indicated the Revisions, which were made from the original release to this date.
Always check with your registration authority, Pipistrel USA (www.pipistrel-usa.com) or Pipistrel
LSA s.r.l (www.pipistrel.eu) that you are familiar with the current release of the operationrelevant documentation, which includes this POH.
Designation
Original
Reason for Revision
/
Release date
25 October, 2010
Affected pages
Issuer
/
Tomazic,
Pipistrel LSA
s.r.l.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
2.6 Schematics of Virus 912 S-LSA Glider. (dimensions in feet or inches)
36.2 ”
71.7 ”
22.4” 46.1 ”
43.1 ”
13.4 ”
24.8”
60 ”
21’ 3.7”
40’ 10.6”
43.3”
68.6”
63.4 ”
6
8
.
6
”
44.5”
11 ‘ 0.7 ”
18 ’ 9.6 ”
64.6”
10.4”
9 ‘ 1.5 ”
39.4 ”
43.3 ”
10’ 6.4”
29.1”
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
3. AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AND DESCRIPTIONS.
Pipistrel Virus S-LSA Glider is intended for recreational, sport, cross-country, and training; but it is not
approved for aerobatic operation.
The Virus is a single engine, carbon, Kevlar, and glass aircraft with two side-by-side seats. It is equipped
with a tricycle gear undercarriage with a steerable nose wheel and toe brakes. The fuselage is a carbon
shell with carbon/Kevlar seats integrated. The wing is a mono-spar construction with a sandwich skin
composed of two layers of fiberglass with a foam core. Control surfaces are of the same construction.
The aircraft is controlled by a dual push-pull control system. The ailerons and elevator are controlled by
the control sticks located between the pilot's and co-pilot’s legs. The rudder is controlled by the rudder
pedals, flaps and spoilers are operated by control levers located between the pilots.
3.1 Operating weights and loading SN: 359.
empty weight
max. takeoff weight (MTOM)
fuel capacity (full)
fuel capacity (usable)
max. fuel weight allowable
maximum useful load
minimum combined cockpit crew weight
maximum combined cockpit crew weight
luggage weight
702.5 lbs (319.3 kg)
1210 lbs (550 kg)
2 x 13 gal = 26 US gal (100 L)
24.5 US gal (93 L)
167 lbs (76 kg)
508 lbs (231.1 kg)
119 lbs (54 kg)
519 lbs (227.3 kg)
55 lbs (25 kg) (80 lbs (40 kg) if GRS is removed)
WARNING! Should any of the above-listed values be exceeded, the others MUST be reduced in order to
keep MTOM below 1210 lbs (550 kg). Pay special attention to luggage weight as this is the only applicable
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
mass on the airframe that can cause the center of gravity to move out of range. Exceeding baggage
weight limits can shift the aircraft’s balance to the point where the flight may become uncontrollable!
NOTE: Weight and Balance information is found in paragraph 5 below.
3.2 Propeller. The Propeller, made by Pipistrel, is a fixed pitch, auto-feathering, two
bladed design, which is optimized for safe and efficient operation of your Pipistrel Touring
(Self Launch) Motor Glider. See Maintenance Manual for inspection, adjustment, and
servicing instructions.
3.3 Fuel and fuel capacity. Automotive Unleaded per ASTM D 4814, minimum octane 89
fuel may be used if it does not contain ethanol or special additives. 100LL may also be used.
For questions about additives, see Rotax Operators Manual.
Fuel is contained in two, extended range tanks, each with 13 gallon capacity (total 26 gallons)
of which 24.5 gallons useable.
Recommended fuel
unleaded super, 89 octane, without ethanol or additives
Also approved fuel
leaded or AVGAS 100LL*
* Use of leaded or even low-lead fuels may reduce engine life and oil and oil filter changes at
least every 50 hours becomes crucial for proper care of your engine.
WARNING! Use of fuel with alcohol content and/or other additives is not permitted.
3.4 Oil. API SJ SAE, 10W-50. Rotax 912 engine oil capacity is 3 quarts. For suitable oil types refer to the
original Rotax Operator’s Manual.
3.5 Engine.
Engine model: ROTAX 912 UL (80 HP) mfg: Bombardier-Rotax
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) oC : Minimum / Working /
Highest
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) : Normal Range / Highest
Max EGT difference
Radiator water temperature range oC : lowest / highest
Engine Oil Temp oC : minimum / normal range / highest
Oil Pressure psi : minimum / maximum
Max RPM (5 min)
Max Continuous power RPM
Ignition - Magneto Check RPM
Max single magneto drop RPM
80 / 110 / 120
650-885 / 900
30
50 / 120
50 / 90-110 / 140
14.5 / 87.0
5800
5500
4000
300
NOTE: This data is relevant for the pilot. Consult Rotax engine manual for all other engine details.
Warning! Should the engine reading be outside of these parameters: do not take off; if in the air, land as
soon as possible! Always be prepared to respond to an engine failure.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
4.
Operating Limitations
4.1 Stall Speeds
4.2 Flap extended speed range (VSO and VFE):
36 kts – 70 kts
4.3 Maximum maneuvering speed (VA):
4.4 Never exceed speed (VNE):
76 kts
120 kts
4.5 Maximum aerotow speed (VT):
N/A
4.6 Maximum winch tow speed (VW):
N/A
4.7 Maximum landing gear extended operating speed (VLO):
N/A
4.8 Never exceed speed computation (VNE):
4.9 Crosswind and wind limitations for takeoff and landing:
120 kts
15 kts
4.10 Load factors.
Maximum positive wing loading: + 4G
Maximum negative wing loading: - 2G
NOTE: These values correspond to ASTM standards for LSAs. All parts have been tested to a safety
positive G factor of 1.875, meaning they were subjected to at least a load of plus 7.5 G
4.11 Prohibited maneuvers.
 Aerobatics
 Fully developed spins
 Take off with less than 1.3 gallons of useable fuel
 Flight with both cabin doors removed
 Flight into known icing conditions
 Flight into IMC
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
5.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE INFORMATION.
5.1 Installed equipment list.
 Nose wheel, steerable
 Long Range Fuel Tanks, 26 gallons
 Large Instrument Panel
 Solid Luggage Compartment
 Side baggage door
 Ballistic Rescue System
 Airspeed Indicator
 Altimeter
 Dynon 180 EFIS
 Garmin GTX 327 Transponder
 Variometer LS 160
 Oil Check door
 Auto feathering propeller
 Pedal mounted toe brakes pilot & copilot
 Fast mount engine cover screws
 Leather interior Tan and Dark Red
 Wings prepared plumbed for night lighting
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
5.2 Center of gravity (CG) range and determination.
55 lbs
max
N66PV
46”
Virus 912 S-LSA SN:
0359
a = 40.15”
c = 60”
Wfr = 107.2 lbs
Wm = 595.3 lbs
Empty Weight
Wtot = 702.5 lbs
Datum
MAC
MAC offset
MAC fwd CG
MAC aft CG
Fwd CG limit
Aft CG limit
a
c
Fuel arm
Crew arm
Empty wt (EW)
Empty wt CG
Min pilot wt
Max Crew wt (P)
Full Fuel wt (F)
Max Baggage (B)
Baggage Arm
MTOW
Max Fuel Payload
CG
leading edge of wing at root
35.75 inches
Length of the Line which represents the position of the wing's average (aerodynamically) cord
1.1 inches
Forward most point of the MAC begins 1.1 inch aft of the leading edge of the wing at the root
20%
design limit
38%
design limit
8.3 inches
Calculated: (20% * 35.75 + 1.1)
14.7 inches
Calculated: (38% * 35.75 + 1.1)
40.15 inches
Horizontal distance from center of nosewheel to leading edge of wing
60 inches
Horizontal distance from center of nosewheel to line thru center of main gear
4 inches
Fuel wt is slightly forward of the CG range, therefore full fuel results in a forward CG
11.5 inches
This arm puts the pilot and passenger on center of the CG range, so minimum crew wt results in most extreme CGs
702.5 lbs
Weighed at Factory - fully configured
10.7 inches
Calculated: (Wtmain gear / Wtmain + nose )* c - a
(595 / 702) * 60 - 40.15
119 lbs
Limited by Design - but I am not sure why
500 lbs
(MTOW limited - with min fuel on board)
167 lbs
Maximum fuel weight - 26 gal AVGAS (mogas weighs slightly less)
55 lbs
Limited by Designer
46 inches
Assumes a distributed load throughout the compartment
1210 lbs
Limited by Design
341 lbs
Maximum combined weight of passengers and baggage if full fuel is carried
X inches
Measured from leading edge of wing at root - must be between 8.3" and 14.7"
CG Formula:
X=
(EW*10.7) +(P*11.5) +(F*4)+(B*46)
(EW + P + F + B)
Forwardmost CG =
9.66 Inches
Rearmost CG =
13.02 Inches
Computed with light pilot, full fuel, and no baggage
(there is no way to load the Virus with CG too far forward)
Computed with light pilot, no fuel, and 55 lbs of baggage
(even with up to 100 lbs of baggage, the CG will remain within range)
EW = empty weight
P = pilot & co-pilot weight
F = weight of fuel on board
B = weight of baggage
X = CG in inches aft of datum
CG Range ( 8.3” < X < 14.7” )
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
6.
PERFORMANCE.
6.1 Gliders. This Virus S-LSA 912 is designed with the ability to sustain flight using lift from
natural sources, i.e., thermals, ridge, and wave lift; therefore, it is a Glider.
6.2 Powered gliders. Power can be categorized as sustainment requiring winch or tow
launch, and Self-Launch which can include touring motor gliders that provide efficient cross
country cruise as well as efficient thermal, ridge or wave soaring. The Virus S-LSA falls into
this latter category.
