SMS User Manual (v12.2)

SMS User Manual (v12.2)
The Surface Water Modeling System
SMS 12.2
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 15
What is SMS? ...................................................................................................................................... 15
Tutorials ............................................................................................................................................... 15
Sample Problems ................................................................................................................................. 17
Highlights............................................................................................................................................. 17
What's New in SMS 12.2 ..................................................................................................................... 24
1.1. Support................................................................................................................................................ 25
Support ................................................................................................................................................. 25
System Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 25
Downloads ........................................................................................................................................... 27
FTP Site Info ........................................................................................................................................ 27
License Agreement .............................................................................................................................. 28
Introduction to Setting up SMS............................................................................................................ 55
Registering SMS .................................................................................................................................. 57
Community Edition .............................................................................................................................. 58
Hardware Locks ................................................................................................................................... 58
Graphics Card Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................... 60
Report Bug ........................................................................................................................................... 63
1.2. General Information ............................................................................................................................ 64
General Interface Features ................................................................................................................... 64
Keyboard Shortcuts .............................................................................................................................. 65
Publications .......................................................................................................................................... 66
1.3. Layout ................................................................................................................................................. 70
Layout .................................................................................................................................................. 71
Data Toolbar ........................................................................................................................................ 72
Toolbars ............................................................................................................................................... 72
Static Tools .......................................................................................................................................... 73
Dynamic Tools ..................................................................................................................................... 74
Edit Window ........................................................................................................................................ 75
Graphics Window ................................................................................................................................ 76
Help or Status Window ........................................................................................................................ 77
Macros ................................................................................................................................................. 77
Project Explorer ................................................................................................................................... 78
Time Step Window .............................................................................................................................. 80
1.3.1. SMS Menus ..................................................................................................................................... 80
SMS Menus.......................................................................................................................................... 80
File Menu ............................................................................................................................................. 82
Edit Menu ............................................................................................................................................ 84
Display Menu ....................................................................................................................................... 86
Web Menu............................................................................................................................................ 88
Window Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 88
Help Menu ........................................................................................................................................... 89
Project Explorer Right-Click Menus .................................................................................................... 89
2. Functionalities ....................................................................................................................................... 91
Breaklines ............................................................................................................................................ 91
Object Info ........................................................................................................................................... 92
Materials Data ...................................................................................................................................... 95
Get Online Maps .................................................................................................................................. 97
XMS Print Layout ................................................................................................................................ 98
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SMS 12.2
CAD Data .......................................................................................................................................... 102
2.1. 2D Plots ............................................................................................................................................ 104
Plot Window ...................................................................................................................................... 104
Computed vs. Observed Data ............................................................................................................. 106
Error Summary................................................................................................................................... 107
Error vs. Simulation Plot .................................................................................................................... 107
Error vs. Time Step Plot ..................................................................................................................... 108
Observation Profile ............................................................................................................................ 109
Profile Customization Dialog ............................................................................................................. 111
Residual vs. Observed Data ............................................................................................................... 112
Time Series ........................................................................................................................................ 113
Time Series Data File ......................................................................................................................... 114
Time Series Plot ................................................................................................................................. 115
ARR Mesh Quality Assessment Plot ................................................................................................. 116
2.2. Animation(Film Loop) ...................................................................................................................... 118
Animations ......................................................................................................................................... 118
Film Loop Display Options ................................................................................................................ 120
Film Loop Drogue Plot Options ......................................................................................................... 121
Film Loop Flow Trace Options .......................................................................................................... 121
Film Loop General Options ............................................................................................................... 122
Film Loop Multiple Views ................................................................................................................. 123
Film Loop Time Step Options ........................................................................................................... 124
2.3. Projections ........................................................................................................................................ 125
Projections ......................................................................................................................................... 125
Projection Dialogs .............................................................................................................................. 127
CPP Coordinate System ..................................................................................................................... 130
Geographic Coordinate System.......................................................................................................... 130
2.3.a. UTM Coordinate System ............................................................................................................... 131
UTM Coordinate System ................................................................................................................... 131
UTM Africa ....................................................................................................................................... 132
UTM Asia .......................................................................................................................................... 133
UTM Australia ................................................................................................................................... 134
UTM Europe ...................................................................................................................................... 134
UTM North America .......................................................................................................................... 134
UTM South American ........................................................................................................................ 135
2.3.b. State Plane Coordinate System ...................................................................................................... 136
State Plane Coordinate System .......................................................................................................... 136
Alaska State Plane.............................................................................................................................. 137
Hawaii State Plane ............................................................................................................................. 137
Mideast State Plane ............................................................................................................................ 138
Midwest State Plane ........................................................................................................................... 139
New England State Plane ................................................................................................................... 140
Northwest State Plane ........................................................................................................................ 141
South Central State Plane ................................................................................................................... 143
South East State Plane........................................................................................................................ 144
Southwest State Plane ........................................................................................................................ 145
Virginia Area State Plane ................................................................................................................... 146
2.4. Datasets ............................................................................................................................................. 147
Datasets .............................................................................................................................................. 147
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Dataset Toolbox ................................................................................................................................. 149
Data Calculator .................................................................................................................................. 152
Smooth Dataset .................................................................................................................................. 154
Metadata............................................................................................................................................. 155
2.5. Display Options ................................................................................................................................ 156
Display Options ................................................................................................................................. 156
Color Options ..................................................................................................................................... 159
Functional Surfaces ............................................................................................................................ 161
Lighting Options ................................................................................................................................ 163
Raster Options .................................................................................................................................... 165
General Display Options .................................................................................................................... 166
Z Magnification ................................................................................................................................. 168
Contour Options ................................................................................................................................. 169
Vector Display Options ...................................................................................................................... 172
Visualization for 3D Solutions ........................................................................................................... 174
2.6. File Import Wizards .......................................................................................................................... 174
File Import Wizard ............................................................................................................................. 174
File Import Filter Options .................................................................................................................. 175
File Import Wizard Supported File Formats ...................................................................................... 176
2.7. Export Options .................................................................................................................................. 179
Export Tabular File ............................................................................................................................ 179
Exporting Profile Dialog .................................................................................................................... 180
Export Dataset Dialog ........................................................................................................................ 181
2.8. Geometric Tools ............................................................................................................................... 182
Data Transform .................................................................................................................................. 182
Zonal Classification ........................................................................................................................... 183
2.9. Images ............................................................................................................................................... 188
Images ................................................................................................................................................ 188
Image Pyramids ................................................................................................................................. 192
Import from Web ............................................................................................................................... 192
Registering an Image ......................................................................................................................... 196
Save as Image .................................................................................................................................... 198
Web Service for Background Imagery ............................................................................................... 198
2.10. Preferences ...................................................................................................................................... 199
Preferences ......................................................................................................................................... 199
Time Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 203
2.11 Cross Sections .................................................................................................................................. 204
Editing Cross Sections ....................................................................................................................... 204
Managing Cross Sections ................................................................................................................... 206
2.12. Spectral Energy ............................................................................................................................... 206
Spectral Energy .................................................................................................................................. 206
Create Spectral Energy Grid .............................................................................................................. 208
Generate/Edit Spectra ........................................................................................................................ 208
Import Spectra .................................................................................................................................... 210
Spectral Grid Properties ..................................................................................................................... 213
Spectral Events................................................................................................................................... 213
2.13. Datasets(VTK) ................................................................................................................................ 214
Datasets VTK ..................................................................................................................................... 214
Conversions Scalar/Vector ................................................................................................................. 216
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Dataset Calculator VTK ..................................................................................................................... 217
Interpolation VTK .............................................................................................................................. 218
3. Modules ............................................................................................................................................... 219
Modules ............................................................................................................................................. 220
Annotations ........................................................................................................................................ 220
3.1. 1D Grid Module ................................................................................................................................ 228
1D Grid Module ................................................................................................................................. 228
1D Grid Display Options ................................................................................................................... 229
1D Grid Tools .................................................................................................................................... 230
3.2. Cartesian Grid Module...................................................................................................................... 231
Cartesian Grid Module ....................................................................................................................... 231
Cartesian Grid Coordinates ................................................................................................................ 235
Cartesian Grid Data Menu ................................................................................................................. 236
Cartesian Grid Module Display Options ............................................................................................ 239
Cartesian Grid Tools .......................................................................................................................... 240
Grid Frame Properties ........................................................................................................................ 241
Grid Smoothing .................................................................................................................................. 243
Refine Point Dialog............................................................................................................................ 243
3.3. Curvilinear Grid Module .................................................................................................................. 244
Curvilinear Grid Module .................................................................................................................... 244
Curvilinear Grid Display Options ...................................................................................................... 246
Curvilinear Grid Module Tools .......................................................................................................... 246
3.4. GIS Module ...................................................................................................................................... 248
GIS Module........................................................................................................................................ 248
Importing Shapefiles .......................................................................................................................... 250
GIS Module Tools.............................................................................................................................. 251
GIS Module Menus ............................................................................................................................ 252
GIS Conversion and Editing .............................................................................................................. 256
GIS Module Display Options ............................................................................................................. 262
ArcObjects ......................................................................................................................................... 263
GIS to Feature Objects Wizard .......................................................................................................... 263
3.5. Map Module ..................................................................................................................................... 264
Map Module ....................................................................................................................................... 264
3.5.a. Coverage Types ............................................................................................................................. 266
Coverages........................................................................................................................................... 267
3.5.a.1. Generic Coverages ...................................................................................................................... 269
Generic Coverages ............................................................................................................................. 269
Activity Classification Coverage ....................................................................................................... 270
Area Property Coverage ..................................................................................................................... 270
Feature Stamping ............................................................................................................................... 271
Mapping Coverage ............................................................................................................................. 274
Observations ...................................................................................................................................... 276
Particle/Drogue .................................................................................................................................. 279
Spatial Data ........................................................................................................................................ 280
Spectral Coverage .............................................................................................................................. 282
3.5.a.2. Model Specific Coverages .......................................................................................................... 283
Model Specific Coverages ................................................................................................................. 283
1D Hyd Centerline Coverage ............................................................................................................. 285
1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage........................................................................................................ 286
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ADCIRC ............................................................................................................................................ 289
ADCIRC Wind Coverage .................................................................................................................. 290
ADH Vessel ....................................................................................................................................... 294
CMS-Flow Coverages ........................................................................................................................ 296
ESMF – Earth System Modeling Framework .................................................................................... 298
Generic Model Coverage ................................................................................................................... 300
SED-ZLJ ............................................................................................................................................ 301
Synthetic Storm Coverage ................................................................................................................. 302
3.5.b. Interface Components .................................................................................................................... 303
Interface Components ........................................................................................................................ 303
Map Module Display Options ............................................................................................................ 304
Map Feature Objects Menu ................................................................................................................ 305
Map Module Tools ............................................................................................................................. 307
Project Explorer Items ....................................................................................................................... 311
3.5.c. Functionalities ................................................................................................................................ 312
Feature Objects Types ........................................................................................................................ 312
Attributes in the Feature Objects Menu ............................................................................................. 315
Map Module Selection ....................................................................................................................... 318
3.5.c.1. Feature Object Creation .............................................................................................................. 319
Digitize............................................................................................................................................... 320
Build Polygons ................................................................................................................................... 321
3.5.c.2. Feature Object Modification ....................................................................................................... 321
Feature Object Modification: All ....................................................................................................... 321
Converting Coverages ........................................................................................................................ 322
Converting Feature Objects ............................................................................................................... 323
Unstructured Grid Generation from a Conceptual Model .................................................................. 327
Select/Delete Data... ........................................................................................................................... 328
Arcs .................................................................................................................................................... 329
Arc Size Function .............................................................................................................................. 335
Feature Object Commands ................................................................................................................. 338
3.6. Mesh Module .................................................................................................................................... 341
Mesh Module ..................................................................................................................................... 341
3.6.a. Mesh Generation ............................................................................................................................ 344
Mesh Generation ................................................................................................................................ 344
Refine Attributes Dialog .................................................................................................................... 346
2D Mesh Options Dialog ................................................................................................................... 347
2D Mesh Polygon Properties ............................................................................................................. 347
Advancing Front Triangulation .......................................................................................................... 349
Mesh Node Triangulation .................................................................................................................. 349
Merge 2D Meshes .............................................................................................................................. 350
Patch................................................................................................................................................... 353
Patches ............................................................................................................................................... 354
Paving ................................................................................................................................................ 356
Adaptive Tesselation .......................................................................................................................... 357
Size Function ..................................................................................................................................... 357
3.6.b. Interface Components .................................................................................................................... 358
3.6.b.1. Mesh Module Display Options ................................................................................................... 358
Mesh Module Display Options .......................................................................................................... 358
Mesh Quality ...................................................................................................................................... 359
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3.6.b.2. 2D Mesh Module Tools .............................................................................................................. 360
2D Mesh Module Tools ..................................................................................................................... 360
Editing 2D Meshes ............................................................................................................................. 363
2D Mesh Module Tools Right-Click Menus ...................................................................................... 365
3.6.b.3. 2D Mesh Module Menus ............................................................................................................ 366
2D Mesh Module Menus.................................................................................................................... 366
2D Mesh Nodestrings Menu .............................................................................................................. 367
Mesh Data Menu ................................................................................................................................ 369
3.6.b.3.1. 2D Mesh Elements Menu......................................................................................................... 371
2D Mesh Elements Menu ................................................................................................................... 371
Element types ..................................................................................................................................... 373
Boundary Triangles ............................................................................................................................ 375
Convert Elements ............................................................................................................................... 376
Mesh Element Options ....................................................................................................................... 378
3.6.b.3.2. 2D Mesh Nodes Menu ............................................................................................................. 380
2D Mesh Nodes Menu ....................................................................................................................... 380
2D Mesh Node Options Dialog .......................................................................................................... 382
Renumber ........................................................................................................................................... 383
Reduce Nodal Connectivity ............................................................................................................... 384
3.7 Particle Module .................................................................................................................................. 385
Particle Module .................................................................................................................................. 386
Particle Module Display Options ....................................................................................................... 387
Particle Module Menus ...................................................................................................................... 388
Extract Particle Subset ....................................................................................................................... 389
3.7.a. Particle Module Datasets ............................................................................................................... 389
Particle Grid Dataset Bin Elevations .................................................................................................. 389
Particle Module Compute Grid Datasets ............................................................................................ 390
Particle Module Create Datasets ........................................................................................................ 391
PTM Create Grid Datasets – Fence Diagrams ................................................................................... 392
3.8 Quadtree Module ............................................................................................................................... 392
Quadtree Module ............................................................................................................................... 393
Telescoping Grids .............................................................................................................................. 395
Quadtree Tools ................................................................................................................................... 396
Quadtree Menus ................................................................................................................................. 397
Quadtree Display Options .................................................................................................................. 398
3.9 Raster Module .................................................................................................................................... 399
Raster Module .................................................................................................................................... 399
Raster Functionalities ......................................................................................................................... 400
Raster Module Interface ..................................................................................................................... 401
3.10 Scatter Module ................................................................................................................................. 403
Scatter Module ................................................................................................................................... 403
3.10.a. Interface Components .................................................................................................................. 406
Scatter Module Display Options ........................................................................................................ 407
Scatter Project Explorer Items ........................................................................................................... 408
Scatter Module Tools ......................................................................................................................... 408
3.10.a.1. Scatter Module Menus .............................................................................................................. 412
Scatter Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 412
Scatter Data Menu.............................................................................................................................. 415
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SMS 12.2
Scatter Breakline Menu ...................................................................................................................... 417
Scatter Triangles Menu ...................................................................................................................... 417
Scatter Vertices Menu ........................................................................................................................ 419
3.10.b. Functionalities .............................................................................................................................. 420
Scatter Options ................................................................................................................................... 420
Scalar Value Options ......................................................................................................................... 422
Use of DEMs in the Scatter Module .................................................................................................. 423
Scatter Breakline Options .................................................................................................................. 423
Process Boundary Triangles ............................................................................................................... 425
Interpolate to Scatter Set .................................................................................................................... 425
Generate Contour Breaklines ............................................................................................................. 426
3.10.c. Scatter Interpolation ..................................................................................................................... 426
Scatter Interpolation ........................................................................................................................... 426
Laplacian Interpolation ...................................................................................................................... 428
Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation ........................................................................................... 429
Natural Neighbor Interpolation .......................................................................................................... 433
Linear Interpolation ........................................................................................................................... 435
4. General Numeric Models ..................................................................................................................... 435
SMS Models ...................................................................................................................................... 435
Simulations ........................................................................................................................................ 438
Model Checker ................................................................................................................................... 439
4.1. Generic Model .................................................................................................................................. 441
Generic Model ................................................................................................................................... 441
Generic Model Files ........................................................................................................................... 442
Generic Model Graphical Interface .................................................................................................... 443
4.2. Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) .............................................................................. 446
FVCOM ............................................................................................................................................. 446
4.3. Particle Tracking Model (PTM)........................................................................................................ 448
PTM ................................................................................................................................................... 448
PTM Model Control ........................................................................................................................... 450
PTM Graphical Interface ................................................................................................................... 453
PTM Particle Filters ........................................................................................................................... 454
PTM Traps ......................................................................................................................................... 455
4.3.a. PTM Coverages ............................................................................................................................. 456
PTM Gage Coverage .......................................................................................................................... 456
4.3.a.1. PTM Sources ............................................................................................................................... 457
PTM Sources...................................................................................................................................... 457
PTM Arc Attributes Dialog................................................................................................................ 458
PTM Feature Point Attributes Dialog ................................................................................................ 459
4.3.b. PTM Files ...................................................................................................................................... 460
PTM Files .......................................................................................................................................... 460
PTM Control File ............................................................................................................................... 461
PTM Sediment File ............................................................................................................................ 471
PTM Source File ................................................................................................................................ 473
PTM Wave File .................................................................................................................................. 477
PTM Trap File.................................................................................................................................... 478
PTM Trap Output ............................................................................................................................... 480
PTM Boundary Condition File .......................................................................................................... 481
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SMS 12.2
4.4. TUFLOW FV.................................................................................................................................... 481
TUFLOW FV ..................................................................................................................................... 481
5. Coastal Numeric Models ..................................................................................................................... 482
5.1. ADCIRC (Advanced Circulation) Model ......................................................................................... 482
ADCIRC ............................................................................................................................................ 483
ADCIRC Database ............................................................................................................................. 486
ADCIRC Files .................................................................................................................................... 487
ADCIRC Graphical Interface ............................................................................................................. 488
ADCIRC Menu .................................................................................................................................. 489
ADCIRC Mesh................................................................................................................................... 490
ADCIRC Model Control .................................................................................................................... 498
ADCIRC Spatial Attributes ............................................................................................................... 501
LTEA ................................................................................................................................................. 505
5.1.a. ADCIRC Boundary Conditions ..................................................................................................... 510
ADCIRC Boundary Conditions ......................................................................................................... 510
ADCIRC Weirs and Island Barriers ................................................................................................... 512
5.2. BOUSS-2D – A Boussinesq Wave Model for Coastal Regions and Harbors ................................... 515
BOUSS-2D ........................................................................................................................................ 515
BOUSS-2D Using the Model ............................................................................................................. 519
BOUSS-2D Simulations .................................................................................................................... 523
BOUSS-2D Calculators ..................................................................................................................... 525
BOUSS-2D Files ................................................................................................................................ 527
BOUSS-2D Graphical Interface ......................................................................................................... 527
BOUSS-2D Model Control ................................................................................................................ 530
BOUSS-2D Parameter File ................................................................................................................ 532
BOUSS-2D Probes............................................................................................................................. 534
5.3. BOUSS Runup/Overtopping ............................................................................................................. 536
BOUSS Runup / Overtopping ............................................................................................................ 537
BOUSS Runup / Overtopping Model Control ................................................................................... 540
BOUSS Runup / Overtopping Input Files .......................................................................................... 541
BOUSS Runup / Overtopping Viewing Data ..................................................................................... 542
5.4. CGWAVE ......................................................................................................................................... 543
CGWAVE .......................................................................................................................................... 543
CGWAVE Graphical Interface .......................................................................................................... 550
CGWAVE Files ................................................................................................................................. 552
CGWAVE Math Details: Governing Equations ................................................................................ 555
CGWAVE Math Details: Boundary Conditions ................................................................................ 558
CGWAVE Math Details: Numerical Solution ................................................................................... 562
CGWAVE Model Control ................................................................................................................. 563
CGWAVE Incident Wave Conditions ............................................................................................... 564
Long Wave Input Toolbox ................................................................................................................. 565
CGWAVE Boundary Conditions Dialog ........................................................................................... 567
CGWAVE Practical Notes ................................................................................................................. 568
CGWAVE Test Cases ........................................................................................................................ 570
5.5. Coastal Modeling System ................................................................................................................. 573
CMS ................................................................................................................................................... 573
CMS-Flow/CMS-Wave Steering ....................................................................................................... 573
5.5.a. CMS-Flow ..................................................................................................................................... 574
CMS-Flow ......................................................................................................................................... 575
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SMS 12.2
CMS-Flow Coverages ........................................................................................................................ 577
CMS-Flow Simulation ....................................................................................................................... 580
CMS-Flow Menu ............................................................................................................................... 581
CMS-Flow Model Control ................................................................................................................. 582
CMS-Flow Files ................................................................................................................................. 596
CMS-Flow Spatial Datasets ............................................................................................................... 599
Lund Cirp and Watanabe Formula ..................................................................................................... 600
5.5.b. CMS-Wave .................................................................................................................................... 601
CMS-Wave ........................................................................................................................................ 601
CMS-Wave Cell Attributes Dialog .................................................................................................... 603
CMS-Wave Graphical Interface ......................................................................................................... 605
CMS-Wave Menu .............................................................................................................................. 605
CMS-Wave Model Control ................................................................................................................ 606
5.5.b.1. CMS-WAVE Files ...................................................................................................................... 607
CMS-Wave Files ................................................................................................................................ 607
CMS-Wave Control File .................................................................................................................... 609
CMS-Wave Depth File....................................................................................................................... 613
CMS-Wave Monitoring Station Output File ...................................................................................... 614
CMS-Wave Simulation File ............................................................................................................... 615
CMS-Wave Spectral Energy File ....................................................................................................... 616
CMS-Wave Spectral Table File ......................................................................................................... 617
CMS-Wave STD ................................................................................................................................ 618
CMS-Wave Structure File .................................................................................................................. 619
5.6. GenCade ........................................................................................................................................... 620
GenCade............................................................................................................................................. 621
GenCade Files .................................................................................................................................... 622
GenCade Modeling Process ............................................................................................................... 623
5.6.a. GenCade Graphical interface ......................................................................................................... 624
GenCade Graphical Interface ............................................................................................................. 624
GenCade Arc Attributes ..................................................................................................................... 626
GenCade Events ................................................................................................................................. 626
GenCade Menu .................................................................................................................................. 627
GenCade Model Control Dialog ........................................................................................................ 628
GenCade Result Visualization ........................................................................................................... 630
GenCade Structures ........................................................................................................................... 630
Wave Gages ....................................................................................................................................... 633
5.7. STWAVE – Steady State Spectral Wave .......................................................................................... 634
STWAVE ........................................................................................................................................... 634
Grid Nesting ....................................................................................................................................... 637
STWAVE Graphical Interface ........................................................................................................... 639
STWAVE Menu................................................................................................................................. 639
STWAVE Model Control .................................................................................................................. 640
5.8. WAM – Wave Prediction Model ...................................................................................................... 643
WAM ................................................................................................................................................. 643
WAM Map to Raster Utility .............................................................................................................. 644
5.8.a. WAM Graphical Interface ............................................................................................................. 644
WAM Graphical Interface ................................................................................................................. 644
WAM Grid Options ........................................................................................................................... 648
WAM Simulation Model Control ...................................................................................................... 650
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SMS 12.2
WAM Spectra from STWAVE Grids ................................................................................................ 651
6. Riverine and Estuarine Models ............................................................................................................ 653
6.1. ADH – Adaptive Hydraulics Modeling ............................................................................................ 653
ADH ................................................................................................................................................... 653
ADH Bed Layers Assignment ............................................................................................................ 656
ADH Boat Definition File Cards........................................................................................................ 657
ADH Extract WSE ............................................................................................................................. 658
ADH Hot Start File ............................................................................................................................ 659
ADH Hot Start Initial Conditions ...................................................................................................... 660
ADH Material Properties ................................................................................................................... 660
ADH Run Model ................................................................................................................................ 661
ADH Time Series ............................................................................................................................... 662
ADH Time Series Attributes .............................................................................................................. 664
ADH Wind Stations ........................................................................................................................... 664
6.1.a. ADH Boundary Condition ............................................................................................................. 665
ADH Boundary Condition ................................................................................................................. 665
ADH Boundary Condition File Cards ................................................................................................ 668
6.1.b. ADH Model Control ...................................................................................................................... 672
ADH Model Control .......................................................................................................................... 672
ADH Model Control Model Parameters ............................................................................................ 673
ADH Model Control Iterations .......................................................................................................... 674
ADH Model Control Time ................................................................................................................. 676
ADH Model Control Output .............................................................................................................. 677
ADH Model Control Global Material Properties ............................................................................... 678
ADH Model Control Advanced ......................................................................................................... 679
ADH Model Control Solver ............................................................................................................... 680
6.1.c. ADH Library Control ..................................................................................................................... 681
ADH Sediment Library Control ......................................................................................................... 681
ADH Consolidation ........................................................................................................................... 683
ADH Transport Constituents ............................................................................................................. 683
ADH Sediment Transport and Bed Layers ........................................................................................ 684
6.2. Finite Element Surface Water Modeling System (FESWMS) .......................................................... 686
FESWMS ........................................................................................................................................... 686
FESWMS Arc Attributes Dialog ....................................................................................................... 689
FESWMS BC Nodestrings................................................................................................................. 689
FESWMS Executable Known Issues ................................................................................................. 690
FESWMS Files .................................................................................................................................. 692
FESWMS Graphical Interface ........................................................................................................... 693
FESWMS Hydraulic Structures ......................................................................................................... 694
FESWMS Material Properties ........................................................................................................... 699
FESWMS Menu ................................................................................................................................. 700
FESWMS Model Control Dialog ....................................................................................................... 702
FESWMS Point Attributes Dialog ..................................................................................................... 706
FESWMS Sediment Control .............................................................................................................. 706
FESWMS Spindown .......................................................................................................................... 708
6.3 HEC-RAS – Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System............................................. 709
HEC-RAS .......................................................................................................................................... 709
6.4. HYDRO AS-2D ................................................................................................................................ 711
HYDRO AS-2D ................................................................................................................................. 711
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6.5. SRH-2D: Sedimentation and River Hydraulics – Two-Dimensional ............................................... 713
SRH-2D ............................................................................................................................................. 713
SRH-2D Coverages ............................................................................................................................ 717
SRH-2D Boundary Conditions .......................................................................................................... 720
SRH-2D Files ..................................................................................................................................... 723
SRH-2D Menu ................................................................................................................................... 729
SRH-2D Material Properties .............................................................................................................. 729
SRH-2D Model Control ..................................................................................................................... 730
SRH-2D Populate Dialog ................................................................................................................... 732
SRH-2D Simulation ........................................................................................................................... 734
SRH-2D Structures ............................................................................................................................ 735
6.6. Steering ............................................................................................................................................. 738
Steering .............................................................................................................................................. 738
6.7. TABS-MD (Multi-Dimensional) Numerical Modeling System – RMA2/RMA4 ............................ 738
TABS ................................................................................................................................................. 739
TABS Attribute Dialog ...................................................................................................................... 740
Total Flow Nodestring ....................................................................................................................... 740
6.7.a. GFGEN .......................................................................................................................................... 741
GFGEN .............................................................................................................................................. 741
GFGEN Executable Known Issues .................................................................................................... 742
6.7.b. RMA2 – Resource Management Associates .................................................................................. 743
RMA2 ................................................................................................................................................ 743
Nodal Transition (Marsh Porosity) Dialog......................................................................................... 745
Rainfall Values Dialog ....................................................................................................................... 746
RMA2 1D Control Structures ............................................................................................................ 746
RMA2 Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................................. 748
RMA2 Files ........................................................................................................................................ 752
RMA2 Graphical Interface ................................................................................................................. 753
RMA2 Material Properties ................................................................................................................. 754
RMA2 Menu ...................................................................................................................................... 755
RMA2 Model Control Dialog ............................................................................................................ 756
RMA2 Spindown ............................................................................................................................... 760
Roughness Options Dialog................................................................................................................. 761
RMA2 GCL Card ............................................................................................................................... 762
6.7.c. RMA4 – Resource Management Associates .................................................................................. 763
RMA4 ................................................................................................................................................ 763
RMA4 Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................................. 765
RMA4 Graphical Interface ................................................................................................................. 766
RMA4 Material Properties ................................................................................................................. 767
RMA4 Model Control ........................................................................................................................ 768
6.8. TUFLOW – Two-dimensional Unsteady FLOW ............................................................................. 769
TUFLOW ........................................................................................................................................... 769
TUFLOW Simulation ........................................................................................................................ 772
Define TUFLOW domain .................................................................................................................. 774
TUFLOW Coverages ......................................................................................................................... 775
TUFLOW Menu................................................................................................................................. 783
Command Objects .............................................................................................................................. 785
Reading a TUFLOW Simulation ....................................................................................................... 786
TUFLOW 2D Geometry Components ............................................................................................... 794
Page 12
SMS 12.2
TUFLOW AD .................................................................................................................................... 795
TUFLOW Boundary Conditions ........................................................................................................ 797
TUFLOW Check Files ....................................................................................................................... 799
TUFLOW Combining 1D and 2D Domains ...................................................................................... 799
TUFLOW Flow Constriction Shapes ................................................................................................. 801
TUFLOW Grid Options ..................................................................................................................... 806
TUFLOW Inlet Database ................................................................................................................... 807
TUFLOW Irregular Culverts ............................................................................................................. 808
TUFLOW Linking 2D Domains ........................................................................................................ 808
TUFLOW Manholes .......................................................................................................................... 809
TUFLOW Material Properties ........................................................................................................... 810
TUFLOW Model Parameters ............................................................................................................. 811
TUFLOW Network Node Attributes ................................................................................................. 815
TUFLOW ZShape .............................................................................................................................. 817
7. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................. 819
Bugfixes SMS .................................................................................................................................... 820
FHWA:2010 Webinars ...................................................................................................................... 844
Dialog Help ........................................................................................................................................ 844
7.1. Dynamic Model Interface ................................................................................................................. 861
Dynamic Model Interface Schema ..................................................................................................... 861
7.2. File Support ...................................................................................................................................... 912
XMDF ................................................................................................................................................ 912
7.2.a. File Formats ................................................................................................................................... 913
File Formats ....................................................................................................................................... 913
2D Mesh Files *.2dm ......................................................................................................................... 914
2D Scatter Point Files ........................................................................................................................ 944
2D Grid Files...................................................................................................................................... 946
ARC/INFO® ASCII Grid Files *.arc ................................................................................................. 949
ASCII Dataset Files *.dat................................................................................................................... 950
Binary Dataset Files *.dat .................................................................................................................. 955
Boundary ID Files .............................................................................................................................. 960
Boundary XY Files ............................................................................................................................ 961
Coastline Files *.cst ........................................................................................................................... 962
Color Palette Files *.pal ..................................................................................................................... 963
Drogue Files *.pth .............................................................................................................................. 963
File Extensions ................................................................................................................................... 964
Fleet Wind Files ................................................................................................................................. 966
Importing Non-Native SMS Files ...................................................................................................... 967
KMZ Files .......................................................................................................................................... 968
LandXML Files .................................................................................................................................. 969
Lidar Support ..................................................................................................................................... 970
Map Files ........................................................................................................................................... 971
MapInfo MID/MIF............................................................................................................................. 972
Material Files *.mat ........................................................................................................................... 973
MIKE 21 *.mesh ................................................................................................................................ 974
Native SMS Files ............................................................................................................................... 975
NOAA HURDAT .............................................................................................................................. 977
Quad4 Files ........................................................................................................................................ 979
Settings Files *.ini .............................................................................................................................. 980
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SMS 12.2
Shapefiles ........................................................................................................................................... 980
SMS Super Files *.sup ....................................................................................................................... 981
Tabular Data Files - SHOALS *.pts .................................................................................................. 982
TIN Files ............................................................................................................................................ 982
XY Series Files .................................................................................................................................. 986
XY Series Editor ................................................................................................................................ 987
XYZ Files .......................................................................................................................................... 988
Generic Vector/Raster Files ............................................................................................................... 989
7.2.b. GSDA ............................................................................................................................................ 989
GSDA................................................................................................................................................. 989
GSDA:Digital Elevation .................................................................................................................... 990
GSDA:Hydrography Data .................................................................................................................. 994
GSDA:Imagery .................................................................................................................................. 997
GSDA:Meteorologic Data ................................................................................................................ 1001
GSDA:Oceanic Data ........................................................................................................................ 1004
GSDA:Surface Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 1005
7.3. Archives .......................................................................................................................................... 1010
Archive Features .............................................................................................................................. 1010
Archived Models .............................................................................................................................. 1010
Page 14
SMS 12.2
Page 15
1. Introduction
What is SMS?
SMS (Surface-water Modeling System) is a complete program for building and simulating surface water models. It is
a graphical user interface and analysis tool that allows engineers and scientists to visualize, manipulate, analyze, and
understand numerical data and associated measurements. Many of the tools in SMS are generic. They are designed to
facilitate the establishment and operation of numerical models of rivers, coasts, inlets, bays, estuaries, and lakes. It
features 1D and 2D modeling and a unique conceptual model approach. Some of the currently supported models in
SMS include ADCIRC , BOUSS-2D , CGWAVE , CMS-Flow , CMS-WAVE (WABED) , FESWMS , GenCade ,
PTM , STWAVE , TABS , and TUFLOW .
Introduction to SMS

The Highlights provide a summary of SMS capabilities.

The SMS Tutorials are step-by-step guides for building models and using SMS features. They are an excellent
place to begin learning how to use SMS.

See Layout of the Graphical Interface for more information on the organization of the toolbars, menus, and
windows in SMS.

Much of the SMS functionality is divided into Modules based upon the type of data (grids, meshes, GIS, etc).
SMS also contains features that are not tied to specific modules.

SMS supports a number of Numerical Models with a variety of uses including hydraulics, wave modeling, and
particle tracking.
History
SMS was initially developed by the Engineering Computer Graphics Laboratory (later renamed in September, 1998 to
Environmental Modeling Research Laboratory or EMRL) at Brigham Young University in the late 1980s on Unix
workstations. The development of SMS was funded primarily by The United States Army Corps of Engineers . It was
later ported to Microsoft Windows platforms in the mid 1990s and support for HP-UX, IRIX, DEC-OSF, and Solaris
platforms was discontinued.
In April 2007, the main software development team at EMRL entered private enterprise as Aquaveo LLC . and
continue to develop SMS and other software products, such as WMS (Watershed Modeling System) and GMS
(Groundwater Modeling System) .
Tutorials
A rich set of step-by-step tutorials has been developed to aid in learning how to use SMS.
Tutorial Installation
There are two options for installing tutorials: download the tutorials and files individually by subject matter in the
SMS learning center or can download an install that includes all of the core tutorials and files. Some of the additional
tutorials (TUFLOW, PTM, CGWAVE) still need to be downloaded separately. Since a subset of the tutorials is often
all that is needed, the recommended approach is to download and install them as needed from the SMS learning
center.
SMS 12.2
Page 16
Accessing Tutorials Through the SMS Learning Center
The SMS Learning Center is the portal to all of the training needed to learn how to use SMS. It is there that all of the
SMS tutorial documents and files can be accessed via download. To access the SMS Learning Center and tutorials
click here , or follow these steps:

Go to www.aquaveo.com

Click on the SMS logo found on the right side of the screen. This will go to the SMS homepage.

Once at the SMS homepage , click on the SMS Learning Center Icon.

In the SMS Learning Center page, scroll down to the tutorials. There, the tutorials are divided into two groups:
general SMS tutorials, and tutorials for specific models found within SMS. All are available for download.
Opening and Downloading Tutorials
Each tutorial consists of a PDF document, and its associated tutorial files.

Open the PDF document by right-clicking on it, then selecting Open link in new tab.

Then, click on the files icon and choose the Save as... option.

Choose the directory in which to run and save the tutorial files.

Once the files have finished downloading, select the Open option.

When the data files come up, extract the files by clicking on the Extract all files option.

Once the files are extracted, begin the tutorial.
Available Tutorials
Tutorials are available through the SMS Learning Center . Below is a list of some tutorials available at the SMS
Learning Center.
SMS Tutorials
Data Visualization
Feature Stamping
GIS
Google Earth
Import From Web
Import Spectral Data
Mesh Editing
Observation
Overview
Scattered Datasets
Sensitivity
Size Function
ADCIRC
ADCIRC LTEA Meshing
ADCIRC Symmetric Hurricane
Simulation
BOUSS2D
CGWAVE
Additional CGWAVE
CMS Flow
CMS Wave
FESWMS
FESWMS Steering
FESWMS Weirs
Generic Mesh Model
PTM
RMA2
RMA2 Steering
RMA4
SRH-2D
SRH-2D Culvert Structures
SRH-2D Culvert Structures HY-8
SRH-2D Gates
SRH-2D Obstructions
SRH-2D Bridge Pressure Flow
SRH-2D Simulations
SRH-2D Weir Flow
SMS Model Tutorials
SMS 12.2
Page 17
STWAVE
TUFLOW 1D
TUFLOW 2D
TUFLOW AD
TUFLOW FV
Additional TUFLOW
WAM
° Note: Do not save the tutorial documents and files to the Program Files directory.
Related Topics

Sample Problems

SMS Tutorial Archive

SMS Tutorial History
Sample Problems
In addition to the tutorial files , numerous test cases are available for download from the Aquaveo Verification
Repository .
The Aquaveo Verification Repository is designed to store case studies which can be used to verify the accuracy and
capabilities of various numeric models. The case studies contain within the repository will eventually help to build a
selection tool. The selection tool will use numeric model results to suggest appropriate models to use for a study. The
results will be determined by the performance of the model when faced with certain site characteristics.
The cases can be searched using the "Search" links found in the navigation menu. Each model type is contained in a
separate repository. The search page will allow searching for case studies containing particular attributes. Performing
a search with no selections will allow browsing all studies contained in the repository.
Test cases can be added to the repository . In order to add studies to the repository an account is required. The
provided contact information will not be released to anyone. Everyone is invited to contribute to the repository. More
cases means the models can be tested more thoroughly, which will result in a better selection tool.
Related Topics

SMS Tutorial Files
External Links

Aquaveo Verification Repository

Hollingsworth, Jason M (2008). Foundational Data Repository for Numeric Engine Validation. Thesis, Brigham
Young University. [0]
Highlights
SMS 12.2
Layout

The project explorer shows data currently loaded in project

Menu bar depends upon the active module and model

Edit window show x, y, z, scalar, and vector values

Edit window values can be edited in some circumstances

The status window on the bottom of the graphics window shows coordinates and selection information

Help information is displayed at the bottom of the SMS screen
 Several toolbars are used in SMS. The dynamic tools change based upon the current module.
More Info...
Modules

Data is divided into modules based upon the data type

There is always one active module

The menus and toolbars are based upon the active module
 The current module may be selected in module bar or by selecting an object in project explorer
More Info...
Mesh Module

Used to create, edit, and visualize mesh data

Also referred to as unstructured grids or finite element meshes

Meshes defined by nodes and elements
 Several element types are supported
More Info...
Page 18
SMS 12.2
Cartesian Grid Module

Used to create, edit, and visualize rectilinear grids

Datasets can have values at cells, corners, and midsides
 Can use cell-centered or mesh-centered grids
More Info...
Scatter Module

Used to create, edit, and visualize triangulated irregular networks

DEMs can be read in and converted to TINs

Filter scatter sets to eliminate redundant data
 Datasets can be interpolated to other modules (meshes, grids, etc)
More Info...
GIS Module

Open and visualize GIS data

Supports ESRI and MapInfo formats

Uses Mapobjects for ESRI files if available to use ArcGIS visualization options
 GIS data can be converted to feature data (map module)
More Info...
Page 19
SMS 12.2
Page 20
Map Module/Conceptual Models

Create and edit GIS like data

Used to create conceptual models as well as data for other purposes

Conceptual model is a geometry (mesh/grid) independent representation of the numeric model domain and/or
boundary conditions

Conceptual models can be converted to model geometry and boundary conditions
 Conceptual model makes it easier to create, edit, and alter models
More Info...
Particle Module

Visualize particle/path data

Supports PTM model which computes particle positions through time based upon hydrodynamics and wave
effects
More Info...
Models

SMS is a graphical interface that supports many numeric models

The models were developed by government or private entities

Hydrodynamic models compute water surface elevations and velocities

Wave models compute wave characteristics

Genesis is a shoreline model that predicts how the coastline will move based upon long term wave information
 PTM tracks particle positions through time based upon hydrodynamics and wave effects
More Info...
Generic Model Interface

Allows creation of a user defined mesh module interface to use SMS with a model not natively supported

User defines available model parameters and boundary condition options

User defined interface can be used to build models
 User data is exported into ASCII data that can be read as input for a numeric model
More Info...
Visualization Tools
SMS 12.2
Contours

Visualize scalar datasets

Linear, color filled or both at the same time

Variable level of transparency

Full control of ranges and colors
 Precision control for labels and legends
More Info...
Vectors

Visualize vector datasets as arrows

Constant size or vary by magnitude

Show just a range of magnitudes
 Color by magnitude
More Info...
Plots

2D plots to visualize results and compare to measured values

Profile plots view scalar data along an arc

Time series plots view scalar, vector, or flux (flow rate) data at a point or across an arc
 Several kinds of plots can be used to compare model results with measured data
More Info...
Functional Surfaces

Surface with elevation based upon scalar dataset values

Very useful for wave models and models with large change in water surface elevation

Elevations can be exaggerated to better visualize dataset variations

Surfaces can have a solid color or use color filled contours
Page 21
SMS 12.2
Page 22
 Transparency can be used to allow see through surfaces
More Info...
Animations

Several types of AVI animations (film loops) can be generated by SMS

Transient data animation shows model changes through time (contours, vectors, etc)

Flow trace uses vector data to generate flow paths through the geometry

Drogue plots use user specified starting locations and show how the particles would flow through a vector field

Multiple view animations show the data while transitioning between different views
 Plot window animations show plots changing through time
More Info...
Data Tools
Data Calculator

Performs mathematical calculations on scalar datasets

Calculations can include any number of scalar datasets and user supplied numbers

Useful for computing derived values such as Froude numbers
 Useful for comparing scalar datasets
More Info...
Data Transform

Data can be scaled, translated, rotated
 Depths/Elevations can be converted back and forth
More Info...
Projections

Associate a projection with data

Ability to work with global, local, and no projection

Convert data from one projection to another

Projections include Geographic, UTM, and State Plane coordinate systems
 Reproject data on the fly align multiple projections
More Info...
Import Wizard

Read columnar ASCII data into SMS

Columns can be fixed width or delimited by specific characters
 Data can be read as mesh, scatter, or map data
More Info...
Miscellaneous Tools
Image Support

Multiple images can be read/viewed at the same time (tiled or overlay)
SMS 12.2

Independent transparency specified for each image

Images can be loaded from web services as either static or dynamic images

Images can be draped over mesh or scatter data

Many image formats are supported including JPG, TIFF, PNG, MrSID, and ECW

Local images can be geo-referenced to view images along with other data
Page 23
 Image pyramids can be created for very large images
More Info...
CAD Support

AutoCAD DXF and DWG files can be read into SMS (support of DGN format is under development)

Supports up to AutoCAD version 2007

CAD data is displayed in 3D
 CAD data can be converted to map or scatter data
More Info...
Export Options

Graphics window can be copied to the clipboard

Current view can be exported in KML format for visualization in Google Earth
Meshing Options

Generating a quality finite element mesh is central to using many SMS models

Conceptual models make generating meshes easier

Polygons can use a variety of meshing options to generate triangular or quadrilateral elements

Polygons can be assigned bathymetry and material information that will be transferred with the mesh

Scalar paving density generates elements with sizes based upon a size dataset allowing for smooth transitions
and a large range of element sizes and is particularly useful for coastal and wave models.

Datasets for scalar paving density can be user defined or generated using the Data Calculator , the Dataset
Toolbox , or LTEA (linear truncation error analysis) ( ADCIRC )
More Info...
Import from Web

Easy to use navigation tool that allows choosing a model location
SMS 12.2

Page 24
Image data is downloaded from USGS terraserver
 Image options include aerial photos, topographic charts, and urban (higher resolution color)
More Info...
Zonal Classification

Generate a map coverage identifying areas that meet specific requirements

Requirements can be based upon dataset values such as less than a specific value or based upon materials in an
area property coverage
More Info...
What's New in SMS 12.2
Community Edition
The SMS Community Edition is an unlicensed version that allows using a basic interface to:

Open and view files.

Generate a mesh (limited to one mesh).

Use the SRH-2D interface (limited to one simulation).
General Features

Options added to Smooth Arc tool.

Size functions can be used to redistribute vertices along an arc.
Module Features
Curvilinear Grid

SMS can now use multiple curvilinear grids.

Curvilinear grids can now be duplicated.
UGrid Module

UGrid module added to SMS.
Model Features
CMS-Flow

Structures coverage added.

Monitoring stations coverage added.
HEC-RAS

Now uses the simulation process similar to that used in SRH-2D.

Can be used to export geometry generated in SMS for use in HEC-RAS.
SHR-2D

New sediment materials coverage.

Pressure zones with arched ceiling elevations.

Weir flow over pressure zones.

Internal links to connect internal source and sinks.
SMS 12.2
Page 25

Internal source/sinks.

Option to use energy total head instead of water-surface elevation for culverts.
1.1. Support
Support
Support for the current version of SMS is provided by Aquaveo. For contact information please go to Aquaveo
Technical Support .
Support Forum
For news, updates or to post questions and participate in discussion topics for GMS, SMS, and WMS visit the
Aquaveo support forum . A weekly email summary can be requested by forum subscribers.
Related Topics

GMS

SMS

WMS

Tech Support Agreement
External Links

Aquaveo Technical Support
System Requirements
System requirements for GMS, SMS and WMS.
Windows 10
Windows 10 is supported in GMS 10.0, SMS 12.1, WMS 10.0 and greater versions only.
Component
Minimum Required
Recommended
RAM
1 GB
8 GB or greater
CPU
XMS software is CPU intensive. We recommend the fastest CPU your budget
allows.
Hard Disk Free Space
300 MB
Graphics Card
The use of a dedicated graphics card is
For all display features to be
enabled, OpenGL 1.5 or higher must strongly recommended. Integrated
graphics cards are often problematic.
be supported.
Minimum Resolution
1024x768
300 MB or greater
1024x768 or greater
Windows 8
Windows 8 may have compatibility issues with XMS software. It is recommended to upgrade to Windows 10.
Component
Minimum Required
Recommended
RAM
1 GB
8 GB or greater
SMS 12.2
Page 26
CPU
XMS software is CPU intensive. We recommend the fastest CPU your budget allows.
Hard Disk Free Space
300 MB
300 MB or greater
Graphics Card
For all display features to be
enabled, OpenGL 1.5 must be
supported.
The use of a dedicated graphics card is strongly
recommended. Integrated graphics cards are
often problematic.
Minimum Resolution
1024x768
1024x768 or greater
Windows 7Windows 7 is supported in GMS 7.0, SMS 10.1 and
greater versions only.
Windows 7 is supported in GMS 7.0, SMS 10.1, WMS 8.3 and greater versions only.
Component
Minimum Required
Recommended
RAM
1 GB
8 GB or greater
CPU
XMS software is CPU intensive. We recommend the fastest CPU your budget allows.
Hard Disk Free Space
300 MB
300 MB or greater
Graphics Card
For all display features to be
enabled, OpenGL 1.5 must be
supported.
The use of a dedicated graphics card is strongly
recommended. Integrated graphics cards are
often problematic.
Minimum Resolution
1024x768
1024x768 or greater
Windows VistaWindows Vista is supported in GMS 7.0, SMS
10.0, WMS 8.1 and greater versions only.
Windows Vista is supported in GMS 7.0, SMS 10.0, WMS 8.1 and greater versions only.
Component
Minimum Required
Recommended
RAM
1 GB
8 GB or greater
CPU
XMS software is CPU intensive. We recommend the fastest CPU your budget allows.
Hard Disk Free Space
300 MB
300 MB or greater
Graphics Card
For all display features to be
enabled, OpenGL 1.5 must be
supported.
The use of a dedicated graphics card is strongly
recommended. Integrated graphics cards are
often problematic.
Minimum Resolution
1024x768
1024x768 or greater
Windows XP
Windows XP is compatible with GMS 7.0, SMS 10.0, WMS 8.1 and some greater versions, but may not be
compatible with current versions. There is limited technical support for Windows XP, and some limitations using
certain fonts and display options.
Component
Minimum Required
Recommended
RAM
1 GB
8 GB or greater
CPU
XMS software is CPU intensive. We recommend the fastest CPU your budget allows.
Hard Disk Free Space
300 MB
300 MB or greater
SMS 12.2
Page 27
Graphics Card
For all display features to be
enabled, OpenGL 1.5 must be
supported.
The use of a dedicated graphics card is strongly
recommended. Integrated graphics cards are
often problematic.
Minimum Resolution
1024x768
1024x768 or greater
Notes

There may be display problems when running over a remote desktop. This can usually be fixed by restarting the
software after beginning/ending a remote desktop session. Remote Desktop cannot be used with singleuser/standalone locks, only with network locks.

Always download and install the latest drivers from your graphics card vendor. Graphics card problems are
often due to using the wrong or outdated drivers. See Graphics Card Troubleshooting for instructions on how to
download and install graphics card drivers. If continuing to experience problems after updating a graphics card
drivers, contact support .
External Links

Description of the DirectX Diagnostic Tool
Downloads
The Download Center at www.aquaveo.com has updates for SMS, tutorials, release notes, beta versions, and more.
Directions to the Aquaveo Download Page
To access the online SMS Downloads page follow these steps:
1) Go to www.aquaveo.com
2) Click on the Support menu at the top of the page.
3) Select Downloads from the menu options. This will bring up the Aquaveo download page.
4) Select the SMS tab to find SMS materials available for download.
Aquaveo Download Page
The following link goes directly to the Aquaveo Download page:

Aquaveo download page
Related Topics

Installing and Setting up SMS

System Requirements

License Agreement
FTP Site Info
Technical support may request uploading files to the ftp server in order to determine the source of issues.
To upload files:
1)
2)
Zip up the files to upload.
Go to this link:
1. | Upload Link
SMS 12.2
3)
Page 28
Paste files in window.
Related Topics

XMS FTP Site Info
License Agreement
XMS License Agreement
XMS LICENSE AGREEMENT
We understand that neither Aquaveo LLC nor its employees makes any warranty express or implied, or assumes any
legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the computer programs and documents herein
ordered. We acknowledge that Aquaveo’s liability for damages associated with these programs is limited to the
amounts paid to Aquaveo. We understand that we may register the executable on only one machine per license
purchased. We also agree to not make the program available to more persons, at any given time, than the number of
licenses purchased. We agree to not distribute this program in unmodified or modified form, outside our organization
without the written permission of Aquaveo. We agree that these programs may send information back to Aquaveo in
order to enable a program on the computer in use. Additionally, parts of the software may be covered by one or more
of the following agreements.
Boost Software License
Boost Software License - Version 1.0 - August 17th, 2003
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person or organization obtaining a copy of the software and
accompanying documentation covered by this license (the "Software") to use, reproduce, display, distribute, execute,
and transmit the Software, and to prepare derivative works of the Software, and to permit third-parties to whom the
Software is furnished to do so, all subject to the following:
The copyright notices in the Software and this entire statement, including the above license grant, this restriction and
the following disclaimer, must be included in all copies of the Software, in whole or in part, and all derivative works
of the Software, unless such copies or derivative works are solely in the form of machine-executable object code
generated by a source language processor.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS OR ANYONE DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
FTGL License Agreement
FTGL LICENSE AGREEMENT
http://ftgl.wiki.sourceforge.net/ states: "FTGL is free software. You may use it, modify it and redistribute it under the
terms of the MIT license or the GNU LGPL, at your option."
The MIT license link is to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_License, which states:
Copyright (c) <year> <copyright holders> Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction,
including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies
of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software.
SMS 12.2
Page 29
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
Bugtrap
http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/14618/Catch-All-Bugs-with-BugTrap
The above URL states that Bugtrap is licensed as follows:
Microsoft Public License (MS-PL)
[OSI Approved License]
This license governs use of the accompanying software. If you use the software, you accept this license. If you do not
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SMS 12.2
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That's all there is to it!
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DAMAGE.
EUC-KR Text Codec
Copyright (C) 2000 TurboLinux, Inc. Written by Justin Yu and Sean Chen.
Copyright (C) 2001, 2002 Turbolinux, Inc. Written by James Su.
Copyright (C) 2001, 2002 ThizLinux Laboratory Ltd. Written by Anthony Fok.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
SMS 12.2
Page 38
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
GBK Text Codec
Copyright (C) 2000 Ming-Che Chuang
Copyright (C) 2001, 2002 James Su, Turbolinux Inc.
Copyright (C) 2002 WU Yi, HancomLinux Inc.
Copyright (C) 2001, 2002 Anthony Fok, ThizLinux Laboratory Ltd.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
Big5-HKSCS Text Codec
Copyright (C) 2000 Ming-Che Chuang
Copyright (C) 2002 James Su, Turbolinux Inc.
Copyright (C) 2002 Anthony Fok, ThizLinux Laboratory Ltd.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
SMS 12.2
Page 39
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
Big5 Text Codec
Copyright (C) 2003-2004 immodule for Qt Project. All rights reserved.
This file is written to contribute to Nokia Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies) under their own license. You may use
this file under your Qt license. Following description is copied from their original file headers. Contact immoduleqt@freedesktop.org if any conditions of this licensing are not clear to you.
QInputContextPlugin, QInputContext, QInputContextFactory
QInputContextPlugin
QInputContext
QInputContextFactory
Copyright (C) 2003-2006 Ben van Klinken and the CLucene Team Changes are Copyright (C) 2012 Nokia
Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies).
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General
Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option)
any later version.
This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this library; if not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
QtHelp Module
Copyright (C) 2004, 2005 Daniel M. Duley
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY,
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
SMS 12.2
Page 40
QImage
Copyright (C) 2007-2008, Apple, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
Neither the name of Apple, Inc. nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY
OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Contributions to the Following QtGui Files: qapplication_cocoa_p.h, qapplication_mac.mm,
qdesktopwidget_mac.mm qeventdispatcher_mac.mm qeventdispatcher_mac_p.h qmacincludes_mac.h
qt_cocoa_helpers.mm qt_cocoa_helpers_p.h qwidget_mac.mm qsystemtrayicon_mac.mm
Copyright (C) 2012 Nokia Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies). All rights reserved.
Contact: Nokia Corporation (qt-info@nokia.com)
You may use this file under the terms of the BSD license as follows:
"Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of Nokia Corporation and its Subsidiary(-ies) nor the names of its contributors may be used to
endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY
OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE."
QAxServer Module, QAxContainer Module
QAxServer Module
SMS 12.2
Page 41
QAxContainer Module
Copyright (C) 2012 Nokia Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies). All rights reserved.
Contact: Nokia Corporation (qt-info@nokia.com)
You may use this file under the terms of the BSD license as follows:
"Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of Nokia Corporation and its Subsidiary(-ies) nor the names of its contributors may be used to
endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF
USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY
OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE."
The qtmain Library
Copyright (C) 2012 Nokia Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies). Copyright (C) 2005 Bjoern Bergstroem
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
rights to use, modify, market, reproduce, grant sublicenses and distribute subject to the following conditions: The
above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software. These files are provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE WARRANTY
OF DESIGN, MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Implementation of the Recursive Shadow Casting Algorithm in Qt
Designer
Copyright (C) 2012 Nokia Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies). Copyright (C) 2005 Roberto Raggi
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
rights to use, modify, market, reproduce, grant sublicenses and distribute subject to the following conditions: The
above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software. These files are provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE WARRANTY
OF DESIGN, MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Contributions to the Following qt3to4 Files
Contributions to the Following qt3to4 Files: treewalker.h, treedump.cpp, treedump.h, treewalker.cpp
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved.
SMS 12.2
Page 42
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or
otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in
part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all
such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by
removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed
for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet
Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English.
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors
or assigns.
This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY
AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Torrent Example
Copyright (c) 1987 X Consortium
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE X CONSORTIUM BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to
promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the X Consortium.
QRegion
Copyright (c) 1989 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted provided that the above copyright notice and this
paragraph are duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation, advertising materials, and other materials
related to such distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed by the University of California,
Berkeley. The name of the University may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
QDate::weekNumber()
Copyright (c) 1991 by AT&T.
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any purpose without fee is hereby granted, provided
that this entire notice is included in all copies of any software which is or includes a copy or modification of this
software and in all copies of the supporting documentation for such software.
THIS SOFTWARE IS BEING PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY. IN
PARTICULAR, NEITHER THE AUTHOR NOR AT&T MAKES ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND CONCERNING THE MERCHANTABILITY OF THIS SOFTWARE OR ITS FITNESS FOR ANY
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
SMS 12.2
Page 43
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
QLocale
Copyright (c) 2000 Hans Petter Bieker. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
TSCII Text Codec
Copyright (c) 2003, 2006 Matteo Frigo Copyright (c) 2003, 2006 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
QTestLib Manual
Copyright 1996 Daniel Dardailler. Copyright 1999 Matt Koss
Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software for any purpose is hereby granted without fee,
provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission
notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Daniel Dardailler not be used in advertising or
publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. Daniel Dardailler makes
no representations about the suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or
implied warranty.
Drag and Drop
Copyright 2002 USC/Information Sciences Institute
SMS 12.2
Page 44
Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and its documentation for any purpose is hereby
granted without fee, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice
and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Information Sciences Institute
not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior
permission. Information Sciences Institute makes no representations about the suitability of this software for any
purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.
INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS
SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO
EVENT SHALL INFORMATION SCIENCES INSTITUTE BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE,
DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS
ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS
SOFTWARE.
QtSvg Module
This file is part of the KDE project
Copyright (C) 2004-2009 Matthias Kretz <kretz@kde.org>
Copyright (C) 2008 Ian Monroe <ian@monroe.nu>
Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Trolltech ASA
Copyright (C) 2012 Nokia Corporation and/or its subsidiary(-ies).
Contact: Nokia Corporation (qt-info@nokia.com)
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General
Public License version 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.
This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Library
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public License along with this library; see the file
COPYING.LIB. If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
02110-1301, USA.
Phonon Module
W3C© SOFTWARE NOTICE AND LICENSE
This license came from: http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/2002/copyright-software-20021231
This work (and included software, documentation such as READMEs, or other related items) is being provided by the
copyright holders under the following license. By obtaining, using and/or copying this work, you (the licensee) agree
that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions.
Permission to copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation, with or without modification, for any
purpose and without fee or royalty is hereby granted, provided that you include the following on ALL copies of the
software and documentation or portions thereof, including modifications:
1. The full text of this NOTICE in a location viewable to users of the redistributed or derivative work. 2. Any preexisting intellectual property disclaimers, notices, or terms and conditions. If none exist, the W3C Software Short
Notice should be included (hypertext is preferred, text is permitted) within the body of any redistributed or derivative
code. 3. Notice of any changes or modifications to the files, including the date changes were made. (We recommend
you provide URIs to the location from which the code is derived.)
THIS SOFTWARE AND DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS," AND COPYRIGHT HOLDERS MAKE
NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE
USE OF THE SOFTWARE OR DOCUMENTATION WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY PATENTS,
COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS OR OTHER RIGHTS.
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF ANY USE OF THE SOFTWARE OR DOCUMENTATION.
SMS 12.2
Page 45
The name and trademarks of copyright holders may NOT be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to the software
without specific, written prior permission. Title to copyright in this software and any associated documentation will at
all times remain with copyright holders.
QtXmlPatterns Module
Copyright (C) 2000-2004, International Business Machines Corporation and others. All Rights Reserved. Copyright
(C) 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to
whom the Software is furnished to do so, provided that the above copyright notice(s) and this permission notice
appear in all copies of the Software and that both the above copyright notice(s) and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR HOLDERS INCLUDED IN THIS NOTICE BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, OR
ANY SPECIAL INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER
RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE
OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Except as contained in this notice, the name of a copyright holder shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to
promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization of the copyright holder.
Parts of WebKit used by the QtWebKit module
Copyright (c) 1998 by Bjorn Reese <breese@imada.ou.dk>
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted,
provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS ACCEPT NO RESPONSIBILITY IN ANY
CONCEIVABLE MANNER.
Parts of the QCrashHandler class
Parts of the FreeType projects have been modified and put into Qt for use in the painting subsystem. These files are
ftraster.h, ftraster.c, ftgrays.h and ftgrays.c. The following modifications has been made to these files:
Renamed FT_ and ft_ symbols to QT_FT_ and qt_ft_ to avoid name conflicts
in qrasterdefs_p.h.
Removed parts of code not relevant when compiled with _STANDALONE_ defined.
Changed behavior in ftraster.c to follow X polygon filling rules.
Implemented support in ftraster.c for winding / odd even polygon fill
rules.
Replaced bitmap generation with span generation in ftraster.c.
Renamed ftraster.h as qblackraster_p.h.
Renamed ftraster.c as qblackraster.c.
Renamed ftgrays.h as qgrayraster_p.h.
Renamed ftgrays.c as qgrayraster.c.
See src/3rdparty/freetype/docs/FTL.txt and src/3rdparty/freetype/docs/GPL.txt for license details.
Copyright (c) 1985, 1986, 1987 X Consortium
SMS 12.2
Page 46
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit
persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE X CONSORTIUM BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to
promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the X Consortium.
Parts of the Q3PolygonScanner class used in Qt for Embedded Linux
Copyright 1987 by Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Massachusetts.
All Rights Reserved
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is
hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and
this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Digital not be used in advertising or
publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.
DIGITAL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL DIGITAL BE
LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF
CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Parts of the Q3PolygonScanner class used in Qt for Embedded Linux
Copyright 1985, 1987, 1998 The Open Group
Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and its documentation for any purpose is hereby
granted without fee, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice
and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the
Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE OPEN GROUP BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE
USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
Except as contained in this notice, the name of The Open Group shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to
promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from The Open Group.
Parts of the internal QKeyMapper class on X11 platforms
pnmscale.c - read a portable anymap and scale it
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer.
SMS 12.2
Page 47
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is
hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and
this permission notice appear in supporting documentation. This software is provided "as is" without express or
implied warranty.
Parts of the internal QImageSmoothScaler
Parts of the internal QImageSmoothScaler::scale() function use code based on pnmscale.c by Jef Poskanzer.
jQuery JavaScript Library v1.3.2 http://jquery.com/
Copyright (c) 2009 John Resig Dual licensed under the MIT and GPL licenses. http://docs.jquery.com/License
Sizzle CSS Selector Engine - v0.9.3 Copyright 2009, The Dojo Foundation Released under the MIT, BSD, and GPL
Licenses. More information: http://sizzlejs.com/examples/webkit/fancybrowser/jquery.min.js
Copyright (C) Research In Motion Limited 2009. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of Research In Motion Limited nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or
promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY Research In Motion Limited AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL Research In Motion Limited BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
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Copyright (c) 2007-2008, Apple, Inc.
Copyright (C) 2008 Cameron Zwarich <cwzwarich@uwaterloo.ca>
Copyright (C) 2009 Google Inc. All rights reserved.
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SMS 12.2
Page 48

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SMS 12.2
Page 49
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Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
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SMS 12.2
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Parts of the FreeType library
Copyright 2001, 2002 Catharon Productions Inc.
This file is part of the Catharon Typography Project and shall only be used, modified, and distributed under the terms
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Note that this license is compatible with the FreeType license.
Included in the build system of the FreeType library
See CatharonLicense.txt for more information
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SMS 12.2
Page 51
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
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src/3rdparty/ce-compat/ce_time.c
SMS 12.2
Page 52
Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge. All rights reserved.
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Originally written by Philip Hazel Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge Copyright (C) 2007 Eric Seidel
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SMS 12.2
Page 53
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the
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SMS 12.2
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HDF5
HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) Software Library and Utilities Copyright 2006-2012 by The HDF Group.
NCSA HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) Software Library and Utilities Copyright 1998-2006 by the Board of
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OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN
AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN
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SMS 12.2
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Ticpp
Ticpp
The MIT License (MIT)
Copyright (c) <year> <copyright holders>
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
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VTK
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WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Introduction to Setting up SMS
Installing
The installation wizard will guide through the installation process. There will be the option to install different parts of
the SMS program including the executable files, tutorial files, documentation files, etc. If missing a part of the
installation, reinstall and verify that all parts are selected to be installed.
SMS 12.2
Page 56
Registering
See Registering SMS for information regarding registering SMS using a hardware lock or password .
Program Defaults
When starting SMS, there are default values set for directories, display options, etc. Each project also saves settings
associated with the project. As a project is read, the values are set to the project settings. The default settings only
appear when creating new projects. Modify the default settings for a new project by choosing Save Settings from the
File menu. This will replace the default settings with the current settings.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q: My hardware lock doesn't work.
A: Visit the SMS:Hardware Locks page for Hardware lock troubleshooting. Review the hardware lock
troubleshooting guides: Single User Locks and Network Locks .
Q: I encountered an error when trying to install SMS.
A: The most common cause for installation errors is running the installation program without "Administrator"
priviledges. Also check that the installation diectory is a valid location and that it isn't "read-only."
Q: Where can I get the latest build updates of SMS?
A: See Downloads or visit the Aquaveo download page .
Q: What is "Demo Mode?"
A: SMS runs in Demo Mode if a valid license is not present. In Demo Mode, printing and saving are disabled.
Q: I purchased SMS. How do I enable the software and get out of Demo Mode?
A: SMS can be enabled with a password or hardware lock. To obtain a password or hardware lock, contact your
software vendor. Passwords enable a single version of SMS on a single machine. Passwords are machine specific.
When obtaining a password, you will need to provide your vendor with your computer's register string. The register
string is listed in the Register dialog ( File | Register .) Hardware locks enable a roaming license of SMS. In order to
enable SMS with a hardware lock, the lock must be attached to the machine when running SMS. See Registering SMS
for more information.
Q: In the graphics window, letters and numbers appear instead of points and nodes. How can that be fixed?
A: If letters and numbers appear in the graphics window instead of regular points and nodes, then there was an error
installing the SMS font or the font was corrupted. Usually this problem clears up when the computer is restarted after
the SMS installation process is finished.
Q: My password doesn't work.
A: Passwords are not case sensitive but register strings ARE case sensitive. Double check the password data sent to
you by your vendor and make sure the register is correct and you have entered the correct password.
Q: What does the error "This application has failed to start because MSVCR71.dll was not found" mean?
A: Your machine is missing the file MSVCR71.dll. This file should have been installed on your computer with the
Windows Operating System. To fix this, download and reinstall MSVCR71.dll. MSVCR71.dll is available for
download on many websites. Use a search engine, such as Google, to find it.
Related Topics

Downloads

System Requirements

License Agreement
SMS 12.2
Page 57
Registering SMS
After installing SMS, it will need to be registered. Registration can be done with a password or with a hardware lock.
When SMS is first launched, a dialogue box appears that has two options. The first button, Demo Mode , allows
running SMS in demo mode. The second, Enable is used to enable the program. This is described below.
Password
If using a password to enable SMS, send information to the vendor about the user's machine to get the password.
There are several ways to send this information.
Register SMS with a Password
1)
1)
Start SMS and select the Register… button when the welcome screen appears.
If the welcome screen does not appear automatically, select Register... from the Help menu in SMS. Then
select the Change Registration button in the Register SMS dialog.
2)
Select License code for the Licensing method and enter the 7 digit alpha-numeric code that begins with the letter
P. Click the Next > button.
3) If the registration is successful, click Finish to exit the Registration Wizard .
4) The Register SMS dialog displays the registered components, licensing method, and license expiration dates.
See also: Register_SMS_with_a_Password_I.pdf
Hardware Locks
Follow the instructions received with the hardware lock to install the hardware lock and accompanying drivers. If
hardware lock instructions were not received, or they have been misplaced, they can be found in the
\Utils\Hwlock\Instructions directory on the CD. There are separate files for single user and network hardware locks.
These files can be read using a web browser.
Demo Mode
If no valid license is detected, SMS runs in Demo Mode. All features of the software are enabled except printing,
saving, and running models. This mode is intended to allow evaluating the software before making a purchase.
Datasets, grids, or meshes can be read in, manipulated and viewed.
Evaluation Version
An evaluation version that is valid for 30-60 days may be requested by selecting the Evaluation button. A connection
to a web utility will be made and a valid registration code will be sent via email. After receiving the registration code,
enter it into the dialogue box, and select register. After evaluating SMS, please contact an SMS vendor with any
questions or to purchase.
Related Topics

SMS System Requirements

Hardware Locks

SMS Community Edition
SMS 12.2
Page 58
Community Edition
Starting at version 12.2 there is a free version of SMS called "Community Edition". It is limited to include only the
2D mesh module and the SRH-2D model interface. It is also restricted in the size of the mesh and the number of
simulations. Any size model can be imported, but if the mesh exceeds 5000 elements or the number of simulations is
more than one, the project cannot be saved and a watermark is displayed in the Graphics Window. The community
edition must still be registered using a license code which can be obtained via the internet from the Registration
Wizard ( Help | Register | Change Registration | Get Community Edition License ).
Check to see if running in Community Edition mode by going to the Registration dialog. The size limits are displayed
in the About dialog which is accessed through the About command in the Help menu.
The Community Edition capabilities are as follows:
Included Feature
Limitations
2D Mesh Module
Limited to one mesh.
Conceptual/Map Module Tool
SRH-2D Interface
Limited to one simulation and cannot be saved it there is
more than one mesh.
Import CAD/GIS Data
Display Options
Import Images
Online Maps
3D Viewing
Lighting Model
Technical support is not provided for the Community Edition.
Related Topics

Registering SMS
Hardware Locks
Single User USB Hardware Lock
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Install the hardware lock drivers. If hardware lock drivers have already been installed, skip to the next step. The
drivers can be installed by running the Sentinel System Driver Installer.exe program found in the SMS
installation directory.
After installing the hardware lock drivers, plug the Aquaveo hardware lock into an available USB port.
Start SMS and the program should automatically detect the hardware lock. If the Welcome dialog appears, click
the Register… button.
Select Hardware lock for the Licensing method and click the Next > button.
In the Hardware lock options, select Get license from a single user lock and click the Next > button.
If the registration is successful, click Finish to exit the Registration Wizard .
The Register SMS dialog displays the registered components, licensing method, and license expiration dates.
Update a Single User USB Hardware Lock
1)
Plug the Aquaveo hardware lock into a computer with hardware lock drivers and SMS installed.
SMS 12.2
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Page 59
Start SMS and select the Register… button when the welcome screen appears. If the welcome screen does not
appear automatically, select Register... from the Help menu in SMS.
Select Hardware lock for the Licensing method and click the Next > button.
In the Hardware lock options, select Modify lock on this computer with the following code and click the
Next > button.
In the Hardware Lock dialog, click the Next > button to burn the hardware lock.
If the registration is successful, click Finish to exit the Registration Wizard .
The Register SMS dialog indicates the registered components, the licensing method, and the license expiration
dates.
Setup a Network License Server
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Install the Sentinel installation program that includes hardware lock drivers and the Sentinel Protection Server
software. The installation program can be downloaded at www.aquaveo.com/downloads .
In the Sentinel installation wizard, select "Complete" for the setup type.
After installing the Sentinel lock drivers and server software, plug the Aquaveo hardware lock into an available
USB port.
Ensure that the computer with the network hardware lock can be seen by other computers on the local network.
Client machines can connect to the server by hostname or IP address.
The License Server is now ready to provide SMS licenses to client machines. Refer to the instructions for
registering SMS with a Network USB Hardware Lock for more information.
Network USB Hardware Lock
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Start SMS and select the Register… button when the welcome screen appears. If the welcome screen does not
appear automatically, select Register... from the Help menu in SMS.
Select Hardware lock for the Licensing method and click the Next > button.
In the Hardware lock options, select Get license from a network lock and click the Next > button.
Enter the IP address or Host name of the server hosting the network hardware lock.
Click the Browse Lock Setting... button. This opens a web browser and tests the a connection to the hardware
lock over a local network.
Click the Apply Lock Setting... button.
Once the "Lock license acquired" message appears, click the Finish button.
The Register SMS dialog displays the registered components, licensing method, hardware lock serial number,
and license expiration dates.
Update a Network USB Hardware Lock
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Plug the Aquaveo hardware lock into a computer with hardware lock drivers and SMS installed.
Start SMS and select the Register… button when the welcome screen appears. If the welcome screen does not
appear automatically, select Register... from the Help menu in SMS.
Select Hardware lock for the Licensing method and click the Next > button.
In the Hardware lock options, select Modify lock on this computer with the following code and click the
Next > button.
In the Hardware Lock dialog, enter the number of licenses to burn on the lock. This number is typically the
same as the number of licenses purchased and available. Click the Next > button to burn the hardware lock.
If the registration is successful, click Finish to exit the Registration Wizard . Please note that the Registration
dialog may not show the enabled components. To verify the enabled components on the network lock, refer to
the instructions for registering SMS with a Network Lock.
SMS 12.2
7)
Page 60
Return the network hardware lock to the computer serving as the license server if necessary.
Related Topics

Registering SMS
Graphics Card Troubleshooting
XMS (WMS, GMS, or SMS) use OpenGL for rendering graphics. OpenGL is a graphics standard, but each
implementation is maintained by individual graphics card companies. Different graphics cards and drivers support
different versions of the OpenGL standard. XMS currently uses features up to version 1.5 of OpenGL (as of April
2009 version 3.1 was most recent version).
Some graphics cards, as well as remote desktop, do not support functionality through OpenGL version 1.5. This is
mostly a problem with older integrated graphics cards, in particular those manufactured by Intel. This page will give
you some ideas on troubleshooting these problems. The best solution is to get a graphics card that supports later
versions of OpenGL. You will see improved performance as well as be able to access all the features of XMS.
Remote Desktop
XMS (WMS, GMS, or SMS) will have reduced capability when running remote desktop.
Since remote desktop only supports OpenGL version 1.1 not all of the features of XMS may be available.
1) One solution is to use a different remote control software that utilizes the graphics card of the computer you are
controlling. www.logmein.com has free and paid versions of remote desktop that behave better with XMS.
RealVNC is a program that does this and can be purchased at a reasonable cost. There is a free version but it has
not been tested with the XMS software. See VNC Homepage for more information.
2) Another solution is to use the Mesa software rendering option available in the application's graphic preferences.
See the section below on OpenGL Graphics Dialogs for discussion of this option.
Parallels Desktop for Mac
XMS has reduced capability when running in a pure virtual PC through Parallels Desktop for Mac. Although Parallels
version 6.0 provides OpenGL version 2.1 support (instead of OpenGL version 1.1) when "Enable 3D acceleration" is
selected in the virtual machine's hardware configuration, the Parallels virtual video card adapter does not render all
XMS graphics correctly. The solution is to use the Mesa software rendering option available in XMS's graphic
preferences. See the section below on OpenGL Graphics Dialogs for discussion of this option.
If you are running XMS in a virtual PC utilizing a Boot Camp partition then Parallels uses the actual graphics card
installed in the Mac. See sections below regarding graphics card issues.
OpenGL Graphics Dialogs
XMS (post WMS 8.2, GMS 7.0 onward, and SMS 10.1 onward) have dialogs that allow the selection of OpenGL
support. The choice is between the system default library and the Mesa software library. The system default can
change based upon current conditions such as a remote login. Not all system defaults support all needed graphics
functionality. Therefore Mesa is provided for better functionality at a potential reduction in speed. However, Mesa
may produce poor images when printing. This trade off can be made in the graphics dialog found in preferences . The
dialog provides 4 options so that on subsequent runs XMS will:
1) Ask which graphics library to use if the system does not support all OpenGL functionality needed by XMS. This
option is initially set and gives the following options:
1) Autoselect the Mesa software library for this run if the system default does not support all functionality. XMS
will not prompt on subsequent runs. It will just check support and select a library.
2) Use the system default library on this run (and on future runs if the "Do not ask again box" is checked).
3) Use the Mesa software library on this run (and on future runs if the "Do not ask again box" is checked).
SMS 12.2
2)
3)
4)
Page 61
Autoselect the Mesa software library if the system default does not support all functionality.
Always use the system default library.
Always use the Mesa software library.
Determining Graphics Card Manufacturer
Always download and install the latest drivers from your graphics card vendor. Graphics card problems are often due
to using the wrong or outdated drivers. You can use a simple diagnostic program called dxdiag to determine your
computer's hardware, operating system, and graphics card. To use the dxdiag program:
1) Select Start
2) Choose Run.
3) Type "dxdiag" in the box and click OK. '
4) Click Yes to the prompt, and the program will begin running.
5) Select the Display tab and the Name listed under the "Device" section is the name of your graphics card.
You can also:
1) Right-click on the desktop and select Properties
2) In the Display Properties dialog, click on the Settings tab
3) Your video card manufacturer and chipset is shown below the "Display:" line
4) Look for the names NVIDIA, ATI, Intel, Matrox, SiS, S3, etc.
Updating Laptop Graphics Card Drivers
If you have a laptop, visit the laptop manufacturer's website ( Dell , HP or Compaq , Toshiba , Sony , etc.) to get the
most recent driver.
Updating Desktop Graphics Card Drivers
If you are using a desktop computer, visit the graphics card manufacturer's website to download the latest driver.
Listed below are a few common graphics cards and links to download their drivers:

3DLabs

ATI

Diamond

Elsa

Intel

Matrox

nVidia

S3 – Not all S3 card support OpenGL 1.5 which is required for all display options to be enabled.

SIS – Not all SIS card support OpenGL 1.5 which is required for all display options to be enabled.

VIA – Not all VIA card support OpenGL 1.5 which is required for all display options to be enabled.
Updating Windows Operating System
Many problems are resolved by keeping the windows operating system and hardware drivers up to date using the
windows update site . Hardware updates are often only installed if the "Custom" or "Optional" updates are included.
SMS 12.2
Page 62
Updating XMS Software
Many problems are resolved by installing the latest version of XMS. Bugfixes and updates are released frequently.
The updates can be downloaded at the Aquaveo Download Center .
Known Graphics Issues

Issue: Graphic symbols are not displayed correctly and sometimes corrupt text lines located next to them.
Hardware: Make: ATI Technologies Inc. Model: RADEON X600 PRO (0x5B62) Name: ATI Radeon
X300/X550/X1050 Series
Solution: Updating the driver will allow the symbols to display correctly, but the text corruption still remains.
Switch from Hardware to Software Rendering
THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE ATTEMPTED ONLY IF THE OTHER SOLUTIONS PRESENTED DO
NOT RESOLVE THE DISPLAY ISSUES
If you have updated your graphics driver and are still having problems, you can download this opengl32.dll ZIP file
and unzip the "OpenGL32.dll" and the "Glu32.dll" file to the directory where XMS is installed. Close and re-open
XMS so this DLL is used for displaying XMS objects. Placing these DLL's in your XMS directory will fix most
graphics-related issues, such as problems with displaying triangles on large TIN or DTM datasets and other problems
with displaying large amounts of data. The following are known disadvantages to using this DLL for displaying:

Displaying graphics using this DLL will likely be slower since software is used to display your graphics instead
of your computer's graphics hardware. Panning, zooming, and rotating operations will be significantly slower.

Some entities, such as symbols, are currently not displayed correctly when using this DLL. Only squares and
circles will be displayed. Changing all symbol display options to squares or symbols will allow you to work
around this problem. We are currently working on trying to fix this problem of symbols not displaying when
using this DLL. (THIS PROBLEM HAS NOW BEEN FIXED IN SOME BETA VERSIONS OF XMS
COMPILED AFTER March 31, 2009) In general, you will not want to use this DLL unless you are working
with large datasets that have display issues where XMS closes unexpectedly.
Contacting Support
If you continue to experience problems after updating your graphics card drivers, contact support .
External Links

Aquaveo Technical Support
SMS 12.2
Page 63
Report Bug
While Aquaveo and its developers work hard to keep problems in SMS to a minimum, some bugs or defects may
occasionally surface. Reporting bugs helps Aquaveo and its developers resolve these issues. SMS must be connected
to the internet in order to report a bug.
Some bugs in SMS are reported automatically to Aquaveo. This is done through bug trap software included in SMS.
Automatic bug reports typically happen whenever SMS crashes.
Bugs can also be reported. It is advisable to first check Bugfixes SMS and the Aquaveo's Support Forums to see if the
bug has already been reported. To report a new bug, go to the Help menu and select the Report Bug command.
Activating this command will bring up the Report Bug dialog.
Report Bug Dialog
When reporting a bug, complete as many of the sections of the Report Bug dialog as possible. The more information
the developers have the more likely the situation can be resolved in a timely manner.

System Information
SMS will deliver a text file that gives the configuration of SMS on the computer where the bug was
reported. Clicking on the View button will bring up this text file showing what information is being sent.

What I did
Write in this section a brief description of the actions that were being done when the bug occurred.

What the result was
In this section, briefly explain the evidence of the bug in SMS.

What the expected result was
It is best to not assume that the developers will understand what should have appeared instead of the bug.
Briefly state what should have occurred had the bug not occurred.
SMS 12.2
Page 64

Email address
Provide an email address so that Aquaveo can follow up on the reported bug. Emails in bug reports are kept
private and are not sold or used in marketing.

Project files
It can be helpful to include project files of the project being worked on when the bug occurred. This will
help determine if the bug is related to SMS or if it is a problem with the project files. Include all files in a
single ZIP file. Use the browser button
to attach the ZIP file to the bug report.
After completing this dialog, pressing OK will send the information to Aquaveo, LLC. An internet connection must
be available and active for this information to be received.
After Submitting a Bug
After a bug has been submitted, Aquaveo will review the reported bug. Whenever possible, the bug will be resolved
as quickly as possible. There is no time frame for when a bug will be resolved—some are resolved within hours while
others may not be resolved for many months.
In some cases, a bug cannot be resolved by Aquaveo, this is particularly true in cases where the bug has been caused
by user error or if the bug is caused by third-party software used by SMS.
Not all users will be contacted once a bug is resolved. It is recommended to contact Aquaveo's technical support if
there are further concerns.
Related Topics

Bugfixes SMS

Support
1.2. General Information
General Interface Features
This article addresses features that do not belong to specific modules.
Display
Editing the View with the Mouse
It can be easier to navigate with mouse controls. The three controls include:

If the mouse has a middle button (or a mouse wheel), scroll the wheel to zoom in and out.

If the mouse has a middle button (or a mouse wheel), hold it down and drag to pan the view.

