Fusion 141 and 150
Owner / Service Manual
October 15, 1998 - Third Edition
Fusion 141 and 150
Owner / Service Manual
Copyright © 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 by Sport Kites, Inc. dba Wills Wing, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of
Sport Kites, Inc., dba Wills Wing, Inc.
October 15, 1998 - Third Edition
500 West Blueridge Ave • Orange, CA • 92865 • Phone (714) 998-6359 • FAX (714) 998-0647
Internet Web address: http://www.willswing.com • E-mail: comments@willswing.com
Contents
Glider Delivery Check List .................................................................................... i
Introduction ...................................................................................................... 1
Disclaimer and Warning ...................................................................................... 2
Technical Information and Placarded Operating Limitations ...................................... 3
FUSION MANUAL ADDENDUM ........................................................................... 6
Leading Edge Pocket / Mylar Insert ................................................................................... 6
Nosecone Installation ......................................................................................................... 6
Transverse Batten Installation ............................................................................................ 6
Button Lock Apex Slider .................................................................................................... 6
Fusion Breakdown Procedure for Shipping, and Reassembly Procedure ..................... 7
To break down the leading edges follow these steps .......................................................... 7
Remounting the rear leading edges ..................................................................................... 8
Fusion Set-Up Procedure .................................................................................... 9
Preflight Procedure .......................................................................................... 15
Along the left leading edge ............................................................................................... 15
At the left wingtip ............................................................................................................. 15
Along the trailing edge, left wing ..................................................................................... 15
From the rear keel ............................................................................................................. 16
Along the trailing edge, right wing ................................................................................... 16
At the right tip................................................................................................................... 16
Along the right leading edge............................................................................................. 16
Under the glider at the control bar .................................................................................... 16
Laying the Glider Down Flat .............................................................................. 18
Setting the Glider Up Flat on the Ground ............................................................ 18
Launching and Flying the Fusion ........................................................................ 19
Minimum controllable airspeed and minimum sink airspeed .......................................... 19
Using wing tufts to find the minimum sink speed of your glider ..................................... 20
Towing .............................................................................................................................. 22
Trimming Your Glider in Pitch ............................................................................ 23
Speeds to Fly and Using Your Airspeed Indicator ................................................. 24
Using the VG System ...................................................................................... 25
Landing the Fusion .......................................................................................... 26
Fusion Breakdown ........................................................................................... 29
Fusion Stability Systems .................................................................................. 30
Fusion Sprog Adjustment and Flight Testing ........................................................ 31
Sprog measurement .......................................................................................................... 31
Alternate sprog measurement ........................................................................................... 31
Method of adjustment ....................................................................................................... 31
Test flight .......................................................................................................................... 32
Maintenance ................................................................................................... 33
Every month...................................................................................................................... 33
Every six months .............................................................................................................. 33
Every year ......................................................................................................................... 34
Special circumstances ....................................................................................................... 34
A note about cables and cable maintenance ..................................................................... 35
Removing the Sail from the Airframe and Re-Installing .......................................... 36
Sail removal ...................................................................................................................... 36
Re-installing the sail on the frame .................................................................................... 37
Replacing the Perlon hang loop ........................................................................................ 38
Glider Tuning .................................................................................................. 39
Dismounting and remounting the sail at the tip ................................................................ 39
CG adjustment .................................................................................................................. 39
Turn trim ........................................................................................................................... 39
Airframe............................................................................................................................ 39
Battens .............................................................................................................................. 39
Sail mount plugs - adjusting sail tension and rotational alignment .................................. 39
Sail tension ....................................................................................................................... 40
Twisting a tip .................................................................................................................... 40
Batten tension ................................................................................................................... 40
Leading edge sail tension .................................................................................................. 41
Car Top Mounting and Transport ........................................................................ 41
In Closing ....................................................................................................... 41
HGMA Fusion 150 COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION SPECIFICATION SHEET ...............................42
HGMA Fusion 141 COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION SPECIFICATION SHEET ...............................43
Assembly Diagrams
83E01.1 Fusion Crossbar Center ....................................................................... 2
83E02.2 Fusion Front Leading Edge and Cam VG ................................................ 3
83E03.2 Fusion Sprog Wire and Bracket (Carbon Sprog) ...................................... 4
83E07.0 Fusion Sprog (Carbon) ........................................................................ 5
83E04.1 Fusion Noseplate ............................................................................... 6
83E05.1 Fusion Rear Leading Edge .................................................................... 7
83E06.1 Fusion Keel ....................................................................................... 8
83E10.0 Fusion Aluminum Sprog and hardware Assembly .................................... 9
83E09
VG Folding Base Tube ....................................................................... 10
80E08
VG Control Bar ................................................................................ 11
Fusion 150 Frame Plans ................................................................................... 12
Fusion 141 Frame Plans ................................................................................... 13
Button Lock Apex Slider Assembly .................................................................... 14
Fusion Control Bar ........................................................................................... 15
World Record Hang Gliders Since 1973 • Orange, California USA
Glider Delivery Check List
PO #
Model / Size
Serial #
Customer Name
Date
Phone #
Address
City
State
Dealership Name
Order Date
Zip
Date Delivered
Dealer Test Flight Results
Pilot
Site
Date Tested
Airtime
Test Flight Comments
Dealer/ Customer Checklist
Customer
Dealer
Reviewed glider owner’s manual with customer
Reviewed set-up, break-down, and pre-flight procedures
Reviewed maintenance and service procedures
Reviewed car top mounting (HG), Trunk heat cautions (PG)
Delivered customer response form
Delivered glider parts kit
Delivered owner’s manual
READ BEFORE FLIGHT
CAUTION: Use of this equipment may result in INJURY OR DEATH. Please be sure
you are qualified to fly this product, are thoroughly familiar with and follow all
proper procedures as explained in the owner’s manual. You are reminded that YOU
FLY AT YOUR OWN RISK.
I have read and understood all of the above and hereby release Wills Wing Inc., its
employees, and dealers acting in association with or on behalf of Wills Wing Inc.
from all liability in connection with my use of this glider.
Customer Signature
Dealer Signature
Wills Wing Inc. • 500 West Blueridge • Orange, California USA • 92865 • Ph(714) 998-6359
Introduction
Thank you for purchasing a Wills Wing glider, and welcome to the world wide family of Wills Wing
pilots. We are a company of pilots and aviation enthusiasts, and our goal is to serve your flying needs
now and in the future, as we have done for pilots throughout the world since 1973.
We encourage you to read this manual thoroughly for information on the proper use and maintenance
of your Wills Wing glider. If at any time you have questions about your glider, or about any aspect of
hang gliding that your Wills Wing dealer cannot answer, please feel free to give us a call.
If you have access to the Internet, please visit us regularly at http://www.willswing.com. The site
features extensive information about Wills Wing gliders and products, a Wills Wing Dealer directory, a
comprehensive list of service and technical bulletins, the latest editions of owners manuals, our complete retail price list, a search engine, e-mail and more.
The most important contents of our internet site are the service and technical bulletins, and the latest
editions of owners manuals. This is your single best source for safety and airworthiness advisories on
Wills Wing products. Many of the documents are published in Adobe Acrobat format. A free viewer for
Acrobat files is available at http://www.adobe.com.
We wish you a safe and enjoyable flying career, and, once again, welcome aboard!
Rob Kells, Mike Meier, Linda Meier, and Steve Pearson
Wills Wing, Inc.
—1—
Disclaimer and Warning
Hang gliding is a form of aviation. Like any form of aviation, its safe practice demands the consistent
exercise of pilot skill, knowledge of airmanship and weather, judgment and attention at a level which is
appropriate to the demands of each individual situation. Pilots who do not possess or exercise the
required knowledge, skills and judgment are frequently injured and killed. The statistical rate at which
fatalities occur in hang gliding is approximately one per thousand participants per year.
The Federal Aviation Administration does not require a pilot’s license to operate a hang glider. Hang
gliders and hang gliding equipment are not designed, manufactured, tested or certified to any state or
federal government airworthiness standards or requirements. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 103
states in part, "ultralight vehicles are not required meet the airworthiness certification standards
specified for aircraft or to have certificates of airworthiness" and "operators of ultralight vehicles are
not required to meet any aeronautical knowledge, age, or experience requirements to operate those
vehicles or to have airman or medical certificates." Wills Wing hang gliding products are not covered
by product liability insurance. As a hang glider pilot, you are entirely responsible for your own safety.
You should never attempt to fly a hang glider without having received competent instruction. We
strongly recommend that you not participate in hang gliding unless you recognize fully and wish to
personally assume all of the associated risks.
Please fly safely.
—2—
Technical Information and Placarded Operating Limitations
The Fusion 141 and 150 have been tested and found to comply with the Hang Glider Manufacturers
Association (HGMA) Airworthiness Standards. These standards require:
1. A positive load test at root stall angle of attack at a speed equal to at least the greatest of:
a. 141% of the placarded maximum maneuvering speed
b. 141% of the placarded maximum rough air speed
c. 123% of the placarded speed never to exceed
for at least three seconds without failure.
The required speed for the Fusion for this test was 65 m.p.h..
2.
A negative 30 degree angle of attack load test at a speed equal to at least the greatest of:
a. 100% of the placarded maximum maneuvering speed
b. 100% of the placarded maximum rough air speed
c. 87% of the placarded speed never to exceed
for at least 3 seconds without failure.
The required speed for the Fusion for this test was 46 m.p.h..
3. A negative 150 degree angle of attack load test at a speed equal to at least the greater of 30 m.p.h.
or 50% of the required positive load test speed for at least 3 seconds without failure.
The required speed for the Fusion for this test was 32 m.p.h..
4. For the Fusion with a Vne of 53 m.p.h., pitch tests at speeds of 20 m.p.h., 37 m.p.h. and 53 m.p.h.
which show the glider to be stable over a range of angles of attack from trim angle to 20 degrees
below zero lift angle at 20 m.p.h., and from trim angle to 10 degrees below zero lift angle at 37
m.p.h., and from 10 degrees above zero lift angle to zero lift angle at 53 m.p.h..
5. Flight maneuvers which show the glider to be adequately stable and controllable throughout the
normal range of operation.
Note: The Fusion has been designed for foot launched soaring flight. It has not been designed to be
motorized, tethered, or towed. It can be towed successfully using proper procedures. Pilots wishing to
tow should be USHGA skill rated for towing, and should avail themselves of all available information
on the most current proper and safe towing procedures. Suggested sources for towing information
include the United States Hang Gliding Association and the manufacturer of the towing winch / or
equipment being used. Wills Wing makes no warranty of the suitability of the glider for towing.
Because of the lack of a kingpost and top rigging on the Fusion design, tethering the
glider by the nose, such as is commonly done during platform towing operations, creates
the potential for overloading the keel tube of the glider which could result in a structural
failure. To avoid overloading the keel, any tether line attached to the nose should pull as
much as possible in line with the keel, and in no case in a direction more than 45 degrees
below the line of the keel tube itself. Please read the section on towing.