6.2.1 Takeoff/Landing distances in feet: ground roll
Take-off Grass
600’
Take-off Paved
500’
Landing Grass
500’
Landing Paved
500’
over 50’ obs
925’
825’
885’
885’
6.2.2 Rate of climb: 1080 fpm at Sea Level, MTOW and VY
6.2.3 Climbing speeds: VY = 70 kts; VX = 52 kts
6.2.4 Maximum RPM:
5800 rpm for not longer than 5 minutes
5800 rpm takeoff power (5 min max)
5500 maximum continuous power
5000 75% cruise power setting
6.2.5 Time limit for the use of takeoff power: 5 minutes maximum as long as all
engine temperature and pressure readings stay in the green.
6.2.6 Fuel consumption and total usable fuel volume.
3.3 gph at 75% cruise power setting
24.5 gallons usable fuel
6.2.7 Crosswind and wind limitations for takeoff and landing. Maximum allowed
crosswind speed on takeoff and landing with flaps is 15 kts. The runway
length required is increased by 10 % for every 5 kts of crosswind component.
Even if crosswind component is below 15 kts, discontinue flight should
surface winds be gusty or exceed 25 kts.
6.2.8 Speeds for extracting and retracting powerplant. N/A
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
7.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.
7.1 Engine failure
7.1.1
1.
2.
3.
Engine failure during take-off run.
Apply Brakes
Pull Throttle to Idle
Ignition off
7.1.2
1.
2.
3.
Engine failure immediately after take-off.
Fly the aircraft
Lower nose to maintain best L/D 59 kts
Under 100’ AGL, land straight ahead using airbrake
as required to select safest touchdown point
4. 100’-200’ AGL, consider up to 90 degree turn to best landing site.
If in doubt, choose the best off field area to your front. Use
airbrake as required to pinpoint your touchdown location.
5. Over 200’ AGL, turn into the direction of crosswind
component using 45 degree bank. Use airbrake once you
have the field made. Use radio to announce intentions.
6. Fuel Off
7. Ignition Off
8. Master Off
9. Land avoiding obstacles
10. If terrain and obstacles cannot be avoided. Deploy
Emergency Rescue Chute.
7.1.3
1.
2.
3.
Engine failure in flight (Forced landing)
Fly the aircraft
Establish best L/D 59 kts
Determine if you have enough altitude to glide to nearest
airfield. If yes, consider effects of winds. If no, choose
best alternative landing site.
4. Establish heading toward landing site.
5. Attempt re-start.
6. Make radio call to inform any other aircraft in the area.
7. Use airbrake as required to touch down on chosen landing
site.
8. Fuel valves Off
9. Ignition Off
10. Master Off
11. Land avoiding obstacles
12. If terrain and obstacles cannot be avoided. Deploy
Emergency Rescue Chute, over an open area if possible.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
7.2 In-Flight start.
1. Maintain airspeed at or below 50 kts
2. Check altitude, and determine landing site if restart should fail
3. Master on
4. Fuel on
5. Choke as needed
6. Throttle closed
7. Avionics Off
8. Fuel pump on
9. Ignition on
10. Start engine
11. Fuel pump off
7.3 Smoke and fire.
7.3.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fire on ground.
Fuel valves OFF
Throttle full open
Master OFF
Magnetos OFF
Disconnect the battery from the circuit (pull battery disc. ring on the switch
column) 3b. Keep avionics ON and master ON as required, on approach set both
OFF.
6. Perform emergency landing out procedure.
7. Abandon aircraft
8. Extinguish if possible or call fire department
7.3.2 Fire during take-off
1.
Fuel valves OFF
2.
Throttle full open
3.
Master OFF
4.
Magnetos OFF
5.
Maintain 52-59 kts
6.
Set ventilation for adequate breathing. Keep in mind that oxygen intensifies fire.
7.
Perform side-slip (crab) maneuver in direction opposite the fire.
8.
Ignition OFF
9.
Land and brake
10. Abandon aircraft
11. Extinguish if possible or call fire department
7.3.3 Fire in Flight.
1.
Fuel valves OFF
2.
Throttle full open
3.
Master OFF
4.
Magnetos OFF
5.
Maintain 52-59 kts
6.
Set ventilation for adequate breathing. Keep in mind that oxygen intensifies fire.
7.
Perform side-slip (crab) maneuver in direction opposite the fire.
8.
Ignition OFF
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
9.
10.
11.
Land and brake
Abandon aircraft
Extinguish if possible or call fire department
7.3.4 Smoke in Cockpit. Smoke in cockpit is usually a consequence of electrical wiring
malfunction. As it is most likely caused by a short circuit, the pilot must react as follows:
1.
Master switch to I (key in central position). This enables unobstructed engine
operation while at the same time disconnects all other electrical devices from the
circuit. Verify that the 12 V and optional Pitot heat are OFF as well.
2.
Disconnect the battery from the circuit (pull battery disconnection ring on the
instrument panel’s switch column).
3.
Land as soon as possible.
WARNING! In case you have trouble breathing or the visibility out of the cockpit has
degraded severely due to the smoke, open the cabin door and leave it hanging freely.
Flying with the door open, do not, under any circumstances exceed 60 kts (110 km/h).
7.4 Landing emergencies.
7.4.1 Emergency landing (landing out).
1. Select airfield if possible, if not, choose the most open area within range.
2. If hazardous terrain or weather should preclude safe landing options/locations, plan
for use of GRS rescue system (see 7.6.8 below)
3. Shut both fuel valves.
4. Master switch OFF.
5. Use air brake to descend to landing point without gaining airspeed
6. Approach and land with extreme caution, maintaining normal final approach
airspeed.
7. After having landed, leave the aircraft immediately and use cell phone to request
assistance.
WARNING! The landing off airport maneuver MUST be performed in accordance with all
normal flight parameters/procedures.
7.4.2 Precautionary landing. Landing under power at a field of your choice is always
preferable to an Emergency landing. Some reasons to consider a precautionary landing:
1. Engine temp or pressure parameters out of range
2. Low fuel
3. Engine running rough
4. Winds or weather
5. Pilot illness or fatigue
6. You hear strange noises (or even strange voices)
7. You are lost
7.4.3 Landing with a flat tire.
7.4.4 Landing with defective landing gear.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
7.4.5 Water landing (ditching). Should you be forced to land in a body of water, use the
same emergency procedure as above for the “Emergency landing / Landing out” case. In
addition, make sure to open both doors fully before hitting the water, disconnect the
battery from the circuit (pull ring on electrical panel). Touch the water with the slowest
possible speed, if possible in a nose-high flare attitude.
7.5 Spin recovery. Virus 912 LSA is constructed in such manner that it is difficult to be
flown into a spin, and then, only at aft center of gravity loading. However, once spinning,
either intentionally or unintentionally, react as follows:
1. Set throttle to idle (lever in full back position).
2. Apply full rudder deflection in the direction opposite the spin.
3. Lower the nose towards the ground to build speed (stick forward).
4. As the aircraft stops spinning neutralize rudder deflection.
5. Slowly pull up and regain horizontal flight.
NOTE: Virus 912 LSA tends to reestablish normal flight by itself usually after having spun
for a mere 45°-90°.
WARNING! Keep the control stick centered along its lateral axis (no aileron deflections
throughout the recovery phase! Do not attempt to stop the aircraft from spinning using
ailerons instead of rudder!
WARNING! After having stopped spinning, recovering from the dive must be performed
using gentle stick movements (pull), rather than overstressing the aircraft. However, VNE
must not be exceeded during this maneuver. When the aircraft wings are level, resume
horizontal flight and add throttle to resume normal flight.
7.6 Other Emergencies.
7.6.1 Stall recovery. First reduce angle of attack by pushing the control stick forward, then
Add full power (throttle lever in full forward position) while maintaining wings level. Then
resume horizontal flight while maintaining appropriate airspeed.
7.6.2 Vibration or Flutter. Flutter is defined as the oscillation of control surfaces. It is, in
most cases, caused by abrupt control deflections at speeds in excess of VNE. As it occurs,
the ailerons, elevator or even the whole aircraft start to vibrate violently. Should flutter
occur, increase angle of attack (pull stick back) and reduce throttle immediately in order to
reduce speed and increase load (damping) on the structure.
WARNING! Fluttering of ailerons or tail surfaces may cause permanent structural damage
and/or inability to control the aircraft. After having landed safely, the aircraft MUST
undergo a series of check-ups performed by authorized service personnel to verify
airworthiness.
Should the VNE be exceeded, whether or not associated with flutter, reduce airspeed
slowly with backpressure on the stick and reducing throttle. Continue flying using gentle
control deflections. Land safely as soon as possible and have the aircraft verified for
airworthiness by authorized service personnel.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
7.6.3 Carburetor Ice. First noticeable signs of carburetor icing are rough engine running
and gradual loss of power. Carburetor icing may occur even at temperatures as high as
50°F (10°C) , provided the air humidity is increased. The carburetor air-intake in the Virus
912 LSA is preheated, running over the water cooling radiator before entering the
carburetors. Therefore, you are unlikely to experience Carburetor icing in your Pipistrel.
Should you suspect carburetor ice, descend immediately into warmer and/or less humid
air! In case of complete power loss, perform emergency landing procedure.
7.6.4 Icing, pneumatic instrument failure. Maintain VFR flight!
1.
Turn back or change altitude to exit icing conditions. Consider lateral or vertical
path reversal to return to last “known good” flight conditions.
2.
Set cabin heating ON and Pitot heat (optional) ON.
3.
Watch for signs of icing on the pitot tube.
4.
In case of pneumatic instrument failures, use the GPS (optional) information to
reference to approximate ground speed.
5.
Plan the landing at the nearest airport, or a suitable off airport landing site in
case of an extremely rapid ice build-up.
6.
Maneuver the airplane gently and leave the wing flaps retracted. (When ice is
built up at the horizontal stabilizer, the change of pitching moment due to flaps
extension may result of loss of elevator control.)
7.