Hold down both the right and left mouse buttons and drag to rotate the view.
 Display Options
Display Options in SMS refers to the control of what entities are displayed, and how (color and style) they are
displayed. Each entity in each module has its own display options. The display options for the active module are
shown when the Display Options dialog opens.
Visualization
Post-Processing tools inside SMS help to visualize the model solution created by running the simulation through the
solver. Post-processing tools available on solution data vary based on the module but include:

2D Plots
SMS 12.2

Animations

Contours

Calibration Targets

Vector Visualization
Data that does not belong to a specific module

CAD Data

Annotation Layers

Images

LandXML Files
Related Topics

Projections

File Formats
Keyboard Shortcuts
Many commands in SMS are can be accessed using keyboard shortcuts.
Standard Menu Shortcuts
Shortcuts for standard menu commands are listed in the table below.
Keyboard Shortcuts
Modifier
Key
Command
F
Display | Frame Image
SPACE
Display | Refresh
D
Display | Display Options
DELETE
Edit | Delete
CTRL
C
Edit | Copy to Clipboard
CTRL
V
Edit | Paste Tabular Data
CTRL
A
Edit | Select All
CTRL
O
File | Open
CTRL
P
File | Print
CTRL
S
File | Save Project
CTRL
N
File | Delete All
CTRL
X
File | Exit
F1
Help | SMS Help
F2
Pan
F3
Zoom
F4
Rotate
F
Display | View | Front
CTRL
SHIFT
Page 65
SMS 12.2
SHIFT
O
Display | View | Oblique
SHIFT
V
Display | View | View Options
SHIFT
P
Display | View | Plan
SHIFT
Z
Display | View | Previous
SHIFT
S
Display | View | Side
SHIFT
Q
Toggle snapping on and off.
Page 66
ALT Key Navigation
Commands and menus in SMS can be accessed without the use of a mouse by pressing the ALT and then pressing the
corresponding key for the menu and command. The keys are underlined in SMS after pressing the ALT key. When
pressing the key to menu command, the command should activate. If it does not activate, press the ENTER key.
For more information see the article ALT Key Navigation .
Related Topics

Right-Click Menus

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Publications
The following is a partial list of publications and reports related to the use of SMS. Please feel free to make additions
to the list.
SMS Related Publications and Reports
WES reports are available through the Interlibrary Loan Service from the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station (WES) Library, telephone number (601) 634-2355. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) report
numbers may be requested from WES Librarians. To purchase a copy of a report, call NTIS at (703) 487-4780.
2015

Pinho, José, Ferreira. R., Vieira, L., and Schwanenberg, D. (2015, January). "Comparison Between Two
Hydrodynamic Models for Flooding Simulations at River Lima Basin" in Water Resources Management :
Volume 29, Issue 2, pp. 431-444. [1]

Vimeris, May Trio, Sugianto, D. H., and Wahyu Budi S (2015, January) "Kajian Refraksi-Difraksi dan
Transformasi Penjalaran Gelombang Laut di Perairan Pantai Tapak Paderi Kota Bengkulu" in Journal of
Oceanography volume 4, number 1, pp. 270-279. [2]

Li, Honghai, Lin, L., Lu, C., Reed, C. W., and Shak, A. T. (2015, May). "Modeling study of Dana Point Harbor,
California: littoral sediment transport around a semi-permeable breakwater" in Journal of Ocean Engineering
and Marine Energy : Volume 1, Issue 2, pp. 181-192. [3]

Siadatmousavia, S. Mostafa, Joseb, F., da Silvac, G. M. (2015, September). "Sensitivity of a third generation
wave model to wind and boundary condition sources and model physics: A case study from the South Atlantic
Ocean off Brazil coast" in Computers & Geosciences . DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2015.09.025. [4]

Bilskie, Matthew V., Cogginb, D., Hagena, S. C., Medeiros, S. C. (2015, December). "Terrain-driven
unstructured mesh development through semi-automatic vertical feature extraction" in Advances in Water
Resources : Volume 86, Part A, pp. 102–118. [5]

Marusic, Galina, Sandu, I., Vasilache, V., Filote, C., Sevcenco, N., and Cretu, M. (2015) "Modeling of Spaciotemporal Evolution of Fluoride Dispersion in 'River-type' Systems" in Rev. Chim. (Bucharest), volume 66,
number 4, pp. 503-506. [6]
SMS 12.2

Page 67
罗全胜, 曹明伟, and 谢龙. (2015) "三峡大坝175 m 蓄水运行后猪儿碛河段水动力条件变化分析" in 长江科学院院报, volume
32, number 5, pp. 1-5. [7]
2014

Stanev, Emil V., Zhang, J. Y., Grashorn, S., Koch, W., Pein, J., and Jacob, B. (2014, October). "Downscaling to
Study Straits, Inlets and Tidal-Bays Dynamics: Unstructured Grid Model Simulations in the North and Baltic
Seas." [8]

Gerstner, N., Belzner, F., & Thorenz, C. (2014) "Simulation of Flood Scenarios with Combined 2D/3D
Numerical Models." [9]

Savant, G., & McAlpin, T. O. (2014). "Tidal Hydrodynamics in the Lower Columbia River Estuary through
Depth Averaged Adaptive Hydraulics Modeling." Journal of Engineering, 2014. [10]

Bilskie, M. V., Akhavian, R., and Hagen, S. (2014). "Bare Earth LiDAR to Gridded Topography for the
Pascagoula River, MS: An Accuracy Assessment." Bridges , 10, 9780784412411-00018.

Fulton, J. W. and Wagner, C. R. (2014). "Calibration of a Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Parts of
the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania" (No. SIR-2013-5145, p. 53).
United States Geological Survey. [11]

Huang, J. and Russell, K. (2014) "Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Grand Canyon Sandbar during
a High Flow Experiment." World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: pp. 1183-1190.
2013

Li, H., Sanchez, A., Wu, W., & Reed, C. (2013, August). "Implementation of Structures in the CMS: Part 1,
Rubble Mound" (No. ERDC/CHL-CHETN-IV-93). Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg MS
Coastal and Hydraulics Lab. [12]

Marusic, G., and Ciufudean, C. (2013, June). "Current state of research on water quality of Prut River." In
Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Environment, Ecosystems and Development
(EED13) , pp. 1-3. [13]

Dobroliubov, S., Arkhipkin, V., Koltermann, P., Surkova, G., & Bublik, D. (2013, April). "High-resolution
retrospective analysis of storm surges in the North Caspian Sea based on numerical simulations." In EGU
General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 15, p. 7572).

Lyubimova, T., Lepikhin, A., Parshakova, Y., Tiunov, A., Konovalov, V., & Shumilova, N. (2013, March).
"Numerical modelling of admixture transport in a turbulent flow at river confluence." In Journal of Physics:
Conference Series (Vol. 416, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing. [14]

Petrescu, V., Ianus, L., & Sirbu, N. (2013) "Mathematical modeling of selective withdrawal from heliothermic
stratified lakes. Case study" U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D. (Vol. 75, Issue 2) [15]

McAlpin, T. O., Sharp, J. A., Scott, S. H., & Savant, G. (2013). "Habitat Restoration and Flood Control
Protection in the Kissimmee River." Wetlands , 33(3), 551-560.
2012

Marusic, G., Sandu, I., Moraru, V., Vasilache, V., Cretu, A., Filote, C., & Ciufudean, C. (2012, May) "Software
for modeling spatial and temporal evolution of river-type systems." In Proceedings of the 11th International
Conference on Development and Application Systems (pp. 17-19). [16]

Li, H., & MacDonald, N. (2012, April). "Use of the PTM with CMS Quadtree Grids" (No. ERDC/CHLCHETN-IV-82). Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg MS Coastal and Hydraulics Lab. [17]

Ortiz, J. C., Salcedo, B., & Otero, L. J. (2012). "Investigating the Collapse of the Puerto Colombia Pier
(Colombian Caribbean Coast) in March 2009: Methodology for the Reconstruction of Extreme Events and the
Evaluation of their Impact on the Coastal Infrastructure." Journal of Coastal Research , 30(2), 291-300.

Miot da Silva, G., Siadat Mousavi, S. M., & Jose, F. (2012). "Wave-driven sediment transport and beach-dune
dynamics in a headland bay beach." Marine Geology , 323, 29-46.
SMS 12.2
Page 68

Wagner, D. M. (2012) "Two-Dimensional Simulation of the June 11, 2010, Flood of the Little Missouri River at
Albert Pike Recreation Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas." Scientific Investigations Report 2012–5274,
USGS. [18]

Jiang, J., Wang, P., Lung, W. S., Guo, L., & Li, M. (2012). "A GIS-based generic real-time risk assessment
framework and decision tools for chemical spills in the river basin." Journal of hazardous materials , 227, 280291.
2011

Smith, T. J., Piotrowski, J. A., Young, N. C., Schnoebelen, D. J., & Weber, L. J. (2011). "Simulation of Spatial
and Temporal Trends in Upper Mississippi River Physical Habitat." In Proceedings of the 34th World Congress
of the International Association for Hydro-Environment Research and Engineering: 33rd Hydrology and Water
Resources Symposium and 10th Conference on Hydraulics in Water Engineering (p. 3952). Engineers Australia.

Massey, T. C., Anderson, M. E., Smith, J. M., Gomez, J., & Jones, R. (2011, September). "STWAVE: SteadyState Spectral Wave Model User's Manual for STWAVE, Version 6.0" (No. ERDC/CHL-SR-11-1). Engineer
Research and Development Center Vicksburg MS Coastal and Hydraulics Lab. [19]

Anderson, M. E., Lin, L., & Demirbilek, Z. (2011, April). "CMS-Wave Model: Part 4. An Automated Procedure
for CMS-Wave in Resource-Demanding Applications" (No. ERDC/CHL-CHETN-IV-79). Engineer Research
and Development Center Vicksburg MS Coastal and Hydraulics Lab. [20]

Li, H., Lin, L., & Brown, M. E. (2011, January). "Applying Particle Tracking Model in the Coastal Modeling
System" (No. ERDC/CHL-CHETN-IV-78). Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg MS Coastal
and Hydraulics Lab. [21]

Sasaki, J., Komatsu, Y., Matsumaru, R., & Wiyono, R. U. A. (2011). "Unstructured model investigation of 2004
Indian Ocean tsunami inundation in Banda Aceh, Indonesia." J. Coast. Res , 941-945. [22]
2010

Pasquale, N., Perona, P., Schneider, P., Shrestha, J., Wombacher, A., & Burlando, P. (2010, November).
"Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors."
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 7(6), 8873-8912. [23]

Glenn, J. S., & Bartell, E. M. (2010). "Evaluating Short-Circuiting Potential of Stormwater Ponds." In World
Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010@ sChallenges of Change (pp. 3942-3951). ASCE.
2009

Cook, A., & Merwade, V. (2009). "Effect of topographic data, geometric configuration and modeling approach
on flood inundation mapping." Journal of Hydrology , 377(1), 131-142.
2008

Sep 2008 Modeling of Morphologic Changes Caused by Inlet Management Strategies at Big Sarasota Pass,
Florida [24]

Jul 2008 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-71 Particle Tracking Model (PTM) in the SMS 10: IV. Link to Coastal
Modeling System [25]
2007

SRH-2D Training Presentation [26]

Aug 2007 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-76 Modeling Nearshore Waves for Hurricane Katrina [27]

Aug 2007 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-75 Full-Plane STWAVE with Bottom Friction: II. Model Overview [28]

Jul 2007 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-69 Tips for Developing Bathymetry Grids for Coastal Modeling System
Applications [29]

May 2007 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-73 Infra-Gravity Wave Input Toolbox (IGWT): User’s Guide [30]

May 2007 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-73 May 2007 Infra-Gravity Wave Input Toolbox (IGWT): User’s Guide [31]
SMS 12.2

May 2007 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-74 WABED Model in the SMS: Part 2. Graphical Interface [32]

Lai, Y.G. and Bountry, J.A. (2007). "Numerical modeling study of levee setback alternatives for lower
Dungeness River, Washington" [33]
Page 69
2006

Sep 2006 9th International Workshop On Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting Jane McKee Smith Modeling
Nearshore Waves For Hurricane Katrina [34]

Sep 2006 ERDC/CHL TR-06-20 PTM: Particle Tracking Model [35]

Aug 2006 ERDC/CHL TR-06-9 Two-Dimensional Depth-Averaged Circulation Model CMS-M2D: Version
3.0, Report 2, Sediment Transport and Morphology Change [36]

Jul 2006 ERDC/CHL CHETN-III-73 Wave-Action Balance Equation Diffraction (WABED) Model: Tests of
Wave Diffraction and Reflection at Inlets [37]

2006 Short Course Presentation FISC [38]

Mar 2006 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-71 Full Plane STWAVE: SMS Graphical Interface [39]

Feb 2006 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-67 Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQs) About Coastal Inlets and U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers' Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) [40]

Lai, Y.G. and Bountry, J.A. (2006). "Numerical hydraulic modeling and assessment in support of Elwha Surface
Diversion Project." [41]

Lai, Y.G., Holburn, E.R., and Bauer, T.R. (2006)."Analysis of sediment transport following removal of the
Sandy River Delta Dam." [42]

Bountry J.A. and Lai, Y.G. (2006)."Numerical modeling of flow hydraulics in support of the Savage Rapids
Dam removal." [43]
2005

Jul 2005 ERDC TN-DOER-D4 Particle Tracking Model (PTM) in the SMS: I. Graphical Interface [44]

Jul 2005 ERDC TN-DOER-D5 Particle Tracking Model (PTM): II. Overview of Features and Capabilities [45]

Jul 2005 ERDC TN-DOER-D6 Particle Tracking Model (PTM) in the SMS: III. Tutorial with Examples [46]

May 2005 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-70 BOUSS-2D Wave Model in SMS: 2. Tutorial with Examples [47]

Mar 2005 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-69 BOUSS-2D Wave Model in the SMS: 1. Graphical Interface [48]

May 2005 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-63 Representation of Nonerodible (Hard) Bottom in Two-Dimensional
Morphology Change Models [49]

2005 US-China Workshop Paper [50]
2004

May 2004 ERDC/CHL TR-04-2 Two-Dimensional Depth-Averaged Circulation Model M2D: Version 2.0,
Report 1, Technical Documentation and User’s Guide [51]

Mar 2004 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-68 How to Use CGWAVE with SMS:An Example for Tedious Creek Small
Craft Harbor [52]
2003

Dec 2003 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-60 SMS Steering Module for Coupling Waves and Currents, 2: M2D and
STWAVE [53]

Jun 2003 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-67 Tedious Creek Small Craft Harbor:CGWAVE Model Comparisons
Between Existing and Authorized Breakwater Configurations [54]
2002

Jun 2002 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-66 Grid Nesting with STWAVE [55]
SMS 12.2
Page 70

Jun 2002 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-41 SMS Steering Module for Coupling Waves and Currents, 1: ADCIRC and
STWAVE [56]

Mar 2002 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-40 Guidelines for Using Eastcoast 2001 Database of Tidal Constituents
within Western North Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea [57]

Mar 2002 ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-45 Wave Transmission at Detached Breakwaters for Shoreline Response
Modeling [58]
2001

Sep 2001 ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-64 Modeling Nearshor Wave Transformation with STWAVE [59]

Sep 2001 ERDC/CHL TR-1-25 BOUSS-2D: A Boussinesq Wave Model for Coastal Regions and Harbors [60]

Jun 2001 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-32 Leaky Internal-Barrier Normal-Flow Boundaries in the ADCIRC Coastal
Hydrodynamics Code [61]

Mar 2001 Technical Report CHL-98-32 Shinnecock Inlet, New York, site Investigation Report 4, Evaluation of
Flood and Ebb shoal Sediment Source Alternatives for the West of Shinnecock Interim Project, New York [62]
1999

Dec 1999 Coastal Engineering Technical Note IV-21 Surface-Water Modeling System Tidal Constituents
Toolbox for ADCIRC [63] [64]
1998

Aug 1998 Technical Report CHL-98-xx CGWAVE: A Coastal Surface Water Wave Model of the Mild Slope
Equation [65]
1990

Mar 1990 CETN-II-21 Computer Program: Genesis Version 2 [66]
External Lists of Articles

ADCIRC publications [67]

Journal articles using SMS by Prof. Greg Pasternack, UC Davis [68]
1.3. Layout
SMS 12.2
Page 71
Layout
At a glance

The project explorer shows data currently loaded in project

Menu bar depends upon the active module and model

Edit window show x, y, z, scalar, and vector values

Edit window values can be edited in some circumstances

The status window on the bottom of the graphics window shows coordinates and selection information

Help information is displayed at the bottom of the SMS screen
 Several toolbars are used in SMS. The dynamic tools change based upon the current module.
The interface to SMS has been designed in a modular fashion. Separate modules are used for each data type. As
switching from one module to another, the available menus and tools change. Inside the modules, a numeric model
can be associated with a mesh or grid. When that grid is active, the tools and menus for the associated model are also
enabled.
The SMS screen includes several toolbars , edit fields , and menus . Some of these change when switching modules or
numerical models . The main components include:

Menu Bar – Menu commands to issue commands. These change as the module and model change.

Edit Window – Fields directly below the menu bar showing the coordinates and function values for selected
entities.

Graphics Window – Display panel to show the data being manipulated.

Project Explorer (Data Tree) – Tree representation of all the data currently referenced through SMS.

Time Step Window – Appears when transient data is available.

Toolbars – Several toolbars can be displayed. For more information on each toolbar, see the Toolbars article.
 Help or Status Window
Normally the Main Graphics Window fills the majority of the screen; however, plot windows can also be opened to
display 2D plots of various data. The toolbars, project explorer, time steps window and edit window are dockable
windows. Dockable windows may be positioned anywhere on the screen.
SMS 12.2
Page 72
Data Toolbar
The Data Toolbar contains tools to query or obtain data. Whether the toolbar appears at startup is set in the
Preferences dialog.
The following tools are available:
Measure Tool
The Measure Tool
is used to measure distances interactively. When clicking in the graphics window, a line will
show the distance being measured and the Coordinates Bar will show the total numerical value. The units used to
report the measured distance is specified on the Toolbars tab of the Preferences dialog—either the project unit as set
in the Projections dialog or user-specified units.
Get Data Tool
The Get Data Tool
is used to specify the location of interest for obtaining data using the import from web feature.
Click and drag in the main graphics window to specify the area to be downloaded. The Data Service Options dialog
will then appear and the web service or catalog can be selected for downloading the data. SMS will ask to save the
data file before downloading the data and importing it into SMS. The data will appear in the GIS module.
This tool is not available if a display projection has not been specified. The tool will determine the data location based
on the display projection.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Toolbars
There are several toolbars that can be displayed. Most toolbars are organized in the layout with set default positions.
The Preferences dialog can be used to specify which toolbars are displayed. By clicking on the top of the toolbar, it
can be detached from their default position and moved as floating palettes in the interface.
SMS 12.2
Page 73
Macros
Many of the more frequently used menu commands can be accessed through the macro buttons. These buttons
essentially serve as shortcuts to menu commands. Macro Toolbars include:

Optional Macro Toolbar

File Toolbar
 Display Toolbar
For more information, see the Macros article.
Static Toolbar
The Static Toolbar contains the tools which are available in every module. These tools are tools for basic operations
such as panning and zooming. Only one tool is active at any given time. The action that takes place when clicking in
the Graphics Window depends on the current tool. For more information, see the Static Tools article.
Dynamic Toolbar
When the active module is changed, the tools in the Dynamic Tool Palette change to the set of tools associated with
the selected object/module. Each module has a separate set of tools. For more information, see the Dynamic Tools
article.
Module Toolbar
The Module Toolbar is used to switch between modules. Only one module is active at any given time. However, the
data associated with a module (ex. a 2D finite element mesh) is preserved when switching to a different module.
Activating a module simply changes the set of available tools and menu commands. See Modules for more
Information.
Data Toolbar
The Data Toolbar is used to query objects displayed in the graphics window. For more information, see the Data
Toolbar article.
Related Links

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Static Tools
The Static Toolbar contains tools which are available in every module. These tools are tools for basic operations such
as panning and zooming. Only one tool is active at any given time. The action that takes place when clicking in the
Graphics Window depends on the current tool. The following describes the tools in the Static Tool palette.
Pan
The Pan

tool is used to pan the viewing area of the Graphics Window . Panning can be done in 3 ways:
When the Pan tool is active, holding down the main mouse button while dragging moves the view.
SMS 12.2
Page 74

If another tool is active and not wanting to switch tools, pan by holding down the F2 key and clicking and
dragging with the mouse.

If the mouse has a middle button (or a mouse wheel), hold it down and drag to pan the view.
Zoom
The viewing area can be magnified/shrunk using the Zoom
tool. Zooming can be done in the following ways:

With the Zoom tool selected, clicking on the screen zooms the display in around the point by a factor of two.
Holding down the SHIFT key zooms out.

With the zoom tool selected, a rectangle can be dragged around a portion of the display to zoom in on that
region. Holding down the SHIFT key zooms out.

If another tool is active and wanting to switch tools, zoom by holding down the F3 key and clicking and
dragging with the mouse.

If the mouse has a middle button (or a mouse wheel), scroll the wheel to zoom in and out.
Rotate
The Rotate
tool provides a quick way to rotate the viewing location. Rotating can be done in the following ways:

With the Rotate tool selected, holding down the mouse button and dragging the cursor in the Graphics Window
rotates the object in the direction specified. A horizontal movement rotates the image about the z axis. A vertical
movement rotates the image about the x and y axis. The amount of rotation depends on the distance the cursor
moves while the mouse button is down.

If another tool is active and not wanting to switch tools, rotate by holding down the F4 key and clicking and
dragging with the mouse.

The viewing angle can also be entered directly through the Display Options dialog (General Options, View tab).
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Dynamic Tools
The Dynamic Toolbar contains tools that apply to the selected module and active numerical model. These tools are
called dynamic because the available tools change whenever the module or numerical model is changed. These tools
are used for creating and editing entities specific to the module. They appear between the Project Explorer and the
Graphics Window below the Static Tools .
Selection Tools
The selection tools in SMS allow selecting entities displayed in the Main Graphics Window. It is necessary to first
select objects before issuing many of the commands in SMS. For example, to delete a node, the node must be be
selected and then the Delete command issued. Selections can be made using a box, polygon, arrow, or by clicking a
single location. In addition, selections can be toggled, have new items added, or remove items. Below is a list of
modifier keys and corresponding actions.

None – This will clear the current selection and add the newly selected items. Dragging will create a selection
box. All items contained in the box will be selected.

Ctrl – Clicking while holding the Ctrl key will create a polygon. All items contained in the polygon will be
selected. If control is held while dragging, an arrow will be created. All items which the arrow passes through
will be selected. ( Control will cause the same behavior with any combination of the Alt and Shift keys)

Shift – Holding Shift causes all newly selected items to be toggled. If it was selected before it will be
unselected, and if it was not selected it will be selected.
SMS 12.2

Page 75
Alt – Holding the Alt key causes all newly selected items to be added to the selection list regardless of previous
state.

Alt + Shift – Holding Alt and Shift causes all newly selected items to be removed from the selection list
regardless of previous state.
The various selection types, polygon, arrow, and box, are available in all tools with the exception of the arrow. An
arrow selection can only be performed when selecting line or polygon (e.g. mesh elements, scatter triangles, etc)
elements. The arrow must cross a polygon or line edge to select it.
When selecting polygon features the rules for selection may vary slightly. In the map module all vertices of the
polygon must be contained in the selection box or polygon. For mesh elements, scatter triangles, and Cartesian grid
cells only the centroid must be contained.
When clicking a single location, the element closest to the eye (i.e. drawn on top of other elements) will always be
selected. All other forms of selection (box, polygon, and arrow) will select all elements meeting the required criteria.
Other commands for selecting multiple objects such as Select With Poly , Select by Material Type , and Select by
Data Value can be found in the Edit menu .
Related Topics

2D Mesh Module Tools

Cartesian Grid Module Tools

Scatter Module Tools

Map Module Tools

GIS Module Tools

1D Grid Module Tools

Particle Module Tools
Edit Window
The Edit Window lies above the Graphics Window and below the Menu Bar . It includes a rows of edit fields and text
strings. The edit fields are dim and the text strings blank if nothing is selected. When an entity, such as a mesh node,
is selected, the controls display the attribute values of the selected entity. Some attribute values can be edited as
shown in the table below. The attribute values are changed by typing in new values and hitting the ENTER or TAB
key. If more than one entity is selected, only the Z edit field is available for editing. Entering a new value in the Z edit
field will modify the bathymetry or depth of each of the selected entities. This allows quickly modeling a feature such
as a dredged channel or embankment.
Entity
X Edit Field
Mesh Node
Mesh
Nodestring
S Edit Field
Vx Edit Field
Vy Edit Field
Editable for
Editable for
Editable
single selection single selection
Editable if an
ADCIRC
Spatial
Attributes
dataset
Not editable
Not editable
N/A
N/A
N/A
Cartesian Grid Not editable
Cell
Y Edit Field
Z Edit Field
N/A
Editable
N/A
Not editable
Editable
Editable if an Not editable
CMS-Flow hard
bottom or
roughness
Not editable
SMS 12.2
Page 76
dataset
Cartesian Grid N/A
Cellstring
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Scatter Point
Editable for
Editable for
Editable
single selection single selection
Not editable
Not editable
Not editable
Feature Point
Editable for
Editable for
Editable
single selection single selection
N/A
N/A
N/A
Feature Vertex Editable for
Editable for
Editable
single selection single selection
N/A
N/A
N/A
Feature Arc
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Editable
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Graphics Window
The Main Graphics Window is the biggest part of the SMS screen. The Graphics Window is where SMS displays two
and three-dimensional data. It is also where most interaction happens with that data in SMS. The selected tool in the
determines the type of interaction that can be performed in the Graphics Window. For example, if the Create Node
tool is currently selected any click in the Graphics Window will result in the creation of a node at the location of the
click.
What data appears in the Graphics Window, and how each data type is formatted, can be controlled. Each type of
entity has an associated set of display attributes. These attributes include visibility, color, line thickness, and font type.
Each data type is associated with a specific module and the attributes for that type are controlled via that modules
Display Options dialog.
The Graphics Window is integral in the creation, editing and visualization of two-dimensional finite element meshes
and two-dimensional finite difference grids. It is also the main means of interacting with a conceptual model and site
maps.
The row at the bottom of the graphics window tracks the coordinates and functional values of the location of the
cursor. The z coordinate corresponds to an interpolated elevation value from either the mesh or grid, depending on
which module is active.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
SMS 12.2
Page 77
Help or Status Window
There are two status bars. One, the help bar, at the bottom of the SMS application window. The second, the
coordinates bar, is attached to the Main Graphics Window .
Help Bar
The status bar, also called the help bar, attached to the main application window shows help messages when the
mouse hovers over a tool or an item in a dialog box. This bar is usually empty when not hovering over a tool or item
and when not performing an action.
At times, it also may display a message in red text to prompt for specific actions, such as that shown in the figure
below. Typically, messages in red appear when in the process of completing an action. Red messages disappear once
the process has been completed.
Coordinates Bar
The second status bar, also called the coordinates bar, is attached to the Main Graphics Window. This bar is split into
two separate panes.
The left shows the mouse coordinates when the model is in plan view. Coordinates are displayed in standard X,Y,Z
coordinates. The units for these coordinates will match the units set in the object projection .
The right pane shows information for selected entities. Typically, this will show the number of objects selected. If one
object is selected, it will give the ID for that object. When an arc is selected, the arc length and number of segments is
shown. When multiple arcs are selected, the combined lenght of all selected arcs along with the combined number of
segments is displayed. For polygons, the bar will show the area of the area of the polygon. When multiple polygons
are selected, the combined area of all polygons will be shown. If two nodes or two vertices are selected, then the
distance between the two points will be given.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Macros
The Macro Toolbars contain buttons to perform frequently used menu commands. All macros are shortcuts for menu
commands. Which macro toolbars appear at startup is set in the Preferences dialog. The macro toolbars include:
Optional Macro Toolbar

Lighting Options – Opens the Lighting tab of the Display Options dialog. See Lighting Options .

Contour Options – Opens the Contours tab of the Display Options dialog. See Contour Options .

Vector Options – Opens the Vectors tab of the Display Options dialog. See Vector Options .

Get Module Info – Opens the Information dialog. See Object Info .
SMS 12.2

Plot Wizard – Starts the Plot Wizard . See Plot Wizard .

Dynamic Imagery – Opens the Get Online Maps dialog. See Get Online Maps .
File Toolbar

Open – Starts the Open browser. See Open .

Save Project – Saves changes to the SMS project file. See Save Project .

Print – Opens the Print dialog. See Print .

Delete – Delete the selected items. If none are selected, delete all items.
Display Toolbar

Refresh – Forces the display to update. See Refresh .

Frame – Centers displayed data. See Frame .

Display Options – Opens the Display Options dialog. See Display Options .

Plan View – Change the view in the Graphics Window to a plan view .
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Project Explorer
Page 78
SMS 12.2
Page 79
The Project Explorer (which is sometimes referred to as a "Data Tree") is a dockable window that appears by default
on the left side of the SMS screen. This window displays a hierarchical tree structure representing all of the data
currently being managed in an SMS simulation. The project explorer includes the following functionality:
Data Representation
The data tree includes one "Module type" folder for each type of data, including:

Mesh Module

Cartesian Grid Module

Scatter Module

Map Module

GIS Module

1D Grid Module

Particle Module

Images
 CAD Data
Each module type folder in the Project Explorer may contain several sub folders. For example, a simulation may
includes several scattered datasets, each of which would consist of a folder inside the "Scatter Sets" folder. Further, all
data associated with a specific scatter set, such as datasets of elevation or water level, are displayed as entities inside
the scatter set folder. New folders can be created. It is possible to move datasets, solutions, and folders into other
folders anywhere on the Project Explorer. Folders can be created by right-clicking and selecting New Folder in the
right-click menu. A dataset or folder can be deleted simply by selecting the folder and selecting the Delete key or by
right-clicking on the item and selecting the Delete option in the right-click menu.
Datasets
The Project Explorer also includes a list of the datasets associated with each geometric object (mesh, grid, scatter set).
These are displayed below the object in the Project Explorer and can be arranged into folders.
Geometric items can often be dragged to be linked to simulations or other objects.
Module Selection
There are several ways to switch from one module to another. These include:

Select an entity in the Project Explorer . The module containing the active entity becomes active.

Right-click on the Project Explorer and select the Switch Module command.

Click on the module icon in the module toolbar. The module toolbar is displayed at the bottom of the project
explorer by default.
(Note: Switching modules should not be confused with changing the current model inside of a module. When a new
model is selected, the tools and menus may change, and the data will be converted as much as is possible. However,
some data may be lost.) More Info...
Object Visibility Options
A toggle box appears to the left of each object in the project explorer. This toggle allows the display of all entities
associated with the object to be turned on or off. When the toggle is turned on, only items turned on the the object's
Display Options are shown.
SMS 12.2
Page 80
Right-Click Menus
Right-click menus are used to interact with data in the Project Explorer. See the article Project Explorer Right-Click
Menus for more information.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Time Step Window
The Time Steps window is used to select a time step to be active and is only visible if a transient dataset has been
loaded into the project.
The Time Step window is located below the Project Explorer by default, but it can be moved to anywhere on the
window since it is a "dockable" toolbar. The Time Step window can be resized by clicking on the window borders and
dragging them. The Time Step window only appears when a transient dataset is selected in the Project Explorer.
The display of time values in the Time Step Window is controlled by the settings in the Time Settings and Preferences
dialogs.
Time Step Window Right-Click Menu
Right-clicking on the Time Step window will give bring up the following options:

Time Settings – Allows changing the how time is displayed.

Time Preferences – Opens the SMS Preferences dialog.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
1.3.1. SMS Menus
SMS Menus
Menu commands in SMS are accessed through one of two ways. The first is through the menus located in menu bar.
The second is by clicking the right mouse button to bring up a right-click menu.
SMS 12.2
Page 81
Menu Bar
Many commands in SMS are accessed through pull down menus located in the menu bar. Each menu can be accessed
either with the mouse or by pressing the ALT key and the corresponding letter underlined in the menu title. Once a
menu is visible the individual commands can be selected with the mouse or by again pressing the corresponding letter
underlined in the menu command.
The menus available at any time are dependent on the active module and current numerical model. The standard
menus, such as the File , Edit , and Display menus, are always available. The remaining menus change with the
module and the model. This is to partition the available commands into usable groups and avoid unnecessary
complexity.
Standard Menus

File Menu

Edit Menu

Display Menu

Web Menu

Window Menu

Help Menu
Module Specific Menus

2D Mesh Module

Cartesian Grid Module

Scatter Module

Map Module

GIS Module

1D River Module

1D Grid Module

Particle Module
Model Specific Menus

ADCIRC

BOUSS-2D

CGWAVE

CMS-Flow

CMS-Wave

FESWMS

Generic Mesh Model

GenCade

PTM

STWAVE

TABS


RMA2

RMA4
TUFLOW
SMS 12.2
Page 82
Right-Click Menus
Many commands in SMS are accessed through mouse right-click menus. The mouse right-click menu available at any
time is dependent on the active module, current numerical model, active tool , and where the right-click is performed.
Standard Right-Click Menus

Plot Window

Project Explorer

Time Step Window
Module / Model Specific Right-Click Menus
Module and model specific right-click menus are documented for each individual tool. See the Dynamic Tools Article
for more information.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface

Keyboard Shortcuts
File Menu
The File menu is one of the standard menus available regardless of the current module and model. The File menu
includes the following commands:
Open
Used to read any file used by SMS. This includes a large selection of file formats, both generic and model
specific. This command opens a file browser from which one or more files can be selected. SMS attempts to
recognize the file type based on the file extension. The available file formats (extenstions) varies based on the
module and model being used. For example, there are several types of *.dat file that are used by different
models. If a selected file does not match the anticipated type, a message is given with the option to specify
another format type to use when reading in the file. Data from the file is added to the current data base and SMS
updates the display.
Save Project
Used to save an SMS Project File (file extension *.sms). The first time this command is invoked, prompt will
ask for a file name (unless a project file has already been opened in SMS). Every other time, SMS saves the
project file using either the file name used to save the project or the filename of a project opened in SMS. To
save a project with a new name, the Save as... command is used. The SMS Project File is saved as an XMDF
file. The contents of the SMS Project File can be viewed using a HDF5 file browser or editor .
Save <Model>
The name of this command changes according to the active module and active model (i.e. Save RMA2 for the
Mesh Module, RMA2 model). This command is similar to the Save Project command. The first time this
command is invoked, prompt will ask for a file name (unless a project file has already been opened in SMS).
Every other time, SMS saves the model file using either the file name used to save the model or the filename of
a model opened in SMS. To save a model with a new name, the Save as... command is used.
Save as...
Allows saving data currently in the SMS database in a format not associated with the current model nor SMS or
to save a model or project file with a new name. Specify the Save as type in the Save dialog to select the file
format. The Save as type available at any time depend on the data currently in SMS and on the current module
and model (i.e. to save a map file, the map module must be active).
Delete All
SMS 12.2
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Deletes all the data associated with all modules. It resets the status of the program so that all display option and
default values match the values in the "settings" file. This command should be selected when a new modeling
problem is started.
View Data File
Since the process of numerical modeling often utilizes many input files and generates many output files, it is not
uncommon to review an ASCII data file. When the View Data File command is selected, SMS asks to select a file.
Based on the Preferences settings, the file will then open or SMS will ask which editor to open the file in by bring up
the View Data File dialog. A separate process is created for editing/viewing the selected file using the selected editor.
It should be remembered that this is now a separate process and the data in the file is not part of the SMS database.
The data may be saved and incorporated into SMS using file read and import capabilities.
Get Info
Reports basic information concerning the data type associated with the active module. For example, for meshes,
the Get Info dialog reports the number of nodes, the number of elements, the number of linear elements, etc. For
more information, see Information Dialog .
Info Options
When entities are selected, various information about the entities can be displayed or saved. For example, when two
nodes are selected, the distance between them can be shown. The values are displayed by default in the Status Window
. However, since space along the bottom of the window is limited, as due to the fact that the information being
displayed be useful, there is the option of displaying the information to a separate window and echoing the
information into a file.
The Selection Information dialog allows turning on and off various data that can be displayed on the selected entities.
The echo of the information to a file can be turned on and off with on Echo to File toggle. When this toggle is turned
on, prompt will ask for a file name. The Display Echo Window option opens a window where information is also
displayed.
Save Settings
Used to save the current settings of the program (display options, defaults, etc.) to a default settings file. SMS
reads the "default settings" file each time it is launched or the new command is invoked.
Page Setup
Print
Used to set printing options. The dialog contains three tabs:
Margins
This page allows specifying up the margins that will be used for printing to the selected printer. The right side of the
display shows a gray region representing how the graphics window would be positioned on a printed page.
The scale of the printed image directly depends on the margins that are set on this page. The margins have a lower
limit depending on the system’s default printer.
The Maintain aspect ratio option should usually be checked. When this option is turned on, the size of the printed
image be constrained by one pair of margins, either the top and bottom or the left and right.
Paper Size
SMS 12.2
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This page allows defining the size of the paper for the selected printer. The specific available options are dependent on
the system’s default printer. Both the paper size and paper source can be specified, as well as the image orientation on
the paper.
The preview window shows a sample of what the printed image will look like.
Options
This page allows defining a scale to be added to the bottom of the printed image. If changing the scale value, the
margins are updated to match. The scale is defined as either one inch or one centimeter, and will equal the specified
number of units that the data is in. This could be feet, meters, lat/lon, etc. If, after the scale is set, zooming in or
zooming out, the scale will change to match the new world boundaries and the page margins.
The preview window shows a sample of what the printed image will look like.
The data displayed in the Graphics Window is then printed through the Print menu item.
Print
Opens the Windows Print dialog. Pages are printed with the data displayed in the Graphics Window using the
settings set through the Page Setup menu command.
Demo Mode
Since some users may not require all of the modules or model interfaces provided in SMS, modules and model
interfaces can be licensed individually. The icons for the unlicensed modules or the menus for unlicensed model
interfaces are dim and cannot be accessed. The Demo Mode command provides a way of evaluating additional
modules to consider licensing in the future. This is particularly useful when using the tutorials provided with SMS.
When the Demo Mode command is selected, all modules of the program will be enabled. The only exceptions are that
the Print and Save options will be disabled. It is important to note that when the mode is changed all current data will
be deleted. When the program is in demo mode, a check mark appears next to the menu item. To return to normal
operating mode, select the Demo Mode command again. If an evaluation copy of the software is being used, or if all
modules are enabled, this menu item is unavailable.
Layout
Launches the XMS Layout dialog for defining a print layout.
Recent Files
SMS remembers the last five files opened during operation. These files are added to the File Menu. A file can be
reopened by choosing it from the list.
Exit
Used to exit the program. If the data has not been saved, SMS gives a warning before exiting.
Related Topics
SMS Menus
Edit Menu
The Edit menu is one of the standard menus and is available in all of the modules. The commands in the Edit menu
are used to select objects, delete objects, and set basic object and material attributes.
Delete
Used to delete the selected objects. This command is equivalent to hitting the DELETE or BACKSPACE keys on
the keyboard. If no objects are selected when the Delete command is executed, then all of the objects of the tool
selection type will be deleted. Unless the Confirm Deletions option is turned on, SMS will not ask to confirm the
deletion of selected entities.
Select All
Selects all items associated with the current selection tool.
Select With Poly
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Selects items associated with the current selection tool which are inside a user defined polygon. Create the
polygon after selecting the command by clicking in the Graphics Window. The polygon is closed with a doubleclick. A similar feature called Select with Feature Polygon is available from the Map module. If a feature
polygon is defined, it is possible to select nodes or elements in the mesh module or vertices in the data module
that are inside or outside of the feature polygon.
Select By
Brings up a submenu with the following options:
Material Type
Selects all items of the current selection tool of a specified material. This command opens the Materials Data
dialog with a list of the defined materials and waits for a material type to be selected. This enables all nodes or
elements that reference a specific material to be selected together.
Dataset Value
Opens a dialog that asks to specify a range. All entities (nodes, elements, scatter points, etc.) of the current
selection tool type whose scalar dataset value lies inside that range are selected. This enables all entities above or
below threshold to be selected together for quick editing.
Area
Opens a dialog that asks to specify a range. All polygons whose area lies inside that range are selected. This
enables all entities above or below threshold to be selected together for quick editing.
Length
Opens a dialog that asks to specify a range. All arcs whose length lies inside that range are selected. This enables
all entities above or below threshold to be selected together for quick editing.
Ambiguous Gradient
Selects all elements in a mesh or cells in a grid where the directional flow is difficult to determine due to
variation in the elevation at each node.
BC Type
Brings up a Select Arc Type dialog if the active coverage is a boundary conditions coverage ( CMS-Flow , SRH2D , TUFLOW , etc.). Allows selecting arcs by assigned boundary condition type.
Time Settings...
Opens the Time Settings dialog. For more information, see the Time Settings article.
Materials Data
See the Materials Data article.
Project Metadata
Allows defining metadata for the project. This documents a history of the project.
Copy to Clipboard
Copies the contents of the graphics window to the windows clipboard. This allows graphics to be easily
transferred to documents and presentations.
Paste
Opens the Import Wizard with the contents of the windows clipboard. This requires that the contents be text
values This allows graphics to be easily transferred to documents and presentations.
Preferences
Sets program preferences. For more information, see the article Preferences .
Obsolete Commands
Confirm Deletions
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By default, whenever a set of selected objects is about to be deleted, prompt will ask to confirm the deletion.
This helps ensure that objects are not deleted accidentally. Selecting the Confirm Deletions command toggles
this request for confirmation. When the option is off, the check mark next to the Confirm Deletions line in the
menu disappears. Moved to Preferences dialog.
Current Coordinates
Tells SMS what coordinate system the data is to reference. SMS supports several different global systems as
well as a user defined local system. Replaced with the Projections command.
Coordinate Conversions
Converts the current data from on coordinate system to another. For more information, see the Coordinate
Conversions article. Replaced with the Reproject command.
Single Point Conversion
Opens a dialog which acts as a stand-alone coordinate converter. Specify a to and from coordinate system and a
location. The location is converted to the new system within the dialog. Replaced with the Single Point
Projection.. command.
Projection...
Brings up the Current Projection dialog. See Projections for more information. Moved to the Display menu.
Reproject...
Reprojecting means to convert data from one coordinate system to another. See Reproject for more information.
Moved to the Display menu.
Single Point Projection...
Allows entering the XYZ coordinates for a point in one projection and seeing what the new coordinates would
be if the point was reprojected to a different projection. See Projections for more information. Moved to the
Display menu.
Related Topics
SMS Menus
Display Menu
The Display menu is the third standard menu available in all modules. The commands in the Display menu are used to
control what entities are displayed and the attributes of those entities. The commands include:
Display Options
Brings up the Display Options dialog. See the Display Options article.
Lighting Options
See the Lighting Options article.
Refresh
When editing the image in the Graphics Window it occasionally becomes necessary to refresh the screen by
redrawing the image. By default, SMS automatically updates the display when it is required (see Automatic
Refresh below). To force the display to update, select the Refresh command from the Display menu or click the
Refresh button. The process of redrawing can be aborted by pressing the ESC key.
Frame Image
Selecting the Frame Image command centers displayed data. This command adjusts the window boundaries so
that all visible objects fit in the Graphics Window .
View
Brings up a sub menu. Items in the View submenu include:
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View Angle
Set the bearing and dip of the look from direction. The bearing and dip values correspond to a rotation about the
z and x axes. The bearing affects the horizontal angle (rotating the object in the xy plane), and the dip changes
the vertical angle (shifting the viewing angle on the object to a higher or lower perspective). The object cannot
be tilted sideways. Using only two viewing angles rather than three limits the viewing angles, but it is simpler
and more intuitive. Plan view is a bearing of 0 degrees and a dip of 90 degrees.
Window Bounds
The numerical model resides in a virtual world. The extents of that world displayed in the Graphics Window are
the window boundaries. These boundaries can be altered using the Pan and Zoom tools. Alternatively, it is
possible to precisely control the visible region by using the Set Window Boundaries command. The Set
Window Boundaries dialog box appears, and the x and y limits of the viewing area can be set.
Plan
Change the view in the Graphics Window to a plan view.
Front
Change the view in the Graphics Window to a front view.
Oblique
Change the view in the Graphics Window to a oblique view.
Side
Change the view in the Graphics Window to a side view.
Previous
Change the view to the previous view (the view before zooming and framing).
Plot Wizard
Opens the Plot Wizard. Details of how plots are generated and controlled are defined in the visualization tools.
See the Plot Window article.
Plot Data
Edit the data plotted in the active plot. Make a plot active by clicking on it.
Plot Display Options
Change the display options for the active plot. Make a plot active by clicking on it.
Projection...
Brings up the Current Projection dialog. See Projections for more information.
Reproject All...
Reprojecting means to convert data from one coordinate system to another. See Reproject for more information.
Single Point Projection...
Allows entering the XYZ coordinates for a point in one projection and seeing what the new coordinates would
be if the point was reprojected to a different projection. See Projections for more information.
Related Topics
SMS Menus
SMS 12.2
Page 88
Web Menu
The Web menu is one of the standard menus available regardless of the current module and model. The menu
primarily provides ways to import data into SMS from online databases.
The Web menu includes the following commands:
Import from Web...
Opens the web services utility which allows for the automated download and import of certain data types from
the internet.
Add Online Maps ...
Brings up the Get Online Maps dialogue allowing selection of various online data. See Get Online Maps article
for details.
Find Data
This sub-menu includes options to open to the Geo-Spatial Data Acquisition page on the XMS wiki. Each wiki
article provides links to online databases where uses can find and download data.
Image
Brings up the GSDA Imagery article.
Bathymetry
Opens the article section GSDA Bathymetric Digital Elevation .
Coastline
Brings up the GSDA Oceanic Data article.
Tidal
Opens the article section GSDA Tidal Data .
Current
Opens the article section GSDA Current Data .
Wave
Opens the article section GSDA Wave Data .
Obsolete Commands
The following commands are no longer included in current versions of SMS. Tidal Data :
NOAA Hourly Verified...
NOAA 6-Minute Raw...
Related Topics

SMS Menus

Get Online Maps

Import from Web
Window Menu
The Window menu is one of the standard menus available regardless of the current module and model. The Window
menu includes the following commands:
Cascade
Arranges all windows in an overlapping fashion within the SMS Graphics Window.
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Tile
Arranges all windows as non-overlapping vertical tiles within the SMS Graphics Window.
Tile Horizontally
Arranges all windows non-overlapping horizontal tiles within the SMS Graphics Window.
Active Window
A list of the currently open graphics and plot windows is shown at the bottom of the Window menu. A check
mark appears in front of the active window. Choose a window from the list to make it active.
Related Topics
SMS Menus
Help Menu
The Help menu is one of the standard menus available regardless of the current module and model. The Help menu
includes the following commands:
SMS Help
Launches the Help File or brings up the XMS wiki depending which has been specified in the Preferences
dialog.
Register
Brings up the Register window. Shows which components have been registered and changes can be made to the
registration. See the article Registering SMS for more information.
About
Brings up the About SMS dialog that displays the version, build date, contact information, etc.
Report Bug
Allows for reporting issues with SMS. Activating this command will bring up the Report Bug dialog. See the
article Report Bug for more information.
Check for Updates
Searches for updates to the current version. This command requires an internet connection to function. If updates
are found, the option to install the latest version will be given.
Related Topics
SMS Menus
Project Explorer Right-Click Menus
The following Project Explorer mouse right-click menus are available based on where the mouse right-click is
performed.
Project Explorer White Space Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking in the white space of the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following options:

Switch Module – Use to change the active module (active menus and tools are based on the current module).

New Simulation – Creates a new simulation for available models.

Convert to CAD – Conversion of visible entities to CAD format. CAD layers are shown in a CAD Data folder
in the Project Explorer.
SMS 12.2

Collapse all – Collapses all items in the Project Explorer.

Expand all – Expands all items in the Project Explorer.

Check all – Checks all items in the Project Explorer. Checked items are displayed.

Uncheck all – Unchecks all items in the Project Explorer. Unchecked items are not displayed.

Preferences – Sets the program preferences in the Preferences dialog .
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Module Right-Click Menus
General Options
The following are available for all Module Items:

New Folder – Creates a new folder

Delete – Delete the module item.

Duplicate – Duplicate the module item (cartesian grid, scatter set, etc.) including model parameters, boundary
conditions, etc.

Rename – Rename the module item.

Convert – Convert the module item to another data type (e.g. Mesh → Scatter Set, Map → 2D Mesh, etc)

Reproject – Reprojects the module item to a different projection.

Metadata – View or modify the metadata associated with a module item.

Zoom To [Module Item] – Reframe the image based on the module item extents.
beneath the module item which can be used to organize datasets.
Module Specific Options
See the module right-click menu article for more information on module specific right-click menus:

2D Mesh Module

Cartesian Grid Module

Scatter Module

Map Module

GIS Module

1D Grid Module

Particle Module

CAD Data
Dataset Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a Dataset in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following options:

Delete – Deletes the selected dataset(s). This command may not be available for all datasets. If a dataset has
been defined as an input dataset from a model parameter dialog, it must be deleted by changing the model
parameter that requires the dataset as an input. It is not recommended to delete datasets that are part of a single
solution file since SMS reads these as a set from the single file.

Rename – Rename the selected dataset. This is an option for datasets stored as part of the SMS project or
created in the dataset toolbox. If the dataset comes from a numerical simulation solution, the name will revert to
the name specified by the solution when it is read again.

Export – Exports the selected dataset using the Export Dataset dialog.

Scalars to Vector – Convert two scalar datasets to a single vector dataset. This command only appears on scalar
datasets. This operation can also be accessed in the dataset toolbox.
SMS 12.2
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
Vector to Scalars – Covert a single vector dataset into two scalar datasets (magnitude and direction or Vx and
Vy). This command only appears on vector datasets. This operation can also be accessed in the dataset toolbox.

Dataset Contour Options – Opens the Dataset Contour Options dialog.

Metadata – Opens the Dataset Metadata dialog, used to add or view metadata associated with the project. SMS
associates the specific data with the selected dataset.

Info – Opens the Dataset Info dialog which displays characteristics of the dataset. These characteristics include
statistics such as maximum, minimum, and range as well as mean and standard deviation.

Time Units and Reference – For a transient dataset, the display of time values in the Time Step Window is
controlled by the Time Settings .
Folder Right-Click Menus

New Folder – Creates a new folder beneath the selected folder which can be used to organize datasets.

Delete – Deletes the selected folder(s).

Rename – Rename the selected folder.
Related Topics

SMS Menus
2. Functionalities
Breaklines
A breakline is a feature or polyline representing a ridge, thalweg, or other shape to preserve in a surface made up of
triangular elements or scatter set. In other words, a breakline is a series of edges to which the mesh or scatter triangles
should conform to, i.e., not intersect.
Mesh Module Breaklines
Breaklines are processed using the Force Breaklines command from the Nodestrings menu. How breaklines are
processed is controlled by the breakline options in the Nodestring Options dialog.
Scatter Module Breaklines
Breaklines are processed using the Force Breaklines command from the Breaklines menu. Scatter breaklines are
always processed by swapping triangle edges to ensure that the edges of the triangles will conform to the breakline.
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Importing Scatter Breaklines
Scatter Breaklines can be imported along with scatter data using the File Import Wizard . In order to import
breaklines, the tabular file must be prepared in one of two supported formats. They are illustrated below. In either
case, an additional column of data defines the breakline information. In the import wizard, this column should be
mapped as "Breakline". This brings up the Scatter Breakline Options dialog
Note : Scatter breaklines must be imported at the same time as their corresponding scatter vertices.
Example Files
Example of a tab delimited file using breakline names:
xcoord
215962.9
215957.638
215963.278
215979.111
216056.51
215992.462
216127.386
216267.187
216371.217
219261.939
219461.211
219678.994
ycoord
85203.098
85193.069
85184.35
85179.328
85209.371
85201.477
85264.681
85327.936
85381.431
90247.944
90220.556
90179.064
zcoord
1.483
1.483
1.483
1.483
1.483
7.034
7.034
7.034
7.034
8.763
9.167
9.468
name
Breakline1
Breakline1
Breakline1
Breakline1
Breakline1
Breakline2
Breakline2
Breakline2
Breakline2
Example of a tab delimited file using the following breakline tags:

Start: 1

Continue: 2

End: 4

Not in breakline: 5
xcoord
215962.9
215957.638
215963.278
215979.111
216056.51
215992.462
216127.386
216267.187
216371.217
219261.939
219461.211
219678.994
ycoord
85203.098
85193.069
85184.35
85179.328
85209.371
85201.477
85264.681
85327.936
85381.431
90247.944
90220.556
90179.064
zcoord
1.483
1.483
1.483
1.483
1.483
7.034
7.034
7.034
7.034
8.763
9.167
9.468
breakline_tag
1
2
2
2
4
1
2
2
4
5
5
5
Related Topics

Editing 2D Meshes

Generate Contour Breaklines
Object Info
Object information for a module can be found by clicking on the
command in the File menu.
Get Module Info macro or using the Get Info
SMS 12.2
Information Dialog
The Get Info command reports basic information concerning the data type associated with the active module.
Information is available for the following modules:
Cartesian Grid Module Information
The following information is shown on the Cartesian Grid Module tab of the Information dialog:

Number of cells

Number of rows

Number of columns

Minimum Z value

Maximum Z value

Angle

Cell size

Number of monitoring stations

Number of ocean cells

Number of land cells
Map Module Information
The following information is shown on the Map Module tab of the Information dialog:


For all coverages:

Number of points

Number of nodes / vertices

Number of arcs

Number of polygons
For selected coverage:
The drop down menu will list all available coverages. Select a coverage to view information.
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SMS 12.2

The type of the current coverage

Number of points

Number of nodes / vertices

Number of arcs

Number of polygons
Mesh Module Information
The following information is shown on the Mesh Module tab of the Information dialog:

Maximum element front width

Maximum node half band width

Number of elements

Maximum element ID

Number of nodes

Maximum node ID

Minimum Z value

Maximum Z value

Element type

Number of triangular elements

Number of quadrilateral elements

Model specific Info



RMA2

Transition elements

Junction elements

Control elements

Linear elements

1D nodes without 1D
FESWMS

Number of culverts

Number of piers

Number of weirs

Number of drop inlets

Max ceiling value

Min ceiling value
Generic Mesh Model

Model name
Scatter Module Information
The following information is shown on the Scatter Module tab of the Information dialog:

For all scatter sets

Number of points
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SMS 12.2


Page 95
Number of triangles
For selected scatter sets
The drop down menu will list all available scatter sets. Select a scatter set to view information.

Scatter set ID

Number of points

Number of triangles
Raster Module Information
The following information is shown on the Raster Module tab of the Information dialog:


All DEMS (1)

Number of points:

Number of cells:

Minimum Z value

Maximum Z value
Selected
The drop down menu will list all available raster sets. Select a raster set to view information.

Number of points

Number of cells

Minimum Z value

Maximum Z value
Related Topics

File Menu
Materials Data
Many of the data entities constructed and edited in SMS (i.e., elements, cells) have a material ID associated with
them. This material ID is an index into a list of material types. Materials contain model specific parameters such as
manning's roughness, or bed material grain size. A global list of material attributes is maintained and can be edited
using the menu command Edit | Materials Data . This command brings up the Materials Data dialog where each
material is assigned an ID number. This dialog can be used to delete unused materials, create new materials, and
assign a descriptive name, color, and pattern to a material. This general information is saved in the material file. The
materials defined within the Materials Data dialog are available for all modules.
Dialog Description
The Materials Data dialog is accessible from the menu command Edit | Materials Data or from model specific
material properties windows (ex. ADH ), available in the model specific menu. The dialog is resizable by dragging on
the window edges.
When a new mesh element or grid cell is created, the material is assigned to the new object based on the materials
options in the Element Options dialog .
Model specific material properties such as Manning's n and Eddy viscosity are edited using commands available in the
model specific menu.
SMS 12.2
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Materials Spreadsheet
The materials spreadsheet contains three columns ( ID, Name, and Pattern ) for the defined materials. All IDs must be
unique and the spreadsheet can be sorted by clicking on the column headings. The default "Disable" material cannot
be edited (except the display pattern) and will always be at the top of the spreadsheet regardless of sorting. Each
material is accompanied by a pattern button in the Pattern column. To select a pattern, click on the preview section
(left side) of the button to open the Pattern Attributes window. To quickly edit only the color, click on the down arrow
(right side) of the button, and make a selection in the pop up color palette.
Buttons
New
Inserts a material into the spreadsheet with the lowest unique ID available and a default name and pattern.
Delete
Removes the currently selected material from the spreadsheet.
Copy
Creates and inserts a copy of the currently selected material with the lowest unique ID available and a default "copy
of" name.
Legend

Legend – Check box with the associated Options... button controls the display of a legend of the materials in the
Graphics Window .

Options... – Opens the Legend Options dialog. The options for the legend are edited in the Legend Option s
dialog. These options include:

Legend Title – The name to be displayed on the legend.

Legend Location – The specification of where on the screen the legend will appear. Options include "Top
Left Corner", "Bottom Left Corner", "Top Right Corner", "Bottom Right Corner", "Screen Location",
and "World Location". The "Screen Location" and "World Location" will require the X location and Y
location to be indicated. "World Location" also require the Z location to be specified.

Font – The font to be used in the legend. Clicking on the button will open the Font dialog. The down
arrow can be used to specify a font color without opening the Font dialog.
 Size – The size of each entry in the legend as indicated by Width and Height
Note that only active materials are included in the legend.
Related Topics

Area Property Coverage

Edit Menu
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Get Online Maps
The Get Online Maps button allows selecting online data from a variety of different sources. Once online maps has
been selected, the data resolution will be automatically adjusted based on the zoom parameters. Online maps can only
be viewed in plan view.
Online maps are raster datasets that can contain imagery, elevation, or land use information. When online maps is
available, right-click on each of the map items
in the Project Explorer to convert them to static images that can be
saved to the local hard drive. It is possible to convert or interpolate online maps containing elevation data to various
elevation formats.
Note that online data sources are on external servers that the XMS software has no control over. The data may
draw/export very slowly or become unavailable at any time. The XMS software has no control over this.
The Advanced button allows selecting from other data sources and to use other online data query functions that may
not be fully supported. In the Advanced dialog, the Add Sources From File button allows adding new Web Map
Service (WMS) sources from an external text file.
More information about the various types of online data can be found by visiting the following links:

NED data – USGS

ASTER and SRTM data – USGS & NASA

NLCD and CORINE (European) Land Cover data

World Imagery More Info

World Street Maps More Info

World Topo Maps More Info

MapQuest OpenStreetMap Worldwide Street Maps

USA Topo Maps More Info

Other data sources-Geologic data, land cover, etc. (use the advanced button)
Exporting to a File
An online map can be exported to a file and loaded into the project. Do this if wanting to save a local copy and not be
dependent on internet access. Also, there may be more commands and options available with a local file, such as
interpolation or conversion to other object types, than with online maps.
Related Topics

GIS Conversion and Editing
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XMS Print Layout
The Layout Editor dialog, accessible by selecting File | Layout... , allows information from the XMS Main Graphics
Window to be assembled and exported for use in reports and presentations.
Layout Editor Description
Below is a brief explanation of the macros, tools, and menus found in the Layout Editor dialog.
Layout Editor Menus
File menu items:

Import... – Brings up the Open dialog, allowing importing of a saved layout (*.mwl).

Export... – Brings up the Save As dialog, allowing savings of the layout in a user-specified folder.

Page Setup... – Brings up the Page Setup dialog to allow setting of the paper size, orientation, and margins.

Print... – Brings up the Print dialog, allowing printing of the layout to the desired printer.
View menu items:

Zoom in – Magnifies for a closer, more-detailed view.

Zoom out – Shrinks the view to be farther out and less-detailed.

Fit to screen – Zooms in or out to show the entire page in the main layout window.

Show Margin – Shows or hides the margin guide in the main layout window.

Toolbars – Opens a submenu with the following options:


Document – Shows or hides the Document Toolbar .

Tool – Shows or hides the Tool Toolbar .

Zoom – Shows or hides the Zoom Toolbar .
Refresh – Redraws the main layout window to the current settings.
Document Toolbar

Import...
– Brings up the Open dialog, allowing importing of a saved layout (*.mwl).

Export...
– Brings up the Save As dialog, allowing savings of the layout in a user-specified folder.

Print...
– Brings up the Print dialog, allowing printing of the layout to the desired printer.
Tool Toolbar
Each of these tools places objects in the main layout window by selecting the desired tool, then clicking and dragging
to select the area where the object is to be placed. Once the mouse button is released after clicking and dragging, the
desired object is immediately placed within the selected area.

Insert map
– Inserts the current content of the XMS Main Graphics Window into the selected area in the
main layout window.

Insert north arrow

Insert scale bar

Insert text:

Insert rectangle

Insert bitmap

Select tool
– Inserts a north arrow into the selected area in the main layout window.
– Inserts a scale bar into the selected area in the main layout window.
– Inserts a text box into the selected area in the main layout window.
– Inserts a rectangle into the selected area in the main layout window.
– Inserts a bitmap into the selected area in the main layout window.
– Used to deselect the current tool.
SMS 12.2

Update Current View
Graphics Window.

Zoom map to extent of data view
object box containing the image.
Page 99
– Updates the selected map object based on the current view from the XMS Main
– Adjusts the size of the map image to fit within the extents of the map
Zoom Toolbar

Zoom in

Zoom out

Fit to screen
– Magnifies for a closer, more-detailed view.
– Shrinks the view to be farther out and less-detailed.
– Zooms in or out to show the entire page in the main layout window.

Percentage field – Changes the the given zoom level. This is populated with common percentages, but can also
be manually changed by clicking in the white area and entering a positive integer.
When the Layout Editor dialog is closed, the layout is saved in its current state to a temporary folder. When the
project is saved, the temporary layout file is saved as a part of the project file. If a project has a layout associated with
it, that layout will be loaded into the Layout Editor dialog when it is opened. Otherwise, a blank layout will be shown.
Objects List
After inserting any object into the Layout Editor dialog, the object can be selected using the objects list section in the
upper right portion of the window. The objects list displays all objects that have been inserted into the layout. Select
an object to make it active by clicking directly on the listed object or by using the Up and Down keys on the keyboard
to cycle through each object in the list. The display order of the objects can be adjusted using the Up or Down
arrow buttons. Clicking the delete button will immediately remove the object from the object list.
Object Properties
The lower right portion of the objects list shows the properties of the active (or selected) object. The properties can be
sorted using the following command buttons:

Categorize
– Places the properties in categories such as "Layout", "Map", and "Symbol". The options in
each category relate to the category title.

Alphabetical
– Displays all properties alphabetically from A–Z without grouping them into categories.
General Properties
All objects have the following properties in common:
SMS 12.2
Page 100

Location – This field present two editable numbers. The first number is the X -axis location of the object.
Increasing the X number moves the object to the right. The second number is the Y -axis location of the object.
Increasing the Y number moves the object down. This property can be expanded to more clearly see the X and Y
numbers.

Name – This editable field shows the currently-selected object's name.

Size – This field present two editable numbers. The first number is the width of the object. Increasing the Width
number expands the object to the right and decreasing the number shrinks the the size of the object toward the
left edge. The second number is the height of the object. Increasing the Height number expands the object down
and decreasing the number shrinks the size of the object toward the top edge. This property can be expanded to
more clearly see the Width and Height numbers.

Background – Clicking on the
button in this field, the Polygon Symbolizer Properties dialog is brought up.
Map
The Insert map
tool is used to place the current image in the XMS Main Graphics Window into the Layout Editor
dialog. The tool is used by clicking and dragging in the Layout Editor to define the area where the map will be
displayed. The editor will automatically resize and scale the image to the defined area.
The display of the editor can further be edited by adjusting the map properties. The map objects use general properties
and the follow map object specific properties:

Scale – Adjusts the size of the image inside of the map object. Increasing this value with decrease the size of the
image. Decreasing the value will increase the image size.

Bearing – The degree away from North of the original image in the XMS Main Graphics Window.

Dip – The angle of descent relative to a horizontal plane of the image in the XMS Main Graphics Window.

Height – The original height of the image in the XMS Main Graphics Window.

Width – The original width of the image in the XMS Main Graphics Window.
North Arrow
The Insert North Arrow
tool inserts in the selected location a north arrow associated with a specific map object.
When a map gets rotated, the north arrow changes its rotation angle based on the map's bearing angle.
The following are the properties of the north arrow:

Color – Contains a drop-down list of colors. Selecting a color will change the color of the north arrow object.

Map – This field contains a dropdown list of all map objects in the Layout Editor. Selecting a map object
assigns the north arrow to that map. When assigned, the arrow will rotate to match show north on the map.

North Arrow Style – A drop-down list of north arrow styles. Styles include: "Default", "Black Arrow", "Center
Star", "Triangle N", "Triangle Hat", and "Arrow N".

Rotation – Changes the rotation of the north arrow. Normally, the arrow rotation matches the map bearing.
Scale Bar
The Insert Scale Bar
tool inserts in the selected location a scale bar associated with a specific map object. The
scale of the scale bar and the map controls are user-defined.
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The following are the properties of the scale bar:

Break Before Zero – Default is "False". If set to "True", the center of the scale bare will be "0" and the bar will
extend out equal lengths on each side of the "0".

Color – Contains a drop-down list of colors. Selecting a color will change the color of the scale bar object.

Font – Displays the current font style and size for text in the scale bar object. Clicking on the
button in this
field brings up a Font dialog where the font type, style, size, script, and any effects can be selected.

Map – This field contains a drop-down list of all map objects in the Layout Editor. Selecting a map object
assigns the scale bar to that map. When assigned, the scale bar will adjust to fit the scale of the map.

Number of Breaks – Indicates how many interval marks will be displayed on the scale bar. Requires a minimum
value of "1".

Text Hint – Rasterization options for how the text will be rendered. Options include: "System Default", "Single
Bit Per Pixel Grid Fit", "Single Bit Per Pixel", "Anti-Alias Grid Fit", "Anti-Alias", and "Clear Type Grid Fit".

Unit – A drop-down menu where the scale bar measurement units can be selected. Units options include:
"Kilometers", "Meters", "Centimeters", "Millimeters", "Miles,", Yards", "Feet", and "Inches".

Unit text – Indicates how the units are referred to on the scale bar. Currently, this is not updated when the Units
are changed.
The scale bar doesn't support geographic degrees. Of the dip is not equal to 0° or 90°, the scale bar doesn't show any
scales.
Text
The Insert Text
tool inserts text in the selected location.
The following are the properties of the inserted text:

Color – Contains a drop-down list of colors. Selecting a color will change the color of the text.

Continent Alignment – Determines the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text inside of the text object. The
default is to align the text to the upper left side of the text object.

Font – Displays the current font style and size for the text. Clicking on the
button in this field brings up a
Font dialog where the font type, style, size, script, and any effects can be selected.

Text – Field where the text displayed in the text object can be edited.

Text Hint – Rasterization options for how the text will be rendered. Options include: "System Default", "Single
Bit Per Pixel Grid Fit", "Single Bit Per Pixel", "Anti-Alias Grid Fit", "Anti-Alias", and "Clear Type Grid Fit".
Rectangle
The Insert Rectangle
tool creates a rectangle in the location specified. Rectangles created in the Layout Editor use
general properties only and do not have specific properties.
Image
The Insert Bitmap
tool brings up a dialog allowing a bitmap image to be imported into the layout. This is often
used for images such as a logo file.
The following are the properties of the inserted bitmap:

Brightness – Increases how light the image appears. Value can be from 0–255 with the default value being "0"
(no additional lightening).

Contrast – Increases the difference in color in the image. Value can be from 0–255 with the default value being
"0" (no additional contrast).

File Name – Displays the pathname and file name of the imported image.
SMS 12.2

Page 102
Preserve Aspect Ratio – A drop-down menu with the options "True" or "False". Selecting "True" will keep the
image constrained to the dimensions of the imported image. Selecting "False" will change the image dimensions
to fit the image object box.
Related Topics

GMS File Menu

SMS File Menu
CAD Data
CAD Support

AutoCAD DXF and DWG files can be read into SMS (support of DGN format is under development)

Supports up to AutoCAD version 2007

CAD data is displayed in 3D
 CAD data can be converted to map or scatter data
SMS can import CAD data from AutoCAD formats (DWG/DXF). CAD data in SMS can be converted and use in
other modules. SMS data can be converted into CAD layers and saved in a supported format.
Importing
SMS can import DWG or DXF files via the File | Open command. If there is already CAD data in memory, SMS will
replace the existing data with the data being imported. Currently, SMS cannot merge the incoming data with the data
in memory.
Working with CAD data
The objects in a DWG or DXF file are organized into layers. The display of layers
in a CAD drawing is controlled
using the check boxes in the Project Explorer. Individual layers can be turned off/on. If wanting to turn off the display
of all CAD data, then uncheck the box next to the CAD folder
.
Creating CAD data from SMS data
Select either the DWG or DXF file types to save the CAD data. SMS objects must first be converted to CAD data
before CAD data can be exported. To convert SMS data to CAD data, right-click in the empty space at the bottom of
the project explorer and choose Convert To CAD .
SMS 12.2
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Delete Data
To delete the CAD data, right-click on the CAD data folder in the tree and select Delete from the pop-up menu. If the
CAD data was imported from a file, the file is not deleted from disk.
CAD → Map
CAD data can be converted to SMS feature objects by right-clicking on the CAD data folder in the Project Explorer
and selecting CAD → Map command. CAD points are turned into points, CAD lines and polylines are turned into
arcs, and CAD polygons are turned into polygons. The Clean Option dialog will appear just after using the command
to help resolve and potential problems in the conversion.
The feature objects are added to a new coverage. Once converted, the feature objects can be used to build conceptual
models.
CAD → 2D Scatter
A set of CAD 3D faces which have been imported to SMS can be converted to a 2D Scatter Set by right-clicking on
the CAD data folder in the Project Explorer and selecting the CAD → 2D Scatter command.
Exporting
SMS data can be exported to a DWG or DXF file that can then be read into a CAD package. If there is CAD data in
memory when a SMS project is saved, SMS creates a new DWG file from the CAD data. The file is put in the same
folder with the other project files and named using the project prefix.
Alternatively, CAD data in memory can also be saved using the Save As command in the File menu.
CAD Data Right-Click Menus
The following Project Explorer mouse right-click menus are available when the mouse right-click is performed on a
CAD Data item.
CAD Data Root Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the CAD module root folder
options:

in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following
Display Options
CAD Data Item Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a CAD item
options:

in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following module specific
Convert

CAD → Map – Converts CAD data to Map Module data

CAD Faces → 2D Scatter Triangles – Converts CAD Faces to Scatter Module triangles

CAD Points → 2D Scatter – Converts CAD Points to Scatter Module vertices
Related Topics

Project Explorer Right-Click Menus
SMS 12.2
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2.1. 2D Plots
Plot Window
At a glance

2D plots to visualize results and compare to measured values

Profile plots view scalar data along an arc

Time series plots view scalar, vector, or flux (flow rate) data at a point or across an arc
 Several kinds of plots can be used to compare model results with measured data
In SMS, the Plot Window can be used to display various plots. Plots aid in extracting data from two or three
dimensional objects, model verification, and defining one-dimensional river models. By selecting Display | Plot
Wizard , a step by step process is given to create a variety of plots. The wizard can also be reached by using the Plot
Wizard
macro. The list of currently available plots in the Plot Wizard is shown below. All of the plots listed
below are associated with observation coverages .
Available Plot Types
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
Computed vs. Observed Data
Residual vs. Observed Data
Error vs. Simulation
Error vs. Time Step
Error Summary
Time Series
Observation Profile
TUFLOW Cross Sections
PTM Gages
Runup/Overtopping Transect
Runup/Overtopping Solution
GenCade Inlet Time Series
GenCade Shoreline Change and Transport
Angle Representation Region (ARR) mesh quality assessment plot
SMS 12.2
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Plot Wizard
The Plot Wizard is used to bring up a plot window which will display the specified plot. There are two steps that
guide through creating a plot.
Step 1 – Select the desired plot type from the list. Some plot types are hidden unless certain requirements are met.

The "TUFLOW Cross Section" plot requires a TUFLOW Cross Section coverage.

The "Runup/Overtopping Transect" and "Runup/Overtopping Solution" plots require a Runup/Overtopping
simulation.

The plot "PTM Gages" requires a PTM Gage coverage.

The "GenCade Inlet TS" and "GenCade Shoreline" plots require a GenCade 1D grid.
Each plot is described as they are highlighted from the list. The Plot Wizard will also indicate if appropriate data
exists to be able to make certain plots.
Step 2 – The plot is defined by selecting what data will compared, which time step will be shown, and other pertinent
information. Each plot's options are described in more detail by click on the Plot Type links above.
By default, a plot is displayed after being created in a separate display window than the simulation data. A plot
window can be minimized, moved, and resized just like any other window.
Plot Options
Right-clicking on a plot will bring up a menu of commands for formatting the data in the plot as well as giving access
to tools for exporting the plot data for use in spread sheets or other plotting utilities.
Plot Window Right-Click Menu
The following Plot Window mouse right-click menus are available:

Plot Data – Opens step 2 of the plot wizard

Display Options – Opens the Profile Customization dialog

Axis Titles – Opens the Axis Titles dialog. The Axis Titles dialog allows editing the X and Y axis titles of plots.

Set as Display Defaults

Legend – Set the legend location (Top, Bottom, Left, Right)

Symbol Size – Set the symbol size (Micro, Small, Medium, Large)

Frame Plot – If the view is zoomed in to a portion of the plot, resets zoom extents

Maximize Plot – Makes the plot appear full screen

View Values – Opens the View Values dialog

Export/Print – Opens the Exporting Profil e dialog
SMS 12.2
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Time Settings Options
The formatting of Date / Times displayed in plots is controlled by the global time settings. See Time Settings for
information on how to change the format times are displayed in.
View Values Dialog
The View Values dialog displays the values used to create the plot. This dialog is accessed by right-clicking in the Plot
Window and selecting the View Values command. The values can easily be copied from the dialog and pasted into a
spreadsheet program or document using the following steps:
1) Select the cells of interest from the spreadsheet
2) Press CTRL + C – cell contents are now in the clipboard
3) Select the paste destination
4) Press CTRL + V
Related Topics

Visualization
Computed vs. Observed Data
A Computed vs. Observed plot is used to display how well the entire set of observed values for observation points
matches the solution data. On this plot is drawn a 45 degree line, representing what would be a perfect correspondence
between observed data and solution values. Then, one symbol is drawn for each observation point at the intersection
of the observed and computed values for the point. This plot can show the trend of the solution values with regards to
matching the observed data. Only those points whose value is specified as observed for the selected data type will be
shown in the plot. These plots are created in the Plot Wizard by setting the plot type to Computed vs. Observed . A
sample plot is shown in the figure below.
Computed vs. Observed Plot Options
After the plot type is set in Step 1 of the Plot Wizard , the Next button is clicked to go to Step 2, which displays the
following items.

Coverage – Displays the name of the coverage where the current data for the plot is coming from.

Measurement – This is the name of the current measurement, created in the Feature Objects | Attributes dialog,
being plotted.

Feature Objects – Displays which feature object is utilized in the current plot, points or arcs.
Related Topics

Plot Window
SMS 12.2
Page 107
Error Summary
An Error Summary plot is used to display a text listing of the mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared
error for a dataset and the observed values associated with a mesh or grid on observation points in the Observation
coverage . The errors shown are the mean errors for all observation points with computed data.
Mean Error – This is the average error for the points. This value can be misleading since positive and negative
errors can cancel.
Mean Absolute Average – This is the mean of the absolute values of the errors. It is a true mean, not allowing
positive and negative errors to cancel.
Root Mean Square – This takes the average of the square of the errors and then takes its square root. This norm
tends to give more weight to cases where a few extreme error values exist.
Error Summary plots are created in the Plot Wizard by setting the plot type to Error Summary . A sample plot is
shown in the figure.
Error Summary Plot Options
After the plot type is set in the first step of the Plot Wizard , the Next button is clicked to move to the second step of
the Plot Wizard .

Coverage – Displays the name of the coverage where the current data for the plot is coming from.

Measurement – This is the name of the current measurement, created in the Feature Objects | Attributes dialog,
being plotted.

Feature Objects – Displays which feature object is utilized in the current plot, points or arcs.
Related Topics

Plot Window
Error vs. Simulation Plot
An Error vs. Simulation plot is generally used with constant simulations and measurement types, although it may be
used in transient simulations. This plot can display the mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error
between successive solutions and a set of observed data. Various simulations would be run after changing model
parameters, such as material roughness values and/or eddy viscosities. The plot will show trends in the solution to see
if model parameter changes are causing better calibration with measured field data. Error vs. Simulation plots are
created in the Plot Wizard by setting the plot type to "Error vs. Simulation". A sample plot is shown in the figure.
SMS 12.2
Page 108
Error vs. Simulation Plot
After the plot type is set in the first step of the Plot Wizard , the second step of the Plot Wizard shows the options for
the Error vs. Simulation plot.

Solutions – This box lists all available solutions for the simulation. Select the desired solution to use its datasets
in the plot.

Move Up/Move Down – SMS initially shows the solutions in the order they were opened. However, this is not
necessarily the order in which they were run. To change the order, highlight a solution and move it up or down
to rearrange their order.

Check Box Options – There are three options that can be turned on or off. The three options determine whether
the mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error plots should be shown. Because these values
are an average of all observation points, their line and symbol styles are not linked to any one observation point,
but can be defined by clicking on the appropriate canvas window in the dialog.
Related Topics

Plot Window
Error vs. Time Step Plot
An Error vs. Time Step plot is used with transient simulations to display the mean error, mean absolute error, and root
mean squared error between a solution and observed data as a function of time. This plot is shown for a single dataset
of a mesh or grid as an average of all observation points assigned to the specified measurement type in the
Observation coverage . The measurement type should be defined as a transient measurement. Although this plot can
be used for constant measurement types, only a single point will be shown in the plot, and most would be better off
using the Error Summary Plot . Transient measurement types will show the average errors at each time step of the
data set. Error vs. Time Step plots are created in the Plot Wizard by setting the plot type to Error vs. Time Step . A
sample plot is shown in the figure.
SMS 12.2
Page 109
Error vs. Time Step Plot Options dialog
After the plot type is set in the first step of the Plot Wizard , the plot options are shown in Step 2 of the Plot Wizard ,
contains the following options.

Computed – This lists all available datasets. The dataset to be analyzed should be chosen.

Check Box Options – There are three options that can be turned on or off. The three options determine whether
the mean error, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error plots should be shown. Because these values
are an average of all observation points, their line and symbol styles are not linked to any one observation point,
but can be defined by clicking on the appropriate canvas window in the dialog.
Related Topics

Plot Window
Observation Profile
A Profile plot is used to display the variation of one or more scalar datasets associated with a mesh or grid along
observation arcs in the Observation Coverage. Profile plots are created in the Plot Wizard dialog by selecting
Observation Profile from the plot type list. When an arc is selected two small arrows appear at either end of the arc.
These arrows indicate the viewing direction for the plots. To change the viewing direction select the arc and execute
the Feature Objects | Reverse Arc Direction command. A sample plot is shown in the figure below.
Profile Plot Options
After the plot type is set in Step 1 of the Plot Wizard , the profile plot options need to be defined. The following
options must be set for a profile plot:
Coverage
A profile plot operates on a single observation type coverage. The following coverage related options are available:

Coverage – If multiple observation type coverages exist, the coverage to use for the profile plot must be
selected.

Extraction method

Model Intersections – Profile plot points are based on intersections of the specified feature arcs and
element, cell, or triangle edges.

Points and Vertices – Profile plot points are interpolated at the location of points and vertices on the
specified feature arcs.
Dataset

Active dataset – Profile plot points are based on the active dataset. The profile plot will update when the active
dataset is changed.

Module – Since each module contains an active dataset, when using the active dataset option, the module
must be specified.
SMS 12.2

Page 110
Specified dataset(s) – Profile plot points are based on the specified dataset(s). Datasets from different modules
can be specified.
Time step

Active time step – Profile plot points are based on the active time step. The profile plot will update when the
active time step is changed.

Specified time step – Profile plot points are based on the specified time step.

Use active dataset and time step – This option causes the plot to display the values of the active dataset and time
step for each arc being plotted. When the active dataset changes, the plot is recomputed and updated.

Use selected dataset and time step – This option causes the plot to display the values of one or more specified
datasets or time steps for each arc being plotted. Changing the active dataset does not affect the plot. Check the
check-box of the dataset that will be viewed from the list box.
Plotting With Multiple Arcs Selected
There are two ways in which an observation profile can be created when multiple arcs will be graphed. Multiple arcs
can be graphed on a single plot was so they appear in separate segments as shown below.
Multiple observation arcs can also be plotted to look continuous if they are part of an arc group by following these
steps:

Create a profile arc that composed of more than one arc (this means the arcs must be connected at the end points
and start points)

Choose the menu command Feature Objects | Create Arc Group
 Create the observation profile plot like before by using the Plot Wizard
When the plot is generated, it will look as shown below where the line is continuous. The different arcs are drawn in
their respective colors, but are linked together end to end.
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Related Topics

Plot Window
Profile Customization Dialog
The Profile Customization dialog allows editing many plot properties. The plot options are organized onto the
following tabs in the dialog:


General Tab – Plot title, border style, viewing style, font size, numeric precision, and grid line style can be
changed.

Main Title – Allows changing the title of the plot.

Subtitle – Allows changing the subtitle of the plot.

Show Annotations

Border Style – Has options for No Border, Line, Shadow, and 3D Inset

Viewing Style – Has options for Color, Monochrome, and Monochrome + Symbols

Font Size – Has options for Large, Medium, and Small

Numeric Precision – Has options for 1–7

Grid Lines – Has options for Both, Y, X, None, and Grid in front of data
Axis Tab – Contains x and y axis information

Y Axis
Linear
Auto
Log
Min
Max
Min/Max

X Axis
Linear
Auto
Log
Min
Max
Min/Max

Font Tab – Plot font style can be edited. Users can select the font style for each of the following:
SMS 12.2


Main Title

Sub-Title

Subset / Point / Axis Labels
Color Tab – Any color option can be changed here. It has the following options:


Graph Attributes

Desk Foreground

Desk Background

Shadow Color

Graph Foreground

Graph Background

Table Foreground

Table Background
Quick Styles


Page 112
Bitmap/Gradient Styles
Export – Allows exporting the plot and plot data in different file formats, to a printer, or the clipboard

Maximize – Cause the plot to fill the computer screen. Pressing the ESC key will return the plot window to its
normal size.
To open the Profile Customization dialog, select Display | Plot Display Options or right-click on the plot and select
Display Options .
Related Topics

Plot Window
Residual vs. Observed Data
A Residual vs. Observed plot is used to display how well the entire set of observed values for observation points
matches the solution data. On this plot is drawn a horizontal line along an error of zero, representing what would be a
perfect correspondence between observed data and solution values. Then, one symbol is drawn for each observation
point at the intersection of the observed and residual (computed-observed) values for the point. This plot can show the
trend of the solution values with regards to matching the observed data. Only those points whose value is specified as
observed for the selected data type will be shown in the plot. These plots are created in the Plot Wizard setting the
Plot Type to "Residual vs. Observed". A sample plot is shown in the figure below.
Residual vs. Observed Plots
After the plot type is set in Step 1 of the Plot Wizard , next to move to Step 2 where the plot options will be available:

Coverage – Displays the name of the coverage where the current data for the plot is coming from.
SMS 12.2
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
Measurement – This is the name of the current measurement, created in the Feature Objects | Attributes dialog,
being plotted.

