Workshop manual
VOLVO
Diesel engine
TAD941GE
7745012 – 7745022 7746032
33525070201_1_1
Workshop Manual
Group 20 Technical Data
I
1(0)
TAD940GE, TAD941GE
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE
Technical data
Engine
TAD940GE, TAD941GE
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE
Contents
Safety information ................................................
General ..................................................................
Engine ...................................................................
Valve mechanism ..................................................
Timing gear ............................................................
Reciprocating components .....................................
Lubrication and oil systems ....................................
Fuel system ...........................................................
Inlet and exhaust system .......................................
Cooling system ......................................................
Engine control system ...........................................
Tightening torque ...................................................
2
5
6
8
11
13
16
18
19
20
21
23
Group 20
Safety information
This workshop manual contains technical data, descriptions and repair instructions for the Volvo Penta
products or product versions noted in the table of contents. Make sure that you use the correct workshop
literature.
Read the available safety information, ”General information” and ”Repair instructions” in the workshop manual before you start to do any service
work.
Important
The following special warning signs are used in the
workshop manual and on the product.
WARNING! Warns for the risk of personal injury,
major damage to product or property, or serious
malfunctions if the instruction is ignored.
IMPORTANT! Is used to call attention to things
which could cause damage or malfunctions to
product or property.
NOTE! Is used to call attention to important information, to facilitate work processes or operation.
To give you a perspective on the risks which always
need to be observed and precautions which always
have to be taken, we have noted them below.
Make it impossible to start the engine by cutting
system current with the main switch(es) and
lock it (them) in the off position before starting
service work. Fix a warning sign by the control
station.
All service work should normally be done on a
stationary engine. Some work, such as adjustments, need the engine to be running, however.
Going close to a running engine is a safety risk.
Remember that loose clothes, long hair etc. can
catch on rotating components and cause severe
injury.
If work is done adjacent to a running engine, a
careless movement or a dropped tool can lead
to personal injury in the worst case. Take care
to avoid contact with hot surfaces (exhaust
pipes, turbocharger, charge air pipe, starter
heater etc.) and hot fluids in pipes and hoses in
an engine which is running or has just been
stopped. Reinstall all protective parts removed
during service operations before starting the engine.
Check that the warning or information labels on
the product are always clearly visible. Replace
labels which have been damaged or painted
over.
Never start the engine without installing the air
cleaner (ACL) filter. The rotating compressor turbine in the turbocharger can cause severe injury. Foreign objects entering the intake ducts can
also cause mechanical damage.
Never use start spray or similar products as a
starting aid. They may cause an explosion in
the inlet manifold. Danger of personal injury.
Only start the engine in a well- ventilated area.
When operated in a confined space, exhaust
fumes and crankcase gases must be ventilated
from the engine bay or workshop area.
Avoid opening the coolant filling cap when the
engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant can spray
out and the system pressure will be lost. When
needed, open the filler cap slowly and release
the pressure in the system. Be extremely careful if a tap, plug or coolant hose has to be removed from a hot engine. It is difficult to anticipate in which direction steam or hot coolant can
spray out.
Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid skin contact with
hot oil. Ensure that the lubrication system is not
under pressure before carrying out any work.
Never start or operate the engine with the oil filler cap removed, otherwise oil could be ejected.
Group 20
Stop the engine before carrying out operations
on the engine cooling system.
Always use protective glasses or goggles when
carrying out work where there is a risk of splinters, grinding sparks, acid splashes or where
other chemicals are used. Your eyes are extremely sensitive, injury could cause blindness!
Avoid getting oil on your skin! Repeated exposure to oil or exposure over a long period can result in the skin becoming dry. Irritation, dryness
and eczema and other skin problems can then
occur. Used oil is more dangerous than fresh oil
from a health aspect. Use protective gloves and
avoid oil soaked clothes and shop rags. Wash
regularly, especially before eating. There are
special skin creams which counteract drying out
of the skin and make it easier to clean off dirt
after work is completed.
Most chemicals intended for the product (e.g.
engine and transmission oils, glycol, petrol (gasoline) and diesel oil) or chemicals for workshop
use (e.g. degreasers, paints and solvents) are
hazardous. Read the instructions on the product
packaging with care! Always follow the safety
precautions for the product (for example use of
protective mask, glasses, gloves etc.). Make
sure that other personnel are not exposed to
hazardous chemicals, for example in the air. Ensure good ventilation in the work place. Follow
the instructions provided when disposing of
used or leftover chemicals.
Exercise extreme care when leak detecting on
the fuel system and testing the fuel injector nozzles. Use eye protection. The jet from a fuel injector is under very high pressure, and has considerable penetration ability; fuel can force its
way deep into body tissues and cause serious
damage. Danger of blood poisoning (septicemia).
WARNING! The delivery pipes must under no
circumstances be bent. Damaged pipes must be
replaced.
General instructions
All fuels, and many chemicals, are flammable.
Do not allow naked flame or sparks in the vicinity. Certain thinners and hydrogen from batteries
can be extremely flammable and explosive
when mixed with air in the right proportions. No
Smoking! Ensure that the work area is well ventilated and take the necessary safety precautions before starting welding or grinding work. Always ensure that there are fire extinguishers at
hand when work is being carried out.
Make sure that oil and fuel soaked rags, and
used fuel and oil filters are stored in a safe
place. Rags soaked in oil can spontaneously ignite under certain circumstances. Used fuel and
oil filters are polluting waste and must be handed to an approved waste management facility
for destruction, together with used lubrication oil,
contaminated fuel, paint residue, solvents, degreasers and wash residue.
Batteries must never be exposed to open
flames or electric sparks. Do not smoke close
to the batteries. The batteries generate hydrogen gas when charged, which forms an explosive gas when mixed with air. This gas is easily
ignited and highly volatile. A spark, which can
be formed if the batteries are wrongly connected, is enough to make a battery explode and
cause damage. Do not shift the connections
when attempting to start the engine (spark risk)
and do not lean over any of the batteries.
Never mix up the battery positive and negative
poles when the batteries are installed. Incorrect
installation can result in serious damage to the
electrical equipment. Refer to the wiring diagram.
Always use protective goggles when charging
and handling the batteries. Battery electrolyte
contains sulfuric acid, which is highly corrosive.
Should the battery electrolyte come into contact
with unprotected skin wash off immediately using plenty of water and soap. If you get battery
acid in your eyes, flush it off at once with a generous amount of water, and get medical assistance at once.
General instructions
Turn the engine off and turn off the power at the
main switch(es) before carrying out work on the
electrical system.
Group 20
WARNING! Components in the electrical and
fuel systems on Volvo Penta products have
been designed to minimize the risks of explosion and fire. The engine must not be operated
in environments with adjacent explosive media.
The clutch must be adjusted with the engine
shut off.
The existing lugs on the engine should be used
for lifting. Always check that the lifting devises
are in good condition and that they have the correct capacity for the lift (the weight of the engine
plus the reversing gear and extra equipment).
The engine should be lifted with a customized or
adjustable lifting boom for safe handling and to
avoid damaging components on top of the engine. All chains or cables must be parallel to
each other and should be as square as possible
to the top of the engine.
If other equipment connected to the engine has
altered its center of gravity, special lifting devises may be needed to obtain the correct balance
and safe handling.
Never do any work on an engine which just
hangs from a liftingdevise.
Never work alone when heavy components are
to be dismantled, even when safe lifting devises
such as lockable blocks & tackle are used.
When using a lifting devise, two people are usually required to do the work, one to take care of
the lifting device and another to ensure that
components are lifted clear and not damaged
during the lifting operations.
Always make sure that there is enough space
for disassembly where you are working, with no
risk for personal or material damage.
4
Only use the fuels recommended by Volvo Penta. Refer to the Instruction Book. Use of fuels
that are of a lower quality can damage the engine. In a diesel engine, poor fuel can cause the
control rod to bind and the engine will over- rev,
entailing a strong risk of personal injury and machinery damage. Poor fuel can also lead to
higher maintenance costs.
Remember the following when washing with a
high pressure washer: Never aim the water jet at
air filters, seals, rubber hoses or electrical components. Never use a high pressure washer for
engine cleaning.
The injectors can leak fuel when the engine is
stationary, if the tank is higher than the engine
and the fuel pressure is positive.
Group 20
General information
About the workshop manual
Certified engines
This workshop manual contains technical data for the
TAD940GE, TAD941GE, TAD940VE, TAD941VE,
TAD942VE and TAD943VE engines.
The manufacturer certifies that both new engines and
those in use, which are certified for national or regional legislation, comply with the environmental requirements. Each product must correspond with the unit
used for certification. The following requirements for
service and spare parts must be complied with, for
Volvo Penta as a manufacturer to be responsible for
ensuring that engines in use comply with the stipulated environmental requirements:
The Workshop Manual, Technical Data, contains all
the references from the workshop manuals to repair
instructions for the TAD940GE, TAD941GE,
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE and TAD943VE
series.
The Workshop Manual is produced primarily for the
use of Volvo Penta workshops and service technicians. For this reason the manual presupposes a certain basic knowledge and that the user can carry out
the mechanical/electrical work described to a general
standard of engineering competence.
•
Maintenance and service intervals recommended
by Volvo Penta must be complied with.
•
Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended
for the certified engine version may be used
Volvo Penta constantly improves its products, so we
reserve the right to make modifications without prior
notification. All information in this manual is based on
product data which was available up to the date on
which the manual was printed. Any material changes
introduced into the product or service methods after
this date are notified by means of Service Bulletins.
•
Service related to injection pumps and injectors
must always be done by an authorized Volvo Penta workshop.
•
The engine must not be converted or modified in
any way, except for the accessories and service
kits which Volvo Penta has approved for the engine.
Spare parts
•
Installation changes to the exhaust pipe and the
engine bay air inlet ducts (ventilation ducts) must
not be done without further discussion, since this
could affect exhaust emissions.
•
No seals may be broken by unauthorized personnel.
Spare parts for electrical and fuel systems are subject
to various national safety requirements. Volvo Penta
Original Spares comply with these requirements. No
damage whatever, occasioned by use of non-original
Volvo Penta spares for the product, will be compensated by the warranty offered by Volvo Penta.
The general advice in the instruction book about operation, care and maintenance applies.
IMPORTANT! When spare parts are needed,
use only Volvo Penta Original Spares.
Use of non-original spareparts means that AB
Volvo Penta can no longer be responsible for
guaranteeing that the engine complies with the
certified version.
Any damage, injury and/or costs which arise due
to the use of non-original Volvo Penta spares for
the product in question will not be compensated
by Volvo Penta.
5
Group 20
Technical data
General
Type designation
TAD940GE
Power, Prime/Stand-by
See Sales Guide Generating Set Engines
Torque, Prime/Stand-by
See Sales Guide Generating Set Engines
Compression ratio
Low idle (rpm)
High idle (rpm)
TAD941GE
20,2:1
17,4:1
600-1200
600-1200
1500-1620/1800-1920 1500-1620/1800-1920
No. of valves
24
24
No. of cylinders
6
6
Cylinder bore (mm)
120
120
Stroke (mm)
138
138
Swept volume (dm )
9.36
9.36
Weight, dry (kg)
1015
1015
Weight, wet (kg)
1065
1065
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-3-6-2-4
3
Injection sequence
Type designation
TAD940VE
TAD941VE
TAD942VE
Power
See Sales Guide Industrial Diesel Power
Torque
See Sales Guide Industrial Diesel Power
Compression ratio
TAD943VE
20.2:1
20.2:1
20.2:1
20.2:1
Low idle (rpm)
600
600
600
600
High idle (rpm)
2250
2250
2250
2250
No. of valves
24
24
24
24
No. of cylinders
6
6
6
6
Cylinder bore (mm)
120
120
120
120
Stroke (mm)
138
138
138
138
Swept volume (dm )
9.36
9.36
9.36
9.36
Weight, dry (kg)
1015
1015
1015
1015
Weight, wet (kg)
1065
1065
1065
1065
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-3-6-2-4
3
Injection sequence
(1 mm = 0.03937 inch)
6
Group 20
Technical data
Engine
Engine block
Length .................................................................... 967 mm (38.07")
Height, upper block plane - crankcase centerline ... 379 mm (14.92")
Height lower block plane - crankcase centerline ..... 120 mm (4.72")
Crankcase pressure
normal value, irrespective of engine speed ............. max 0.5 kPa (0.07 psi)
Cylinder head
Type ...................................................................... 6-cylinder
Length .................................................................... 996 mm (39.21")
Width ..................................................................... 410 mm (16.14")
Height .................................................................... 135 mm (5.32")
Max. flatness error (base plane) ............................. 0.4 mm (0.0158")
Cylinder head screws
No. of screws ......................................................... 26
Dimension, thread .................................................. M16
Length .................................................................... 200 mm (7.874")
Cylinder liner
Type ...................................................................... Wet, replaceable
Height, total. .......................................................... 250 mm (9.8425")
Sealing surface height above block plane .............. 0.15 - 0.20 mm (0.0059 - 0.0079")
No. of seal rings per cylinder liner .......................... 3
Cylinder bore .......................................................... 120.00 - 120.02 mm (4,72 - 4,73”)
Piston
Type ...................................................................... aluminium
Height above engine block plane ............................ 0.15 -0.65 mm (0.0059 - 0.0256")
Diameter, combustion chamber .............................. 77 mm (3.0315")
TAD941GE ......................................................... 78.5 mm (3.090”)
Depth, piston bowl ................................................. 15 mm (0.5906")
TAD941GE ......................................................... 17.3 mm (0.681”)
No. of ring grooves ................................................. 3
Front marking ......................................................... Arrow towards front
Gudgeon pin diameter
54 mm (2.126")
Piston rings
Compression rings
Specification:
Quantity ................................................................. 2
Piston ring clearance in groove
upper compression ring ....................................... 0.12 -0.19 mm (0.0047 - 0.0075")
lower compression ring ....................................... 0.09 -0.13 mm (0.0035 - 0.0051")
Piston ring gap, measured at ring opening:
upper compression ring ....................................... 0.35 -0.55 mm (0.013779 - 0.021653")
lower compression ring ....................................... 1.15 -1.3 mm (0.045275 - 0.051181")
7
Technical data
Oil scraper ring:
Quantity ................................................................. 1
Width, including spring ........................................... 4.3 mm (0.011811")
Piston ring clearance in groove, ............................. 0.05 -0.10 mm (0.001968 - 0.003937")
Piston ring gap, measured at ring opening .............. 0.35 -0.75 mm (0.013779 - 0.029527")
Valve mechanism
Valves
Valve head, diameter:
Inlet .................................................................... 38 mm (1.49606")
Exhaust .............................................................. 38 mm (1.49606")
Valve stem, diameter:
Inlet .................................................................... 8 mm (0.31496")
Exhaust .............................................................. 8 mm (0.31496")
Valve seat angle (A):
Inlet .................................................................... 29.5°
Exhaust .............................................................. 29.5°
Seat angle in cylinder head (B):
Inlet .................................................................... 30°
Exhaust .............................................................. 30°
Dimension between valve head and cylinder head plane:
Inlet .................................................................... min 0.95 mm (0.037401")
Exhaust .............................................................. min 1.25 mm (0.049212")
NOTE! When the valve seats are changed, the valves must be changed at the same time.
Valve clearance, cold engine, setting value:
Inlet .................................................................... 0.2 mm (0.007874")
Exhaust .............................................................. 0.5 mm (0.019685")
Valve clearance, cold engine, check value:
Inlet .................................................................... 0.15 -0.25 mm (0.005905 - 0.009842")
Exhaust .............................................................. 0.45 -0.55 mm (0.017716 - 0.021653")
8
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Valve seats
Outer diameter (A)
Standard:
Inlet .................................................................... 40.0 mm (1.5748")
Exhaust .............................................................. 41.0 mm (1.61417")
Oversize dimension:
Inlet .................................................................... 40.3 mm (1.586611")
Exhaust .............................................................. 41.3 mm (1.625981")
Height (B):
Inlet .................................................................... 7.3 mm (0.287401")
Exhaust .............................................................. 7.4 mm (0.291338")
Valve seat bed
Diameter (C) standard:
Inlet .................................................................... 40.0 mm (1.5748")
Exhaust .............................................................. 41.0 mm (1.61417")
Diameter (C) oversize dimension:
Inlet .................................................................... 40.2 mm (1.582674")
Exhaust .............................................................. 41.2 mm (1.622044")
Depth (D):
Inlet .................................................................... 11.5 mm (0.452755")
Exhaust .............................................................. 11.9 mm (0.468503")
Seat base radius (R):
Inlet .................................................................... max 0.8 mm (0.031496")
Exhaust .............................................................. max 0.8 mm (0.031496")
9
Technical data
Valve guides
Length:
Inlet .................................................................... 83.4 mm (3.283458")
Exhaust .............................................................. 83.4 mm (3.283458")
Inner diameter:
Inlet .................................................................... 8 mm (0.31496")
Exhaust .............................................................. 8 mm (0.31496")
Height above cylinder head spring plane:
Inlet .................................................................... 24.5±0.5 mm (0.964564 ± 0.019685")
Exhaust .............................................................. 16.5±0.5 mm (0.6496043 ± 0.019685")
Clearance, valve stem - guide:1
Inlet .................................................................... max 0.2 mm (0.007874")
Exhaust .............................................................. max 0.2 mm (0.007874")
1
The dimensions have been calculated for the method of measurement described in the workshop manual (group 21).
Rocker arms
Bearing clearance .................................................. max 0.08 mm
Valve springs
Inlet
Outer valve springs:
Unloaded length .................................................. 73.8 mm (2.905506")
With 590 N (132.6 lbf) loading ............................. 58.4 mm (2.299208")
With 1150 N (258.5 lbf) loading ........................... 45.3 mm
Coilbound length, max ......................................... 39.5 mm (1.555115")
Inner valve spring:
Unloaded length .................................................. 70.5 mm (2.775585")
With 243 N (54.6 lbf) loading ............................... 54.4 mm (2.141728")
With 447 N (100.4 lbf) loading ............................. 41.3 mm (1.625981")
Coilbound length, max ......................................... 36.5 mm (1.437005")
Exhaust
Outer valve springs:
Unloaded length .................................................. 73.8 mm (2.905506")
With 590 N (132.6 lbf) loading ............................. 58.4 mm (2.299208")
With 1150 N (258.5 lbf) loading ........................... 45.3 mm (1.783461")
Coilbound length, max ......................................... 39.5 mm (1.555115")
Inner valve spring:
Unloaded length .................................................. 70.5 mm (2.775585")
With 243 N (54.6 lbf) loading ............................... 54.4 mm (2.141728")
With 447 N (100.4 lbf) loading ............................. 41.3 mm (1.625981")
Coilbound length, max ......................................... 36.5 mm (1.437005")
10
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Timing gear
Timing gear wheels
No. of teeth:
1. Drive gear, crankshaft .......................................... 54
2.
Idler wheel, double, outer ...................................... 72
Idler wheel, double, inner ...................................... 56
3.
Idler wheel, adjustable .......................................... 73
4.
Drive gear, camshaft ............................................ 84
5.
Idler wheel, servo pump ........................................ 37
6.
Drive wheel, steering servo and fuel feed pump .... 31
7.
Drive wheel, air compressor ................................. 42
8.
Drive wheel, lubricating oil pump .......................... 23
Gear backlash
min ..................................................................... 0.05 mm (0.001968")
max .................................................................... 0.17 mm (0.006692")
Shaft stub for idler wheel, diameter ........................ 100 mm (3.937")
Bushing for idler wheel, diameter ............................ 100 mm (3.937")
Radial clearance for idler wheel .............................. max 0.05 mm (0.001968")
11
Technical data
Camshaft
Check camshaft setting, cold engine and valve clearance =0.
Inlet valve for cylinder 1 at flywheel position 6 ATDC must be open 1.3±0.3 mm (0.05118±0.0118").
During the check, you must turn the timing gear in the correct direction (clockwise seen
from the front), to take up all gear flank clearance.
Drive ...................................................................... gear wheel
No of bearings ........................................................ 7
Diameter, bearing journals, standard ...................... 69.97 -70.00 mm (22.754718 - .7559")
NOTE! Only check values, not for machining.
Diameter, bearing journals, undersize dimension
0.25 .................................................................... 69.72 -69.78 mm (2.744876 - 2.747238")
0.50 .................................................................... 69.47 -69.53 mm (2.735033 - 2.737396")
0.75 .................................................................... 69.22 -69.28 mm (2.725191 - 2.727553")
Max. end float ........................................................ 0.24 mm (0.009448")
Max permissible ovality (with new bearings) ........... 0.05 mm (0.001968")
Bearing, max. permissible wear on diameter .......... 0.05 mm (0.001968")
Valve lift:
inlet ..................................................................... 13 mm (0.51181")
outlet (EPG) ........................................................ 12 mm (0.47244")
Permissible wear between base circle
and max. lift ....................................................... max 0.1 mm (0.003937")
Unit injector, stroke ................................................ 13 mm (0.51181")
Camshaft bearings
Camshaft bearing thickness, standard ................... 1.92 mm (0.075590")
Oversize dimension:
0.25 .................................................................... 2.04 mm (0.080314")
0.50 .................................................................... 2.17 mm (0.085432")
0.75 .................................................................... 2.29 mm (0.090157")
12
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Reciprocating components
Crankshaft
Length .................................................................... 1.066 mm (0.041968")
Crankshaft, end float1 ............................................. 0.15 mm (25.4 0.005905")
Ovality of main and big end bearings ..................... max 0.01 mm (0.000393")
Taper of main and big end bearings ....................... max 0.02
Runout on center bearing ....................................... 0.15 mm (0.005905")
1
Dimensions refer to oiled components.
Main bearing journal
NOTE! Only check values, not for machining.
Diameter (Ø) standard ............................................ 108.0 mm (4.25196")
Undersize dimension:
0.25 mm ............................................................. 107.85 -107.87 mm (4.246054 - 4.246841")
0.50 mm ............................................................. 107.73 -107.75 mm (4.241330 - 4.242117")
0.75 mm ............................................................. 107.60 -107.62 mm (4.236212 - 4.236999")
1.00 mm ............................................................. 107.48 -107.50 mm (4.231487 - 4.232275")
1.25 mm ............................................................. 107.35 -107.37 mm (4.226369 - 4.227156")
Surface finish, main bearing journal ....................... Ra 0.25
Surface finish, radius ............................................. Ra 0.4
Width, main bearing journal (A) standard ................ 42 mm (1.65354")
Oversize dimension:
0.2 mm (thrust bearing 0.1) ................................. 42.17 -42.22 mm (1.660232 - 1.662201")
0.4 mm (thrust bearing 0.2) ................................. 42.37 -42.42 mm (1.668106 - 1.670075")
0.6 mm (thrust bearing 0.3) ................................. 42, 57-42.62 mm (1.65354 - 1.677949")
Fillet radius (R) ....................................................... 4.5 mm (0.177165")
13
Technical data
Thrust washers (thrust bearing)
Width (B) standard ................................................. 3.2 mm (0.125984")
Oversize dimension:
0.1 mm ............................................................... 3.2 -3.3 mm (0.125984 - 0.129921")
0.2 mm ............................................................... 3.3 -3.4 mm (0.129921 - 0.133858")
0.3 mm ............................................................... 3.4 -3.5 mm (0.133858 - 0.137795")
Main bearing shells
Outer diameter (C) ................................................. 113 mm (4.44881")
Thickness (D) standard .......................................... 2.5 mm (0.098425")
Oversize dimension:
0.25 mm ............................................................. 2.6 -2.7 mm (0.102362 - 0.106299")
0.50 mm ............................................................. 2.7 -2.8 mm (0.106299 - 0.110236")
0.75 mm ............................................................. 2.8 -2.9 mm (0.110236 - 0.114173")
1.00 mm ............................................................. 2.9 -3.0 mm (0.114173 - 0.11811")
1.25 mm ............................................................. 3.1-3.2 mm (0.122047 - 0.125984")
Radial clearance, main bearings ............................. max 0.11 mm (0.004330")
Big end bearing journal
NOTE! Only check values, not for machining.
Diameter (Ø) .......................................................... 88 mm (3.46456")
Undersize dimension:
0.25 mm ............................................................. 87.85 -87.87 mm (3.458654 - 3.459441")
0.50 mm ............................................................. 87.73 -87.75 mm (3.453930 - .3454717")
0.75 mm ............................................................. 87.60 -87.62 mm (3.448812 - 3449599")
1.00 mm ............................................................. 87.48 -87.50 mm (3.444087 - 3.444875")
1.25 mm ............................................................. 87.35 -87.37 mm (3.438969 - 3.439756")
Surface finish, big end bearing journal .................... Ra 0.25
Surface finish, radius ............................................. Ra 0.4
Width (A) ................................................................ 54 mm (2.12598")
Fillet radius (R) ....................................................... 4.5 mm (0.177165")
14
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Big end journal shells
Outer diameter (B) ................................................. 93 mm (3.66141")
Thickness (C) standard .......................................... 2.4 mm (0.094488")
Oversize dimension:
0.25 mm ............................................................. 2.5 -2.6 mm (0.098425 - 0.102362")
0.50 mm ............................................................. 2.6 -2.7 mm (0.102362 - 0.106299")
0.75 mm ............................................................. 2.7 -2.8 mm (0.106299 - 0.110236")
1.00 mm ............................................................. 2.8 -2.9 mm (0.110236 - 0.114173")
1.25 mm ............................................................. 3.0 -3.1 mm (0.11811 - 0.122047")
Diameter, bearing shell seat (D) ............................. 92.85 mm (3.655504")
Con rods
Length, center - center (E) ..................................... 225 mm (8.85825")
Small end bushing, internal diameter (G) ................ 54 mm (2.12598")
End float, con rod - crankshaft1: ............................. max 0.35 mm (0.013779")
Big end bearing, radial clearance 1: ....................... max 0.10 mm (0.003937")
Straightness, max. deviation on 100 mm (3.937")
measured length .................................................... 0.06 mm (0.002362")
Twist, max. deviation on 100 mm (3.937")
measured length .................................................... 0.15 mm (0.005905")
1
Dimensions refer to oiled components.
Marking:
”FRONT” on the con rod faces forwards.
The con rods and caps are marked in pairs, using a three digit serial number (please refer to the illustration).
Flywheel, installed
Runout (manual gearbox), measurement
radius 150 mm (5.9055") . ...................................... max 0.20 mm (0.007874")
No. of teeth on starter gear ring .............................. 153
Sensor grooves in flywheel .................................... 54 pcs.
Flywheel housing, installed
Runout for mating face against bellhousing. ........... max 0.1 mm (0.003937")
Radial runout for alignment against bellhousing. ..... max 0.05 mm (0.001968")
15
Technical data
Lubrication oil systems
Oil
Oil change volume, including filters ........................ 35 liter (9.2 US gallon)
Oil pressure
Operating speed (above 1100 rpm) ......................... 300 -550 kPa (43.5-79.7 psi)
Low idle .................................................................. min 270 kPa (39.1 psi)
Oil temperature
Cold engine, engine stopped .................................. ambient temperature
Hot engine, engine running
(coolant temperature 75-95 C) (167-203°F) .......... 90-115 C (194-239°F)
Lubricating oil pump
Type ...................................................................... Gear driven
No. of teeth, drive wheel ........................................ 23
Oil filter
Full flow filter .......................................................... 2
Turbo filter (By-pass filter) ...................................... 1
16
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Oil valves
1 Safety valve, lube oil pump
Marking ............................................................... Violet
2 Bypass valve, bypass filter
Spring, free length ............................................... 69 mm (2.71653")
Loaded 13-15 Nm (9.6-11.0 lbf-ft) ........................ 40 mm (1.5748")
3 Bypass valve, oil cooler
Spring, free length ............................................... 63 mm (2.48031")
Loaded 124 Nm (91.4 lbf-ft) ................................. 44 mm (1.73228")
4 Reduction valve, oil pressure
Marking ............................................................... Blue
5 Bypass valve, full flow filter
Spring, free length ............................................... 69 mm (2.71653")
Loaded 13-15 Nm (9.6-11.0 lbf-ft) ........................ 40 mm (1.5748")
6 Opening valve, piston cooling
Spring, free length ............................................... 122 mm (4.80314")
Loaded, 94 Nm (69.3 lbf-ft) .................................. 62 mm (2.44094")
7 Control valve, piston cooling
Spring, free length ............................................... 122 mm (4.80314")
Loaded, 47 Nm (34.6 lbf-ft) .................................. 92 mm (3.62204")
17
Technical data
Group 20
Fuel system
Feed pump
Feed pressure at:
600 r/min ............................................................. min 400 kPa (58.0 psi)
1200 r/min ........................................................... min 400 kPa (58.0 psi)
full load ............................................................... min 400 kPa (58.0 psi)
By-pass valve
Opening pressure ................................................... 400 -550 kPa (58.0-79.7 psi)
Fuel quantity
At low idle and with the engine unloaded, the fuel quantity should be inside area B. The engine should be run in
at least 600 h.
Unit injector
Pre-load: ................................................................ 3-4 spanner flats (0.75 ± 0.1 mm (0.029527 - 0.003937")),
please refer to the illustration.
Tighten the adjustment screw to zero clearance against the camshaft, then turn 3-4 spanner flats.
18
Group 20
Technical data
Inlet and exhaust system
Turbocharger
Manufacturer/type .................................................. 3K/K29
TAD941GE ......................................................... 3K/K31
End float, turbine shaft ........................................... max 0.15 mm (0.005905")
Charge air temperature indicator
Cold engine, engine stopped .................................. Ambient temperature
Hot engine, engine running
(coolant temperature 75-95°C (167-203°F)) .......... 10-30°C (18-54°F) above ambient temperature
Pressure drop indicator
Pressure drop indicator indication lamp
lights up at a pressure drop of ............................. 5 kPa (0.7 psi)
Boost pressure
1500/1800 r/min.
TAD940GE ............................................................ 230 kPa (33.36 psi)
TAD941GE ............................................................ 250 kPa (36.26 psi)
19
Technical data
Group 20
Cooling system
General
Pressure cap opens at ........................................... 75 kPa (10.8 psi)
Thermostat
Quantity ................................................................. 1
Opening temperature .............................................. 82°C (180°F)
Fully open .............................................................. 92°C (198°F)
Coolant
Type ...................................................................... Volvo Original
Consists of ............................................................ Glycol and corrosion-inhibiting additives
Color ...................................................................... Green
Mix with ................................................................. Tap water
Corrosion inhibitor
Only used when anti-freeze is not needed.
Type ...................................................................... Volvo Original
Mix with ................................................................. Tap water
NOTE! The corrosion inhibitor must not be mixed with other types of coolants or corrosion inhibitors, since this
can have adverse effects.
20
Group 20
Technical data
Engine control system
Engine control unit
No. of pins ............................................................. 2 x 36
Sensor
Charge pressure sensor
Check value ........................................................... 1.05-1.30 V at 100 kPa (14.5 psi)
Charge air temperature sensor
Coolant temperature sensor
21
Technical data
Inlet temperature sensor
Engine oil temperature sensor
Camshaft sensor
Distance to camshaft ............................................. 0.3 -1.0 mm (0.011811 - 0.03937")
Flywheel sensor
Distance to flywheel ............................................... 0.7 -2.1 mm (0.027559 - 0.082677")
22
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Tightening torque
General tightening torque
Nm
M6 standard screw 8.8 ........................................... 10 ±1.5 (±1.1 lbf-ft)
M8 standard screw 8.8 ........................................... 25 ±4 (18.5±2.9 lbf-ft)
M10 standard screw 8.8 ......................................... 50±8 (36.9±5.9 lbf-ft)
M12 standard screw 8.8 ......................................... 85 ±15 (62.7±11.0 lbf-ft)
M14 standard screw 8.8 ......................................... 140 ±25 (103±18.4 lbf-ft)
M16 standard screw 8.8 ......................................... 220 ±35 (162±25.8 lbf-ft)
Only torqued screws can be re-installed.
Torque and angle tightened / plastic limit tightened screws:
8.8 ...................................................................... should not be re-installed
10.9 .................................................................... can be re-installed
12.9 .................................................................... can be re-installed
IMPORTANT! Check screws which are to be re-installed. Damaged screws, with marks of seizure etc. under the
heads, must be scrapped.
Tightening torque group 21: Engine body
Front engine mounting, engine block ...................... 275 ±45 Nm (202±33lbf-ft)
Front engine mounting, front engine pad ................. 150 ±30 Nm (111±22 lbf-ft)
Main bearing caps
Stage 1 ............................................................... 150 ±20 Nm (111±15 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 120° ±5° angle tightening
Big end bearing cap
Stage 1 ............................................................... 20 ±3 Nm (15±2 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 35 ±3 Nm (26±2 lbf-ft)
Stage 3 ............................................................... 90° ±5° angle tightening
Stiffening frame ..................................................... 48 ±8 Nm (35±6 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Tighten the screws in sequence, from the center and outwards.
23
Technical data
Flywheel
NOTE! Make sure that the flange is clean and dry.
NOTE! Tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
Stage 1 ............................................................... 60 ±5 Nm (44±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 120° ±10° angle tightening
Bell housing
NOTE! Apply 2 mm silicone sealer as in the illustration.
M12 screws ........................................................... 85 ±15 Nm (63±4 lbf-ft)
M14 screws ........................................................... 140 ±25 Nm (103±18 lbf-ft)
24
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
12
1
10
3
8
6
5
7
2
9
4
11
Vibration damper, camshaft
Stage 1 ............................................................... 45 ±5 Nm (33±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 90° ±5° angle tightening
NOTE! Tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
NOTE! The 8.8 screws on the vibration damper must not be re-used.
Housing, crankcase seal ............................. 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Apply 2mm silicone sealer as in the illustration.
Valve housing. .............................................. 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
25
Technical data
Oil cooler, housing ...................................... 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Tighten the screws in sequence, from the center and outwards.
Cylinder head
NOTE! Tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
Stage 1 ............................................................... 60 ±10 Nm (44±7 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 (check tightening) .................................. 60 ±10 Nm (44±7 lbf-ft)
Stage 3 ............................................................... 120° ± 5° angle tightening
Stage 4 ............................................................... 90° ±5° angle tightening
Core plugs, cylinder head ....................................... 60 ±10 Nm (44±7 lbf-ft)
Lock nut, valve adjustment screw .......................... 60 ±5 Nm (44±4 lbf-ft)
26
Group 20
Group 20
Technical data
Bearing caps, camshaft / rocker arm shaft
NOTE! Tighten the screws in stages, to ensure that the rocker arm shaft
comes down without being bent.
Stage 1: Torque screws 1-7 to ............................... 15 ±3 Nm (11±2 lbf-ft)
Stage 2: Torque screws 9, 11, 13. ......................... 60 ±5 Nm (44±4 lbf-ft)
Start with screw 11.
Stage 3: Torque screws 8, 10, 12, 14. ................... 60 ±5 Nm (44±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 4: Loosen screws 9, 11, 13. ......................... –
Stage 5: Torque screws 9, 11, 13. ......................... 60 ±5 Nm (44±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 6: Tighten screws 1-7. ................................. 90° ±5° angle tightening
Stage 7: Tighten screws 8-14. ............................... 120° ±5° angle tightening
27
Technical data
Apply silicone sealer to the rear edge of the cylinder
head and the engine block.
Group 20
Tighten the screws in number order.
