Transition Mechanisms From IPv4 to IPv6

Republic of Iraq
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Baghdad University - College of Science
Computer Science Department
Transition Mechanisms
From IPv4 to IPv6
A Dissertation Submitted to College of Science, Baghdad University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Higher Diploma of Science in Computer Science BY Ramy Khaleel Ahmed (B.SC 2010) Supervised: Dr. Imad Jasim Mohammed October 2013
1434-The-Al Huja
Supervisor Certification I certify that this Dissertation entitled "Transition Mechanisms from IPv4 to
IPv6" by Ramy Khaleel Ahmed was prepared under my supervision at the Department of Computer Science/ College of Science/ Baghdad University, for postgraduate studies as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Higher Diploma of Science in Computer Science.
Signature: Name: Dr. Imad J. Mohammed Title: Lecturer Date: / 11 / 2013 Certification of the Head of the Department In view of the available recommendations, I forward this Dissertation for the debate by the examination committee. Signature:
Name: Dr. Loay E.George
Title: Assist. prof
Date:
/ 11 / 2013
Examination Committee Certification We certify that we have read this Dissertation entitled " Transition Mechanisms
from IPv4 to IPv6" and as examining committee, examined student "Ramy khaleel Ahmed " in its contents and in what is related with it and that in our opinion it meets the standards of a Dissertation for the degree of Higher Diploma of Science in Computer Science.
Signature: Name: Dr.
Sarab M.Hameed Title:
Assist. prof
Date:
/ 11 / 2013
Signature: Signature: Name: Dr.
Title:
Mehdi G.Duaimi
Lecturer Date:
/ 11 / 2013
Name: Dr.
Asmaa Q.Shareef
Title:
Assist. prof
Date:
/ 11 / 2013
Approved by the Dean of College of Science, Baghdad University.
Signature: Name: Dr.
Title:
Date:
Saleh Mehdi Ali Professor / 11 / 2013
Acknowledgements Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Dr. Imad
Jassim Mohammed for the continuous support of my Dissertation, for his
patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance
helped me in all the time of research and writing of this Dissertation. Also I
thank my friends in diploma for their supportive advice and helpful
information. And, I would like to thank College of Science, Baghdad
University, where we acquired all the professional knowledge and academic
support for my Dissertation. Finally, I would like to thank my family for
supporting me spiritually throughout my life.
Ramy Khaleel Ahmed
Abstract
Internet Protocol version 6 (Ipv6) is the next generation Internet protocol
developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to replace the existing
Internet Protocol version 4. The cause for this replacement is exhaustion of the
IPv4 address space. While most professionals still understand IPv6 only as a bigger
address space, but also consists from many prominent features such as IPsec and
ICMPv6.
IETF Next Generation Transition Working Group (NGtrans) developed
IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms that help IPv4 and IPv6 coexist on the Internet.
Dual Stack is one of the IPv4-IPv6 transition mechanism by running both IPv4 and IPv6
in a single computer. Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)
tunneling mechanism encapsulate IPv6 packets in IPv4 packets to make communications,
from IPv6 network over IPv4 network. Dual Stack & Tunneling mechanisms were
completely implemented later in this dissertation work.
This dissertation implementation two transition mechanisms, namely
staticIPv6 in IPv4 tunneling and ISATAP. All experiments were conducted using
dual stack (IPv4/IPv6) routers and end-stations running Windows 7 with a dual
IPv4/IPv6 stack.
I
Table of contents
Abstract ...........................................................................................................I
Table of contents........................................................................................... II
List of Figure ............................................................................................... IV
List of Tables
........................................................................................ V
List of Acronyms ........................................................................................ VI
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................ 1
Introduction.................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Motivation ........................................................................................... 2
1.2 Literature review ................................................................................. 2
1.3 Dissertation objective .......................................................................... 3
1.4 Dissertation outline.............................................................................. 3
CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................... 4
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms .................................................... 4
2.1 Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) ...................................................... 4
2.1.1 IPv4 header classification .............................................................4
2.1.2 IPv4 Address classification ...........................................................6
2.2 IPv6 address ........................................................................................ 7
2.2.1 IPv6 header ...................................................................................9
2.2.2 IPv6 address classification ..........................................................11
2.2.3 Network Prefix ............................................................................11
2.2.4 IPv6 address types ......................................................................12
2.2.5 Routing protocols ........................................................................13
1.
Exterior Gateway Protocols........................................................13
BGP4 ...................................................................................................14
2. Interior Gateway Protocols ..............................................................14
2.3 Transition Mechanisms ..................................................................... 15
2.3.1 Dual Stack Transition Mechanism (DSTM) ...............................16
II
2.3.2 Tunneling ....................................................................................17
2.3.3 Translation Mechanisms .............................................................21
NAT-PT ...............................................................................................22
CHAPTER Three ......................................................................................... 23
Implementation for IPv6 transition mechanisms ..................................... 23
3.1 GNS3 ................................................................................................. 23
3.2 Experiment ........................................................................................ 24
3.2.1 Experiments one (static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4).....................25
3.2.2 Experiments two (IPv6 ISATAP) ...............................................30
CHAPTER Four........................................................................................... 36
Conclusion and Future work ................................................................... 36
4.1 Conclusion......................................................................................... 36
4.2 Future work ....................................................................................... 37
References.................................................................................................... 38 III
List of Figure
Figure 1.1
Countries who uses IPv6
1
Figure 2.1
IPv4 header classification
5
Figure 2.2
IPv6 header classification
10
Figure 2.3
IPv6 Address types
14
Figure 2.4
TCP/IP model for dual stack node
18
Figure 2.5
Dual stack
19
Figure 2.6
Static Tunneling
20
Figure 2.7
ISATAP Tunnel
21
Figure 2.8
6to4 tunnel
22
Figure 2.9
Teredo tunnel
23
Figure 2.10
NAT-PT Translation
24
Figure 3.1
GNS3 simulator
25
Figure 3.2
static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4
27
Figure 3.3
IPv6 ISATAP
32
IV
List of Tables
Table 2.1
Classes of IPv4
7
Table 3.1
R1 router configuration
28
Table 3.2
R2 router configuration
28
Table 3.3
R3 router configuration
29
Table 3.4
Host1 configuration
29
Table 3.5
Host2 configuration
29
Table 3.6
R1 router configuration
33
Table 3.7
R2 router configuration
33
Table 3.8
R3 router configuration
33
Table 3.9
R4 router configuration
34
Table 3.10
Host1 configuration
34
Table 3.11
Host2 configuration
34
Table 3.12
Host3 configuration
34
V
List of Acronyms
AS
Autonomous System
BGP4
Border Gateway Protocol
DSTM
Dual Stack Transition Mechanism
EGP
Exterior Gateway Protocol
EIGRP
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force
IGRP
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
ISATAP
Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol
ISP
Internet service provider
NAT
Network address translation
NGtrans
Next Generation Transition
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First
PAT
Port Address Translation
QoS
Quality of service
RIR
Regional Internet Registries
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
VI
Chapter 1
Introduction
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
The first version of internet protocol (IPv4) was developed in the 1970. IPv4
functionality was published in 1981. With the expansion of Internet usage in last
years, especially by population dense countries. In 1991, will expire address space.