Approach at elevated speeds (70 kts, also if using the GPS as a reference).
WARNING! Failure to act quickly may result in an unrecoverable icing encounter.
7.6.5 Bird strike. Reduce speed, land at nearest airfield to assess damage. If prop may be
damaged, reduce throttle to idle and prepare for emergency landing. Decide to use
GRS chute if aircraft cannot be controlled to a safe landing site.
7.6.6 Structural failure. Structural damage to an aircraft may be caused by several factors:




Collision with another aircraft, or a bird
Flutter
Over stressing – either positive or negative g’s
Control surface failure due to improper inspection or maintenance
Regardless of cause, check airspeed, assess controllability and land immediately if
you are able to control the aircraft. If aircraft is uncontrollable, deploy GRS rescue
chute (see 7.6.8 below).
WARNING! At low altitude, there may not be time to fully assess your situation. In this
case when there is no place to land straight ahead, pull activation handle for GRS rescue
system.
7.6.7 Electrical Failure. The engine will continue to function due to the onboard alternator
and battery. In case of battery failure, be aware that the engine can keep running, however
a re-start will not be possible. In event of alternator failure, the battery will support the
onboard avionics. In event of double power source failure, use analogue on-board
instruments and land normally.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
7.6.8 Deployment of GRS rescue system.
System description
The GRS rocket charged parachute rescue system provides you with a chance
to rescue yourself from an unexpected situation. The system is placed inside a
durable cylinder mounted on the right hand side of the baggage
compartment. Inside this cylinder is the parachute which stored inside a
deployment bag with a rocket engine underneath. This brand new design
deploys a canopy that is not gradually drawn from the container, exposed to
distortion by air currents, but it is safely open after 0,4 to 0,7 seconds in
distance of 15-18 meters above the aircraft. It is carried there in a special
deployment bag, which decreases the risk of aircraft debris fouling the
canopy. The parachute rescue system is activated manually, by pulling the
activation handle mounted on the back wall above. After being fired, the man
canopy is open and fully inflated in about 3.2 seconds.
WARNING! Activation handle safety pin should be inserted when the aircraft is parked or
hangared to prevent accidental deployment. However, the instant pilot boards the aircraft,
safety pin MUST be removed!
Use of parachute rescue system
Typical situations for use of the parachute rescue system are:





structural failure
mid-air collision
loss of control over aircraft
engine failure over hostile terrain
pilot incapacitation (incl. heart attack, stroke, temp. blindness, disorientation...)
Prior to firing the system, provided time allows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
shut down the engine and set master switch to OFF (key in full left position)
shut both fuel valves
fasten safety harnesses tightly
protect your face and body.
To deploy the parachute jerk the activation handle hard to a length of at least 1 foot
towards the instrument panel.
Once you have pulled the handle and the rocket is deployed, it will be about two seconds
before you feel the impact produced by two forces. The first force is produced by a
stretching of the system risers. The second force follows from the inflation of the
canopy. It will seem to you that the aircraft is pulled backwards briefly. The airspeed is
reduced to zero, and the aircraft now starts to descend underneath the canopy.
As the pilot, this is likely a new experience, and you should know that the phase following
parachute deployment will be a great adventure for the crew. You will be in a situation
for the first time, where a proper landing and the determination of the landing site are
out of your control.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
CAUTION! Should you end up in power lines (carrying electrical current), DO NOT under
any circumstances touch any metal parts inside or outside the cockpit. This also applies to
anyone attempting to help or rescue you. Be aware that anyone touching any part of the
aircraft while standing on the ground will probably suffer major injury or death from
electrocution. Therefore, you are strongly encouraged to confine your movements until
qualified rescue personnel arrive at the site to assist you.
After the parachute rescue system has been used or if you suspect any possible damage to
the system, do not hesitate and immediately contact the manufacturer!
Handling and maintenance
Prior to every flight all visible parts of the system must be checked for proper condition.
Special attention should be paid to corrosion on the activation handle inside the cockpit.
Also, main fastening straps on the outside of the fuselage must be undamaged at all times.
Furthermore, neither system, nor any of its parts should be exposed to moisture, vibration
and UV radiation for long periods of time to ensure proper system operation and life.
CAUTION! It is strongly recommenced to thoroughly inspect and grease the activation
handle, preferably using silicon spray, every 50 flight hours. All major repairs and damage
repairs MUST be done by the manufacturer or authorized service personnel.
For all details concerning the GRS rescue system, please see the “GRS - Galaxy Rescue
System Manual for Assembly and Use”.
8. NORMAL PROCEDURES.
8.1 Pre-Flight Inspection.
WARNING! Every single inspection mentioned in this chapter must be performed prior to EVERY
FLIGHT, regardless of when the previous flight took place!
The person responsible for the preflight inspection is the pilot, who is required to perform the
check-up in the utmost thorough and precise manner. Provided the status of any of the parts
and/or operations does not comply with conditions stated in this chapter, the damage MUST be
repaired prior to engine start-up. Disobeying this instruction may result in serious further
damage to the plane and crew, including injury and loss of life!
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
Schematic of preflight inspection
1 Engine, engine cover
8
Right wing - trailing
edge
15
2 Gascolator
9
Right air brake
16
3 Spinner, Nose wheel
10
17
4 Propeller
11
Fuselage (RH side)
Fuselage, continued
(right)
Hor. tail surfaces
(left)
Fuselage, continued
(left)
Fuselage (LH side)
18
Left air brake
12
Hor. tail surfaces (right)
19
Left wing - trailing
edge
13
Vert. tail surfaces (right)
20
Left wingtip, lights
14
Vert. tail surfaces (left)
21
Undercarriage, RH
wheel
Right wing - leading
6
edge
5
7 Right wingtip, lights
22
Left wing - leading
edge
Undercarriage, LH
wheel
Engine, engine cover
 Cooling fluid level: half way to the top
 Oil quantity: within designated limits
 Throttle, choke and oil pump wires: no mechanical damage, smooth and unobstructed
movement
 Radiators and hoses: no mechanical damage and/or leakage, air filters clean and
intact
 Exhaust pipes and muffler: firmly in position, no cracks, springs intact and in
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
position, rubber dumpers intact
 Fuel and/or oil leakage: no fluid on hoses, engine housing or engine cover
 Reduction gearbox: check for eventual oil leakage, all bolts and plugs attached firmly
 Fasteners and engine cover screws: tightened, engine cover undamaged
Gascolator
 Drain approximately 1 cup of fuel and check for contamination.
Spinner
 Prop: no mechanical damage (e.g. cracks, impact spots), screws tight bolts and nuts:
secured
 Nose wheel: grab aircraft’s propeller and push it towards the ground to verify proper
nose wheel suspension operation.
 Then lift the nose wheel off the ground and check for nose leg strut free play.
 Bolts: fastened Tire: no cracks, adequate pressure Wheel fairing: undamaged, firmly
attached, clean (e.g. no mud or grass on the inside)
Propeller




Hub and blades: no mechanical damage (e.g. cracks), both immaculately clean
Bolts and nuts: secured
Auto-feathering mechanism (optional):
smooth travel of propeller pitch, adequate spring tension
Undercarriage, wheels
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER







Bolts: fastened
Landing gear strut: no mechanical damage (e.g. cracks), clean
Wheel: no mechanical damage (e.g. cracks), clean
Wheel axle and nut: fastened
Oil line (hydraulic brakes): no mechanical damage and/or leakage
Tire: no cracks, adequate pressure
Wheel fairing: undamaged, firmly attached, clean (e.g. no mud or grass on the inside)
Wings’ leading edge
 Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots, no paint and/or edge separations
 Pitot tube: firmly attached, no mechanical damage or bending. Remove protection cover
and make sure it is not blocked or full of water.
 Wing drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly.
Wingtip, lights
 Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
Wings’ trailing edge
 Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots, no paint and/or edge separations
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
 Mylar sealing tape between wing and aileron: undamaged and in position
 Aileron: pristine surface, no cracks and/or impact spots, no paint abnormalities and edge
separations, no vertical or horizontal free play, smooth and unobstructed deflections
Airbrakes, fuel reservoir cap
 Air brakes: firm, smooth, equal and unobstructed extension, tightly fitted when
retracted, springs stiff and intact.
 Fuel reservoir cap: fastened. Make sure the vent pipe is completely clean.
Fuselage, antenna, rescue parachute cover
 Self-adhesive tape: in position, no separations
 Controls’ cap, antenna: firmly attached. Station
 17 - optional side access door to the cargo compartment: closed and locked
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
Fuselage, continued
 Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
Horizontal tail surfaces
 Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint and/or edge
separations
 Hinges: no free play in any direction
 Central securing screw on top of the horizontal stabilizer: fastened and secured
 Self-adhesive tape covering the gap between horizontal and vertical tail surfaces: in
position
 Elevator: smooth and unobstructed up-down movement, no side-to-side free play
Vertical tail surfaces




Vertical fin bottom part: no cracks, impact spots or paint separations along main chord
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
Hinges: no free play in any direction
Rudder cable endings: intact, bolts in position
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
CAUTION! Preflight inspection should be performed by completing all stations 1 through 22!
8.2 Powered Glider Normal Procedures. To enter the cabin, first lift the door all the way to the
bottom wing surface. The silver knob will grab and secure the door in position. Sit on the cabin’s edge
and support your body by placing hands onto this same cabin edge. Drag yourself into the seat lifting first
only one leg over the stick for best position. Upon assuming a comfortable seating position, check rudder
pedals’ position to suit your size and needs. To lower the door DO NOT attempt to grab and pull door’s
handle but gently pull the silver knob instead. To close the door securely, rotate the handle so that it
locks and verify that all three closing points are secured. Fasten the safety harnesses according to your
size. Adjust the rudder pedals according to your required legroom. The aircraft is equipped with in-flight
adjustable rudder pedals, which adjust as follows: Sit inside the cockpit and release the pressure off the
pedals. Pull the black knob in front of the control stick to bring the pedals closer to you. To move the
pedals further away, first release the pressure of the pedals, then pull on the knob slightly (this will
release the lock in the mechanism). Now push the pedals forward using with your feet, while keeping the
black adjustment knob in your hand.