Timing gear plate ......................................... 24 ±4 Nm (13±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Apply silicone sealer and tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
Timing gear cover, upper ............................ 24 ±4 Nm (13±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Apply 2 mm silicone sealer as in the illustration.
28
Group 20
Technical data
Timing
1 Drive gear, crankshaft ............................................................. 24 ±4 Nm (13±3 lbf-ft)
2 Idler wheel, double gear
Apply thread locking fluid 1161053 to the screws and tighten them in number order, as in the illustration.
Stage 1 ..................................................................................... 35 ±4 Nm (26±3 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ..................................................................................... 60° ±5° angle tightening
3 Idler wheel, adjustable
Tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
Stage 1 ..................................................................................... 35 ±4 Nm (26±3 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ..................................................................................... 120° ±5° angle tightening
4 Drive gear, camshaft
Tighten the screws in number order, as in the illustration.
Stage 1 ..................................................................................... 45 ±5 Nm (33±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ..................................................................................... 90° ±5° angle tightening
5 Drive wheel, steering servo and fuel feed pump ................... 100 ±10 Nm (74±7 lbf-ft)
6 Drive wheel, air compressor ................................................... 200+50
-0 Nm(148-0±37 lbf-ft)
29
Technical data
Tightening torque group 22: Lubricating system
Oil sump ................................................................ 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Tighten the screws in sequence, from the center and outwards.
Drain plug, oil sump ............................................... 60 ±5 Nm (44±4 lbf-ft)
Bracket, oil pump/main bearing caps ..................... 24 ±4 Nm (13±3 lbf-ft)
Oil strainer, retaining screws .................................. 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
Oil cooler, retaining screws .................................... 27 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
Tightening torque group 23: Fuel system
Feed pump - steering servo pump .......................... 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
Fixing yoke, unit injector (new copper sleeve)
First tightening
Stage 1 ............................................................... 20 ±5 Nm (15±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 180° ±5° angle tightening
Loosen the fastening yoke screw before doing the second tightening.
Second tightening
Stage 1 ............................................................... 20 ±5 Nm (15±4 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 60° ±5° angle tightening
Fixing yoke, unit injector (re-used copper sleeve)
Stage 1 ............................................................... 20 ±5 Nm (14±3 lbf-ft)
Stage 2 ............................................................... 60° ±5° angle tightening
Locknut for rocker adjuster screw, unit injector
Stage 1 ............................................................... tighten until contact
Stage 2 .............................................................. 45° ±5° angle tightening
Locknut, valve adjustment
Stage 1 ............................................................... tighten until contact
Stage 2 ............................................................... 60° ±5° angle tightening
Hollow screw M16 x 1.5 ......................................... 50 ±8 Nm
Hollow screw M10 x 1 ............................................ 25 ±4 Nm
30
Group 20
Group 20
Tightening tourqe group 25, Intake and exhaust system
Inlet pipe ......................................................... 24 ±4 Nm (18±3 lbf-ft)
NOTE! Apply 2mm silicone sealer as in the illustration.
Plug, M10 .............................................................. 20 ±3 Nm (15±3 lbf-ft)
Pressure/temperature sensor, charge air ................ 12 ±2 Nm (9±2 lbf-ft)
Exhaust collector pipe
Stage 1: Tighten the screws until they just touch ...................... 5 ±1.5 Nm (4±1 lbf-ft)
Stage 2: Torque screws 1 and 8 ................................................ 10 ±1.5 Nm (7±1 lbf-ft)
Stage 3: Torque screws 3 and 10 .............................................. 10 ±1.5 Nm (7±1 lbf-ft)
Stage 4: Torque screws 5 and 12 .............................................. 10 ±1.5 Nm (7±1 lbf-ft)
Stage 5: Torque screws 2 and 7 ................................................ 48 ±8 Nm (35±6 lbf-ft)
Stage 6: Torque screws 4 and 9 ................................................ 48 ±8 Nm (35±6 lbf-ft)
Stage 7: Torque screws 6 and 11 .............................................. 48 ±8 Nm (35±2 lbf-ft)
Stage 8: Torque screws 1 and 8 ................................................ 48 ±8 Nm (35±2 lbf-ft)
Stage 9: Torque screws 3 and 10 .............................................. 48 ±8 Nm (35±2 lbf-ft)
Stage 10: Torque screws 5 and 12 ............................................ 48 ±8 Nm (35±2 lbf-ft)
32
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them to us. The address is at the bottom. We would prefer you to write in
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From: ......................................................................
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Refers to publication: ................................................................................................................................
Publication No.: .................................. Date of issue: ................................................................................
Proposal/motivation: .................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
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Date: ..................................................................................
Signed: ..............................................................................
AB Volvo Penta
Technical Information
Dept. 42200
SE-405 08 Göteborg
Sweden
7745012 English 06–2005
Workshop Manual
Group 21-26
I
4(0)
TAD940GE, TAD941GE
TAD940VE, TAD941VE TAD942VE, TAD943VE
Workshop Manual
Group 21-26
Industrial engine
TAD940GE, TAD941GE
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE
Contents
Safety information ................................................... 3
Introduction ............................................................... 3
General information ................................................ 6
About this Workshop Manual .................................... 6
Flat Rates ................................................................. 6
Spare parts ............................................................... 6
Certified engines ....................................................... 6
Repair instructions .................................................. 7
Our joint responsibility ............................................... 7
Torque ...................................................................... 7
Torquing with Protractor tightening
(angle tightening) ....................................................... 8
Lock nuts .................................................................. 8
Strength classes ....................................................... 8
Sealant ..................................................................... 8
Safety rules for
fluorocarbon rubber ................................................... 9
Special tools .......................................................... 10
Other special equipment .......................................... 14
Design and function ............................................... 15
Group 21: Engine body .......................................... 15
Cylinder head ........................................................... 15
Cylinder block .......................................................... 16
Cylinder liner ............................................................ 17
Pistons and connecting rods .................................... 18
Crankshaft ............................................................... 19
Camshaft ................................................................. 20
Transmission ........................................................... 21
Group 22 Lubrication system ................................ 22
Piston cooling .......................................................... 23
Valves ..................................................................... 24
Group 23 Fuel system ............................................ 25
Functional description, fuel system .......................... 26
Control module ......................................................... 27
Unit injector, work phases ........................................ 28
Group 25 Intake and exhaust system .................... 30
Turbocharger ............................................................ 30
Group 26 Cooling system ...................................... 31
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments ............ 32
Symptoms and possible causes .............................. 32
Operational disturbances .......................................... 33
Clogging ................................................................... 33
Placement of instrument socket ............................... 34
Sensor overview ...................................................... 35
Compression test ..................................................... 36
Cooling system, pressure-testing ............................. 39
Boost pressure, troubleshooting ............................... 40
Turbocharger, checking ............................................ 42
Exposing engine .................................................... 43
Fixture fitting ............................................................ 45
Engine body, general overhaul ............................. 46
Cylinder head, removal ............................................. 46
Pistons, removal ...................................................... 56
Transmission, removal ............................................. 58
Crankshaft, removal ................................................. 60
Crankshaft, refitting .................................................. 60
Transmission, fitting ................................................. 61
Cylinder liner, fitting ................................................. 64
Piston, pre-fitting ...................................................... 65
Pistons, fitting .......................................................... 67
Piston cooling nozzle, fitting .................................... 67
Cylinder head, refitting ............................................. 70
Camshaft, refitting ................................................... 72
Gear backlash, adjusting .......................................... 74
Unit injector, refitting ................................................ 76
Adjustment markings ............................................... 77
Valves and injectors, adjusting ................................ 77
Reconditioning / replacing components .............. 81
Group 21: Engine body .......................................... 81
Cylinder liner and pistons, inspection ....................... 81
Cylinder liner and pistons, replacing (all) .................. 82
Crankshaft, inspection ............................................. 88
Main bearings, replacing .......................................... 89
Crank bearing, replacing (all) .................................... 92
Flywheel bearing, replacing ...................................... 93
Flywheel, replacing .................................................. 94
Ring gear, replacing ................................................. 95
Flywheel sensor distance, checking ......................... 96
Flywheel, checking for warp ..................................... 97
Crankshaft seal, front, replacing ............................... 98
Crankshaft seal, rear, replacing ............................... 100
Connecting rod, checking ........................................ 103
Connecting rod bushing, check measurement ......... 103
Valves, removal ...................................................... 104
Valves, fitting .......................................................... 106
Valve seat, replacing .............................................. 107
Valve guides, inspection ......................................... 109
Valve guides, replacing ........................................... 110
1
Valve stem seals, replacing .................................... 111
Valve seat, grinding ................................................ 113
Valves, grinding ...................................................... 114
Cylinder head, pressure testing ............................... 115
Copper sleeve for unit injector, replacing ................. 118
Camshaft, checking for wear ................................... 122
Camshaft bearing housing, replacing ....................... 123
Camshaft sensor distance ...................................... 124
Transmission, replacing .......................................... 125
Group 22: Lubrication system .............................. 131
When working with chemicals,
fuel and lubricating oil ............................................. 131
Overview, control valves ......................................... 131
Pressure reduction valve, replacing ........................ 132
Bypass valve, oil filter, replacing ............................. 132
Oil pressure safety valve, replacing ........................ 133
Piston cooling valves, replacing .............................. 133
Bypass valve, oil filter, full flow, replacing ............... 134
Engine oil and oil filters, replacing ........................... 135
Oil pressure sensor, checking ................................. 136
Oil filters, checking ................................................. 136
Pressure reduction valve, checking ........................ 137
Oil pump, checking ................................................. 138
Oil pump, replacing ................................................. 139
Oil cooler ................................................................ 141
Oil cooler, leakage test ........................................... 143
Bypass valve oil cooler, replacing ........................... 144
Group 23: Fuel system .......................................... 145
Control module, replacing ........................................ 145
Fuel filters, replacing ............................................... 147
Primary fuel filter, change ....................................... 148
Fuel feed pump, replacing ....................................... 149
Electric pump, replacing .......................................... 150
Unit injector, replacing ............................................. 152
Venting the fuel system .......................................... 155
Group 25: Inlet / exhaust systems ....................... 156
Turbo, replacing ...................................................... 156
Group 26: Cooling system .................................... 158
Cooling system, draining ......................................... 158
Cooling system, cleaning ........................................ 159
Cooling system, pressure-testing ............................ 160
Cooling system, filling ............................................. 161
Coolant pump, replacing .......................................... 162
Thermostat, functional check .................................. 163
Thermostat, replacing ............................................. 163
Coolant filter, changing ............................................ 164
Alternator belt/ Drive belt, checking ........................ 165
Drive belt, changing ................................................ 165
Alternator belts, changing ....................................... 166
2
Safety information
Safety information
Introduction
This Workshop Manual contains descriptions and instructions for the repair of the Volvo Penta products or
product versions. Check that you have the correct
Workshop Manual for your engine.
Before starting work on the engine, read these safety precautions with care as well as ”General information” and ”Service procedures”.
Important
In this book and on the product you will find the following special warning symbols.
WARNING! Possible danger of personal injury,
extensive damage to property or serious mechanical malfunction if the instructions are not followed.
IMPORTANT! Used to draw your attention to something that can cause damage or malfunctions
on a product or damage to property.
NOTE: Used to draw your attention to important information that will facilitate the work or operation in
progress.
Below is a summary of the risks involved and safety
precautions you should always observe or carry out when
operating or servicing the engine.
Immobilize the engine by turning off the power
supply to the engine at the main switch
(switches) and lock it (them) turned off before
starting work. Set up a warning notice at the engine control point.
As a general rule all service operations must be
carried out with the engine stopped. However,
some work, for example
certain adjustments require that the engine is
running when they are carried out. Approaching
an engine which is operating is a safety hazard.
Loose clothing or long hair can fasten in rotating
parts and cause serious personal injury.
If working in proximity of an engine which is
operating, careless movements or a dropped
tool can result in personal injury.
Take care to avoid contact with hot surfaces
(exhaust pipes, Turbocharger (TC), air intake
pipe, starter heater etc.) and hot liquids in lines
and hoses on an engine which is running or
which has just been stopped. Reinstall all protective parts removed during service operations
before starting the engine.
Check that the warning or information labels on
the product are always clearly visible. Replace
labels which have been damaged or painted
over.
Never start the engine without installing the air
cleaner (ACL) filter. The rotating compressor in
the Turbo can cause serious personal injury.
Foreign objects entering the intake ducts can
also cause mechanical damage.
Never use start spray products or similar when
starting the engine. They may cause an explosion in the inlet manifold. Danger of personal injury.
Only start the engine in a well- ventilated area.
If operating the engine in an enclosed area ensure that there is exhaust ventilation leading out
of the engine compartment or workshop area.
Avoid opening the coolant filler cap when the
engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant can spray
out and the system pressure will be lost. When
needed, open the filler cap slowly and release
the pressure in the system. Be very careful if a
cock or plug or engine coolant line must be
removed when the engine is hot. It is difficult to
anticipate in which direction steam or hot coolant can spray out.
Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid getting hot oil on
the skin. Ensure that the lubrication system is
not under pressure before carrying out any
work. Never start or operate the engine with the
oil filler cap removed, otherwise oil could be
ejected.
Stop the engine before carrying out operations
on the engine cooling system.
3
Safety information
Always use protective glasses or goggles when
carrying out work where there is a risk of splinters, grinding sparks, acid splashes or where other chemicals are used. The eyes are extremely
sensitive. An injury could result in blindness!
Avoid getting oil on the skin! Repeated exposure
to oil or exposure over a long period can result
in the skin becoming dry. Irritation, dryness and
eczema and other skin problems can then occur. Used oil is more dangerous than fresh oil
from a health aspect. Use protective gloves and
avoid oil soaked clothes and shop rags. Wash
regularly, especially before eating. There are
special skin creams which counteract drying out
of the skin and make it easier to clean off dirt
after work is completed.
Many chemicals used on the product (such as
engine and transmission oils, glycol, gasoline
and diesel oil), or chemicals used in the workshop (such as degreasers, paint and solvents)
are hazardous to health. Read the instructions
on the product packaging with care! Always follow the safety precautions for the product (for
example use of protective mask, glasses, gloves etc.). Make sure that other personnel are
not exposed to hazardous chemicals, for example in the air. Ensure good ventilation in the
work place. Follow the instructions provided
when disposing of used or leftover chemicals.
Exercise extreme care when leak detecting on
the fuel system and testing the fuel injector
nozzles. Use eye protection. The jet from a fuel
injector nozzle is under extremely high pressure
and has great penetrative energy, so the fuel
can penetrate deep into the body tissue and
cause serious personal injury. Danger of blood
poisoning.
WARNING! The delivery pipes must under no
circumstances be bent. Damaged pipes should
be replaced.
All fuels and many chemical substances are
flammable. Do not allow naked flame or sparks
in the vicinity. Certain thinner products and hydrogen from batteries can be extremely flammable and explosive when mixed with air in the
right proportions. No Smoking! Ensure that the
work area is well ventilated and take the necessary safety precautions before starting welding
or grinding work. Always ensure that there are
fire extinguishers at hand when work is being
carried out.
4
Ensure that rags soaked in oil or fuel and used
fuel or oil filters are stored safely. Rags soaked
in oil can spontaneously ignite under certain circumstances. Used fuel and oil filters are environmentally dangerous waste and must be deposited at an approved site for destruction together with used oil, contaminated fuel, left
over paint, solvents, degreasers and waste
from washing parts.
Never expose a battery to naked flame or electrical sparks. Never smoke close to the batteries. The batteries give off hydrogen gas during
charging which when mixed with air can form an
explosive gas - oxyhydrogen. This gas is easily
ignited and highly volatile. Incorrect connection
of the battery can cause a single spark which is
sufficient to cause an explosion with resulting
damage. Do not shift the connections when attempting to start the engine (spark risk) and do
not lean over any of the batteries.
Always ensure that the Plus (positive) and Minus (negative) battery cables are correctly installed on the corresponding terminal posts on
the batteries. Incorrect installation can result in
serious damage to the electrical equipment. Refer to the wiring diagram.
Always use protective goggles when charging
and handling the batteries. Battery electrolyte
contains sulfuric acid which is highly corrosive.
Should the battery electrolyte come into contact with unprotected skin wash off immediately
using plenty of water and soap. If battery acid
comes in contact with the eyes, immediately
flush with plenty of water and obtain medical
assistance at once.
Turn the engine off and turn off the power at the
main switch(es) before carrying out work on the
electrical system.
Clutch adjustments must be carried out with the
engine stopped.
Safety information
Use the lifting eyes fitted on the engine when
lifting the drive unit. Always check that the
lifting equipment used is in good condition and
has the load capacity to lift the engine (engine
weight including gearbox, if fitted, and any extra
equipment installed). Use an adjustable lifting
beam or lifting beam specifically for the engine
to raise the engine to ensure safe handling and
to avoid damaging engine parts installed on the
top of the engine. All chains and cables should
run parallel to each other and as perpendicular
as possible in relation to the top of the engine. If
extra equipment is installed on the engine which
alters its center of gravity a special lifting device
is required to obtain the correct balance for safe
handling.
Never carry out work on an engine suspended
on a hoist.
Never work alone when removing heavy engine
components, even when using lifting devices
such as locking tackle lifts. When using a lifting
device two people are usually required to do the
work, one to take care of the lifting device and
another to ensure that components are lifted clear and not damaged during the lifting operations.
WARNING! The components in the electrical
system and in the fuel system on Volvo Penta
products are designed and manufactured to minimize the risk of fire and explosion. The engine
must not be run in areas where there are explosive materials.
Always use the fuels recommended by Volvo
Penta. Refer to the Instruction Book. Use of fuels that are of a lower quality can damage the
engine. On a diesel engine poor quality fuel can
cause the control rod to seize and the engine to
overrev with resulting risk of damage to the engine and personal injury. Poor fuel quality can
also lead to higher maintenance costs.
Remember the following when washing with a
high pressure washer: Never direct the water jet
at seals, rubber hoses, electrical components or
the radiator. Never use the high pressure feature
when cleaning an engine.
Always check before starting work if there is
enough room to carry out removal work without
risking personal injury or damage to the engine
or parts.
© 2004 AB VOLVO PENTA
We reserve the right to make changes.
Printed on environmentally-friendly paper.
5
General information
General information
About this Workshop Manual
This Workshop Manual contains descriptions
and instructions for the repair of standard engine version TAD940GE, TAD941GE, TAD940VE, TAD941VE,
TAD942VE and TAD943VE.
The Engine Designation and Engine Numbers can be
found on the product plate.
Please always include both the engine designation and
the engine number in all correspondence.
The Workshop Manual is produced primarily for the use
of Volvo Penta workshops and service technicians. For
this reason the manual presupposes a certain basic
knowledge and that the user can carry out the mechanical/electrical work described to a general standard of
engineering competence.
AB Volvo Penta products are under a continual process
of development and we therefore reserve all rights regarding changes and modifications. All the information
in this manual is based on product specifications available at the time the book was published. Any essential
changes or modifications of the product or revised service methods introduced after the date of publication
will be provided in the form of Service Bulletins.
Certified engines
Manufacturer warrants that both new and currently operating engines that are certified to national and regional
environmental regulations meet environmental requirements. The product must correspond to the engine that
was approved during certification. In order that Volvo
Penta, as manufacturer, will be able to warrant that engines in operation meet environmental requirements, the
following requirements for service and spare parts must
be met:
●
●
●
●
●
●
Service and maintenance intervals recommended
by Volvo Penta must be followed.
Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended for
the certified engine version may be used.
Service work that covers injection pumps, pump
settings, and injectors must always be carried out
by an authorized Volvo Penta workshop.
The engine must not be altered or modified in any
way, except for accessories and service kits
developed by Volvo Penta for that engine.
No modifications to the exhaust pipes and engine
room air intake pipes are allowed.
Any seals on the engine may not be broken by unauthorized persons.
Flat Rates
IMPORTANT! When spare parts are required,
use only Volvo Penta original parts.
Operation numbers that show in instruction headings
refer to Volvo Penta Flat Rates”
Use of non-original parts will result in AB Volvo
Penta being unable to warrant that the engine
corresponds to the certificated engine version.
Spare parts
Spare parts for the electrical and fuel systems are subject to various national safety requirements. Volvo Penta
Original Spare Parts meet these specifications. Any type
of damage which is the result of using spare parts that
are not original Volvo Penta parts for the product in question will not be covered under any warranty or guarantee
provided by AB Volvo Penta.
6
Any type of damages or costs which are the result
of using spare parts that are not original Volvo Penta
parts for the product in question will not be paid for
by AB Volvo Penta.
Repair instructions
Repair instructions
The working methods described in the Workshop Manual apply to work carried out in a workshop. The engine has been removed and is installed in an engine fixture. Unless otherwise stated reconditioning work which
can be carried out with the engine in place follows the
same working method.
Warning symbols used in this Workshop Manual (for
full explanation of the symbols refer to the section;
”Safety Precautions”
WARNING!
IMPORTANT!
NOTE:
are not in any way comprehensive since it is impossible to predict every circumstance under which service work or repairs may be carried out. AB Volvo Penta
can only indicate the risks considered likely to occur
as a result of incorrect working methods in a well
equipped workshop using working methods and tools
tested by AB Volvo Penta.
All operations described in the Workshop Manual for
which there are Volvo Penta Special Tools available
assume that these tools are used when carrying out
the repair. Volvo Penta Special Tools have been specifically developed to ensure as safe and rational working
methods as possible. It is therefore the responsibility
of anyone using other tools or other working methods
than we recommend to determine that there is no risk
of personal injury or mechanical damage or malfunction
as a result.
In some cases special safety precautions and user instructions may be required in order to use the tools and
chemicals mentioned in the Workshop Manual. Always
follow these precautions. There are no specific instructions given in the Workshop Manual.
By following these basic recommendations and using
common sense it is possible to avoid most of the risks
involved in the work. A clean work place and a clean
engine will eliminate many risks of personal injury and
engine malfunction.
Especially when working on the fuel system, engine
lubrication system, air intake system, turbocharger
unit, bearing seals and seals, it is extremely important
to avoid dirt or foreign objects entering the parts or systems, since this can result in reduced service life or
malfunctions.
Our joint responsibility
Every engine consists of many systems and
components that work together. If one component
deviates from the technical specifications this can
have dramatic consequences on the environmental
impact of the engine even if it is otherwise in good
running order. It is therefore critical that the stated wear
tolerances are observed, that systems which can be
adjusted are correctly set up and that only Volvo Penta
Original Parts are used on the engine. The stated service intervals in the Maintenance Schedule must be
followed.
Some systems, such as the components in the fuel
system, require special expertise and special testing
equipment for service and maintenance. Some
components are factory sealed for environmental and
product specific reasons. Under no circumstances
attempt to service or repair a sealed component unless
the service technician carrying out the work is
authorized to do so.
Bear in mind that most chemical products, incorrectly
used, are hazardous to the environment. Volvo Penta
recommends the use of bio-degradable degreasing
agents for all cleaning of engine components unless
otherwise stated in the Workshop Manual. Pay special
attention to make sure that oils and washing residue
etc are handled correctly for destruction, and do not
unintentionally end up in nature.
Torque
Correct torque for critical joints which must be tightened using a torque wrench are listed under ”Technical
Data - Torque” and stated in the method descriptions in
the Workshop Manual. All torque data apply to cleaned
threads, bolt heads and mating surfaces. Torque data
stated apply to lightly oiled or dry threads. Where
grease, locking or sealing agents are required for
screwed joints this is stated in both the operation
description and in ”torque”. Where no torque is stated
for a joint use the general torque shown in the following
table. The torques stated are a guide and the joint does
not have to be tightened using a torque wrench.
Dimension
Torque
Nm
M5 ................................................. 6
M6 ................................................. 10
M8 ................................................. 25
M10 ............................................... 50
M12 ............................................... 85
M14 ............................................... 140
M16 ............................................... 220
Ibf ft
4.4
7.4
18.4
36.9
62.3
103.3
162.3
7
Repair instructions
Torquing with Protractor tightening (angle tightening)
When torquing with protractor (angle tightening), the
fastener is tightened to a predetermined torque and
then turned a predetermined angle. Example: a 90°
protractor tightening means that the joint is tightened a
further 1/4 turn in one operation after the stated torque
has been applied.
Lock nuts
Do not re-use lock nuts that have been removed during
disassembly operations as these have reduced service
life when re-used. For lock nuts with a plastic insert
such as Nylok® the torque stated in the table is reduced if the Nylok® nut has the same head height as a
standard hexagonal nut without plastic insert. Reduce
the torque by 25% for bolt size 8 mm (0,3150 “) or larger. Where Nylok® nuts are higher, where the metallic
thread is of the same height as a standard hexagonal
nut, the torques given in the as shown in table apply.
Sealant
A number of sealants and locking liquids are used on
the engines. The agents have varying properties and
are used for different types of jointing strengths, operating temperature ranges, resistance to oil and other
chemicals and for the different materials and gap sizes
in the engines.
To ensure service work is correctly carried out it is important that the correct sealant and locking fluid type is
used on the joint where the agents are required.
In this Volvo Penta Workshop Manual the user will find
that each section where these agents are applied in
production states which type was used on the engine.
During service operations, use the same agent or an
alternative from a different manufacturer.
Make sure that mating surfaces are dry and free from
oil, grease, paint and anti-corrosion agent before applying sealant or locking fluid.
always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use
regarding temperature range, curing time and any other
instructions for the product
Two different basic types of agent are used on the engine and these are:
Strength classes
Bolts and nuts are divided up into different classes of
strength; the class is indicated by the number on the
bolt head. A higher number indicates a material with
greater strength. It is therefore important that bolts
removed during the disassembly of a bolted joint must
be reinstalled in their original position when assembling
the joint. If a bolt must be replaced check in the spare
parts catalogue to make sure the correct bolt is used.
RTV agent (Room temperature vulcanizing). Used for
gaskets, sealing gasket joints or coating gaskets. RTV
is visible when a part has been disassembled; old RTV
must be removed before resealing the joint.
The following RTV agents are mentioned in the Workshop Manual: Loctite® 574, Permatex® No. 3, Permatex® No 77. Old sealant can be removed using denatured alcohol in all cases.
Anaerobic agents. These agents cure in an absence of
air. They are used when two solid parts, for example
cast components, are installed face-to-face without a
gasket. They are also commonly used to secure plugs,
threads in stud bolts, cocks, oil pressure switches etc.
The cured material is glass-like and it is therefore colored to make it visible. Cured anaerobic agents are extremely resistant to solvents and the old agent cannot
be removed. When reinstalling the part, degrease it carefully and then apply new sealant.
The following anaerobic agents are mentioned in the
Workshop Manual: Loctite® 572 (white), Loctite® 241
(blue).
NOTE: Loctite® is a registered trademark of Loctite Corporation,
Permatex® is a registered trademark of the Permatex Corporation.
8
Repair instructions
Safety rules for
fluorocarbon rubber
Fluorocarbon rubber is a common material in seal rings
for shafts, and in O-rings, for example.
The following seals are probably made from fluorocarbon rubber:
When fluorocarbon rubber is subjected to high temperatures (above 300°C (572°F)), hydrofluoric acid can
be formed, which is highly corrosive. Contact with the
skin can result in severe chemical burns. Splashes in
your eyes can result in severe chemical burns. If you
breathe in the fumes, your lungs can be permanently
damaged.
Seal rings for the crankshaft, camshaft, intermediate
shafts.
WARNING! Be very careful when working on
engines which have been exposed to high temperatures, e.g. overheating during a seizure or fire.
Seals must never be cut with an oxy-acetylene
torch, or be burned up afterwards in an uncontrolled manner.
●
Always use gloves made of chloroprene rubber (gloves for handling chemicals) and protective goggles.
●
Handle the removed seal in the same way as corrosive acid. All residue, including ash, can be highly
corrosive. Never use compressed air to blow anything clean.
●
Put the rest in a plastic jar which is sealed and provided with a warning label. Wash the gloves under
running water before removing them.
O-rings, regardless of where they are installed. O-rings
for cylinder liner sealing are almost always made from
fluorocarbon rubber.
Note that seals which have not been subjected to
high temperature can be handled normally.
9
Special tools
Special tools
885810
9990046
9990106
9990114
885810
9809699
9990006
9990013
9990044
9990046
9990049
9990050
9990104
9990105
9990106
10
9809699
9990049
9990006
9990050
9990107
9990117
9990013
9990109
9990118
Fixture for upper gear case
Sealing washer for temperature sensor
during pressure testing of cylinder head
Puller, unit injector
Slide hammer
Piston ring compressor
Lifting tool for rocker arm shaft
Drift for replacement of valve guides, inlet
Drift for replacement of valve guides, outlet
Plate for cylinder liner removal/refitting
Sealing washer for cylinder head pressure
testing
Thermostat housing sealing washer
9990107
9990109
9990112
9990113
9990114
9990117
9990118
9990123
9990124
9990044
9990104
9990112
9990123
9990105
9990113
9990124
Connection washer for thermostat housing
at cylinder head pressure testing
Engine fixture
Drift, removal of front crankshaft seal
Drift, removal of rear crankshaft seal
Puller for main bearing caps
Cone, refitting rear crankshaft seal
Cone, refitting front crankshaft seal
Pressure testing device
Nipple for checking of the fuel delivery
pipes
Special tools
9990125
9990210
9990156
9991801
9992564
9996049
9990125
9990156
9990160
9990176
9990192
9990210
9991801
9991821
9992000
9992063
9990160
9991821
9992620
9996159
9990176
9992000
9992873
9996161
Nipple for checking of boost pressure
gauge, with 4 mm hose
Sealing plug adapter 9998251
Cylinder head fixture
Press tool for removal/refitting of valve
springs and valve guides
Puller for rear crankshaft seal, is used together with 9996400
Valve spring compressor
Handle, replacing flywheel bearing
Slide hammer, replacing flywheel
bearing
Drift
Puller, crankshaft drive
9992479
9992564
9992620
9992873
9993590
9996049
9996159
9996161
9996222
9996239
9996222
9990192
9992479
9993590
9996239
Holder for dial indicator
Drift, replacing flywheel bearing
Drift, refitting of crankshaft drive
Connecting nipple for pressure checking
Turning tool
Coolant drain tube
Adapter for hydraulic cylinder, is used with
9996161
Hydraulic cylinder, used with 9990176
Pneumatic hydraulic pump, used with
9996161
Lifting chain, removal/refitting of cylinder
head and flywheel casing, 2 ea required
11
Special tools
9996394
9996645
9998246
9998252
9996394
9996395
9996398
9996400
9996441
9996645
9996662
9996666
9996845
12
9996395
99966398
9996662
9996400
9996666
9998248
9996845
9998249
9998253
Spacer for removal of cylinder liner, 2 ea
are used with 9996645
Spacer for removal of cylinder liner, 2 ea
are used with 9996645
Pressure gauge with quick-connect,
1.5 MPa
Slide hammer for removal of protection
plug 999 8251 for cylinder head. 3) Also for
removal of rear crankshaft seal together
with 885 341.
Cover with connecting nipple for cooling
system leakage test
Cylinder liner puller
Pressure testing device
Connecting nipple for pressure checking
Screw clamp for oil cooler pressure testing, 2 ea required
9998263
9996966
9998246
9998248
9998249
9998250
9998251
9998252
9998250
9996441
9996966
9998251
9998264
Cylinder liner press tool (7 ea are required)
Drift, removal/refitting of valve springs
Adapter for measuring compression pressure
Protective sleeve for unit injector (6 ea required)
Sealing ring for fuel channel in the cylinder
head when replacing copper sleeve, 2 ea
required
Protection plugs for cylinder head (6 ea
required)
Thread cutting tool. Consists of: 980 9667
(M9) and 998 7009 (M8). For D9, only 9809667 is
used for removal of unit injector copper sleeve
9998253
Copper sleeve puller. Consists of: 9809746
(M8) and 9809668. For D9, only 9809668 is used
9998263
9998264
Drift for removing valve guide
Lifting yoke for camshaft
Special tools
9998335
9998494
9998599
9998335
9998339
9998487
9998493
9998494
9998502
9998511
9998517
9998339
9998487
9998502
9998601
9998493
9998511
9998688
Guide sleeve for valve stem seal
Pressure gauge
Socket for removal of oil filters
Hose for checking boost pressure
Hose (red) with nipple for measuring of the
fuel delivery pipes, used with 9990123
Hose (green) for cooling system pressure
testing, used with 9990123
Crowbar
Tool for checking/adjustment of flywheel
and camshaft wheel sensor distance.
9998599
9999179
9999314
Unit injector cleaning kit. Consists of:
959239
9808570
980 8607
980 8613
980 8614
980 8615
980 8616
980 8617
980 8618
980 8634
9998580
9998601
9998688
9999179
9999314
9998517
Screw M10
Brush
Holder
Holder
Brush
Holder
Handle
Brush
Brush
Brush kit
Socket
Fixture for upper gear case
Expander, replacing copper sleeve
Filter puller
Hose fitting
13
Special tools
Other special equipment
885531
999 9683
885531
9986485
9988539
9989876
9999683
9999696
14
9986485
9999696
Pressure-testing equipment,
cooling system
Assembly stand
Compression gauge
Dial indicator
Dial indicator
Magnetic stand
998 8539
9989876
Design and function
Design and function
Group 21: Engine body
Cylinder head
The cylinder head is cast in one piece of alloyed cast
iron and covers all cylinders
It is equipped with an overhead camshaft and is held
by 26 ea M16 screws that are evenly spaced around
the cylinder.
The cylinder head has separate inlet- and outlet channels with cross-flow for each cylinder.
The valve guides are made of alloyed cast iron and all
valve guides have oil seals. The valve seats are replaceable and made of steel.
The four valve system and valve placements are
turned 12 ° in relation to the cylinder head cross-section.
The engine is a low exhaust emission engine and no
machining may be performed that will change the position of the injectors in relation to the combustion chamber, such as cylinder head face-grinding or copper
sleeve seat milling.
15
Design and function
Cylinder block
The cylinder block is made of alloyed cast iron and
cast in one piece. It is equipped with wet, replaceable
cylinder liners.
The cylinder block sides are cup-shaped around each
cylinder in order to obtain high rigidity and good sound
proofing.
At the lower level of the block, a bracing frame of 5
mm steel plate is mounted to decrease vibrations and
thus also engine noise.
The oil pan is made of plastic and mounted with 18
spring loaded screws in the cylinder block foot.
The cylinder block main bearing caps are made of ductile cast iron and machined together with the cylinder
block. In order to avoid incorrect placement the thrust
bearing caps 1-3, 5 and 6 are numbered and feature
cast bosses in both caps and blocks. The thrust bearing caps are also controlled by sockets that are
pressed into the block screw holes.
The lubricating oil pump is secured to the rear main
bearing cap, no. 7. The thrust bearing is placed on the
middle one, no. 4.
16
The cylinder head gasket is made of massive steel in
one piece, for the whole engine. The gasket incorporates vulcanized rubber seals for oil and coolant passthrough. The gasket also has a number of convex embossings in order for the cylinder to slide on the gasket
during the fitting, and not damage the rubber rings in
the gasket.
The cylinder head is lowered towards the guide pins in
the cylinder block leaving a small distance to the transmission plate. The cylinder head is then pulled horizontally towards the transmission plate. When in place, it
is screwed against the cylinder block and the embossings are flattened out.