This matter will threaten the continuation of an internet service that working on
IPv4. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has begun in 1994, designed and
developed a set of protocols and standards known as Internet Protocol version 6
(IPv6).IPv6 is a new protocol to replace IPv4 over the coming years. Figure 1-1
explains the Countries who uses IPv6. The new protocol is designed to support the
growing use of the Internet, and the address security problems. IPv6 uses a 128-bit
address size and will allow for 3.4x1038 possible addresses, enough to cover every
person on planet earth. [Hin06]
Figure 1.1 Countries who uses IPv6
(Dark blue color indicates greater intensity In terms of the number of IPv6
addresses) [Hin06]
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
Internet protocol (IP) is a basic layer of the networking layer and the IP
address is a basic identifier for any node on the network. The primary problem that
is lead to transition to IPv6 is the shortage of IPv4 addresses space. IPv6 consists
from 128 bit addresses which are large enough for future purposes. Other features
are being built into the new IP protocol like security, QoS, mobility etc. IPv4 can
be used these features, but must install these features.
1.1 Motivation
In the 1991, IETF has been working on the deployment of IPv6 to replace
the current IPv4 protocol [Dee98]. The biggest challenges in the deployment of
IPv6 is how to migrate IPv4 to those supporting IPv6. It is impractical to replace
existing IPv4 with IPv6. The IETF internet protocol next generation (IPng)
Transition Working Group [Dee98] has been working on several transition
mechanisms.
These transition mechanisms encapsulate IPv6 packet into IPv4 packet and
transport them over an IPv4 networks. IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms allow
IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist on the Internet. The coexistence of these two internet
protocols can last for many years.
1.2 Literature review
Transition mechanisms for IPv4/IPv6 have been proposed by IETF [Amo07].
There are three main mechanisms are specified: Dual stack, tunneling and
translation. The idea was to enable transition mechanisms on networks, to provide
communication between IPv6 and ipv4.
There are number of studies related to IPv4 and IPv6 transition mechanisms have
been studied in the past. The following are the five studies:
Visoottiviseth and Bureenok, 2008 have conducted their research on the
performance evaluation of Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol
(ISATAP) comparing to IPv4 and IPv6 protocol based on three different operating
systems that include FreeBSD, RedHat, and Windows server 2003.
2
Chapter 1
Introduction
Three experimental were implemented. These three experimental included native
IPv4 network, native IPv6 network, and ISATAP network. [vis08]
Chen, Chang, and Lin conducted the performance evaluation of different tunneling
transition mechanisms on Windows Server 2003 operating system for their
research. Data gathering focused on four parameters such as latency, throughput,
CPU utilization, and packet loss rate for both TCP and UDP transmissions. The
test was conducted using three tunneling mechanisms that included Configured
Tunnel, 6to4, and Tunnel broker. [che04]
1.3 Dissertation objective
The objective of this dissertation is:1. State the importance of using ipv6 transition mechanisms.
2. Show the different between the transition mechanisms
3. Implement transition mechanisms
1.4 Dissertation outline
Chapter one introduces a brief overview of the needs of IPv6 in the future and
background of the Transition mechanism.
Chapter two introduces a brief introduction to Internet protocols, IPv6’s
improvements and IPv6 routing protocol and describes the Transition mechanism.
Chapter three presents and describes the equipment used to set up two
experimental (static tunnel and ISATAP), and describe the implementation of
transition mechanisms.
Chapter four presents the conclusions and future work for this dissertation.
3
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
CHAPTER TWO
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
This chapter will presents the IPv4 and IPv6 in detail in order to identify the
problems, structures and the differences between the two versions of the Internet
Protocol.
2.1 Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
An IPv4 address is a 32 bit numeric address. Internet protocol uses IP addresses
to make a communication with any node in the network. An IPv4 address consists of
two part of information (Network address and Host Address). The network address
used to find the location of a network and host address used to reach a particular
destination within a network.
2.1.1 IPv4 header classification
Figure 2.1: IPv4 header classification
1. Version
The version of header is 4-bits and contains the IP version.
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
2. Header Length
Header length is 4-bit. This field contains the header size.
3. Types of Service (ToS)
Length of ToS is 8-bit. This field determines the type of service required such as
telnet service or DNS service.
4. Total Length
The size of Total Length is 16-bit. It includes the size of header and payload.
5. Identification
The size of identification is 16-bit. It is a specific value sent by the sender to help
in re-assembling the packages.
6. Flags
The size of flag is 3-bit. It used to control or identify fragments.
7. Fragment Offset
The size of fragment offset is 13-bit. The fragment offset is the process of
fragmentation if the size of the packets sent large.
8. Time to Live
The size of time to live is 8-bit. Each packet (package) contains a special counter
determines the remaining time to live by decremented each time of the packet passes
through the router.
9. Protocol Number
The size of protocol number is 8-bit. This field specifies the upper-layer protocol
such as TCP protocol or UDP protocol.
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Chapter 2
10. Header checksum
The size of header checksum is 16-bit. This field used to ensure that the data in the
header section has been transferred correctly.
11. Source Address
The size of source address is 32-bit. This field is the source IP address for the
sender.
12. Destination Address
The size Destination address is 32-bit. This field is the source IP address for the
receiver.
13. Options
Options field is variable in size and it increases the length of the header when used.