WARNING! The safety harness must hold you in your seat securely. This is especially important when
flying in rough air, as otherwise you may bump into the tubes and/or spars overhead. Make sure you
tighten the bottom straps first, then the shoulder straps
8.2.1 Ground Engine Starting.
Before engine start-up
CAUTION! To ensure proper and safe use of aircraft it is essential for one to familiarize yourself
with engine’s limitations and engine manufacturer’s safety warnings. Before engine start-up
make sure the area in front of the aircraft is clear. It is recommended to start-up the engine with
aircraft’s nose pointing against the wind.
Make sure the fuel quantity is sufficient for the planned flight duration. Make sure the pitot tube
is uncovered and rescue parachute safety pin removed. Engage wheel brakes. If equipped with
the parking brake, engage parking brake.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
Engine start-up
Make sure both fuel valves are open and master switch in OFF position (key full left).Should the
engine be cold, apply choke (lever full back). Set master switch ON (key in full right position). Set
both magneto switches ON. Avionics OFF. Engage engine starter and keep it engaged until the
engine starts. Set throttle to 2500 RPM. Slide the choke lever forward gradually.
CAUTION! When the engine is very cold, the engine may refuse to start. Should this occur, move
the choke handle fully backwards and hold it there for some 20 seconds to make mixture richer.
Engine warm-up procedure
The engine should be warmed-up at 2500 RPM up to the point working temperature is reached.
Warming-up the engine you should:1 Point aircraft’s nose into the wind.2 Verify the engine
temperature ranges within operational limits.
CAUTION! Avoid engine warm-up at idle throttle as this causes the spark plugs to turn dirty and
the engine to overheat.
With wheel brakes engaged and control stick in full back position, first set engine power to 4000
RPM in order to perform the ignition check. Set the ignition switches OFF and back ON one by
one to verify RPM drop of not more than 300 RPM. When the ignition check has been completed,
add full power (throttle lever full forward) and monitor engine’s RPM. Make sure they range
between maximum recommended and maximum allowable RPM limits.
Note that engine does not reach 5800 RPM on ground. Engines are factory set to reach maximum
ground RPM of 5300 - 5500 at sea level at 68° F. Maximum ground RPM may vary depending on
the season and service elevation.
CAUTION! Should engine’s RPM be lower than the recommended on ground amount (min. 5100
RPM) or in excess of maximum allowable RPM on ground (5800) during this maneuver, check
engine and wiring for correct installation.
8.2.2 Taxiing.
Release parking brake. Taxing technique does not differ from other aircraft equipped with a
steerable nose wheel. Prior to taxiing it is essential to check wheel brakes for proper braking
action. Should you expect to taxi a long way, take engine warm-up time into account and begin
taxiing immediately after engine start-up. Warm-up the engine during taxiing so as not to cause
the engine to overheat, as prolonged ground operation are likely to do on warm days.
Holding point - Make sure the temperatures at full power range are within operational limits.
Make sure the safety harnesses are fastened and doors closed and secured at all three closing
points. Set flaps to 2nd position (flap handle full up). Power to idle.
CAUTION! Should the engine start to overheat because of long taxi and holding, shut down the
engine and wait for the engine temperatures drop to reasonable values. If possible, point the
aircraft’s nose into the wind. This will provide radiators with airflow to cool down the engine
faster.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
8.2.3 Normal Takeoff.
Before lining up, verify the following:
Parking brake (if applicable): disengaged (full forward). Air brakes (if applicable): retracted and
secured. Fuel valves: fully open. Fuel quantity: sufficient. Safety harnesses: fastened. Cabin
doors: closed securely Trim handle: in neutral position or slightly forward. Flap handle: 2nd
position (flap handle full up) Runway: clear - Release brakes, line up and apply full power. Verify
engine for sufficient RPM at full throttle (min 5100 RPM).
CAUTION! Keep adding power gradually.
WARNING! Should engine RPM not reach more than 5000 RPM when at full throttle, ABORT
TAKE-OFF IMMEDIATELY, come to a standstill and verify that the propeller is at minimum pitch
setting .
Start the takeoff roll pulling the control stick one third backward and lift the nose wheel off the
ground as you accelerate. Reaching 40-43 kts, gently pull on the stick to get the aircraft airborne.
CAUTION! Crosswind (max 15 kts) takeoff should be performed with the control stick pointed
into the wind. Special attention should be paid to maintaining runway heading!
Initial climb
When airborne, engage brakes momentarily to prevent in-flight wheel spinning. Accelerate at
full power and later maintain proper climbing speed. As you reach 50 kts (90 km/h) at above 150
ft (50 m), set flaps to 1st stage, reaching 60 kts (110 km/h) at 300 ft (100 m) set flaps to neutral
position. Reduce RPM by 10% or below 5500 RPM and continue climbing at 70 kts (130 km/h).
Adjust the trim to neutralize the stick force if necessary. Remember to keep the temperatures
and RPM within operational limits during climb out.
CAUTION! Reduce power and lower the nose to increase speed in order to cool the engine down
if necessary.
Should you be climbing for a cross-country flight, consider climbing at 100 kts (185 km/h) as this
will greatly increase your overall travelling speed. Reaching cruise altitude, establish horizontal
flight and set engine power to cruise (5300 RPM).
Cruise
When horizontal flight has been established, verify on-board fuel quantity again. Keep the
aircraft balanced while maintaining desired flight parameters. Should you desire to cruise at low
speed (up to 80 kts (150 km/h)), set flaps to neutral position other-wise flaps should be set to
negative position (flap handle full down).
Check engine operation and flight parameters regularly! Recommended cruise is at 5300 RPM,
with a fuel burn of 3.3 US gal per hour.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
CAUTION! It is not recommended to fly the aircraft at speeds exceeding 80 kts (150 km/h) using
flap setting other than negative.
CAUTION! Check fuel upon establishment of cruise attitude. Because of the fuel system design,
the fuel tends to gradually cross-flow from the right tank to the left. To prevent this, shut the
right fuel valve and open it again when the fuel level inside left tank has lowered.
CAUTION! If the fuel quantity in a fuel tank is low, it is possible that the engine starts to suck air
into the fuel system. To prevent this and consequent engine failure, always close the fuel valve of
the tank where the fuel quantity is very low.
Cruising in rough conditions. Should you experience turbulence, reduce airspeed to VA, 76 kts,
and continue flying with flaps set to neutral position.
CAUTION! In rough air, reduce engine power if necessary to keep airspeed below VA.
Descent and final approach
Descend at speeds at or below VA and flaps in negative stage. To expedite descents, use
airbrakes (if applicable) and keep airspeed below VAE. For approach, reduce speed to 70 kts (130
km/h) and set flaps to 1st position only after turning to base leg. Adjust engine power to
maintain proper airspeed. Set trim to neutralize stick force if necessary. During the descent
monitor temperatures and keep within operational limits.
CAUTION! During the descent, engine power MUST be reduced. Should you be forced to
descend at idle power, make sure you keep adding throttle for short periods of time, this will
help to keep spark plugs clean.
CAUTION! With flaps in 2nd position, no more than half of the available aileron deflection is
permitted.
On final, set flaps to 2nd position. Align with the runway and reduce power to idle. Extend
airbrakes (as required) and maintain an airspeed of 55 kts (102 km/h). Instead of throttle use
airbrakes to control your descent glide path. Otherwise, control your attitude and crab or slip as
necessary.
CAUTION! Crosswind landings require higher final approach speeds to ensure aircraft’s safe
maneuverability. Increase the approach speed by 1 kts for every 1 kts of crosswind component
e.g. in case of 5 kts crosswind component, increase the approach speed by 5 kts.
Roundout and touchdown
CAUTION! See chapter “Performance” for landing performance.
Roundout and touchdown (flare) occurs at following airspeeds:
CAUTION! Land the aircraft in such a manner that the two main wheels touch the ground first,
allow the nose-wheel touchdown only after speed has been reduced below 25 kts. When
lowering the nose wheel to the runway, rudder MUST NOT be deflected in any direction (rudder
pedals centered).
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
When on ground, start braking action holding the control stick in full back position. Steer the
aircraft using brakes and rudder only. Provided the runway length is sufficient, come to a
complete standstill without engaging the brakes holding the control stick slightly backwards as
you decelerate.
WARNING! After touchdown, DO NOT retract airbrakes immediately, as this causes sudden lift
increase and the aircraft may rebound off the ground. Should this occur, hold the elevator
steady; under no circumstances attempt to follow aircraft’s movement with elevator movements,
for Virus 912 LSA tends to stabilize rebounding by itself. However, it is important to maintain runway heading using the rudder at all times. Retract air brakes only after the aircraft has come to a
complete standstill.
CAUTION! Should you be performing the touch-and-go maneuver, retract air brakes care-fully
before re-applying full power.
Crosswind approach and roundout
CAUTION! Crosswinds prolong landing runway length due to elevated airspeed that should be
used, see previous page.
Performing a crosswind landing, the wing-low method should be used. When using the wing-low
method it is necessary to gradually increase the deflection of the rudder and aileron to maintain
the proper amount of drift correction.
WARNING! If the crab method of drift correction has been used throughout the final approach
and roundout, the crab must be recovered the before touchdown by applying rudder to align the
aircraft’s longitudinal axis with its direction of movement.
8.2.4 Engine extraction and retraction. N/A
8.2.5 Best Rate of Climb Speed. VY = 70 kts; VX = 52 kts. Speeds greater than 70 kts
may be preferable on warm days as rate of climb remains strong at speeds beyond 90 kts.