Feature Objects – Displays which feature object is utilized in the current plot, points or arcs.
Related Topics

Plot Window
Time Series
The time series is similar to the XY series with a few differences.
1) Times series can support more than 2 columns of data.
2) The time series group can be specified (i.e. velocity, xy), when available.
3) When using times, the reference time can be specified.
4) The units of each column can be specified (from a list) and the column data will be converted when switching
between units.
The time series editor can import xy series.
The time series assumes that all angles used are specified in the cartesian system.
For information about ADH model specific curve groups, see ADH Time Series .
Dialog Description
Curve Information
Curve group field specifies the current group. This may be a combo box (depending on how the window is accessed)
which allows the other groups to be selected.
Selected curve field specifies the current curve loaded. This may also be a combo box containing multiple curves. If
this field is empty, then no curves exist in the current curve group.
New... button adds a new curve to the current curve group and opens a window in which the name of the new curve is
specified. The name will appended if necessary to ensure uniqueness within the curve group. The new curve will be
selected and appear in the Selected curve field.
Delete button removes the currently selected curve from the curve group. This button is only enabled if a selected
curve exists.
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Rename... button opens a window to specify a new name for the selected curve. This button is only enabled if a
selected curve exists.
Plot type field specifies the current plot format. The available plot types are determined by the format of the current
time series. The options for displaying the plots are as follows:
1) Scientific – This displays the data on a traditional XY plot.
2) Multi axes – This displays each column of the dataset on a separate Y axis.
3) Rose – This filters the data into vector data and then displays a rose plot of the binned data.
Various plot options, such as legend style and numerical precision, are accessed by right-clicking on the plot. It is
important to note than when plotting data, the first column of the time series is always assumed to be the X values.
This field is only enabled if a selected curve exists.
Curve Data
Spreadsheet lists the data of the selected curve. The column types are determined by the current curve group.
Attributes... button opens the selected curve's attribute window. This button is only enabled if the current curve group
includes attributes. For information about ADH model specific curve group attributes, see ADH Time Series
Attributes .
Insert New Row Above and Delete Row(s) toolbar assists in editing the spreadsheet rows. The tools are only
available if there is a valid cell selection that excludes the title, units, and empty rows.
Reference time field specifies the date and time the selected curve begins out. This field is only visible if one of the
curve groups available (listed in the Curve group field) allows time referencing and the field is enabled if the current
curve group allows it.
Show dates check box specifies whether the time values of the curves are displayed in the spreadsheet as date and
times instead of offsets from the reference time. This control is visible and enabled based on the same requirements as
the Reference time field.
Miscellaneous (Outside of any group)
Import... and Export... buttons read and save, respectively, Time series (*.tsd) and XY series (*.xys) files.
Related Topics

Compass Plot

Spatial Data Coverage

Coverages
Time Series Data File
The Time Series Data file format provides a means of transferring data to and from SMS. It is a simple ASCII file
format that defines the type of data and its time reference.
Sample Format
The file follows the following format:
TIME_SERIES
Series Type Curve Name NCols NVals Reference Date
Date
Date
Date
Date
.
.
.
1
2
3
4
Value
Value
Value
Value
1A
2A
3A
4A
Value
Value
Value
Value
1B
2B
3B
4B
SMS 12.2
Date
NVals
Value
NVals
Value
Page 115
NVals
Sample File
The following illustrates a sample file:
TIME_SERIES "Mag/Dir 1" "Velocity - Mag. & Dir." 3 41 "05/01/2008 12:00:00"
0.0
900.0
1800.0
2700.0
3600.0
4500.0
5400.0
6300.0
7200.0
8100.0
9000.0
9900.0
10800.0
11700.0
12600.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
-75.0
-70.0
-65.0
-60.0
-55.0
-50.0
-45.0
-40.0
-35.0
-30.0
-25.0
-20.0
-15.0
-20.0
-25.0
Related Topics

Time Series

Spatial Data Coverage

Coverages
Time Series Plot
A Time Series plot is used to display the time variation of one or more scalar datasets associated with a mesh or grid
at observation points in an Observation coverage . In addition, if transient calibration data has been defined, a band
can be shown which represents a time variant Calibration Target. Only transient data sets may be used in these plots.
Time Series plots are created by using the Plot Wizard , found in the Display menu, and selecting "Time Series" from
the plot type list in Step 1 of the Plot Wizard . A sample plot, with calibration target band, is shown in the figure
below.
SMS 12.2
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Time Series Plot Options
After the plot type is set in Step 1 of the Plot Wizard , define the time interval and the scalar dataset desired for the
plot in Step 2. When this is completed, click Finish and the plot will be generated.

Use active dataset – This option causes the plot to display the values of the active dataset for each observation
point being plotted. When the active dataset changes, the plot is recomputed and updated.

Use selected dataset – This option causes the plot to display the values of one or more specified datasets for
each point being plotted. Changing the active dataset does not affect the plot. Select the dataset from the list box
by putting a check in the dataset's check box.

Use calibration data – This allows displaying the calibration curve defined for each point. If there is no
calibration data for the entity, leave the box unchecked and the calibration data will not be displayed.
For more information concerning how to edit the Time Settings , see Plot Window .
Related Topics

Plot Window
ARR Mesh Quality Assessment Plot
The Angle Representation Region (ARR) plot is used to assess the overall quality of a triangular mesh such as those
used by ADH, ADCIRC and other numerical engines. When the plot wizard is selected, this option appears if the
mesh module is enabled. Clicking finish in the Plot Wizard results in an ARR plot for the current unstructured mesh,
loaded in SMS.
The plot includes the ARR region (defined below), a point for each element in the mesh, and three contour lines (0.3
in red, 0.45 in yellow and 0.6 in green) of the currently selected element quality measure (also defined below). As a
general rule, elements with quality lower than 0.3 should be reviewed and improved ( mesh editing ) if possible.
Click on any point in the plot to see the element ID associated with that point and the six quality measure values for
that element.
Once the mesh is edited in any way, update the ARR plot by right-clicking in the plot and selecting Refresh . Until
this is done, the plot will continue to reflect the mesh that existed when it was generated (or most recently refreshed).
This plot is based on a the publication in Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineerings, Volume 19 (2003)
pp 551-561 by J. Sarrate, et. al. entitled "Numerical representation of the quality measures of triangles and triangular
meshes". Several of the figures below are derived from this paper.
To assess the quality of a triangular mesh, such as those used by ADH or ADCIRC, the quality of each element is
represented as a point, based on the interior angles of that element. These interior angles are labeled α, β, and γ as
shown:
Plot these three angles into an equilateral triangle.
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If ordering the three angles so that α > β > γ as shown below, all of the points will fall into the shaded portion of the
equilateral triangle. This is referred to as the ARR region.
The quality of the elements is further assessed by computing a quality measure from attributes of the triangle. These
attributes include:

The minimum interior angle α min (γ from previous figure).

The lengths of edges.

The triangle area.

The inner and outer radius.

The minimum distance through the triangle (h min ).
These measures vary from 0.0 at the edges of the equilateral triangle to 1.0 at the center. The measures supported by
SMS include:
The following figures show how each of these quality measures cover the ARR
SMS 12.2
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Related Topics

Plot Window
2.2. Animation(Film Loop)
Animations
At a glance

Several types of AVI animations (film loops) can be generated by SMS

Transient data animation shows model changes through time (contours, vectors, etc)

Flow trace uses vector data to generate flow paths through the geometry

Drogue plots use user specified starting locations and show how the particles would flow through a vector field

Multiple view animations show the data while transitioning between different views
 Plot window animations show plots changing through time
Animations in SMS provide a powerful tool for visualizing solution data.
Film Loop Setup Wizard
To create an animation select Data | Film Loop to open the Film Loop Setup wizard. The pages in the Film Loop
Setup wizard include:

General Options

Display Options
SMS 12.2

Time Step Options

Multiple Views

Drogue Plot Options

Flow Trace Options
Page 119
Animation Types
Flow Trace Animations
Flow trace animation is a technique used to visualize vector fields in SMS. It can be thought of as dropping tiny drops
of dye into a fluid field in a random distribution and watching the flow pattern created. The process can also be
thought of as creating particles of zero mass, and letting the vectors in the vector field be forces pushing the particles
around. The Flow Trace portion of the Film Loop Setup dialog allows controlling the flow trace. This entire portion of
the dialog is disabled if no vector data exists for the current data set. The top radio group specifies whether the flow
trace should be created for a steady state or dynamic system. Below this, specify the density of particles or dye
droplets by specifying the average number of particles for each cell or element. The number of frames required for a
droplet to become dispersed is represented as a portion of the animation in the Decay ratio field.
The path of each particle is defined by tracing the particle. A starting position is defined randomly in the mesh or grid.
Successive particle locations are computed by applying the forces of the vector field to the current location. At the
new point, the velocity and direction are sampled. If the particle has traveled farther than the Flow trace length limit,
or the velocity has changed more than the Velocity difference limit, the step is broken into two steps of half the step
size. This process is repeated, until a sequence of valid points within the limits are defined for each frame. Therefore,
the smaller the values of the Flow trace length limit and Velocity difference limit, the more precisely the particles will
imitate the vector field. Generally, the default values are sufficient.
The Average particle speed is used to scale the vector field, thus changing the distance each particle or droplet travels.
This is useful for vector fields with extreme magnitudes. For a low magnitude data set, the particles may not move
very far. While this sluggish motion is accurate for the data, scaling the vector field up, and exaggerating the motion
causes the flow patterns to be more visible. Similarly, in high magnitude fields the particles may become long streaks
and scaling the values down may result in a clearer picture of the flow patterns.
Transient Data Animations
Animation Clock
Since animations are simulating the passage of time, it is natural to display a clock, which indicates the time reference
for each frame of the animation. The Display Clock toggle controls whether a clock will be displayed. The Options
button brings up the Legend Options dialog with a control to specify a digital clock face or analog.
Animation Time Control
Animation can be applied to any object with a dynamic dataset. Start by defining the beginning and ending time for
the animation sequence and the time step between subsequent frames. As each frame is generated, data values
corresponding to the current time are loaded into memory and the image is redrawn using the current display options.
The display options may be modified while setting up an animation using the display options button in the Display
Options portion of the dialog.
The strip in the center of the Data Options portion of the Film Loop Setup dialog displays the allowable time values
for the current data function(s) and the selected range to be animated. Select a time range to animate graphically on
this scale, or explicitly in the edit fields below the time step strip. The legal time range displayed in the strip is based
on the current scalar and vector data set(s). SMS allows animation of only scalar or vector data while the other
remains constant. This normally is only used when a static field such as elevation is displayed with a varying velocity
field or a static velocity field is displayed over a changing scalar field such as constituent dispersion or sediment
deposition.
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The total number of frames generated in the film loop can be defined by either matching the time steps (one frame per
time step) or by using a constant interval (e.g., one frame for every two-hour interval). If the Match Time Steps option
is chosen, extra frames can be created between each time step using linear interpolation of the data values at the
specified time steps.
Animation Playback
Once a new animation has been generated, SMS launches the AVI player and plays the animation. The speed of
playback can be adjusted using the Speed scroll bar. The maximum speed depends on the speed of the computer and
the size of the image being animated. The smaller the image, the faster the maximum playback speed.
Related Topics

Visualization
Film Loop Display Options
This page of the Film Loop Setup wizard allows setting up the film loop clock options. Place the clock on any corner
of the screen, set its size, and set the font that is used for the digital clock. In SMS version 9.0, additional options can
be set for the clock position, progress bar and clock style.
This page also gives access to the SMS Display Options property sheet. These options only affect the display of
Scalar/Vector Animations .
AVI Codecs
Starting in SMS 10.0, it s possible to choose what Codec to use to create a AVI movie. SMS will search the computer
for all compatible codecs and they will be available in the pull down menu. The choice of codec will determine both
the quality and size of the resulting avi file.
FFDSHOW Video Codec
Ffdshow Video Codecs create a much sharper, smoother image than the SMS default codec (Microsoft Video 1), and
is therefore more desirable to use when making film loops. Ffdshow has an extensive list of codecs to choose from.
We have had good success with the Divx codec. The H.263+ codec creates nice animations but they will not play
within PAVIA (default for playing vidoes from SMS). See below for some ideas of alternate video players. The H.264
codec is popular but doesn't always work.
Installation
In order to use an ffdshow codec, first download ffdshow. If the computer has installed the 32-bit version of SMS,
ffdshow was installed unless during installation the option was turned off.
If ffdshow is not installed, download it. To download ffdshow, go to http://ffdshow-tryout.sourceforge.net .

Make sure that the program will be saved on the local disc (C:) program files.

During installation, be sure to specify to install the VFW interface.
Using FFDSHOW
There are two steps to using the ffdshow codecs for animations generated in SMS. First, use the ffdshow program to
set the options for the video encoder. Secondly, choose the ffdshow codec in the filmloop wizard from inside SMS.
Detailed steps are given below:

Once installed, click on the windows Start button and search for VFW Configuration . Click on it.

The ffdshow video encoder configuration dialog will appear.

Set the Encoder box to which ever codec is desired. (Some codecs will not function because of incompatible
requirements with the SMS filmloop generation code). Options of the corresponding Fourcc will appear in the
Fourcc box. Pick one and Click the Apply button. Click OK to close the dialog.
SMS 12.2

Page 121
Once the Codec type is set, go to the Film Loop Setup - Display Options dialog in SMS (Data → Filmloop) and
change the Codec type to 'ffdshow Video Codec.'
Note: Any codec that is used needs to be on the computer that will be playing the animations. If wanting to move
the AVI's to a different computer, make sure that the target computer has ffdshow. Otherwise, it's necessary to
download ffdshow to play the animations.
Alternate Video Players

KMPlayer

VLC

Windows Media Player – Doesn't have much to control playback of videos so the others might be better options.
Related Topics

Animations
Film Loop Drogue Plot Options
This page of the Film Loop Setup wizard allows setting up color options that pertain only to drogue plots. A color
ramp can be set up to display points in a color based on either its current velocity or the total distance it has traveled.
The minimum value is always zero so the maximum value defines the range to be used for the specified color ramp. It
may be necessary to experiment with this maximum value to get something that is desirable like for a specific model.
The head of each particle can be from one (1) to six (6) pixels in size. The maximum tail length is specified in hours
and can fade to black or remain solid. If it's not desirable to have a tail, then set the fade time to zero (0.0).
It's possible to specify the background to be either a solid color or an image that has been already opened and
registered. If there isn't an image open, then that option is not available. The background of the model domain is
always black.
The final option on this page allows a statistical report to be written while the particles are computed.
Particle Report
When creating a drogue plot, SMS can write out the following statistical information for each particle:

The particle’s starting and ending location.

The start and end times for each particle in decimals days.

The total distance it traveled over the length of the animation.

The minimum, maximum, and average velocity at which it traveled.
Be aware that when a particle leaves the domain, it can no longer be tracked so the ending location will be the point at
which it left the domain. Click the Browse button to set the name of the report file.
Related Topics

Animations
Film Loop Flow Trace Options
This page of the Film Loop Setup wizard allows setting up options for the particles in the flow trace. The following
options are available:
SMS 12.2
Page 122

Particles per object – Increasing this value increases the total number of random particles that get created and
distributed throughout the domain. For a finite element mesh, the number specified is multiplied by the number
of elements to determine the number of particles to be distributed over the domain.

Decay Ratio – This defines how quickly the particle’s tail decays and should be a value between zero (0.0) and
one (1.0). A larger value produces particles with longer tails. A value of 1.0 indicates that it will take 100
percent of the film loop time for a end of a tail to fade away.

Average particle speed – This provides a means of magnifying or reducing the activity in the domain. The
particles will be traced through the domain with the velocity of the current vector functional dataset. The
velocity is assumed as pixel space units. No time match between distance on the screen and velocity is
attempted because the time between flow trace frames is not explicit. If an exact velocity in distance is desired,
compute the scale value and specify it here. Normally, for visualization purposes, experimentation with this
parameter will generate the desired results. Another option would be to use the drogue animation tools.

Flow trace length limit – This specifies a maximum distance the particle can travel in a single numerical
integration step. When computing the numerical integration, if a particle travels more than this distance, the
integration step is reduced to produce a more accurate particle path. Decreasing this number causes slower
integration, but a more accurate path.

Velocity difference limit – This specifies a maximum change in speed the particle can experience in a single
numerical integration step. When computing the numerical integration, if a particle speed changes more than
this limit, the integration step is reduced to produce a more accurate particle path. Decreasing this number
causes slower integration, but a more accurate path.
SMS will use the current background as the background for the drogue plots. The model domain is always black and
particles are always white. These two options cannot be changed.
Related Topics

Animations
Film Loop General Options
The Film Loop Setup wizard is used to create the following types of video animation files:

AVI, or audio video interleave (*.avi)
 Google Earth© KMZ (*.kmz) – See Google Earth© KMZ file export requirements section below.
The wizard is invoked by choosing the Film Loop option from the Data menu. When the wizard is successfully
completed, the animation is generated according to the specified options. The animations are then opened and
displayed. AVI files are displayed in the Play AVI Application (PAVIA). Google Earth© KMZ files are displayed in
Gooogle Earth©. the Play AVI Application is included with SMS. Google Earth© must be downloaded and installed
separately. See http://earth.google.com/ for information on obtaining Google Earth©.
The General Options page allows specifying the following:

File name for each video animation file type being exported

Film loop type

Transient Data Animation – To use this option, there must be opened a dynamic solution file. This will show
how contours and/or vectors change with time by displaying a sequence of images, one for each time step.

Flow Trace – To use this option, there must be an available vector dataset, such as velocity. This animation
randomly distributes particles throughout the domain and shows their path through time.
SMS 12.2
Page 123

Drogue Plot – To use this option, there must be an available vector dataset, such as velocity, and there must
have been created points and/or arcs in a Particle/Drogue coverage with the Map module. This option is similar
to the Flow Trace, except that particles are initially placed at feature points and at each vertex of feature arcs in
the selected coverage.

Multiple Views – This option creates an animation of a single time step from one rotated view to another. A
viewing path is created with any number of bearing/dip pairs. Multiple View film loops can not be exported to a
Google Earth© KMZ file.

Plot Window – This option allows animation of a plot window, such as how a functional value across an
observation arc changes through time. Plot Window film loops can not be exported to a Google Earth© KMZ
file.
Google Earth© KMZ file export requirements
The following requirements must be met to export Google Earth© KMZ file

Must be in plan view

Must use a Global Coordinate Projection (not local)

Film loop types which can be exported to KMZ


Transient data animation

Flow trace

Drogue plot
Film loop types which cannot be exported to KMZ

Multiple Views

Plot window
Play AVI Application (Pavia)
Controls exist within the application to play, stop, and step the animation. See the article Play AVI Application .
Related Topics

Animations
Film Loop Multiple Views
This page of the Film Loop Setup wizard allows defining the view path to be traversed for the animation. By default,
the initial view is set to the window’s current bearing and dip. Add any number of views with any number of steps to
the view. For convenience, the bearing/dip pair can be displayed inside each frame of the animation.
Initial View – This section has options for the bearing and dip at the start of the animation run.

Bearing – Degrees rotated away from North for the initial start of the animation.
 Dip – The angle above or below horizontal elevation for the initial start of the animation.
Animation – This field shows a list of all views that will be used during the animation run. Views will be displayed in
the order presented in this field from the top down.

Add View – Brings up the Add View dialog where additional the bearing, dip, and duration can be set for an
additional view during the animation run.

Remove – Deletes the selected view from the animation list.
SMS 12.2

Page 124
Display Bearing/Dip in each frame – When this option is checked on, the bearing and dip will displayed for
each frame during the animation run. This is checked on by default.
Add View Dialog
This dialog will created addition views during the animation run. The following options are available for each view:

Bearing – Degrees rotated away from North for this view in the animation run.

Dip – The angle above or below horizontal elevation this view in the animation run.

Number of steps to this view – How many animation frames will use this view.
Related Topics

Animations
Film Loop Time Step Options
The Time Options dialog is used to specify the time range and time step to use in the animation. It is the second step
of the Film Loop Setup wizard when exporting the following film loop types:

Transient Data Animation

Flow Trace – if using transient data
 Drogue Plot – if using transient data
The following time options are available:

Film loop start time – Setting the Run Simulation From option requires selecting a start time from the available
time steps.

Film loop duration – Setting the Run Simulation To option requires selecting an ending time from the available
time steps. This time step must be after the start time.

Specify Number of Frames – Indicates the number of frames in the final animation. The default number equals
the number of time steps in the transient data. The number of animation frames can be different from the
number of time steps to make the animation shorter or longer.
 Specify Time Step Size – Changes the time step increments to the indicated size.
If the Time Settings are set to display as Relative Time , the zero time can be changed. If exporting to a KMZ file , the
time zone can also be specified. Specifying the time zone is required if the model time is in a local time zone (as
opposed to UTC) for Google Earth to display the correct times for the associated temporal data.
Related Topics

Animations
SMS 12.2
Page 125
2.3. Projections
Projections
Related Versions
GMS
v9.1
SMS
v11.1
WMS
v9.1
version note
Projection refers to a map projection like UTM . In XMS software, a projections are associated with the project and
individual data objects.
Starting with SMS 11.1 and GMS 9.1, the XMS software works on the concept of a "Display Projection". This is the
projection being worked in. Each geometric object loaded into the XMS package, such as a Scatterset, DEM, grid or
mesh, also has an associated projection. These two projections may not be the same. If the two projections are
compatible (i.e. it is a viable option to convert from one projection to the other), the XMS package will convert the
data from the object projection to the display projection, just for display purposes. This is referred to as "Project on
the fly". The data itself maintains the values associated with the object projection so when the XMS package saves a
project, the data files are not modified.
Alternatively, data can be reprojected from one projection to another, actually changing the data values that will be
saved as part of a project. This is done by right-clicking on the geometric object in the project explorer (data tree) and
selecting the Reproject... command. The SMS package includes a feature to reproject all data from whatever
projection the data is currently in to a single projection using the Reproject All... command in the Display menu.
XMS software utilizes the Global Mapper (TM) library which supports hundreds of standard projections.
Previous XMS software versions referred to projections as "coordinate systems" and reprojection as "coordinate
conversion".
Display Projection
The display projection, or the projection currently associated with the project, can be specified via the Display |
Projection menu command. This setting controls how the XMS application displays (or interprets) data. Data
defining objects with a specified projection are converted to the display projection (if it is different from the object
projection) for display purposes only. This is referred to as "projection on the fly". The data saved to files as part of a
project, or exported for a simulation are exported in the object projection. Display projection only affects the display.
Objects without a specified projection are assumed by the XMS application to be referenced to the display projection.
The display projection is saved as part of a project file. Specify a display projection as part of the system settings for
new sessions/projects.
When a data object is read into an XMS application, for which no data has yet been loaded and no projection has been
specified, and the data object has its own projection, the display projection is reset to the object projection. This
allows defining a working projection simply by loading data that uses that projection (and has a projection definition
such as a *.prj file to define it.)
SMS 12.2
Page 126
No Projection (Previously Local Projection)
Many numerical models work in local or model space, and don't care how that system relates back to global
coordinate systems (UTM, State Plane etc.). XMS software allows for this using a Display projection set to local or no
projection option. This is standard practice when building a numerical model of a flume test. The units of the model
are also specified as part of the projection. If the display projection is in this mode, no global projections are allowed
on individual objects.
(Note: when the display projection is set to No Projection or Local Projection , the data may still be referenced to a
projection. The display projection can be changed to reflect that projection if desired.)
Global Projection
Data referenced to a global projection can be easily correlated and used with other applications that utilize projections
including GIS and CAD. When the display projection is specified as a global projection, the XMS application can
export georeferenced images, shapefiles, and KMZ files that may be directly imported to other applications.
Selecting the Global Projection option will automatically bring up the Select Projection dialog where a global
projection can be chosen. If the Select Projection dialog does not automatically appear, or desiring to change the
current global projection, then the Select Projection button in the projection dialog can be used to access the dialog.
Object Projection
Each geometric object loaded into a session can have an associated projection. When an object is loaded from a file,
the XMS application looks for a projection either in the object data file or in an associated *.prj file. If no projection is
found, the object is left with no projection or floating. In this case, the object is assumed to be related to the display
projection, regardless of what that projection is. The object projection can be specified by right-clicking on the object
in the project explorer and selecting the Projection... command. The default projection displayed in the dialog that
appears is the object's projection if it has one, and no projection otherwise. In the case of no projection, the display
projection is filled in as the default global projection should that option be selected.
Reproject
Reprojecting means to convert data from one coordinate system to another. For example, a 2D mesh representing the
ground surface may have XYZ coordinates in a UTM system and they need to be converted to a State Plane system to
be consistent with other data. Reprojecting results in the XYZ coordinates of the data changing, although conceptually
the data is in the same place with respect to the Earth, just in a different projection or coordinate system.
There are four basic reprojection tasks:

Reproject on the fly, which just displays all data in a specified projection without changing the base values

Reprojecting the entire project from one system to another

Reprojecting one geometric object (i.e. mesh or grid) from one coordinate system to another

Single point reprojection, which allows entering the XYZ coordinates for a point in one projection and see what
the new coordinates would be if the point was reprojected to a different projection.
Reproject on the Fly
When data from multiple projections are loaded into and XMS application, without a defined projection, they do not
overlay and the display shows data clusters at two distinct locations. With project on the fly, if the data object has a
defined projection (such as a *.prj file), this data would be reprojected on the fly to the display projection.
If data does not line up due to incorrect or incomplete projection specification, specify different object projections to
attempt to align the data correctly. Object projection is specified by right-clicking on the object in the project explorer.
SMS 12.2
Page 127
Reproject everything
Reprojecting everything can be done by selecting the Display | Reproject All... menu command. This will convert all
the data loaded into the XMS application from the object projection(s) to a specified projection. This operation brings
up a dialog which allows specifying the desired projection. The default value is the display projection currently
specified for the project.
Reproject object
This command is done on a specific geometric object (grid, mesh, scatter set, ...) by right-clicking on the entity in the
Project Explorer and sececting Reproject... . If the object does not have a specified projection, this command is not
available. It can be accessed by selection the Projection... command for the object in the same right-click menu and
defining a projection for the object.
When the object has a projection, this command reprojects from one projection to another. The command brings up a
dialog with a "from" projection specified on the left and a "to" projection specified on the right. The "from" projection
is defaulted to the object projection. The "to" projection is defaulted to the display projection.
Single Point Reprojection
Single Point Reprojection command is found in the Display menu and allows entering the XYZ coordinates for a
point in one projection and see what the new coordinates would be if the point was reprojected to a different
projection. It also allows creating a feature point at the new location.
Restrictions
Some reprojections are not allowed, such as reprojecting between a NAD and non-NAD system. A warning is issued
when the reprojection is not allowed.
Supported Projections
XMS software utilizes the Global Mapper (TM) library which supports hundreds of standard projections.
Related Topics

Projection Dialogs
Projection Dialogs
There are two main projection dialogs used in SMS, GMS, and WMS: The Display Projection dialog, and the Object
Projection dialog. From each of these, the Select Projection dialog can be accessed. More detailed information about
each projection and the information in these dialogs can be found in the Projections article.
Display Projection Dialog
The Display Projection dialog contains settings which are applied to the project as a whole.
Horizontal section
The Horizontal section of the dialog has two options available via radio buttons:

No projection – This option doesn't set a projection, and only allows adjusting the horizontal Units used in the
project. The available units include:

" U. S. Survey Feet ". Equal to 1200 ⁄ 3937 meters, approximately 0.3048006096 meters.

" International Feet ". Equal to 0.3048 meters.

" Meters ". Equal to the distance traveled by light in vacuum within 1 ⁄ 299792458 of a second.

" Inches ". Equal to 1 ⁄ 39.37 of a meter.
SMS 12.2


Page 128
" Centimeters ". Equal to 1 ⁄ 100 of a meter.
Global projection – Clicking on the Set Projection button allows more specific projections to be set. These are
listed below in the Select Projection Dialog section.
Vertical section
The Vertical section has two drop-down boxes:

Projection , giving the following options:

"Local"


" NGVD 29 (US) "

" NAVD 88 (US) "
Units , giving the following options:

"U. S. Survey Feet"

"International Feet"

"Meters"

"Inches"

"Centimeters"
Object Projection Dialog
The Object Projection dialog is the same as the Display Projection dialog, but only applies to one specific object (e.g.,
a coverage or a mesh). It can be accessed by selecting the object in the Project Explorer, then right-clicking on it and
selecting Projection... from the menu.
Select Projection Dialog
The Select Projection dialog is accessed through the Set Projection... button in either the Display Projection dialog or
the Object Projection dialog. It allows setting global projections for the project or for a specific object. It contains a
single Projection tab with several options and sections.
To the right of the Projection drop-down are three buttons:

Load From File... : Allows a projection to be loaded from an external file. The accepted file formats are PRJ
and SPR (PRJ is preferable).

Save to File... : Allows the projection information set in this dialog to be saved as a PRJ file.

Init from EPSG... : Opens a dialog where an EPSG Projection Code can be entered.
Datum
Datums in italics are not actual options. The available options for that entry are listed in the indented list directly
below it.
SMS 12.2
Page 129
Create New Datum Dialog
The Create New Datum dialog (right) allows for the creation of a new datum if the available datums (the list above)
do not cover the needs of the project. There are a number of different fields and options in this dialog. These are
detailed below:

Datum Name : Enter the desired name for the new datum.

Abbreviation (Optional) : An optional field for a shortened version of the Datum Name .

Prime Meridian (Degrees) : Enter the prime meridian .

Ellipsoid ( Spheroid ) Selection : This section consists of a drop-down list and two buttons:



Add Ellipsoid... : This button brings up the Custom Ellipsoid Setup dialog. It has the following fields:

Ellipsoid Name : Enter the desired name of the ellipsoid.

Semi-Major Axis (meters) : Enter the length of the semi-major axis .

The two radio button options are:

Use Semi-Minor Axis of : Enter the length of the the semi-minor axis .

Use flattening of : Enter a number representing the flattening .
Edit Ellipsoid... : Allows editing of a custom ellipsoid (one created with the Add Ellipsoid... button).
Datum Transformation Method : This section consists of four radio button options:

3-parameter (Molodensky) Transformation : Uses the Molodensky transformation method.

7-parameter (Bursa-Wolfe) Transformation (Position Vector Rotation) : Uses seven parameters : "three
translations, three rotations, and a scale correction factor".

7-parameter (Bursa-Wolfe) Transformation (Coordinate Frame Rotation) : Variation of the above.
Custom Shift Based on Control Point File : Selecting this options brings up an Open dialog which allows
choosing a Control Point File with the necessary data to set the datum transformation method. This file is a
text file with entries (one per line) in the following format:

SMS 12.2
Page 130
deg_longitude_in_new_datum,deg_latitude_in_new_datum,deg_longitude_in_WGS84,deg_
latitude_in_WGS84

Shifts to WGS84 (meters) : This section allows the X Shift , Y Shift , and Z Shift to be manually set for the new
datum.

Rotation to WGS84 : This section allows setting the X, Y, and Z in for the new datum by selecting from the
Units drop-down:


arc-seconds

radians

micro-radians
Scale Correction to WGS84 (parts per million) : This section allows setting the Scale (ppm) for the new datum.
Planar Units
The planar unit is simply the measuring format used in the projection. Select the appropriate one from the list.
Parameters
In the Parameters section, the Attribute and Value columns contain information specific to the Projection and Zone
selected.
Related Topics

Projections
CPP Coordinate System
A CPP (Carte Parallelo-Grammatique Projection) system is a local system. The origin of the system must be defined
in latitude/longitude decimal degrees.
The conversion from of a point from latitude/longitude to CPP is:
The conversion of a point from CPP to latitude/longitude is:
(Clarke 1866 major spheroid radius)
Geographic Coordinate System
A Geographic system is a latitude/longitude system defined in decimal degrees. Supported Geographic systems
include:

NAD (North American Datum) 1927 and NAD 1988
 33 world ellipsoids and a user defined ellipsoid (i.e., Clarke 1866, WGS 1984, etc.)
The hemispheres are defined for non-NAD systems. The hemisphere cannot be changed for NAD systems (Northern,
Western hemispheres).
SMS 12.2
Page 131
Related Topics

Projections

Projection Dialogs
2.3.a. UTM Coordinate System
UTM Coordinate System
A UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) system is a world-wide system defined in meters. The world is divided into
60 zones, 6 degrees of longitude, running from 84°N to 80°S latitude. Supported UTM systems include:

NAD (North American Datum) 1927 and NAD 1983
 HPGN (High Precision Geodetic Network, now known as HARN - High Accuracy Precision Network)
The hemispheres are defined for non-NAD systems. The hemisphere cannot be changed for NAD systems (Northern,
Western hemispheres). An additional HPGN zone must be defined for HPGN systems.
UTM zones for the southern hemisphere have a "false northing" of 10,000,000 meters at the equator with northings
decreasing as you move south. This ensures all northings are positive in the southern hemisphere.
The US and World UTM Zones are shown below.
SMS 12.2
UTM Zones By Continent

North America

South America

Africa

Asia

Europe

Australia
Related Topics

Projections

UTM Coordinates
UTM Africa
The figure below shows the UTM zones for Africa.
Page 132
SMS 12.2
UTM Asia
The figure below shows the UTM zones for Asia.
Page 133
SMS 12.2
UTM Australia
The figure below shows the UTM zones for Australia.
UTM Europe
The figure below shows the UTM zones for Europe.
UTM North America
The figure below shows the UTM zones for North America.
Page 134
SMS 12.2
UTM South American
The figure below shows the UTM zones for South America.
Page 135
SMS 12.2
Page 136
2.3.b. State Plane Coordinate System
State Plane Coordinate System
A State Plane system is a coordinate system used in the US. Each US state is divided into one or more zones, known
as State Plane zones. Supported State Plane systems include:

NAD (North American Datum) 1927
 NAD 1983
Additionally, an HPGN (High Precision Geodetic Network, now known as HARN - High Accuracy Precision
Network) zone can be specified for each state plane zone.
The boundary of most of the state plane zones remained the same from 1927 to 1983. The US State Plane Zones are
shown in the map below. The boundaries are shown for each state plane zone by clicking on a region on the map. The
boundaries that changed between 1927 and 1983 are highlighted for each state plane zone that changed.
State Zone Maps

Alaska

Hawaii

Mideast

Midwest

New England

Northwest

South Central
SMS 12.2

South East

Southwest

Virgina Area
Related Topics
Projections
Alaska State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Alaska area.
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Alaska 1
AK_1
5001
Alaska 2
AK_2
5002
Alaska 3
AK_3
5003
Alaska 4
AK_4
5004
Alaska 5
AK_5
5005
Alaska 6
AK_6
5006
Alaska 7
AK_7
5007
Alaska 8
AK_8
5008
Alaska 9
AK_9
5009
Alaska 10
AK_10
5010
Hawaii State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Hawaii area.
Page 137
SMS 12.2
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Hawaii 1
HI_1
5101
Hawaii 2
HI_2
5102
Hawaii 3
HI_3
5103
Hawaii 4
HI_4
5104
Hawaii 5
HI_5
5105
Mideast State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Mideast area.
Page 138
SMS 12.2
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Illinois East
IL_E
1201
Illinois West
IL_W
1202
Indiana East
IN_E
1301
Indiana West
IN_W
1302
Kentucky North
KY_N
1601
Kentucky South
KY_S
1602
Michigan East (NAD 27)
MI_E
2101
Michigan Central (NAD 27) MI_C
2102
Michigan West (NAD 27)
MI_W
2103
Ohio North
OH_N
3401
Ohio South
OH_S
3402
Wisconsin North
WI_N
4801
Wisconsin Central
WI_C
4802
Wisconsin South
WI_S
4803
Michigan North
MI_N
2111
Michigan Central
MI_C
2112
Michigan South
MI_S
2113
NAD 83 Zone Changes
Midwest State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Midwest area.
Page 139
SMS 12.2
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Iowa North
IA_N
1401
Iowa South
IA_S
1402
Minnesota North
MN_N
2201
Minnesota Central
MN_C
2202
Minnesota South
MN_S
2203
Nebraska North
NE_N
2601
Nebraska South
NE_S
2602
North Dakota North
ND_N
3301
North Dakota South
ND_S
3302
South Dakota North
SD_N
4001
South Dakota South
SD_S
4002
NE
2600
NAD 83 Zone Changes
Nebraska
New England State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the New England area.
Page 140
SMS 12.2
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Connecticut
CT
0600
Maine East
ME_E
1801
Maine West
ME_W
1802
Massachusetts Mainlaine
MA_M
2001
Massachusetts Island
MA_I
2002
New Hampshire
NH
2800
New York East
NY_E
3101
New York Central
NY_C
3102
New York West
NY_W
3103
New York Long Island
NY_LI
3104
Rhode Island
RI
3800
Vermont
VT
4400
Northwest State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Northwest area.
Page 141
SMS 12.2
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Idaho East
ID_E
1101
Idaho Central
ID_C
1102
Idaho West
ID_W
1103
Montana North
MT_N
2501
Montana Central
MT_C
2502
Montana South
MT_S
2503
Oregon North
OR_N
3601
Oregon South
OR_S
3602
Washington North
WA_N
4601
Washington South
WA_S
4602
Wyoming I
WY_E
4901
Wyoming II
WY_EC
4902
Wyoming III
WY_WC
4903
Wyoming IV
WY_W
4904
MT
2500
WY_E
4901
NAD 83 Zone Changes
Montana
NAD 83 Name Changes
Wyoming East
Page 142
SMS 12.2
Wyoming East Central
WY_EC
4902
Wyoming West Central
WY_WC
4903
Wyoming West
WY_W
4904
NAD 83 Boundary Changes
Washington North
WA_N
4601
Washington South
WA_S
4602
South Central State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the South Central area.
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Arkansas North
AR_N
0301
Arkansas South
AR_S
0302
Colorado North
CO_N
0501
Colorado Central
CO_C
0502
Colorado South
CO_S
0503
Kansas North
KS_N
1501
Kansas South
KS_S
1502
Louisiana North
LA_N
1701
Louisiana South
LA_S
1702
Page 143
SMS 12.2
Louisiana Offshore
LA_O
1703
Missouri East
MO_E
2401
Missouri Central
MO_C
2402
Missouri West
MO_W
2403
New Mexico East
NM_E
3001
New Mexico Central
NM_C
3002
New Mexico West
NM_W
3003
Oklahoma North
OK_N
3501
Oklahoma South
OK_S
3502
Texas North
TX_N
4201
Texas North Central
TX_NC
4202
Texas Central
TX_C
4203
Texas South Central
TX_SC
4204
Texas South
TX_S
4205
NAD 83 Boundary Changes
New Mexico East
NM_E
3001
New Mexico Central
NM_C
3002
New Mexico West
NM_W
3003
South East State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the South East area.
Page 144
SMS 12.2
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code
Zone ID
Alabama East
AL_E
0101
Alabama West
AL_W
0102
Florida East
FL_E
0901
Florida West
FL_W
0902
Florida North
FL_N
0903
Georgia East
GA_E
1001
Georgia West
GA_W
1002
Mississippi East
MS_E
2301
Mississippi West
MS_W
2302
North Carolina
NC
3200
South Carolina North SC_N
3901
South Carolina South SC_S
3902
Tennessee
4100
TN
NAD 83 Zone Changes
South Carolina
SC
3900
Southwest State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Southwest area.
NAD 27 / 83
Page 145
SMS 12.2
Zone Name
Map Code Zone ID
Arizona East
AZ_E
0201
Arizona Central
AZ_C
0202
Arizona West
AZ_W
0203
California 1
CA_1
0401
California 2
CA_2
0402
California 3
CA_3
0403
California 4
CA_4
0404
California 5
CA_5
0405
California 6
CA_6
0406
California 7
CA_7
0407
Nevada East
NV_E
2701
Nevada Central
NV_C
2702
Nevada West
NV_W
2703
Utah North
UT_N
4301
Utah Central
UT_C
4302
Utah South
UT_S
4303
NAD 83 Subtractions
California 7
Removed
Virginia Area State Plane
The figure below shows the state plane zones for the Virginia area.
Page 146
SMS 12.2
Page 147
NAD 27 / 83
Zone Name
Map Code Zone ID
Delaware
DE
0700
District of Columbia / Maryland
MD
1900
New Jersey
NJ
2900
Pennsylvania North
PA_N
3701
Pennsylvania South
PA_S
3702
Virgina North
VA_N
4501
Virgina South
VA_S
4502
West Virginia North
WV_N
4701
West Virginia South
WV_S
4702
2.4. Datasets
Datasets
A dataset is a set of values associated with each node, cell, vertex, or scatter point in an object. A dataset can be
steady state (one value per item, one time step) or transient (one value per item, multiple time steps). The values in the
dataset can be scalar values or vector values. Certain types of objects in SMS have an associated list of scalar datasets
and a list of vector datasets. Each of the following objects in SMS can have both scalar a vector datasets:

Scattered Datasets

2D Meshes

2D Cartesian Grids

Particle Sets
 1D Grids
Datasets are used for both pre- and post-processing of models. For example, a scalar dataset associated with a 2D
mesh can represent starting values of elevations or initial water surface elevations for a surface water modeling
problem. Another dataset associated with the same mesh may represent computed water surface values. Datasets can
be used to generate contours , vector plots, functional surfaces and animation sequences. The commands for
manipulating datasets are located in the Current Model's Data menu .
Generating Datasets
Datasets can be generated in a variety of ways such as:

Output from a surface water model (water level, velocity, concentration, transport, etc.)

Tabular values in a text file entered manually or exported from another application such as a GIS

Created by interpolating from a scatter point set to a grid, or mesh
 Generated by performing mathematical operations on existing datasets with the Data Calculator
One advantage of the dataset approach for managing information is that it facilitates transfer of information between
different models with differing resolution. This is accomplished through scatter sets and interpolation . Grids and
meshes can be converted to a 2D scatter set. When an object is converted to a scatter set, all scalar datasets associated
with the object are copied to the new scatter set. The datasets can then be transferred from the scatter set to other
objects of any type using interpolation.
SMS 12.2
Page 148
Right-Click Menus
Datasets are displayed and managed in the Project Explorer . Right-clicking on a dataset invokes the right-click menu
which consists of a list of commands that can be performed on the dataset.
Dataset Information
The Dataset Info dialog allows examining statistical properties of the dataset.
A dataset consists of a set of values. It is often useful to be able to get general information about the dataset. SMS
displays this information in the Dataset Info dialog which is invoked by right-clicking on the dataset and selecting the
Info... command.
The dialog displays the following information:

Name – display the name of the dataset

Number of time steps – displays the number of discrete times represented by the dataset. It will be 1 for a steady
state dataset.

Beginning time – this shows the lowest time for any discrete time represented by the dataset. For steady state
datasets, this will be 0.0. It will be displayed in the information dialog according to the current time settings.

Ending time – this shows the largest time for any discrete time represented by the dataset. For steady state
datasets, this will be 0.0. It will be displayed in the information dialog according to the current time settings.

All time steps statistics – this displays the minimum, maximum and range of values for all values in the dataset
across all times represented by the dataset.

Current time step statistics – this displays the minimum, maximum, range, mean and standard deviation of
values for all values in the current or actively selected time.

Reference Time – If a dataset is referenced to a universal date/time, it often will be stored relative to a "zero
time". SMS allows specifying a "zero time" for a project that will be applied to all datasets that do not have their
own reference. This field displays the "zero time" for this dataset if it exists.
Active Dataset
Each module in SMS has a set of values designated as the "active dataset." The active dataset is an important part of
model visualization in SMS. Each time the display is refreshed, the contours and other display features are generated
using the active dataset. Left-clicking on a solution or dataset in the Project Explorer makes that item "active". The
icons used to identify the different datasets shown in the Project Explorer are as follows:
Dataset Type Inactive Icon
Active Icon
Elevation
Scalar
Vector
If the active dataset is transient then the time steps are displayed in the Time Step Window .
Solutions
Solutions are output from a numerical model that SMS supports. Solutions are shown in the Project Explorer as a
folder. If a solution is transient then the time steps are displayed in the Time Step Window . The solution may contain
text files such as the *.out and *.prt files produced by a model. These files can viewed by right-clicking on the item
and selecting View File from the pop up menu, or double-click on the item.
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Folder
The datasets and solutions are organized by folders. New folders can be created. It is possible to move datasets,
solutions, and folders into other folders anywhere on the Project Explorer . Folders can be created by right-clicking
on the certain items in the Project Explorer and selecting New Folder in the menu. A dataset or folder can be deleted
simply by selecting the folder and pressing the DELETE key or by right-clicking on the item and selecting the Delete
option in the corresponding pop-up menu.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
Dataset Toolbox
The Dataset Toolbox contains numerous tools for working with datasets . Once the options for the current tool have
been set and a name for the resulting dataset has been specified, selecting the Compute , Sample , etc. button will
create the new dataset. The name of the new dataset will appear in the list of datasets.
The Dataset Toolbox tools are organized as follows:
Temporal
Sample Times
Create a new dataset from sampled times of an existing dataset. If Interpolate times is selected, linear interpolation
will be used to determine the sampled times. If Interpolate times is not selected, the value from the nearest existing
dataset time step will be used.
Merge Datasets
Starting SMS 11.2, two or more datasets can be merged together. The selected datasets must not have any overlapping
time steps.
Derivatives
Create a new dataset of the change from one time step to the next, or the derivative from one time step to the next of
an existing dataset. When computing a derivative, the time units must be specified. The the new dataset will output
data in between the existing dataset time steps, resulting in one fewer time step than the original dataset.
Math
Compare
Compare two datasets by subtracting the "Alternate" dataset from the "Base" dataset. User specified NULL values are
assigned if the base or alternate dataset is inactive.
Data Calculator
For more information, see Data Calculator .
Angle Convention
Create a new dataset with a different angle convention from a scalar dataset containing directions in a given angle
convention. With datasets for CMS-WAVE and STWAVE cartesian grids, the angle can be converted to and from a
shore normal convention.
Spatial
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Geometry
Gradient
Creates a function that gives the gradient at each node. The gradient is calculated as the run divided by the rise.
Gradient Angle
Creates a function that gives the direction in degrees of the maximum gradient at each point.
Directional Derivative
Creates a vector function that gives the gradient (run/rise) in the x and y directions.
Smoothing Datasets
For more information, see Smooth Dataset .
Grid Spacing
Creates a function that gives the average distance between a node and its neighbors.
Conversion
Scalar to Vector
Converts two scalar datasets to a single vector dataset. The specified scalar datasets can be either magnitude and
direction or x and y components.
Vector to Scalar
Converts a single vector dataset into two scalar datasets. The resulting scalar datasets can be either magnitude and
direction or x and y components.
Coastal
Local Wave Length and Celerity
Creates two functions that calculate the celerity and wavelength at each node for any depths.
Gravity Waves (Courant or Time Steps)
Creates a function that gives the courant number for each node given the Time Step, or the gravity wave time step
given the Courant Number.
Advective (Courant or Time Steps)
Advective requires a vector function as input and is disabled if no vector functions exist. The courant option creates a
function that calculates the courant number given the Time Step and a velocity function. The time step option creates
a function that calculates the time step given the Courant Number and a velocity function.
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Modification
Map Activity
This maps the activity array from one dataset to second dataset. This may be used to show only the values of interest
on a particular dataset. This operation creates a new dataset.
Filter
This creates a new dataset based on specified criteria. The following options are available for filtering:

< (less than)

<= (less than or equal to)

> (greater than)

>= (greater than or equal to)

equal

not equal

null
 not null
If the value passes the specified filter, the following can be assigned:

original (no change)

specify (a user specified value)

null (the dataset null value)

true (1.0)

false (0.0)

time – The first time the condition was met. Time can be specified in seconds, minutes, hours or days, and
includes fractional values (such as 3.27 hours).
In addition, if the value passes none of the criteria, a default value can be assigned (see available options above).
The filtering is applied in the order specified. This means as soon as the new dataset passes a test, it will not be
filtered by subsequent tests.
Related Links

Data Calculator

Datasets
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Data Calculator
At a glance

Performs mathematical calculations on scalar datasets

Calculations can include any number of scalar datasets and user supplied numbers

Useful for computing derived values such as Froude numbers
 Useful for comparing scalar datasets
The Data Calculator can be used to perform mathematical operations with datasets to create new datasets. The Data
Calculator is accessed by selecting the Data Calculator or Dataset Toolbox command from the Data or Edit menu.
The components of the Data Calculator are as follows:
Expression Field
The most important part of the Data Calculator is the Expression field. This is where the mathematical expression is
entered. The expression should be formulated using the same rules that are used in formulating equations in a
spreadsheet. Parentheses should be used to clearly indicate the preferred order of evaluation. There is no limit on the
length of the expression. The operators in the expression should be limited to the operators shown in the middle of the
Data Calculator. The operands in the expression should consist of user-defined constants (e.g., 3.14159), or datasets.
List of Datasets
All of the datasets associated with the active object (TIN, Grid, Mesh, or Scatter Point Set) are listed at the top of the
Data Calculator. If a transient dataset is highlighted, the time steps are listed on the right side of the Data Calculator.
When a dataset is used in an expression, the name of the dataset should NOT be used. Rather, the letter associated
with the dataset should be used. For example, if a dataset is listed as "b. head1", the dataset is referenced in the
expression simply as "b"
When a transient dataset is used in an expression, either a single time step or the entire sequence of time steps may be
used. For example, the expression "abs(d:100)" creates a single (steady state) dataset representing the absolute value
of the dataset at time = 100.0. However, the expression "abs(d:all)" creates a transient dataset representing the
absolute value of each of the time steps in the original dataset.
Result Name
When an expression is evaluated, a new dataset is created and the name of the new dataset is designated in the Result
field.
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Operators
The allowable operators are listed in the middle of the dialog. Selecting one of the operator buttons adds the selected
operator to the end of the expression. However, the operators can also be typed directly in the expression field. The
function of each of the operators is as follows:
Operator
Function
+
Add
-
Subtract
*
Multiply
/
Divide
(
Left Parenthesis
)
Right /Parenthesis
log(x)
The base 10 logarithm of a dataset
ln(x)
The natural logarithm of a dataset
x^a
(x) raised to the (a) power. (x) and (a) can be any mixture of constants and datasets
abs(x)
The absolute value of a dataset
sqrt(x)
The square root of a dataset
ave(x,y)
The average of two datasets
min(x,y)
The minimum of two datasets
max(x,y)
The maximum of two datasets
trunc(x,a,b) Truncates a dataset (x) so that all values are >= a and <= b
1/(x)
The inverse of (x) - Only available in SMS
Operating With Transient Datasets
Each argument in the operators listed in the table above may be:

A steady state (1 time step) dataset

A specified time step of a transient dataset (i.e., x:#). In this case the # represents the index of the time step as
specified in the time step window.

A transient time step (i.e., x:all). These operations are only valid if all arguments have matching time step
values. In this case, the result will be a new transient dataset with identical time values as the arguments.
The data calculator supports an alternate format for computing attributes of a transient dataset. This alternate format
applies to three of the operators. These operators compute a single time step (steady state) dataset representing the
spatially varied attribute operating on all the time steps.
Operator
Function
ave(x:all)
The average at each location of all time steps in the dataset
min(x:all)
The minimum at each location of all time steps in the dataset
max(x:all)
The maximum at each location of all time steps in the dataset
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Compute Button
Once an expression is formulated and a name for the resulting dataset has been specified, the expression can be
evaluated by selecting the Compute button. At this point, the dataset is created and the name of the new dataset
should appear in the list of datasets.
Related Links

Datasets (GMS)

Datasets (SMS)

Datasets (WMS)

Dataset Toolbox (SMS)
Smooth Dataset
The Smooth Dataset dialog is used to condition scattered data scalar values before those values are used in an
interpolation process. This includes two general applications, smoothing a size dataset to prevent the dataset values
from changing too quickly, and smoothing depth/elevation values to prevent extreme slopes.
The Smooth Dataset dialog is accessed via the Dataset Toolbox by selecting Data | Dataset Toolbox in the Scatter
module .
Smoothing Size Datasets
One measure of mesh quality is element area change . If the dataset values change too quickly in a size dataset , the
element area change of adjacent elements may be too great, resulting in poor mesh quality .
Smoothing options


Element area change limit – The selected dataset values will be modified to honor the specified element area
change limit. This value defines the maximum ratio between adjacent points based on the distance between
points.

Minimum value anchor type – Dataset values are decreased. Results in a more refined (more
nodes/elements) mesh when used as a size dataset.

Maximum value anchor type – Dataset values are increased. Results in a less refined (fewer
nodes/elements) mesh when used as a size dataset.
Minimum node spacing – The minimum value allowed in the smoothed dataset.
Tips
After smoothing a size dataset, use the data calculator to subtract the smoothed sized dataset from the original dataset
and create a "change" dataset. Contour the "change" dataset to easily determine what and where changes were made
by the smoothing algorithm.
Smoothing Elevation/Depth Datasets
This option allows specifying a maximum slope. The process creates a new dataset which honors the maximum
specified slope.

Minimum value anchor type – The smoothing operation anchors the minimum dataset value (such as the lowest
elevation or smallest depth) and adjusts the adjacent values to ensure the slope is less than or equal to the
specified slope.

Maximum value anchor type – The smoothing operation anchors the maximum dataset value (such as the
highest elevation or largest depth) and adjusts the adjacent values to ensure the slope is less than or equal to the
specified slope.
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The operation includes all scatter points if none are selected. Alternatively, select a group of scatter points to be
operated on. Points not selected will not have their scalar value modified. This means the only way to modify a point
is if it has an adjacent point that is also selected and the slope between these two selected vertices is steeper than the
maximum specified slope.
Related Topics

Scatter Data Menu

Relax Elements

Dataset Toolbox
Metadata
Metadata, or data about data, can be crucial in the modeling process. In many situations, metadata is saved in a
separate file (called a metadata file). A common problem is that metadata and the data it describes are often separated.
Metadata is of little value without the data files it relates too. At the same time, metadata makes the data more usable
and therefore, more valuable.
In the SMS, metadata can be cataloged inside the project file. Metadata can be associated with the project as a whole,
a single geometric object such as a survey or finite element domain, or individual components down to the dataset
level.
Project/Geometric Object Metadata
The project metadata can be accessed through the Edit | Metadata... command. Object metadata can be accessed by
right-clicking on the object and choosing the Metadata... command. Either method invokes the Metadata dialog
which includes edit fields for the following metadata:

Title of the project or object

Abstract – a brief description
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
Purpose – this can change over time, but if it is recorded with the project when generated, it provides a valuable
backdrop when applying the project for other purposes at later times.

Creation Date – This is filled in automatically to the current date when the project is created. It can be edited if
an existing project is simply being organized.

General Topics – This section includes a list of topics and description or blurb for each topic. As the project
develops or is modified, notes of these developments, consisting of dates, individuals involved, purposes, etc,
can be annotated to the project.

Profile – this button invokes the Profile Information dialog which documents who created this project and
provides information about this individual. The profile can be set up and associated with an installation of SMS
and then this information is automatically added to all projects created with this installation. In order to
associate a profile as the default, simply click the Use Current for Default button in the Profile Information
dialog.

Spatial – this button invokes the Spatial Metadata dialog displaying the projection used by the project and the
spatial limits of the project. This information is automatically filled in.

Source – this button is only available for objects (not the project as a whole). It brings up a the Source Metadata
dialog. Whenever SMS generates a new object, such as a mesh from a conceptual module, or reads in a new
object from a file, the source is recorded. In the former case, the coverage and scatter set used will be recorded.
In the latter, the filename. This dialog allows the modeler to record additional notes about this object.
Dataset Metadata
Dataset metadata is accessed by right-clicking on the dataset. This invokes the Dataset Metadata dialog which
includes a text string describing the dataset.
2.5. Display Options
Display Options
Display Options in SMS refers to the control of what entities are displayed, and how (color and style) they are
displayed. Each entity in each module has its own display options. The display options for the active module are
shown when the Display Options dialog opens.
The Display Options dialog is opened by any of the following methods:

Right-clicking on any module folder in the Project Explorer and selecting the Display Options command from
the right-click menu

Using the Display | Display Options menu command

Clicking the

Using the keyboard shortcut CTRL+D
Display Options macro
Display Option Pages
SMS supports a display option page for general display options and for each type of data (i.e. 2D mesh, scatter sets,
map data, ...) managed in a simulation. The display option dialog includes the option to set all options on all pages if
desired. The toggle at the lower left of the dialog hides the option pages for data types that are not included in the
current project. This toggle is selected by default and reduces the amount of information seen. The following display
option pages exist:

1D Grid – This page controls the display options related to the coastal morphology model GenCade.
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
2D Mesh – This page controls the display options related to unstructured 2D meshes and the models (such as
ADH and the generic model interface) that use them.

Cartesian Grid – Controls the options related to Cartesian grids and the models (such as TUFLOW, CMS-Flow
and BOUSS2D) that use them.

Curvilinear Grid – Controls the options related to the curvilinear or boundary fitted grids and the models (such
as LTFATE) that use them.

General – Controls the general display options.

GIS – Controls the display options related to GIS data using the internal GIS support in SMS. If ArcGIS is
enabled inside of SMS, the ArcObjects display options control the display of these entities.

Map – Controls the display options related to the map module (coverages) in SMS.

Mesh – Controls the display options related to the general unstructured mesh objects.

Particle – Controls the display options related to the PTM Lagrangian particle tracker model.

Quadtree – Controls the display options related to the quadtree module in SMS.

Raster – Controls the display options related to raster (or DEM) type objects.

Scatter – Controls the display options related to scattered datasets (also referred to as Triangulated Irregular
Networks or TINs).
Tabs
For each page, additional tabs may appear which specify the display settings for vectors or contours in that type of
data. The General Display Options also includes separate tabs for Lighting Options and viewing control.
Functional Surfaces
For some types of data, it could be useful to display a surface of the datasets associated with the geometric data. For
example, a computed water surface can be displayed as a surface to intuitively illustrate how a flooding scenario looks
in three dimensions. Other datasets, which don't have such a direct connection to elevation can also be viewed as a
functional surface to give insight to the situation. The options to set the functional surface for a specific geometric
data type will appear in the page for that data type.
Entity Display Options
For each entity type, the dialog includes a toggle, and where appropriate, a button. If the toggle is selected, SMS will
display the entity type. The buttons are of various types, as described below:
Points
If the display of an entity is focused around a single location, like a mesh node, the button displays a circle, drawn in
the color that will be used to display that entity. To change the circle size, or color, click on the button and the Point
Attributes dialog will appear. The color can also be changed by clicking on the combo box arrow next to the button.
It is recommended that if there are many of points, and their position can be inferred from other displayed entities
(such as the position of mesh nodes by the edges of the elements) that the symbols be turned off to increase efficiency.
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Symbols
If the display of an entity is focused around a single location, like a scatter point, the button displays a symbol, drawn
in the color that will be used to display that entity. To change the symbol, symbol size, or color, click on the button
and the Symbol Attributes dialog will appear. The color can also be changed by clicking on the combo box arrow
next to the button. It is recommended that if there are many of these entities, and their position can be inferred from
other displayed entities (such as the position of scatter points by the edges of the scatter triangles) that the symbols be
turned off to increase efficiency.
Line
If the entity to be displayed encloses a region, such as a triangle or element, the button displays a sample line drawn in
the color and width that will be used to display the line around the edge of that entity. To change the color and/or
width, click on the button and the Line Attributes dialog will appear. This allows selecting a line style (dashed or
solid), a width (in pixels) and a color. The color can also be changed by clicking on the combo box arrow
the button.
next to
Font
If the entity to be displayed is a text string, such as the node id, the button displays a sample string ("AaBb") drawn in
the color and font that will be used to display the string. To change the font, click on the button and the Font dialog
will appear. The color can be changed by clicking on the combo box arrow
next to the button.
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Color
If the entity has only a color associated with it, the button displays a square, drawn in the color that will be used to
display that entity. To change the color, click on the button, and the Color dialog will appear. The color can also be
changed by clicking on the combo box arrow
next to the button.
Options
Other specific display attributes can be accessed through the Options buttons. The options available will vary based
on the current model and includes attributes such as boundary conditions assigned to nodes or nodestrings.
Related Topics

Display Menu
Color Options
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The Color Options dialog lets determining how the contours and vectors will be colored. The Color Options dialog is
opened from the Data menu , or from the Color Ramp... button on the Contours and Vectors tabs of the Display
Options dialog.
The default color method is the Solid color option. This method uses a single color for all contours. As an alternative,
it's possible to define a ramp of colors. These colors are distributed across the range of contour values in a continuous
fashion, giving each contour its own color. If specific contour values are specified, control whether the colors are
distributed by index or by value in the upper right portion of the dialog. The following types of color ramps are
supported by SMS:

Solid color – A single color is used for all values.

Intensity ramp – The color ramp is defined as a continuous variation of the intensity of the default solid color.
This is the same color used for the Solid color option.

Hue ramp – The ramp is a continuous variation of hues using the hue-saturation-value color model.
 User Defined Palettes – User defined color ramp.
If using an intensity ramp or hue ramp, the ramp can be edited to include only a portion of the entire ramp, or
converted to a User Defined Palettes for further editing. Modify the portion of the ramp to be used by setting the
minimum and maximum values for hue or intensity with the scroll bars in the Color Options dialog. These controls
specify where the minimum value will be mapped into the ramp and where the maximum value will be mapped. The
Reverse button changes the direction of the color gradation in the color ramp.
User Defined Palettes
It is possible to define and edit a color palette for use with contours. In the Display Options dialog, on the Contours
tab, pressing the Color Ramp button opens the Color Options dialog. Inside the Color Options dialog, selecting the
User Defined option enables the following options:
User Defined Palettes Frame

New Palette – Create a new color palette. This opens the New Palette dialog, which is used to define a color
ramp palette. Select a preset palette and the initial number of colors in the palette. The palette can be fine tuned
once it is created in the Color Options dialog.

Delete Palette – Delete the selected palette.

Load Palettes – Load palettes from an SMS defined palette file .

Save Palettes – Save all of the user created palettes to a file using the format shown above.
Current Palette Frame
The color pallet selected in the User Defined Palettes frame is displayed. Select, edit, and drag colors in the
using the following tools:

Create a breakpoint tool


Mouse left-click – Creates new breakpoints
Select an individual breakpoint tool

Mouse left-click and drag – Changes the value associated with a breakpoint

Mouse left double-click – Opens the Color dialog to change the color associated with a breakpoint

Mouse left-click, then DELETE key – Delete the selected breakpoint

Value edit field – Change the value of a selected color. Changing a value will move the color inside the color
palette window.

Edit Table – This button opens the Color Table dialog. Values and colors associated with each breakline can be
viewed and edited. This dialog is useful for creating a palette with a logarithmic scale. It may be difficult to
select colors very close to one another at the lower end of a log scale using the mouse left-click button, but the
values can easily be specified in this dialog.
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
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Display Value As – Show the value of each color as:

Percentages (0.0-1.0) – A percentage across the palette, with 0.0 being to the left of the palette and 1.0 at
the right edge of the palette.

Numerical Values – The actual value of each color. Each color will represent a value such as elevation.
New Palette
The New Palette dialog is used to create a new user defined palette. The following palette options can be set:

Initial Color Ramp Type :

Solid Color

Intensity Ramp

Hue Ramp

Elevation

Ocean

Magnitude Difference

Color – Only available for Solid Color and Intensity Ramp

Number of Colors – Only available for Solid Color , Intensity Ramp , and Hue Ramp
 Palette name – Allows giving the palette a unique name.
Once the general options have been set in the New Palette dialog, the palette can be fine tuned using the tools in the
Color Options dialog.
Related Topics

Contour Options

Contour Labels

Display Options

Vector Visualization
Functional Surfaces
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At a glance

Surface with elevation based upon scalar dataset values

Very useful for wave models and models with large change in water surface elevation

Elevations can be exaggerated to better visualize dataset variations

Surfaces can have a solid color or use color filled contours
 Transparency can be used to allow see through surfaces
A functional surface is exactly that. It is a surface representing one of the functional datasets associated with a mesh,
grid or TIN. The most intuitive example of a functional surface is the display of the water surface over a model's
bathymetry. In this case, the surface represents an actual physical surface, but the functional surface could just as
easily represent the velocity magnitude, or concentration, or any other scalar quantity.
To create/display functional surfaces, enable them in the display options of the appropriate module, and specify their
attributes which include:

Dataset – Selects which dataset is to be used to form the functional surface.

Use active dataset

User defined dataset

Z Offset – SMS displays functional surfaces at a simulated z-value. This may be the actual surface value (such
as is the case with water surfaces elevations), but more often the value will not have a physical meaning, and
may intersect the bathymetry or not even be in the same area. For this reason, SMS offers options for placing
the functional surface at its real values, relative to the bathymetry, or at a user specified offset.

Z Magnification – Functional data may not vary significantly when compared to the horizontal extents of the
model. For this reason, the interface allows magnification (scaling) of the functional surface. By default, the
surface is scaled based on the global z-magnification specified in the general display options. This may be
overridden.


Override global value

Magnification value
Display Attributes – Controls the color of the functional surface. It may be a constant color or colored based on
the contour colors specified. The colors may be associated with the value of the functional surface, or another
dataset. The surface may also be partially transparent.

Use solid color

Transparency
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
Contour surface

Specify separate dataset for contours
Page 163
Related Topics

Cartesian Grid Display Options

Mesh Display Options
Lighting Options
This dialog allows controlling the shading of faces in the SMS display. By default, all objects are displayed in the
color specified by their attributes. However, objects such as elements, cells and triangles which cover an area, can be
more intuitively understood if they are shaded as a three dimensional entity. The shading options includes two toggles,
one slide bar and a light position window.
The lighting options are accessed by clicking on the Lighting Options
macro or Lighting tab in the Display
Options dialog. The default options vary between applications, and the options may be changed, saved, and restored
within the project.
Toggles
The first toggle allows turning on the use of a light source. When this toggle is selected, the second toggle becomes
available. The second toggle tells SMS to smooth corners between adjacent faces. This allows the faceted surface to
appear as a smooth surface.
Slider
The slide bar allows specifying the amount of ambient light. Ambient light is the minimum intensity (brightness) to be
displayed. A recommended value is between 0.2 and 0.4.
Light Position
The right side of the dialog allows setting the light direction and gives a preview of that direction displayed on a
sphere.
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The following table describes the lighting display options.
Display Option
Description
Enable lights
This check box controls whether light sources are used in the lighting process for
generating lighted images. These light sources control the intensity of the colors on the
lighted image and highlight the relief or geometrical variation in the surface of the objects
being lighted.
Lighting list box
This list contains preset lighting schemes and highlights the scheme currently displayed.
Renaming a scheme
Double click on a scheme to begin editing its name.
Deleting a scheme
Right click on a scheme and select Delete. The final scheme cannot be deleted.
Creating a scheme
Right click on a scheme and select duplicate.
Plan view preview
This preview shows the current light scheme on a sphere in plan view, i.e., looking along
the z-axis. Click or drag within the preview to direct both the diffuse and the specular
components of the light currently selected in the light table. The selected light direction is
shown by a dot on the sphere. A direction from in front of the sphere is shown by a green
dot, and from in back by a red dot.
Smooth edges
Check this box to smooth all diffuse and specular lights of this scheme so that the surface
does not appear faceted.
Shiny
Increase this value to sharpen all specular highlights of this scheme. At 100% this value
turns off the specular highlight since it assumes that all specular lights are points whose
reflection shrinks to a imperceptible point at maximum shinyness. At 0% this value
assumes that the full intensity of the light is reflected in all directions (decrease the
specular values proportionally to get a realistic effect of less and less light reflecting to the
eye from each surface).
Ambient slider
Shows the Ambient value of the light currently selected in the table, and can change the
value. The ambient value is light from all directions which lights each and all surfaces
uniformly leaving no surface unlighted. It is most useful on surfaces facing away from
directional light such as diffuse and specular light.
Diffuse slider
Shows the Diffuse value of the light currently selected in the table, and can change the
value. The diffuse value is for a point light which brightens surfaces in all directions the
more they face the that light, and which leaves surfaces in darkness that face away from
the light.
Specular slider
Shows the Specular value of the light currently selected in the table, and can change the
value. The specular value is a point light which brightens surfaces if they reflect like a
mirror from the direction of the light to the direction of the viewer, and which leaves
surfaces in darkness that do not have this angle of reflection.
Light table
Displays the enable, xyz position, Ambient, Diffuse, and Specular values for each of 8
lights in the current scheme, and highlights the currently selected light. Any of these
values may be modified by clicking them and editing their value.
Enable column
Check these boxes to turn on each light.
X, Y, and Z columns
Edit these values or click/drag in the plan view preview sphere to change the direction of
the light. These values are will be normalized to a unit direction vector.
Ambient, Diffuse, and
Specular columns
Edit these values or drag their corresponding slider.
SMS 12.2
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Raster Options
XMS software provides a number of options for importing and displaying raster data.
Importing Rasters
Import a raster file by selecting Open in the File menu. Select the proper raster file as shown in the following table.
Select Open . At the popup Load it as... , select DEM.
Format
File to Open Source
Importance Level of Support
ArcInfo Binary Grid w001001.adf ESRI
1
Supported in GMS and in SMS
ArcInfo Ascii Grid *.asc
ESRI
2
Supported in GMS and in SMS
USGS DEM Grid
Float
*.flt
http://seamless.usgs.gov||2||Supported in
GMS and in SMS
USGS NED Grid
Float
*.flt
http://seamless.usgs.gov||2||Supported in
GMS and in SMS
Canadian DEM
*.dem
http://www.geobase.ca||3||Supported in
GMS and supported in SMS
DTED
*.dt0
ERDC
3
Supported in GMS and
supported in SMS
Aster DEM
*.tif
http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdemwist.asp||4||Supported in GMS and
supported in SMS as images
SDTS
*.ddf
http://data.geocomm.com/dem/demdown
load.html||5||Supported in GMS and
supported in SMS
How to export TINs in ADF format from ArcGIS in a format that XMS will
read
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
Load the TIN into ArcMap
Expand the 3D Analyst Tools | Conversion Tools | From TIN toolset in ArcToolbox
Double-click the TIN to Raster tool in ArcToolbox (specify your current TIN file in the Input TIN field). Make
a note of the path in the Output Raster field.
Expand the Conversion Tools | From Raster toolset in ArcToolbox
Double-click the Raster to ASCII tool in ArcToolbox (specify the raster file that you created in the previous
step as the input raster, and make a note of the path for the output file)
Open Windows Explorer (My Computer) and browse to the location of the ASCII *.txt file output in step 5
Make a copy of the *.txt file created in step 5
Change the extension of the *.txt file to *.dem
Open the *.dem file in WMS
Displaying Rasters
The raster display options are accessed by clicking on the Raster Options item or tab in the Display Options dialog.
The default options vary between applications, and the options may be changed, saved, and restored within the
project.
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The following table describes the raster display options.
Display Option
Description
Image Display
Select the Display as raster radio button to display the raster as a flat image rather than as a surface
with elevation changes. Contour options are applied to form the image with block color fill.
Image Elevation
The raster image is drawn at an elevation of 0.0 by default. Change the Elevation: value to draw it
at a different elevation.
Surface Display
Select the Display as surface radio button to display the raster as a height varying surface rather
than as a flat image. Enable either Contours, Edges, or Boundary to see that type of surface or
nothing will be shown.
Surface Contour
Select the Contours check box to apply contour options to the surface with contour lines and/or
smooth color fill.
Surface Edges
Select the Edges check box to display the polygonal edges between height samples in the surface.
The control to the left sets line color and either enables line dashes or species line width for the
edges. This is typically the slowest surface to render.
Surface Boundary
Select the Boundary check box to display only those polygonal edges between height samples on
the perimeter of the surface. The control to the left sets line color and either enables line dashes or
species line width for the boundary. This is typically the fastest surface to render.
Back to XMS
General Display Options
The General Display options control display of general graphical control. It includes three tabs including:
SMS 12.2
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General Tab

Drawing Options:

Z magnification – Exaggerates the z scale so that the variation in the z value is more apparent.

Background color – Set the background color of the Graphics Window.

Erase behind labels

Triad – SMS can display a coordinate triad at the lower left of the screen to display the orientation of the data in
the display window. The size and color of this triad can be specified.

Texture mapping: Currently SMS supports images displayed in the background and texture maps draped over
TINS, grids, and meshes.

Drawing Grid: SMS can display a grid (in plan view) behind all data on the graphics window.

Grid Spacing: Specifies the increment between grid points. Remember that the grid can be used for both
snapping and display, and not all grid lines need to be displayed.

Snap to Grid: If this toggle is on, newly created points, nodes and vertices are moved to the nearest point
on the grid.

Display grid lines every spaces: Specifies how many grid lines to between displayed grid lines. The line
style is also selected.

Display grid points every spaces: Enables the display of a point at selected intervals along with the
symbol attributes for the points.
Lighting Tab
The Lighting tab accesses the Lighting Options in SMS.
View Tab
The View tab in the general display options allows editing the current view parameters. This includes the specification
of the type of view (plan or 3D) and the range of the data that is displayed on the screen.
The view parameters can be set in two ways: View bounds or View angle .
View bounds is used for 2D viewing. The minimum and maximum X (left/right) and Y (top/bottom) dimensions for
the display in the graphics window can be set. The dimension that can be set depends on which of the following
options are set:
SMS 12.2

Specify width with height dependent on aspect ratio

Specify height with width dependent on aspect ratio
Page 168
 Specify width and height bounds
View angle is used for 3D viewing. It allows setting the following options:

Bearing

Dip

Looking at point – This section allows defining a point for the center of the display. Set the X , Y , and Z values
for this point.

Define view bounds size – This section allows defining the viewing bounds of the display. Set the Width and
Height of the boundary area.
Related Topics

Display Options
Z Magnification
Occasionally an object may be very long and wide with respect to its overall depth (z dimension). In such cases, it is
possible to exaggerate the z scale so that the variation in the z value is more apparent by changing the magnification
factor from the default value of 1.0. Z Magnification options can be found in the General Tab under General Display
Options .
Justification for Z magnification
In most situations simulated in SMS, the data range in the horizontal direction is not similar to the data range in the
vertical direction. For example, when simulating a river reach, the river may cover miles (or kilometers) along the
length of the river, but in the z-direction, the change in elevation will only be in the tens to hundreds of feet (meters).
In an opposite situation, when working with a coastal circulation model in geographic coordinates, the horizontal
variation of the data may only be a few degrees, while the vertical change in depth can be thousands of meters. When
displaying data in plan view, this inconsistency of data ranges does not cause a problem. However, when attempting
to view data in an oblique view (from an angle in three dimensions), the first case of a long river ends up looking like
a flat plane while the second case is just a mass of vertical bumps.
To allow for intuitive display of the data in three dimensions SMS allows the specification of a Z magnification term.
This scale factor exaggerates or reduces the relief of the data in the simulation.
Auto Z magnification
SMS also includes the option to compute a Z magnification term automatically. This option is turned on by default.
This means that every time SMS frames the data in a display, the Z magnification term is computed to ensure that the
scaled span of the vertical data is just under 10% of the horizontal data. This prevents the data from becoming too flat
(unless it is totally flat) and prevents the relief from becoming to drastic or dramatic.
Since the Z magnification value is computed when SMS frames the data, modifications to the data that change the Z
range are not incorporated into the magnification value until a frame command is encountered. This may result in
difficulties rotating a scene in three dimensions. Operations like generating new elevation data for a mesh by
interpolation from a raster or scatter set may cause this to occur.
Disable the auto Z magnification feature by unchecking the toggle next to the Auto z-mag . When the toggle is
unchecked, an edit field appears which allows specifying a Z magnification value. The value is set to the previously
computed auto Z magnification.
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Contour Options
At a glance

Visualize scalar datasets

Linear, color filled or both at the same time

Variable level of transparency

Full control of ranges and colors
 Precision control for labels and legends
SMS can generate contours from a scalar dataset . Contour display is enabled using in the Display Options dialog.
Unique contour display options can be set for each module that uses scalar datasets. Contour options can also be set
for an individual dataset.
The module contour options can be edited by:

The menu command Data | Contour Options . The data menu is available in most modules. See Module
Specific Menus for more information.

Opening the Display Options dialog
 The Contour Options Macro
The dataset specific contour options for an individual dataset can be edited by:

Right-click on the dataset in the Project Explorer and choose Dataset Contour Options . This will open a
dialog where dataset specific contour options can be defined. If wanting to go back to using the module contour
options, right-click on the dataset in the Project Explorer and choose Clear Dataset Contour Options.
Data Range
The name, minimum value, and maximum value for the active time step of the dataset are shown. These values are
sometimes useful when choosing an appropriate contour interval.
A minimum and maximum contour value can be specified, restricting the contours interval which will be shown. If
the range is not specified, SMS will automatically choose a range based on the minimum and maximum value for the
active time step.
Data Range Options
The Data menu in some modules and models include commands to populate the contour range from either the visible
or selected nodes/vertices. These commands are:

Set Contour Min/Max – Sets the contour options based on the current options and the selected nodes/vertices
or zoom level.

Contour Range Options – Controls if the Set Contour Min/Max command applies to dataset specific contour
options or the general contour options (for the mesh or scatter modules). It also sets the flags for precision and
fill above and below. This command brings up the Data Range Options dialog.
SMS 12.2
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Data Range Options Dialog
This dialog has the following options:

Specify precision

Data range applies to dataset only

Fill above

Fill below
Contour Interval
The contour interval is user controlled. Options include:

Number of Contours – Specify the number of contours to use. SMS will automatically determine the value for
each interval based on the specified range or dataset range.

Specified Interval – Specify the interval to use for contours. SMS will automatically determine the number of
contours needed based on the specified range or dataset range.
 Specified Values – Specify the number of contours to use and interval.
The items in the upper right section of the Contour Options dialog control the display of a contour legend and the
option to accentuate some of the contours. If the Show Color Legend option is selected, and the contours are not being
displayed as a single color, a legend of colors and corresponding data set values is displayed in a corner of Graphics
Window . For color filled contours, this legend is a vertical strip of colors with text labels for the contour levels. If the
contours are being displayed as linear segments or cubic splines, the legend is displayed as a series of contour level
values and a line drawn in the color corresponding to that level. The size, location, label and font for the legend are set
using the Legend Options dialog. If entering the title "DS" for the legend title, the name of the current dataset is used.
If "DS:TS" is entered, the current dataset and time step are used as the title.
The options in the middle of the right side of the dialog control how the contours are computed and displayed. Three
contouring methods are available:

The default method is Normal Linear Contours and causes the contours to be displayed as piece-wise linear
strings.

If using the Color fill between contours method, the same linear contour strings are computed, but the regions
between adjacent contour lines is filled with a solid color.

If using the Cubic Spline Contours method, the contours are computed in strings and drawn as cubic splines.
Drawing the contours as splines can cause the contours to appear smoother. Occasionally, loops appear in the
splines or the splines cross neighboring contour splines. These problems can sometimes be fixed by adding
tension to the splines. A tension factor greater than zero causes the cubic spline to be blended with or converge
to a linear spline based on the same set of points. A tension factor of unity causes the cubic spline to coincide
with the linear spline.
In the lower right corner of the Contour Options dialog, two buttons specify the contour colors and the contour
labeling options.
Contour Labels
The Contour Label Opts command in the Data menu is used to access the Contour Labels Options dialog which can
be used to set the label color, font, spacing, size, etc. The dialog may also be invoked through the Contour Options
dialog.
Labels can be added to contours one of two ways:
1) The upper left portion of the Contour Label Options dialog controls the generation of automatically spaced
contour labels. The generation of automatic contour labels can be toggled on or off. If the toggle is on, specify
which contours should be labeled and the distance along the contour between labels.
SMS 12.2
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2)
In some modules, contour or function labels can be added manually to an image by selecting the Contour
Labels tool in the Tool Palette and clicking on the mesh or grid where a label is desired. If the Place on
contours option in the upper right portion of the Contour Label Options dialog is selected, the label is moved to
the closest contour and the contour is labeled there. If the Place under cursor option is selected, the label shows
the value of the point at the click location and is placed there. This option is useful to post data set value labels
in regions where there are no contours. Contour labels can be deleted by holding down the SHIFT key while
clicking on a label.
The bottom portion of the Contour Label Options dialog control how the labels appear. On the left side, enter how
many digits of accuracy are desired. The default will match the contour legend. On the right side, select a color and
font for the label. For labels on contours, also specify if the contour are to be oriented to lie along the contour.
Contour Legend Options
The Contour Legend Options controls the formatting and location of a displayed legend. If a contour dataset exists
and is displayed, the legend will be shown if the Legend check box on the Contour Display Options dialog is checked.
This window is accessed only from the Legend Options button on the Contour Display Options page of the Display
Options dialog.
The Formatting section includes fields for the Title and Units displayed with the legend, a Font selection button for
text style, and Height and Width fields for legend size.
Since contour datasets can be displayed for multiple modules at the same time and, therefore, multiple contour
legends can be displayed, the Title field can include keywords for convenient labeling. The following title keywords
are case sensitive:

"MODULE" – will be replaced with the title of the contour dataset's module

"DS" – will be replaced with the name of the currently selected contour dataset

"DS:TS" – will be replaced with the name of the currently selected contour dataset followed by the current time
step
A title of "MODULE DS:TS" is best since it will automatically update as contour dataset selection changes.
The Units field includes the single case sensitive keyword of "DEFAULT", which will be replaced with the velocity
units of meters per second (m/s) or feet per sceond (ft/s) based on the current coordinate system's horizontal units.
The Location section includes a combo box for specifying the location of the displayed legend. The locations include:

Top left corner

Bottom left corner

Top right corner

Bottom right corner

Screen location – specify the location based on screen precentages

World location – specify the coordinate location
Related Topics

Color Ramps

Display Options
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Vector Display Options
At a glance

Visualize vector datasets as arrows

Constant size or vary by magnitude

Show just a range of magnitudes
 Color by magnitude
SMS can generate contours from a vector dataset . Vector display is enabled using in the Display Options dialog.
Unique vector display options can be set for each module that uses vector datasets.
The options used to generate vectors can be edited by:

The menu command Data | Vector Options . The Data menu is available in most modules. See Module
Specific Menus for more information.

Opening the Display Options dialog.

The Vector Options
macro .
Vector Display Placement and Filter
Display
The Vector Display Placement and Filter section controls the density of arrow to be displayed. In a very dense mesh,
a large number of data points may be displayed very close together on the screen. Therefore, if a vector is displayed at
every point, the picture can become a jumble of vectors on top of each other. One way to avoid this is to zoom in on a
specific portion of the mesh, so the nodes are not displayed so close together. However, if the desired region of the
mesh is still too dense, or zooming in is not acceptable, filter the displayed vectors. SMS provides the following
display locations for filtering vectors:

At each node – Display vectors at each node (data location)

At corner nodes only – Display vectors at corner nodes only (useful for quadratic elements)

On a grid – Display vectors on a grid (uniform grid overlaying the mesh or grid geometry). The x and y spacing
of the grid are specified in pixels, so regardless of the zoom level the grid remains constant.

On a coverage – Display vectors on the vertices of feature arcs in the specified coverage (active or specified).
Origin
This combo box allows displaying arrows at a constant elevation. It has the following options:

Relative to bed

Relative to max elevation
SMS 12.2

Page 173
Absolute elevation
Offset
To ensure that the vectors are visible, the Z-offset can be specified to display the vectors a distance above the
geometry. The vectors can be filtered further by displaying only a range of magnitudes instead of all vectors.
Arrow Location
Vector arrows can be displayed with the following placement options:

Tip – Display vectors with the vector arrow tip at the data location.

Tail – Display vectors with the vector arrow tail at the data location.