2.1.2 IPv4 Address classification
IPv4 is consist of 32 binary bits and divided into two portions, network part
and host part with the help of a subnet mask. The 32 binary bits are separated into
four octets, each octet is 8 bits and divided with the symbol dot (“.”). The value used
for each octet is in the range 0 to 255 or decimal notation 00000000 to 11111111.
IPv4 is a dotted decimal format, for example: 192.169.22.101.
IPv4 address is broken down to provide an addressing scheme that can adapt
large and small networks [Odo13]. These octets separated into five different classes
of networks from A to E. These classes used for allocation of IPv4 addresses in
different locations in the Internet. IPv4 address classes divided as shown in table (1.1)
below:
Table 2-1: Classes of IPv4
class
High order bit
start
end
A
0
0.0.0.0
127.255.255.255
B
10
128.0.0.0
191.255.255.255
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Chapter 2
110
192.0.0.0
223.255.255.255
multicast
1110
224.0.0.0
239.255.255.255
Research
1111
240.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
C
IPv4 address contains three types of address:1. Unicast: Assigned to a single network interface located on a specific subnet on
the network and used for one-to-one communications. [Odo13]
2. Multicast: Assigned to one or more network interface located on various
subnets on the network and used for one-to-many communications. [Odo13]
3. Broadcast: Assigned to all network interfaces located on a subnet on the
network and used for one-to-everyone on a subnet communication. [Odo13]
2.2 IPv6 address
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) designed the IPv6 Address
scheme [Des03]. The IPv6 protocol represents an upgrade of the IPv4 [Dav12]. IPv6
designed not only to solve the IP addresses shortage problems, but also improves
and enhances prominent features over IPv4, including:
1. Geographic assignment of addresses.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) assigns
IPv6 addresses based on the following strategy:
 Public IPv6 addresses grouped by major geographic region, such as a
continent.
 In each region, the address is further subdivided by each ISP.
 Inside each ISP, the address further subdivided for each customer or other
smaller Internet registries.
2. Efficient route summarization
Route summarization combines blocks of addresses in a routing table as a
single route. As IPv6 addresses assigned by geographic region, then ISP,
7
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
And then the customer, the route summarization of IPv6 addresses is efficient
when compared to IPv4 route summarization.
3. No need for Network Address Translation (NAT) or Port Address
Translation (PAT)
From the large amount of IP addresses afforded by IPv6, each device has a
publicly registered address. Having a unique address for each device removes the
need for NAT.
4. Native Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
IPsec can be used to encrypt any traffic supported by the IP protocol. This
includes Web, e-mail, Telnet and file transfer. IPv6 has built-in support for the IPsec
security protocol. Within an IPv4 environment, IPsec security features are available
as add-ons but are required in IPv6.
5. Built-in Quality of Service (QoS)
Built-in support for bandwidth reservations make guaranteed data transfer rates
possible. Within an IPv4 environment, Quality of Service features is available as
add-ons but are not part of the native protocol.
6. Large address space
IPv6 uses 128-bit (16-byte) source and destination addresses, allowing for
multiple levels of subnetting and address allocation at all levels of networking, from
the Internet backbone to individual subnets within an organization.
The larger address space provides a vast number of addresses for future use
and makes address conservation techniques unnecessary.
7. Stateless and stateful address configuration
IPv6 allows the use of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers
to perform stateful address configuration. It also, however, allows address
configuration in the absence of a DHCP server (stateless address configuration) by
using link-local addresses. Link-local addresses are IPv6 addresses that host on a
link automatically configure for themselves.
8
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Hosts can also get addresses derived from prefixes advertised by local routers, but
they do not need routers. Hosts on the same link can communicate using link-local
addresses they configure for themselves automatically.
8. Neighbor node interaction
To manage how nodes on the same link (neighboring nodes) interact, IPv6 uses
ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6). This replaces ARP (Address
Resolution Protocol), ICMPv4 Router Discovery, and ICMPv4 Redirect messages.
While the latter protocols were broadcast protocols, ICMPv6 uses multicast and
unicast messages.
2.2.1 IPv6 header
The IPv6 header is simpler than IPv4 packet header. Six fields from IPv4
header were removed in IPv6 packet header. Options and Padding fields has 14
fields, and the IPv6 header has eight fields. The basic size of IPv6 header is fixed
length, but in IPv4 header with options field may have variable length.
Figure 2.2: IPv6 header classification
9
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
1. Version (4-bits)
The version of header is 4-bits and contains the IP version.
2. Traffic class (8 bits)
This field replaces the Type of Services field in IPv4 header and defines the traffic
priority of the packets.
3. Flow Label (20 bits)
This field provides additional support for Quality of Services (QoS).
4. Payload Length (16-bits)
This Load field replaces the Total Length field from IPv4 header and it contains
the number of bytes of the Payload.
5. Next Header (8-bits)
This field identifies the type of header that follows the next IPv6 header. This field
replaces the IPv4 Protocol field and uses the same value.
6. Hop Limit (8-bits)
This field replaces the Time to live field in IPv4 header. Hop Limit is used to
prevent the packet from endlessly circulating in IPv6 network. When the Hop
Limit is zero packet will discard.
7. Source Address (128-bis)
This field identifies the source IP address of the IPv6 Packet.
8. Destination Address (128-bits)
This field identifies the destination IP address of the IPv6 Packet.
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
2.2.2 IPv6 address classification
IPv6 is 128-bit hexadecimal IP address of an IP device. An IPv6 Address
contains 16-byte hexadecimal number fields divided by colons (":"). An example of
IPv6 Address: 2001: abcd: 120F:0000:0000:0001:876A:111B.
IPv6 uses a compressed form to make IPv6 address easier to represent. Methods that
used to compress are as follows:-
Example 1:The compressed form of "0000" in 16-byte hexa- decimal number is "0". An IPv6
address: -FE80: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0001:876A:111B
Compressed as FE80:0:0:0:0:0001:876A:111B
Example 2:"0001" 16-byte hexadecimal compressed form is "1".
Ex: - 2001:abcd:120F:0:0:0001:876A:111B
Compressed form is 2001: abcd: 120F:0:0:1:876A:111B.