Design and function
Cylinder liner
The cylinder block is equipped with wet, replaceable
cylinder liners.
The coolant space around the cylinder liners is sealed
against the cylinder block with three sealing rings. The
upper part of cylinder liner is sealed with a ring placed
under the liner collar. This ring is made of EPDM rubber.
The lower part of cylinder liner is sealed using two rubber rings. The top one, closest to the coolant, is made
of EPDM rubber (black) and the lower one towards the
oil side is made of fluorocarbon rubber(purple).
17
Design and function
Pistons and connecting rods
The pistons are made of aluminum and are cooled by
lubricating oil that via piston cooling nozzles in the cylinder block is sprayed up through a channel in the piston to a cooling coil in the piston head and is drained
via a channel between the piston and the connecting
rod.
The piston pin bushing is lubricated via a lube channel
in the bushing and the piston rings are lubricated in the
usual manner.
The piston has three rings; on top a compression ring
type ”Keystone”, in the middle a compression ring with
a rectangular cross-section and at the bottom a spring
loaded oil wiper ring.
18
The connecting rods are forged from steel. The lower
crank bearing is ”split” i.e. divided through a flat unmachined surface.
The upper part of the connecting rod has unmachined
sides and its trapezoidal form allows the forces from
the piston to spread optimally to the connecting rod.
Design and function
Crankshaft
The crankshaft is drop-forged in one piece and induction-hardened on the bearing surfaces for increased
strength and decreased risk of cracks.
The crankshaft has 7 main bearings, each crank bearing is placed between two main bearings. The thrust
bearings are located in the center main bearing. Both
main bearings and connecting rod bearings have steel
cups that are lead nickel plated and lined with lead
bronze.
The crankshaft can be ground and has five undersize
dimensions.
In the rear and the front the crankshaft has an integrated hub for attaching a transmission wheel (rear) and a
vibration damper/belt pulley (front), respectively.
In the front cover cap, a Teflon seal seals against the
crankshaft front end. The Teflon seal features an outer
felt coating that protects against dust.
In the vibration damper housing there is a freely rotating steel ring that works as inertial mass. Between the
steel ring and the house the damper is filled with a high
viscosity silicon oil. The vibrations are reduced by the
oil equalizing the crankshaft’s pulsating rotation and
the steel ring’s even rotation.
The crankshaft transmission wheel is placed on the
rear end of the crankshaft. A guide pin on the wheel in
the crankshaft prevents the wheel from being installed
incorrectly. A sealing ring of silicone sealing between
the crankshaft and the transmission wheel is situated
on the crank shaft end.
The combined gear case/flywheel casing is located
around the crankshaft transmission wheel and the flywheel. A Teflon seal seals between the flywheel casing
and the crankshaft transmission wheel, with an outer
felt coating that protects against dust.
The crankshaft transmission wheel features a guide pin
directed towards the back that fits in the flywheel, so
that it cannot be installed incorrectly. The flywheel
bolts are fastened through the flywheel, the crankshaft
drive and into the crankshaft.
The flywheel peripheral surface has a number of milled
groves for the injection system speed sensor.
19
Design and function
Camshaft
The overhead camshaft is induction-hardened. The
bearing pins can be ground with replaceable bearing
shells as spare parts.
The camshaft is journalled in seven bearing housings
that are machined together and numbered 1-7, viewed
from the engine front edge. The rear the bearing is a
thrust bearing.
The camshaft has three tappets per cylinder. One for
the intake valves, one for the exhaust valves and a
tappet in the middle for the unit injector.
The camshaft drive is installed on the rear flange of the
camshaft with a hydraulic vibration damper on the outside. Both the camshaft drive and vibration damper has
holes for the guide pin from the camshaft in order to
avoid incorrect installation. The vibration damper has
teeth that signal the camshaft sensor.
A flange that shows the camshaft’s mark, numbers 1-6
and TDC (Top Dead Center) is located in front of the
rear bearing housing. TDC is used for the camshaft’s
initial setting and should be between the two lines on
the bearing housing when the flywheel is at the 0°
mark. The number marking are used when adjusting
valves and injectors.
20
Screwed onto the camshaft cap is a rocker arm shaft.
Journalled on it are rocker arms with pressed-in surface
treated steel bushings. A floating valve yoke transfers
the rocker arm movement to the valves. The rocker
arm contact with the camshaft is carried out via a roller
and against the valve yoke with a ball cup and an adjustment screw.
Both inlet and exhaust valves have double springs.
The valve guides are made of alloyed cast iron and the
valve seats are made of steel, both are also replaceable as spare parts. All valve guides are equipped with
oil seals.
Design and function
1. Camshaft drive
2. Upper intermediate gear
3. Intermediate gear, double
4. Lower intermediate gear
5. Crankshaft drive
6. Oil pump drive wheel
7. Fuel feed pump / servo pump drive wheel
Transmission
The transmission is placed on the engine’s rear edge
on a 6 mm thick steel plate that is screwed into the
cylinder head and the cylinderblock, fixed with two
guide sleeves and a guide pin. All wheels are angle-cut
and nitride hardened.
The crankshaft gear (5) also works as a spacers between the crank shaft flange and the flywheel. It is
screwed on with 12 ea pass-through screws and fixed
to the crankshaft with two socket head cap screws and
a guide pin.
Above the crankshaft wheel is a intermediate wheel (3)
consisting of two gears screwed together. The wheels
are pre-installed on a hub journalled in two conical roller
bearings. The inner wheel drives the upper (adjustable)
intermediate gear (2) which in turn drives the camshaft
wheel (1) and is journalled in a bushing on the hub.
The backlash shall be adjusted between the upper intermediate gear (2) and the camshaft wheel (1) when
the transmission has been serviced.
Camshaft wheel (1) is screwed into the camshaft
flange and controlled by a guide pin. The vibration
damper with teeth for the camshaft sensor is installed
on the outside.
The lower intermediate gear (4) is journalled in a tworow ball bearing and drives the combined fuel pump/
servo pump. The wheel is fastened with a screw
through the flywheel casing and is threaded into the
cylinder block.
Drive wheel (7) is installed on the servo pump passthrough shaft, which also drives the fuel feed pump.
The oil pump drive wheel (6) is powered by the crankshaft gear.
21
Design and function
Group 22 Lubrication system
The engine is pressure lubricated by a gear wheel
pump connect to the engine’s transmission. The oil
flow is controlled by 7 valves.
The lubricating oil pump is driven directly by the crankshaft gear and pressures oil to two full-flow filters and
one turbo filter (bypass filter). The turbo filter has low
through-flow and a high degree of filtration.
Along the cylinder block, two channels are drilled,
where the one in the right-hand side of the block is the
lubricating oil channel that supplies all bearings on the
crank mechanism with oil. The lubricating oil channel is
the plugged at the front edge.
The second channel, in the left side of the block, is the
piston cooling duct that supplies the pistons with oil for
cooling and lubrication. The piston cooling duct is
plugged at both ends.
All bearings in the cylinder head are lubricated from the
hollow rocker arm shaft connected with the cylinder
block via a cast channel in the block’s rear edge.
22
The oil pump housing is made of aluminum. The pump
is installed on the engine’s rear main bearing cap and
is driven directly by the crankshaft drive. The oil pump
housing and the two pump wheels are machined together and cannot be exchanged separately. The pump
wheel shafts are journalled directly in the oil pump
housing. Suction and delivery pipes are made of steel
and are sealed against the pump cover and the oil dispenser house with rubber seals. The suction strainer is
made from aluminum.
The oil dispenser house is screwed into the cylinder
block foot and acts as a bracket for the suction strainer
and oil pump safety valve.
The oil cooler is of a flat type and placed on the righthand side of the engine, on the inside of the cooling
jacket side door and totally enclosed in coolant.
Design and function
1
2
Piston cooling
Oil for the piston cooling is filtered through the full-flow
filters and is controlled by two spring loaded sleeve
valves. Valve (1) senses the pressure to and from the
piston cooling valve and is in direct connection with the
filtered oil channel. Valve (2) is a control valve and
gives a constant piston cooling pressure regardless of
engine rpm.
The opening valve (1) is a spring loaded sleeve valve
that opens and closes the oil flow. Opens at >2,5 bar
(36,26 psi), closes at <2,5 bar (36,26 psi).
The pressure regulating valve (2) for piston cooling is a
spring loaded sleeve valve. Oil enters through the lower
chamber and passes the hole in the wall to the upper
chamber. The pressure from the oil that is led upwards
via the channel pushes the sleeve down. The sleeve
waist controls the flow through the wall and thus piston
cooling pressure, which is held constant.
The piston is cooled by oil using so called cavity cooling. The oil is sprayed vertically up in a channel in the
piston via the piston cooling nozzle in the cylinder
block. The oil then continues up to a circular channel in
the top of the piston and is drained via a channel between the piston and the connecting rod.
Piston pin bushing lubrication is done via groves in the
bushings.
23
Design and function
4
3
5
2
6
1
7
1. Safety valve, oil pump
The safety valve opens when oil pressure is too high
and the oil escapes back to the oil sump. The valves is
a safety valve and is marked purple.
2. Bypass valve, turbo filter (bypass filter)
The bypass valve opens (>1,1 bar (15,95 psi)) if the filter becomes blocked and thus the turbo lubrication is
assured.
3. Bypass valve, oil cooler
The valve leads the oil past the oil cooler when the engine oil is cold. The valve senses pressure and opens
at high viscosity.
4. Oil pressure limiting valve (reduction valve)
The pressure limiting valve guides the oil pressure by
opening at high pressure, allowing excess oil to flow
back to the oil pan. The valve is a safety valve and is
marked blue.
24
5. Bypass valve, full-flow filter
The valve opens if the filters become blocked and thus
lubrication of the engine is assured.
6. Piston cooling valve
The piston cooling valve opens when engine revs have
increased to slightly above idle.
Oil flows through the piston cooling duct to the six piston cooling nozzles. From these, oil sprays up towards
the underside of the pistons.
The valve closes oil flow to the piston cooling when the
oil pressure falls below 2.5 bar (36 psi).
7. Control valve, piston cooling
Design and function
Group 23 Fuel system
Each cylinder has an electronically controlled unit injector that works with very high pressure. The pressure
is created mechanically via the rocker arms from the
overhead camshaft. The injection itself is electronically
controlled from the control module.
The fuel feed pump (1) sucks the fuel through the
strainer in the tank (2) and past the electric pump (3) in
the fuel filter housing. After the electric pump, the fuel
passes the prefilter/water trap ( 4/5) and from there to
the cooling coil on the control module. Through the
control module cooling coil (6) the fuel passes up to the
manifold housing, where the fuel from the tank is mixed
with return fuel from the cylinder head fuel channel and
continues to the suction side of the feed pump. The
feed pump pushes the fuel to the fuel filter housing,
through the main filter (7), to the longitudinal cylinder
head fuel channel (8). The fuel channel supplies each
unit injector (9) with fuel via a ring-shape space around
each unit injector. The bypass valve (10) guides the
fuel pressure to the unit injectors. The check valve (11)
in the electric pump ensures that the fuel does not flow
back when the engine is shut off.
The feed pump has two valves; the safety valve (12)
allows the fuel to flow back to the suction side when
the pressure rises too high, such as when the fuel filter
is clogged. The check valve (13) opens when the electric pump is used.
25
Design and function
1.
The gear type feed pump is driven by the crankshaft via an intermediate gear. High pressure is
needed in order to ensure that the unit injectors
are filled. The flow must be sufficient to even out
any temperature differences in the cylinder head
fuel channel.
2.
The fuel filter housing features a built-in electric
pump for venting the fuel system and draining water. A built-in check valve (2) in the pump prevents the fuel from flowing back when the engine
is shut-down.
3.
The control module is screwed to the engine with
four vibration absorbing rubber blocks and is
cooled by fuel through a cooling coil fastened on
the outside of the control module, before the suction side of the feed pump.
4.
The unit injectors are a combination of injection
pump and injectors that works with much higher
pressure than an ordinary injector. The opening
pressure is about 320 bar (4,600 psi). The working
pressure can be up to 2000 bar (29,000 psi).
26
Injection timing and the amount of fuel to be
sprayed is determined by the control module,
which signals electromagnetic fuel valves built
into the unit injector. The force on the unit injector
is transferred via the rocker arm from a ridge on
the camshaft.
The unit injectors are made and classified by tolerance. Each unit injector is marked with a code
on the top side of the electric connection. When
replacing, the new codes shall be programmed.
5.
A hollow screw with an integrated bypass valve,
which controls the feed pressure to the fuel system, is located in return line from the cylinder
head. The opening pressure is 400-550 kPa (5880 psi). The high feed pressure is needed to ensure that the unit injectors are filled. The bypass
valve also has an integrated vent valve that automatically vents the system, allowing a small volume of fuel back to the tank.
6.
Excess fuel from the bypass valve is mixed with
fuel from the suction side in the manifold housing,
and fed back to the feed pump.
Design and function
Control module
The control module is the central part of the injection
system. It receives information continuously from a
number of sensors on the engine in order to determine
fuel quantity and time for injection. Control signals are
sent through electric wires to the unit injector fuel
valves.
The control module stores any errors and deviations
that occur in the system. Store occasional errors as
well so you can trace them later.
27
Design and function
Unit injector, work phases
The unit injector function can be divided into four
phases;
•
Filling phase
•
Spill phase
•
Injection phase
•
Pressure reduction phase
The pump piston always pumps the same amount of
fuel back and forth through the injector. It is only when
the fuel valve is closed that the pressure builds up
and injection takes place. The length and timing of the
flow impulse determines the amount and timing of the
spray, respectively.
Filling phase
During the filling phase, the pump piston is on the way
up to its top position.
The cam shaft ridge’s highest point has passed and
the rocker arm is on its way towards the camshaft basic circle.
The fuel valve is open since the solenoid valve has no
voltage. Therefore, the fuel can be sucked from the
fuel channel, past the fuel valve, and into the pump
cylinder.
The filling continues until the pump piston has
reached its top position.
1
2
1. Pump piston
2. Fuel channel
3. Nozzle
3
Spill phase
The spill phase starts when the camshaft has turned to
the position when the camshaft ridge starts pressing
the pump piston down via the rocker arm. The fuel
flows back through the fuel valve and out into the fuel
channel.
The spill phase continues as long as the fuel valve is
open.
1
2
1. Pump piston
2. Fuel channel
3. Nozzle
28
3
Design and function
Injection phase
1
2
The injection phase starts when the solenoid valve receives a voltage from the control module and the fuel
valve closes.
The camshaft ridge continues to press the pump piston
down via the rocker arm. Because the passage through
the fuel valve is closed, pressure builds quickly. The
pressure lifts the injector needle and injection takes
place.
The injection phase continues as long as the fuel valve
is closed.
3
1. Pump piston
2. Fuel channel
3. Nozzle
Pressure reduction phase
The pressure reduction phase starts when the control
module determines that the engine has received the
volume fuel it needs and then breaks the current impulse to the solenoid valve. The fuel valve opens and
the fuel again flows back out into the fuel channel. The
pressure drops fast and the injector needle closes so
that injection is interrupted.
1
2
1. Pump piston
2. Fuel channel
3. Nozzle
3
29
Design and function
Group 25 Intake and exhaust system
Turbocharger
The turbocharger is powered by the exhaust gases
which pass through the compressor turbine housing
on their way to the exhaust system.
The exhaust flow turns the turbine wheel and drives
the compressor wheel which is installed on the same
shaft. The compressor wheel spins in a housing which
is connected between the air filter and the engine’s inlet manifold.
30
As the compressor wheel rotates, air is sucked in from
the air filter. Air is compressed and pressed into the
engine cylinders after it first has been cooled while
passing through the charge air cooler.
Design and function
Group 26 Cooling system
The coolant is pumped directly into the engine by the
coolant pump from the pump housing on the right-hand
side of the cylinder block. The main part of the coolant
is pressed between the oil cooler flanges while some
part is pressed into the cylinder liner lower cooling jackets.
After the oil cooler, the coolant is distributed via calibrated holes to the cylinders’ upper cooling jackets and
to the cylinder head. The cylinder head receives return
coolant from the cylinder liner cooling jackets as well.
This part of the coolant enters the cylinder head via
nozzles that direct the fluid stream towards the outlet
channels and the injector sleeves.
The thermostat housing is placed in the front end of the
cylinder head. When coolant is cold, the thermostat is
closed and the coolant passes directly down through
the thermostat housing to the coolant pump and back
into the engine.
When the coolant is warm, the coolant is routed to the
front outlet on the thermostat housing and to the upper
inlet on the radiator. Coolant is pressed down through
the radiator while it is cooled, and then flows back to
the coolant pump lower inlet. The coolant pump then
pushes the coolant into the engine.
When the coolant becomes warm it expands and the
excess is pressed up to the expansion tank. Any air in
the coolant will be removed.
The thermostat is a so called piston thermostat with
piston, transducer, seal and housing in one unit. It
starts opening at 85 °C (185 °F) and is fully open at
96°C (204.8 °F).
The coolant pump uses an impeller and is driven by a
belt from the crankshaft. The impeller is made from
hard plastic. The servo pump shaft is journalled with a
maintenance-free, double ball bearing. The seal between pump wheel and bearing is assured by a unit
seal. Between seal and bearing there is a space with a
drain channel that ends in a drain hole under the servo
pump shaft. If the seal leaks, it shows by coolant leaking out through the drain hole. If so, replace the entire
pump as a spare part.
31
Troubleshooting
A number of symptoms and possible causes of engine malfunctions are described in the table below. Always contact your Volvo Penta dealer if any problems occur which you can not solve by yourself.
WARNING! Read the safety instructions for handling and service in chapter ”Safety information” before
starting work.
Symptoms and possible causes
The diagnostic indicator is blinking
See Workshop Manual ”(Group 23) EMS 2”
Engine can not be stopped.
2, 5
Starter motor does not rotate
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 24
Starter motor rotates slowly
1, 2
Starter motor rotates normally but engine does not start
8, 9, 10, 11
Engine starts but stops again
8, 9, 10, 11, 13
Engine does not reach correct operating speed at full throttle
9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 21, 25, 26
Engine runs roughly
10, 11
High fuel consumption
12, 13, 15, 25
Black exhaust smoke
12, 13
Blue or white exhaust smoke
14, 15, 22
Too low lubrication oil pressure
16
Excessive coolant temperature
17, 18, 19, 20
Too low coolant temperature
20
No, or poor charge
2, 23
1.
Flat batteries
11. Water/contamination in fuel
19. Faulty circulation pump
2.
Poor contact/open circuit in
cables
12. Faulty unit injector
20. Defective thermostat
13. Insufficient air supply to the
engine:
– clogged air filter
– air leakage between the
turbo and the engine’s inlet
pipe
– dirty compressor in the
turbocharger
– faulty turbocharger
– poor engine room ventilation
21. Blocked intercooler
3.
Main switch turned off
4.
Cable harness box fuse
broken
5.
Faulty ignition lock
6.
Faulty main relay
7.
Faulty starter motor/solenoid
8.
No fuel:
– fuel cocks closed
– fuel tank empty/wrong tank
connected
9.
Clogged fuel fine filter or prefilter (due to contamination, or
paraffin precipitation in the fuel
at low temperature)
10. Air in the fuel system
32
14. Excessive coolant temperature
15. Too low coolant temperature
16. Too low oil level
17. Coolant level too low
18. Air in the coolant system
22. Too high oil level
23. Alternator drive belt slips
24. Water entry into engine
25. High back pressure in ex
haust system
26. Break in “ Pot+ ” cable to
control
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Operational disturbances
Clogging
For additional information and more troubleshooting
help, see “Coolant temperature, troubleshooting”. In
case of an operational disturbance, check the following
points first:
•
Check that the coolant level is within markings on
the expansion tank (at about 20 °C (68 °F)). If the
level is too low in the expansion tank, add coolant
and start the engine. If the coolant disappears,
there is internal or external leakage.
•
Check that the coolant is not contaminated. If the
coolant is contaminated, this signifies internal
leakage (oil) or that the cooling system has blockage (deposits). A clogged cooling system is
caused by one or more of the following factors:
•
Coolant change has not been done as scheduled.
•
Incorrect mix of coolant and water.
•
Contaminated water has been used.
High coolant temperature is most often due to internal
or external clogging of the cooling system or a combination of both. If the cooling system is clogged, it must
be cleaned. See “Radiator, outside cleaning” and “Cooling system, flushing”
•
External dirt: Check that the cooler and/or the
charge air cooler are not clogged.
Check for external or internal leakage in the cooling system.
•
Inner contamination: Check that the cooler and/
or the charge air cooler are not clogged. If you
cannot see the light through at least one third, the
cooler should be removed and cleaned.
•
External and internal leakage in the cooling
system: Check for leakage in the system.
•
Coolant circulation: Check that the coolant circulates by allowing the engine to run at a high
rpm. Check that the coolant circulates in the expansion tank too. This may be a clue if there is
something wrong with the cooling system.
•
Thermostat: Check the thermostat function. Drain
enough coolant that the thermostat can be removed. Check the thermostat, see “Thermostat,
testing”
33
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Placement of instrument
socket
The figures below and on the next page show where
instrument sockets may be placed on the engines.
1. Crankcase pressure
2. Oil pressure
3. Charge air pressure or charge / air temperature after charge
air cooler.
4. Fuel feed pressure (before filter)
5. Fuel feed pressure (after filter)
6. Piston coolant oil pressure
34
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Component location
1. Coolant level sensor, in the expansion tank
2. Crankcase pressure sensor
3. Fuel venting switch
4. Extra stop
5. Combined charge air pressure and charge air temperature sensor
8b. Solenoid valve, drainage, water trap (optional), not
shown in illustration
9. Oil level sensor
10. Main circuit breaker 10 A
11. Pre-heater with pre-heating relay
12. Camshaft position
6. Coolant temperature sensor
13. Combined oil pressure and oil temperature sensor
7. Fuel pressure
14. Flywheel position and engine speed
8. Water in fuel sensor
35
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Tests and adjustments
Compression test
The fuel system is emptied and the rocker arm shaft
removed.
1.
Remove the unit injectors and clean the copper
sleeves as needed.
IMPORTANT! Make sure that the area around the
unit injectors is clean before the are removed.
36
2.
Fit all adapters, 9998248, to the cylinder head.
(This in order to avoid repeating removal/refitting
of rocker arm shaft and unit injector and performing valve adjustment.)
3.
Oil the valve yokes, cam shaft ridges and the
rocker arm shaft.
4.
Fit the rocker arm shaft with lifting tool 9990046.
Torque the screws evenly along the rocker arm to
avoid that the rocker arm bends or warps.
Make sure that guide pins fit in the camshaft support bearing.
Torque the rocker arm shaft as specified in “Technical data”. Use torque wrench.
5.
Install the distribution house and the oil pipe to the
rocker arm shaft.
6.
Check the valve clearance for all valves as specified.
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
7.
Remove both control wires from the starter motor
control connector (the two thin wires).
Connect one of the two free connectors on the
control connector to ground.
8.
Connect the other connector to a switch, which in
turn is connected to the positive (plus) connection
on the starter motor.
9.
Connect compression meter 9988539 to adapter
9998248 on the first cylinder.
10. Run the engine with the starter motor until the
compression meter needle has stopped (max
compression reading) and read the value.
Repeat the test on all cylinders.
NOTE: Do not run the engine for more than 15 sec. at a
time with intervals of 60 seconds.
11. Remove the distribution house and the oil pipe to
the rocker arm shaft.
12. Remove the rocker arm shaft screws equally in
stages so that it is not bent.
Remove the bolts and carefully lift off the rocker
arm shaft using lifting tool 9990046.
37
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
13. Remove adapters 9998248 from all cylinders.
14. Fit unit injectors, with new o-rings, see ”Unit injector, replacing”.
Fit the rocker arm shaft.
Adjust valves and unit injectors, see ”Valves and
unit injectors, adjusting”
15. Vent the fuel system, refer to “Fuel System,
bleeding”
38
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Cooling system, pressure-testing
Special tools:
Cover with connecting nipple ........ 9996441
Pressure testing device ............... 9996662
Check the pressure testing device 9996662 before using it. See ”Cylinder head, pressure testing”.
1.
Check that all hoses are free from defects.
2.
Check that the cock on the pressure reduction
valve is fully opened.
3.
Replace the coolant filler cap on the expansion
tank with cap 9996441. Connect the pressure testing device to the nipple on the lid.
4.
Connect the pressure-testing device to the compressed air system and open the cock (B). Adjust
the pressure reduction valve (A) so that pressure
gauge shows a pressure of 70 kPa (10.15 psi).
Close cock (B).
B
5.
A
The pressure must not drop during two minutes
for the cooling system to be considered free from
leaks
NOTE: Repeat the pressure testing if you are uncertain
whether the cooling system leaks or not.
6.
Close the compressed air after the pressure testing. Eliminate the excess pressure in the cooling
system by unscrewing the pressure reduction
valve and opening the cock (B).
7.
Remove the testing device.
8.
Check coolant level in the expansion tank. Install
the regular coolant filler cap.
9.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
39
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Boost pressure, troubleshooting
Boost pressure, check
Special tools:
Connecting nipple ......................... 9996666
Hose ............................................ 9998493
Pressure gauge ............................ 9998339
1.
Connect the nipple with hose and pressure
gauge to the measurement outlet on the inlet
manifold , see "Location of measurement outlet".
2.
Compare the pressure with the value that can be
read off from the VODIA tool, see "Workshop
manual, EMS 2"
If the two values differ, the pressure sensor is
faulty and must be replaced.
Pressure drop indicator,
checking
25605-3
40
1.
Check that the air filter is clean and that there
are no obstructions for the intake air.
2.
Remove the pressure drop indicator from the air
filter housing
3.
Check the pressure drop indicator by sucking air
until the dial indicator shows red. Reset the fuse
by pressing the yellow top.
4.
When the air filter is clogged, for example, and
vacuum is created, the pressure drop indicator
shows red. Replace dial indicator if it does not
work as in point 3, above.
5.
Install the pressure drop indicator on the air filter
housing
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Exhaust system, checking
1.
Check that the exhaust system is Penta original.
2.
Check if exhaust system has been rebuilt, is
bent or has damage that prevents the exhaust
from getting out.
If the exhaust system is not a Penta original,
has been rebuilt or damaged, the exhaust back
pressure may be too high, which leads to less
engine output.
3.
If you suspect that the exhaust back pressure is
too high the pressure should be checked, see
“Exhaust back pressure, measurement
Charge air cooler, checking
26515-6
1.
Check the charge air cooler for damaged cells or
connections.
If it is damaged, replace the charge air cooler.
2.
Check the charge air cooler and radiator for external clogging.
In case of clogging, clean per “Radiator, outside
cleaning”.
Inlet pipe, checking
25614-6
1.
Check that the intake manifolds are clean and
undamaged inside. Squeezed, damaged or dirty
inlet pipes may cause the boost pressure to become lower.
41
Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments
Air intake pipe, checking
26514-6
1.
Check the charge air pipes for visible cracks and
external damage.
2.
Check for oil in charge air pipes. If the pipes has
damage or leakage in sealing rings at connections, the boost pressure will be too low and the
engine’s output deteriorates.
If the pipes are contaminated by oil inside, this
points to oil leakage at the turbo’s turbine shaft
seal. In that case, replace the turbo complete.
NOTE: If there is oil in charge air pipes and charge air
hoses, the charge air cooler and all pipes and hoses in
the charge air system should be very thoroughly
cleaned inside, before the engine is started.
Turbocharger, checking
25515-6
42
1.
Check that the turbo unit item number is
matches the engine version. The wrong turbo
unit for the engine version may provide charging
pressure that is too low and thus reduce the
engine’s output.
2.
Check that turbo unit has the correct compressor
housing. If the wrong compressor housing is installed on the turbo, the compressor wheel may
have been damaged or have too big clearance
between wheel and housing. In both cases the
boost pressure becomes too low.
3.
Remove the intake manifold from the turbocharger.
4.
Check the turbo for damage on compressor
wheel and for big axial play on the turbine wheel
shaft.
5.
In case of damage to compressor wheel and excessive axial play, the turbo should be replaced
complete.
6.
Remove exhaust pipe (muffler) from the turbo
and check the turbine wheel.
7.
Check the turbine wheel for damage. If the turbine wheel has been damaged, replace the entire
turbo.
Exposing engine
Exposing engine
1.
Drain the coolant, see ”Cooling system, draining”
Drain engine oil.
2.
Clean around the drain plug for the fuel filter
housing. Connect a hose and drain the fuel in a
suitable container.
3.
Remove the hoses from the radiator and the expansion tank. Remove shield on the right-hand
side of engine, if any.
4.
Remove heat shield above the turbo, if any.
43
Exposing engine
6.
Remove the pipe between the air filter and the turbo. Cover all openings.
If the filter housing is installed on the engine, remove it and its brackets.
5.
Remove muffler and brackets, if any.
Remove the turbo from the exhaust pipe and the
two oil pipes.
Cover the turbo outlet opening.
7.
Remove the crankcase ventilation pipe and extra
oil separator, if any.
8.
Remove the pipe between the charge air cooler
and the intake manifold. Cover all openings.
10. Remove safety cover above alternator, if any.
11. Remove the radiator fan safety cover or screen
and its brackets towards the cylinder head.
Remove the drive belts.
44
Fixture fitting
Fixture fitting
1.
Remove cable harness and fuel lines to the control module. Cover all openings.
Remove the control module.
2.
Remove fuel and electrical connections. Lift the
fuel filter bracket together with the filters.
Cover all fuel connections.
4.
Install fixture 9990109 with 6 screws.
45
Engine body, general overhaul
Engine body, general overhaul
Cylinder head, removal
The engine exposed, coolant and fuel drained.
46
1.
Remove the coolant pipes on the right front side
of the engine.
2.
Remove the thermostat housing and the front lifting eye.
3.
Remove the rear lifting eye, if it is secured to the
cylinder head.
Remove the heat shields.
4.
Remove the heat shields above the turbo, if this
was not done when the engine was exposed.
5.
Remove the oil pipes between the turbo and the
oil filter bracket and the engine block, respectively.
Cover all openings.
6.
Cover the turbo exhaust port and remove the turbo.
Engine body, general overhaul
7.
Remove the exhaust manifold.
8.
Disconnect the contact from sensor in the valve
cover (1) and remove its cable harness from the
holders in the valve cover.
9.
Remove charge air pressure sensor (2) and tape
intake manifold opening.
1
10. Remove the coolant sensor (3).
3
2
1
11. Protect the charge air pressure sensor by placing
a protective sleeve, or place a clean plastic bag
over the sensor and close the bag’s opening
around the cable harness.
47
Engine body, general overhaul
12. Remove fuel line clamps from the intake manifold.
13. Remove the fuel lines from the cylinder head at
the front and rear edges.
Place protection plugs in the holes and cover the
hose ends so that they are well protected, to prevent dirt from entering the fuel system.
14. The intake manifold must be removed if you are
going to use fixture for cylinder head, 9990160.
Remove all screws and remove the intake manifold using crowbar 9998511 against the reinforcement bosses.
NOTE: The intake manifold may be hard to remove due
to sealant.
15.
Remove valve cover and crankcase ventilation.
16. Clean around the unit injectors and remove the
contacts for the unit injectors. Remove cable holders together with cable harness.
Cut off cable ties and remove the cable harness
from the cable holder.
17. Remove the distribution house for lubrication of
the rocker arm shaft, together with the delivery
pipe.
NOTE: Be careful that the seal under the distribution
house does not fall into the transmission gear casing!
48
Engine body, general overhaul
18. Remove the screw for the cable bushing (1) and
carefully pull out the cable harness through the
cylinder head.
IMPORTANT! Loosen the screw, not the cable
bushing.
1
19. Remove camshaft sensor (2) and save any
shims.
If you are going to remove the flywheel casing, remove the flywheel sensor (3) as well. Mark sensors and placement of any shims.
2
3
20. Remove the the cover on the electrical box and
remove the box’s retaining screws.
Remove the extension part and the box together
with the cable harness.
49
Engine body, general overhaul
21. Remove the cover plugs in the flywheel casing
and attach turning tool 9993590.
22. Turn the engine to TDC on the camshaft, check
that the mark on the flywheel is at ”0”.
23. Remove the upper transmission gear casing and
remove the rubber seals.
24. Remove the camshaft drive together with the vibration damper.
NOTE: The vibration damper is very sensitive to
shocks.
50
Engine body, general overhaul
25. Remove the rocker arm shaft screws evenly to
avoid uneven load.
26. Lift the rocker arm shaft using lifting tool 9990046.
27. Mark and remove the floating valve yokes.
28. Clean around the unit injectors and unscrew the
screws for the injector retainers.
Remove the unit injectors, one at a time.
29. Pull up the injector using puller 9990006 and slide
hammer 9990013.
51
Engine body, general overhaul
30.
Place protection plugs 9998251 in the cylinder
head immediately after removal.
Mark the unit injectors and place protective
sleeve 9998249 on the injector.
NOTE: Check that the tools are clean.
31. Turn the engine so that the two the screws (1)
can be reached through the transmission wheel.
32. Place a rag in front of the drive to prevent screws
from falling into the transmission housing.
NOTE: When the engine is turned, the rag must be removed.
33. Remove the remaining four screws (2).
Remove the three upper screws (3) from the transmission wheel hub.
52
Engine body, general overhaul
34. Remove the camshaft cap using tools 885341
and 9996400.
35. Lift the camshaft carefully using tool 9998264.
36. Remove bearing blocks by carefully tapping them
with a plastic hammer.
Remove the bearing blocks with the lower bearing
halves and put them in the right order together
with their respective camshaft bearing caps, upper
bearing halves and screws.
NOTE: The camshaft bearing blocks are held by guide
pins marked 1-7.
37. Remove cylinder head screws in the revers sequence as specified in Technical data.
Use two lifting chains 9996239 to carefully lift the
cylinder head away.
NOTE: Place washers between the cylinder head and
lifting chains to protect the cylinder head sealing surface.
53
Engine body, general overhaul
38. Remove the cylinder head gasket and clean contact surface on the cylinder block thoroughly.
NOTE: Secure all cylinder liners using tool 9996966.
39. Remove the starter motor.
40. Remove the coolant filter with bracket and the fuel
lines to the coolant housing behind the coolant
pump.
41. Remove the front pipe between filter bracket and
oil cooler.
Remove oil filter bracket and the rear pipe complete together with the oil filters.
42. Remove coolant pump together with the coolant
housing and bracket.
54
Engine body, general overhaul
43. Turn the engine up 45°, if it is installed in the
stand.
Remove the screws for belt pulley/vibration damper. Carefully tap and rock the hub and belt pulley
to get them loose.
NOTE: Do not disconnect between belt pulley and vibration damper.
Lift the vibration damper.
44. Remove the casing for the front crankshaft seal
with a crowbar at the reinforcement shown.
45. Remove the oil cooler casing together with the oil
cooler.
46. Remove fuel pump and servo pump complete.
55
Engine body, general overhaul
47. Remove engine mounts, oil filler pipe and dipstick.
48. Remove the oil level sensor terminal and remove
the oil pan.
49. Remove the connecting pipe and the oil strainer
complete with bypass valve and pipe connections.
50. Remove bracing frame.
Pistons, removal
51. Remove the piston cooling nozzle. Turn the engine using tool 9993590 so that all become accessible, two at a time.
WARNING! It is important to remove the piston
cooling nozzles before the pistons are removed.