8.2.6 In-Flight Starting the Engine. VES is the Maximum velocity for engine restart in
flight 50 kts. This is applicable only for the auto-feathering propeller version! Do not restart the
engine in flight beyond this speed.
NOTE: This procedure applies only for stopping and restarting the engine following an
intentional unpowered flight. Reduce speed to 50 kts or below. Apply normal engine shut down
or start-up procedure. Upon restart, should the engine cool down during unpowered flight, apply
choke. Always start the engine at idle throttle.
CAUTION! Do not add full power while the engine is still cool. Fly at lower airspeeds at low power
engine setting to warm it up instead (e.g. 50 kts (90 km/h) at 3000 RPM).
8.2.7 In Flight Shutdown of Engine. This procedure applies only for stopping and
restarting the engine following an intentional unpowered flight. Reduce speed to 50 kts or
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
below. Apply normal engine shut down or start-up procedure. Upon restart, should the engine
cool down during unpowered flight, apply choke. Always start the engine at idle throttle.
8.2.8 Ground Shutdown.
1.
Engine speed
2.
Instruments
3.
COMM + intercom
4.
Ignition key
5.
Circuit breakers
6.
Master switch
- idling
- engine instruments within limits
- off
- off
- off
- off
Come to a complete standstill by engaging brakes. Re-check RPM drop by switching ignition OFF
and back ON, one by one. Leave the engine running at idle RPM for a minute in order to cool it
down. Set master switch and ignition switches in OFF position.
Unlock air brakes (handle hanging down freely) and insert parachute rescue system handle’s
safety pin (if rescue system installed). Apply parking brake, if fitted. Open cabin door, unfasten
safety harnesses and exit the cockpit (watch for the wheel fairings!). Block the wheels and secure
the pitot tube by putting on a protection cover. Fit the tubes onto fuel tank vents so that fuel will
not spill onto the wing in event of full fuel tanks, temperature expansion of fuel and/or parking
on a slope. It is recommended to shut both fuel tank valves.
CAUTION! Should the aircraft be parked on a slope it is recommended to shut one of the fuel
valves to prevent overflowing of the adjacent fuel tank.
8.3 Cruise. Aircraft at MTOM, recommended cruise power of 5300 RPM at 15°C / 59°F at sea
level altitude, flaps set to negative position (-5 degrees): Virus 912 LSA - cruise airspeed 116 kts
Best economy cruising level is 7500 ft. There, cruise performance is equivalent or better than above due
to IAS-TAS relation, but fuel consumption is lower. At these parameters the fuel burn is 3.2 US gal (12.2l)
per hour. For detailed fuel consumption determination for various cruising regimes consult the Rotax 912
UL/ULS Operators manual.
CAUTION! It is not recommended to fly the aircraft at speeds exceeding 80 kts (150 km/h) using
flap setting other than negative.
CAUTION! If the fuel quantity in a fuel tank is low, it is possible that the engine starts to suck air
into the fuel system. To prevent this and consequent engine failure, always close the fuel valve of
the tank where the fuel quantity is very low.
Cruising in rough conditions:
Should you experience turbulence, reduce airspeed and continue flying with flaps set to neutral position.
CAUTION! In rough air, reduce engine power if necessary to keep airspeed below VA (76 kts).
8.4 Approach. Descending with the Virus is the stage of flight where the most care should be
taken. As the aircraft is essentially a glider, it is very slippery and builds up speed very fast.
Start the descent by reducing throttle and keep your speed below VRA.
During initial descent it is recommended you trim for a 10 kts lower speed than the one you decided to
descent at. Do this for safety. In case you hit turbulence simply release forward pressure on the stick and
the aircraft will slow down. Also, keep in mind you need to begin your descent quite some time before
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
destination. A comfortable rate of descent is 500 fpm (2.5 m/s). So it takes you some 2 minutes for a
1000 ft (300 m) drop. At 105 kts (200 km/h) this means 3.6 NM for each 1000 ft drop. Upon entering the
traffic pattern the aircraft should be slowing down. In order to do this, hold your altitude and reduce
throttle to idle. When going below 80 kts (150 km/h), set flaps to neutral position. Set proper engine
RPM to maintain speed of 70 kts (130 km/h). Trim the aircraft for comfortable stick forces. Before
turning to base-leg, reduce power to idle and set flaps to 1st stage at 60 kts (110 km/h). Once out of the
turn, reduce speed towards 55 kts (100 km/h). Power remains idle from the point of turning base all the
way to touch-down. If you plan your approach this way, you will always be on the safe side - even if your
engine fails, you will still be able to safely reach the runway! Turn to final at 55 kts (100 km/h). When in
runway heading, set flaps to 2nd stage. Operate the air-brakes to obtain the desired descent path.
How to determine how much airbrakes you need for a certain airspeed?
Open them half-way and observe the runway. If the runway threshold is moving up, you are dropping
too fast - retract the airbrakes a little. If the runway threshold is disappearing below your aircraft, you
are dropping too slowly - extend airbrakes further. When working on airbrakes, it is important to keep
the airspeed/pitch angle constant throughout final all the way to flare! The airbrakes will not impact your
speed, just rate (angle) of descent. For pilots who are not used to operating airbrakes but throttle
instead, keep in mind that airbrakes in Virus work just like throttle does: handle back equals less throttle,
handle forward equals more throttle.
CAUTION! Never drop the airbrakes handle when using them, keep holding the handle even if you are
not moving it!
8.5 Landing. Roundout and touchdown (flare) occurs at following airspeeds:
o Calm Air at MTOW: 40 kts
o Rough Air (including cross-winds: 42 kts
CAUTION! Land the aircraft in such a manner that the two main wheels touch the ground first, allow the
nose-wheel touchdown only after speed has been reduced below 25 kts. When lowering the nose wheel
to the runway, rudder MUST NOT be deflected in any direction (rudder pedals centered).
When on ground, start braking action holding the control stick in full back position. Steer the aircraft
using brakes and rudder only. Provided the runway length is sufficient, come to a complete standstill
without engaging the brakes holding the control stick slightly backwards as you decelerate.
WARNING! After touchdown, DO NOT retract airbrakes immediately, as this causes sudden lift increase
and the aircraft may rebound off the ground.
Should this occur, hold the elevator steady; under no circumstances attempt to follow aircraft’s
movement with elevator movements, for Virus 912 LSA tends to stabilize rebounding by itself. However,
it is important to maintain run-way heading using the rudder at all times. Retract air brakes only after the
aircraft has come to a complete standstill.
CAUTION! Should you be performing the touch-and-go maneuver, retract air brakes care-fully before reapplying full power.
Crosswind approach and roundout
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
CAUTION! Crosswinds prolong landing runway length due to elevated airspeed that should be used, see
previous page.
Performing a crosswind landing, the wing-low method should be used. When using the wing-low method
it is necessary to gradually increase the deflection of the rudder and aileron to maintain the proper
amount of drift correction.
WARNING! If the crab method of drift correction has been used throughout the final approach and
roundout, the crab must be undone before touchdown by applying rudder to align the aircraft’s
longitudinal axis with its direction of movement.
Parking
Come to a complete standstill by engaging brakes. Re-check RPM drop by switching ignition OFF and back
ON, one by one. Leave the engine running at idle RPM for a minute in order to cool it down. Set master
switch and ignition switches to OFF. Unlock air brakes (handle hanging down freely) and insert
parachute rescue system handle’s safety pin (if rescue system installed). Apply parking brake, if fitted.
Open cabin door, unfasten safety harnesses and exit the cockpit (watch for the wheel fairings!). Block the
wheels and secure the pitot tube by putting on a protection cover. Fit the tubes onto fuel tank vents so
that fuel will not spill onto the wing in event of full fuel tanks, temperature expansion of fuel and/or
parking on a slope. It is recommended to shut both fuel tank valves.
CAUTION! Should the aircraft be parked on a slope it is recommended to shut one of the fuel valves to
prevent overflowing of the adjacent fuel tank.
8.6 Information on Stalls, Spins, and other useful pilot information.
Stall recovery
1. First reduce angle of attack by pushing the control stick forward, then
2. Add full power (throttle lever in full forward position)
3. Resume horizontal flight.
Spin recovery
Virus 912 LSA is constructed in such manner that it is difficult to be flown into a spin, and even so, only at
aft center of gravity positions. However, once in a spin, intentionally or unintentionally, react as follows:
1
2
3
4
5
Set throttle to idle (lever in full back position).
Apply full rudder deflection in the direction opposite the spin.
Lower the nose towards the ground to build speed (stick forward).
As the aircraft stops spinning neutralize rudder deflection.
Slowly pull up and regain horizontal flight.
NOTE: Virus 912 LSA tends to reestablish straight and level flight by itself usually after having spun for a
mere 45°-90°.
WARNING! Keep the control stick centered along its lateral axis (no aileron deflections throughout the
recovery phase! Do not attempt to stop the aircraft from spinning using ailerons instead of rudder!
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
WARNING! After having stopped spinning, recovering from the dive must be performed using gentle stick
movements (pull), rather than overstressing the aircraft. However, VNE must not be exceeded during this
maneuver.
When the aircraft is wings-level and flies horizontally, add throttle and resume normal flight.
Handling and maintenance of the GRS Rescue Parachute System.
Prior to every flight all visible parts of the system must be checked for proper condition. Special
attention should be paid to corrosion on the activation handle inside the cockpit. Also, main fastening
straps on the outside of the fuselage must be undamaged at all times. Furthermore, neither system, nor
any of its parts should be exposed to moisture, vibration and UV radiation for long periods of time to
ensure proper system operation and life.
CAUTION! It is strongly recommenced to thoroughly inspect and grease the activation handle, preferably
using silicon spray, every 50 flight hours. All major repairs and damage repairs MUST be done by the
manufacturer or authorized service personnel.