—3—
Flight operation of the Fusion should be limited to non aerobatic maneuvers; those in which the pitch
angle will not exceed 30 degrees nose up or nose down from the horizon, and the bank angle will not
exceed 60 degrees. The Fusion is generally resistant to spinning, but may spin from a stalled turn,
especially if the VG is adjusted at or near the tight end of the range, and the rate of application of pitch
is moderately rapid. The Fusion can be induced to spin at any VG setting. Recovery from a spin
requires unstalling of the wing, and it is therefore critically important that in the event of a spin, no
application of nose up pitch control be held. The Fusion will recover from a spin once control pressures
are relaxed. As the nose lowers and the angle of attack is reduced, the stall will be broken and the spin
will stop. However, such recovery will consume significant altitude, and will result in the glider
assuming an unpredictable heading. Recovery from a spin may therefore involve a flight trajectory
which intersects the terrain at a high rate of speed. An aggravated spin could result in loss of control, in
flight inversion, and structural failure. Therefore no attempt should ever be made to deliberately spin
the glider. The Fusion provides the pilot with a high degree of pitch authority, in combination with a
very low twist sail. As a result, it is possible by pushing fully out on the bar to produce a very aggravated and severe stall, the recovery from which may involve very severe pitch down rotation, the pilot
going weightless, and the glider recovering via an unpredictable trajectory with a significant altitude
loss. Therefore, full arms extension aggravated stalls should not be induced except on landing flare.
The maximum steady state speed for a prone pilot in the middle of the recommended weight range full
forward on the control bar with the VG set full tight is approximately 58 m.p.h. for the Fusion. The
placarded speed never to exceed for the Fusion is 53 m.p.h. An airspeed indicator is provided with the
Fusion and should be used by the pilot as an aid to comply with the placarded limitations.
The placarded maximum maneuvering speed, and the placarded maximum rough air speed of the
Fusion are each 46 m.p.h. This speed will be achieved with the control bar basetube approximately at
the waist. This speed should not be exceeded in anything other than smooth air. No abrupt maneuvering
or control inputs should be made at anything above this speed.
The stability, controllability, and structural strength of a properly maintained Fusion have been determined to be adequate for safe operation when the glider is operated within all of the manufacturer
specified limitations. No warranty of adequate stability, controllability, or structural strength is made
or implied for operation outside of these limitations.
The stall speed of the Fusion at maximum recommended wing loading is 25 m.p.h. or less. The top
(steady state) speed at minimum recommended wing loading for a prone pilot with a properly designed
and adjusted harness is at least 45 m.p.h.. All speeds given above are indicated airspeeds, for a properly calibrated airspeed indicator mounted in the vicinity of the pilot. Wills Wing provides such an
airspeed indicator with the glider. It is strongly recommended that the pilot fly with such an airspeed
indicator. Refer to the section on using the airspeed indicator for further information on speeds to fly.
The recommended hook in pilot weight range for the Fusion is:
Fusion 150: 150 - 275 lbs.
Fusion 141: 135 - 235 lbs.
Be advised that pilots with hook in weights of less than 20 lbs above minimum will find the Fusion
more demanding of pilot skill to fly, and that pilots hooking in within 20 lbs of the maximum will
experience some relative degradation of optimum sink rate performance due to their higher wing
loading.
—4—
A minimum USHGA Advanced (IV) level of pilot proficiency is required to fly the Fusion safely. Pilots
are advised that the optimum proficiency level for the Fusion is higher than the minimum recommended. Operation of the glider by unqualified or under qualified pilots may be dangerous.
Operating the Fusion outside of the above limitations may result in injury and death. Flying the Fusion
in the presence of strong or gusty winds, or turbulence may result in loss of control of the glider which
may lead to injury and death. Do not fly in such conditions unless you realize and wish to personally
assume the associated risks. Wills Wing is well aware that pilots have, and continue to perform maneuvers and fly in conditions which are outside the recommended operating limitations stated herein.
Please be aware that the fact that some pilots have exceeded these limitations in the past without
dangerous incident does not imply or insure that the limitations may be exceeded without risk. We do
know that gliders which meet all current industry standards for airworthiness can and do suffer in flight
structural failures, both as a result of turbulence, and as a result of various maneuvers outside the
placarded operating limitations, including, but not necessarily limited to aerobatics. We do not know,
and cannot know, the full range of maneuvers or conditions which may cause the pilot’s safety to be
compromised, nor can we test the glider in all possible circumstances.
—5—
FUSION MANUAL ADDENDUM
There have been several design improvements made to late model Fusions. Please take a moment to
note the following changes before setting up or flying your new Fusion.
Leading Edge Pocket / Mylar Insert
The mylar pocket has been changed to make the removal of the mylar insert easier. On new style
Fusions the mylar pocket is open to the front so the mylar can be removed without disassembling the
glider.
Nosecone Installation
The new style nose cone has no velcro on the back edge. To install the nosecone slide the top rear edges
between the mylar pocket and mylar insert. Work it back into position flush with the back edge of the
mylar pocket, and then velcro the lower edge into place on the bottom surface. It takes a bit of practice
to get it installed cleanly, but you will notice there is no bump caused by the velcro at the back edge.
Transverse Batten Installation
The transverse battens (54 inches long with black heat shrink on the outside) go inside the bottom
surface at the back between the #3 batten (second shortest curved batten) and the #5 batten (fourth
shortest curved batten). The transverse batten does not need to be removed unless the rear leading
edges are removed to “short pack” the glider for transport. Please refer to page 6 in this manual for
more information on this.
The new style Fusion sail does not have a batten pocket to hold the transverse batten.
The “sprog” (internal washout strut) supports the transverse batten below the #4 batten.
To install the transverse batten slide the end of the batten through the webbing receptacle just inboard
of the #3 batten, and then slide it through the webbing receptacle at the #5 rib. Put tension on the
batten towards the #5 rib and firmly close the velcro at the #3 receptacle to keep the transverse batten
in place.The transverse batten is tapered at each end. The longest (flat) side of the batten goes down
towards the bottom surface. The newest Fusion transverse battens are labeled “TOP” on the short side.
Button Lock Apex Slider
Newer Fusions are equipped with a spring loaded control bar apex slider lock. An illustration of the
new assembly is included in the assembly diagrams. This new system is much easier to release and
engage than the clevis pin and safety ring on earlier models.
—6—
Fusion Breakdown Procedure for Shipping, and Reassembly Procedure
The front leading edge is 60mm (2.36") oversleeved with 62mm (2.44") at the crossbar junction. The
rear leading edge is 50mm (1.97") oversleeved with 52mm (2.05") at the front end. There are two
fittings attached to the front end of the rear leading edge to provide the proper fit and orientation in the
front leading edge. The front fitting is slotted and engages in a clevis pin though the front leading edge.
To break down the leading edges follow these steps
1. Lay the glider on the ground or floor, unzip and remove the bag and remove the velcro ties. Undo
the velcros which hold the sail around the sail mount plug. Pull the sail rearward at each tip to
dismount the sail from the rear leading edge.
2. Unzip the sprog access zipper in the bottom surface and disconnect the sprog bungee from the
sprog rear end paddle.
3. Obtain an indelible marker. Mark the rear leading edges left and right (remember that left and right
are reversed if the glider is lying “on its back”, upside down).
4. Pull the rear leading edge straight aft to disengage it from the front. Slide it forward inside the sail
until you can fold the sprog past the internal sail ribs, then remove the whole assembly from the
from the sail. Be very careful not to damage the sail with the hardware attached to the rear leading
edge. Tape or pad the edges of the front end of the rear leading edge tubes, and the rear of the front
leading edge tubes to prevent sail damage during transit.
5. Remove the carbon sandwich transverse batten from the sail by opening the velcro closure at the
#3 batten end of the transverse batten pocket and sliding the transverse batten out towards the wing
tip. Note that the orientation of the transverse batten is flat side closest to the bottom surface.
Be careful handling the transverse batten - carbon fiber splinters can be very dangerous.
Wrap and pad the transverse batten for shipment.
6. Carefully fold the rear of the sail over against the front, and replace the bag on the glider.
—7—
Remounting the rear leading edges
1. Install the transverse battens in the batten pockets. The proper orientation for the transverse
batten is with the flat carbon side (bottom side) of the batten facing the bottom surface of the
sail. The top side of the batten should lay flat in the pocket against the top surface of the sail.
Secure the velcro closure.
2. Make sure you are mounting the correct leading edge rear into the correct front (check the “right” /
“left” designation).
3. Slide the rear leading edge (through the sail past the edge of the front leading edge) far enough to
feed the sprog out through the curved bottom surface access zipper between the sail ribs on battens
no. 3 and no. 4. Engage the rear leading edge into the front. If the rear leading edge is properly
installed, the black plastic crescent adapter that is attached to the rear leading edge will be completely inside the front leading edge. (Note: On early serial production gliders the black crescent
may protrude 1/8" from the front leading edge when the rear leading edge is fully engaged.)
4. Remount the sail to the rear leading edge, making sure to align the sail mount webbing squarely in
the slot and attach the securing velcros.
The sail is mounted to the leading edge by the inner (forward) of the two loops of webbing. The outer loop is a pull handle only.
You may find it helpful to use a large, flat bladed screw driver to pry the sail mount webbing over
the end of the leading edge tube and into the slot. Take care not to damage the webbing.
5. Attach the sprog bungee to the sprog paddle. One end of the bungee is secured to a tab sew to the
sail body. Insert the free end of the bungee though the hole in the corresponding side of the paddle,
tie an overhand knot and push it back into the channel in the bottom of the paddle.
—8—
Fusion Set-Up Procedure
The Fusion has been specially designed to set up quickly and easily either on the control bar or flat on
the ground. We will first cover the steps for setting up on the control bar.
1. Lay the glider on the ground, with the bag zipper up, with the nose into the wind.
2. Undo the zipper, remove the battens, remove the protective pad at the rear wire station on the keel,
and remove the control bar bag. Newer gliders may have a pair of neoprene protective socks over
the rear wire junction and the end of the keel instead of a pad.
3. Unfold the control bar legs.
a.
If the glider is equipped with a folding basetube:
i.
Straighten the fold in the folding basetube.
ii. Preflight the folding basetube center hardware at this time, checking that the nuts
and coil spring pins are secure, and that the tangs are straight and in good condition.
iii. Slide the basetube center sleeve over the center joint until it is positioned between
the button spring pins. (Note: If you plan to clamp instruments to the basetube
center, position the center sleeve so that one button passes through the hole near
one end of the sleeve, which will secure the sleeve against rotation.)
—9—
b.
If the glider is equipped with a non folding basetube:
i.
Remove the safety ring, wing nut and bolt from the corner bracket.
ii. Insert the corner bracket all the way into the basetube.
iii. Install the bolt, wingnut and safety, securing the bracket to the basetube.
Make sure that the aluminum fitting is fully inserted into the basetube, and that the bolt is
through both the basetube and the fitting. If the hole in the fitting can be seen outside the end of
the basetube, the fitting is not fully installed, and will likely disengage in flight resulting in a
dangerous structural collapse and loss of control of the glider.
Do not insert the fitting at an angle, and do not force the fitting into the basetube if it does not slide
in freely. Check for dirt or damage to the fitting or the inside of the basetube. If the fitting is forced
into the basetube, it may be impossible to remove. See your dealer if the fitting becomes difficult to
install or remove.