Center – Display vectors with the vector arrow shaft centered over the data location.
Arrow Options
The Arrow Options section specifies how the arrows will appear in the graphics window. Arrow shaft length can be a
constant length, a scaled length, or a range of lengths. The line width of the arrow can also be adjusted. Arrows may
be a constant color, or shaded according to magnitude. If a ramp of colors is desired, the color of the vector is
extracted from a ramp. By default, the arrow with the smallest magnitude is displayed in the color at the bottom end of
the ramp, and the arrow with the largest magnitude is displayed in the color at the top of the ramp. Intermediate
magnitudes are interpolated to select an appropriate intermediate color. Alternately, define the magnitudes that map to
the top and bottom of the ramp. If this option is used, any arrow with a magnitude lower than the minimum is
displayed in the color at the bottom of the ramp, and any arrow with a magnitude greater than the maximum is
displayed with the color at the top of the ramp. It's also possible to specify the shape of the arrow head with absolute
head length and width values or values proportional arrow length. The style of arrow head is based on the selection of
the solid, hollow, and line head types. A preview of the arrows (fixed, or maximum and minimum) based on the
selected options are displayed in this section of the dialog.
Legend
The Vector Options also includes a toggle for the display of the vector legend. The vector legend displays the
significance of the size of the vectors displayed on the grid. Selecting the legend Options button opens the Vector
Legend Options window.
Vector Legend Options
The Vector Legend Options controls the formatting and location of a displayed legend. If a vector dataset exists and is
displayed, the legend will be shown if the Legend check box on the Vector Display Options dialog is checked. This
window is accessed only from the Legend Options button on the Vector Display Options page of the Display Options
dialog.
The Formatting section includes fields for the Title and Units displayed with the legend, a Font selection button for
text style, and Height and Width fields for legend size.
Since vector datasets can be displayed for multiple modules at the same time and, therefore, multiple vector legends
can be displayed, the Title field can include keywords for convenient labeling. The following title keywords are case
sensitive:

"MODULE" – will be replaced with the title of the vector dataset's module

"DS" – will be replaced with the name of the currently selected vector dataset

"DS:TS" – will be replaced with the name of the currently selected vector dataset followed by the current time
step
A title of "MODULE DS:TS" is best since it will automatically update as vector dataset selection changes.
The Units field includes the single case sensitive keyword of "DEFAULT", which will be replaced with the velocity
units of meters per second (m/s) or feet per sceond (ft/s) based on the current coordinate system's horizontal units.
SMS 12.2
Page 174
The Location section includes a combo box for specifying the location of the displayed legend. The locations include:

Top left corner

Bottom left corner

Top right corner

Bottom right corner

Screen location – specify the location based on screen precentages

World location – specify the coordinate location
Related Topics

Contour Options

Color Ramps

Display Options

Visualization
Visualization for 3D Solutions
3D solutions can be viewed on a 3D mesh (VTK mesh module). A 3D solution includes data at multiple z layers and
becomes a volume. This is not to be confused with displaying 2D results that represent a surface with 3D coordinates.
A 2D solution represents depth averaged values and cannot represent a changing solution in the z direction.
3D Fence Diagram
A 3D fence diagram displays solution data on user specified vertical planes. Fences can be useful to illustrate how a
3D solution varies with depth. Multiple fences can be displayed at the same time to help visualization the solution.
3D fence diagrams allow viewing a cross section of a 3D solution.
Displaying 3D fences requires:

A 3D mesh with solution datasets.

A coverage of any type that has one or more feature arcs without any vertices. This defines where the fences
will be located. The arcs cannot have vertices since only planar surfaces can be represented.
3D fences can be turned on in the Display Options dialog. The coverage used for the fence definitions is specified in
the Display Options dialog. The fences will use the current contour settings and are always represented with color
filled contours.
Remember to rotate out of plan view to see the fence.
Isosurfaces
Isosurfaces can be used to display 3D solutions. The display options for isosurfaces are set using the Contour Options
in the Display Options dialog.
2.6. File Import Wizards
File Import Wizard
SMS can import many files generated by other software in their native format. Refer to Importing Non-native SMS
Files for a list. For files that are not included in the list, SMS provides the Text Import Wizard .
The Text Import Wizard enables importing many different types of data into SMS. The Text Import Wizard is
initialized by selecting a *.txt file in the Open command from the File menu. The wizard has two steps:
SMS 12.2
Page 175
Step 1 – Delimiting Columns
The first step in the wizard delimits the data into columns. The following options exist to delimit the data:

Delimited – For the Delimited option, typical delimiters are included as well as an option to specify a delimiter.

Fixed Width – Columns can be specified with a fixed width by clicking on the ruler bar or the window with the
data. Break lines can be dragged, and they can be deleted by double-clicking on the break line or dragging them
off the screen.
Specify the starting row the data will be imported at. If the data has a row of headings, indicate such and SMS will use
the headings in the next step to determine what kind of data each column represents.
Step 2 – Assigning Column Types
The first 20 lines of the file are displayed in a spreadsheet according to the file outline specified in step 1. This step
decides what kind of data to be imported (see Supported File Formats ). A "no data flag" can be specified for the file.
This is a number that, when encountered in the file, tells SMS to mark the value as "NULL" or "no data". For
example, a water surface elevation dataset would assign a no data flag to dry nodes.
The data in the columns are identified by selecting the type in the combo box at the top of each column in the
spreadsheet. If a row of headings exists, SMS will automatically select the proper type if it recognizes the heading.
Otherwise they are Not Mapped by default. The available column types changes depending on the SMS data type
selected. Certain column types must be mapped for each file format before progressing to the next step in the wizard.
The name of each column is changed by editing the Header cell.
Mapping Options
When reading in a scatter set or mesh data, the following mapping options are available:

Triangulate data – Triangulates the scatter vertices / mesh nodes

Merge duplicate – Merges duplicate scatter vertices / mesh nodes based on the specified tolerance

Delete long triangles – Deletes scatter triangles with an edge length longer than the specified edge length

Append mesh – Appends the mesh nodes to the existing mesh
Filter Options
When importing a scatter set , pressing the Filter Options button will open the File Import Filter Options dialog. The
filter options are useful when reading scatter sets that are too large for SMS to successfully read in. Once the scatter
set has been read into SMS, the more sophisticated normals filtering algorithm can be used.
Additional Options
After the data have been imported, the coordinate transformation tools can be used to transform and translate the data.
Related Topics

File Formats
File Import Filter Options
When importing a scatter set using the File Import Wizard , pressing the Filter Options button will open the File
Import Filter Options dialog. The filter options are useful when reading scatter sets that are too large for SMS to
successfully read in. Once the scatter set has been read into SMS, the more sophisticated normals filtering algorithm
can be used.
Filter Options
The following filter options are available:
SMS 12.2

Page 176
nth Point – Simple method to reduce the scatter set size by reading a reduced number of vertices from the file.
Reading every 2nd point will result in a 50% reduction in vertices, every 4th point will result in a 75%
reduction, etc.


Import every____th point – Sets the nth point filter option.
Area – Only reads points falling within the specified x, y boundary. Useful for filtering data outside of the area
of interest.


Xmin – Sets the minimum x boundary

Xmax – Sets the maximum x boundary

Ymin – Sets the minimum y boundary

Ymax – Sets the maximum y boundary
Grid – Scatter vertices are created on a user defined grid. Each vertex has a "bucket" around it. The z-value is
assigned to the vertex based on the average value of the vertices in the "bucket."

Delta X

Delta y

# Columns

# Rows
Related Topics

File Import Wizard

Normals Filtering
File Import Wizard Supported File Formats
The following types of data can be imported into SMS via the File Import Wizard .

2D Scatter Set Vertices

2D Mesh Nodes

Feature Points

Observation Data
 Wind, Wave, Water level
A description of the fields (columns) that SMS recognizes when importing text files is provided in the tables below.
2D Scatter Vertices
Field
Type
Required
Comments
X
Number
yes
X-location
Y
Number
yes
Y-location
Pt Name
Text
no
Vector X
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Vector Y Field
Vector Y
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Vector X Field
Vector Magnitude
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Vector Direction Field
SMS 12.2
Vector Direction
Number
no
Scalar Data
Number
no
Breakline
Text or
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Vector Magnitude Field
See Scatter Breakline Options for a discussion of Breakline
Delimeters
EXAMPLE
"id"
"x"
"y"
"xylene" "toluene 0.0" "toluene 2.0"
"OW-21"
32.4
5234.3
300
999
999
"0W-22"
93.4
5832.3
84
398
401
"0W-23"
83.3
8438.2
89
47
52
2D Mesh Nodes
Field
Type
Required
Comments
X
Number
yes
X-location
Y
Number
yes
Y-location
Z
Number
yes
Z-location
EXAMPLE
"x"
"y"
"z"
32.4
5234.3
12.34
93.4
5832.3
13.47
83.3
8438.2
21.54
Feature Points
Field
Type
Required
Comments
Name
Text
no
X
Number
yes
X-location
Y
Number
yes
Y-location
Z
Number
yes
Z-location
EXAMPLE
"name"
"x"
"y"
"z"
"Pt. 1"
32.4
5234.3
12.34
"Pt. 2"
93.4
5832.3
13.47
"Pt. 3"
83.3
8438.2
21.54
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SMS 12.2
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Observation Points
Field
Type
Required
Point Name
Text
no
X
Number
yes
Y
Number
yes
Z
Number
no
Measurement
Text
no
Interval
Number
no
Comments
Measurement name. Multiple measurements allowed.
EXAMPLE
"name"
"x"
"y"
"z"
"hd"
"int"
"OBS_Q5"
23.3
44.2
32.2
567.5
1.2
"OBS_Q6"
83.3
84.3
32.2
555.3
1.4
"OBS_Q7"
85.3
39.3
33.2
999
0
PTM Trap Output Data
Field
Type
Required Comments
Step
Number
no
Time step index of an entry event for a trap
Date
####/##/##
yes
Date of an entry event - must have a year, month and day
Time
##:##:##.####
yes
This column must have hour, minute and second of the entry
event
Particle
Number
no
This column could be used to reference other PTM output files.
Not used in import wizard
Trap
Number
yes
Defines which trap this parcel entered
Value column
Number
no
This is an optional column. There may be more than one.
Filter column
Number
no
This is an optional column. There may be more than one.
See PTM Trap Output for more information on reading PTM trap output files.
Wind, Wave, Water level
Field
Type
Required Comments
Date/Time
Number/Number
yes
Date
Number
yes
Time
Number
yes
Primary Height
Number
yes
Used in conjunction with Primary Period & Direction Field
Primary Period
Number
yes
Used in conjunction with Primary Height & Direction Field
SMS 12.2
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Primary Direction
Number
yes
Used in conjunction with Primary Height & Period Field
Secondary Height
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Secondary Period & Direction Field
Secondary Period
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Secondary Height & Direction Field
Secondary Direction
Number
no
Used in conjunction with Secondary Height & Period Field
Related Topics

File Import Wizard
2.7. Export Options
Export Tabular File
SMS can export much of the data managed and displayed in the system to a tabular data format. This type of file is
sometimes referred to as a CSV (Comma Separated Values) file. In actuality, the delimiter may be commas, spaces,
tabs, or other typical white space characters.
The data to be exported depends on the active module when the command is issued. For example, when the Mesh
module is active, mesh nodes will be saved and when the Scatter module is active, scatter vertices will be saved.
Supply the file name to contain the data.
If data points are selected when the command is issued, the option is given to output all data points of the defined
type, or only the selected points. A default header is provided which defines the number of data points represented.
Select the number of columns and number of digits of precision to save each value. For each column, select the data to
be stored in that column. This can include the x location , the y location or any dataset currently loaded into SMS for
that data type. Transient datasets may be saved in a range of columns.
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Export Tabular File Dialog
This dialog appears after selecting the "Tabular Data File" option in the Save As dialog then clicking on Save . The
dialog has many options for formatting tabular data being saved.
These options include:

File Header – this field will list a default header for the file. The field can be edited to change the header name.

Number of Columns – specifies the number columns to be included in the tabular file. Changing this number
will be reflected in the field below.

Precision – indicate precision of digits to save values.

Column Headings – toggling on this options allows entering a custom heading for each column in the field
below.

Delimiter – allows specifying the delimiter used in the tabular file. Options include: "Space", "Tab", and
"Comma".

Data &ndash: this shows which scatter set is being saved. If multiple scatter sets exist in the project, all will be
listed here.

Save Meta Data File – toggling on this option allows meta data to be saved with the file.


Options – brings up the Meta File Options dialog.
Data specification field – gives an overview of what will be saved in the tabular file. A column will be shown
for each column to be saved based on the number of columns specified above. The Data button in each column
can be used to specify which scatter dataset to be included in the column. Only datasets in the active scatter set
can be selected. The discription will show which dataset has been selected for the column. If headers have been
toggled on, a field appears to get a header name for each column.
Related Topics

Tabular Data Files – SHOALS *.pts
Exporting Profile Dialog
The Exporting Profile dialog allows exporting the plot data.
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Export


Image Export – this option selects the image format the plot data will be exported as. The following image
formats are available:

EMF

WMF

BMP

JPG

PNG
Text / Data – this option will export the data as a simple text file.
Export Destination
In this section, select where SMS will send the plot data when exporting.

ClipBoard – sends the plot data to the clipboard memory of the computer.

File – Creates an ASCII text file of the data

Printer – Exports the data to an active printer
Export Size
If exporting to an image format, allows the image size and resolution to be specified. This sections contains the
following sections:

Millimeters

Inches

Points

Width

DPI

Large Font
Related Topics

Plot Window
Export Dataset Dialog
The Export Dataset dialog is used to export scalar or vector datasets. To open the Export Dataset dialog, use the
dataset right-click menu .



File Type

Binary Dataset Files (*.dat) – Benefits include fast read/write times, small file size.

ASCII Dataset Files (*.dat) – Can be imported into Microsoft Excel and viewed with standard text
editors.

XMDF Dataset Files (*.h5) – Benefits include fast read/write times, small file size, native compression.
Time Steps

Current time step – Exported dataset will only contain the current time step.

All time steps – Exported dataset will contain all time steps.
Filename – Path and filename used for exported dataset.
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Related Topics

Binary Dataset Files (*.dat)

ASCII Dataset Files (*.dat)

XMDF Files
2.8. Geometric Tools
Data Transform
At a glance

Data can be scaled, translated, rotated
 Depths/Elevations can be converted back and forth
The Transform command is used to move scatter points. A prompt will ask what will be transformed: the active set
or all sets. In the dialog that appears, the transformation type can be chosen and then appropriate parameters can be
entered. The following transformation types are available:

Scaling : Scaling factors for the X, Y, and/or Z directions are entered. To prevent scaling a specific direction,
the default value of 1.0 should be used.

Translation : Translation values for the X, Y, and/or Z directions are entered. To prevent tranlation in a specific
direction, the default value of 0.0 should be used.

Rotations : When rotation is selected, the set of options on the right side of the dialog become available to
define the center of rotation. If the Specified Point option is used, then the center of rotation is explicitly
defined. Otherwise, after clicking the OK button from the Nodes Transform dialog, it's necessary to click in the
graphics window at the point or on the node about which the rotation should occur. The rotation will occur
counter-clockwise by the specified angle around the specified center of rotation.
 Datum Conversions : Convert between elevation and depth data.
By default, the image will be framed after the transformation takes place. However, this can be turned off by using the
Frame Image After Transformation option.
The Transform Feature Objects dialog can be reached either through the Feature Objects menu or through the rightclick menu of the selected feature object.
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Related Topics

Scatter Data Menu

Map Feature Objects Menu
Zonal Classification
At a glance

Generate a map coverage identifying areas that meet specific requirements

Requirements can be based upon dataset values such as less than a specific value or based upon materials in an
area property coverage
Zonal classification is a tool that will identify areas that meet a set of criteria. The criteria can be based upon scalar
dataset values and/or specific material ids in a coverage.
The tool is accessed through the Zonal Classification command in the Data menu.
A zone may contain one or more criteria. A zone may identify areas that have a range of depths and also a range of
velocities. Multiple zones can be evaluated at the same time. If using multiple zones, it is possible to have SMS create
a separate coverage for each zone, a coverage that includes all the zones where each polygon's material identifies the
zone or zones the polygon is valid for, or both a coverage for each zone and a merged coverage.
Zones and criteria associated with them can be saved and loaded from within SMS. This makes it easier to evaluate
multiple scenarios using the same set of criteria.
If desired, SMS can create a log file that contains information such as the areas found in each zone.
Example
One application of zonal classification is to help quantify the amount and quality of fish habitat. Certain types of fish
prefer or require different depths, velocities, and substrate. These preferences depend upon the life-cycle stage for
fish.
The following demonstrates how to use zonal classification for a very simplified example to identify areas meeting a
certain set of criteria. The example is fictitious and uses made up criteria.
For the first sample criteria, identify areas that have an elevation of 5 ft or less. This is done by:
1) Creating a new zone based upon this criteria.
2) Creating a new criteria based upon a functional criteria.
SMS 12.2
3)
Page 184
Specify the elevation dataset and the criteria to be less than 5 ft.
After executing the zonal classification a new coverage was created and polygons identify the areas that meet the
requirements of the zone (in our case the elevation less than 5 ft). Assuming that our criteria identifies a target habitat,
it is easy to see the areas that meet the criteria.
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In addition to the elevation, let's assume that our target habitat also requires a specific type of substrate (bottom
sediment type). For this example there are polygons created in an area property coverage and areas identified with
different substrates (again this information is fictional).
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Another criteria has been added to the original zone so that the zone only includes areas that have clay substrate.
SMS 12.2
Now polygons only exist where the elevation is less than 5 ft and the substrate is clay.
Page 187
SMS 12.2
Page 188
References

Jones, R. D. (2003). Vector Based Classification of Zones from Distributed Datasets Or GIS Polygon Data
(Doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering).
Related Topics

Data Transform
2.9. Images
Images
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At a glance

Multiple images can be read/viewed at the same time (tiled or overlay)

Independent transparency specified for each image

Images can be loaded from web services as either static or dynamic images

Images can be draped over mesh or scatter data

Many image formats are supported including JPG, TIFF, PNG, MrSID, and ECW

Local images can be geo-referenced to view images along with other data
 Image pyramids can be created for very large images
A background image is a digital picture detailing topographic and land use attributes of an area of interest. In SMS,
these digital pictures are typically maps or aerial photos that are useful in locating and defining the boundaries of the
study area and the extents and features in the project domain. Images can be imported to SMS and displayed in the
background to aid in the placement of objects as they are being constructed or simply to enhance a plot. Images can
also be draped or "texture mapped" or draped onto a scatter dataset (TIN) or finite element mesh .
In SMS versions 11.2, the use of images and similar raster data was greatly enhanced with the addition of the Get
Online Maps... and Import from Web... commands in the Web Menu . These commands greatly simplify the
acquisition and use of image data. They do require an internet connection, and may require some time to update the
image data during display updates. For this reason, utilize the functionality to obtain image data then convert the
image to a local static image for use with a specific project.
Supported Image File Formats

Enhanced Compression Wavelet (*.ecw)

Graphics Interchange Format (*.gif)

Joint Photographic Experts Group – (*.jpg/jpeg)

Multiresolution Seamless Image Database – (*.MrSID)

Portable Network Graphic – (*.png)

Tagged Image File Format – (*.tiff)
SMS 12.2
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Importing an Image
Images can be opened in SMS using the File | Open menu command. They can also be added to a simulation by
dragging and dropping the file into SMS. The images are then added to the image folder in the Project Explorer and
displayed in the background to aid in the placement of objects as they are being constructed or simply to enhance
visualization of the project domain. All TIFF images are converted to JPEG when they are read in. Multiple images
can be imported into SMS.
Exporting Image Files
Images (or files related to images) are saved in the following ways:
Save As
The image displayed in the Graphics Window can be saved as a Bitmap Image File (*.bmp) or JPEG Image File
(*.jpg, *.jpeg) using the File | Save As menu command and specifying an image file as the save as type. The
resolution of the saved image is based on the screen resolution and scale factor specified in the Preferences dialog.
Project File
When a project file is saved any images that are part of the project are saved. The registration information is saved in
the project file to provide the coordinate system information for the image.
Copy to Clipboard
When the Edit | Copy to Clipboard menu command is selected, the image currently displayed in the Graphics
Window is copied to the clipboard. This image can then be pasted into reports or other programs by pressing CTRL +
V . The resolution of the saved image is based on the screen resolution and scale factor specified in the Preferences
dialog.
Export World File
A World File can be exported for the selected image by right-clicking on the Project Explorer and selecting the
Export World File command. A world file is a special file that contains registration data that can be used to register
images.
Geo-Referencing
A geo-referenced image includes information specifying the real world size and location of the image. The coordinate
system can be embedded in the file or given in a separate file called a world file (for example: a TIFF world file,
*.tfw). When geo-referenced image files are opened, SMS automatically registers the image to the real world
coordinate location specified. In the case where a separate world file is used, SMS will search for it and register the
image if the world file has the same filename prefix as the image file and is in the same folder.
If the image file is not geo-referenced then register the image manually. (See Registering an Image )
When the SMS project is saved, a link to the image is saved in the project file, along with the current image
registration information so that the image is re-registered to the same coordinates every time the project is opened.
The original image file and world file (if one exists) are not altered.
SMS 12.2
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Display Options
Image display options are changed in the Project Explorer . Display options include:

Visibility – The visibility of an image is turned off by toggling the check box next to the image in the Project
Explorer .

Transparency – The transparency of each image can be changed by right-clicking on the image in the Project
Explorer and selecting Transparency from the right-click menu. This brings up the Layer Transparency dialog
where a slider allows adjusting the image transparency. The amount of transparency will not be shown until the
OK button is clicked.
Image Deletion
A single image is deleted by right-clicking on the image in the Project Explorer and selecting the Remove command
or pressing the Delete key.
To delete all images, right-click on the Images folder in the Project Explorer and select Clear Images (this feature
was removed in SMS 12.0 and higher).
Dynamic Imagery
Starting with SMS version 11.2, dynamic imagery is available through SMS as long as SMS has access to the internet.
Availability and quality of the images depend on the area being modeled and the web services available for that area
and to the specific user. Many public domain web services are available in the United States and more are being made
available all the time.
See Get Online Maps and Import from Web for more information about dynamic images.
From ArcGIS
For version SMS 11.0 (32-bit only), dynamic background images can be accessed from the web only through ArcGIS
and only when there is an ArcGIS installation on the computer. In that version, use the GIS module within SMS to get
background imagery that updates on the fly from the internet. To access these images, follow the steps below.
1) Switch to the GIS module (select the globe in the bottom left of the SMS screen)
2) Select Data | Enable ArcObjects
3) Select Data | Add Data…
4) Browse to the C:\Program Files (x86)\SMS 11.0\Supporting Files\GIS Layer Files directory
5) Select the desired layer
6) Select Add
Note: This feature only applies to SMS verions 11.0 and 11.1.
SMS 12.2
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Related Topics

Get Online Maps

Import from Web

Registering an Image

Image Pyramids
Image Pyramids
The XMS packages include an option to generate multiple resolution versions of an image when it is imported. This
can improve the display quality of an image when the native resolution is much higher than the screen resolution. In
essence, if the image resolution is larger than the screen resolution, a the display of the image skips pixels so the
image appears discontinuous.
The process of generating multiple versions of the image is referred to as Image Pyramids . If the feature is invoked,
XMS will average 2x2 blocks of pixels in the image creating an approximate version of the image at half the
resolution. This process is repeated on the smaller image creating an image at one fourth the original resolution, and
so on. Up to four images are generated, based on the relative native resolution and the screen resolution. The goal is to
get an image in the pyramid that is approximately the same as screen resolution.
When displaying all or part of an image, XMS determines which of the pyramid images have a resolution that most
closely matches the current screen pixel size and uses that version of the image.
There are a few points to keep in mind when building pyramids. The initial generation of pyramid files can take
several minutes, depending on the size of the original image and the computer hardware. Building pyramids uses more
memory RAM. Building pyramids may not improve the on screen display of all images.
Once an image pyramid has been built for a particular image file, SMS will not ask again to build pyramids for that
image file unless the image is moved or altered.
When pyramids are built for an image, up to four JPEG images are saved to disk. These image files can be saved to a
temporary folder or can be saved in the same directory as the original image so that they are not regenerated each time
the image is loaded.
Image Preferences
For XMS versions released after summer 2015, the default option is to not generate image pyramids and will not even
ask whether pyramids should be generated. This was implemented because the use of large static images has been
largely replaced by dynamic images from web services, for which image pyramids do not improve quality.
If desiring to generate pyramids for a large static image, the preferences for building pyramids can be set in the
Images tab of the Preferences dialog ( Edit | Preferences ).
Related Topics

Import from Web

Registering an Image
Import from Web
SMS and WMS make use of the Import from Web feature. GMS no longer uses this feature.
Overview
The Import from Web feature connects to the internet to download free data – images, elevation data etc. If able to
connect to the internet, this is an easy and convenient way to acquire this type of data.
The data is made available for free by various entities who provide web services . Each of the XMS programs has a
number of available data types they can retrieve.
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It should be noted that the Import from Web feature links to external internet sites which can change without warning.
For example, historically the XMS programs retrieved data from the Terraserver site which was terminated. The
termination or modification of an online source may result in invalid links in the XMS program until the links can be
corrected.
The Import from Web command is accessed in a number of ways. These include:

From the "File" menu (WMS) or "Web" menu (SMS).

From the "Get Data From Map" macro (WMS only).
 From the "Get Data" tool (SMS and WMS).
In the first two options the XMS program brings up a map locator tool (Virtual Earth) that allows selecting (via pan
and zoom) an area of interest and download data for this area. (As shown below)
The "Get Data" tool is available from the data toolbar when the XMS application is using a global projection. When
this tool active in SMS or WMS, graphically select a rectangle in the graphics window and download data inside this
rectangle.
The XMS programs also have a Get Online Maps tool which can be used to get dynamic raster data, such as image or
raster elevation data. The dynamic map is updated automatically when zooming in or out in the graphics window. Any
instance of a dynamic map on the screen can be downloaded by right-clicking on the map and selecting the Export
command. This command will download the map to the computer.
Note: The Import from Web feature is no longer used for GMS as of GMS 9.0. The feature is still used in GMS 8.3
and earlier. However, since these tools used the now defunct "TerraServer" services, they are no longer referenced
here.
SMS
WMS

World Imagery More Info

NED data – USGS

World Street Maps More Info

ASTER and SRTM data – USGS & NASA

World Topo Maps More Info

NLCD and CORINE (European) Land Cover data

MapQuest OpenStreetMap Worldwide Street Maps

World Imagery More Info

OpenSTreetMap.org (Global Street Maps)

World Street Maps More Info

Other data sources (use the advanced button)

World Topo Maps More Info

USA Topo Maps More Info

MapQuest OpenStreetMap Worldwide Street Maps

USA Flood Hazard Zones

Land Use Shapefiles

STATSGO and SSURGO Soil Type Shapefiles

Harmonized World Soil Database v 1.1

Global Land Cover

Other data sources (use the advanced button)
Data Availability
Elevation (NED, ASTER, and SRTM) Data

NED data contains the best available raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii,
and territorial islands. NED data are not available for other areas.
SMS 12.2

Page 194
ASTER and SRTM data are available for most of the earth's surface. The ASTER dataset is reliable and highquality.
Imagery
Most of the imagery (World Imagery, Street Maps, Topo Maps, and OpenStreetMap.org data) are available for
anywhere on the earth. Some imagery, such as US Topo Maps, are only available for areas of the United States.
Besides downloading these images using the Import from Web command, these images can be read as online maps
that change resolution dynamically depending on the location.
Land Cover Data

The 100 m Resolution CORINE dataset (raster) is available for anywhere in Europe.

The 30 m NLCD dataset (raster) is only available for the conterminous United States.

The Land Use Shapefile dataset is available for the entire United States.

The Global Land Cover dataset is available in 2 degree by 2 degree blocks for the entire world. The following
steps were used to convert the Land Use data to a format that can be used for WMS hydrologic modeling:
Go to the European Space Agency site to download land use data .
Download the .zip file Globcover2009_V2.3_Global_.zip and unzip this file on the computer.
Open GLOBCOVER_L4_200901_200912_V2.3.tif in a GIS (such as ArcMap) and convert it to an ESRI raster
file. Trim the raster as needed, then convert the raster to a shapefile.
Convert the file Globcover2009_Legend.xls to a *.dbf file and join this file with the shapefile values to get the
land use names and IDs.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Soil Data

SSURGO soil datasets are available for all available SSURGO survey areas in the United States (as of August
2013).

A STATSGO soil dataset is available for every state in the United States.

Data from the Harmonized World Soil Database are available in 2 degree by 2 degree blocks for the entire
world. The WMS developers used the following steps to convert the soil data to a format that can be used for
WMS hydrologic modeling:
1) Download and install the Harmonized World Soil Database program to from the Harmonized World Soil
Database web site .
2) Launch the HWSD Viewer on the computer. The soil data will be copied to the folder c:\program files
(x86)\HWSD_v<xxx>\Data where <xxx> is the version of the viewer downloaded. The program may also be
installed in c:\program files\<...> if running a 32-bit version of Windows. The following files are contained in
this folder:
1) The HWSD Raster *.zip file.
2) The HWSD DBF file.
3) The HWSD_META DBF file.
3) Copy the files in the data folder to a writable location on the computer and unzip the HWSD Raster *.zip file.
4) Open the .bil file in ArcMap and convert the *.bil file to a shapefile using the IDs.
5) Join the HWSD DBF file with the IDs in the shapefile.
6) Join the attribute IDs with the HWSD_META DBF file. This gives a shapefile with the soil IDs and various soil
attributes that can be used for hydrologic modeling in WMS.
Additional Information
Note that more vector-based soil and land use datasets are available; Contact Aquaveo if interested in adding data
from a specific area to the list of available land use or soil data that can be downloaded. A comprehensive list of soil
and land use data available for download is located here .
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Terraserver images are no longer available because this web service has gone offline.
Using the Import from Web Command
When the Import from web command is invoked from a menu or macro, the virtual earth map locator is launched:

Virtual Earth Map Locator : Use the map in this dialog to go to the location of interest.

Zoom in or out using the controls or the mouse wheel.

Pan using the controls or by clicking and dragging. It's also possible to enter the latitude and longitude to
jump to a specific location.

Use the Map Options menu to turn on the floating controls in the map (search, pan and zoom).

Use the Map Style menu, or the floating controls, to change the map between Road , Aerial , and Hybrid
.
Once the region for data download is defined, a series of dialogs appear which defines the data to be downloaded.
These dialogs include:
1)
Data Service Options
Here select which type of data of interest.
2)
Save
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Next a dialog asks where to save the data. It is only necessary to specify one file name, even if having
selected more than one type of data in the previous dialog. The files will all be given the same prefix but
different suffixes.
3)
Confirm File Creation
A dialog may ask to confirm creating the files.
4)
Initialize Connection
The following dialog is shown while the connection is being made.
5)
Select Scale
Smaller numbers (larger scales) will result in better resolution, but longer download times.
6)
Downloading
This dialog reports the download progress. If Abort is clicked, the image will exist but will be only that
portion that has been downloaded so far.
Steps will repeat for each data type selected.
After everything is finished, the data (images etc.) will appear in the Project Explorer.
Registering an Image
If an image file is not geo-referenced then it's necessary to define the coordinate system of the image. The Register
Image dialog allows specifying the coordinate system for the image. When an image is opened, if the image is not
self-referenced, XMS attempts to find world file with the same name as the image (*.wld or *.jpgw extension). If
neither of these is found, the Register Image dialog opens.
What is Image Registration?
Before an image can be displayed, the image must be "registered" or geo-referenced. Registering an image involves
identifying points on the image corresponding to locations with known real world (XY) coordinates. Once these
points are identified, they are used to scale and translate the image to the proper location when it is drawn with the
other objects in the Graphics Window. If an image is not registered properly, any objects which are created using the
background image as a guide will have the wrong coordinates.
Register Image Dialog
An image is registered using the Register Image dialog. The main feature of the Register Image dialog is a large
window in which the image is displayed. Two or three points (shown by "+" symbols) are also displayed in the
window. These points are used to identify locations with known real world coordinates. The real world coordinates
(X,Y) and image coordinates (U,V) of the registration points are listed in edit fields below the image. The points are
moved to the desired locations on the image by dragging the points using the tools described below. Once the points
are located, the real world coordinates can be entered in the corresponding edit fields. The dialog contains the
following options:

2 point or 3 point registration – Two point registration rotates and uniformly scales an image. Three point
registration allows for non-uniform scaling to account for some parallax.

Import World File – Used to import a TIFF world file (*.tfw). A TIFF world file has the information needed to
set the (X,Y) and (U,V) coordinates in order to place the image in the correct world coordinates.

Image name – Used to associate a name with the file. This name will appear in the project explorer.
Register Image Dialog Tools
The following tools can be used to help position the registration points:
Tool
Tool Name
Description
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Select Point Tool
The Select Point tool is used to select and drag register points to a location on the
map for which real coordinates are known so that they can be entered in the
corresponding XY edit fields.
Zoom Tool
In some cases, it is useful to magnify a portion of the image so that a registration
point can be placed with more accuracy. The Zoom tool is used to zoom in a
portion of the image.
Pan Tool
After zooming in on a portion of the image, the Pan tool is used to pan the image
vertically or horizontally.
Frame Macro
The Frame macro is used to automatically center the entire image within the
drawing window of the dialog after panning and zooming in on a specific
location.
Import World File
The Import World File button can be used to automatically define the registration data. A world file is a special file
associated with a previously registered image that is exported from ArcView® or Arc/Info® . The file contains
registration data that can be used to register the image.
Saving/Reading Image Registration Data
When a project file is saved, a link to the image is saved in the project file, along with the current image registration
information so that the image is re-registered to the same coordinates every time the project is opened. The original
image file and world file (if one exists) are not altered.
Convert Point Coordinate System
The x, y coordinates of each register point must be specified. If there are (x,y) coordinates in a different coordinate
system than the project, the coordinates will need to be converted.
GMS Point Conversion
The Convert Point button in the image registration dialog will allow converting the coordinates.
SMS Point Conversion
The Single Point Conversion command in the Edit menu can be helpful if it becomes necessary to convert between
any two coordinate systems. Perform this conversion and record the locations in the correct coordinate system prior to
entering the registration dialog.
An alternative approach is to convert the coordinate system after importing by right-clicking on the image in the
Project Explorer and choosing Coordinate Conversion from the right-click menu.
WMS Point Conversion
The Single Point Conversion command in the Edit menu can be helpful if it becomes necessary to convert between
any two coordinate systems. Perform this conversion and record the locations in the correct coordinate system prior to
entering the registration dialog.
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Save as Image
It is possible to save information displayed in the Graphic Window in an image format. It can be useful to save the
contents displayed in the graphics window so the images can be used for presentation purposes, documents, etc.
Saving in image format
To save information in the graphics window as an image, use the Save As... command in the File menu. Images can
be saved in the following formats:

Bitmap Image Files (*.bmp)

JPEG Image Files (*.jpg or *.jpeg)
 PNG Image Files (*.png)
After clicking save, SMS may take a moment to process the image. Only the contents showing in the Graphics
Window are saved. Items in the Project Explorer that have been hidden will not be seen in the final image.
SMS will not center or frame the image before saving. The final image will be exactly what is displayed in the
Graphics Window prior to using the Save As command. This includes all active display options. The final size of the
saved image will also be determined by the size of the Graphics Window when saving. If wanting a larger or smaller
image, either adjust the image in an image editor after saving or change the size of the Graphics Window before
saving.
JPEG compression options will not be given when saving from SMS. SMS will save JPEG images at the highest
(uncompressed) quality. Likewise, compression options will not be given when saving an image in the PNG format.
Related Topics

Images

File Menu
Web Service for Background Imagery
GMS and SMS support the ability to obtain image data from web servers. The imagery will update when panning and
zooming as well as uses an appropriate resolution for the current zoom level. Since this is obtaining the information
over the internet, the performance of these images will be dependent upon the speed of the internet connection.
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System Requirements
SMS 11.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 or above are needed for this feature.
Projection
To use web layers, the project must be in a non-local projection.
GIS Web Layers
SMS ships with several layers that can be used. Some of the layers are specific to the US and others are worldwide. If
desired, experiment with different layers as some will give better performance or quality. To find the files shipped
with SMS, go to the Windows menu, go to the SMS folder for the version, and click on the item labeled "supporting
files." This will open an explorer window to the folder that contains supporting files used with SMS. A folder named
"GIS Layer Files" should appear. This folder contains the GIS web layers that ship with SMS.
In order to load the GIS layers, it's necessary to be using the ArcObjects interface inside of SMS. This is activated by
switching to the GIS module and selecting the menu item, Data | Enable ArcObjects .
Zooming in to view more details
As zooming in, more of the GIS layer features such as roads, peaks, etc will be more visible (as well as their labels in
some cases depending on the GIS layer opened). The further zooming in, the more details will appear. When zooming
out, the details will become less visible.
Related Topics

Images in SMS
2.10. Preferences
Preferences
The Edit | Preferences command brings up the Preferences dialog. The Preferences dialog contains the following
tabs:
General



File IO

Compress XMDF Files – Use compression when saving XMDF files.

Override temp directory – Specify the location where SMS temporary files are written.
Help Option

Use local help – Option to access the CHM file include with SMS when the Help button in a dialog is
pressed.

Use online help – Option to access the XMS Wiki when the Help button in a dialog is pressed.

3rd party online – Allows specifying third-party help using the Dynamic Model Interface Schema.

Prompt
View Data File Option


Ask for Program – SMS will prompt to specify the program used to open a data file when the File | View
Data File command is called.
Deletions
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

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Confirm Deletions – Choose to be prompted to confirm the deletion whenever a set of selected objects is
about to be deleted. This is meant to prevent accidental deletion of objects.
Model Priority – Models can be launched using a particular process priority. This priority specifies how the
operating system should treat the process. We recommend using the "Above Normal", "Normal", or "Below
Normal" options in most circumstances. The options are as follows:

"Realtime" – Highest priority. May cause machine to become unresponsive. Use with extreme care.

"High" – Only allows realtime process to go before it. Can use nearly all CPU cycles. Use with extreme
care.

"Above Normal" – Takes priority over normal processes. Will take CPU cycles before normal
applications do.

"Normal" – No special scheduling takes place. This is the normal default.

"Below Normal" – Allows processes with normal priority to run first, but runs before low priority
processes.

"Low" – The process will only run when the system is idle.

"Default" – The process will be launched with the same priority as it's parent (SMS in this case).
Copy to Clipboard

Scale factor – When copying the contents of the main graphics window to clipboard, the resolution can
be increase by specifying a scale factor greater than 1.0.
Defaults
The Defaults tab was previously referred to as the Startup tab. It allows defining which modules and models are active
by default when SMS is launched.

Default Module – In this combo box, specify which module is active module at startup.

Default 2D Mesh Model – In this combo box, specify which numerical engine (model) will be assigned to newly
created meshes. This is the active 2D Mesh Module Model at startup. As SMS migrates to simulation based
modeling, the application of this tool will be less important because simulations will be explicitly created for a
specific numerical engine.

Default 2D Cartesian Grid Model – In this combo box, specify which model will be assigned to newly created
Cartesian grids. This is the active 2D Cartesian Grid Module Model at startup. The need for this command will
also go away as SMS migrates to simulation based modeling and simulations are created for a specific
numerical engine.

Default Coverage Type – In this combo box, specify the active Map Module Coverage Type at startup.
Currently, SMS always requires at least one coverage to exist in a session. This coverage type controls the type
of that new, blank coverage as well as the default type of newly created coverages. In most commands, there is
an option to specify or change the type of the coverage as it is being created.

Check version on startup – This command instructs SMS to check, via an internet query for an update to SMS
from Aquaveo. If the user machine is behind a firewall that does not allow access to the internet, this command
will not function properly.

Default TUFLOW Executable – Specify the executable to use by default when creating a new TUFLOW
simulation. The options are double and single precision for both 32 and 64bit.
Images
The images tab includes preferences related to the display and manipulation of images in SMS. Dynamic images or
images loaded from web sources are available based on location of the simulation. Specific preferences include:
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
Image Pyramids – This function specifies whether SMS will "Always Build", "Never Build", or "Prompt for
Each Image" when building image pyramids . It's recommended that this option be set to or left at "Never
Build" unless a very large static image file is being used. This recommendation comes from multiple sources.
First, since web sources are much more standard, and image pyramids don't apply to dynamic images, the
command is superfluous. Second, the creation of image pyramids results in the several new image files saved on
the user's local machine. The images are multiple resolution representations of a specified loaded image. The
creation of these images has led to confusion.

Save – Specifies where SMS saves temporary and/or created images. Options include a specific "Image Folder"
or the "Temporary Folder" (as specified int eh General tab above). The image folder is created in the directory
with the SMS project. Images are created either from the command to convert the graphics window to image
format, or when converting dynamic images to static images to reduce dependency on an internet connection
and speed up image refresh.
File Locations
This tab allows specifying the location of applications and folders that may be used in the course of an SMS session.
Once a new target is specified, SMS remembers that location for all future uses of the application. This tab will only
shows models with an active license.

Model Executables – This table occupies the upper section of the tab and allows specifying the location of
numerical model executables. Some models include only a single executable, others include two, three or four.
By default, an SMS installation is initialized to look in the models directory in the folder where the SMS
program is installed. The installation will include a sub-folder for each model installed with the SMS
installation. Both 32 and 64-bit versions of most numerical engines are available.

Other Files – This table occupies the lower section of the tab and allows specifying the location of resource files
that may be utilized during an SMS session. These files include:

The LeProvost tidal database .

The location of a resource folder containing bitmaps of North Arrow representation to be used by the
annotation tools. Aquaveo provides several default bitmaps. Individual users can create custom bitmaps
for this use.

The path to the log file for TUFLOW simlations

The path to the MPIEXEC application which is utilized for MPI parallel process execution.

Various other resources that are currently under investigation.
Project Explorer
The project explorer tab provides preferences for interacting with the data tree in the project explorer. Supported
options include:

Force active scalar and vector datasets to be in the same folder – When this option is selected, the scalar and
vector datasets selected for any geometric object (mesh, grid, scatter set, boundary fitted grid, ..) must be in the
same folder. If a scalar data set is selected in a different folder in the project explorer, the first vector dataset (if
one exists) will also be selected. If a vector data set in a different folder is selected, the first scalar dataset in that
folder will be selected.

Add diagnostic files when reading model solutions. If this toggle is selected, SMS will add an entry to the
project explorer data tree to link to the diagnostic (text messages) file associated with a numerical simulation.
Not all numerical engines support this type of a file.
Toolbars
The toolbar tab allows controlling the status and position of each toolbar in SMS at startup. These positions/status
values can be changed by dragging each individual toolbar during a session of SMS. The toggle box to the left of the
toolbar controls whether the toolbar will be visible when SMS start. The toolbars included in this feature include:
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
File Toolbar – This toolbar includes the four file menu commands (Open, Save, Print and Delete). By default it
is visible and it appears at the top of the screen between the menu bar and the project explorer.

Module Toolbar – This toolbar includes the modules. In early versions of SMS it was the only way to switch
between modules and was commonly used for navigation. With the addition of the project explorer, the module
toolbar was less essential. It is still ON by default, but was moved to the bottom of the screen below the project
explorer as a default location.

Display Toolbar – This toolbar includes the principal display menu commands (Refresh, Frame, Display
Options and Plan View). By default it is visible and it appears at the top of the screen between the menu bar and
the project explorer.

Optional Macro – This toolbar includes the secondary display menu commands (Lighting, Contour Options,
Vector Options, Info, Plot, and Web data). By default it is visible and it appears at the bottom of the graphics
window.

Edit Window – This toolbar includes the edit fields for viewing/specifying the coordinates of a selected
point/vertex/cell and the associated dataset values. It appears at the top of the graphics window.

Data Toolbar – This toolbar includes the measure tool and get image tool.
Time
See the Time Step Window article for an explanation of absolute and relative time. The default format of the time
steps in the Time Step Window can be set.
Available times options
This option controls which times are displayed in the time step window . The available options are:

Active datasets (current module only) – The times displayed in the timestep window are based only upon the
active scalar and vector datasets in the current module. If neither of these datasets is transient, the time step
window will not be displayed.

All available times (all modules) – The times displayed in the timestep window are based upon times used by
any transient object in SMS (includes datasets, some kinds of coverages, and PTM particle sets). All of the
times from each of the objects will be used regardless of whether or not the object is active or visible.
Dataset time step rounding
The dataset being used for contours, vectors, or other display option may not have a timestep that corresponds exactly
with the time currently chosen in the time step window. When this happens, SMS has two options for determining the
values used by the dataset. These options are:

Interpolate to exact time – Interpolate the dataset values for the selected time step from the nearest time steps
before or after the display time. If the display time is before/after all of the time steps the nearest time step is
used.

Use nearest time – The dataset time step nearest the display time will be used (no interpolation).
Map
This tab includes options to Snap feature objects to displayed inactive coverage nodes and vertices when creating new
feature objects.
Graphics

Active Graphics Library
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
Options

Automatically refresh after an edge swap

Use vertex buffer objects (VBOs) – This option can be specified to change how SMS works with the graphics
card. Vertex buffer objects are generally faster and often uses less of the computers main memory. However,
there are circumstances where using vertex buffer objects can be significantly slower, such as when the
machine's graphics card only has a small amount of onboard memory. By default, this option is on.
Mesh
This tab includes an option to specify the precision that will be used to output "2dm" mesh files from SMS.
Related Topics

Edit Menu

Time Settings
Time Settings
Transient dataset time values are displayed in the Time Step window using either a relative time format (e.g., 100.0) or
an absolute date/time format (e.g., 1/12/2006 3:23:48).
Changing Time Settings
To change the time settings, select the Menu command Edit | Time Settings or right-click on the Time Step window in
the Project Explorer and select Time Settings to open the Time Setting dialog.
Time Settings Dialog
The following options are available in this dialog.

Zero Time
The zero time represents the date/time corresponding to time t=0. If a dataset does not have an assigned
reference time, it will use the global zero time as its reference time.

Display as
Option to use either absolute or relative time.

Absolute Date/Time
When the display format is set to Absolute Date/Time , a date/time is shown in the Time Step window. The
date and time format can also be specified.

Relative Time
When the display format is set to Relative Time , the days, hours, minutes, and seconds from the dataset
reference time is shown in the Time Step window. The display format for days, hours, minutes, and seconds
can be specified. If a decimal format is chosen, the precision can also be specified.
 Format
Time can be displayed in a number of formats. After selecting an option, the dialog will display an example of the
format. The following format options are available:
Absolute Date Format
Example
mm/dd/yy
05/25/00
dd/mm/yy
25/05/00
Additional Options
SMS 12.2
mm/dd/yyyy
05/25/2000
dd/mm/yyyy
25/05/2000
dd-mmm-yy
25-May-00
dd-mmm-yyyy
25-May-2000
mmm dd, yyyy
May 25, 2000
Absolute Time Format
Example
hh:mm am/pm
3:22 PM
HH:mm
15:22
hh:mm:ss am/pm
3:22:30 PM
HH:mm:ss
15:22:30
Relative Time Format
Example
days hh:mm:ss
10 20:30:40
hours:mm:ss
260:30:40
days hh:mm
10 20:30
hours:mm
260:30
days (decimal)
10.854296
Specify Precision
hours (decimal)
260.51111
Specify Precision
minutes (decimal)
15630.66667
Specify Precision
seconds
937840.0
Specify Precision
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Additional Options
Additional Options
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
2.11 Cross Sections
Editing Cross Sections
For the 1D Hydraulic Cross Section coverage and the TUFLOW 1D Cross Section coverage, the cross section
geometry is stored in text database file on disk. When extracting cross sections they are saved to a new (or existing)
database file. However, extraction of cross sections from digital terrain models is not the only way that they can be
created, nor is extraction always the only thing that needs to be done. For example other ways cross sections can be
entered for use include: including importing from a spreadsheet, or entering manually. In such cases, and many times
after extraction from a digital terrain model there are edits that must be performed in order to prepare the cross
sections for hydraulic modeling.
Edit cross sections in one of three ways:
1) When double-clicking on an arc in a 1D Hydraulic Cross Section coverage, it's possible to assign a cross section
from a database. After assigning the cross section, also enter the editor for that cross section.
2) Opening a cross section database for editing (or create a new database) using the Manage Cross Sections
command.
3) Opening an existing cross section database using the File | Open command.
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The operations described in the following paragraphs can be done using the cross section editor shown in the figure
below.
General Properties
In order to identify information about the cross section in the database a name (not required), a reach, a station, and
the name of the topographic data used to extract the cross section (if applicable) can be defined. A note about the cross
section can also be defined. Not all of these attributes are critical for the development of a hydraulic model, but they
are useful in managing the cross section within a database.
Editing Geometry
Cross section points can be added, or values edited when the Geom Edit tab of the editor is active. XY values are
available when the actual 3D position of each point on the cross section is known. The more traditional D-Z pairs
define the distance from the starting point and a corresponding elevation.
Geo-Referencing
Geo-referencing information provides the spatial (x-y) location of the cross section and included geometry. This
information is inherent in the 3D coordinates, when extracting cross sections from a digital terrain model. However, if
the cross section geometry is taken from a survey then the actual x-y-z coordinates of the points may not be known. In
order to use the data within SMS for flood plain delineation, a proper geo-reference must be provided.
A cross section can have one of the following georeferencing definitions: All points specified (i.e. extracted cross
sections will be of this type), Use two points (i.e. the coordinates of the beginning and ending location along the cross
section defined), Use one point an angle (i.e. the centerline location is known and some angle relative to it defined), or
no geo-referencing defined.
The geo-referencing is defined from the Geo Ref tab in the cross section editor.
Line Properties
Line properties define segments of material properties along the cross section. When using an area property coverage
during extraction from a digital terrain model these properties are automatically marked and defined. However, they
can also be established manually from within the Line Props tab in the cross section editor. To manually define the
properties, use the "Insert Breakpoint" tool to specify the beginning and end locations on the cross section plot for
each property. These locations and values can be edited in the Line Props spreadsheet.
Point Properties
Point properties include thalweg, left bank, and right bank (other properties can be defined but are not mapped/saved
to hydraulic models from within WMS) locations. When using a centerline and bank line arcs from a 1D Hydraulic
Centerline coverage during extraction these points are marked. SMS can "Auto Mark" these points by looking for the
lowest elevation (thalweg), and appropriate breaks in elevation/slope (banks). Point properties are edited from within
the Point Props tab in the cross section editor.
Merging
It is possible to combine a surveyed cross section with a section extracted from a terrain model for the flood plain (i.e.
the terrain model does not contain enough detail to define the cross section of the river) using the tools in the Merge
tab in the cross section editor. Two different cross sections can be merged, with rules for locations and precedence
defined in order to create a new cross section.
Filtering
It may be that there are more points defining the cross section than are necessary (or that the hydraulic model is
capable of processing). The Filter tab in the cross section editor allows specifying rules for filtering "insignificant"
points along the cross section. This can be particularly important when extracting cross sections from a dense digital
terrain model.
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Related Topics

1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage

TUFLOW 1D Cross Section Coverage
Managing Cross Sections
For the new 1D Hydraulic Cross Section coverage or TUFLOW 1D Cross Section coverage, the cross section
geometry is stored in text database file on disk. When extracting cross sections they are saved to a new (or existing)
database file. This database was the basis for the development of the cross section data in the ArcHydro data model.
Cross sections in the database can be used for the development of hydraulic models such as HEC-RAS or TUFLOW.
The Manage Cross Sections command allows creating a new database or opening an existing database to add
geometries, edit existing ones, and provide proper geo-referencing information. It is also possible to open a cross
section database using the Open command from the File menu.
Cross Section Database Definition
When setting up a new database the following attributes can be defined:

Topo ID – A topographic identifier and description that identifies where the cross section database was derived
from. Create a new Topo ID for each database.

Line Prop Types – By default SMS uses only a Material ID, but other properties could be defined for general
use (they will not immediately be used by supported hydraulic models).

Point Prop Types – By default SMS uses thalweg, left bank, and right bank but other point properties could be
defined for general use.
The Cross Section Database Management dialog also allows creating a new cross section; edit, copy, or delete an
existing cross section; insert an entire database (merge databases together); convert a cross section database to a
coverage (the georeferencing of cross sections must be provided for the cross section to be included in the coverage);
create a digital terrain model from the cross section geometry; and converting the coverage to line properties.
Related Topics

1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage

TUFLOW 1D Cross Section Coverage
2.12. Spectral Energy
Spectral Energy
The Spectral Energy dialog can be accessed when the spectral coverage is active. The dialog is opened by either
double-clicking on a selected node or by right-clicking on a selected point and choosing the Node Attributes
command. The spectrum represents energy densities at discrete values over a range of angles and a range of
frequencies for a given wave condition.
Tools

Select Cell – Select a cell corner to view or edit the energy value.

Pan – Pan the spectral grid.

Zoom – Zoom in the window.
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
Rotate – Rotate in the window.

Frame – Frame, or zoom to the extents of the grid.

Contour Options – Bring up the contour options dialog for setting the spectral grid contour display options.
Grid Options

Create Grid – Brings up the Create Spectral Energy Grid dialog.

Generate Spectra – Brings up the Generate Spectra dialog.

Import Spectra – Brings up the Import Spectra dialog.

Export Spectra – Brings up the Export Spectra dialog where a location can be chosen to save the spectra.
Spectral Tree Options

Spectral Manager Tree – Select a spectrum in the tree. The selected spectra will be displayed in the Spectral
Viewer . The tree’s right-click options are described below.
Grid/Spectra Right-click Options

Generate Spectra – Opens the Generate Spectra dialog. This option is available when the grid in the Spectral
Manager Tree is right -clicked.

Edit Spectra – Opens the Edit Spectra dialog where the Parameter Settings , Angle Settings and Spectral
Parameters can be edited.

Export Spectra – Brings up the Export Spectra dialog where a location can be chosen to save the spectra.

Delete Grid or Delete Dataset – Deletes a grid or spectrum.

Properties – Brings up the Spectral Grid Properties dialog. This option is available when the grid in the
Spectral Manager Tree is right-clicked.

Edit Time – Edit the time offset for the dataset.
View Options

Cartesian/Polar View – View and edit the spectral grid using a Cartesian or polar view.
Graphic Options

Selection – View the Frequency, Angle, and Energy of the selected cell corner. The Energy can be edited for
the selected points.

Cursor – View the Frequency, Angle, and Energy as the cursor moves over the grid.
2D Plot Options

Frequency Integration Plot – Turn on to show an energy vs. frequency plot for the selected spectrum.

Direction Integration Plot – Turn on to show a direction vs. energy plot for the selected spectrum.
Reference Time
Clicking on the Update Reference Time... button will bring up the Time Settings dialog with the following options.

Reference Time – Specify the reference time for all datasets assigned to the node

Units – Specify the units for the time offsets assigned to the datasets
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Related Topics

Create Spectral Energy Grid

Generate Spectra

Import Spectra

Spectral Grid Properties

STWAVE Menu

CGWAVE Menu

Cartesian Grid Module
Create Spectral Energy Grid
The Create Spectral Energy Grid dialog is accessed through the Spectral Energy dialog (by pushing the Create Grid
button). A spectral energy grid is created after setting the options. All units for the options are hertz and degrees. The
new spectral energy grid will be displayed in the Spectral Manager and the Spectral Viewer in the Spectral Energy
dialog.
Plane Type and Angle

Plane type (full global, full local, half local) – set the plane type for the spectral data

Angle – set the grid orientation
Frequency Distribution

Number – Set the number of frequency bands (Number = 30)

Delta – Set the step size (Delta = 0.01) in Hz.

Minimum – Set the minimum frequency (Minimum = 0.04) in Hz.

Maximum – View the maximum frequency (Maximum = 0.33) in Hz.
Angle Distribution

Number – View the number of angle bands (Number = 35).

Delta – Set the step size (Delta = 5) in degrees.

Minimum – View the minimum angle (Minimum = 0.0) in degrees.

Maximum – View the maximum angle (Maximum = 360.0) in degrees.
Related Topics

Spectral Energy
Generate/Edit Spectra
This page describes both the Generate Spectra and Edit Spectra dialogs since they are almost the same dialog. The
Generate Spectra dialog is accessed through the Spectral Energy dialog (by pushing the Generate Spectra button).
The Edit Spectra dialog is accessed through the Spectral Energy dialog by right-clicking on a grid or spectra in the
Spectral Manager and clicking Edit Spectra . SMS creates/edits the spectra when the Generate/Edit button is
clicked. All units for the options are feet or meters, depending on the coordinate system. STWAVE runs in metric
units, so if the current units are in English units inside SMS, all data is converted to metric when it is saved. The
settings are shown below (default values are shown in parenthesis):
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Parameter Settings

Generation Method – Choose the method (TMA (Shallow Water), JONSWAP, Bretschneider (ITTC), PiersonMoskowitz, or Ochi-Hubble Double Peak) to use to generate the spectra. Each method has slightly different
options. JONSWAP and Pierson-Moskowitz both require additional information about what values to use to
specify the spectra.

Replace Old Spectra – Delete all existing spectra in Spectral Energy dialog after the new spectra are generated.
Not available when editing.

Directional Spreading Distribution – Choose to use either the Wrapped Normal distribution or the Cosine
Power distribution. With the wrapped normal option, a standard deviation and maximum angle cutoff must be
specified. With the cosine power option, the spreading index and the maximum cutoff angle must be specified.
The recommended cutoff angle is three times the standard deviation of the directional distribution.

Gauge Depth – Water depth in meters (d = 5.0). Choose whether to specify once for all spectra or to specify for
each spectrum.
Angle Settings

Projection – The wave direction can be specified in a Oceanographic, Meteorologic, Shore Normal, or
Cartesian coordinate system.
Spectral Parameters
The following are used by SpecGen to generate the spectra.

Time (hrs) – Time offset using the specified units for the spectral node.

Angle (deg) – Approach angle relative to the shore normal in the clockwise direction measured in degrees
(wvang = 25.0).

Hs (m) – The incident zero moment wave height (hm0 = 1.0).

Tp (sec) – Wave period in seconds (tp = 20.0).

Gamma – Spectral peak dispersion factor (igamma = 3.3).

nn – Number of Nearest Neighbors to be calculated, Directional or peak dispersion factor, must be even integer
(inn = 4).

Gauge Depth (m) – Water depth in meters (d = 5.0). This parameter is available if the Gauge Depth option
above is set to Specify for each spectrum.
Spreadsheet Options

Import/Export – Import/export an ASCII, space delimited text file with the spectral generator parameters. The
file format is:
SPECTRAL TABLE
Values
Method Option Time Index Angle Hs(1) Tp(1) Gamma (1) Hs (1) Tp(1) Gamma(1) Hs(2) Tp(2)
Gamma(2) Wind Fetch nn StdDev Depth
Headers
0 -1 999.0 None 25.0 1.0 20.0 8.0 999.0 999.0 999.0 999.0 999.0 30.0 999.0 0.001
1st row of values
0 -1 999.0 None 30.0 1.0 16.0 8.0 999.0 999.0 999.0 999.0 999.0 30.0 999.0 0.001
2nd row of values
Additional format description is found in CMS-Wave Spectral Table File .

Import from GenCade – Imports wave parameters from the Filtered Ocean Conditions dialog. This button is
only available if data has been filtered in GenCade.
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Spectral Defaults – This opens a section of the dialog that lists the approximate spectral parameters. Doubleclick a row of values to replace the selected spreadsheet row(s). The period (T), gamma, and nn will be replaced
for the row. If the period in the spreadsheet does not match a period in the table, the spreadsheet period is
rounded to the nearest table period.
Related Topics

Spectral Energy
Import Spectra
The Import Spectra dialog is accessed through the Spectral Energy dialog by clicking on the Import Spectra button.
This dialog is used to import existing spectra into the project. The dialog consists of a File type drop down menu and a
browser button
to select an existing file.
File types
The following types of files can be imported through this dialog.

*.eng – Spectral energy file. Prompt will appear to specify if the file is in the CMS-Wave or STWAVE format.

*.h5 – XMDF grid and spectrum.

*.dws – The BOUSS-2D spectra file format.

*.cdip – Data from the Coastal Data Information Program .
Import Spectra Processing
After clicking the Import button in the Import Spectra dialog, indicate to SMS how to process the selected file.
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Open Files
If spectral data is in multiple files, the option to place these files in one coverage. This is done by adding these files to
the Open File dialog that appears after clicking the Import button. Click the Add button to open a file browser to add
additional files. Each file selected will appear in the field below. The Remove button can be used to eliminate
unwanted files.
Time Settings
When importing ENG files for STWAVE or DWS files for BOUSS-2D, the Time Settings dialog will appear after a
warning dialog appears. ENG files may contain time stamps for each time step. If the file has an 8 or 12 digit time
stamp, SMS will read it in and assign the times accordingly. If the ENG file is not using time stamps, it will just have
an integer ID for each set of data. In this case, it’s necessary to give SMS a reference time, and SMS will treat each ID
as the number of hours past the specified reference time.
Time Increment
DWS files for BOUSS-2D require an additional step. Each dataset in the DWS file will be offset by a specified
number of hours from the reference time. This is done in the Time Increment dialog.
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Grid Angle and Specify Location
When importing ENG files for CMS-Wave, the Grid Angle dialog will appear. CMS-Wave ENG files do not specify
the grid angle, so it’s necessary to enter one here.
After indicating the grid angle, the Specify Location dialog will appear. CMS-Wave ENG files also do not specify the
location of the spectral data. It’s necessary to enter in the location manually.
Times to Import
When importing CDIP files, the Times to Import dialog will appear to select the times to import. The Start time and
End time shown represent the times available in the file. Select which start/end times to be imported, and select a time
interval. The datasets will be read in or interpolated so that there is a dataset for the starting time and then one at each
time interval until the end time.
Update Reference Time
In some cases, the reference time will need to be updated in the Spectral Energy dialog.
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Obsolete Options
The following options are no longer available as of SMS version 11.2.

Select Spectral Energy File – Click on the folder icon to browse to the spectral energy file to be imported.

Create New Spectral Grid – If this option is selected, SMS will import the spectra with the grid definition
contained in the spectral energy file.

Select Existing Spectral Grid – If this option is selected the datasets are imported as datasets of the selected
grid (the grid selected in the combo box below).

Import as Time Steps – Imports the datasets using the identifier as a time value.
Related Topics

Spectral Energy Dialog
Spectral Grid Properties
The Spectral Grid Properties dialog is accessed through the Spectral Energy dialog by right-clicking on a grid in the
Spectral Manager tree and clicking on Properties . This dialog only displays information. The values cannot be
changed. If different values are desired, a new grid must be created through the Create Spectral Energy Grid dialog.
Frequency Distribution

Number – View the number of frequency bands.

Delta – View the step size in Hz.

Minimum – View the minimum frequency in Hz.

Maximum – View the maximum in Hz.
Angle Distribution

Number – View the number of angle bands.

Delta – View the step size in degrees.

Minimum – View the minimum angle in degrees.

Maximum – View the maximum angle in degrees.
Related Topics

Spectral Energy
Spectral Events
The external boundary condition for STWAVE and CMS-Wave consists of one or more energy spectra entering on
one or more open edges of the grid. The Spectral Events dialog specifies the boundary conditions and locations of
these boundary conditions. This dialog is reached through the Boundary Control... button in the STWAVE Model
Control dialog or through the Define Cases... button in the CMS-WAVE Model Control dialog.
Grid Display
This graphic shows the orientation of the grid and labels the sides of the grids which is used in other controls within
the dialog.
Edge Boundary Type
The type of boundary condition applied to each edge of the STWAVE grid is shown and in some cases edited in this
section of the dialog.
The types of boundary conditions include:
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
Specified spectrum – This may come from a parent grid if using nesting. Otherwise, a button to the right will be
used to assign the spectral coverage to the boundary.

1D transformed spectrum – This boundary type allows energy to propagate along the boundary without
interference. The cells would have the same energy if the grid was extended and the boundary became interior
to a larger grid.

Zero spectrum – The boundary doesn't have any spectral energy applied.
For half-plane models, the boundary condition types are fixed and energy travels in the positive I direction of the grid.
In this case, specify which spectra that will be introduced at side 1. Sides 2 and 4 will be treated as 1D transformed
spectra.
For full-plane models, the boundary condition types may be specified. SMS does not allow specified spectra on two
adjacent boundaries. Therefore, there can be specified spectra on a maximum of two boundaries and these must be on
opposite boundaries.
Events Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet defines the time step or cases that will be used and the input boundary conditions for each.
The first column is the time offset value. This number represents how much later the time is than the specified
reference time. Hence, if 5 is entered for the time offset, and the time units is hours, then it is the case of 5 hours later.
When nesting is used, the case ids, and the number of cases, will be determined by the parent simulation.
In addition to the external condition, the engine can simulate distributed forces over the domain including wind, surge
and currents. The currents applied to a simulation are specified in the Model Control dialog. Wind and surge values
are specified in the spread sheet in columns 2 through 4.
The spectra to be used will be matched up or interpolated with the model timesteps. The button Populate From
Coverage can be used to generate events for each time found in the spectral coverage(s) that have been assigned to
the model.
The number and use of the remaining columns in the spreadsheet will depend upon the options used for the STWAVE
simulation. For example, if a constant value is used for wind and/or surge columns will appear that represent the wind
direction, magnitude and/or tidal elevation as applicable.
Reference Time
The reference time controls allow setting a reference time and the units to be used when defining the time for each
case. Clicking on the Update Reference Time button will bring up a Time Settings dialog. In this dialog the
"Reference Time" and "Time units" can be set.
Angle Convention
The angle convention controls allow choosing the convention that will be used for the wind direction field in the
events spreadsheet. The direction represented by the wind angle of the active row of the spreadsheet is plotted on the
direction graph.
Related Topics

Spectral Coverage
2.13. Datasets(VTK)
Datasets VTK
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Datasets
A dataset is a set of values associated with each node or cell in a geometric object. Datasets:

Can be scalar (1 value) per object or vector (2+ values per object).

Can be steady state (constant through time) or transient (values change at specified times).

Can have active information to specify that specific nodes or cells are inactive in a model (generally used by
solutions to indicate dry areas). Activity can be represented by NULL values in the dataset or as separate on/off
values for nodes or cells.

Control how contours, vectors, and functional surfaces are displayed.
Generating Datasets
Datasets can be generated in a variety of ways such as:

Output from a numeric engine (water level, velocity, concentration, transport, etc.)

Tabular values in a text file entered by the user or exported from another application such as a GIS

Created by interpolating from a scatter point set to a grid, or mesh

Generated by performing mathematical operations on existing datasets with the Dataset Calculator
Project Explorer
Datasets are displayed and managed in the
. See the
article for more information.
Active Dataset
Each geometric object has a dataset that is termed the "active dataset." The active dataset is used for contour and
vector display and may be used for functional surfaces, 2D plots, or other functionalities keying off this dataset.
Project Explorer Icons
Different icons are used to represent datasets in the project explorer including the active/inactive state of the dataset.
These icons are below:
Dataset Type
Inactive Icon Active Icon
Elevation
Scalar
Vector
Time Information
Transient datasets (those that change with time) have information and functionality that is not available for steady
state datasets. A time step represents a specific time and its values in a transient dataset. A dataset may use absolute
times meaning the dataset has full date/time information. Alternatively, a dataset can use relatives times which means
they know how much time has elapsed since some non-specified zero time (generally the beginning of the
simulation). When transient datasets are present, the Time step window may be present depending upon the current
time settings as specified in the preferences dialog .
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Folder
The datasets and solutions are organized by folders. Create new folders and move datasets, solutions, and folders to
other folders anywhere on the Project Explorer. Folders can be created by right-clicking on the certain items in the
Project Explorer and selecting New Folder in the menu. A dataset or folder can be deleted simply by selecting the
folder and selecting the Delete key or by right-clicking on the item and selecting the Delete option in the
corresponding pop-up menu.
Datasets on VTK Objects
Datasets as used on VTK objects have different functionalities then those used in the original geometric
representations in SMS. Some of the differences for VTK datasets include:

Each dataset can be mapped either to nodes or cells and the same geometric object can have both types of
datasets at the same.

A new dataset calculator has been created. The new calculator has additional functionalities and options. For
more information see the Dataset Calculator VTK topic.
Related Topics

Layout of the Graphical Interface
External Links

www.vtk.org
Conversions Scalar/Vector
Datasets can be converted from scalar datasets to vector dataset or converted from vector datasets to scalar datasets.
Conversions Scalar↔Vector
Scalar to Vector
Converts two scalar datasets to a single vector dataset. The specified scalar datasets can be either magnitude and
direction or x and y components.
To convert to vector do the following:
1) In the Project Explorer, select two scalar datasets. Click on the first dataset, press and hold down the CTRL key,
then click the second dataset.
2) Right-click on the selected datasets and select Scalars to Vector .
3) Select whether the datasets are magnitude and direction or x and y components.
4) Give the new vector dataset a name in the Dataset Name field.
5) Click Ok .
Vector to Scalar
Converts a single vector dataset into one or more scalar datasets. The resulting scalar datasets can be magnitude,
direction, x or y components.
To convert to scalar do the following:
1) In the Project Explorer, right-click on a vector dataset and select Vector to Scalars .
2) Right-click on the selected datasets and select Scalars to Vector .
3) Place checkboxes next to the datasets to be created.
4) Give the new scalar datasets a prefix in the Prefix field.
5) Click Ok .
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Dataset Calculator VTK
The dataset calculator allows creating new datasets using mathematical expressions. The inputs for the mathematical
expressions can be user defined constants, existing datasets, data derived from the geometry, or data derived from
datasets such as gradients or activity information (0/1).
The dataset calculator expressions can include:

standard operations: + - * / ^ .

log

build unit vectors: iHat, jHat, kHat (ie (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1))

mag

abs

min

acos

max

asin

norm

atan

sign

ceil

sin

cos

sinh

cosh

sqrt

exp

tan

floor

tanh
Expressions
In the top left of the dialog, there are fields for name and expression. The name specified will become the dataset
name. The expression defines the mathematical operation that will take place. Insert a predefined function into the
expression field using the "Insert f(x)" combo-box. The specified function will be pasted into the current cursor
location in the expression field and will include an indication of the number of values expected.
SMS maintains a list of expressions currently defined. Specifying a name and expression and clicking "Add" will add
an expression to the list of expressions. If selecting an expression from the list of expressions, the name and
expression fields will be populated. Make the current list of expressions the default list by saving settings ( File | Save
settings from the main menu). Move the expressions to another computer or user by using the save and load buttons.
Variables
When the expression field is modified, SMS will parse the expression to find variable names in the expression. A
variable must start with a character but can include digits after the first character. "Var1" would be valid but "1Var"
would not. The list of variables determined by SMS will appear in a spreadsheet in the top right of the dialog. Each
variable has a name, type, and source information. The name is parsed from the expression field and cannot be edited
in the spreadsheet. The type can be chosen from the spreadsheet. The source information defines the options used
which vary by variable type and cannot be edited in the spreadsheet. Beneath the variables spreadsheet are controls to
specify the source information for the currently selected variable. The controls that will be available will depend upon
the variable type.
The simplest variable type is a value. While it is possible to include numeric values in the expression field, it can be
more clear to name specific variables. For example, if wanting to have an expression use a variable named "gravity"
that is specified as a value variable. This makes the expression more readable and helps remind people to change this
if working in a different set of units or similar situation.
Another type of variable is a dataset. This will use the specified dataset anywhere the variable shows up in the
expression. Note that both scalar and vector datasets can be used in an expression.
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The final type of variable are "Derived" variables. Derived variables can be based upon one of three different sources.
They can be based upon node geometry, cell geometry, or datasets. Derived nodal options include location (3D
vector) and nodal spacing (average spacing to neighboring nodes). Derived cell options include area, centroid (3D
vector), extents minimum (3D vector), extents maximum (3D vector), and perimeter. Derived dataset values include
activity (0/1 for each node/cell for each timestep), directional derivative (vector representation of the gradient), and
vector angle (in the cartesian coordinate system used in math).
Output Location
Datasets in VTK can be associated with nodes or cells. When using the dataset calculator, specify if the dataset
created is to be associated with nodes or cells. If the use doesn't specify the output location, SMS will decide based
upon the variables used in the expression. With the exception of values, each variable will have an affinity to nodes or
cells. If any variable has affinity to nodes, SMS will default the output to be based upon nodes. If all the input
variables have an affinity to cells, the output will be a cell based dataset. The variable affinity is generally intuitive:
dataset variables use dataset, derived variables come from whether they are node, cell, or dataset derived. One
exception to the intuitive rule is "directional derivative" which is derived from datasets. This variable will have an
affinity opposite of the input dataset. If the input dataset is nodes, the directional derivative will be computed on cells.
Whenever input data has an affinity opposite to the output location, the data is converted before the expression is
evaluated. Generally, this means that the value for each node or cell (whichever conversion is taking place) is
determined by averaging the surrounding values (connected cells or nodes belong to the cell). The exception to this
rule is activity which is never averaged. A node is considered active if any of the surrounding cells is active.
Working with Scalars/Vectors
As mentioned previously, an expression may contain both scalar and vector components. The result of an expression
may also be either a scalar or vector dataset. Some sub-expressions can be used with either type of dataset. For
example to multiply a value by either a scalar or vector dataset. Each component in the vector dataset will have the
multiplication applied. Other sub-expressions only make sense when dealing with a certain type of input dataset. The
"." operator can be used to compute the dot product of two vectors and doesn't make sense for scalar datasets. The
identifier iHat can be used to create a unit vector in the x direction (1.0, 0.0, 0.0). Use the dot operator to extract the x
component of a vector using an expression like: "myvector.iHat". jHat and kHat can be used similarly to extract y and
z components. It is also possible to convert components into vectors using statements similar to: "vx*iHat + vy*jHat."
The mag function extracts the magnitude of a vector and also does not apply to scalar datasets.
Output Times
By default the output dataset will have times corresponding to any time used in any of the input datasets. If all the
input datasets are steady state datasets, the output dataset will be steady state. Specify specific output times for the
output dataset. This can be useful to reduce the number of timesteps that would be generated or focus on a range of
times. If all the input datasets are steady state and output times are specified, the resulting dataset will have multiple
timesteps each with the exact same values. If an input dataset doesn't have a timestep at an output time, the data will
be interpolated between the nearest timesteps. If the time occurs outside the range covered by the dataset, the nearest
dataset time will be used.
Errors
If there is a problem with the expression entered, SMS will give an error message and allow correcting the problem. If
the problem is with the expression itself, the message should indicate about where the problem exists. The position
may be off slightly so examine the whole expression carefully if the cause isn't immediately apparent.
Related Topics

Datasets VTK
Interpolation VTK
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VTK Dataset Interpolation
VTK datasets can be interpolated to create functions or datasets on mesh2d, cgrid, scatter, VTK mesh or curvilinear
geometric objects. The interpolation is invoked in the project explore by right-clicking on the VTK mesh or
Curvilinear geometric object (from which the source datasets will be obtained) and then selecting the
option.
Interpolation Dialog
When selecting an interpolation command, the Interpolation Option dialog appears. Selects the appropriate options
and once the OK button is selected, the interpolation procedure is performed. Specified options include:


Interpolation Method – TSelect a current method that is used for all interpolation until another method is
selected. The supported methods include:

Standard (Linear)

Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW)
Extrapolation Method – If the VTK dataset does not bound the data being interpolated to, an extrapolation value
is used for each location outside the boundary or if the location has be marked as inactive. Select the method to
be used to generate the extrapolation value from the following:

Inactive – The dataset value is set to a null indicator and is not displayed.
(Note: scatter sets do not support inactive cell so this option is not available when they are the selected
target.)

Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW)

Constant Value – A single value is applied to all extrapolated locations in the dataset.

Existing Dataset Value – The corresponding value from a specified existing dataset can be used for
locations outside of the bounds of the source VTK dataset. The dataset must be from the same object
being interpolated to and must be of the same type (i.e. scalar, vector).

Target objects – The use selects a target for interpolation from this tree list of geometrics objects.

Source object info – This section contains a tree list of the source datasets and information regarding their usage
as follows :

Datasets to interpolate – Selects the datasets to interpolate from by marking their check box. Multiple
datasets may be interpolated at a time.

New name – Renames the dataset created as a result of the interpolation.

Map Z – Designates the dataset created as the elevation or "Z" dataset by marking the appropriate check
box.

Extrapolation Constant Value – The column is displayed when the "Constant Value" Extrapolation
Method is selected. Enter the single value to apply to the extrapolation locations for each dataset to be
interpolated from.

Extrapolation Dataset – This column is displayed when the "Existing Dataset Value" Extrapolation
Method is selected. Select an extrapolation dataset for each dataset to be interpolated from.
Related Topics

Scatter Interpolation
3. Modules
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Modules
The commands in SMS are divided based on the types of data they operate on. When switching from one module to
another module, the Dynamic Toolbar and available menu commands change. This allows focusing only on the tools
and commands related to the data currently being worked with in SMS. Switching from one module to another can be
done instantaneously to facilitate the simultaneous use of several data types when necessary. Only one module is
active at any given time. However, the data associated with a module (e.g. a 2D finite element mesh) is preserved
when switching to a different module. Activating a module only changes the Dynamic Toolbar and available menu
commands.
Module Selection
There are several ways to switch from one module to another. These include:

Select an entity in the Project Explorer . The module containing the active entity becomes active.

Right-click on the Project Explorer and select the Switch Module command.

Click on the module icon in the module toolbar. The module toolbar is displayed at the bottom of the project
explorer by default.
(Note: Switching modules should not be confused with changing the current model inside of a module. When a new
model is selected, the tools and menus may change, and the data will be converted as much as is possible. However,
some data may be lost.)
Modules in SMS:

Mesh Module

Curvilinear Grid Module

Cartesian Grid Module

Quadtree Module (SMS 12.0 and later)

Scatter Module

Map Module

GIS Module

1D Grid Module

Particle Module

Images (merged into GIS module in SMS 12.0 and later)

Annotations

CAD Data
Module Toolbar
The Module Toolbar is used to switch between modules. Only one module is active at any given time. However, the
data associated with a module (ex. a 2D finite element mesh) is preserved when switching to a different module.
Activating a module simply changes the set of available tools and menu commands.
Annotations
Annotations can be added to a project to provide notes and clarification. The Annotations application is included in all
paid editions of GMS and SMS .
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Annotation Objects
The GMS and SMS applications contain tools to annotate the data in an application for presentations, animations and
screen shots.
These tools (annotation objects)are accessed through the Annotations Module and include:

Images

North Arrows

Scale Bars

Text

Lines

Ovals

Rectangles
Screen vs World Space Layers
All annotation layers either contain objects referenced to world or screen coordinates. Objects referenced to world
coordinates will change size and position on the screen with the underlying data. This is useful to identify specific
locations in the model such as peir locations. Objects associated with screen coordinates do not move on the screen
with the underlying data. This is useful for titles, legends such as north arrows and scale bars, and logos. Some types
of annotations can only be created in screen space layers. These include North Arrows, Images, and scale bars.
When the first annotation object created, the program will ask which type of layer (screen or world space) to create
and add the object to. Create additional layers by right-clicking on the Annotation Data tree item and selecting Create
Screen Space Layer or Create World Space Layer . Layers are differentiated by including an 'S' for screen space
layers or 'W' for world space layers in their icons in the project explorer.
If multiple layers exist, any newly created annotation object will be placed in the "current" layer.
Annotation Object Attributes
The extents of annotation objects defined by a frame. Initially define this frame when creating the annotation object
by left-clicking at any point on the screen and dragging a rectangle with the mouse (left button still down). The
display will show the frame while dragging with the mouse. (Points and lines defining degenerate frames are not
allowed.)
When creating a annotation, if the frame is too big for the window, it will be resized appropriately. Annotations can't
be resized or moved even partially outside of the borders of the window. If, through a quick mouse drag, resizing a
annotation causes the cursor to land outside the window, the annotation will be redrawn to take up all the window
space in that direction.
This frame bounds the region of the screen where the object will appear with the modeling data. Interact with the
object by interacting with its frame and specifying its attributes or properties (see the section on selection below). The
frame anchors the annotation object on the screen. This anchoring defines both the size and position of the object. The
x-location, y-location, x-size and y-size are all defined independently as either a pixel value or percentage of the
screen.
The horizontal position can be set from the left edge, the right edge or the center of the object. If positioning the left
edge, the object position is defined relative to the left edge of the screen. If positioning the right edge, the object
position is defined relative to the right edge of the screen. If positioning the center of the object, the object position is
defined relative to the horizontal center of the screen.
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For example, the left side of the frame may be specified as 100 pixels from the left edge of the screen. Alternatively,
specify that the right edge of the frame should be 10% of screen width from the right edge. Finally, specify that the
center of the object is 100 pixels to the right of the center of the screen.
The vertical position and sizes of the object are similarly specified in the anchoring attribute of the object.
All annotation objects also have attributes. The specific attributes depend on the type of object. The attributes define
color, line thickness, fill properties, associated images, etc.
Screen Space Images
A screen space image is simply a graphics icon mapped to the screen. A typical application would be to display a
company, department, or municipality logo next to the numeric model being displayed in the graphics window. Image
file formats currently supported include the following: BMP , GIF , JPG/JPEG , PNG , SID , and TIF/TIFF .
To add a screen space image, use the Add Annotation Image tool and click anywhere in the graphics window. Use
the Open dialog to select and add the desired image. Dragging a box in the graphics window will fit the image to he
box size.
Using the Select Annotation Objects tool, the image attributes can be changed by right-clicking on the image and
selecting the Properties command. This will bring up an Image Properties dialog with two tabs where the following
options can be used:
Image Tab
This tab gives the general image properties.

Fixed aspect ratio *ndash; Assigns whether the image is being displayed as a scaled (distorted object), scaled
based on its original aspect ratio, or locked at another aspect ratio.

Revert to Original Aspect Ratio – Returns the image to the aspect ratio it had when it was added to the
project.

Transparency Options – These options allow for an image to be redrawn with a transparency.

Use transparency – When checked it will cause the image to be redrawn with the most used color in the
image. Clicking the transparency checkbox to the off state causes the image to be redrawn with no
transparency.
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
Specify color – If checked, it will activate the color button and the color button will have the latest chosen
image color painted on it or the most used color in the image, if it has not been activated before. Clicking
on the down arrow part of the color button causes a color popup to be displayed with swaths of the 40
most used colors in the image or all the colors in the image, if the image has less than 40 colors. Clicking
on one of those colors will cause the image to be redrawn with that color made transparent in the image.

Tolerance – This edit field allows for variation in the matching of the red, green and blue components.
The tolerance field ranges in allowable values from 0.0 to 1.0. 0.0 means the red, green and blue
components must exactly match. Values higher than 0.0 indicate the degree of variation from the given
color.
Anchor Tab
This tab handles options for the size and positioning of the image.


Horizontal

Anchor – The options here determine which direct to move image when moving or resizing the image
along the x-axis. Options include "Left", "Center", and "Right". "Left" will offset from the left edge of
the image or resize from the left edge. "Right" will use the right edge of the image. "Center" determines
the horizontal center of the image and uses that for moving along the x-axis or resizing along the x-axis.

Offset – Moves the image along the x-axis based on the selected anchor type.

Size – Increases or decreases the image size along the x-axis based on the selected anchor type.
Vertical

Anchor – The options here determine which direct to move image when moving or resizing the image
along the y-axis. Options include "Top", "Middle", and "Bottom". "Top" will offset from the top edge of
the image or resize from the top edge. "Bottom" will use the bottom edge of the image. "Middle"
determines the vertical center of the image and uses that for moving along the y-axis or resizing along the
y-axis.

Offset – Moves the image along the y-axis based on the selected anchor type.

Size – Increases or decreases the image size along the y-axis based on the selected anchor type.
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Scale Bars
A scale bar occupies a fixed size of the screen to display the relative size of the objects in the simulation. Define the
minimum width of the scale bar section (in pixels), along with a minimum and maximum height of the scale (also in
pixels). The XMS application adds a "Units" label (meters in the image shown below) and labels for the model
distance related to the scale divisions.
The program will compute a well conditioned number to use as the scale increment that fits in the specified scale bar
extents.
Using the Create Scale Bar
tool, draw a box in the graphics window to indicated the initial size of the scale bar.
The Scale Bar Properties dialog will appear. This dialog can be reached later by right-clicking on the scale bar and
selecting the Properties command.
In the Scale Bar Properties dialog, attributes of the scale bar include:

Units – Options in "Meters", "U.S. Survey Feet", and "International Feet".

Font – Selecting this button bring ups the Font dialog where the font type, style, and size are selected. The
arrow next to the button will bring up a color picker where the font color can be chosen.

Text spacing – The minimum spacing between distance labels.

Min division width – The minimum division width (in pixels). The XMS application determines the number of
divisions based on the minimum divisiion width and the width of the frame.


Background – Opts to fill behind the scale bar with the background color or another color.

Fill behind – Toggles on or off the option to create a colored field behind the scale bar.

Background color – Sets the background color as the same background color selected in for the graphics
window in the Display Options dialog.