Damaged nozzles can cause extensive engine
damage.
56
Engine body, general overhaul
52. Remove main bearing cap and bearing shells,
write down the marks.
53. Turn the engine 90° if it is installed in assembly
stand 9986485.
54. Press the piston so far out that the piston rings
are outside the edge of the cylinder liner. (Use the
handle of a hammer or another object made of
wood.)
Lift out the piston and the connecting rod.
IMPORTANT! Mount the main bearing cap on the
connecting rod to prevent damages, the surfaces
are very sensitive.
55. Remove the circlip from the piston and press out
the piston pin. Disassemble connecting rod and
piston.
56. (Mark the connecting rod and piston, if they are to
be installed in the same cylinder at assembly.)
57. Mark the cylinder liner position in the block before
it is removed to facilitate correct placement if reinstalled.
58. Install puller plate 9990104, and support 9996394,
on the puller 9996545.
59. Move plate down through the cylinder and place it
in correct position under the cylinder liner.
Pull the impeller off of the pump shaft with the
puller. Extend the support legs with 9996395 as
needed.
60. Remove the cylinder liner sealing rings.
57
Engine body, general overhaul
Transmission, removal
61. Remove the flywheel sensor, if not already done.
62. Secure lifting chain 9996239 in the flywheel with
two screws.
Remove the flywheel.
WARNING! Pinching hazard. The flywheel weighs
about 40 kg (90 lbs).
63. Remove the screws in the flywheel casing and remove the flywheel casing using lifting eyes and
lifting straps.
64. Remove the lubricating oil pump and the rear main
bearing cap. Use puller 9990114 together with
slide hammer 9996400, see ”Main bearings, replacing”
58
Engine body, general overhaul
1. camshaft drive
2. upper intermediate gear
3. dual drive
4. lower intermediate gear
5. crankshaft drive
6. oil pump drive wheel
7. drive wheel for fuel feed pump / servo pump
65. Remove the lower intermediate gear (4).
66. Remove the two socket head cap screws on the
crankshaft drive (5) and remove the drive using a
puller.
NOTE: To protect the puller thread, place a thick washer between the piston ring tool and the crankshaft.
67. Remove the six socket head cap screws in the
hub of the double drive (3) and remove it complete.
68. Remove the upper intermediate gear (2).
NOTE: Save the spacer plate behind the drive and
write down how it is installed.
69. Remove the transmission plate and clean both
sides.
59
Engine body, general overhaul
Crankshaft, removal
70. Remove the bearing caps. (Rear thrust bearing
caps have been removed together with the oil
pump.)
71. Carefully lift out the crankshaft.
NOTE: The crankshaft weighs about 80 kg (180 lbs).
72. Before engine block is washed, plugs, screw and
remaining brackets should be removed.
73. Clean contact surfaces on parts to be reinstalled.
Crankshaft, refitting
74. Inspect the crankshaft, see ”Crankshaft, inspection”
75. Check the oil channels of crankshaft and its contact surfaces with the bearing shells, cylinder
block and caps.
76. Install new main bearing shells.
77. Put the bearing shells in their respective positions
in the cylinder block and caps. Make sure that the
bearing shells and caps are undamaged.
NOTE: Make sure that the upper bearing shells to be
installed into the cylinder block are equipped with oil
holes.
60
Engine body, general overhaul
78. Smear the bearing pins and bearing shells with engine oil and carefully lift the crankshaft into position.
79. Install the thrust washers for the center main bearing, the axial bearing. The thrust washers can only
be placed in one position.
80. Install the main bearing caps with the lower bearing shells. The bearing caps are asymmetric and
can only be installed in one position. The middle
bearing cap (at the thrust bearing) incorporates a
recess which must be turned to fit over the guide
studs.
NOTE: Write down the bearing cap markings. 1-7.
81. Oil the main bearing bolts. Allow excess oil to run
off before installation.
Torque as specified in Technical data.
82. Install the front casing at the belt pulley with a
new seal.
Transmission, fitting
NOTE: Lubricate the inside of the gears before you
place them.
83. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant on
the engine block as illustrated
84. Install the transmission plate. Use new screws
that are pre-treated with locking compound.
Torque as specified in Technical data.
NOTE: Make sure that the plate is aligned with the bottom edge of the block .
NOTE! Torque within 20 minutes after sealant has been
applied.
85. Oil the spacer plate and place it together with the
upper intermediate gear (2). Torque gently, max
10 Nm (7.38 lbf ft).
61
Engine body, general overhaul
86. Install a new o-ring on the crankshaft.
87. Fit the crankshaft drive (5) and torque socket
head cap screws as specified in Technical data.
1. camshaft drive
2. upper intermediate gear
3. intermediate gear, double
4. lower intermediate gear
5. crankshaft drive
6. oil pump drive wheel
7. drive wheel for fuel feed pump / servo pump
88. Install the double drive kit (3) with the hole marking between the two hole markings on the crankshaft drive.
NOTE: The double drive inner and outer gears, respectively, have different gear pitch. For the camshaft to be
set correctly, the markings must be correct.
Torque the screws as specified in Technical data.
62
Engine body, general overhaul
89. Install the bottom intermediate gear (4) with a new
O-Ring.
90. Install the lubricating oil pump together with the
rear main bearing.
91. Place two screws in the crankshaft drive so you
can attach a crowbar and thus be able to turn the
crankshaft as needed.
92. Apply new sealing compound to the flywheel casing, towards the engine block.
93. Install the flywheel casing. Check that the casing
is aligned with the engine block plane.
94. Install a new crankshaft seal.
95. Install the flywheel and torque as specified in
Technical data. See ”Flywheel, checking for
warp”.
63
Engine body, general overhaul
Cylinder liner, fitting
96. Inspect cylinder liner and pistons, see ”Cylinder
liner and pistons, inspection”
97. Lubricate the sealing rings, using the lubricant
supplied with the lining kit, and install them on the
cylinder liner.
NOTE: The purple seal ring belongs in the lowest
groove.
98. When the cylinder liner is installed without shims,
an even bead of sealing compound should be applied to the underside of the cylinder liner collar.
NOTE: Do not put the seal around the entire liner.
Leave a 2 mm opening.
If the liner is fitted with adjustment shims, the
sealant compound bead (0.8 mm (0.0315 “))
should be placed on the cylinder block liner seat.
NOTE: Sealing compound must not be used between
adjusting shims and the cylinder liner collar.
NOTE: The liner must be positioned within 5 minutes
after application of sealing compound.
without adjustment shims
with adjustment shims
64
Engine body, general overhaul
99. Secure one of the cylinder head screws (A).
Place tool 9990104 above the cylinder liner together with appropriate spacer (B).
Press the liner down with crowbar 9998511 and
secure it using tool 9996966.
Piston, pre-fitting
100. Install one of the circlips on the new piston.
101. Oil the piston pin, the piston bearing seat and connecting rod bushing with engine oil.
102. Fit the connecting rod with the arrow on the piston and the word ”Front”- on the connecting rod
pointing in the same direction.
Press in the piston pin.
NOTE: The piston pin The piston pin should enter
easily, it must not be knocked in.
65
Engine body, general overhaul
103. Install the other circlip.
104. Check that the piston pin does not move stiffly in
the connecting rod bushing but that the piston
moves easily.
IMPORTANT! Always use piston ring pliers during
installation/removal of the piston rings. The oil
scraper rings, especially, are brittle and are easily
damaged.
NOTE: The two upper piston rings are marked with letters or point marks. The mark shall be turned up.
105. Place the piston ring gaps offset about 120° offset
on the piston. However, the piston ring openings
may not end up straight above the piston pin.
NOTE: New cylinder lining kits are delivered complete
with pistons and piston rings.
106. Install the bearing shells in the connecting rod.
66
Engine body, general overhaul
Pistons, fitting
107. Oil in cylinder liner, the bearing shells and the
crank bearing pins.
108. Remove press tool 9996966 temporarily while installing the piston.
109. Use tool 9990044 and carefully guide the piston
with piston rings down into the cylinder. Check
that the connecting rod does not damage the
crankshaft bearing pin.
NOTE: Be careful. The oil scraper rings are brittle and
are easily damaged.
NOTE: The piston ring compressor may not open when
the piston has been placed in the tool. The piston rings
can be damaged. Press out the piston first, before
opening the tool.
110. Reinstall press tool 9996966. All cylinder liners
must be locked with the press tool in order to prevent movement between cylinder liner and engine
block when the engine is cranked.
111. Install the bearing caps with their bearing halves.
Piston cooling nozzle, fitting
112. Blow the piston cooling nozzle clean and check
for damage.
WARNING! Faulty piston cooling results in piston
seizure. If you suspect that the piston cooling
nozzle may be damaged or deformed, it should be
replaced (applies to new nozzles as well).
113. Install piston cooling nozzle.
IMPORTANT! Check that the nozzle is placed
correctly in the hole in the cylinder block and is directed towards the recess in the piston and that
the retaining plate lies flat against the block. If the
piston cooling nozzle is not correctly installed, the
engine will immediately break down when loaded.
114. Torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
NOTE: The piston cooling nozzle retaining screw has a
friction coating and may only be used once.
67
Engine body, general overhaul
115. Install bracing frame and connecting pipe.
Torque as specified in Technical data.
116. Install the oil strainer complete with bypass valve
and pipe connections.
Torque as specified in “Technical data”.
117. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant on
the parting planes between the transmission gear
casing and the lower part of the engine block, and
at the front belt pulley casing.
Fit the oil pan
Torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
NOTE: Fit the oil pan within 20 minutes after sealant
application.
118.
Connect the contact to the oil level sensor.
119. Install oil filler pipe and the dip stick pipe together
with the bracket.
120. Fit the fuel pump and servo pump complete.
68
Engine body, general overhaul
121. Fit oil cooler together with oil cooler cover. See
”Oil cooler cover, fitting”.
122. Fit coolant pump together with the coolant housing
and bracket.
123. Fit the belt pulley and the vibration damper.
124. Fit oil filter bracket and the rear pipe complete.
Fit the front pipe between filter bracket and oil
cooler cover.
NOTE: Use new gaskets.
125. Fit the coolant filter with bracket and the fuel lines
to the coolant housing behind the coolant pump.
126. Fit the starter motor.
127. Fit the front engine mounts.
128. Fit alternator.
69
Engine body, general overhaul
Cylinder head, refitting
129. Clean the cylinder head thoroughly inside and out
before installing.
NOTE: Dirt particles can destroy the unit injectors.
130. Clean the unit injector copper sleeves. See ”Reconditioning/Replacing: Fuel system”
Install protection plugs immediately after cleaning.
131. Remove press tool 9996966 which holds the cylinder liners in place.
132. Carefully clean the cylinder head and the engine
block sealing surfaces, cut away excess sealant.
NOTE: Do not pull away dry sealant.
133. Dip the cylinder head bolts completely into a rustproofing agent.
Then place the screws on a net to remove excess.
134. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant on
the rear face of the cylinder head.
NOTE: The cylinder head screws must be torqued within 20 minutes after sealant application.
135. Fit a of new cylinder head gasket.
NOTE: Convex embossings prevent damage to the rubber seals.
70
Engine body, general overhaul
136. Lower the cylinder head until it rests on the cylinder head gasket.
Maintain a distance to the transmission plate of 5
-10 mm (0.20 – 0.39 “). Locating pins ensure that
the cylinder head will be aligned with the engine
block.
(2)
137. Place a rag in front of the drive to prevent screws
from falling into the transmission housing.
NOTE: The rag must be removed before the crankshaft
is turned.
138. Place a screw in the upper intermediate gear hub
(1) into the cylinder head, tighten to the cylinder
head towards the transmission plate.
Screw in four M8 screws in the transmission plate
(2).
139. Torque the screws (1) and (2) as specified in
Technical data. Use new screws that are pre-treated with locking compound.
Unscrew all screws (1) and (2) about one turn.
NOTE: The cylinder head is now in the correct position
to be secured and must not be moved. If the cylinder
head is moved, the screws must again be torqued and
loosened as above.
71
Engine body, general overhaul
140. Install the cylinder head screws and torque as
specified in Technical data. Use torque mutiplier
for protractor tightening (angle tightening).
141. Torque the four M8 screws in the transmission
plate (2) as specified in “Technical data”.
142. Turn the engine so that the two M8 screws (1) can
be installed through the upper intermediate gear.
Torque as specified in “Technical data”.
143. Fit the remaining two M10 screws (3) into the upper intermediate gear, without tightening.
144. Clean the surface of sealant as shown.
NOTE: Cut away the sealant.
145. Remove the lifting tool from the cylinder head.
Camshaft, refitting
146. Check the camshaft for wear. See ”Camshaft,
checking for wear”.
147. Clean surfaces on bearing blocks and the cylinder
head.
148. Install the camshaft bearing blocks as marked on
the cylinder head, make sure that they rest on the
cylinder head.
149. Place the bearing shells in the bearing blocks and
lubricate the bearing shells with engine oil.
150. Turn the engine with the turning tool so that the
flywheel is set exactly to zero, per the marking on
the flywheel casing.
72
Engine body, general overhaul
151. Carefully lift the camshaft in place. Make sure
that the camshaft drive guide pin ends in the
straight up position. The camshaft is marked
“TDC” and should be in the middle between markings on bearing block no 7.
WARNING! Camshaft ridges are sharp.
152. Oil the bearing shells and install the bearing caps
on the respective bearing blocks.
NOTE: Use a suitable spacer on the rocker arm side.
Torque screws 1-7 per step 1 in Technical data.
Torque screws 8, 11, 14 (with spacers), with the
same torque as specified in step 2 in Technical
data.
153. Place the drive so that the reference hole in the
transmission plate lies between the drive markings.
154. Fit the camshaft drive without the vibration damper, use nuts for spacers.
Tighten two screws temporarily with low torque,
max 10 Nm (7.4 ft-lb).
73
Engine body, general overhaul
Gear backlash, adjusting
155. Loosen the 2 lower screws (1) inside the adjustment wheel. Check that the upper screws are not
tightened.
156. Place a 0.1 mm (0.004 in) feeler gauge on the
pressure side, at the centerline between the two
the gears.
Turn the camshaft drive in the direction shown i
figure.
Torque per step 1 in ”Technical data”.
Remove the feeler gauge.
157. Check the clearance as follows:
Fix the adjustment wheel.
Place a dial indicator on the camshaft drive, as illustrated.
Turn the drive back and forth and compare the result against the specification for gear backlash in
”Technical data”.
158. If gear backlash is correct; torque the screws on
the intermediate gear (1) per step 2 in ”Technical
data”.
159. Fit the vibration damper. Torque as specified in
“Technical data”.
160. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant to the
upper transmission gear casing contact surface,
as shown.
74
Engine body, general overhaul
161. Fit the rubber seals and install the upper transmission gear casing.
162. Only fit the screws (1) and tighten by hand. (The
holes are oblong so that you can press the casing
down towards the rubber seal.)
163. Remove the mounting bracket for the distribution
house.
Press the casing down with the tools 885810 and
998601 so that the cylinder head and the upper
transmission gear casing sealing surfaces are
aligned.
Refit the other bolts (2).
Torque as specified in “Technical data”.
NOTE: The transmission gear casing must be installed
and torqued within 20 minutes after sealant application.
885810
164. Install camshaft sensor and adjust per ”Camshaft
sensor, checking”.
75
Engine body, general overhaul
Unit injector, refitting
165. Remove protection plugs 9998251 with adapter
9990156 and slide hammer 9996400.
166. Fit new seal rings to the unit injectors. Lubricate
the rings with diesel oil.
Install injectors and retainers. Center the injector
so it does not touch the valve springs.
Torque as specified in “Technical data”.
NOTE: Install one injector at a time.
167. Reinstall the floating yokes in their original positions.
NOTE: Make sure that the yoke is directly above the
valve stem. The oval hole should be turned away from
the camshaft.
168. Lubricate valve yoke and camshaft.
169. Remove the temporary screws with spacers on
the main bearing caps.
170. Fit the rocker arm shaft.
Torque the screws alternately along the rocker
arm shaft as specified in “Technical data”.
171. Pull the cable harness to the unit injectors through
the cylinder head and connect.
172. Slip on new O-rings over the rocker arm shaft lubricating oil supply pipe. Place the pipe in the distribution house and install the distribution house
with its pipe. Check that the O-rings on the pipe
and ring under the distribution house are positioned correctly.
Fit cable holder and attach cable harness with oil
and heat resistant cable ties.
NOTE: Make sure that the wire harness does not get
76
Engine body, general overhaul
too close to the gear.
Adjustment markings
The engine has markings (1-6 for the respective cylinders) for adjusting inlet and outlet valves and the unit
injectors.
NOTE: It is important that the line on the camshaft is
right between the marks on thrust bearing cap when
making the adjustment.
Valves and injectors, adjusting
Adjust valves and injectors for the respective cylinders
at the same time.
173. Turn the engine to the next camshaft marking.
174. Remove the adjustment screws for the current
cylinder rocker arm so that they don’t touch valve
yokes or unit injectors.
175. Adjust the valve clearance between rocker arm
and valve yoke as specified in “Technical data”.
Torque the lock nut as specified in ”Technical
data”.
Check the valve clearance. Mark the rocker arm
when the valve has been adjusted.
176. Adjust the unit injector rocker arm to zero clearance.
Tighten the adjustment screw nut another 180 to
240 degrees.
77
Engine body, general overhaul
Torque the adjustment screw nut as specified in
”Technical data”.
177. Adjust remaining valves and unit injector per the
above.
178. Connect the fuel lines to the cylinder head and
torque as specified in Technical data.
179. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant to
parting plane (A) between the transmission gear
casing and the cylinder head.
180. Install the valve cover. Torque the screws as
specified in ”Technical data”.
NOTE: The valve cover must be installed within 20
minutes after sealant application.
181. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant
(1161231-4) to the intake manifold.
Install the intake manifold and torque as specified
in Technical data.
NOTE: The intake manifold must be installed within 20
minutes after sealant application.
182. Install the charge air pressure sensor and the
coolant sensor.
Connect the sensor contact in the valve cover and
attach the cable harnesses using the holders
along the valve cover edge.
78
Engine body, general overhaul
183. Install distributor retaining screws and install the
distributor cap.
184. Install the clamps that hold the fuel lines in the intake manifold.
185. Place the gaskets on the exhaust manifold. Turn
the gasket so that the side with the text ”Manifold
side” is facing the exhaust manifold. ”Thread in”
the screws in the gaskets so that they are held in
place during installation of the exhaust manifold.
Install the exhaust manifold and torque as specified in Technical data”.
186. Refit the turbo without tightening.
Fit oil return pipe. Check that the old seal is not
left and that the new one ends up in correct position.
Install pressure pipe between the oil filter bracket
and the turbo.
Torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
187. Install the heat shields.
188. Install the right lifting eye if it was removed.
189. Fit the thermostat housing and torque alternately.
Install the front lifting eye.
190. Fit the coolant pipes on the right front side of the
engine. Use new sealing rings and tighten alternately.
79
Engine body, general overhaul
191. Remove fixture and replace the parts that were removed.
192. Install the drive belts, fan, alternator and tensioning devices.
193. Install brackets for radiator fan safety cover or
screen. Install the shields.
194. Install safety cover above alternator
195. Install the pipe between charge air cooler and inlet
pipe.
196. Install the crankcase ventilation pipe and any extra oil separator.
197. Place a new insert in the air filter housing and install it with brackets and the pipe between the air
filter housing and the turbo.
198. Install the pipe between the turbo and the charge
air cooler.
199. Install muffler with brackets. Connect the exhaust
pipe to the turbo.
200. Install heat shield above the turbo, if any.
201. Install belt shield on the right-hand side of engine,
if any. Install the hoses to expansion tank and radiator.
202. Replace oil filter. Add engine oil, see “Engine oil,
replacing”.
203. Replace coolant filter. Top up with coolant, see
“Coolant, filling”.
204. Replace fuel filter. Vent the fuel system, see “Fuel
System, bleeding”.
205. Start the engine and let it run until it reaches normal operating temperature. Let it idle another 5-10
minutes. When the idle is even, the cylinder bal-
ancing system has set the correct amount of fuel
for the unit injectors.
NOTE: Do not connect any power consuming device
(such as power outlet) while cylinder balancing is underway.
Check that there is no fuel leakage.
80
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Reconditioning / replacing components
Group 21: Engine body
Cylinder liner and pistons,
inspection
Clean cylinder liner and pistons carefully before inspection and measurement.
NOTE: Cylinder liner and pistons are classified together. This means that pistons and liners must not be
mixed.
The piston and cylinder liner sets are only available
from stock as a single, complete unit.
Cylinder liner
You can measure the cylinder liner collar wear with the
liner installed in the cylinder block.
NOTE: In order to thoroughly check for cracks, the cylinder liner must be removed from the cylinder block.
1.
Measure the cylinder liner collar wear using a cylinder indicator. To measure the amount of wear as
exactly as possible, calibrate the dial indicator
first, using a gauge ring or micrometer. Use the
cylinder liner original diameter as the basic value.
2.
Measure the cylinder liner at the upper and lower
turning position and at several points in between.
At each measurement location, the measurement
should be taken in the engine length as well as
cross direction.
3.
If wear is greater than 0.45–0.50 mm (0.018-0.020
in) a new complete lining kit should be used (piston, liner, piston rings, piston pin and seals).
Oil consumption is also of importance for determining when to replace cylinder liners.
4.
Remove the cylinder liner and check for cracks.
Be extra careful when checking the liner collar.
The Magnaflux method can be used for this
check.
Pistons
5.
Check pistons regarding worn piston ring grooves,
damaged snap ring grooves, cracks and other
damage.
If the piston has deep scratches in the sleeve surface, the piston (the lining kit) must be discarded.
The same applies if the piston has one or several
cracks in the piston pin hole or in the bottom of
the combustion chamber.
Crack test is performed using the lime water process.
81
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Cylinder liner and pistons,
replacing (all)
21311-3
Special tools:
Turning tool .................................. 9993590
Puller ........................................... 9996645
Spacer ......................................... 9996394
Spacer ......................................... 9996395
Puller plate ................................... 9990104
Press tool, 7 ea ........................... 9996966
Drift .............................................. 996599
Prying tool .................................... 9998511
Piston ring compressor ................ 9990044
Other special equipment:
Torque wrench, 10 -100 Nm
(7.38 - 73.76 lbf ft) ....................... 1159794
Torque wrench, 40 - 340 Nm
(29.50 - 250.77 lbf ft) .................... 1159795
Dial indicator ................................ 9999876
Holder .......................................... 9992479
Removal
Cylinder head, oil pan, bracing frame and piston
cooling nozzles removed.
WARNING! It is important to remove the piston
cooling nozzle before the piston is removed. Damaged nozzles can cause extensive engine damage.
1.
82
Remove the protective cover in the flywheel casing and install tool 9993590.
Turn the crankshaft so you can access the
screws to the connecting rod that is to be removed.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
2.
Remove main bearing cap and bearing shells.
3.
Remove the piston together with the connecting
rod.
IMPORTANT! Mount the main bearing cap on the
connecting rod to prevent damages, the surfaces
are very sensitive.
4.
Pull the cylinder liners from the block using
puller plate 9990104, puller 9996645 and spacer
9996394. If needed, extend using spacer
9996395.
5.
Remove the cylinder liner sealing rings.
6.
Remove the circlips from the piston and press
out the piston pin.
Remove the piston from the connecting rod.
7.
Clean the sealing surfaces in the cylinder block
and the grooves for the sealing rings. Do not use
scrapes or other tools that can damage the sealing surfaces.
83
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Fitting
8.
Check the cylinder block liner collar for damage.
In case of machining the liner collar see “Cylinder liner seat, machining”. Fit cylinder liner,
without seal rings. Hold it using two press tools.
9996966
9.
Fit dial indicator 9989876 in holder 9992479.
Place the container with the dial indicator across
the cylinder liners.
Set the dial indicator to zero with a few millimeter pre-load towards the cylinder block plane.
10.
Measure the height between the cylinder liner
and the cylinder block plane.
Measure the liner height at two different, diagonally opposite places.
Calculate the average of the two measurements.
For correct liner height above block plane, see
specifications. If the liner height above block
plane is outside specified tolerance, the liner collar in the cylinder block should be machined.
See “Cylinder liner seat, machining
NOTE: Always measure on the highest point of the
sealing surface. Mark the liner position in the cylinder
block with an India ink pen, so that it is placed in the
same position during installation. Repeat the procedure
for remaining cylinder liners.
11.
Remove the press tool 9996966.
Pull the cylinder liner out of the block.
Place the cylinder liners in the same sequence
that they were installed, together with the adjusting shims.
12.
Lubricate the sealing rings with the lubricant supplied with the lining kit and install them on the
cylinder liners.
NOTE: The purple seal ring belongs in the lowest
groove
84
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
13.
When the cylinder liner is fitted without shims,
an even, about 0.8 mm (0.003") thick bead of
sealing compound should be placed on the underside of the cylinder liner collar.
NOTE: Do not put the seal around the entire liner.
Leave a 2 mm opening.
14.
If the liner is fitted with shims, the sealant bead
should be placed on the cylinder block liner seat.
NOTE: Sealant must not be used between the adjusting shims and the cylinder liner collar.
15.
NOTE: After applying the sealant, the liner must
be installed within 5 minutes.
If the cylinder head cannot be installed and
torqued within 5 minutes, the liner must be held
to the engine block with two 9990157 press
tools.
16.
Install one of the cylinder head screws (A).
Place the tool 9990104 (D) above the cylinder
liner together with an appropriate spacer (C) and
press the cylinder liner down with prying tool
9998511 (B).
17.
Oil the piston pin, the piston bearing seat and
connecting rod bushing with engine oil.
85
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
18.
Install the connecting rod in the piston with the
mark “FRONT” on the connecting rod and the arrow on the piston turned in the same direction.
Press in the piston pin.
NOTE: You should be able to press the piston pin in
without much force. If the resistance is too big, the piston may need to be heated. The connecting rod should
turn freely on the piston pin.
Install the circlips.
19.
Fit the piston rings. Use piston ring pliers. The
piston rings openings should be evenly spaced
around the piston.
The oil ring spring opening should be positioned
diametrically opposite the seal openings.
NOTE: The two upper piston rings are marked with letters or point marks. The number markings should be
turnedup. The oil ring is symmetric and can be turned
either way.
86
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
20.
Lubricate the piston and the piston rings with engine oil. Check that the piston ring openings are
offset in relation to each other.
21.
Fit the piston together with the connecting rod.
NOTE: Connecting rods shall be installed in their respective original positions. The arrow on the piston and
“FRONT” marking on the connecting rod should point to
the front. Use piston ring compressor 9990044.
Temporarily remove the press tool when the piston is fitted. Reinstall the press tool when the
piston is in place.
22.
Lubricate main bearing caps and the crank bearing pin with engine oil. Fit the big-end bearing
shells. Check that they are a correct fit to the
connecting rod and caps.
Install the main bearing cap per the number of
markings and torque as specified.
23.
Clean piston cooling nozzle and check for damage. Install the nozzle and torque as specified.
NOTE: Make sure that the nozzle is aligned with the
piston recess.
87
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Crankshaft, inspection
The crankshaft has been induction-hardened.
Inspect the crankshaft thoroughly to avoid unnecessary
reconditioning.
To determine reconditioning requirements, the following
applies:
1.
Thoroughly clean the crankshaft.
Measure the bearing journals for out-of roundness,
wear and taper. See ”Technical data”.
2.
Investigate whether surface damage occurs on
the bearing races. If the surface layer is damaged,
the shaft should be reground.
3.
The crankshaft should be placed on either a pair
of V-blocks, under 1st and 7th main bearing journals. Alternatively, hold the crankshaft between
stocks.
4.
Measure crankshaft alignment (throw) on the 4th
main bearing.
Max. allowed values, see ”Technical data”.
NOTE: Straightening of the crankshaft is not allowed.
4.
88
Check for cracks before and after any grinding. To
check, use a magnetic powder test, i.e. fluorescent powder which can be seen under ultraviolet
light.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Main bearings, replacing
Pan removed.
The method describes replacement of main bearings with the crankshaft in place in the engine.
Special tools:
Turning tool .................................................... 9993590
Puller ............................................................ 9990114
Slide hammer ................................................. 9990013
Removal
1.
Install turning tool 9993590.
2.
Remove the connecting pipe plus oil suction and
oil pressure pipes with the bracket.
Remove bracing frame.
3.
Remove the oil pump together with the rear main
bearing cap.
89
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
4.
Remove the upper bearing shell by placing a pin in
the crankshaft oil hole and roll the bearing shell
out by turning the crankshaft in the direction of rotation using turning tool 9993590.
5.
Clean and check the bearing seat, caps, shaft pivot and bearing shells.
If the bearing has frozen, the reasons should be
determined before a new bearing is fitted.
6.
Make sure that the correct bearing size is used for
replacement.
NOTE: If you are uncertain, check in Technical data
which oversize dimensions are shown.
Fitting
7.
Oil the shaft pivot and the new bearing shells with
engine oil.
8.
Install the upper bearing shell by turning the
crankshaft using tool 9993590 against the direction of rotation with the pin in the oil hole.
NOTE: Check that the shoulder pressed out of the
bearing shell is placed correctly in the bearing seat recess.
Make sure that the upper bearing shells (those to
be installed into the cylinder block) are equipped
with oil holes.
NOTE: Remove the pin when done.
9.
Fit the main bearing cap together with the lower
bearing shell.
NOTE: The main bearing caps is asymmetric and can
only be installed in one position. Note the main bearing
caps numbers that show their placements if several
caps have been removed simultaneously.
Torque caps in two steps, per Technical data.
10. Replace the other the main bearings, one at a
time, the same way as the first. Every time you
replace the crankshaft, check that it does not
seize by turning it using the turning tool 9993590.
90
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
11. Check the crankshaft axial play and replace the
thrust washers if the clearance is too big or if the
thrust washers are damaged.
NOTE: Axial play is measured using a dial indicator.
The thrust washers are available in a number of oversize dimensions. See ”Technical data” for oversize dimensions and axial play.
12. The crankshaft thrust bearing pin is placed in the
middle main bearing.
13. Use a narrow plastic or wood stick to remove the
thrust bearing washers in the cylinder block bearing seat.
NOTE: The thrust washers can only be placed in one
position.
14. Check the axial play of the crankshaft when all
main bearing caps have been torqued, see ”Technical data” for specification.
15. Install bracing frame and torque as specified in
”Technical data”.
16. Fit oil pump with pressure and oil suction pipe and
”the overflow pipe ”.
17. Remove the turning tool 9993590 from the flywheel casing and install the cover.
91
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Crank bearings, replacing (all)
Oil pan, oil suction pipe and bracing frame removed.
Removal
1.
Fit turning tool 9993590 and turn the flywheel until the bearing caps on connecting rod 1 and 6
are in a position where you can remove the
screws.
2.
Mark and remove thrust bearing caps on connecting rods 1 and 6.
3.
Remove the bearing shells and clean the connecting rod and cap bearing seats.
NOTE: Make sure the bearing caps are installed on the
same connecting rod.
4.
Check the bearing pins and the bearing shells.
5.
Measure the bearing pins. If any of the values
exceed the max allowed, the crankshaft should
be removed and remedied.
Fitting
92
6.
Fit the new bearing shells and check that the
bearing size is correct. Make sure the bearing
shell guide pins is aligned with the connecting
rod recess.
7.
Oil the bearing shells and the crank bearing pins.
Fit the bearing caps and torque the screws as
specified in ”Technical data”.
8.
Turn the flywheel so that connecting rods 5 and
2 are in position to remove the screws and repeat points 2-6.
9.
Turn the flywheel so that connecting rods 3 and
4 are in position to remove the screws and repeat points 2-6.
10.
Check that no crank bearing seizes.
11.
Remove the turning tool from the flywheel casing
and install the cover.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Flywheel bearing, replacing
Special tools:
Handle ......................................... 9991801
Drift .............................................. 9992564
Slide hammer ............................... 9991821
Flywheel removed (recommended):
1.
Measure the bearing position in the flywheel.
2.
Press the bearing out using a hydraulic press.
Use tool 9991801 and 9992564.
3.
Clean the flywheel and check for damage.
4.
Press in the new bearing to the measured position using tools 9991801 and 9992564.
Flywheel not removed:
1.
Measure the bearing position in the flywheel.
2.
Remove the old the bearing using tool 9991821.
3.
Drive in the new bearing to the measured position using tools 9991801 and 9992564.
93
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Flywheel, replacing
Special tools:
Turning tool ................................................. 9993590
Lifting chain, 2 ea ........................................ 9996239
1.
Remove the flywheel sensor.
2.
Remove the lid under the starter motor and install
turning tool 9993590.
3.
Secure lifting chain, 9996239, to the flywheel with
two screws.
Remove the flywheel retaining screws, Use the
turning tool as an anvil.
Lift the flywheel away.
4.
Clean the flywheel contact surface which mates
with the crankshaft.
5.
Clean the flywheel. Check that the tracking surfaces for the flywheel sensor are clean.
6.,
Check that the flywheel guide pin is correctly inserted into the crankshaft.
Check for damage.
7.
Lift the flywheel into position and install the retaining screws.
8.
Torque the retaining screws as specified in Technical data”. Use turning tool 9993590 as an anvil.
9.
Remove turning tool and re-install the cover.
10. Check the flywheel sensor distance, see “Flywheel sensor distance, checking” and install the
flywheel sensor.
94
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Ring gear, replacing
Flywheel removed.
1.
Drill a 1–2 hole between teeth on ring gear.
Crack the ring gear at the drilled the hole using a
chisel. Lift the ring gear away from the flywheel.
2.
Brush the flywheel contact surface clean with a
steel brush.
3.
Heat the new the ring gear to 180 - 200 °C (356 392 °F) with a welding torch or in an oven. Ring
gear should be heated evenly. Take care not to
overheat the ring gear since this would make it run
out.
Check the heating by polishing the ring to a shine
in a few places. Interrupt the heating when the polished surfaces are blued.
4.
Place the heated ring gear on the flywheel and tap
it in position with a soft drift and hammer.
Allow the ring gear to cool down.
95
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Flywheel sensor distance,
checking
Special tools:
Turning tool .................................................. 9993590
Measuring instrument .................................. 9998517
1.
Install turning tool 9993590 and turn the engine’s
flywheel to 0°.
2.
Remove the flywheel sensor.
3.
Slide the installation tool circlip so that it is placed
around the tool’s middle.
4.
Fit the tool in the sensor hole and press the tool in
with care until it touches the flywheel.
5.
Remove the tool and measure the distance between the circlip and the end of the tool.
Write down the value measured (A).
6.
Place the sensor in the tool and measure the distance between the sensor bracket contact surface
and the end of the tool.
Write down the value measured (B).
7.
Calculate the existing sensor distance (D) as follows:
D = A - (B + 20 (0,78740157480315 “)) mm.
Example:
Distance A = 28,2 mm (1,11023622047244 “)
Distance B = 8 mm (0,31496062992126 “)
D = 28,2 (1,110 “) - (8 (0,3150 ")+ 20 (0,7874”)) mm
D = 0,2 mm (0,0079 ”)
Compare the distance with correct value in ”Technical
data”. As needed; adjust using shims, thickness
0.6 mm (0.024 “).