For all details concerning the GRS rescue system, please see the “GRS - Galaxy Rescue System Manual for
Assembly and Use”.
How fast is too fast?
Based on two recent unfortunate events, where two pilots lost their newly acquired Sinus and Virus
aircraft, the team of Pipistrel’s factory pilots decided to stress the importance of airspeed even more. Do
read this passage thoroughly as everything mentioned below affects you as the pilot directly!
The two events
Both the events took place during the first couple of hours pilots flew with their new aircraft. Therefore
it is clear that they had not become completely familiar with all the flight capabilities offered by the Sinus
and Virus. The circumstances of both the events were remarkably similar. Soon after the pilots picked up
their new aircraft at the distributor’s facility, the aircraft were severely damaged aloft. One accident
occurred during the first home-bound cross country flight; and the other during the first flights at its
domestic airfield. Please note that the distributor had independently tested both mentioned aircraft up
to VNE at altitudes of 300 to 500 meters (900 to 1500 feet) without any problems. The new owner/pilots,
it was learned, flew their aircraft at higher altitudes, and very high speeds. One of them deployed
airbrakes (spoilers) at a speed of 285 km/h (155 kts) - where the VNE of the aircraft was only 225 km/h
(122 kts), the other was flying at 3000 m (10.000 ft) at 270 km/h (145 kts) IAS - where the VNE of the aircraft was 250 km/h (135 kts).
They both encountered severe vibrations caused by flutter. As a result, one aircraft’s fuselage broke in
half just behind the cabin (the crew was saved thanks to the parachute rescue system), the other aircraft
suffered less serious damage, as only the flaperon control tubes were broken. The pilot of the second
machine then landed safely using elevator and rudder only. Fortunately both pilots survived the accident
without injury. Thanks to the Brauniger ALPHA Multifunction Display’s (MFD) integrated Flight Data
Recorder, we were able to reconstruct the flights and reveal what had really happened. What was the
reason for the flutter causing both accidents? Both pilots significantly exceeded VNE. With the IAS to
TAS correction factor taken into consideration, they were both flying faster than 315 km/h (170 kts)!
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You might say: “Why did they not keep their speed within safe limits? How could they be so thoughtless
to afford themselves exceeding the VNE?” Speaking with the two pilots they both confessed they went
over the line inadvertently. “Everything just happened so suddenly!” was what they both said. Therefore
it is of vital importance to be familiar to all factors that might influence your flying to the point of
accidentally exceeding the VNE.
Here is the relationship between the human factor and performance: The human body is not intended
to be travelling at 250 km/h (135 kts), nor is it built to fly. Therefore, in flight, the human body and its
signals should not be trusted. To determine the speed at which you are travelling, one normally relies
upon two senses – the hearing and sight. The faster the objects around are passing by, the faster one is
travelling. True enough. The louder the noise caused by air rushing past the airframe, the faster one
must be cruising. True again. But let us confine ourselves to the scenarios associated with both of these
events. At higher altitudes, human eye loses its ability to determine the speed of movement precisely.
Because of that pilots, who are flying high up feel like they are flying very slowly. Additionally, it seems
that at high speeds the air rushing past the airframe ought to cause a tremendous rushing noise. But this
is wrong! In fact, rushing air noise is caused by drag. Modern aircraft like Sinus and Virus, manufactured
of composite materials, have so little drag in cruise attitude, that they actually sound quieter than you
would expect. Especially if you are used to wearing a headset when flying you must not rely on your ear
as the instrument for determining speed. REMEMBER! When flying high, the only reliable tool to
determine airspeed is the cockpit instrument - the airspeed indicator!
How to read and understand what the airspeed indicator tells you?
Let us first familiarize with the terms used below:
IAS: stands for Indicated Airspeed. This is the speed the airspeed indicator reads.
CAS: stands for Calibrated Airspeed. This is IAS corrected by the factor of aircraft’s attitude. No pitot tube
(device to measure pressure used to indicate airspeed) is positioned exactly parallel to the air flow;
therefore the input speed – IAS – must be corrected to obtain proper airspeed readings. With Sinus and
Virus, IAS to CAS correction factors range from 1.00 to 1.04 (not a big deal). Now for the critical variableTAS: stands for True Airspeed. TAS is often regarded as the speed of air to which the aircraft’s air-frame
is exposed. To obtain TAS you must have CAS as the input value and correct it by pressure altitude,
temperature and air density variations. The maximum structural speed is linked to IAS. But light planes,
manufactured of carbon reinforced plastics, with long, slick wings are more prone to flutter at high
speeds than to structural failure. So flutter, a function of TAS, is the main factor of determining VNE for
us, and most other carbon-reinforced-plastic aircraft producers. Flutter speed is linked to TAS, as it is
directly caused by small differences in speed of air circulating the airframe. Hence air density is not a
factor. For all who still doubt this, here are two quotes from distinguished sources on flutter being
related to TAS: “Suffice to say that flutter relates to true airspeed (TAS) rather than equivalent air-speed
(EAS), so aircraft that are operated at or beyond their VNE at altitude - where TAS increases for a given
EAS – are more susceptible to flutter...” New Zealand CAA’ Vector Magazine (full passage at page 5 of
http://www.caa.govt.nz/fulltext/vector/vec01-4.pdf). “The critical flutter speed depends on TAS, air
density, and critical Mach number. The air density factor is almost canceled out by the TAS factor; and
most of us won’t fly fast enough for Mach number to be a factor. So TAS is what a pilot must be aware
of!” Bob Cook, Flight Safety International. The airspeed indicator shows you the IAS, but this is sadly
NOT the speed of air to which the aircraft’s airframe is exposed. IAS and TAS are almost the same at sea
level but can greatly differ as the altitude increases. So flying at high altitudes, where the air is thinner,
results in misinterpreting indicated airspeed. The indicated airspeed value may actually be much lower
than speed of air to which the aircraft is exposed, the TAS. So is VNE related to IAS or TAS? Although the
redline on our altimeter may imply that it is associated with IAS, in reality, for all gliders which are
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
inherently prone to flutter, VNE must be assumed to be a TAS reading. The two owners mentioned above
found out the hard way that this is a fact.
How much difference is there between IAS and TAS in practical terms?
Data is for standard atmosphere. To obtain correct speeds for particular atmospheric conditions please
take advantage of the conversion tables which follow:
The table below indicates how fast you may fly at a certain altitude to maintain constant True Air Speed
(TAS).
The table below indicates how TAS increases with altitude while keeping IAS constant.
As you can see from the table above the differences between IAS and TAS are substantial at altitude, and
MUST be respected at all times!
REMEMBER!
Do not trust your ears.
Do not trust your eyes.
Trust the instruments and be aware of the IAS to TAS relationship!
Keep that in mind every time you go flying. Pipistrel wishes you happy landings!
Myth: One can fully deflect the controls as long as he or she is flying below maneuvering speed.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
This is flat wrong! The wing structure in light planes is usually certified to take +3.8 G’s, -1.52 G’s (plus a
certain safety factor). Put more load on the wing than that and you can lose a wing. But here is the nice
part: below a certain speed, the wing simply cannot put out a full 3.8 G’s of lift! It will stall first! This
speed is called Maneuvering Speed or VA. Maneuvering Speed is defined as the maximum speed the
plane can be flying at and still stall before the wing breaks no matter how much you pull back on the
stick. If you are going slower than the VA and you pull the stick all the way back, the wing will stall without
braking physically. If you are going faster than the VA and you pull the stick all the way back, the wing can
put out so much lift that it can be expected to break. Therefore people think they can deflect the stick as
much as they desire below Maneuvering Speed and stay alive. Right? No, wrong! This is a trick question.
The Maneuvering Speed is based on pulling back on the stick, not pushing it forward! Note what was
said above: The VA is defined as how fast you can fly and not be able to put out more than 3.8 G’s of lift.
But while the plane is certified for positive 3.8 G’s, it is only certified for a negative G-load of 1.52 G’s! In
other words, you can fail the wing in the negative direction by pushing forward on the stick well below
the VA! Few pilots know this.
Also, for airliners, certification basis require that the rudder can be fully deflected below Maneuvering
Speed, but only if the plane is not in a sideslip of any kind! (e.g. crab method of approach) Does this make
sense at all? Why would you need to fully deflect the rudder if not to re-establish wings-level flight?
In a wonderfully-timed accident shortly after Sept. 11th, 2001; which many first thought an act of
terrorism, an Airbus pilot stomped the rudder in wake turbulence while the plane was in a considerable
sideslip. The combined loads of the sideslip and the deflected rudder took the vertical stabilizer to its
critical load. A very simple numerical analysis based on the black box confirmed this. The airplane lost its
vertical stabilizer in flight and you know the rest. Also, if you are at your maximum allowable g-limit (e.g.
3.8) and you deflect the ailerons even slightly, you are actually asking for more lift from one wing than
the allowable limit! Therefore combined elevator and aileron deflections can break the plane, even if the
elevator is positive only!
SO, WHEN YOU THINK THAT YOU CAN DO AS YOU PLEASE WITH THE CONTROLS BELOW MANEUVERING
SPEED, YOU ARE WRONG!
9. AIRCRAFT GROUND HANDLING AND SERVICING.
9.1 Ground Handling.
Engine start-up
Make sure both fuel valves are open and master switch in OFF position (key full left).Should the
engine be cold, apply choke (lever full back). Set master switch ON (key in full right position). Set
both magneto switches ON. Avionics OFF. Engage engine starter and keep it engaged until the
engine starts. Set throttle to 2500 RPM. Slide the choke lever forward gradually.
CAUTION! When the engine is very cold, the engine may refuse to start. Should this occur, move
the choke handle fully backwards and hold it there for some 20 seconds to make mixture richer.
Engine warm-up procedure
The engine should be warmed-up at 2500 RPM up to the point working temperature is reached.