Other color – Clicking this button will bring up a Color dialog where a larger selection of colors can be
chosen. The arrow next to the button will bring up a color picker with a preset number of color options.
Anchor tab – This is identical to the Anchor tab in the Image Properties dialog.
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North Arrows
North arrow objects consist of automatically rotating screen space images. When an XMS application is installed, at
least one default north arrow image will be included in the application's home directory. Create or download as many
north arrow icons as desired. These icons are displayed at the specified location (anchored with the standard options),
but will rotate as the view direction changes so that the "up" direction of the icon always aligns with the "North" or
positive "Y" direction.
A north arrow object is added by using the Create North Arrow
tool. Properties for a north arrow objects are set
in the North Arrow Properties dialog. This dialog has the the same options as the Image Properties dialog.
Text
Text can be created in world or screen space layers.
Enter text by clicking in the graphics window with the Create Text
tool active. This will bring up the Text
Properties dialog. In this dialog, the attributes for the text object can be defined.
The following text attributes can be set:


Text – Options for specifying the text to be displayed and font style.

Text – Field where the text to be displayed is entered.

Font – Selecting this button bring ups the Font dialog where the font type, style, and size are selected.
The arrow next to the button will bring up a color picker where the font color can be chosen.

Color – Another method for selecting the font color. Clicking this button will bring up a Color dialog
where a larger selection of colors can be chosen. The arrow next to the button will bring up a color picker
identical to the one above.
Background – Fill behind the text with the background color or another color.

Background color – Sets the background color as the same background color selected in for the graphics
window in the Display Options dialog.

Other color – Activates color button identical to the one in the Text section.
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Border – Contains option for defining a border around the text object.

Draw border – Activates a border around the entire text object. The color button allows changing the
border color.

Specifed thickness – Activates the option to change the border thickness. The default border thickness is
1 pixel.
Lines/Arrows
Create lines or arrows using the Create Line
tool. Lines/arrows can be created in screen or world space layers.
Lines can be straight or curved. Click once to start a line. Click again to curve the line. Double-click or hit enter to
complete a line. Once the line has been completed, the Line Properties dialog will appear. This dialog can also be
accessed by right-clicking on the line and selecting the Properties command.
In the Line Properties dialog, the attributes available for lines and arrows include:


Line – Attributes for a line include:

Dashed – Sets the line as an evenly spaced dashed line. The length of each dash and the length of each
space is a set value that cannot be changed at this time.

Solid – Specifies the line as a solid line.

Width – Specified the line width.

Line Color – Clicking this button will bring up a Color dialog where a larger selection of colors can be
chosen. The arrow next to the button will bring up a color picker with preset color options.
Arrowheads – This section has option for making the line into an arrow.

Location – Drop menu that defines where the arrow head will be placed on the line. "None" will leave off
arrowheads. "Begin" places the arrowhead where the line was started when created. "End" placed the
arrowhead where the line terminated during creation. "Both" places an arrowhead at the start and end of
the line.

Length – Defines the length of the arrowhead. The point of the arrowhead will not go past the start or end
point of the line. Increasing the size will move arrowhead further up or down the line.

Width – Defines the arrowhead width. The arrowhead width will be equally divided along either side of
the line.
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Preview – Shows what the line or arrow will look like the current selected options. Options are not applied until
the OK button is clicked.
Rectangles and Ovals
Create rectangles by dragging a box with Create Rectangle
tool active and create ovals with the Create Oval
tool active. Rectangles or ovals can be created in world or screen space layers.
After designating where the rectangle or oval will be drawn, the Rectangle/Oval Properties dialog will appear. This is
the same dialog for both rectangles and ovals. It can also be accessed by right-clicking on the rectangle or oval and
selecting the Properties command.
IN the Rectangle/Oval Properties dialog, the attributes for rectangles and ovals include:


Line – Attributes for a line around the rectangle or oval. Option include:

Dashed – Sets the line as an evenly spaced dashed line. The length of each dash and the length of each
space is a set value that cannot be changed at this time.

Solid – Specifies the line as a solid line.

Width – Specified the line width.

Line Color – Clicking this button will bring up a Color dialog where a larger selection of colors can be
chosen. The arrow next to the button will bring up a color picker with preset color options.
Fill

Fill – Designates that the area of the rectangle or oval will have a solid color. This activates a color
button like the one in the Line section.

No fill – Designates that the area of the rectangle or oval will be empty.
Selection
The Select Annotation Object
tool is used to select and set attributes for annotation objects. This requires that
objects exist to be selected. In this case when using this tool and left-clicking in the annotation object, the object
frame will be drawn around the annotation. In addition to the frame, the XMS application displays grab handles on the
corners and edges of the frame. Modify the rectangular shape of the annotation by dragging one of the grab handles
and changes the position of the object by dragging the annotation (click at any point in the object interior).
Right-clicking on annotation object will produce a menu with the following commands:

Delete – Removes the annotation object.

Duplicate – Creates a copy of the annotation object on the same annotation layer.
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Properties – Brings up the properties dialog for the selected object.
Viewing Annotations At Specific Time Intervals
Available in SMS v11.1 and higher, annotations can be setup to be viewed at specific time intervals. This feature is
currently under development in GMS. To setup annotations so they only are displayed at specified time intervals do
the following:
1) Right-click on the Annotation layer in the tree then select Properties... .
2) This dialog will display the Annotation Layer Properties dialog.
3) Check the Apply time range checkbox
4) Modify the "begin" and "end" time controls to specify the range for when annotations are visible.
5) Click Ok .
Annotations will not be displayed when the specified time range is active. This applies to data in the graphics window
and film loops.
3.1. 1D Grid Module
1D Grid Module
The 1D grid module
is used to display 1D coastal data.
A 1D grid can be created from a map coverage using the Create 1D Grid Frame tool. A 1D grid is oriented with the
water on the left and the land to the right. For example, if the 1D grid was oriented from north to south, the water
would be to the east (left) and the land would be to the west (right). The dimensions of the 1D grid are specified using
the grid frame .
The 1D grid module contains an interface for the GenCade shoreline morphology model.
1D Grid Module Tools
These tools allow construction of a 1D grid, shorelines associated with the grid, and structures such as seawalls,
groins and breakwaters associated with that shoreline.

Select Point – Selects or drags a point on the initial shoreline.

Create Point – Create a point along the coastline.

Select Detached Breakwater – Edits a breakwater positioned on the grid.

Create Breakwater – Creates a breakwater in a simulation.

Select Jetty or Groin – Edits the length of a groin or jetty.

Create Jetty or Groin – Creates a groin in a simulation.

Select Seawall – Edits the shape of an existing seawall.
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
Create Seawall – Creates seawall segments along the grid.
See 1D Grid Module Tools for more information.
1D Grid Module Menus
The following menus are available in the the 1D Grid module.

Standard Menus – See SMS Menus for more information.

Data – See Scatter Data Menu for more information.

GenCade – See GenCade Menu for more information.
Related Topics

1D Grid Display Options

Modules

GenCade
1D Grid Display Options
The properties of all 1D Grid data that SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the 1D Grid tab of the
Display Options dialog. This dialog is opened by right-clicking on the GenCade Data entry in the Project Explorer
and selecting the Display Options command. (It can also be accessed from the from the Display menu or the Display
Options
macro.)
The entities associated with the 1D Grid module with display options are shown below. Some of these entities also
show an Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display controls are available. The available one
dimensional grid display options include the following:
Grid Objects

Y Scale Factor – Magnification in the direction perpendicular to shore

Grid – Shows or hides the 1D grid line.

Initial shoreline – Shows or hides the arc used as the initial coastline.

Current shoreline – Based on dataset.

Shoreline points – Show or hides points in use along the shoreline arc.

Minimum Shoreline

Maximum Shoreline

Minimum/Maximum shoreline envelope – Shows or hides zone covered by transient coastline and extremes
based on dataset.

Reference shoreline – Shows or hides the shoreline arc used as a reference for the grid.

Regional contour – Shows or hides the arc used as the regional contour shoreline.
Structure Objects

Seawalls

Groins

Breakwaters

Bypass Cells

Beach Fills

Inlets
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SBAS Polygons
 SBAS Flux
For more information see the article GenCade Structures .
Related Topics
1D Grid Module
1D Grid Tools
The 1D grid tools are available in the 1D grid module when working with the GenCade model. These tools allow
editing the features on a 1D grid. These festures include:

Shorelines associated with the grid

Structures along the shoreline:

Seawalls

Groins
 Breakwaters
It is recommended to manage a GenCade project through a conceptual model in a GenCade coverage. The conceptual
model allows more flexibility when specifying the structures because it works in real world space. These tools work
on the 1D grid using grid cell indices and distances from the grid to locate the objects. The GenCade menu also
provides commands to edit the objects.
The tools include:

Select Point – Allows selecting a point on the initial shoreline defined for the grid and dragging it closer to
or farther away from the grid. Since the distance along the grid is not variable for the selected point, the edit
only affects the local "Y" value of the grid point. Since the grid usually consists of many points along the
shoreline, editing the shoreline with this tool can be tedious.

Create Point – This tool is currently disabled. With other 1D grid models that have been supported in the
SMS package, creating grid points using this tool was supported. The only 1D grid model currently included in
the package (GenCade), does not support this feature. This tool would be used to create a point along the initial
coastline.

Select Detached Breakwater – This tool is used to edit a breakwater positioned along the grid. With this
tool active, a click in the graphics window selects an endpoint of a breakwater, and dragging the mouse with the
end point selected moves the endpoint of the breakwater. The depth, transmission and permeability of the
breakwater must be assigned using either the GenCade | Detached Breakwaters command or by assigning
these attributes to an arc in the conceptual model.

Create Breakwater – This tool can be used to create a breakwater in a simulation. Clicking in the graphics
window with this tool active defines a starting point for a breakwater. SMS will then draw a "rubber band line"
from this location to the cursor until a second location is clicked, terminating the breakwater. Attributes for the
breakwater must be assigned using either the GenCade | Detached Breakwaters command or by assigning
these attributes to an arc in the conceptual model.

Select Jetty or Groin – This tool is used to edit the length of a groin or jetty positioned along the grid. With
this tool active, a click in the graphics window selects an endpoint of a groin , and dragging the mouse with the
end point selected moves the endpoint of the groin, thus changing its length. Other attributes of the groin/jetty
must be assigned using either the GenCade | Groins or GenCade | Inlets commands or by assigning these
attributes to an arc in the conceptual model.

Create Groin – This tool can be used to create a groin in a simulation. Clicking in the graphics window with
this tool active defines the end point for a groin. SMS will connect this location to the grid defining the groin.
Attributes for the groin must be assigned using the GenCade | Groins command or by assigning these attributes
to an arc in the conceptual model.
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
Select Seawall – This tool is used to edit the shape of an existing seawall along the grid. With this tool
active, a click in the graphics window selects a point in a seawall. Dragging the mouse with the point selected
modifies the seawall. As with grids, seawalls often include multiple segments making them tedious to edit using
this approach.

Create Seawall – This tool can be used to create seawall segments along the grid. With this tool active, a
click in the graphics window starts the creation of a segment. A second click terminates the segment. When the
segment is complete, SMS determines if this segment overlaps existing segments and trims the existing
segments to the new segment if an overlap exists.
Related Topics

1D Grid Module
3.2. Cartesian Grid Module
Cartesian Grid Module
At a glance

Used to create, edit, and visualize rectilinear grids

Datasets can have values at cells, corners, and midsides
 Can use cell-centered or mesh-centered grids
The 2D Cartesian Grid Module contains tools used to construct 2D Cartesian finite difference grids. These grids
consist of cells aligned with a rectilinear coordinate system.
Some models limit the grid to be defined with square cells, others limit to constant sized rectangular cells, while
others add the flexibility of having variable sizes to the cells (variable row height or column width.
It is strongly recommended that grids be created through the Map Module . The grid module currently includes
interfaces for:

BOUSS-2D – Phase resolving Boussinesq wave energy and circulation model

CMS-Flow – Hydrodynamic circulation specifically adapted for coastal zone

CMS-Wave – Wave energy model

STWAVE – Wave energy model

TUFLOW – Coastal, Riverine, and Urban hydrodynamic model with emphasis in flooding applications
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The Grid module is included with all paid editions of SMS.
Grid Types
Multiple types of grids are supported in the 2D Grid module because each numerical engine has its own limitations
and supported features. Variations include:

Mesh centered -vs- Cell centered. This refers to where data values are associated with a grid. For mesh centered
grids, values are assumed to be at the intersection of lines or cell corners. The BOUSS-2D model is an example
of this type. For cell centered grids, values are associated with a cell in general and assumed to be at the cell
centroid. STWAVE and CMS-Wave are example of this type. In reality, this is just a visualization difference,
but in practice it can get complicated because a numerical model may have some data expected as grid centered
and other data as cell centered. There is also an option for some types of data to actually be associated with a
face of the cell such as the vertical (or J direction) flow being associated with the top face and the horizontal (or
I direction) flow associated with the left face. This is the situation with the CMS-Flow engine.

Rotational limitations. Some numerical engines require that the grid be a true Cartesian grid, meaning that it is
not rotated. The WAM model requires this condition. Other engines operate in their own local space, so while
the I/J directions of the grid do not necessarily correspond to a global orientation (such as East and North), they
are still considered Cartesian space from the numerical analysis perspective.

Cell shape limitations. Some numerical engines require that all cells be square. WAM is an example of this.
Earlier versions of STWAVE had this restriction but now supports rectangular cells.

Refinement limitations. Some numerical engines allow the cells to change aspect ratio. Obviously, in order for
this to be supported, the engine must also support non-square cells. The CMS models are the only engines
supported in SMS that allow this type of grid. The SMS interface allows creating refine points in a Cartesian
grid coverage to specify the desired row width (and/or cell height) at a specific location in the domain. The grid
generation method will create cells that match the smallest specified dimension and grow at a user specified rate
to a maximum dimension.

Telescoping or QuadTree grids . The CMS-Flow engine also supports computation on a telescoping grid or quad
tree. In this geometric object, specify a constant resolution grid as a background grid (either number of
rows/columns or a fixed width/height), and then specifies refinements as a maximum allowable dimension in a
polygonal zone. This is described more in the Telescoping Grids definition.

Projection limitations. Most numerical engines are designed to work in a specific type of coordinate system or
projection. The WAM model only operates on a grid in geographic space. The other numerical engines currently
in the SMS interface require a Cartesian space such as UTM or State Plane. Some responsibility is left to ensure
that the projection being used in a simulation is compatible with the numerical engine being employed.
When a dataset is imported to a cell-centered grid, there is one value in the dataset for each cell.
In Cartesian grids, row and column boundaries are straight. Each cell center or grid node can have a unique elevation.
The grid can also be rotated about the Z axis if desired.
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Creating and Editing 2D Grids
Creating 2D Grids
The two main techniques used to create 2D grids are: the Map → 2D Grid command and the Create Grid command.
It is encouraged to utilize the Map Module rather than generating grids directly in the Cartesian grid module because
the map module creates a record that can be edited and repeated.
Cartesian Grid Generator Coverage
Starting with SMS 12.0, a generic Cartesian Grid Generator coverage or CGrid Generator coverage can be used with
the Map module. This coverage allows access to the Create 2D Grid Frame
tool to frame feature objects in the
coverage. Once the grid frame has been created, the feature objects in the coverage can be converted to the Cartesian
Grid module by using the Map → 2D Grid command.
When creating the CGrid Generator coverage from the New Coverage dialog, the Select Grid Type dialog will appear
before the coverage is created in the project explorer. This dialog gives the option to create the coverage as "Cellcentered" or "Mesh-centered". The selection should depend on which model the feature objects will be used in after
conversion to the Cartesian Grid module.
Map → 2D Grid
The Map → 2D Grid command is used to construct a 2D grid using a grid frame feature object in a the current
coverage. When the Map → 2D Grid command is selected, the Map → 2D Grid dialog appears.
Parameters specified to create the grid include:

Grid Geometry – Specifies the origin, orientation and size of the grid. The fields of these quantities are
populated with default values based on the three points. The orientation is measured as an angle from the
positive X axis.

Cell Options – Specifies the number of cells in each direction in the grid. Several options are available.
Specifies sizes in the I (Delta U)and J (Delta V) directions or a number of columns and rows. If the Use Grid
Frame Size toggle is checked, the grid will exactly match the dimensions specified in the Grid Geometry
section. If that option is not checked, the last row and column may extend beyond the specified lengths. This
allows specifying exact grid size, or exact cell size.

Depth Options – The elevations or depths assigned to each cell or node can be specified as a single value, or
select a dataset to interpolate from.

Current – For models that support currents. Also specifies if current field either as a constant, or interpolated
from a vector dataset .
The type and orientation of the grid generated is controlled by the current Cartesian Grid Model.
For some models, specific grid helps are available via a button at the bottom of the dialog.
If one or more refine points are defined (CMS models only) in the conceptual model, the number of rows and columns
in the grid will be automatically determined when the grid is created. Thus, these fields cannot be edited and will be
dimmed. If refine points are not defined, enter the number of rows and columns.
If the grid is intended for CMS-Flow , and telescoping resolution is specified in at least one feature polyon, SMS will
generate a recursively refining grid based on the input parameters.
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Create Grid
A new grid can be created by selecting the Create 2D Grid Frame
tool from the Cartesian Grid Tools . With this
tool active, create a grid by clicking on three points in the graphics window. The first click defines the origin of the
grid, the second click defines the orientation of the grid and length of the I axis and the third click defines the length
of the length of the J axis. After clicking three times defining the three points, the Map → 2D Grid dialog appears.
Editing 2D Grids
Each of the cells in a 2D grid can be active (water) or inactive (land). An inactive cell is ignored when contours or
vectors are displayed on the grid and by the numeric engine during computation. If a cell has the potential of
becoming active (due to wetting/drying or a similar process), it should be classified as active. Cells status is specified
by selecting the cell and assigning a status through the model menu.
Rows and columns can be added to an existing grid that supports variable row/column size by using the Insert Row ,
Insert Coumn , Drag Row , or Drag Coumn tool. (See 2D Grid Tool Palette )
Smoothing 2D Grids
It may be useful to smooth the spatial data stored on a 2D grid for a number of reasons. These reasons include:

In order to conserve the amount of disk spaced required to store a DEM, many DEM formats store elevations
rounded to the nearest integer value. This causes elevation changes to occur in discrete steps rather than
smoothly, as would be the case in nature. In regions of low relief, rounded elevations can cause an area to be
artificially "flat."

Surveys may include anomalies. Smoothing algorithms blend these bad data points into the surrounding values.

Datasets may include spurious noise either from physical conditions such as waves or numerical filtering.
Smoothing can dampen these variations.
When right-clicking on the grid in the Project Explorer, operations for the grid appear in a pop up window. One of
these is the smooth operation.
Converting 2D Grids
2D Grids may be converted to other types of data used in SMS, such as a Scattered Dataset of 2D mesh . 2D Grids can
be converted by right-clicking on the grid in the Project Explorer .
Project Explorer
The following Project Explorer mouse right-click menus are available when the mouse right-click is performed on a
Cartesian Grid Module item.
Cartesian Grid Module Root Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the Cartesian Grid module root folder in the project explorer invokes an options menu with the
following options:

Display Options
Cartesian Grid Item Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a Cartesian Grid item in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following module
specific options:

Smooth – Opens the Cartesian Grid Smoothing Options dialog.
Model Specific Right-Click Menus

Create Transformed Grid
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Opens the Create Transformed Grid dialog. Creates a copy of the grid with a rotated origin. Used to change the
I direction for wave models.
Related Models: CMS-Wave , STWAVE
Cartesian Grid Module Tools
See Cartesian Grid Module Tools for more information.
Cartesian Grid Module Menus
See Cartesian Grid Module Menus for more information.
How do I?
To learn more about how to use the Cartesian Grid Module go to the Tutorials section of the Aquaveo website at:
http://www.aquaveo.com/software/sms-learning-tutorials .
Related Coverages
The grid module currently includes interfaces for:

BOUSS-2D – Phase resolving Boussinesq wave energy and circulation model

CMS-Flow – Hydrodynamic circulation specifically adapted for coastal zone

CMS-Wave – Wave energy model

STWAVE – Wave energy model

TUFLOW – Coastal, Riverine, and Urban hydrodynamic model with emphasis in flooding applications
Related Topics

Cartesian Grid Display Options

Spectral Energy

Cartesian Grid Find Cell

SMS Modules
Cartesian Grid Coordinates
A projection can now be associated with a Cartesian grid. The data for the grid will be stored in this projection;
however, the grid can still be displayed in any projection chosen. When the SMS project's projection ("working
projection") is changed, the grid will be converted "on the fly." While the display will be changed, the data will
remain in the original projection. This method will reduce rounding errors in the data introduced when converting
coordinates.
Editing the Grid
When the grid is displayed in a projection different than its own, it will not be editable. The "working projection"
must match that of the grid to be able to edit. The grid's right-click command, Work in grid projection , will set the
"working projection" to the grid's projection.
Changing the Grid Projection
When a grid is created, the projection is defaulted to the "working projection". The grid's projection can be changed
using the Projection... and Reproject... commands in the grid's right-click menu.
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Floating Projection
If a grid is read in from a file that does not specify a projection, the grid will "float" in whichever projection is the
working projection. If a grid is floating, the Projection... command in the right-click menu will be followed by
"floating". To assign a projection to the grid, select the Projection... command and select a projection.
Related Topics

SMS:Cartesian Grid Module
Cartesian Grid Data Menu
Most of the SMS modules have a Data menu, but the items in this menu are different for each module.
The Cartesian Grid Module Data menu commands include:

Steering Module – Launches the steering tool.

Dataset Toolbox – Contains tools for working with datasets. Includes the Data Calculator .

Switch Current Model – Changes current active model.

Vector Options – Opens a dialog where options to generate vectors can be edited.

Contour Options – Opens a dialog where dataset specific contour options can be defined.

Set Contour Min/Max – This command sets the contour options based on the current options and the selected
nodes/vertices or zoom level.

Contour Range Options – This controls if the Set Contour Min/Max command applies to dataset specific
contour options or the general contour options (for the mesh or scatter modules). It also sets the flags for
precision and fill above and below.

Film Loop – Opens the Film Loop Setup wizard.

Grid → Scatterpoint – Converts grid data into the scatter module.

Grid → Map – Converts grid data into a map coverage.

Grid → Mesh – Converts grid data into the mesh module.

Find Cell – Used to locate a cell either with a specific i,j location, or near a specific location.

Map Elevation – Allows use of another functional dataset as the mapped elevation function.

Zonal Classification – Tool to identify areas that meet as set of criteria.
Model Specific Menus
The following models have specific commands included in the Data menu.

BOUSS-2D

CMS-Flow

CMS-Wave

STWAVE

TUFLOW
Data Conversion Commands
Grid to Scatterpoint
The Grid → Scatter command in the Data menu (Cartesian grid module) is equivalent to the 2D Grid → 2D Scatter
command in the right-click menu on a grid object in the project explorer. It is used to convert the grid cell corners into
a scattered dataset (scatter module).
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Each cell corner in the grid is converted to a scatter vertex. SMS computes one dataset from the elevation dataset of
the grid and one dataset for each functional dataset on the grid. If the Cartesian grid is cell centered (data at the center
of the cell), SMS averages the values of the four surrounding cells to compute a value for the scatter set vertex. If the
Cartesian grid is a mesh centered grid (BOUSS2D), SMS assigns the value from the cell corner to the scattered vertex.
Each cell in the grid is converted to two triangles in a TIN.
This command allows the visualization of the data on a matching geometric object.
Grid to Map
The Grid → Map command in the Data menu (Cartesian grid module) is equivalent to the 2D Grid → Map
command in the right-click menu on a grid object in the project explorer. It is used to convert attributes of the
Cartesian grid into feature objects on a coverage (map module). All generated features are added to the current or
active coverage. If a new coverage is desired, it should be created prior to issuing this command.
The command includes the following options:
Land/Water Boundary → Arcs
This option only applies to Cartesian grids which support cell attributes supporting land and water cells (CMS-Flow).
When this option is selected, the cell faces between cells of these opposing types are converted to feature arcs. For
grid cells that do not support cell attributes, this options functions identically to the Grid Boundary → Arcs option.
Grid Boundary → Arcs
This option generates a feature arc along all cell edges of the boundary of the Cartesian grid.
Observation Cells → Points
This option can be applied to either arc generation option above. It only applies to Cartesian grids that support the cell
attribute of observation cells. If this toggle is selected, a feature point is created at the centroid of each cell with the
observation point attribute.
This command has minimal usefulness since the feature objects generated are step functions. It is recommended that
other data sources, such as a scatter set or a shapefile be used to define these features, but if only the numerical model
exists, this command can be used to help construct a conceptual model.
Grid to Mesh
The Grid → Mesh command in the Data menu (Cartesian grid module) is equivalent to the 2D Grid → 2D Mesh
command in the right-click menu on a grid object in the project explorer. It is used to convert the grid cell corners into
a mesh or unstructured grid object (mesh module).
Each cell corner in the grid is converted to a mesh node. SMS computes an elevation for the mesh node as the average
of the four surrounding cells in the grid for cell centered grids, or the elevation of the corner for mesh centered grids.
Each cell in the grid is converted to two triangular elements.
This command allows the visualization of the data on a matching geometric object.
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Switch Current Model
The Switch Current Model command brings up a Select Current Model dialog. This dialog can only be used when a
grid does not currently exist.
Find Cell
The Find Cell command from the Data menu is used to locate a cell either with a specific i,j location, or near a
specific location. When this command is executed the Find Cell dialog opens.
When the Find by (I,J) option is selected, the cell with the specified i,j is highlighted in red. If there is no cell with the
specified i,j , an error message is given. Conversely, when the Find by nearest (x,y) coordinates option is selected, the
cell containing the specified coordinate is highlighted with red. If no cell contains the x,y location, an error message is
given. With either of these methods, the found cell becomes selected in addition to being highlighted.
Obsolete Commands

Create Datasets – Opens a dialog that can be used to create functions for the entire mesh or active scatter set. No
longer available as of SMS 10.1. Replaced by the Dataset Toolbox .
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Related Topics

Cartesian Grid Module
Cartesian Grid Module Display Options
The properties of all mesh data that SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Cartesian Grid tab of
the Display Options dialog. This dialog is opened by right-clicking on the
Cartesian Grid Data entry in the Project
Explorer and selecting the Display Options command. It can also be accessed from the from the Display menu or the
Display Options
macro.
Cell display
SMS allows specifying the level of quality for displaying cells. This is done at the top of the display options dialog by
choosing 1 quad, 4 quad, 4 triangles or 8 triangles as the display option. Aquaveo developers have found that 1 quad
is the fastest display option, but in situations of high relief, the cell may be distorted from a flat quad and this
representation can leave gaps in the display. For such situations, 4 quads generally solves the display issues, but takes
a little longer. For highest quality of display, and to assure matching of the cell display with the contours, 8 triangles
can be used.
The cells are colored based on their types. Land cells are colored separately from water cells. Special cells are marked
with symbols. These could be observation stations (probes), or specially marked cells for another purpose.
Cell String display
Some models support cell strings (M2D, BOUSS2D), at which specific attributes or boundary conditions are
specified. Each cell string type has its own display attributes.
Grid display
Other entities associated with the Cartesian Grid module with display options are shown below. Some of these entities
also show an Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display controls are available. The available
grid display options include the following:

Contours – The contours are drawn for the active scalar dataset. All standard contour display options are
supported for cartesian grid contours.

Vectors – The cartesian grid vectors are drawn for the active vector dataset. All standard vector display options
are supported.

Grid Boundary – A line around the perimeter of the cartesian grid can be drawn. This is useful when the cells
are turned off. Line color and thickness can be specified.

Computational Domain – It can be useful to delineate the active (or water cells) from the rest of the grid. This
option allows for specification of a line to outline the computational cells.

Cell id – Displays the ID for each cell. The text font, color, and size can be specified.

Cell i, j – The i,j coordinate can be drawn in each cell.

Elevations – The current scalar value can be drawn in each cell.

IJ triad – Arrows can be displayed at the origin of the grid showing the i and j directions.

Display Inactive Grids – SMS supports the ability to store/manipulate multiple Cartesian grids at the same time.
This allows for functionality such as nested grids in STWAVE and steering between STWAVE and M2D.
However, only one grid can be edited at a time. This is the "active" grid. The outline of other grids can be
displayed using the Display Inactive Grid option.

Functional Surface – Show surfaces representing one of the functional datasets associated with a mesh, grid or
TIN.
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Model specific options
Each model may include other display options associated only with that model or options slightly modified from those
described above. For example, the types of cell strings supported by each model are different. This is reflected by
slightly different options for each model. Details on these entities can be found in model specific documentation.
Related Topics

Cartesian Grid Module

Display Options
Cartesian Grid Tools
The following tools are contained in the Dynamic Tools portion of the tool palette when the Cartesian Grid module is
active. Tools specific to a model interface are described with the corresponding model. Only one tool is active at any
given time. The action that takes place when clicking in the Graphics Window depends on the current tool. The
following table describes the tools in the Cartesian Grid module tool palette. Depending on the current model, and the
type of grids it supports, some of these tools may not be available.
Tool
Tool Name
Description
Select Cell
The Select Cell tool is used to select a grid cell. A

single cell is selected by clicking on it. A second cell
can be added to the selection list by holding the
SHIFT key while selecting it. Multiple cells can be
selected at once by dragging a box around them. A
selected cell can be de-selected by holding the SHIFT
key as it is clicked.
When a single cell is selected, its Z coordinate is
shown in the Edit Window . The Z coordinates can be
changed by typing in the edit field, which updates the
depth function. If multiple cells are selected, the Z

Coordinate field in the Edit Window shows the
average depth of all selected cells. If this value is
changed, the new value will be assigned to all
selected points.
With one cell selected, the Edit Window shows the
point i,j location. With multiple cells selected, the
Edit Window shows the number of selected cells. The
number and size of the cells can be changed in the
Model Control .
Select Row
The Select Row tool is used to select cell rows.
Rows are selected in the same manner as selecting
individual cells.
Select Column The Select Column tool is used to select cell
columns. Columns are selected in the same manner
as selecting individual cells.
Right-Click Menu
N/A
N/A
Split Grid
Column
Inserts a new column into an existing grid. This tool N/A
splits an existing column into two columns at the
selected location selected.
Split Grid
Row
Inserts a new row into an existing grid. This tool
splits an existing row into two rows at the selected
N/A
Interpolate Bathymetry... – Requires
one or more Cartesian grid cells to be
selected, and to have a scatter set in the
project, This option brings up the
Interpolation dialog where the desired
source scatter dataset can be selected.
When OK is clicked, SMS will
interpolate the selected cell(s)'
elevations based on the chosen scatter
dataset.
Cells to Active Coverage – Converts
the selected cells into polygons on the
current active coverage.
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location.
Drag Column Edit column boundary. This tool makes one column N/A
narrower while making its neighbor wider.
Boundary
Drag Row
Boundary
Edit row boundary. This tool makes one row taller
while making its neighbor shorter.
N/A
Select Cell
String
Select a “Cell String”. Allows assignment of
boundary conditions.
N/A
Create Cell
String
Create a “Cell String”. This tools defines a string of N/A
cells for later assignment of boundary conditions or
flux observations.
Label
Contours
Used to manually create a contour label using the
N/A
mouse. To add a label, click on the point where the
label should be created. The label will remain on the
screen until either it is manually removed or the
automatic contour label options are changed. To
manually remove a contour label, hold the SHIFT
key and clicking on it. There are also available
automatic contour label options.
Interactive options

Move Frame – Click inside or on an edge where the frame is not highlighted and drag.

Resize Frame – Click a highlighted corner or edge and drag to resize.

Rotate Frame – Click inside the circle near the bottom right corner of the frame and drag to rotate the frame.

– Redraw the screen.

– Zoom to the extents of the data in the screen.
While graphically manipulating the grid frame, the current values of origin, orientation and/or size are displayed at the
bottom of the graphics window.
Related Topics

SMS:Cartesian Grid Module
Grid Frame Properties
The Grid Frame Properties dialog is accessed when the Create 1D Grid Frame tool or the Create 2D Grid Frame
tool is used. It can also be accessed after a grid frame has been created by using Select 1D Grid Frame tool or the
Select 2D Grid Frame tool then right-clicking on the grid and selecting the Properties command from the right-click
menu.
The Grid Frame Properties dialog allows specifying the attributes applied to the grid frame when performing a Map
→ 2D Grid operation. These properties are as follows:

Origin X/Y – Set the bottom left corner location of the grid frame.

Orientation


Angle – Set the angle the grid frame will be rotated counter-clockwise from the +x axis.

I/J size – Set the length and width of the grid frame. The cell dimensions are updated: Cell X = Grid X /
Number of Columns, Cell Y = Grid Y / Number of Rows.
Cell Options – These options vary based on the grid type being generated. A few of the options are illustrated
below. Specify the size of the cells to be created in each of the applicable directions from the following options:
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
Cell size (or Base cell size if telescoping is an option) – Set the dimension (width or height) of each cell
for the grid to be created.

Number of cells – Set the number of rows and/or columns for the grid to be created.

Use refine points – Tell SMS to use specified refine points in a CMS-Flow or CMS-Wave coverage. This
will result in rectangular cells with variable aspect ratio.

Maximum cell size – The max size the should exists when growing

Maximum bias – The max growth ratio to be used when growing

Use inner growth – Specifies whether the cell sizes should grow between two refine points

Grid size – The grid dimension in the specified direction

Adjust base cell size – This button appears only for CMS-Flow coverages when there are feature polygons with
target maximum size guidelines specified. Clicking on this button will update the base cell sizes so that the
larger of the two is a multiple of the minimum feature size that is to be represented in the grid. For example, if
having specified 20 m as the maximum cell size (to allow for 5 cells to represent a channel that is 100 m across),
and the base cell size is 75 m in both directions, this button will increase the base cell size to 80 meters in both
directions. Therefore the smallest cell generated will be 20 m by 20 m, whereas, a base cell size of 75 m would
result in a cell 18.25 m on each side. The objective is to make the base cell size correspond to the smallest user
specified target cell size.

Options – Set the interpolation options for the Scatter applications. Not used for the Cartesian or 1D Grid
applications.
When specifying Define cell sizes , there are a few options available. These options are:
1) Specify cell size – Specify the cell size and the number of cells will be computed.
2) Specify number of cells – Specify the number of cells and the cell size will be computed.
If the grid is to have square cells, the v direction cell size will always be linked to the u direction cell size.
The Grid Frame Properties dialog varies depending on the active coverage.
They are also created temporarily in a number of functions in the SMS interface including:

Creating a grid in the Grid Module

Interpolating from a scatter set to a scatter grid ( Scatter | Interp to Scatter Grid in the Scatter module).
 Interpolating from a scatter set to a nautical grid ( Scatter | Interp to Nautical Grid in the Scatter module).
Grid frames consist of a rectangular shape, normally defined by three graphical clicks, which can be oriented and
stretched using handles on the sides and corners as shown in the following image to create an arbitrary rectangle
shape.
Depending on the application of the grid frame, it will have a variety of attributes or properties.
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Interact with the grid frame when the Select Grid Frame tool is active, or define grid frame properties explicitly
using the Grid Frame Properties dialog (this dialog is accessible by right-clicking on the grid frame or when
converting to a grid.
Related Topics

Map Module Tools

Feature Objects Menu
Grid Smoothing
The Cartesian Grid Smoothing Options dialog is opened by right-clicking on a Cartesian Grid item in the Project
Explorer snd selecting the Smooth... menu command. The following options can be specified:

Filter size – This determines how many neighbors are included when smoothing the grid. Options are 3x3 and
5x5.

Number of iterations – This specifies how many passes should be made with the smoothing algorithm.

Max. elevation change – This value specifies the maximum allowable elevation change per iteration for each
cell.

Filter ratio – The new cell elevation is computed using the original elevation (at the beginning of the iteration
not the whole process) and the "blurred" elevation. The filter ratio defines how far the elevation is changed
between the original elevation and the "blurred" elevation. A filter ratio of 1.0 would replace the existing
elevation with the "blurred" elevation. A filter ratio of 0.0 would be pointless as it wouldn't change the
elevations. A filter ratio of 0.5 would give a new elevation that is the average of the original elevation and the
blurred elevation.

Filter Range – The start and end index values specify the extents of the smoothing. Defaults to the grid extents.


Column start – The column index on which to start the smoothing process.

Column end – The column index on which to end the smoothing process.

Row start – The row index on which to start the smoothing process.

Row end – The row index on which to end the smoothing process.
Only modify selected cells/cell locations – If this option is selected, only the cells or cell locations (if model uses
elevations at centers, faces, and corners) that are selected are smoothed. Cells or cell locations not selected may
be used to compute "blurred" elevations but their elevations are never modified.
Related Topics

Cartesian Grid Module Right-Click Menus

Cartesian Grid Module
Refine Point Dialog
The Refine Point dialog is used to set the attributes for a refine point represented by a feature point in a Cartesian Grid
model coverage. Refine points for a Cartesian Grid allow changing the cell dimensions when generating the grid. The
dialog is reached by selecting a point in a Cartesian grid coverage and selecting the Feature Objects | Attributes
command.
Attributes that can be specified for each refine point include:

Refine grid in I direction – Has the following option when turn on:


Base cell size – Specify the cell I size in the vicinity of the refine point.
Refine grid in J direction – Has the following option when turned on:
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 Base cell size – Specify the cell J size in the vicinity of the refine point.
Only refine points located within a grid frame are used when the Map → 2D Grid command is executed. Refine
points are not available for all models, since some Cartesian Grid models require uniform cell sizes. When the refining
is performed, the base size may be changed in order to fit the other restrictions applied to the refining process. If two
refine points are too close to each other to allow the cell size to transition, one will be ignored when generating the
grid
1D Grid models can also make use of a refine point. For information on this, see GenCade .
Related Topics

Feature Objects Menu
3.3. Curvilinear Grid Module
Curvilinear Grid Module
The curvilinear grid module contains tools used to work with curvilinear grid data. Curvilinear grids consist of nodes
that are grouped together to form cells. These nodes and cells define the computational domain of the numerical
model. In addition to nodes and cells, a curvilinear grid may store additional information such as material values
assigned to elements and boundary conditions assigned to nodes. In general, this additional information is used as
input data for the numerical model.
Nodes
Nodes are the basic building blocks of cells in a curvilinear grid. Nodes store elevation and other dataset values.
Nodes can also be used for building nodestrings and assigning boundary conditions. The density of nodes helps
determine the quality of solution data and can be important to model stability.
Cells
Cells are used to describe the area to be modeled. Cells are formed by joining exactly four nodes. No more than four
cells may join at a single node. If four cells join at a single node, the node cannot be a boundary node. Cells are
identified by a unique i, j index.
Delete Cells
1)
2)
3)
4)
Click on the Select Element tool for curvilinear grids or Vtk Meshes.
Select the cells to be deleted.
Right-click on the selected cell and select Delete or hit the DELETE key.
For curvilinear, the Delete will fail and error message will be displayed if the grid would become invalid if
deletion occurred.
Add Cells
Cells can only be added to an existing Curvilinear grid.
1) Click on the Create Element tool for cuvilinear grids.
2) Click and hold on any element on the edge of the grid and drag the displayed arrow across the boundary edge,
then release. A new element will be created.
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Nodestrings
A collection of nodes can be formed into a nodestring. Nodestrings are most commonly used to assign boundary
conditions such as a flowrate or water-surface elevation. Nodestrings can also be used for mesh renumbering, forcing
break lines, and boundary smoothing. Finally, a nodestring can store attributes pertinent to a location such as the total
flow nodestring.
Delete Nodes (Vtk Mesh only)
1)
2)
3)
Click on the Select Node tool for Vtk mesh.
Select the nodes to be deleted.
Right-click on the selected nodes and select Delete or hit the DELETE key.
Merging Two Curvilinear Grids
To merge two curvilinear grids there must be at least one segment that is common (shared) between the two grids.
To do a merge:

Hold down the CTRL key and select two curvilinear grids from the tree item.
 Right click and select Merge Curvilinear Grids .
A new curvilinear grid is created from the two selected grids.
Models
The curvilinear grid module currently includes interfaces for:

LTFATE
Tools
See Curvilinear Grid Module Tools for more information.
Menus
When one or more active nodestrings have been created, and the Select Nodestrings tool is selected, a set of menu's
becomes available by right-clicking on the mouse. The menu items operate on the active nodestrings:

Delete Selected – Deletes the selected nodestrings.

Merge Selected – Will merge two or more selected nodestrings to form a single nodestring. Nodestrings must
share the same endpoints to be merged.

Clear Selections – Unselect all of the selected nodestrings.

Select All – Selects all nodestrings.
Display Options
See Curvilinear Grid Display Options for more information.
Related Topics

Curvilinear Grid Display Options

SMS Modules
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Curvilinear Grid Display Options
The properties of the curvilinear grid data SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Display Options
dialog. The entities associated with the curvilinear grid module with display options are shown below. Some of these
entities also have an associated Options button. For these entities, additional display options are available. The
available curvilinear grid display options include the following:

Nodes – A circle is filled around each node. Specify the radius and color of these circles. The Options button is
used to set the display of nodal boundary condition data. The dialog that opens when this button is clicked
depends on the current numerical model.

Edges – Cell edges.

Contours – Contours are drawn for the active scalar dataset. Use the contours tab to change contour options .

Boundary – A line is drawn around the perimeter of the curvilinear grid.

Nodestring – Determines the color of nodestring lines. The Options button will bring up the Nodestrings
Display Options dialog where colors can be selected for varying nodestring types.

Element Fill – Elements can be filled using the following options:

None

Materials – Elements are filled using the material assigned to the element.

Mesh quality – Elements are filled using a user specified mesh quality metric. For a description of the
mesh quality metrics, please see the VERDICT Manual which contains the mathematical definition of
each quality metric. The VERDICT website contains further information on the VERDICT mesh
verification code library.

Solid color – Elements are filled using a solid color.

Texture mapping – An image is draped over the mesh elements.
Model Specific Options
Each model may include model specific display options. These appear at the bottom of the Display Options dialog.
Related Topics

Curvilinear Grid Module

Display Options
Curvilinear Grid Module Tools
The following tools are active in the dynamic portion of the Tool Palette whenever the Curvilinear Grid Module is
active. Only one tool is active at any given time. The action that takes place when clicking in the Graphics Window
with the cursor depends on the current tool. The table below describes the tools in the Curvilinear Grid tool palette.
Tool
Tool Name
Description
Right Click Menu
Select Curvilinear Grid
Node
The Select Curvilinear Grid Node tool is N/A
used to manually select and edit an
individual node location. Currently, the only
reason to select a grid node is to adjust the
shape of the adjacent (4) elements. The
status bar at the bottom of the screen
displays the i, j, and id of the selected node.
The current position of the node is displayed
in the edit fields at the top of the screen.
(Dragging of curvilinear grid nodes was
added for SMS 11.2.)
SMS 12.2
Select Cell
The Select Cell tool is used to select a grid When one or more curvilinear grid
cell. A single cell is selected by clicking on cells are selected, a right-click in the
it. A second cell can be added to the
graphic window will bring up a
selection list by holding the SHIFT key
menu. The menu has the following
while selecting it. Multiple cells can be
commands:
selected at once by dragging a box around
 Delete – Delete the selected
them. A selected cell can be de-selected by
cell(s).
holding the SHIFT key as it is clicked.
 Set Observation Station –
When a single cell is selected, its Z
Bring up the Observation
coordinate is shown in the Edit Window .
Station dialog.
The Z coordinates can be changed by typing
in the edit field, which updates the depth
function. If multiple cells are selected, the Z
Coordinate field in the Edit Window shows
the average depth of all selected cells. If this
value is changed, the new value will be
assigned to all selected points.
With one cell selected, the Edit Window
shows the point i,j location. With multiple
cells selected, the Edit Window shows the
number of selected cells. The number and
size of the cells can be changed in the Model
Control .
Select Element
The Select Element tool is used to select a
cell (or element) of a curvilinear grid.
Currently, the only reason to select a cell is
to delete it from the grid and create a hole
(or notch) in the grid. This would be done
when the cell covers an island or other
region that should be excluded from the
computational domain. The status bar at the
bottom of the screen displays the i, j, and id
of the selected cell as well as the area of the
cell. (Deleting of curvilinear grid cells was
added for SMS 11.2.)
Select Nodestrings
The Select Nodestrings tool is used to select
nodestrings. Nodestrings currently serve no
purpose for curvilinear grids.
Create Nodestrings
The Create Nodestrings tool is used to
create node string. Nodestrings currently
serve no purpose for curvilinear grids.
Split Grid Column
Inserts a new column into an existing grid. N/A
This tool splits an existing column into two
columns at the selected location.
Split Grid Row
Inserts a new row into an existing grid. This N/A
tool splits an existing row into two rows at
the selected location.
Related Topics

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Curvilinear Grid Module
N/A
SMS 12.2
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3.4. GIS Module
GIS Module
At a glance

Open and visualize GIS data

Supports ESRI and MapInfo formats

Uses Mapobjects for ESRI files if available to use ArcGIS visualization options
 GIS data can be converted to feature data (map module)
The GIS module allows managing geographical information data inside of the SMS.
It has traditionally contained external data such as ArcInfo Shapefiles and MapInfo MIF/MID files. This data can be
converted to Map Module Features for various purposes such as inclusion in a conceptual model to create a mesh/grid,
or for inclusion in a simulation.
SMS includes two separate ways of working with or managing external GIS vector data. The first uses internal SMS
functionality to select, edit and convert GIS data to other data types in SMS. The second includes a link to ArcObjects
to allow direct management of the GIS data. This option is described below.
Starting with SMS version 12.0, the GIS module was modified to be consistent with the Groundwater Modeling
System (GMS) and the Watershed Modeling System (WMS). With this merging of functionality, the GIS module is
used to manage all external geographical data including:

Images (*.tif, *.jpg, *.png, *.bmp, *.pdf, *.ecw, *.sid, *m.00 (ENC), ...)

Rasters/DEM (*.dem, *.flt, *.asc, *.bil, *.tif, *.ace, ...)

GIS (*.shp, *.mif/mid, *m.00 (ENC), ...)
 Lidar Surveys (*.las)
When opening a file recognized as a GIS data type, SMS will create an entry in the project explorer for that object.
The object may contain any combination of the following:

image data (colors on a grid)

raster data (values on a grid)
SMS 12.2

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vector data (vector objects)
 GIS objects (data recognized as being native to ArcInfo, MapInfo, QGIS)
In addition to data type, the data source for a GIS object may be static (a single file) or dynamic (a link to a web site).
The icon, displayed to the left of the entry of the tree indicates what type(s) of data reside in that object and whether
the object is static or dynamic.
By right-clicking on a GIS object in the project explorer, the popup menu shows the applications for the specific data
type contained in the selected object.
See GIS Module Right-Click Commands for more information.
Sample applications of the GIS module include:

Display Extract a subset of data from a large file for inclusion in a simulation

Display of background information (such as an aerial photo or map)

Provide topographic/bathymetric data sources (digital elevation map) which can be used in place of a TIN or
scatter set when creating a mesh/grid.
Some of the key functionality available in the GIS module includes:

Efficient management of large datasets

Graphical selection of features

Mapping of selected features to feature objects in map coverages

Viewing attribute tables

Joining additional attribute tables based on a key field (i.e. joining the hydrologic soils group attribute to a
STATSGO/SSURGO shapefile).
The GIS module is included with all paid editions of SMS.
Interpolation
To interpolate from a DEM or image with elevation data, right-click on the object and select Interpolate | <target>
(where <target> defines the object the values are being interpolated to such as a scatter set, grid or mesh). The
principal application of this is to assign geometric elevations or depths to the geometry.
Another application is to assign spatial attributes based on land use attributes, land cover attributes, or another set of
values on the DEM. This is currently available in the ADCIRC menu under the Nodal Attributes command. Selecting
the land use coverage to populate a specific nodal attribute will average the values over the area of interest.
Conversion
These commands create new geometric entities in the SMS project such as a scatter set or feature objects. To convet
from a DEM (image with elevation data), right-click on the object and select Convert | <target> (where <target>
defines the object being created such as a scatter set or grid.
See GIS Conversion and Editing for more information.
Editing
These commands allow manipulating the DEM objects themselves and are accessed by right-clicking on the GIS
object.
See GIS Conversion and Editing for more information.
Edit Values
This command uses the selected arcs or nodes in the active coverage to edit the elevation of cells in the DEM. To use
the command:

Create arcs/nodes at the locations where an edit to the DEM is desired.

Specify the desired elevation(s) as the elevations of the feature objects.
SMS 12.2

Select feature objects to force into the DEM

Right-click on the DEM and select the Edit command.
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Importing Shapefiles
Shapefiles can be visualized in SMS as well as be converted to feature objects or scatter data. This can be done by
using either the Shapes → Feature Objects or Polygons → TIN command in the Mapping menu. It is important to
check for bad polygons when converting shapefile data. These may be polygons with zero area or with duplicate
nodes. This problem can be fixed by using the Clean command in the Feature Objects menu. If using the Clean
option does not fix the problem initially, try increasing the tolerance until all problematic feature objects are removed.
For additional information, see Importing Shapefiles .
GIS Module Tools
See GIS Module Tools for more information.
GIS Module Menus
See GIS Module Menus for more information.
Using the GIS Module with a License of ArcGIS®
SMS includes the option to use ArcObjects to incorporate much of the ArcGIS/ArcMap/ArcView® functionality
directly. Any ArcGIS® supported file (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases, images, CAD, grids, etc.) can be opened,
then used with the ArcGIS® Display Symbology properties to render the GIS data, and then display it in SMS.
To use SMS (32-bit only) with ArcGIS®, do the following:

Activate the GIS Module.

Enable ArcObjects by selecting Data | Enable ArcObjects .

Open the desired shapefile by selecting Data | Add Shapefile Data... and browse for the file. The file should
now appear in the Project Explorer .

Right-click on the imported shapefile and select Properties . The ArcGIS Properties window will appear.
 Click on the Symbology tab and the shapefile properties can be edited.
Most of the same functionality that exists with licenses of ArcGIS® is also available without a license and a license is
NOT required for most applications.
Related Topics

Map Module

ArcObjects

Shapefiles

Modules

GIS Conversion and Editing
Importing Shapefiles
ARC/INFO® or ArcView® shape files provide an easy method to import GIS data into SMS. Unfortunately the shape
file format is extremely redundant, meaning that points or lines that are shared by lines or polygons are multiply
defined.
Therefore, in order to convert a shape file to a SMS coverage, it may take up to several minutes (depending on size) to
build the correct line or polygon topology. This was very problematic in previous versions because SMS often bogged
down when reading moderately large files. This is one of the primary reasons that the new GIS module has been
developed and with or without a license to ArcObjects® shapefile data can now be managed better by SMS.
SMS 12.2
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With the addition of the GIS module there are now two different ways to import shapefile data.
Direct Conversion of Shapefile Data to Coverages
The first is the traditional method which allows loading a shapefile layer directly into a coverage.
Then map attribute fields of the shapefiles database (*.dbf) file to their pertinent SMS parameters .
Using the GIS Module to Convert Shapefile Data to
Coverages
When opening a shapefile in the GIS module using the Add Shapefile Data or Add Data commands SMS first reads
the points/lines/polygons into a simple display list and does not try to "build" topology by connecting arcs at nodes,
and eliminating shared edges of polygons as required when creating a coverage. This makes the display and selection
of the polygons much easier and more efficient. Then select only the polygons that should be converted to a coverage
and map them. In this way, the model will only be building topology for the selected polygons.
Cleaning Imported Shapefile Data
If intending to use the data from the shape file in more than one session, save it as a SMS map file after
importing/mapping the first time. Further, after importing the shape files, consider the following:
1) Clean the feature objects in order to snap nodes within a certain distance, intersect arcs, and eliminate dangling
arcs.
2) Build polygons so that SMS can define the appropriate conceptual model. After intersection of arcs, reordering
of streams, etc. it is often necessary to rebuild the polygon topology so that the topologic structure is consistent.
Related Topics

Shapefiles
GIS Module Tools
SMS 12.2
Page 252
The following tools are active in the dynamic portion of the Tool Palette whenever the GIS module is active. Only one
tool is active at any given time. The action that takes place when clicking in the Graphics Window with the cursor
depends on the current tool. The tools in the GIS tool palette are described below:
Select ArcObject
The Select ArcObject tool is used to select ArcObjects in the Graphics Window. Selected objects can be
mapped to other data types. This tool is only available if ArcView is installed locally and enabled in SMS.
Get Attributes
The Get Attributes tool is used to select GIS objects and display information relating to that object in an Info
dialog.
Select
The Select tool is used to select shape objects in the Graphics Window. Selected objects can be mapped to other
data types.
Unlike other modules in SMS, the GIS module tools do not have any right-click menu commands.
Get Attributes Tool Info Dialog
Clicking on an object when using the Get Attributes tool will bring up the GIS attributes Info dialog. The attributes
shown in this dialog are based on the GIS file data. Attributes cannot be edited in this dialog. The dialog is closed by
selecting another tool.
Related Topics

GIS Module
GIS Module Menus
The following menus are available in the the GIS Module :
Standard Menus
See SMS Menus for more information.
Module Specific Menus
Data
Most of the SMS modules have a Data menu, but the items in this menu are different for each module. The GIS
Module commands include:
Enable ArcObjects
ArcObjects® is a development platform provided by ESRI that allows developers of other applications (such as
SMS 32-bit) to incorporate ArcView/ArcGIS® capability directly within their application. SMS can use
ArcObjects® to access some of the same functionality in SMS that is available in ArcGIS®, providing SMS is
running on a computer that has a current license of ArcGIS®.
The Data | Enable ArcObjects command queries the ESRI license manager for ArcView/ArcGIS® to see if a
license exists. If a valid license is found then the ArcGIS® functionality within SMS is enabled and access will
be allowed. If a license is not found then the ArcGIS® specific features remain unavailable.
Add Data
SMS uses ArcObjects® to incorporate much of the ArcMap® functionality directly. SMS can open any
ArcGIS® supported file (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases, images, CAD, grids, etc.) and use the ArcGIS®
Display Symbology properties to render the GIS data and then display it in SMS.
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The Add Data command is only available if ArcObjects® have been enabled. The Add Data command is used
to open datasets and layers (*.lyr) files into SMS using ArcGIS®.
When ArcObjects® is enabled, SMS is able to load any of the ESRI supported formats, including shapefiles,
coverages, geodatabases, grids, images, CAD files and others, as GIS data layers in SMS. These data can then be
converted to feature objects in map coverages.
Add Shapefile Data
The Add Shapefile Data command is only available if ArcObjects® have NOT been enabled. The Add
Shapefile Data command is used to open a Shapefile (*.shp) into SMS.
Add MIF/MID File Data
SMS uses ArcObjects® to incorporate much of the ArcMap® functionality directly. SMS can open any
ArcGIS® supported file (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases, images, CAD, grids, etc.) and use the ArcGIS®
Display Symbology properties to render the GIS data and then display it in SMS.
The Add MIF/MID Data command is used to open a MIF/MID file (*.mif) into SMS using ArcGIS®.
Layer Properties
The Layer Properties command opens the Select a layer dialog. The shapefile layer of interest is specified in
the Select a layer dialog. Once the shapefile layer has been specified, the Layer Properties dialog is shown. See
the ArcGIS® documentation for further explanation of the Layer Properties dialog. The Layer Properties
command is only available if ArcObjects® have been enabled.
Map Properties
The Map Properties dialog is used when ArcObjects® is enabled to specify the coordinate system to
display/map features from the ArcGIS® data layer. An ArcGIS® data layer should have a currently defined
coordinate system associated with it. If the coordinate system is geographic (latitude/longitude), then
ArcObjects® is able to "guess" correctly at the projection. Using the coordinate system as defined in the Map
Properties , specify the coordinate system to use to display features/rasters. While this does not change the
actual geometry of the layer, it will display in the main graphics window according to this projection and any
data mapped to coverages will be mapped into the coordinate system specified by the Map Properties .
GIS layers can have an associated global projection. If a layer has an associated projection, the entities will be
automatically displayed in the current project projection. GIS projection information can come from multiple sources:
1) Files – ESRI shapefiles can have an associated *.prj file that contains the projection information. MapInfo
MIF/MID files contain projection within the MIF file.
2) Assigned in SMS – assigns a projection to a layer by right-clicking on the layer and choosing Coordinate
Conversions . When doing this, SMS will save a PRJ file or a new set of MIF/MID files with the updated
information.
The WMS article WMS:Map Properties has more information about this dialog.
Selection
The GIS Module Selection menu commands are only available if ArcObjects® have been enabled. The GIS Module
Selection menu commands include:
Command
Description
ArcObjects® Required
Select by Attributes
Opens the ArcObjects® Query Wizard Dialog. See the ESRI
ArcGIS documentation for further explanation of the Query
Wizard dialog.
Yes
Select by Location
Opens the ArcObjects® Select By Location Dialog. See the ESRI Yes
ArcGIS documentation for further explanation of the Select By
Location dialog.
Clear Selected Features
Clears the current selection
Yes
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Interactive Selection Method Change the ArcObjects® selection options in use. Options
include:
Selectable Layers

Create New Selection

Add to Current Selection

Remove from Current Selection

Select from Current Selection
Yes
Opens the ArcObjects® Check Selectable Layers dialog. The
layers to be selected can be specified.
Yes
Mapping
The GIS Module Selection menu commands are only available if ArcObjects® have been enabled. The GIS Module
Selection menu commands include:
Command
Description
ArcObjects® Required
Arc Objects → Feature Objects
Opens the GIS to Feature Objects Wizard
Yes
Shapes → Feature Objects
Opens the GIS to Feature Objects Wizard
No
Feature Objects → Geodatabase
Saves the Feature Objects as a Personal Geodatabase
file (*.mdb)
Yes
Polygons → TIN
Converts polygon data to TIN data that will appear in
the scatter module.
No
GIS Module Right-Click Commands
The following right-click commands are available for GIS objects when ArcObjects are not enabled:

Remove – Deletes the GIS object from the project.

Transparency – Brings up the Layer Transparency dialog.

Zoom to Extents – Frames and centers in the graphics window the extents of the GIS layer.

Open Containing Folder

Projection – Brings up the Object Projection dialog.

Register Image – Brings up the Register Image dialog.

Export – Resamples and saves the image.

Export World File – Exports data as a world file that includes image registration data.

Interpolate To – A sub-menu for commands to interpolate the GIS object into one of the following"


2D Mesh

2D Scatter (both as regular scatter set and as land use data for ADCIRC nodal attributes)

2D Grid

UGrid

Active coverage
Convert To – A sub-menu with commands to convert GIS objects.

2D Scatter

2D Grid

Feature Contours (contour(s) of the data in the DEM)

Feature Contours at Given Elevation
SMS 12.2

Resampled Raster – Creates a new DEM covering the bounds of the selected DEM with a specified
spacing.

Smoothed Raster – Smooths the values on the DEM based on use specified weighting functions.

Trimmed Raster – Trims to the bounding box of a coverage or selected polygons.


Page 255
Merged Raster – Appears when multiple rasters are selected. It creates a new raster that covers all selected
rasters with a resolution set to the smallest cell size of any of the selected rasters.
See the article GIS Conversion and Editing for more information.
Editing – A sub-menu with the following commands:

Arc Elevation Profile – Brings up the Profile Elevations plot for a selected arc.

Convert to TUFLOW Rainfall Boundary Conditions
If the format is correct, the GIS data can be converted into TUFLOW rainfall boundary polygons on a TUFLOW
1D/2D BCs and Links coverage. For more information, see TUFLOW Boundary Conditions .

Open Attribute Table
SMS uses ArcObjects® to incorporate much of the ArcMap® functionality directly. SMS can open any
ArcView® supported file (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases, images, CAD, grids, etc.) and use the ArcGIS®
Display Symbology properties to render the GIS data and then display it in SMS.
The Attribute Table command opens the Attribute Table dialog. The shapefile layer of interest is specified in
the Attribute Table dialog. Once the shapefile layer has been specified, the Attributes dialog will be shown. The
attributes for each record in the specified layer can be viewed in the Attributes dialog.

Join Table to Layer
SMS uses ArcObjects® to incorporate much of the ArcMap® functionality directly. SMS can open any
ArcGIS® supported file (coverages, shapefiles, geodatabases, images, CAD, grids, etc.) and use the ArcGIS®
Display Symbology properties to render the GIS data and then display it in SMS.
The Attribute Table command opens the Attribute Table dialog. The shapefile layer of interest is specified in
the Attribute Table dialog. Once the shapefile layer has been specified, the corresponding DBF Table File
(*.dbf) must be selected. The Join Table dialog is then shown.
The Join Table to Layer command, available when right-clicking on a layer in the Project Explorer , allows
joining the attributes of one database file (*.dbf) to the features of a GIS layer based on a key attribute field. This
is particularly important when the features are stored in a shapefile with a minimal set of attributes, and
additional attributes are stored in a separate *.dbf file. The two files are related based on an attribute field named
MUID. Other GIS data layers may be similar where the features contain some kind of key indexing field and the
attributes are stored in a separate table that can be joined to the features based on the index field values.
After selecting the Join Table to Layer command a prompt will appear for the database file to join using the
standard Select File dialog. The Join Table dialog will then appear and ask to select the Join Field from the GIS
data layer attributes and the Join Field from the table being joined to the GIS data layer. Often these field names
will be the same as in the example below, but they are not required to be the same. The important thing is that
they contain similar information from which a join can be made. Finally, select to join all of the attributes from
the join table or just add a specific field.
The join does not permanently alter the GIS data layer on the hard drive of the computer.
Related Topics

GIS Module

GIS Conversion and Editing
SMS 12.2
Page 256
GIS Conversion and Editing
GMS, SMS, and WMS can load GIS data such as digital elevation models (DEMs) and images. This GIS data will
appear in the GIS Data section of the project explorer.
GIS Data Conversion
Both GMS and SMS offer methods to convert GIS data. Right-clicking on a GIS data item in the project explorer
brings up a menu with a Convert To sub-menu. The commands in the Convert To sub-menu are:
Raster to 2D Scatter
Selecting the command Convert To | 2D Scatter will bring up the Raster → Scatter dialog. The dialog shows the
number of scatter point that will be generated in the new set and allows naming the new scatter set. By default, the
name of new scatter set will be the same as the raster set unless changed.
By default scatter points are shown in red unless changed in the Display Options dialog. It may necessary to zoom in
to see each point. Scatter points are visible in other views while the DEM is visible only in plan view.
Feature Contours
Activating this command will automatically generate contours which will appear as a new coverage under Map Data
in the project explorer. By default, contour lines are shown in black unless the contour color is changed in the Display
Options dialog. The contour interval is found by creating ten contours evenly spaced between the min and max dataset
values.
SMS 12.2
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Feature Contours at Given Elevation
This command will bring up the Create Contour Arc dialog. In this dialog, specify an elevation to be used in
generating the contours.
After entering an elevation and clicking OK , contours will be generated similar to those created with the Feature
Contours command but using the specified elevation. Only contours at the specified elevation will be generated.
SMS 12.2
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GIS Data Editing
Resampled Raster
This command will bring up the Resample and Export Raster dialog. Resampling creates a new DEM covering the
bounds of the selected DEM with a specified spacing. The dialog has the following options:

Cell size – Specify the size of each cell based on the Resampling ratio .

Resampling ratio – Specifies the resampling ratio. This is required for processing. Changing this field will
change the other fields in the dialog automatically.

Num pixels X – The number of pixels on the x axis that will be generated. The original number will be displayed
to the right.

Num pixels Y – The number of pixels on the y axis. The original number will be displayed to the right.

Add to project after saving – Toggling this option on will load the resampled file into GMS/SMS upon
completion.
After completing the Resample and Export Raster dialog, and clicking OK , the Save As dialog will appear to save a
file with the resampled data.
SMS 12.2
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Smoothed Raster
This command will bring up the Raster Smoothing Options dialog. The dialog is used to smooth the values on the
DEM based on use specified weighting functions. The dialog has the following options:

Filter Size – To smooth the raster, an N x N filter matrix is placed over each elevation point and a new elevation
is computed by taking an inverse-distance weighted average of all elevations within the filter. The dimension of
N can be specified as either 3x3 or 5x5 , meaning that new elevations are computed from either the nearest 8 or
24 neighboring points.

Number of iterations – Specify the number of smoothing iterations. By default only one iteration is done, but
sometimes several smoothing iterations are required to propagate a change in elevations across a large flat area.

Maximum change in elevation – Can be used to ensure that the integrity of the original elevations are
maintained.
 Filter ratio – Should be between 0-1, and is used to specify the weight of the central cell of the filtering matrix.
After completing th Raster Smoothing Options dialog, and clicking OK , the Save As dialog will appear to save a file
with the smoothed data.
Trimmed Raster
This command creates a new DEM from the selected DEM trimmed to the bounds of the active coverage or the
selected polygons of the active coverage. Coverage polygons must be selected to define the trimming rectangle. If this
is not done, then a warning dialog will appear as a reminder.
To create a trimmed raster:
1) Select a coverage (or create a new coverage) in the Map module.
2) Select the Create Feature Arc tool and draw a closed set of arcs.
SMS 12.2
3)
4)
1.
While the arcs are selected, go to Feature Objects | Build Polygons .
Use the Select Polygon tool to select the polygon just created.
5)
6)
2.
Right-click a DEM in the GIS data and select Convert To | Trimmed Raster .
The Save As dialog will appear to save a file with the trimmed data.
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SMS 12.2
Page 261
3.
The final raster is trimmed along the rectangle enclosing the polygon. Trimmed rasters will also trim to the rectangle
enclosing multiple selected polygons.
Merged Raster
This command appears when multiple rasters are selected. It creates a new raster that covers all selected rasters with a
resolution set to the smallest cell size of any of the selected rasters. Two or more DEM datasets can be merged
together by doing the following:
1) Select two or more DEM items in the project explorer by holding down the Shift key while selecting each item.
2) Right-click on one of the selected DEMs and select Convert To | Merged Raster . This command is only
available when multiple raster items have been selected.
3) The Save As dialog will appear to save a file with the merged data.
The new merged DEM will be visible in the project explorer. When merging, the smallest cell size among the merging
rasters is used.
Edit Raster
A DEM may have bad cell values or based on the resolution may not represent continuous values along a line. These
value can be edited to remove the bad value or ensure continuous representation of a feature such as an embankment
or channel. The new values are specified using feature objects (arcs or nodes) in the Map module. To create an edited
raster:
1) Select (or create) one or more feature arcs/feature nodes with the desired raster values specified on the feature
object. (i.e. the z-value specified for the nodes/vertices/points represent the values desired under the feature
objects in the raster)
2) Right-click on one of the selected DEMs and select Editing | Arc Elevation Profile .
3) The Save As dialog will appear to save a file with the edited data.
The new edited DEM will be visible in the project explorer.
Saving Raster Data
Raster data being converted can be saved in any of the following formats:

GeoTiff Files (*.tif)

Arc Info ASCII Grid Files (*.asc)

BIL Files (*.bil)

DXF 3D Point Files (*.dxf)
SMS 12.2

Erdas Imagine IMG Files (*.img)

Float/Grid Files (*.flt)

Surfer ASCII Grid Files (*.grd)

DTED Files (*.dtf)

Surfer Binary grid v6 Files (*.grd)

Vertical Mapper (MapInfo) Grid Files (*.grd)

Surfer Binary Grid v7 Files (*.grd)

Global Mapper Grid Files (*.gmp)

USGS ASCII DEM Files (*.dem)

Windsim GWS Files (*.gws)

XYZ ASCII Grid Files (*.xyz)
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Related Topics

Raster Options

GMS GIS Module

Get Online Maps

SMS GIS Module

Smoothing DEMs
GIS Module Display Options
The properties of the GIS Module data SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Display Options
dialog. The entities associated with the GIS Module module with display options are shown below. Some of these
entities also show an Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display controls are available. The
available GIS Module display options include the following:


Text font
Controls the display of text. The size, color, style, and font of the text can be adjusted.
Rasters

Display as 2D image – makes it so the raster is only visible in plan view (like other images). This option
is fast and memory efficient and can support large rasters (or several rasters).



Enable hill shading – toggle on to show shadows and thus makes the image appear 3D.
Display as 3D image – makes it so the raster is visible in any view, not just plan view. 3D points are also
very memory efficient but may be a little slower than the 2D image option. Also, hill shading is not
available in this mode.

Point size – specifies the size of points displayed.

Maximum points – sets a limit to the number of points to generate. Specifying a maximum number of
points can be useful if the size of the raster is such that rendering becomes slow.
Shader – with either 2D or 3D, four different shaders, which control the color ramp, are available. The
shaders available are:

Atlas Shader

Color Ramp Shader

Global Shader

HSV Shader
Related Topics

GIS Module

Display Options
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ArcObjects
ArcObjects® is a development platform provided by ESRI® that allows developers of other applications to
incorporate ArcGIS/ArcView® capability directly within their application. ArcObjects® is used to incorporate
ArcGIS® functionalities into XMS software. This allows using ArcGIS/ArcMap/ArcView® functionality within
XMS software. In order to use ArcGIS® functionality, a current license of ArcGIS® must be installed. Without a
license, much of the same functionality is available, the primary differences being that only the shapefile format is
supported, and many of the selection and display capabilities are minimal.
ArcObjects® are enabled by using the GIS | Enable ArcObjects® command. A few of the typical processes used in
XMS must be done differently when ArcObjects® are enabled, such as importing shapefiles using the Add Data
command instead of using the Open or Add Shapefile Data commands.
Error Enabling ArcObjects
If the DLL "EMRL_LicCheckMod.dll" fails to register automatically, selecting the Enable ArcObjects command
will bring up the error:
"ArcObjects could not be enabled: please check installation and licensing for ArcGIS"
To fix this, register the DLL manually by following the steps below.
1) Bring up a command prompt window.
2) Type in 'regsvr32 "<directory where XMS was installed>\EMRL_LicCheckMod.dll"
For example, the default location for GMS 7.0 is "C:\Program Files\GMS 7.0". If the program was installed
in the default location, for example, this line in the command prompt window will be: regsvr32 "C:\Program
Files\GMS 7.0\EMRL_LicCheckMod.dll"
3)
4)
Hit enter to run.
Restart XMS
Related Topics

GIS Module (GMS)

GIS Module (SMS)

GIS Module (WMS)
GIS to Feature Objects Wizard
While future versions of the XMS software may be able to process some commands directly from the GIS data layers,
currently map all desired features as part of model development to feature objects in a map coverage. One way to do
this is to convert an entire shapefile directly to a map coverage. One problem with this approach is that the extents of
the GIS data layer may be much larger (i.e. an entire state) than the area of interest. In this case, it may be more
efficient to select only those GIS features (points, lines, polygons) that overlay the study area and map those to feature
objects in a map coverage.
Withing the GIS Module active selecting the Mapping | ArcObjects → Feature Objects command (with an
ArcObjects license in a 32-bit version of SMS), or the Mapping | Shapes → Feature Objects (without an ArcObjects
license) launches a mapping wizard which guides through the process of converting the GIS data layer features to
feature objects in a map coverage. Before beginning the mapping process, first go to the map module and make sure
that the currently active coverage is the coverage to map GIS data layer features to. Also, SMS will associate the GIS
attributes with coverage attributes, so make sure the coverage attributes are defined before doing the conversion.
After making sure SMS will be mapping to the correct coverage, select the GIS features which overlays the study area
and where wanting to map (this is done with the selection tool in the GIS module). If wanting to map all the features,
choose the Edit | Select All command, or just execute the Mapping command, and a prompt will ask if wanting to
convert all features since none are selected.
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If ArcObjects are enabled, notice that the Mapping | ArcObjects → Feature Objects command is activated. Whereas
if ArcObjects are not enabled, notice that the Mapping | Shapes → Feature Objects command is activated. After
choosing the appropriate mapping command, the Mapping Wizard (shown below) will appear. This wizard will guide
through the rest of the process. The first dialog in the mapping wizard contains instructions and marks the beginning
point of mapping for selected features. The first of two steps is to map the GIS attribute fields of the features to the
coverage attributes. Common attribute names are automatically mapped.
The second step marks the end of the wizard and after selecting Finish all selected features will be converted to
feature objects within the active coverage. Attributes of mapped fields will be saved accordingly as attributes of the
feature objects.
Generic Model arc or node mapping
It is possible to bring in GIS data (shapefile or MIF/MID) and convert this data to generic model node or arc
attributes. First, have arc and/or node boundary conditions defined in the Generic Model. Once those are defined, they
are visible in the drop down box when mapping. Each boundary condition will contain a (on/off) item followed by
parameters. Example:

Hydro→(on/off)

Hydro→Manning
 Hydro→Flowrate
Mapping "Hydro→(on/off)" will turn on or off the node/arc. Mapping a parameter such as "Hydro→Manning" will
automatically assign the node/arc as "on" unless "Hydro→(on/off)" is explicitly mapped to "off".
Related Topics

GIS Module
3.5. Map Module
Map Module
Map Module
Map
Feature Objects
Coverages
More
Map Display Options
Map Module Tools
Map Module Menus
At a glance

Create and edit GIS like data

Used to create conceptual models as well as data for other purposes

Conceptual model is a geometry (mesh/grid) independent representation of the numeric model domain and/or
boundary conditions

Conceptual models can be converted to model geometry and boundary conditions
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 Conceptual model makes it easier to create, edit, and alter models
The Map module provides tools for creating, managing and editing feature objects . Feature objects are geometric
entities, meaning they have a defined position or shape, and the attributes associated with those entities. The simplest
feature object is a feature point, which defines a single location. Increasing in complexity, the next GIS object is an
arc, which defines a line or polyline. Areas enclosed by polylines can be classified as a feature polygon.
Feature objects with related attributes are grouped into layers or coverages . The coverage definition includes a "type"
that determines the attributes available for the objects in the coverage. See the list of coverage types to learn about the
attributes associated with objects in that specific coverage.
The principal application of coverages in the SMS is to facilitate the representation of a numerical simulation in a
representation that is independent of a specific discretization (a specific set of nodes and elements or cells). This
allows the modeler to interact with a much smaller set of entities and reduces redundant effort in the modeling
process.
A secondary application of coverages is to define geometric objects for data extraction from numerical model results.
The map module also provides the tools to create and edit GIS like data and conceptual models as well as data for
other purposes. Conceptual model is a geometry (mesh/grid) independent representation of the numeric model domain
and/or boundary conditions and they can be converted to model geometry and boundary conditions. Conceptual model
is also a high level representation used to define attributes used in the Mesh or Cartesian Grid generation process such
as bathymetry source, materials information, and boundary conditions.
The Map module is included with all paid editions of SMS.
Conceptual Model
A conceptual model is a high level representation used to define attributes used in the Mesh or Cartesian Grid
generation process such as:

Bathymetry source

Materials information

Boundary conditions
Creating Feature Objects
Feature objects are the building blocks of a conceptual model. They define the geometric shapes, locations and extents
of objects in the model. There are several mechanisms for creating feature objects including:

Extracting feature arcs from the contours of a scatter set. See Scatter Contour to Feature for more information.

Importing from a web data source such as a coastline database. See Import from Web for more information.

Importing from CAD data.

Interactive definition (digitizing) using the Map Module Tools .

Creation as a stamped feature to define built up embankment or dredged channels.
Elevations of Feature Objects
In the map module, nodes, vertices and arcs all have an elevation attribute. That it's possible to assign an elevation to
individual nodes, points or vertices, or assign it to the arc. If assigning an elevation to an arc, the attribute of the nodes
and vertices in that arc are updated as well. This will override any z-value specified for individual vertices or nodes on
the arc.
The elevations of the map objects can also be assigned using the interpolation from the scatter module. In this case,
each object (node, point, vertex, and arc) are assigned an elevation (z-value) based on the scatter set. The location for
interpolation of the arc is the mid-point of the arc.
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When digitizing in the map module, elevations are assigned as with other digitization in SMS. That means that when
creating a node, point, or vertex, it is assigned the default elevation value for digitization. The default elevation is
initialized to 0.0. The default changes any time a Z-value is specified. Therefore, if creating a map point or node, and
specifying an elevation for that selected point, the value specified is now the default value for newly digitized points,
nodes and vertices. (Note: when creating mesh nodes, there is an option to ask for an elevation each time a node is
created, but this option is not available for scatter vertices or map module objects.)
When converting a map coverage to a scattered dataset, there is the option of using the arc elevations or the node and
vertex elevations for the new scatter set. (There is also an option to use the arc spacing, but that is for a different
purpose. It is not an elevation, but is useful sometimes as a function on a scattered dataset.)
Functionalities
See the article Map Module Display Options .
Project Explorer
The following Project Explorer right mouse click menus are available when the right mouse click is performed on a
Map Module item.
Map Module Root Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the Map module root folder in the project explorer invokes an options menu with the following
options:

New coverage – Opens the New Coverage dialog.

Clear Coverages – Deletes all coverages.

Display Options – Opens the Display Options dialog.
Coverage Item Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a Map item in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following module specific
options:
 Type – Change the coverage type.
Right-click options for the coverage may also include options applicable only to the specific coverage type.
Menus
The following types of menus are available in the Map module:

Standard Menus – see SMS Menus for more information.

Module Specific Menus – see Feature Objects Menu for more information.
Tools
The Map module has a number of tools that are specific for creating and manipulating feature objects. See the article
Map Module Tools for more information.
Related Coverages
The attributes of entities on a coverages belong to a list of attributes associated with a type of coverage. For more
information see the article Coverages .
3.5.a. Coverage Types
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Coverages
Feature objects in the Map module are grouped into coverages. Each coverage has a specific type, which determines
the attributes that can be associated with geometric objects in that coverage. The coverages are grouped into
conceptual models. The type of the active coverage is displayed in the information box displayed from the Get Info
command.
A coverage is similar to a layer in a CAD drawing. Each coverage represents a particular set of information. For
example, one coverage could be used to define meshing zones and another coverage could be used to define zones of
consistent roughness parameters. These objects could not be included in a single coverage since polygons within a
coverage are not allowed to overlap and material zone boundaries don't necessarily coincide with meshing zone
boundaries. Alternatively, one coverage could define Cartesian grid parameters for the same zone.
Coverages are managed using the Project Explorer. When SMS is first launched, a default coverage exists. If feature
objects are created, they are placed in the current coverage. When multiple coverages are created, one coverage is
designated the "active" coverage. New feature objects are always added to the active coverage and only objects in the
active coverage can be edited. The figure below shows several coverages in the Project Explorer. The active coverage
is displayed with a green colored icon
and bold text. A coverage is made the active coverage by selecting it from
the Project Explorer. In some cases it is useful to hide some or all of the coverages. The visibility of a coverage is
controlled using the check box next to the coverage in the Project Explorer. In the example below, several design
options are not displayed.
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Creating a New Coverage
A new coverage can be created by right-clicking on the Map Data folder in the Project Explorer. Select New
Coverage from the pop-up menu. The New Coverage dialog will appear and the coverage type will need to be
defined. Each coverage type is organized according to whether it is a Generic or a Model type coverage. If a coverage
type was selected that has attributes associated with it, they can be changed by clicking the Attributes button. If there
are no attributes associated with the selected coverage type the Attributes button will be unavailable. The name of the
coverage is also specified here. After clicking the OK button, the new coverage will appear in the Project Explorer.
Coverage Right-click Menu
Right-clicking on a coverage brings up a menu with the following options:

Delete – Removes the selected coverage along with any data in the coverage.

Duplicate – Will create a copy of the coverage.

Rename – Allows the coverage to be given a different name.

Convert – Coverage feature object data can be mapped to other geometric objects or numerical models by
selecting one of the Map → ... commands in the Convert submenu.

Coordinate Conversion – The Coordinate Conversion dialog opens, which aspecifies a coordinate conversion
to be performed on the coverage data.

Metadata – Metadata associated with this coverage can be edited and viewed.

Zoom to Coverage – Frames the graphics window to the extents of the data displayed in the selected coverage.

Type – Sets the coverage type .
Merging Existing Coverages
Occasionally, its desirable to hve independent features of two separate coverages combined into one converage. SMS
allows merging these two coverages together. Select one of the coverages listed in the data tree then multi-select the
other coverages to be merged. This can be done one at a time by holding the CTRL key, or several adjacent coverages
can be selected by holding the SHIFT key and then clicking the last adjacent dataset.
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Once all datasets to be merged have been selected, access the right-click menu and chooses Merge Coverages . A
dialog may appear asking if wanting to delete the coverages used to create the merged coverage.
Coverage Types
The attributes of entities on a coverages belong to a list of attributes associated with a type of coverage. For example,
arcs in mesh coverages have boundary conditions compatible with the specific finite element model they are
associated with, and polygons in those coverages include attributes associated with meshing and material types.
Coverages are grouped into two categories:

Generic – coverages for generic input prepossessing, generic output postprocessing and generic model
interfaces.

Models – coverages for specific models in SMS.
Related Topics

Map Module
3.5.a.1. Generic Coverages
Generic Coverages
Generic coverages can be used for generic input prepossessing, generic output postprocessing and generic model
interfaces. Generic coverages can be selected by right-clicking on the map module data and selecting Type | Generic ;
or by right-clicking on the Map Data
item and selecting New Coverage command followed by using the New
Coverage dialog.. These coverages can be used with most models and simulations.
Generic Coverages
Currently, the following coverages are considered generic coverages:

1D Hyd Centerline Coverage – Used to identify the centerline in the hydraulic model.

1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage – Used to identify the cross section stations.

Activity Classification – Used to define active and inactive areas of a mapped dataset.

Area Property – Maps properties such as Manning's roughness values to the mesh, grid, or cross-sections.

CGrid Generator – Used for building feature objects for conversion to a cartesian grid.

Location – Allows creating points that can be used to gather measurements at specific locations during the
model run similar to a model monitor points coverage. Generally designed to be used by developers using the
dynamic model interface .

Mapping – Used for building feature objects for conversion to a scatter set.

Mesh Generator – Used for building feature objects for conversion to a mesh.

Observation – Used for model verification and calibration processes.

Particle/Drogue – For visualization post-processing.

Plot Data

Quadtree Generator – Used for building feature objects for conversion to a quadtree.

Spatial Data – Designed to store, visualize, and analyze various types of data at node locations.

Spectral – Used to store all spectral data by location and time.

Stamping – Used for insertion of man-made structures into a natural topography or bathymetry set.
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Related Topics

Map Module

Model Specific Coverages
Activity Classification Coverage
Some projects require defining which areas of the model are active or inactive. Active areas represent an elevation
below the water-surface or the ocean. Inactive areas have elevations above the water-surface or are land areas. Some
models automatically assign areas as active or inactive. The Activity Classification coverage in the Map module can
be used for models that don't automatically classify activity based on elevation, or used to speed up the model run
time in models that do automatically classify activity. The coverage can use all of the standard Map module interface
components .
In the coverage, polygons can be created by creating enclosed arcs and using the Feature Objects | Build Poygons
command. Each polygon can then be classified as active or inactive.
Once the active and inactive areas have been defined, the Activity Classification coverage can be linked to a
simulation for use in a model run. SMS allows a project to use multiple Activity Classification coverages.
Actvity Classification Coverage Dialog
This dialog is reached by right-clicking on a polygon with the Select Feature Poylgon tool and selecting the
Attributes command. The dialog that appears has the following options:

Active – Classifies the polygon as below the surface-water elevation or as ocean.

Inactive – Classifies the polygon as above the surface-water elevation or as land.
Related Topics

Generic Coverages
Area Property Coverage
An area property coverage is used to map properties such as Manning's roughness values to the mesh, grid, or crosssections.
Materials are used to define different values for the property the material represents. For example, if the material
represents the Manning's roughness value, materials are defined to represent the different Manning's roughness values
to be included in the model (stream, floodplain, field, roadway, etc.). Polygons can then be created to define the
stream, floodplain, field, and roadway with the corresponding material assigned.
Materials are assigned a name, color and pattern for display, and model specific attributes.
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Many of the data entities constructed and edited in SMS (i.e., elements, cells) have a material ID associated with
them. This material ID is an index into a list of material types. Materials contain model specific parameters such as
manning's roughness, or bed material grain size. A global list of material attributes is maintained and can be edited
using the menu command Edit | Materials Data . This command brings up the Materials Data dialog where each
material is assigned an ID number. This dialog can be used to delete unused materials, create new materials, and
assign a descriptive name, color, and pattern to a material. This general information is saved in the material file. The
materials defined within the Materials Data dialog are available for all modules.
Area Property Polygon Attributes Dialog
The Land Polygon Attributes dialog is used to set the attributes for feature polygons . It is reached by double-clicking
on a polygon in an Area Properties coverage. Attributes that can be specified for each polygon include:

Polygon Type

None – No attributes are assigned to the polygon.