96
8.
Install the sensor on the flywheel casing together
with any shims.
9.
Remove turning tool and install the cover.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Flywheel, checking for warp
21631-3
Special tools:
Turning tool .................................................... 9993590
Dial indicator .................................................. 9989876
Magnet holder ................................................ 9999696
Pressure plate removed
1.
Place the dial indicator 9989876 with magnetic
stand 9999696 with the probe towards the flywheel.
2.
Remove the cover from the engine’s flywheel
casing. Fit turning tool 9993590.
3.
Set the dial indicator to zero. Turn the flywheel
and note the maximum value that is measured
by the dial indicator. The value should not exceed 0.20 mm (0.0080”) at a measuring radius of
150 mm (6”).
If the warp is greater, remove the flywheel and
check if there is dirt or other irregularities between the flywheel and the crank shaft flange.
4.
Remove turning tool 9993590 and install the
cover.
97
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Crankshaft seal, front, replacing
Special tools:
Alt 1
Cone ............................................................ 9990118
Drift ............................................................ 9990112
Drift ............................................................ 9992000
Alt 2
Slide hammer ................................................. 9996400
Puller ............................................................ 9990192
Alternative 1
98
1.
Remove crankshaft belt pulley and the vibration
damper (12 screws).
3.
Drill 2 ∅ 3.5 mm (0.138 “) holes in the seal using
the guide holes in drift 9990112. Apply grease to
the drill to avoid that dirt enters the engine.
4.
Screw in 2 self-tapping screws, 5 mm (0,197 “), in
the seal.
5.
Install 2 screws, M10 x 60, with long threads in
the drift and pull the seal out. Remove the seal
and the screws from the tool.
6.
Clean the seal position in the flywheel casing and
sealing surface against the crankshaft.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
7.
Check that the tools are flawless, so you don’t destroy the seal.
8.
Fit cone 9990118 on drift.
NOTE: No lubrication. Should be installed completely
dry.
9.
Install the seal on tool 9990112 via 9990118.
Remove tool 9990118.
10. Install handle 9992000 on 9990112 and carefully
tap in the new seal until the tool bottoms against
the crankshaft.
Remove the tool and check that the seal was installed correctly.
11. Fit the vibration damper and the belt pulley.
Torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
Alternative 2
1.
Knock out the seal using tool 9990192 together
with slide hammer 9996400.
2.
Install the new seal. See the points 6-11 in ”Alternative 1”.
99
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Crankshaft seal, rear, replacing
Flywheel removed.
Special tools:
Alt 1
Drift ............................................................ 9990113
Cone ............................................................ 9990117
Drift ............................................................ 9992000
Alt 2
Slide hammer ................................................. 9996400
Puller ............................................................ 9990192
Alternative 1
100
1.
Install drift 9990113.
2.
Drill 2 ∅ 3.5 mm (0.138 “) holes in the seal’s
sheet metal edge, Use the tool’s guide holes as
templates. Apply a small amount of grease to the
drills to avoid that dirt enters the engine.
3.
Screw two self-tapping, 5 mm (0,197 “), screws
into the seal, through the tool’s guide holes.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
4.
Install 2 screws, M10 x 60, with long threads in
the tool’s threaded holes and pull the seal out.
Remove the seal and the screws from the tool.
5.
Clean the seal position in the flywheel casing and
sealing surface against the crankshaft.
6. Fit the cone 990117 to the bracket 9990113.
NOTE: Check for damage on the guide or drift. They
may damage the seal.
NOTE: No lubrication. Should be installed completely
dry.
7.
Install the seal on 9990113 via 9990117.
Remove tool 9990117.
8.
Install handle 9992000 on 9990113 and tap in the
new seal until the tool bottoms against the crankshaft drive.
Remove the tool and check that the seal was installed correctly. If needed, use two screws to pull
the tool out.
101
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Alternative 2
102
1.
Knock out the seal using tool 9990192 together
with slide hammer 9996400.
2.
Install the new seal. See the points 4-8 in ”Alternative 1”.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Connecting rod, checking
Important consideration when removing/installing
”cracked” connecting rod.
Fitting NEW connecting rod:
Carefully clamp the connecting rod in a vise equipped
with soft jaws.
Unscrew the connecting rod screws a few turns and
tap carefully on the bearing cap with a plastic hammer
until it comes loose.
The crack line may be hard to find when the connecting rod is assembled.
When the bearing cap is separated from the connecting rod, some chip may be missing or come loose.
This does not cause any deterioration of the connecting rod function.
Handle connecting rod and caps with care. If impact
damage arises on the fracture surface, this may affect
the strength following torquing.
NOTE: Clean the connecting rod with compressed air
only, never with a rag or equivalent.
IMPORTANT! Replace connecting rod if the
stake or cap is damaged.
Connecting rod bushing, check
measurement
1.
2
3
Check the connecting rod with regard to cracks,
straightness and twist before any replacement of
connecting rod bushing. Discard the connecting
rod if it is cracked, bent or twisted.
When replacing connecting rod bushing, the
bushing must be machined (connecting rod of
trapezoidal shape).
When the fit is right, the oiled piston pin will slide
slowly of its own weight through the bushing.
IMPORTANT! Regarding max. allowed straightness and twist deviation, see ”Technical data”.
2.
3.
Use a new piston pin and measure the connecting rod straightness in a fixture.
Measure the connecting rod twist.
103
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valves, removal
Special tools:
Fixtur .................................... 9990160
Hydraulic cylinder .................. 9996161
Press tool ............................. 9990176
Adapter ................................. 9996159
Drift ....................................... 9998246
Valve spring compressor ....... 9990210
Hydraulic pump ..................... 9992670
alt. ..................................... 9996222
The work will be facilitated if the cylinder head is held
in an assembly stand with fixture 9990160. Use four
screws M8x25.
NOTE: It is important to be very clean when working on
the cylinder head. Dirt particles in the fuel channels can
destroy or cause operational disturbances for the unit
injectors.
Alternative 1
1.
Install hydraulic cylinder 9996161 in the press tool
9990176.
2.
Install pin 9996159 and drift 9998246 on hydraulic
cylinder. Place the tool in the holes for the cylinder head retaining screws
Tighten the tool’s nuts.
3.
Connect a hydraulic pump, 9992670.
4.
Press the valve spring washer down and remove
the valve collets.
NOTE: Place valves and springs in a marked rack to
facilitate reinstallation at the same place in the cylinder
head.
104
5.
Remove remaining valves the same way as above
using the press tool.
6.
Remove the oil seals from the valve guides.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Alternative 2
1.
Place the cylinder head on a flat and clean surface. Make sure that the cylinder head is not
scratched when the valves are removed.
2.
Install press tool 9990120 in the unit injector hole.
Attach the tool in the hole for the unit injector retainer, use a screw M10x30.
3.
Place the tool’s moving part above the valve
spring to be removed. Turn down the tool’s ”wingnut” until the valve disc has been pressed down
and the valve collets can be removed.
NOTE: Place valves and springs in a marked rack to
facilitate reinstallation at the same place in the cylinder
head.
4.
Remove remaining valves the same way as
above.
5
Remove the oil seals from the valve guides.
105
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valves, fitting
Special tools:
Guide sleeve ................................ 9998335
Valve spring compressor .............. 9990210
Alternative 1
1.
Oil the valve stems and install the valves.
Oil the oil seals.
3.
Install tool 9998335 on valve stem and press
down the new oil seals above the valve guides.
NOTE: Check that the oil seals have been pressed
down all the way.
4.
Fit the valve springs and valve spring washers.
Press the valve disc down with care and fit the
valve collets. Use 9990176 together with hydraulic cylinder 9996161, pin 9996159 and drift
9998246, the same way as during removal.
Alternative 2
Alternatively, tool 9990120 can be used instead of hydraulic cylinder, the same way as during removal.
106
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valve seat, replacing
Cylinder head and valves removed
1.
The valve seats should be replaced if you cannot
get perfect sealing or when the distance ”A” exceeds the value shown in the specification. See
”Technical data”.
2.
Grind the disc on an old valve and weld it to the
valve seat. Use a MAG weld or a conventional arc
welder (with stainless welding electrode).
IMPORTANT! Carefully cover other cylinder head
surfaces so that any weld splatter will not stick.
3.
Place an appropriate socket over the valves/valve
guides and carefully tap out the valve seat.
NOTE: Be careful not to damage the cylinder head.
NOTE: Use protective goggles.
107
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
4.
Thoroughly clean the seat location and check the
cylinder head for cracks.
5.
Measure the diameter of the valve seat location in
the cylinder head. With this measurement as a basis, check whether a standard size seat or an
oversize seat is required.
Machine the valve seat location as needed. See
”Technical data”.
6.
Cool the seat in dry ice to between –60°C and –
70°C (-76 °F and -94 °F) and heat the cylinder
head by hosing it with hot water or some other
suitable source of heat.
Install the valve seat with a drift.
NOTE: Turn the seat with the seat angle towards the
tool.
108
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valve guides, inspection
Cylinder head removed
Special tools:
Dial indicator ................................ 9989876
Magnetic stand ............................ 9999696
1.
Remove the valve shaft seals from the valve
guides.
2.
Place the cylinder head on the workbench with the
valve discs facing up.
IMPORTANT! The cylinder head must not be put
down so its entire weight rests on the valve
guides (see figure under point 4).
3.
Place a new valve in the valve guides with the
valve stem seal end in the same plane as the
guides. Use appropriate anvil under valve stem.
4.
Use a dial indicator with a magnetic stand, placing
the tip of the dial indicator against the valve disc
edge.
Move the valve sideways in the direction of the
outlet- or inlet ducts. Note the reading of the dial
indicator.
5.
Check all valve guides. If the measurements exceed the specifications shown, the valve guides
should be replaced. See ”Technical data”.
109
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valve guides, replacing
Cylinder head removed
NOTE: If the valve seats too will be replaced, this
should be done before the valve guides are removed.
IMPORTANT! Use protective goggles when
pressing the valve guides out or in.
Special tools:
Adapter ........................................ 9996159
Hydraulic cylinder ......................... 9996161
Press tool .................................... 9990176
Drift, outlet ................................... 9990049
Drift, inlet ..................................... 9990050
Drift .............................................. 9998263
Hydraulic pump ............................ 9996222
Removal
1.
Install hydraulic cylinder 9996161 in tool 9990176.
2.
Install pin 9996159 in hydraulic cylinder and press
out valve guides with drift 9998263 and hydraulic
pump 9996222.
Press out the other valve guides the same way.
Fitting
3.
Oil the valve guide outsides with engine oil before
installation.
4.
Cool the valve guides.
Press in valve guides for the inlet valve using tool
9990049. The outlet valve guides are pressed in
using tool 9990050.
Press until the tool bottoms against the cylinder
head plane.
IMPORTANT! Following replacement of the valve
guides, the cylinder head must be cleaned to prevent particles from entering the fuel and oil channels. Contamination can destroy or cause operational disturbances for the unit injectors.
110
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valve stem seals, replacing
21416-8
Special tools:
Guide sleeve ................................ 9998335
Valve spring compressor .............. 9990210
Turning tool .................................. 9993590
1.
Remove electricity from the engine by turning off
the main circuit breaker.
2.
Remove unit injector, see “Unit injector, replacing”.
3.
NOTE: The piston must be TDC when the valves
are removed. This so the valves will not fall into
the cylinder. Use turning tool 9993590.
4.
Press down the valve springs for cylinder no.1.
Use tool 9990210.
5.
Remove the valve springs and the valve collets.
6.
Remove the old valve shaft seals.
7.
Oil the valve stem with engine oil.
Fit drift 9998335 on valve stem. Slip on the new
seal and place it over the drift.
8.
Install valve springs and valve collet. Carefully
tap with a plastic hammer so that the valve
collets are positioned correctly.
9.
Move the valve spring compressor to cylinder no
6 and repeat the moments per above. Then turn
the engine so that pistons 3 and 4 are in the
TDC position.
Repeat the moments. Continue with cylinders 2
and 5.
NOTE: The piston must be TDC when the valves are
removed. This so the valves will not fall into the cylinder. Use turning tool 9993590.
111
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
112
10.
Install unit injector, see “Unit injector, replacing”.
11.
Adjust valves and unit injectors, see “Valves and
unit injectors, adjusting”.
12.
Bleed the fuel system. Check for function and
leakage.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valve seat, grinding
NOTE: As spare parts, the valve seats are fully machined and should not need additional grinding.
1.
Before grinding, check the valve guides and replace them if the wear limits have been exceeded.
2.
Grind the valve seat so you don’t remove material needlessly, but just enough so the valve seat
has the correct form and the valve disc good
contact surface.
3.
The valve seat is ground so that the dimension
between the cylinder head plane and valve disc
edge surface conforms to the specification.
4.
Valve seat angle is checked with a valve seat
gauge after coating the seat contact surface with
a light layer of marking paint.
Intake valve
Exhaust valve
113
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Valves, grinding
Regarding valve sealing angles, See ”Technical data”.
NOTE: As spare parts, the valves are fully machined
and should not need additional grinding.
NOTE: Grind the sealing surface as little as possible.
But enough that you remove all damage.
A
1.
Check the dimension (A) on valve disc edge. If
the dimension is less than the wear tolerance, as
specified in ”Technical data”, the valve should be
replaced.
NOTE: Always replace a valve if the valve stem is
bent.
2.
114
Check valve straightness using marking dye. If
leakage is found, regrind the valve seat, see
”Valve seat, grinding”, and then check again.
When the grinding results are acceptable, the
valve and seat can be ”lapped” together, with a
fine grinding paste.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Cylinder head, pressure testing
Special tools:
Pressure testing device ............... 9990123
Lifting chain, 2 ea ......................... 9996239
Assembly stand ........................... 9986485
Fixture ......................................... 9990160
Connection washer ....................... 9990107
Seal plate ..................................... 9990106
Sealing washer ............................. 9809699
Checking pressure testing device
Check the pressure testing device 9990123 before using it:
1. Connect the pressure testing device to an air supply.
2.
Set the pressure gauge to 100 kPa (14.5 psi) with
the pressure reduction valve, the knob can be
locked using a circlip that is moved axially.
3.
Close the shut-off valve. The gauge pressure
must not drop for 2 minutes for the device to be
considered reliable.
4.
Unscrew the pressure reduction valve knob and
open the valve.
115
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Pressure testing
Cylinder head removed.
For all lifts of the cylinder head; use 2 lifting chains
9996239, see ”Cylinder head, removal”
1.
Wash the cylinder head.
2.
Attach the cylinder head in assembly stand
9986485 using fixture 9990160 and 4 screws,
M8x25.
3.
Clean contact surfaces on the cylinder head.
4.
Fit seal plates 9990105 on the cylinder head using
the cylinder head screws and M16 nuts (14 needed).
5.
Fit connection washer 9990107 where the thermostat housing goes. Fix the washer with a c-clamp,
see figure.
6.
Fit sealing plate 9990106 (if needed) in the thermostat housing.
7.
Fit sealing washer 9809699 in the temperature
sensor hole.
Plug any coolant connections for the compressor.
8.
Connect pressure gauge hose to connection
washer 9990107.
9.
Remove the cylinder head including fixture from
the assembly stand.
Remove the fixture.
10. Lower the cylinder head into a water bath, +70 °C
(158 °F).
11. Connect air to the pressure testing device.
Open the shut-off valve.
12. Adjust the pressure reduction valve knob so that
pressure gauge shows a pressure of 50 kPa (7.25
psi).
Maintain the pressure for one minute.
116
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
13. Increase the pressure to 150 kPa (22 psi). Lock
the pressure reduction valve knob using the circlip.
Close the shut-off valve.
14. After 1-2 minutes, check whether the pressure
has dropped, or if bubbles of air can be seen in
the water bath.
If you see bubbles, check seal plates and inspect
the cylinder head for any cracks.
15. Unscrew the knob on the pressure reduction valve
to relieve the pressure in the cylinder head and
open the cock.
16. Remove the cylinder head from the water bath.
Attach the fixture.
Attach the cylinder head in assembly stand.
17. Blow the cylinder head dry. Be extra particular
with the fuel channels.
NOTE: Make sure that no dirt enters the fuel channel.
This may damage the unit injectors.
18. Remove all the sealing washers and any plugs installed for the pressure testing
19. Remove the cylinder head including fixture from
the assembly stand.
Remove the fixture.
117
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Copper sleeve for unit injector,
replacing
23733-3
Unit injector removed
Special tools:
Thread cutting tool ....................... 9809667
Turning tool .................................. 9993590
Protective sleeve ......................... 9998249
Sealing ring .................................. 9998250
Thread cutting tool ....................... 9998252
Puller ........................................... 9998253
Cleaning kit .................................. 9998599
Expander ..................................... 9998688
1.
Drain the coolant using a hose, 9996049. See
"Cooling system, draining".
Mark and remove the valve yokes.
2.
Remove protection plug 9998581.
3.
Install 2 sealing rings, 9998250, in order to prevent dirt from entering the fuel channels when
the copper sleeve is removed.
NOTE: Ensure that the piston is in its lower position.
118
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
4.
Lubricate thread cutting tool, 9809667, with
grease in order to prevent chips from falling into
the cylinder.
Screw in thread cutting tool at least 20 mm
(0.8 in) in the copper sleeve with tool 9998252.
NOTE: Use thread cutting tool 9809667.
5.
Remove tool 9998252 and thread cutting tool.
6.
Check that the pin 9809668 is installed on
9998253.
Screw in the pin on tool 9998253 at least 15 mm
(0.6 in) into the copper sleeve. Remove the
copper sleeve by turning the nut while holding
the pin.
7.
Use cleaning kit 9998599 and a power drill before
the new copper sleeve is installed.
Install cleaning sleeve 999,8580 in the injector
well and fix with holder 9808607 (”the ears” must
be cut off so the tool will fit).
NOTE: Tools 9808580 and 9808607 should be used to
prevent dirt from entering the fuel channel.
8.
Clean the cylinder head walls for the copper
sleeve using 9808618.
119
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
9.
Clean the copper sleeve seat with brush
9808614 together with handle 9808616 and the
holders 9808613 and 9808615.
10.
Clean the cylinder head hole with brush 9808617.
11.
Remove the tools 11 980580 and 9808607.
12.
Check that the piston is located in its lower position in the cylinder.
NOTE: This should be done so that tool 9998688 does
not damage the piston due to its length.
120
13.
Lubricate in the new seal ring on copper sleeve
with soapy water.
14.
Place the copper sleeve on tool 9998688
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
15.
Oil the pin on tool 9998688. Lubricate between
nut and tool.
16.
Press the copper sleeve down carefully so that
the drifts are guided towards the unit injector
space (the edge) in the cylinder head. Check
that copper sleeve bottoms in the cylinder head.
Install unit injector yoke and tighten.
17.
Enlarge the copper sleeve with a drift by screwing on the nut while the spindle is held steady
until the enlarging drift has been pulled all the
way through.
NOTE: After fitting new copper sleeve, follow instructions for ”torquing of unit injector yoke” in Technical
data
18.
Remove the sealing rings 9998250.
19.
Re-install the valve yokes as marked.
20.
Install the unit injector. See ”Unit injector, replacing”.
21.
Install the rocker arm shaft and check clearances for valves and unit injectors.
22.
Install the valve cover.
23.
Fill coolant and check for leaks.
121
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Camshaft, checking for wear
Rocker arm shaft removed
Place a steel ruler above the ridges in the camshaft’s
lengthwise direction in order to check if the cam profiles are worn.
Measure wear using a feeler gauge or wire gauge. As
an alternative you can use a digital depth slide gauge.
Compare the measured values with the values shown
in ”Technical data”.
Replacement guidelines
Under normal circumstances, irregularities on the surface of the engine’s cam shaft ridges. This does not
mean that the camshaft must be replaced. These
marks have no detrimental effect on either the engine’s
performance or durability of the engine and its components.
Examples of acceptable wear and unacceptable wear
are shown below.
Acceptable wear.
Unacceptable wear.
The camshaft does not need to be replaced.
NOTE: Camshaft with rocker arms must be replaced.
122
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Camshaft bearing housing,
replacing
Factory installed bearing housings have been machined with the cylinder head and must not be moved
from one cylinder head to another.
Therefore, the first time one or more bearing housings
are replaced, all bearing housings must be replaced
so that the positions of the bearing housings can be
inscribed. Bearing housings can then be replaced individually.
The holes for the guide sleeves are oval in the replacement housings, which allows radial adjustment
of the middle bearing housing and axial adjustment of
the front and rear bearing housings.
If a replacement housings is being installed, mark
them with numbers so that they can be reinstalled in
the same place as before if they must be removed.
1
2-6
7
123
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Camshaft sensor distance,
checking
1.
Turn the engine so that a tooth on the camshaft
drive is aligned with the cam shaft sensor hole on
the upper transmission gear casing.
2.
Slide the installation tool circlip so that it is placed
in the middle of the tool.
3.
Place the tool in the camshaft sensor hole and
press it in with care until it touches the vibration
damper tooth.
4.
Remove the tool and measure the distance between the sensor contact surface and the end of
the tool.
Write down the value measured (A).
5.
Place the sensor in the tool and measure the distance between the sensor contact surface and the
end of the tool (B).
6.
Calculate existing sensor distance (D) as follows:
D = A – (B + 20 (0,78740157480315 “)) mm.
Example:
Distance A = 28,2 mm (1,11023622047244 “)
Distance B = 8 mm (0,31496062992126 “)
D = 28,2 (1,110 “) – (8 (0,3150 “)+ 20 (0,7874 “))
mm
D = 0,2 mm (0,0079 “)
7.
Compare the value with correct value per ”Technical data”. Adjust as needed using shims. Install
the sensor together with any shims.
Clearance measured
0,2 - 1,0 mm
(0,0787 “ – 0,0394 “)
-0,3 - 0,3 mm
(-0,0118 “ - 0,0118 “)
-0,6 - (-0,3 mm)
(-0,0236 “- (- 0,0118 “))
124
Adjusting shims
Quantity
item no.
-
-
1
1677894
2
1677894
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Transmission, replacing
Valve cover, cable harness, upper transmission
casing, camshaft sensor and oil pan have been removed.
Removal
1.
Remove the flywheel sensor.
2.
Turn the engine to TDC on the camshaft, check
that the mark on the flywheel is at ”0”.
3.
Secure lifting chain 9996239 in the flywheel.
Remove the flywheel.
WARNING! Pinching hazard. The flywheel
weighs about 40 kg (90 lbs)
4.
Remove the starter motor, rear lifting eyes, fuel
pump together with the servo pump, the cover
and any rear engine mounts.
125
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
5.
6.
Remove flywheel casing screws. Remove the
casing using lifting eyes and lifting strap.
Remove the lower intermediate gear (4).
7.
Remove the two socket head cap screws on the
crankshaft drive (5) and remove the drive using
puller 11159911.
NOTE: To protect the puller thread, place a thick washer between the piston ring tool and the crankshaft.
8.
Remove the six socket head cap screws in the
hub of the double intermediate gear (3) and remove it complete.
9. Remove the upper intermediate gear (2).
NOTE: Save the spacer plate behind the drive and
write down how it is installed.
10. Remove the camshaft drive (1).
1. camshaft drive
2. upper intermediate gear
3. intermediate gear, double
4. lower intermediate gear
5. crankshaft drive
6. oil pump drive wheel
7. drive wheel for fuel feed pump / servo pump
126
11. Remove the transmission plate and clean both
sides.
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
Fitting
NOTE: Lubricate the inside of the gears before you
place them.
1.
Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant on
the engine block as illustrated
2.
Install the transmission plate. Use new screws
that are pre-treated with locking compound.
Torque as specified in “Technical data”.
NOTE: Make sure that the plate is aligned with the bottom edge of the block.
NOTE! Torque within 20 minutes after sealant has been
applied.
3.
Oil the spacer plate and place it together with the
upper intermediate gear (2). Torque gently, max
10 Nm (7,38 lbf ft).
4.
Install a new o-ring on the crankshaft.
5.
Fit the camshaft drive (5) and torque socket head
cap screws as specified in “Technical data”.
6.
Install the double intermediate gear (3) with the
hole marking between the two hole markings on
the crankshaft drive.
NOTE: The double drive inner and outer gears, respectively, have different gear pitch. For the camshaft to be
set correctly, the markings must be correct.
Torque the screws as specified in “Technical
data”.
127
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
7.
Install the bottom intermediate gear (4) with a new
O-Ring.
8.
Install the lubricating oil pump together with the
rear main bearing.
9.
Place two screws in the crankshaft drive so you
can attach a crowbar and thus be able to turn the
crankshaft as needed.
10. Fit the camshaft drive (5) without the vibration
damper, use nuts for spacers.
11. Place the drive so that the reference hole in the
transmission plate lies between the drive markings.
Tighten two screws temporarily with low torque,
max 10 Nm (7.376 lbf ft).
1
12. Remove the 2 lower screws (1) in the adjustment
wheel. Check that the upper screws are not tightened.
13. Place a 0.1 mm feeler gauge on the pressure
side.
Turn the camshaft drive counter-clockwise. This
will move the adjustable intermediate gear to the
correct position.
Torque the adjustable intermediate gear per step 1
in "Technical data" and check axial play per previous point. Remove the feeler gauge.
14. Fix the adjustment wheel.
Place a dial indicator on the camshaft drive, as illustrated.
Turn the drive back and forth and compare the result against the specification for gear backlash in
”Technical data”.
15. If gear backlash is correct; torque the screws on
the intermediate gear (1) per step 2 in ”Technical
data”.
128
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
16. Apply new sealing compound to the flywheel casing, towards the engine block.
17. Install the flywheel casing. Check that the casing
is aligned with the engine block plane. See ”Flywheel casing, checking for warp”.
18. Install new crankshaft seal.
19. Install the flywheel and torque as specified in
Technical data.
20. Fit the vibration damper. Torque as specified in
Technical data.
21. Apply a 2 mm (0.080") thick bead of sealant to the
upper transmission gear casing contact surface,
as shown.
129
Reconditioning / replacing: Engine body
22. Fit the rubber seals and install the upper transmission gear casing.
23. Only fit the screws (1) and tighten by hand. (The
holes are oblong so that you can press the casing
down towards the rubber seal.)
885810
24. Remove the mounting bracket for the distribution
house.
Press the casing down with the tools 885810 and
998601 so that the cylinder head and the upper
transmission gear casing sealing surfaces are
aligned.
Refit the other bolts (2).
Torque as specified in “Technical data”.
NOTE: The transmission gear casing must be installed
and torqued within 20 minutes after sealant application.
25.
130
Install camshaft sensor and adjust per ”Camshaft
sensor, checking”.
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Group 22: Lubrication system
When working with chemicals, fuel
and lubricating oil
Important! Lubricate hands with a barrier cream
and always use protective gloves during work
where you risk contact with oil, fuel, etc. Continuous skin contact with engine oil dries the skin and
can be damaging.
Overview, control valves
1. Control valve for piston cooling
2. Opening valve for piston cooling
3. By-pass valve for oil filter
4. Reduction valve, oil (marked with blue dot)
5. Bypass valve, oil filter by-pass
6. Safety valve, oil pressure (marked with purple dot)
131
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Pressure reduction valve,
replacing
1.
Clean the area around the reducing valve (4).
2.
Remove the pressure reduction valve.
3.
Clean the valve contact surface in the oil filter
housing. Check that the old seal is not left.
4.
Check that the color marking on the new valve
matches the old.
5.
Fit the new the valve with a new seal ring. Check
that the internal seal does not come loose when
the valve is installed.
Torque the screws as specified in “Technical
data”.
6.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
Bypass valve oil filter, replacing
132
1.
Remove the pressure pipe to the turbo.
2.
Clean the area around the bypass valve (5).
3.
Remove the bypass valve.
4.
Clean the valve contact surface in the oil filter
housing.
5.
Fit the new the valve with a new seal ring and
tighten the nut as specified in Technical data.
6.
Tighten the turbo pressure pipe.
7.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Oil pressure safety valve, replacing
1.
Remove dipstick bracket.
2.
Disconnect the oil level sensor and remove the
cable harness from the holders on the oil pan.
3.
Drain the oil and remove the oil pan.
4.
Clean the area around the valve (6) and remove it.
5.
Clean the valve contact surface.
6.
Check that the color marking on the new valve
matches the old.
Fit the new valve and torque as specified in
”Technical data”.
7.
Check the oil pan seal.
Install oil pan, dipstick and oil level sensor cable
8.
Add motor oil and start the engine. Check that
there is no fuel leakage.
Check the oil pressure, see ”Oil pressure, checking”
Piston cooling valves, replacing
1.
Clean around the oil filter bracket and the piston
cooling valves.
2.
Remove the filter bracket.
3.
Remove the two piston cooling valves: control
valve (1) and opening valve (2).
4.
Clean valve seats in the oil filter bracket.
5.
Fit new valves with new seal ring, torque as specified in “Technical data”.
6.
Re-install the oil filter bracket, with new gasket
and new sealing rings.
7.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
133
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Bypass valve oil filters, full flow,
replacing
134
1.
Clean the area around the bypass valve (3).
2.
Remove the valve and clean the valve seat in the
oil filter bracket.
3.
Fit a new valve with a new seal ring.
Torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
4.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Engine oil and oil filters, replacing
Special tools:
Socket ......................................... 9998487
Filter pliers ................................... 9999179
1.
Remove the drain plug and drain engine oil into an
appropriate container immediately after running
when oil is warm and flows more easily.
WARNING! warm oil and hot surfaces can burn
your skin!
2.
Clean around the filter bracket and remove the filters. Use 9998487 or filter pliers
3.
Fill the new the filters with engine oil and apply
some to the gaskets (1).
4.
Tighten the filters by hand until they touch the
bracket contact surface (2).
Tighten them by hand another 3/4 to one full turn
(3).
5.
Re-install the drain plug. Add engine oil to correct
level.
6.
Connect a switch to the starter motor and use it to
crank the engine until the oil pressure is registered
by the oil pressure gauge. This means that the oil
filters are full.
OBS! See chapter “Troubleshooting / Tests and adjustments; Compression test” how to connect the starter
motor.
7.
Start the engine and check for any leakage around
filter bracket and filter.
8.
Check the oil level. Add oil as needed.
135
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Oil pressure sensor, checking
22104-8
Special tools:
Nipple .......................................... 9992873
Pressure gauge ............................ 9996398
If you suspect that the oil pressure sensor reads incorrectly, check the oil pressure with a external pressure
sensor.
1. Check the oil pressure with a external pressure
sensor and compare the values against specification in “Technical data”.
2.
Remove pressure sensor.
3.
Install nipple 9992873 and pressure gauge
9996398
4.
Start the engine and check the oil pressure.
If the oil pressure measurement shows that the
pressure is below the minimum value as specified, continue troubleshooting by checking the oil
filters.
If the oil pressure measurement using an external
pressure sensor shows that the pressure is within
tolerance, but the engine’s regular pressure sensor does not, replace the pressure sensor.
5.
Remove nipple and pressure gauge.
6.
Install the oil pressure sensor. Connect the sensor
to the wiring.
Oil filters, checking
22106-8
1.
136
Check that oil filters are not faulty or blocked.
If the filters have outside damage, oil flow through
the filters may be prevented. This may cause the
oil pressure to deteriorate.
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Checking the pressure limiting
valve
22102-8
1.
Check that the pressure limiting valve features a
blue color marking.
2.
Check that the valve is not damaged, which
would hurt its function.
Press in the valve cone (1) with a blunt object
and check that it does not seize and that it seals
against the seat (2).
Safety valve, checking
22103-6
The oil pan removed.
1.
Check that the safety valve features a purple
color marking.
2.
Check that the valve is not damaged, which
would hurt its function.
Press in the valve cone (1) with a blunt object
and check that it does not seize and that it seals
against the seat (2).
137
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Oil pump, checking
22105-8
1.
Remove the oil pump. See ”Oil pump, replacing”
2.
Check the pump drives.
NOTE: If the reason for the error can be traced to poor
oil quality, clean the oil system thoroughly before new
oil is filled.
138
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Oil pump, replacing
1.
Remove the oil filler pipe.
Remove terminal to the oil level sensor.
Remove the dip stick pipe from the bracket.
Remove the pan.
2.
Remove the 4 screws that hold the oil pipes to the
engine.
Remove the oil pipes, the oil strainer and the
bracket together.
3.
Remove the screws from the main bearing cap.
Remove the oil pump together with the main bearing cap.
4.
Remove the oil pump from the main bearing cap.
139
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
5.
Clean the oil suction pipe and the oil delivery pipe.
Check for damage.
6.
Remove and clean the oil strainer. Check for damage.
7.
Install the new oil pump on the main bearing cap
and torque the screws as specified in ”Technical
data”.
8.
Clean the main bearing cap and lubricate the main
bearing with oil.
Fit thrust bearing caps together with oil pump.
Make sure that the plugs fit the camshaft drive.
Torque the caps as specified in ”Technical data”.
9.
Assemble the oil pipes and the oil strainer on the
bracket with new oil seals. The strainer should be
installed so that it points to the engine’s front
edge.
Torque the screws as specified in ”Technical
data”.
10. Assemble the oil pipes with the oil pump.
Torque the screws as specified in ”Technical
data”.
11. Check if the seal is needs to be replaced.
Fit the pan.
12. Attach the dipstick pipe to the bracket.
Install oil filler pipe and the cable harness to the
oil level sensor.
Top up with engine oil.
13. Start the engine. Check the oil pressure and
check for leakage.
140
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Oil cooler
Removal
1.
Clean around the oil pipe connections.
2.
Drain the coolant, see ”Cooling system, draining”.
3.
Remove turbo unit, see ”Turbo, replacing”.
4.
Remove the oil pressure sensor contact piece.
5.
Remove the front oil pipe, plug the oil filter housing.
6.
Remove the casing screws and the rear oil pipe.
Lift out the casing and plug the oil filter housing.
7.
Remove the oil cooler from the casing.
Fitting
1.
Clean the casing contact surface on the engine
block.
2.
Install the oil cooler in the casing with new rubber
gaskets. Torque the screws as specified in Technical data.
3.
Install new gaskets in the casing and in the water
pump housing.
4.
Lift the casing in place and install the rear oil pipe
with new o-rings. Check that the casing rubber
gaskets does not get out of its groove.
5.
Install a screw in the oblong screw hole and press
the casing, using appropriate tool, against the water pump housing.
6.
Install casing screws and torque as specified in
Technical data.
7.
Install the front oil pipe with new o-rings.
141
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
8.
Install the oil pressure sensor contact piece, install the cable in the clips.
9.
Fit the turbocharger. See ”Turbo, replacing”.
10. Add coolant. See “Cooling system, filling” and
“Cooling system, general”.
NOTE: If the oil cooler has leaked engine oil to the
cooling system, the coolant filter must be replaced and
the cooling system cleaned. See cooling system,
cleaning.
11. Start the engine and check for leakage when the it
has reached normal temperature.
Check coolant level.
142
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Oil cooler, leakage test
1.
Remove the oil cooler. See ”oil cooler, removal/
refitting”.
2.
Clean the oil cooler coolant fluid side with water
soluble degreaser.
Clean the oil side of the oil cooler with degreaser.
3.
Check the pressure testing device 9996662 before
using it. See ”Checking pressure testing device” in
section ”Cylinder head, pressure testing”.
4.