Warming-up the engine you should:1 Point aircraft’s nose into the wind.2 Verify the engine
temperature ranges within operational limits.
CAUTION! Avoid engine warm-up at idle throttle as this causes the spark plugs to turn dirty and
the engine to overheat.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
With wheel brakes engaged and control stick in full back position, first set engine power to 4000
RPM in order to perform the ignition check. Set the ignition switches OFF and back ON one by
one to verify RPM drop of not more than 300 RPM. When the ignition check has been completed,
add full power (throttle lever full forward) and monitor engine’s RPM. Make sure they range
between maximum recommended and maximum allowable RPM limits.
NOTE: The engine should not reach 5800 RPM on the ground. Engines are factory set to reach
maximum ground RPM of 5300 - 5500 at sea level at 68° F. Maximum ground RPM may vary
depending on the season and service elevation.
CAUTION! Should engine’s RPM be lower than the recommended on ground amount (min. 5100
RPM) or in excess of maximum allowable RPM on ground (5800) during this maneuver, check
engine and wiring for correct installation.
Taxi
Release parking brake. Taxing technique does not differ from other aircraft equipped with a
steerable nose wheel. Prior to taxiing it is essential to check wheel brakes for proper braking
action. In the case you expect o taxi a long way, take engine warm-up time into account and
begin taxiing immediately after engine start-up. Warm-up the engine during taxi so as not to
cause engine overheating because of prolonged ground operation.
Holding point
Make sure the temperatures at full power range are within operational limits. Make sure the
safety harnesses are fastened and doors closed and secured at all three closing points. Set flaps
to 2nd position (flap handle full up). Power reduced to idle.
CAUTION! Should the engine start to overheat because of long taxi and holding, shut down the
engine and wait for the engine temperatures drop to reasonable values. If possible, point the
aircraft’s nose into the wind. This will provide radiators with airflow to cool down the engine
faster.
9.2 Servicing.
Tie down
Point the aircraft into the wind and retract flaps fully. Chock all three wheels. Remove the caps
covering mounting holes on the bottom part of the wing (located 15 ft from the fuselage) and
carefully screw in the two screw-in rings provided. Secure tie-down ropes to the wing tie-down
rings at an approximately 45-degree angle to the ground. When using rope of a non-synthetic
material, leave sufficient slack to avoid damage to the aircraft, should the ropes contract. To tie
down the tail, tie a rope through the tail skid and secure it to the ground. At the end, cover the
pitot tube with a protection cover.
Draining and refueling
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
Whenever draining or refueling, make sure master switch is set to OFF (key in full left position).
Draining the fuel system:
The gascolator is located beneath the bottom engine cover on the left hand side of the fuselage.
To drain the fuel system, open the drain valve on the gascolator. Drain approximately 1/2 cup of
fuel. Try to prevent ground pollution by collecting the fuel with a canister. To close the valve,
simply turn it in the opposite direction. Do not use force or special tools!
CAUTION! Always drain the fuel system before moving the aircraft. This ensures any water or
particles will be drained and not remixed and remain in the fuel tanks.
Refueling
CAUTION! Before refueling, it is necessary to ground the aircraft!
Refueling can be done by pouring fuel through the fuel tank openings on top of the wings or by
using the single point fueling valve on the lower firewall.
Refueling using the electrical fuel pump: First, make sure the fuel hoses are connected to wing
connectors and that both fuel valves are open. Connect one end of the fuel pump to the valve
beneath the bottom engine cowl. Submerge the other end of the fuel pump, which has a filter
attached, into the fuel container. Engage the fuel pump by engaging the 12 V socket switch on
the instrument panel. After refueling, it is recommended to prevent air pockets from forming
inside the fuel system, that the pilot drains some fuel with both fuel valves fully open. Also,
leave the engine running at idle power for a couple of minutes prior to taking-off, and test the
engine at full power for a minimum of 30 seconds before takeoff roll begins.
Should you be experiencing slow refueling with the electrical fuel pump, you should replace the
filter. You can use any fuel filter for this application. It is recommended to use additional plastic
tubes attached to the fuel tank vents and leading to the ground in order to avoid over-spills of
fuel onto the airframe when filling the tanks completely.
CAUTION! Use authorized plastic containers to transport and store fuel only! Metal canisters
cause water to condense on the inside, which may lead to engine failure.
Engine lubrication system
Rotax 912 is a four-stroke engine, equipped with a dry sump and lubricated centrally with use of
its own oil pump. All the oil needed is located inside an outer canister. When the engine is
running, the oil cools by passing through a radiator, located on the left-hand side of the bottom
engine cover. The oil quantity can be checked visually with the oil level bar. Make sure the oil
quantity is sufficient (within marked limits) at all times.
CAUTION! Oil temperature, pressure, and quality is precisely defined and must not, under any
circumstances, vary from the placards and standards.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
Schematic of engine lubrication system
Cleaning of aircraft including windscreen and windows.
Use fresh water and a soft piece of cloth to clean the aircraft’s exterior. If you are unable to
remove certain spots, consider using mild detergents. Afterwards, rinse the entire surface
thoroughly. Lexan glass surfaces are protected by an anti-scratch layer on the outside and an
anti-fog coating on the inside of the cabin. Always use fresh water only to clean the glass
surfaces, not to damage these protection layers and coatings. To protect the aircraft’s surface
(excluding glass surfaces) from the environmental contaminants, use best affordable car wax. The
interior is to be cleaned with a vacuum cleaner.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
10. Required Placards and Markings.
10.1 Airspeed Indicator Markings. Airspeed indicator calibration (IAS to CAS) - Pitot tube’s
mounting point and construction makes IAS to CAS correction values insignificant. Therefore
pilots should regard IAS to be same as CAS. IAS = CAS.
MARKING
IAS [kts]
White
band
36 -70
Green
band
42 -76
Yellow
band
76 - 120
Red line
120
Blue line
70
Definition
Full Flap Operating Range. Lower limit is the
maximum weight VS0 in landing configuration. Upper
limit is maximum speed permissible with flaps
extended.
Normal Operating Range Lower end is maximum
weight VS1 at most forward C.G. with flaps retracted.
Upper limit is maximum structural cruising speed.
Maneuver the aircraft with caution in calm air only.
Maximum speed for all operations
Best climb rate speed (VY)
10.2 Operating Limitations on instrument panel.
Red line
(minimum)
Green arc
(normal)
Yellow arc
(caution)
Red line
(maximum)
Tachometer (RPM)
1600
1600-5500
5500-5800
5800
Oil temperature
50°C (122°F)
90-110°C
(194-230°F)
110-140°C
(230-284°F)
110-120°C
(230-248°F)
140°C (284°F)
Instrument
Cylinder head temp.
Oil pressure
1.0 bar (14.5 psi)
120°C (248°F)
6.0 bar (87.0 psi)
10.3 Passenger warnings.
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10.4 NO INTENTIONAL SPINS BEYOND ¼ TURN (90o)
10.5 Empty weight. 702.5 lbs
10.6
Maximum takeoff weight. MTOW – 1210 lbs
10.7 Max and min weight of crew. Max Crew Weight 519 lbs, Min Crew Weight 119 lbs.
10.8 Seat for solo operations of two seated gliders. Solo pilot may fly in either left or right seat.
10.9 Allowable baggage weight. 55 lbs (25 KG)
NOTE: If GRS Recovery Chute System is removed, up to 88 lbs (40 KG) of baggage is allowable.
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
Placards
Quantity=13 Gallons
Quantity=13 Gallons
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
11. Supplementary information.
11.1 Familiarization flight procedures. This chapter has been written to assist
owners/pilots/instructors of Virus 912 LSA on their quest to learn how to safely and efficiently fly this
aircraft in addition to the information already assembled in the rest of this POH. This section will cover
most operations the aircraft offers in an order established in section on Normal procedures and
recommended speeds. Please consider what follows as an add-on to that chapter.
Engine start-up
First and foremost make sure you have sufficient fuel quantity on board for the desired length of flight. If
you are not completely confident there is enough, step out of the aircraft and add more fuel into the
tanks. There is an old aviators’ saying: “The only time you have too much fuel is when you are on fire.”
When engaging the engine starter, wheel brakes MUST be engaged. To keep your propeller in perfect
condition, avoid starting up on areas where there are small stones on the ground. Those little stones can
easily be picked up by the propellers causing damage to the blades.
Warming up must be conducted below 2500 RPM. When reaching safe operational engine temperatures,
verify maximum engine ground RPM. Hold the stick back completely and slowly (!) add throttle to full
power, then verify RPM.
Taxi
Taxiing with the Virus 912 LSA is rather simple considering the steerable nose wheel. For sharper turns on
the ground you can also use wheel brakes to assist yourself. It is recommended you taxi slow, up to 10
km/s (5 kts), while holding the stick back fully to ease the pressure of the nose wheel.
During taxiing, monitor engine temperatures. Due to low airflow around the radiators the CHT and Oil
temperature will rise during long taxi periods. If you are holding position, do not leave throttle at idle. It is
better you have some 2500 RPM as this will provide some airflow from the propeller to the radiators and
the temperatures will not rise so quickly. Should you see engine temperatures exceed safe operational
values, shut off the engine, point the aircraft’s nose into the wind and wait for the temperatures to
reduce.
Take off and initial climb
Having checked and set all engine and aircraft parameters, you should be ready for take-off by now.
Re-verify both fuel valves be open and the airbrakes retracted and locked (handle full up). Trim lever
should be in the middle.
Start the take-off roll gradually. Keep adding throttle slowly and smoothly full power. There are two
reasons for this. First, you change flight stage from zero movement to acceleration slowly; this pro-vides
you with time to react to conditions. Second, especially if taking-off from a gravel runway, this method of
adding full throttle will prevent the little stones on the runway from damaging the propeller. Extremely
short runways are an exception. There you should line up the aircraft, set flaps to 2nd stage, step on the
brakes, apply full power and release the brakes. As you start to move, pull the stick 1/3 of elevator’s
deflection backwards to ease the pressure on the nose wheel and lift it off the runway slightly. Do not use
full back deflection as this will cause the aircraft’s tail to touch the ground.