Material – With this option selected, a material can be assigned to the polygon from the drop-down list
below. Only materials defined in the Materials Data dialog before they can be assigned to a polygon.
Related Topics

Coverages

Materials Data
Feature Stamping
Feature stamping is the terminology used to refer to the insertion of man-made structures into a natural topography or
bathymetry set. In common terms, this means adding an embankment (such as a levy) or dredging a channel. A
stamped feature usually follows a linear object or centerline. However, it can also be based around a single point to
create a mound or pit, or applied to only one side of a closed line (a polygon) to create a flat topped mound or flat
bottomed pit.
The Process
The basic steps to define a linear stamped feature include:
1) Define the stamping coverage and centerline (or focal point) of the stamped feature
2) Assign attributes to the centerline including:
1) The elevation along the centerline
2) The cross sections along the centerline
3) Stamp the feature. This converts the centerline and its attributes to:
1) Another coverage containing all the extents and details of the feature
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2) A scatter set defining the elevation for the feature.
Sample problems in the section below illustrate the procedure.
Define the Coverage and Centerline
SMS utilizes a coverage of type "Stamping" to create the stamped features. Depending on the application, it may be
desirable to have multiple "Stamping" coverages to represent different design alternatives. Each coverage may contain
multiple features. Create a "Stamping" coverage by right-clicking on the "Map Data" entry in the Project Explorer and
selecting the New Coverage command. Then right-click on the new coverage and set its type to "Stamping".
The ambient geometry is defined by a scatter set (and one of its associated datasets). This surface determines the cutoff for the sloped banks of a stamped feature. Right-clicking on the coverage and selecting Properties brings up the
dialog that associates a specific dataset to the stamping coverage. It's necessary to also specify whether this surface is
defined as elevations (positive up) or depths (positive down). By default, SMS interprets this surface as elevation data.
Define Feature Attributes
Any arc or point created in a "Stamping" coverage has attributes to create a stamped feature. Attributes are assigned in
the Stamping Point Attributes dialog or Stamping Arc Attributes dialog. Attributes include:

Feature Name – This will be used when SMS creates stamped feature coverages and scatter sets from the
stamping coverage.
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
Stamping Type (cut = channel or fill = embankment) – If there is a stamped feature that contains both cut and
fill sections, create one coverage as a cut, then duplicate the coverage and change the copies type to fill.

A base elevation (the top elevation of the embankment or the bottom of the channel) – This can be specified
from the node/vertex elevations, as a constant, or extracted from a curve of elevation -vs- distance.

The cross sectional shape(s) – The cross section can be defined as a template, which is propagated all along an
arc, or can be individually specified at each vertex in an arc. The cross section can also be defined individually
for the left and right side of the arc. One point on each side of the cross section can be specified as the
"shoulder". For a channel, this would be the "toe", but the reference in SMS is the shoulder point. When the arcs
representing the shoulder are created, the option is available to create an arc along this shoulder. If vertical
walled structures are desired, the cross section can simply stop at the edge (shoulder). This will result in a
feature arc at the edge and a scatter set for the top of the structure.

The method for treating the ends of the structure. Options include:

Wingwalls

A sloped abutment (spillthrough)

A guidebank
1)
Stamping the Feature
To create the stamped feature, right-click on the "Stamping" coverage and select Convert → Stamp Features ... .
This brings up a dialog that specifies what output should be created from the process. Specifically, the process can
create:
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
A new scatter set which defines the elevation points for the new structure. This is named based on the stamped
feature name. SMS triangulates all these points to create a surface and trims the scatter set to the extents of the
stamped feature. The arcs that make up the stamped feature are converted to scatter breaklines to assist in the
triangulation.

A new coverage which defines the breaks and extents of the new coverage. The dialog specifies the type of the
coverage. Generally, it is recommended that the coverage type be selected to match the numeric engine that will
evenutally be used for the simulation. Options also exist to determine whether the stamped feature will include
the center line, the shoulders, and the cross sections. The extents of the stamped feature are always generated.
Case Studies / Sample Problems
There are a wide variety of stamped features that can be created using this tool. The Feature Stamping tutorial in the
general section of the tutorials may be helpful for learning to use them.

Embankments on a flat plain

Vertical sides on an embankment

Sloped sides on an embankment
Related Topics

Generic Coverages
External Links

Emery, R. N. (2005). Refining and Expanding the Feature Stamping Process. Thesis, Brigham Young
University. [69]

Christensen, J. R. (2001). Stamped Features: Automatic Generation of Flow Modifying Structures in Conceptual
Models. Thesis, Brigham Young University.

Zundel, Alan K. and J. Ryan Christensen, “Stamped Features: Creation of Engineered Structures in Conceptual
Models”, International Journal of Hyrdroinformatics, Vol. 4, No. 1, February 2002, pp. 63-72.
Mapping Coverage
The Mapping coverage is a generic coverage used for building feature objects for conversion to a scatter set.
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General Mapping Options
When creating a new Mapping coverage from the New Coverages dialog, the General Mapping Options dialog will
appear.
Mapping Arc Attributes Dialog
The Arc Attributes dialog is used to set the attributes for feature arcs in a Mapping type coverage. Attributes that can
be specified for each arc include:

Generic Arc

Hydraulic Connection Arc

Active Edge Arc
 Coastline Arc
The dialog is reached by double-clicking on an arc with the Select Feature Arc tool with the Mapping type coverage
active.
Mapping Polygon Attributes Dialog
The Polygon Attributes dialog is used to set the attributes for feature polygons in a Mapping type coverage. Attributes
that can be specified for each polygon include:
 Extrapolation Type
The dialog is reached by double-clicking on a polygon with the Select Feature Poygon tool with the Mapping type
coverage active.

Zero extrapolation

Interpolation

Standard extrapolation

Hydraulic connection extrapolation

Coastline extrapolation
Related Topics

Feature Objects Menu

Steering
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Generic Coverages
Observations
SMS contains an observation coverage that is designed to help in model verification and calibration processes. Result
verification is an important part of the computer modeling process. SMS includes a number of powerful tools,
associated with an observation coverage, that allow verifying simulation results with observed data. The two tools
used for verification and calibration in an observation coverage are observation points and observation arcs.
Observation points are used to verify the numerical analysis with measured field data such as water surface elevation
or velocity data. They are also be used to see how computed values change with time at a particular location.
Observation arcs are used to view the results at a cross section or along the river profile. These tools can be used with
any of the SMS models.
Creating an Observation Coverage
To create a new observation coverage:
1) Right-click the Map Data item in the Project Explorer
2) Select New Coverage from the right-click menu
3) Set the coverage type to Generic → Observation in the New Coverage dialog
4) Set the coverage name as desired
5) Click OK to exit the dialog
Alternatively, an existing coverage can be changed to an observation coverage by right-clicking on the coverage in the
Project Explorer and setting the type to Observation using the right-click menu.
Creating an Observation Point
Observation points are created at locations in the model where calibration data such as the velocity or water surface
elevation has been measured in the field. Each observation point is used to compare the measured values with the
values computed by the model at the point's x, y location. This comparison can assist the modeler in determining the
accuracy of the numerical model results. If the numerical model results do not match the observed field data, model
parameters such as manning's roughness may need to be modified to obtain more accurate results.
Creating an observation point is just like creating a feature point in any other coverage type. Select the Create
Feature Point tool from the Dynamic Toolbar and click the location for the feature point.
Creating an Observation Arc
Observation arcs are created at cross sections in the model where calibration data such as the flowrate has been
measured in the field. Observation arcs compute fluxes across the arc. Therefore, measurements for observation arcs
are called Flux Measurements . Each obseration arc is used to compare the measured values with the values computed
by the model across the vertical plane defined by the arc. This comparison can assist the modeler in determining the
accuracy of the numerical model results. If the numerical model results do not match the observed field data, model
parameters such as manning's roughness may need to be modified to obtain more accurate results.
Creating an observation arc is just like creating a feature arc in any other coverage type. Select the Create Feature
Arc tool from the Dynamic Toolbar and click out an arc. Double-click to end the arc. In an observation coverage,
profile arcs and cross section arcs may be useful to analyze a simulation's solution.
Setting Observation Object Attributes
Observation point and arc attributes are defined in the Observation Coverage dialog . See Observation Coverage
dialog for a description of the Observation Coverage dialog.
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Viewing Results
In addition to viewing the results of the solution data versus the observed data on the calibration targets, additional
plots can be created using the Plot Wizard . See Plot Window for a description of the available plot types.
Calibration
Calibration is the process of modifying the input parameters to a model until the output from the model matches an
observed set of data. SMS includes a suite of tools to assist in the process of calibrating a model. Both point and flux
observations are supported. Most of the calibration tools can be used with any of the models in SMS.
Measurement types can be defined in SMS. They are defined in the map module and are associated with points and
arcs in an observation coverage. Point observations represent locations in the field where some value has been
observed. In most cases, the points will correspond to gauges or high water marks and the value will be the elevation
of the water (the head) or a flow velocity (and possibly direction). Flux observations represent linear or areal objects
such as streams gages where the flow rate has been measured or estimated. Both point and flow observations can be
assigned a confidence interval or calibration target.
Once a set of observed point and flow values has been entered, each time a model solution is imported, SMS
automatically interpolates the computed solution to the observation points. A calibration target representing the
magnitude of the residual error is displayed next to each observation point and each flux object as shown below. The
size of the target is based on the confidence interval or the standard deviation. In addition to the calibration targets
next to the observation points, any of a number of statistical plots can be displayed.
Calibration Target
If an observed value has been assigned to an observation point or if an observed flow has been assigned to an arc or
polygon, the calibration error at each object can be plotted using a "calibration target". A set of calibration targets
provides useful feedback on the magnitude, direction (high, low), and spatial distribution of the calibration error.
The components of a calibration target are illustrated in the following figure. The center of the target corresponds to
the observed value. The top of the target corresponds to the observed value plus the interval and the bottom
corresponds to the observed value minus the interval. The colored bar represents the error. If the bar lies entirely
within the target, the color bar is drawn in green. If the bar is outside the target, but the error is less than 200%, the bar
is drawn in yellow. If the error is greater than 200%, the bar is drawn in red. The display options related to calibration
targets are specified in the Calibration Display Options dialog.
If the active time step is before the first observed time, or after the last observed time, the targets are drawn lighter.
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Calibration Display Options
Calibration targets are drawn next to their corresponding map data (point, arc, polygon). The Feature Objects Display
Options dialog contains a toggle labeled calibration targets . Below the toggle is a Scale edit field.
The target is drawn such that the height of the target is equal to twice the confidence interval (+ interval on top, interval on bottom). The Scale edit field allows changing the general length and width of the targets independent of
the range of the active dataset.
Observation Coverage Dialog
The Observation Objects dialog has two sections used to define the attributes of the points and arcs created in the
observation coverage. To open the Observation Coverage dialog:
1) Make the observation coverage active in the Project Explorer
2) Select the Create Feature Point or Create Feature Arc tool from the Dynamic Toolbar
3) Select a feature point or feature arc
4) Select the menu command Feature Objects | Attributes or double-click in the previous step
Dialog Layout
The options in the dialog will differ slightly based on the feature object type currently being edited (arc or point). The
feature object type is specified using the combo box in the upper right of the dialog.
In addition to a unique Name and Dataset(s), two other parameters are used to define the data represented by a
measurement: Trans and Module . When analyzing data that varies through time, select the Trans toggle. The Module
of a measurement refers to the SMS module where the computed data is stored. (The Module is set by default and
normally does not need to be changed.)
Observation Point Attributes
When "points" is selected in the Feature object type combo box, the top section of the dialog is entitled Measurements
and the bottom section is entitled Observation Points. The Measurements section is used to specify which datasets
correspond with the observed data entered in the Observation Points section. The Measurements section is used to
enter the observed data at each point. Each observation point is assigned the following attributes:

Color – Color of the observation point.

Observe – Turn the observation point on or off.

Name – Name of the observation point.

X – X-location of the point.

Y – Y-location of the point.

Observed Value – Value measured in the field corresponding to the active measurement.

Interval – Allowable error (±) between the computed value and the observed value. Model verification is
achieved when the error is within the interval (±) of the observed value.
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Angle – When a measurement for observation points is tied to a vector dataset (as is the case with a Velocity
measurement) an angle needs to be specified. This angle is an azimuth angle (measured clockwise from north)
with the top of the screen representing north when in plan view.
Observation Arc Attributes
If "arcs" is selected in the combo box, then the top spreadsheet had the name Flux Measurements and the bottom
spreadsheet has the name of Observation Arcs.
To define an arc measurement, the Name must first be defined. In addition to a unique Name, a scalar and vector
dataset must be assigned to it. Two other parameters are also used to define the data represented by a measurement:
Trans and Module . When analyzing data that varies through time, select the Trans toggle. The Module of a
measurement refers to the SMS module where the computed data is stored. (The Module is set by default and
normally does not need to be changed.)
Each observation arc is assigned the following attributes:

Color – Color of the observation arc.

Observe – Turn the observation arc on or off.

Name – Name of the observation arc.

x-origin – X origin of the arc (used to modify the x-value used in plots).

Observed Value – Value measured in the field corresponding to the active measurement.

Interval – Allowable error (±) between the computed value and the observed value. Model verification is
achieved when the error is within the interval (±) of the observed value.
Related Topics

Coverages

Plot Window
Particle/Drogue
A particle/drogue coverage is used for Visualization post-processing. The feature points and arc nodes/vertices define
the seed locations for generating an animation of particles flowing through a hydrodynamic current. The particles are
simulated as massless objects or "drogues" floating in the flow field. SMS computes the paths these particles would
follow when driven by the currents of the flow field using numerical integration.
This coverage must be defined before selecting the drogue option when setting up a film loop .
When displaying the resulting animation, the particles may be displayed in a color based on the current velocity of the
particle or the distance the particle has traveled. ti is also possible to specify the length of the tail behind the particle
(in units of time). Therefore, a longer particle tail indicates a generally faster moving particle.
Drogue plot animations are different from flow trace animations in that the distances traveled by each drogue
represents the actual physical speed of the flow field.
Application

Residence time calculations. One of the most useful applications of drogue plots is to approximate residence
time of a basin or other subregion of a hydrodynamic domain. In order to approximate this:

Distribute a fairly large number of drogue seed points inside the basin (or sub domain) of interest).

Generate a drogue plot film loop of the time range of interest. (Currently the hydrodynamic solution must
include enough time steps to span the residence time in question. If this is not the case, additional time
steps should be added to the data set either by rerunning the simulation for a longer time period or
duplicating time steps).
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
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Review the number of particles still in the basin (or subdomain) at various time intervals. The percentage
of particles, and their position give an indication of overall concentration and local concentration in the
basin.
General visualization of flow field.
External Links:

“Gas Flow Visualization for Combustion Analysis”, Energy and Fuels, Vol. 7, No. 6, 1993, pp. 891-896.
Zundel, A.K., Saito, T., Owen, S.J., Sederberg, T.W., Christiansen, H.N. [70]
Related Topics

Coverages

Animations
Spatial Data
The Spatial Data coverage is designed to store, visualize, and analyze various types of data at node locations. Most
commonly, this data would consist of time series curves. The data can be accessed or added to a node by the rightclick menu of a single selected node. From this menu the data associated with the node can be created, viewed,
modified, or deleted.
The following types of data are supported (right-click options are described):


Time Series – The time series editor allows viewing, editing, and importing/exporting transient datasets for the
location. Each time series consists of either a scalar value at each time, or a vector value at each time. The
vector quantities may be defined as (X,Y)components or ((Magnitude,Direction) pairs. The time values may be
displayed as dates or offset values. The time series are stored in a database inside SMS. When the project is
saved, the series are saved in the XMDF project file. The series may also be imported/exported using a TSD file
format. .

Edit Data – This menu option invokes the time series editor . The list of time series curves available for
this node are listed in a list box. Select the desired time series curve and the values for that curve appear
in the spread sheet. The selected time series data may be modified in this spread sheet.

View Data – This menu option operates like the Edit Data option, but the spread sheet is set to read only.
This prevents accidental modification of the values in the time series.

Delete – This option removes the association between the selected time series and the spatial data node.
The time series curve remains accessible in the Time Series database.
Compass Plot

Show Connection Lines – This option allows the lines connecting the compass plot to its associated
spatial data node to be enabled or disabled.

Properties... – This option brings up the Compass Plot Properties dialog for the selected compass plot.
 Delete – This option deletes the selected compass plot.
The Spatial Data coverage type is found in the "Generic" coverage type list.
Compass Plot
Compass Plots may be created on a Spatial Data node. The Compass Plot displays arrows to represent temporally
varying vector data. This plot can be used to show a vector quantity, either varying through time or constant, to
illustrate quantities such as wind direction, wave direction, or current direction. The plot is associated with a specific
point, but that point does not have to be part of a numerical model or physical object. It could be created simply to
hold the prevailing wind direction, for which a compass plot would be created.
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Direction Convention
For curves with a specified direction, the compass plot uses a "TO" direction convention with North being 0.0 and the
angle is measured clockwise. This means that a vector with a direction of 0.0 points North, 90 degrees points East,
180 degrees points South and 270 degrees points West.
Layout
When a plot is created, SMS places on the left side of the screen. Select the plot using the Select Compass Plot
tool and position it at any location. It is positioned in screen space, so as panning or zooming around the modeling
domain, the plot stays in a single location. The plot can also be resized graphically or using its attributes dialog.
Creating a Compass Plot
In order to create an use a compass plot, perform the following steps:
1) Create or Select a Spatial Data Coverage.
2) Create or Select a Feature Point in the Spatial Data Coverage .
3) Make sure at least one vector time series curve is stored for the selected feature point.
4) Right-click on the point and select the Add → Compass Plot command. This creates a compass plot and brings
ups the Compass Plot Properties dialog. Each time series to be included in the compass plot must be selected in
the Spatial Data section of the dialog. Clicking OK will cause the dialog to disappear and the compass plot to
appear. Properties of the compass plot include:

The name of the plot which can optionally be displayed at the top of the compass plot.

A flag to show/not show a vector for each vector time series stored at the Spatial Data point.

Options for a compass plot legend, including:

A flag to show/not show the legend.

Set the position of the legend. Options include any side of the plot.

The number of vectors to show in the legend. This can be the min/max, or one for each compass ring.

The number of digits of precision for the legend.

Control of the number of rings to show in the plot, and the percent of maximum value for each ring. By
default SMS creates the compass plot with four concentric circles, representing 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and the
maximum vector magnitude.

Display options including:

The pixel size of the compass plot.

A flag to show only the vector direction (ignore magnitude).

A flag to show connection lines. Since the plot can be selected and drug to any position on the
screen, these lines can be useful to show a location the vectors apply to.

A flag to set the background color (if desired) for the compass plot. By default, the plot is filled with
a gray background.

An option to specify the magnitude range to display. Any vector with magnitude above the
maximum will appear as a 100% magnitude vector. Below the minimum, the vector will not be
displayed.

The vector style. (This is a future enhancement. Currently, only "Normal" is supported.
Editing a Compass Plot
In order to edit or adjust a compass plot, perform the following steps:
1)
2)
Select the Select Compass Plot
tool.
Left-click on the selection box of a compass plot and drag to position and resize the plot.
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Right-click on the plot itself. I menu appears including the following options:

Delete – Allows the compass plot to be deleted

Show Connection Lines – Sets the display option of the plot

Show Legend – Turns on/off the legend for the compass plot

Legend Location – A pull right menu that positions the legend

Properties – Invokes the Compass Plot Properties dialog to edit any of the attributes.
Related Topics

Time Series

Coverages
Spectral Coverage
Spectral coverages are used to store all spectral data by location and time. These coverages are then used as spectral
input for CMS-Wave and STWAVE, and are also used to view spectral output generated by the models in observation
and nesting files.
Spatial Varied Boundary Conditions
CMS-Wave and STWAVE have the ability to read in spectral data from various locations defined in a nesting file.
Within SMS, this spectral data is defined using a spectral coverage. Each point in this coverage can be assigned to any
number of spectral grids and datasets which define the conditions at that location at any specific time.
Creating Spectral Data
To create spectral data at a point in the spectral coverage, right-click on the point and select Node Attributes... . This
will bring up the Spectral Energy dialog, from which spectral grids and spectra can be created. See Generate/Edit
Spectra .
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Creating a Spectral Event
Related Topics

Spectral Energy
3.5.a.2. Model Specific Coverages
Model Specific Coverages
Specific model coverage can be selected by right-clicking on the map module data in the Project Explorer and
selecting Type | Models followed by selecting the model coverage; or by right-clicking on the Map Data
item and
selecting New Coverage command followed by using the New Coverage dialog.
The following model specific coverages are available:

ADCIRC – Used to build a conceptual model of an ADCIRC project.

ADH – Has two coverage options.


ADH – Used to build a conceptual model of an ADH project.

Vessel – Used to add vessels to the simulation and give them paths to follow.
BOUSS2D – Used to build feature objects and parameters for a BOUSS-2D model simulation.

Damping – Used to create arcs with damping attributes.

Porosity – Used to create arcs with porosity attributes.

Roughness – Uses polygons to define the varying roughness.

Wavemaker – Used to create arcs that define wave parameters.
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BOUSS Runup/Overtopping – Uses multiple coverages to create the Runup/Overtopping model simulation. The
coverages are:

Probes – Used to create feature objects for probes.

Damping – Used to create arcs with damping attributes.

Porosity – Used to create arcs with porosity attributes.

Roughness – Uses polygons to define the varying roughness.

Transects – Used to create arcs to represent the 1-d grid used for a run-up simulation.

Wavemaker – Used to create arcs that define wave parameters.

CGWAVE – Used to build a conceptual model of a CGWAVE project.

CMS-Flow – Utilize two different coverage types.

Boundary Conditions – Used to create the computational domain (or grid).

Save Points – Used to define special output locations from the computation.

CMS-Wave – Used to build a conceptual model of a CMS-Wave project.

CSHORE – Used to build a conceptual model of a CSHORE project.

EFDC – Used to create curvilinear grids for use with the EFDC model (EFDC grid format).

ESMF – Used to couple ADCIRC and STWAVE models.

FESWMS – Used to build a conceptual model of a FESWMS project.

GenCade – Used to build a conceptual model of a GenCade project.

Generic Model Coverage

PTM – Allows simulating particle transport processes.

SED-ZLJ – Sediment model used with the EFDC coverage.

SRH-2D – Uses multiple coverages to create the SRH-2D model simulation. The coverages are:

Boundary Conditions – Used to create boundary conditions for hydraulic computation.

Obstructions – Used to create feature objects that represent obstructions, such as bank protrusions and
boulder clusters.

Monitor Points – Used to gather specific information for that location at all time steps.

Materials – Allows creating material zones specific to the SRH-2D model.

STWAVE – Used to build a conceptual model of a STWAVE project.

TABS (RMA2/RMA4) – Used to build a conceptual model for a RMA2 or RMA4 project.

TUFLOW Coverages – Used to create feature objects for a TUFLOW simulation. Includes several coverages.

1D Cross Sections – Used to define open channel cross section data for 1D networks.

1D Networks – Used to create channels and nodes for a 1D domain.

1D Water Level Lines – Define the locations where 1D solutions will be written as 2D output.

1D Water Level Points – Used in conjunction with water level lines to guide TUFLOW on creating 2D
output for 1D networks.

1D/2D BCs and Links – Used to specify cell code (active/inactive) areas of the 2D model domain.

1D/2D Connections – Used with the 2D BC coverage to link 2D and 1D domains.

2D Flow Constriction Shapes – Used to define flow constrictions in TUFLOW.

2D Flow Constriction (cell based)

2D Grid Extents – Used to create TUFLOW grids.

2D Materials – Used to assign material data for use in the TUFLOW simulation.
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
2D Miscellaneous (FLC, WRF, IWL, SRF, and AD)

2D Z Lines (advanced) – Modifies geometry through time to simulate levee failures or other changes to
elevation data within the model run.

2D Z Lines/Polygons (simple) – Used as geometry modifications and force grid elevation values using
arcs or polygons.

2D/2D Linkages – Used to setup TUFLOW to use multiple 2D domains.

WAM – Used to build a conceptual model of a WAM project.

Wind – Represents a storm as an arc or series of arcs that follow the storm track and define the storm attributes
at the nodes along the arc.

Holland/PBL – Used to create a storm track for a PBL project for use in ADCIRC.

Synthetic Storm – Provides a mechanism for creating a PBL coverage based upon user specified
parameters.
Related Topics

Map Module

Generic Coverages
1D Hyd Centerline Coverage
The 1D-Hydraulic Centerline coverage has three possible attribute types: general, centerline, and bank. If the arc is a
general arc type then it does not participate in the building of a hydraulic centerline and only provides additional
visual detail to the model. A bank arc is used to mark left and right bank points for any cross sections that are
automatically extracted from at digital terrain model.
A centerline arc provides the backbone of the hydraulic model definition. It's direction should be from upstream to
downstream as this is the way HEC-RAS commonly views the river. This automatically defines which is the left bank
and which is the right bank (think of standing up river and looking downstream when determining left and right). A
centerline has as attributes the river reach properties as defined in the River Reach Attributes dialog.
The river reach properties include:

Arc Type – sets if the attributes are for a centerline, left bank, or right bank arc.

River Name – only editable for a centerline arc.

Reach Id – internally assigned and not editable.

Reach Name

Computational Length – enerally equal to the length but this could be different in order to account for additional
sinuosity.

Reset – will clear whatever has been entered for the Computational Length .

Feature Length

Start Station

End Station
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Related Topics

1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage

WMS 1D-HYD Centerline Coverage Type
1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage
The 1D-Hydraulic Cross Section coverage is used to identify the cross section stations in the hydraulic model, and can
also be used to automatically cut a cross section from an underlying digital terrain model. The attributes of a cross
section feature arc is the cross section itself, along with the other parameters that define its topology in the model and
include: a cross section ID (internally assigned), the reach name (inherited from the centerline arc it intersects), the
station (inherited from the centerline), and any specific model attributes. The 1D-Hydraulic coverage is used in
conjunction with the cross sections and digital terrain model in order to determine the thalweg position (from the
centerline arc) and the left and right bank points (from the bank arcs).
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A cross section is assigned automatically when cutting the cross sections, or can be assigned manually (imported from
a file or entered directly) using the cross section editor.
See the help for Editing Cross Sections to learn more about how cross sections are managed and edited.
Coverage Specific Right-Click Commands
The 1D Hyd Cross Section Coverage contains all the standard commands in its right-click menu. The coverage also
contains a couple specific commands unique to its right-click menu. These commands include:
Add Arcs to Mesh
Adds all cross section arcs to an existing mesh.
Extract cross sections
Brings up the Extract Cross Sections dialog where a cross section database can be created from the cross sections in
the coverage.
Summary table
Brings up the Summary Table Options dialog which allows viewing calculations along cross section arcs.
Extracting Cross Sections
The Extract Cross sections command uses the cross section arcs and a digital terrain model (TINs are the only source
that can currently be used) to extract the elevations at vertices of the feature arc cross sections, or at the intersection
points with the triangles.
Cross sections for individual arcs may be extracted by selecting the arc(s) before choosing the Extract Cross
Sections command. If not cross sections are selected then the Use All Cross Sections option is used.
Point properties (thalweg, left bank, right bank) can be defined from a 1D-Hydraulic Centerline coverage, or by
AutoMark. The AutoMark option will examine the elevations of the extracted cross sections and try to infer the
thalweg (low point) and the left and right bank points (change of slope) automatically.
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Line properties can be determined from an area property coverage by intersecting the cross section arcs with the area
property polygons and marking them in the cross section database.
Cross Section Database
When extracting the cross sections, a prompt will appear asking for the name of a cross section database file. SMS
stores all of the cross section information in a text database file. The cross section database can also be edited
independently using the Cross Section Editor tools. Extracting cross sections with feature arcs is only way to generate
cross section information, they also can be imported from spreadsheet files (cut and paste), or entered manually.
Summary Table
The summary table is a tool that allows viewing calculations along cross section arcs in a project. To use the summary
table, there must exist a cross section coverage , centerline coverage , and geometry (i.e. grid, mesh, scatter). To
access the summary table, right-click on the 1D-Hydraulic Cross Section coverage and select Summary Table... .
Summary Table Options
The Summary Table Options dialog is where which desired calculations are specified, as well as which geometry to
use, and which portions of the cross section should be used.

Data Source – The Data source Select button brings up a Select Tree Item dialog. This dialog is used to select
the geometry that has the datasets for the calculations.

Cross section options – There are three options for the cross sections: "Full cross section", "Main channel only",
and "Overbanks and main channel".

"Full cross section" – This option is used when there is no cross-section database, overbanks have not
been specified, or if the calculations should be done over the entire cross-section.

"Main channel only" – This option can only be used if there is a cross-section database. The calculations
will be performed only on the main channel portion of the cross section , defined as the space between
the right and left overbanks.

"Overbanks and main channel" – This option can only be used if there is a cross-section database. The
calculations will be performed on three separate portions of the cross section: the left overbank, main
channel, and right overbank.

Datasets – After selecting a data source, the spreadsheet will be populated with all of the scalar datasets that
belong to the data source. For each dataset, toggle on minimum, average, and maximum to be calculated, as well
as select the dataset time step to be used. To calculated the minimum, maximum, and average values for each
cross section, SMS will interpolate the values from the dataset to the points along the cross section. These
interpolated values will then be used to determine the minimum, maximum, and average value.

Defaults – The Select defaults button will search for common dataset keywords in the list and automatically turn
on the average calculation. The keywords are: "water_elev", "wse", "vel_mag", "vmag", and "froude".

Advanced Calculations – Some other helpful calculations are available in the Advanced Calculations section.

Flow – To calculate the flow over the cross sections, it is necessary to specify a velocity dataset (vector)
and a depth dataset (scalar). SMS will then calculate the flow over the cross section at the specified time
step.

Width – To calculate the width of the cross sections, it is necessary to specify an elevation dataset and a
water surface elevation dataset. SMS then compares the water surface elevation with the cross section
elevation to determine the width.
Summary Table
Once all of the options are set, click on Generate table... to have SMS compute the desired values and display them
in a table.
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Related Topics

1D Hyd Centerline Coverage
ADCIRC
An ADCIRC coverage is used to build a conceptual model of an ADCIRC project. The conceptual model defines
parameters such as model extents, mesh generation options, and boundary conditions.
ADCIRC Conceptual Model Development
The following steps are generally followed when creating an ADCIRC conceptual model:
Define Coastline
The coastline can be defined in any of the following manners:

Read in an existing coastline file (*.cst) (see Create Coastline ). Coastline files include lists of two-dimensional
polylines that may be closed or open. Open polylines are converted to Feature Arcs and are interpreted as open
sections of coastline. Closed polylines are converted to arcs and are assigned the attributes of islands.

Extract a coastline arc from a scatter set using the Scatter Contour to Feature command.

Digitize a coastline arc using the Create Feature Arc tool.
Define Ocean Boundary
Once the coastline has been created, the ocean boundary can be defined in any of the following manners:

Use the Define Domain menu command to automatically generate the ocean boundary.
 Digitize the ocean boundary arc using the Create Feature Arc tool.
The ocean boundary can take on a rectangular, semi-circular, or circular shape depending on the coastline form. This
will close the domain for the project, giving a defined area where a finite mesh can be created and the ADCIRC model
can perform its analysis.
Build Polygons
Build polygons using the Build Polygons menu command found in the Feature Objects menu.
Choose Mesh Generation Method
At this point, a choice must be made to generate the mesh using the LTEA Toolbox or manual mesh generation
methods.
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LTEA Toolbox
The LTEA Toolbox can also be used to generate a mesh from a bathymetry scatter set and the ADCIRC coverage
created in the previous steps.
Manual Mesh Generation
To manually generate a mesh:

Use the Select Feature Polygon tool and double-click on a polygon to open the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties
dialog. It's also possible to select a polygon and then select Attributes from the right-click menu or select a
polygon and use the Attributes menu command to open the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

Set the desired mesh options. See the article on mesh generation for an explanation of mesh generation.
Related Topics

Define Domain

Coverages

ADCIRC

Boundary Conditions

Linear Truncation Error Analysis (LTEA)

Meshes

Model Control

Spatial Attributes

Steering
ADCIRC Wind Coverage
The ADCIRC wind coverage represents a storm, such as a tropical depression or hurricane, as an arc or series of arcs
that follow the storm track and define the storm attributes at the nodes along the arc. This information is often
available in a "ATCF best track" similar file. It is called a "similar" file, because the ADCIRC development group
have modified the format slightly for each type of application.
Data in the ATCF best track format for historical storms are available from various locations including
tropicalatlatic.com/modelsOLD .
SMS can import data in this format or extract data from the HURDAT database and convert it to this format to
associate it with an ADCIRC simulation. The data can be utilized for three of the Node Wind Stress (NWS) types
supported by ADCIRC including: NWS = 8 (symmetric vortex model), NWS = 12 (OWI PBL wind format), and
NWS = 19 (asymmetric vortex model). Depending on the selected option for NWS, SMS will export the data as a file
named fort.22 for the ADCIRC simulation in formats compatible with either NWS = 8 or NWS = 19, or as a ".trop"
file for use by PBL.
Various model checks have been implemented to help catch mistakes and avoid crossing ADCIRC's limitations.
To create a wind coverage, simply open one of these file into SMS. Alternatively, create a new coverage and select
the coverage type Models | Wind or convert an existing coverage by right-clicking it and selecting Type | Models |
Wind .
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Storm Attributes
To access the Storm Attributes , right-click on the coverage and select Properties... . The Storm Attributes dialog
contains several separate fields that apply to the entire hurricane, such as whether it is symmetric or asymmetric. The
storm's symmetry in particular is important to set before editing node properties because it affects which fields are
shown by default and regarded as required.


Wind Model : Choose between symmetric and asymmetric definition of the storm. The wind model will
determine which fields are displayed and which are hidden (by default) in the node attributes dialog.

Holland Symmetrical : The basic and default choice, and assumes a simple storm definition will suffice.

Holland Asymmetrical : Gives more options for defining the storm's shape and orientation.

Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) : Activates an Options button that will bring up the PBL Model
Control dialog. Model isn't currently available.
Wind Attributes

Basin : Defines a world region where the storm is taking place.

Subregion : Defines a world region where the storm is taking place.

Annual cyclone number : Does not affect calculations, but is valuable for book keeping.
Building a Storm Path
The storm path should be a single continuous line with no breaks or branches. Simply clicking out an arc is
sufficient—vertices will be converted to nodes once the Node Attributes dialog is entered. Do:

Operate in Geographic Coordinates

Make a single path with no breaks

Create the number of vertices/nodes that there is data for (adjust their positions manually with the nodes/vertices
selected or can set their positions within the Node Attributes dialog)
Don't:

Create multiple paths in the same coverage

Split the path in multiple directions

Create loops with the path
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Notes
Consequently, the storm path and nodes information may be obtained in a hurdat file obtained on the NOAA website .
Access website and save the Easy to Read version of the file. Extension for file must be saved as hurdat in order to
open in SMS.
Node Attributes
Once a storm path has been built, define the storm's attributes at each node of the path. Enter the Node Attributes
dialog by selecting the Select Feature Point tool and double-clicking anywhere in the coverage. This opens the Storm
Track Node Attributes dialog. Whenever this dialog opens, all vertices in the storm path are converted to nodes
automatically.
A second way to open the Node Attributes dialog is to use the Select Feature Point tool to select one or more nodes
on the path. Then right-click and select Node Attributes... . This will highlight those nodes in the dialog.
Fields colored blue and displayed by default are those that are required for the Wind Model (symmetric or
asymmetric) selected in the Coverage Attributes dialog. The Show all / Show only required button can be used to
show all the fields available, even those not used by ADCIRC or for the selected wind model. These are useful for
book keeping and completeness, even though they typically do not affect calculations.
The Storm start time sets the starting time for the first node in the storm's path. Each node then defines an offset from
this starting time in hours (see below). Year, month, day and hour are important, while minutes and seconds should be
left at 0.
The fields in the spreadsheet more or less correspond directly to a field in the fort.22 file [2]:

Lat and Lon : These define the latitude and longitude of the given node, in tenths of degrees (900 = 90 degrees).
Edit these values directly from the dialog or select the nodes with the Select Feature Point tool and edit their X
and Y that way. In this dialog, values are always positive and N/S/E/W determines quadrant, whereas the main
SMS interface uses negative numbers for South and East.

TechNum/Minutes (TECHNUM/MM)

Technique (TECH) : ADCIRC recommends that this be set to ASYM when dealing with asymmetric storms

Time offset (YYYYMMDDHH and TAU) : This field combined with the Storm start time above the spreadsheet
determine the YYYYMMDDHH and TAU fields in the fort.22. This field is the offset (in hours) from the storm
start time.

Max sust wind spd (VMAX)

Minimum sea lvl pressure (MSLP) : This is another reflection of the storm strength.

Lvl of tc development (TY)

Wind radius code (WINDCODE) : ADCIRC requires that this be full circle for symmetric, and northeast
quadrant for asymmetric. This is fairly restrictive, but SMS can convert many of the other options to northeast
quadrant automatically. A model check will warn if some of the selections cannot be converted without losing
data.

Wind Intensity (RAD, RAD1-4) : Each node can store wind intensity and radii for the storm shape at 34, 50, 64
and 100 kts.

Pressure of last closed isobar (RADP)

Radius of last closed isobar (RRP) : This defines the size of the storm's significant influence.

Radius of max winds (MRD) : This defines the size of the central portion of the storm.

Gusts (GUSTS)

Eye diameter (EYE)

Max seas (MAXSEAS)

Forcaster's initials (INITIALS)

Storm direction (DIR)
SMS 12.2

Storm speed (SPEED)

Storm name (STORMNAME)

System depth (DEPTH)

Wave height for radii (SEAS)

Seas radius code (SEASCODE)

Wave height radius 1-4 (SEAS1-4)
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Linking the Coverage to the ADCIRC Project
After defining the storm path and all its data, it's time to link the project into ADCIRC. To do this, select the ADCIRC
mesh and go to ADCIRC | Model Control . Choose the Wind tab. Select either Dynamic Holland Model (NWS=8) or
Asymmetric vortex, Holland gradient wind model (NWS=9). In the Wind File Options section, click Choose
coverage... to select the coverage and link it in. The Options button will now open the Coverage Attributes dialog
which allows editing it quickly from this dialog.
In the Timing tab be sure to set up the simulation start time and how long it runs. The wind coverage's time span
should have the same start time and duration, or be longer so that it encompasses the simulation time span.
Also set up any other ADCIRC settings as needed. When finished, click OK , then go to File | Save ADCIRC , then
ADCIRC | Run ADCIRC . The model check will alert to any potential problems before ADCIRC runs.
Related Topics

ADCIRC
ADH Vessel
The ADH Vessel Coverage is used to add vessels to the simulation and give them paths to follow. Generally, one
coverage represents one vessel. Drag one or more vessel coverages into the ADH Mesh to add those coverages to the
simulation (by creating links). This allows having more vessels defined than using in the simulation, and give the
ability to swap them in and out of the simulation to run different tests with different vessels.
Boat Path
Each vessel coverage has at least one arc to define the boat path. The arc determines the vessel's starting position and
starting speed, and where it will go from there. Additional segments can be added to the arc by adding vertices.
Vertices add destinations but do not affect speed. To change the speed of the boat, convert a vertice into a node, and
enter the node's attributes.
In general, there will always be exactly one path per vessel coverage. The path can be made up of multiple arcs, but
the arcs should not split into multiple paths. The one exception to the rule of "one path per coverage" is when there are
multiple vessels that are identical except for their speeds and paths. In this case SMS can have multiple separate paths
in the same coverage, and each will create its own separate copy of the boat defined in the coverage properties. These
paths can cross each other as long as they do not connect to each other (at a node). Another option is to simply
duplicate the coverage after the boat properties are defined. This allows adding and removing the boats from the
simulation separately, and the boats can have vertices and nodes in the same place (same x and y coord) along their
path without conflicting. The boat path writes the FDEF and SDEF cards to the boat file .
Dialogs
Node Attributes
Nodes on arcs change the speed of the boat or, in the case of the first node of the path, define the boat's starting speed.
To change the speed of the boat at a node, right-click on it then select Node Attributes... . This will bring up the
ADH Vessel Node Properties dialog.
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Alternately, double-click the node to reach the ADH Vessel Node Properties dialog.
Boat Parameters
The boat's parameters are defined in the coverage properties. Right-click on the coverage and choose Properties... .
This dialog sets the boat's size and shape, and defines propellers if desired. If the OP BTS card is included, each
vessel in the simulation will need to have propellers defined. Without the OP BTS card, propellers supposedly do
nothing.
Each field corresponds directly to a card in the boat file .

Length (BLEN)

Width (BWID)

Bow to Length Ratio (PBOW)

Stern to Length Ratio (PSTR)

Draft (DRFT)

Fraction Applied to Bow (CBOW)

Fraction Applied to Stern (CSTR)
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Propeller (PROP card):

Propeller Type – "Open wheel" or "Kort nozzle"

Propeller Diameter

Distance between propellers

Tow boat length – This length provides an offset distance of the propeller induced shear stresses from the vessel.
Set to 0 if there is no tow boat.

Distance from prop to tow boat stern
Related Topics

ADH
CMS-Flow Coverages
The CMS-Flow model makes use of the simulation based modeling approach. This requires defining coverages in the
Map module to build the components for use in the CMS-Flow simulation .
Boundary Conditions
All numeric models require boundary condition data. In CMS-Flow, boundary conditions are defined on feature arcs
in a boundary conditions coverage.
The Create Feature Arc can be used to click out boundary conditions for the model or arcs can be converted from
other coverages or modules. Arcs can also be imported.
One the boundary condition arcs have been created, right-click on the arc with the Select Feature Arc tool and select
the Assign Boundary Conditions command to bring up the Arc Boundary Condition dialog. This command is unique
to the CMS-Flow Boundary Condition coverage and is only accessible by right-clicking on a selected arc.
Arc Boundary Conditions Dialog
This dialog has the following options for boundary condition parameters.

Name – Assign a name to the boundary arc.

Type – Has the following options:

"Unassigned" – The default option.
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
"Cross-shore"

"Flow rate forcing" – Specifies an inflow rate (flow in cubic meters/second at each cell). This can be used
to represent a river flowing into the domain.


Flow Source

Inflow direction

Conveyance coefficient
"WSE forcing" – Specifies the water surface elevation as a function of time for the cellstring. Options
include specifying a single curve (water level -vs- time) and all the cells will have the same water level at
the specified time and extracting individual curves for each cell either from a regional tidal database
(ADCIRC database) or from a regional (larger) circulation model.

WSE Source

WSE offset
Save Points
CMS-Flow includes save points which can be used to output calculations at specific locations.
Save points are created in the Save Points coverage using the Create Feature Point tool. When the coverage is linked
to the CMS-Flow simulation data will be collected during the simulation model run.
The coverage has two unique commands. The coverage right-click menu in the Project Explorer has a Properties
command that will bring up the Save Points Properties dialog. Right-clicking on a point in the graphics window and
selecting the Assign Save Points... command bring up the Assign Save Points dialog.
Save Points Properties Dialog
In the Save Points Properties dialog the output interval can be specified for data collected at each save point. The
interval options can be specified for any of the following data types:

Hydro

Sediment

Salinity
 Waves
All interval options can be specified in seconds, minutes, or hours.
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Assign Save Points
Each save point created in the coverage needs to be given parameters as to what type of data to collect during the
simulation model run. Using the Select Feature Point tool, right-click on each save point and use the Assign Save
Points... command. This will bring up the Assign Save Points dialog where the type of data to be gathered can be
specified.
The dialog has the following options:

Name – Each save point can be given a unique name. The given name will appear next to the point in the
graphics window after being assigned.

Hydro – Sets the save point to collect hydrologic data.

Sediment – Sets the save point to collect sediment data.

Salinity – Sets the save point to collect salinity data.

Waves – Sets the save point to collect wave data.
Related Topics

CMS-Flow

CMS-Flow Simulation
ESMF – Earth System Modeling Framework
The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is used to couple the following Models:
 ADCIRC – STWAVE
To create a coupled simulation using ESMF, perform the following steps:

Right-click in the Project Explorer .

Choose the menu New Simulation | Hurricane .

Change the simulation name if desired .

Create the elements to be include in the simulation and drag tree pointers representing them into the simulation.
The following items can be linked to an Hurricane simulation:

ADCIRC – STWAVE


ADCIRC Mesh

STWAVE Grid

Hurricane Coverage

PBL Wind Coverage

WAM Simulation
Right-click on the Hurricane simulation in the Project Explorer .
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

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Choose the menu Properties . This action will create a new Hurricane coverage containing polygons that
identify overlapping grid sections and areas of interest defined. It will then bring up a Hurricane Mode Project
Summary property sheet containing four tabbed dialogs.

Overview

ESMF

Spatial View

Timeline
Right-click on the ESMF simulation and choose Export ESMF Files . SMS will create a folder named ESMF
in the same directory as the .sms file of the current project. Inside of the ESMF folder will be a folder and input
files for the ESMF Simulation. The ESMF Simulation folder name will be the same as the name given to the
ESMF Simulations in the Project Explorer.
ESMF Hurricane Overview
The dialog gives an overview of the components of the Hurricane simulation. It also allows designating the number of
processors to be use by each model in the simulation.

Simulation Name – Name of the Hurricane simulation as set in the Project Explorer.

Properties – Properties of the Hurricane simulation .


Model Name – Name of models found in the simulation.

ADCIRC <mesh name> (1 required) – Name of the adcirc mesh used in the hurricane simulation.

STWAVE <grid name> (1 required) – Name of the stwave cgrid used in the hurricane simulation.

PBL <pbl cov name> (optional) – Name of pbl wind coverage used in the hurricane simulation.

WAM <wam sim name> (optional) – Name of wam simulation used in the hurricane simulation.
Projection – Projection type of model.

Geo – Geographic (Latitude/Longitude)

STPL <#> – State Plane number .

Other – Other type of projection .

Start Time – Temporal starting time of model.

End Time – Temporal ending time of model.

Threads – Number of processor threads used by model for computation or I/O processing.

Function – Function used to adjust the processor threads used by each model.


Set Threads – Set the number of processor threads for:

Computational or I/O processing (ADCIRC).

Grid Partition I and J processing (STWAVE).
NONE – WAM and PBL use only one processor thread.
Hurricane ESMF

Set the ESMF simulation options in the Data Exchange and Area Mapping sections of the dialog

Data Exchange

Model A – The meshed based model to be use (hard-coded to ADCIRC).

Data Exchange – Controls how data is exchanged between the two models (↔ bi-directional, → unidirection A to B, ← uni-directional B to A).

Model B – The grid based model to be use (hard-coded to STWAVE).

Model A → B – How frequently the results of Model A are passed to Model B.
SMS 12.2


Units – Frequency units for A to B exchange (days/hours/minutes/seconds).

Model A ← B – How frequently the results of Model B are passed to Model A.

Units – Frequency units for B to A exchange (days/hours/minutes/seconds).
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Area Mapping

ID – Polygon identifier correlated to the ids visible in the main graphics window.

Mapping


Single – Model A exchanges data with a single instance of Model B.

Combined – Model A exchanges data with multiple instances of Model B. Model A can receive
either the average or maximum values from the instances of Model B.
Option – If the "Mapping" field is set to "Single" and multiple grids overlap the identified polygon, this
field allows selecting which grid will be used. If the "Mapping" field is set to "Combined", this field
select how the data from the grids will be combined (Average or Maximum).
Hurricane Spatial View
This dialog provides a view of any grid boundaries (WAM and STWAVE), grid frames (PBL), and the ADCIRC
mesh boundary associated with the simulation.
Hurricane Timeline
This dialog displays the timelines for each simulation (WAM, STWAVE, PBL, and ADCIRC) that are part of the
hurricane simulation. The start and end times need to be set for each simulation individually.
Related Topics

Model Specific Coverages

CSTORM-MS

Steering
Generic Model Coverage
Generic model coverage is for a Generic model . The generic model interface spans both the map and the mesh
modules. Create a Generic Model coverage and assign arc boundary conditions based on the types defined in the
generic model template. Also attributes can be assigned to feature points in the coverage.
More information about a meshing coverage can be found under the article Coverages .
Convert Map feature arc and point attributes to mesh
nodestring and node attributes
A Generic 2D mesh coverage in Map Module can be used to create feature points and arcs. These points and arcs can
then be assigned attributes. This is done by double-clicking on either the feature point or feature arc. For points, a
dialog will appear to assign node or element boundary conditions. For arcs, the process is similar to nodes but the
attributes will be assigned on the arc. When doing a Map→2D Mesh, point node boundary conditions will be assigned
to the nearest node. Point element conditions will be assigned to the nearest element. Mesh nodestrings will be created
and assigned from the nodes nearest the feature arc.
Convert a Map to 2D Mesh
To convert a map to a mesh, right-click on the map default or active coverage. Then select Convert | Map→2D Mesh
. A dialog is displayed. If a mesh already exists, choose to delete it or to map the attributes to the existing mesh.
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Related Topics

Generic Model
SED-ZLJ
The SED-ZLJ sediment model is a sub-model of the EFDC model .
SED-ZLJ Options
The
dialog is reached by selecting the SED-ZJL coverage in the Map Module and then double-clicking on a active node.
Sediment Size Classes
The Sediment Size Classes tab has the following options for entering data:

Use measured cohesive setline velocities

Cohesive

Settling velocity

D50

Specific gravity

Crit. shear for susp.

Crit. shear for erosion

Initial concentration
Erosion Rates
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Related Topics

Model Specific Coverages
Synthetic Storm Coverage
Background
When simulating an actual storm (hindcast), the storm information such as the track locations, central pressures,
radius information, speeds, and Holland B values can come from an analysis on data collected during the storm.
However, if the simulation is intended for design analysis, it may be better to not choose a storm that has happened
but a storm which may happen. Often several configurations for storms would be analyzed to see the results of each.
The synthetic storm coverage and associated generator executable provide a mechanism for creating a PBL coverage
(trop file) based upon user specified parameters.
The first step is to decide upon a track path or multiple paths to simulate. For multiple paths, one option is to create a
single track and use the perturbation tools in SMS to generate similar tracks by using offsets and modifications of
central pressures, etc.
Once the track locations have been defined, define the associated data for the track (central pressures, Holland B,
storm radius, etc.). The US Army Engineer Research and Development Center has developed a utility that creates a
full PBL input trop file from a small set of user defined parameters.
Inputs
The following parameters are used to fill in the track data:

Storm name

Storm number

Starting date/time (nearest hour)

Forward speed in knots

Far field atmospheric pressure in millibars

Initial central pressure in millibars

Minimum central pressure in millibars

Landfall central pressure in millibars

Initial storm radius in miles

Landfall storm radius in miles
 Initial Holland B value
In addition to these parameters the locations where minimum central pressure exists along the track and the landfall
location are specified.
Methodology
ERDC has developed curves to represent general behavior of storms. These curves are a simplistic approach and
should be used with caution. When in doubt if providing appropriate wind fields, consult a meteorologist.
Sample curves for central pressure, Holland B, and storm radius can be seen below. Some of the values shown are
user supplied and others are determined by the synthetic storm generator (like ending radius).
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User Interface
Synthetic storms are created in SMS using the "synthetic storm coverage." This coverage is in the folder
"\Models\Wind" when accessing it from the New Coverage dialog or changing the type of an existing coverage.
The coverage must contain a single track made up of multiple arcs. The locations of starting minimum central
pressure, ending minimum central pressure, and landfall are specified on arc end nodes. Change the type of an arc
node by selecting the node, right-clicking, and choosing the desired type from the Type submenu. When changing a
node to any type except for generic and a node of that type already exists, the existing node will be changed to a
generic node. There can only be one node of each "non-generic" type.
The parameters for the storm generator are stored with the coverage and can be accessed by right-clicking on the
coverage and choosing Properties.
When the track has been defined, the node types specified, and the properties assigned to the coverage the PBL
coverage can be created. To create the PBL coverage, right-click on the coverage and choose Create PBL coverage.
This will run the ERDC storm generator utility and read the resulting data into a new PBL coverage.
Related Topics

Coverages

PBL
3.5.b. Interface Components
Interface Components
The Map module interface consists of the display options, menus, right-click menus, and tools associated with the
Map module. The Map module interface is the default interface when SMS is first started.
Display Options
The display of map module features in the Graphics Window can be altered using the Display Options dialog.
Standard viewing options (pan, frame, rotate) are also available. For more information, see: Map Module Display
Options .
Menus
The map module makes use of the standard menus: File , Edit , Display , Web, Window, and Help.
In addition to the standard menus, the Map Module has the Feature Objects menu as well as right-click menus. See
the following articles for more information:

Map Feature Objects Menu

Map Module Right-Click Menus
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Tools
In addition to the standard tools , the Map module has a number of tools used for creating and modifying feature
objects in the Graphics Window. Some tools contain right-click menus when clicking in the Graphics Window. For
more information, see: Map Module Tools .
Project Explorer Items
In the Project Explorer, the Map module displays the available coverages
and allows the coverages to be organized
in folders
. Right-click menus are available for both coverage items and folders. See Project Explorer Items for
more information.
Related Topics

SMS Menus

Dynamic Tools
Map Module Display Options
The properties of all map data that SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Map tab of the Display
Options dialog. This dialog is opened by right-clicking on the Map Data
entry in the Project Explorer and
selecting the Display Options command. (It can also be accessed from the from the Display menu or the Display
Options
Macro.)
The exact layout of the Display Options dialog for feature objects depends on the active Coverage type. Some options
are available on all coverages, while other options are only available on certain coverage types. The following options
are available in the Display Options dialog. The entities associated with the map module with display options are
shown below. Some of these entities also show an Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display
controls are available. The available map display options include the following:
The visibility of feature objects can be controlled in this section. The following options are available:

Node or Point – Display the vertices along the nodes or points. The button next to this option allows opening a
Symbol Attributes dialog to define the size and shape of the nodes or points.

Nodal BC or Point BC

Refine Points

Node or Point ID – Display the ID of the feature node or point. The button next to this option allows opening a
Font dialog.

Arcs – Display of feature arcs in the Graphics Window. The button next to this option allows opening a Line
Attributes dialog where the style, width, and color of the arc can be selected.

Arc BC – Activates an Options button that opens the Arc Display Options dialog with display options for the
boundary condition specific to the active coverage.

Vertices – Display the vertices along the arcs. The button next to this option allows opening a Symbol Attributes
dialog to define the size and shape of the vertices.

Arc ID – Display the ID of the feature arcs. The button next to this option allows opening a Font dialog.

Arc Types – Arc attributes may be displayed depending on the coverage.

CL Flow Direction Arrow – Display an arrowhead showing the direction of center line arcs.

Snap Preview – Turns on or off the display of the where a feature object will align along a grid or mesh.
Requires that the coverage be linked to a simulation . The rules for snapping vary depending on the coverage
type, therefore, the snap preview may change when switching between coverages linked to the same simulation.
Shift + Q can be used to turn on or off the preview mode without entering the Display Options dialog.

Polygon Fill – Display the fill color of feature polygons. Generally the fill color matches the material data
assigned to the polygon.
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
Show Materials / Mesh Type – Fill the polygons to display the materials assigned to the polygons or the
mesh generation type assigned to each polygon.

Material Opts – Set the display options of the materials.

Land / Ocean – Set the color fill of land and ocean polygons. (Cartesian grid coverages only)

Polygon ID – Display the ID of the feature polygons. The button next to this option allows opening a Font
dialog.

Grid Frame – Set the display of the grid frame. (Cartesian grid coverages only) The button next to this option
allows opening a Line Attributes dialog where the style, width, and color of the grid frame can be selected.

Legend

Inactive Coverages – Set the color for the display of all inactive coverages.
Legend
Turn the legend on or off for feature objects. The Options button opens a dialog that controls the title, font, location,
and size of the legend. The Active button in this dialog signifies to show only the active coverage in the legend and
the All button signifies to show all coverages in the legend. The Legend Options dialog has the following options:

Legend title – Allows entering a name for the legend.

Location Preference

Legend location – Allows defining the location for the legend in the graphics window. Options include:
"Top Left Corner", "Bottom Left Corner", "Top Right Corner", "Bottom Right Corner", "Screen
Location", or "World Location". Using the "Screen Location" or "World Location" option will activate
the X location and Y location options where a more precise location can be specified. The "World
Location" option will also activate the Z location option.

Font – Clicking the button in this section brings up a Font dialog to set the attributes of the legend text.

Size

Width

Height
Observation Coverage Only

Calibration Target – Turn on/off calibration targets drawn next to observation points. The Interval and Two std.
dev. options tell SMS to set the size of the calibration targets based on the interval or the standard deviation
assigned to each point. The Scale tells SMS to scale the targets larger (>1.0) or smaller (<1.0) than the default
size.

Computed – Tells SMS to Use the active dataset or to Use the selected dataset for displaying the calibration
targets.

Observed
Related Topics

Map Module

Display Options
Map Feature Objects Menu
The Feature Objects Menu includes the following commands:
General Commands
Delete
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Deletes all the feature objects in an SMS session and creates a new blank coverage (since SMS requires an active
coverage at all times). SMS will ask for confirmation of this action.
Attributes
Brings up an Attributes dialog. The specifics of the dialog are unique to each coverage.
Create Arc Group
Creates a new entity from a group of selected contiguous (end to end) arcs. If the selected arcs are not connected
end to end, SMS will give an error message. These arc groups can be used in some models to assign boundary
conditions. This command is used to create an arc group from a continuous string of selected arcs. Once the arc
group is created, it can be selected using the Select Arc Group tool. Properties can be assigned to the arc group
as a whole, and the arc group can be selected to display the computed flow through the arc group. An arc group
is deleted by selecting the arc group and selecting the DELETE key. Deleting an arc group does not delete the
underlying arcs.
Build Polygons
While most feature objects can be constructed with tools in the Tool Palette , polygons are constructed with the
Build Polygons command. Since polygons are defined by arcs, the first step in constructing a polygon is to
create the arcs forming the boundary of the polygon. After forming loops with arcs, choose Feature Objects |
Build Polygons from the menu. The build polygons command will form polygons from all closed loops in the
coverage.
Clean
Opens the Clean dialog which can fix certain feature object errors.
Vertices ↔ Nodes
In some cases, it is necessary to split an arc into two arcs. This can be accomplished using the Vertex ↔ Node
command. Before selecting this command, a vertex on the arc at the location where the arc is to be split should
be selected. The selected vertex is converted to a node and the arc is split in two. The Vertex ↔ Node command
can also be used to combine two adjacent arcs into a single arc. This is accomplished by converting the node
joining the two arcs into a vertex. Two arcs can only be merged if no other arcs are connected to the node
separating the arcs. Otherwise, the node must be preserved to define the junction between the branching arcs.
Reverse Arc Direction
Reverses the direction of all selected arcs.
Redistribute Vertices
Automatically creates a new set of vertices along a selected set of arcs at either a higher or lower density.
Transform Feature Objects
Brings up the Transform Feature Objects dialog where data can be scaled, translated, or rotated.
Select/Delete Data...
Requires that one or more polygons be selected. Brings up the Select/Delete Data dialog.
Find
Allows finding a feature object node, arc or polygon by its specified ID number.
Map → 2D Mesh
Used to generate a 2D finite element mesh from feature objects.
Map → 2D Grid
Used to generate a 2D grid from feature objects.
Map → Scatter
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Allows scatter sets to be interpolated from map data. Scatter points can be created from a specified source.
Scatter points data can be extrapolated from feature points and vertices on arc or on feature points only on arc,
feature points not on arcs or from feature polygon meshing options. The elevation source can be obtained from
arc elevation, arc node and vertex elevations or from arc spacing.
Coverage Type Specific Menus
Optional menu items appear according to the active coverage type.
Generic Coverage Types
Stamping

Stamp Features
Model Coverage Types
ADCIRC

Model Control – Brings up the ADCIRC Model Control dialog.

Create Coastline – Opens the Create Contour Arcs dialog. For more information, see Arcs: Create Contour
Arcs . This command is available if the current coverage type is SHOALS, ADCIRC , or CGWAVE .

Define Domain – Brings up the Domain Options dialog.
BOUSS-2D

Create Coastline – Brings up the Create Contour Arcs dialog.

Extract Elevations – This option is found in the Feature Objects menu, in the Map module, when SHOALS is
the active coverage type. The elevation of each node and vertex along every profile arc is interpolated from the
active scatter set.
CGWAVE

Model Control – Brings up the CGWAVE Model Control dialog.

Create Coastline – Brings up the Create Contour Arcs dialog.

Define Domain – Brings up the Domain Options dialog.
CMS-Flow

Create Coastline – When this command is invoked, the Create Contour Arcs dialog opens.
CMS-Wave

Create Coastline ' – When this command is invoked, the Create Contour Arcs dialog opens.
GenCade

Grid Frame Properties – Brings up the Grid Frame Properties dialog for GenCade.
Related Topics

Map Module
Map Module Tools
The following tools are contained in the dynamic portion of the Tool Palette when the Map Module is active. Only
one tool is active at any given time. The action that takes place when clicking in the Graphics Window depends on the
current tool. The following table describes the tools in the map tool palette.
Tool
Tool Name
Description
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Select Feature
Point or Node
The Select Feature Point or Node tool is used to select stand alone feature points or the
ends of arcs. A single point is selected by left-clicking directly on it. Multiple points can be
selected at once by dragging a box. To drag a selection box, left-click and hold the button
while dragging the mouse to the appropriate dimensions; release the button to enclose and
select the contents. Additional points can be appended to the selection list by holding the
SHIFT key while selecting by any method. Selecting new points without holding the SHIFT
key will first clear the selection list and then add the newly selected points. A selected point
can be removed from the selection list by holding the SHIFT key as it is reselected.
Pressing the ESC key will clear the entire selection list. Right-clicking will open a menu
specific to this tool.
Feature points are locked so they are not accidentally dragged. When a single point is
selected, its location is shown in the Edit Window . The coordinates can be changed by
typing in the edit field.
The Graphics Window’s status bar will display information on the selected items
depending on the settings find through the File | Info Options command in the File Menu .
Selected points can be deleted by selecting the Edit | Delete menu command on the Edit
Menu , by pressing the DELETE or BACKSPACE keys, or from the right-click menu. Arcs
attached to the deleted points are deleted.
This tool is available when one or more feature points exist.
Create Feature
Point
The Create Feature Point tool is used to place new feature point in the current coverage.
A single point is created at a time by left-clicking at the coordinate desired. The newly
created point is selected to allow Z Coordinate changes in the Edit Window . This tool is
always available, however, creating a feature point is only allowed while in plan view.
Select Feature
Vertex
The Select Feature Vertex tool is used to select one or more vertices on an arc. These
vertices define the shape of the arc. The vertex may have a "z" elevation specified, but no
other attributes are associated with the feature vertices.
Create Feature
Vertex
The Create Feature Vertex tool is used to create a new vertex on the interior of an arc.
The vertex is created at the current arc location, but can be selected and moved to change
the shape of the arc. The vertex may have a "z" elevation specified, but no other attributes
are associated with the feature vertices.
SMS 12.2
Select Feature
Arc
The Select Feature Arc tool is used to select one or more existing feature arcs. This is
typically done to assign attributes to an arc or delete the arc. A single arc is selected by leftclicking directly on it. Double-clicking on the arc will bring up the arc attributes dialog or
that arc. Multiple arc can be selected at once by dragging a box. Additional arcs can be
appended to the selection list by holding the SHIFT key while selecting by any method.
Selecting new arcs without holding the SHIFT key will first clear the selection list and then
add the newly selected points. A selected arc can be removed from the selection list by
holding the SHIFT key as it is reselected. Pressing the ESC key will clear the entire
selection list. Right-clicking will open a menu specific to this tool.
Feature arcs may have elevations associated with the arc as an entity. This is independent
of the node and vertex elevations. When a single arc is selected, its elevation is shown in
the Edit Window . The coordinates can be changed by typing in the edit field.
Multiple feature arcs may also be selected to create a feature arc group to associate
attributes with a string of arcs rather than a single arc. These arcs must connect end to end.
The arc group is created from the Feature Objects menu command.
The Graphics Window’s status bar will display information on the selected items
depending on the settings find through the File | Info Options command in the File Menu .
Selected arcs can be deleted by selecting the Edit | Delete menu command on the Edit
Menu , by pressing the DELETE or BACKSPACE keys, or from the right-click menu.
Nodes attached only to the deleted arcs are deleted.
This tool is available when one or more feature arcs exist.
Create Feature
Arc
The Create Feature Arc tool is used to create a new feature arc.
Select Feature
Arc Group
The Select Feature Arc Group tool is used to assign attributes to a string of arcs. The
group must be created before it can be selected as a group. The attributes of the group then
operate just as if the group was a single arc.
Select Feature
Polygon
Build Polygons menu command.
Create 1D Grid
Frame
The Create 1D Grid Frame tool only appears when the coverage is associated with a 1D
grid model (GenCade). This tool is used to create a guide for the 1D grid that will be
generated for a coastal morphology analysis.
Select 1D Grid
Frame
Only appears when the coverage is associated with a 1D grid model (GenCade). This tool is
used to select/edit the grid frame that is used to generate the 1D grid.
Create 2D Grid
Frame
Used to create a new grid frame for the creation of Cartesiona grids. This tool is only
available for coverages related to Cartesian grid models. The grid frame is defined by
clicking three times in the graphics window. The first click defines the origin. The second
click defines the I axis of the grid frame (both extents and direction). The third click defines
the extents of the J axis. The direction is set to be perpendicular to the I axis.
Select 2D Grid
Frame
Allows selecting a grid frame and altering its position, orientation and size. This tool is
only available for coverages related to Cartesian grid models.
Select Compass
Plot
Allows sellecting a compass plot on a spatial data node. Available when using the Spatial
Data Coverage .
General Tool Right-Click Menus
The following is a list of options that appear in every tool's right-click menu:

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Clear Selection – Undoes the selection of the object that was clicked on.
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
Invert Selection – Selects every object of the same type selected, and undoes the selection of the object that
was originally selected.

Zoom to Selection – Causes the object selected to fill and be centered in the Graphics Window.
Tool Specific Right-Click Menus
Each tool in the Map module has its own right-click menu. When the object is selected, one can right-click and a
menu will appear. The following is a table showing all of the different tools of the map module with their respective
right-click menus.
Tool
Tool Name
Select Feature
Point or Node
Select Feature
Vertex
Select Feature
Arc
Select Feature
Right-Click Menu

Convert to Vertex/Vertices – Converts node(s) to Vertex/Vertices. Will not
be available when selecting a point.

Delete – Deletes node(s).

Transform – Moves the node(s) either by scaling, translation, or rotation.
User specified. See Data Transform for more information.

Convert to Node(s) – Converts Vertex/Vertices to node(s).

Delete – Deletes vertex/Vertices

Transform – Moves the vertex/vertices either by scaling, translation, or
rotation. User specified. See Data Transform for more information.

Create Arc Group – Creates a group out of two or more arcs selected
together.

Delete – Deletes arc(s) selected.

Split Arc(s) – Sub divides arc(s) at the vertices. See Split Feature Arcs Utility
for more information.

Offset Arc(s) – Invokes the offset arc dialog which prompts for offset
distances and options to create one or more arcs offset from the selected
arc(s). See Offset Arcs for more information.

Align Arc(s) with Contour – Moves the nodes and vertices of the selected
arc(s) to the closest points on a contour at that value. See Align Arc With
Contour for more information.

Redistribute Vertices – User specified distribution of vertices. Vertices can
be evenly distributed based on spacing or number of vertices desired. See
Redistribute Vertices for more information.

Reverse Arc Direction – Reverses direction of arc. The arc direction only
impacts the direction of extracted 2D plots and the direction for defining a
domain. See Reverse Arc Direction for more information.

Smooth Arc(s) – Repositions each vertex on an arc to smooths the arc(s). See
Smooth Arc for more information.

Transform – Moves the arc either by scaling, translation, or rotation. User
specified. See Data Transform for more information.

Attributes – Type specific. Many types do not have any attributes in their
arcs. See Arc Attributes Dialog for more information.

Select Connected Arcs Turning Left – Selects the arc to the left of the
originally selected arc. See Select Connected Arcs Turning Left for more
information.

Delete – Deletes Feature Arc Group(s).
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Arc Group
Select Feature
Polygon

Delete – Deletes Feature Polygon (not the arcs that make up the polygon).

Attributes – Model specific.
Select 1D Grid
Frame

Properties ' – Invokes the Grid Frame Properties dialog that allows
specifying the location, orientation, size and spacing of the grid frame using
text fields; Specific to 1D grid coverages.
Select 2D Grid
Frame
Type Specific

Properties – Invokes the Grid Frame Properties dialog where the 2D grid
frame properties can be edited. Model specific.
Related Topics

Map Module
Project Explorer Items
In the Project Explorer, the Map data folder houses all of the coverages that are controlled by the Map module. The
Map data folder can hold as many coverages as desired, and can also generate sub folders. Coverages are considered
'active' when clicked on in the Project Explorer, and the name of the coverage becomes bold while the coverage icon
becomes green. When a new project is created in SMS, a coverage will be automatically created. This coverage is
named 'default coverage', and it will be set to a default type which can be specified in the Preferences dialog.
Map Module Right-Click Menus
The following Project Explorer mouse right-click menus are available when the mouse right-click is performed on a
Map Module item.
Map Module Root Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the Map module root folder in the project explorer invokes an options menu with the following
options:

New coverage – Opens the New Coverage Dialog.

New Folder – Creates a new folder under the Map module root folder.

Clear Coverages – Deletes all coverages.

Display Options – Opens the Display Options dialog.

Collapse all – Collapses the project explorer tree under the map module root folder.

Expand all – Expands all entries in the project explorer tree under the map module root folder.

Check all – Selects all entries in the project explorer tree under the map module root folder as visible.

Uncheck all – Deselects all entries in the project explorer tree under the map module root folder making them
invisible.
Coverage Item Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a Map item in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following module specific
options:

Duplicate – Adds another coverage exactly identical to the existing coverage clicked on.

Rename – Specifies a new name for the coverage.
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
Convert – Converts coverage to a 2D grid, mesh or scatter object. In order to convert to a 2D Grid the coverage
must be of a type that is associated with 2D grids and include a grid frame. In order to convert to a mesh, the
coverage must be compatible with mesh generation and include at least one polygon. All coverages can be
converted to a scatter set. Selecting this command invokes the Map → Scatter dialog.

Add Arcs to Mesh – This command was added in SMS 12.0. When this command is invoked, any selected arcs
in the coverage are forced directly into the active mesh and a nodestring is created following each arc. If no arcs
are selected when this command is invoked, all the arcs in the selected coverage are forced into the mesh. This
operation requires that all nodes and vertices on the arc lie inside the mesh it is being forced into. If this is not
the case, the arc is skipped. The arc can leave the mesh and reenter, but all vertices must be inside the mesh.

Projection – Sets the projection of the coverage.

Reprojection – Reprojects the projection of the coverage.

Metadata – Annotates the coverage.

Zoom to Coverage – Zooms to area where coverage is within the graphic window.

Type – Change the coverage type.
New Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a new folder item in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following options:

New Folder – Creates a new sub folder under the new folder.

Delete – Deletes the new folder.
 Rename – Allows renaming a folder.
Right-click options for the coverage may also include options applicable only to the specific coverage type.
3.5.c. Functionalities
Feature Objects Types
Feature objects in SMS have been patterned after Geographic Information Systems (GIS) objects and include points,
nodes, arcs, and polygons. Feature objects can be grouped together into coverages . Each coverage defines a particular
set of attributes that store information for the objects. Since feature objects are patterned after GIS objects, it is
possible to import data from GIS applications such as ESRI Shapefiles (Arc/Info or ArcView) and MIF/MID file pairs
(Map Info).
The primary use of feature objects is generate high level conceptual representations of a site. The area included by the
polygons defines the domain of the mesh, grid, or limit the extents of cross sections. Each polygon represents a
material zone or element type. Special points can be identified in the interior of the domain as areas of particular
interest. Boundary parameters such as flow and head values can also be assigned to points or arcs. Depending on the
numerical model to be used, SMS either passes this conceptual representation to the model, or constructs finite
element meshes , finite difference grids, or one-dimensional cross sections that a numerical model will use. Thus, it's
possible to focus on a simplified, high level representation of the model and little or not tedious cell-by-cell editing is
required. The conceptual model approach can be used to build models for any of the numeric models supported by the
SMS interface.
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Feature Object Types
The definition of feature objects in SMS follows that used by typical GIS software that supports vector data. The basic
object types are points, nodes, vertices, arcs, and polygons. The relationship between these objects is illustrated in the
figure below.
Points
Points are XY locations that are not attached to an arc. Points have unique ids and can be assigned attributes such as a
source or sink. Points are often used to refine a mesh in an area of interest. Points are also used when importing a set
of XY locations for the purpose of creating arcs or polygons.
Arcs
Arcs are sequences of line segments or edges, which are grouped together as a single "polyline" entity. Arcs have
unique ids and can be assigned attributes such as specified head. Arcs are grouped together to form polygons or are
used independently to represent geometrical features such as ridges or channels. The two end points of an arc are
called "nodes" and the intermediate points are called "vertices".
The vertices in an arc define the shape. As more vertices are added, the shape can be more complex. An arc is split
into to arcs by selecting a vertex in the arc and converting that vertex to a node. Two adjacent arcs are merged into a
single arc by selecting the node that joins them, and converting it to a vertex. Several tools or utilities are provided for
working with arcs. These can be accessed while the select arc tool is active by right clicking in the graphics window.
Some of the tools also require that at least one arc be selected. The tools include:

Delete the selected (or all) arcs.

Filter arc(s)

Split arc(s)

Offset arc(s)

Redistribute vertices

Reverse arc direction

Smooth arc(s)

Transform

The standard selection utilities (clear, invert, zoom to selection)

Select connected arcs
Nodes
Nodes define the beginning and ending XY locations of an arc. Nodes have unique ids and can be assigned attributes.
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Vertices
Vertices are XY locations along arcs in between the beginning and ending nodes. They are used solely to define the
geometry of the arcs. Vertices do not have ids or attributes.
Polygons
Polygons are a group of connected arcs that form a closed loop. A polygon consists of one or more arcs. If two
polygons are adjacent, the arc(s) forming the boundary between the polygons is shared (not duplicated). Polygons
may not overlap. However, a polygon can have a hole(s) defined by having a set of closed arcs defining interior
polygon(s). An example of a hole is shown in the figure below. In this case, four arcs define two polygons. Polygon A
is made up of arcs 1, 2, 3 and 4, whereas polygon B is defined by a single arc (arc 2). For polygon A, arcs 1, 3, and 4
define the exterior boundary whereas arc 2 defines a hole.
Polygons have unique ids and can be assigned attributes. Polygons are used to represent material zones such as main
channel, overbank flood plain, lakes, etc.
Coverages
Feature objects are grouped together into coverages. Each coverage represents a particular set of data. For example,
one coverage can be used to define recharge zones, and another coverage can be used to define zones of hydraulic
conductivity.
Conceptual Models
Coverages are grouped into conceptual models. Conceptual models may consist of multiple coverages. In simple cases
like TABS (RMA2), an "RMA2" meshing coverage may be combined with an "Area property" coverage to define
material zones. When converting an RMA2 coverage to a mesh, SMS allows specifying this option. For more
complex conceptual models, such as those used for TUFLOW , a simulation entry in the tree includes links to the
component coverages. A TUFLOW simulation may have coverages for HX links, cross section, boundary conditions
and levies.
Related Links

Converting Feature Objects

Feature Objects Menu

Shapefiles
SMS 12.2
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Attributes in the Feature Objects Menu
Feature object attributes are dependent on the coverage type. If a feature object has attributes, the attributes are edited
by selecting the feature object and then selecting the menu command Feature Objects | Attributes or select
Attributes from the right-click mouse menu. An Attibutes dialog will appear with options for the specific selected
feature object in relation to the coverage type containing the feature object.
Feature Point Attributes
The following coverages can apply attributes to points or nodes.
Generic Coverage Point Types

Observation – Uses the Observation Coverage dialog.

Spectral – Uses the Spectral Energy dialog.

Stamping – Uses the Stamping Point Attributes dialog.
Model Coverage Point Types

ADCIRC – Uses the Refine Attributes dialog.

ADH


ADH – Use the ADH Boundary Condition Assignment dialog.

Vessel – Use the Vessel Node Properties dialog.
BOUSS-2D

Wavemaker – Uses the BOUSS-2D Wave Generator Properties dialog.

CGWAVE – Uses the Refine Attributes dialog.

CMS-Flow

Save Points – Uses the Assign Save Points dialog.

CMS-Wave – Uses the Refine Attributes dialog.

FESWMS – Uses the 'FESWMS Point/Node Attributes dialog.

GenCade – Uses the Refine Attributes dialog.

Generic Model – Uses the Feature Point/Node Attributes dialog.

PTM


PTM – Uses the Feature Object Attributes dialog.

Gages – Uses the PTM Gage Attributes dialog.
SRH-2D

Obstructions – Uses the Obstructions dialog.

TABS – Uses the Feature Point/Node Options dialog.

TUFLOW


1D Network – Uses the Node Attributes dialog.

1D Water Level Points – Uses the Materials Data dialog.

1D–2D BCs and Links – Uses the Boundary Conditions dialog.

2D Flow Constriction Shape – Uses the Flow Constriction Point dialog.
2D Z Lines (advanced) – Uses the Point Attributes dialog.
SMS 12.2
Feature Arc Attributes
The following coverages can apply attributes to arcs.
Generic Coverage Arc Types

Mapping – Uses the Arc Attributes dialog.

Observation – Uses the Observation Coverage dialog.

Stamping – Uses the Stamping Arc Attributes dialog.
Model Coverage Arc Types

ADCIRC – Uses the ADCIRC Arc/Nodestring Attributes dialog.

ADH

ADH – Use the ADH Boundary Condition Assignment dialog.

BOUSS-2D – Uses the Cartesian Grid Arc Options dialog.

BOUSS Runup/Overtopping

Probes – Uses a Arc Attributes dialog.

Damping – Uses a Damping Properties dialog.

Porosity – Uses a Porosity Properties dialog.

Transects – Uses the XY Series Editor .

Wave Maker – Uses the BOUSS-2D Wave Generator Propertise dialog.

CGWAVE – Uses the CGWAVE Boundary Conditions dialog.

CMS-Flow

Boundary Conditions – Uses the Arc Boundary Conditions dialog.

FESWMS – Uses the Feature Arc Attributes dialog.

GenCade – Uses the GenCade Arc Attributes dialog.

Generic Model – Uses the Feature Arc Attributes dialog.

PTM


PTM – Uses the Feature Object Attributes dialog.
SRH-2D

Boundary Conditions – Uses the SRH-2D Linear BC dialog.

Obstructions – Uses the Obstructions dialog.

TABS – Uses the '"Feature Arc Attributes dialog.

TUFLOW

1D Cross Section – Uses the TUFLOW Cross Section dialog.

1D Network – Uses the Channel Attributes dialog.

1D Water Level Lines – Uses the Water Level Arc Attributes dialog.

1D–2D BC and Links – Uses the Boundary Conditions dialog.

1D/2D Connections – Uses the Arc Attributes dialog.

2D Flow Constriction Shape – Uses the Flow Constriction Attributes dialog.

2D Grid Extents – Uses the Cartesian Grid Arc Options dialog.

2D Z Lines (advanced) – Uses the Z Shape dialog.

2D Z Lines/Polygons (simple) – Uses the Choose Arc Type dialog.
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SMS 12.2

Page 317
2D/2D Linkage –
Polygon Attributes
The following coverages can apply attributes to polygons.
Generic Coverage Polygon Types

Area Property – Uses the Land Polygon Attributes dialog.

Mesh Generator – Uses the 2D mesh Poylgon Properties dialog.

Mapping – Uses a Polygon Attributes dialog.

Quadtree Generator – Uses a Polygon Attributes dialog.
Model Coverage Polygon Types

ADCIRC – Uses the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

ADH

ADH – Uses the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

BOUSS-2D – Use the Polygon Attributes dialog.

BOUSS Runup/Overtopping

Roughness – Uses the Roughness dialog.

CGWAVE – Uses the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

FESWMS – Uses the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

Generic Model – Uses the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

PTM


PTM – Use the Feature Objects Attributes dailog.
SRH-2D

Materials – Uses the Assign Material Properties dialog.

Sediment Materials – Uses the Assign Material Properties dialog.

TABS – Uses the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.

TUFLOW


1D–2D BC and Links – Uses the Boundary Conditions dialog.

2D Flow Constriction Shape – Uses the Flow Constriction Attributes dialog.

2D Flow Constriction (cell based) – Uses the Flow Constrictions dialog.

2D Grid Extents – Uses the Polygon Attributes dialog.

2D Miscellaneous (FLC, WRF, IWL, SRF and AD) – Uses a Polygon Properties dialog for the coverage
property type.

2D Z Lines/Polygons (simple) – Uses the Polygon Elevation dialog.

2D/2D Linkage – Uses the Select TUFLOW Grid dialog.
WAM – Uses the Polygon Attributes dialog.
Related Topics

Feature Objects Menu
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Map Module Selection
Beyond using the selection tools in the Map Module, there are a number of menu commands and dialogs that can be
used to refine the selection of feature objects.
Select With Poly
Selects items associated with the current selection tool which are inside a user defined polygon. Create the polygon
after selecting the command by clicking in the Graphics Window. The polygon is closed with a double-click. A
similar feature called Select with Feature Polygon is available from the Map module. If a feature polygon is defined,
it is possible to select nodes or elements in the mesh module or vertices in the data module that are inside or outside of
the feature polygon.
Select By
The Select By option, in the Edit menu, allows selecting an object by its Material Type, Dataset Value, Area, Length,
or Ambiguous Gradient.
Material Type
Selects all items of the current selection tool of a specified material. This command opens the Materials Data
dialog with a list of the defined materials and waits for a material type to be selected. This enables all nodes or
elements that reference a specific material to be selected together.
Dataset Value
Opens a dialog that asks to specify a range. All entities (nodes, elements, scatter points, etc.) of the current
selection tool type whose scalar dataset value lies inside that range are selected. This enables all entities above or
below threshold to be selected together for quick editing.

Area
Opens a dialog that asks to specify a range. All polygons whose area lies inside that range are selected. This
enables all entities above or below threshold to be selected together for quick editing.
Length
Opens a dialog that asks to specify a range. All arcs whose length lies inside that range are selected. This enables
all entities above or below threshold to be selected together for quick editing.
Ambiguous Gradient
Selects all elements in a mesh or cells in a grid where the directional flow is difficult to determine due to variation
in the elevation at each node.
BC Type
Brings up a Select Arc Type dialog if the active coverage is a boundary conditions coverage ( CMS-Flow , SRH-2D
, TUFLOW , etc.). Allows selecting arcs by assigned boundary condition type.
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
Select Connected Arcs
As conceptual models become more complex, and include many arcs (possibly hundreds or thousands), detailed
connectivity may not be visibly obvious. This means that it is possible to create or import arcs defining model extents
or other features, that appear to be connected, but in actuality are not.
Select Connected Arcs Turning Left
The Select Connected Arcs Turning Left utility allows determining if a conceptual model has gaps in connectivity.
The utility is used by right-clicking on a feature arc and selecting a Select Connected Arcs Turning Left submenu.
There are two options for selecting the arcs, Forward and Backward . The Forward option follows the direction of
the arc and the Backward option follows the opposite direction. This utility selects a string of connected arcs. If more
than two arcs connect at a node, the utility selects the left-most turn. In a completely defined polygon, this will select
all the arcs in the polygon and traverse right back to the starting arc.
If the Select Feature Polygon tool fails to operate as expected, this utility may identify the gaps in connectivity
causing the polygons to not be defined correctly by the build polygon command.
Related Topics

Map Module

Edit Menu
3.5.c.1. Feature Object Creation
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Digitize
When digitizing in the map module, elevations are assigned as with other digitization in SMS. That means that when
creating a node, point, or vertex, it is assigned the default elevation value for digitization. The default elevation is
initialized to 0.0. The default changes any time a new Z-value is specified. Therefore, if creating a map point or node,
and specifying an elevation for that selected point, the value specified is now the default value for newly digitized
points, nodes and vertices. (Note: when creating mesh nodes, there is an option to ask for an elevation each time a
node a node is created, but this option is not available for scatter vertices or map module objects.)
If wanting to digitize aspects of an image (*.tif, *.jpg, ...), simply load the image file into SMS and select the desired
tool from the Map module tools ( Create Feature Arc , Create Feature Point , etc.) and click over the part of the
image to digitize.
Tips for Digitizing
The following are some useful tips for digitizing feature objects:

Use the Create Feature Arc
tool to make arcs. Click once to start an arc. Single click along the arc to create
vertices. Double-click to end an arc.