4. Flip the glider upright on the control bar, and remove the bag and all the velcro ties. Do not remove
the leading edge tip protector bags at this time, but do loosen the velcros on the tip bags. If there is
more than eight m.p.h. of wind, or if the wind is gusty, turn the glider 90 degrees to the wind
direction. Spread the wings almost all the way.
5. Install the elevated hang system spreader bar onto the base pillar. Check for free pivoting movement of the spreader bar, and that the pivot pin is securely installed in the slot in the base pillar.
Webbing Hang System
Perlon Hang System
6. At this time, undo the velcro attachment of the two halves of the front keel pocket. This is to allow
the xbar center wedge and its rear webbing hold down strap to slide freely aft on the keel when you
tension the crossbar.
— 10 —
7. Remove the battens from the batten bag, and check each batten for symmetry against the corresponding batten from the other wing. Wills Wing convention is that black tipped battens go in the
right wing and white tipped battens in the left, except for the straight #1 plug on battens which all
have black tips.
8. Install the cambered top surface battens in the sail, leaving out the shortest two on each side (#2
and #3) for now. Each batten is secured by a double loop of the batten string. Order of insertion is
longest to shortest, from the root out. When inserting the inboard most battens, lift the keel to ease
the insertion. The longest battens may catch the edge of the mylar insert at the front of the sail. If
that happens, make sure that the mylar insert is not creased or folded in the pocket. When these
battens reach the back side of the leading edge tube, it may be necessary to lift the sail along the
batten pocket to facilitate insertion of the batten all the way.
Insert the battens carefully, so as to minimize stress and wear on the sail. Never insert or
remove top surface battens with the crossbar tensioned (except for up to the last four on
each side) and never insert or remove battens with heavy wind pressure on the top of the
sail or in any condition which causes the battens to slide with great resistance in the pockets.
9. Spread the wings all the way and check all cables for any twisted thimbles or tangled cables.
10. At the rear of the keel, tension the crossbar and secure the crossbar sweep wire by pulling the
keyhole channel aft along the keel until the large hole lines up with the keyhole bolt. Lower the
keyhole bracket over the bolt until the channel can slide forward so that the narrow part of the
keyhole slot is fully captive in the narrow part of the bolt collar.
Never install the keyhole channel onto the keyhole bolt without making absolutely sure
that the channel is fully engaged on the narrow neck of the bolt, and tensioned forward
into the fully locked position. An in-flight disengagement of this attachment will cause a
complete loss of structural support of the glider and a total loss of control.
11. Overlap the mating velcro surfaces of the front keel pocket around the bottom of the keel tube and
secure them together. The VG activation rope should be inside the keel pocket.
— 11 —
12. Remove the wingtip protector bags. Install the last two curved battens on each side.
13. Reach in through the end of the sail at the tip, grasp the floating washout tube and align it for
insertion into the washout tube sleeve. Make sure when inserting it that the washout tube slides all
the way home into the sleeve. It helps to lift the end of the #2 batten. Check the washout tube to
make sure it is secure and free to float up and down.
14. Install the plug-on #1 battens by inserting one end through the hole in the bottom surface at the tip
and engaging the forked batten tip on the clevis pin standoff on the top of the leading edge tube.
The #1 batten should bear on the top side of the washout tube. Secure with a double loop of the
505 batten string. The proper #1 tension for the Fusion is very tight and it is easiest to install the
batten string if you first set the VG to the full tight position.
Be sure to re-set the VG to the desired setting prior to launch.
15. At this time preflight the following from the open end of the wingtip:
a. The sail mount webbing - make sure that the sail is mounted by the inner loop of webbing,
and that the webbing is laying flat in the bottom of the slot in the sail mount endcap.
b. The number one batten clevis pin and safety.
c. The washout tube installation.
d. That the internal rib in the #2 batten is zipped.
16. Install the plastic wing tip fairing, or the optional winglet. Make sure that the fairing or winglet is
fully inserted into the leading edge such that the velcro mates securely around the entire perimeter.
While installing the tip fairing or winglet, support the aft tip of the number one batten as necessary
— 12 —
so as to equalize the tension around the perimeter of the open end of the sail at the wing tip to
insure that the sail mates properly to the tip fairing or winglet.
17. Open the V shaped access zipper in the outboard section of the bottom surface. Swing the sprog
back and outwards, until the rear sprog paddle is aligned underneath the transverse batten in the
top surface sail pocket just forward of the rear of the bottom surface. Attach the clip in the sail to
the ring or loop on the sprog paddle to secure the sprog in position. Check the sprog for freedom of
upward motion and that it is securely restrained at the downward limit by the sprog cable. Check
the cable and the associated attachment fittings. The neoprene cover at the center of the sprog can
be slid aft to inspect the cable attachment at this point. Early model Fusions have an opposing
bungee to lightly tension the sprog retaining clip. The bungee is unnecessary because the sail rib
effectively prevents the sprog from rotating inboard.
18. While in this area, check the internal rib zipper for the rib adjacent to the sprog. Also, from this
point you can visually inspect the cam lever plate, support strap, cable attachment and bolts, nuts
and safeties at the crossbar / leading edge junction. When finished, zip up the sprog access zipper.
Before attempting to install the bottom nose wires be sure that the control bar apex is
pushed into place fully aft on the slider track.
19. Attach the bottom front wires to the bottom of the nose. In order to attach or remove the keyhole
tang from the collared bolt, the aluminum anchor lock must be rotated into the position shown
below, left. Once this is done, install the keyhole tang over the collared bolt by pulling down on the
nose of the glider while pressing the tang upwards over the collared bolt. Remember, it is the
pulling down of the glider's nose rather than the upward pressure on the tang that allows you to
install the tang over the bolt.
If you have difficulty installing the tang, the apex is fully aft, and no wires are twisted or thimbles
cocked, it is probably because the glider is not sitting on level ground.
After installing the keyhole tang, rotate the aluminum anchor lock as shown to secure the tang on
the bolt.
— 13 —
Because of the lack of a kingpost and top rigging on the Fusion design, tethering the
glider by the nose, such as is sometimes done after setup and while waiting to fly, creates
the potential for overloading the keel tube of the glider which could result in a structural
failure. A similar problem could arise during a hang check. To avoid overloading the
keel, any tether line attached to the nose, or any restraint used during a hang check
should pull as much as possible in line with the keel, and in no case in a direction more
than 45 degrees below the line of the keel tube itself. See the diagram in the section on
towing. Alternately, for performing a hang check, the glider can be supported by pushing
up from underneath the rear keel instead of pulling down and forward at the nose.
Make sure the anchor lock is installed properly. There is not as much tension in the
bottom wires to keep the keyhole tang engaged as with gliders with top rigging.
20. By lifting up and back on the nose batten strings, push the nose battens fully back into the sail so
that the tips rest on top of the noseplate.
21. Install the nosecone taking care to align it so that it lies flat on the top and bottom of the sail.
22. Install the bottom surface battens.
23. Conduct a complete preflight of the glider, checking all assemblies which have not already been
checked.
— 14 —
Preflight Procedure
Along the left leading edge
Carefully check the entire length of the leading edge pocket to insure that the mylar insert is lying flat
in the pocket. If any section of the mylar is folded under, de-tension the crossbar, remove the batten
closest to the area of distortion, and unfold the mylar.
Failure to correct folded under or severely creased mylar will cause a severe alteration
of the flight characteristics of the glider which may lead to a dangerous loss of control.
While pushing up on the leading edge between the nose and the crossbar junction, step on the bottom
side wire with about 50 lbs. of force. This is a rough field test of the structural security of the side wire
loop, the control bar and the crossbar, and may reveal a major structural defect that could cause an inflight failure in normal operation.
Open the crossbar junction access zipper and look inside, making sure that the bottom side wires are
properly secured to the crossbar and that the nut and safety ring are in place. Check the attachment of
the cam lever plate to the crossbar and leading edge, the attachment of the support strap, and VG
activation cable. The neoprene protector can be slid back to check the cable attachment. Re-close the
zipper.
At the left wingtip
You have already preflighted those parts of the glider accessible only with the tip fairing removed. At
this time, check the tip again for secure and proper installation.
Along the trailing edge, left wing
Check that there are no tears in the sail material along the trailing edge.
— 15 —
Check that all batten strings are properly secured.
Check that the sprog is properly secured in position supporting the transverse batten, and that the sprog
access zipper is properly closed.
From the rear keel
Check again that the keyhole channel is fully engaged and locked to the keyhole bolt. Also check that
the sweep wires are tight and actively tensioning the channel on the bolt.
Along the trailing edge, right wing
Same as for left wing.
At the right tip
Same as for left tip.
Along the right leading edge
Same as for left leading edge.
Under the glider at the control bar
Sight down the downtubes, making sure that they are straight.
Unzip the center zipper.
Check the sweep wires for wear where the pass through the hang system pillar and where they pass
over the keel mounted VG pulley bracket.
Check the cables at the control bar corners, making sure there are no kinks or twisted thimbles. Check
for proper installation of all nuts and safety rings at the control bar corners.
Check that the hang system spreader bar is properly oriented (ends lower than center pivot), is fully
engaged on the pillar and is free to pivot. Check that the back up hang loop is secured to the keel
behind the base for the elevated hang system.
Check the control bar base bracket pulley for free rotation. Overtightening of the mounting bolts will
cause this pulley to bind. Check the routing of the VG rope around the keel mounted pulley. Check
that the routing of all VG ropes and pulleys is clear and straight.
It is possible for the VG activation cable which runs along the leading edge to become
caught under the front end of a bottom surface batten pocket. This is most likely to
happen if the bottom surface battens are installed before the crossbar is tensioned. You
should therefore be sure to install the bottom surface battens only after the crossbar is
tensioned. Also, during the preflight, before cycling the VG system, you should check
specifically to see that the VG cables on each side are not caught under the front of any
bottom surface batten pocket.
Check the VG operation - the pull should be light initially, becoming harder as the VG tight limit is
reached. The return on release should be smooth. At the full loose end of the travel, the VG may not
— 16 —
release all the way with the glider unloaded. During VG operation, visually check for the free operation
of the VG cam lever at the leading edge crossbar junction.
With the VG set tight, the sprog paddle slides forward on the transverse batten. Make sure that at VG
full tight the rear end of the paddle does not slide past the rear edge of the transverse batten, or the
system could malfunction.
Check that the front keel pocket is secured to itself with the mating velcro surfaces, and that all VG
cables and ropes are inside the keel pocket.
Whenever you undo the velcro attaching the two sides of the front keel pocket to one
another, you must be sure when reattaching them that the sweep wires are fully inside the
keel pocket. Otherwise the keel pocket can be ripped away from the sail.
Check the crossbar center plate and wedge assembly including the following: The eight nuts and bolts
which attach the crossbar plates to the wedge. The four circlips which retain the crossbar pins which
hold the crossbars to the center plates. The shackle which holds the crossbar hold down strap to the
front of the wedge. The attachment of the VG triple block pulley to the bottom front of the wedge. The
attachment of the sweep wire, plastic glide, and retaining strap at the rear of the crossbar center wedge.