Example 3:Continuous zeros of 16-byte hexadecimal could be compressed by a pair of colons
(":"). However, the pair of colons allowed just once in a valid IPv6 address
compressed form [16].
Ex: - 2001:abcd:120F:0000:0000:0001:876A:111B
Valid compressed form is 2001:abcd:120F::1:876A:111B
2.2.3 Network Prefix
The network prefix used to identify network length in an IPv6 address.
Network Prefix known as subnet mask in IPv4. The IPv6 prefix made up of the left
most bits acts as network identifies [Des03]. The prefix-length is a decimal value
used in the range of 0-128 high-order contiguous bits indicates the length of the
network portion of the address.
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
For Example: - 2001:abcd:120F:0000:0000:0001:876A:111B/64
In the above example IPv6 address has a prefix value (/64) this represents the
network address space [2001: abcd: 120F:0000]
And reaming of the address [0000:0001:876A:111B] acts as host address in the
above example.
2.2.4 IPv6 address types
An IPv4 host typically uses one IP address; but an IPv6 host can have more
than one IP address [Des03]. There are three major types of IPv6 address:
1. Unicast:
Unicast is an address that identifies a single interface. An IPv6 packet that sent
to a unicast address delivered to the interface identified by that unicast address.
Unicast addresses divided into following types: Global unicast address: global unicast addresses are globally routable and
globally reachable on the Internet [Amo07].
 Link local Address: Link local address utilized with nodes when communicating
with neighboring nodes on the same link [Amo07].
 Site-local address: Site-local address utilized between site-to-site links in the
same organization.
 Special addresses: Such as unspecified and loopback addresses.
 Compatibility addresses: Compatibility address is 6to4 address. [Des03]
2. Anycast:
An Anycast address specify a set of interfaces in order to receive the packet. A
packet sent to an Anycast address delivered to the closest interface as defined by the
routing protocols [Des03]. For example, mail group distribution [Amo07].
3. Multicast:
A Multicast address identifies multiple interfaces for one-to-many
communication. A packet sent to a multicast address delivered to all interfaces
identified by the multicast address [Des03].
12
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Detailed of IPv6 Address types and ranges in figure 2.3:-
Figure 2.3 IPv6 Address types
2.2.5 Routing protocols
The selection of a path for transmitting datagrams called routing. The
important task of a router in a network is to determine the best path during the packet
forwarding process. The routing process need a router to use routing table and the
routing table contains entry information on different paths through the routing
protocols.
The IPv6 uses the similar kind of routing protocols with IPv4 but with some
modifications. However, IPv6 is a new version of the protocol and different from
IPv4. The routing table also managed separately from IPv4 routing table when both
protocols enabled on a router.
1. Exterior Gateway Protocols
Exterior gateway protocols used to exchange routing information among different
Autonomous Systems (AS). Example of an EGP:-Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP4+).
13
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
BGP4+
The most common exterior gateway routing protocol for IPv6, is a new version
of Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP4+), known as multiprotocol BGP or BGP4+.
BGP4+ is a path vector routing protocol that uses the Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) to enable connections with other BGP neighbors. BGP4+ is a multiprotocol
BGP, so it can carry routing information for IPv6 as well as other protocol such as
IPv4. BGP4+ can support the same features and functionality as IPv4 BGP.
2. Interior Gateway Protocols
Interior gateway protocols used to handle routing information within
Autonomous Systems (AS). The most common interior gateway routing protocols
are two kinds, such as Distance vector protocols and link state protocols.
Distance vector protocols are RIP (Routing information Protocol), EIGRP
(Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) and IGRP (Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol)
Link state protocols is OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
The new and extended version of interior gateway routing protocols for IPv6 are
RIPng, OSPFv3 and EIGRP for IPv6.
a) RIPng
RIPng is an interior gateway routing protocol for IPv6 and also called Routing
Information Protocol next generation. It based on RIPv2 for IPv6. It has the same
features and capabilities as RIPv2. RIPng allow routers to exchange information
through an IPv6 network [Mal97]. RIPng is a distance vector protocol and like RIP,
it is also limited to radius of maximum 15-hops.
User Datagram Protocol is used to send and receive routing information by
RIPng. For IPv6 RIPng has been updated some extra features such as IPv6 prefix of
the destination. IPv6 address of the next router along with the path to the destination
(next-hop address), Transport (RIPng messages are sent over IPv6 packets), UDP
port number of 521 used to send and receive information between RIPng routers,
and Link-local address FE80::/10 used as the source address for RIPng updates sent
to adjacent routers.
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IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
b) EIGRP for IPv6
EIGRP is an Enhanced version of IGRP developed by Cisco, uses the same distance
information and distance vector algorithm as IGRP [Sav13]. IPv6 supportive EIGRP
known as EIGRP for IPv6 and is similar to EIGRP used with IPv4. EIGRP provides
features such as increased network width of 224 hops in comparing to 15 hops of
RIP and simple hello mechanism for neighbor discovery. EIGRP provides fast
convergence, which allows quickly routing information and EIGRP can scale to
large networks. EIGRP for IPv6 provides a route filtering, and also has a protocoldependent module for IPv4, IPv6 [Sav13].
- The drawback of EIGRP runs only Cisco nodes.
c) OSPFv3
OSPFv3 is an interior gateway routing protocol for IPv6 defined in RFC 2740
and it based on OSPFv2. Most of the functions provide by OSPFv3 is similar to
OSPFv2 such as both uses same 5 packet type hello, database description (DDP),
link state request (LSR), link state update (LSU) and link state acknowledgement
(LSA), similar mechanism for neighbor discovery. However to handle the large
address space some changes have been made in OSPFv3 such as OSPFv3 runs over
a link instead of IPv4 behavior of per subnet [Col99]. OSPFv3 uses the IPv6 LinkLocal address to identify neighbors. OSPFv3 uses IPsec Authentication Headers and
IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload for security.
2.3 Transition Mechanisms
The design of IPv6 shows that this new version of internet protocol was not
designed to be backward compatible with IPv4, which mean IPv4 host is only
capable of sending IPv4 packets to other IPv4 hosts, and the same applies to IPv6
host, which is only capable of sending IPv6 packets to other IPv6 hosts. To
overcome the coexisting and incompatibility issue, Internet Engineering Task
Force next generation transition (NGtrans) designed and developed IPv4/IPv6
transition mechanisms to enable transition period to progress without any major
issue. IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms allow IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist on the
Internet. The coexistence of these two internet protocols can last for many years.