Nodes indicate the start and end of each arc. Vertices are points where the arc changes direction.

Clicking on an existing node with the Create Feature Arc
Nodes can belong to multiple arcs.
tool will start the new arc on the existing node.

Use the Select Feature Node
or Select Feature Vertex
adjustment after creating an arc.
to move nodes on an arc that may need

For long arcs, they can be created in using multiple arcs then merging the arcs by deleting the shared nodes
where the arcs meet or converting the shared nodes into vertices using the Convert to Vertex command.

Nodes can be added to existing arcs.

Points are created separate from any arcs.

Multiple points, arcs, nodes, or vertices can be selected holding down the SHIFT key while selecting.

Polygons are not created automatically. The Feature Objects | Build Polygons command must be used to create
polygons.

Multiple arcs can be joined into an arc group. Creating an arc group allows using the Select Feature Arc
Group
tool to select all the arcs in the group at once and assign the same attributes to all arcs in the group.

The image transparency can be adjusted to make seeing the feature objects easier.

Different feature objects may need to be created in different map coverages depending on the intended model.
For example, if intending to use the SRH-2D model, the project domains will need to be digitized in the
boundary conditions coverage while any obstructions will need to be digitized in the obstructions coverage.

The processing of digitizing can be sped up by duplicating coverages that already have many of the necessary
feature objects then changing the coverage type and editing the feature objects. Duplicating a coverage is done
by right-clicking on it in the Project Explorer and selecting the Duplicate command.

The processing of digitizing can also be sped up by merging coverages by selecting multiple coverages using
the Ctrl key then using the Merge Coverages right-click command.

Currently, SMS does not have an undo feature. If a mistake is made when creating a feature object, the object
will need to be either edited using the selection tools or the object will need to be deleted then recreated.
Related Topic

Map Module Tools
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Build Polygons
While most feature objects can be constructed with tools in the Tool Palette, polygons are constructed with the
Feature Objects | Build Polygons menu command. Since polygons are defined by arcs, the first step in constructing a
polygon is to create the arcs forming the boundary of the polygon. All closed loops will be formed into polygons.
Before defining material zones or creating meshes from a coverage, the Build Polygons command must be used.
Once polygons exist in the project, the Select Polygon tool becomes active. If a polygon cannot be selected with the
Select Polygon tool, check to see if the arcs in the polygon are making a closed loop by removing any gaps, then use
the Build Polygons command again.
Generally, nodes and vertices can be moved on a polygon to reshape it without causing the polygon to disappear.
Deleting an arc in the polygon so that it no longer makes a closed loop, will cause polygon to be removed and the
Build Polygons command will need to be used again if the closed loop is reformed. If creating an additional closed
loop after using the Build Polygons command, such as creating a new arc to split an existing polygon, the command
must be used again to create the new polygon.
Related Topics

Feature Objects Menu

Feature Objects Types
3.5.c.2. Feature Object Modification
Feature Object Modification: All
SMS provides a number of tools that facilitate modification of feature objects.
Transform Feature Objects
The Transform Feature Objects command is used to move scatter points. The user is asked which will be
transformed, the active set or all sets. In the dialog that appears, the transformation type can be chosen and then
appropriate parameters can be entered.

Data can be scaled, translated, rotated
 Depths/Elevations can be converted back and forth
For more information, go to Data Transform .
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Clean
The Clean command is used to fix errors in feature object data ( Feature Objects menu, Map module).

Snap nodes – Merge any two nodes or vertices together if they are within the Tolerance of each other. The new
node will be placed at the location of one of the old nodes or vertices (see Figure A).

Snap selected nodes – Merges two or more selected nodes or vertices. Click on one of the selected points
which will be treated as the new location (see Figure A).

Intersect arcs – Places a node where two arcs intersect. All intersections are fixed with this command (see
Figure B).

Intersect selected arcs – Places a node where two arcs intersect, but only selected arcs are checked.

Remove dangling arcs – Specify a Tolerance and all dangling arc segments (at least one end of the arc is not
connected to another arc) are deleted if their length is less than the tolerance (see Figure C).
Delete
The Feature Objects | Delete command, deletes all feature objects including all coverages and entities in the
coverages. A new, empty coverage is created because there must always be a coverage in SMS. This does not delete
Drawing Objects, DXF, or images.
Related Topics

Feature Objects Menu
Converting Coverages
Map coverages can be used to generate other geometric data types in SMS such as meshes (unstructured grids), grids
(Cartesian grid), Curvinlinear or boundary fitted grids, scatter sets and cross sections. This can be accomplished by
right-clicking on a coverage of an appropriate type in the Project Explorer and selecting a convert command. These
commands include:

Map → 2D Mesh – Available with the Mesh Generator coverage and most other coverages.

Map → 2D Grid – Available with the CGrid Generator coverage and many other coverages.

Map → Scatter – Available with most coverages.

Map→1D Grid – Available in the GenCade coverage.
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 Map → Quadtree – Available in the Quadtree Generator coverage.
In some cases, and historically, many of these functions are accessible by selecting the similar commands from the
Feature Objects menu.
The same coverage can be used to create multiple meshes, grids, or scatter sets, with the exception of the 1D grid.
Any changes made in the coverage after converting the coverage will not implemented in the existing geometry, but a
new geometry can be generated that incorporates the changes to the coverage.
Some conversion commands require specific conditions be met before the command is available.

Converting to a grid (2D grid, 1D grid, or quadtree) requires that a grid frame has been created on the coverage.
Attributes for the grid frame can be set before or during the conversion process.

Converting to a mesh requires building polygons in the coverage. Attributes for the polygons should be set
before converting to a mesh.
For more information, see Converting Feature Objects .
Related Topics

Converting Feature Objects

Map Coverages
Converting Feature Objects
Feature objects can be converted to other data types in SMS such as meshes, grids, scatter sets and cross sections. This
can be accomplished by either right-clicking on a coverage in the project explorer and selecting a convert command or
by selecting the following commands from the Feature Objects menu:
Extract Cross Section
The Extract Cross-sections command uses the cross section arcs and a digital terrain model (TINs are the only
source that can currently be used) to extract the elevations at vertices of the feature arc cross-sections, or at the
intersection points with the triangles.
Cross-sections for individual arcs may be extracted by selecting the arc(s) before choosing the Extract Crosssections command. If not cross-sections are selected then the Use All Cross-sections option is used.
Point properties (thalweg, left bank, right bank) can be defined from a 1D-Hydraulic Centerline coverage, or by
AutoMark. The AutoMark option will examine the elevations of the extracted cross sections and try to infer the
thalweg (low point) and the left and right bank points (change of slope) automatically.
Line properties can be determined from an area property coverage by intersecting the cross-section arcs with the area
property polygons and marking them in the cross section database.
Cross Section Database
When extracting the cross sections, a prompt will ask for the name of a cross section database file. SMS stores all of
the cross section information in a text database file. The cross section database can also be edited independently using
the Cross Section Editor tools. Extracting cross sections with feature arcs is only way to generate cross section
information, they also can be imported from spreadsheet files (cut and paste), or entered manually.
Map to 2D Mesh
Once a set of feature objects has been created for a coverage (conceptual model) associated with a finite element
based model such as RMA2, FESWMS, ADCIRC or CGWAVE , the Map → 2D Mesh command can be used to
generate a 2D finite element mesh from the objects. The Map → 2D Mesh command creates a 2D Mesh on the
interior of all of the polygons in the current coverage. The figure domain of a flood plain using the feature objects in
the Map Module. The second figure shows a 2D Mesh created from the polygons.
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

The recommended method for creating unstructured grids (meshes) in SMS for use with either finite element or finite
volume engines is to use the conceptual modeling approach. This method includes the following general steps:
1) Define a bathymetric source (scatter set or raster/DEM).
2) Define a map module coverage consisting of polygons that cover the modeling domain. This is the region to be
covered by the mesh.
3) Assign attributes to the points/arcs/polygons in the coverage to control the mesh characteristics.



Point meshing attributes:

Used to force the creation of a mesh node at a specific location.

Used to specify the element density in the area of the point location by assigning refine point
attributes.
Arc meshing attributes:

Used to define linear features such as a river thalweg or an embankment toe/shoulder. Mesh nodes
will be created along the arc.

Used to control element density if a size function (scalar paving) is not utilized. Vector spacing on
the arc controls mesh node spacing for all mesh generation options except scalar paving.
Polygon meshing attributes:

Specify a bathymetry source for each polygon

Specify a meshing type for each polygon. Choose from:

Patching – create quad dominant elements conforming to a topographic rectangle.

Paving – create triangular elements layer by layer from the polygon boundary inward.

4)
5)
6)
Scalar Paving – create triangular elements as with paving with the spacing controlled by a size
function defined on an associated scatter set
Optionally, define an area property coverage to define the source of material attributes.
Issue the Map → 2D Mesh command is used to create a 2D mesh using the feature objects in a 2D Mesh
Coverage. When the Map → 2D Mesh command is selected, the 2D Mesh Options dialog opens.
After completing the 2D Mesh Options dialog, the Mesh Name dialog will appear. After assigning a name to the
new mesh, the mesh will appear.
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Mesh Name Dialog
When using the Map → 2D Mesh , 2D grid → 2D Mesh , or Scatter → 2D Mesh commands, the Mesh Name or
New Mesh Name dialog will appear. SMS requires that every mesh created be named. These dialogs give the option to
enter a user specified name. A default name will be entered in the dialog and used for the new mesh if a new name is
not specified.
Map to 2D Grid
The Map → 2D Grid command is used to create a 2D grid using the feature objects in a 2D Grid Coverage. When the
Map → 2D Grid command is selected, the Create Grid dialog appears. A grid frame must have been defined. The
size and location of the grid frame are used to initialize the fields in the Create Grid dialog. In most cases, these
values will not need to be changed then select the OK button to create the grid. If a grid frame has not been defined,
the size and location of the grid are initialized so that the grid just surrounds the currently defined feature objects. If
desired, the grid dimensions can be edited prior to selecting the OK button to create the grid.
Grid Frame Properties
The grid frame properties dialog allows specifying the attributes applied to the grid frame when performing a Map →
2D Grid operation. These properties are as follows:

Grid name – Specified name of the grid being created.

Origin – Starting location of the grid frame.

Orientation

Directional properties (u and v direction)

Define cell sizes – Specified uniform cell sizes


Cell size – The cell size in the specified direction

Number of cells – Number of cells in the specified direction
Use refine points – Refine points will be used to generate the grid

Maximum cell size – The max size the should exists when growing

Maximum bias – The max growth ratio to be used when growing

Use inner growth – Specifies whether the cell sizes should grow between two refine points
 Grid siz e – The grid dimension in the specified direction
When specifying "Define cell sizes", there are a few options available. These options are:
1) Specify cell size – Specify the cell size and the number of cells will be computed.
2) Specify number of cells – Specify the number of cells and the cell size will be computed.
If the grid is to have square cells, the v direction cell size will always be linked to the u direction cell size.
Refine Points
Refine points for a Cartesian Grid allow changing the cell dimensions when generating the grid. They are not
available for all models, since some Cartesian Grid models require uniform cell sizes. Specify whether to refine in the
I and/or J direction and the base cell size for each direction.
When the refining is performed, the base size may be changed in order to fit the other restrictions applied to the
refining process. If two refine points are too close to each other to allow the cell size to transition, one will be ignored
when generating the grid. See Refine Point Dialog for more information.
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Depth and Vector Options
In addition to the options specified on the grid frame, depth and vector interpolation options can be specified during
the mapping process for some models. The depth mapping is required for all models, while the vector mapping is
optional even for the models it can be performed on. Depth and vector datasets can be constant or interpolated from a
scatter set .
Cells with a user specified tolerance above the datum can be marked as land (inactive) cells. This option is on by
default for BOUSS-2D , but defaults to off for other models.
When specifying a constant vector, the X and Y components are oriented based on global space, not grid space.
The name of the vector dataset can be specified, but the name of the depth dataset is always set to "Depth".
Map to 2D Scatter Points
The Map → 2D Scatter Points command creates a scatter point set from the points and nodes and vertices of the
current coverage. The process is creates a single elevation dataset for the 2D scatter points representing the Z location
of all the points, nodes and vertices.
Older versions of SMS included an option to convert one of the measurements associated with an observation
coverage to a dataset on a scatterset. This utilized the Observation Points → Scatter Points dialog. To accomplish this
in versions of SMS newer than SMS 10.2, you must copy the observation spread sheet into Excel and save the data as
a text file. Importing this file into SMS will allow creation of a scatter set of observed (measurement) data.
Measurement
A dataset is created for the 2D scatter points from the measurement selected in the dialog. The model associated with
the selected measurement (if any) is shown, along with whether the measurement is steady state or transient.
Time Step Times
This section of the dialog is only available if the selected measurement is transient. It allows defining the number of
time steps, and the time step times to be created for the scatter point dataset.

Match all unique times
This option gets the set of unique times from the XY series of all the observation points. This is the union of all
the times. If some XY series use dates/times and others don’t, this option won’t be available. Otherwise, the
times in the spreadsheet will be displayed as either dates/times or relative times depending on the XY series. The
spreadsheet will not be editable. The Use dates/times toggle will be unavailable but set according to whether the
observation point XY series use dates/times or not. The Reference time section will be unavailable, but if the XY
series use dates/times, the minimum time will be used as the reference time for the scatter point dataset.

Match time steps from model
This option will only be available if the measurement is associated with a model, and the model is transient. If
so, this will be the default choice and GMS will get the times to display in the spreadsheet from the stress period
and time step info for the model. The spreadsheet will not be editable. The Use dates/times toggle will be
unavailable but set according to whether the model uses dates/times or not. The Reference time section will be
unavailable, but if the model uses dates/times, the model reference time will be used as the reference time.

Specify times
The spreadsheet of times will be editable with this option. It is possible to copy and paste times from another
program such as a spreadsheet. Also, the Initialize Times button becomes available which brings up a dialog
that can be used to create times at a specified interval. If selecting the Use dates/times toggle, the Reference time
section will become available and the times in the spreadsheets will be displayed as dates/times.
Map to Quadtree
Parameters specified to create the quadtree grid include:
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
Grid Geometry – This section allows specifying the origin, orientation and size of the grid. The fields of these
quantities are populated with default values based on the three points. The orientation is measured as an angle
from the positive X axis.

Cell Options – This section allows specifying the number of cells in each direction in the grid. Several options
are available. Specify sizes in the I (Delta U)and J (Delta V) directions or a number of columns and rows. If the
Use Grid Frame Size toggle is checked, the grid will exactly match the dimensions specified in the Grid
Geometry section. If that option is not checked, the last row and column may extend beyond the specified
lengths. This allows specifying exact grid size, or exact cell size.

Depth Options – The elevations or depths assigned to each cell or node can be specified as a single value, or
select a dataset to interpolate from.
SMS will generate a quadtree on the input parameters.
Map to 1D Grid
Related Topics

Map Feature Objects Menu
Unstructured Grid Generation from a Conceptual
Model
Traditionally, the most time consuming component of using a multi-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model has
been the generation of unstructured grids (also called meshes). This effort has given models based on Cartesian grids
(structured grids) a decided simplifying advantage. Digitizing node points and connecting them into elements, while
seemingly not a complicated process, becomes overwhelming when considering the number of nodes and elements
that compose a numeric simulation (thousands to even millions and the number is still growing).
The SMS interface includes the capability to define a 2D mesh using the feature objects in a 2D Mesh Coverage.
When the Map → 2D Mesh command is selected, the 2D Mesh Options dialog opens. A meshing polygon must have
been defined prior to issuing this command. The attributes of the meshing polygon(s) are used to generate the 2D
mesh.
The meshing options are used with coverages that generate meshes for specific numeric engines. Some of the options
may not be available for all coverage types since some models have specific requirements such as a limited number of
supported element types.
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Feature Polygon Attributes
The process of generating a mesh involves filling the polygons in the coverage with elements. These elements can be
triangular or quadrilateral depending on the numeric engine they will be used with. Specify how the polygons will be
filled choosing from the following "Mesh Type" options:

None – there will be no elements in this polygon. This will represent an island in the domain.

Patch – the mesh is topologically a triangle or rectangle that will be filled with elements that conform to its
sides.

Paving – the mesh will be filled with elements by offsetting from the boundaries. The distribution of the vertices
on the arcs comprising the polygon control the mesh density.

Scalar Paving Density – the mesh will be filled with elements using the paving approach, but the distribution of
vertices along the arcs, and throughout the interior, will be controlled by a scalar dataset specifying a target edge
length.

Existing Nodes – the polygon will be used as a stencil to keep the mesh nodes and elements already in that
region.
In addition to specifying the method to fill the polygon, also specify the source of bathymetric or topographic
elevation data for the newly constructed mesh using the "Bathymetry Type" controls. Choose from:

Constant – all newly created nodes will be assigned a single specified value.

Scatter Set – all newly created nodes will be assigned a value based on interpolation from a scatter set or TIN.

Raster – all newly created nodes will be assigned a value based on interpolation from a Raster object.

Exiting Mesh – all newly created nodes will be assigned a value based on interpolation from the previously
existing mesh.
There is also an option to specify the material type that will be assigned to newly created elements.
Feature Arc Attributes
The feature arcs in the conceptual model serve three purposes.
1) They carry boundary condition attributes for the specific model or engine.
2) They control final mesh density for the paving or patch options.
3) They control detailed feature maintenance when they lie inside of paved polygons. An arc representing a
thalweg (channel), crest, ridge, or shoulder will be incorporated into the meshing pattern to ensure that these
features are maintained.
Feature Point Attributes
Feature points can be included in polygons to carry a boundary condition such as a source or sink, or they can be used
to control resolution in a specific area. The feature point can be assigned an attribute to be a refine point. In this case,
specify the size of element around that location. The mesh generation process will generate an element or cluster of
elements at that location matching the specified size. These are then incorporated into the surrounding mesh using the
advancing front paving method.
Feature points can also be assigned an attribute to control whether a mesh node will be incorporated into the mesh at
the exact feature point location.
Select/Delete Data...
The Select/Delete Data... command ( Feature Objects menu, Map module) is available when one or more polygons
are selected. Select or delete data that is located inside or outside of selected polygons. Options are provided to select
or delete mesh node, elements or duplicate nodes, scatter points or triangle, Cartesian grid cells or cell location that
are partially (triangles/elements that cross a boundary) or completely inside/outside the polygons.

Function Type
SMS 12.2



Select – Selects objects

Delete – Deletes objects
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Data Domain

Inside polygons(s) – Trim data inside selected polygons.

Outside polygon(s) – Trim data outside selected polygons.

Treat boundary as [Outside | Inside] – Treat data that lies on polygon boundaries as if it were
outside/inside of the polygon(s).
Choose Data to Select – Choose the data type to select or delete


Mesh – Select or delete mesh data with the following options:

Nodes (Select) – Select mesh nodes only.

Nodes and Elements (Delete) – Trim mesh nodes and elements.

Elements – Select or delete mesh elements only.
Scatter – Select or delete scatter data with the following options:

Points (Select) – Select scatter points only

Points and Triangles (Delete) – Trim scatter points and triangles.

Triangles – Trim triangles only.

Scatter Sets to Trim – Click on a scatter set in the window to toggle it on/off for trimming. Push the
Active Set button to only select the active scatter set and the All Sets button to turn on/off all sets.
Points and/or triangles are deleted only from the selected sets.

Cartesian grid cells – Selects or deletes all grid cells.

Cartesian grid cell locations – This can be useful in working with elevation values in TUFLOW grids.
Related Topics

Map Feature Objects Menu
Arcs
SMS has many utilities that can be used to modify feature arcs. Some of the utilities are described in this article.
Split Feature Arcs Utility
Arcs are used to represent features in a conceptual model. A feature arc may represent a very small (short) individual
feature, or it may represent a convoluted complex feature such as an entire shoreline. Two sample applications include
arcs representing a shoreline, or arcs representing the thalweg of a river. There are advantages to having a single arc
represent a long feature. These include the ability to select the entire feature easily, it is less cumbersome to manage
the feature because there are less features, and to ensure that there are no gaps in the feature because it is a single arc.
However, there are also applications and purposes for splitting the arc into pieces. One such example is illustrated by
the change of shape an arc undergoes when it is redistributed. The vertices move, but the feature nodes do not. In this
situation, making key points nodes prevents the arcs shape from loosing its ability to represent these key locations. In
the case of a thalweg, it could be advantageous to have a separate arc for each section of the river. Each arc would
then span from one river station to another (perhaps every 100 yards or meters, or each river mile).
This utility is in the right-click menu when selecting one or more arcs. The command brings up the Split Arcs Tool
dialog. In this dialog provide criterion for splitting the selected arc(s) into multiple arcs. If desiring to process all the
arcs in a coverage, use Select All first.
There dialog includes three toggle boxes associated with criteria including:

Split long arcs – If this is selected, specify a length (labeled as ft or m) based on the current projection.
Processed arcs will be split into arcs of this specified length starting at the first of the arc. The last arc in the
group will generally not be the specified length.
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
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Split sharp corners – If this is selected, specify an angle (labeled as degrees). This is the angle of deviation
from one arc segment to the next. A straight line has an angle of deviation of 0.0. If the arc doubled back on
itself completely, the angle of deviation is 180 degrees. This deviation is a magnitude. A left turn is processed
identically to a right turn. Processed arcs will be split at vertices where the arc direction changes more than the
specified angle.

Split long segments – If this is selected, specify a threshold length. If a segment is longer than this threshold,
the vertices at either end will be converted to nodes making it a separate arc.
If multiple toggles are selected, the arc will first be split based on maximum arc length, the resulting arcs will be split
based on angle, and finally the resulting arcs will be processed for long segments. This will retain the feature of
creating feature nodes at the key length locations, and then add additional feature nodes at bends.
Offset Arc
The offset arc command (arc right-click) provides a mechanism to create additional arcs in a coverage by offsetting
from the selected arc(s). Multiple offsets can be created in a single command. This command brings up a dialog that
asks for a number of parameters including:

The direction of the offset (to the left of the arc, to the right of the arc or both).

The number of arcs to create in the specified direction.

The maximum offset in the specified direction. If more than one offset is created on a side, the offset provided is
for the last offset and the others are interpolated between the original arc and the specified offset. (If to arcs are
created on the left side with an offset of 10.0, the first is offset by 5 and the second is offset by 10.)
This command uses the orientation of the selected arc as a basis meaning it knows one end of the arc as the "start" and
the other as the "end". This convention is determined based on the creation of the arc. This direction is not always
obvious, so it may be necessary to investigate using trial and error which end is the start and which end is the end (as
with bias in the redistribute command).
This command has several useful applications. These include:

When defining a conceptual model, the base line data may include a feature such as a thalweg or a toe of a bank,
or a center-line of a road or levee. The offset arc command can be used to approximate the opposing bank, a
shoulder from a toe or similar, nearly parallel feature.

When creating arcs that define a tropical storm path, variations of that path may be desired. The offset arc
command creates arcs to represent these paths.
Redistribute Vertices
The primary function of the vertices of an arc is to define the geometry of the arc. If the arcs are to be used for
automatic mesh generation, the spacing of the vertices is important. The spacing of the vertices defines the density of
the elements in the resulting mesh. Each edge defined by a pair of vertices becomes the edge of an element. The mesh
gradation is controlled by defining closely spaced vertices in regions where the mesh is to be dense and widely spaced
vertices in regions where the mesh is to be coarse.
When spacing vertices along arcs, the Redistribute command in the Feature Objects menu (or using the right-click
menu) can be used to automatically create a new set of vertices along a selected set of arcs at either a higher or lower
density. The desired arc(s) should be selected prior to selecting the Redistribute command.
The current status of the selected arc(s) is given at the top of the dialog. This includes the number of segments and
spacing of those segments. When multiple arcs are selected, the current status is a combination of all selected arcs.
However, the parameters set in this dialog apply to each arc individually. Therefore if multiple arcs were selected,
each arc would reflect the options selected in this dialog.
The following options are available for redistributing vertices:

"Specified spacing" – Will redistribute the vertices along the applying the Average and Bias parameters to
determine the distance between each vertex.

"Number of segments" – Will create or remove vertices along the arc, as well as redistribute, based on the
Number of vertices parameter.
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
"Min/max spacing" – Will have vertices closer together at the start of the arc and gradually increase the segment
lengths up to the Max length parameter.

"Source arc" – See below.

"Size Function" – Allows using a size function dataset for redistribution.

Use Cubic Spline – Option for spline interpolation .
Linear Interpolation
If the Linear interpolation options is specified, then either a number of intervals or a target spacing can be given to
determine how points are redistributed along the selected arcs. In either case, the new vertices are positioned along a
linear interpolation of the original arc. The arc may change shape due to the fact that original vertices are removed as
the new vertices are created. This may round corners from the arc.
Spline Interpolation
If the Use Cubic Spline option is specified, vertices are redistributed along a series of cubic splines defined by the
original vertices of the selected arcs. The difference between the linear and spline interpolation methods is illustrated
in the figure below.
Source Arc
The "Source arc" option is only available when two arcs are selected. One arc is specified to be the source arc while
the other is the target arc. SMS redistributes the vertices on the target arc to be as close as possible to the vertices on
the source arc.
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Reverse Arc Direction
This command ( Feature Objects in the Map module or right-clicking on a selected arc) reverses the direction of all
selected arcs. Arc orientation is only important for applications that use coastline or centerline arcs that have an arrow
drawn on the arc.
Each arc has a direction. One node is the "from" node, the other node is the "to" node. For most applications, the
direction of the arc does not matter. However, when the arc is used to define a observation plots, and in various other
situations the direction of the arc becomes significant. The Reverse Arc Direction command can be used to change
the direction (upstream to downstream) for an arc.
Smooth Arc
This command reduces the variability or roughness of an arc. When an arc is created by digitization, it includes the
manual variations and noise from the digitization process. Similarly, when an arc is created to follow a contour line, it
can have numerically created corners and bends. Smoothing an arc results in more gradual bends in the shape of the
arc. Applying the smooth command repetitively will eventually result in a straight line.
An arc should not be smoothed, if the meanders and bends accurately depict a physical feature. However, smoothing
may result in more gradual variations that can enhance numerical stability.
When the Smooth Arc command is used, the dialog that appears asks to specify the number of neighbors to be
included in the smoothing window and a self weight. As the number of neighbors increases and the self weight
decreases, the level of smoothing becomes more dramatic (moves to a straight line more quickly).
The algorithm computes a new position for each vertex in the arc from the existing vertex positions. The number of
neighbors must be the same both before the vertex being smoothed and after. Since there are no vertices before the
first node, and none after the last node, these two locations are not impacted by the smoothing process. The first
vertex can be smoothed using the first node from before its position, and the first vertex after its position.
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If the self weight is set to 1.0, no influence is assigned to the neighbors, so the arc does not smooth at all. If the self
weight is set to 1/3, and the number of neighbors is set to 1, then each of the points has an even 1/3 weight in
determining the new vertex location. If the self weight is set to 1/5, and the number of neighbors is set to 2, then five
vertices impact the new location (Two vertices before the vertex in question and two vertices after) and the resulting
point is the average of those five points (20% self weight, 80% neighbor weight with four neighbors).
Transform
See the article Data Transform
Select Connected Arcs
See the article Select Connected Arcs .
Create Arc Group
The Create Arc Group command is found in the Feature Object menu of the Map module. By selecting multiple arcs
and using this command, the arcs will be made into a group. When selecting any one of the arcs in the group, all arcs
in the group will be selected.
Create Contour Arcs
The Create Contour Arcs dialog is used to create a feature arc along a specified elevation of the active scatter dataset
or cartesian grid elevation. To access the dialog do the following:
1) Right-click on a Cartesian Grid or Scatter set in the Project Explorer.
2) Select Convert then 2D Grid Contours→Map for Cartesian Grid, otherwise select Convert then Scatter
Contours→Map . This brings up the Create Contour Arcs dialog. By default the active coverage is selected. A
prompt will ask for the elevation and vertex spacing along contour.
The dialog allows specifying the following attributes:

Destination Coverage – Clicking on this button will bring up a Select Tree Item coverage where an existing
coverage can be designated to receive the contour arcs.

Elevation – Designates an elevation level SMS will use to create the contour arcs. If the value enter does not
match any of the existing elevation, no arcs will be generated.

Spacing – Indicates the distance between vertices along the generated arcs.
Align Arc With Contour
This command (arc right-click) can only be used when the project has scatter data. A dialog is brought up from which
a scatter dataset, dataset value, and maximum distance are set. SMS will then move the vertices along the selected arc
to locations where the scatter dataset value matches the dataset value specified in the dialog, as long as it is not moved
by a distance greater than the maximum distance (also specified in the dialog). This is done by processing each
location individually. For each point, SMS extracts the contour value from the TIN/dataset and the gradient of the TIN
at the (x,y) location. It then tracks up or down gradient to intersect with the contour at the specified dataset value. If a
local extrema is encountered before finding the contour, the operation fails.
Arc Attributes Dialog
Feature Arc Attributes depend on the type of coverage being used. A purely geometric arc would have no special
attributes, but arcs may be used to define specific types of features such as a coastline, open ocean boundary, stream
thalweg, or edge of water. In addition, feature arcs may have model specific boundary condition definitions which
should be applied to a geometric object of that model type at the location of the arc.
The Arc Attributes dialog is a dynamic dialog that will provide different options depending on the coverage type.
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Recompute All Stations
This function (found in the Feature Objects menu) can be used if an arc's "Computational Length" value on a river
changes. It sets the Start and End station values for each of the arcs with the same river name based on the
computational lengths of each arc. So, for example, if there are 3 arcs in a river, the most downstream arc being 30
feet, the next arc being 40 feet, and the next arc being 50 feet, the starting and ending stations would be as follows for
each of the arcs (Arc 1 is downstream):
Arc
Start Station End Station
1
0.0
30.0
2
30.0
70
3
70.0
120.0
These start and end stations are set when assigning a river name to an arc, so there there should not be a need to use
the recompute all stations command unless there is a change in the computational length, start station, or end station
values for a centerline arc.
Filter Arc
The Filter Arcs Tool dialog is accessed through the right-click menu of a selected arc. The dialog allows filtering all
arcs on a coverage. Options include:

Coverage to filter – Selects the coverage to filter.

Maximum arc length – Set a value for the maximum arc length. Arcs with a length under this value will be
selected or deleted.

Select filtered items – Arcs that fall below the maximum segment length will be selected.

Delete filtered items – Arcs that fall below the maximum segment length will be deleted.
Filter Arc Segments
The Filter Arcs Segments Tool dialog is accessed through the right-click menu of a selected arc. The dialog allows
filtering all arcs on a coverage. Options include:

Coverage to filter – Selects the coverage to filter.

Maximum segment length – Set a value for the maximum segment length. Segments with a length under this
value will be selected or deleted.

Select filtered items – Arc segments that fall below the maximum segment length will be selected.

Delete filtered items – Arc segments that fall below the maximum segment length will be deleted.
Related Topics

Feature Objects Types

Map Module

Map Feature Objects Menu
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Arc Size Function
Vertices along an arc can be redistributed using a size function dataset. This options is selected in the Redistribute
Vertices dialog. Once the "Size Function" option is set, a dataset must be assigned. Clicking the Options button will
bring up dialogs that allow assigning the size function.
Interpolation Source and Options Dialog
The Interpolation Source and Options dialog is used to specifiy the size function dataset and specify the interpolation
method.

Source geometry – Shows all available source data in the scatter module.

Source dataset – Select the specific size function dataset in the source data.

Time step – Select the time step to use in a transient dataset.

Interpolation method – Options include "Linear", "Inverse distance weighted", and "Natural neighbor".

Options – Brings up the Interpolate to Raster dialog for the specified interpolation method. See below for more
details.
Linear
When using linear interpolation , the Interpolate to Raster – Linear dialog allows the following options:


Truncate value – Allows limiting the interpolation values with one of the following methods:

Truncate to min/max of dataset – The interpolation will not use values that go below the minumum value
or above the maximum value of the size dataset.

Truncate to specified range – The interpolation will not use values below or above the values defined
below:

Min – The lowest value to be used in the interpolation.

Max – The highest value to be used in the interpolation.
Clough-Tocher – Use the Clough-Tocher interpolation technique.
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Inverse Distance Weighted
When using inverse distance weighted interpolation , the Interpolate to Raster – Inverse Distance Weighted dialog
allows the following options:
Nodal Function – Specify the nodal function to use in the interpolation.


Constant (Shepard's Method) – Use the Shepard's method equation.

Use classic weight function – Option to specify the classic weight function as entered below.

Weighting exponent – Value for the weight function.
Gradient plane – Use the gradient plane nodal function variation of the Shepards method.
 Quadratic – Use quadratic polynomials to reproduce local variations.
Computation of nodal function coefficients – Options in this section indicate to use a subset of points in the nodal
function coefficient.

Use nearest – Drops points that are further than the indicated value.

in each quadrant – When turned on, the nearest points in each quadrant are used in the subset.
 Use all points – All points will be used in the computation.
Computation of interpolation weights – Options in this section indicate to use a subset of points in the interpolation
weight.

Use nearest – Drops points that are further than the indicated value.

in each quadrant – When turned on, the nearest points in each quadrant are used in the subset.
 Use all points – All points will be used in the computation.
Truncate

Truncate value – Allows limiting the interpolation values with one of the following methods:
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
Truncate to min/max of dataset – The interpolation will not use values that go below the minumum value
or above the maximum value of the size dataset.

Truncate to specified range – The interpolation will not use values below or above the values defined
below:

Min – The lowest value to be used in the interpolation.

Max – The highest value to be used in the interpolation.
Natural Neighbor
When using natural neighbor interpolation , the Interpolate to Raster – Natural Neighbor dialog allows the following
options:
Nodal Function

Constant – Use the standard natural neighbor interpolation equation.

Gradient plane – Use the gradient plane nodal function variation.
 Quadratic – Use quadratic polynomials to reproduce local variations.
Nodal function computed from – Options in this section indicate to use a subset of points in the nodal function.

Use nearest – Drops points that are further than the indicated value.

in each quadrant – When turned on, the nearest points in each quadrant are used in the subset.
 Use all points – All points will be used in the computation.
Truncate

Truncate value – Allows limiting the interpolation values with one of the following methods:

Truncate to min/max of dataset – The interpolation will not use values that go below the minumum value
or above the maximum value of the size dataset.

Truncate to specified range – The interpolation will not use values below or above the values defined
below:

Min – The lowest value to be used in the interpolation.

Max – The highest value to be used in the interpolation.
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Advanced
Clicking the Advanced button in any of the Interpolate to Raster dialogs will open the Interpolate to Raster –
Advanced dialog. The options in this dialog are rarely used in most projects. The options include:
Anosotropy – Allows accounting for data with directional tendencies.

Horizontal anisotropy

Azimuth
 Vertical Anisotropy (1/z mag.) – Minimizes the effects of clustering along vertical traces.
Extrapolation

Value – Assigns a defaults value to interpolation points outside of the convex hull of the scatter set.

Assign extrapolation value to hidden objects – Assign the default extrapolation value to all points that are
hidden.
Related Topics

Redistribute Vertices

Size Function
Feature Object Commands
SMS contains a numbers commands for modifying feature objects.
General Feature Object Commands
The majority of feature objects commands can be found in the
menu.
Define Domain
Selecting the Define Domain command will bring up the Domain Options dialog. This option is found in the Feature
Objects menu, in the Map module, when CGWAVE or ADCIRC is the active coverage type. A domain is the region
to be filled by a finite element mesh. An ocean arc is created that connects to the coastline arc. There are several
options for defining the domain:
1) Select one or more coastline arcs. The ocean arc starts and ends at the extreme ends of the chain of arcs.
2) Select two vertices or two nodes. The ocean arc starts and ends at the nodes.
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3)
Select a single node or vertex along the coastline arc. Define the radius of the ocean arc and the ocean arc starts
and ends where it intersects the coastline arc.
4) Select a single disjoint point. If the point is inside a closed coastline arc (an island), specify the radius of the
ocean arc. The ocean arc is a circle that encloses the island.
After selecting an arc(s) or point(s), the Domain Options dialog appears with the following options:

Rectangular – If selecting two points or an arc, only set the Offshore Length . If specifying a single point, set
both Offshore Lengths and Along Shore Lengths .

Semi-circular – If selecting two points or an arc, do not specify the radius, the radius is the distance between the
points. If specifying a single point, set the Radius .

Circular – Sets the Radius . This option only works if one point is selected.
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Right-Click Menu
Right-clicking on a feature object will bring up a menu. Many of the commands in this menu are standard commands
accessible through other menus. Additional commands include the following:

Clear Selection – Undoes the selection of the object that was clicked on.

Invert Selection – Selects every object of the same type selected, and undoes the selection of the object that
was originally selected.

Zoom to Selection – Zooms to a closer view of the object selected.
Coverage Type Specific Menus
Optional menu items appear according to the active coverage type.
Generic Coverage Types

Create Coastline
When this command is invoked, the Create Contour Arcs dialog opens. For more information, see Arcs: Create
Contour Arcs . This command is available if the current coverage type is ADCIRC , or CGWAVE .

Stamping
See the article Feature Stamping for more information.
Model Coverage Types


ADCIRC

Model Control – See ADCIRC Model Control for more information.

Create Coastline – See above for more information.

Define Domain – See above for more information.
BOUSS-2D



Create Coastline – See above for more information.
CGWAVE

Model Control – See CGWAVE Model Control for more information.

Create Coastline – See above for more information.

Define Domain – See above for more information.
CMS-Flow

Create Coastline – See above for more information.
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CMS-Wave


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Create Coastline – See above for more information.
GenCade

New Grid Frame – See the article Grid Frame Properties for more information.
Related Topics

Map Module

Feature Objects Menu

Feature Modification
3.6. Mesh Module
Mesh Module
The 2D Mesh Module includes tools to store, interrogate and manipulate 2D unstructured grids (referred to as a mesh
inside of SMS).
The Mesh module is included with all paid editions of SMS.
Mesh
A mesh consists of nodes that are grouped together to form elements. These nodes and elements define the
computational domain of the numerical model. A numerical simulation requires a geometric definition of its domain.
For many numerical analysis codes, this definition is a mesh.
Nodes
Nodes are the basic building blocks of elements in a mesh. A node consists of a location (X,Y) with an associated
elevation. Other dataset values can also be associated with a node. In the traditional mesh based definition of
simulations, nodes can also be used for building nodestrings and assigning boundary conditions. The density of mesh
nodes helps determine the quality of solution data and can be important to model stability. See 2D Mesh Nodes Menu
for more information.
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Elements
Elements are used to describe the area to be modeled. Elements are formed by joining nodes. The element types
supported vary from model to model. Element types include:
1D elements

Three-node line
Triangular Elements

Three-node linear triangule

Six-node quadratic triangle
Quadratic (order of solution) Elements

Eight-node "serendipity" quadrilateral
 Nine-node "Lagrangian" quadrilateral
Water surface and ground elevations are interpolated linearly within each element based on values at the corner nodes.
Velocity is interpolated using a quadratic approximation based on values at all the nodes of the element. The
quadrilateral elements use identical linear interpolation functions, but their quadratic functions differ because of the
presence of an additional node at the center of the nine-node quadrilateral element.
Mesh Datasets
Datasets in a mesh store scalar or vector values at each node. Dataset Active/Inactive areas (generally indicating wet
vs dry areas) can be defined on elements or be determined from specific NULL values (often -999) on the nodes
themselves. Datasets are used for input data primarily for bathymetry values. Datasets are generally the primary
output from a numeric model. Datasets are used with visualization options such as contours and vectors as well as
data extraction tools like observation profile plots.
Mesh Based Simulation
Traditionally, the geometry has been the basis of the simulation in SMS. This is referred to as a geometry centric
model. For mesh based models, this means that in addition to its geometric attributes (nodes and elements), the mesh
also stores the simulation parameters, including model settings, boundary conditions and areal properties such as
material types.
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Starting with version 9 of SMS, an alternative, explicit simulation based modeling approach was introduced for the
TUFLOW model. Since that version a slow migration has been occurring moving away from the geometry based
method.
Node/Element properties
In addition to datasets, nodes and elements sometimes need to store additional information generally for model setup.
The most common example of this is material types which are assigned to elements.
Nodestrings
A collection of nodes can be formed into a nodestring. Nodestrings are most commonly used to assign boundary
conditions such as a flowrate or water-surface elevation. Nodestrings can also be used for mesh renumbering, forcing
break lines, and boundary smoothing. Finally, a nodestring can store attributes pertinent to a location such as the total
flow nodestring .
Mesh Generation
See Mesh Generation for more information.
Editing a Mesh
Whenever practical a mesh should be reconstructed from a conceptual model rather than edited in the mesh module.
Often this isn't an option and a mesh must be edited by hand. The 2D Mesh Module Tools are used to create and edit
meshes within the mesh module.
Mesh Visualization
After an analysis, output data at each node of the mesh can be used to generate linear or color filled contours as well
as display vector arrows to visualize model solutions. Animations can be generated that shows changes through time
for a time-varying solution. Meshes can also be used with flowtrace and multiple view animations.
Advantages of a Mesh
Meshes and other types of unstructured grids (such as TINs) have the advantage they can include a wide range of
element sizes and transition gradually between them. Coastal models are often extreme examples of this sometimes
with elements as small as a few meters and as large as many kilometers in the same domain. This allows a very large
domain while keeping model computation time to a reasonable level.
Mesh Models
SMS has interfaces to several models that use meshes for computations and boundary conditions. These include:

ADCIRC

ADH

CGWAVE

FESWMS-2DH

Generic Mesh – SRH-2D

Generic Model
 TABS – (RMA2, RMA4)
In addition to the models with complete interfaces, the mesh module contains the Generic Model interface which can
customize SMS to generate data for a user defined model.
The finite difference model TUFLOW uses meshes for post-processing but not for building model domains.
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Current Numerical Model
The mesh module is set up to be used with a single numerical model analysis engine at any given time. The current
numerical model is changed using the Data | Switch Current Model menu command. SMS shows only those tools in
the tool palette and those menus in the Menu Bar which are relevant to the current numerical model. After a finite
element mesh has been read, boundary conditions and material properties can be assigned using the commands in the
menus associated with the current numerical model. The current model on startup can be changed in the Preferences
dialog .
Mesh Module Tools
See Mesh Module Tools for more information.
Mesh Module Menus
See 2D Mesh Module Menus for more information.
Related Topics

Creating 2D Meshes

Editing 2D Meshes

2D Mesh Generation

Mesh Data Menu

Mesh Module Display Options

SMS Modules
3.6.a. Mesh Generation
Mesh Generation
At a glance

Generating a quality finite element mesh is central to using many SMS models

Conceptual models make generating meshes easier

Polygons can use a variety of meshing options to generate triangular or quadrilateral elements
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
Polygons can be assigned bathymetry and material information that will be transferred with the mesh

Scalar paving density generates elements with sizes based upon a size dataset allowing for smooth transitions
and a large range of element sizes and is particularly useful for coastal and wave models.

Datasets for scalar paving density can be user defined or generated using the Data Calculator , the Dataset
Toolbox , or LTEA (linear truncation error analysis) ( ADCIRC )
2D Meshes can be created in the following different ways in SMS.
Using a Conceptual Model
This method converts a conceptual model to a mesh using the Map → 2D Mesh command. This is the preferred
method for mesh generation in SMS.
The mesh generation capability is based on feature objects .
Mesh From Coverage
Each polygon in a meshing coverage (such as TABS, FESWMS, ADCIRC or CGWAVE) includes a
mesh type attribute. This attribute defines how SMS should generate nodes inside the polygon and
connect them into elements. Individual polygons in the coverage may each utilize their own meshing
type. SMS supports the following principal mesh type attributes:

Patch

Paving

Scalar Paving Density
Mesh Generation Toolbox
The mesh generation toolbox is the first pass at a new approach to further automating the mesh
generation process. Currently the toolbox includes a single option to generate ADCIRC meshes with
automatic density variation. This tool is based on Local Truncation Error Analysis .
Mesh Generator Coverage
Starting in SMS 12.0, a generic Mesh Generator coverage can be created. This coverage replaces previous coverages
for creating a mesh from the Map module.
Manually Creating a 2D Mesh
In order to create a 2D Mesh in SMS, there must be a set of 2D Mesh nodes. Elements can be created by using one of
the create mesh element tools and then selecting the mesh nodes to create elements. A 2D Mesh can also be created by
triangulating the nodes. The triangulation algorithm assumes that each of the vertices being triangulated is unique in
the xy plane, i.e. no two points have the same xy location. Duplicate points can be removed by selecting Select/Delete
Duplicate Nodes command from the Node menu.
A 2D Mesh can be created manually from the following steps:
1) Select the Create Nodes tool from the Tool Palette.
2) Create the nodes by clicking inside the Graphics Window at the xy coordinates where the vertex are to be
located. (To change the node location see Editing Node Coordinates )
3) Select a Create Element tool from the Tool Palette OR Select the Elements | Triangulate command from the
Mesh menu to form triangular elements using a Delaunay triangulation .
Creating a 2D Mesh from Existing Geometry
TINs, 2D grids, 2D scatter points, and 3D meshes (in GMS) can all be converted to a 2D Mesh. This is accomplished
by using the following commands:

TIN → 2D Mesh
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
2D Grid → 2D Mesh

2D Scatter Points → 2D Mesh Nodes
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 3D Mesh → 2D Mesh
After using the Scatter Points → Mesh Nodes command, triangulate the nodes to create the 2D Mesh.
A finite element mesh is defined as a network of triangular and quadrilateral elements constructed from nodes. SMS
includes advanced tools to create finite element meshes from underlying bathymetry, meshing parameters and mesh
domain limits.
Digitized or survey points can be imported to provide the bathymetry. This type of data is generally not appropriate
for use as mesh nodes due to random location and distribution. In this case the data should be converted to scatter
points. If the bathymetric points are to be directly used as nodes, the triangulate command can generate elements from
the points.
The Map Module provides tools for defining the study area boundaries and features from which a finite element mesh
can be created. SMS then interpolates the bathymetry data onto the mesh. This process is also described in Lesson 2
of the tutorials. The Mesh Module provides various Tools for manually editing the finite element mesh.
Related Links

Mesh Module

Scatter Data Interpolation

Adaptive Tesselation

Advancing Front Triangulation

Patches

Refine Points
Refine Attributes Dialog
The Refine Attributes dialog is used to set the attributes for a refine point represented by a feature point in a 2D Mesh
model coverage. The dialog is reached by right-clicking on a point in the Map module and selecting the Refine
Attributes command. This option is only available if the active coverage is a 2D Mesh model coverage type (i.e.
mesh generator, ADCIRC, FESWMS, etc.).
Attributes that can be specified for each refine point include:

Refine point – When checked on, assigns the point as a refine point. A refine point is a feature point that is
created inside the boundary of a polygon and assigned a size value. When the finite element mesh is created, a
corner node will be created at the location of the refine point and all element edges that touch the node will be
the exact length specified by the refine point size value.

Element size – Specify the nodal spacing, or element edge length in the vicinity of the refine point.
Refine points are only used if the mesh is generated using the Paving or Scalar Paving Density mesh
generation methods.
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
Create mesh node at this location – A corner node will be created at the location of this point when the finite
element mesh is generated.
Model specific options may also be available in this dialog. See the model documentation for information about these
options.
Related Topics

Feature Objects Menu

Mesh Generation
2D Mesh Options Dialog
The Map → 2D Mesh command is used to create a 2D mesh using the feature objects in a 2D Mesh Coverage. When
the Map → 2D Mesh command is selected, the 2D Mesh Options dialog opens. A meshing polygon must have been
defined prior to issuing this command. The attributes of the meshing polygon(s) are used to generate the 2D mesh.
The 2D Mesh Options dialog is used to set options for the 2D mesh generation process. The options include:

Delete existing mesh – If checked, the existing mesh will be deleted. If not checked, the new mesh will merge
with the existing mesh

Merge triangles after meshing – If checked, triangular elements created during the mesh generation process will
be merged into quadrilateral elements where possible.

Copy coverage before meshing – Create a copy of the coverage before the mesh generation algorithm
redistributes vertices along the feature arcs defining meshing polygons. Feature arcs are only redistributed when
using the Scalar Paving Density mesh generation method.

Use area coverage – This option is only available is at least one area property coverage exists. These coverages
consist of polygons with a material type assigned to each polygon. If this option is checked, the material type
specified for the polygon in the source coverage is ignored. Instead, each element is assigned a material type
based on the polygon the element centroid lies inside of in the area property coverage.
Related Topics

Mesh Generation

Map Feature Objects Menu
2D Mesh Polygon Properties
The 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog is used to set meshing options for the conceptual model. See Mesh
Generation for a discussion of the conceptual modeling approach.
To access the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties go to Feature Objects | Attributes . The 2D Mesh Polygon Properties
dialog will open. Double-clicking inside a polygon will also bring up the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties .
The following polygon attributes can be set:


Mesh Type – Specify the mesh generation algorithm. The following options are available:

None

Patch

Paving

Scalar Paving Density

Existing Nodes
Bathymetry Type – Specify the bathymetry source for assignment to the mesh. The following options are
available:
SMS 12.2

Constant – Assigns a constant elevation value to all nodes in the mesh.

Scatter Set – Interpolates elevation values from the specified scatter set .

Existing Mesh – Interpolates elevation values from an existing 2D mesh.

Raster – Interpolates elevation values from an existing raster image.
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
Material – Material type to assign to elements created within the polygon.

Arc Options – Used to modify the feature vertices along the arc. The arc must be selected in the polygon
preview window. The following options are available:


Use Original Vertices

Distribute Vertices – Change the number of vertices along the arc. A bias can be specified rather than
distributing the vertices with a constant spacing.
Node Options – When the mesh type is set to Patch , the node options are used to define the 3 or 4 sides for the
patch mesh generation. If a feature point is selected in the polygon preview window, the following options are
available:

Split – The mesh generation algorithm will treat the two arcs meeting at the feature point as separate
sides.

Merge – The mesh generation algorithm will treat the two arcs meeting at the feature point as a single
side.

Degenerate Edge – The mesh generation algorithm will treat the two arcs meeting at the feature point as a
"degenerate edge." When using a degenerate edge, the Patching algorithm will require only 3 sides to be
defined. This option is only valid for meshes which allow triangular elements. Only one degenerate edge
can be specified per feature polygon.
Mesh Preview
The preview area allows seeing and editing how the mesh will appear after the polygon has been converted to the
Mesh module. This area has the following tools and options:

Preview Mesh – The preview area does not update automatically. Clicking this button will display how the
mesh will appear after conversion. After any options in the dialog are changed, this button must be clicked again
to show the changes.
Preview Tools
The following tools are available for the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog. Changes that are made to the polygon,
such as adding a vertices or moving a node, will be made to the polygon once the dialog is closed by clicking OK .
When nodes or vertices are moved, a preview can also be seen in the main graphics window if the dialog is not
covering the changed area.

Select Feature Node – Allows selecting a node which can then be moved to change the shape of the
polygon.

Select Feature Vertex – Allows selecting a vertex which can be deleted or moved to change the shape of
the polygon.

Create Feature Vertex – Adds a vertex along an arc belonging to the polygon.

Pan – Moves the what portion of the polygon is visible in the preview area.

Zoom – Magnifies or shrinks the polygon in the preivew area.

Frame – Centers and resizes the polygon to fit in the preview area.

Delete Selected Feature Vertices – Removes the selected vertex from the polygon.
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Related Topics

Feature Objects

Map Module Menus
Advancing Front Triangulation
With advancing front triangulation the polygon is filled in layer by layer. In previous versions of SMS, this has been
referred to as Paving. That term is associated with a specific algorithm, so the terminology is being changed here. The
process includes offsetting the polygon boundary to the inside of the polygon (or outside of an island), performing
intersections on this new offset layer and redistributing the vertices along the offset arc. The process is performed
repeatedly until the area is filled with triangles.
Boundary Spaced Advancing Front
In the advancing front methodology utilized by SMS, the new layer position comes from the spacing on the vertices
along the current polygon. The advanced front is created by forming equilateral triangles. The vertices on the new arc
are redistributed based on the spatial interpolation of the original boundary spacings. This option requires no further
input.
Scalar Advancing Front
SMS supports the option to control the spacing between layers of elements using a size dataset. This is the scalar
advancing front method and requires selecting a spatial dataset that is everywhere positive to define the local spacing
of the desired mesh. This may come from a variety of sources.
See the tutorials on mesh generation for CGWAVE and ADCirc for more information.
Related Topics

Mesh Generation

Adaptive Tesselation

Patches
Mesh Node Triangulation
A simple means of creating a large number of elements is to triangulate a set of nodes into a network. This provides a
surface that simulates the region being modeled, but normally does not result in quality elements.
This option is available through the Triangulate command from the Elements menu is executed. The selected nodes
are connected with a series of triangles. If nodes are not selected, then all nodes will be triangulated. If linear elements
exist, or a linear element creation tool has been selected, then this command creates linear triangles. Otherwise,
quadratic triangles are created.
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The triangulation algorithm ensures that the Delauney criterion is satisfied. The Delauney criterion is such that the
circumcircle of a triangle does not enclose a node on any other element. The circumcircle of a triangle is the circle that
passes through its vertices.
Optimize Triangulation
At times, it's necessary to perform manual mesh editing using the Swap Edge tool. This makes the Delauney criterion
no longer hold. Selected elements can be returned to the Delauney state by choosing the Optimize Triangulation
command from the Elements menu.
Related Topics

Boundary Triangles

2D Mesh Elements Menu
Merge 2D Meshes
Merge Command
Two meshes can be merged to form a new mesh which will be called "Merged" (or "Merged (##)" if that name is
already used) in the Project Explorer. No model data will be transferred, and the type of the new mesh will be the
same as the default mesh model set in the Preferences regardless of the model type of the meshes used in the merge
(to check the Preferences, go to Edit | Preferences... and check the Defaults tab for the Default 2D Mesh Model). The
Merge 2D Meshes command is accessed by selecting two meshes, right-clicking, and selecting Merge 2D Meshes .
This will bring up the Mesh 2D Merge Options dialog.
If the two meshes being merged overlap, SMS will report this and give the option of aborting the merge.
When merging two meshes that overlap, SMS includes all nodes from both meshes, and forces one of the previous
mesh's boundaries to be honored in the merged mesh. Any disjoint nodes in the meshes will be deleted.
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Mesh 2D Merge Options
The Mesh 2D Merge Options dialog has the following options to determine whitch method SMS will use in merging
2D meshes.
Merge method

"Automatic" – Checks for overlapping elements in the meshes to be merged. If no overlap is found, then
merging will be done the same as if "Non-overlapping" was chosen. Otherwise, the "Overlapping" merge will
be performed. Checking for overlapping elements can be time consuming for large meshes.

"Overlapping" – Safely merges meshes with overlapping elements.

"Non-overlapping" – The fastest merge method. However, if this method is used with meshes that overlap, the
resulting merged mesh will be invalid.
Base mesh

When merging meshes, one mesh will be the principal mesh. The principal mesh is the mesh that is considered
the mesh that the other mesh will be added to. In the case of an overlapping merge, the boundary conditions of
the principal mesh are the ones that are preserved.
Merging with Priority
One common feature that may be desired would be to only include nodes from one of the two meshes in the overlap
region. This feature is under consideration. To get this result with current functionality, the following steps may be
followed:
1) Convert the boundary of the mesh with higher priority (the one for which the nodes will be preserved) to a
feature polygon (Use the right click menu Convert to feature command).
2) Build polygons for the new regions just created in the map coverage.
3) Using the Nodes | Options command in the mesh module, make sure the option to retriangulate voids is
enabled.
4) Select the polygons created in the previous step.
5) In the Edit menu, use the Select/Delete Data command to select all the nodes from the low priority mesh that lie
inside the high priority mesh. Delete these nodes.
6) Now merge the two meshes. The nodes from the low priority mesh that were in the overlap region have been
deleted, so they do not appear in the merged mesh.
(Note: If wanting to maintain the original meshes in this process, create a copy of the low priority mesh to edit before
performing the steps. This copy can be deleted after the merge process if desired.)
SMS 12.2
Examples of Meshes that are not considered overlapping
Examples of Meshes that are considered overlapping
Page 352
SMS 12.2
Page 353
Related Topics

2D Mesh Module Menus
Patch
The patch method fills polygons that can be defined as topologic rectangles. The method may combine multiple arcs
to define a single side of the patch. A bidirectional coons patching method is used to interpolate from the boundary
arcs to interior nodes. Typical applications of this method include river channels and regions aligned to channels. The
patching method supports transitioning the number of elements across the channel or from one side to another.
Transitions in both directions often result in poorer quality elements and should be avoided if possible.
The Rectangular Patch mesh generation method requires a polygon made of exactly four arcs, forming four sides .
However, very rarely do exactly four arcs make up a polygon. SMS provides a way to define a rectangular patch from
a polygon that has more than four arcs by allowing multiple arcs to act as a single patch side . An example of a
rectangular patch made up of four sides is shown below. Note that Side 1 and Side 2 are both made from multiple
arcs. Hollow squares represent the beginning and ending points of an arc ( Feature Points ). Filled squares represent
intermediate points along the arc ( Feature Vertices ).
The basic process to define the meshing attributes for a polygon using the Patch method is to:

Switch to the Map Module

Select the menu Feature Objects | Build Polygons

Switch to the Select Polygon tool

Select the polygon to set meshing attributes for

Select the menu Feature Objects | Attributes

Set Mesh Type to Patch

Set Bathymetry Type

Set Material Type

Set Node Options if the polygon consists of more than four arcs

Switch to the Select Feature Point tool in the dialog

Select the node to "merge"
SMS 12.2

Page 354

In the Node Options combo box, change the selection to "merge"

The two arcs meeting at the "merge" node will now be treated as a single arc for the mesh generation
within the current polygon.
Press OK to exit the dialog and save the polygon attributes
Related Topics

Paving Meshing Algorithm

Scalar Paving Density Meshing Algorithm

Mesh Generation

2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog
External Links

Gonzales, Darren S. (2000). An Automatic Finite Element Mesh Generation Method: the Adaptive Rectangular
Coons Patch. Thesis, Brigham Young University. TA 4.02 .G6476 2000
Patches
Patching is a mesh generation technique used to fill the interior of a polygon. A polygon is assigned to be a patch in
the Polygon Attributes dialog and is filled with the Map → 2D Mesh command.
The coordinates of the new nodes on the interior of the patch are computed by constructing a partial bicubic Coons
patch using the polygon as patch edges. This ensures that interior nodes are smoothly interpolated from the nodes
making up the perimeter of the patch. Patches are applicable when the data points are gathered along parallel lines,
such as cross sections in a river.
It is recommended that a patch be applied before generating a mesh using the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.
Rectangular Patch
Elements can be made to fill a rectangular area by choosing the Rectangular Patch command from the Elements
menu in the Mesh Module. To define a rectangular patch, four nodestrings must be selected. The nodestrings must
connect at the ends.
The coordinates of the new nodes on the interior of the patch are computed by constructing a partial bicubic Coons
patch using the nodestrings as patch edges. This ensures that interior nodes are smoothly interpolated from the nodes
making up the perimeter of the patch. Patches are applicable when the data points are gathered along parallel lines,
such as cross sections in a river. The following options are available for each edge of the rectangular patch:

Use original nodes – This option causes the original nodes from the nodestring to be used as corner nodes of
elements along the boundary.

Distribute nodes – This option distributes the specified number of nodes as corner nodes of elements along the
boundary. If elements already exist on the boundary, then this option is unavailable.
SMS 12.2
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
Bias – This is used with the Distribute nodes option. It causes the spacing of nodes along the nodestring to be
weighted more to one of the corners.
After the spacing on each side is defined, click the Preview button to see how the patch will look. If changes are
desired, they can be made. When the patch looks good, click the OK button to accept it. The patch can be canceled by
clicking the Cancel button. Be careful to use the preview button because THERE IS NO UNDO FOR THIS
OPERATION .
The elements in a new patch are checked to make sure they do not overlap each other. If any problems are detected, an
error message is given and the patch is not created. Errors may occur especially when the region is highly irregular in
shape. In such cases, the region can either be divided into smaller patches, or it can be filled using a different mesh
generation technique.
Rectagualar Patch Hints
The following are some hints when using rectangular patches:

The curvature of the patch can change somewhat, but it should not switch directions. If it does, then the patch
should be split at the inflection point of the curve.

Although opposite sides in the rectangular patch are not required to have the same number of nodes, the best
patches occur when this is close. In the example shown above, the two ends have the same number of nodes and
the two sides only differ by three nodes.
Triangular Patch
Elements can be made to fill a triangular area by choosing the Triangular Patch command from the Elements menu.
To define a triangular patch, three nodestrings must be selected. The nodestrings must connect at the ends.
The coordinates of the new nodes on the interior of the patch are computed by constructing a partial bicubic Coons
patch using the nodestrings as patch edges. This ensures that interior nodes are smoothly interpolated from the nodes
making up the perimeter of the patch. The following options are available for each edge of the triangular patch:

Use original nodes – This option causes the original nodes from the nodestring to be used as corner nodes of
elements along the boundary.
SMS 12.2

Page 356
Distribute nodes – This option distributes the specified number of nodes as corner nodes of elements along the
boundary. If elements already exist on the boundary, then this option is unavailable.

Bias – This is used with the Distribute nodes option. It causes the spacing of nodes along the nodestring to be
weighted more to one of the corners.
All three sides of a triangular patch must have the same number of nodes. After the spacing on each side is defined,
click the Preview button to see how the patch will look. If changes are desired, they can be made. When the patch
looks good, click the OK button to accept it. The patch can be canceled by clicking the CANCEL button.
Be careful to use the preview button because THERE IS NO UNDO FOR THIS OPERATION .
The elements in a new patch are checked to make sure they do not overlap each other. If any problems are detected, an
error message is given and the patch is not created. Errors may occur especially when the region is highly irregular in
shape. In such cases, the region can either be divided into smaller patches, or it can be filled using a different mesh
generation technique.
Triangular Patch Hints
All three sides of a triangular patch must have the same number of nodes.
Errors
When the patch is previewed in the Polygon Attributes dialog, the elements in a new patch are checked to make sure
they do not overlap each other. If any problems are detected, an error message is given and the patch is not created.
Errors may occur especially when the region is highly irregular in shape. In such cases, the region can either be
divided into smaller patches, or it can be filled using a different mesh generation technique.
If a polygon cannot be patched, a help string under the preview window in the Polygon Attributes dialog explains
what needs to be changed.
Related Topics

Mesh Generation

2D Mesh Elements Menu

Adaptive Tesselation

Adaptive Front Triangulation
Paving
The paving method uses an advancing front technique to fill the polygon with elements. Based on the vertex
distribution on the boundaries, equilateral triangles are created on the interior to define a smaller interior polygon.
Overlapping regions are removed and the process is repeated until the region is filled. Interior nodal locations are
relaxed to create better quality elements.
Both the Paving method and the Scalar Paving Density can be selected in the 2D Mesh Polygon Properties dialog.
The dialog is accessed by right-clicking on the a polygon and selecting the Attributes command.
Scalar Paving Density
Scalar paving density utilizes the same approach as paving with the added component of a size dataset. A size dataset
defines the desired spacing of nodes in a spatial fashion. A scattered dataset provides the geometric basis for the size
dataset, and a dataset on the scatter set provides the values for the size dataset. SMS redistributes the vertices on the
boundaries of the polygon to match the underlying size dataset.
Related Topics

Patch Meshing Algorithm

Mesh Generation
SMS 12.2
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Adaptive Tesselation
Adaptive tessellation is a mesh generation technique used to fill the interior of a polygon. The method is based on
overlaying a quad tree on the polygon, and recursively splitting the quads until the size approaches the desired
spacing. SMS derives the desired spacing based on either the spacing of the original polygon, or based on a user
specified spatially varying scalar dataset (for a scattered dataset). A polygon is automatically processed with adaptive
tessellation and is filled with the Map to 2D Mesh command.
The adaptive tessellation technique is robust and relatively quick, however, it often results in discrete increments in
resolution as the overlying quad tree grid transitions from one resolution level to another. For this reason, the
Advancing Front Triangulation method is preferred.
Boundary Spaced Adaptive Tessellation
Adaptive tessellation uses the existing spacing on the polygons to determine the element sizes on the interior. Any
interior arcs and refine points are forced into the new mesh. If the input polygon has varying node densities along its
perimeter, SMS attempts to create a smooth element size transition between these areas of differing densities. Altering
the size bias indicates whether SMS should favor the creation of large or small elements. Decreasing the bias will
result in smaller elements; increasing the bias will result in larger elements. In either case, the elements in the interior
of the mesh will honor the arc edges and the element sizes specified at nodes. The bias simply controls the element
sizes in the transition region.
Scalar Adaptive Tessellation
SMS supports the option to control the local target size of elements using a size dataset. This is the scalar adaptive
tessellation method and requires selecting a spatial dataset that is everywhere positive to define the local spacing of
the desired mesh. This may come from a variety of sources.
See the tutorials on mesh generation for CGWAVE and ADCIRC for more information.
Related Topics

Mesh Generation

Advancing Front Triangulation

Patches
Size Function
A size function is a multiple that guides the size of elements to be created in SMS.
A size function determines the element size based off of a dataset that will be created by SMS. Each point is assigned
a size value. This size value is the approximate size of the elements to be created in the region where the point is
located. The mesh will be denser where the size values are smaller.
Using the Data Calculator allows created size function datasets in SMS. The size function dataset can then be used to
redistribute vertices along an arc or used as the bathymetry for polygons.
Size functions can be based off of different criteria. For example, they may be based on either depth, slope, or
curvature of the model.
Size Function Based on Depth
Many coastal models utilize a size function based on depth. As the depth gets shallower, the elements should get
smaller. The model will become finer near areas of interest and coarser at deep water areas that are less significant.
A size function based on depth uses the following equation:

SMS 12.2
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Size Function Based on Slope
Size functions based on slope are helpful when analyzing slope data because as the rate of change of the gradient
increases, the smaller the mesh element becomes. Size functions based on slope are mostly applied to riverine models.
A size function based on slope uses the following equation:

Related Topics

Mesh Generation

Arc Size Function
3.6.b. Interface Components
3.6.b.1. Mesh Module Display Options
Mesh Module Display Options
The properties of the mesh data SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Display Options dialog.
The entities associated with the mesh module with display options are shown below. Some of these entities also have
an associated Options button. For these entities, additional display options are available. The available mesh display
options include the following:

Nodes – A circle is filled around each node. It's possibly to specify the radius and color of these circles. The
Options button is used to set the display of nodal boundary condition data. The dialog that opens when this
button is clicked depends on the current numerical model.

Nodal BC – Some models support nodal boundary conditions. For those that do, each type of boundary
condition can be displayed by highlighting the node with a symbol associated with that boundary condition. The
Options button next to the Nodal BC entry of the display options allows selecting/modifying the symbols
associated with each boundary condition.

Elements – Element edges.

Functional Surface – Show surfaces representing one of the functional datasets associated with a mesh, grid or
TIN.

Contours – The mesh contours are drawn for the active scalar dataset. Use the contours tab to change contour
options.

Vectors – The mesh vectors are drawn for the active vector dataset. Use the vectors tab to change vector options.

Nodestrings – The color in which a nodestring is drawn depends upon its type. Unassigned nodestrings are
drawn in the color/thickness/style shown at the left of the toggle box. For the display of boundary condition
nodestrings, click the Options button. The dialog that opens when this button is clicked depends on the current
numerical model.

Mesh Quality – The mesh quality shows potential problems with the finite element mesh layout. An element is
highlighted in a color corresponding to the criterion which it violates. The Options button opens the Mesh
Quality Options dialog to specify display options for the mesh quality criteria.

Mesh Boundary – A line is drawn around the perimeter of the mesh.

Inactive Mesh – Determines the color of all inactive meshes when using multiple meshes.
SMS 12.2
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
Materials – Elements can be filled with the color and pattern which define their materials. Materials and their
display properties can be edited by choosing Edit | Materials from the menu.

Material Boundary – The boundary between zones of elements with a common material type is drawn using
specified line attributes.

Material Numbers – The material id number can be displayed in the center of each element. The font and color
can be selected.

Node Numbers – The node id number can be displayed next to each node. The font and color can be selected.

Element Numbers – The id of each element.

Nodal Elevations – Displays the z elevation at each node.

Wet/Dry Boundary – After a simulation has been opened, the interface between wet and dry nodes can be
displayed.
Model specific options
Each model may include model specific display options. These appear at the bottom of the display options dialog and
include such things as 1D contour options for RMA2 and tidal ellipses for ADCIRC .
Related Topics

Mesh Module

Display Options
Mesh Quality
In the Mesh tab of the Display Options dialog. selecting the Options... button next to the Mesh Quality toggle will
bring up the Element Quality Checks dialog. Several rules of mesh element construction, if adhered to, will help in
creation of a well-behaved finite element network. Violations of the following mesh quality checks should be avoided.
Violations of these mesh quality checks can be displayed in SMS (see Mesh Display Options ):

Minimum / Maximum interior angle – For triangular elements, if the angle is between 10 and 150 degrees,
computation problems will usually be avoided. Care must also be taken when curved edges are defined (nonlinear midside nodes) to prevent overlap of element sides.

Concave quadrilaterals – For quadrilateral elements, if the angle is between 30 and 150 degrees, computation
problems will usually be avoided. Care must also be taken when curved edges are defined (non-linear midside
nodes) to prevent overlap of element sides.

Maximum slope – Rapid changes in slope can cause computational instabilities.

Element area change – Nodes need to be more plentiful and elements smaller in areas where the solution
variables (u,v, and h) change rapidly. Such areas may be located near channel or floodplain constrictions, in
channel bends, or at sudden changes in bed slope. The network should be dense in the critical areas of interest.
The density of a network can vary through the solution domain. Areas that are of little interest and have stable
flow characteristics should not be as dense as critical areas. The size of elements needs to change gradually
when moving from an area described by small elements to an area modeled with large elements, or vice versa. A
rule of thumb is to keep the areas of neighboring elements within a factor of two, meaning an element is twice
as big or half as big as its adjacent elements.

Connecting elements – Avoid creating "pinwheels" by limiting the number of elements connecting at a node to
fewer than eight.

Ambiguous gradient – All triangular elements are planar by their definition. However, quadrilateral elements
may vary significantly from a plane. It is a good idea to construct elements as close to a plane as possible. This
precludes the existence of elements whose slope, or direction of drainage is ambiguous.

Display Legend – Checking this box will display the legend in the Graphics Window.
SMS 12.2

Page 360
Options... – Brings up the Legend Options dialog.
Related Topics

Mesh Display Options

Mesh Module

Display Options
3.6.b.2. 2D Mesh Module Tools
2D Mesh Module Tools
The following tools are contained in the Dynamic Tools portion of the tool palette when the Mesh Module is active.
Tools specific to a model interface are described with the corresponding model. Only one tool is active at any given
time. The action that takes place when clicking in the Graphics Window depends on the current tool. The following
sections describe the tools in the 2D Grid tool palette.
Create Mesh Nodes
The Create Mesh Nodes
tool is used to manually create a node using the mouse. A node will be created at the
location where the mouse button is clicked inside the Graphics Window. If the node is created inside the triangulated
area of a current mesh, and the Insert nodes into triangulated mesh option is turned on, then the new node will be
added as part of the mesh. If the new node is not added as part of the current mesh, then the z-value assigned depends
on the Nodal z-value option.
Select Mesh Nodes
The Select Mesh Nodes
tool is used to select nodes. A single node is selected by clicking on it. A second node can
be added to the selection list by holding the SHIFT key while selecting it. Multiple nodes can be selected at once by
dragging a box around them. A selected node can be deselected by holding the SHIFT key as it is clicked.
If the nodes are not locked (see the menu command Nodes | Locked ), then a single node can be clicked and dragged
to a new location. As the node is being dragged, its new location is shown in the Edit Window . If a single node
selected, the X, Y, and Z Coordinate fields in the Edit Window become available to set the node location exactly. If
multiple nodes are selected, the Z Coordinate field in the Edit Window becomes available. The value shown is the
average elevation value of all selected nodes. If this value is changed, the new value will be assigned to all selected
nodes.
With one node selected, the Edit Window shows the node id number and the number of elements to which it is
attached. With two nodes selected, the Edit Window shows both node id numbers and the distance between the nodes.
With multiple nodes selected, the Edit Window shows the number of selected nodes.
Right-Click Menu
See the 2D Mesh Nodes Menu and 2D Mesh Elements Menu articles.
Create Nodestrings
The Create Nodestrings
tool is used to create node string. Nodestrings are used for operations such as assigning
boundary conditions, forcing breaklines into the mesh, and renumbering the mesh. To create a nodestring:
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1)
2)
Click on a node. The node will be highlighted in red and a prompt will be shown in the Help Window .
Click on any node to add it to the nodestring. The selected node is also highlighted in red and a solid red line is
drawn between the two nodes. Continue adding nodes to the nodestring in this manner.
1) Note: For most operations, nodes in the nodestring should be adjacent, but this is not required. A breakline,
for example, will usually be made of nodes which are not adjacent.
2) Press the BACKSPACE key to backup one node. Press the ESC key to abort the nodestring creation.
3) Double-click a node or press the ENTER key to end the nodestring creation.
3)
The SHIFT and CTRL keys assist in creating large nodestrings which are made up of adjacent nodes. These can
be used after at least one node has been selected and function as follows:
1) SHIFT . Holding down the SHIFT key and selecting another node will add to the nodestring all nodes
between the two. The path chosen is the shortest distance between the two nodes. This is useful for creating
continuity strings which run along a cross section of the mesh.
2) CTRL . Holding down the CTRL key and selecting another node will add to the nodestring all nodes on the
mesh boundary between the two, going counter clockwise from the first node to the second node. Both nodes
must be on the boundary of the mesh or SMS will beep.
3) CTRL + SHIFT . Holding down both the CTRL and SHIFT keys and selecting another node will add to the
nodestring all nodes on the mesh boundary between the two, going clockwise from the first node to the
second node. Both nodes must be on the boundary of the mesh or SMS will beep.
Select Nodestrings
The Select Nodestrings
tool is used to select nodestrings. When this tool is chosen, a small icon appears near the
center of each nodestring. A nodestring is selected by clicking inside this icon. A second nodestring can be added to
the selection list by holding the SHIFT key while selecting it. Multiple nodestrings can be selected by dragging a box
around their icons. A selected nodestring can be deselected by holding the SHIFT key as its icon is clicked.
When nodestrings are selected, the Z Coordinate field in the Edit Window becomes available. The value shown is the
average elevation value of all nodes in the selected nodestrings. If this value is changed, the new value will be
assigned to all nodes in the selected nodestrings.
With one nodestring selected, the Edit Window shows the number of nodes in the nodestring, its type, and its length.
With multiple nodestrings selected, the Edit Window shows the number of selected nodestrings and their total length.
Right-Click Menu
See the 2D Mesh Nodestrings Menu article.
Create Elements
Most elements in SMS will be created using automatic mesh generation techniques. At times, however, it is necessary
to manually create a single element or a small group of elements.
Although SMS supports various types of elements, only those element types supported by the current numerical
model will be available in the tool palette. Some of these element types are linear while others are quadratic. A linear
element has only corner nodes, while a quadratic element has midside nodes between the corner nodes.
The following linear elements are supported:

2-node lines

3-node triangles
 4-node quadrilaterals
The following quadratic elements are supported:

3-node lines
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
6-node triangles

8-node quadrilaterals
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 9-node quadrilaterals
Linear and quadratic elements cannot coexist in a single mesh. If linear elements exist in a mesh, then the quadratic
element creation tools are dimmed out. Similarly, if quadratic elements exist in a mesh, then the linear element
creation tools are dimmed out. To create a single linear or quadratic element:
1) Select the tool which corresponds with the type of element to be created.
2) Click on the corner nodes which will make the element, one-by-one. Do not click midside nodes. As each node
is clicked, it becomes highlighted in red.
3) Alternatively, a box can be dragged around the corner nodes which will make the element. A beep will sound if
the box does not surround the exact number of corner nodes required by the selected tool.
The mid-side nodes in quadratic elements are created automatically, as is the center node of a nine-node quadrilateral.
Before a new element is created, SMS performs the following quality checks:

The new element cannot overlap other elements.

A quadrilateral element cannot twist or overlap itself.
 A quadrilateral element cannot be concave.
If any of the these fails, the new element is not created.
Select Elements
The Select Elements
tool is used to select elements. A single element is selected by clicking inside it. A second
element can be added to the selection list by holding the SHIFT key while selecting it. Multiple elements can be
selected at once by dragging a box around them. Holding the CTRL key and dragging the mouse selects any elements
through which the line is drawn. A selected element can be deselected by holding the SHIFT key as it is clicked.
When elements are selected, the Z Coordinate field in the Edit Window becomes available. The value shown is the
average elevation value of all nodes in the selected elements. If this value is changed, the new value will be assigned
to all nodes attached to the selected elements. Caution must be used when changing node elevations in this manner.
Do not create large flat areas where surrounding elements may become dry because this can cause ponds to form
when the finite element analysis is performed.
With one element selected, the Edit Window shows the element id number, its type, and its area. With multiple
elements selected, the Edit Window shows the number of selected elements and their combined area.
Right-Click Menu
See the 2D Mesh Elements Menu article.
Swap Edges
The Swap Edges
tool is used to manually swap the edges of two adjacent triangles. This is useful in such cases as
preserving a geometrical feature in the mesh or avoiding an artificial dam in a channel.
Two adjacent triangles form a quadrilateral with an element edge down one diagonal. When the diagonal is clicked, it
gets swapped to the other diagonal, as long as the quadrilateral is not concave.
Merge/Split Elements
The Merge/Split Elements
tool is used to either merge two triangles into a quadrilateral or split a quadrilateral
into two triangles. This is a useful tool to use when trying to avoid certain mesh drying problems.
To split a quadrilateral element, click inside it. An element edge appears on the diagonal which will make the triangles
uphold the Delaney criteria. To merge two adjacent triangles into a quadrilateral, click the common edge. A
quadrilateral will form as long as it is not concave.
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Label Contours
The Label Contours
tool is used to manually create a contour label using the mouse. To add a label, click on the
point where the label should be created. The label will remain on the screen until either it is manually removed or the
automatic contour label options are changed. To manually remove a contour label, hold the SHIFT key and clicking
on it. There are also available automatic contour label options.
Related Topics

Editing 2D Meshes

Mesh Module
Editing 2D Meshes
2D Mesh nodes can be inserted, deleted , or moved .
2D Mesh elements can be edited in the following ways:

Elements can be converted between linear and quadratic.

The type of element can be changed from a 3 node element to a 4 node element by merging triangles .

A 4 node element can be converted to a 3 node element by splitting the 4 node element .

Elements can be refined automatically.

The material assigned to an element can be changed.

Poorly shaped boundary triangles can be automatically selected for deletion.

Breaklines can be inserted into the mesh
Deleting Nodes
A set of selected nodes can be deleted by hitting the DELETE key or selecting the Delete command from the Edit
menu. Elements attached to the nodes are also deleted.
If the Confirm Deletions option in the Edit menu is active, SMS will prompt to confirm each deletion. This feature is
helpful in preventing accidental deletions. The Confirm Deletions item is toggled by selecting it from the menu.
Options in the Node Options dialog will affect how nodes are deleted.
Editing Node Coordinates
The coordinates of a 2D Mesh node can be edited by selecting the mesh node and entering the new coordinates in the
edit boxes in the Edit Window . It is also possible to drag an existing node to a new location by clicking on the node
and moving the mouse with the button held down until the node is in the desired position.
If the snap to grid option in the Drawing Grid Options dialog is set, the node will move in increments corresponding
to the drawing grid. If the node being dragged is connected to one or more elements, SMS will not allow the node to
be dragged to a position where one of the surrounding elements would become ill-formed.
Since it is possible to accidentally drag points, nodes can be "locked" to prevent them from being dragged by selecting
the Lock All Nodes item from the Nodes menu. The nodes can be unlocked by unselecting Lock All Nodes from the
Nodes menu.
Merging Triangles
The triangulate operation creates a mesh composed entirely of triangles. In some cases it is desirable to have the mesh
composed primarily of quadrilateral elements. Quadrilateral elements result in less elements which leads to faster
solutions, and quadrilateral elements are often more stable numerically. To address this need, two options are
provided for converting triangular elements to quadrilateral elements:
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The Merge Triangles Command
The Merge Triangles command in the Elements menu can be used to automatically merge pairs of adjacent triangular
elements into quadrilateral elements. Upon selecting the Merge Triangles command, a prompt appears to input a
minimum interior angle. This angle should be between 0 and 90 degrees. If no elements are selected, all of the
triangular elements in the mesh are then processed. If some elements have been selected, only the selected elements
are processed.
The conversion process works as follows:
1) The set of elements to be processed is traversed one element at a time. Each triangular element that is found is
compared with each of its three adjacent elements. If the adjacent element is a triangle, the trapezoid formed by
the triangle and the adjacent triangle is checked.
2) Each of the four interior angles of the trapezoid is computed and compared to a minimum interior angle. If all of
the angles are greater than the user specified minimum interior angle, then the two triangles are merged into a
single quadrilateral element.
This process is repeated for all of the elements. The merging scheme will not always result in a mesh composed
entirely of quadrilateral elements. Some triangular elements are often necessary in highly irregular meshes to provide
transitions from one region to the next.
The Merge/Split Tool
The other option for merging triangles involves the use of the Merge/Split tool in the Tool Palette. This tool can be
used to manually merge triangles one pair at a time rather than using the automatic scheme described above.
The manual method is also useful to edit or override the results of the automatic merging scheme in selected areas.
The Merge/Split tool can also be used to undo a merge. A quadrilateral element can be split into two triangles by
clicking anywhere in the interior of the element. This tool is useful if a pair of triangles is inadvertently merged.
Splitting Quadrilaterals
Occasionally it is necessary to split quadrilateral elements into triangular elements. For example, in order for new
nodes to be automatically inserted into a mesh, the elements in the region where the node is inserted must be
triangular. Also, in order to process a breakline, the elements in the region of the breakline must be triangular. In such
situations, it may be necessary to split a group of quadrilateral elements into triangular elements. Two options are
provided for splitting quadrilateral elements:
The Split Quads Command
The Split Quads command in the Mesh menu can be used to split a group of quadrilateral elements into triangular
elements. If no elements are selected, all of the quadrilateral elements in the mesh are split. If some elements have
been selected, only the selected quadrilateral elements are split.
The Merge/Split Tool
The other option for splitting quadrilateral elements involves the use of the Merge/Split tool in the Tool Palette. If the
Merge/Split tool is selected, clicking anywhere in the interior of a quadrilateral element with the mouse cursor will
cause the element to be split into two triangles. The shortest diagonal through the quadrilateral is chosen as the
common edge of the two new triangular elements.
Subset Edit Mode
When working with large meshes, even simple operations can take a long time. Therefore, it can be useful to work on
only a portion of the mesh. This is referred to as Subset Edit Mode .
Entering Mesh Subset Edit Mode
To enter subset edit mode:
1) Select elements that cover the area to be edited
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2)
Enter subset edit mode in one of the two following ways
1) Right-click on the selected elements and select Edit Subset
2) Right-click on the mesh tree item and select Edit Subset
The icon in the tree menu for the mesh being edited is updated to indicate that a subset of this mesh is being edited.
Caution: Datasets other than the depth/elevation dataset are deleted upon entering mesh subset edit.
Prohibited Actions While in Subset Edit Mode

Making changes on the border of the mesh subset

Making changes outside of the mesh subset

Reading in meshes from file

Creating meshes from feature map or scatter data

Running numerical models

Changing attributes such as boundary conditions on nodes, nodestrings, and elements

Renumbering node/nodestring/element ids
Exiting Mesh Subset Edit Mode
As noted above, several operations are not allowed while in subset edit mode. It is intended that this mode only be
used to facilitate editing sections of the mesh. SMS includes to commands to exit subset edit mode when the desired
edits are completed, or to revert and undo any local edits.
Commit Mesh
Merge the changes made to the subset of the mesh with the rest of the mesh by selecting Commit mesh from the
right-click menu of either the mesh tree item or the Select Element tool. Commit mesh will exit subset edit mode.
Revert Mesh
Revert to how the mesh was upon entering mesh subset edit mode by selecting Revert mesh from the right-click
menu of either the mesh tree item or the select element tool. Revert mesh will exit subset edit mode.
Related Topics

2D Mesh Module Tools
2D Mesh Module Tools Right-Click Menus
The following tools are contained in the Dynamic Tools portion of the tool palette when the Mesh Module is active.
These are tools with corresponding right-click menus.
Select Mesh Nodes
Right-clicking on a mesh node while using the Select Mesh Nodes will bring up the following menu options:

Delete – Delete selected mesh Nodes.