The routing and attachment of the VG cables, including the forward triple block and the attachment of
the VG cables to the top of the noseplate.
Also, visually inspect the crossbars by sighting along the length of the crossbars looking for any
evidence of damage.
Pull back the neoprene protectors and check the control bar apex bracket hardware, including the clevis
pin safeties, the control bar top plug bolts and nuts, and the elbow to apex slider bolt and nut.
Inspect the apex slider to verify that the ears have not been bent in a hard landing, and
that the bottom and side plastic glides are properly in place.
— 17 —
Laying the Glider Down Flat
Once the glider is assembled it can easily be laid down flat on the ground.
Disengage the spring loaded apex slider lock from the slider assembly. On older gliders, remove the
clevis pin from the control bar apex slider to allow it move forward on the track. If the control bar
apex is is not released from the aft locked position, the sidewires will become extremely tight as the
control bar is rotated back and damage to the sail and airframe may occur.
Loosen the back-up hang loop to allow the control bar top to slide forward on the keel track. Detach
the bottom of the nose cone. Disengage the keyhole tang (front wires) from the nose bolt. Pull the
control bar apex all the way forward on the slider track. Lift the nose of the glider and rock it forward
over the control bar, and then lay it down.
Reverse the procedure to set the glider upright again.
Setting the Glider Up Flat on the Ground
In areas where the ground is not rocky and when there are strong winds, you may wish to set up the
glider flat on the ground. This is easy to do, and relatively few parts of the set up procedure are
different from what has been described.
1. After unfolding the control bar and securing the basetube center sleeve, flip the glider over right
side up with the control bar still flat under the glider.
2. Spread the wings and install all the battens, sprogs, washout tubes and the wingtip fairings. (Note:
Perform all the normal preflight operations as described above).
3. Tension the crossbar.
4. When ready, raise the nose of the glider and pull the control bar forward under the glider. Push the
control bar apex fully aft, engage the spring loaded apex slider lock, and secure the bottom front
wires.
5. Install the nosecone.
— 18 —
Launching and Flying the Fusion
Before launching, hook in to the glider and do a careful hang check.
1. We recommend that you launch with the VG set between full loose and 1/3 on.
If you launch with the VG set partly on, you must make sure that there is no way that the
excess VG rope can catch on anything on the ground or that you can step on it. One way
to do this is to fold the rope into a flat loop about eight inches long, and tuck it around
the outside of the right downtube above the bottom front, rear, and side wires.
If the wind is more than 10 m.p.h. or gusty you should have an assistant on your nose wires on
launch, and, if necessary, an assistant on one or both side wires. Make sure all signals are clearly
understood. The angle at which you hold the glider should depend on the wind speed and slope of
the terrain at launch; you want to achieve a slight positive angle of attack at the start of your run.
2. Run aggressively on launch and ease the bar out for lift off.
3. The flying characteristics of the Fusion are typical of a high performance flex wing. Make your
first flights from a familiar site in mellow conditions to give you time to become accustomed to the
glider.
4. We recommend that you hang as close as possible to the basetube in the glider - this will give you
lighter control pressures and better control.
Minimum controllable airspeed and minimum sink airspeed
There are two important airspeeds with which all hang glider pilots should be intimately familiar;
minimum sink airspeed (hereinafter referred to as MSA) and minimum controllable airspeed (MCA).
The most important of these two is MCA. Minimum sink airspeed is that speed at which your descent
rate is the slowest possible. It is the speed to fly when you want to maximize your climb rate in lift, or
slow your rate of descent to a minimum in non lifting air. (You would normally not fly at MSA in
sinking air; the strategy there is normally to speed up and fly quickly out of the sink. By minimizing
your time spent in the sinking air you minimize altitude lost, even though you have momentarily
increased your sink rate by speeding up.)
Minimum controllable airspeed is that speed below which you begin to rapidly lose effective lateral
control of the glider. Recognition of this speed and its implications is a more subtle problem than many
pilots realize. We have seen several instances of pilots who were having a lot of trouble flying their
gliders simply because they were unknowingly trying to fly them too slowly; below the speed at which
the glider responded effectively to lateral control inputs. It is our opinion that a great percentage of
hang gliding accidents are caused by inadvertent flight below MCA, and subsequent loss of control of
the glider with impact preceding recovery. Such incidents are usually attributed to “stalls,” but it is not
the stall per se that causes the problem, indeed the glider need not even be “stalled” in the traditional
sense.
There is no necessary cause and effect relationship between minimum sink speed and minimum controllable airspeed. MSA is determined primarily by the wing loading and span loading, the wing planform,
— 19 —
the wing section characteristics, etc. MCA is influenced most heavily by the tension in the sail; how
much “billow” the glider has. However, in your Wills Wing glider, as in most hang gliders, MCA and
MSA evolved towards a common value during the design and development of the glider. This is so
because if the wing is tuned so tight that minimum controllable airspeed is at a higher speed than
minimum sink speed, then effective sink rate performance can be improved by loosening the wing so as
to lower the minimum controllable airspeed. Conversely, if minimum controllable airspeed is reached at
a speed below that of minimum sink, the wing can usually be tightened so as to improve glide performance without significant sacrifice in other areas.
Using wing tufts to find the minimum sink speed of your glider
Your Wills Wing glider has been equipped from the factory with short yarn tufts on the top surface of
each wing. The shadow of these tufts will be visible through the sail. The tufts are useful for indicating
the local reversal of the airflow which is associated with the onset of the stall in that portion of the
wing. You can use these tufts, as described below, to help determine when you are flying at minimum
sink airspeed.
On a flex wing hang glider, the wing experiences a gradual and progressive stall, and different
spanwise stations of the wing stall at different angles of attack. The tufts have been placed on your
wing at the approximate location of the first onset of stall. As the angle of attack is raised further, the
stall propagates both outward towards the tips and inward towards the root. If you wish to observe the
stall propagation across the whole wing on your glider, you can cut some more tufts from knitting yarn,
about 3-4" long, and tape these to the top surface of your sail across the rest of the span.
During normal flight the flow will be chordwise along the wing, and the tufts will point towards the
trailing edge. When the wing stalls, the tufts will reverse direction, indicating the local flow towards the
leading edge.
At the first onset of stall, the tufts will indicate the impending separation by first wiggling, and then
deflecting spanwise, before they fully reverse and point forward. The first onset of stall occurs well
before the familiar “stall break” in which the glider pitches uncontrollably nose down to recover from
the stall. By the time the stall break occurs, all tufts but those farthest outboard will have indicated
reversed flow.
The first onset of stall as indicated by the first tickling of the tufts indicates that you have reached the
angle of attack corresponding to the glider’s minimum sink airspeed. This will also be very close to the
glider’s minimum controllable airspeed. To find the glider’s minimum sink speed, fly the glider in
smooth air, early in the morning or late in the afternoon. When you are well away from the terrain, and
well clear of other aircraft, look up at the wing tufts while you very gradually reduce the speed of the
glider. Note the speed at which the first tuft first begins to wiggle just prior to blowing spanwise
toward the tip. This is your speed for minimum sink rate. Familiarize yourself with the position of the
control bar relative to your body at this speed, with the sound and feel of the wind, with the reading on
your airspeed indicator, and with the feel of the glider in terms of pitch and roll pressures. Most of the
time when you are flying it will not be practical to look up for extended periods of time at your tufts.
That is why familiarization with these other, more accessible indicators is important.
After finding your minimum sink speed, experiment with roll control response at speeds just above and
just below this speed to find the value of MCA and the corresponding bar position and other indicators
for this speed. Realize that your effective MCA is going to be higher and higher as the air becomes
— 20 —
more and more turbulent; control response that is perfectly adequate in smooth air will not be good
enough in rougher air. Try flying the glider with the tufts fully reversed; you will probably find that the
glider is somewhat controllable, but only with a lot of physical effort. Note that both MCA and MSA
come well before the glider actually “stalls” in the traditional sense, i.e. pitches uncontrollably nose
down. You may also be able to sense, or your vario may tell you that although the glider has not
“stalled” (pitched nose down) your sink rate has increased significantly. In this mode the glider is
“mushing.”
Once you have familiarized yourself with the glider’s characteristics in this range of speeds, you will
not need to look at the tufts very often. You will know from bar position and bar pressure, and from the
sound and feel of the relative wind when you are at your minimum sink / minimum controllable airspeed. In general, you should not fly your glider below this speed. Be aware, however, that when you
are flying at minimum sink in thermal gusts and turbulence, you will experience gust induced separation of the airflow which will periodically cause the tufts on your sail to reverse.
Of course in a turn, your minimum sink speed goes up because you are banked, and the bank effectively increases your wing loading which increases your flying speed for any angle of attack. But note
this: The tufts indicate angle of attack, without regard to airspeed! Therefore, if you practice flying
various bank angles in smooth air (while well away from any terrain or other gliders) and watch your
tufts (on the inside wing, which will be at the highest angle of attack) you will get a feel for the way
your minimum sink speed varies at varying bank angles.
Also be aware that in some thermalling situations, such as when trying to maximize climb rate in a
thermal with a very strong and very small core, there may be an advantage in overall effective climb
performance to flying so slowly that some portion of the inside wing is partially stalled most of the
time. This is, however, an advanced and potentially dangerous technique - it is the beginning of a spin
entry, and if pushed just a little too far can result in a sudden and extreme loss of control and / or
altitude. In general, if the tufts are indicating flow reversal associated with the stall, you will improve
both performance and controllability by pulling in and speeding up a little.
One final caution: from time to time a tuft may to stick completely to the sail, and fail to properly
indicate the direction of local flow. This may result from static buildup, or from the fine threads of the
yarn becoming caught on a seam or some dirt or imperfection in the sail. The tuft may stick while
indicating normal flow, but most often it will stick after having reversed, such that the tuft will indicate
a stalled condition that does not exist. One clue in this situation is to note whether or not the tuft is
wiggling. Since flow reversal occurs during a turbulent separated flow, a reversed tuft should be
wiggling rapidly. If it is not, it is probably stuck. A tuft indicating normal flow will not usually wiggle.
An occasional application of silicone spray to the tufts, and making sure that they are positioned so
that they cannot catch on any seam will minimize the problem of sticking.
— 21 —
Towing
Because of the lack of a kingpost and top rigging on the Fusion design, tethering the glider by the nose,
such as is commonly done during platform towing operations, creates the potential for overloading the
keel tube of the glider which could result in a structural failure. To avoid overloading the keel, any
tether line attached to the nose should pull as much as possible in line with the keel, and in no case in a
direction more than 45 degrees below the line of the keel tube itself.
As the following table indicates, the load on the keel is also very sensitive to pilot weight and CG
position. With a nose release tether angle of 45 degrees, the load on the keel is marginally acceptable at
a pilot position corresponding to a free flight airspeed of approximately 30mph. With an arms extended
pilot position, the keel will be overstressed and the front wires will be quite slack.
A keel angle of 7 degrees has been used for platform tow operations, which allowed the glider to start
lifting off the chocks at approximately 30 m.p.h.