15
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined a number of specific
mechanisms to assist transition of IPv6 [Amo07]. These mechanisms are basically
divided as follows: Dual Stack, Translation and Tunneling.
2.3.1 Dual Stack Transition Mechanism (DSTM)
Dual-stack transition mechanism enables to run both IP stacks (IPv4 and
IPv6) in a single node. Dual stack nodes maintains both IP protocol stacks that
operates parallel and thus allow the end node to use either protocols [Amo07]. The
Dual stack node is capable of handling both kinds of IP (IPv4&IPv6) routing. Both
IPv4 and IPv6 shares common transport layer protocols such as TCP/IP.
For example: Windows XP, Vista, 7, Windows server 2003, Linux, Mac OS
[Amo07].TCP/IP model for dual stack node is shown in figure (2.4). The advantage
of dual stack are:-Easy to implement, Low cost and Already supported in all
modern OSs and devices. On the other hand, the disadvantages of dual stack are:Two routing tables, Additional memory and CPU power and Two firewall sets of
policies.
Figure 2.4 TCP/IP model for dual stack node
Dual stack networking deploys IPv4 and IPv6 in the same infrastructure. If a
node that support dual stack network, should be able to understand and process
both IP protocols network. The dual stack node itself cannot decide at randomly,
which IP stacks to use to communicate so the routing protocol decides, which stack
to use. Example of Dual Stack infrastructure is shown in figure 2.5:
16
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Figure 2.5 Dual stack
2.3.2 Tunneling
Tunneling wraps an IPv6 packet within an IPv4 packet, by allowing IPv6
hosts or sites to communicate over the existing IPv4 infrastructure. With tunneling,
a Node encapsulate IPv6 packet in IPv4 packet for transmission across an IPv4
networks, and then the packet are de-capsulated to original IPv6 packet by another
node.
Cisco Router, windows7, Linux and Windows Server 2008 provides support for
the tunneling solutions listed below:-[Amo07]




Static Tunneling
6to4 Transition Mechanism
Intra site Automatic Tunnel Addressing protocol (ISATAP)
Teredo
The advantage of Tunneling are:-Configure tunnel endpoints only, Simple
deployment and No additional management. On the other hand, the disadvantages
of Tunneling are:-Take more time and CPU power, Harder to troubleshooting and
network management and Have single points of failure.
17
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
1. Static Tunneling
Static IPv6-in-IPv4 tunneling requires the static configuration of tunnels on
dual-stack devices in order to allow IPv6 packets to be tunneled across the IPv4
network. While the tunnel is assigned an IPv6 address, the tunnel source and
destination addresses are configured using the IPv4 addresses of the two end-point
routers.
The tunnel destination address is the address that is included in the IPv4
packet header, which allows other intermediate devices that are only running IPv4
to know where to send these packets. The static tunneling from IPv4 to IPv6 is
shown in figure 2.6:
Figure 2.6 Static Tunneling
2. ISATAP
ISATAP is Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol. ISATAP is a
tunneling method for use within a local site to provide IPv6 communication over a
private IPv4 networks. ISATAP tunneling is configured between individual hosts
and an ISATAP router. ISATAP tunneling requires a special dual stack ISATAP
18
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Chapter 2
router to perform tunneling and dual-stack or IPv6-only clients. Dual stack routers
and hosts perform tunneling when communicating on the IPv4 network. ISATAP
is shown in figure 2.7.
Use ISATAP to start a transition to IPv6 within a local site. the transition
began by adding a single ISATAP server and configuring each host as an ISATAP
client. Automatically generates link-local addresses FE80::/16. The first two
quarters of the interface ID are set to 0000:5EFE. For example:A host with an IPv4 address of 192.168.12.155 would have the following IPv6
address when using ISATAP:- FE80::5EFE:C0A8:0C9B
Decimal Hexa
192
c0
168
a8
Figure 2.7 ISATAP Tunnel
3. 6to4 tunneling
With 6-to-4 tunneling, tunneling endpoints are configured automatically
between devices. 6-to-4 tunneling is configured between routers at different sites.it
requires routers that provide dual layer support as the tunnel endpoints. Hosts can
be IPv6-only hosts. 6-to-4 tunneling works through NAT.
19
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
It uses a dynamic association of an IPv6 site prefix to the IPv4 address of the
destination tunnel endpoint.
Automatically generates an IPv6 address for the local site using the 2002::/16
prefix followed by the public IPv4 address of the tunnel router. For example, a
router with the IPv4 address of 207.142.131.202 would serve the site with the
following prefix: 2002:CF8E:83CA::/48.
6-to-4 tunneling used to dynamically connection through the IPv4 Internet.
Because of its dynamic configuration, 6-to-4 tunneling is easier to administer than
manual tunneling. The 6-to-4 tunneling is shown in figure 2.8:
Figure 2.8 6to4 tunnel
4. Teredo tunneling
Teredo (also known as NAT traversal or NAT-T) establishes the tunnel
between individual IPv6 hosts so they can communicate through a private or public
IPv4 network. Teredo is a last resort technology in that it is only used when there
is no native IPv6, ISATAP, or 6-to-4 connectivity present between hosts.
20
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
Teredo tunneling works through NAT and uses a 2001::/32 prefix followed
by the IPv4 public address converted to hexadecimal. For example, the IPv4 public
address of 207.142.131.202 would provide clients with a prefix of
2001:0:CF8E:83CA::/64.
For Windows 7, the Teredo component is enabled but inactive by default (it
is disabled by default on Windows Server 2008 and 2003 SP1).
To use Teredo, a user must install an application that needs to use Teredo, or
configure the advanced settings on a Windows Firewall exception.
Teredo is disabled on XP and Server 2003 machines that belong to a domain.
Teredo is enabled on Vista and 2008 machines that belong to a domain. The Teredo
tunneling is shown in figure 2.9:
Figure 2.9 Teredo tunnel
2.3.3 Translation Mechanisms
Translation mechanism refers the direct conversion of IP protocols [Amo07].
Translation mechanisms always need translators that can translate particular IPv4
address to particular IPv6 address. This makes break in end to end network as NAT.