Assign BC – Assign a boundary condition to selected mesh nodes.

Transform – Transform the selected nodes either by scaling, translation, or rotation.

Triangulate – Triangulate the selected nodes to form triangle elements.
Select Nodestrings
Right-clicking on a selected nodestring while using the Select Nodestring tool will bring up the following options:

Delete Selected – Delete selected nodestrings.

Assign BC – Assign a boundary condition to selected nodestrings.
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
Reverse Direction – Reverse direction of selected nodestrings.

Force Breaklines – Force element edges to follow the selected nodestrings.

Renumber Nodes – Renumber the nodes starting with an ID of 1.

Renumber Nodestrings – renumber the nodestrings starting with an ID of 1.

Smooth – Smooth the mesh boundary along the path of a selected nodestring by moving midside nodes. Only
used for quadratic elements.
Select Elements
Right-clicking on a selected element while using the Select Elements tool will bring up the following options:

Delete – Delete selected element.

Refine – Split all selected elements into four elements.

Relax – Moves all the nodes on the interior of the selected elements to the centroid of their contributing area.
Iterates based on option set in the options command.

Assign Material Type – Assign material type to selected elements.
Related Topics

Editing 2D Meshes

Mesh Module
3.6.b.3. 2D Mesh Module Menus
2D Mesh Module Menus
The following menus are available in the 2D Mesh Module :
Standard Menus
Includes the File, Edit, Display, and other standard menus. See SMS Menus for more information.
Module Specific Menus

Data

Nodes

Nodestrings

Elements
Right-Click Menu
Right-clicking on the Mesh Data folder in the Project Explorer will bring up the Display Options dialog. Rightclicking on a Mesh Item in the Project Explorer will bring up the following menu options:

New Folder – Creates a new folder under the Mesh item

Delete – Deletes the active mesh.

Duplicate – this command will create a duplicate of the active mesh, along with its model data. The name of the
new mesh will be the same as the original mesh, but with an appended number.

Rename – Allows changing the active mesh name. Names need to be unique, hence if a non-unique name is
entered, a warning message will appear and the name will be reverted.
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
Merge 2D Meshes – merges two meshes together. See the article Merge 2D Meshes .

Convert – Converts mesh to Map or 2D Scatter.

Projection – Allows setting the projection of the mesh.

Reproject – Allows reprojecting the projection of the mesh.

Metadata – Allows making annotations.

Create Quality Mesh Scatter Set – This command creates a scatter set consisting of one vertex at the center of
each element in the mesh. Six datasets are created for this scatter set including the six quality measures defined
in the ARR quality plot . These datasets range from 0.0 to 1.0. The higher the value, the higher the quality of the
element. (If SMS supported element centered datasets, these quantities could be displayed directly on the mesh.)
The creation of this scatter set gives a spatial feeling for the quality of the mesh.

Zoom to Mesh – Zooms to where the mesh is located within the Graphic Window .

Edit Subset – This command is only available when elements are selected. In this case, the command appears.
Selecting the command creates a subset from the selected elements and enters subset editing mode .
Model Specific Menus

ADCIRC

ADH

CGWAVE

FESWMS

Generic Mesh Model

TABS

RMA2

RMA4
2D Mesh Nodestrings Menu
The use of nodestrings has varied from one version of SMS to another. Historically, nodestrings served the following
purposes:
1) Breakline to enforce element edges.
2) Location for boundary condition assignment.
3) Location for mesh renumbering for efficient numerical analysis.
With the development of a [[SMS:Renumber|global renumbering] option the need to check matrix efficiency from a
number of starting points was eliminated. The renumber command that had been in the nodestring menu was moved
to the nodes menu. This feature was added in SMS 11.1 . The option for local renumbering was retained as a right
click command when clicking on a nodestring.
As the modeling approach moves to a simulation based approach, rather than a geomtry based approach, the use of
nodestrings to assign boundary conditions is transitioning to the assignment on arcs in a boundary condition coverage.
The Nodestrings functions includes:
Nodestrings Menu

Options – This command invokes the Nodestring Options dialog. This dialog is described below.

Force Breaklines – This command is only available when at least one nodestring is selected. The command
forces element edges to follow the selected nodestring(s). This can be accomplished by swapping element edges
or by inserting nodes where the nodestring crosses an element edge. This capability is described here .
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
Smooth – This command is only available when at least one nodestring is selected and the mesh includes
quadratic elements (midside nodes). The result of the command is to move the midside nodes to create a
geometrically smooth curve from one element edge to the next. This continuity is based on the edges being
interpreted as quadratic curves rather than linear segments. If the angle between adjacent element edges in the
nodestring is greater than 60 degrees, the break in the smoothing is left to avoid severe distortion of the
quadratic edge.

Renumber – This command is only available in version 11.0 and older. It is only available when one nodestring
is selected. The function reorders the nodes and elements (resetting the ID values) with the nodes on the selected
nodestring being the starting point and sweeping through the domain as described in renumbering .

Renumber Nodestrings – This command appears in the menu starting at version 11.1. This allows to explicitly
remove any gaps in the nodestring ID numbers.

Extract Weir Elevations... – This command appears in the menu starting at version 11.1 for ADCIRC meshes
when two nodestrings making up a weir or island barrier are selected. The command invokes the Extract Weir
Elevations dialog that allows extracting the elevations for the weir to a coverage.

Merge – This command is available if more than one nodestring is selected. It looks for nodestrings that share a
single point (end to end) and merges them into a single nodestring if these conditions exist.

Split – This command is available if a mesh node is selected. When the command is issued, SMS looks for
nodestrings that use the selected node. When such a nodestring is found, the string is split into two nodestrings
at the selected mesh node.

Reverse Direction – This command reverses the direction of selected nodestrings. Selecting a nodestring causes
the direction arrows to be displayed and can be used to verify the nodestring direction. This is typically only
useful for extracted 2D plots.
Nodestring Right-click Commands
Many of the Nodestring menu commands are also available by right-clicking on a selected nodestring. In addition to
the commands that are described in the previous section, the following are available as right-click commands on
nodestring.

Delete Selected – (Standard right click menu command)

Add Weir... – This command was added for version 12.0 of SMS for ADCIRC meshes. It appears only when
the selected nodestring(s) are fully internal to the mesh. It invokes the Add Weir dialog which specifies a width
(in m) for a new weir to be inserted into the mesh along the nodestring.

Remove Weir... – This command was added for version 12.0 of SMS for ADCIRC meshes. It appears only
when a pair of selected nodestring(s) define an ADCIRC weir or island barrier boundary condition. It invokes
the Remove Weir dialog which specifies a method for removing the weir. These include an option to pave over
the weir, which fills the area between the nodestrings with elements, or to merge the nodestrings, which creates
a new node for each pair of nodes in the weir at the midpoint between the nodes on the weir. By default the
command will also renumber the mesh since the edit changes the mesh definition.

Assign BC... – This command applies to mesh based simulations and invokes the model specific boundary
condition dialog to allow a boundary condition to be applied at the nodestring.

Renumber Nodes – This command was added when the global renumber capability was implemented in the
SMS and the menu command was removed.

Clear Selection – (Standard right-click menu command)

Invert Selection – (Standard right-click menu command)

Zoom to Selection – (Standard right-click menu command)
Nodestring Options
The nodestring options dialog, invoked by the menu command described above, includes the following.
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Breakline Options
Controls how breaklines are processed.

Insert new nodes – Triangles intersected by the breakline are modified by adding new nodes at necessary
locations to ensure that the edges of the triangles will conform to the breakline. The elevations of the new nodes
are based on a linear interpolation of the breakline segments. The locations of the new nodes are determined in
such a way that the Delaunay criterion is satisfied.

Swap element edges – Triangles intersected by the breakline are modified by swapping element edges to ensure
that the edges of the triangles will conform to the breakline.
Renumber Options (SMS version 11.0 and earlier only)

Band Width – See Front Width and Band Width for more information.

Front Width – See Front Width and Band Width for more information.
Related Topics

Mesh Module
Mesh Data Menu
Most of the SMS modules have a Data menu, but the items in this menu are different for each module. The Mesh
Module commands include:
Command
Description
Steering Module
Model command – launches the steering dialog to connect multiple model runs
Switch Current Model
Model command – changes the current numerical model associated with the mesh
Data Calculator
Dataset command – invokes the data calculator for the mesh
Dataset Toolbox
Opens the Data Toolbox containing various tools to work with datasets.
Map Elevation
Dataset command – assigns a new "elevation" or "depth" dataset to the current mesh.
See below.
Zonal Classification
Dataset command – creates polygons matching user specified criterion from the current
mesh and its datasets
Vector Options
Visualization command – invoke the vector options dialog (display options)
Contour Options
Visualization command – invoke the contour options dialog (display options)
Set Contour Min/Max
Sets the contour options based on the current options and the selected nodes/vertices or
zoom level.
Contour Range Options Controls if the Set Contour Min/Max command applies to dataset specific contour
options or the general contour options (for the mesh or scatter modules). It also sets the
flags for precision and fill above and below.
Film loop
Visualization command – launches the film loop generation wizard
Mesh → Scatterpoint
Data conversion command – converts the current mesh to a scatter point set. Also
available as a right-click command. See Below.
Mesh → Map
Data conversion command – converts the current mesh to a map module coverage. Also
available as a right-click command. See Below.
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Map Elevation
SMS requires that a mesh or grid have bathymetry, or bottom elevation data, associated with the nodes or cells. By
default, SMS creates a dataset named "elevation" to store the elevation values. The dataset being used to store
elevations is referred to as the mapped dataset.
The Data menus in several modules include a command to use another functional dataset as this mapped elevation
function. When this command is performed the Select Dataset dialog opens to allow any existing scalar dataset to be
chosen. Any time step of any scalar dataset can be used as the mapped dataset and override the previous nodal
elevation values. This is used mainly when interpolating new elevation data from scatter points.
Mesh to Map
The Mesh → Map command in the Data menu (mesh module) is used to convert mesh data into feature data (map
module). This can be useful for creating a conceptual model from an existing numeric model. The Mesh → Map
command converts the mesh data and places it in the active coverage. This process makes use of the Mesh → Map
dialog which provides conversion options. If wanting the new data in a new coverage, click on the Create New
Coverage button to create a new coverage and make it active.
Material Regions → Polygons
This option converts the materials in the current mesh into polygons in the map module. If the coverage supports
materials (area property or most mesh model coverages support this), the polygons will have attributes reflecting the
correct material values.
Mesh Boundaries → Polygons
This option converts the current mesh boundaries into polygons in the map module.
Mesh Contours → Arcs
This option creates an arc at a specific contour value (based upon the active dataset). It is not necessary for the value
to be associated with a displayed contour line as SMS will determine where the line would be if it existed.
Mesh Nodestrings → Arcs
This option creates an arc for each nodestring in the mesh.
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Mesh to Scatterpoint
The Mesh → Scatterpoint command in the Mesh Data menu is used to create scatter point data from existing mesh
nodes. When this command is performed, the Convert Mesh to Scatter Points dialog appears to request a name for the
new scatter point set.
When the scatter point set is created, it contains one scatter point for each mesh node, including midside nodes and
center nodes. Any mesh datasets that have been read into SMS are copied into the new scatter point set. The scatter
point data can then be used for interpolation.
Obsolete Commands

Create Datasets – Creates specific datasets for the mesh based on user specified options. No longer available as
of SMS 10.1. Has been replaced with the Dataset Toolbox .
Related Topics

Mesh Module
3.6.b.3.1. 2D Mesh Elements Menu
2D Mesh Elements Menu
The Elements Menu includes the following commands:
Options
General command – set up the default element options.
Select Thin Triangles
General command – selects all thin triangular element that meet the definition specified in the options command.
During the process of triangulation, a mesh of triangular elements is created around existing nodes. This usually
creates triangular elements outside the desired mesh boundary. Many of these exterior triangles are very skinny, and
some are virtually invisible. The Select Thin Triangles command from the Elements menu finds and selects skinny
triangular elements which are on the mesh boundary.
Thin triangles interior to the mesh will not be selected when this command is performed, since deletion of interior
triangles would result in gaps in the mesh. After the thin triangles have been selected, they can be removed by
selecting the Delete
macro.
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Find
General command – finds the element with a specified ID or location.
The Find Element command from the Elements Menu is used to locate an element either with a specific ID, or
surrounding a specific location. When this command is executed the Find Element dialog opens.
When the Find by ID option is selected, then the element with the specified ID is highlighted in red. If there is no
element with the specified ID, then an error message is given. Conversely, when the Find by nearest (x,y)
coordinate option is selected, the element which surrounds to the specified (x, y) location is highlighted in red. With
either of these methods, if the current tool is the Select Elements
tool, then the found element becomes selected
in addition to being highlighted.
Assign Material Type
General command – requires a selected element. Sets the material type of the selected elements based on the option
defined in the options command.
Each element in the mesh is assigned a material type. The default material ID can be set in the Element Options
dialog. A selected element is assigned a new material type by choosing the Assign Material Type command from
the Elements menu. If the Assign default material option is selected in the Element Options dialog, then the default
material is automatically assigned to the selected element. If the Prompt for material when assigning option is
selected in the Element Options dialog, then the Materials Data dialog opens from which a material type can be
chosen.
Merge Triangles
Conversion command – merges triangle pairs that meet the standard for rectangles defined in the options command.
Can operate on selected elements.
Split Quadrilaterals
Conversion command – splits quadrilateral elements into two triangular elements. Can operate on selected
elements.
QUAD8 ↔ QUAD9
Conversion command – converts all QUAD8 to QUAD9 elements and vice versa. Only applies to the FESWMS
model. Can operate on selected elements.
Linear ↔ Quadratic
Conversion command – converts all elements from linear to quad or vice versa. Only applies to TABS and
FESWMS models.
Triangulate
Generation command – triangulates the selected nodes to form triangle elements.
Optimize Triangulation
Generation command – swaps edges of triangular elements to meet the Dulanay criterion.
Refine
Generation command – splits all selected elements into four elements.
At times, there is not enough definition in a finite element mesh. The Refine command from the Elements menu
splits each of the selected elements into smaller elements. After the selected elements have been refined, SMS
automatically creates transitions, from the refined area of higher density to the unrefined area of lower density,
using triangular elements. Refine options are set in the Element Options dialog.
Relax
Generation command – moves all the nodes on the interior of the selected elements to the centroid of their
contributing area. Iterates based on option set in the options command.
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The process of creating and editing a finite element mesh can result in poor quality elements . These elements may
have poor interior angles or may violate the area change guideline for adjacent elements. The Relax command from
the Elements menu can improve adjacent element areas and interior angles by moving nodes. This command moves
nodes to improve the elements shape. Several options are available. Relaxation is an iterative process. The number
of iterations performed and other options are specified in the Element Options dialog. If no elements are selected,
then the relaxation is performed on all elements in the mesh.
Fix Bad Area Transitions
Generation command – removes nodes that cause bad area transitions as defined in the element quality control.
The process of creating and editing a finite element mesh can result in poor quality elements . These elements may
violate the area change guideline for adjacent elements, specifically, the area of the smaller of the adjacent elements
divided by the area of the large element may be less than a recommended ratio. This ratio is set in the Mesh Quality
entry of the 2D Mesh Display Options .
The Fix Bad Area Transitions command from the Elements menu can improve adjacent element areas by
removing nodes. The adjacent elements of each node in the mesh are examined for guideline violations. If more that
one are found, a calculation is made to determine if the removal of the node and the retriangulation this would cause
would maintain compliance for the newly formed elements and their neighbors. If this is the case the node is
removed.
Rectangular Patch
Patch command – creates elements from four selected node strings. See the article Patches for more information.
Triangular Patch
Patch command – creates elements from three selected node strings. See the article Patches for more information.
Related Topics

Mesh Module

Element Options Dialog
Element types
Element types used in XMS software.
Element Type
1D linear element with 2 nodes
1D linear element with 3 nodes
transition element
Image
Faces
SMS 12.2
2D linear triangle
2D quadratic triangle
2D linear quadrilateral
2D quadratic quadrilateral
2D quadratic quadrilateral with center
node
Page 374
SMS 12.2
3D linear tetrahedron
3D linear prism
3D linear hexahedron
3D linear pyramid
Page 375
FaceID
Node Indices
1
2,3,4
2
1,4,3
3
1,2,4
4
1,3,2
FaceID
Node Indices
1
1,3,2
2
4,5,6
3
1,2,5,4
4
2,3,6,5
5
3,1,4,6
FaceID
Node Indices
1
1,4,3,1
2
5,6,7,8
3
1,2,6,5
4
2,3,7,6
5
3,4,8,7
6
4,1,5,8
FaceID
Node Indices
1
1,4,3,2
2
1,2,5
3
2,3,5
4
3,4,5
5
4,1,5
Back to XMS
Boundary Triangles
The perimeter of the mesh resulting from the triangulation process corresponds to the convex hull of the data points.
This may result in some long thin triangles or "slivers" on the perimeter of the triangulated region.
Select Thin Triangles
There are several ways to select and delete long thin triangles.
Long thin triangles on the perimeter of the mesh can be automatically selected using the Select Thin Triangles item
from the mesh Elements menu or scatter Triangles menu. The triangles on the outer boundary are checked first and if
the aspect ratio of a triangle is less than a critical value, the triangle is selected and the triangles adjacent to the
triangle are then checked. The process continues inward until none of the adjacent triangles violate the minimum
aspect ratio.
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The "drag line" method for selecting elements was designed specifically for this purpose. Elements can be selected
with a line by selecting the Select Elements tool, holding down the CTRL key, and dragging a line through all of the
elements to be selected. The selected elements can then be deleted.
SMS makes use of an aspect ratio to determine which triangles to select. Triangles with an aspect ratio below a
specified value will be selected when the Select Thin Triangles command is used. The aspect ratio value can be
changed in the Element Options dialog or the Scatter Options dialog.
Related Links

Editing 2D Meshes

Mesh Node Triangulation

Triangulation
Convert Elements
Several commands are available to modify the current elements these include:
Add Breakline
The Add Breaklines command from the Elements menu can be executed when at least one nodestring has been
selected. This forces element edges along the nodestring line. When this command is performed, elements are sliced
along the nodestring to ensure that the edges will conform to the breakline. The elevations of any new nodes are
interpolated from the original mesh. All new triangles satisfy the Delauney criterion.
A breakline example is shown. This example has some long, skinny quadrilaterals which will be split across the
width. The dotted line in the left part of the figure represents the location of the breakline. When the elements are
split, triangles are formed. These can be merged together using the Split/Merge tool , as shown in the right part of the
figure.
Merge Triangles
The Split/Merge
tool can be used to merge individual pairs of triangles. Doing this manually for large numbers of
elements takes a lot of time. The Merge Triangles command from the Elements menu automatically merges a
selected set of triangles simultaneously. If no elements are selected when this command is executed, all triangles in
the finite element mesh will be processed.
This command uses the Merge triangles feature angle specified in Element Option dialog. In order to form
quadrilateral elements with the best aspect ratios, SMS starts with a feature angle of ninety degrees and checks for any
elements that can be merged. Then, a series of steps are performed, each time lowering the feature angle and checking
for elements that can be merged. This ensures that the quadrilaterals which are formed are as close to rectangular as
possible. In general, after the automatic merging process is complete, a limited number of triangles will still exist.
Split Quadrilaterals
The Split Quadrilaterals command in the Elements menu is used to split a set of quadrilaterals into triangles. If no
elements are selected, all quadrilateral elements in the mesh will be split. The quadrilaterals are split along the shortest
diagonal.
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Quad8 ↔ Quad9
The Quad8↔Quad9 item from the Elements menu is used to convert between eight- and nine- noded quadrilaterals.
FESWMS supports nine-noded quadrilaterals. Both FESWMS and TABS support eight-noded quadrilaterals. If no
elements are selected when this command is performed, all elements are converted.
Linear ↔ Quadratic
Linear elements (three node triangles and four node quadrilaterals) can be converted to quadratic elements (six node
triangles and eight node quadrilaterals) and vice versa by selecting the Linear ↔ Quadratic item from the Elements
menu. A finite element mesh must be made of either all linear elements or all quadratic elements. Linear elements do
not have midside nodes while quadratic elements do.
Refine
At times, there is not enough definition in a finite element mesh. The Refine command from the Elements menu splits
each of the selected elements into smaller elements. After the selected elements have been refined, SMS automatically
creates transitions, from the refined area of higher density to the unrefined area of lower density, using triangular
elements. Refine options are set in the Element Options Dialog .
Relax
The process of creating and editing a finite element mesh can result in poor quality elements . These elements may
have poor interior angles or may violate the area change guideline for adjacent elements. The Relax command from
the Elements menu can improve adjacent element areas and interior angles by moving nodes. This command moves
nodes to improve the elements shape. Several options are available. Relaxation is an iterative process. The number of
iterations performed and other options are specified in the Element Options dialog. If no elements are selected, then
the relaxation is performed on all elements in the mesh.
Smooth Nodestring
Quadratic elements have a node located at the midpoint of each edge. These nodes are generally referred to as midside
nodes. The angular corners resulting from such elements are discontinuous. Such a discontinuity may result in
inaccuracy in the numerical model sometimes referred to as a mass loss. Mass loss occurs because water artificially
flows out of the mesh.
To minimize the abrupt change in flow direction, element edges can be curved by slightly moving the midside node.
This can be done by hand using the Select Mesh Nodes
tool with the nodes unlocked . Moving large numbers of
nodes becomes tedious. However, element edges along a selected nodestring can be smoothed by SMS with the
Nodestrings | Smooth command.
Normally, element edge smoothness is only a concern along the mesh boundary. However, if the analysis includes
regions that become dry, interior boundaries should also be smoothed. To avoid smoothing corners that should be
sharp, SMS provides a Smooth nodestring feature angle in the Element Options dialog. A corner will only be
smoothed if it is less than the specified angle.
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Related Topics

2D Mesh Elements Menu
Mesh Element Options
Certain parameters governing the creation and manipulation of nodes are set using the Element Options dialog, which
is opened by selecting the Options command from the Elements menu available when the Mesh Module is selected.
This dialog is divided into four sections.
General Options
The General Options section of the Element Options dialog specifies the following parameters for general element
operations:

Select thin triangle aspect ratio
When SMS finds thin elements, only elements with an aspect ratio (element width divided by element length)
less than this value are selected. This value is also used by in the model checker mesh quality checks.

Merge triangle feature angle
This angle should be between zero and ninety degrees. Any two adjacent triangles are merged into a
quadrilateral if all angles in the resulting quadrilateral are greater than the merge triangles feature angle.

Smooth nodestring feature angle
When a nodestring is smoothed, the smoothing will not be applied around a corner whose angle is greater than
this value. See the convert elements article for a discussion on nodestring smoothing.

Preserve material boundaries
When turned on, triangles will not be merged into quadrilaterals if they are assigned different materials types,
even if they satisfy the merge triangle feature angle criteria.
Materials
The Materials section of the Element Options dialog controls how materials are assigned to elements using the
following options:

Set Default Material
Brings up the Materials Data dialog. This defines the default material assigned to elements as they are created.

Assign default material
When turned on, the material selected as the default material is assigned to selected elements when the assign
material command is issued.

Prompt for material when assigning
If this option is selected, choose from a list of existing materials to assign to the selected elements when the
assign material command is issued.
Refine Elements
In some cases, a mesh does not have enough elements in a particular region of the mesh to ensure stability. Rather
than inserting supplemental nodes and re-creating the mesh, it is possible to refine a selected region of the mesh using
the Refine Elements command in the Mesh menu. This increases the mesh density of a selected area of the mesh. If
no elements are selected, the entire mesh is refined. The elevations of the new nodes are interpolated from the existing
nodes.

Three-way subdivision
Refines triangular element into three elements. Quadrilateral elements are not refined.
SMS 12.2


Page 379
Regular subdivision
Refines triangular and quadrilateral elements into four elements.
Relax Elements
The Relax Elements section of the Element Options dialog controls the following relaxation parameters:

Number of iterations
This is the number of iterations to perform during the relaxation process.

Interpolate Z from existing mesh
When turned on, the nodal Z coordinate is interpolated from the old mesh so that the contours do not change.
When this is turned off, the nodal Z coordinates are not changed when they are moved.

Lock nodes on nodestrings
Preserve material boundaries when relaxing. Previous versions of SMS would lock any nodes on a material or
mesh boundary. Starting with version 7.0 of SMS, nodes on these boundaries will slide along the boundary
unless it is part of a nodestring and this option is turned on.

Area relax
Equalize the area of elements adjacent to each node.

Scatter relax
Space the nodes according to the specified size dataset.

Angle relax
Equalize the angle of elements adjacent to each node.
Boundary Relax


Allow sliding on mesh boundary
When turned on, relaxation may modify the location of nodes on the mesh boundary.
Material boundaries

Allow relax
Allows nodes located on material boundaries to move in all directions.

Preserve
SMS 12.2
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Prevents nodes located on material boundaries from moving.


Allow sliding
Allows nodes located on material boundaries to move along the material boundary.
Sliding angle
When a node is smoothed, the smoothing will not be applied around a material boundary whose angle is greater
than this value.
Related Topics

2D Mesh Elements Menu

Convert Elements
3.6.b.3.2. 2D Mesh Nodes Menu
2D Mesh Nodes Menu
2D Mesh Nodes are the basic building blocks of elements in finite element meshes. Nodes are also required to create
nodestrings and assign boundary conditions. The following commands are available when working with 2D Mesh
Nodes (under the Nodes menu when the Mesh Module is activated):
Interpolation Options
Opens the Node Interpolation Options dialog. Using the options that are set in this dialog, a set of new nodes can be
interpolated between any two selected nodes.
If two nodes are selected when this dialog is invoked, the distance between the two nodes is displayed at the top of
the dialog. The number of new nodes can be specified in three ways:
 Number of intervals in string. If this option is chosen, the number of new nodes is one less than the
number of intervals specified.

Number of interpolated nodes. If this option is chosen, the number of new nodes is exactly specified.
SMS 12.2

Page 381
Total number of nodes in string. If this option is chosen, the number of new nodes is two less than the
number of nodes specified.
The Bias factor controls the distribution spacing of the new nodes. This factor can be any number between 0.1 and
10.0. A smaller factor will make new nodes be closer to the first selected node while a larger factor will make new
nodes be closer to the second selected node. For example, a bias of 2.0 makes the first new node spaced twice as far
as the last new node.
The Linear/Arc option controls the distribution shape of the new nodes. The Linear option causes all new nodes to
be in a straight line while the Arc option causes all new nodes to form an arc. If the arc option is used, a Radius
must also be specified. The arc will be created counter-clockwise from the first selected node to the second.

Interpolate
After the interpolation options are set up, nodes can be interpolated between any two selected nodes by choosing
the Interpolate item from the Nodes menu. This operation may be performed multiple times with a single set of
interpolation options by selecting any two nodes and invoking the command again.
The elevation of each new node depends on the Insert nodes into triangulated mesh option in the Node Options
dialog (see section 1.6.8). If this option is turned on and the new node is inside the finite element mesh, then the
elevation is interpolated from the mesh. If this option is turned off or the new node is not inside the finite element
mesh, the elevation is interpolated from the two selected nodes.
Find Node
Opens the Find 2D Mesh Node dialog which can initiate a search for a specific 2D mesh node.
The Find 2D Mesh Node dialog can locate a node using the following methods:
 Find by ID &nash; When the Find by ID option is selected, then the node with the specified ID is
highlighted with a red circle. If there is no node with the specified id, then an error message is given.

Find by Nearest (x,y) coordinate – When the Find by nearest (x,y) coordinate option is selected, the node
closest to the specified (x, y) location is highlighted with a red circle.
With either of these methods, if the current tool is the Select Mesh Nodes tool, then the found node becomes
selected in addition to being highlighted.
Select or Delete Duplicate Nodes
Duplicate nodes are either selected or deleted, according to the option defined in the Node Options dialog. The
menu item shows either Select Duplicate nodes or Delete duplicate nodes based on the setting. Two nodes are
considered to be duplicates if they are closer together than the Tolerance in the Node Options dialog. When deleting
duplicate nodes, elements attached to deleted nodes will also be removed, unless the Merge adjacent elements when
deleting option is turned on in the Node Options dialog.
Select Disjoint Nodes
Disjoint nodes can be found automatically and selected by choosing the Select Disjoint Nodes option from the
Nodes menu. Disjoint nodes are nodes that are not connected to any elements. Before saving a simulation, it is
important to make sure there are no disjoint nodes in the mesh.
Locked
The nodes in a mesh can be dragged with the mouse cursor if they are unlocked and the Select Mesh Nodes tool is
selected. The Locked item in the Nodes menu toggles on and off the node locked status. If nodes are locked, a
check mark is shown next to the menu text. The default status is locked so that nodes are not accidentally moved.
Reduce Nodal Connectivity
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Searches through the active mesh looking for wagon wheel nodes. When such a node is found, SMS reduces the
nodal connectivity by inserting new node(s).
Renumber
Used to order the IDs of the nodes and elements to make numeric calculations more efficient. The goal is to make
the matrix used in calculations as diagonal as possible by having related nodes numbered with indices as close as
possible to each other. SMS now utilizes a Cuthill-McKee global renumbering scheme to update these indices.
When a mesh is generated, it is resequenced, however, after performing hand edits the mesh should be sequenced
again.
Multiple invocations of the scheme may result in slightly different sequences.
Transform
Opens Transform dialog which is used to move a group of selected nodes. If there are no selected nodes, the
transformation will be applied to all nodes of in mesh. When this command is executed, the Nodes Transform dialog
opens.
In this dialog, the transformation type can be chosen and then appropriate parameters can be entered. The following
transformation types are available:
Scaling, translation, datum conversions, and rotations are supported.
By default, the image will be framed after the transformation takes place. However, this can be turned off by using
the Frame image after transformation option.
Options
Parameters governing the creation and manipulation of nodes are set using the Node Options dialog.
Interpolate Nodal Boundary Conditions
If two non-adjacent boundary nodes have been assigned boundary conditions, and the two nodes are selected, this
command interpolates the boundary conditions to each of the boundary nodes between the two.
Related Topics

Mesh Module Tools

Mesh Module
2D Mesh Node Options Dialog
Parameters governing the creation and manipulation of nodes are set using the Node Options dialog, which is opened
by selecting the menu Nodes | Options .
Individual Node Options

Insert nodes into triangulated mesh – When a node is created inside the mesh boundary with the Create Mesh
Nodes tool, it can become part of the mesh. If this option is turned off, new nodes are not added to the mesh
triangulation and remain disjoint. This option also applies to nodes created using the Interpolate command
from the Nodes menu.

Retriangulate voids when deleting – See below.

Node Z value – The z-value of a node created with the 'Create Mesh Nodes tool is based on the chosen option:

Interpolate z-value from mesh – The Z coordinate is determined by interpolation from the existing mesh.
If this option is turned off or the node is created outside the existing mesh boundary, the default Z
coordinate is assigned.

Assign default z-value – The Z coordinate is assigned the default value.

Prompt for z-value – A dialog will prompt for the Z coordinate of each node after it is created.
SMS 12.2

Page 383
Interpolate z-value from active scatter – The Z coordinate is determined by interpolation from the active
scatter set. If the node is created outside the active scatter set boundary, the default Z coordinate is
assigned.
Retriangulate Voids When Deleting
When deleting a node is deleted, all elements attached to the node are also deleted. The void in the mesh left by the
deleted elements can be automatically filled by triangulating the surrounding nodes. If this option is turned off, then
the void will remain.
If the Retriangulate voids when deleting option is turned on, the void created when a node and the elements
surrounding the node are deleted is re-triangulated or filled in with triangles. This feature makes it possible to
selectively "unrefine" a region of the mesh or reduce the density of the nodes in a region of the mesh without having
to completely recreate all of the elements in the region.
When deleting selected mesh nodes, if the node count exceeds ~1000 there will be a noticeable delay if the
Retriagulate voids when deleting box is checked.
Duplicate Node Options

Merge adjacent elements when deleting – When a duplicate node is removed, the adjacent mesh elements are
merged.

Tolerance – Two nodes closer than this tolerance value will be considered identical for selection and deletion of
one of them. Also used by the automated mesh generation algorithms of SMS as a minimum node spacing. The
tolerance should be specified in feet or meters. If using a Geographic Coordinate System , the tolerance is
automatically converted by SMS to meters.

Select/Delete duplicate nodes – The Nodes | Select/Delete Duplicate Nodes command is based on this
selection.
Related Topics

2D Mesh Nodes Menu

Mesh Module
Renumber
Renumbering a mesh improves the computational efficiency (how fast a model produces a result) of a numeric mesh
but should not affect the end results.
Global Renumber
To renumber a mesh select the Renumber command in the Nodes menu.
Upon execution of this command, the nodes and elements are renumbered using a global renumbering process known
as the Cuthill-McKee or Inverse Cuthill-McKee scheme. Other global resequencing methods may be added in future
versions. The Cuthill-McKee method searches for a global optimum, but since are often multiple options with the
same efficiency level (bandwidth), invoking the command multiple times usually results in different numbering
patterns. Each time a mesh is generated, SMS invokes a renumbering command. When nodes are manually
added/removed from a mesh, it should be renumbered.
It is important to realize that after renumbering the finite element mesh, any previous boundary condition file or
solution file may no longer be valid!
In the case of boundary conditions, SMS associates the specified conditions with the nodestrings, elements or nodes,
but the model specific files must be resaved with the new numbering scheme.
In the case of solution files, the numeric engines output values associated with a node id, so the solution is associated
with a specific mesh, right down to the numbering of the nodes. The solution would not map to the renumbered mesh
correctly and must be regenerated. (The old solution is still valid for the old mesh, but renumbering in effect creates a
new mesh.)
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Front Width and Band Width
There are two measures of efficiency of a matrix. These include front width and band width. Both can be computed in
multiple ways from the grid. The Cuthill-McKee scheme has its own method of computing band width and reports the
band width before and after renumbering. In addition, SMS provides an estimate as to how large the front width and
half band width may become when running the finite element solver. These estimates are shown in the Mesh
Information dialog, which can be opened by performing the File | Get Info command while in the Mesh Module.
Background information
Due to the number of questions that are asked regarding this subject, this section will attempt to describe, in a broad
sense, why renumbering is important.
The finite element solvers use an iterative, banded numerical solver to solve the governing differential equations. If
the computer had to simultaneously solve the thousands of equations, much more memory would be required and the
process is much less efficient (more time). Meshes with gaps in numbering could lead to errors or singular matrices
resulting in no solution with many finite element solvers.
Renumbering organizes the equations in the system of equation so that they can be decomposed and efficiently
solved.
Historical
In the past, SMS used a trial an error method of renumbering. It required selecting a nodestring and issue the
Renumber command either from the Nodestrings menu or when right-clicking on a selected nodestring. SMS would
use a sweeping algorithm progressing from the selected nodestring to reassign the node and element numbers. The
"row" of elements and nodes adjacent to the string is numbered first. The elements and nodes adjacent to the first set
of nodes and elements are numbered next, and so on until all of the nodes and elements have been renumbered.
Since the front proceeds from one set of elements to an adjacent set of elements, disjoint portions of the mesh were
not visited in the renumbering process. Unvisited nodes and elements were numbered arbitrarily. It was then up to the
user to try various starting points, comparing the computed front widths, and keep the numbering that resulted in the
smallest front width.
This process did not ensure an optimal numbering, and could become tedious. With version 11.1 of SMS, the global
renumbering methodology was added, making the process more efficient. When this modification was implemented,
the command to renumber was moved from the Nodestrings menu to the Nodes menu. However, for convenience, the
command was left in the right-click menu on selected nodestrings. SMS uses the global renumbering algorithm even
when the command is issued from this right-click menu.
Related Topics

Nodestrings Menu
Reduce Nodal Connectivity
Many finite element engines (including ADCIRC) have limits on the number of elements that may be attached to a
single node. When many elements attach to a single element, the node appears as a hub with many spokes radiating
from it. Thus, it is termed a wagon wheel node.
When many elements are connected to a single node, each element has a smaller interior angle. This results in more
severe deformations in numerical space. Ideal triangular elements have internal angles of 60 degrees. Ideal
quadrilateral elements have internal angles of 90 degrees. For triangles, this would result in six elements connected (or
constructed using) a single node. For quadrilaterals, at most four elements would converge at each node.
The node menu of the Mesh module includes the Reduce Nodal Connectivity command which inserts one or more
new nodes in the area of wagon wheel nodes resulting in a maximum of 7 adjacent elements.
The command may need to be applied recursively. The first time may reduce connectivity from 12 or more to 8. Then
a second application reduces connectivity to 6.
SMS 12.2
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Specifically, if the current connectivity is:

8 elements – 1 new node added

9 elements – 2 new nodes added

10 elements – 3 new nodes added

11 elements – 4 new nodes added
 12 elements – 6 new nodes added.
In each of these cases, the resulting elements all have connectivity of 6 elements. The patterns of insertion are
illustrated below:
Related Topics

Mesh Module Menus

Mesh Module Tools
3.7 Particle Module
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Page 386
Particle Module
At a glance

Visualize particle/path data

Supports PTM model which computes particle positions through time based upon hydrodynamics and wave
effects
The particle module contains tools used to work with particle data. Particles can have time varying location and scalar
data. The particle module currently includes interfaces for:
 PTM – Lagrangian particle tracker designed to allow simulating particle transport processes.
The Particle module can be added to a paid edition of SMS.
Particle Module Tools
The Particle Module tools are contained in the Dynamic Tools portion of the tool palette when the Particle Module is
active.
Select Particles
The Select Particles tool selects a single particle with a left mouse click. A group of particles can be selected by
dragging a box around them. Particles may be added to the selection by holding the SHIFT key and selecting
additional particles. The main use of selecting particles in the particle module is to query the particle properties.
When a single particle is selected, the Info Window will show the ID and the edit window will show the location
and value of the active particle dataset. If exactly two particles are selected, the Info Window will also show the
exact distance between the two selected particles. If more than one particle is selected, the minimum, maximum,
and average value of the active particle dataset will be shown.
Particle Module Menus
See Particle Module Menus for more information.
Particle Module Display Options
See the article Particle Module Display Options .
Related Topics

SMS Modules

Particle Tracking Model (PTM)
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Particle Module Display Options
The properties of all particle tracking data that SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Particle tab
of the Display Options dialog. This dialog is opened by selecting Display | Display Options from the menu bar, the
Display Options macro, or the Ctrl+D quick keys.
The display options defined will only be applied to the active Particle Set displayed in the Project Explorer. The active
Particle Set is listed at the top of this display options tab. To change to another set, close this window, left-click on the
desired Particle Set in the Project Explorer, and then reenter the display options.
The entities associated with the Particle module with display options are shown below. These entities also show an
Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display controls are available. The available particle tracking
display options are:



Particles
A symbol is placed around each particle. The symbol, size, and color of these representations can be specified by
using the Options button. The toggle controls the display of the particles. The Color based on sets whether the
particles will be colored normally or dynamically. The choices include:

Default – Displayed using the color defined by the Options button.

Active Dataset – Displayed using the coloring of the active dataset. Available only when a Particle Set
exists with a dataset.

Defined Dataset – Displayed using the coloring of the specified dataset defined using the Select Set…
button. The name of the specified set will be displayed beside this button. Available only when a Particle
Set exists with a dataset.
Particle tails
A tail is drawn out from the particle as it moves through time. The farther the particle has moved, the longer the
tail may be; if the particle has remained stationary, then a tail may not appear. The tail style, width, and color can
be specified by using the Options button. The toggle controls the display of the particles. Tail Length, in
seconds, controls the amount of tail displayed. The longer (time length) the particle has a tail, the longer the tail
may be; if the particle has remained stationary for the duration of the tail length, then no tail will appear. Lengths
can be fractions of time steps and the default is 10 time steps. Include symbol can be turned on to display little
filled circles at time step positions within the tail. The Color based on sets whether the particle tails will be
colored normally or dynamically. The choices include:

Default – Displayed using the color defined by the Options button.

Active dataset – Displayed using the coloring of the active dataset. Available only when a Particle Set
exists with a dataset.

Defined dataset – Displayed using the coloring of the specified dataset defined using the Select Set…
button. The name of the specified set will be displayed beside this button. Available only when a Particle
Set exists with a dataset.

Same as above – Displayed using the coloring of the same dataset specified from the Particles. Available
only when the Particles are colored based on a defined set and the set has been selected.
Particle path lines
A path line is drawn from the original position of a particle to every position the particle inhabits thereafter. The
path line will remain even after the particle has settled or has crossed the edge of the domain. Specify the path
line style, width, and color using the Options button.
All off unchecks all three particle display options (Particles, Particle tails, and Particle path lines). This also disables
the Particle Display Filter since nothing is selected to be displayed.
All on checks all three particle display options.
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Particle Display Filter specifies the range of Particles, Particle tails, and Particle path lines to be displayed. Filtering
the particle set can increase the displaying speed and improve visibility of specific particles or groups of particles. The
total Number of particles within the active particle set is displayed for convenience. Display every displays series of
particles, i.e. an input of 1 displays every particle, but an input of 7 will display particles 1, 8, 15, 22, 29… and so
forth. Begin with particle denotes the first particle within the range to be displayed. The input cannot be less than 1 or
more than the displayed particle set total. End with particle denotes the last particle within the range to be considered
for display. If the input is not a multiple of the Display every input plus one, then the particle will not be displayed.
For example, an input of 46 with Display every input of 15 will display the last particle because 3 * 15 + 1 = 46. If the
input was 45, the particles 1, 16, and 31 will only be displayed (particle 45 is considered, but is filtered out). The input
cannot be less than the Begin with particle input or more than the displayed particle set total. One or more of the
display options must be on to enable the filter controls.
Specific Dataset Color Options selects a specific dataset and adjust its color options (similar to geometry contour
options, but specific to each Particle Set dataset) by clicking on Options . Color options is available only when a
Particle Set exists with a dataset.
Related Topics

Display Options

Particle Module
Particle Module Menus
The following menus are available in the Particle Module :
Standard Menus
See SMS Menus for more information.
Module Specific Menus
Beside the standard menus, the Particle Module has the
menu.
Particle Module Data Menu
The Particle Module Data menu commands include:

Data Calculator

Dataset Toolbox

Filter Options

Create Datasets

Film Loop

Compute Grid Datasets
Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the Particle Data
folder in the Project Explorer brings up the standard right-click folder menu
commands as well as the Display Options command to access the Particle Display Options .
Right-clicking on a particle set

Copy Simulation Inputs

Filter Objects

Extract Subset
in the Project Explorer brings up the following commands:
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Model Specific Menus

PTM
Extract Particle Subset
This command writes a portion of a particle set to a new a particle file. This portion may be a subset of the time steps
for the particle solution, a subset of the particles, or both. To get to this command, right-click on a particle set and
choose Extract subset (times/particles) .
The required information for this command includes:

The file name to write the particle subset to.

The first and last time steps that define the range of time the user wants export.
 Whether to write every time step, every other time step, every third time step, etc.
It is possible to define a subset of the particles to export by setting up filters (see PTM Particle Filters ). For example,
deciding to only write particles with a specific range of grain size, or particles from a specific source.
The extracted particle set will have the same datasets that exist in the original particle set.
Related Topics

Particle Module
3.7.a. Particle Module Datasets
Particle Grid Dataset Bin Elevations
This article documents a feature that is under development
Datum Definition
The particle module compute grid dataset bin elevations dialog is accessed through the Compute grid datasets dialog .
The bin elevations are specified according to the datum selected in the Compute grid datasets dialog.
Fixed Datum
When using a fixed datum, the bins have a constant z-elevation. Be careful if the model uses a depth dataset. For
example, if the water surface is at a constant value of 0.0 meters and the depth is a constant value of 10.0 meters, the
bins should range from 0.0 to -10.0 meters.
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Bathymetry as Datum
When using the bathymetry as a datum, the bins are offsets from the specified bathymetry dataset. This is useful when
determining the effects of concentrations on bottom dwelling species, oyster beds, etc. Offsets should always be
positive values.
Water Surface Elevation as Datum
When using the bathymetry as a datum, the bins are offsets from the specified bathymetry dataset. This is useful when
determining the effects of concentrations on fish migrating at a specified depth, etc. Offsets should always be positive
values.
Related Topics

Particle Module Compute Grid Datasets Dialog
Particle Module Compute Grid Datasets
The Particle Module Compute Grid Datasets dialog is accessed through the particle module Data menu . This dialog
is also used to compute datasets on fence diagrams (defined in a coverage).
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The datasets are added to the active cartesian grid . It should be noted that the resolution of the grid will have an
impact on the numerical values computed for several of these datasets. For example, the accumulation in a cell is
computed as the volume of particles which have settled in a cell divided by the cell area. If the cells are larger, this
will result in a smaller accumulation. Many projects require experimenting with a few different grid resolutions.
Currently the following grid datasets can be created in the Particle Module Compute Grid Datasets dialog:

Particle Count
The number of particles in the Cartesian grid cell.

Accumulation
The depth of particles in the Cartesian grid cell. The volume of particles is calculated using the particle mass and
density dataset for particles which are inactive (based on the state dataset) and in the cell. The volume in each
cell is divided by the area of the cell to calculate an average depth in the cell. No voids ratio is included at this
time, however the Data Calculator can be used to change the resulting Cartesian grid dataset.

Rate of accumulation
The change in accumulation (as described above) over time.

Deposition
The change in depth of particles in the cartesian grid cell during the focus time. The volume of particles is
calculated using the particle mass and density dataset for particles which have become inactive (based on the
state dataset) during the focus time. This volume is then divided by the area of the cell to calculate an average
depth in the cell. No voids ratio is included at this time, however the Data Calculator can be used to change the
resulting cartesian grid dataset.
 Concentration
The concentration of particles in the Cartesian grid cell. The volume of particles is calculated using the particle mass
and density dataset for particles which are active (based on the state dataset) and in the cell. This volume is then
divided by the volume of the cell using the bathymetry and water surface elevation datasets. For this purpose, the
bathymetry must be specified as an elevation dataset. This means that the values must be specified as positive
upwards from the same datum the water surface dataset is measured from. For models such as CMS-Flow and
ADCIRC, which require that specifying positive depths (values measured down from mean sea level), the geometry
(Z) dataset must be inverted to use for this application. The depth of the water column in a cell of the resulting grid
is computed as WSE – Elevation . This depth is combined with the cell area to compute a cell volume. SMS is
capable of extracting ground elevations (bathymetry) and water surface elevations from either a finite element mesh,
or a scattered dataset.
If the data is only available on a Cartesian grid, convert this to a scatter set. Right-clicking on the grid and selecting
the Convert | 2D Grid → 2D Scatter , will accomplish this. The datasets on the grid will be converted to the
scattered data as well.

Exposure
The cumulative concentration relative to time in the Cartesian grid cell.

Dosage
The exposure in the Cartesian grid cell during the focus time.
Related Topics

Bin elevations dialog
Particle Module Create Datasets
The particle module create datasets dialog is accessed through the particle module data menu . Currently the following
particle datasets can be created in the particle module create datasets dialog:
SMS 12.2

Distance traveled
For each time step, computes the total distance each particle has traveled since the particle was born.

Average velocity (since last time step)
For each time step, computes the average velocity of the particle since the previous time step.

Number of particles within vicinity


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Vincinity radius
Dataset name
A name for that particle dataset can be entered in in each field under this option.
Related Topics

Particle Module Menus
PTM Create Grid Datasets – Fence Diagrams
The Particle Module Compute Grid Datasets page describes how to represent particle data on a rectilinear grid. The
computations include things such as count, accumulation, and concentrations on the grid cells. In addition to
computing these values on 2D grid cells, some of the datasets can be computed in layers creating 3D data. These
datasets include concentration, exposure and dosage.
3D Fence Options
If the "create fence diagram" option is selected SMS will build a 3D mesh and datasets for each of the selected 3D
datasets. SMS will also turn on the option to display fences (found in the display options dialog) and set the coverage
used for fences. See 3D Fence Diagrams below for information on adjusting the display of the fence.
There will be two datasets generated for each type of 3D data computed. One dataset represents the
concentration/exposure/dosage that is experienced by the cell. These values only make sense when applied to a
volume. These datasets will display as a block filled value in each cell. Some people prefer viewing smooth contours
rather than block filled values. The second dataset that is created represents the cell based values averaged to the
nodes to provide for smooth contours. These datasets have "smoothed" in their names to distinguish them from the
cell based data.
3D Fence Diagrams
3D fence diagrams allow viewing a cross section of a 3D solution. To create/view a 3D fence do the following:
Displaying 3D fences requires:
1) A 3D mesh with solution datasets.
2) A coverage of any type that has one or more feature arcs without any vertices. This defines where the fences
will be located. The arcs cannot have vertices since only planar surfaces can be represented.
3D fences can be turned on in the display options dialog. The coverage used for the fence definitions is specified in
the display options dialog. The fences will use the current contour settings and are always represented with colorfilled contours.
Remember to rotate out of plan view to see the fence.
3.8 Quadtree Module
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Quadtree Module
The Quadtree Module contains tools used to construct and edit Quadtrees. A quadtree is a tree data structure in which
each internal node has exactly four children. Quadtrees are most often used to partition a two-dimensional space by
recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions.
In SMS, Quadtrees are synonymous with telescoping grids because currently only the CMS-Flow model can utilize
them and they are referred to as telescoping grids by that model and its developers. Since SMS version 12 does not
include the interface for the new version of CMS-Flow, this article is only a skeleton and will be filled in as that
interface is released.
It is strongly recommended that quadtrees be created through the Map Module . The quadtree module currently
includes interfaces for:

CMS-Flow – hydrodynamic circulation specifically adapted for coastal zone
Creating and Editing Quadtrees
Creating Quadtrees
A quadtree is generated using a Quadtree Generator coverage and uses a technique from previous versions of SMS to
generate telescoping grids. The rules for generating such a grid are described in the Telescoping Grid article.
Quadtree Generator Coverage
A generic coverage that can be used for creating feature objects to be converted to a quadtree. The Create 2D-Grid
Frame
tool and Select 2D-Grid Frame
tool are available with this coverage. A grid frame is required before
converting the coverage to a quadtree.
Polygon attributes can be assigned by double-clicking on a polygon or right-clicking on the polygon then selecting the
Attributes command. The Polygon Attributes dialog allows setting the Maximum grid cell size .
The quadtree generator coverage has a right-click menu. This menu has the standard coverage menu commands and
access to the Map → Quadtree Grid command.
Map → Quadtree
The Map → Quadtree command is used to construct a quadtree grid using a grid frame feature object in a the current
quadtree generator coverage. When the Map → Quadtree command is selected, the Map → Quadtree dialog appears.
Parameters specified to create the grid include:

Grid Geometry – This section specifies the origin, orientation and size of the grid. The fields of these
quantities are populated with default values based on the three points. The orientation is measured as an angle
from the positive X axis.

Cell Options – This section specifies the number of cells in each direction in the grid. Several options are
available. Specify sizes in the I (Delta U)and J (Delta V) directions or a number of columns and rows. If the Use
Grid Frame Size toggle is checked, the grid will exactly match the dimensions specified in the Grid Geometry
section. If that option is not checked, the last row and column may extend beyond the specified lengths. This
allows specifying exact grid size or exact cell size.
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
Depth Options – The elevations or depths assigned to each cell or node can be specified as a single value, or
select a dataset to interpolate from.
SMS will generate a quadtree on the input parameters.
Editing Quadtrees
Each of the cells in a quadtree can be subdivided into four subcells by selecting the cell, right-clicking, and selecting
the Split command. Multiple cells may be selected and split in a single command.
Four sub cells can be merged by selecting them, right-clicking, and selecting the Merge command.
Smoothing Quadtrees
It may be useful to smooth the spatial data stored on a quatree for a number of reasons. These reasons include:

In order to conserve the amount of disk spaced required to store a DEM, many DEM formats store elevations
rounded to the nearest integer value. This causes elevation changes to occur in discrete steps rather than
smoothly, as would be the case in nature. In regions of low relief, rounded elevations can cause an area to be
artificially "flat."

Surveys may include anomalies. Smoothing algorithms blend these bad data points into the surrounding values.

Datasets may include spurious noise either from physical conditions such as waves or numerical filtering.
Smoothing can dampen these variations.
When right-clicking on quadtree data in the Project Explorer, operations for the quadtree appear in a pop up window.
One of these is the smooth operation.
Quadtree Smoothing Options
This dialog is accessed by right-clicking on the quadtree data in the Project Explorer and selecting the Smooth
command. The Quadtree Smoothing Options dialog contains the following options:

Filter size – This determines how many neighbors are included when smoothing the grid. Options are 3x3 and
5x5.

Number of iterations – This specifies how many passes should be made with the smoothing algorithm.

Max. elevation change – This value specifies the maximum allowable elevation change per iteration for each
cell.

Filter ratio – The new cell elevation is computed using the original elevation (at the beginning of the iteration
not the whole process) and the "blurred" elevation. The filter ratio defines how far the elevation is changed
between the original elevation and the "blurred" elevation. A filter ratio of 1.0 would replace the existing
elevation with the "blurred" elevation. A filter ratio of 0.0 would be pointless as it wouldn't change the
elevations. A filter ratio of 0.5 would give a new elevation that is the average of the original elevation and the
blurred elevation.

Only modify selected cells – If this option is selected, only the cells that are selected are smoothed. Cells not
selected may be used to compute "blurred" elevations but their elevations are never modified.
Converting Quadtrees
Quadtrees may be converted to other types of data used in SMS, such as a Scattered Dataset of 2D mesh . Quadtrees
can be converted by right-clicking on the grid in the Project Explorer.
Project Explorer
The following Project Explorer mouse right-click menus are available when the mouse right-click is performed on a
Quadtree item. See Quadtree Menus for more information.
Quadtree Module Tools
See Quadtree Module Tools for more information.
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Quadtree Module Menus
See Quadtree Module Menus for more information.
How do I?
To learn more about how to use the Quadtree Module go to the Tutorials section of the Aquaveo website at:
http://www.aquaveo.com/software/sms-learning-tutorials .
Related Coverages
The grid module currently includes interfaces for:

CMS-Flow – hydrodynamic circulation specifically adapted for coastal zone
Related Topics

SMS Modules
Telescoping Grids
One of the most restrictive attributes of a Cartesian grid is the limited variability in resolution. By the purest
definition, a Cartesian grid consists of square cells, meaning a constant resolution over the entire domain. A method
that can be employed to support variable resolution involves the creation/use of what can be called a Telescoping Grid
(sometimes referred to as a Quad Tree). A Quad Tree is a two-dimensional recursive spatial subdivision. Each region
can be subdivided into four child regions. In the SMS application, the regions are always square or rectangular.
The CMS-Flow model is the only numeric engine currently supported by the SMS which allows computation on a
telescoping grid.
The generation of a telescoping grid involves:

A base grid

Refinement features
Base Grid
The SMS generates a telescoping grid from a user defined base grid. Define this base grid with the approach that is
used in any other grid generation operation in the SMS consisting of the definition of a grid frame to define grid
extents and either a base cell dimension or number of cells in each of the coordinate directions (I,J). The base grid
parameters are specified as a grid frame properties or when using Map→2D Grid .
Choosing Base Grid Cell Size
Normally this is a single value for both dimensions (I,J) that represents the typical variation in the geometry.
Specifying a value of 50 m indicates that the grid will have a depth every 50 m and any feature smaller than about 100
m will be smoothed away. If a single Cartesian grid is used, this dimension must be small enough to capture the
smallest desired feature. For a variable cell grid it must be small enough to capture any feature along the row or
column. For a telescoping grid, this can be a general value to represent the general geometric shape of the domain. In
some situations there may be justification to have a larger base cell size in one direction that another. For example, all
of the features may be aligned with a coastline and the cells could generally be elongated in that direction. This
situation would be rare, so a square base cell size is a general recommendation.
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Refinement Features
Theoretically a refinement feature could be a single point, a linear feature (arc) or a region (polygon). Future
capabilities may allow for a variety of refinement features, but currently the SMS telescoping grid generation
capability allows defining feature polygons that enclose areas for which a specific resolution is desired. Assign a
"maximum grid cell size" as an attribute on the polygon (double-click on the polygon and assign polygon attributes).
When the SMS generates the telescoping grid, when a cell is generated, the polygon containing the cell centroid is
found (if it exists). If either cell dimension is larger than the maximum specified size for the polygon, the cell is split
into four sub-cells and the process repeated.
Note, when rectangular cells are being generated (as specified on the base grid), this constraint will force the larger
dimension of the cell to be smaller than the specified maximum size , so the cell may be significantly smaller than the
specified size.
Choosing a Maximum Grid Cell Size
The maximum grid cell size for a polygon should be based on a physical length. One example would be a channel that
must be represented in the domain. If the base cell size is 250 m, but the channel has a width of approximately 100 m,
the channel would not be represented by the base grid. By specifying a cell size of 20 m for a polygon enclosing the
channel, it is possible to enforce approximately five cells to represent the shape of the channel. The feature being
represented may be a structure such as a jetty, a natural feature like a channel, or a numerically represented feature
such as an eddy current. Geometric features can be detected before generating any grids. Numerical features may
require modifications based on preliminary simulations.
Impact of Feature Size on Base Cell Size
In addition to the limitation noted above between a single maximum size and a two dimensional cell, the relationship
between the selected base cell size and the maximum specified sizes can also cause what appear to be overly refined
grids. Since the cells are created in discrete increments (half of the parent cell dimension), the actual generated size
may be smaller than the specified target simply due to binary limitations. For example, if a maximum size of 5 is
specified, and the base cell size is 30, the first acceptable cell size that meets the criteria of 5 is actually 3.75 (30/2^3 30, 15, 7.5, 3.75). In this case, 3.75 is only 75% of the specified maximum, resulting in cells that are 75% smaller than
the user specified acceptable resolution (in the larger direction).
This perceived difference can be reduced by specifying a compatible base cell size. In the previous example, a base
cell size of 20 (instead of 30) would result in a cell size of 5 (20/2^2), exactly matching the specified maximum.
However, since there are two dimensions to the base cell size, and only one target size, and there can be multiple
refinement polygons, each with a specified maximum cell size, the relationship can seem complex.
The SMS includes a tool for telescoping or quad tree grids to compute an ideal base cell size. This option appears in
the SMS Grid Frame Dialog which is accessible either by right clicking on the grid frame or when using Map→2D
Grid . This tool will increase the base cell sizes defined for a telescoping grid so that the largest dimension will be a
multiple of the smallest specified grid size. The specified aspect ratio of the cells will be maintained.
Note: Telescoping Cartesian grids will be replaced with a more memory efficient Quad Tree structure in SMS
12.0.
Related Topics

Cartesian Grid Module
Quadtree Tools
The following tools are contained in the Dynamic Tools portion of the tool palette when the Quadtree module is
active.

Select Cell
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The Select Cell tool is used to select a grid cell. A single cell is selected by clicking on it. A second cell can be
added to the selection list by holding the SHIFT key while selecting it. Multiple cells can be selected at once by
dragging a box around them. A selected cell can be de-selected by holding the SHIFT key as it is clicked.
When a single cell is selected, its Z coordinate is shown in the Edit Window . The Z coordinates can be changed
by typing in the edit field, which updates the depth function. If multiple cells are selected, the Z Coordinate field
in the Edit Window shows the average depth of all selected cells. If this value is changed, the new value will be
assigned to all selected points.
With one cell selected, the Edit Window shows the point i,j location. With multiple cells selected, the Edit
Window shows the number of selected cells. The number and size of the cells can be changed in the Model
Control .
Right-Click Menu
Right-clicking on an active cell while using the Select Cell tool will bring up a menu with the following options:

Split Cells – Subdivides a cell into four subcells.

Merge Cells – Merges a group of four subcells back into a single cell.

Smooth – Opens the Quadtree Smoothing Options dialog.
Related Topics

Quadtree Module
Quadtree Menus
The following menus are available in the Quadtree Module :
Standard Menus
See SMS Menus for more information.
Module Specific Menus
Beside the standard menus, the Quadtree Module has the Data menu and the Cells menu.
Quadtree Module Data Menu
The Quadtree Module Data menu commands include:

Dataset Toolbox

VTK Data Calculator

Film Loop

Transform

Zonal Classification

Set Contour Min/Max – This command sets the contour options based on the current options and the selected
nodes/vertices or zoom level.

Contour Range Options – This allows controlling if the Set Contour Min/Max command applies to dataset
specific contour options or the general contour options (for the mesh or scatter modules). It also sets the flags
for precision and fill above and below.
Cells Menu
The Quadtree Module Cells menu commands include:

Split Cells – Subdivides a cell into four subcells.
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
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Merge Cells – Merges a group of four subcells back into a single cell.
Project Explorer
The following Project Explorer mouse right-click menus are available when the mouse right-click is performed on a
Quadtree item.
Quadtree Module Root Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the Quadtree module root folder in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following
options:

Display Options
Quadtree Item Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a Cartesian Grid item in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following module
specific options:

Delete – Removes the selected quadtree dataset from the project.

Duplicate – Creates a copy of the selected quadtree dataset.

Rename – Allows changing the selected quadtree dataset.

Interpolate to – Brings up the Interpolation Options dialog for the Quadtree Module.

Convert to

Quadtree → VTKMesh – Creates a new VTK Mesh using the Quadtree dataset. A dialog will appear
that lets the user name the new VTK Mesh. After giving the new VTK mesh a name and clicking OK ,
the new VTK Mesh will appear in the Project Explorer.

Projection – Opens the Object Projection dialog.

Metadata – Brings up the Metadata dialog.

Zoom to Quadtree – Will frame the quadtree in the Graphic Window.

Smooth – Opens the Quadtree Smoothing Options dialog.
Quadtree Tool Menus
Some tools in the Quadtree Module have menus that can be accessed by right-clicking while using the tool. See
Quadtree Tools for more information.
Related Topics

Quadtree Module
Quadtree Display Options
Other entities associated with the Quadtree module with display options are shown below. Some of these entities also
show an Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display controls are available. The available grid
display options include the following:

Cell edges

Contours – The mesh contours are drawn for the active scalar dataset. Use the contours tab to change contour
options.

Vectors – The cartesian grid vectors are drawn for the active vector dataset. All standard vector display options
are supported.
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
Grid Boundary – A line around the perimeter of the quadtree grid can be drawn. This is useful when the cells
are turned off. Options allow specifying line color and thickness.

Cell id

IJ triad

Grid name

Inactive quadtree boundaries

Functional Surface – Show surfaces representing one of the functional datasets associated with a mesh, grid or
TIN.
Related Topics

Quadtree Module

Display Options
3.9 Raster Module
Raster Module
At a glance
NOTE : the functionality of this module was incorporated into the GIS module starting with SMS version 12.0

Open and visualize raster data

Supports many gridded elevation file formats. A complete list can be found at:
www.globalmapper.com/product/formats.htm

One or more rasters are placed under a raster set in the project explorer.

Convert raster to TIN (scatter set)

Interpolate data from raster to TINs /2D Mesh/2D Grid

Use rasters with observation profile plots
Starting with SMS 12.0, rasters are managed in SMS as objects in the GIS module. All previous functionality is
available on raster entities in that module.
Rasters contain data (usually elevation) stored in pixels. Their resolution can vary, depending on the number of x and
y cells the raster contains. The Raster Module allows opening and visualizing rasters of various formats and convert
them into TIN (scatter sets), and interpolate their data into scatter sets, 2D meshes, and 2D grids.
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The Raster module is included with all paid editions of SMS.
Raster Sets
Each raster will be stored in a raster set. A raster set may contain multiple rasters. Ofter the data in one raster is also
associated to another raster, when each raster is used to cover an area. When this is the case, group the rasters together
under a single raster set. Raster sets are used in doing interpolation and plotting.
A new raster set can be created by right-clicking on the root raster item in the project explorer, then select New
Raster Set . Existing raster's can be moved into a raster set by simply dragging the raster into the raster set.
Related Topics

Raster Module Interface

Raster Functionalities

Raster Options
Raster Functionalities
Profile Plot
SMS can generate many different types of 2D plots. Scalar data contained in visible rasters may be plotted using a
specific type of 2D plot called a profile plot . When creating a profile plot for a raster using the Plot Wizard and
'specified data' is selected in Step 2, be sure to set the appropriate "Raster Set". Data will be plotted from the rasters in
the selected raster set.
Interpolation
Values contained in rasters can be interpolated to existing scattersets, 2D meshes, and 2D grids. To interpolate the
values from a raster, right-click on the raster set in the project explorer and choose Interpolate . Then choose the
appropriate option for the object to interpolate to.
Convert to Scatter
Values from rasters can also be converted into scatter data. This is done by right-clicking on the raster item in the
Project Explorer and selecting Convert | Raster→2D Scatter .
In special cases, one would want to convert only a selected portion of the raster to scatter data. For more information,
see Raster Tools .
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Raster Values as Elevation / Z Data
By default data associated with the raster is stored as elevation/z data. If a rasters projection is changed and the units
change from meters to feet, the z values also would change. This becomes problematic if the raster values is used to
represent NCLD land data and not elevation data. To keep NCLD land data from being projected, specify this in the
raster set . This is done by right-clicking on the raster set and selecting Options.. . A dialog appears to specify if the
values are elevations or not elevations. If raster values are set as not elevations, when doing a projection the z values
will remain unchanged.
Related Topics

Plot Window
Raster Module Interface
Clicking the raster module icon in the module tool bar will bring the raster module interface to display on the screen.
The raster module interface can also be brought to display by clicking on a raster item in the Project Explorer. The
raster module interface consists of the menu, tools, and Project Explorer right-click menus.
Raster Menu Items
The menu bar that appears in the Raster Module:

File – Has standard features as in other models.

Edit – Has standard features as in other models.

Display – Under the Raster tab in Display Options , choose to Display as raster or Display as surface . Display
as raster is a 2D representation, while Display as surface uses data from pixels as elevation to show a 3D
surface. It should be noted that these display options affect performance. Display as raster takes less memory
and performs faster because it is a more efficient data structure. If Display as surface is selected, options are
available to turn on or off contours, edges, or boundaries.

Web – Has standard features as in other models.

Window – Has standard features as in other models.

Help – Has standard features as in other models.
Raster Tools
The Raster Module contains only one dynamic tool called the Select Points tool. Using this tool, one can edit/select
one or more corners (points) of the pixels which make up the raster. Selecting cells with the Select Points tool will
show information about the points in the status bar.
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Right-Click Option
When one or more points are selected, one can right-click in the graphics window, and the option to convert selected
raster points to a scatter set appears. If this option is clicked, a new scatter set will appear in the project explorer.
Raster Right-Click Menus
Right-Click Menu of "Raster Set" Project Explorer Item
Right-clicking on the raster item in the Project Explorer will bring up the following options:

Delete – Removes the current coverage.

Rename – Allows changing the current coverage name.

Options – Clicking this will bring up a raster options dialog. This specifies if the z values are elevations . If
NCLD land data is being used, specify that raster values are not elevations. Then if the projections are changed,
the z values that store the land data would not be affected.

Interpolate – Data from raster sets may be interpolated to already existing TINs, meshes and 2D grids.
Right-Click Menu of "Raster" Project Explorer Item
Right-clicking on the raster item in the Project Explorer will bring up the following options:

Delete – Removes the raster set.

Rename – Allows changing the raster set name.

Convert – SMS allows rasters to be converted into TINs.

Zoom to Raster
Right-Click Menu of Dynamic Tools
See Raster Tools above.
Related Topics

Project Explorer
SMS 12.2

Toolbars

SMS Menus

Dynamic Tools
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3.10 Scatter Module
Scatter Module
At a glance

Used to create, edit, and visualize triangulated irregular networks

DEMs can be read in and converted to TINs

Filter scatter sets to eliminate redundant data

Datasets can be interpolated to other modules (meshes, grids, etc)
Overview
The Scatter Module (previously known as the Scattered Data Module) is used to interpolate spatial data values from
groups of scattered data points or ordered grids ( DEMs ) to the other data types (i.e., meshes and grids). SMS
supports three interpolation schemes including linear, natural neighbor and inverse distance weighted. The module is
also used to view and edit survey data (i.e. SHOALS data).
Interpolation is useful for setting up input data for analysis codes. Generally, the data gathered from a site to be
modeled varies in density. Generating a finite element mesh directly from these points would result in a very low
quality mesh. Further this data does not lie in a grid for use as a finite difference grid. Interpolation allows the
gathered data points to be used as background information that can then be used to generate a base mesh or grid in the
Mesh Module, the Grid Module or the Map Module. The only consideration of bathymetry for such a mesh or grid
would be the definition of element edges along geometric or property features. The actual bathymetry comes from the
scattered data. SMS interpolates this data to the created mesh or grid points.
Interpolation may also be used to create datasets for one mesh from data related to another mesh of the same region.
For example using a mesh of a river reach for which analysis has been preformed. If a bridge is to be added to the
reach, the mesh topology changes. The data from the first mesh can be converted to a scattered dataset and then
interpolated to the second mesh. This data may be used as initial conditions for the second mesh, or compared to
results of analysis run on the second mesh using the Dataset Toolbox .
A third purpose of interpolation is to create additional datasets from either observed, or calculated data.
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The Scatter module is included with all paid editions of SMS.
Data Sources
There are various potential sources for background data in an SMS project. These include:

local surveys
Local surveys must be formatted into an SMS supported format. The most intuitive format and easiest to use is a
tabular file of coordinates.
If this data is to be augmented with previous models or historical surveys, the coordinate system of the local
survey must be defined relative to the historical survey or a global coordinate system.

historical surveys
There are several sources of historic surveys. These include previous studies done by a modeler or company
and compiled databases such as GEO-DAS or ETOPO. These data sources can be imported into SMS and
used either as the basis of a finite computation domain (mesh or grid), or as a scattered dataset or DEM. Care
must be taken into account the age and quality of the data and make sure all data sources are converted to a
single coordinate system.

digital elevation maps
Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) are regular structured grids of elevation values. Since the data is structured, it
can be read, stored, displayed and utilized more efficiently than scattered datasets. These data sources are
becoming more prevalent and can be obtained for topographic regions of the entire United States and several
other area of the world from web sites such as Terraserver.
Unfortunately, most DEMs available online do not include bathymetric portions of the domain, which makes
their use in SMS limited. New data bases are being developed, but due to the dynamic nature of bathymetric
information, the feasibility of an extensive database is very slight.
It may be useful to convert scattered datasets into DEMs for faster processing inside of SMS.

electronic charts
Since surveys can be expensive to obtain, and DEMs may not be applicable, another option available for the
hydraulic modeler is the use of topographic/bathymetric charts or historic nautical charts. If these types of maps
can be digitized into an electronic format, they can be read into SMS and displayed on the screen. The goal is to
create a scattered dataset from this electronic chart. The steps to do this include:
1) Scan the paper map and save it as an image (*.tif, *.jpg, ...).
2) Register the image (if desired, mark the map with the register points prior to scanning it).
3) Select the Create Vertex tool in the Data Module.
4) Digitize (click on the image on the screen) to create a vertex on a contour line in the image.
5) In the z edit box of the edit window set the z value to the contour value of the line.
6) Digitize along the specified contour value (the spacing of points along the contour lines should be
approximately the same distance as the spacing between adjacent contours).
7) Repeat steps 4–6 for each contour line. Spot elevations can be entered by setting the z value to the value of
the spot elevation and then creating a vertex at that location.
8) Triangulate the vertices once done.
This method becomes tedious for larger areas, but is ideally suited for smaller areas where there are not too
many contours to be digitized.
In addition, when DEM data is brought into SMS, the data is triangulated and stored as a scatter set.
It is also possible to convert CAD and GIS data into scatter sets. This is accomplished by right-clicking on the object
in the project explorer and selecting the Map → Scatter command. This command searches the data for triangular
and quadrilateral faces and converts them to triangles in a triangulated surface (TIN). Points along contours or
polylines are not converted using this command. In order to use these points in a scattered dataset format, first convert
them to feature objects in the Map module.
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Scatter Interface Components
The scatter module interface consists of the display options, menus, right-click menus, and tools associated with the
scatter module.
Scatter Display Options
Accessed through the Display Options dialog. Provides options as to how Scatter Module elements will be displayed.
See Scatter Module Display Options for more information.
Scatter Module Menus
The following menus are available in the the Scatter Module:
Standard Menus
Standard menus such as the File , Edit , and Display menus are available. See SMS Menus for more information.
Module Specific Menus
 Data

Vertices

Breaklines

Triangles

Scatter
Scatter Right-Click Menus
The Scatter Module has right-click menus for root folders and scatter set items in the Project Explorer. See Scatter
Module Right-Click Menus for more information.
Scatter Module Tools
The Scatter Module has eight unique tools for creating and manipulating scatter data in the Graphics Window. See
Scatter Module Tools for more information.
Scattered Datasets
The Scatter Point Module is used to visualize and apply various types of data. This data typically comes from surveys,
digital maps, previous numerical analysis or digitization on screen. The data is stored as sets or groups of 2D scattered
data points with associated values. The most common value is bathymetry and is used to create the geometric
representation of the area being modeled.
SMS connects the scattered data points into triangles forming a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN). TINs can be
contoured, displayed in oblique view with mapped images and hidden surfaces removed, and several other display
options that can be set to visualize and understand the terrain surface better. TINs are used for a source of bathymetric
or other data in a numerical model. TINs can also be used to compute areas, volume, distances, gradients and several
other geometric parameters.
SMS applies data from scattered datasets to finite element networks or grids via interpolation. This allows poorly
distributed elevation data to be assigned to a well-structured set of elements to create the bathymetry of the entire
mesh. A variety of interpolation schemes are supported. Internally, the scattered data sets are triangulated to create
surfaces for continuous interpolation. Since the connectivity of the triangulation affects the interpolation, SMS
provides tools to allow for the manipulation of this triangulation. The triangulation also allows contouring of the
scattered data set to visualize the data.
Multiple scatter point sets can exist at one time in memory. One of the scatter sets is always designated as the "active"
scatter point set. The active scatter set can be changed by changing the Scatter Set combo box in the top Edit Window
. Whenever a new scatter set is created, it becomes the active set.
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Data Interpolation
Scatter dataset can be interpolated to other data types (grid, mesh, etc.). See Scatter Interpolation for more
information.
Practical Notes
Does SMS have a way of measuring the difference in volume between two
bathymetric surveys?
To do this, the following needs to be done:
1) Interpolate the elevation from one survey onto the other.
2) Use the data calculator to compute the difference between the two elevations. If desired, do max(0.0, z1z2) as well as max(0.0, z2-z1) to get both deposition and erosion volume.
3) Turn on the Volume option in the Info Options dialog.
4) Select the triangles of interested. The volume appears in the info window at the bottom of the screen. It is
also possible to direct these values to a file or another window through the Info Options settings.
How do I compare datasets from different scatter point sets?
Datasets within a scatter set are associated with the geometry of that scatter set. To compare datasets from different
scatter sets, it is necessary to first interpolate the datasets to a common geometry. Below are guidelines on how to do
this with a mesh and with a scatter grid.

Mesh
1) Interpolate the first dataset to mesh.
2) Interpolate the second dataset to the mesh.
3) Use the data calculator ( Data | Data Calculator ) to compare the two datasets.

Scatter Grid
1) Select first dataset.
2) Select Scatter | Interpolate to Scatter | …to Scatter Grid . Specify extents and resolution of grid.
3) Select second dataset.
4) Select Scatter | Interpolate to Scatter | …from other scatter set . Specify the second scatter set.
5) Select Data | Data Calculator with the new scatter grid selected to compare the two datasets.
Related Topics

Digital Elevation Maps

Mesh Generation

Scatter Interpolation

Scatter Module Display Options
External Links

Jun 2002 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-43 SHOALS Toolbox: Software to Support Visualization and Analysis of
Large, High-Density Datasets [71]
3.10.a. Interface Components
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Scatter Module Display Options
The properties of the scatter data SMS displays on the screen can be controlled through the Display Options dialog.
The entities associated with the scatter module with display options are shown below. Some of these entities also
show an Options button to the right. For these entities, additional display controls are available. The available display
options include the following:

Points – A symbol is drawn at each point. The type, radius, and color of these symbols can be specified. The
toggle below the Points item specifies that rather than coloring the symbols with the specified color, a contour
color should be used based on the current scalar value at the point. This gives a contouring effect without
generating/displaying the contours.

Triangles – Triangle edges are drawn using the specified line attributes. Line attributes include color, thickness,
and style (dashed/solid).

Boundary – A line around the perimeter of the scatter set can be drawn. This is useful when the triangles are
turned off. Line color and thickness can be specified.

Contours – The scatter contours are drawn for the active scalar data set for the active scatter set. All standard
contour display options are supported for scatter contours.

Velocity Vectors – The scatter vectors are drawn for the active vector data set of the active scatter set. Display
options are set through the Vector Display Options dialog.

Inactive Color – Only the active scatter set is displayed in its color. All other scatter sets are displayed using the
inactive color. This helps to avoid clutter on the screen.

Nautical Grid

Point Names – The name of the selected scatter set can be changed.

Point Numbers – The scatter point id number can be displayed next to each node. Font and color can be
selected.

Scalar values – The scalar value of the active function is displayed next to each point. The options button opens
the Scalar Value Options dialog.

Use contour color scheme – Use the color ramp specified for the contours for text color rather than a
specified color.
The display of individual scatter sets can be turned on or off through the Project Explorer .
Related Topics

Display Options

Scatter Module
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Scatter Project Explorer Items
In the Project Explorer, the Scatter Data
folder houses all of scatter data information that is manipulated by the
Scatter module. The Scatter Data folder will not appear in the Project Explorer until scatter data is opened in SMS.
Once scatter data is opened, the Scatter Data folder will appear with the Scatter set item below it. There will also be
elevation information that appears under the Scatter set item. The Scatter module may be activated by clicking on the
Scatter set
item in the Project Explorer. Once active, the Scatter module tool bar menu will appear to the right of
the Project Explorer.
Scatter Module Right-Click Menus
The following Project Explorer right-click menus are available when the mouse right-click is performed on a Scatter
Module item.
Scatter Module Root Folder Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on the Scatter module root
following options:
folder in the Project Pxplorer invokes an options menu with the

New Scatter Set – Creates a new, empty scatter set.

Display Options – Brings up the Display Options dialog.
Scatter Set Item Right-Click Menus
Right-clicking on a Scatter Set
specific options:
item in the Project Explorer invokes an options menu with the following module

Split – Creates a new scatter set containing the selected scatter vertices. Selected scatter vertices are removed
from the original scatter set.

Autogenerate breaklines – Automatically creates breaklines following specified elevations.
Related Topics

Scatter Module
Scatter Module Tools
The following tools are contained in the Dynamic Tools portion of the tool palette when the Scatter Module is active.
Only one tool is active at any given time. The action that takes place when clicking in the Graphics Window depends
on the current tool. The following sections describe the tools in the Scatter tool palette.
Select Scatter Point
The Select Scatter Point
tool is used to select scatter points (also known as vertices). A single point is selected by
left-clicking directly on it. Multiple points can be selected at once by dragging a box. To drag a selection box, leftclick and hold the button while dragging the mouse to the appropriate dimensions; release the button to enclose and
select the contents. Additional scatter points can be appended to the selection list by holding the SHIFT key while
selecting by any method. Selecting new points without holding the SHIFT key will first clear the selection list and
then add the newly selected points. A selected point can be removed from the selection list by holding the SHIFT key
as it is reselected. Pressing the ESC key will clear the entire selection list. Right-clicking will open a menu specific to
this tool.
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Scatter points are locked by default so they are not accidentally dragged, but can be unlocked using the Scatter
Vertices Menu . When a single point is selected, its location is shown in the Edit Window . The Z coordinates can be
changed by typing in the edit field. The active scalar function is updated when the Z coordinate changes. If multiple
points are selected, the Z Coordinate value shown is the average scalar value of all selected points. If this value is
changed, the new value will be assigned to all selected points.
The Graphics Window’s status bar will display information on the selected items depending on the settings find
through the File | Info Options command in the File Menu .
Selected scatter points can be deleted by selecting the Edit | Delete menu command on the Edit Menu , by pressing the
DELETE or BACKSPACE keys, or from the right-click menu. Triangles attached to the deleted scatter points are
deleted. The resulting void can be retriangulated.
This tool is available when one or more scatter points exist.
Right-Click Menu

Find – Available when nothing selected. Brings up the "Find..." dialog to search for a vertex by ID or location.
Like the menu command.

Scatter Options – Available when nothing selected. Brings up the Scatter Options... dialog. Like the menu
command.

Triangulate – Available when nothing selected. Triangulates the entire scatter set. Like the menu command.

Select Thin Triangles – Available when nothing selected. Selects thin triangles around the boundary. 'Thin' is
defined by the aspect ration in the scatter options. Like the menu command.

Delete Long Triangles – Available when nothing selected. Deletes long triangles around the boundary. 'Long'
is defined by the aspect ration in the scatter options. Like the menu command.

Select All – Available when nothing selected. Selects all vertices.

Delete – Available when one or more vertices selected. Deletes the selected scatter vertex/vertices.

Split Breaklines – Available when one or more vertices selected. Splits all breaklines that go through the
selected vertex into two breaklines (one on each side of the selected vertex). If the vertex is the end of the
breakline or is not used in any breaklines, the command has no impact.

Assign Point Name... – Available when one or more vertices selected. Prompts for a name for the selected
point. The default name will be "Point #" where '#' is the ID of the point. Points do not have names unless
specifically specified. Names can be displayed in the Scatter Module display options.

Clear Selection – Available when one or more vertices selected. Unselects all the selected vertices.

Invert Selection – Available when one or more vertices selected. Selects all the unselected vertices and
unselects all the selected vertices. This can be useful when many vertices are to be deleted. First select those to
be kept and then invert the selection.

Zoom to Selection – Available when one or more vertices selected. Recursively zooms in on the selected
objects. Invoke this command multiple times to zoom in tighter.
Create Scatter Point
The Create Scatter Point
tool is used to place new scatter point in a Scatter Set. A single point or vertex is
created at a time by left-clicking at the coordinate desired. The newly created point is selected to allow Z Coordinate
changes in the Edit Window . Scatter poin