Install the screw clamps 9996845 and check that
they are placed correctly.
5.
Check that the pressure reduction valve knob on
the pressure testing device 9996662 is fully
opened and that the pressure gauge shows 0.
Connect the pressure testing device to a screw
clamp 9996845.
6.
Lower the oil cooler into a container with water at
room temperature.
Increase the pressure to 250 kPa (2.5 bar) with
the pressure reduction valve knob.
Wait at least one minute.
NOTE: If an even stream of air bubbles come from the
oil cooler element, it leaks and the oil cooler must be
replaced.
143
Reconditioning / replacing: Lubrication system
Bypass valve oil cooler, replacing
144
1.
Clean the area around the bypass valve and remove it.
Clean the valve seat.
2.
Fit the new the valve with a new seal ring.
Torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
3.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Group 23: Fuel system
Control module, replacing
28421-2
NOTE: Before the control module is replaced and
any warranty claim made, all checks in the check list
should be performed, to exclude any defect in engine
control system. If the measurements of the flat cables
show defects, it is highly likely that the control module
is OK. See ”Workshop Manual, EMS 2”
WARNING! Faulty individual adjustments of the
control module may result in damage to people or
the engine. For information about reprogramming
and reading of software see ”Workshop Manual,
EMS 2”
WARNING! Exchange of control modules between engines, for troubleshooting or repair, must
never be performed under any circumstances.
1.
Clean thoroughly around the control module fuel
connections.
2.
Remove electricity from the engine by disconnecting the negative battery terminal.
3.
Remove the lower part of the crankcase ventilation pipe.
6.
Remove upper and lower cable harnesses
clamps.
7.
Remove the control module’s cable harness by
moving the retaining clip gloves out.
8.
Remove upper and lower fuel connections with
the cooling element, plug the fuel lines.
9.
Remove the screws that hold the control module
and remove the control module.
145
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
146
10.
Transfer the cooling element to the new control
module. Make sure that the surface between the
cooling element and the control module is clean.
11.
Install the new control module. Torque as specified in Technical data.
12.
Install upper and lower fuel connections to the
cooling element with new sealing washers.
13.
Install the cable harness and clamps.
14.
Install the lower crankcase ventilation pipe.
15.
Vent the fuel system, see “Fuel System, bleeding”. Start the engine and check for error codes.
See ”Workshop Manual, EMS 2”.
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Fuel filters, replacing
NOTE: Do not fill the new filter with fuel before installation. There is a risk that contamination enters the system and cause operational disturbances or damage.
WARNING! The fuel filter should be replaced
when the engine is cold, to prevent any fire hazard
if fuel is spilled on hot surfaces.
1.
Clean around the fuel filter.
2.
Remove the fuel filter. Use appropriate filter puller.
Collect any spilled fuel in a container.
3.
Clean around the filter housing sealing surface.
4.
Lubricate the seal with diesel fuel and install the
new fuel filter. Torque the filter per instructions on
the filter.
5.
Vent the fuel system, refer to “Fuel System,
bleeding” .
147
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Primary fuel filter, change
148
1.
Disconnect cable harness at the water trap sensor.
2.
Remove the water trap filter from the filter housing. Collect any spilled fuel in a container.
3.
Remove the lower part of the water trap from the
filter.
4.
Clean the water trap the bottom part with a soft
rag. Check that the strainer and drain hole in the
bottom part are not clogged.
5.
Install a new seal on the lower part and lubricate
the seal with diesel fuel.
Re-install the lower part of the filter.
6.
Lubricate the seal with diesel fuel.
Screw the filter onto the filter bracket by hand until
the rubber seal just touches the mating surface.
Then tighten a further half turn, no more.
7.
Connect cable harness to the water trap sensor.
8.
Vent the fuel system, refer to “Fuel System,
bleeding” .
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Fuel feed pump, replacing
Removal
1.
Close any fuel cocks between tank and feed
pump, to avoid unnecessary fuel spills.
2.
Connect an appropriate hose and drain the engine
fuel system, by opening the nipple marked
"DRAIN".
3.
Clean thoroughly around the feed pump and its
connections.
4.
Place a suitable container under the feed pump
and remove the fuel lines’ banjo screws.
NOTE: Plug the lines! Note suction or pressure, respectively.
5.
Remove the feed pump together with the servo
pump.
6.
Remove the feed pump from the servo pump, 3
torx screws.
7.
Remove the feed pump by carefully pulling the
pump straight out, making sure that the interconnection on the servo pump shaft does not come
out with it.
Fitting
7.
Replace o-ring on the servo pump flange and
check that the interconnection fits in its groove on
the servo pump shaft.
8.
Install the feed pump on the servo pump, facilitate
installation by turning the servo pump shaft so
that it fits in its groove in the interconnection.
Torque the screws as specified.
9.
Install feed pump/servo pump on the engine.
9.
Replace the sealing washers, remove the plugs
and install the fuel lines.
10. Open the fuel cocks, check that the drain nipple is
closed. Bleed the fuel system. See section Fuel
system, venting.
11. Start the engine and check for function and leakage.
149
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Electric pump, replacing
Removal
1.
Clean thoroughly around the electric pump and its
connections.
2.
Loosen the fuel lines (1) and (2).
3.
Remove the electrical connection for the pump.
4.
Remove the three screws and remove the fuel
pressure sensor casing (A).
5.
Remove the feed pump cables (B).
6.
Remove the four screws, remove the electric
pump cover (C) and the bracket for fuel return line
(D).
7.
Remove feed pump (E), rubber seal (F) and the
seal in the lid.
1
2
A. Casing, fuel pressure sensor
B. Cables, feed pump
C. Front cover, feed pump
D. Bracket for fuel return line
E. Feed pump
F. Rubber seal, feed pump
150
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Fitting
1.
Fit rubber seal (F) and the electric pump (E).
2.
Fit the electric pump cover (C) the seal and the
bracket for the fuel return line (D).
Torque the four screws.
3.
Connect the feed pump cables (B).
4.
Fit fuel pressure sensor casing (A).
Torque the three screws.
5.
Connect the flat cable to the electric pump.
6.
Replace sealing washer and connect the fuel
lines.
7.
Bleed the fuel system, start the engine and check
for leakage.
A. Casing, fuel pressure sensor
B. Cables, feed pump
C. Front cover, feed pump
D. Bracket for fuel return line
E. Feed pump
F. Rubber seal, feed pump
151
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Unit injector, replacing
Special tools:
Puller ........................................... 9990006
Slide hammer ............................... 9990013
Protective sleeve ......................... 9998249
Socket * ....................................... 9998580
Handle* ........................................ 9808616
* included in cleaning kit 9998599
NOTE! If a new unit injector is fitted, a new injector
code must programmed into the control unit, see
"Workshop manual EMS 2". The injector code is
stamped onto the unit injector.
Removal
152
1.
Remove the valve cover.
2.
Remove electrical connections with unit injectors.
Cut off cable ties that hold the cable harness and
fold it aside.
3.
Remove the delivery pipe and the distribution
house for the rocker arm shaft lubricating oil supply.
4.
Remove the rocker arm shaft screws equally in
stages so that the rocker arm shaft is not bent.
Carefully lift the rocker arm shaft using tool
9990046.
5.
Remove the floating valve yokes.
6.
Remove the screws for the unit injector retainer.
Place puller 9990006 on the injector.
Place the puller fork in the groove on the injector
and lock the arm with the screw on the side. Fix
the puller by turning the screw down towards the
injector’s ball holes.
Fit a slide hammer 9990013 and remove the injector.
7.
Place protective sleeve 9998249 on the injector
that was removed.
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
8.
Install protective sleeve 9998580 and clean thoroughly with brush 9808570 and extender 9808616.
Fitting
9.
Install new o-rings on unit injector.
Upper ring - large diameter, purple
Lower ring - small diameter, purple
10. Install the retainer on unit injector and center it between the valve springs.
Torque the screw as specified in ”Technical data”.
153
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
11. Connect the contact, press in until you hear a
”click”.
12
Oil valve yokes and cam shaft ridges with engine
oil.
13. Lift the rocker arm shaft in place using lifting tool
9990046. Check that guide pins are positioned
correctly in the bearing blocks.
Torque the rocker arm shaft screws as specified
in ”Technical data”, so that the shaft rests against
the bearing blocks.
NOTE: Tighten alternately as specified in "Technical
data," to prevent the rocker arm shaft from bending.
14. Clean the cylinder head at the place for the distribution house and check that there is no dirt in the
cylinder head oil channel.
Fit new seal rings to the delivery pipe and distribution house. Apply a thin layer of petroleum jelly on
the pipe sealing rings and install the pipe in the
distribution house.
15. Install the piece in between and torque as specified in ”Technical data”.
16. Adjust valves and unit injector, see ”Valves and
injectors, adjusting” in chapter ”Engine body, general overhaul”.
17. Install the cable harness to the unit injectors and
the valve cover.
18. Vent the fuel system, see “Fuel System, bleeding”
154
Reconditioning / replacing: Fuel system
Venting the fuel system
1.
Check whether there is enough fuel in the tank,
and that any fuel taps are open.
2.
Turn the ignition on.
3.
The fuel system is vented by holding the fuel
venting switch (see ”Component location”) on the
left side of the engine block depressed for about
four minutes. Air is vented to the tank via the fuel
return pipe. No venting nipples need to be opened.
4.
Start the engine and let it idle fast for about 10
minutes.
5.
Do a leakage and function check.
155
Reconditioning / replacing: Inlet and exhaust systems
Group 25: Inlet and exhaust systems
Turbo, replacing
Always determine and remedy the reasons why the turbocharger has been wrecked before a new turbocharger
is installed.
One condition for the turbocharger to work satisfactorily
is that the engine’s lubrication and inlet systems are
kept in good condition, i.e. that oil and filter changes
are completed as scheduled, that the right kind of oil is
used and that the air filter is managed correctly.
A first remedy should be checking the engine oil and
replace the oil filters if needed, and preferably to run
the engine a few minutes with the new oil before the
new turbo unit is installed.
Blow out any rust- and soot flakes from the exhaust
manifold when replacing turbocharger. The soot flakes
could damage the turbine wheel of the new unit.
It is import to clean the intake line from the air cleaner
as well. Parts from a wrecked compressor wheel may
remain and cause an immediate wreck of the new turbo.
Removal
156
1.
Remove the air hose between the turbo and the air
filter housing.
2.
Remove screws (1) and remove the exhaust pipe
(2) from the turbo.
3.
Remove the oil delivery pipe and return oil pipe.
4.
Remove the nuts (4) and the spacer sleeves.
5.
Remove the turbo.
Reconditioning / replacing: Inlet and exhaust systems
Fitting
6.
Clean the turbo contact surface on the exhaust
manifold.
7.
Fit return oil pipe with a new seal ring.
8.
Place a new gasket on the exhaust manifold (6).
Fit the turbo (5).
Torque the nuts (4) as specified in ”Technical
data”.
9.
Connect return oil pipe using a new gasket.
10. Fill the turbo with clean engine oil through the oil
delivery pipe connection.
NOTE: Make sure no contaminants enter the connection. Use a strainer when filling oil.
11. Fit the oil delivery pipe with a new gasket.
12. Fit the exhaust pipe (2) to the turbo.
15. Fit the hose between air filter and turbo.
14. Start the engine and check for leaks.
157
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Group 26: Cooling system
Cooling system, draining
WARNING! Be careful when opening the coolant
filler cap when the engine is hot. Steam or hot
coolant can spray out.
NOTE: Before draining the cooling system, remove the
expansion tank cover.
For engines to be mothballed or stored, the engine
cooling system should not be drained. The coolant contains additives that protect against corrosion
158
1.
Open all drain points.
Drain the coolant from the radiator and the engine
block with coolant drain tube 9996049. Drain nipples are located under the radiator and on the
right-hand side of the block.
2.
Check that all coolant drains out. Deposits may
be found inside the drain plug/tap, and need to be
cleared away. Otherwise, there is risk for coolant
to remain standing, causing serious damage.
3.
Close any cocks and check that the spring-loaded
nipple covers close completely, install the rubber
plugs.
Reconditioning / replacing: Inlet and exhaust systems
Cooling system, cleaning
Warning! Chemicals for the cooling system are a
health hazard (do not ingest).
1.
Empty the cooling system, see ”Cooling system,
draining”, and flush with clean water.
3.
Close all open cocks and fill the cooling system
with a mix of radiator cleaner and pure water.
See instruction enclosed with cleaning kit.
4.
Drain the cooling system again per the above
and flush the system with a mix of neutralizer
and pure water. See instruction enclosed with
cleaning kit.
5.
Add new coolant when the cooling system is
completely free from contamination. See ”Cooling system, general” and ”Cooling system, filling”.
159
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Cooling system, pressure-testing
Special tools:
Pressure-testing equipment .............................. 885531
WARNING! Be careful when opening the coolant
filler cap when the engine is hot. Steam or hot
coolant can spray out.
160
1.
Check that all hoses are free from defects.
2.
Check coolant level in the cooler.
3.
Replace the coolant filler cap on the expansion
tank with suitable tool from the kit 885531.
4.
Pump up a pressure of 70 kPa (10 psi).
5.
The pressure must not drop during a two minute
test for the system to be considered to be free
from leaks.
6.
Vent excess pressure and remove pressure testing tool.
7.
Check coolant level in the expansion tank. Install the regular coolant filler cap.
8.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Cooling system, filling
WARNING! Be careful when opening the coolant
filler cap when the engine is hot. Steam or hot
coolant can spray out.
NOTE: If a big volume of coolant must be filled, the
system should be pressure tested, see ”Cooling system, pressure-testing”.
NOTE:When working on an engine where more a five
liters (5.3 quarts) new coolant are being added, a new
coolant filter should always be installed.
NOTE: Filling should be carried out with the engine
stopped. Premix the right coolant volume so that you
are sure the cooling system will be full. Filling must not
be done so fast that an air lock is formed in the system. Air should be able to flow out through the fill opening and the vent cocks. Use only of Volvo Penta recommended coolant and mix.
NOTE: The engine must not be started until the system
has been vented and completely filled.
1.
Fill coolant to about 50 mm (2 inches) under the
coolant filler cap sealing surface.
2.
Start the engine and let it run until it reaches normal operating temperature and the thermostat has
opened.
3.
Stop the engine, check coolant level and top up
with coolant as needed.
161
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Coolant pump, replacing
Removal
IMPORTANT! Break the current or use some other means to prevent the engine from starting during the work.
1
1.
Drain the coolant into a suitable container. see
”Cooling system, draining”
2.
Remove drive belt shield installed above the coolant pump.
3.
Remove the coolant pump drive belt by placing a
pulling handle in the belt tensioner and ease the
belt tension.
Remove the drive belt from the coolant pump.
5.
Remove the coolant pump.
Press the belt tensioner down so it is easier to access the lower screw in the coolant pump. Allow
screw ”1” to stay in the housing.
Fitting
6.
Fit coolant pump with a new seal. Use petroleum
jelly to hold the seal in place during installation.
The screw ”1” must be in place in the housing during installation. Torque the screws as specified in
”Technical data”
7.
Install the coolant pump drive belt.
8.
Install the engine drive belt shield.
9.
Add back the engine coolant, see ”Cooling system, filling”.
10. Start the engine and let it run until it reaches normal operating temperature.
Check that there is no fuel leakage. Top up with
coolant as needed.
162
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Thermostat, functional check
1.
Remove the thermostat, see “Thermostat, replacing”.
2.
Place the thermostat in a big pot with water and
heat it to the opening temperature as specified in
“Technical data, Thermostat”.
3.
If the thermostat does not open at specified temperature, replace it.
Closed thermostat
4.
Install the thermostat, see “Thermostat, replacing”.
NOTE: Always use a new seal, even if the thermostat
is not replaced.
Open thermostat
Thermostat, replacing
1.
Drain the cooling system. See “Cooling system,
draining”.
2.
Clean the area around the thermostat housing.
Remove the radiator hose from the thermostat
housing and unscrew it from the cylinder head.
3.
Remove the thermostat and clean the inside of
the housing.
4.
Install a new thermostat and seal.
5.
Torque the thermostat housing as specified in
“Technical data”.
Attach the radiator hose.
6.
Refill the cooling system. See “Cooling system,
filling”.
7.
Start the engine and check for leaks. Pressurize
the cooling system to test it, see ”Cooling system, pressure testing”.
163
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Coolant filter, changing
NOTE: The coolant filter should be replaced at stated
intervals, if this is not done, the engine may last a lot
less. When working on an engine where more a five liters (5.3 quarts) new coolant are being added, a new
coolant filter should always be installed.
1.
Shut the filter housing valve.
2.
Clean around the filter and remove it using a pair
of filter pliers.
3.
Lubricate the filter gasket with petroleum jelly, or
soapy water, and fit the new filter.
Screw the filter down until the gasket just touches
the sealing surface. Then turn a further ½ turn.
4.
Open the cock on the filter housing.
5.
Start the engine and check for leaks.
1. Tap open
2. Tap closed
164
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Drive belt / Alternator belt,
inspection
Check belts after running when they are warm.
Both the alternator belt and the drive belt has an automatic belt tensioner and need not be adjusted. Check
that the belt tensioner does not bottom.
Drive belt, changing
1. Turn off the main circuit breaker and check that the
engine has no voltage.
2. Remove the protective grating and the outer fan
ring round the cooling fan.
Remove the protective plates around the drive
belts.
3. Place a 1/2" span wrench in belt tensioner (1). Lift
the spanner and remove the drive belt.
4. Thread the drive belt round the fan and remove it.
1
5. Check that the pulleys are clean and undamaged.
6. Thread the new drive belt over the fan.
7. Lift the 1/2" spanner and install the new drive belt.
8. Install the protective plates around the drive belts.
9. Install the protective grating and the outer fan ring
round the cooling fan.
10. Start the engine and check its functions.
165
Reconditioning / replacing: Cooling system
Alternator belts, changing
IMPORTANT! Always replace a drive belt that
seems worn or is cracked.
1. Turn off the main circuit breaker and check that the
engine has no voltage.
2. Remove the protective grating and the outer fan
ring round the cooling fan.
Remove the protective plates around the drive
belts.
3. Place a 1/2" span wrench in belt tensioner (1).
Lift the spanner up and lift the water pump drive
belt off.
2
4. Place a 1/2" span wrench in belt tensioner (2).
Press the spanner down and remove the alternator
belt.
5. Check that the pulleys are clean and undamaged.
1
6. Press down the 1/2" spanner to belt tensioner (2)
and install the new alternator drive belt.
7. Lift the 1/2" spanner to belt tensioner (2) and reinstall the new water pump drive belt.
8. Install the protective plates around the drive belts.
9. Install the protective grating and the outer fan ring
round the cooling fan.
10. Start the engine and do a function check.
166
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Refers to publication: ................................................................................................................................
Publication No.: .................................. Date of issue: ................................................................................
Proposal/motivation: .................................................................................................................................
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Signed: ..............................................................................
AB Volvo Penta
Technical Information
Dept. 42200
SE-405 08 Göteborg
Sweden
7745022 English 07–2004
Workshop Manual
(Group 23) EMS 2
TAD940GE, TAD941GE
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE
EMS 2
TAD940GE, TAD941GE
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE
Contents
Safety Precautions ................................................. 2
Introduction ......................................................... 2
General information .............................................
About this Workshop Manual ..............................
Spare parts .........................................................
Certified engines .................................................
5
5
5
5
Service procedures ..............................................
Our joint responsibility .........................................
Tightening torques ..............................................
Torque-angle tightening .......................................
Lock nuts ............................................................
Strength classes .................................................
Sealant ...............................................................
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
General ................................................................. 8
Location of engine signs ..................................... 8
Tools ..................................................................... 9
Special tools ....................................................... 9
Technical data ..................................................... 10
Design and function ............................................
System description EMS 2 ................................
Component description, sensors and monitors ...
Control module (EMS 2) .....................................
Control Interface Unit (CIU) ................................
Unit injector ........................................................
Alternator ...........................................................
Starter ................................................................
Component location ...........................................
12
12
15
18
18
19
19
19
20
Limit values .........................................................
Limit values control unit (EMS 2)
TAD940–941GE .................................................
Limit values control unit (EMS 2)
TAD940–943VE .................................................
Limp-Home function ...........................................
21
21
Service procedures ............................................. 27
When working with EMS 2 ................................. 27
Control module (EMS 2), replace ....................... 28
Unit injector, replacing ......................................... 29
Starting with auxiliary batteries .......................... 30
Function check .................................................... 31
Diagnostic function for VODIA ........................... 31
Fault tracing ........................................................ 32
Symptoms and possible causes ........................ 32
Diagnostic function .............................................. 33
Diagnostic function ............................................ 33
Malfunction message ......................................... 33
Effect on engine .................................................. 33
Operation ............................................................ 33
Reading fault codes ........................................... 34
Erasing fault codes ............................................ 34
Fault codes (EMS 2) ............................................ 35
Electrical fault tracing .........................................
General .................................................................
Functional check of wiring and
connector blocks ................................................
Functional check of wiring and connector blocks ...
Splicing cables for cable connectors ..................
Checking/fault tracing components ....................
Electrical system .................................................
Important information - electrical system ...........
Electrical system, overview ...............................
Wiring diagram EMS 2 .......................................
Wiring diagram, control Interface Unit (CIU) .......
Wiring diagram, control interface unit (CIU) –
Power pack ........................................................
45
45
45
46
47
48
63
63
64
66
67
68
23
26
1
Group 23 EMS 2
Safety information
Safety information
Introduction
This workshop manual contains descriptions and repair instructions for the Volvo Penta products or product versions noted in the table of contents. This
workshop manual should be used together with the
workshop manual Technical data for the engine in
question. Check that you have the correct Workshop
Manual for your engine.
Read the appropriate safety precautions with care as well
as General information and Service procedures before starting work.
Important
In this book and on the engine you will find the following special warning symbols.
WARNING! Possible danger of personal injury,
extensive damage to property or serious mechanical malfunction if the instructions are not followed.
IMPORTANT! Used to draw your attention to something that can cause damage or malfunctions
on a product or damage to property.
NOTE: Used to draw your attention to important information that will facilitate the work or operation in progress.
To give you a perspective on the risks which always
need to be observed and precautions which always
have to be taken, we have noted them below.
Immobilize the engine by turning off the power
supply to the engine at the main switch (switches)
and lock it (them) turned off before starting work.
Set up a warning notice at the engine control point.
All service work should normally be done on a stationary engine. Some tasks, such as adjustments,
need the engine running, however. Approaching an
engine which is operating is a safety hazard. Remember that loose clothing or long hair can fasten in rotating parts and cause serious personal
injury.
2
If work is done adjacent to a running engine, a
careless movement or a dropped tool can lead
to personal injury in the worst case. Be careful
with hot surfaces (exhaust pipes, turbos, charge
air pipes, starting heaters etc.) and hot fluids in
pipes and hoses on an engine which is running
or which has just stopped.. Reinstall all guards
removed during service operations before starting the engine.
Check that the warning or information labels on
the product are always clearly visible. Replace
labels which have been damaged or painted
over.
Never start the engine without installing the air
cleaner filter. The rotating compressor turbine in
the turbocharger can cause severe injury. Foreign objects entering the intake ducts can also
cause mechanical damage.
Never use start spray or similar products as a
starting aid. They may cause an explosion in
the inlet manifold. Danger of personal injury.
Only start the engine in a well- ventilated area.
When operated in a confined space, exhaust fumes and crankcase gases must be ventilated
from the engine bay or workshop area.
Avoid opening the coolant filling cap when the
engine is hot. Steam or hot coolant can spray
out and the system pressure will be lost. When
needed, open the filler cap slowly and release
the pressure in the system. Be very careful if a
stopcock or plug or engine coolant hose must
be removed when the engine is hot. It is difficult
to anticipate in which direction steam or hot coolant can spray out.
Hot oil can cause burns. Avoid skin contact with
hot oil. Ensure that the lubrication system is not
under pressure before carrying out any work.
Never start or operate the engine with the oil filler cap removed, otherwise oil could be ejected.
Stop the engine before carrying out operations
on the engine cooling system.
Group 23 EMS 2
If extra equipment is installed on the engine
which alters its centre of gravity a special lifting
device is required to obtain the correct balance
for safe handling.
Never carry out work on an engine that is only
suspended in ahoist.
Never work alone when heavy components are
to be dismantled, even when safe lifting devises
such as lockable blocks & tackle are used.
When using a lifting device two people are usually required to do the work, one to take care of
the lifting device and another to ensure that
components are lifted clear and not damaged
during the lifting operations.
Always check before starting work if there is
enough room to carry out removal work without
risking personal injury or damage to the engine
or parts.
WARNING! The components in the electrical
system and in the fuel system on Volvo Penta
products are designed and manufactured to minimise the risk of fire and explosion. The engine
must not be run in areas where there are explosive materials.
Only use the fuels recommended by Volvo Penta. Refer to the Instruction Book. Use of fuels
that are of a lower quality can damage the engine. On a diesel engine poor quality fuel can cause the engine to over-rev with resulting risk of
damage to the engine and personal injury. Poor
fuel can also lead to higher service costs.
Remember the following when washing with a
high pressure washer: Never direct the water jet
at seals, rubber hoses, electrical components or
the radiator.
Always use protective glasses or goggles when
carrying out work where there is a risk of splinters, grinding sparks, acid splashes or where other chemicals are used. Your eyes are extremely
sensitive, injury could cause blindness!
Avoid getting oil on your skin! Repeated exposure to oil or exposure over a long period can result in the skin being damaged. Irritation, dryness and eczema and other skin problems can
then occur. Used oil is more dangerous than
fresh oil from a health aspect. Use protective
gloves and avoid oil soaked clothes and shop
rags. Wash regularly, especially before eating.
There are special skin creams which counteract
drying out of the skin and make it easier to clean off dirt after work is completed.
Safety information
Most chemicals intended for the product e.g.
engine and transmission oils, glycol, petrol (gasoline) and diesel oil, or chemicals for workshop
use e.g. degreasers, paints and solvents are hazardous. Read the instructions on the product
packaging with care! Always follow the safety
precautions for the product, i.e. use of protective mask, glasses, gloves etc. Make sure that
other personnel are not inadvertently exposed to
hazardous chemicals, for example in the air. Ensure good ventilation in the work place. Follow
the instructions provided when disposing of
used or leftover chemicals.
Exercise extreme care when leak detecting on
the fuel system and testing the fuel injector
nozzles. Use eye protection. The jet which comes from a fuel injector has very high pressure
and considerable penetration power. Fuel can
force its way deep into body tissue and cause
severe injury. Danger of blood poisoning (septicemia).
All fuels and many chemical substances are
flammable. Do not allow naked flame or sparks
in the vicinity. Petrol (gasoline), some thinners
and hydrogen gas from batteries are extremely
flammable and explosive when mixed with air in
the correct ratio. No Smoking! Ensure that the
work area is well ventilated and take the necessary safety precautions before starting welding
or grinding work. Always ensure that there are
fire extinguishers at hand when work is being
carried out.
Ensure that rags soaked in oil or fuel and used
fuel or oil filters are properly taken care of. Rags
soaked in oil can spontaneously ignite under
certain circumstances. Used fuel and oil filters
are polluting waste and must be handed to an
approved waste management facility for destruction, together with used lubrication oil, contaminated fuel, paint residue, solvents, degreasers and wash residue.
Never expose a battery to naked flame or electrical sparks. Never smoke close to the batteries. The batteries generate hydrogen gas when
charged, which forms an explosive gas when
mixed with air. This gas is easily ignited and
highly volatile. A spark, which can be formed if
the batteries are wrongly connected, is enough
to make a battery explode and cause damage.
Do not shift the connections when attempting to
start the engine (spark risk) and do not lean over
any of the batteries.
3
Group 23 EMS 2
Safety information
Always ensure that the Plus (positive) and Minus (negative) battery cables are correctly installed on the corresponding terminal posts on
the batteries. Incorrect installation can result in
serious damage to the electrical equipment. Refer to the wiring diagram.
Always use protective goggles when charging
and handling the batteries. Battery electrolyte
contains sulfuric acid which is highly corrosive.
Should the battery electrolyte come into contact
with unprotected skin wash off immediately
using plenty of water and soap. If battery acid
comes in contact with the eyes, immediately
flush with plenty of water and obtain medical assistance at once.
The clutch must be adjusted with the engine
shut off.
Use the lifting eyes fitted on the engine when
lifting the drive unit. Always check that the
lifting equipment used is in good condition and
has the load capacity to lift the engine (engine
weight including gearbox, if fitted, and any extra
equipment installed).
Use an adjustable lifting beam or lifting beam
specifically for the engine to raise the engine to
ensure safe handling and to avoid damaging
engine parts installed on the top of the engine.
All chains and cables should run parallel to each
other and as perpendicular as possible in relation to the top of the engine.
Turn the engine off and turn off the power at the
main switch(es) before carrying out work on the
electrical system.
© 2004 AB VOLVO PENTA
We reserve the right to make modifications without prior notice.
Printed on environmentally-friendly paper.
4
Group 23 EMS 2
General
General information
About this Workshop Manual
Certified engines
This Workshop Manual contains descriptions and instructions for the repair of standard versions of engines: TAD940GE, TAD941GE, TAD940VE,TAD941VE,
TAD942VE, TAD943VE.
The manufacturer warrants that both new and currently operating engines that are certified to national and
regional environmental regulations meet environmental
requirements. The product must correspond to the
engine that was approved during certification. The following requirements for service and spare parts must
be complied with, for Volvo Penta as a manufacturer
to be responsible for ensuring that engines in use
comply with the stipulated environmental requirements:
The workshop manual can illustrate tasks done on
any of the engines noted above. This means that the
illustrations and photographs which clarify certain details might, in some cases, not correspond with other
engines. Repair methods are similar in all important
respects, however. The Engine Designation and Engine Numbers can be found on the product plate. See
”Technical data TAD940GE, TAD941GE,
TAD940VE,TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE”.
Please always include both the engine designation
and the engine number in all correspondence.
The Workshop Manual is produced primarily for the
use of Volvo Penta workshops and service technicians. For this reason the manual presupposes a certain basic knowledge and that the user can carry out
the mechanical/electrical work described to a general
standard of engineering competence.
Volvo Penta constantly improves its products, so we
reserve the right to make modifications without prior
notification. All information in this manual is based on
product data which was available up to the date on
which the manual was printed. Any material changes
introduced into the product or service methods after
this date are notified by means of Service Bulletins.
Spare parts
Spare parts for the electrical and fuel systems are
subject to various national safety requirements. Volvo
Penta Original Spare Parts meet these specifications.
Any type of damage which is the result of using spare
parts that are not original Volvo Penta parts for the
product in question will not be covered under any warranty or guarantee provided by AB Volvo Penta.
•
Service and maintenance intervals recommended
by Volvo Penta must be followed.
•
Only Volvo Penta Original Spare Parts intended
for the certified engine version may be used.
•
Service work that covers injection pumps, pump
settings, and injectors must always be carried out
by an authorized Volvo Penta workshop.
•
The engine must not be converted or modified in
any way, except for the accessories and service
kits which Volvo Penta has approved for the engine.
•
Installation changes to the exhaust pipe and the
engine bay air inlet ducts (ventilation ducts) must
not be done without further discussion, since this
could affect exhaust emissions. No tamper-seals
may be broken by unauthorized personnel.
IMPORTANT! When spare parts are needed,
use only Volvo Penta Original Spares.
Use of non-original parts will result in AB
Volvo Penta being unable to warrant that
the engine corresponds to the certificated
engine version.
Any damage, injury and/or costs which arise
due to the use of non-original Volvo Penta spares for the product in question will not be compensated by Volvo Penta.
5
Group 23 EMS 2
Repair instructions
Repair instructions
The working methods described in the Workshop Manual apply to work carried out in a workshop. The engine has been removed and is installed in an engine fixture. Unless otherwise stated reconditioning work
which can be carried out with the engine in place follows the same working method.
See chapter ”Safety information” where the meaning
of the warning signs used in the manual are explained
in detail.
WARNING!
IMPORTANT!
NOTE!
are not comprehensive in any way, since we can not
of course foresee everything, because service work is
done in highly varying circumstances. For this reason,
all we can do is to point out the risks which we believe
could occur due to incorrect work in a well-equipped
workshop, using work methods and tools tested by
us.
All operations described in the Workshop Manual for
which there are Volvo Penta Special Tools available
assume that these tools are used when carrying out
the repair. Volvo Penta Special Tools have been specifically developed to ensure the most safe and rational working methods possible. It is therefore the responsibility of anyone using other tools or other working methods than we recommend to determine that
there is no risk of personal injury or mechanical damage or malfunction as a result.
In some cases special safety precautions and user instructions may be required in order to use the tools and
chemicals mentioned in the Workshop Manual. These
rules must always be observed, so there are no special
instructions about this in the workshop manual.
By following these basic recommendations and using
common sense it is possible to avoid most of the
risks involved in the work. A clean work place and a
clean engine will eliminate many risks of personal injury and engine malfunction.
Especially when working on the fuel system, engine
lubrication system, air intake system, turbocharger
unit, bearing seals and seals, it is extremely important
to avoid dirt or foreign objects entering the parts or
systems, since this can result in reduced service life
or malfunctions.
6
Our common responsibility
Each engine consists of a large number of collaborating systems and components. Any deviation of a
component from its technical specification can dramatically increase the environmental impact of an otherwise good engine. For this reason, it is extremely important that specified wear tolerances are maintained,
that systems with adjustment facilities are correctly
adjusted and that Volvo Penta Original Spares are
used for the engine. The stated service intervals in
the Maintenance Schedule must be observed.
Some systems, such as the components in the fuel
system, require special expertise and special testing
equipment for service and maintenance. Some components are sealed at the factory, for environmental reasons etc. Under no circumstances attempt to service
or repair a sealed component unless the service technician carrying out the work is authorized to do so.
Remember that most chemical products,
incorrectly used, damage the environment. Volvo Penta recommends the use of bio-degradable degreasing
agents for all cleaning of engine components unless
otherwise stated in the Workshop Manual. Pay special
attention to make sure that oils and washing residue
etc are handled correctly for destruction, and do not
unintentionally end up in nature.
Torque
The tightening torques for critical joints, which should
be tightened with a torque wrench, are listed in Technical data,Tightening Torques”, and are noted in the
task descriptions in the manual. All torque specifications apply to clean screws, screw heads and mating
faces. Torque data stated apply to lightly oiled or dry
threads. Where grease, locking or sealing agents are
required for screwed joints this is stated in both the
operation description and in ”Tightening Torques”.
Where no torque is stated for a joint use the general
torque shown in the following table. The torques stated are a guide and the joint does not have to be
tightened using a torque wrench.
Dimension Tightening torque
Nm
lbf.ft.
M5
6
4,4
M6
10
7,4
M8
25
18,4
M10
50
36,9
M12
80
59,0
M14
140
103,3
Group 23 EMS 2
Repair instructions
Torque-angle tightening
Sealant
In torque/angle tightening, the fastener is tightened to
the specified torque, and tightening then continues through a pre-determined angle. Example: for 90° angle
tightening, the joint is turned a further 1/4 turn in one
sequence, after the specified tightening torque has
been achieved.
Several types of sealant and locking liquid are used
on the engines. The properties of the sealants differ
as they are intended for different strengths of fastenings, temperature, resistance to oil and other chemicals, and also for different materials and gap thicknesses found in the engine.