The advantage of Translation Mechanisms are:- The router is used as a
translation communicator and Solve network interoperability problems. On the
other hand, the disadvantages of Tunneling are:- Limitations similar to IPv4 NAT,
Slow to translate IP address and Harder to control on a larger scale.
21
Chapter 2
IPv6 Structure and Transition mechanisms
NAT-PT
NAT-PT is Network Address Translation-Protocol Translation that converts the
IPv6 packet header into an IPv4 packet header, and vice versa. With NAT-PT, a
translation table is referenced by the device, such as a Cisco router, as it converts
the headers to ensure that the packet is sent to the correct host. This method is
different than tunneling because the packet headers are converted between the IPv4
and IPv6, whereas tunneling wraps the IPv6 packets into an IPv4 packets. NATPT is configured on a single router running NAT-PT. Use NAT-PT to allow IPv4
hosts to communicate with IPv6 hosts. NAT-PT is shown in figure 2.10:
Figure 2.10 NAT-PT Translation
22
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
CHAPTER Three
Implementation for IPv6 transition mechanisms
In this chapter, we will start to implement the transition from IPv6 to IPv4.
To support the transition process, we will use a program, GNS3 (Graphical
Network Simulator).
3.1 GNS3
Graphical Network Simulator (GNS3) is allows emulation of complex
networks. GNS3 allows the same type of emulation using Cisco Inter-network
Operating Systems. It allows you to run a Cisco IOS in a virtual environment on
your computer. Dynamips is the core program that allows IOS emulation. GNS3
also supports other emulation programs, namely Qemu, Pemu and VirtualBox.
These software are used to emulate Cisco ASA and PIX firewalls.GNS3 content
Juniper router. GNS3 run on multi-platform (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X,
FreeBSD etc.) [Fus12]. GNS3 is shown in figure 3.1:
Figure 3.1 GNS3 simulator
In order to provide complete and accurate simulations, GNS3 actually uses
the following emulators to run the very same operating systems as in real
networks:-[Fus12]
23
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
Dynamips: the well known Cisco IOS emulator.
VirtualBox: runs desktop and server operating systems as well as Juniper Jun-OS.
Juniper:-Juniper Networks, is an American manufacturer of networking
equipment founded in 1996. The company designs and sells high-performance
Internet Protocol, network products and services [Tho02]
Qemu:- a generic open source machine emulator, it runs Cisco ASA, PIX and IPS.
3.2 Experiment
Two experiments will be implementation for this Dissertation. Implementation
work is done in two scenarios by implementing two methods: static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4
 IPv6 ISATAP
Behind selection of these two methods are easy to implement in existed equipment
in an organization instead of spending budget on new equipment.
24
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
3.2.1 Experiments one (static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4)
Figure 3.2 static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4
1. Equipment used:- Routers: Cisco 7200 series with Cisco IOS version 15.0.
- Client: Windows 7 with IP dual stack installed
25
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
2. Physical Connections:
A network has been established between R1 and R2 over R3 as shown in the
figure 4.2 In Experiment 1 to setup a network, three routers and two clients were
used. From the figure 3.2 Host 1 is connected to R1 interface Fa0/1 with an Ethernet
cable.
R1 interface Fa0/0 was connected to R3 interface Fa0/0 with Ethernet cable.
R3 interface Fa0/1 was connected to R2 interface Fa0/0 with Ethernet cable. R2
interface fa0/0 was connected to Host2 with an Ethernet cable. This fulfill physical
connectivity between R1 to R2.
3. IP Address Scheme:
Table 3.1 R1 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
192.168.1.2/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
--------
2001:1::1/64
Tunnel 0
--------
2002::1/64
Table 3.2 R2 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
192.168.2.2/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
--------
2001:2::1/64
26
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
--------
Tunnel 0
2002::1/64
Table 3.3 R3 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
192.168.1.1/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
192.168.2.1/24
--------
Table 3.4 Host1 configuration
IPv6 address
2001:1::2/64
Gateway
2001:1::1/64
Table 3.5 Host2 configuration
IPv6 address
2001:2::2/64
Gateway
2001:2::1/64
4. Static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4 Process:
In Experiment 1 an IPv6 packet from Host1 generated to the destination as
Host2, and sent to R1. Router R1 is a tunnel starting point that encapsulate IPv6
packet in IPv4, and sent through R3 over normal IPv4 routing to the end of tunnel.
27
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
End of the tunnel is a router R2 de-capsulate the IPv6 packet from the IPv4 packet
and delivered to Host2.
5. configuration static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4
1. configured All IPv4 and IPv6 addresses on all interfaces for all routers.
for IPv4 configuration:- [Amo07]
R3(config)interface fastEthernet 0/0
R3(config-if)ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)no shutdown
for IPv6 configuration:R3(config)interface fastEthernet 0/1
R3(config-if)IPv6 address 2001:1::1/64
R3(config-if)no shutdown
2. RIPv2 has been configured in the IPv4 domain for connectivity between the
router R3 , R4 and R5.
RIPv2:- Is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocol that written in
November 1998. RIPv2 improves upon RIPv1 with the ability to use VLSM, with
support for route authentication, and with multicasting of route updates by uses the
IP address 224.0.0.9. It sends updates every 30 seconds and retains the 15-hop
limit. On Cisco routers, RIPv2 has the same administrative distance as RIPv1,
which is 120. [Odo13]
R3(config)router rip
R3(config -router)version 2
R3(config -router)network 192.168.1.0
28
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
3. Enable RIPNG on router R3, R4, R1 and R2.
R3(config)IPv6 unicast-routing
R3(config-rtr)IPv6 router rip aa
R3(config)interface fastEthernet 0/0
R3(config-if)IPv6 rip aa enable
4. Configure a IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel between router R3 and R4. You are allowed
to use the 2002::/64 prefix for the tunnel interface. [Des03]
R3(config)interface tunnel 0
R3(config-if)tunnel source fa0/1
R3(config-if)tunnel destination 192.168.1.2
R3(config-if)tunnel mode IPv6ip
R3(config-if)IPv6 address 2002::1/64
R3(config-if)IPv6 rip aa enable
5. Ensure you have full connectivity between the 2001:1::/64 and 2001:2::/64
network by using ping command.