— 22 —
Trimming Your Glider in Pitch
The fore and aft location along the keel of your hang point is commonly (if mistakenly) referred to as
your “CG location.” The location of this hang point will, all other things being equal, determine at
what angle of attack and airspeed your glider will naturally tend to fly (or trim), and therefore how
much bar pressure there is to pull in from trim to a given faster speed, or how much pressure there is to
push out from trim to a given slower speed. The farther forward your hang point is, the faster the glider
will trim, the less effort will be required to fly fast, and the more effort will be required to fly slow. If
your hang loop is too far aft, it will make the glider more difficult to control in roll, especially in
turbulent air and when the nose pitches up on entering a strong thermal.
On the Fusion, hang loop fore and aft position is adjusted by repositioning the elevated hang bracket on
the keel. The bracket is secured by bolt a through the keel. There are three holes in the keel and two
holes in the bracket to allow six positions in increments of 1/2" over a range of 2 1/2" of adjustment.
The assembly is illustrated in the diagram Middle/Rear Keel Assembly in the back of this manual.
Do not mount the pillar to the keel with the sloping end facing forward. The structural
loads on the pillar can only be supported properly when the pillar is properly mounted
with the vertical end at the front, and the sloping end to the rear.
We recommend that you not stow your glider bag, or any other cargo on the glider. The
practice of putting your glider bag inside the sail, for example, can drastically alter the
pitch trim and static balance of your glider, and adversely affect its flying and landing
characteristics. The best place to carry your glider bag or other cargo is in your harness.
In the absence of the use of tufts, it has become common for pilots to talk about bar position, or about
indicated airspeed, when trying to communicate how to trim a glider properly or how to fly a glider at
the proper speed for a given situation. The problem is that these methods are unreliable and inconsistent from one pilot to another even on the same glider. The angle at which your harness suspends your
body in your glider has a great deal to do with your perception of the bar “position” relative to your
body. Airspeed indicators vary in their indicated airspeed depending on the make of the instrument, its
calibration, any installation error, etc. The use of tufts gives you an absolute first hand indication of the
actual aerodynamic event associated with two critically important airspeeds on your glider. It is a
potentially useful tool that may improve your flying.
The factory setting for the elevated hang bracket is the forward of two holes in the elevated hang
bracket and the middle of the three holes in the keel. The desired trim speed should be close to minimum sink airspeed (MSA), and not less than minimum controllable airspeed (MCA) at any VG setting.
— 23 —
Speeds to Fly and Using Your Airspeed Indicator
The Wills Wing Hall Airspeed Indicator has been specially designed to help you fly your Fusion at the
proper speeds for optimum safety and performance, and is provided with your glider.
There are four color coded bands on the ASI:
White: This is the range from 18 m.p.h. to 28 m.p.h.. This is the normal thermalling speed range
for light to moderate thermalling conditions. Try to keep your speed within this range when
thermalling in light to moderate conditions. Very strong or turbulent conditions will warrant a
faster flying speed.
Green: The top of the green region represents the placarded maximum rough air and maximum
maneuvering speeds. This speed of 46 m.p.h. should not be exceeded except in smooth air, and no
abrupt large control deflections should be used above this speed. In significant turbulence it is
recommended that you keep the airspeed “in the green” for best control and stability and best
structural margin at all times.
Yellow: This region represents the upper speed range between maximum rough air / maximum
maneuvering speed and the speed never to exceed. You should fly in this range only in smooth air
as described above.
Red Line: This is your never to exceed speed. At no time should you fly faster than this speed.
The design of the Hall type airspeed indicator involves using a ram air versus static
pressure differential to raise a disc in a tapered tube against the force of the weight of the
disc. Because of this the ASI has certain operating limitations:
a. It is only accurate in one G flight. If you are turning at a bank angle of more than 30
degrees, the ASI will read artificially low as a result of the G loading of the turn. Reliance
on the ASI for limiting airspeeds in high banked sustained spiral maneuvers will likely
cause you to exceed the placarded speed limitations of the glider and will compromise your
safety.
b. It is only accurate when within 15-20 degrees of the vertical orientation.
— 24 —
Using the VG System
The Fusion VG system uses a 7:1 reduction system of pulleys and cam action levers between the
outboard end of the crossbar and the leading edge to enable a very wide VG range. The change in
airframe nose angle from VG loose to tight is over 3 degrees. Unlike conventional VG systems, the
airframe anhedral is completely unaffected by VG position. Tightening the VG increases the spanwise
tension which the airframe places on the sail, reducing the spanwise twist and the sail elasticity. The
result is an increase in L/D performance and a reduction in roll control authority and roll control
response.
The VG is activated by pulling laterally on the VG rope and then moving the rope aft to set the rope in
the V-cut knife cleat. The recommended procedure for increasing VG tension is to grasp the rope firmly
at the cleat, and pull straight across behind the basetube.
VG full loose is a very useful configuration for maximizing control ease and response while retaining
excellent performance. It is the recommended VG setting for working lift when any significant degree
of turbulence is present, or when you are in proximity to terrain or other gliders.
Between VG full loose and VG one half, the glider retains good ease of control and control response.
Tighter than VG one half, the glider’s roll pressures increase significantly and the roll rate becomes
significantly slower. Tighter VG settings are recommended for straight line gliding, or for flying in
smoother conditions when well clear of both the terrain and of other gliders. The stall characteristics of
the Fusion at tighter VG settings are more abrupt and less forgiving. Full breaking stalls and accelerated stalls at tighter VG settings are not recommended.
The standard delivery configuration for production Fusions includes a 1.25 inch extension between the
keyhole bracket and the sweep wire thimble (see the assembly diagram Fusion Crossbar Center). This
modification reduces sail tension across the VG range and improves handling at every VG setting. This
extension can be removed at the pilot's discretion, however it is preferable to add 1/4 inch shims to the
sail before removing the extension.
— 25 —
Landing the Fusion
We recommend using an aircraft landing approach (45 entry leg, downwind leg, base leg, and final leg)
whenever possible, and we suggest that you practice making your approaches with as much precision
as possible. Under ideal conditions, landing approaches are best done so as to include a long straight
final into the wind at a speed above best L/D speed. In a very limited field, or a field which slopes
slightly downhill, when landing in light wind, you may need to make your final approach at a slower
speed, perhaps as slow as minimum sink, in order to be able to land within the field. In winds of less
than 5 mph, if the slope is steeper than 12:1, you should seriously consider landing downwind, uphill;
or crosswind, across the slope. Landing attempts which require slow speed approaches, maneuvering
around obstacles or into a restricted area, or downwind or crosswind landings are not recommended
for pilots below an advanced skill level.
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Making your approach VG full loose to VG 1/3 will also increase the glider’s roll sensitivity, and some
pilots have had difficulty with roll yaw oscillations on final. The best way to avoid this is to fly your
entire approach at a constant airspeed, and to control your touchdown point by making adjustments to
the shape of your pattern. In particular, we recommend against the technique of make a diving turn
onto final. This maneuver, sometimes called a “slipping turn” is often taught to student hang glider
pilots as a way to lose altitude during the approach. While it will work reasonably well with low or
medium performance low aspect ratio gliders which have high levels of yaw stability and damping, and
which are able to lose energy by diving because of the large increase in drag at higher speeds, on a high
performance glider this technique serves only to convert the energy of altitude to energy of speed, while
at the same time suddenly increasing the glider’s sensitivity to control inputs. The result is a high
probability of overshooting the intended landing point and the prospect of roll / yaw oscillations which
may interfere with a proper landing. If you develop good habits and the skills to fly precise approaches
now, it will make your transition to higher performance gliders easier later on.
Once established on a straight final approach, with wings level and flying directly into the wind, you
should fly the glider down to where the basetube is between three and six feet off the ground. At this
altitude, let the control bar out just enough “round out” so that your descent is arrested and your flight
path parallels the ground. The remainder of your approach will consist of bleeding off excess speed
while paralleling the ground and keeping the wings level and the nose into the wind until it is time to
“flare” for landing.
— 26 —
Prior to the landing flare your body position should be generally upright, but slightly inclined forward,
with your head and shoulders forward of your hips and your legs and feet trailing slightly behind. Your
hands should be at shoulder width and shoulder height on the uprights. You should be relaxed, with a
light grip on the bar, and your weight should be fully supported in your harness and not at all by your
arms. There are several options for when to make the transition from prone to this upright position.
Some pilots favor going upright with both hands moving to the downtubes while still at altitude prior to
the start of the approach. Others transition at the start of the approach to a semi upright position with
one hand on a downtube and one hand on the basetube, and complete the transition by moving the other
hand to the downtube just a few seconds prior to flare. Still others fly with both hands on the basetube
until established on final glide, and then transition one hand at a time to the downtubes prior to flare.
Whichever method you use, there are a few important principles to observe. The first is that you should
not make any change in hand position unless you are flying at or very near trim speed. At speeds faster
than trim, you will be holding the bar in in pitch against substantial force, and if you let go to move
your hand the glider will pitch up and roll towards your remaining hand. The second is that while
moving either hand, you have no control over the glider. You should move only one hand at a time.
Even so, if you can’t make the transition in the position of each hand quickly and reliably, you should
transition both hands while at altitude, before you start your approach. Otherwise, if you fail to make a
quick transition, you could be out of control close to the ground, and suffer a turbulence induced
change in heading or attitude without sufficient time to recover. Many pilots make the mistake of trying
to change position while flying fast and close to the ground, and experience a dangerous loss of control
as a result. A third principle to observe is that if you are using a “pod” type harness, you should unzip
and confirm that your legs are free to exit the harness at least 500 feet above the ground and before you
start your approach. If there is any problem finding the zipper pull, or dealing with a stuck zipper, you
don’t want to have to try to fix that problem while also flying the approach.
Once established on a wings level short final, into the wind, body upright and with both hands on the
downtubes, your final concern is the timing and execution of the landing flare. The goal is to arrive on the
ground, on your feet, under control with the glider settling on your shoulders. If the wind is 15 mph or
more, you will not really execute a flare at all; you will simply slow to minimum flying speed, put a foot
down, and step onto the ground. In lighter winds, you will want to use some combination of a final nose
up flare, and running out your landing, in order to finish the flight on your feet with the glider settling on
your shoulders. The lighter the wind, the stronger should be both your flare and your run.
The traditional method of landing in light or no wind calls for a sharp, aggressive flare at precisely the
correct moment. This technique works fine when done correctly, but it’s not easy to get the timing just
right. Flare too early and you will climb, and then fall with the nose pitching down. Flare too late and
you won’t get the nose up enough to stop your forward motion, and the glider may nose into the ground
as you run into it from behind.
The flare timing process is made much easier by using a combination of a “crescendo flare” and a run
out of the landing. As you bleed off speed on final, flying just above the ground, you are at first letting
the control bar out towards its trim position. As the glider reaches trim speed, which will normally be
one to three mph above stall speed, you begin to gently push the bar out to keep the glider from settling. At this point it is almost time to flare. As the glider enters the “mushing” range of angles of
attack, it will begin to settle in spite of your continuing to ease the bar out. This should be happening
well before your arms are significantly extended. At this point begin your flare by smoothly accelerating the rate at which you push out on the bar. At the same time, draw one leg forward, put a foot down,
— 27 —
and start to run as hard as you can. This run should be very much like an aggressive take off run – your
body should be leaning forward into the run and you should be driving with your legs. The difference
here is that while you are leaning into your run and driving forward with your legs, your arms are
extending fully from your shoulders, pushing out, and what feels like upwards, on the control bar in an
accelerating, “crescendo” flare.