To ensure service work is correctly carried out it is important that the correct sealant and locking fluid type
is used on the joint where the agents are required.
Lock nuts
Disassembled locknuts shall not be re-used, they
shall be replaced by new ones, since the locking properties are impaired or lost when the nut is used several times. For lock nuts with a plastic insert such as
Nylock® the torque stated in the table is reduced if the
Nylock® nut has the same head height as a standard
hexagonal nut without plastic insert. Reduce the torque by 25% for screw size 8 mm or larger. Where Nylock® nuts are higher, where the metallic thread is of
the same height as a standard hexagonal nut, the torques given in the as shown in table apply.
In this Volvo Penta Workshop Manual the user will find
that each section where these agents are applied in
production states which type was used on the engine.
For service work, an similar product from the same
manufacturer, or corresponding product with the same
characteristics from another manufacturer, can be
used.
When using sealants and locking fluids, make sure
that mating surfaces are dry and free from oil, grease,
paint, anti-corrosion agent and old sealant. Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use regarding
temperature range, curing time and any other instructions for the product
Two different basic types of agent are used on the
engine. These are:
Strength classes
Screws and nuts are sub-divided into different
strength classes. The classification is shown by a
marking on the screw head. Markings of a higher number indicate stronger material. For example, a screw
marked 10-9 is stronger than one marked 8-8. For this
reason, it is important when fasteners are dismantled,
that the screws are put back in the correct places
when they are re-installed. If a bolt must be replaced
check in the spare parts catalogue to make sure the
correct type is used.
1. RTV agent (Room Temperature Vulcanizing). Used
for gaskets, sealing gasket joints or coating gaskets.
RTV is visible when a part has been disassembled;
old RTV must be removed before resealing the joint.
The following agents are of RTV-type: Loctite® 574,
Volvo Penta 840879-1, Permatex® No. 3, Volvo Penta 1161099-5, Permatex® Nr 77. Old sealant can be
removed using denatured alcohol in all cases.
2. Anaerobic agents. These agents cure in the
absence of air. These agents are used when two solid
components, i.e. cast components, are fitted together
without a gasket. Common uses are also to lock and
seal plugs, stud threads, taps, oil pressure monitors
etc. Hardened anaerobic preparations are glassy and
for this reason, the preparations are coloured to make
them visible. Cured anaerobic agents are extremely
resistant to solvents and the old agent cannot be
removed. When reinstalling the part, degrease it carefully and then apply new sealant.
The following agents are anaerobic: Loctite® 572
(white), Loctite® 241 (blue).
Notice: Loctite® is a registered trademark for the Loctite Corporation.
Permatex® is a registered trademark for the Permatex Corporation.
7
Group 23 EMS 2
General
General
Location of engine signs
The sign above shows
examples of:
-
Engine designation
-
Serial number
The sign above shows examples
of:
-
Specification number
-
Engine designation
-
Engine power, net, (without fan)
-
Max. engine speed
-
Main software
-
Data set 1
-
Data set 2
-
Product number
Explanation of engine designation:
E.g. TAD940GE/TAD940VE
8
T
– Turbo
A
– Air to air intercooler
D
– Diesel engine
9
– Cylinder volume, litre
4
– Generation
0
– Version
G
– Generator unit engine
V
– Stationary and mobile operation
E
– Emission certified
Group 23 EMS 2
Tools
Tools
Special tools
The following special tools are used when working on the engine. The special tools can be ordered from AB Volvo
Penta by specifying the number shown.
951 2636
999 8482
999 8567
999 8699
999 8534
999 9324
951 0060
Tool
951 2636
999 8482
999 8534
999 8567
999 8699
Designation – use
Pin tool, connector block
Gauge, connector block
999 9324
951 0060
Cable lug crimper, repair
Multimeter, fault tracing/checking
1078054
Repair kit (not shown in figure)
4-pin adapter, diagnostics
7-pin adapter, diagnostics
62-pin adapter, diagnostics
9
Group 23 EMS 2
Technical data
Technical data
Control unit
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 2 x 62-pin
Working temperature range: ................................... -40°C to +90°C
Cooling ................................................................... External fuel cooling
Sensor, water in fuel
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Connector type ....................................................... Closing in presence of water
Sensor, fuel pressure
Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 3-pin
Working pressure range: ........................................ 0–700 kPa
Pressure signal ...................................................... 0,5–4.5 V
Type ...................................................................... Linear
Max tightening torque ............................................. 30 ± 5 Nm
Camshaft sensor/flywheel sensor
Inductive sensor
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Working temperature range: ................................... -40°C to +130°C
Type ...................................................................... Inductive sensor
Max tightening torque ............................................. 8 ± 2 Nm
Combination sensor, oil pressure/oil temperature
Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 4-pin
Working pressure range: ........................................ 0–700 kPa
Pressure signal ...................................................... 0,5–4.5 V
Working temperature range: ................................... -40°C till +140°C
Type ...................................................................... Linear/NTC
Sensor, oil level
Connector .............................................................. 4-pin
Working temperature range: ................................... -40°C to +140°C
Contact type .......................................................... Resistive
Max tightening torque ............................................. 7 Nm
10
Group 23 EMS 2
Technical data
Combination sensor, charge air pressure/charge air temperature
Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 4-pin
Working pressure range: ........................................ 40–400 Pa
Pressure signal ...................................................... 0.5–4.5 V
Working temperature range: ................................... -40°C till +125°C
Type ...................................................................... Linear/NTC
Sensor, coolant temperature
Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Working temperature range: ................................... -40°C to +150°C
Type ...................................................................... NTC
Sensor, coolant level
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Contact type .......................................................... Closing with low coolant level
Sensor, crankcase pressure
Voltage .................................................................. 5 V
Connector .............................................................. 3-pin
Working pressure range: ........................................ 0–700 kPa
Pressure signal ...................................................... 0,5–4.5 V
Type ...................................................................... Linear
Max tightening torque ............................................. 30 ± 5 Nm
Unit injector
Voltage .................................................................. 90 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Injection pressure ................................................... 180 kPa (18.8 psi)
Alternator
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Capacity ................................................................ 80 A (110 A and 140 A optional)
Starter
Voltage .................................................................. 24 V
Connector .............................................................. 2-pin
Capacity ................................................................ 6 kW
11
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Design and function
The EMS 2-system
EMS 2 stands for ”Engine Management System” and is an electronic system with CAN communications (Controller Area Network) for control of diesel engines. The system has been developed by Volvo Penta and includes fuel
control and diagnostic function. The system consists of a control module, six unit injectors, a number of sensors
that supply the control module with measurements, sockets for diagnosis and functional checks. The engine can
be connected to a communication interface that consists of a CAN link and a serial link and to a Control Interface
Unit (CIU) that interfaces with the driver’s position.
CAN (Controller Area Network)
CIU (Control Interface Unit)
The CAN J1939 link handles all
communication between the engine control module
EMS 2 and the CIU, in addition to the diagnostics that
are handled by the so called J1708/J1587 link. The
CAN link is much faster than the J1708/J1587 link.
The CAN link has been prepared to connect to other
components with SAE J1939 protocol such as instrument panels and transmissions.
The CIU is a ”translator” between the CAN bus and
the customer’s own control panel. This unit has two
serial communication links, one fast and one slow.
The fast one is a CAN link that features a bus speed
of 250 Kbit/s. All data regarding instruments, indicator
lamps, contacts and potentiometers are controlled by
this bus. The slower J1708/J1587 link handles diagnostic information for, among other things, the flashing code. The diagnosis tool VODIA also uses the
J1708/J1587 link to communicate with the system.
If, for some reason, a fault develops on the CAN link,
signals for the rpm-potentiometer and the start and
stop knobs are taken over by the J1708/J1587 link.
However, instrument and indicator lamps are completely turned off. If faults develop on both links, the GE
and Power Pack engines maintain the same rpm while
VE engines slow to idle. The only way to shut off the
engine in this case is to use the auxiliary stop (AUXSTOP) placed on the engine’s left side.
12
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Input signals
Output signals
The control module receives input signals about the
engines operating conditions and other things from the
following components:
Based on the input signals the control module controls
the following components:
–
coolant temperature sensor
–
charge pressure / charge temperature sensor
–
crankcase pressure sensor
–
position sensor, camshaft
–
speed sensor, flywheel
–
coolant level sensor
–
oil level sensor
–
oil pressure and oil temperature sensor
–
fuel pressure sensor
–
water in fuel indicator
–
the unit injectors
–
starter motor
–
main relay
–
pre-heating relay
The information from the sensors give exact data
about prevailing operating conditions and allows the
processor in the control module to, among other
things, calculate correct injection amount, injection timing and check the engine’s condition.
Diagnosis
Engine speed
Accelerator setting
Water in fuel
Camshaft position
Cooling water temperature
Boost air temperature
Electronic
control
module
Boost air pressure:
Oil pressure
Oil temperature
Fuel feed pressure
Coolant level
Fuel
quantity
Injection
timing
13
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Fuel control
Cylinder balancing
The engine’s fuel requirement is analyzed up to 100
times per second (depending on engine rpm). The
engine’s injection amount and injection timing is controlled electronically via fuel valves on the unit injectors.
When idling, the control module can supply the cylinder with different amounts of fuel. This so the engine
will have a more even idle. At higher rpm, this problem
does not exist, and the cylinders receive the same
amount of fuel.
This means that the engine always receives the correct volume of fuel in all operating conditions, which
offers lower fuel consumption, minimal exhaust emissions etc.
Altitude correction
The control module checks and controls the unit injectors so that the correct amount of fuel is injected into
each cylinder. It calculates and sets the injection angle. The control is primarily performed using the speed
sensors and the combined sensor for boost pressure/
charge air temperature.
The control module is equipped with an atmospheric
air pressure sensor and altitude correction function for
engines that operate above 3900 ft (1,200 m) above
sea level. This function limits amount of fuel depending on ambient air pressure. This is to prevent smoke, high exhaust temperature and to protect the turbocharger from over-speeding.
The control module affects the unit injectors via an
electronic signal to the unit injectors’ electromagnetic
fuel valve, which can open and close.
Diagnostic function
When the fuel valve is open, fuel flows past, through
the unit injectors’ holes and continuing out through the
fuel channel. Fuel is not sprayed into the cylinder in
this position.
The task of the diagnosis function is to detect and locate disturbances within the EMS 2 system, to protect the engine, and to provide information about problems that have developed.
When the fuel valve closes, pressure starts to build
from the unit injector’s mechanically operated pump
plunger. When sufficient pressure has developed, fuel
is injected into the cylinder via the unit injector’s injector section.
If a malfunction is discovered, this is announced by
warning lamps, a flashing diagnostic lamp or in plain
language on the instrument panel, depending on the
equipment used. If a fault code is obtained as a flashing code or in plain language, this is used for guidance in any troubleshooting. Fault codes can also be
read by Volvo’s VODIA tool at authorized Volvo Penta
workshops.
The fuel valve is re-opened and pressure in the unit
injector decreases at the same time as the fuel injection to the cylinder stops.
In order to determine when the fuel valve shall open or
close, the control module has access to signals from
sensors and switch contacts.
Calculating amount of fuel
The amount of fuel that is sprayed into a cylinder is
calculated by the control module. The calculation determines the time that the fuel valve is closed (when
the fuel valve is closed fuel is sprayed into the cylinder). The parameters controlling injected amount of
fuel are:
• Rpm requested
• Engine protector functions
• Temperature
• Charge air pressure
14
In case of serious disturbances, the engine is shut
down completely or the control module decreases the
power output (depending on the application). Once
again, a fault code is set for guidance in any troubleshooting.
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Component description
The numbers after the heading refer to ”component list
and location”.
Sensor, water in fuel (10)
The sensor is located in the lower part of the fuel prefilter.
It’s purpose is to detect water in the fuel system. The
sensor comprises two copper electrodes, between
which the resistance is measured. When the resistance drops below a certain limit, which indicates that
there is water in the fuel, a warning message is sent
to the control unit.
Position sensor, camshaft (14)
The position sensor is located in the upper timing gear
cover. The camshaft position sensor is of the inductive-sensor type. The sensor reads off a cogged wheel
with 7 cogs. The impulses from the camshaft sensor
give the control unit information about which cylinder
is in turn for injection and when it is performed.
Oil pressure/oil temperature
sensor (15)
The oil pressure and temperature are measured by a
combined sensor located on the left side of the engine, next to the control unit.
The sensor is fitted in the engine block so that measurements are performed in the lubrication systems
main oil galley. The sensor comprises a non-linear resistor, where the resistance is dependant on the temperature of the resistor body. The resistance drops as
temperature rises. The pressure signal is a voltage
signal proportional to the pressure. The sensor reference voltage is 5 Volts.
15
Group 23 EMS 2
Speed sensor, flywheel (16)
The sensor is located in the left side of the flywheel
housing.
The flywheel speed sensor is of the inductive type. It
reads off the crankshaft position and speed from grooves in the flywheel. The signal is sent to the control
unit, which calculates injection timing and fuel quantity.
Charge air pressure/charge air
sensor (5)
The charge air pressure and temperature are measured via a combined sensor positioned on the inlet
pipe.
The charge air pressure sensor measures absolute
pressure, which is the sum of charge air pressure and
atmospheric pressure. The sensor supplies the control
unit with a voltage signal proportional to the absolute
pressure. The sensor receives a reference signal of 5
Volts from the control unit.
The charge air temperature sensor comprises a nonlinear resistor, where the resistance is dependant on
the temperature of the resistor body. The resistance
drops as temperature rises.
Coolant temperature sensor (6)
The sensor is located in the left rear part of the cylinder head.
The sensor senses the coolant temperature and
sends the information to the control unit. The sensor
comprises a non-linear resistor, where the resistance
is dependant on the temperature of the resistor body.
The resistance drops as temperature rises.
Fuel pressure sensor (9)
The sensor is located on the left side of the engine,
mounted on the fuel filter bracket.
The pressure signal is a voltage signal proportional to
the pressure. The sensor reference voltage is 5 Volts.
16
Design and function
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Coolant level sensor (1)
The sensor is located in the expansion tank.
It’s purpose is to detect if the coolant level in the cooling system (expansion tank) becomes too low. The
sensor is a magnetically sensitive switch. A float located around the sensor affects the switch differently
depending on the coolant level. A alarm signal is sent
when the coolant level is too low.
Oil level sensor (11)
The sensor is located in the oil sump.
It’s purpose is to detect if the oil level becomes too
low. A current is passed through the sensor and the
voltage measured across it is then proportional to the
oil level. A alarm signal is sent when the oil level is
too low.
Crankcase pressure sensor (2)
The sensor is located on top of the engine in the
middle of the valve cover on the engine’s left side.
The pressure signal is a voltage signal proportional to
the pressure. The sensor reference voltage is 5 Volts.
17
Group 23 EMS 2
Control module (EMS 2)
The control module checks and controls the unit injectors so that the correct amount of fuel is injected into
each cylinder. It calculates and sets the injection angle. The control is primarily performed using the speed
sensors and the combined sensor for boost pressure/
charge air temperature.
The EMS 2 system processor is located in the control
unit, where it is protected from moisture and vibration.
The processor receives information continuously
about:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
engine speed
camshaft position
charge air pressure
charge air temperature
coolant temperature
oil pressure
oil temperature
oil level
crankcase pressure
water in fuel
fuel pressure
coolant level
Information from the sensors provides exact information about current operation conditions and allows the
processor to calculate the correct fuel volume, check
engine status etc.
Control Interface Unit (CIU)
CIU is a control unit that handles all interactions with
the operator.
It communicates with the engine via two serial communication buses. J1939 is used for control and monitoring of the engine. J1587 is used for diagnostics and
backup.
The CIU unit reads in the status of a number of switches as well as the engine speed request and forwards them to the engine. It also controls the four
analogue instruments and up to nine
warning lamps. By using the diagnostic button and a
diagnostic lamp, the driver can read off fault codes
from the system.
18
Design and function
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Unit injector
The unit injectors are located under the valve cover,
mounted in the cylinder head.
The engine’s fuel requirement is analyzed up to 100
times per second (depending on engine rpm). The
amount of fuel injected into the engine and the injection timing are electronically controlled via the unit
injector’s solenoid controlled fuel valves. This means
that the engine always receives the correct volume of
fuel in all operating conditions, which offers lower fuel
consumption, minimal exhaust emissions etc.
Alternator
The alternator is belt driven and is located at the left
front of the engine.
The alternator’s voltage regulator is equipped with a
sensor system. The sensor system compares the
charging voltage between the alternator’s B+ and Bterminals, with the voltage between the battery’s positive and negative poles. The voltage regulator then
compensates the voltage drop in the cables between
the alternator and battery by increasing the charging
voltage at the alternator, if necessary.
Starter
The starter is mounted on the flywheel housing on the
engine’s right side.
During starting, a gear on the starter rotor shaft is moved axially so that it engages with the ring gear on the
engine’s flywheel. The axial movement as well as the
activation of the starter is controlled by a solenoid on
the starter motor.
The starter solenoid in turn is connected via the starter relay, which is activated when the starter key is
turned to position III/the starter button is pressed.
19
Group 23 EMS 2
Design and function
Component location
1. Coolant level sensor
10. Sensor, water in fuel
2. Crankcase pressure sensor
10a. Solenoid valve, drainage, water trap (optional),
not shown in illustration
3. Electric feed pump switch
4. Extra stop
5. Charge pressure / charge temperature sensor
6. Coolant temperature sensor
7. Main relay
8. Diagnostic output
9. Fuel pressure sensor
20
11. Oil level sensor (mounted inside the oil pan)
12. Main circuit breaker 10 A
13. Air pre-heater with pre-heating relay
14. Camshaft position sensor
15. Oil pressure and oil temperature sensor
16. Flywheel position and speed sensor
Group 23 EMS 2
Limit values
Limit values
Limit values control unit (EMS 2) TAD940–941GE
Oil temperature
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
125 °C
120 - 130 °C
at alarm limit
+3 °C
Oil pressure
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
idle: 160 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
130 kPa
1500 rpm: 250 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
220 kPa
1800 rpm: 300 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
270 kPa
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
low oil level
not adjustable
low oil level
no
Oil level
Coolant temperature
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
98 °C
95 -103 °C
at alarm limit
+5 °C
Coolant level
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
low coolant level
not adjustable
low coolant level
low coolant level
21
Group 23 EMS 2
Limit values
Fuel pressure
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
idle: 150 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
no
>1400 rpm: 300 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
no
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
water in fuel
not adjustable
water in fuel
no
Water in fuel
Crankcase pressure
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
increasing pressure
not adjustable
increasing pressure
increasing pressure
Boost air temperature
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
87°C
not adjustable
at alarm limit
+5 °C
Boost air pressure:
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
380 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
at alarm limit
Alarm lamp is lit.
Engine cut off
at alarm limit
at alarm limit
RPM
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
20 % above normal rpm 0 - 20 %
22
Group 23 EMS 2
Limit values
Limit values control unit (EMS 2) TAD940–943VE
Oil temperature
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
125 °C
120 - 130 °C
at alarm limit
25 % at +5 °C
75 % at +10 °C
below1000 rpm
the torque
limitation is lower.
Alarm lamp is lit.
at alarm limit
Torque limitation Engine cut off
70 %
no
below1000 rpm
the torque
limitation is lower.
no
Oil pressure
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
See diagram oil
pressure below.
Adjustable between
not adjustable
Oil pressure
Oil level.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
low oil level
not adjustable
low oil level
no
no
Coolant temperature
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
98 °C
95 -103 °C
at alarm limit
25 % at +5 °C
50 % at +8 °C
below1000 rpm
the torque
limitation is lower.
no
23
Group 23 EMS 2
Limit values
Coolant level
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
low coolant level
Adjustable between
not adjustable
Alarm lamp is lit.
low coolant level
Torque limitation Engine cut off
50 %
no
below1000 rpm
the torque
limitation is lower.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
See diagram fuel
pressure below.
not adjustable
at alarm limit
no
Fuel pressure
no
Fuel pressure
Water in fuel
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
water in fuel
not adjustable
water in fuel
no
no
Crankcase pressure
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
increasing pressure
not adjustable
increasing pressure
no
24
with increasing
pressure
Group 23 EMS 2
Limit values
Boost air temperature
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
80°C
not adjustable
at alarm limit
0 % at +10 °C
50 % at +15 °C
70 % at +25 °C
below 1000 rpm
the torque
limitation is lower.
no
Boost air pressure:
NOTE: The engine protection can be turned off.
Preset alarm limit
Adjustable between
Alarm lamp is lit.
Torque limitation Engine cut off
325 kPa
not adjustable
at alarm limit
75 % at +25 kPa
no
25
Group 23 EMS 2
Limit values
Limp-home value
(emergency regulation value)
The basic value is used by the control unit in order to
continue running the engine when a technical fault occurs in the system or it’s peripherals, sensors etc.
The following value (Limp home-value) is stored in the
control unit:
Boost air temperature
+45 °C
Coolant temperature
-15 °C
Boost air pressure
See diagram below
Engine speed:
TAD940–943GE
rpm is frozen
TAD940–943VE
Idle
Boost air pressure
26
Group 23 EMS 2
Repair instructions
Repair instructions
When working with EMS 2 system
Follow the instructions below so as not to damage the EMS 2-system control unit:
•
Never switch off main power while the engine is running.
•
Never disconnect a battery cable while the engine is running.
•
When fast charging the batteries, turn off the main switch or disconnect one of the battery cables.
The main switch does not need to be turned off during normal charging.
•
Only batteries may be used for starting assistance. Starting boosters can generate excessive voltages and
damage the control units.
•
Disconnect power to the EMS 2-system before removing the two 62-pin connectors from the control unit.
•
If damage to the cable harness is detected, the 62-pin connectors on the control unit must be removed.
IMPORTANT! Disconnect the 62-pin connectors from the control unit if you are about to perform welding.
•
Make sure that the connector pins are not contaminated with oil or other liquids while disconnected.
Otherwise a contact problem may arise or the oil may run down inside to the pressure sensitive membrane
and cause a misreading.
27
Group 23 EMS 2
Control module (EMS 2),
replace
WARNING! Exchange of control units between
engines, during fault tracing or repair, must never be performed under any circumstances..
1.
Clean thoroughly around the control module fuel
connections.
2.
Remove electricity from the engine by
disconnecting the negative battery terminal.
3.
Remove the lower part of the crankcase ventilation pipe.
4.
Remove upper and lower cable harnesses
clamps.
5.
Remove the control module’s cable harness by
moving the connector block’s retaining clips
outwards.
6.
Remove upper and lower fuel connections with
the cooling element, plug the fuel lines.
7.
Remove the screws that hold the control
module and remove the control module.
8.
Transfer the cooling element to the new control
module. Make sure that the surface between
the cooling element and the control module is
clean.
9.
Install the new control module. Torque as
specified in Technical data.
10.
Install upper and lower fuel connections to the
cooling element with new sealing washers.
11.
Install the cable harness and clamps.
12.
Install the lower crankcase ventilation pipe.
13.
Vent the fuel system, see Fuel System,
bleeding. Start the engine and check for error
codes.
28
Repair instructions
Group 23 EMS 2
Repair instructions
Unit injector, replacing
For replacement of unit injectors see:
”Workshop manual Group 21-26 Industrial engine
TAD940VE, TAD941VE, TAD942VE, TAD943VE,
TAD940GE, TAD941GE”
When a unit injector has been replaced, a new injector
code must be programmed into the EMS 2-control
unit. This is done with the VODIA tool.
Each unit injector has a unique code. The injector
code, which comprises six characters, is stamped on
the unit injector as a hexadecimal code.
In the illustration to the right, the injector code is
5D008A.
29
Group 23 EMS 2
Starting with auxiliary
batteries
WARNING! Ventilate well. Batteries can generate oxy-hydrogen, which is very imflammable and
highly explosive. A short circuit, open flame or
spark could cause a violent explosion.
WARNING! Never mix up the battery cables positions on the battery. Mixing up the battery terminals when applying starting assistance can
cause a short circuit and sparks, which could
cause an explosion and also damage the
engine’s electrical components.
1. Check that the auxiliary battery’s voltage is the
same as the engine’s system voltage.
2. First connect the red (+) jump lead to the
discharged battery’s positive terminal (+) and
then to the auxiliary battery’s positive terminal
(+).
3. Then connect the black (-) jump lead to the
auxiliary battery’s negative terminal (-) and to a
suitable ground somewhere away from the
discharged battery’s negative terminal (-) e.g.
to the negative cable on the starter motor.
WARNING! The black (-) jump lead must under
no circumstances come in contact with the positive cable connection on the starter motor.
4. Start the engine and run at high idle for about 10
minutes to charge the batteries.
WARNING! Working with, or going close to a
running engine is a safety risk.
Watch out for rotating components and hot surfaces.
Do not touch the connections during the starting
attempt.
Sparking hazard.
Do not lean over any of the batteries.
5. Turn off engine.
Remove the jump leads in reverse order to
installation. One lead at a time!
30
Repair instructions
Group 23 EMS 2
Function check
Function check
Diagnostic function for VODIA
•
The program can read off fault codes that are stored in the engine’s control unit, check input/output signals
and read off current values from the engine’s sensors and then print out the test results.
•
The program allows service and workshop personnel the rapidly detect and correct faults in the
EMS 2-system.
•
•
•
•
Connection to the engine’s control unit is via the diagnostic outlet, see chapter ”Electrical diagrams”.
•
If a malfunction is detected, this is indicated by the diagnostic lamp in the control panel blinking.
By pressing the diagnostic switch, the operator will receive a fault code as a guide to any fault-tracing.
User information is included with the program.
To order the program, contact your Volvo Penta retailer.
The task of the diagnostic function is to discover and localise any malfunctions in the EMS 2 system, to
protect the engine and to ensure operation in the event of serious malfunction.
For more handling information, see ”VODIA User´s Guide”.
31
Group 23 EMS 2
Fault tracing
Fault tracing
A number of symptoms and possible causes of engine malfunctions are described in the table below. Always contact your Volvo Penta dealer if any problems occur which you can not solve by yourself.
WARNING! Read the safety instructions for handling and service in the chapter ”Safetyinformation” before
starting work.
Symptoms and possible causes
The diagnostic indicator is blinking
Please refer to the “Diagnostic information” chapter
Engine can not be stopped.
2, 5
Starter motor does not rotate
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 24
Starter motor rotates slowly
1, 2
Starter motor rotates normally but engine does not start
8, 9, 10, 11,
Engine starts but stops again
8, 9, 10, 11, 13
Engine does not reach correct operating speed at full throttle
9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 21, 25, 26
Engine runs roughly
10, 11
High fuel consumption
12, 13, 15, 25
Black exhaust smoke
12, 13
Blue or white exhaust smoke
14, 15, 22
Too low lubrication oil pressure
16
Excessive coolant temperature
17, 18, 19, 20
Too low coolant temperature
20
No, or poor charge
2, 23
1.
Flat batteries
11. Water/contamination in fuel
20. Defective thermostat
2.
Poor contact/open circuit in
electrical cable
12. Faulty unit injector
21. Blocked intercooler
Main switch turned off
4.
Main circuit breaker faulty
5.
Faulty ignition lock
6.
Faulty main relay
7.
Faulty starter motor/solenoid
8.
No fuel:
– fuel cocks closed
– fuel tank empty/wrong tank
connected
13. Insufficient air supply to
the engine:
– clogged air filter
– air leakage between the turbo
and the engine’s inlet pipe
– dirty compressor part
in the turbocharger
– faulty turbocharger
– poor engine room ventilation
22. Too high oil level
3.
9.
Blocked secondary fuel filter/
primary filter (because of
contamination, or stratification
of the fuel at low temperature)
10. Air in the fuel system
32
14. Excessive coolant temperature
15. Too low coolant temperature
16. Too low oil level
17. Coolant level too low
18. Air in the coolant system
19. Faulty circulation pump
23. Alternator drive belt slips
24. Water entry into engine
25. High back pressure in the
exhaust system
26. Break in “ Pot+ ” cable to
pedal
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
Diagnostic function
Diagnostic function
The diagnostic function monitors and checks that the
EMS 2 system functions normally.
The diagnostic function has the following tasks:
•
•
•
To detect and locate disturbances.
To report that disturbances have been detected.
To guide when troubleshooting.
Effect on the engine
The engine is affected in different ways, depending on
the seriousness of the fault detected by the diagnostic
function.
A fault message in the form of a fault code is always
generated when the diagnostic function discovers a
fault.
The engine is affected by different degrees (see below) depending on the seriousness of the fault:
•
The engine is not affected.
Message regarding disturbance
•
Engine goes to idle speed (VE engines).
If the diagnosis function detects a disturbance in
the EMS 2 system this is reported by:
•
Engine torque is limited to different levels (VE
engine)
•
•
Engine is shut off.
the diagnostic lamp starts to flash
or
•
information is shown in plain language on the instrument panel
(depending on the equipment used).
All fault codes are found in the fault code list with information about cause, reaction and actions. See
chapter on ”Fault codes”.
NOTE! The indicated flashing codes apply only if the
Volvo Penta CIU is used.
Simultaneously, the fault will be stored in the control
module memory. As soon as the fault has been attended to and the ignition is turned off and on, the fault
code lamp goes out. Both rectified (passive) and unrectified (active) faults are stored in the control unit
and can be read by an authorized workshop.
Operation
If the system indicates that a fault code has been set:
1. Reduce engine speed to idling.
2. Press the diagnosis knob to acknowledge the mes
sage. Release the diagnostic button and make a
note of the diagnostic trouble code (DTC) that is
flashed out. See ”Reading fault codes”.
or
3. Read the fault code which is set directly on the instrument panel.
4. Look up the fault code in the fault code list and
take the necessary measures.
NOTE! If the warning lamps and other instrumentation
show normal function while operating controls are working normally, the operator can choose to continue the
operation and remedy the disturbance at a later time.
If the engine is shut off, some fault codes may disappear.
33
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
Reading fault codes
Erasing fault codes
Fault codes can either be read via:
The diagnosis function fault code memory is set to
zero when the voltage to the engine is disconnected.
-
Plain language on the instrument panel via the
CAN link.
-
Diagnosis lamp on instrument panel.
-
For how to handle the VODIA-tool, see ”VODIA
User´s Guide”
If the diagnosis knob is depressed and then released,
a fault code will flash.
The fault code consists of two groups of flashes, separated by a pause of two seconds. A fault code is
obtained by counting the number of flashes in each
group.
Example:
pause
= Fault code 2.4
The fault code is stored and can be read as long as
the malfunction remains. You can find information
about cause, reaction and actions in the fault code
list.
Read as follows:
1. Press the diagnostic button.
2. Release the diagnostic button and make a note of
the fault that is flashed out.
3. Repeat items 1-2. A new fault code is flashed out
if more are stored. Repeat until the first fault code
is repeated.
NOTE! When the first fault code returns, all fault codes have been read.
34
NOTE! Voltage must be fully disconnected.
When voltage is turned on again, the diagnosis function will check if there are any disturbances in the
EMS 2 system. If this is the case, new fault codes
are set.
This means that:
1. Fault codes for malfunctions that have been
rectified or disappeared are set as inactive (the
inactive fault code can then be erased with the
VODIA tool).
2. Fault codes for malfunctions which have not been
attended to must be acknowledged every time the
system voltage is switched on.
If the diagnosis knob is depressed after the faults
have been corrected, and stored fault codes have
been deleted, code 1.1 (”No fault”) will flash, see
chapter on ”Fault codes”.
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
Fault codes EMS 2
WARNING! Read the safety instructions for handling and service in chapter ”Safety information” before starting work.
NOTE: Reading the fault codes below, such as PID 97, Code 2.1 means that PID 97 is read using the diagnostic
tool VODIA. 2.1 is the flashing code that is displayed by the instrument box diagnosis lamp. See ”Reading fault
codes”.
NOTE: For reference to sockets in the cable harness connectors on the engine control module EMS 2, see wiring
diagram page 66.
Code 1.1
PID 111, Code 2.3 Coolant level sensor
No faults
No active faults exist.
Reason:
•
PID 97, Code 2.1 Water in fuel
Reason:
• Water in fuel.
Reaction:
• Warning lamp turns on.
Measures:
•
Drain fuel pre-filter.
• Sensor faulty.
Reaction:
• None.
Measures:
•
Check that the cable harness to coolant level sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check coolant level sensor function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 23 and 10 in
the upper cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
PID 111, Code 2.2 Coolant level
Reason:
• Low coolant level.
Reaction:
Shorted to plus (+).
SID21, Code 2.4 Speed sensor, flywheel
Reason:
•
Warning lamp turns on.
•
No signal.
•
VE engines: Engine control module reduces
engine power (unless the protection has been shut
off with the parameter setting tool).
•
Abnormal frequency.
•
”Intermittent” signal from the sensor.
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
• Sensor faulty.
Reaction:
•
Measures:
•
Check coolant level.
•
Check the coolant temperature sensor function.
The engine is very hard to start and runs unevenly
if it starts.
Measures:
•
Check that the sensor contact has been installed
correctly.
•
Check that the cable harness to the speed sensor
has not been damaged.
•
Check that the speed sensor was installed correctly in the flywheel casing.
•
Check speed sensor function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 37 and 38 in
the upper cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
35
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
PPID 132, Code 2.8 RPM-potentiometer
connected to CIU
SID22, Code 2.5 Speed sensor, camshaft wheel
Cause:
•
No signal.
•
Abnormal frequency.
• Sensor faulty.
Reaction:
The engine takes longer than normal to start.
Engine runs normally when is running.
•
Measures:
Reason:
•
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
• Potentiometer faulty.
Reaction:
•
VE engines: Engine goes to idle.
GE engines: Engine speed is maintained.
•
If you release the accelerator first, and the press
it down again, the engine can be forced to run
using the idle contact.
•
Check that the speed sensor contact has been installed correctly.
•
Check that the cable harness to the speed sensor
has not been damaged.
•
Check that the speed sensor was installed correctly in the upper timing gear cover.
Check that the potentiometer has been connected
correctly.
•
Check that the cable harness to the potentiometer
has not been damaged.
•
Check the potentiometer function.
•
•
Check speed sensor function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 45 and 46 in
the upper cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
PID 190, Code 2.6 Engine rpm
Measures:
PID 97, Code 2.9 Indicator for water in fuel
Reason:
Reason:
•
Short.
• Rpm too high.
Reaction:
•
Break.
•
VE engines: None.
•
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
• Dial indicator faulty.
Reaction:
• None.
Measures:
•
Check the cable harness to dial indicator with
regard to short and break.
•
Check dial indicator function. Change indicator as
necessary.
Measures:
•
36
When the motor stops, look for the cause of high
rpm.
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
PID 100, Code 3.1 Oil pressure sensor
Reason:
•
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
PID 110, Code 3.3 Coolant temperature sensor
Reason:
•
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
• Break.
Reaction:
• Break.
Reaction:
• None.
Measures:
•
•
Check that the cable harness to the oil pressure
sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check that the oil pressure sensor has been connected correctly.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 11 in the lower
cable connector (B) to the engine control module.
Measures:
•
Check that the coolant temperature sensor contact has been installed correctly.
•
Check that the cable harness to the coolant temperature sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check that the coolant temperature sensor was
installed correctly.
•
Check the coolant temperature sensor function.