R1#ping 2001:2::2
Because of the time and effort required for configuration, use manually
configured tunnels only when you have a few sites that need to connect through the
IPv4 Internet, or when you want to configure secure site-to-site associate.
29
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
3.2.2 Experiments two (IPv6 ISATAP)
Figure 3.3 IPv6 ISATAP
1. Physical Connections:
A network has been established between R1, R2 and R3 over R4 as shown in
the figure 3.3 In Experiment 2 to setup a network, four routers and three clients
were used. From the figure 3.3 Host 1 is connected to R1 interface Fa0/1 with an
Ethernet cable. R1 interface Fa0/0 was connected to R4 interface Fa0/1 with a
Ethernet cable. R4 interface Fa1/1 was connected to R2 interface Fa0/0 with a
Ethernet cable. R2 interface fa0/1 was connected to Host2 with an Ethernet cable.
R4 interface Fa0/0 was connected to R3 interface Fa0/0 with Ethernet cable. R3
interface fa0/1 was connected to Host3 with an Ethernet cable. This fulfill physical
connectivity between R1 to R2.
30
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
2. IP Address Scheme:
Table 3.6 R1 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
10.0.0.2/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
--------
FEC0:1::1/64
Tunnel 0
--------
2001::1/64
Table 3.7 R2 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
172.16.0.2/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
--------
FEC0:2::1/64
Tunnel 0
--------
2001::1/64
Table 3.8 R3 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
192.168.1.2/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
--------
FEC0:3::1/64
Tunnel 0
--------
2001::1/64
31
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
Table 3.9 R4 router configuration
Interface
IPv4 address
IPv6 address
Fast Ethernet 0/0
192.168.1.1/24
--------
Fast Ethernet 0/1
10.0.0.1/8
--------
Fast Ethernet 1/1
172.16.0.1/16
--------
Table 3.10 Host1 configuration
IPv6 address
FEC0:1::2/64
Gateway
FEC0:1::1/64
Table 3.11 Host2 configuration
IPv6 address
FEC0:2::2/64
Gateway
FEC0:2::1/64
Table3.12 Host3 configuration
IPv6 address
FEC0:3::2/64
Gateway
FEC0:3::1/64
32
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
3. IPv6 ISATAP Process:
In Experiment 2 an IPv6 packet from Host1 generated to the destination as
Host2 or Host3, and sent to R1. Router R1 is a tunnel starting point that encapsulate
IPv6 packet in IPv4 by using ISATAP tunnel, and sent through R3 over normal
IPv4 routing to the end of tunnel. End of the tunnel is a router R2 or R3 de-capsulate
the IPv6 packet from the IPv4 packet and delivered to Host2 or Host3.
4. Configuration static IPv6 tunneling over IPv4
1. configured All IPv4 and IPv6 addresses on all interfaces for all routers.
[Amo07]
for IPv4 configuration:R1(config)interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)ip address 10.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
R1(config-if)no shutdown
for IPv6 configuration:R1(config)interface fastEthernet 0/1
R1(config-if)IPv6 address FEC0:1::1/64
R1(config-if)no shutdown
2. ospfv1 has been configured in the IPv4 domain for connectivity between the
router R1, R2, R3 and R4.
OSPFv1:- The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a robust link
state routing protocol well-suited for large networks. Uses hello packets to discover
neighbor routers. Uses link costs (bandwidth) as a metric for determining best
routes. OSPF works by using the Dijkstra algorithm. First, a shortest path tree is
constructed, and then the routing table is populated with the resulting best paths.
Router(config)#router ospf process-id
33
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
Router(config-router)#network a.b.c.d w.w.w.w n-area
R3(config)router ospf 1
R3(config -router)network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area2
3. Enable RIPNG on router R3, R4, R1 and R2.
R3(config)IPv6 unicast-routing
R3(config-rtr)IPv6 router rip aa
R3(config)interface fastEthernet 0/0
R3(config-if)IPv6 rip aa enable
4. Configure a IPv6 over IPv4 tunnel between router R3 and R4. You are allowed
to use the 2002::/64 prefix for the tunnel interface. [Odo13]
Router ISATAP server
R3(config)interface tunnel 0
R3(config-if)tunnel source Loopback0
R3(config-if)tunnel mode IPv6ip ISATAP
R3(config-if)IPv6 address 2002::/64 eui-64
R3(config-if)IPv6 rip aa enable
Router ISATAP client
R3(config)interface tunnel 0
R3(config-if)tunnel source Fa0/0
R3(config-if)tunnel destination 1.1.1.1(loopback address server)
R3(config-if)tunnel mode IPv6ip
34
Chapter 3
Implementation for IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
R3(config-if)IPv6 address autoconfig
R3(config-if)IPv6 rip aa enable
5. Ensure you have full connectivity between the R1,R2 and R3 router by using
ping command.
R1#ping IPv6-address
Use ISATAP to begin a transition to IPv6 within a site. Because Does not work
through NAT. You can start by adding a single ISATAP router and configuring
each host as an ISATAP client.
35
Chapter 4
Conclusion and Future work
CHAPTER Four
Conclusion and Future work
4.1 Conclusion
IPv6 overcomes many of the limitations over IPv4 with new features and
functionalities. It has been designed to support transition with IPv4. The
combination of CIDR and NAT mechanisms has assisted to reduce IPv4 address
exhaustion time.IPv6 larger address space provides more unique globally unicast
addresses for the present and future Internet growth. Fully deployment of IPv6
needs upgrading of applications, hosts, routers and DNS to support IPv6, might be
expensive and deployment takes many years.
The transition mechanisms are one of the best solutions to makes IPv6 & IPv4
networks run in the same infrastructure. IPv4 to IPv6 several transition mechanisms
have been developed for according to different organization needs. This
dissertation discussed and compared between Dual Stack, ISATAP, 6to4, Teredo
and NAT-PT. each mechanism have their own advantages and disadvantages in
different Infrastructure.
Dual Stack transition mechanism is the most common and straightforward
way for IPv6 & IPv4 nodes to communicates with IPv6 & IPv4 nodes
independently without changing the network. Dual stack is suitable for Internet
Service Providers (ISPs), Enterprises networks as well as Home users.