Done correctly, this type of flare / run combination will bring the glider quickly to a very nose high
attitude, producing a great deal of drag and quickly arresting all of your forward motion. You will feel
the glider pulling you from behind, resisting your attempt to run, and as you slow down the glider will
settle gently on your shoulders. Even in no wind, you should not have to take more than a few steps. If
your timing is a little early, and you feel the glider start to climb, simply stop pushing out and resume
the flare when the glider again begins to settle. If your timing is a little late, your feet will touch down a
little sooner, but as long as you’re running and flaring at the same time, the glider will stay over your
head or behind you.
Note: Landing in a significant wind does not require a substantial landing flare; the pilot merely slows
to near zero ground speed and touches down. The proper flare in light or no wind conditions is a
dynamic action which causes a sudden and severe pitch up rotation of the glider. Pilots who have
trouble with the flare, and with the glider nosing over during landing, usually do so because of one of
the following problems:
a. Harness leg straps too long / hanging too low below the glider, and / or hands too low on the
control bar. This reduces pitch authority and prevents an adequate flare.
b. Improper body position - pilot leaning back, (away from the anticipated hard landing), with feet
extended in front. This moves the pilot’s center of mass forward ahead of his shoulders, effectively
shortening the pilot’s arms and reducing flare authority. The proper position is with the pilot’s body
inclined forward, with the shoulders out ahead of the pilot’s center of mass. Thinking about pushing “up” instead of “out” when flaring may help you to maintain the proper forward inclined body
position.
c. Slowing too much prior to flare, so that your arms are too extended to allow enough flare amplitude.
— 28 —
Fusion Breakdown
Breakdown of the glider is the reverse of assembly.
1. Remove the nosecone and put aside. Remove any instruments.
2. Detach the bottom front wires at the noseplate. Pull the nose battens off the front of the top
noseplate. Dismount the hang system spreader bar from the pillar.
If you do not remove the hang system spreader bar, you may damage both the crossbar
and sail.
3. Remove the wingtips, the number one through number five battens.
4. Reach in through the wingtip and unzip the internal fabric rib at the #2 batten. This is necessary to
allow the washout tip to fold against the leading edge. Disengage the washout tip by pulling it
straight aft out of the sleeve. Pull the front end of the washout tube towards the wing tip to fold the
washout tube forwards along the leading edge tube.
5. Alternately: (do not unzip the internal fabric rib) disengage the washout tube by pulling it out the
opening in the bottom surface at the junction of the no. 2 batten. Fold it forward furled in the sail.
This method is quicker, but it is difficult to roll the sail neatly at tip area.
Alternately: Fusions assembled after 6-25-97 have a different washout tube bungee retension
system that allows the tube to be disengaged, folded to the rear and stowed inside the sail without
unzipping the fabric rib.
6. Unzip the sprog access zipper and detach the sprog securing clip from the ring on the sprog end
paddle. Leave the sprog end protruding from the zipper opening in the bottom surface; as you fold
in the wings and roll the sail, the sprog will fold forward along the leading edge with the rear end
of the sprog remaining outside the sail. Do not remove the transverse batten from the sail. Pull the
neoprene cover over the end of the sprog paddle to protect the sail.
7. Roll the sail at the wingtips and install the wingtip cover bags. Store the tip fairings one inside the
other and place between the leading edges aft of the keel after the glider is in the bag.
8. Detension the crossbar and remove all the remaining top and bottom surface battens. Leave the
nose battens in the sail.
9. Fold the wings in pulling the sail over the top of the leading edges.
10. There are two triple block pulleys in the VG system. One is attached to the crossbar center juction
and the other to the cam VG activation cables. During breakdown, the block attached to the VG
activation cables can drop down and become pinched between the frame, damaging the sail and/or
tubing. There are several effective methods for safely stowing the block. It can be above or below
the keel—alternately, you can pull the cord at the front of the crossbar junction and lightly cinch
the two blocks together before you furl the sail. Gliders manufactured after January 1998 have a
bungee tether to pull the pulley above the keel as the wings fold in.
11. Make one more fold in the sail bringing the trailing edge towards the keel. Roll the sail gently and
carefully, and install the velcro sail ties.
— 29 —
Do not attempt to stuff the sail between the mylar pocket and the leading edge tube at
any point behind the kingpost base. The internal fabric ribs prevent this. Because of the
fabric ribs, the rear edge of the mylar pocket in the last 1/3 of the leading edge has a
strong tendency to become creased at the rear edge of the mylar insert. To prevent this it
is necessary to roll the aft part of the sail very gently, install the aft velcros loose, and
then, as a final step, work your way along the rear edge of the mylar pocket as far down
towards the tip as possible, pulling the sail behind the mylar pocket away from the
leading edge so that the mylar pocket lies flat and is not curled under at the rear edge.
12. Install the glider bag. Flip the glider over onto the ground. Pull the rear keel out from between and
slightly above the leading edges. Stowing the keel between the leading edges causes wear on the
bottom surface sail because of interference with the cam VG hardware.
13. Fold up the basetube. Replace all protective bags as you pack the glider away.
When folding in the folding basetube take care to avoid the following two problems:
a. Do not fold the basetube together with the center sleeve not fully retracted from the center
hinge. You will damage the sleeve.
b. Do not fold the basetube together with your hands or fingers around either the basetube or
the lower portion of the downtube. It will hurt.
Fusion Stability Systems
Several design features of the Fusion determine the glider's degree of stability in pitch:
a. The combination of wing sweep and spanwise twist.
b. Reflex in the root section, the degree of which is determined by the lengths and hole locations of
the keel, the control bar and front to rear bottom wires, and by the shape of the root battens.
c. The alignment of the sprogs, and the height at which they and the transverse battens support the
trailing edge, and the alignment of the washout tubes, and the height at which they support the
trailing edge.
The transverse batten is designed to support a load applied at each end while supported
in the center, as is the case when installed in the glider. Loading the batten in any other
manner may damage it.
d. The shape of the preformed battens and the internal fabric ribs, and adjustment of the internal
velcro attachments which define the airfoil.
Correct attachment and proper adjustment of the sprogs are critical to providing adequate stability at
low angles of attack, particularly those below the normal operating range.
— 30 —
Fusion Sprog Adjustment and Flight Testing
The Fusion uses one internal sprog per side in combination with one transverse batten spanning three
chordwise battens as an integral part of a system to provide pitch stability. Their function is to support
the trailing edge of the sail at low angles of attack, and thus provide a nose up pitching moment.
Sprog measurement
The sprogs are adjusted at the factory to their proper settings. You can check this adjustment as
follows:
1. Fully assemble the glider and then lay it flat on a level floor. Place enough weight on the nose and
the rear end of the keel so as to press them against the floor (the rear keel will have the basetube
between it and the floor).
2. Measure the height of the trailing edge at the number four battens above the floor. This should be
at least 11.5".
Alternate sprog measurement
1. Fully set up glider, VG Loose on a reasonably level surface.
2. Place two equal supports, about 30" tall, under the rear end of each leading edge, so as to lift the
keel off the ground and take up any slack in the bottom side wires.
3. Tie a lightweight thread tightly across wing from one # 4 batten end to the other. (The number four
is the middle batten supported by the transverse batten, and the one immediately adjacent to the
sprog.)
4. Press firmly on end of #4 batten, release, then measure the height of the thread above the keel. This
should be 5.5"
5. Note that this method will not disclose sprogs that are assymetric. If, after achieving the 5.5"
measurement, you have a turn in the glider which is only present at tighter VG settings, lower the
sprog on the side the glider is turning towards, and raise the other sprog by the same amount.
Method of adjustment
1. To adjust the sprog height, fully unzip the access zipper to gain access to the sprog center junction.
2. Unbolt the sprog cable from the center junction, taking care to maintain the rotational alignment of
the sprog at its original setting.
3. At the front of the sprog is a threaded adjuster. To raise the sprog, turn the entire sprog counter
clockwise. To lower the sprog, turn it clockwise. One full turn raises or lowers the sprog about one
half inch.
4. Re-attach the sprog cable and press down firmly on the rear end of the sprog to seat the cable
before checking the measurement again.
— 31 —
Test flight
If the sprogs are set too low, it may cause a reduction in pitch pressures at tighter VG settings, and
there will be a reduction in pitch stability at angles of attack below normal flight. This stability reduction could increase the probability of a turbulence induced tumble or other in-flight stability related
loss of control. If the sprogs are set too high, it may cause excessive pitch bar pressure at high speeds,
and excessive roll control pressures, lag in roll response, and adverse yaw. Please be aware that flight
testing encompasses a very limited angle of attack range and that there is no correlation between pitch
stability in the flight test envelope and pitch stability in the extended angle of attack range that is
investigated on a test vehicle. In particular, do not assume that adequate stability is only contingent on
positive pitch pressure during flight testing. However, in the case of the Fusion, excessive top steady
state speed with pilot full forward is a significant indicator that the sprogs may be set too low. If you
can maintain a steady state speed of more than 60 mph indicated in a normal pilot full forward body
position, you should check and re-adjust your sprogs as necessary.
We have found that due to the high loads imposed on the sprog cables and hardware, the
sprogs will tend to lower themselves significantly over time. It is therefore very important,
in order to maintain pitch stability compliance, that sprog adjustment should be monitored
and adjusted throughout the life of the glider using the procedures described above.
— 32 —
Maintenance
You should continually maintain your glider in a proper state of tune and repair to insure optimum
airworthiness, performance and flight characteristics. Failure to properly maintain your glider may lead
to a dangerous loss of strength, stability or control responsiveness of the glider. Following any mishap
that results in damage to the glider immediately have any damaged component repaired or replaced. We
recommend that you have all such maintenance work done by your Wills Wing dealer. In addition,
please follow the following maintenance schedule:
Every month
1. Check the adjustment of your sprogs, as described in the last section.
2. Check your battens on a flat level floor against the batten diagram provided, and correct any that
deviate from the pattern by more than 1/4".
2. If you fly in a dusty or sandy environment, it will help to prolong the life of your batten pockets if
you wipe each batten with a rag before you install it in the sail.
Every six months
1. Have a complete inspection performed on the glider and replace any suspension system component
that shows any wear, and any cable that shows any kinks, wear, damage, corrosion, etc.
2. Inspect all bolts for tightness, all safeties for proper installation and possible damage. Inspect
plates and fittings for damage, holes in tubes for elongation.
3. Inspect the sail for wear, tears, UV damage, loose stitching, etc.
4. Disassemble basetube pulley assembly, clean, lubricate with white grease, and re-assemble.
5. Lightly spray all zippers on the glider with silicone spray lubricant. Also spray your battens before
you install them in the glider to lubricate the insides of the batten pockets. Do not use any other
type of lubricant. Wipe off any excess silicone so that it does not attract dirt.