When the nose wheel has lifted off the ground, there is nothing else but to hold the same pitch attitude
and the aircraft will become airborne. Crosswind take-offs, depending on wind strength, require a little
bit of aileron deflection into the wind. Remember, wings must stay level throughout ground-roll, rotation
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
and initial climb! Having lifted off the ground, gently push the stick forward just a bit to accelerate. At
some 90 km/ h (50 kts) set flaps to 1st stage, at 110 km/h (60 kts) set them to neutral.
Climb
A comfortable setting for climb is flaps in neutral position, speed of 70 kts (130 km/h) at or slightly below
5500 RPM. In summer time or when outside temperature exceeds 30°C you should consider climbing at
some 85 kts (160 km/h) to provide more airflow to the engine radiators. Trim the aircraft for comfortable
stick forces.
Cruise
Passing through 85 kts (160 km/h), set flaps to negative position (handle full down). A comfortable cruise
setting is 5300 engine RPM. As the Virus is sensitive to flap settings, especially when it comes to fuel
efficiency, ALWAYS use negative stage of flaps beyond 85 kts (160 km/h) and neutral for level flight below
70 kts (130 km/h).
Cruising fast, do not kick-in rudder for turns! Above 85 kts (160 km/h) the rudder becomes almost
insignificant in comparison to aileron deflections when it comes to making a turn. Cruising fast, it is
extremely important to fly coordinated (ball in the middle) as this increases efficiency and de-creases
side-pressure onto vertical tail surfaces. Also, pay attention to turbulence. If you hit turbulence at speeds
greater than VRA, reduce power immediately and pull the nose up to reduce speed. If flying a traffic
pattern, keep flaps in neutral position and set engine power so that airspeed does not exceed 80 kts.
Descent
Descending with the Virus is the stage of flight where the most care should be taken. As the aircraft is
essentially a glider, it is very slippery and builds up speed very fast. Start the descent by reducing throttle
and keep your speed below VA. During initial descent it is recommended you trim for a 10 kts lower
speed than the one you decided to descent at. Do this for safety. In case you hit turbulence simply
release forward pressure on the stick and the aircraft will slow down. Also, keep in mind that you need
to begin your descent quite some time before reaching your destination. A comfortable rate of descent
is 500 fpm (2.5 m/s). So it takes you some 2 minutes for a 1000 ft (300 m) drop. At 105 kts (200 km/h)
this means 3.6 NM for each 1000 ft drop.
Entering the traffic pattern the aircraft must be slowing down. In order to do this, hold your altitude and
reduce throttle to idle. When going below 80 kts (150 km/h), set flaps to neutral position. Set proper
engine RPM to maintain speed of 70 kts (130 km/h). Trim the aircraft for comfortable stick forces. Before
turning to base-leg, reduce power to idle and set flaps to 1st stage at 60 kts (110 km/h). Once out of the
turn, reduce speed towards 55 kts (100 km/h). Power remains idle from the point of turning base all the
way to touch-down. If you plan your approach this way, you will always be on the safe side - even if your
engine fails, you will still be able to safely reach the runway!
Turn to final at 55 kts (100 km/h). When in runway heading, set flaps to 2nd stage. Operate the air-brakes
to obtain the desired descent path (if applicable).
How to determine how much airbrakes you need for a certain airspeed?
Open them half-way and observe the runway. If the runway threshold is moving up, you are dropping too
fast - retract the airbrakes a little. If the runway threshold is disappearing below your aircraft, you are
dropping too slowly - extend airbrakes further. When working on airbrakes, it is important to keep the
airspeed/pitch angle constant throughout final all the way to flare! The airbrakes will not impact your
speed, just rate (angle) of descent. For pilots who are not used to operating airbrakes but throttle
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
instead, keep in mind that airbrakes in Virus work just like throttle does: handle back equals less throttle,
handle forward equals more throttle.
CAUTION! Never drop the airbrakes handle when using them, keep holding the handle even if you are
not moving it!
Roundout (Flare) and touchdown
Your speed should be a constant 55 kts (100 km/h) throughout the final with the descent path constant
as well. At a height of 10 meters (25 feet) start a gentle flare and approach the aircraft must touch down
with the main (back) wheels first, so that you will not bounce on the runway. After touchdown, operate
the rudder pedals if necessary to maintain runway heading and try to have the nose wheel off the ground
for as long as possible. When the nose wheel is to touch the ground, rudder pedals MUST be exactly in
the middle not to cause damage to the steering mechanism. While braking, hold the stick back fully!
Once you have come to a standstill, retract flaps all the way to negative position (handle full down) and
retract and lock the airbrakes - handle full up.
Should you bounce off the runway after touch-down, do not, under any circumstances, push stick
forward or retract airbrakes. Spoilers (airbrakes) stay fully extended, the stick goes backwards slightly.
Bouncing tends to reduce by itself – just keep your aircraft pointed straight down the runway.
Crosswind landings, depending on the wind speed, require some sort of drift correction. Most efficient is
the low-wing method, where you are to lower the wing into the wind slightly and maintain course by
applying appropriate rudder deflection. You can also try the crab method.
Crosswind landings on paved runways (asphalt, concrete, tarmac...)
In this case, special attention must be paid to straightening the aircraft before touchdown in order not to
damage the undercarriage because of increased surface grip on impact. Should the crosswind
component be strong (8 kts and over), it is recommended to gently flare in such a manner, that one of
the main wheels touches down an instant before the other (e.g. if there is crosswind from your left, the
left wheel should touch down just before the right wheel does). This way the undercarriage is less likely
to be damaged due to side forces.
Landing in strong turbulence and/or gusty winds
First of all, approach airspeed must be increased for half of the value of wind gusts (e.g. if the wind is
gusting for 6 kts, add 3 kts to the final approach speed). In such conditions it is recommended to use only
the 1st stage of flaps for increased maneuverability. In very strong winds (20 kts and more), use neutral
flaps (0 deg.) for the complete approach and roundout.
Parking
Nothing special to add here. Taxi to the apron with flaps in negative position (minimum lift) and spoilers
retracted. Again, taxi slowly for reasons mentioned under “Taxi.”. Come to a standstill, shut down the
engine, insert the parachute rescue system activation handle’s safety pin, unlock and leave the airbrakes
handle hanging down freely (this reduces stress to airbrake plate’s springs and maintains their stiffness).
It is recommended to shut both fuel valves for longer parking or when parked on a slope.
11.2 Pilot operating advisories.
Parachute rescue system: use, handling and maintenance
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
GRS System description
The GRS rocket charged parachute rescue system provides you with a chance to rescue yourself from an
unexpected situation. The system is placed inside a durable cylinder mounted on the right hand side of
the baggage compartment. Inside this cylinder is the parachute which stored inside a deployment bag
with a rocket engine underneath. This brand new design deploys a canopy that is not gradually drawn
from the container, exposed to distortion by air currents, but it is safely open after 0.4 to 0.7 seconds in
distance of 15-18 meters above the aircraft. It is carried there in a special deployment bag, which
decreases the risk of aircraft debris fouling the canopy. The parachute rescue system is activated
manually, by pulling the activation handle mounted on the back wall above. After being fired, the man
canopy is open and fully inflated in about 3.2 seconds.
WARNING! Activation handle safety pin should be inserted when the aircraft is parked or hangared to
prevent accidental deployment. However, the instant pilot boards the aircraft, safety pin MUST be
removed!
Typical situations for use of the parachute rescue system are:
structural failure
mid-air collision
loss of control over aircraft
engine failure over hostile terrain
pilot incapacitation (incl. heart attack, stroke, temp. blindness, disorientation...)
Prior to firing the system, provided time allows:
shut down the engine and set master switch to OFF (key in full left position)
shut both fuel valves
fasten safety harnesses tightly
protect your face and body.
To deploy the parachute jerk the activation handle hard to a length of at least 1 foot towards the
instrument panel.
Once you have pulled the handle and the rocked is deployed, it will be about two seconds before you feel
the impact produced by two forces. The first force is produced by stretching of all the sys-tem. The
second force follows after the inflation of the canopy from opening impact and it will seem to you that
the aircraft is pulled backwards briefly. The airspeed is reduced instantly and the aircraft now starts to
descent underneath the canopy.
CAUTION! Should you end up in power lines (carrying electrical current), DO NOT under any
circumstances touch any metal parts inside or outside the cockpit. This also applies to anyone attempting
to help or rescue you. Be aware that anyone touching any part of the aircraft while standing on the
ground will probably suffer mayor injury or die of electrocution. Therefore, you are strongly encouraged
to confine your movements until qualified rescue personal arrives at the site to assist you.
After the parachute rescue system has been used or if you suspect any possible damage to the sys-tem,
do not hesitate and immediately contact the manufacturer!
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AIRCRAFT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS – VIRUS 912 S-LSA GLIDER
GRS Handling and maintenance
Prior to every flight all visible parts of the system must be checked for proper condition. Special attention
should be paid to corrosion on the activation handle inside the cockpit. Also, main fastening straps on the
outside of the fuselage must be undamaged at all times. Furthermore, neither system, nor any of its parts
should be exposed to moisture, vibration and UV radiation for long periods of time to ensure proper
system operation and life.
CAUTION! It is strongly recommenced to thoroughly inspect and grease the activation handle, preferably
using silicon spray, every 50 flight hours. All major repairs and damage repairs MUST be done by the
manufacturer or authorized service personnel.
For all details concerning the GRS rescue system, please see the “GRS - Galaxy Rescue System Manual for
Assembly and Use”.
12. MAINTENANCE MANUAL. (See separate document)
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