On the other hand manual tunnels are configured between two IPv6 networks
over IPv4 network infrastructure, Manual tunnel is a secure mechanism in
compared to other transition mechanisms. This mechanism is suitable for ISPs,
Enterprises networks, Data center but not for Home users. Based on report we
concluded that the transition mechanisms solve the problems of future Internet
growth but selection of transition mechanism is depends on infrastructure, security
issues, budget, advantages and disadvantages of the mechanism to an organization.
36
Chapter 4
Conclusion and Future work
4.2 Future work
This dissertation presented the study of differences between transition
Mechanisms. This study can be extended to:
 Select different IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms such as 6to4, Terado, and
NAT-PT.
 Change hardware router or compare between software and hardware routers.
 Add multiple measurement tools to the experiment, such as packet analysis
 Measure different network traffic types (VoIP, DNS).
 Conduct the experiment by using different network design such as host-to-host,
host-to-router, and router-to-host.
37
References
[Amo07]
John J. Amoss and Daniel Minoli, Handbook of IPv4 to IPv6
Transition: Methodologies for Institutional and Corporate Networks,
2007.
[Che04]
Chen, Chang, and Lin, Performance Investigation of
IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanisms,
Paper presented at the
IEEE Advanced Communication Technology, Retrieved from
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/abstractCitations.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1
292930&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_
all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1292930, 2004.
[Cro11]
KRIS R. CROSBY, MARCH, IMPACT OF IPV6 transition
mechanisms on the network forensic, Paper presented at Regis
University, College for Professional Studies, Retrieved from
http://hdl.handle.net/10176/codr:966, 2011.
[Col08]
R. Coltun, D. Ferguson, J. Moy, OSPF for IPv6, © The IETF Trust,
2008.
[Dee98]
S.Deering & R.Hinden , Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
specifications(IETF), © The Internet Society, 1998.
[Des03]
Regis Desmeules , Cisco Self-Study: Implementing Cisco IPv6
Networks (IPV6), © Cisco system, 2003.
[Dav12]
Joseph Davies, Understanding IPv6: Your Essential Guide to IPv6 on
Windows Networks, © Cisco system, 2012.
[Fus12]
Mike Fuszner, Gns3 (Graphical Network Simulator), © GNS3
company, 2012.
[Hin06]
R. Hinden and S. Deering, IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture
(IETF), Copyright (C) The Internet Society, 2006.
[Lid12]
Gilbert Lidholm & Marcus Netterberg, Evaluating an IPv4 and IPv6
Network, Paper presented at Computer Science Building West
Lafayette, Retrieved from
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.75.8970&r
ep=rep1&type=pdf, 2012.
[Mal97]
G. Malkin and R. Minnear, RIPng for IPv6 (IETF), © The Internet
Society, 1997.
[Odo13]
Wendell Odom , Cisco CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-101 Official Cert
Guide, © Cisco press, 2013.
[Odo13]
Wendell Odom , Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120
Official Cert Guide Library, © Cisco press, 2013.
[Sav13]
D. Savage, D. Slice, J. Ng and S. Moore, Enhanced Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol, © IETF Trust, 2013.
[Tho02]
homas M. Thomas, Doris Pavlichek, Lawrence H. Dwyer and Rajah
Chowbay, Juniper Networks Reference Guide, © Juniper
Networks, 2002.
[Tau09]
Sotharith Tauch, Performance evaluation of IP version 4 and IP
version 6 transition mechanisms on various operating systems,
Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10652/1456, 2009.
[Vis08]
V. Visoottiviseth and N. Bureenok, Performance Comparison of
ISATAP Implementations
on FreeBSD, RedHat, and Windows
2003, Paper presented at international Conference on
Advanced Information Networking and Applications, Retrieved from
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4482972,
2008.
‫المستخلص‬
‫بروتكول االنترنت االصدار السادس ‪ IPV6‬ھو االصدار التالي من بروتوكول االنترنت ‪.‬الذي طور بواسطة‬
‫‪ IETF‬ليحل محل بروتوكول االنترنت االصدار الرابع ‪. IPV4‬السبب في ھذا االستبدال ھو استنفاد عناوين‬
‫االنترنت االصدار الرابع ‪ .‬في حين ان معظم المتخصصين اليزالون يفھمون ان بروتكول االنترنت االصدار‬
‫السادس ھو فقط عبارة عن عناوين كبيرة الحجم ‪.‬لكن ايضا يتكون من العديد من المميزات البارزة مثل ‪ipsec‬‬
‫و ‪ICMPv6‬‬
‫‪ IETF‬طورت اليات التحول التي ساعدت كال من بروتوكول االنترنت االصدار الرابع و بروتكول االنترنت‬
‫االصدار السادس للتعايش على شبكة االنترنت‪ .‬النظام المزدوج ھو احد اليات التحول الذي يسمح بشغيل‬
‫بروتوكول االنترنت االصدار الرابع و بروتوكول االنترنت االصدار السادس معا على نفس الجھاز‪.‬‬
‫‪ ISATAP‬يقوم بتغليف حزم ‪ IPv6‬داخل حزم ‪ IPv4‬ليسمح بالتصال بين البروتوكولين‪.‬‬
‫في ھذه االطروحة تم تنفيذ آليتين من اليات التحول وھي االنفاق الثابتة و ‪ .ISATAP‬كل التجارب تم تنفيذھا‬
‫على راوترات ذات نظام مزدوج وحاسبات تعمل بنظام وندوز ‪ 7‬الذي ايضا يدعم النظام المزدوج‪.‬‬
‫وزارة التعليم العالي و البحث العلمي‬
‫جامعة بغداد ـ كليةالعلوم‬
‫قسم علوم الحاسبات‬
‫آليات التحول من ‪ IPv4‬الى ‪IPv6‬‬
‫بحث‬
‫مقدم الى قسم علوم الحاسبات في كلية العلوم ـ جامعة بغداد‬
‫كجزء من متطلبات نيل شھادة الدبلوم العالي‬
‫في علوم الحاسبات‬
‫من قبل الطالب‬
‫رامي خليل احمد‬
‫)بكالوريوس ‪(٢٠١٠‬‬
‫بإشراف‬
‫الدكتور عماد جاسم محمد‬
‫تشرين الثاني ‪٢٠١٣-‬‬
‫ذي الحجة ‪١٤٣٤ -‬‬
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