6. Inspect the composite crossbar and all associated fittings. Look for any visual evidence of damage
to the spar. If any damage is suspected, remove the spar completely from the glider for a more
thorough inspection, and contact Wills Wing.
7.
Inspect the sprogs, sprog hardware and sprog cables. If the sprogs have been loaded heavily, it is
possible that the sprog tubes may have split and the cables may have been stretched.
The normal cable length is 19.5" from hole center to hole center. Any cable which exceeds this
measurement by more than 1/16" should be replaced. Also check the attachment tangs for any sign
of elongation of the holes. Replace if elongation is found.
Pay special attention to the carbon fiber tubes of the sprog assembly. Carefully inspect the perimeter of the tubes on both sides of the aluminum fitting in the middle of the assembly for splitting or
cracking. If you suspect any damage to the composite part of the sprogs, remove them from the
glider for a more thorough inspection and contact Wills Wing.
Be careful whenever you handle carbon fiber parts - carbon fiber splinters can be dangerous.
— 33 —
Note: Sprogs manufactured in 1997 were assembled with a slight downward bow at the center
joint.
Every year
1. Have the sail completely removed from the frame, and disassemble all frame components. Inspect
every part of the glider for any damage or wear. Inspect the tubes for straightness and for signs of
corrosion. Note that the rear leading edge is secured in the front leading edge by two reducers, and
that one is concentric (front) and one is eccentric (rear). As a result, the rear leading edge is at an
angle to the front leading edge and the leading edge as an assembly will appear to be slightly bent
out and down at the junction. This is normal and by design.
2. Anytime you have the sail off the frame, turn the sail inside out through the bottom surface center
zipper and inspect all of the batten pockets and batten pocket terminations.
3. Replace bottom side wires and hang loops.
4. Replace the VG ropes.
5. Remove the transverse batten and inspect for damage. There should be no more than 1/4 inch of
bow, measured unloaded, in the center, on a flat surface.
Special circumstances
1. Any time you suffer a crash or extremely hard landing you should have an “annual” inspection
done on your glider to insure that you find all damaged parts. Following any hard landing, be sure
to inspect the apex slider, the control bar legs and basetube, and all control bar fittings for damage.
Any time you replace a control bar leg or basetube, you must carefully inspect all related fittings
and replace any that are bent or damaged.
Hard landings may also impose very high loads on the sprog assemblys and transverse battens.
Inspect accordingly.
2. If your glider is ever exposed to salt water you will need to have the glider completely disassembled in accordance with the recommended annual inspection procedure. All frame parts will
need to be disassembled, including the removal of all sleeves and bushings, flushed liberally with
fresh water, dried completely, and treated for corrosion inhibition with LPS-3 or other suitable
agent.
3. Cleaning Your Sail - Keeping your sail clean will extend the life of the cloth. When cleaning the
entire sail you should generally use only water and a soft brush. You may clean small spots or
stains with any commercial spot remover that is labeled for use on polyester. Such cleaning agents
are available at the supermarket or drug store, or you may order a cleaning solution from Wills
Wing through your dealer.
— 34 —
A note about cables and cable maintenance
The cables which support the glider’s airframe are critical components of the glider’s structure, and
must be maintained in an air worthy condition. It is a general practice in the design of aircraft structures to design to an ultimate strength of 1.5 times the highest expected load in normal service. Hang
glider cables, like other structural components on the glider, are typically designed with a structural
safety factor of only about 50% above the expected maximum load. No significant loss in cable
strength can be tolerated.
A cable with even a single broken strand must be replaced before the glider is flown again. A cable
which has been bent sharply enough to have taken a permanent set (will not lie flat in a straight line
when all tension is removed) must also be replaced immediately. If it is not, subsequent tensioning and
de-tensioning of the cable will induce fatigue, and the cable will fail. In tests we have conducted, a
cable bent one time to 90 degrees, and then loaded to the equivalent of a normal flight load 100 times
(corresponding to 100 or fewer flights), failed at only 56% of its original strength.
Some degree of fatigue due to repeated bending of cables is almost unavoidable in an aircraft that is
assembled and disassembled with every flight. Bottom side wires are subject to the highest loads in
flight, and are therefore the most critical. This is why we recommend that these wires be replaced
annually, even if there is no known damage. The requirement for immediate replacement of a cable
known to have been bent or otherwise damaged supercedes this annual replacement requirement.
Replacement cables should always be obtained from the factory, or, if not from the factory, from a
reliable source known to use proper fabrication procedures. An improperly made cable may appear
perfectly OK on visual inspection, but could fail in flight at a load much below the intended design
strength of the cable.
— 35 —
Removing the Sail from the Airframe and Re-Installing
Many maintenance and repair procedures will require the removal of the sail from the frame. Please
follow these instructions when removing and reinstalling the sail. Please read all the instructions for
each operation before beginning.
Sail removal
You will need an unobstructed area six feet by thirty feet. Make sure the surface is clean. If it is
abrasive, like rough concrete, you should either put down a protective tarp or be extremely careful not
to scrape your sail.
1. Lay the glider on its back, unzip and remove the glider bag and put the battens aside. Remove the
control bar bag.
2. Remove the tangs from the bolts that tether the sail at the noseplate. Completely unzip and separate
the bottom surface zipper. Remove the screw and disengage the webbing zipper stop at the bottom
nose area.
3. Spread the wings slightly, undo the velcro tabs inside the rear ends of the leading edges and then
dismount the sail from the rear leading edges.
4. Detach the sprog bungee from the spog paddle.
5. Slide the sail up the rear leading edge and fold the washout tube outward, making sure that the
cord is clear of the internal fabric rib (which should be unzipped at this time). Tape the washout
tube to the tip of the leading edge to hold it in place.
6. Unbolt the bottom side wires from the crossbar and feed them through the hole and out of the sail.
Unbolt the bottom rear flying wires from the rear keel. Reassemble the hardware removed onto the
bolts in the original order so that it doesn’t get lost. All disassembled assemblies on the glider must
be reassembled in the proper order and orientation. Use the exploded parts diagrams in this manual
to help you.
7. Undo the velcro which holds the front part of the keel pocket together.
8. Slide the frame out through the open center zipper. If you encounter resistance, stop and find out
what is hanging up.
9. If you need to send the sail into the factory for repair, remove the mylar and the transverse battens.
The mylar is removed from the front end of the mylar pocket. It helps to secure the opposite end of
the sail to something solid, so that you can lay the leading edge out straight and pull the mylar
straight out of the pocket. If you have trouble getting it to slide out freely, it is probably because
the edge of the mylar has worked its way into the seam and gotten stuck on the adhesive seamstick
tape. Work your way up and down the leading edge pocket rolling the mylar away from the seam
until it is free along its entire length.
10. Remove the carbon sandwich transverse batten from the sail by opening the velcro closure at the #3
batten end of the transverse batten pocket and sliding the transverse batten out towards the wing tip.
Be careful handling the transverse batten - carbon fiber splinters can be dangerous.
— 36 —
11. Fold and package the sail carefully if you plan to ship it in for repair. Be sure to include written
instructions of what you want done, your name and a phone number where you can be reached
during the day.
Re-installing the sail on the frame
1. Install the mylar in the sail. (If the mylar pockets have been replaced you will need to trim the rear
edge of the mylar by 1/2". Also, you will probably need to remove one 1/4" shim from the sail
mount plug to mount the sail looser.) Make sure you install it right side up; the curved edge is at
the front and on the bottom. The easiest way to install the mylar is to push it into the pocket using
a long lofting batten attached to the end of the mylar insert which is first inserted in the pocket. A
small diameter pin on the end of the lofting batten placed through a small hole in the end of the
mylar insert allows you to push the mylar into the sail and remove the batten while leaving the
mylar in place. You will have to stop from time to time to make sure the mylar is properly lying
flat in the pocket. Do not push the mylar too far into the pocket. Make sure there are no folds in the
mylar, especially at the tips. Make sure the mylar wraps in the proper direction to follow the sail
around the leading edge as it enters the pocket.
2. Install the transverse battens in the batten pockets. The proper orientation for the transverse batten
is with the flat carbon side (bottom side) of the batten facing the bottom surface of the sail. The top
side of the batten should lay flat in the pocket against the top surface of the sail. Secure the velcro
closure.
3. Position the sail on the floor with the keel pocket up and the wings folded over so that the leading
edges lie along the length of the root line, with the mylar pockets lying on top.
4. Prepare the frame. Tape the sprogs and washout tubes to the leading edges. The sprogs should be
folded back (towards the tip), and the washout tubes should be folded forward along the leading
edge.
5. Position the frame with the bottom of the noseplate facing up and with the rear end of the leading
edges at the nose of the sail. Slide the frame into the sail through the open bottom surface zipper,
making sure that the leading edges of the frame pass properly into the leading edge pockets of the
sail and don’t get caught at the rear of the bottom surface near the root. As you feed the frame
slowly into the sail, check periodically to see that none of the hardware is snagging on the sail or
internal sail ribs. As the rear end of the sprogs reach the bottom surface access zipper, remove the
tape and direct them outside of the sail. If you leave them inside the sail it will be difficult to
deploy them without removing the rear leading edge. (You can deploy them by unzipping the #3
internal fabric rib all the way with the sail slid back slightly from the nose - i.e. nose tangs not
mounted.)
6. After the frame is fully installed, attach the sail anchor tangs to the bottom noseplate hinge bolts.
Install and adjust the clinch nuts to allow rotation of the tang. Align the axis of the tang with the
leading edge. Also align the VG activation cable tangs on the top of the noseplate
7. Tie the sprog bungee to the sprog paddle.
8. Reconnect the bottom surface center zipper at the nose, zip part way up, and re-install the securing
screw at the nose.
— 37 —
9. Make sure that the #2 internal rib is unzipped. Slide the sail forward of the washout tube and untape the washout tube from the leading edge. Slide the sail back, feeding the end of the washout
tube between the open halves of the fabric rib zipper.
10. Mount the webbing anchor loops over the rear leading edge endcaps. Check that the internal rib
zipper for the #2 fabric rib is not caught on the #1 batten stud. Make sure you mount the inner
webbing loops in the endcap slots, not the outer “handle” loops! Make sure that the webbing
lies flat and smooth in the slot, and that the sail is properly aligned when mounted. (Proper sail
alignment is sometimes difficult to check at this time - recheck this when you do your fully assembled preflight of the glider). Secure the velcro retainer tabs.
11. Working through the camera mount zippers, insert the bottom side wires through the holes in the
sail and attach to the crossbar, making sure that no cable is wrapped around a leading edge or
crossbar, and that no thimbles are cocked or twisted. The VG activation cable passes between the
leading edge and the side wire.
12. Bolt the bottom rear wires and sail retainer webbing strap to the rear of the keel.
13. Flip the glider up onto the control bar.
14. Spread the wings slowly and carefully, making sure that the sail rides forward as necessary at the
nose without catching. Be careful: you can easily tear the sail open at the nose at this point.
15. Feed the sweep wire through the keel pocket.
16. Finish the assembly of the glider completely according to normal assembly procedures.
17. Do a very careful and complete preflight of the glider according to the normal preflight procedure
as explained earlier in this manual.