PID 105, Code 3.2 Charge air temperature sensor
Reason:
•
Pre-heating is also activated when the engine is
hot.
PID106/102, Code 3.4 Boost pressure sensor
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
Reason:
• Break.
Reaction:
•
• None.
Measures:
• Break.
Reaction:
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
The engine smokes more than normal when
accelerating or being loaded.
•
Check that the charge air temperature sensor contact has been installed correctly.
•
•
Check that the cable harness to the charge air
temperature sensor has not been damaged.
Measures:
•
Check that the charge air temperature sensor was
installed correctly.
•
Check the charge air temperature sensor function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 47 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check that the charge air pressure sensor contact
has been installed correctly.
•
Check that the cable harness to the charge air
pressure sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check that the charge air pressure sensor was installed correctly.
•
Check the charge air pressure sensor function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 22 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
37
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
PID106/102, Code 3.5 Boost pressure
PID175, Code 3.7 Oil temperature sensor
Reason:
Reason:
• Boost pressure too high
Reaction:
•
VE engines: Engine control module reduces
engine power (unless the protection has been shut
off with the parameter setting tool).
•
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
Measures:
•
Check turbocharger function.
•
Check the charge air pressure sensor function.
•
Check amount of fuel/unit injector.
PID 94, Code 3.6 Fuel pressure sensor
Reason:
•
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
• Break.
Reaction:
• None.
Measures:
•
Check that the cable harness to the oil temperature sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check that the oil temperature sensor has been
connected correctly.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 31 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
PID 94, Code 3.8 Fuel pressure
Reason:
• Low feed pressure.
Reaction:
• Break.
Reaction:
• Warning lamp turns on.
Measures:
• None.
Measures:
•
Check if it is possible to increase pressure using
the hand pump.
•
Check fuel filter.
•
Check fuel pre-filter.
•
Check that fuel pressure sensor contact has been
installed correctly.
•
Check that the wiring to the fuel pressure sensor
has not been damaged.
•
Check that fuel pressure sensor is correctly installed.
•
Check fuel pressure sensor function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 16 in the lower
cable connector (B) to the engine control module.
PID 158, Code 3.9 Battery voltage
Reason:
•
• Battery, battery cables faulty.
Reaction:
• Warning lamp turns on.
Measures:
•
38
Alternator faulty.
Check feed voltage from the control module.
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
PPID 5, Code 5.1 Main relay
PID 45, Code 5.4 Pre-heating relay
Reason:
Reason:
• Shorted to plus (+).
Reaction:
•
•
The instrument panel receives no power when the
ignition key is turned to start position. Engine can
not be started.
Measures:
•
•
Check that the cable harness to the relay has not
been damaged.
• Break.
Reaction:
•
•
Check that the cable harness to the relay input
has not been damaged.
•
Check relay function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 25 in the lower
cable connector (B) to the engine control module.
Reason:
•
Pre-heating cannot be activated.
• Pre-heating is constantly connected.
Measures:
Check relay function.
PPID 4, Code 5.2 Start input, CIU
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
Shorted to minus (-).
PID 98, Code 5.7 Oil level
Activated for too long.
Reason:
•
The engine cannot be started.
• The oil level is too low.
Reaction:
•
The engine starts immediately when ignition is turned on.
•
Reaction:
Measures:
•
•
Check that connections to the ignition key have
not been damaged.
Check that the cable harness to the ignition key
has not been damaged.
PPID 6, Code 5.3 Stop input, CIU
Reason:
•
Shorted to minus (-).
•
Break.
• Warning lamp turns on.
Measures:
•
PID 175, Code 5.8 Oil temperature
Reason:
• The oil temperature is too high
Reaction:
•
Warning lamp turns on.
•
VE engines: Engine control module reduces
engine power (unless the protection has been shut
off with the parameter setting tool).
• Activated for too long.
Reaction:
•
•
The engine can only be stopped with the auxiliary
stop (AUX STOP) on the engine.
Engine stops. A fault code is displayed for 40
seconds and the engine can not be started during
this time. When a fault code is displayed on the
diagnosis lamp, the engine can be started but not
stopped.
Check the oil level.
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
Measures:
•
Check the oil level.
•
Check oil temperature.
•
Check the oil temperature sensor function.
Measures:
•
Check that connections to the ignition key have
not been damaged.
•
Check that the cable harness to the ignition key
has not been damaged.
39
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
PID 98, Code 5.9 Oil level sensor
Reason:
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
•
• Break.
Reaction:
PID 105, Code 6.2 Charge air temperature
Reason:
• Charge air temperature too high.
Reaction:
•
• None.
Measures:
VE engines: Engine control module reduces
engine power (unless the protection has been shut
off with the parameter setting tool).
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
•
Check that the cable harness to the oil level sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check the oil level sensor function.
Measures:
•
Check contact pressure in socket 3 and 4 in the
lower cable connector (B) to the engine control
module.
•
Check coolant level.
•
Check the intercooler (cleanliness).
•
Check the charge air temperature sensor function.
•
Check the thermostat function.
PID 110, Code 6.1 Coolant temperature
Reason:
• Coolant temperature too high.
Reaction:
•
Warning lamp turns on.
•
VE engines: Engine control module reduces
engine power (unless the protection has been shut
off with the parameter setting tool).
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
PPID 3, Code 6.3 Start output EMS 2
Reason:
•
• Activated for too long.
Reaction:
•
The engine cannot be started.
•
The engine starts immediately when ignition is turned on.
Measures:
Measures:
•
Check coolant level.
•
Check the charge air cooler (cleanliness).
•
Check for air in the coolant system.
•
Check the pressure cap on the expansion tank.
•
Check the coolant temperature sensor function.
•
Check the thermostat function.
40
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
•
Check that connections to the ignition key have
not been damaged.
•
Check that the cable harness to the ignition key
has not been damaged.
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
SID 231, Code 6.4 Data link (CAN), CIU
PID 100, Code 6.6 Oil pressure
Reason:
Reason:
• Data link faulty (CAN), CIU.
Reaction:
• The oil pressure is too low.
Reaction:
• Instrument and warning lamps no longer work.
Measures:
•
Warning lamp turns on.
•
VE engines: Engine control module reduces
engine power (unless the protection has been shut
off with the parameter setting tool).
•
Check that the 8-pin contact has not been damaged.
•
Check that the cable harness between CIU and
the engine control module has not been damaged.
•
Check that socket 11 and 12 in contacts on CIU
have not been damaged.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 51 and 55 in
the lower cable connector (B) to the engine control
module.
GE engines: Engine is shut off (unless the
protection has been shut off with the parameter
setting tool).
Measures:
•
Check the oil level.
•
Check that oil filters are not blocked.
•
Check system pressure valves and the safety
valve in oil system.
•
Check the oil pressure sensor function.
SID 231, Code 6.5 Data link (CAN), EMS 2
Reason:
• Internal fault in the control module.
Reaction:
•
Engine not operating: engine can not be started.
Engine running: engine idles and can only be
stopped with the emergency stop.
Measures:
•
Check that the 8-pin contact has not been damaged.
PID 158, Code 3.9 Battery voltage, CIU
Reason:
•
Shorted to minus (-).
•
Faulty alternator
• Battery, battery cables faulty.
Reaction:
•
Warning lamp turns on.
•
Check that the cable harness between CIU and
the engine control module has not been damaged.
• Problem when starting motor.
Measures:
•
Check that socket 11 and 12 in contacts on CIU
have not been damaged.
•
Check feed voltage from the control module.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 51 and 55 in
the lower cable connector (B) to the engine control
module.
•
Check the battery.
•
Check alternator.
41
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
SID 1, Code 7.1 Unit injector cylinder #1
Reason:
Electrical fault.
•
• Compression or unit injector faulty.
Reaction:
SID 1, Code 7.3 Unit injector cylinder #3
Reason:
•
Electrical fault.
• Compression or unit injector faulty.
Reaction:
•
The engine runs on 5 cylinders.
•
The engine runs on 5 cylinders.
•
Abnormal sound.
•
Abnormal sound.
•
Deteriorating performance.
•
Deteriorating performance.
•
Cylinder balancing interrupted -> Uneven operation
at low rpms and low load.
•
Cylinder balancing interrupted -> Uneven operation
at low rpms and low load.
Measures:
Measures:
•
Check contact pressure in socket 24 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 32 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check that the cable harness to the unit injectors
has not been damaged.
•
Check that the cable harness to the unit injectors
has not been damaged.
•
Check that connections to the unit injector have
not been damaged.
•
Check that connections to the unit injector have
not been damaged.
•
Check fuel feed pressure.
•
Check fuel feed pressure.
•
Check the valve clearance.
•
Check the valve clearance.
•
Run a compression test and check cylinder #1.
•
Run a compression test and check cylinder #3.
SID 1, Code 7.2 Unit injector cylinder #2
Reason:
•
Electrical fault.
• Compression or unit injector faulty.
Reaction:
SID 1, Code 7.4 Unit injector cylinder #4
Reason:
•
Electrical fault.
• Compression or unit injector faulty.
Reaction:
•
The engine runs on 5 cylinders.
•
The engine runs on 5 cylinders.
•
Abnormal sound.
•
Abnormal sound.
•
Deteriorating performance.
•
Deteriorating performance.
•
Cylinder balancing interrupted -> Uneven operation
at low rpms and low load.
•
Cylinder balancing interrupted -> Uneven operation
at low rpms and low load.
Measures:
Measures:
•
Check contact pressure in socket 16 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 56 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check that the cable harness to the unit injectors
has not been damaged.
•
Check that the cable harness to the unit injectors
has not been damaged.
•
Check that connections to the unit injector have
not been damaged.
•
Check that connections to the unit injector have
not been damaged.
•
Check fuel feed pressure.
•
Check fuel feed pressure.
•
Check the valve clearance.
•
Check the valve clearance.
•
Run a compression test and check cylinder #2.
•
Run a compression test and check cylinder #4.
42
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
SID 5, Code 7.5 Unit injector cylinder #5
Reason:
•
Electrical fault.
• Compression or unit injector faulty.
Reaction:
PID 153, Code 7.7 Crankcase ventilation pressure
Reason:
• Crankcase ventilation pressure too high.
Reaction:
•
Warning lamp turns on.
Buzzer sound.
•
The engine runs on 5 cylinders.
•
•
Abnormal sound.
•
Deteriorating performance.
• The engine is shut down.
Measures:
•
Cylinder balancing interrupted -> Uneven operation
at low rpms and low load.
Measures:
•
Check contact pressure in socket 48 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check that the cable harness to the unit injectors
has not been damaged.
•
Check that connections to the unit injector have
not been damaged.
•
Check fuel feed pressure.
•
Check the valve clearance.
•
Run a compression test and check cylinder #5.
SID 6, Code 7.6 Unit injector cylinder #6
Reason:
•
Electrical fault.
Compression or unit injector faulty.
•
Check whether the crankcase ventilation is
clogged.
•
Check whether cylinder liner, piston or piston rings
are worn or damaged.
PID 153, Code 7.8 Crankcase ventilation pressure
sensor
Reason:
•
• Break.
Reaction:
• None.
Measures:
•
Check that the crankcase ventilation pressure
sensor contact has been installed correctly.
•
Check that the cable harness to the crankcase
ventilation pressure sensor has not been damaged.
•
Check that the crankcase ventilation pressure
sensor was installed correctly.
•
Check crankcase ventilation pressure sensor
function.
•
Check contact pressure in socket 28 in the lower
cable connector (B) to the engine control module.
•
Reaction:
•
The engine runs on 5 cylinders.
•
Abnormal sound.
•
Deteriorating performance.
•
Cylinder balancing interrupted -> Uneven operation
at low rpms and low load.
Shorted to plus (+) or minus (-).
Measures:
•
Check contact pressure in socket 40 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
Check that the cable harness to the unit injectors
has not been damaged.
•
Check that connections to the unit injector have
not been damaged.
•
Check fuel feed pressure.
•
Check the valve clearance.
•
Run a compression test and check cylinder #6.
43
Group 23 EMS 2
Diagnostic function
SID250, Code 9.2 Data link faulty (J1708/J1587)
SID 254, Code 9.8 Control module fault, CIU
Reason:
Reason:
• Data link faulty.
Reaction:
•
EEPROM, CIU, faulty
•
Flash memory, CIU faulty.
• Warning lamp turns on.
Measures:
• Fault in control module, CIU
Reaction:
•
Check that the 8-pin contact has not been damaged.
•
Check that the cable harness between CIU and
the engine control module has not been damaged.
•
Check that socket 22 and 37 in contacts on CIU
have not been damaged.
Check contact pressure in socket 33 and 34 in
the upper cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
•
SID232, Code 9.3 Voltage feed to sensor
Reason:
•
Short.
•
Fault in oil pressure and/or charge air pressure
sensor.
•
CIU reverts to factory settings.
•
The engine runs at idle.
• Engine cannot be started.
Measures:
•
SID 240, Code 9.9 Memory fault in EMS 2
Reason:
• Engine control module memory fault.
Reaction:
• Engine may not start.
Measures:
•
Reaction:
•
Incorrect values from oil pressure- and charge air
pressure sensor.
•
Fault code for oil pressure- and charge air
pressure sensor.
•
Low engine output.
•
The instrument shows zero oil pressure and boost
pressure.
Measures:
•
•
•
Check that the cable harness to oil pressure- and
charge air pressure sensor has not been
damaged.
Check contact pressure in socket 7 in the upper
cable connector (A) to the engine control module.
Check oil pressure and charge air pressure
sensors.
Replace CIU-unit.
Replace the engine control module.
SID 253, Code 9.9 Data set memory EEPROM
Reason:
•
Internal fault in the control module
• Programming faulty.
Reaction:
• Engine does not start.
Measures:
•
Re-program the control module. If the fault
remains, change the control module.
SID 254, Code 9.9 Control module EMS 2
Reason:
• Internal fault in the control module.
Reaction:
•
Engine misfires.
• Engine does not start.
Measures:
•
44
Replace the engine control module.
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Electrical fault tracing
General
Before performing electrical fault tracing, the following
should be checked:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Functional check of wiring and
connector blocks
Connection problems
Fault codes
Fuel level and fuel filter
Air filter
Battery
Wiring (visual)
Main switch, fuses, connectors
Relay connections
Loose connectors or occasionally recurring faults can
be difficult to fault trace and often occur due to oxidation, vibration or poorly connected leads.
Wear can be another reason for faults. Therefore avoid
disconnecting connector blocks if it is not necessary.
Other connector problems can arise due to pins, sockets and connector blocks being damaged.
Shake the lead and pull on the connector while measuring to help find damaged wiring.
The resistance in connectors, wiring and connections
should be 0 Ohm.
A certain resistance is always present however, due
to oxidation of connections.
If this resistance increases too much, it can lead to
malfunctions. The size of the resistance before it
starts causing malfunctions varies depending on how
large a load the circuit is carrying.
Check the following:
•
Look for oxidation that can worsen connector contact in the connections.
•
Check that the connector pins/sockets are undamaged, that they are properly inserted in the connector blocks and that the wires are properly connected to the pins.
•
Test the connector blocks for good mechanical
contact. Use a loose pin for the test.
Important! The control unit’s (EMS 2) cable
connector must only be checked with gauge
9998482.
•
Push gauge 9998482 carefully into the connector
sockets. Pull/push the gauge back and forth several times, check that the socket grips around
the gauge. If the connector socket has insufficient
gripping power, the socket must be replaced. See
”Splicing cables for cable connectors”.
•
Fill connector sockets that have been checked
with low temperature grease 1161417-9.
Important! DIN connectors for the pressure
sensor must not be filled with grease.
•
Check that the wires are properly crimped. Avoid
short crimps on wires to the connector pins/sockets.
45
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Functional check of wiring and
connector blocks
Check connections visually
Open circuit
Check the following:
Chafed or torn wiring as well as loose contacts can be
possible fault causes.
•
Look for oxidation that can worsen connector contact in the connections.
•
Check that the connector pins/sockets are undamaged, that they are properly inserted in the connector blocks and that the wires are properly connected to the pins.
•
Test the connector blocks for good mechanical
contact. Use a loose pin for the test.
•
Shake the lead and pull on the connector while
measuring to help find damaged wiring.
Check, using the wiring diagram, which cable harness
is used by the function. Start with the most likely cable harness in the circuit.
Check the following:
•
Disconnect the connector blocks at both ends of
the cable harness.
•
Measure the resistance with multimeter 9510060
between the ends of the cable. Expected value
~ 0 Ω.
•
Shake the lead and pull on the connector while
measuring to help find damaged wiring.
•
If the fault cannot be found, check the next cable
harness according to the wiring diagram..
Connector resistance and oxidation.
The resistance in connectors, wiring and connections
should be 0 Ω.
A certain resistance is always present however, due
to oxidation of connections.
If this resistance increases too much, it can lead to
malfunctions. The size of the resistance before it
starts causing malfunctions varies depending on how
large a load the circuit is carrying.
Check the following:
•
Look for oxidation that can worsen connector contact in the connections.
•
Check that the connector pins/sockets are undamaged, that they are properly inserted in the connector blocks and that the wires are properly connected to the pins.
•
Test the connector blocks for good mechanical
contact. Use a loose pin for the test.
Important! DIN connectors for the pressure
sensor must not be filled with grease.
46
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Splicing cables for cable
connectors
Special tools: 951 2636, 9999324
Repair kit: 1078054
1. Disconnect the connector block from the control
unit, see ”Control unit, replace”. Dismantle the
connector block so that the pin/socket to be
replaced is accessible.
2. Remove the pin/socket with tool 9992636 or with a
very small jewelers screwdriver.
NOTE: Only remove one pin at a time.
3. Cut off the wire with the pin that is to be replaced.
Splice in the new part from repair kit 1078054.
Use crimping tool 9999324.
4. Carefully heat the splice with a hot air gun, so that
the insulation shrinks around the wire.
5. Replace the pin in the correct position in the
connector block before removing the next pin, if
several pins are to be replaced. Check that the
locking tab engages and locks the pin in the
connector block.
6. Reassemble the wiring with insulation and cable
ties in the connector block, in the reverse order to
dismantling.
7. Reassemble the connector block in the reverse order to dismantling.
8. Ensure that the cable connector and connector on
the control unit are clean and dry.
9. Fit the cable connector block onto the control unit,
see “Control unit, replacement”.
10. Start the engine and check for error codes.
47
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Check of combination sensor,
charge air pressure/charge air
temperature
Check of sensor, coolant
temperature
Check, charge air pressure
1.
Turn off engine
2.
Disconnect connector A on the control unit and
connect the 62-pin adapter 9998699 between the
control unit and cable harness. Then connect multimeter 9510060 between measurement points 7–11.
1.
Disconnect the connector and remove the sensor
from the engine.
2.
3.
Turn on the control voltage.
Measure with multimeter 9510060 between the
sensor’s connector pins. The multimeter should
show the following values at:
4.
Measure with the multimeter set to voltage measurement. Check that the multimeter shows 5.0 volt.
4930 Ω ± 440 Ω
0 °C
1870 Ω ± 140 Ω
20 °C
800 Ω ± 50 Ω
40 °C
190 Ω ± 8 Ω
80 °C
104 Ω ± 4 Ω
100 °C
5.
Now connect the multimeter between measurement points 11–22. The voltage should be approx
1.2 V at normal atmospheric pressure.
Check, charge air temperature
1.
Detach the connector to the charge pressure sensor.
2.
Disconnect connector A on the control unit and
connect the 62-pin adapter 9998699 to the cable
harness, control unit disconnected.
3.
Measure with multimeter 9510060 set to resistance measurement between the adapter’s measurement points 11–47.
The multimeter should show the following values:
6200 Ω ± 280 Ω
20 °C
1240 Ω ± 170 Ω
60 °C
340 Ω ± 16 Ω
100 °C
NOTE: Even if the resistance values in the table above are met, this is no guarantee that the sensor is not
faulty.
48
NOTE: The sensor is very sensitive to temperature
changes. When measuring in the lower temperature
ranges 0–40°C, it is sufficient to hold the sensor in
your hand for the value to rapidly drop in resistance.
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Check of sensor, water in fuel
Check of sensors, camshaft
and flywheel
1
1.
Disconnect the connector (1) to the water in fuel
sensor.
2.
Measure with multimeter 9510060 set to resistance, between the pins of the connector to the sensor.
3.
The multimeter should show:
- open circuit when the sensor is immersed in fuel
The speed sensors for the camshaft and flywheel are
identical. For visual checking, first remove the sensor
from the engine. Then remove the connection block
and check that the sensor is not damaged and that no
swarf/filings have stuck to the sensor.
The induction test is performed as follows:
1.
Set multimeter 9510060 to resistance
measurement. Measure with the multimeter on the
connection pins. The resistance should be within
775–945 Ω.
2.
Pass a metal object quickly and closely by the
sensor. Check that the multimeter reacts. When
replacing or refitting the sensors, make sure that
any spacing shims are refitted.
- short circuit when the sensor is immersed in water.
49
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Check of combination sensor,
oil pressure/oil temperature
Check of sensor, coolant level
Check of oil pressure function
1.
1.
Turn off engine
2.
Disconnect the oil pressure sensor connector
block and connect the 4-pin adapter 9998534 between the oil pressure sensor’s connector unit and
the engine cable harness. Then connect multimeter 9510060 between measurement points 1–4.
3.
Turn on the control voltage.
4.
Measure with the multimeter set to voltage measurement. Check that the multimeter shows 5.0 volt.
5.
Now connect the multimeter between measurement points 2–4. The voltage should be approx
0.5 V at normal atmospheric pressure.
Check of oil temperature function
1.
Detach the connector to the oil pressure sensor.
2.
Connect the 4-pin adapter 9998534 between
the oil pressure sensors connector block and multimeter
9510060.
3.
Measure with multimeter 9510060 set to resistance measurement between the adapter’s measurement points 3–4.
The multimeter should show the following value:
~3000 Ω
10 °C
~1900 Ω
20° C
~1200 Ω
30 °C
~100 Ω
100 °C
NOTE: Even if the resistance values in the table above are met, this is no guarantee that the sensor is not
faulty.
50
Empty the expansion tank from coolant.
Warning! NEVER open the expansion tank
pressure cap when the engine is hot, hot coolant
can be sprayed out and cause severe burns.
2.
Release the connector block from the coolant
level sensor.
3.
Check that the switch is activated and that it
sends a signal when the expansion tank is
empty.
4.
Then fill the expansion tank with coolant
and check that the resistance is infinite.
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Check of sensor, oil level
Check of sensor, fuel pressure
1.
Remove connector block from the oil level sensor.
1.
Turn off engine
2.
Measure with multimeter 9510060 between the
sensor’s two connector pins.
The multimeter should show 11.7 - 12.9 Ω
at 22° C.
2.
Disconnect the oil pressure sensor connector
block and connect the 7-pin adapter 9998567 between the oil pressure sensor’s connector unit and
the engine cable harness. Then connect multimeter 9510060 between measurement points 1–4.
3.
Turn on the control voltage.
4.
Measure with the multimeter set to voltage measurement. Check that the multimeter shows 5.0 volt.
5.
Now connect the multimeter between measurement points 2–4. The voltage should be approx
0.5 V at normal atmospheric pressure.
51
Group 23 EMS 2
Check of sensor,
crankcase pressure
1.
Turn off engine
2.
Disconnect the charge air pressure sensor connector block and connect the 4-pin adapter
9998534 between the charge air pressure sensor’s
connector block and the engine cable harness.
Then connect multimeter 9510060 between measurement points 1–4.
3.
Turn on the control voltage.
4.
Measure with the multimeter set to voltage measurement. Check that the multimeter shows 5.0 volt.
5.
Then connect the multimeter between measurement points 2–4. The voltage should be approx
3 V at normal atmospheric pressure.
52
Electrical fault tracing
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Fault tracing unit injectors
Fault symptom
Engine runs unevenly or has reduce performance.
Cause
The fault symptom above can have several
causes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty sensor signals
Worn piston rings
Blocked air filter
Poor fuel
Water in fuel
Air in fuel
Exhaust pressure too high
Blocked fuel system
Low fuel pressure
Incorrect valve clearances
Defective unit injector
Start of piston seizure (engine failure)
For replacement of unit injectors see: ”Unit injectors,
replace” page. 29.
53
Group 23 EMS 2
Fault tracing starter motor and
cabling
General
If the voltage level measured across the battery is
less than 24.7V, the starter motor will not be able to
crank the engine at normal speed.
Voltage measurement check
1.
Check that the voltage across the battery is at
least 24.7V unloaded, by measuring across the
battery terminals with multimeter 9510060.
2.
Turn on the main circuit breaker.
3.
check that the voltage between terminals 30 and
31 on the starter motor is the same as the
battery’s.
Brushes
The specification for the starter motor brushes is given below.
Brush condition
New = 23 mm
Replace at = 13 mm
54
Electrical fault tracing
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Functional check of relay
Multimeter 9510060 is used during the fault tracing
procedure.
Two different symbols visualize conductor status.
Symbol 1 indicates open circuit or very high resistance (~). The multimeter does not sound.
Symbol 2 indicates connection or very low resistance.
The multimeter sounds.
Perform a functional check of the relay as follows:
NOTE! Remove the main relay from the engine before
fault tracing.
1.
Use the multimeter set to buzzer signal. Measure
between relay pins 87a and 30. The multimeter
should sound.
2.
Use the multimeter set to buzzer signal. Measure
between relay pins 87a and 30. The multimeter
should sound.
3.
Use the multimeter set to resistance measurement. Measure between relay pins 85 and 86. The
multimeter should show 240–270 .Ω.
4.
Connect 24V between pins 85 and 86. Use the
multimeter set to buzzer signal. Measure between
relay pins 87 and 30. The multimeter should
sound.
5.
Connect 24V between pins 85 and 86. Use the
multimeter set to buzzer signal. Measure between
relay pins 87a and 30. The multimeter should not
sound.
6
Replace the relay if the above test is not completed satisfactorily.
55
Group 23 EMS 2
Fault tracing alternator
First remove the alternator to make the measurement
points accessible.
1.
Lever off the plastic cover from the alternator with
a screwdriver.
2.
Undo the four regulator screws.
3.
Undo the two brush-holder screws and remove the
brush holders and regulator.
56
Electrical fault tracing
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Brushes
The length of the brushes is measured between the
contact surface and the brush holder. If the exposed
part is less than 5 mm, or if the brushes are damaged,
they should be replaced.
NOTE! When soldering, ensure that solder does not
penetrate too far along the wire to the brushes. The
wire will otherwise become stiff, which limits the movement of the brushes.
Regulator
Checking the regulator:
1.
Measure with the multimeter set for diode measurement.
2.
Connect the test probes between the brushes.
3.
Reverse the test probes.
4.
Check that there is no short circuit in either direction.
NOTE! If a regulator fault is suspected, it is simplest
to fit a new regulator and test-run the charging system.
57
Group 23 EMS 2
Check of positive power diodes
1.
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2.
Connect the negative test probe to B+ and the positive probe to each of the three stator windings in
turn.
3.
Perform measurement on each of the three stator
windings.
4.
Reverse the test probes and repeat the measurements.
5.
ln the one case the instrument should show 400–
1200mV (conduction) and in the other, OL.
The diodes blocks.
NOTE! The entire diode bridge is insulated from the
alternator body.
58
Electrical fault tracing
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Check of negative power diodes
1.
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2.
Connect the negative test probe to B- and the positive probe to each of the three stator windings in
turn.
3.
Perform measurement on each of the three stator
windings.
4.
Reverse the test probes and repeat the measurements.
5.
ln the one case the instrument should show 400–
1200mV (conduction) and in the other, OL.
The diodes block.
NOTE! The entire diode bridge is insulated from the
alternator body.
59
Group 23 EMS 2
Check of magnetisation diodes
1.
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2.
Connect the negative test probe to D+ and the positive probe to each of the three stator windings in
turn.
3.
Perform measurement on each of the three stator
windings.
4.
Reverse the test probes and repeat the measurements.
5.
ln the one case the instrument should show 400–
1200mV (conduction) and in the other OL.
60
Electrical fault tracing
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical fault tracing
Check of stator windings
1.
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2.
Connect the test probes between the phase connections.
3.
Perform three measurements.
4.
The instrument should show the same reading in
all three measurements.
Short-circuit test of stator
1.
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2.
Connect the test probes between the stator body
and one of the three stator windings.
3.
The instrument should show OL.
If any other value is shown, the stator is short-circuited.
61
Group 23 EMS 2
Check of rotor
1
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2
Connect the test probes to the slip-rings.
3
The instrument reading should be non-existent or
very weak.
4
Check at the same time that the slip-rings are not
burned or damaged.
Short-circuit test of rotor
1.
Set the multimeter to diode measurement.
2.
Connect the test probes between the stator body
and one of the three stator windings.
3.
The instrument should show OL.
If any other value is shown, the stator is short-circuited.
62
Electrical fault tracing
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical system
Electrical system
Important information electrical system
Important! Turn the engine off and turn off the
power at the main switch(es) before carrying out
work on the electrical system.
1.
2.
Battery main switch
Never break the circuit between the alternator and
the battery while the engine is running.
The main switches must never be disconnected
before the engine has been stopped.
If the circuit is broken while the engine is running,
the voltage regulator can be destroyed and the alternator badly damaged.
Dis-/reconnection of the charging circuit should,
for the same reason, never be performed while the
engine is running. For simultaneous charging of
two independent battery circuits, a Volvo Penta
charging separator can be fitted to the standard
alternator (accessory).
Batteries
Never mix up the battery’s positive and negative
terminals when fitting batteries.
Incorrect installation can result in serious damage
to the electrical equipment.
Refer to the wiring diagram. The battery terminals
should be well cleaned and the terminal clamps
greased and properly tightened.
Fast charging of the batteries should be avoided.
If fast charging must be performed, the ordinary
battery cables must be removed first.
NOTE: Follow the appropriate safety regulations
when charging batteries.
During charging, the cell covers should be loosened
but not removed. Ventilate well, especially if the batteries are charged in an enclosed space.
Always discontinue the charging current before disconnecting the charging clips.
3.
If starting with the help of auxiliary batteries, see
”Starting with auxiliary batteries”.
4.
Connecting extra equipment
All extra equipment shall be connected to a separate connection box and correctly fused.
Extra power take-off directly from the instrument
panel should be avoided. The permitted extra take
off is however totally max. 5A (applies to all instrument panels to
gether).
Electric welding
Remove the positive and negative cables from the
batteries.
Then disconnect all cables connected to the alternator.
Then remove the cable connection from the control
unit, see instructions in ”Control unit (EMS 2), replace”.
Always connect the welder ground clamp to the component to be welded, and as close as possible to the
weld site. The clamp must never be connected to the
engine or in such a way that current can pass through
a bearing.
Important! After welding is finished, the disconnected components such as cable connectors,
alternator cables and battery cables must be refitted in the correct order.
Warning! Never expose the battery area to
naked flame or electrical sparks. Never smoke
close to the batteries. The batteries generate
oxy-hydrogen gas when charged, which forms
an explosive gas when mixed with air. This gas
is easily ignited and highly explosive.
Always use protective goggles when charging and
handling the batteries.
Battery electrolyte contains sulfuric acid which is
highly corrosive.
Should the battery electrolyte come into contact with
unprotected skin wash off immediately using plenty of
water. If battery acid comes in contact with the eyes,
immediately flush with plenty of water and obtain medical assistance at once.
63
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical system
Electrical system, overview
TAD940-943VE with CIU, CAN based SAE J1939
64
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical system
TAD940-941GE with CIU, CAN based SAE J1939
TAD941-943VE Powerpack
65
BL =
LBL =
BN =
LBN =
GN =
GR =
OR =
P =
R =
SB =
VO =
W =
Y =
66
Blue
Light blue
Brown
Light brown
Green
Grey
Orange
Pink
Red
Black
Purple
White
Yellow
Cable cross section = 0.75 mm2
unless otherwise stated.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Electrical diagram EMS2
Sensor, fuel pressure
Water in fuel pump
Sensor, coolant level
Sensor, water in fuel
J1587 (bus)
J1939 CAN (bus)
Connection for stop button
Battery plus
Voltage after key
Battery minus
Connector block data bus
Connector block
Switch for electric feed pump switch
Extra stop
Sensor, oil level
Sensor, coolant temperature
Sensor, crankcase pressure
Relay socket
Main relay
Connector block B
Connector block A
Control module EMS 2
Sensor, charge air pressure /
charge air temperature.
Sensor, camshaft
Sensor, flywheel
Unit injector (Cyl. 1-6)
Main circuit breaker 10 A
Sensor, oil temperature and oil
pressure
Relay pre-heating
Pre-heating
Diagnostic outlet
Alternator
Starter
Battery (24 V)
Cable colours
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
TAD940-943VE/GE
(24 V system voltage,
2-pin)
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical system
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical system
Wiring diagram, control interface unit (CIU)
Cable colours
BL
LBL
BN
LBN
GN
GR
OR
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Blue
Light blue
Brown
Light brown
Green
Grey
Orange
P =
R =
SB =
VO =
W =
Y =
Pink
Red
Black
Purple
White
Yellow
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Key switch running power
(15+)
RPM-potentiometer
Tachometer (code 14)
Oil pressure, instrument
Oil temperature, instrument
Coolant temperature,
instrument
Instrument illumination
Idle switch, two-position
1500/1800 switch, two-position
Start switch, spring return
Stop switch, spring return
Diagnostic switch, spring return
Alarm, low oil pressure
Alarm, high oil temperature
Alarm, high coolant temperature
Alarm, low coolant level
Fuel alarm
Diagnostic lamp
Over speed indication
(GE-en gines)
Operation indicator
Pre-heating indication
Pre-heating contact
8-pin Deutsch connecting plug
Regulator contact
Charge indication
Termination resistance 120 Ohm
8-pin Deutsch connecting
socket
Contact, engine protector
disconnect (not connected
on GE-engines)
Easy Link connector block
Control Interface Unit (CIU)
67
Group 23 EMS 2
Electrical system
Wiring diagram, control interface
unit (CIU) – Power pack
Cable colours
BL
LBL
BN
LBN
GN
GR
OR
68
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Blue
Light blue
Brown
Light brown
Green
Grey
Orange
P =
R =
SB =
VO =
W =
Y =
Pink
Red
Black
Purple
White
Yellow
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Activation, running current contact (15+)
RPM-potentiometer
Tachometer code 14
Oil pressure, instrument
Coolant temperature, instrument
Instrument illumination
Start switch, spring return
Stop switch, spring return
Diagnosis contact, spring return
Charge indication
Alarm, high oil temperature
Alarm, high coolant temperature
Alarm, low coolant level
Fuel alarm
Diagnostic lamp
Pre-heating indication
8-pin Deutsch connecting plug
8-pin Deutsch connecting socket
Horn signal
Pre-heating switch, spring return (option)
42-pin connector block
Termination 120 W
Auxiliary outlet for 24 V and stop
Control Interface Unit (CIU)
Report form
Do you have any complaints or other comments about this manual? Please make
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From: ............................................................................
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Refers to publication: .............................................................................................................................................
Publication no.: ..................................................................... Issued: ....................................................................
Suggestion/reasons: ..............................................................................................................................................
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Date: ...........................................................
Name: .........................................................
AB Volvo Penta
Customer Support
Dept. 42200
SE-405 08 Gothenburg
Sweden
7746032
English 09-2004
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