Replacing the Perlon hang loop
Some Fusions are equipped with a 7mm Perlon main
suspension system that is double looped through the
elevated hang 'T'. If you need to replace or adjust the
loop, refer to the diagram for tying the knot.
Please note that it is essential that the back-up
hang loop is the proper length.
During a hang check, with the pilot pushed out (full aft
CG), the backup loop should have a minimum of 2
inches and not more than 3 inches of slack.
— 38 —
Glider Tuning
Dismounting and remounting the sail at the tip
A number of tuning procedures require you to dismount the sail at the rear leading edge. This can be
most easily accomplished by using a large, flat bladed screw driver to pry the sail mount webbing off
of the end of the leading edge. The same technique can be used to reinstall the sail. Take care not to
damage the sail mount webbing, and when remounting the sail, be sure to mount the inner webbing in
the slot, not the outer handle webbing, and be sure that the webbing seats squarely in the slot.
CG adjustment
This has already been covered in the section of this manual on using your wing tufts. Wills Wing
recommends that tuning other than CG adjustment be performed by your Wills Wing dealer.
Turn trim
Turns are caused by an asymmetry in the glider. If you have a turn, first try to make the glider symmetrical in every way. If a turn only appears at VG settings of 3/4 to full tight, it may be an indication
that the sprogs are set assymetically.
Airframe
Check the leading edges for possible bent tubes. Check that the keel is not bent to one side.
Check for symmetrical twist in the leading edges by checking for symmetry in the alignment of the sail
mount plugs.
Battens
Check the battens for symmetrical shape and batten string tension. The tension should be progressive
with minimal tension on the inboard battens to firm tension on the tip battens. As the sail ages, it
shrinks and the inboard batten strings will become too tight and need to be adjusted or replaced.
Excessive batten tension will cause poor handling.
Sail mount plugs - adjusting sail tension and rotational alignment
The molded plastic plug fits directly into the rear leading edge and is secured against rotation by a
sliding wedge which is forced out against the inside of the tube as the allen screw is tightened. The
proper installation procedure for the plug is to engage the allen screw three turns into the sliding
wedge, install the plug into the rear leading edge, set the desired alignment, and then tighten the allen
screw 15 additional turns.
— 39 —
Shims are added to the plug by sliding them over the end of the plug before the plug is inserted into the
leading edge. The shims are thus visible with the plug installed.
Once the plug is installed, the rotational alignment can be changed by loosening the allen screw (an
allen wrench is provided in your spare parts kit) to relieve the pressure of the wedge against the inside
of the leading edge tube until the sail mount plug is free enough that it can be rotated.
If you loosen the screw too much, the wedge will fall off the end of the screw inside the
leading edge, and you will have to dismount the sail to retrieve it. Start by loosening the
screw ten turns, and then check to see if you can rotate it. If not, loosen it one turn at a
time until it can be rotated.
If the cap screw backs out of the sail adjuster as you loosen it, it means that the
circlip has dislodged from the groove in the screw. In this case you will need to tap on the
end of the cap screw to disengage the wedge and free up the sail adjuster. You will then
also need to dismount the sail, remove the sail adjuster, and replace the circlip. The
original circlip can be reshaped and reused, or you can install a new one.
Sail tension
Check for symmetrical sail tension on the leading edges. In order to check this, sight the hem of the sail
at the bottom of the leading edge tube relative to the noseplate on each side. Sail tension is adjusted by
adding or removing shims in 1/8" or 1/4" increments to or from the sail mount plugs on the rear ends of
the leading edges.
To remove or add shims, first dismount the sail mount webbing by pulling it free and then to the
outside of the leading edge. You can use a flat bladed screwdriver to pry the webbing off, but take care
not to damage the webbing. To remove the plug, first check and record the rotational alignment by
noting the position of the scribe mark on the plug relative to the scale on the leading edge tube. Use the
allen wrench provided in your spare parts kit to loosen the allen screw until you can remove the plug.
Add or remove shims as necessary, and then reinstall the plug, making sure the alignment is correct.
Twelve turns of the allen screw (after the first three turns to install the wedge) after installation of the
plug in the leading edge will secure the plug in place.
Twisting a tip
After you have made everything symmetrical, if you still have a turn, you can correct it by rotating one
or both sail mount plugs. A left turn is corrected by twisting the left sail plug clockwise (twisting the
sail down at the trailing edge) or twisting the right sail plug clockwise (twisting the sail up at the
trailing edge) or both. Twist counter clockwise on either or both plugs to correct a right turn.
To rotate the sail plug, follow the procedure previously described.
After rotating the plug in the desired amount in the desired direction, (see above) tighten the screw to
secure the plug against rotation. When the screw is properly tightened, there will be a slight bulge (less
than or equal to the wall thickness of the tube) in the rear leading edge tube adjacent to the screw.
Batten tension
All battens are tensioned by looping the batten string over the notched end of the batten twice. The inboard
batten strings should be slightly on the loose side. You should be able to pull the string about 3/8" beyond
— 40 —
the end of the batten tip, and when the string is set onto the tip the tension along the batten pocket should
be just enough to pull most of the static wrinkles out of the sail, but not so tight as to cause the batten
camber to push upwards causing a bulge in the sail. The outboard batten strings should be progressively
tighter as you go towards the tip. The number one batten strings should be quite tight, and when they are
properly adjusted you will not be able to install them unless the crossbar is tensioned.
Leading edge sail tension
The tension in the leading edge of the sail, adjustable by shimming as described above, will influence
the performance and handling of the glider. If the sail is mounted too loose, the performance will
deteriorate noticeably. If the sail is mounted too tight, the glider will handle poorly; it will be stiff and
slow in roll response with excessive adverse yaw. As the glider gets older and the sail stretches, you
will need to add shims to maintain the proper tension.
Car Top Mounting and Transport
Improper or careless transport of your glider can cause significant damage. You should transport your
glider on a rack which has at least three support points which span at least 13' of the length of the
glider. These should be well padded and at least four inches wide to distribute the load. Your glider
should be mounted on your rack with the control bar facing down (glider bag zipper down) to provide
an extra measure of protection for the crossbar. It should be securely tied down with webbing straps
which are at least 1/2" wide, but not tied so tightly or with such a small diameter rope that the mylar
insert is permanently deformed. If you drive on rough roads where the glider receives impact loads, you
should take extra care to pad your glider internally when you pack it up. One special area to pay
attention to is the forward area of the glider where the crossbar center section bears against the top of
the leading edge and keel tubes. Some extra padding inserted in this area will save wear on your
airframe and sail.
In Closing
With proper care and maintenance, your glider will retain a high level of airworthiness for some years.
Because of the relatively short history of hang gliding, and the rapid advances in new designs, we do
not have a lot of information about the ultimate service life of a hang glider. We do know that ultraviolet (UV) damage to the sail from sunlight is probably the limiting factor in the life of your sail. Try to
avoid exposing your sail to sunlight any time you are not actually flying it.
We also know that there are forces in nature which can be so violent that they can result in fatal
accidents regardless of the airworthiness of your aircraft. Ultimately your safety is your responsibility.
Know the limitations of your knowledge, skill and experience, and know the limitations of your aircraft. Fly within those limitations.
Have fun.
See you in the sky!
Wills Wing, Inc.
— 41 —
HGMA AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS
HGMA Fusion 150 COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION SPECIFICATION SHEET
GLIDER MODEL: Fusion 150
MANUFACTURED BY: Wills Wing, Inc.
All dimensions in inches; weights in pounds.
NOTE: These specifications are intended only as a guideline for determining whether a
given glider is a certifIed model and whether it is in the certified configuration. Be
aware, however, that no set of specifications, however detailed, can guarantee the
ability to determine whether a glider is the same model, or is in the same configuration
as was certified, or has those performance, stability, and structural characteristics
required by the certification standards. An owner’s manual is required to be delivered
with each HGMA certified glider, and it is required that it contain additional airworthiness information.
1. Weight of glider with all essential parts and without coverbags and
non-essential parts: 76
2. Leading Edge Dimensions
a. Nose plate anchor hole to:
1. Crossbar attachment hole
2. Rear sail attachment point
127.0
221.63 - 222.48
b. Outside diameter at:
1. Nose
2.44
2. Crossbar 2.44
3. Rear sail attachment point
1.97
3. Crossbar Dimensions
a. Overall pin to pin length from cam lever bracket attachment
point on leading edge to load bearing pin at xbar plate 116.0 - 116.625
b. Largest outside dimension 3.25 top to bottom
4. Keel dimensions; least and greatest allowable distances, whether variable
through tuning or through in-flight variable geometry, from the line joining
the leading edge nose bolts to:
a. The xbar center load bearing pin 34.75 - 36.0
b. The pilot hang loop 50.75 - 53.25
5. Sail Dimensions
a. Chord lengths at
1. 3 ft outboard of centerline
65
2. 3 ft inboard of tip
41
b. Span (extreme tip to tip) 406 inc tip fairings (VGT)
6. Location of Information Placard
Location of Test Fly Sticker Keel
Keel
7. Recommended Pilot Weight Range
165 - 275
8. Recommended Pilot Proficiency USHGA Advanced
— 42 —
HGMA AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS
HGMA Fusion 141 COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION SPECIFICATION SHEET
GLIDER MODEL: Fusion 141
MANUFACTURED BY: Wills Wing, Inc.
All dimensions in inches; weights in pounds.
NOTE: These specifications are intended only as a guideline for determining whether a
given glider is a certifIed model and whether it is in the certified configuration. Be
aware, however, that no set of specifications, however detailed, can guarantee the
ability to determine whether a glider is the same model, or is in the same configuration
as was certified, or has those performance, stability, and structural characteristics
required by the certification standards. An owner’s manual is required to be delivered
with each HGMA certified glider, and it is required that it contain additional airworthiness information.
1. Weight of glider with all essential parts and without coverbags and
non-essential parts: 74
2. Leading Edge Dimensions
a. Nose plate anchor hole to:
1. Crossbar attachment hole
2. Rear sail attachment point
122.0
214.63 - 215.38
b. Outside diameter at:
1. Nose
2.44
2. Crossbar 2.44
3. Rear sail attachment point
1.97
3. Crossbar Dimensions
a. Overall pin to pin length from cam lever bracket attachment
point on leading edge to load bearing pin at xbar plate
b. Largest outside dimension 3.25 top to bottom
111.38 - 112.0
4. Keel dimensions; least and greatest allowable distances, whether variable
through tuning or through in-flight variable geometry, from the line joining
the leading edge nose bolts to:
a. The xbar center load bearing pin 32.25 - 33.5
b. The pilot hang loop 49.25 - 52.75
5. Sail Dimensions
a. Chord lengths at
1. 3 ft outboard of centerline
63.75
2. 3 ft inboard of tip
39.5
b. Span (extreme tip to tip) 390.5 VGL, 392.75 VGT, inc tip fairings
6. Location of Information Placard
Location of Test Fly Sticker Keel
Keel
7. Recommended Pilot Weight Range
145 - 235
8. Recommended Pilot Proficiency USHGA Advanced
— 43 —
Wills Wing • 500 West Blueridge • Orange, CA • 92865
Page A-16
Fusion Assembly Diagrams • October 1998
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